Citation
Palynomorphs and Selected Mesofossils from the Cretaceous Dakota Formation, Minnesota, USA

Material Information

Title:
Palynomorphs and Selected Mesofossils from the Cretaceous Dakota Formation, Minnesota, USA
Creator:
HU, SHUSHENG
Copyright Date:
2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Angiosperms ( jstor )
Ferns ( jstor )
Fossils ( jstor )
Highways ( jstor )
Palynomorphs ( jstor )
Pollen ( jstor )
Sediments ( jstor )
Species ( jstor )
Swamps ( jstor )
Taxa ( jstor )
City of Gainesville ( local )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Shusheng Hu. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Embargo Date:
8/31/2006
Resource Identifier:
649810159 ( OCLC )

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Full Text












PALYNOMORPHS AND SELECTED MESOFOSSILS FROM THE CRETACEOUS
DAKOTA FORMATION, MINNESOTA, USA















By

SHUSHENG HU


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006


































Copyright 2006

By

Shusheng Hu


































To Yuxian, David, Mark, and my parents.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank my advisor, Dr. David Dilcher, for his advice and

encouragement. I also thank Dr. David Jarzen, one of my Ph.D. committee members, for

his assistance and rigorous training in palynology. I thank my other Ph.D. committee

members, Drs. Mark Brenner, John Jaeger, Walter Judd, Steven Manchester, Ellen

Martin, Neil Opdyke, Gustav Paulay, and Anthony Randazzo, for their helpful

suggestions and critical reading of the manuscript. I am grateful to Dr. Francisca Oboh-

Ikuenobe at the University of Missouri-Rolla and Dr. John Wrenn at the Louisiana State

University for providing helpful suggestions and discussions while visiting their labs in

2004. I thank Drs. Satish Srivastava, Doug Nichols, Geoffrey Norris, Alfred Traverse,

Mary Dettmann, Martin Farley, Wolfram Kiurschner, Carlos Jaramillo, David Pocknall,

and Jim Riding for useful palynological discussions. Thanks go to Drs Francis Putz and

Alexandre Trindade for discussion concerning statistics. I would like to thank Drs.

Hongqi Li, Hongshan Wang, and Xin Wang for academic discussion and encouragement.

Many thanks go to Rich Barclay, Margaret Landis, Sarah Corbett, Paula Mejia, Judy

Chen, and Elizabeth O'Leary for their support and help during my tenure at the

University of Florida. Special thanks go to Terry Lott, Kent Perkins, Paul Zeigler,

Guenther Mauk, Bill Greene, and Mike Lee for their assistance in various ways. Thanks

go to Dr. Rick Lupia and Amy McClain for providing a loan from the Sam Noble

Oklahoma Museum of Natural History for my use at the University of Florida. Thanks

go to Lynda Schneider and Karen Kelley for TEM and SEM technical assistance. I thank









Dr. Frank Potter and Scott Gooler for their help during the 2003 and 2004 field season.

Thanks go to Professor Meitang Mei for encouraging me to pursue a Ph.D.

Financial support was provided by Dilcher-Becker Funds, 2003; Evolving Earth

Foundation, 2004 grant; Sigma Xi Grant In Aid of Research, 2004; Graduate Student

Council of the University of Florida for Travel Grants, 2003 and 2004; Danker Fund,

2004, from the Department of Geological Sciences, University of Florida; and the Deep

Time Project, NSF DEB-0090283. Finally, I thank my wife Yuxian and my son David

for their support and assisting me in the field during the summers of 2003 and 2004. I

thank my parents Yuqing Hu and Xiuchan Wang for the support and guidance they have

given me throughout my life.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS



A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES ....................................................... ............ .. ............ ix

LIST OF FIGURES ............................... ... ...... ... ................. .x

ABSTRACT .............. ..................... .......... .............. xii

CHAPTER

1 IN TRODU CTION ................................................. ...... .................

2 MATERIAL AND METHODS................................................................. 5

3 P R E V IO U S W O R K ................................................................................ ............. 11

4 SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY ......................................................... 13

A ngiosperm Pollen .......... .. .......................... ................. .. ............ 13
Gym nosperm Pollen .................................. .. ......... .... ...............25
S p o re s ...............................................................................3 6
Algal, Fungal and Megaspore .................................................................55
Dinoflagellate Cysts and Acritarchs ................... .. .................. ...............58
D inoflagellate C ysts ............................................ .. ........ .... ...........58
A critarch s ................................................................6 3

5 GEOLOGICAL SETTING: REGIONAL AND STUDY AREA ...........................67

R eg io n al ................................. ...... ......................................................... ............... 6 7
Stratigraphy and Sedimentary Environments in Study Area ....................................68
Courtland Clay Pit .................. ................................. ................. 68
H ighw ay 4 C lay P it .............................. ........................ .. ........ .... ............69
O chs Clay Pit ...................................................................... ............. ................. 69
The Stratigraphic Relationships of the Localities.....................................................70

6 THE AGE OF THE DAKOTA FORMATION IN MINNESOTA.........................81









7 IMPLICATION OF POLLINATION BIOLOGY AND EARLY LATE
CRETACEOUS COASTAL VEGETATION .............. ................ .....................85

Implications for Pollination Biology of the Early Late Cretaceous Angiosperm
P o llen ............................................. ... ...... .... ...... ...... .................. 8 5
Angiosperm, Fern and Gymnosperm Diversity in Coastal Areas during Early Late
C retaceous ....................................................... ....... .. ....................... 93
Comparison with Other Late Cretaceous Assemblages Recovered from Coal
B hearing Sequences ........................................ ................. .... ....... 98

8 COMPARISONS BETWEEN ANGIOSPERM MEGAFOSSIL AND
MICROFOSSIL RECORDS ................................................ 118

9 EUSPORANGIATE FERNS FROM THE DAKOTA FORMATION,
MINNESOTA, USA (WITH DAVID DILCHER, HARALD SCHNEIDER AND
D A V ID JA R Z E N ) ......................................................................... ..................... 122

A b stract .......................................... ... .................... ............................ 12 2
Introduction .......................... ............. ... .. .................................123
M material and M methods ......... .............................. ............................. ............... 124
R e su lts .......................... ............. ... ....................................................... 1 2 6
G eneric D iagnosis ..................... .. ........................ .. .. ...... .............. 126
S p ecies D iag n o sis ......... ...... ................ .......................... ........ ..................... 12 6
G general m orphology ........................................................ ............... 126
Spore m orphology ......................................... ...... ............. .. 127
D e scrip tio n .................................................................... 12 7
System atic R em arks .................................. ................. .... ....... 128
G eneric D iagnosis ..................... .. ........................ .. .. ...... ...............132
Species D iagnosis......... ...................................... ................ .. .... ..... .. 132
G general m orphology ........................................................ ............... 132
Spore m orphology ..................... ................. ........................133
D e scrip tio n .................................................................... 13 3
System atic R em arks .................................. ................. .... ....... 134
Discussion ................................. ................................. ......... 136

10 CONCLU SION S ................................ .. .. ......... .. .............140

APPENDIX

A PROCESSING PROCEDURES USED BY GLOBAL GEOLAB LIMITED,
C A C A D A ...........................................................................14 5

B PALYNOMORPH RAW DATA SHEET......... ........... .......... 147

C PLATE EXPLANATION .......................................................... ............... 158

D P L A T E S ....................................................................................17 1









R E F E R E N C E S ...................................... ........................................................... .. 2 0 4

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ........................................ ............................................217
















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

7-1 Criteria for pollination interpretation .......... ................................ ...............101

7-2 Inferred mode of pollination for angiosperm pollen taxa from Courtland Clay
Pit ............. ......................... ................................. 102

7-3 Inferred mode of pollination for angiosperm pollen taxa from Ochs Clay Pit... ...106

7-4 Inferred mode of pollination for angiosperm pollen taxa from Highway 4 Clay
P it .......... .. ..... ................................... ... ................. ............... .. 10 9

7-5 Angiosperm pollen distribution in three different environments in Ochs Clay Pit. 110

7-6 Fern spore distribution in three different environments at Ochs Clay Pit.............. 111

7-7 Gymnosperm pollen distribution in three different environments at Ochs Clay
P it .................. .................... .............................. ................. 1 12

7-8 Relative abundance of bisaccate pollen in estuaries at Ochs Clay Pit .................13
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

2-1 Map of Minnesota, showing three localities in study area..................... ........6

5-1 Map of North America with the location of Western Interior Seaway during the
Cenomanian (early Late Cretaceous). ................................................. ............... 71

5-2 Area of west-central United States in which the lithostratigraphic name
"D akota" is used. .....................................................................72

5-3 Schematic cross section of lower Upper Cretaceous sediments in southwestern
M innesota. .......................................... ............................. 73

5-4 Detailed stratigraphic columnar section of lower section at Courtland Clay Pit. ....74

5-5 Detailed stratigraphic columnar section of upper section at Courtland Clay Pit. ....75

5-6 Sketch map of the Dismal Swamp, USA; an example of a coastal swamp and
coastal lake developed along the coastal areas ............................................ ........... 75

5-7 Detailed stratigraphic columnar section of SW section at Highway 4 Clay Pit.......76

5-8 Detailed stratigraphic columnar section of NE section at Highway 4 Clay Pit. ......76

5-9 The morphological elements of a meandering river system.. ...............................77

5-10 Detailed stratigraphic columnar section at Ochs Clay Pit................... .......... 78

5-11 Ideal sequence of lacustrine deposits.. ........................................ ............... 79

5-12 Inferred stratigraphic relationships, outcrop sections in study areas.. .....................80

7-1 Selected angiosperm pollen relative abundance analysis in three different
environments at Ochs Clay Pit.......................... ......... ................... 113

7-2 The distribution of terrestrial palynomorphs in lake, swamp, and estuarine
sedim ents at the O chs Clay Pit ...................................................... .............. 114

7-4 Relative abundance of bisaccate pollen in coastal swamps at Ochs Clay Pit ........ 115









7-5 Relative abundance of bisaccate pollen in coastal lake environments at Ochs
C lay P it .................................................................................................... ..... 1 1 6

7-6 Relative abundance analysis of dominant non-bissacate gymnosperm pollen in
three different environm ents ........................................... ............................... 117















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

PALYNOMORPHS AND SELECTED MESOFOSSILS FROM THE CRETACEOUS
DAKOTA FORMATION, MINNESOTA, USA

By

Shusheng Hu

August 2006

Chair: David Dilcher
Major Department: Geological Sciences

The middle Cenomanian palynomorphs and selected mesofossils from the Dakota

Formation of south central Minnesota were investigated. A total of 218 palynomorphs

were recovered. Terrestrial palynomorphs include 41 types of angiosperm pollen in

which five types are described as new species, 42 types of gymnosperm pollen, and 78

types of spores of ferns and fern allies. Spores of ferns and fern allies are most diverse

among the terrestrial palynomorphs. Other palynomorphs include two types of

megaspores, ten types of algal spores and colonies, seven types of fungal spores and

fruiting body, 18 types of dinoflagellate cysts, and 20 types of acritarchs. Based upon the

occurrence of Artiopollis indivisus, Balmeisporites glenelgensis, Cicatricosisporites

crassiterminatus, Dictyophyllidites impensus, and Nyssapollenites sp., the age of the

Cretaceous sediments exposed in south central Minnesota is probably middle

Cenomanian. Based upon the analysis of angiosperm pollen morphological characters,

the pollen types that appear to be insect-pollinated accounted for 77% on average, and the









pollen types which appear to be wind-pollinated accounted for 23% on average during

the middle Cenomanian. The characteristic vegetation elements of the coastal swamps

during middle Cenomanian were diverse angiosperms, dominant ferns and fern allies, and

a relative low abundance of gymnosperms. The Trochodendrales and Buxales of the

eudicots, which were not recovered from leaf fossil records, probably were present during

the middle Cenomanian based upon the angiosperm pollen records. Two new marattioid

ferns, Goolangia minnesotensis Hu, Dilcher, H. Schneid. et Jarzen gen. et sp. nov. and

Mesozoisynangia trilobus Hu, Dilcher, H. Schneid. et Jarzen gen. et sp. nov., are

described based on charcoalified isolated sporangia and synangia. These fossils provide

evidence for the existence of marattioid ferns during the mid-Cretaceous in North

America and give the first unequivocal documentation of the Marattiaceae in post

Jurassic times. Spores of Goolangia minnesotensis are comparable with the dispersed

spore Dictyophyllidites impensus, which was distributed from Arizona to Alberta in west

central North America during the middle Cenomanian.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The mid-Cretaceous was a critical period in the evolution of angiosperms. During

this time, angiosperms began their adaptive radiation, and major lineages first appear

(Upchurch and Dilcher, 1990; Dilcher, 2000). It has been suggested that early

angiosperms diversified and became dominant along river channels during the mid-

Cretaceous (Retallack and Dilcher, 1981; Wing and Boucher, 1998). Retallack and

Dilcher (1981) further hypothesized that disturbed coastal areas were very important sites

for early angiosperm worldwide dispersal. But as far as we know the data about early

angiosperms in coastal areas during the mid-Cretaceous are very limited (Retallack and

Dilcher, 1981) because of poor environmental interpretations and limited megafossil

collections.

During the past 30 years early angiosperm pollination biology has been understood

substantially through the studies on numerous Cretaceous fossil flowers (Dilcher et al.,

1976; Dilcher 1979; Crepet, 1979; Friis and Skarby, 1981; Dilcher and Crane, 1984;

Crane and Dilcher, 1984; Crane, et al., 1986; Drinnan, et al., 1990; Friis, et al., 1999,

2000a, 2000b; Dilcher, 2001). It was a widely accepted hypothesis that the dominant

angiosperm pollination modes were insect-pollination during the early Cretaceous

(Crepet and Friis, 1987; Friis et al., 1999; Field and Arens, 2005; Wing and Boucher,

1998). Dilcher (1979), on the other hand, presents evidence to support the presence of

limited wind pollination by mid-Cretaceous time. Dilcher (1979) also proposed the

hypothesis that the independent lineages of some anemophilous flowers may have









developed very early and separately from entomophilous flowers from a common

ancestral bisexual stock. Moreover, Dilcher (2000) suggested that wind pollination was

also important for Cretaceous angiosperms in addition to insect pollination. More studies

are needed to better understand the role of pollination in the evolution of early

angiosperms. The palynological data may provide new information about the diversity of

pollination profiles of angiosperms during the Cenomanian.

Research on plant megafossils deposited along the Western Interior Seaway began

with Lesquereux (1895) who described 437 species of angiosperms. However, Upchurch

and Dilcher (1990) and Wang H. (2002) found only 20-25 species of angiosperms at each

of several localities and Wang H. (2002) estimated 150-200 total species of angiosperms

when six localities are tallied together. It is important also to undertake a palynological

investigation of these sediments in order to provide evidence for angiosperm diversity as

recorded by pollen during the mid-Cretaceous.

Mesofossils often consist of charcoalified plant remains, which are mid-sized

fossils between the larger megafossils and smaller microfossils. When plant tissues are

charcoalified, delicate structures, such as anthers containing pollen (Crane and

Herendeen, 1996) and sporangia containing spores, are often well preserved. Therefore

mesofossils provide additional characters that allow comparisons to morphological

features unique to reproductive structures of extant plants. This information

complements the megafossil and microfossil record by providing information not

otherwise available. Dispersed pollen or spores may be related to a taxon with known

affinities. The geographic distribution of a parent plant may be determined based upon

the distribution range of the dispersed pollen or spores. However, mesofossil









investigation is limited in Western Interior Seaway (X. Wang, 2004) and there is no

previous mesofossil research for the Cretaceous sediments in south western Minnesota.

"Dakota Formation" is used as a lithostratigraphic unit across a vast area of central

and west-central North America (Ravn and Witzke, 1995). This name has also often

been used without consideration of the relationship to the type Dakota Formation, either

lithostratigraphically or chronostratigraphically (Witzke et al., 1983). Thus the age and

lithology of the Dakota Formation are probably not the same from the west margin to the

east margin of the Western Interior Seaway. Currently, the age of the Dakota Formation

in southwest Minnesota is thought to be Cenomanian (Setterholm, 1994). However,

because of the absence of marine fossils, this suggestion for a Cenomanian age is mainly

based upon the interpretation from the paleobotanical work of Lesquereux (1895) and the

palynological studies of Pierce (1961). The paleofloras of Lesquereux (1895) and

palynofloras of Pierce (1961) need reexamination and reinterpretation (Upchurch and

Dilcher, 1990; Wang H., 2002; Hu et al., 2004b). Austin (1972) proposed that the

nonmarine Cretaceous sediments in the Minnesota River Valley are about middle

Cenomanian based upon clay mineralogy. Setterholm (1994) also proposed that the

upper mudstone unit in east-central Minnesota of the Dakota Formation may be time

equivalent to the Graneros Shale in western Minnesota, and both units are placed in the

late Cenomanian. The age of the Dakota Formation in southwest Minnesota remains

uncertain at this time.

Therefore investigations of ancient coastal deposits should provide new data about

early angiosperms. Considering that pollen and spores are more broadly distributed than

leaves and therefore provide a broader regional record than plant megafossils (Jaramillo,









1999), the palynological record may provide a view with a different bias for early

angiosperm diversity. Mid-Cretaceous sediments, rich in pollen and spores exposed

recently at Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, and Ochs Clay Pit in southwestern

Minnesota, provided an opportunity for a palynological investigation. The present study

will focus on the following topics:

1. Establish a record of the palynomorphs recovered from a series of samples
collected from freshly exposed sections.

2. Use the described palynofloras, correlate the sections from three isolated clay pits
(Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, and Ochs Clay Pit) where the
sedimentary relationships are difficult to determine in the absence of marine
megafossils.

3. Determine the age of the sediments that is currently controversial and in question
based upon the palynomorphs recovered from samples of the clay pits.

4. Consider the role of insect pollination and wind pollination in the evolution of early
angiosperms as inferred from palynological data. Possible pollination profiles of
some early angiosperms during early Late Cretaceous will be presented.

5. Present early angiosperm diversity during early Late Cretaceous in coastal areas,
especially coastal swamps, based upon palynological investigation.

6. Compare the megafossil (leaf) and microfossil (pollen) record of angiospeprms to
assess the role of microfossils in an analysis of early angiosperm diversity.

7. Use of mesofossils in order to understand fern taxa not previously known from the
Cretaceous.














CHAPTER 2
MATERIAL AND METHODS

Three localities which are located in southwest Minnesota (Figure 2-1) -

Courtland Clay Pit (lat. 44016'29" N, long. 94023'13"W) (Plate 1, Figs. 1-2; Plate 2, Figs.

1-2), Highway 4 Clay Pit (lat. 44026'05" N, long. 94043'37"W) (Plate 5, Figs. 1-2) and

Ochs Clay pit (lat. 44013'26" N, long. 95000'42"W) (Plate 3, Figs. 1-2; Plate 4, Figs. 1-2)

are investigated in this research. I undertook my field work in the summer of 2003 (May

23-May 29) and the summer of 2004 (June 3-June 12). Five stratigraphic sections were

measured. Pollen samples were collected vertically at about 30 centimeter intervals from

each of the sections sampled. At the Courtland Clay Pit 23 samples were collected, nine

samples were processed and eight samples had abundant palynomorphs. At Highway 4

Clay Pit, 12 samples were collected, eight samples were processed, and three samples had

abundant palynomorphs. At Ochs Clay Pit 27 samples were collected, eight samples

were processed, and seven samples have abundant palynomorphs.

The Canada Global Geolab processed 4 samples (sample 18297, 036690, 036708,

and 036710) from Courtland Clay Pit in 2003 (see Appendix A for the processing

methods used by Canada Global Geolab). I processed all of the other samples that I

studied in this research myself in the chemical lab of the Paleobotany and Palynology

Laboratory of the Florida Museum of Natural History during the summers of 2004 and

2005. In order to avoid any bias caused by the different processing methods, I have also

reprocessed all those samples originally processed by Canada Global Geolab (except for

sample Courtland 18297).





























Figure 2-1. Map of Minnesota, showing three localities in study area.(Scale 1:7,500,000)


Processing methods for siliciclastic and lignite samples are described below.

Siliciclastic samples:

1. Crush a 10 g sample using a mortar and pestle.

2. Sieve a crushed sample using a tea strainer until the entire sample is sieved.

3. Put the crushed sample into a 1000 ml glass beaker and gradually add 25% HCL
acid. If the reaction is too strong, add several drops of alcohol. Add enough of the
25% HCL acid to fill half of the beaker. At the same time, stir gently with a glass
rod.

4. Cover the beaker with a Petri dish.

5. Wait about 2 hours until the sample has settled and all effervescence has ceased.

6. Pour the waste acid out and wash with distilled water until the slurry is neutral.

7. Transfer the sample into a 600 ml plastic beaker and slowly pourl00 ml of 49% HF
acid into the slurry while stirring. Exercise caution when using HF.

8. After 6 hours, dump the waste acid and add 100 ml of 49% HF acid.

9. Wait for at least 3 days while stirring occasionally.










10. Dump the waste acid and wash the sample using distilled water until the slurry is
neutral.

11. Transfer the slurry into a 50 ml glass tube.

12. Add enough 25% HCL acid into the tube to fill half of the tube.

13. Put the tube into a water bath (about 900C) for about 5 minutes. At the same time
stir the sample occasionally.

14. Repeat this procedure at least 3 times until the supernatant is clear.

15. Oxidize the sample using the following procedure: First, pour enough 10% nitric
acid into the tube to fill half of the tube. Second, put the tube into a water bath for
about 5 minutes while stirring occasionally. Third, check one drop under the
microscope. If strong oxidation is needed, repeat the procedure using 50% nitric
acid.

16. After the oxidation procedure, wash the sample 3 times using distilled water.

17. Pour enough 5% ammonium hydroxide to fill half of the tube.

18. Wait about 5 minutes while stirring occasionally.

19. Check one drop under the microscope.

20. Wash with distilled water at least 3 times or until the supernatant is clear.

21. If the slurry is gritty, pour enough zinc chloride heavy liquid (specific gravity about
2.0) to fill half of the tube.

22. Centrifuge the sample for 30 to 40 minutes at 2000 rpm.

23. Pour out the top part of the mixture (heavy liquid and organic residue) into a 250 ml
beaker and dilute with distilled water.

24. Centrifuge for the mixture for 10 minutes at 2000 rpm.

25. Wash and centrifuge the residue for 10 minutes at 2000 rpm at least 3 times.

26. If the residue is full of fine organic particles, add 10 ml of Darvan #1 solution and
20 ml of distilled water, stirring thoroughly.

27. Centrifuge for 1 minute under about at 1500 rpm.









28. Dump the supernatant and repeat the previous step and this step until the
supernatant is clear. If the palynomorphs are present in the supernatant, stop
processing and keep the supernatant.

29. If using acetolysis, first wash with glacial acetic acid. Second, pour enough
acetolysis mixture to fill half of the tube and put it into a hot bath (90 C) for 3
minutes. Third, wash with glacial acetic acid. Fourth, wash with distilled water 3
times. If staining with Safranin-O, first pour distilled water and one or two drops of
HCL and Safranin-O into the tube and stir. Second, wash with distilled water 3
times.

30. After acetolysis or staining, wash the sample using 50% glycerin.

31. Centrifuge for 10 minutes.

32. Place the tube upside down for at least half hour. The residual material is ready for
making slides.

Lignite samples:

1 Crush 2 g of lignite using a mortar and pestle.

2. Sieve the crushed sample using a tea strainer to sieve until the entire sample is
sieved.

3. Mix the crushed and sieved sample with 2 g of potassium chlorate in a 50 ml glass
tube.

4. Add 5 cc of concentrated nitric acid drop by drop into the tube.

5. Wait for several hours and check if the palynomorphs are visible.

6. Centrifuge and decant the supernatant.

7. Add 5% KOH and place into a water bath (900C) for 3-5 minutes. At the same time
checking frequently the condition of the palynomorphs.

8. Centrifuge and wash 3 times.

9. If the palynomorphs are not well concentrated, use heavy liquid to process the
sample using the same procedure used to concentrate the silicicalstic rock sample.

10. If the palynomorphs are not transparent enough, add 10% nitric acid to the sample
and place it into a water bath (900C) for 3 minutes.









11. Use the same procedures (ammonium hydroxide, Darvan #1, 1% Safranin-O
staining and acetolysis) used to process the silicicalstic rock samples.

The procedures for slide preparation follows:

1. Throughly mix a small amount of glycerol gelatin with the residue.

2. Put one drop onto a microscope slide (size: 3 x 1 x Imm).

3. Cover the sample with a number 1 cover glass (size: 22 x 30 x 1).

4. Place the slide on a warming table to make sure the residue spreads evenly.

5. Prepare at least 3 slides for each sample.

6. Label slides as soon as possible to avoid loss of data.

At least two slides were scanned in order to build a catalogue of pollen and spore

types for each sample. When making pollen count, at least 300 palynomorphs were

counted. A ZEISS AxiophotTM microscope and an AxioCam digital camera and imaging

capturing software were used for the palynomorph identification and photography. Slides

are stored in the Paleobotany and Palynology Collection of the Florida Museum of

Natural History, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Pollen and spore identification were made through comparisons with images and

descriptions in published papers and the holotype materials of Hedlund, Richard .W.

which are deposited in the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History. Published

papers on the Western Interior Seaway, Atlantic Coastal Plain and Gulf Coast were used

as primary reference sources for palynomorph identification (Bergad, 1973; Brenner,

1963, 1967; Burden and Hills, 1989; Hedlund, 1966; Norris, 1967; Phillips and Felix,

1972a, 1972b; Pierce, 1961; Ravn and Witzki, 1995; Singh, 1964, 1971, 1983;

Srivastava, 1992; Tschudy, 1973; Ward, 1986). Other papers also included in this work

from similar age sediments from other parts of the world include Below, 1984; Couper,






10


1953; Davey, 1969, 1970; Dettmann, 1963, 1973; Jarzen, 1979; Srivastava, 1975; Zippi,

1998.

Methods used for the mesofossils that were isolated from organic rich clay samples

are given in Chapter 9.














CHAPTER 3
PREVIOUS WORK

Along the eastern margin of the Western Interior Seaway (WIS), Pierce described

103 species of spores and pollen which he recovered from the lowermost upper

Cretaceous of Minnesota (Pierce, 1961). He did not consider the sedimentary facies.

Farley and Dilcher (1986) undertook research concerning the relationships between

miospores and depositional environments of the Dakota Formation from north-central

Kansas and adjacent Nebraska. They chose four different sedimentary facies from three

localities. They presented the pollen and spore flora found, but did not consider the

vegetation succession through time. Ravn (1981) made preliminary observations of the

palynology of the Upper Dakota Formation lignites in northwestern Iowa and

northeastern Nebraska and described 125 palynomorph species. Later Ravn and Witzke

(1995) published their palynostratigraphic research of the Dakota Formation from the

same area, focusing on biostratigraphy.

On the western margin of the WIS, May and Traverse (1973) undertook the

palynological investigation of the Dakota Formation in Willis Creek Canyon,

Paunsaugunt Plateau, near Bryce Canyon, Utah. About 40 genera and 125 species of

palynomorphs were identified. Although these authors mentioned the sedimentary

environments in their abstract, detailed discussion and identification of the sedimentary

environments were not presented in their paper. Therefore it is not possible to correlate

any relationship between palynomorphs and the sedimentary environments.









Agasie (1969) studied palynomorphs from the middle carbonaceous member of the

Dakota Sandstone in northeastern Arizona. About 39 species of palynomorphs were

recovered. Fern spores dominated the assemblage, while gymnosperm pollen was rare.

Agasie indicated that ferns and angiosperms probably dominated the coal swamps with

minor gymnosperm presence. In the same way, Romans (1975) studied the

palynomorphs recovered from coal seams of the Dakota Sandstone in Black Mesa,

Arizona. There were 62 pollen and spore species in the Dakota Sandstone. Fern spores

dominated the assemblage with angiosperm pollen being the least abundant in the

assemblage. Moreover, Romans (1975) did not give any specific placement of the coal-

forming swamp on the Dakota landscape and its sedimentary environments. Hedlund

(1966) studied the palynology of the Red Branch Member of the Woodbine Formation

(Dakota equivalent), in Oklahoma. He reported 74 forms of spores and pollen grains in

the Red Branch palynological assemblage. Fern spores and angiosperm pollen dominate

the assemblage. Hedlund noted that the sedimentary environment was probably non-

marine because of the absence of marine palynomorphs.

Cretaceous palynomorphs from Atlantic Coastal Plain were very important for this

research. Brenner (1963) investigated the palynomorphs of the Potomac Group

identifying about 125 palynomorph taxa. Two major zones were divided based upon

palynological characteristics. Later, Doyle and Robbins (1977) undertook further

palynological research in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and suggested five major zones based

upon the changes observed in the assemblages of angiosperm pollen through the

reconstructed section.














CHAPTER 4
SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY

Angiosperm Pollen

Anteturma POLLENITES Potonie 1931
Turma PLICATES Naumova emend. Potonie, 1960
Subturma MONOCOLPATES Iversen & Troels-Smith, 1950
Genus Clavatipollenites Couper, 1958
Type species: Clavatipollenites hughesii Couper, 1958.

Clavatipollenites tenellis Phillips & Felix 1972
Plate 6, Figs. 1-3
Pollen grains free, monosulcate; circular to subcircular; exine 2.5 jim, two layered,
nexine about 1 rim, sexine coarse columellae, pila with a big head (about 0.5 tm in
diameter), pila head link together; reticulate, lumina ca. 1 imin diameter, irregular.
Dimensions: 28 sm (1 grain).
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: Albian, Louisana (Phillips and Felix 1972b); Albian and
Cenomanian, Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA (Doyle and Robbins 1977); and Cenomanian,
northwestern Alberta (Singh 1983).

Clavatipollenites sp.2
Plate 6, Figs. 4-6
Pollen grains free, monosulcate; circular to subcircular; exine 1 [tm, two layered,
sexine columellate, pila dense, pila head link together; microreticulate, lumina less than
0.5 [nm in diameter.
Dimensions: 20(24)28 [tm (2 grains).
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit.

? Clavatipollenites sp.3
Plate 6, Figs. 7-9
Pollen grains free, monosulcate; circular to subcircular; sulcus narrow, often split
into two halves; exine 2 [tm, two layered, sexine columellate, pila dense, pila head not
developed; granulate to microfoveolate.
Dimensions: 24(27)29 [tm (4 grains).
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Liliacidites Couper, 1953
Type species: Liliacidites kaitangataensis Couper, 1953.









Liliacidites sinuatus Hu, sp. nov.
Plate 6, Figs. 10-13
Pollen grains free, monosulcate; elliptical, sulcus wide; exine 2 [im, two layered,
sexine columellate, pila rare and thick, ca. 1 wide; reticulate, lumina ca. 4-7 [um in
diameter, elongate to irregular, muri sinuous, ca. 0.6 [tm wide.
Dimensions: 18(22)25 x 33(34)34 [tm (2 grains)
Holotype: 046535-PY02A, Y39/1
Remarks: This species is distinct from other species of Liliacidites by its sinuous
muri and relatively large lumina. Liliacidites crassatus differs in having smaller lumina
(1 to 2.5 ptm).
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit
Name derivation: The species name sinuatus from the Latin sinuous, meaning full
of bendings.

Liliacidites giganteus Singh 1983
Plate 6, Fig. 14
Pollen grains free, monosulcate; elliptical, sulcus not clear; exine 2.5 jim, two
layered, sexine columellate, pila head fused together by membrane; reticulate, lumina ca.
1-6 pm in diameter, polygonal, muri ca. 1.2 pm wide, with a single row of granules on
the muri surface.
Dimensions: 48 x 76 [im (1 grain)
Remarks: There are two rows of granules on the muri for the holotype (Singh
1983).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: Cenomanian, northwestern Alberta (Singh 1983).

Liliacidites cf. reticulatus (Brenner) Singh 1971
Plate 6, Figs. 15-19; Plate 7, Figs. 1, 2
Pollen grains free, monosulcate; elliptical, sulcus narrow and long, reaching to
margin; exine 2 [im, two layered, sexine columellate, pila ca. 1.5 [im high, pila fused
together by membrane; reticulate, lumina ca. 1-2 [im in diameter, polygonal, muri ca. 0.5
lm.
Dimensions: 19(20)23 x 22(24)28 [m (5 grains)
Remarks: Compared with the holotype described by Brenner (1963), the lumina
are smaller, muri are narrower, and grain size is slightly bigger for this species.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit and Highway 4 Clay Pit.
Distribution: Barremian to Albian, Maryland (Brenner 1963); Albian, Oklahoma
(Hedlund and Norris 1968); and middle to late Albian, northwestern Alberta (Singh
1971).

Liliacidites cf. inaequalis Singh 1971
Plate 7, Figs. 3, 4
Pollen grains free, monosulcate; sulcus wide open; exine 1-2 [m, two layered,
sexine columellate, nexine less than 0.5 [im; reticulate, lumina ca. 2-3 [m in diameter,
polygonal, lumina size decreasing toward poles, there are granules on the muri.
Dimensions: 15 (16) 18 x 22 (24) 26 [tm (3 grains)









Remarks: The lumina are 3 to 6 [pm in the middle region for the holotype of L.
inaequalis (Singh 1971). Also the size ofL. inaequalis is larger than this species.
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit.

Liliacidites sp.2
Plate 7, Figs. 5-7
Pollen grains free, monosulcate; sulcus wide open; exine 1 [um, two layered, sexine
columellate, pila rare, not clear; reticulate, lumina ca. 1-4 [umin diameter, size uneven,
polygonal, muri width even, ca. 0.5 upm wide.
Dimensions: 21 [m (1 grain)
Remarks: It differs from Liliacidites sp.3 in its thinner exine and absence of the
small fovea on the muri. It differs from Liliacidites sp.5 in its smaller lumina and thinner
exine.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Liliacidites sp.3
Plate 7, Figs. 8-10
Pollen grains free, monosulcate; elliptical, sulcus wide open; exine 2 rim, two
layered, sexine columellate, pila rare and thick, ca. 0.5 sm wide; reticulate, lumina ca.
0.5-4 tm in diameter, elliptical to round to polygonal, muri with occasional small fovea.
Dimensions: 15(21)31 x 19(30)43 [im (11 grains)
Remarks: It is distinct from other species of Liliacidites in its small fovea on the
muri. Liliacidites sp.3 is similar to in situ pollen of early or middle Albian well-
preserved flower Virginianthus C il//)'mhei, ,I'\ from the Puddledock locality, Virginia
(Friis et al., 1994) in shape, aperture, and ornamentation. Friis et al. (1994) suggested
that these in situ pollen grains are similar to Clavatipollenites. However the typical
features of Clavatipollenites such as lumina size 1 ism or less and closely spaced pilate
columellae (Burden and Hills, 1989) were absent on these in situ pollen grains which
possess sparse and short columellae (Friis et al., 1994). The only difference is that
Liliacidites sp.3 (which is 21 x 30[im) is larger than in situ pollen of Virginianthus
(I.)ly m1h11,i id' (which is 18km in diameter).
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit

Liliacidites sp.4
Plate 7, Figs. 11-13
Pollen grains free, monosulcate; circular to subcircular, sulcus not clear; exine 1.5-
2.5 [um, two layered, nexine thicker than sexine, sexine columellate, short pila with big
pila head (ca. 0.5 ism in diameter); reticulate, lumina ca. 0.5-2 ism in diameter, polygonal,
muri ca. 0.5 upm wide, with granules on it.
Dimensions: 29(37)48 [im (9 grains)
Remarks: It is very similar to Retimonocolpites reticulates Brenner, 1963. But its
size (17-22 [tm) is much smaller than Liliacidites sp.4. It also differs from other species
in its circular shape and granules on the muri. Although there are granules on the muri of
Liliacidites cf inaequalis, except for its oval shape, its size and lumina are smaller than
Liliacidites sp.4.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit









Liliacidites sp.5
Plate 8, Figs. 1-3
Pollen grains free, monosulcate; circular to subcircular, sulcus narrow; exine 2 [im,
two layered, sexine columellate, pila rare; reticulate, lumina ca. 1-7 tm in diameter,
polygonal to ovate, there are small granules on muri.
Dimensions: 20 (23) 25 x 23 (24) 25 [pm (2 grains)
Remarks: Although there are granules on the muri of Liliacidites cf. inaequalis
and Liliacidites sp.4, the large lumina of Liliacidites sp.5 can differentiate from them.
It differs from others in this study in its larger lumina and granules on the muri.
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit.

Genus Retimonocolpites Pierce, 1961
Type species: Retimonocolpites dividuus Pierce, 1961.

Retimonocolpites dividuus Pierce 1961
Plate 8, Fig. 4
Pollen grains free, monosulcate; amb circular to subcircular, colpi long and
straight, somewhat raised; exine 1.5 itm, two layered, nexine about 1 itm, sexine
columellate, pila short about 0.5 itm high; reticulate, lumina 0.5-1.5 itm in diameter,
polygonal.
Dimensions: 32(35)38 [tm (2 grains).
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: Albian to Cenomanian, North America and Europe (Ravn and
Witzke, 1995).

Genus Spinizonocolpites Muller, 1968
Type species: Spinizonocolpites echinatus Muller, 1968.

? Spinizonocolpites sp.
Plate 8, Figs. 5, 6
Pollen grains free, with encircling colpus (?); subcircular to elliptical, sulcus not
clear; exine 1 itm, two layered not clear; scabrate, with short spines (ca. 3 itm).
Dimensions: 25 [im (1 grain).
Remarks: This pollen type has often been compared with extant Nypafruticans of
the Palmae (Germeraad et al., 1968).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Stellatopollis Doyle, 1975
Type species: Stellatopollis barghoornii Doyle, 1975.

Stellatopollis largissimus Singh 1983
Plate 8, Fig.7
Pollen grains free, monosulcate; elliptical, sulcus long and extending nearly the full
length of the grain; exine 4 jim, two layered, sexine columellate; reticulate, each lumen
surrounded by 4-8 clavate projections, the projection ca. 3 jim high, the head of









projection ca. 1.5 [im in diameter, subtriangular, the head of projections form a crotonoid
sculptural pattern in surface view.
Dimensions: 64 x 123 [m (1 grain).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: Cenomanian, northwestern Alberta (Singh 1983).

Stellatopollis sp.
Plate 8, Fig. 8
Pollen grains free, monosulcate; elliptical, sulcus not clear in this single
occurrence; exine 1 jLm, two layered, sexine columellate, pila very short; reticulate,
lumina ca. 1-1.5 rim, forming an indistinct crotonoid sculptural pattern.
Dimensions: 38 x 53 [m (1 grain).
Remarks: This grain differs from Stellatopollis largissimus Singh 1983 in its
smaller size and indistinct crotonoid sculptural pattern.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Doyleipollenites Ravn & Witzke, 1995
Type species: Doyleipollenites robbinsiae Ravn & Witzke, 1995

Doyleipollenites robbinsiae Ravn & Witzke, 1995
Plate 8, Figs. 9-11
Pollen grains free, trichotomosulate; subtriangular, rays of sulcus extending to 3% or
entire of the radius and thickened; exine 1.5 rim, two layered, sexine ca. 1 rim; foveolate
to reticulate, lumina uneven, ca. 0.5-1 jim, lumina are larger in interradial areas (ca. 1
jlm) and decrease near the sulcus (ca. 0.5 jim).
Dimensions: 22(27)34 jim (7 grains)
Remarks: The lumina are smaller than the holotype (which is 1-3 im).
Doyleipollenites robbinsiae is similar to in situ pollen associated with Early or Middle
Albian fruiting units Anacostia virginiensis from the Puddledock locality, Virginia (Friis
et al., 1997) in shape, aperture, and ornamentation. Only difference between them is that
Doyleipollenites robbinsiae, with a diameter of 22(27)34 jim, is larger than in situ pollen
on a fruiting units Anacostia virginiensis, which is 12(13)15 jim in diameter.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: ?upper Albian, Atlantic Coastal Plain, United States (Doyle 1973);
?middle Albian to ?lower Cenomanian, Atlantic Coastal Plain, United States (Doyle and
Robbins 1977); ?lower to upper Cenomanian, northwestern Iowa and northeastern
Nebraska (Ravn and Witzke 1995).

Turma JUGATES Erdtman, 1943
Subturma TETRADITES Cookson, 1947
Genus Artiopollis Agasie, 1969, emend.
Type species: Artiopollis indivisus Agasie, 1969.

Artiopollis indivisus Agasie, 1969
Plate 8, Fig. 12; Plate 9, Figs. 1-7









Pollen in tetrads, following Fisher's law; pollen grain tricolpate, isopolar; amb
circular to subcircular; exine ca. 2 jim, two layered, sexine columellate, with dense pila;
microreticulate, lumina about 0.5 [im in diameter.
Dimensions: For entire tetrad 17(23)31 tm (10 tetrads); for individual pollen grain
9(15)19 tm (9 grains).
Occurrence: Ochs Clay pit.
Remarks: The exine of specimens recovered from Ochs Clay Pit is somewhat
thinner (2 ipm) than that of the holotype (2.5 to 3 ipm).

Subturma TRIPTYCHA Naumova, 1939
Genus Cupuliferoidaepollenites Potonie, Thomson, & Thiergart, 1950
Type species: Cupuliferoidaepollenites liblarensis Thomson in Potonie, Thomson,
& Thiergart, 1950.

Cupuliferoidaepollenites sp.
Plate 10, Figs. 4-7
Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate, prolate to perprolate (P/E=1.25-2.38), amb
circular to subcircular; tricolpate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, somewhat raised,
apocolpia small; exine thin, ca. 0.6-1 rim, two layered, nexine very thin, sexine scabrate.
Dimensions: equatorial view 7(11)17 [im x 10(16)25 [im (10 grains); polar view
12(16)22 tm (5 grains).
Remarks: This species may be similar to Psilatricolpitespsilatus, Pierce, 1961. It
differs from P. psilatus (21 x 29 [im) in being smaller.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Foveotricolpites Pierce, 1961
Type species: Foveotricolpites sphaeroides Pierce, 1961.

Foveotricolpites sp.
Plate 10, Figs. 8-10
Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate (P/E=1.14-1.2), amb circular to subcircular;
tricolpate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, not straight, apocolpia small; exine ca. 1.5
rlm, two layered, sexine foveolate, fovea irregular to elongate, 0.5-1.5 rim, fovea
becoming smaller and fewer toward colpi and poles.
Dimensions: equatorial view 30(33)35 x 36(38)40 ism (2 grains); polar view 30 ism
(1 grain).
Remarks: This species may be similar to Foveotricolpites concinnus, Singh, 1971.
But fovea are angular and equidimensional to occasionally elongated (1-2 jtm) in F.
concinnus. Also, fovea size is relatively constant toward colpi and poles in F. concinnus.
This species is distinct from Foveotricolpites sphaeroides in its larger size and the
unthickened aperture margin.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Fraxinoipollenites Potonie 1951 ex Potonie 1960
Type species: Fraxinoipollenites pudicus (Potonie) Potonie 1951









Fraxinoipollenites constrictus (Pierce) Chlonova, 1976
Plate 10, Figs. 11-15
Pollen grains free, isopolar; prolate (P/E=1.37-1.94), amb circular to subtriangular,
tricolpate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, ragged, apocolpia small; exine 1.5Lm, two
layered, nexine thinner than sexine, sexine columellate; sexine microfoveolate, fovea less
than 0.5 tpm and faint.
Dimensions: equatorial view 18(24)34 x 28(38)48 ism (11 grains); polar view
30(35)38 [im (5 grains).
Remarks: Fraxinoipollenites constrictus was described as "sculpture of small,
close-spaced baculae" (Pierce 1961). Singh (1983) indicated that it is microfoveolate.
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit and Courtland Clay Pit and Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: ? Cenomanian, Minnesota (Pierce 1961); Cenomanian, Alberta
(Singh 1983); and lower to middle Cenomanian, northwestern Iowa and northeastern
Nebraska (Ravn and Witzke, 1995).

Genus Rousea Srivastava, 1969
Type species: Rousea subtilis Srivastava, 1969.

Rousea cf. delicipollis Srivastava, 1975
Plate 10, Figs. 16-18
Pollen grains free, isopolar; prolate (P/E=1.64), tricolpate, apocolpia small; exine
0.8 jtm, exine thickness decreasing toward colpi, two layered, sexine columellate, pila
rare and short, but with thick pila head, ca. 0.5 tm wide; reticulate to foveolate, lumina
0.3-1.5 rim, irregular to elongate, lumina size decreasing toward colpi and poles.
Dimensions: equatorial view 14 x 23 [im (1 grain), polar view 16(23)35 [im (7
grains).
Remarks: The lumina are circular in Rousea delicipollis. But lumina are irregular
to elongate in the specimens described here.
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit and Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Satishia Ward, 1986
Type species: Satishia glyceia Ward, 1986.

Satishia sp.
Plate 10, Figs. 19-20
Pollen grains free, isopolar; tricolpate, colpi ragged, apocolpia small; exine 1 rim,
two layered not clear; sexine microreticulate, lumina 0.5-1 rim, lumina decreasing toward
colpi not poles.
Dimensions: 28 sm (1 grain).
Remarks: It differs from Rousea in that the lumina of Rousea become finer toward
the poles and toward the colpi margins. The type species Satishia glyceia Ward 1986 has
larger (1.3-2.8 jtm) lumina compared with specimen Luminaa 0.5-1 Ism) described here.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Striatopollis Krutzsch, 1959
Type species: Striatopollis sarstedtensis Krutzsch, 1959.









Striatopollis paraneus (Norris) Singh, 1971
Plate 11, Figs. 1-6
Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate (P/E=1.2), amb circular to subcircular;
tricolpate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, apocolpia small; exine ca. 0.8 rim, two
layered, nexine very thin; striato-reticulate, striate ridge ca. 0.3 tm wide, lumina
equidimensional, ca. 0.3 [im in diameter, lumina arranged into rows between striae, striae
closely spaced, ca. 0.3 [im apart.
Dimensions: equatorial view 15 x 18 tm (1 grain); polar view 21 tm (1 grain).
Remarks: Striatopollisparaneus is similar to in situ pollen of early Cenomanian
inflorescence Spanomera mauldinensis, which was discovered at Mauldin Mountain
locality of Maryland (Friis et al., 1991), in size, aperture, and the unique ornamentation.
Drinnan et al. (1991) indicated that the in situ pollen grains of Spanomera mauldinensis
were comparable to the dispersed pollen species Striatopollisparaneus.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: Middle and late Albian, central Alberta (Norris 1967); Albian,
Oklahoma (Hedlund and Norris, 1968); and middle and late Albian, northwestern Alberta
(Singh 1971), Cenomanian, Bathurst Islands, Northern Territory and Mornington Islands,
Queensland, Australia (Dettmann 1973).

Genus Tricolpites Cookson ex Couper, 1953
Type species: Tricolpites reticulatus Cookson, 1947.

Tricolpites labeonis Hu, sp. nov.
Plate 11, Figs. 7-15
Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate, prolate (P/E=1.21-2), amb circular to
subcircular; tricolpate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, apocolpia small; exine thin, ca.
0.5 jtm, two layered, sexine columellate, pila very short; microreticulate, lumina less than
0.5 tm. SEM studies have shown that there is an about 0.7 tpm wide margin along the
colpi on which the lumina are small (less than 0.1 tm in diameter) and rare or absent.
Dimensions: equatorial view 6(10)14 x 9(14)19 ism (14 grains); polar view 18 ism
(1 grain).
Holotype: 046526-PY03A, Y37
Remarks: Tricolpites labeonis Hu is similar to Tricolpites minutus in size and
ornamentation, but it is differentiated from Tricolpites minutus by its narrow margin
along the colpi on which lumina are rare, tiny or absent. Tricolpites labeonis is also
similar to in situ pollen of early to middle Albian flower Aquia brookensis from "Bank
near Brooke" locality, Virginia, in shape, size, and ornamentation, especially the feature
of lumina diminishing in size and becoming more scattered along the margin of colpi
(Crane et al., 1993). The only difference is that the verrucate surface of colpi membrane
for in situ pollen ofAquia brookensis is absent in Tricolpites labeonis.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Name derivation: Species name labeonis is from Latin, meaning large lips.

Tricolpites nemejci Pacltova 1971
Plate 12, Figs. 1-3









Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate to perprolate (P/E=1.16-2.06), amb circular
to subcircular, tricolpate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, apocolpia small; exine 1.5
rlm, two layered, sexine columellate, with dense pila; microreticulate, lumina 0.2-0.6 tim
in diameter, irregular, circular to elongate.
Dimensions: equatorial view 17(19)21 [tm x 22(27)35 [tm (10 grains); polar view
21(26)31 tm (4 grains).
Remarks: Compared with Tricolpites cf. vulgaris, this species has a thicker exine,
dense pila, and small lumina.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: Cenomanian, Czech Republic (Pacltova 1971); Lower Cenomanian,
Atlantic Coastal Plain (Doyle and Robbins 1977); upper Albian, Kansas (Ward 1986);
middle Cenomanian, northwestern Iowa and northeastern Nebraska (Ravn and Witzke
1995).

Tricolpites cf. vulgaris (Pierce) Srivastava, 1969
Plate 12, Figs. 4-7
Pollen grains free, isopolar; prolate (P/E=1.64), amb circular to subcircular;
tricolpate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, apocolpia small; exine thin, ca. 1 itm, two
layered, sexine columellate; sexine reticulate, lumina polygonal to elongate, 0.5-1 [tm in
diameter.
Dimensions: equatorial view 11(14)19 x 16(20)24 [im (5 grains).
Distribution: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit and Ochs Clay Pit.

Tricolpate sp.4
Plate 12, Figs. 8-10
Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate to prolate (P/E=1.16-1.55), amb circular to
subcircular, tricolpate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, apocolpia small; exine 1-2 rim,
thickness uneven, two layered, sexine columellate, with few pila, pila head small, less
than 0.5 [tm in diameter; reticulate, lumina 0.5-5 [tm in diameter, muri thin less than 0.5
[tm in width.
Dimensions: equatorial view 11(15)18 x 17(21)24 [im (3 grains); polar view 15 [im
(1 grain).
Remarks: This species can be differentiated from Tricolpites cooksonae in
following features: 1. T. cooksonae has smaller lumina (0.4-1.8 ism). 2. T cooksonae
shows granules on muri.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit.

Tricolpate sp.7
Plate 12, Figs. 11-13
Pollen grains free, isopolar; amb circular to subcircular, tricolpate, colpi nearly
extending to the poles, colpi edge slightly ragged, apocolpia small; exine ca. 1 [im, two
layered, nexine very thin, less than 0.5 [im; sexine microfoveolate, fovea less than 0.5
[lm.
Dimensions: polar view 17(18)18 [im (2 grains).
Remarks: It differs from other tricolpate type species encounted in this research in
its smaller size (18 jtm), ragged colpi, and microfoveolate sexine.









Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit.
Tricolpate sp.8
Plate 12, Figs. 14-16
Pollen grains free, isopolar; amb triangular, tricolpate, colpi nearly extending to the
poles, apocolpia small; exine thin, ca. 0.8 jim, two layered, nexine and sexine 0.4 jim
each; sexine scabrate to faint granulate.
Dimensions: polar view 23(26)28 [im (2 grains).
Remarks: It differs from other tricolpate type species encounted in this research in
its scabrate to faint granulate sexine.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Tricolpate sp.10
Plate 12, Figs. 17-19
Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate to prolate (P/E=1.2-1.89), amb circular to
subcircular, tricolpate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, apocolpia small; exine 2.5 jim,
two layered, sexine columellate, with dense pila; reticulate to foveolate, lumina 0.5-1 jim
in diameter between colpi and less than 0.5 jim toward colpi, irregular, polygonal to
elongate, muri relatively thick ca. 0.5 jim and with granules (ca. 0.3 jim) on it.
Dimensions: equatorial view 14(21)32 x 19(29)40 jim (9 grains); polar view 46 jim
(1 grain).
Remarks: It differs from other tricolpate type species in this research in its larger
size (21 x 29 jim) and thick muri with granules on it.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Tricolpate sp.ll
Plate 12, Figs. 20-22
Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate (P/E=1.27-1.33), amb circular to
subcircular, tricolpate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, apocolpia small; exine 0.8-1
jlm, two layered, sexine columellate, with short pila; microreticulate to microfoveolate,
lumina uneven, 0.2-0.8 jim in diameter, lumina size decreasing toward colpi and poles.
Dimensions: equatorial view 11(12)12 x 14(15)16 jim (2 grains); polar view
11(13)14 jim (2 grains).
Remarks: It differs from other tricolpate type species in this research in its smaller
size (13 jim), microreticulate to microfoveolate, and lumina decreasing toward colpi and
poles.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit.

Tricolpate sp.12
Plate 13, Figs. 1-3
Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate (P/E=1.15-1.22), amb circular to
subcircular, tricolpate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, apocolpia small; exine 1 jim,
two layered, sexine columellate, rare pila, with thick pila head (ca. 0.5 jim), reticulate,
lumina uneven, 0.5-1.5 jim in diameter, irregular, muri narrow, ca. 0.2 jim wide.
Dimensions: equatorial view 13(16)18 jim x 15(19)22 jim (2 grains); polar view 14
jim (1 grain).









Remarks: It differs from other tricolpate type species in this research in its
reticulate with uneven lumina (0.5-1.5 .im), and thick pila head (ca. 0.5 .im).
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Tricolpate sp.14
Plate 13, Figs. 4-6
Pollen grains free, isopolar, prolate (P/E=1.46-1.67), tricolpate, colpi straight and
nearly extending to the poles, apocolpia small; exine 1 rim, two layered, sexine
columellate, pila not perpendicular to nexine; microfoveolate, fovea less than 0.5 .im in
diameter.
Dimensions: equatorial view 9(11)13 [im x 15(18)20 [im (3 grains).
Remarks: It differs from other tricolpate type species in this research in its smaller
size (11 x 18 pm), straight colpi, and tilted pila.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Subturma PTYCHOTRIPORINES Naumova, 1939
Genus Dryadopollis Srivastava, 1975
Type species: Dryadopollis argus Srivastava, 1975.

Dryadopollis minnesotensis Hu, sp. nov.
Plate 13, Figs. 7-14; Plate 14, Fig. 1
Pollen grains free, isopolar; prolate spheroidal, subprolate to prolate (P/E=1.11-
1.88), tricolporate, apocolpia small; exine 1 jim, two layered, sexine columellate, pila
short size; microreticulate, lumina 0.1-1 im, muri ca. 0.5 tm wide, lumina decreasing
toward colpi and poles, ora small, about 0.8 .im in diameter.
Dimensions: equatorial view 8(15)19 [im x 15(19)23 [im (5 grains), polar view
16(17)19 tm (13 grains).
Holotype: 036694-PY01A, S31/1
Remarks: This species is distinct from Dryadopollis argus Srivastava, 1975, and
Dryadopollis vestalis Ward, 1986, in its smaller lumina and ora, and thinner exine.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.
Name derivation: minnesotensis is from the state name "Minnesota" where the
fossil pollen was recovered.

Dryadopollis minutus Hu, sp. nov.
Plate 14, Figs. 2-4
Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate (P/E=1.11-1.88), tricolporate, apocolpia
small; exine thin, ca. 0.5 jim, two layered, sexine columellate, pila very short size;
microreticulate, lumina 0.1-0.5 jim, muri ca. 0.2 jim wide, lumina decreasing toward
colpi and poles.
Dimensions: equatorial view 8 x 10 jim (1 grain), polar view 9(10)10 jim (2
grains).
Holotype: 036704-PY01A, L41
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.
Remarks: It is similar to Dryadopollis argus, but its size and lumina are smaller.
Name derivation: Species name minutus indicating the grain is very small.









Genus Foveotricolporites Pierce, 1961
Type species: Foveotricolporites rhombohedralis Pierce, 1961.

Foveotricolporites rhombohedralis Pierce, 1961
Plate 14, Figs. 5-10
Pollen grains free, isopolar; prolate spheroidal, spheroidal, subprolate to prolate
(P/E=1.03-1.55), amb circular to subcircular; tricolporate, colpi nearly extending to the
poles, pore ca. 6 rim, apocolpia small; exine ca. 2.5 rim, two layered, nexine ca. 1 rim,
sexine coarse columellae, head of pila fused together; foveolate, fovea irregular to
elongate, 0.5-1 ism.
Dimensions: equatorial view 20(27)31 sm x 31(34)39 sm (4 grains); polar view
42(47)51 pm (4 grains).
Remarks: Caprifoliipites acopus Ward, 1986, has similar features, but its size is
smaller (15-18 x 19-24 tm) and its fovea size is larger (1.3-2 tm). Also, the fovea
become smaller toward the colpi and poles in some specimens recovered in Minnesota.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit.

cf. Foveotricolporites sp.
Plate 14, Figs. 11-13
Pollen grains free, isopolar; prolate (P/E=1.58), amb circular to subcircular,
tricolporate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, slightly raised, apocolpia small; exine
ca. 2.5 rim, two layered, sexine decreasing toward colpi and nexine increasing toward
colpi in thickness; foveolate, fovea ca. 0.5 ism.
Dimensions: equatorial view 19 x 30 [im (1 grain); polar view 27 [im (1 grain).
Remarks: It is similar to Foveotricolporites sp., but the wall structure is different.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Phimopollenites Dettmann 1973
Type species Phimopollenitespannosus (Dettmann and Playford) Dettmann 1973

Phimopollenites striolata Hu, sp. nov.
Plate 14, Figs. 14-21; Plate 15, Figs. 1-3
Pollen grains free, isopolar; prolate spheroidal, subprolate to prolate (P/E=1.06-
1.62), amb circular to subcircular; tricolporoidate, colpi slightly ragged and raised,
apocolpia small; exine 1-2 rim, two layered, nexine thinner than sexine, sexine
columellate, pila dense with expended pila head; sexine microreticulate, lumina less than
0.5 im. SEM studies have indicated that there are striates on the inner wall of lumina.
Dimensions: equatorial view 12(14)19 x 16(19)21 ism (10 grains); polar view
15(18)24 tm (7 grains).
Holotype: 046517-A1, + 10 ft, N29/3
Remarks: This species has striate structure (muri with weak, transverse striations)
on the inner wall of lumina that is different from other species of Phimopollenites, as
seen in SEM images.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit and Ochs Clay Pit.
Name derivation: Species name striolata is from Latin, diminutive for furrow.









Genus Nyssapollenites Thiergart 1937
Type species Nyssapollenites pseudocruciatus (Potonie) Thiergart 1937

Nyssapollenites sp.
Plate 15, Figs. 4-12
Pollen grains free, isopolar; prolate spheroidal, subprolate to prolate (P/E=1-1.56),
amb circular to subcircular; tricolporate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, pore ca.
Il m, apocolpia small; exine ca. 0.8-1 jim, two layered; sexine scabrate to microfoveolate,
fovea very small.
Dimensions: equatorial view 9(11)14 x 11(14)17 ism (7 grains); polar view
11(14)15 jim (3 grains).
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit.
Remark: This species is distinct from Nyssapollenites albertensis Singh, which has
a larger pore (ca. 2.5 jim) and thickened pore and colpi margin.

Tricolporate sp.2
Plate 16, Figs. 1-3
Pollen grains free, isopolar; spheroidal, subprolate, to prolate (P/E=1.12-1.58), amb
circular to subcircular; tricolporate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, pore ca. 1.5 x 3
jlm, apocolpia small; exine ca. 1 jim, two layered; sexine striate, striae ca. 0.5 jm wide.
Dimensions: equatorial view 19(25)30 x 17(18)19 jim (2 grains); polar view
15(17)19 jim (2 grains).
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Psilatricolporites Van der Hammen, 1956 ex van der Hammen and
Wijmstra, 1964
Type Species: Psilatricolporites operculatus van der Hammen and Wijmstra, 1964

Psilatricolporites subtilis (Groot, Penny and Groot) Singh 1983
Plate 16, Fig. 4
Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate (P/E=1.27), amb circular to subcircular;
tricolporoidate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, raised, pore not clear, apocolpia
small; exine thin, ca. 1 jim, two layered; sexine psilate to scabrate.
Dimensions: equatorial view 11 x 14 jim (1 grain); polar view 11(12)12 jim (2
grains).
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.
Remarks: This species is distinct from P. distinctus, which has larger pores (ca.
2 jm).
Distribution: Cenomanian to Coniacian, eastern United States (Groot, Penny and
Groot 1961); Cenomanian, Atlantic Coastal Plain of United States (Brenner 1967);
Cenomanian to Coniacian, Alberta (Singh 1983).

Gymnosperm Pollen

Anteturma POLLENITES Potonie
Turma SACCITES Erdtman
Subturma DISACCITES Cookson









Genus Alisporites Daugherty, 1941
Type species: Alisporites opii Daugherty, 1941.

Alisporites rotundus Rouse, 1959
Plate 16, Fig. 5
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus ellipsoidal to
subspherical, microreticulate, proximal cap ca. 3.5 jim; sacci coarser reticulate, lumina 1-
4 jim, polygonal.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 45(77)112 jim (5 specimens).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: ? upper Jurassic, western Canada (Rouse 1959); middle Albian, east-
central Alberta (Singh 1964).

Genus Cedripites Wodehouse, 1933
Type species: Cedripites eocenicus Wodehouse, 1933

Cedripites cretaceous Pocock 1962
Plate 16, Fig. 6
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus ellipsoidal,
proximal cap ca. 4jim thick, reticulate to granulate; sacci reticulate, lumina 1-3jim,
irregular and uneven.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 95jim; overall height 69ism (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: McMurray Formation, Alberta (Pocock 1962); middle Albian, east-
central Alberta (Singh 1964); Albian to ? Cenomanian, central Alberta (Norris 1967); and
middle to late Albian, northwestern Alberta (Singh 1971).

Cedripites sp.
Plate 16, Fig. 7
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus ellipsoidal,
proximal cap ca. 2 ism thick, reticulate; sacci distally pendant, sacci reticulate, lumina 1-
3 jim, irregular and uneven.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 88 jim; overall height 58 jim; sacci height 33 jim;
sacci depth 55 ism (1 specimen).
Remarks: It can be distinguished from Cedripites canadensis by the reticulate
proximal cap surface.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Parvisacites Couper, 1958
Type species: Parvisacites radiatus Couper, 1958.

Parvisaccites radiatus Couper 1958
Plate 16, Fig. 8
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus ellipsoidal,
granulate, proximal cap ca. 3 jim; sacci semicircular, reticulate to regulate, with
thickening or ribs at the proximal root with corpus.









Dimensions: Overall breadth 45 rim; overall height 36 rim; sacci height 23 rim;
sacci depth 30 [m (2 specimens).
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Wealden and Aptian, England (Couper 1958); McMurray and
Clearwater Formations, Alberta (Pocock 1962); Barremian to Albian, Maryland (Brenner
1963); middle Albian, east-central Alberta (Singh 1964); Albian to ? Cenomanian, central
Alberta (Norris 1967); and middle to late Albian, northwestern Alberta (Singh 1971).

Genus Pityosporites Seward, 1914
Type species: Pityosporites antarcticus Seward, 1914

Pityosporites constrictus Singh 1964
Plate 16, Fig. 9
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus ellipsoidal,
microreticulate, proximal cap thin, less than 1 jim; sacci coarser reticulate to regulate.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 66 rim; overall height 52 rim; sacci height 34 rim;
sacci depth 32 im (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Throughout much of the Cretaceous of North America and Europe.

? Pityosporites constrictus
Plate 16, Fig. 10
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus ellipsoidal,
fine reticulate to granulate; sacci coarser reticulate to regulate, with thickening or ribs at
distal root.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 75 rim; overall height 43 rim; body breadth 53 rim;
body height 43 rim; sacci height 27 rim; sacci depth 45 [m (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Podocarpidites Cookson, 1947 ex Couper, 1953
Type species: Podocarpidites ellipticus Cookson, 1947

Podocarpidites canadensis Pocock, 1962
Plate 16, Fig. 11
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus subspherical,
fine granulate; sacci coarser reticulate, with radial thickening at distal sacci junction with
corpus.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 126 rim; body breadth 65 rim; sacci depth 74 [m (1
specimen).
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Deville and Ellerslie Members, Alberta (Pocock 1962); middle
Albian, east-central Alberta (Singh 1964); and middle to late Albian, northwestern
Alberta (Singh 1971).

Podocarpidites minisculus Singh 1964
Plate 16, Fig. 12









Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus subspherical,
fine reticulate; sacci coarser reticulate, with radial thickening at distal sacci junction with
corpus.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 70 rim; overall height 52 rim; sacci height 31 inm;
sacci depth 49 tm (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: middle Albian, east-central Alberta (Singh 1964); and middle to late
Albian, northwestern Alberta (Singh 1971).

Podocarpidites sp.
Plate 16, Fig. 13
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus ellipsoidal to
subspherical, scabrate to granulate; sacci reticulate, lumina irregular, with radial
thickening at distal sacci junction with corpus.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 71 rim; overall height 33 rim; sacci height 24 inm;
sacci depth 35 itm (1 specimen).
Remarks: It is different from Podocarpidites minisculus Singh in its scabrate to
granulate corpus.
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Pristinuspollenites Tschudy, 1973
Type species: Pristinuspollenites microsaccus Tschudy, 1973

Pristinuspollenites crassus (Pierce) Tschudy, 1973
Plate 17, Fig.1
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus subspherical,
granulate; sacci small, not bordering the furrow, coarser granulate.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 52 rim; overall height 47 .im (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit.
Distribution: ?Cenomanian, Minnesota (Pierce 1961).

Pristinuspollenites inchoatus (Pierce) Tschudy 1973
Plate 17, Fig. 2
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus subspherical
to spherical, granulate to regulate; sacci small and elongate, bordering the distal furrow,
coarser granulate.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 64 rim; overall height 64 [im (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: ?Cenomanian, Minnesota (Pierce 1961); and lower Barremian to
upper Albian, western Canada (Burden and Hills 1989).

Pristinuspollenites microsaccus (Couper) Tschudy 1973
Plate 17, Fig. 3
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus subspherical,
microreticulate; sacci small and arc-shaped, granulate to reticulate, sulcus not clearly
defined, .









Dimensions: Overall breadth 31(37)42 rim; overall height 30(43)55 [im (2
specimens).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Middle Jurassic, southeastern England (Couper 1958); upper
Campanian, north-central Montana (Tschudy 1973).

Pristinuspollenites pannosus (Pierce) Tschudy 1973
Plate 17, Fig. 4
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus subspherical
to spherical, granulate; sacci small and serpentine, parallel and bordering the narrow
distal furrow.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 49 rim; overall height 49 [m (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: ?Cenomanian, Minnesota (Pierce 1961).

Pristinuspollenites sulcatus (Pierce) Tschudy 1973
Plate 17, Fig. 5
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus subspherical
to spherical, granulate; sacci small and elongate, not bordering the distal furrow, but
parallel with it, microreticulate.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 40(46)51 [im (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: ?Cenomanian, Minnesota (Pierce 1961).

? Pristinuspollenites sp.
Plate 17, Fig. 6
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, multisaccate; corpus
subspherical, granulate to regulate; with 2 small flaccid sacci on each side of distal
furrow, not bordering the furrow; exine ca. 1.5 inm.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 30.im (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Pristinuspollenites sp. 2
Plate 17, Fig. 7
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus elliptical,
granulate to reticulate; sacci flaccid, small and elongate, not bordering the furrow; exine
ca. 1.5 Lm.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 27 rim, overall height 38 [im (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Punctabivesiculites Pierce, 1961
Type species: Punctabivesiculites constrictus Pierce, 1961

Punctabivesiculites parvus Pierce, 1961
Plate 17, Fig. 8









Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus ellipsoidal,
faint reticulate to granulate; sacci small and elongate, granulate to regulate, with radial
thickening on distally pendant sacci.
Dimensions: Overall height 49 jim (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit, Ochs Clay
Pit.
Distribution: ? Cenomanian, Minnesota (Pierce 1961).

Genus Rugubivesiculites Pierce, 1961
Type species: Rugubivesiculites convolutus Pierce, 1961

Rugubivesiculites convolutus Pierce 1961
Plate 17, Fig. 9
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus regulate,
rugulae not dense; sacci granulate, regulate to reticulate.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 67(73)78 jim; overall height 46(48)50 jim; sacci
height 24(26)27 jim; sacci depth 28(38)48 jim (2 specimens).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: ?Cenomanian, Minnesota (Pierce 1961).

Rugubivesiculites cf. multiplex Pierce 1961
Plate 17, Fig. 10
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus dense
regulate, rugulae tortuous, psilate to scabrate in inter-ridge areas; sacci granulate,
microreticulate to regulate, flaccid.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 63(69)74 jim (2 specimens).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Rugubivesiculites multisaccus Singh, 1983
Plate 17, Fig. 11
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus contour not
clear, psilate to scabrate; with ca. 5 small and irregular saccate pouches on the proximal
surface of the central body, sacci microreticulate.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 79 jim; overall height 37 jim; body breadth 23 jim;
body height 20 jim; big sacci height 11 im; big sacci depth 17 jim; small sacci height 7
jlm; small sacci depth 11 jim (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit.
Distribution: Early Cenomanian, Alberta (Singh 1983).

Rugubivesiculites cf. reductus Pierce 1961
Plate 17, Fig. 12
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus ellipsoidal to
subspherical, regulate only along the proximal roots of sacci; proximal surface
microreticulate, sacci flaccid.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 50 jim (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.









Rugubivesiculites rugosus Pierce 1961
Plate 17, Fig. 13
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus dense
regulate, rugulae ridge like; sacci fine reticulate, flaccid.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 59 tim (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Mainly Albian to Maastrichtian, Northern Hemisphere.

? Rugubivesiculites sp.
Plate 17, Fig. 14.
Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate (?); corpus regulate,
rugulae short and low; sacci foveolate, and seems around entire central body.
Dimensions: Overall breadth 44 tim (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Turma ALETES Ibrahim
Subturma AZONALETES Luber emend. Potonie & Kremp
Infraturma GRANULONAPITI Cookson
Genus Araucariacites Cookson ex Couper
Type species: Araucariacites australis Cookson, 1947.

Araucariacites australis Cookson 1947
Plate 17, Fig. 15
Pollen grain free; subspherical to spherical; inaperturate, with folds on surface,
granulate; exine thin, ca. 1 itm.
Dimensions: 60(62)64 [tm (2 specimens).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Jurassic to Tertiary, worldwide.

Infraturma PSILONAPITI Erdtman
Genus Inaperturopollenites Pflug ex Thomson & Pflug emend. Potonie
Type species: Inaperturopollenites dubius (Potonie & Venitz) Thomson & Pflug,
1953

Inaperturopollenites sp.
Plate 17, Fig. 16
Pollen grain free; spherical, inaperturate, with folds on surface, psilate to scabrate;
exine thin, ca. 1 [im.
Dimensions: 30 [im (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Taxodiaceaepollenites Kremp, 1949 ex Potonie, 1958
Type species: Taxodiaceaepollenites hiatus Kremp, 1949 ex Potonie, 1958.

Taxodiaceaepollenites hiatus (Potonie) Kremp 1949
Plate 17, Fig. 17









Pollen grain free; inaperture, but splitting open, with folds on surface, psilate to
scabrate; exine thin, ca. 1 jim.
Dimensions: 27 [im (1 specimen).
Remarks: It differs from Inaperturopollenites sp. in that it splits open.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Middle Albian to Miocene, worldwide.

Turma PLICATES Naumova emend. Potonie
Subturma PRAECOLPATES Potonie & Kremp
Genus Eucommiidites Erdtman emend. Hughes
Type species: Eucommiidites troedssonii Erdtman, 1948.

Eucommiidites sp.l
Plate 17, Fig. 18
Pollen grain free; elliptical, zonisulcate, distal sulcus widen at ends, other two
sulcus narrow, psilate; exine ca. 1 itm.
Dimensions: 11(18)24 x 20(30)39 [tm (2 specimens).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Eucommiidites sp. 2
Plate 17, Fig. 19
Pollen grain free; elliptical, zonisulcate, distal sulcus short and narrow at ends,
other two sulcus longer than distal furrow, psilate; exine ca. 0.5 [im.
Dimensions: 16 x 18 [im (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Subturma POLYPLICATES Erdtman
Genus Equisetosporites Daugherty emend. Singh
Type species: Equisetosporites chinleana Daugherty, 1941.

Equisetosporites sp.l
Plate 17, Fig. 20
Pollen grain free; elliptical, polyplicate, ridge dense, ca. 0.2 itm apart from each
other; ridges ca. 1.5 itm wide; exine ca. 1 [tm.
Dimensions: 17 x 40 stm (2 specimens).
Remarks: It differs from E. sp.2 in its dense ridges, and from E. sp.3 in its thin
ridges.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Equisetosporites sp.2
Plate 18, Fig. 1
Pollen grain free; elliptical, polyplicate, ridge sparse, ridge ca. 1.5 stm wide, ridge
scabrate; exine ca. 1.2 tm.
Dimensions: 11(13)14 x 37(38)38 [im (2 specimens).
Remarks: It differs from E. sp.3 in its thin and sparse ridges.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.









Equisetosporites sp.3
Plate 18, Fig. 2-3
Pollen grain free; elliptical, polyplicate, ridge dense, less than 1 tim apart from each
other; ridge wide, ca. 4 .im wide; ridge scabrate.
Dimensions: 20(21)21 x 34 tim (2 specimens).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Subturma MONOCOLPATES Iversen & Troels-Smith
Genus Cycadopites Wodehouse ex Wilson & Webster
Type species: Cycadopitesfollicularius Wilson & Webster, 1946

Cycadopites sp.
Plate 18, Figs. 4, 5
Pollen grain free; elliptical, monosulcate, sulcus long and extending full of the
grain, sulcus margin raised a little; faint granulate to scabrate; exine ca. 1 itm.
Dimensions: 10(18)27 x 27(37)46 [im (5 specimens).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Entylissa Naumova 1939 ex Ishchenko 1952
Type species: Entylissa caperatus (Luber) Potonie & Kremp 1954.

Entylissa sp.
Plate 18, Fig. 6
Pollen grain free; elliptical, monosulcate, furrow broadens at both ends, scabrate to
fine granulate; exine ca. 2.5 im.
Dimensions: 27(29)32 x 45(51)57 im (4 specimens).
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit.

Genus Monosulcites Cookson, 1947, ex Couper, 1953
Type species: Monosulcites minimus Cookson, 1947.

Monosulcites sp. 1
Plate 18, Fig. 7
Pollen grain free; elliptical, monosulcate, sulcus extending full length of grain,
sulcus becoming narrow at ends, scabrate to granulate; exine ca. 2 im.
Dimensions: 30(36)44 x 45(57)67 [m (3 specimens).
Remarks: Monosulcites sp. 1 differs from Monosulcites sp. 2 in that the
ornamentation of the latter is regulate to verrucate; in addition the sulcus of Monosulcites
sp. 2 does not become narrow at the ends. It differs from Monosulcites sp. 3 in that its
size is much smaller than Monosulcites sp. 3 (79 x 100 .im). Monosulcites sp. 4 is
smaller and has thinner exine compared with Monosulcites sp. 1.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Monosulcites sp. 2
Plate 18, Fig. 8









Pollen grain free; elliptical, monosulcate, sulcus extending full length of grain,
granulate, regulate to verrucate; exine two layered, sexine alveolate, exinel.2-2.5 inm.
Dimensions: 32(39)48 x 47(54)63 [im (5 specimens).
Remarks: It differs from other three Monosulcites species in this chapter in its
regulate to verrucate ornamentation.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Monosulcites sp. 3
Plate 18, Fig. 9
Pollen grain free; elliptical, monosulcate, sulcus extending full length of grain,
scabrate to granulate; exine two layered, ca. 3 rnm.
Dimensions: 79 x 100 [im (1 specimen).
Remarks: It differs from other three Monosulcites species in this chapter in its large
grain size.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Monosulcites sp. 4
Plate 18, Figs. 10, 11
Pollen grain free; elliptical, monosulcate, sulcus extending full length of grain,
sulcus often folded, granulate; exine 0.5 inm.
Dimensions: 15(20)23 x 24(26)30 [im (3 specimens).
Remarks: It differs from other three Monosulcites species in this chapter in its
small grain size and thin exine.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Sabalpollenites Thiergart, in Raatz, 1938
Type species: Sabalpollenites convexus Thiergart, in Raatz, 1938.

Sabalpollenites scabrous (Brenner) Wingate, 1980
Plate 18, Fig. 12
Pollen grain free; subcircular to circular, monosulcate, sulcus extending full length
of grain, granulate to regulate; exine two layered, sexine alveolate, exine 2 inm.
Dimensions: 35(40)45 [im (2 specimens).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Albian to lower Cenomanian, Maryland (Brenner 1963);
Cenomanian, New Jersey and New York (Kimyai 1966, 1970); middle Cenomanian,
Louisana and Mississippi (Phillips and Felix 1972b); upper Albian, Oklahoma (Wingate
1980), and lower to middle Cenomanian, northwestern Iowa and northeastern Nebraska
(Ravn and Witzke 1995).

Turma POROSES Naumova emend. Potonie, 1960
Subturma MONOPORINES Naumova 1939
Genus Bacumonoporites Pierce, 1961
Type species: Bacumonoporites baculatus Pierce, 1961









Bacumonoporites baculatus Pierce, 1961
Plate 18, Fig. 13
Pollen grain free; subcircular to circular; monoporate, aperture circular, ca. 16-35
lm in diameter, granulate, baculate to regulate; exine 1.5-4 rm.
Dimensions: 27(43)65 x 27(49)74 [m (4 specimens).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: ? Cenomanian, Minnesota (Pierce 1961).

Genus Classopollis Pflug, 1953 emend. Pocock and Jansonius, 1961
Type species: Classopollis classoides Pflug, 1953 emend. Pocock and Jansonius,
1961.

Classopollis torosus (Reissinger) Couper 1958
Plate 18, Fig. 14
Pollen grain free; circular, monoporate, aperture circular to triangular, ca. 11 im in
diameter; microreticulate to granulate, with equatorial circular ornament; exine 1.5 jm.
Dimensions: 24(25)28 [m (3 specimens).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit.
Distribution: Albian to lower Cenomanian, Maryland (Brenner 1963); ? lower to
upper Cenomanian, northwestern Iowa and northeastern Nebraska (Ravn and Witzke
1995).

Genus Exesipollenites Balme, 1957
Type species: Exesipollenites tumulus Balme, 1957

Exesipollenites sp.
Plate 18, Fig. 15
Pollen grain free; circular, monoporate, pore circular, ca. 3 m in diameter,
differentially thickened areas present around the pore, scabrate; exine ca. 1.5inm.
Dimensions: 32im (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Subturma POLYSACCITES Cookson 1947
Genus Punctamultivesiculites Pierce, 1961
Type species: Punctamultivesiculites inchoatus Pierce, 1961

Punctamultivesiculites cf. inchoatus Pierce, 1961
Plate 18, Fig. 16
Pollen grain free, heteropolar; vesiculate, multisaccate; corpus elliptical, granulate;
sacci small and numerous, ca. 30, sacci granulate to verrucate, exine ca. 2 im.
Dimensions: 43 x 51 im (1 specimen).
Remarks: The holotype only has ca. 10 small sacci.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.











Spores

Anteturma SPORITES Potonie, 1893
Turma TRILETES, Reinsch emend. Dettmann 1963
Subturma AZONOTRILETES Luber emend. Dettmann 1963
Infraturma LAEVIGATI Bennie & Kidston emend. Potonie 1956
Genus Biretisporites Delcourt & Sprumont emend. Delcourt, Dettmann, & Hughes
1963
Type species: Biretisporites potoniaei Delcourt & Sprumont, 1955.

Biretisporites sp.l
Plate 18, Fig. 17
Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae long and straight, extending
full distance of spore radius, laesurae slightly raised and gaping sometimes; sides convex,
apices rounded; sculpture scabrate, densely small pits present; spore wall of uniform
thickness, about 1.2[m thick.
Dimensions: 28(35)42[m (5 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Biretisporites sp.2
Plate 18, Fig. 18
Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending full distance of spore
radius, laesurae distinct and raised; sides straight; sculpture scabrate; small folds along
interradial edge; spore wall of uniform thickness, thin, less than 1 [m thick.
Dimensions: 27 [tm (1 specimen)
Remarks: It differs from Biretisporites sp. 1 in its absence of pits for the
ornamentation.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Cyathidites Couper 1953
Type species: Cyathidites australis Couper, 1953.

Cyathidites australis Couper 1953
Plate 18, Fig. 19
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending 2/3 of spore radius,
laesurae gapping; sides concave, apices well-rounded; sculpture scabrate, with densely
small fovea; spore wall of uniform thickness, about 1.2 [im thick.
Dimensions: 57(58)60 [tm (3 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Jurassic and Cretaceous, worldwide.

Cyathidites minor Couper 1953
Plate 18, Fig. 20









Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae nearly extending full distance of
spore radius, laesurae gapping; sides slightly concave, apices rounded; sculpture scabrate;
spore wall of uniform thickness, about 1.2 [m thick.
Dimensions: 24(26)28 [m (4 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: Jurassic and Cretaceous, worldwide.

Cyathiditespunctatus (Delcourt and Sprumont 1955) Delcourt, Dettmann, and
Hughes, 1963
Plate 19, Fig. 1
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae extending full distance of
spore radius, laesurae gapping; sides concave, apices well-rounded; sculpture scabrate to
granulate; spore wall thinner at apices (ca. 1.5 .im) and thicker at interradial areas (ca. 2.5

Dimensions: 51(52)53 rm (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: Wealden and Aptian, England (Couper 1958); Upper Mesozoic,
southeastern Australia (Dettmann 1963); and Cenomanian, Oklahoma (Hedlund 1966).

Genus Deltoidospora Miner emend. Potonie
Type species: Deltoidospora hallii Miner, 1935

Deltoidospora hallii Miner 1935
Plate 19, Fig. 2
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending full distance of spore
radius, laesurae distinct; sides convex, apices well-rounded; sculpture scabrate; spore
wall of uniform thickness, ca. 1.5 [im thick.
Dimensions: 32 [m (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Throughout much of the upper Mesozoic, worldwide.

Deltoidospora sp.
Plate 19, Fig. 3
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae extending nearly full of spore
radius, laesurae distinct and raised; sides convex; sculpture scabrate; spore wall ca. 1 m.
Dimensions: 77 [m (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Undulatisporites Pflug in Thomson & Pflug 1953
Type species: Undulatisporites microcutis Pflug in Thomson & Pflug, 1953.

Undulatisporites sp.
Plate 19, Fig. 4
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subcircular; laesurae sinuous, extending 2/3 of spore
radius; sides convex, apices well-rounded; sculpture scabrate to psilate; spore wall of
uniform thickness, ca. 1 mr thick.









Dimensions: 37 [m (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Dictyophyllidites Couper emend.
Type species: Dictyophyllidites harrisii Couper, 1958.
Dictyophyllidites impensus (Hedlund) Singh, 1983
Plate 19, Fig. 5
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae distinct and raised, laesurae
nearly extending full distance of spore radius; sides convex; sculpture psilate; spore wall
ca. 2 tm thick.
Dimensions: 53 sm (1 specimen)
Remarks: This type of spore is similar to that from Goolangia minnesotensis and
may have affinity to Marattiaceae.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay pit.

Dictyophyllidites sp.l
Plate 19, Fig. 6
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending full distance of spore
radius, laesurae distinct and gapping; arcuate thickening at interradial areas; sides slightly
convex, apices rounded; sculpture scabrate; spore wall of uniform thickness, thin, less
than 1 tm thick.
Dimensions: 25(26)27 [im (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Stereisporites Pflug 1953
Type species: Stereisporites stereoides (Potonie & Venitz) Pflug 1953.

Stereisporites sp.
Plate 19, Fig. 7
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; cingulum present (ca. 2 ipm); laesurae
short and only half of spore radius, laesurae gapping; sides convex, apices rounded;
sculpture scabrate; spore wall thickened at apices, ca. 1.5 jim.
Dimensions: 33(39)44 [im (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Auritulinasporites Nilsson 1958
Type species: Auritulinasporites scanicus Nilsson, 1958.

? Auritulinasporites sp.
Plate 19, Fig. 8
Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending full distance of spore
radius, laesurae distinct and thickened; distinctly thickened "lips" delineate a triangular
area around the laesurae; sides concave; sculpture scabrate; spore wall of uniform
thickness, ca. 1.5-2 tm thick.
Dimensions: 48(48)49 [im (3 specimens)
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit.









Infraturma APICULATI Bennie & Kidston emend. Potonie 1956
Genus Concavissimisporites Delcourt & Sprumont emend. Delcourt, Dettmann, &
Hughes 1963
Type species: Concavissimisporites verrucosus Delcourt & Sprumont, 1955.

? Concavissimisporites sp.
Plate 19, Fig. 10
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending 2/3 of spore radius;
sides concave or slight convex, apices well-rounded; sculpture granulate, verrucate to
regulate; spore wall thin, less than 1 ism thick.
Dimensions: 24(32)39 [tm (4 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Baculatisporites Thomson & Pflug 1953
Type species: Baculatisporites primaries (Wolff) Thomson & Pflug 1953

Baculatisporites comaumensis (Cookson) Potonie 1956
Plate 19, Fig. 9
Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae distinct and raised, laesurae
extending full distance of spore radius; sides convex; sculpture baculate to verrucate;
baculae ca. 2.5 [m high, dense on distal side and reduced on proximal side.
Dimensions: 34 stm (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: Late Triassic to Cretaceous, worldwide.

Baculatisporites sp.
Plate 19, Fig. 11
Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb elliptical to circular; laesurae gaping; sides convex,
apices rounded; sculpture baculate and baculae size 1.2 x 1.0 [im; spore wall of uniform
thickness, about 1.8 itm thick.
Dimensions: 34 [m (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Converrucosisporites Potonie & Kremp 1954
Type species: Converrucosisporites triquetrus (Ibrahim) Potonie & Kremp, 1954.

Converrucosisporites sp.
Plate 19, Figs. 12, 13
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending full of spore radius,
laesurae gapping; sides concave; verrucate, baculate and coni, evenly distributed; spore
wall about 0.8 [m thick (excluding ornamentation).
Dimensions: 39(44)48 [tm (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Neoraistrickia Potonie 1956
Type species: Neoraistrickia truncatus (Cookson) Potonie 1956.









Neoraistrickia sp.
Plate 19, Fig. 14
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae difficult to observe due to
ornamentation; sides straight or convex; sculpture baculate, baculae ca. 0.5 rm high and
2.5-3.5 .im wide, baculae denser at apices on distal view; spore wall of uniform
thickness, about 3 [m thick.
Dimensions: 47 [m (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Ceratosporites Cookson & Dettmann 1958
Type species: Ceratosporites equalis Cookson & Dettmann 1958.

? Ceratosporites sp.
Plate 19, Fig. 15
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae not clear because of
ornamentation; sides convex; sculpture echinate on distal side, echinae ca. 3 x 5 rim,
small pits on the surface of echinae; sculpture psilate on proximal side; spore wall thick
(ca. 5 C.m)
Dimensions: 34 rm (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit.

Genus Impardecispora Venkatachala, Kar & Raza 1969
Type species: Impardecispora apiverrucata (Couper) Venkatachala, Kar & Raza,
1969.

Impardecispora sp.l
Plate 19, Fig. 16
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae distinct and raised, laesurae
extending 2/3 of spore radius; sides convex; sculpture verrucate, big verrucae at apices
region on distal side; proximal side reduced and relatively smooth.
Dimensions: 34 Crm (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Verrucosisporites Ibrahim emend. Smith & Butterworth 1967
Type species: Verrucosisporites verrucosus (Ibrahim) Ibrahim, 1933.

Verrucosisporites sp.
Plate 19, Fig. 17
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae extending ca. 2/3 distance of
spore radius, laesurae gapping; sides concave; sculpture verrucate; spore wall of uniform
thickness, about 1 im thick.
Dimensions: 27(36)51 rm (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Granulatisporites Ibrahim 1933
Type species: Granulatisporites granulatus Ibrahim 1933.









? Granulatisporites sp.
Plate 19, Fig. 18
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae extending full distance of
spore radius, laesurae not straight; sides convex, apices rounded; a distinct triangular
depression on the proximal surface; sculpture scabrate to granulate; granules connect
each other to form dense regulate structure; spore wall of uniform thickness, about 1.2
im thick.
Dimensions: 38(38)39 [m (3 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Punctatriletes Pierce 1961
Type species: Punctatriletes punctus Pierce, 1961.

Punctatriletes punctus Pierce, 1961
Plate 19, Fig. 19
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending more than 2/3 of spore
radius, laesurae distinct and straight; sides convex; sculpture granulate; spore wall of
uniform thickness, ca. 2 rm thick.
Dimensions: 48(50)51 rm (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: ? Cenomanian, Minnesota (Pierce 1961).

Genus Phaeoceros
cf. Phaeoceros form A Jarzen, 1979
Plate 19, Figs. 20, 21
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb sub circular to triangular; laesurae sinuous and
bifurcating when reaching the spore wall, extending nearly full distance of spore radius;
sides slightly convex, apices rounded; baculate, ca. 3 .im high and 1 im wide, baculae
dense and big on distal surface and rare and small on proximal surface; spore wall 1.5-3
rlm, uneven.
Dimensions: 56 Crm (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Infraturma MURORNATI Potonie & Kremp 1954
Genus Lycopodiacidites Couper 1953
Type species: Lycopodiacidites bullerensis Couper, 1953.

Lycopodiacidites sp.l
Plate 19, Figs. 22, 23
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending full distance of spore
radius, laesurae distinct and slightly sinuous; sides convex; sculpture regulate.
Dimensions: 25 Crm (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Lycopodiacidites sp.2
Plate 19, Figs. 24, 25









Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular to circular; laesurae distinct and
straight, laesurae extending full distance of spore radius; sides convex; sculpture regulate,
rugulae dense and delicate (less than 1 [im wide); spore wall ca. 1 [im thick.
Dimensions: 36(42)47 [tm (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Foveotriletes van der Hammen ex Potonie 1956
Type species: Foveotriletes scrobiculatus (Ross) Potonie 1956.

Foveotriletes sp.
Plate 19, Fig. 26
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae nearly extending full distance of
spore radius, laesurae slightly raised; sides straight or slightly convex; sculpture
foveolate, fovea rounded, 1.5-2 rm.
Dimensions: 46 rm (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

? Foveotriletes sp.
Plate 19, Figs. 27, 28
Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending full distance of spore
radius, laesurae distinct, laesurae circled by distinctive thickening areas; sides straight or
slightly concave; sculpture granulate with small pits; spore wall of uniform thickness, ca.
1.5 rm thick.
Dimensions: 29(37)45 [m (2 specimen)
Remarks: It differs from Foveotriletes sp. in its ornamentation that is granulate
with small pits. Also it has distinct thickening areas around laesurae.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Foveosporites Balme 1957
Type species: Foveosporites canalis Balme 1957.

Foveosporites sp.
Plate 20, Fig. 1
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae distinct and straight, laesurae
extending 2/3 of spore radius; sides convex to concave; sculpture foveolate, fovea
irregular.
Dimensions: 35 [m (1 specimen)
Remarks: It differs from Foveotriletes sp. in its irregular fovea. The fovea is
rounded for Foveotriletes sp.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Lycopodiumsporites Thiergart ex Delcourt & Sprumont 1955
Type species: Lycopodiumsporites agathoecus (Potonie) Thiergart, 1938.

Lycopodiumsporites marginatus Singh, 1964
Plate 20, Figs. 2, 3









Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subcircular; laesurae raised, extending nearly full
distance of spore radius; psilate and with several irregular ridges on proximal surface;
reticulate on distal surface, lumina 15-26 rim, muri polygonal at the areas of 3 lumina
connecting, muri ca. 1 [m wide in other areas, forming a 9 [m high membrane layer.
Dimensions: 61 (73)79 im (3 specimens)
Remarks: The lumina are 9-14 [m on the holotype.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Middle Albian, east-central Alberta (Singh 1964); Albian to ?
Cenomanian, central Alberta (Norris 1967); Albian, Oklahoma (Hedlund and Norris
1968); and middle to late Albian, northwestern Alberta (Singh 1971).

Lycopodiumsporites sp. 1
Plate 20, Fig. 4
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending full distance of spore
radius, laesurae slightly raised; sculpture reticulate, muri membrane like (ca. 4 rm high),
thickness even, muri polygonal, ca. 8 rm in diameter.
Dimensions: 35 [im (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Klukisporites Couper 1958
Type species: Klukisporites variegatus Couper, 1958.

Klukisporites sp.l
Plate 20, Fig. 5
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae not clear; sides straight to
slightly convex; sculpture foveolate, fovea irregular, ca. 2.5-4 irm long; spore wall ca. 2.5
im thick.
Dimensions: 28 [m (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Klukisporites sp.2
Plate 20, Fig. 6
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae distinct; sides straight to
slightly convex; sculpture foveolate on distal side, fovea irregular, size 9 x13 [im to 9 x
23 rm; sculpture proximal side scabrate, with small pits; spore wall ca. 4 [im thick.
Dimensions: 61 [im (1 specimen)
Remarks: It differs from Klukisporites sp. 1 in its large spore size and large fovea
size, and from ? Klukisporites sp. in its absence of thickened apices and tori on proximal
surface.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

? Klukisporites sp.
Plate 20, Figs. 7, 8
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subcircular; laesurae extending 2/3 of spore radius,
sinuous and slightly raised; sides convex, apices thickened, ca. 7 utm thick; sculpture









reticulate (?), lumina 21 .im and 36 .im on distal surface, muri 12 .im wide, a tori exist on
proximal surface; spore wall ca. 3.5 tm thick.
Dimensions: 89km (1 specimen)
Remarks: It differs from other Klukisporites in its thickened apices and tori on
proximal surface.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Taurocusporites Stover 1962
Type species: Taurocusporites segmentatus Stover, 1962.

Taurocusporites segmentatus Stover 1962
Plate 20, Fig. 9
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; zonate, zona with concentric annular
crassitudes; laesurae extending full distance of spore radius, laesurae distinct and
thickened, laesurae do not reach into zona; sides convex; sculpture verrucate.
Dimensions: 37(42)51 [im (6 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: Neocomian to Cenomanian, North America and Europe (Ravn and
Witzke, 1995).

Genus Januasporites Pocock 1962
Type species: Januasporites reticularis Pocock 1962

? Januasporites sp.
Plate 20, Fig. 10
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; zonate, zona membrane like and with
wide base blunt spines on surface; laesurae extending full distance of spore radius,
laesurae distinct; sides convex, apices well-rounded; spore wall ca. 1.5 im thick.
Dimensions: 42(54)65 [m (including zona) (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Cicatricosisporites Potonie & Gelletich 1933
Type species: Cicatricosisporites dorogensis Potonie & Gelletich 1933.

Cicatricosisporites coconinoensis Agasie, 1969
Plate 20, Fig. 11
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb circular to subcircular; laesurae distinct and raised,
extending nearly full distance of spore radius; sides convex, apices rounded; relative wide
(ca. 2 rm ) and dense ridges on distal surface and nearly smooth on proximal surface;
spore wall 2 im.
Dimensions: 30(40)50 [m (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit.
Distribution: Cenomanian, northeastern Arizona (Agasie 1969).

Cicatricosisporites crassiterminatus Hedlund, 1966
Plate 20, Figs. 12, 13









Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular to subtriangular; laesurae raised and nearly
extending to equator; sculpture cicatricose, ridge dense and relatively wide (ca. 1.5-3 [m
wide), 1 im apart from each other, interconnected ridges enclose circular to elongate
lumina, 2-2.5 rm.
Dimensions: 39 (44) 48 [m (2specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Cenomanian, North America (Hedlund 1966, Kimyai 1966, Agasie
1969, Romans 1975, May and Traverse 1973, and Singh 1983).

Cicatricosisporites cf. crassiterminatus Hedlund, 1966
Plate 20, Figs. 14, 15
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae slightly raised and nearly
extending to equator; sculpture cicatricose, ridge wide (6-8 im wide) and width uneven,
interconnected ridges enclose elongate or rounded lumina; spore wall 5-8 rim, uneven.
Dimensions: 91 [im (Ispecimen)
Remarks: The holotype is only 56 rm. Also there are no thickened areas at apices
for this species. Ridge width is wider and the thickness of spore wall is thicker than that
of holotype.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Cicatricosisporites hallei Delcourt and Sprumont 1955
Plate 20, Fig. 16
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending to equator, laesurae
straight and distinct; sculpture cicatricose, ridge delicate and relatively narrow (less than
1 nm wide).
Dimensions: 25 rm (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit.
Distribution: Middle Albian, east-central Alberta (Singh 1964); Albian to ?
Cenomanian, central Alberta (Norris 1967); Albian and Cenomanian, Oklahoma
(Hedlund 1966; Hedlund and Norris 1968); and middle to late Albian (Singh 1971).

Cicatricosisporites hughesi Dettmann 1963
Plate 20, Figs. 17, 18
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular to subtriangular; laesurae nearly extending
full of the spore radius; sculpture cicatricose, ridge sinuous and wide (4-6 ism wide), 3-7
lm apart, there are 3 ridges in each interradial area, which are nearly parallel to each
other and to the side of spore.
Dimensions: 30 (39) 48 Crm (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: Aptian, Albian, and ? Cenomanian, southeastern Australia (Dettmann
1963); Albian to ? Cenomanian, central Alberta (Norris 1967); Maastrichtian and Danian,
California (Drugg 1967); and middle to late Albian, northwestern Alberta (Singh 1971).

Cicatricosisporites sp.l
Plate 20, Fig. 19









Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae nearly extending to equator,
laesurae distinct and raised; sculpture cicatricose, ridge dense (ca. 1.5-2 jm wide).
Dimensions: 37(39)40 jim (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Cicatricosisporites sp.2
Plate 20, Fig. 20
Spore oblique, trilete, trilete mark not clear; sculpture cicatricose, ridge dense and
delicate; spore wall ca. 1 im.
Dimensions: 43 irm (1 specimen)
Remarks: It differs from Cicatricosisporites hallei in its larger size, and from other
Cicatricosisporites in this chapter in its dense and delicate ridges.
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit.

Cicatricosisporites sp. 4
Plate 20, Figs. 21, 22
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae not clear because of ridges;
sculpture cicatricose, ridge dense and wide (2.5 irm wide), small pits on the ridges.
Dimensions: 47 irm (1 specimen)
Remarks: It differs from other Cicatricosisporites in this chapter in its dense and
wide ridges with pits.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Costatoperforosporites Deak 1962
Type species: Costatoperforosporitesfistulosus Deak, 1962.

Costatoperforosporites sp.
Plate 21, Fig. 1
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae slightly sinuous, extending
nearly full distance of spore radius; sides slightly convex, apices rounded; wide (ca. 6-7
jlm) and dense ridges evenly distributed, with small fovea on the ridges; spore wall 2.5-5
jlm, uneven.
Dimensions: 52(72)90 jim (4 specimens)
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Ischyosporites Balme 1957
Type species: Ischyosporites crateris Balme,1957

? Ischyosporites sp.
Plate 21, Figs. 2, 3
Spore subtriangular, trilete; laesurae sinuous and raised, extending nearly full of
spore radius; psilate to scabrate on proximal surface and faint reticulate on distal surface,
lumina 2-7 jim, muri ca. 1 im wide, irregular; spore wall ca. 2 im.
Dimensions: 51(57)63 jim (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.









Genus Retitriletes van der Hammen ex Pierce emend. Doring et al., in Krutzsch
1963
Type species: Retitriletes globosus Pierce, 1961.

Retitriletes sp.l
Plate 21, Fig. 4
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb circular to subcircular; laesurae extending 2/3
distance of spore radius, laesurae not straight; sculpture reticulate, lumina polygonal (ca.
5[im in diameter) and muri thickness not even.
Dimensions: 27(29)31 [im (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Retitriletes sp.2
Plate 21, Figs. 5, 6
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae nearly extending full distance of
spore radius; sides convex, apices rounded; sculpture reticulate, lumina shape irregular
(1.5-3 .im in diameter) and muri thickness not even; spore wall of uniform thickness,
about 1.2 tm thick.
Dimensions: 29 [im specimene)
Remarks: It differs from Retitriletes sp. 1 in its smaller and irregular lumina, and
from ? Retitriletes sp. in its smaller size.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

? Retitriletes sp.
Plate 21, Figs. 7, 8
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, trilete mark not clear, amb nearly circular; sides convex;
sculpture reticulate, lumina polygonal, 3-6 .im in diameter.
Dimensions: 40 [im (1 specimen)
Remarks: It differs from other Retitriletes in this chapter in its larger size.
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit.

Genus Stoverisporites Burger in Norvick & Burger 1975
Type species: Stoverisporites microverrucatus Burger, 1975.

? Stoverisporites sp.
Plate 21, Fig. 9
Spore tetrahedral, trilete; laesurae raised, with thick "lips" or arcuatee"; incomplete
fovea on distal surface and psilate on proximal surface; spore wall thick, ca. 5 rsm.
Dimensions: 73(78)83 tm (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit.

Infraturma TRICRASSATI Dettmann 1963
Genus Gleicheniidites Ross ex Delcourt & Sprumont emend. Dettmann 1963
Type species: Gleicheniidites senonicus Ross 1949.









Gleicheiidites senonicus Ross emend. Skarby 1964
Plate 21, Fig. 10
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending full distance of spore
radius, laesurae long and raised; sides concave with interridial crassitudes, crassitude ca.
4 tm wide; sculpture psilate; spore wall of uniform thickness, less than 1tm thick.
Dimensions: 19(22)25 [im (3 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: upper Mesozoic, Southeastern Australia (Dettmann 1963).

? Gleichiidites sp.
Plate 21, Fig. 11
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending full of spore radius,
laesurae thickened and raised; sides concave; sculpture scabrate; spore wall ca. 0.5 jim.
Dimensions: 21(24)26 tm (2 specimens)
Remarks: There are no interradial crassitudes for this species.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Sestrosporites Dettmann 1963
Type species: Sestrosporites irregulatus Dettmann 1963

Sestrosporites sp. 1
Plate 21, Fig. 12
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae extending full distance of
spore radius, laesurae distinct and sinuous slightly; sides convex with thicker (ca. 2.5 itm)
interridial crassitudes and crassitude membrane like; sculpture foveolate; hilate on distal
view.
Dimensions: 41 [im (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Sestrosporites sp. 2
Plate 21, Figs. 13, 14
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; zonate, zona membranous, ca. 4 .im
thick; laesurae extending full distance of spore radius, laesurae slightly sinuous; sides
convex; sculpture foveolate, fovea irregular, elongate, ca. 1 rim; spore wall ca. 3 inm.
Dimensions: 53(56)59 .im (excluding zona) (2 specimens)
Remarks: It differs from Sestrosporites sp. 1 in its uniform thick zona and larger
size.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Camarozonosporites Pant ex Potonie emend. Klaus, 1960
Type species: Camarozonosporites cretaceous (Weyland & Krieger) Potonie,
1956.

Camarozonosporites sp.l
Plate 21, Fig. 15









Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb elliptical to circular; laesurae extending nearly full
distance of spore radius, laesurae gapping; crassitude present at interradial areas; sides
convex; sculpture regulate, dense and delicate, ca. 1-2 .im wide.
Dimensions: 27(29)30 [im (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Camarozonosporites sp.3
Plate 21, Figs. 16, 17
Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb circular to subcircular; zonate, crassitude thicker at
interradial areas (7 ism wide) than that at apical areas (2.5 ism wide); laesurae raised and
slightly sinuous, extending full distance of spore radius; sides convex; sculpture regulate
on distal surface, rugulae thick and wide, ca. 5 itm wide, smooth and psilate on proximal
surface.
Dimensions: 50(57)61 tm (3 specimens)
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Suprasubturma PERINOTRILITES Erdtman
Genus Crybelosporites Dettmann, 1963
Type species: Crybelosporites striatus Dettmann, 1963.

Crybelosporites sp.
Plate 21, Figs. 18, 19
Spore subcircular, trilete, laesurae ragged and raised, extending nearly full of spore
radius; scabrate to granulate; with perine, perine membrane like, with hair like process on
the surface, hair ca. 3.5[m long; spore wall ca. 2.5 im.
Dimensions: 47(54)62 [m (excluding perine) (5 specimens)
Remarks: This species probably shares affinity with the Salviniaceae (Hall, 1964).
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Turma MONOLETES Ibrahim 1933
Subturma AZONOMONOLETES Luber 1935
Infraturma LAEVIGATOMONOLETI Dybova & Jachowicz 1957

Genus Laevigatosporites Ibrahim 1933
Type species: Laevigatosporites vulgaris (Ibrahim) Ibrahim, 1933.

Laevigatosporites ovatus Wilson and Webster 1946
Plate 21, Fig. 20
Spore monolete; aperture about half spore length; sculpture psilate to scabrate;
spore wall thin and less than 1 im.
Dimensions: 19(22)24 x 30(34)36 [m (6 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Upper Mesozoic, Australia (Dettmann 1963); middle Albian, east-
central Alberta (Singh 1964).









Laevigatosporites cf. irroratus Hedlund 1966
Plate 21, Fig. 21
Spore monolete; oval to elliptical, aperture about 2/3 of spore length; sculpture fine
granulate; spore wall thin, ca. 0.6 itm.
Dimensions: 22(24)25 x 27(28)28 [tm (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit.

Laevigatosporites sp.2
Plate 21, Fig. 22
Spore monolete; aperture long; scabrate, with fine granules occasionally; spore wall
ca. 1 tm.
Dimensions: 32 x 61 [im (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Microfoveolatosporis Krutzsch 1959
Type species: Microfoveolatosporis pseudodentatus Krutzsch 1959

Microfoveolatosporis pseudoreticulatus (Hedlund) Singh, 1963
Plate 21, Fig. 23
Spore monolete; elongate bean shaped; aperture not clear; sculpture granulate to
microfoveolate; spore wall about 1.2 itm.
Dimensions: 21(23)25 x 50(53)56 [im (3 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Cenomanian, southern Oklahoma (Hedlund 1966); Albian, southern
Oklahoma (Hedlund and Norris 1968); middle Cenomanian, northwestern Alberta
(Singh, 1983); and middle Cenomanian, northwestern Iowa and northeastern Nebraska
(Ravn and Witzke, 1995).

Turma HILATES Dettmann, 1963
Genus Aequitriradites Delcourt & Sprumont emend. Cookson & Dettmann 1961
Type species: Aequitriradites dubius Delcourt & Sprumont emend. Delcourt,
Dettmann & Hughes 1963.

Aequitriradites spinulosus (Cookson and Dettmann) Cookson and Dettmann 1961
Plate 21, Fig. 24
Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; zonate, zona with small pits, ca. 12
ltm thick; laesurae extending full distance of spore radius and extending to the margin of
the zona; sculpture baculate, one thinning area (hilate) present; spore wall of uniform
thickness, about 1.5 [im thick.
Dimensions: 38(40)41 [tm (excluding zona); 64 [tm (including zona)(2 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: Lower Cretaceous, eastern Australia (Cookson and Dettmann
1958a); and middle Albian, east-central Alberta (Singh 1964).









Genus Triporoletes Mtchedlishvili emend. Playford 1971
Type species: Triporoletes singularis Mtchedlishvili, in Mtchedlishvili &
Samoilovich, 1960.

Triporoletes involucratus (Chlonova) Playford, 1971
Plate 21, Fig. 25
Spore elliptical to circular, aperture absent; zonate, zona thin and membranous;
spore central body undulate; 4 convex projections and 4 concave embayments present;
fine closely spaced, radially arranged, sinuous wrinkles on distal side.
Dimension: 35 ism (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: Albian, Saskatchewan and Manitoba (Playford 1971); and
Cenomanian, northwestern Alberta (Singh 1983).

Triporoletes reticulatus (Pocock) Playford 1971
Plate 21, Figs. 26, 27
Spores tetrahedral, trilete mark absent, amb subtriangular; zonate, zona very thin,
ca. 1 jim thick at the apices; sculpture reticulate on distal surface, lumina 5-11 jim, psilate
to scabrate on proximal surface; spore wall ca. 2 irm.
Dimensions: 36 (44) 49 jim (3 specimens)
Remarks: The Zlivisporis has a distinct trilete mark which reaches up to the
equator. Zona is absent and reticulum is arranged into a sparse net on the distal side.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Albian to Cenomanian, worldwide.

Triporoletes sp.l
Plate 22, Fig. 1
Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; zonate, zona membranous like;
laesurae extending full distance of spore radius and extending to the margin of the zona,
slightly sinuous; sides convex, apices rounded; sculpture scabrate; spore wall of uniform
thickness, about 1.2 jim thick.
Dimensions: 34(36)38 jim (excluding zona) (3 specimens)
Remarks: Densoisporites with interradial thickenings situated near the proximal
pole. For Triporoletes, the proximal aperture is not clear or absent, and the zona have a
flask-shaped to conical invagination at each radial position of the equator.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Triporoletes sp.2
Plate 22, Figs. 2, 3
Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; zonate, zona membranous; laesurae
extending full distance of spore radius and extending to the margin of the zona and
laesurae branching in zona, laesurae sinuous; sides convex, apices rounded; sculpture
scabrate on proximal side and reticulate on distal side, lumina polygonal and 11-13 jim in
diameter, muri ca. 1 jim; spore wall of uniform thickness, about 1.5 jim thick.
Dimensions: 42(44)45 mrn (4 specimens)









Remarks: It differs from Triporoletes reticulates in its clear trilete mark, from
Triporoletes sp.l in its reticulate feature on distal side, from Triporoletes sp.3 in its
sinuous laesurae and smaller size.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Triporoletes sp.3
Plate 22, Fig. 4
Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; zonate, zona membranous, usually not
complete and broken; laesurae extending full distance of spore radius and extending onto
zona, laesurae distinct and relatively straight; sides convex, apices rounded; sculpture
scabrate; spore wall of uniform thickness, about 1.2 ism thick.
Dimensions: 49(51)52 [im (excluding zona) (3 specimens)
Remarks: It differs from Triporoletes reticulatus in its clear trilete mark, from
Triporoletes sp.l and Triporoletes sp.2 in its straight laesurae and larger size.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Chomotriletes Naumova 1939 ex 1953
Type species: Chomotriletes vedugensis Naumova, 1953.

Chomotriletes sp.
Plate 22, Fig. 5
Spore elliptical, inaperture; nearly concentric thin (less than 0.5 [im) ridges on
spore surface.
Dimensions: 35 [im (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Spore type 1
Plate 22, Figs. 6, 7
Spores tetrahedral, trilete (?), amb subtriangular; laesurae not clear because of
splitting; hilate in distal view; sculpture scabrate, granulate to regulate.
Dimensions: 40(43)46 [im (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Subturma ZONOTRILETES Waltz
Infraturma AURICULATI Schopf emend. Dettmann
Genus Appendicisporites Weyland & Krieger 1953
Type species: Appendicisporites tricuspidatus Weyland & Krieger, 1953.

Appendicisporites auritus Agasie 1969
Plate 22, Fig. 8
Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae not clear because of ridges;
sculpture cicatricose, ridge wide (2-6 stm wide), with wide and blunt appendages.
Dimensions: 81 stm (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Cenomanian, Arizona (Agasie 1969; Romans 1975); and
Cenomanian, northwestern Alberta (Singh 1983).









Appendicisporites matesovae (Bolkhovitina) Norris 1967
Plate 22, Fig. 9
Spore subtriangular, aperture not clear; dense ridges on surface (ca. 1.5 .im wide);
sparse baculae on ridges, baculae 6tm high and 2 tm wide.
Dimensions: 37 tm (excluding baculae) (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: Albian to ? Cenomanian, central Alberta (Norris 1967); Cenomanian,
Oklahoma (Hedlund 1966); and middle to late Albian (Singh 1971).

Appendicisporites cf. matesovae (Bolkhovitina) Norris 1967
Plate 22, Fig. 10
Spore subtriangular, aperture not clear; with ridges on surface (ca. 4 .im wide), 2.5
lm apart from each other; baculae on apices and distal surface, baculae 15 .im high and 4
lm wide, unclear for proximal surface.
Dimensions: 56 .im (excluding baculae) (1 specimen)
Remarks: The baculae in the holotype (3-8 itm long and 2-4 tm wide) are shorter
than those of this species.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Appendicisporites potomacensis Brenner 1963
Plate 22, Figs. 11, 12
Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae not clear because of ridges;
sculpture cicatricose, ridge wide (2-2.5 [im wide), ridges fused before projecting spore
outline.
Dimensions: 44(50)56 [im (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: Barremian to Albian, Maryland (Brenner 1963); Albian to ?
Cenomanian, central Alberta (Norris 1967); middle Albian, east-central Alberta (Singh
1964); and middle to late Albian (Singh 1971).

Appendicisporites problematicus (Burger) Singh, 1971
Plate 22, Figs. 13, 14
Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; spore with appendages at apices,
appendage ca. 12 .im high and 6.im wide; laesurae extending nearly full of spore radius;
sculpture cicatricose; ridge wide, ca. 3 rim, ridges sinuous, 2 .im apart from each other;
ridges on distal surface parallel to spore sides and forming a triangle in the center.
Dimensions: 58(76)90 [im (4 specimens)
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: middle to late Albian, northwestern Alberta (Singh 1971).

Genus Plicatella Maljavkina 1949 emend. Potonie 1960
Type species: Plicatella trichacantha Maljavkina 1949.

Plicatellafucosa (Vavrdova) Davies 1985
Plate 22, Fig. 15









Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae not clear because of ridges;
sculpture cicatricose, ridge wide (2.5-3 .im), ridges fused outside of the outline of spore.
Dimensions: 45(48)50 im (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: ? lower to middle Cenomanian, northwestern Iowa and northeastern
Nebraska (Ravn and Witzke 1995).

Plicatella witzkei Ravn 1995
Plate 22, Fig. 16
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae not clear because of ridges;
sculpture cicatricose, ridge dense and relatively narrow (1-2 rm wide), ridges fused
outside of the outline of spore, tiny pits present on some ridges.
Dimensions: 44(44)45 [m (3 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit.
Distribution: middle to upper Albian, Alberta (Norris 1967); and upper Albian,
Wyoming (Ravn 1995)

Plicatella sp.l
Plate 22, Fig. 17
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular to elliptical; laesurae extending ca. half
of the radius, gapping; sculpture cicatricose, ridge dense and wide (2.5 .im wide), ridges
apart from each other ca. 0.5 rim, ridges fused outside of the outline of spore.
Dimensions: 32 [m (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Plicatella sp.2
Plate 22, Figs. 18, 19
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae extending more than 2/3 of
the spore radius, laesurae gapping; sculpture cicatricose, ridge dense and wide (6 .im
wide), ridges fused outside of the outline of spore; appendage small and short.
Dimensions: 48 [m (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Trilobosporites Pant ex Potonie 1956
Type species: Trilobosporites hannonicus (Delcourt & Sprumont) Potonie 1956

Trilobosporites purverulentus (Verbitskaya) Dettmann, 1963
Plate 22, Fig. 20
Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending 2/3 of spore radius,
distinct and straight; sides concave, apices well-rounded; sculpture scabrate to foveolate,
fovea (ca. 1.5-3 .im) on apices region and other part of surface scabrate; spore wall ca.
2irm thick.
Dimensions: 43(48)52 rm (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Aptian and Albian, southeastern Australia (Dettmann 1963); middle
Albian, Oklahoma (Hedlund and Norris 1968); Albian, Saskatchewan and Manitoba









(Playford 1971); Cenomanian, Louisiana (Phillips and Felix, 1972a); and Cenomanian
(Singh 1983).


Algal, Fungal and Megaspore

Genus Laevigatasporites Potonie & Gelletich 1933
Type species: Laevigatasporites magnus (Potonie) Potonie & Gelletich 1933

Laevigatasporites sp.
Plate 23, Fig. 1
Spore large, subcircular; inaperture, psilate to scabrate, full of folds on surface;
spore wall very thin, ca. 0.5 itm.
Dimensions: 81 [im (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit.

Genus Oedogonium Link 1820
Type species: Oedogonium cretaceum Zippi, 1998

Oedogonium cretaceum Zippi, 1998
Plate 23, Fig.2
Oospore, spherical to subspherical; thick outer wall surrounding a solid porous
body.
Dimensions: 24 stm (1 specimen).
Remarks: Modem species of Oedogonium are distributed in fresh water
throughout the world (Tiffany, 1930; Fritsch, 1961) and can indicate slow moving or still
shallow fresh water (Zippi, 1998).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Albian, Ontario (Zippi 1998).

Genus Ovoidites Potonie 1951 ex Thomson and Pflug 1953 emend. Krutzsch 1959
Type species: Ovoidites ligneolus Potonie ex Krutzsch, 1959.

Ovoidites grandis (Pocock) Zippi, 1998
Plate 23, Fig. 3
Spore elliptical; splitting equatorially into two elongate sections, psilate; spore wall
ca. 1 tm.
Dimensions: 58(74)89 x 125(152)178 [im (2 specimens).
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Cenomanian, Oklahoma (Hedlund 1966); Albian, Ontario (Zippi
1998).

Ovoidites sp.
Plate 23, Fig. 4
Spore elliptical; splitting equatorially into two halves, psilate to scabrate; spore
wall ca. 1 tm.









Dimensions: 16(19)24 x 30(39)54 [im (4 specimens).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

? Ovoidites sp. 1
Plate 23, Fig. 5
Spore elliptical; aperture wide, splitting equatorially into two halves; reticulate,
lumina uneven, 0.5-4 jim, muri uneven, 0.5-1 [im; spore wall 1-2 [im.
Dimensions: 48 x 80 [im (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit.

? Ovoidites sp. 2
Plate 23, Fig. 6
Spore elliptical; aperture wide, splitting equatorially into two halves; verrucate to
baculate; spore wall 1 [im.
Dimensions: 48 x 80 [im (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Palambages O. Wetzel 1961
Palambages sp.
Plate 23, Fig. 7
Algal colony, individual cell ca. 15 jim; ca. 16 cells in colony; the cell wall is
psilate to scabrate; there are folds on cell surface.
Dimensions: colony 38 x 54 [im (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Pediastrum Meyen 1829
Pediastrum sp.
Plate 23, Fig. 8
Algal colony; with spines, spines connected each other, spine point blunt.
Dimensions: colony 28 x 35 [im (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus Schizosporis Cookson and Dettmann emend. Pierce 1976
Type species: Schizosporis reticulates Cookson and Dettmann, 1959.

Schizosporis reticulatus Cookson and Dettmann, 1959
Plate 23, Figs. 9, 10
Probable algal colony; individual cell ca. 5 x 8 irm.
Dimensions: 107 x 117 jim (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Berriasian to Cenomanian (? Early Turonian) in North America,
Australia, and Europe (Zippi, 1998).

Genus Tetraporina Naumova emend. Lindgren 1980
Type species: Tetraporina antique Naumova, 1950.









Tetraporina sp.
Plate 23, Fig. 11
Spore quadrate; sides concave, surface psilate to scabrate.
Dimensions: 47 jim (1 specimen).
Remarks: Tetraporina is similar to several genera of the modern Zygnemataceae
(Jarzen, 1979) based on the characteristics such as size, wall thickness and overall
quadrate morphology.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Fungal spore type 1
Plate 23, Fig. 12
Individual cell square to rectangular; cell wall ca. 0.5 jim, each cell with an opening
to connect each other.
Dimensions: cell 7 x 8 im (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Fungal spore type 2
Plate 23, Fig. 13
Individual cell (?), ovate; psilate, cell wall thin, ca. 0.5 jim, thinning area present on
the center of the cell.
Dimensions: 32 x 53 jim (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit.

Fungal spore type 3
Plate 23, Fig. 14
Individual cell (?), irregular, central body elliptical.
Dimensions: 12 x 25 jim (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit.

Fungal spore type 4
Plate 23, Fig. 15
Individual cell irregular elongate, at least 9 individual cells link together.
Dimensions: cell 4 x 22 jim (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit.

Fungal spore type 5
Plate 23, Fig. 16
Individual cell square to rectangular; cell wall ca. 1 jim, cells may be linked
together by a central "canal".
Dimensions: cell 12 x 12 to 11 x 16 jim (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Fungal spore type 6
Plate 23, Fig. 17
Individual cell (?), ovate to elliptical; wall ca. 2.5 um.









Dimensions: 18 x 28 [im (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit.

Fungal fruiting body of the family Microthyriaceae
Plate 23, Fig. 18
Fruiting body circular, with radiating rows of cells; cells square to elongate, 5 to 9
tm long and 3 to 6 [im wide; there is a hole in the center of the body.
Dimensions: body diameter 59 [im (1 specimen)
Remarks: This is the same as the specimen Singh (1971) described. It is similar to
the species ofMi /1i ,vhllite described by Dilcher (1965).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: Late Albian, northwestern Alberta (Singh 1971).

Megaspore type 1
Plate 24, Fig. 1
Spore circular; probably scabrate to fine granulate; proximally surmounted by a
prominent trifoliate acrolamella, echinae (ca. 4 itm long) evenly distributed on surface of
acrolamella.
Dimensions: Spore body: 62 [im; overall length of the body and acrolamella: 136
ltm (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit.

Genus Balmeisporites Cookson and Dettmann 1958
Type species: Balmeisporites holodictyus Cookson and Dettmann, 1958.

Balmeisporites glenelgensis Cookson and Dettmann
Plate 23, Figs. 2, 3
Spore circular; reticulate, lumina 8-18 [tm, muri ca. 3 [tm, with acrolamella; spore
wall ca. 5 itm.
Dimensions: Spore body: 156 [im; overall length of the body and acrolamella: 190
ltm (1 specimen).
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Upper Cretaceous, Victoria, Australia (Cookson and Dettmann
1958b); Cenomanian, Oklahoma (Hedlund 1966); Cenomanian, Arizona (Agasie 1969;
Romans 1975); middle to upper Cenomanian, northwestern Iowa and northeastern
Nebraska (Ravn and Witzke 1995).


Dinoflagellate Cysts and Acritarchs

Dinoflagellate Cysts

Genus Oligosphaeridium Davey and Williams 1966
Type species: Oligosphaeridium complex (White) Davey and Williams, 1966.

Oligosphaeridium reniforme (Tasch) Davey, 1969
Plate 25, Figs. 1, 2









Central body elliptical, with apical archaeopyle; with funnel-shaped processes that
expanded gradually from base to the distal ends, the extremities of the processes are flat
with short (ca. 2 .im) hair like spines.
Dimensions: Size of central body: 50 x 55 rim; length of processes: 17-22 inm;
width of processes at base: 2-6 rim; width of processes at distal ends: 18-22 inm. (1
specimen)
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Albian to Cenomanian, Saskatchewan (Davey 1969).

? Oligosphaeridium sp.
Plate 25, Figs. 3-6
Central body elliptical; with funnel-shaped processes whose width is smallest at
middle of the processes, the extremities of the processes are serrate.
Dimensions: size of central body: 59 x 68 rim; length of processes: 10-17 inm;
width of processes at base: 1-3 tm; width of processes at distal ends: 4-9 inm. (1
specimen)
Remarks: The processes are slender for this species compared with those of
Oligosphaeridium reniforme.
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Nyktericysta Bint, 1986
Type species: Nyktericysta davisii Bint, 1986

Nyktericysta cf. pentagon (Singh, 1983) Bint, 1986
Plate 25, Figs. 7, 8; Plate 26, Fig. 1
Cyst proximate, pentagonal shape; two layered, epiphragm membrane, wrinkled,
epiphragm is appressed to endophragm except for at horns; one apical, two lateral and
two antapical horns; there is a small appendage on the tip of apical and antapical horns;
cingulum and tabulation are not clear.
Dimension: 50(57)64 x 79(81)83 tm (4 specimens)
Remarks: Compared with the specimens from middle Cenomanian that Singh
described in 1983 (75 x 111 pm), the specimens described here are smaller. Also, the
reticulate structures are not clear on endophragm.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Canningia Cookson & Eisenack 1960a
Type species: Canningia reticulata Cookson & Eisenack 1960a

? Canningia sp.
Plate 26, Fig. 2
Proximate cyst, with an apical archeopyle; having evenly distributed processes, tip
of process branching, ca. 4 Crm long.
Dimension: 40 x 61 Crm (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.









Genus Coronifera Cookson and Eisenack emend. Davey 1974
Type species: Coronifera oceanica Cookson and Eisenack, 1958.

Coronifera oceanica Cookson and Eisenack, 1958
Plate 26, Figs. 3-5
Central body elliptical; granulate to scabrate, with spines, spine simple, not
furcating; antapical process present, extremities of antapical process serrate.
Dimensions: size of central body: 36(41)45 x 42(46)49 rim; length of processes: 9-
12im; antapical process 7(8)9 x 10 rm. (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: Upper Aptian, Germany (Eisenack 1958); Albian, Australia
(Cookson and Eisenack 1958); Albian to Cenomanian, England (Cookson and Hughes
1964; Davey 1969); and Albian, Saskatchewan (Davey 1969).

Genus Cyclonephelium Deflandre & Cookson emend. Stover & Evitt 1978
Type species: Cyclonephelium compactum Deflandre & Cookson 1955

Cyclonephelium cf. vannophorm Davey, 1969
Plate 26, Figs. 6, 7
Shell subcircular; with apical prominence and two reduced antapical horns; with
apical archaeopyle; granular shell wall with short processes which bifurcating sometimes,
process shape irregular; a wide sulcus present from antapical horn to archaeopyle margin.
Dimension: overall length of shell (including operculum): 74(81)88 rim; overall
width of shell: 66(69)72 rim; length of processes: 4 rm. (2 specimens)
Remarks: The processes are shorter than those of the holotype (up to 8 pm).
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

? Cyclonephelium sp.
Plate 26, Figs. 8, 9
Shell elliptical, operculum probably gone, antapical horns not clear; psilate to
scabrate; with short funnel shaped processes, extremities of processes serrate.
Dimension: overall length of shell: 88(93)98 rim; overall width of shell: 62(73)84
rlm; length of processes: 2-5 rm. (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Odontochitina Deflandre emend. Davey 1970
Type species: Odontochitina operculata Deflandre & Cookson, 1955.

cf. Odontochitina sp.
Plate 26, Fig. 10
Single isolated horn; regulate to scabrate; one circular (8 im in diameter) thinning
area in the middle of the horn, another thinning area (ca.3 ism in diameter) at the tip of
the horn.
Dimension: 63 x 26 [im for entire specimen and 44 x 11 [Im for horn (width in
middle of horn) (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.









Genus Pterodinium Eisenack 1958
Type species: Pterodinium aliferum Eisenack, 1958.

cf. Pterodinium cingulatum subsp. cingulatum
Plate 26, Fig. 11
Cyst proximochorate, subcircular shape; subspherical body with high parasutural
septa, septa membrane; there are pits on central body surface; cingulum and tabulation
are not clear.
Dimension: 31(38)44 [tm (2 specimens)
Remarks: The holotype specimen (50-54 [tm) is larger than specimens found here.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Genus: Subtilisphaera Jain & Millepied 1973
Type species: Subtilisphaera senegalensis Jain & Millepied 1973

Subtilisphaera deformans (Davey and Verdier) Stover and Evitt, 1978
Plate 26, Fig. 12
Cyst proximate; pericyst forming a prominent, broad-based conical apical horn,
two uneven antapical horns; left antapical horn is nearly as long as apical horn, right
antapical horn is vestigial; pericyst membranous, both pericyst and endocyst fine
granulate, endocyst appressed laterally to one side of pericyst, tabulation not clear.
Dimensions: pericyst size: 48 x 87 rim; endocyst size: 44 x 50 tim (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.
Distribution: middle Albian, France (Davey and Verdier 1971); Albian, eastern
Canada (Bujak and Williams 1978); and Albian to middle Cenomanian, northwestern
Canada (Singh 1983).

Genus Geiselodinium Krutzsch 1962
Type species: Geiselodinium geiseltalense Krutzsch 1962

cf. Geiselodinium sp.
Plate 27, Fig. 1
Cyst cavate, heart shape; periphragm psilate and endophragm with fine granules;
tip of apical horn and antapical horns blunt; cingulum and sulcus present but tabulation is
not clear.
Dimension: 36(43)47 x 47(48)50 tm (3 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Trithyrodinium Drugg emend. Lentin & Williams 1976
Type species: Trithyrodinium evittii Drugg, 1967.

? Trithyrodinium sp.
Plate 27, Figs. 2, 3
Cyst proximate; two layered, with a short apihorn, ca. 9 [tm long; two antapihorn
may exist, periphragm psilate and endophragm hairy, tabulation not clear.









Dimensions: 48(52)58 x 65(69)73 [m (3 specimens)
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

Dino cyst type A
Plate 27, Fig. 4
Cyst single wall, thin; elliptical shape; psilate; a lot of folds on the surface;
tabulation are not clear.
Dimension: 34(36)39 x 48(49)50 [m (3 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Dino cyst type B
Plate 27, Fig. 5
Cyst proximochorate; subcircular to elliptical shape; subspherical body with
membrane-like short parasutural septa; cingulum and tabulation are not clear.
Dimension: 42(43)44im (3 specimens) for subcircular shape; 38(41)43 x
45(47)48 tm for elliptical shape (2 specimens).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Dino cyst type C
Plate 27, Fig. 6
Cyst single wall, thin; subcircular shape; microgranulate; a lot of folds on the
surface; tabulation are not clear.
Dimensions: 39 [m (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Dino cyst type D
Plate 27, Fig. 7
Cyst single wall, very thin; subcircular shape; dense hair-like processes on surface,
ca. 3 tm long; a lot of folds on the surface; tabulation are not clear.
Dimensions: 31(33)35 x 36(37)37 im (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Dino cyst type H
Plate 27, Fig. 8
Cyst single wall, thin; subcircular shape; short hair-like short processes on surface
and tip of process branching; a lot of folds on the surface; tabulation are not clear.
Dimensions: 29 x 30 im (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Dino cyst type I
Plate 27, Fig. 9
Cyst two layered, subcircular; both epicyst and endocyst with granules, granule size
uneven, 0.2-0.6 nm.
Dimensions: 41 [m (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.









Acritarchs

Genus Micrhystridium Deflandre 1937
Type species: Micrhystridium inconspicuum Deflandre, 1937.

Micrhystridium singulare Firtion, 1952.
Plate 27, Fig. 10
Central body polygonal; processes more than 10 on surface, processes fluffy and
sinuous, hollow, ca. 14-16 rm long; test wall very thin and psilate.
Dimensions: diameter of central body ca. 25 rim; maximum length of process ca.
16 m. (1 specimen)
Remark: The process is longer than the central body for the holotype.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: Albian to Cenomanian, England (Davey 1969).

Micrhystridium sp.l
Plate 27, Fig. 11
Central body nearly circular; sparse processes on surface, processes rigid and
strong, tip is very sharp, ca. 7-12 [im long; test wall very thin and psilate.
Dimensions: diameter of central body ca. 24 rim; maximum length of process ca.
12 m. (1 specimen)
Remark: The processes have broad bases and taper gradually.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Micrhystridium sp.2
Plate 27, Fig. 12
Central body subcircular to elliptical; sparse short processes on surface, processes
curled at the tip, and sharp, ca. 5-7 .im long; test wall membrane like, psilate.
Dimensions: diameter of central body ca. 34(35)35 x 41(42)42 rim; maximum
length of process ca. 7 inm. (2 specimens)
Remark: The processes are without broad bases.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Micrhystridium sp.3
Plate 27, Fig. 13
Central body irregular; dense hair like processes on surface, long, ca. 13-17 inm;
processes curled and tip of processes sharp; test wall thin and psilate.
Dimensions: diameter of central body ca. 24(27)30 x 30(34)37 rim; maximum
length of process ca. 17 nm. (2 specimens)
Remark: The processes are without broad bases.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Micrhystridium sp.4
Plate 27, Fig. 14
Central body circular; thick and stiff processes uniformly distributed, long, ca. 11-
17 jm; processes tapering distally but tip is blunt; test wall thin and scabrate.









Dimensions: diameter of central body ca. 30 rim; maximum length of process ca.
17 nm. (1 specimen)
Remark: Compared with M. sp.1, the processes of this species are thicker and
longer.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Micrhystridium sp.5
Plate 27, Figs. 15, 16
Central body circular; with rare and sharp processes, process ca. 4-5 .im long, less
than 1 tm wide at base; test wall thin and scabrate.
Dimensions: diameter of central body ca. 11(12)12 rim; maximum length of
process ca. 5 jim. (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

Genus Pterospermella Eisenack 1972
Type species: Pterospermella aureolata (Cookson & Eisenack) Eisenack 1972

Pterospermella australiensis (Deflandre & Cookson) S.K. Srivastava, 1984
Plate 27, Fig. 17
Overall subcircular and central body nearly circular; central body opaque; the flank
scabrate.
Dimensions: overall diameter ca. 23 jim; central body ca. 11 im. (1 specimens)
Remark: This species is relatively smaller compared to other species.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: Barremian, France (Srivastava 1984)

Genus Veryhachium Deunff emend. Downie & Sarjeant 1963
Veryhachium reductum Deunff 1961
Central body triangular; bearing a process at each corner; the process hollow and
tapering distally to a fine point; test wall thin and psilate to scabrate.
Dimensions: diameter of central body 20(29)38 jim; length of process ca. 10(12)13
jlm. (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit.
Distribution: Ordovician, Silurian, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic and lower
Cretaceous, France and England (Davey 1969).

Veryhachium cf. reductum Deunff
Plate 27, Fig. 18
Central body triangular; bearing a process at each corner; the process hollow and
tapering distally to a fine point; test wall thin and psilate to scabrate.
Dimensions: diameter of central body 46 jim; maximum length of process ca. 21
jlm. (1 specimen)
Remark: It is bigger than the holotype (12(16)21 im ).
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.









Veryhachium sp.l
Plate 27, Fig. 19
Central body slightly inflated; at least 6 curved processes present; processes
hollow, tip of processes blunt; test wall very thin and scabrate.
Dimensions: diameter of central body ca. 19 jim; maximum length of process ca.
24jim. (1 specimen)
Remark: The processes are not circular in cross section
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Veryhachium sp.2
Plate 27, Fig. 20
Central body triangular; 3 curved processes radiated from central body; processes
hollow, tip of processes sharp; test wall thin and granulate.
Dimensions: diameter of central body ca. 18 jim; maximum length of process ca.
30 im. (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Veryhachium sp.3
Plate 27, Fig. 21
Central body nearly rectangular; bearing a process at each corner; the processes
hollow and tapering distally to a fine point; processes wide based and 11-15 jim long; test
wall very thin and scabrate to psilate.
Dimensions: diameter of central body ca. 11x18 jim; maximum length of process
ca. 15 im. (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Acritarch type A
Plate 27, Fig. 22
Central body circular; hollow processes uniformly distributed; processes
acuminate, bifid or branched-bifid; test wall thin and psilate.
Dimensions: diameter of central body ca. 19(20)21 jim; maximum length of
process ca. 11 im. (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Acritarch type B
Plate 27, Fig. 23
Central body irregular or elliptical; hollow processes uniformly distributed;
processes long and acuminate, bifid or branched-bifid; test wall thin and psilate.
Dimensions: diameter of central body ca. 9 x 15 jim; maximum length of process
ca. 18 im. (1 specimen)
Remark: The shape is different from acritarch type A.
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

Acritach type C
Plate 28, Figs. 1, 2









Central body elliptical; dense processes uniformly distributed; processes long and
bifurcating; test wall thin and fine granulate.
Dimensions: diameter of central body ca. 59 x 68 jim; length of process ca. 10-13
jlm. (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Ochs Clay Pit.

? Acritarch type 1
Plate 28, Fig. 3
Cyst single wall; subcircular shape; reticulate or regulate; folds on the surface;
tabulation are not clear.
Dimensions: 27 x 30 jim (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

? Acritarch type 2
Plate 28, Fig. 4
Cyst single wall, relatively thick, ca. 1 lm; elliptical shape; scabrate, a lot of folds
on surface; tabulation are not clear.
Dimensions: 37 x 59 jim (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

? Acritarch type 3
Plate 28, Fig. 5
Cyst single wall, thin; subcircular to elliptical shape; sparse granules on surface and
there is a pit on each granule, a lot of folds on the surface; tabulation are not clear.
Dimensions: 35 jim for subcircular shape (1 specimen); 21 x 31 jim for elliptical
shape (1 specimen)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

? Acritarch type 4
Plate 28, Fig. 6
Cyst single wall, thin; subcircular to circular shape; fur-like short processes on
surface, a lot of folds on the surface; tabulation are not clear.
Dimensions: 26(30)30 jim (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.

? Acritarch type 5
Plate 28, Fig. 7
Cyst single wall, very thin membrane-like, subcircular shape; a lot of folds on the
surface; tabulation are not clear.
Dimensions: 28(31)34 x 35(36)37 jim (2 specimens)
Occurrence: Courtland Clay Pit.














CHAPTER 5
GEOLOGICAL SETTING: REGIONAL AND STUDY AREA

Regional

During the early Cretaceous, two epicontinental seas, the Boreal in the north and

the Gulf in the south, were present on continental North America, with the Boreal Sea

advancing southward and the Gulf Sea northward (Obradovich and Cobban, 1975).

These two seas joined together to form the Western Interior Seaway, a continuous sea

extending from the Artic to the Gulf of Mexico across the North America continent,

which was present by the Late Albian age (Witzke and Ludvigson, 1996) (Figure 5-1).

The Western Interior Seaway was transgressive during the Late Albian to the

Cenomanian (Kauffman, 1977) and was bordered on the west by the Cordilleran thrust

belt and on the east by the cratonic platform (Dyman, et al., 1994). Because of variable

rates of subsidence related to tectonic and sediment loading, an asymmetric sedimentary

basin with thick Cretaceous sediments in the west and thin sediments in the east, was

formed (Dyman, et al., 1994).

The type area of the Dakota Formation is located in northeastern Nebraska and

northwestern Iowa along the Missouri River (Ravn and Witzke, 1995). "Dakota" is used

as a lithostratigraphic unit across a vast area of central and west-central North America

(Ravn and Witzke, 1995) (Figure 5-2). However, this name often has been used without

consideration of the relationship to the type Dakota, either lithostratigraphically or

chronostratigraphically (Witzke, et al., 1983). So the age and lithology of the Dakota









Formation are probably not the same from the west margin to the east margin of the

Western Interior Seaway.

The Dakota Formation, a sequence of nonmarine to marginal marine facies, is the

oldest Cretaceous sediment in southwestern Minnesota (Witzke and Ludvigson, 1994).

The Dakota Formation in southwestern Minnesota includes two units, the lower

sandstone lithostratigraphic unit, which is similar to the Nishnabotna Member, and the

upper mudstone lithostratigraphic unit, which is similar to the Woodbury Member of the

Dakota Formation in age and lithology (Setterholm, 1994) (Figure 5-3). Currently, the

age of the Dakota Formation in southwest Minnesota is thought to be Cenomanian

(Setterholm, 1994). However this suggestion for Cenomanian age is mainly based upon

the interpretation of Lesquereux (1895) and Pierce (1961). The interpretations of

megafossils by Lesquereux (1895) and microfossils by Pierce (1961) all need

reexamination and reinterpretation (Upchurch and Dilcher, 1990; Wang H., 2002, Hu et

al., 2004). The age of the Dakota Formation in southwest Minnesota is uncertain at this

time and will be addressed in this dissertation.

Stratigraphy and Sedimentary Environments in Study Area

Courtland Clay Pit

The sediments at Courtland Clay Pit are dominated by laminated mudstone (Figure

5-4 and Figure 5-5). Hajek et al. (2002) interpreted the sedimentary environment as a

large lake based upon the mm- to cm-scale laminae, scattered well-preserved leaves, and

siderite concretions. Lake Drummond in Virginia is a typical coastal lake and may be a

good analogy of the large Cretaceous lake at Courtland Clay Pit (Figure 5-6).









Highway 4 Clay Pit

The sediments at Highway 4 Clay Pit consist predominantly of tabular cross-

bedded sandstone and carbonaceous siltstone (Figure 5-7and Figure 5-8). Hajek et al.

(2002) interpreted the sedimentary environment as a tidally influenced meandering river

system based on the inclined heterolithic stratification (IHS) and tabular cross-bedded

fine-grained sandstone. Oxbow lake, ridge and swale, and levee are important

environments associated with a meandering river system (Figure 5-9).

Ochs Clay Pit

The sediments at Ochs Clay Pit are dominated by silty mudstone and siltstone

(Figure 5-10). Sloan (1964) indicated that the sediments below the lignite layer probably

represent the lacustrine environment based on the varved mudstone and abundant leaf

fossils, and the sediments above the lignite layer probably represent the estuarine

environment based upon the silty and sandy mudstone and several vertebras of sharks.

The lignite layer extended broadly and its thickness is relatively constant. The ash

content of the lignite is 32%-41%. This kind of lignite is probably not from the peat

accumulation in close association with active plastic depositional environments such as

on the floodplain of meandering rivers, in coastal mires close to active beach barrier

systems, in interdistributary bays and even levees of delta tops (McCabe, 1987). The

lignite in the locality may represent the distal side of the coastal swamp, which is not

close to the active beach barrier systems. According to Walther's Law (Boggs, 2001),

the lignite probably represented a coastal swamp. The Dismal swamp in Virginia and

North Carolina is a typical coastal swamp associated with the bar-built estuaries and

lakes, and may be a good analogy of the Cretaceous coastal swamp at Ochs Clay Pit

(Figure 5-6). Twenhofel (1932) suggested that the ideal lacustrine sequence for a low-









energy lake (Figure 5-11) is one in which the lacustrine mud deposits are overlain by peat

deposits of swamps. For a high-energy lake the ideal sequence has sediments that

coarsen upwards (Visher, 1965) (Figure 5-11). According to these ideas, the top

lacustrine sediments at Ochs Clay Pit seem to represent a low-energy lake

paleoenvironment.

The Stratigraphic Relationships of the Localities

The Cretaceous sediments at the three clay pits studied here in southwestern

Minnesota were isolated from each other. It is very difficult to make correlations

between these three clay pits based upon their lithology. Megafossils are not satisfactory

for comparative dating between these localities because even numbers of leaves are

available in our collections and a stratigraphic sequence of leaf species have not been

worked out yet for the Dakota Formation leaf fossils. However, plant microfossils are

abundant in the sediments at these three clay pits. Pollen has been successfully used for

Dakota Formation stratigraphic zonatons of other areas (Brenner et al. 2000). Based

upon the common occurrence ofLiliacidites reticulatus, Tricolpites cf. vulgaris,

Phimopollenites striolata and Fraxinoipollenites constrictus in sample 036710 at

Courtland Clay Pit, in sample 046517 at Highway 4 Clay Pit, and in sample 046522 at

Ochs Clay pit, I suggest that the sediments from which these samples were collected

represented time equivalent deposits (Figure 5-12). Thus it is possible to make some

stratigraphic comparisons between these three clay pits. The pollen studies also provide a

framework for paleoenvironmental interpretations of localities.































* Study areas


Figure 5-1. Map of North America with the location of Western Interior Seaway during
the Cenomanian (early Late Cretaceous). Modified from Parrish, et al., 1984,
Parish, et al. modified from Ziegler et al., 1983.




































Figure 5-2. Area of west-central United States in which the lithostratigraphic name
"Dakota" is used. (from Ravn et al., 1995).




























EXPLANATION

f_ -k Uriaoner


'D -- C*WV


Figure 5-3. Schematic cross section of lower Upper Cretaceous sediments in
southwestern Minnesota. (from Setterholm, 1994)


West


C~dd" a roKc=l&careous shale
r r e hostratigraphic unit


SBlue HAi Membar




shoe hthobtatmgrapric to"

_ woo_*- -M o _.. .. .. _-_ --_- -_

SM Nihnaottna Me too.m ato,. ..r.
segcndst r th =rlr3=86aPMWri WZ


smaine


East





































Explanation

I-----'
u-I,~


~r=r.
----I
I--a-I
~W~2CA


silsuome


Figure 5-4. Detailed stratigraphic columnar section of lower section at Courtland Clay


(cm) LUhologol dicdription SWmpl n

a m 7ss ylow*n oy 036707
m anton.. wuh I 03b704
-"-. 280 cConuwron
- 038702

-. d OwX gray nmuvton. 03699
- ieercafld vth tin
-. organic rich layers
-- -" 03694 lscustine
(ted upon
S----" 036890 the prert
- s-y and
-_ pole grn stsrton. Isek et aL,
-_ gnran s ecrOse 2002
- 127.5 upward


/ gyash /gnr n sandstone
Swth roundfd pyrit
conrtmons


fine sandstone











Thk LOcVLmhotoSIa descrloton Semplen SliNSAW
(em) emlonbenft
Sgray mudstaone.
---- 120 wth crcoat
036710
Slacusbrine
-_~ _((based upon
the present
---- bnl nhv a II 036709 study and
110 neaow moic @t036709 M t.
_- 10 conco, 2002)
036708



Explanation





mudstonc
Figure 5-5. Detailed stratigraphic columnar section of upper section at Courtland Clay
Pit.



























Figure 5-6. Sketch map of the Dismal Swamp, USA; an example of a coastal swamp and
coastal lake developed along the coastal areas. (in Stach et al., 1982, after
Teichmeuler, 1962).











hicknr Lithological description Samples SodWmenlry
(cm) *nviranmen
*.- naumyelowlsh
S m*idtone. with
a mutlone pebbis

I-- O illy groy muCfrone
asc meandering
S- 046519 river system
(based upon
70 the present
... crboneceous sa@y 046518 study and
.: S. siflone.wth erarcoal Haik eIt al
anpe..s. 2002)
*- '~ 0465 17
S.lpIght gray to yellowish
I... C cors* nnatone. wih
w*. of orga rc de4b 04e515


Explanation


L--nea


---- ..-'


LIZ)''


'* .- **-'- ;'
.;:. ; -.*
*'* "* *


mudlsone silsone medium sandstone coarse sandstone
Figure 5-7. Detailed stratigraphic columnar section of SW section at Highway 4 Clay Pit.


ckneM Uthological descflption Samples Sedimentary
ScmI environments
g 6* mdunlm antdOM.
with mudsitoM pebtns

225 036717 menrul;rng
g uay OuN0%ay rlver system
Smutones (hchcNal 03716 (based upon
..23. ca nthe present
b...k.... \ llt~n WicrMoll 036715 tUly 0nd
Io. Sand pebbls; blobablMr d k et al..
2002)

;.., mum ylowlsh
... nd~one, wh lor of 048292


Explanation


rr 121



mudsonc


siltstone


medium sandstone


coarse sandstone


Figure 5-8. Detailed stratigraphic columnar section of NE section at Highway 4 Clay Pit.


























Figure 5-9. The morphological elements of a meandering river system. (from Walker
and Cant, 1984)













111"I MoWW9W~on I|"*oa I"ny
___ ceII) w*nr UwwvrfY'sa


eay Mfuf seoM


,


. .




*. i..
m

4m 4

~1










* a



- -
me







am
. .





C'
.-
- -
I a
-
.. I
-mm
*. -


hn l a ur altown
otop


tarmne
basedd Upon tW
prsnl study and
Soan. 19G4)


coastal swamp
presentt study)


a a


044M


sy mudat and sfttn
nswbodft. aON*"


aMol i mnudston

torn oDoam r op


mu~ion sencalw er I
[lrr** r ly muooone,
|m~coers sand nd
grave of cmn_


sifovn snld guy ul"wow
F1 r Ico I C1, %Wr&"0 pr
-CSoo. m-s
|12fmf


046522


lacuslire
(Cwae upon me
prest study and
S1Cn, 19S4)


Explanation





mudstonc







uine sandsonem


sisoltwe


inebded mudstone inclbeded rmudtotne
and Slslone and fine sandsone


lignik


Figure 5-10. Detailed stratigraphic columnar section at Ochs Clay Pit.


2S


w


N'
200



210












Ito


MIN, N fm ., Nnd.


p


19l. aMck


stlonM. lvem. "AM
cflwal and c~Smonc


a s


7S



s0


I a &


I .


~
I,
,,
,I
,1
,,
C'L~
~1
~I_
-.I
I r


048640






79


Agitated Quiet

0 <


















-- _


Figure 5-11. Ideal sequence of lacustrine deposits. After Visher (1965) and Twenhofel
(1932). (from Picard and High, 1981)



























Highway 4 Clay I
SW section


Counlad CIpy PH


upper


OcB Cay Pit















Pit




.-.


Explanation
1696 'C.9-y h.--


sib wo


imoe Hntmvo mcCundm ton Wc" MC and*oW tiitse


Figure 5-12. Inferred stratigraphic relationships, outcrop sections in study areas. (Solid
line indicates the time equivalent level.)


sctai Hlighway 4 Clay Pi
NE section





?1,*':'';


Courlad Clay Pih
lower secion





--.




.. .


inteuled mn aio inrmser d mr dmto
umd sihce mad linm smdsanm














CHAPTER 6
THE AGE OF THE DAKOTA FORMATION IN MINNESOTA

Based upon fossil leaves, Lesquereux (1895) assigned some Cretaceous sediments

that outcropped in Minnesota to the "Dakota group" and related them to the Cenomanian.

Pierce (1961) also indicated that the Cretaceous deposits of the Dakota Formation in

Minnesota are of Cenomanian age based upon a palynological investigation. Later,

Austin (1972) proposed that the nonmarine Cretaceous sediments (above the weathered

residuum of the Precambrian and Paleozoic basement rocks) in the Minnesota River

Valley are about middle Cenomanian based upon clay mineralogy. Setterholm (1994)

suggested that the thick mudstone unit adjacent to the Minnesota River Valley resembles

the Woodbury Member of the Dakota Formation in age and lithology. But Setterholm

(1994) proposed that the upper mudstone unit may be equivalent to Graneros Shale which

is placed in late Cenomanian in Minnesota. So it is obvious the accurate age assignment

for the Dakota Formation in Minnesota is not clear due to the absence of marine fossils.

Palynological investigations have been completed in Alberta (Singh, 1983), the Rocky

Mountain Region (Nichols, 1994), and northwestern Iowa and northeastern Nebraska

(Ravn and Witzke, 1995). Therefore, pollen and spores may be used as a tool to

determine the age of mid-Cretaceous nonmarine sediments in the Western Interior

Seaway.

Both Liliacidites giganteus and Dictyophyllidites impensus occur first in the upper

Shaftesbury Formation of the Peace River area in northwestern Alberta, Canada. Based

upon a "Fish-scale" marker bed and its comparison with marine fauna, the age of the









upper Shaftesbury Formation was assumed to be Cenomanian (Singh, 1983). Therefore,

the dark gray clay sediments in Courtland Clay Pit from which Liliacidites giganteus and

Dictyophyllidites impensus were recovered is here considered to represent Cenomanian

age sediments in Minnesota. Moreover, both Cicatricosisportites crassiterminatus and

Stellatopollis largissimus recovered from the Courtland Clay Pit and Artiopollis

indivisus, Appendicisporites auritus and Cicatricosisportites crassiterminatus recovered

from the Ochs Clay Pit all appear in Cenomanian or younger sediments in North America

such as northwestern Alberta (Singh, 1983) and Arizona (Agasie, 1969). Based upon the

pollen data, it appears that the Cretaceous sediments in south central Minnesota probably

are Cenomanian in age.

The megaspore Balmeisporites glenelgensis was found only in the lignite of Ochs

Clay pit. This species also occurs in the Cenomanian sediments in the Peace River area

of northwestern Alberta, Canada (Singh, 1983). Balmeisporites glenelgensis also occurs

in the Sergeant Bluff lignite and the Stone Park lignite that outcrop in northwestern Iowa

and northeastern Nebraska. The age of these lignites was placed as middle and upper

Cenomanian (Ravn and Witzke, 1995). Again, based upon the common occurrence of

Balmeisporites glenelgensis, the lignite layer at the Ochs Clay Pit can be correlated with

the Sergeant Bluff lignite and Stone Park lignite, suggesting that the age of the lignite

layer and the sediments above the lignite layer at Ochs Clay Pit are probably middle to

upper Cenomanian

Witzke et al. (1996) and Brenner et al. (2000) also indicated that the first

occurrence of Dictyophyllidites impensus and Cicatricosisporites crassiterminatus

probably represent the middle Cenomanian. Dictyophyllidites impensus occurs at









Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit and Highway 4 Clay Pit and Cicatricosisporites

crassiterminatus occurs at Courtland Clay Pit and Ochs Clay Pit. So the sediments

exposed at Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit and Highway 4 Clay Pit are all probably

middle Cenomanian.

Nichols (1994) made a revision of the palynostratigraphic zonation for the upper

Cretaceous nonmarine sediments in the Rocky Mountain Region. This

palynostratigraphic zonation is based upon a comparison with marine ammonite zones.

He stated that the first occurrence of the psilate tricolporate pollen type (such as

Nyssapollenites sp.) and the obligate tetrads (such as Artiopollis indivisus) are

representative of middle Cenomanian age. Both Nyssapollenites sp. and Artiopollis

indivisus occur in Ochs Clay Pit and Nyssapollenites sp. occurs in Courtland Clay Pit.

Because the exposed sediments in Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit and Ochs Clay

Pit contain typical middle Cenomanian marker pollen, they are best considered as middle

Cenomanian in age.

This middle Cenomanian age is in conflict with other pollen data that has been

published. The angiosperm pollen types which occur in upper Zone III, Atlantic coastal

plain, Potomac Group sediments (Doyle and Robbins, 1977) included

"Foveotricolporites" rhombohedralis, Retimonocolpites sp. A, Striatopollis sp. B, cf.

Tricolpites barrandei and Tricolpites nemejci. The sediments at the Courtland Clay Pit

contain very similar pollen such as Foveotricolporites rhombohedralis, Retimonocolpites

dividuus, Striatopollis paraneus, Tricolpites cf. vulgaris, and Tricolpites nemejci. The

age of the Potomac Group Zone III was suggested to be lower Cenomanian ? (Doyle and

Robbins, 1977). However, based upon typical pollen from several pollen studies (Singh,









1983; Ravn and Witzke, 1995; Nichols, 1994), the age of the sediments at the Courtland

Clay Pit probably are middle Cenomanian rather than "lower Cenomanian ?". This

suggests that a revision in age may be in order for the pollen Zone III established for the

Atlantic coastal plain, Potomac Group.

Doyle and Robbins (1977) mentioned that Zone IV "have not yet been studied in

detail". Also the samples from which pollen were recovered were from outcrops, not

from cores of wells. Considering that the first Normapolles triporate type pollen occurs

in Zone IV and they are absent in the middle Cenomanian sediments in northwestern

Iowa and northeastern Nebraska (Ravn and Witzke 1995), and northwestern Alberta

(Singh 1983), the middle Cenomanian to lower Turonian age of the Zone IV may be

doubtful. So defining the age of the middle Cenomanian by the occurrence of

Normapolles triporate pollen probably should be open to question.

Considering the comparison with Singh (1983), Nichols (1994), Ravn and Witzke

(1995), Witzke et al. (1996), and Brenner et al. (2000), the age of Cretaceous sediments

exposed in Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit and Ochs Clay Pit is probably middle

Cenomanian.














CHAPTER 7
IMPLICATION OF POLLINATION BIOLOGY AND EARLY LATE CRETACEOUS
COASTAL VEGETATION

Implications for Pollination Biology of the Early Late Cretaceous Angiosperm
Pollen

During the past 30 years early angiosperm pollination biology has been understood

substantially through the research on Cretaceous fossil flowers (Dilcher et al. 1976,

Dilcher 1979, Crepet 1979, Friis and Skarby 1981, Dilcher and Crane, 1984, Crane and

Dilcher, 1984, Crane, et al., 1986; Drinnan, et al., 1990; Friis, et al., 1999, 2000a, 2000b,

Dilcher, 2001). It was a widely accepted hypothesis that the dominant angiosperm

pollination modes were insect-pollination in early Cretaceous (Crepet and Friis 1987,

Friis et al., 1999; Field and Arens, 2005; Wing and Boucher, 1998). Even some ancient

relatives of extant wind-pollinated taxa were insect-pollinated during the Cretaceous,

such as Late Albian insect-pollinated flowers of Platanus-like plants (Crane, et al., 1986)

and Campanian (Late Cretaceous) insect-pollinated Fagaceous flowers (Herendeen, et al.,

1995). During Cenomanian a showy flower that is bisexual from Dakota Formation in

Nebraska implied insect pollination (Basinger and Dilcher, 1984). Also Drinnan et al.

(1990) described a lauraceous flower which was probably insect-pollinated based upon

the modified stamens that may have served as pollinator rewards. For the rosids,

magnoliids, and hamamelids, insect pollination probably was important (Crepet et al.,

1991) by Cenomanian time. It seems that insect pollination was very common during

Cenomanian. Dilcher (1979), on the other hand, presents evidence to support the

presence of wind pollination by mid-Cretaceous times. Dilcher (1979) also proposed the









hypothesis that the independent lineages of some anemophilous flowers may have

developed separately from entomophilous flowers from a common bisexual ancestral

stock. Moreover Dilcher (2000) indicated that wind pollination along with insect

pollination mechanisms is also important for Cretaceous angiosperms. But Whitehead

(1969) indicated that anemophily may evolve secondly in angiosperms. He wrote this at

a time when Magnolia was considered to represent the characters of the ancestor of

modern flowers and when insects were thought to have been important in the evolution of

angiosperms. So perhaps more studies need to be done for a better understanding the role

of pollination in the evolution of early angiosperms. The palynological data may provide

new evidence about the diversity and nature of pollination profiles of angiosperms during

the Cenomanian.

Generally the pollen types of wind-pollinated plant might be overrepresented in

some paleoenvironments (Cohen, 1975). On the other hand the pollen of insect-

pollinated plants could be very rare or absent in areas some distance from the zoophilous

plants (Faegri and Iversen, 1989; Friis, et al., 1999). But some insect-pollinated

angiosperms often produce large amounts of pollen as reward for their pollinators (Faegri

and van der Pijl, 1979). Lupia et al. (2002) described a new insect pollinated angiosperm

flower (Santonian), which produced large quantities of pollen. But there is no indication

that this abundantly produced pollen was dispersed any distance from the plant that

produced it or that it was likely to become incorporated into sediments. Faegri and van

der Pijl (1979) indicated that the large number of pollen grains produced by insect-

pollinated flowers may result in some accidental wind pollination. Retallack and Dilcher

(1981) suggested that some early angiosperms were probably generalists, pollinated by









insects and wind. It is possible that the generalists may produce large numbers of pollen

grains for wind-pollination while also being visited by insects that might serve as

accidental pollinators.

Understanding the modes of angiosperm pollination is very important for

reconstructing angiosperm diversity in different habitats based upon palynological data

obtained from dispersed pollen in Cretaceous age sediments. The presence and the

relative abundance of angiosperm pollen combined with the pollination modes of parent

plants should indicate which kinds of angiosperm pollen were autochthonous. Doyle and

Hickey (1976) indicated that Clavatipollenites, Retimonocolpites and Liliacidites are

probably insect-pollinated pollen based upon their well-developed reticulate exine

sculpture. Friis et al. (1999) indicated that the majority of pollen forms from early

angiosperm flowers are monosulcate, which may be recognized as dispersed pollen as

Clavatipollenites, Retimonocolpites and Liliacidites. The discrepancy between the

rareness of dispersed angiosperm pollen types and the richness of in situ pollen types

from angiosperm reproductive organs may indicate widespread insect pollination (Friis et

al., 1999). The only reliable wind-pollinated angiosperm pollen probably is Asteropollis-

type pollen based upon the floral organs and in situ pollen which are closely comparable

to extant wind-pollinated Hedyosmum (Friis et al., 1999) of the Chloranthaceae.

Pedersen et al. (1991) describes a new earliest Cenomanian fruit Couperites mauldinensis

from West Mauldin Mountain locality in Maryland and the in situ pollen adhering to the

sessile stigma is of the Clavatipollenites type. Although in situ pollen is comparable to

extant chloranthaceous genus Ascarina, which is wind-pollinated, this Clavatipollenites

type pollen probably is from insect-pollinated plants based upon the presence of probable




Full Text

PAGE 1

PALYNOMORPHS AND SELECTED MESO FOSSILS FROM THE CRETACEOUS DAKOTA FORMATION, MINNESOTA, USA By SHUSHENG HU A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

PAGE 2

Copyright 2006 By Shusheng Hu

PAGE 3

To Yuxian, David, Mark, and my parents.

PAGE 4

iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my advisor, Dr David Dilcher, for his advice and encouragement. I also thank Dr. David Jarz en, one of my Ph.D. committee members, for his assistance and rigorous training in pa lynology. I thank my other Ph.D. committee members, Drs. Mark Brenner, John Jaeg er, Walter Judd, Steven Manchester, Ellen Martin, Neil Opdyke, Gustav Paulay, and Anthony Randazzo, for their helpful suggestions and critical readi ng of the manuscript. I am grateful to Dr. Francisca ObohIkuenobe at the University of Missouri-Rolla and Dr. John Wr enn at the Louisiana State University for providing helpful suggestions an d discussions while visi ting their labs in 2004. I thank Drs. Satish Srivastava, Doug Nic hols, Geoffrey Norris, Alfred Traverse, Mary Dettmann, Martin Farley, Wolfram Krs chner, Carlos Jaramillo, David Pocknall, and Jim Riding for useful palynological discu ssions. Thanks go to Drs Francis Putz and Alexandre Trindade for discussion concerning statistics. I would like to thank Drs. Hongqi Li, Hongshan Wang, and Xin Wang for acad emic discussion and encouragement. Many thanks go to Rich Barclay, Margaret Landis, Sarah Corbett, Paula Mejia, Judy Chen, and Elizabeth OÂ’Leary for their s upport and help during my tenure at the University of Florida. Special thanks go to Terry Lott, Kent Perkins, Paul Zeigler, Guenther Mauk, Bill Greene, and Mike Lee for their assistance in various ways. Thanks go to Dr. Rick Lupia and Amy McClain fo r providing a loan from the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History for my us e at the University of Florida. Thanks go to Lynda Schneider and Karen Kelley for TE M and SEM technical assistance. I thank

PAGE 5

v Dr. Frank Potter and Scott Gooler for their help during the 2003 a nd 2004 field season. Thanks go to Professor Meitang Mei for encouraging me to pursue a Ph.D. Financial support was provided by Dilc her-Becker Funds, 2003; Evolving Earth Foundation, 2004 grant; Sigma Xi Grant In Aid of Resear ch, 2004; Graduate Student Council of the University of Florida fo r Travel Grants, 2003 and 2004; Danker Fund, 2004, from the Department of Geological Scienc es, University of Florida; and the Deep Time Project, NSF DEB-0090283. Finally, I tha nk my wife Yuxian and my son David for their support and assisting me in the field during the summers of 2003 and 2004. I thank my parents Yuqing Hu and Xiuchan Wang for the support and guidance they have given me throughout my life.

PAGE 6

vi TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................ix LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................................................................x ABSTRACT......................................................................................................................x ii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 MATERIAL AND METHODS....................................................................................5 3 PREVIOUS WORK....................................................................................................11 4 SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY..........................................................................13 Angiosperm Pollen.....................................................................................................13 Gymnosperm Pollen...................................................................................................25 Spores......................................................................................................................... 36 Algal, Fungal and Megaspore.....................................................................................55 Dinoflagellate Cysts and Acritarchs...........................................................................58 Dinoflagellate Cysts............................................................................................58 Acritarchs............................................................................................................63 5 GEOLOGICAL SETTING: REGIONAL AND STUDY AREA..............................67 Regional......................................................................................................................6 7 Stratigraphy and Sedimentary Environments in Study Area......................................68 Courtland Clay Pit...............................................................................................68 Highway 4 Clay Pit.............................................................................................69 Ochs Clay Pit.......................................................................................................69 The Stratigraphic Relationships of the Localities.......................................................70 6 THE AGE OF THE DAKOTA FORMATION IN MINNESOTA............................81

PAGE 7

vii 7 IMPLICATION OF POLLINAT ION BIOLOGY AND EARLY LATE CRETACEOUS COASTAL VEGETATION............................................................85 Implications for Pollination Biology of the Early Late Cretaceous Angiosperm Pollen......................................................................................................................85 Angiosperm, Fern and Gymnosperm Divers ity in Coastal Areas during Early Late Cretaceous...............................................................................................................93 Comparison with Other Late Cretaceous Assemblages Recovered from Coal Bearing Sequences..................................................................................................98 8 COMPARISONS BETWEEN ANGIOSPERM MEGAFOSSIL AND MICROFOSSIL RECORDS....................................................................................118 9 EUSPORANGIATE FERNS FROM THE DAKOTA FORMATION, MINNESOTA, USA (WITH DAVID DILCHER, HARALD SCHNEIDER AND DAVID JARZEN)....................................................................................................122 Abstract.....................................................................................................................12 2 Introduction...............................................................................................................123 Material and Methods...............................................................................................124 Results.......................................................................................................................1 26 Generic Diagnosis.............................................................................................126 Species Diagnosis..............................................................................................126 General morphology...................................................................................126 Spore morphology......................................................................................127 Description........................................................................................................127 Systematic Remarks..........................................................................................128 Generic Diagnosis.............................................................................................132 Species Diagnosis..............................................................................................132 General morphology...................................................................................132 Spore morphology......................................................................................133 Description........................................................................................................133 Systematic Remarks..........................................................................................134 Discussion.................................................................................................................136 10 CONCLUSIONS......................................................................................................140 APPENDIX A PROCESSING PROCEDURES USED BY GLOBAL GEOLAB LIMITED, CACADA.................................................................................................................145 B PALYNOMORPH RA W DATA SHEET................................................................147 C PLATE EXPLANATION.........................................................................................158 D PLATES....................................................................................................................171

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viii REFERENCES................................................................................................................204 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................217

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ix LIST OF TABLES Table page 7-1 Criteria for pollination interpretation.....................................................................101 7-2 Inferred mode of pollination for angiosperm pollen taxa from Courtland Clay Pit...........................................................................................................................1 02 7-3 Inferred mode of pollination for angiosperm pollen taxa from Ochs Clay Pit......106 7-4 Inferred mode of pollination for angiosperm pollen taxa from Highway 4 Clay Pit...........................................................................................................................1 09 7-5 Angiosperm pollen distribution in three di fferent environments in Ochs Clay Pit.110 7-6 Fern spore distribution in three diffe rent environments at Ochs Clay Pit..............111 7-7 Gymnosperm pollen distribution in thr ee different environments at Ochs Clay Pit...........................................................................................................................1 12 7-8 Relative abundance of bisaccate pollen in estuaries at Ochs Clay Pit...................113

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x LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Map of Minnesota, showing th ree localities in study area.........................................6 5-1 Map of North America with the locati on of Western Interior Seaway during the Cenomanian (early Late Cretaceous). ...................................................................71 5-2 Area of west-central United States in which the lithostratigraphic name “Dakota” is used. ....................................................................................................72 5-3 Schematic cross section of lower Uppe r Cretaceous sediments in southwestern Minnesota. ...............................................................................................................73 5-4 Detailed stratigraphic columnar section of lower section at Courtland Clay Pit.....74 5-5 Detailed stratigraphic columnar section of upper section at Courtland Clay Pit.....75 5-6 Sketch map of the Dismal Swamp, US A; an example of a coastal swamp and coastal lake developed along the coastal areas. .......................................................75 5-7 Detailed stratigraphic columnar section of SW section at Highway 4 Clay Pit.......76 5-8 Detailed stratigraphic columnar section of NE section at Highway 4 Clay Pit.......76 5-9 The morphological elements of a meandering river system....................................77 5-10 Detailed stratigraphic columnar section at Ochs Clay Pit........................................78 5-11 Ideal sequence of lacustrine deposits.......................................................................79 5-12 Inferred stratigraphic relationships outcrop sections in study areas.......................80 7-1 Selected angiosperm pollen relative abundance analysis in three different environments at Ochs Clay Pit...............................................................................113 7-2 The distribution of terrestrial pal ynomorphs in lake, swamp, and estuarine sediments at the Ochs Clay Pit...............................................................................114 7-4 Relative abundance of bisaccate pollen in coastal swamps at Ochs Clay Pit........115

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xi 7-5 Relative abundance of bisaccate pollen in coastal lake environments at Ochs Clay Pit...................................................................................................................116 7-6 Relative abundance analysis of dominant non-bissacate gymnosperm pollen in three different environments..................................................................................117

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xii Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy PALYNOMORPHS AND SELECTED MESO FOSSILS FROM THE CRETACEOUS DAKOTA FORMATION, MINNESOTA, USA By Shusheng Hu August 2006 Chair: David Dilcher Major Department: Geological Sciences The middle Cenomanian palynomorphs and selected mesofossils from the Dakota Formation of south central Minnesota were investigated. A total of 218 palynomorphs were recovered. Terrestrial palynomorphs include 41 types of angiosperm pollen in which five types are described as new speci es, 42 types of gymnosperm pollen, and 78 types of spores of ferns and fern allies. S pores of ferns and fern allies are most diverse among the terrestrial palynomorphs. Othe r palynomorphs include two types of megaspores, ten types of algal spores and colonies, seven types of fungal spores and fruiting body, 18 types of dinoflagellate cysts, and 20 types of acritarchs. Based upon the occurrence of Artiopollis indivisus Balmeisporites glenelgensis Cicatricosisporites crassiterminatus Dictyophyllidites impensus and Nyssapollenites sp., the age of the Cretaceous sediments exposed in south central Minnesota is probably middle Cenomanian. Based upon the analysis of a ngiosperm pollen morphological characters, the pollen types that appear to be insect-p ollinated accounted for 77% on average, and the

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xiii pollen types which appear to be wind-pol linated accounted for 23% on average during the middle Cenomanian. The characteristic vegetation elements of the coastal swamps during middle Cenomanian were diverse angiospe rms, dominant ferns and fern allies, and a relative low abundance of gymnosperms. The Trochodendrales and Buxales of the eudicots, which were not recovered from leaf fossil records, probably were present during the middle Cenomanian based upon the angiospe rm pollen records. Two new marattioid ferns, Goolangia minnesotensis Hu, Dilcher, H. Schneid. et Jarzen gen. et sp. nov. and Mesozoisynangia trilobus Hu, Dilcher, H. Schneid. et Jarzen gen. et sp. nov., are described based on charcoalified isolated spor angia and synangia. These fossils provide evidence for the existence of marattioid ferns during the mid-Cretaceous in North America and give the first unequivocal documentation of the Marattiaceae in post Jurassic times. Spores of Goolangia minnesotensis are comparable with the dispersed spore Dictyophyllidites impensus which was distributed from Arizona to Alberta in west central North America during the middle Cenomanian.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The mid-Cretaceous was a critical period in the evolution of angiosperms. During this time, angiosperms began their adaptive radiation, and major lin eages first appear (Upchurch and Dilcher, 1990; Dilcher, 2000) It has been suggested that early angiosperms diversified and became domina nt along river channels during the midCretaceous (Retallack and Dilcher, 1981; Wing and Boucher, 1998). Retallack and Dilcher (1981) further hypothesi zed that disturbed coastal area s were very important sites for early angiosperm worldwide dispersal. But as far as we know the data about early angiosperms in coastal areas during the midCretaceous are very limited (Retallack and Dilcher, 1981) because of poor environmen tal interpretations and limited megafossil collections. During the past 30 years early angiosperm pollination biology has been understood substantially through the studies on numerous Cretaceous fossil flowers (Dilcher et al., 1976; Dilcher 1979; Crepet, 1979; Friis a nd Skarby, 1981; Dilcher and Crane, 1984; Crane and Dilcher, 1984; Crane, et al., 1986; Drinnan, et al., 1990; Friis, et al., 1999, 2000a, 2000b; Dilcher, 2001). It was a wide ly accepted hypothesis that the dominant angiosperm pollination modes were insect -pollination during the early Cretaceous (Crepet and Friis, 1987; Friis et al., 1999; Field and Aren s, 2005; Wing and Boucher, 1998). Dilcher (1979), on the other hand, pres ents evidence to s upport the presence of limited wind pollination by mid-Cretaceous time Dilcher (1979) also proposed the hypothesis that the independent lineages of some anemophilous flowers may have

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2 developed very early and separately fr om entomophilous flowers from a common ancestral bisexual stock. Moreover, Dilcher (2000) suggested that wind pollination was also important for Cretaceous angiosperms in addition to insect pollin ation. More studies are needed to better understand the role of pollination in the evolution of early angiosperms. The palynological data may pr ovide new information about the diversity of pollination profiles of angiosperms during the Cenomanian. Research on plant megafossils deposited along the Western Interior Seaway began with Lesquereux (1895) who described 437 species of angiosperms. However, Upchurch and Dilcher (1990) and Wang H. (2002) found only 20-25 species of angiosperms at each of several localities and Wa ng H. (2002) estimated 150-200 to tal species of angiosperms when six localities are tallied together. It is important al so to undertake a palynological investigation of these sediment s in order to provide evidence for angiosperm diversity as recorded by pollen during the mid-Cretaceous. Mesofossils often consist of charcoalif ied plant remains, which are mid-sized fossils between the larger megafossils and smaller microfossils. When plant tissues are charcoalified, delicate struct ures, such as anthers c ontaining pollen (Crane and Herendeen, 1996) and sporangia containing spores, are often well preserved. Therefore mesofossils provide additional characters that allow comparisons to morphological features unique to reproduc tive structures of extant plants. This information complements the megafossil and microfossil record by providing information not otherwise available. Dispersed pollen or s pores may be related to a taxon with known affinities. The geographic distribution of a parent plant may be determined based upon the distribution range of the dispersed pollen or spores. However, mesofossil

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3 investigation is limited in Western Interi or Seaway (X. Wang, 2004) and there is no previous mesofossil research for the Cretaceo us sediments in south western Minnesota. “Dakota Formation” is used as a lithostra tigraphic unit across a vast area of central and west-central North America (Ravn and Witzke, 1995). This name has also often been used without consideration of the rela tionship to the type Dakota Formation, either lithostratigraphically or chronos tratigraphically (Witzke et al ., 1983). Thus the age and lithology of the Dakota Formation are probably not the same from the west margin to the east margin of the Western In terior Seaway. Currently, the age of the Dakota Formation in southwest Minnesota is thought to be Cenomanian (Se tterholm, 1994). However, because of the absence of marine fossils, this suggestion for a Cenomanian age is mainly based upon the interpretation from the paleobo tanical work of Lesquereux (1895) and the palynological studies of Pi erce (1961). The paleoflora s of Lesquereux (1895) and palynofloras of Pierce (1961) need reexamin ation and reinterpre tation (Upchurch and Dilcher, 1990; Wang H., 2002; Hu et al., 2004b). Austin (1972) proposed that the nonmarine Cretaceous sediments in the Mi nnesota River Valley are about middle Cenomanian based upon clay mineralogy. Se tterholm (1994) also proposed that the upper mudstone unit in east-central Minneso ta of the Dakota Formation may be time equivalent to the Graneros Shale in wester n Minnesota, and both units are placed in the late Cenomanian. The age of the Dakota Formation in southwest Minnesota remains uncertain at this time. Therefore investigations of ancient coasta l deposits should provide new data about early angiosperms. Considering that pollen and spores are more broadly distributed than leaves and therefore provide a broader regiona l record than plant megafossils (Jaramillo,

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4 1999), the palynological record may provide a view with a different bias for early angiosperm diversity. Mid-Cr etaceous sediments, rich in pollen and spores exposed recently at Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, and Ochs Clay Pit in southwestern Minnesota, provided an opportuni ty for a palynological invest igation. The present study will focus on the following topics: 1. Establish a record of the palynomorphs recovered from a series of samples collected from freshly exposed sections. 2. Use the described palynofloras, correlate the sections from three isolated clay pits (Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, and Ochs Clay Pit) where the sedimentary relationships ar e difficult to determine in the absence of marine megafossils. 3. Determine the age of the sediments that is currently controversial and in question based upon the palynomorphs recovered from samples of the clay pits. 4. Consider the role of insect pollination and wind pollination in the evolution of early angiosperms as inferred from palynological data. Possible pollination profiles of some early angiosperms during early Late Cretaceous will be presented. 5. Present early angiosperm di versity during early Late Cr etaceous in coastal areas, especially coastal swamps, based upon palynological investigation. 6. Compare the megafossil (leaf) and microfoss il (pollen) record of angiospeprms to assess the role of microfossils in an an alysis of early angiosperm diversity. 7. Use of mesofossils in order to understand fern taxa not previously known from the Cretaceous.

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5 CHAPTER 2 MATERIAL AND METHODS Three localities which are located in southwest Minnesota (Figure 2-1) — Courtland Clay Pit (lat. 4416'29" N, long. 9423' 13"W) (Plate 1, Figs. 1-2; Plate 2, Figs. 1-2), Highway 4 Clay Pit (lat. 4426'05" N, long. 9443'37"W) (Plate 5, Figs. 1-2) and Ochs Clay pit (lat. 4413'26" N, long. 9500'42" W) (Plate 3, Figs. 1-2; Plate 4, Figs. 1-2) are investigated in this res earch. I undertook my field work in the summer of 2003 (May 23-May 29) and the summer of 2004 (June 3-June 12). Five stratigra phic sections were measured. Pollen samples were collected vert ically at about 30 centimeter intervals from each of the sections sampled. At the Courtla nd Clay Pit 23 samples were collected, nine samples were processed and eight samples had abundant palynomorphs. At Highway 4 Clay Pit, 12 samples were collected, eight sa mples were processed, and three samples had abundant palynomorphs. At Ochs Clay Pit 27 samples were collected, eight samples were processed, and seven samples have abundant palynomorphs. The Canada Global Geolab processed 4 samples (sample 18297, 036690, 036708, and 036710) from Courtland Clay Pit in 2003 (see Appendix A for the processing methods used by Canada Global Geolab). I processed all of the other samples that I studied in this research my self in the chemical lab of the Paleobotany and Palynology Laboratory of the Florida Museum of Natu ral History during the summers of 2004 and 2005. In order to avoid any bias caused by th e different processing methods, I have also reprocessed all those samples originally pr ocessed by Canada Global Geolab (except for sample Courtland 18297).

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6 Figure 2-1. Map of Minnesota, showing thr ee localities in study area.(Scale 1:7,500,000) Processing methods for siliciclastic and lig nite samples are described below. Siliciclastic samples: 1. Crush a 10 g sample using a mortar and pestle. 2. Sieve a crushed sample using a tea strainer until the entire sample is sieved. 3. Put the crushed sample into a 1000 ml glass beaker and gradually add 25% HCL acid. If the reaction is too strong, add se veral drops of alcohol. Add enough of the 25% HCL acid to fill half of the beaker. At the same time, stir gently with a glass rod. 4. Cover the beaker with a Petri dish. 5. Wait about 2 hours until the sample has set tled and all effervescence has ceased. 6. Pour the waste acid out and wash with dist illed water until the slur ry is neutral. 7. Transfer the sample into a 600 ml plastic beaker and slowly pour100 ml of 49% HF acid into the slurry while stirring. Exercise caution when using HF. 8. After 6 hours, dump the waste acid and add 100 ml of 49% HF acid. 9. Wait for at least 3 days while stirring occasionally.

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7 10. Dump the waste acid and wash the sample using distilled water until the slurry is neutral. 11. Transfer the slurry into a 50 ml glass tube. 12. Add enough 25% HCL acid into the t ube to fill half of the tube. 13. Put the tube into a water bath (about 90C) for about 5 minutes. At the same time stir the sample occasionally. 14. Repeat this procedure at least 3 tim es until the supernatant is clear. 15. Oxidize the sample using the following procedure: First, pour enough 10% nitric acid into the tube to fill half of the tube Second, put the tube into a water bath for about 5 minutes while stirring occasi onally. Third, check one drop under the microscope. If strong oxidation is neede d, repeat the procedur e using 50% nitric acid. 16. After the oxidation procedure, wash the sample 3 times using distilled water. 17. Pour enough 5% ammonium hydroxide to fill half of the tube. 18. Wait about 5 minutes while stirring occasionally. 19. Check one drop under the microscope. 20. Wash with distilled water at least 3 ti mes or until the supern atant is clear. 21. If the slurry is gritty, pour enough zinc ch loride heavy liquid (specific gravity about 2.0) to fill half of the tube. 22. Centrifuge the sample for 30 to 40 minutes at 2000 rpm. 23. Pour out the top part of the mixture (h eavy liquid and organic residue) into a 250 ml beaker and dilute with distilled water. 24. Centrifuge for the mixture for 10 minutes at 2000 rpm. 25. Wash and centrifuge the residue for 10 minutes at 2000 rpm at least 3 times. 26. If the residue is full of fine organic pa rticles, add 10 ml of Darvan #1 solution and 20 ml of distilled wate r, stirring thoroughly. 27. Centrifuge for 1 minute under about at 1500 rpm.

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8 28. Dump the supernatant and repeat the pr evious step and this step until the supernatant is clear. If the palynomorphs are present in the supernatant, stop processing and keep the supernatant. 29. If using acetolysis, first wash with glacial acetic acid. Second, pour enough acetolysis mixture to fill half of the tube and put it into a hot bath (90 C) for 3 minutes. Third, wash with glacial acetic acid. Fourth, wash with distilled water 3 times. If staining with Safranin-O, first pour distilled water and one or two drops of HCL and Safranin-O into the tube and s tir. Second, wash with distilled water 3 times. 30. After acetolysis or staining, wash the sample using 50% glycerin. 31. Centrifuge for 10 minutes. 32. Place the tube upside down for at least half hour. The residual material is ready for making slides. Lignite samples: 1 Crush 2 g of lignite using a mortar and pestle. 2. Sieve the crushed sample using a tea stra iner to sieve until the entire sample is sieved. 3. Mix the crushed and sieved sample with 2 g of potassium chlorate in a 50 ml glass tube. 4. Add 5 cc of concentrated nitric acid drop by drop into the tube. 5. Wait for several hours and check if the palynomorphs are visible. 6. Centrifuge and decant the supernatant. 7. Add 5% KOH and place into a water bath (90 C) for 3-5 minutes. At the same time checking frequently the condi tion of the palynomorphs. 8. Centrifuge and wash 3 times. 9. If the palynomorphs are not well concen trated, use heavy liquid to process the sample using the same procedure used to c oncentrate the silicicalstic rock sample. 10. If the palynomorphs are not transparent enough, add 10% n itric acid to the sample and place it into a water bath (90C) for 3 minutes.

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9 11. Use the same procedures (ammonium hydroxide, Darvan #1, 1% Safranin-O staining and acetolysis) used to process the silicicalstic rock samples. The procedures for slide preparation follows: 1. Throughly mix a small amount of gly cerol gelatin with the residue. 2. Put one drop onto a microscope slide (size: 3 x 1 x 1mm). 3. Cover the sample with a number 1 cover glass (size: 22 x 30 x 1). 4. Place the slide on a warming table to make sure the residue spreads evenly. 5. Prepare at least 3 slides for each sample. 6. Label slides as soon as possibl e to avoid loss of data. At least two slides were s canned in order to build a catalogue of pollen and spore types for each sample. When making polle n count, at least 300 palynomorphs were counted. A ZEISS Axiophot™ microscope and an AxioCam digital camera and imaging capturing software were used for the pal ynomorph identification and photography. Slides are stored in the Paleobotany and Palynol ogy Collection of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida, USA. Pollen and spore identifica tion were made through comparisons with images and descriptions in published papers and the holotype materials of Hedlund, Richard .W. which are deposited in the Sam Noble Oklahom a Museum of Natural History. Published papers on the Western Interior Seaway, Atlantic Coastal Plai n and Gulf Coast were used as primary reference sources for palynomo rph identification (Bergad, 1973; Brenner, 1963, 1967; Burden and Hills, 1989; Hedlund, 1966; Norris, 1967; Phillips and Felix, 1972a, 1972b; Pierce, 1961; Ravn and Witzki, 1995; Singh, 1964, 1971, 1983; Srivastava, 1992; Tschudy, 1973; Wa rd, 1986). Other papers also included in this work from similar age sediments from other parts of the world include Below, 1984; Couper,

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10 1953; Davey, 1969, 1970; Dettmann, 1963, 1973; Jarz en, 1979; Srivastava, 1975; Zippi, 1998. Methods used for the mesofossils that were isolated from organic rich clay samples are given in Chapter 9.

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11 CHAPTER 3 PREVIOUS WORK Along the eastern margin of the Western In terior Seaway (WIS), Pierce described 103 species of spores and pollen which he recovered from the lowermost upper Cretaceous of Minnesota (Pierce, 1961). He did not consider the sedimentary facies. Farley and Dilcher (1986) undertook resear ch concerning the relationships between miospores and depositional environments of the Dakota Formation from north-central Kansas and adjacent Nebraska. They chose f our different sedimentary facies from three localities. They presented the pollen and spore flora f ound, but did not consider the vegetation succession through time. Ravn (1981) made preliminary observations of the palynology of the Upper Dakota Formation lignites in northwestern Iowa and northeastern Nebraska and described 125 pal ynomorph species. Later Ravn and Witzke (1995) published their palynostratigraphic res earch of the Dakota Formation from the same area, focusing on biostratigraphy. On the western margin of the WIS, May and Traverse (1973) undertook the palynological investigation of the Dakota Formation in Willis Creek Canyon, Paunsaugunt Plateau, near Bryce Canyon, Uta h. About 40 genera and 125 species of palynomorphs were identified. Although th ese authors mentioned the sedimentary environments in their abstract, detailed disc ussion and identification of the sedimentary environments were not presented in their paper. Therefore it is not possible to correlate any relationship between palynomorphs and the sedimentary environments.

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12 Agasie (1969) studied palynomorphs from the middle carbonaceous member of the Dakota Sandstone in northeastern Arizona. About 39 species of palynomorphs were recovered. Fern spores domi nated the assemblage, while gymnosperm pollen was rare. Agasie indicated that ferns and angiosperm s probably dominated the coal swamps with minor gymnosperm presence. In the same way, Romans (1975) studied the palynomorphs recovered from coal seams of the Dakota Sandstone in Black Mesa, Arizona. There were 62 pollen and spore species in the Dako ta Sandstone. Fern spores dominated the assemblage with angiosperm pollen being the least abundant in the assemblage. Moreover, Romans (1975) did not give any spec ific placement of the coalforming swamp on the Dakota landscape and its sedimentary environments. Hedlund (1966) studied the palynology of the Red Br anch Member of the Woodbine Formation (Dakota equivalent), in Oklahom a. He reported 74 forms of spores and pollen grains in the Red Branch palynological assemblage. Fe rn spores and angiosperm pollen dominate the assemblage. Hedlund noted that th e sedimentary environment was probably nonmarine because of the absence of marine palynomorphs. Cretaceous palynomorphs from Atlantic Coas tal Plain were very important for this research. Brenner (1963) investigated the palynomorphs of the Potomac Group identifying about 125 palynomorph taxa. Two major zones were divided based upon palynological characteristics. Later, Doyle and Robbins (1977) undertook further palynological research in the Atlantic Coasta l Plain and suggested five major zones based upon the changes observed in the assembla ges of angiosperm pollen through the reconstructed section.

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13 CHAPTER 4 SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY Angiosperm Pollen Anteturma POLLENITES Potonie 1931 Turma PLICATES Naumova emend. Potonie, 1960 Subturma MONOCOLPATES Iversen & Troels-Smith, 1950 Genus Clavatipollenites Couper, 1958 Type species: Clavatipollenites hughesii Couper, 1958. Clavatipollenites tenellis Phillips & Felix 1972 Plate 6, Figs. 1-3 Pollen grains free, monosulcat e; circular to subcircula r; exine 2.5 m, two layered, nexine about 1 m, sexine coarse columell ae, pila with a big head (about 0.5 m in diameter), pila head link together; reticulate lumina ca. 1min diameter, irregular. Dimensions : 28 m (1 grain). Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : Albian, Louisana (Phillips and Felix 1972b); Albian and Cenomanian, Atlantic Coastal Plain, US A (Doyle and Robbins 1977); and Cenomanian, northwestern Alberta (Singh 1983). Clavatipollenites sp.2 Plate 6, Figs. 4-6 Pollen grains free, monosulcat e; circular to subcircula r; exine 1 m, two layered, sexine columellate, pila dense, pila head link together; micr oreticulate, lumina less than 0.5 m in diameter. Dimensions : 20(24)28 m (2 grains). Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit. ? Clavatipollenites sp.3 Plate 6, Figs. 7-9 Pollen grains free, monosulcat e; circular to subcircular; sulcus narrow, often split into two halves; exine 2 m, two layered, sexi ne columellate, pila dense, pila head not developed; granulate to microfoveolate. Dimensions : 24(27)29 m (4 grains). Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Liliacidites Couper, 1953 Type species: Liliacidites kaitangataensis Couper, 1953.

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14 Liliacidites sinuatus Hu, sp. nov. Plate 6, Figs. 10-13 Pollen grains free, monosulcate; elliptic al, sulcus wide; exine 2 m, two layered, sexine columellate, pila rare and thick, ca. 1 wide; reticulate, lumina ca. 4-7 m in diameter, elongate to irregular, mu ri sinuous, ca. 0.6 m wide. Dimensions : 18(22)25 x 33(34)34 m (2 grains) Holotype : 046535-PY02A, Y39/1 Remarks : This species is distinct from other species of Liliacidites by its sinuous muri and relatively large lumina. Liliacidites crassatus differs in having smaller lumina (1 to 2.5 m). Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit Name derivation : The species name sinuatus from the Latin sinuous meaning full of bendings. Liliacidites giganteus Singh 1983 Plate 6, Fig. 14 Pollen grains free, monosulcate; elliptic al, sulcus not clea r; exine 2.5 m, two layered, sexine columellate, pila head fused together by membrane; reticulate, lumina ca. 1-6 m in diameter, polygonal, muri ca. 1.2 m wide, with a single row of granules on the muri surface. Dimensions : 48 x 76 m (1 grain) Remarks : There are two rows of granules on the muri for the holotype (Singh 1983). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : Cenomanian, northwestern Alberta (Singh 1983). Liliacidites cf. reticulatus (Brenner) Singh 1971 Plate 6, Figs. 15-19; Plate 7, Figs. 1, 2 Pollen grains free, monosulcate; ellip tical, sulcus narrow and long, reaching to margin; exine 2 m, two layered, sexine co lumellate, pila ca. 1.5 m high, pila fused together by membrane; reticulate, lumina ca. 1-2 m in diameter, polygonal, muri ca. 0.5 m. Dimensions : 19(20)23 x 22(24)28 m (5 grains) Remarks : Compared with the holotype desc ribed by Brenner ( 1963), the lumina are smaller, muri are narrower, and grain si ze is slightly bigger fo r this species. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit and Highway 4 Clay Pit. Distribution : Barremian to Albian, Maryland (Brenner 1963); Albian, Oklahoma (Hedlund and Norris 1968); and middle to la te Albian, northwestern Alberta (Singh 1971). Liliacidites cf. inaequalis Singh 1971 Plate 7, Figs. 3, 4 Pollen grains free, monosulcate; sulcus wide open; exine 1-2 m, two layered, sexine columellate, nexine le ss than 0.5 m; reticulate, lumina ca. 2-3 m in diameter, polygonal, lumina size decreasi ng toward poles, there are gr anules on the muri. Dimensions : 15 (16) 18 x 22 (24) 26 m (3 grains)

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15 Remarks : The lumina are 3 to 6 m in the middle region for the holotype of L. inaequalis (Singh 1971). Also the size of L. inaequalis is larger than this species. Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit. Liliacidites sp.2 Plate 7, Figs. 5-7 Pollen grains free, monosulcate; sulcus wi de open; exine 1 m, two layered, sexine columellate, pila rare, not clear; reticulate lumina ca. 1-4 min diameter, size uneven, polygonal, muri width eve n, ca. 0.5 m wide. Dimensions: 21 m (1 grain) Remarks: It differs from Liliacidites sp.3 in its thinner ex ine and absence of the small fovea on the muri. It differs from Liliacidites sp.5 in its smaller lumina and thinner exine. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Liliacidites sp.3 Plate 7, Figs. 8-10 Pollen grains free, monosulcate; elliptic al, sulcus wide open; exine 2 m, two layered, sexine columellate, pila rare and th ick, ca. 0.5 m wide; reticulate, lumina ca. 0.5-4 m in diameter, elliptical to round to polygonal, muri with occasional small fovea. Dimensions : 15(21)31 x 19(30)43 m (11 grains) Remarks : It is distinct from other species of Liliacidites in its small fovea on the muri. Liliacidites sp.3 is similar to in situ pollen of early or middle Albian wellpreserved flower Virginianthus calycanthoides from the Puddledock locality, Virginia (Friis et al., 1994) in shape, aperture, and or namentation. Friis et al. (1994) suggested that these in situ polle n grains are similar to Clavatipollenites However the typical features of Clavatipollenites such as lumina size 1 m or less and closely spaced pilate columellae (Burden and Hills, 1989) were absent on these in situ pollen grains which possess sparse and short columellae (Friis et al., 1994). The only difference is that Liliacidites sp.3 (which is 21 x 30 m) is larger than in situ pollen of Virginianthus calycanthoides (which is 18 m in diameter). Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit Liliacidites sp.4 Plate 7, Figs. 11-13 Pollen grains free, monosulcat e; circular to subcircular, sulcus not clear; exine 1.52.5 m, two layered, nexine thicker than sexine sexine columellate, short pila with big pila head (ca. 0.5 m in diameter); reticula te, lumina ca. 0.5-2 m in diameter, polygonal, muri ca. 0.5 m wide, with granules on it. Dimensions : 29(37)48 m (9 grains) Remarks : It is very similar to Retimonocolpites reticulates Brenner, 1963. But its size (17-22 m) is much smaller than Liliacidites sp.4. It also differs from other species in its circular shape and granules on the muri Although there are granules on the muri of Liliacidites cf. inaequalis except for its oval shape, its size and lumina are smaller than Liliacidites sp.4. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit

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16 Liliacidites sp.5 Plate 8, Figs. 1-3 Pollen grains free, monosulcat e; circular to subcircular, sulcus narrow; exine 2 m, two layered, sexine columellate pila rare; reticulate, lumina ca. 1-7 m in diameter, polygonal to ovate, there are small granules on muri. Dimensions : 20 (23) 25 x 23 (24) 25 m (2 grains) Remarks : Although there are gran ules on the muri of Liliacidites cf. inaequalis and Liliacidites sp.4, the large lumina of Liliacidites sp.5 can differentiate from them. It differs from others in th is study in its larger lumina and granules on the muri. Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit. Genus Retimonocolpites Pierce, 1961 Type species: Retimonocolpites dividuus Pierce, 1961. Retimonocolpites dividuus Pierce 1961 Plate 8, Fig. 4 Pollen grains free, monosulcate; amb ci rcular to subcircu lar, colpi long and straight, somewhat raised; exine 1.5 m, two layered, nexine about 1 m, sexine columellate, pila short about 0.5 m high; reticulate, lumina 0.5-1.5 m in diameter, polygonal. Dimensions : 32(35)38 m (2 grains). Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : Albian to Cenomanian, North America and Europe (Ravn and Witzke, 1995). Genus Spinizonocolpites Muller, 1968 Type species: Spinizonocolpites echinatus Muller, 1968. ? Spinizonocolpites sp. Plate 8, Figs. 5, 6 Pollen grains free, with enci rcling colpus (?); subcircula r to elliptical, sulcus not clear; exine 1 m, two layered not clear; scab rate, with short spines (ca. 3 m). Dimensions : 25 m (1 grain). Remarks: This pollen type has often b een compared with extant Nypa fruticans of the Palmae (Germeraad et al., 1968). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Stellatopollis Doyle, 1975 Type species: Stellatopollis barghoornii Doyle, 1975. Stellatopollis largissimus Singh 1983 Plate 8, Fig.7 Pollen grains free, monosulcat e; elliptical, sulcus long and extending nearly the full length of the grain; exine 4 m, two layered, sexine columellate; reticulate, each lumen surrounded by 4-8 clavate projections, the projection ca. 3 m high, the head of

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17 projection ca. 1.5 m in diameter, subtriangular the head of projections form a crotonoid sculptural pattern in surface view. Dimensions : 64 x 123 m (1 grain). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : Cenomanian, northwestern Alberta (Singh 1983). Stellatopollis sp. Plate 8, Fig. 8 Pollen grains free, monosulcate; elliptic al, sulcus not clea r in this single occurrence; exine 1 m, two layered, sexine columellate, pila very short; reticulate, lumina ca. 1-1.5 m, forming an indis tinct crotonoid sculptural pattern. Dimensions : 38 x 53 m (1 grain). Remarks: This grain differs from Stellatopollis largissimus Singh 1983 in its smaller size and indistinct crotonoid sculptural pattern. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Doyleipollenites Ravn & Witzke, 1995 Type species: Doyleipollenites robbinsiae Ravn & Witzke, 1995 Doyleipollenites robbinsiae Ravn & Witzke, 1995 Plate 8, Figs. 9-11 Pollen grains free, trichotomo sulate; subtriangular, rays of sulcus extending to or entire of the radius and thickened; exine 1.5 m, two layered, sexine ca. 1 m; foveolate to reticulate, lumina uneven, ca. 0.5-1 m, lumi na are larger in inte rradial areas (ca. 1 m) and decrease near th e sulcus (ca. 0.5 m). Dimensions : 22(27)34 m (7 grains) Remarks: The lumina are smaller than the holotype (which is 1-3 m). Doyleipollenites robbinsiae is similar to in situ pollen associated with Early or Middle Albian fruiting units Anacostia virginiensis from the Puddledock locality, Virginia (Friis et al., 1997) in shape, aperture, and ornamenta tion. Only difference between them is that Doyleipollenites robbinsiae with a diameter of 22(27)34 m, is larger than in situ pollen on a fruiting units Anacostia virginiensis which is 12(13)15 m in diameter. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : ?upper Albian, Atlantic Coasta l Plain, United States (Doyle 1973); ?middle Albian to ?lower Cenomanian, Atlant ic Coastal Plain, Unite d States (Doyle and Robbins 1977); ?lower to upper Cenomania n, northwestern Iowa and northeastern Nebraska (Ravn and Witzke 1995). Turma JUGATES Erdtman, 1943 Subturma TETRADITES Cookson, 1947 Genus Artiopollis Agasie, 1969, emend. Type species: Artiopollis indivisus Agasie, 1969. Artiopollis indivisus Agasie, 1969 Plate 8, Fig. 12; Plate 9, Figs. 1-7

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18 Pollen in tetrads, following FisherÂ’s law; pollen grain tricol pate, isopolar; amb circular to subcircular; exine ca. 2 m, two layered, sexine columellate, with dense pila; microreticulate, lumina about 0.5 m in diameter. Dimensions : For entire tetrad 17(23)31 m (10 tetrads); for individual pollen grain 9(15)19 m (9 grains). Occurrence : Ochs Clay pit. Remarks : The exine of specimens recovered from Ochs Clay Pit is somewhat thinner (2 m) than that of the holotype (2.5 to 3 m). Subturma TRIPTYCHA Naumova, 1939 Genus Cupuliferoidaepollenites Potonie, Thomson, & Thiergart, 1950 Type species: Cupuliferoidaepollenites liblarensis Thomson in Potonie, Thomson, & Thiergart, 1950. Cupuliferoidaepollenites sp Plate 10, Figs. 4-7 Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate, prolate to perprolate (P/E=1.25-2.38), amb circular to subcircular; tricolpate, colpi ne arly extending to the pol es, somewhat raised, apocolpia small; exine thin, ca. 0.6-1 m, two layered, nexine very thin, sexine scabrate. Dimensions : equatorial view 7(11)17 m x 10( 16)25 m (10 grains); polar view 12(16)22 m (5 grains). Remarks : This species may be similar to Psilatricolpites psilatus Pierce, 1961. It differs from P. psilatus (21 x 29 m) in being smaller. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Foveotricolpites Pierce, 1961 Type species: Foveotricolpites sphaeroides Pierce, 1961. Foveotricolpites sp. Plate 10, Figs. 8-10 Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate (P/E =1.14-1.2), amb circular to subcircular; tricolpate, colpi nearly extending to the poles not straight, apocolpia small; exine ca. 1.5 m, two layered, sexine foveolate, fov ea irregular to elongate, 0.5-1.5 m, fovea becoming smaller and fewer toward colpi and poles. Dimensions : equatorial view 30(33)35 x 36(38)40 m (2 grains); polar view 30 m (1 grain). Remarks : This species may be similar to Foveotricolpites concinnus Singh, 1971. But fovea are angular and equidimensional to occasionally elongated (1-2 m) in F. concinnus Also, fovea size is relatively c onstant toward colpi and poles in F. concinnus This species is distinct from Foveotricolpites sphaeroides in its larger size and the unthickened aperture margin. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Fraxinoipollenites Potonie 1951 ex Potonie 1960 Type species: Fraxinoipollenites pudicus (Potonie) Potonie 1951

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19 Fraxinoipollenites constrictus (Pierce) Chlonova, 1976 Plate 10, Figs. 11-15 Pollen grains free, isopolar; prolate (P/E= 1.37-1.94), amb circular to subtriangular, tricolpate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, ragged, apocolpia small; exine 1.5m, two layered, nexine thinner than se xine, sexine columellate; sexi ne microfoveolate, fovea less than 0.5 m and faint. Dimensions : equatorial view 18(24)34 x 28(38) 48 m (11 grains); polar view 30(35)38 m (5 grains). Remarks : Fraxinoipollenites constrictus was described as “sculpture of small, close-spaced baculae” (Pierce 1961). Singh (198 3) indicated that it is microfoveolate. Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit and Courtland Clay Pit and Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : ? Cenomanian, Minnesota (Pie rce 1961); Cenomanian, Alberta (Singh 1983); and lower to middle Cenoman ian, northwestern Iowa and northeastern Nebraska (Ravn and Witzke, 1995). Genus Rousea Srivastava, 1969 Type species: Rousea subtilis Srivastava, 1969. Rousea cf. delicipollis Srivastava, 1975 Plate 10, Figs. 16-18 Pollen grains free, isopolar; prolate (P/E =1.64), tricolpate, apocolpia small; exine 0.8 m, exine thickness decreasing toward colp i, two layered, sexi ne columellate, pila rare and short, but with thick pila head, ca. 0.5 m wide; reticulate to foveolate, lumina 0.3-1.5 m, irregular to elongate, lumina size decreasing toward colpi and poles. Dimensions : equatorial view 14 x 23 m (1 grain), polar view 16(23)35 m (7 grains). Remarks : The lumina are circular in Rousea delicipollis But lumina are irregular to elongate in the specimens described here. Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit and Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Satishia Ward, 1986 Type species: Satishia glyceia Ward, 1986. Satishia sp. Plate 10, Figs. 19-20 Pollen grains free, isopolar; tricolpate, colpi ragged, apocolpia small; exine 1 m, two layered not clear; sexine microreticulate, lumina 0.5-1 m, lumina decreasing toward colpi not poles. Dimensions : 28 m (1 grain). Remarks: It differs from Rousea in that the lumina of Rousea become finer toward the poles and toward the colpi margins. The type species Satishia glyceia Ward 1986 has larger (1.3-2.8 m) lumina compared with specimen (lumina 0.5-1 m) described here. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Striatopollis Krutzsch, 1959 Type species: Striatopollis sarstedtensis Krutzsch, 1959.

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20 Striatopollis paraneus (Norris) Singh, 1971 Plate 11, Figs. 1-6 Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate (P/E =1.2), amb circular to subcircular; tricolpate, colpi nearly extending to the pol es, apocolpia small; exine ca. 0.8 m, two layered, nexine very thin; st riato-reticulate, striate ridge ca. 0.3 m wide, lumina equidimensional, ca. 0.3 m in diameter, lumina arranged into rows between striae, striae closely spaced, ca. 0.3 m apart. Dimensions : equatorial view 15 x 18 m (1 gr ain); polar view 21 m (1 grain). Remarks: Striatopollis paraneus is similar to in situ pollen of early Cenomanian inflorescence Spanomera mauldinensis which was discovered at Mauldin Mountain locality of Maryland (Friis et al., 1991), in size, aperture, and the unique ornamentation. Drinnan et al. (1991) indicated that the in situ pollen grains of Spanomera mauldinensis were comparable to the dispersed pollen species Striatopollis paraneus Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : Middle and late Albian, central Alberta (Norris 1967); Albian, Oklahoma (Hedlund and Norris, 1968); and middl e and late Albian, northwestern Alberta (Singh 1971), Cenomanian, Bathurst Islands, No rthern Territory and Mornington Islands, Queensland, Australia (Dettmann 1973). Genus Tricolpites Cookson ex Couper, 1953 Type species: Tricolpites reticulatus Cookson, 1947. Tricolpites labeonis Hu, sp. nov. Plate 11, Figs. 7-15 Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate, prolate (P/E=1.21-2), amb circular to subcircular; tricolpate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, apocolpia small; exine thin, ca. 0.5 m, two layered, sexine columellate, pila ve ry short; microreticulat e, lumina less than 0.5 m. SEM studies have shown that there is an about 0.7 m wide margin along the colpi on which the lumina are small (less than 0.1 m in diameter) and rare or absent. Dimensions : equatorial view 6(10)14 x 9(14)19 m (14 grains); polar view 18 m (1 grain). Holotype : 046526-PY03A, Y37 Remarks : Tricolpites labeonis Hu is similar to Tricolpites minutus in size and ornamentation, but it is differentiated from Tricolpites minutus by its narrow margin along the colpi on which lumina are rare, tiny or absent. Tricolpites labeonis is also similar to in situ pollen of early to middle Albian flower Aquia brookensis from “Bank near Brooke” locality, Virginia, in shape, size, and ornament ation, especially the feature of lumina diminishing in size and becoming more scattered along the margin of colpi (Crane et al., 1993). The only difference is that the verrucate surface of colpi membrane for in situ pollen of Aquia brookensis is absent in Tricolpites labeonis Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Name derivation : Species name labeonis is from Latin, meaning large lips. Tricolpites nemejci Pacltova 1971 Plate 12, Figs. 1-3

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21 Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate to perprolate (P/E=1.16-2.06), amb circular to subcircular, tricolpate, colpi nearly exte nding to the poles, apocolpia small; exine 1.5 m, two layered, sexine columellate, with de nse pila; microreticulate, lumina 0.2-0.6 m in diameter, irregular, circular to elongate. Dimensions : equatorial view 17(19)21 m x 22( 27)35 m (10 grains); polar view 21(26)31 m (4 grains). Remarks : Compared with Tricolpites cf. vulgaris this species has a thicker exine, dense pila, and small lumina. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : Cenomanian, Czech Republic (Pacltova 1971); Lower Cenomanian, Atlantic Coastal Plain (Doyle and Robbi ns 1977); upper Albian, Kansas (Ward 1986); middle Cenomanian, northwestern Iowa and nor theastern Nebraska (Ravn and Witzke 1995). Tricolpites cf. vulgaris (Pierce) Srivastava, 1969 Plate 12, Figs. 4-7 Pollen grains free, isopolar; prolate (P /E=1.64), amb circular to subcircular; tricolpate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, apocolpia small; exine thin, ca. 1 m, two layered, sexine columellate; sexine reticulat e, lumina polygonal to elongate, 0.5-1 m in diameter. Dimensions : equatorial view 11(14)19 x 16(20)24 m (5 grains). Distribution : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit and Ochs Clay Pit. Tricolpate sp.4 Plate 12, Figs. 8-10 Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate to prolate (P/E=1.16-1.55) amb circular to subcircular, tricolpate, colpi nearly extendi ng to the poles, apocolpia small; exine 1-2 m, thickness uneven, two layered, sexine columellate with few pila, pila head small, less than 0.5 m in diameter; reticu late, lumina 0.5-5 m in diamet er, muri thin less than 0.5 m in width. Dimensions : equatorial view 11(15)18 x 17(21)24 m (3 grains); polar view 15 m (1 grain). Remarks : This species can be differentiated from Tricolpites cooksonae in following features: 1. T. cooksonae has smaller lumina (0.4-1.8 m). 2. T. cooksonae shows granules on muri. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit. Tricolpate sp.7 Plate 12, Figs. 11-13 Pollen grains free, isopolar; amb circular to subcircular, tricolpate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, colpi edge slightly ragged, apocolpia small; exine ca. 1 m, two layered, nexine very thin, le ss than 0.5 m; sexine microf oveolate, fovea less than 0.5 m. Dimensions : polar view 17(18)18 m (2 grains). Remarks: It differs from other tricolpate type species encounted in this research in its smaller size (18 m), ragged colpi, and microfoveolate sexine.

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22 Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit. Tricolpate sp.8 Plate 12, Figs. 14-16 Pollen grains free, isopolar; amb triangular, tricolpate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, apocolpia small; exine thin, ca. 0.8 m, two layered, nexine and sexine 0.4 m each; sexine scabrate to faint granulate. Dimensions : polar view 23(26)28 m (2 grains). Remarks: It differs from other tricolpate type species encounted in this research in its scabrate to faint granulate sexine. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Tricolpate sp.10 Plate 12, Figs. 17-19 Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate to prolate (P/E=1.2-1.89) amb circular to subcircular, tricolpate, colpi nearly extendi ng to the poles, apocolpia small; exine 2.5 m, two layered, sexine columellate, with dense pi la; reticulate to fove olate, lumina 0.5-1 m in diameter between colpi and less than 0.5 m toward colpi, i rregular, polygonal to elongate, muri relatively thick ca. 0.5 m and with granules (ca. 0.3 m) on it. Dimensions : equatorial view 14(21)32 x 19(29)40 m (9 grains); polar view 46 m (1 grain). Remarks: It differs from other tricolpate type sp ecies in this research in its larger size (21 x 29 m) and thick muri with granules on it. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Tricolpate sp.11 Plate 12, Figs. 20-22 Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprol ate (P/E=1.27-1.33), amb circular to subcircular, tricolpate, colpi nearly exte nding to the poles, apocolpia small; exine 0.8-1 m, two layered, sexine columellate, with shor t pila; microreticulat e to microfoveolate, lumina uneven, 0.2-0.8 m in diameter, lumina size decreasing toward colpi and poles. Dimensions : equatorial view 11(12)12 x 14(15) 16 m (2 grains); polar view 11(13)14 m (2 grains). Remarks: It differs from other tricolpate type sp ecies in this research in its smaller size (13 m), microreticulate to microfoveolat e, and lumina decrea sing toward colpi and poles. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit. Tricolpate sp.12 Plate 13, Figs. 1-3 Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprol ate (P/E=1.15-1.22), amb circular to subcircular, tricolpate, colpi nearly extendi ng to the poles, apocolpia small; exine 1m, two layered, sexine columellate rare pila, with thick pila head (ca. 0.5 m), reticulate, lumina uneven, 0.5-1.5 m in diameter, irre gular, muri narrow, ca. 0.2 m wide. Dimensions : equatorial view 13(16)18 m x 15(19) 22 m (2 grains); polar view 14 m (1 grain).

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23 Remarks: It differs from other tricolpate type species in this research in its reticulate with uneven lumina (0.5-1.5 m), and thick pila head (ca. 0.5 m). Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Tricolpate sp.14 Plate 13, Figs. 4-6 Pollen grains free, isopolar, prolate (P/E =1.46-1.67), tricolpate, colpi straight and nearly extending to the poles, apocolpia small; exine 1 m, two layered, sexine columellate, pila not perpendicular to nexine; microfoveolate, fovea less than 0.5 m in diameter. Dimensions : equatorial view 9(11)13 m x 15(18)20 m (3 grains). Remarks: It differs from other tricolpate type sp ecies in this research in its smaller size (11 x 18 m), straight colpi, and tilted pila. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Subturma PTYCHOTRIPORINES Naumova, 1939 Genus Dryadopollis Srivastava, 1975 Type species: Dryadopollis argus Srivastava, 1975. Dryadopollis minnesotensis Hu, sp. nov. Plate 13, Figs. 7-14; Plate 14, Fig. 1 Pollen grains free, isopolar; prolate s pheroidal, subprolate to prolate (P/E=1.111.88), tricolporate, apocolpia small; exine 1 m two layered, sexine columellate, pila short size; microreticulate, lumina 0.1-1 m muri ca. 0.5 m wide, lumina decreasing toward colpi and poles, ora small, about 0.8 m in diameter. Dimensions : equatorial view 8(15)19 m x 15( 19)23 m (5 grains), polar view 16(17)19 m (13 grains). Holotype : 036694-PY01A, S31/1 Remarks : This species is distinct from Dryadopollis argus Srivastava, 1975, and Dryadopollis vestalis Ward, 1986, in its smaller lumina a nd ora, and thinner exine. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Name derivation : minnesotensis is from the state name “Minnesota” where the fossil pollen was recovered. Dryadopollis minutus Hu, sp. nov. Plate 14, Figs. 2-4 Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate (P/E=1.11-1.88), tricolporate, apocolpia small; exine thin, ca. 0.5 m, two layered, se xine columellate, pila very short size; microreticulate, lumina 0.1-0.5 m, muri ca. 0.2 m wide, lumina decreasing toward colpi and poles. Dimensions : equatorial view 8 x 10 m (1 grain), polar view 9(10)10 m (2 grains). Holotype : 036704-PY01A, L41 Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Remarks: It is similar to Dryadopollis argus but its size and lumina are smaller. Name derivation : Species name minutus indicating the grain is very small.

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24 Genus Foveotricolporites Pierce, 1961 Type species: Foveotricolporites rhombohedralis Pierce, 1961. Foveotricolporites rhombohedralis Pierce, 1961 Plate 14, Figs. 5-10 Pollen grains free, isopolar; prolate sphe roidal, spheroidal, s ubprolate to prolate (P/E=1.03-1.55), amb circular to subcircular; tricolporate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, pore ca. 6 m, apocolpia small; exine ca. 2.5 m, two layered, nexine ca. 1 m, sexine coarse columellae, head of pila fu sed together; foveolate, fovea irregular to elongate, 0.5-1 m. Dimensions : equatorial view 20(27)31 m x 31( 34)39 m (4 grains); polar view 42(47)51 m (4 grains). Remarks : Caprifoliipites acopus Ward, 1986, has similar features, but its size is smaller (15-18 x 19-24 m) and its fovea size is larger (1.3-2 m). Also, the fovea become smaller toward the colp i and poles in some specimens recovered in Minnesota. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit. cf. Foveotricolporites sp. Plate 14, Figs. 11-13 Pollen grains free, isopolar; prolate (P /E=1.58), amb circular to subcircular, tricolporate, colpi nearly extending to the pol es, slightly raised, apocolpia small; exine ca. 2.5 m, two layered, sexine decreasing to ward colpi and nexine increasing toward colpi in thickness; foveolate, fovea ca. 0.5 m. Dimensions : equatorial view 19 x 30 m (1 gr ain); polar view 27 m (1 grain). Remarks : It is similar to Foveotricolporites sp., but the wall stru cture is different. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Phimopollenites Dettmann 1973 Type species Phimopollenites pannosus (Dettmann and Playford) Dettmann 1973 Phimopollenites striolata Hu, sp. nov. Plate 14, Figs. 14-21; Plate 15, Figs. 1-3 Pollen grains free, isopolar; prolate s pheroidal, subprolate to prolate (P/E=1.061.62), amb circular to subcircu lar; tricolporoidate, colp i slightly ragged and raised, apocolpia small; exine 1-2 m, two layere d, nexine thinner than sexine, sexine columellate, pila dense with expended pila h ead; sexine microreticul ate, lumina less than 0.5 m. SEM studies have indica ted that there are striates on the inner wall of lumina. Dimensions : equatorial view 12(14)19 x 16(19) 21 m (10 grains); polar view 15(18)24 m (7 grains). Holotype : 046517-A1, + 10 , N29/3 Remarks : This species has striate structure (muri with weak, transverse striations) on the inner wall of lumina that is different from other species of Phimopollenites as seen in SEM images. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit and Ochs Clay Pit. Name derivation : Species name striolata is from Latin, diminutive for furrow.

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25 Genus Nyssapollenites Thiergart 1937 Type species Nyssapollenites pseudocruciatus (Potonie) Thiergart 1937 Nyssapollenites sp. Plate 15, Figs. 4-12 Pollen grains free, isopolar; prolate sphe roidal, subprolate to prolate (P/E=1-1.56), amb circular to subcircular; tricolporate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, pore ca. 1m, apocolpia small; exine ca. 0.8-1 m, two la yered; sexine scabrate to microfoveolate, fovea very small. Dimensions : equatorial view 9(11)14 x 11(14) 17 m (7 grains); polar view 11(14)15 m (3 grains). Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit. Remark : This species is distinct from Nyssapollenites albertensis Singh, which has a larger pore (ca. 2.5 m) and thickened pore and colpi margin. Tricolporate sp.2 Plate 16, Figs. 1-3 Pollen grains free, isopolar; spheroidal, subprolate, to prolate (P/E=1.12-1.58), amb circular to subcircular; tr icolporate, colpi nearly extendi ng to the poles, pore ca. 1.5 x 3 m, apocolpia small; exine ca. 1 m, two laye red; sexine striate, striae ca. 0.5m wide. Dimensions : equatorial view 19(25)30 x 17(18) 19 m (2 grains); polar view 15(17)19 m (2 grains). Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Psilatricolporites Van der Hammen, 1956 ex van der Hammen and Wijmstra, 1964 Type Species: Psilatricolporites operculatus van der Hammen and Wijmstra, 1964 Psilatricolporites subtilis (Groot, Penny and Groot) Singh 1983 Plate 16, Fig. 4 Pollen grains free, isopolar; subprolate (P/E =1.27), amb circular to subcircular; tricolporoidate, colpi nearly extending to the poles, raised, pore not clear, apocolpia small; exine thin, ca. 1 m, two layered; sexine psilate to scabrate. Dimensions : equatorial view 11 x 14 m (1 grain); polar view 11(12)12 m (2 grains). Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Remarks : This species is distinct from P. distinctus which has larger pores (ca. 2m). Distribution : Cenomanian to Coniacian, easter n United States (Groot, Penny and Groot 1961); Cenomanian, Atlantic Coastal Plain of United States (Brenner 1967); Cenomanian to Coniaci an, Alberta (Singh 1983). Gymnosperm Pollen Anteturma POLLENITES Potonie Turma SACCITES Erdtman Subturma DISACCITES Cookson

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26 Genus Alisporites Daugherty, 1941 Type species: Alisporites opii Daugherty, 1941. Alisporites rotundus Rouse, 1959 Plate 16, Fig. 5 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus ellipsoidal to subspherical, microreticulate, proximal cap ca. 3.5 m; sacci coarser re ticulate, lumina 14 m, polygonal. Dimensions: Overall breadth 45(77)112 m (5 specimens). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : ? upper Jurassic, western Canada (Rouse 1959); middle Albian, eastcentral Alberta (Singh 1964). Genus Cedripites Wodehouse, 1933 Type species: Cedripites eocenicus Wodehouse, 1933 Cedripites cretaceous Pocock 1962 Plate 16, Fig. 6 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus ellipsoidal, proximal cap ca. 4 m thick, reticulate to granulate; sacci reticulate, lumina 1-3 m, irregular and uneven. Dimensions : Overall breadth 95 m; overall height 69 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : McMurray Formation, Alberta (P ocock 1962); middle Albian, eastcentral Alberta (Singh 1964); Al bian to ? Cenomanian, central Alberta (Norris 1967); and middle to late Albian, nort hwestern Alberta (Singh 1971). Cedripites sp. Plate 16, Fig. 7 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus ellipsoidal, proximal cap ca. 2 m thick, reticulate; sacci distally pendant, sacci reticulate, lumina 13 m, irregular and uneven. Dimensions : Overall breadth 88 m; overall height 58 m; sacci height 33 m; sacci depth 55 m (1 specimen). Remarks: It can be distinguished from Cedripites canadensis by the reticulate proximal cap surface. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Parvisacites Couper, 1958 Type species: Parvisacites radiatus Couper, 1958. Parvisaccites radiatus Couper 1958 Plate 16, Fig. 8 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus ellipsoidal, granulate, proximal cap ca. 3 m; sacci semicircular, reticulate to rugulate, with thickening or ribs at the proximal root with corpus.

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27 Dimensions : Overall breadth 45 m; overall height 36 m; sacci height 23 m; sacci depth 30 m (2 specimens). Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Wealden and Aptian, England (Couper 1958); McMurray and Clearwater Formations, Alberta (Pocock 1962) ; Barremian to Albian, Maryland (Brenner 1963); middle Albian, east-central Alberta (Singh 1964); Albian to ? Cenomanian, central Alberta (Norris 1967); and mi ddle to late Albian, north western Alberta (Singh 1971). Genus Pityosporites Seward, 1914 Type species: Pityosporites antarcticus Seward, 1914 Pityosporites constrictus Singh 1964 Plate 16, Fig. 9 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus ellipsoidal, microreticulate, proximal cap thin, less than 1 m; sacci coarser reticulate to rugulate. Dimensions : Overall breadth 66 m; overall height 52 m; sacci height 34 m; sacci depth 32 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Throughout much of the Cretaceous of North America and Europe. ? Pityosporites constrictus Plate 16, Fig. 10 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus ellipsoidal, fine reticulate to granulate; sacci coarser reti culate to rugulate, with thickening or ribs at distal root. Dimensions : Overall breadth 75 m; overall height 43 m; body breadth 53 m; body height 43 m; sacci height 27 m; sacci depth 45 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Podocarpidites Cookson, 1947 ex Couper, 1953 Type species: Podocarpidites ellipticus Cookson, 1947 Podocarpidites canadensis Pocock, 1962 Plate 16, Fig. 11 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; ve siculate, bisaccate; corpus subspherical, fine granulate; sacci coarser reticulate, with radial thickening at dist al sacci junction with corpus. Dimensions : Overall breadth 126 m; body breadth 65 m; sacci depth 74 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Deville and Ellerslie Members, Alberta (Pocock 1962); middle Albian, east-central Alberta (Singh 1964); and middle to late Albian, northwestern Alberta (Singh 1971). Podocarpidites minisculus Singh 1964 Plate 16, Fig. 12

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28 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; ve siculate, bisaccate; corpus subspherical, fine reticulate; sacci coarser reticulate, with radial thickening at dist al sacci junction with corpus. Dimensions : Overall breadth 70 m; overall height 52 m; sacci height 31 m; sacci depth 49 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : middle Albian, east-central Albert a (Singh 1964); and middle to late Albian, northwestern Alberta (Singh 1971). Podocarpidites sp. Plate 16, Fig. 13 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus ellipsoidal to subspherical, scabrate to granulate; sacci reticulate, lumina irregular, with radial thickening at distal sacci junction with corpus. Dimensions : Overall breadth 71 m; overall height 33 m; sacci height 24 m; sacci depth 35 m (1 specimen). Remarks : It is different from Podocarpidites minisculus Singh in its scabrate to granulate corpus. Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Pristinuspollenites Tschudy, 1973 Type species: Pristinuspollenites microsaccus Tschudy, 1973 Pristinuspollenites crassus (Pierce) Tschudy, 1973 Plate 17, Fig.1 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; ve siculate, bisaccate; corpus subspherical, granulate; sacci small, not borderi ng the furrow, coarser granulate. Dimensions : Overall breadth 52 m; overall height 47 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit. Distribution : ?Cenomanian, Minnesota (Pierce 1961). Pristinuspollenites inchoatus (Pierce) Tschudy 1973 Plate 17, Fig. 2 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; ve siculate, bisaccate; corpus subspherical to spherical, granulate to r ugulate; sacci small and elongate bordering the distal furrow, coarser granulate. Dimensions : Overall breadth 64 m; overall height 64 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : ?Cenomanian, Minnesota (Pierc e 1961); and lower Barremian to upper Albian, western Canada (Burden and Hills 1989). Pristinuspollenites microsaccus (Couper) Tschudy 1973 Plate 17, Fig. 3 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; ve siculate, bisaccate; corpus subspherical, microreticulate; sacci small and arc-shaped, granulate to reticulate sulcus not clearly defined,

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29 Dimensions : Overall breadth 31(37)42 m; overall height 30(43)55 m (2 specimens). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Middle Jurassic, southeaste rn England (Couper 1958); upper Campanian, north-central Montana (Tschudy 1973). Pristinuspollenites pannosus (Pierce) Tschudy 1973 Plate 17, Fig. 4 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; ve siculate, bisaccate; corpus subspherical to spherical, granulate; sacci small and se rpentine, parallel and bordering the narrow distal furrow. Dimensions : Overall breadth 49 m; overall height 49 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : ?Cenomanian, Minnesota (Pierce 1961). Pristinuspollenites sulcatus (Pierce) Tschudy 1973 Plate 17, Fig. 5 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; ve siculate, bisaccate; corpus subspherical to spherical, granulate; sacci small and elongate, not bordering the distal furrow, but parallel with it, microreticulate. Dimensions : Overall breadth 40(46)51 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : ?Cenomanian, Minnesota (Pierce 1961). ? Pristinuspollenites sp. Plate 17, Fig. 6 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, multisaccate; corpus subspherical, granulate to rugulate; with 2 small flaccid sacci on each side of distal furrow, not bordering the furrow; exine ca. 1.5 m. Dimensions : Overall breadth 30 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Pristinuspollenites sp. 2 Plate 17, Fig. 7 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus elliptical, granulate to reticulate; sacci flaccid, small and elongate, not bordering the furrow; exine ca. 1.5 m. Dimensions : Overall breadth 27 m, overall height 38 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Punctabivesiculites Pierce, 1961 Type species: Punctabivesiculites constrictus Pierce, 1961 Punctabivesiculites parvus Pierce, 1961 Plate 17, Fig. 8

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30 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus ellipsoidal, faint reticulate to granulate; sacci small and elongate, granulate to rugulate, with radial thickening on distally pendant sacci. Dimensions : Overall height 49 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : ? Cenomanian, Minnesota (Pierce 1961). Genus Rugubivesiculites Pierce, 1961 Type species: Rugubivesiculites convolutus Pierce, 1961 Rugubivesiculites convolutus Pierce 1961 Plate 17, Fig. 9 Pollen grain free, heteropola r, bilateral; vesiculate, bi saccate; corpus rugulate, rugulae not dense; sacci granul ate, rugulate to reticulate. Dimensions : Overall breadth 67(73)78 m; overall height 46(48)50 m; sacci height 24(26)27 m; sacci depth 28(38)48 m (2 specimens). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : ?Cenomanian, Minnesota (Pierce 1961). Rugubivesiculites cf. multiplex Pierce 1961 Plate 17, Fig. 10 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilatera l; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus dense rugulate, rugulae tortuous, ps ilate to scabrate in interridge areas; sacci granulate, microreticulate to rugulate, flaccid. Dimensions : Overall breadth 63(69)74 m (2 specimens). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Rugubivesiculites multisaccus Singh, 1983 Plate 17, Fig. 11 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; ve siculate, bisaccate; corpus contour not clear, psilate to scabrate; with ca. 5 small and irregular saccate pouches on the proximal surface of the central body, sacci microreticulate. Dimensions : Overall breadth 79 m; overall height 37 m; body breadth 23 m; body height 20 m; big sacci height 11 m; big sacci depth 17 m; small sacci height 7 m; small sacci depth 11 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit. Distribution : Early Cenomanian, Al berta (Singh 1983). Rugubivesiculites cf. reductus Pierce 1961 Plate 17, Fig. 12 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus ellipsoidal to subspherical, rugulate only along the pr oximal roots of sacci; proximal surface microreticulate, sacci flaccid. Dimensions : Overall breadth 50 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit.

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31 Rugubivesiculites rugosus Pierce 1961 Plate 17, Fig. 13 Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilatera l; vesiculate, bisaccate; corpus dense rugulate, rugulae ridge like; sacci fine reticulate, flaccid. Dimensions : Overall breadth 59 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Mainly Albian to Maastrichtian, Northern Hemisphere. ? Rugubivesiculites sp. Plate 17, Fig. 14. Pollen grain free, heteropolar, bilateral; vesiculate, bisaccate (?); corpus rugulate, rugulae short and low; sacci foveolate, and seems around entire central body. Dimensions : Overall breadth 44 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Turma ALETES Ibrahim Subturma AZONALETES Luber emend. Potonie & Kremp Infraturma GRANULONAPITI Cookson Genus Araucariacites Cookson ex Couper Type species: Araucariacites australis Cookson, 1947. Araucariacites australis Cookson 1947 Plate 17, Fig. 15 Pollen grain free; subspherical to spheri cal; inaperturate, with folds on surface, granulate; exine thin, ca. 1 m. Dimensions : 60(62)64 m (2 specimens). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Jurassic to Tertiary, worldwide. Infraturma PSILONAPITI Erdtman Genus Inaperturopollenites Pflug ex Thomson & Pflug emend. Potonie Type species: Inaperturopollenites dubius (Potonie & Venitz) Thomson & Pflug, 1953 Inaperturopollenites sp. Plate 17, Fig. 16 Pollen grain free; spherical, inaperturate, with folds on su rface, psilate to scabrate; exine thin, ca. 1 m. Dimensions : 30 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Taxodiaceaepollenites Kremp, 1949 ex Potonie, 1958 Type species: Taxodiaceaepollenites hiatus Kremp, 1949 ex Potonie, 1958. Taxodiaceaepollenites hiatus (Potonie) Kremp 1949 Plate 17, Fig. 17

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32 Pollen grain free; inaperture, but splitti ng open, with folds on surface, psilate to scabrate; exine thin, ca. 1 m. Dimensions : 27 m (1 specimen). Remarks: It differs from Inaperturopollenites sp. in that it splits open. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Middle Albian to Miocene, worldwide. Turma PLICATES Naumova emend. Potonie Subturma PRAECOLPATES Potonie & Kremp Genus Eucommiidites Erdtman emend. Hughes Type species: Eucommiidites troedssonii Erdtman, 1948. Eucommiidites sp.1 Plate 17, Fig. 18 Pollen grain free; elliptical, zonisulcate, distal sulcus widen at ends, other two sulcus narrow, psilate; exine ca. 1 m. Dimensions : 11(18)24 x 20(30)39 m (2 specimens). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Eucommiidites sp. 2 Plate 17, Fig. 19 Pollen grain free; elliptical, zonisulcate, distal sulcus short and narrow at ends, other two sulcus longer than dist al furrow, psilate; exine ca. 0.5 m. Dimensions : 16 x 18 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Subturma POLYPLICATES Erdtman Genus Equisetosporites Daugherty emend. Singh Type species: Equisetosporites chinleana Daugherty, 1941. Equisetosporites sp.1 Plate 17, Fig. 20 Pollen grain free; elliptical, pol yplicate, ridge dense, ca. 0.2 m apart from each other; ridges ca. 1.5 m wide; exine ca. 1 m. Dimensions : 17 x 40 m (2 specimens). Remarks: It differs from E. sp.2 in its dense ridges, and from E. sp.3 in its thin ridges. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Equisetosporites sp.2 Plate 18, Fig. 1 Pollen grain free; ellip tical, polyplicate, ridge sparse, ridge ca. 1.5 m wide, ridge scabrate; exine ca. 1.2 m. Dimensions : 11(13)14 x 37(38)38 m (2 specimens). Remarks: It differs from E. sp.3 in its thin and sparse ridges. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit.

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33 Equisetosporites sp.3 Plate 18, Fig. 2-3 Pollen grain free; ellip tical, polyplicate, ridge dense, less than 1 m apart from each other; ridge wide, ca. 4 m wide; ridge scabrate. Dimensions : 20(21)21 x 34 m (2 specimens). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Subturma MONOCOLPATES Iversen & Troels-Smith Genus Cycadopites Wodehouse ex Wilson & Webster Type species: Cycadopites follicularius Wilson & Webster, 1946 Cycadopites sp. Plate 18, Figs. 4, 5 Pollen grain free; elliptical monosulcate, sulcus long and extending full of the grain, sulcus margin raised a little; fa int granulate to scabrate; exine ca. 1 m. Dimensions : 10(18)27 x 27(37)46 m (5 specimens). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Entylissa Naumova 1939 ex Ishchenko 1952 Type species: Entylissa caperatus (Luber) Potonie & Kremp 1954. Entylissa sp. Plate 18, Fig. 6 Pollen grain free; elliptical, monosulcate, furrow broadens at both ends, scabrate to fine granulate; exine ca. 2.5 m. Dimensions : 27(29)32 x 45(51)57 m (4 specimens). Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit. Genus Monosulcites Cookson, 1947, ex Couper, 1953 Type species: Monosulcites minimus Cookson, 1947. Monosulcites sp. 1 Plate 18, Fig. 7 Pollen grain free; elliptical, monosulcate, sulcus extending full length of grain, sulcus becoming narrow at ends, scab rate to granulate; exine ca. 2 m. Dimensions : 30(36)44 x 45(57)67 m (3 specimens). Remarks : Monosulcites sp. 1 differs from Monosulcites sp. 2 in that the ornamentation of the latter is rugulate to verrucate; in additi on the sulcus of Monosulcites sp. 2 does not become narrow at the ends. It differs from Monosulcites sp. 3 in that its size is much smaller than Monosulcites sp. 3 (79 x 100 m). Monosulcites sp. 4 is smaller and has thinner exine compared with Monosulcites sp. 1. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Monosulcites sp. 2 Plate 18, Fig. 8

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34 Pollen grain free; elliptical, monosulcate, sulcus extending full length of grain, granulate, rugulate to verr ucate; exine two la yered, sexine alveolate, exine1.2-2.5 m. Dimensions : 32(39)48 x 47(54)63 m (5 specimens). Remarks : It differs from other three Monosulcites species in this chaper in its regulate to verrucate ornamentation. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Monosulcites sp. 3 Plate 18, Fig. 9 Pollen grain free; elliptical, monosulcate, sulcus extending full length of grain, scabrate to granulate; exine two layered, ca. 3 m. Dimensions : 79 x 100 m (1 specimen). Remarks : It differs from other three Monosulcites species in this chaper in its large grain size. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Monosulcites sp. 4 Plate 18, Figs. 10, 11 Pollen grain free; elliptical, monosulcate, sulcus extending full length of grain, sulcus often folded, granulate; exine 0.5 m. Dimensions : 15(20)23 x 24(26)30 m (3 specimens). Remarks : It differs from other three Monosulcites species in this chaper in its small grain size and thin exine. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Sabalpollenites Thiergart, in Raatz, 1938 Type species: Sabalpollenites convexus Thiergart, in Raatz, 1938. Sabalpollenites scabrous (Brenner) Wingate, 1980 Plate 18, Fig. 12 Pollen grain free; subcircula r to circular, monosulcate, sulcus extending full length of grain, granulate to regu late; exine two layered, sexine alveolate, exine 2 m. Dimensions : 35(40)45 m (2 specimens). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Albian to lower Cenomanian, Maryland (Brenner 1963); Cenomanian, New Jersey and New York (Kimyai 1966, 1970); middle Cenomanian, Louisana and Mississippi (Phi llips and Felix 1972b); upper Al bian, Oklahoma (Wingate 1980), and lower to middle Cenomanian, northwe stern Iowa and north eastern Nebraska (Ravn and Witzke 1995). Turma POROSES Naumova emend. Potonie, 1960 Subturma MONOPORINES Naumova 1939 Genus Bacumonoporites Pierce, 1961 Type species: Bacumonoporites baculatus Pierce, 1961

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35 Bacumonoporites baculatus Pierce, 1961 Plate 18, Fig. 13 Pollen grain free; subcircula r to circular; monoporate, ap erture circular, ca. 16-35 m in diameter, granulate, bacu late to regulate; exine 1.5-4 m. Dimensions : 27(43)65 x 27(49)74 m (4 specimens). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : ? Cenomanian, Minnesota (Pierce 1961). Genus Classopollis Pflug, 1953 emend. Pocock and Jansonius, 1961 Type species: Classopollis classoides Pflug, 1953 emend. Pocock and Jansonius, 1961. Classopollis torosus (Reissinger) Couper 1958 Plate 18, Fig. 14 Pollen grain free; circular, monoporate, ap erture circular to triangular, ca. 11 m in diameter; microreticulate to granulate, w ith equatorial circular ornament; exine 1.5 m. Dimensions : 24(25)28 m (3 specimens). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit. Distribution : Albian to lower Cenomanian, Ma ryland (Brenner 1963); ? lower to upper Cenomanian, northwestern Iowa and nor theastern Nebraska (Ravn and Witzke 1995). Genus Exesipollenites Balme, 1957 Type species: Exesipollenites tumulus Balme, 1957 Exesipollenites sp. Plate 18, Fig. 15 Pollen grain free; circular, m onoporate, pore circular, ca. 3 m in diameter, differentially thickened areas present around the pore, scabrate; exine ca. 1.5 m. Dimensions : 32 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Subturma POLYSACCITES Cookson 1947 Genus Punctamultivesiculites Pierce, 1961 Type species: Punctamultivesiculites inchoatus Pierce, 1961 Punctamultivesiculites cf. inchoatus Pierce, 1961 Plate 18, Fig. 16 Pollen grain free, heteropolar; vesiculate, multisaccate; corpus elliptical, granulate; sacci small and numerous, ca. 30, sacci granulate to verrucate, exine ca. 2 m. Dimensions : 43 x 51 m (1 specimen). Remarks : The holotype only has ca. 10 small sacci. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit.

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36 Spores Anteturma SPORITES Potonie, 1893 Turma TRILETES Reinsch emend. Dettmann 1963 Subturma AZONOTRILETES Luber emend. Dettmann 1963 Infraturma LAEVIGATI Bennie & Kidston emend. Potonie 1956 Genus Biretisporites Delcourt & Sprumont emend. Delcourt, Dettmann, & Hughes 1963 Type species: Biretisporites potoniaei Delcourt & Sprumont, 1955. Biretisporites sp.1 Plate 18, Fig. 17 Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtria ngular; laesurae long a nd straight, extending full distance of spore radius, laesurae slightly raised and gaping sometimes; sides convex, apices rounded; sculpture scabrate, densely small pits present; spore wall of uniform thickness, about 1.2 m thick. Dimensions : 28(35)42 m (5 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Biretisporites sp.2 Plate 18, Fig. 18 Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending full distance of spore radius, laesurae distinct and ra ised; sides straight; sculpture scabrate; small folds along interradial edge; spore wall of uni form thickness, thin, less than 1 m thick. Dimensions : 27 m (1 specimen) Remarks : It differs from Biretisporites sp. 1 in its absence of pits for the ornamentation. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Cyathidites Couper 1953 Type species: Cyathidites australis Couper, 1953. Cyathidites australis Couper 1953 Plate 18, Fig. 19 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending 2/3 of spore radius, laesurae gapping; sides concave, apices wellrounded; sculpture s cabrate, with densely small fovea; spore wall of uniform thickness, about 1.2 m thick. Dimensions : 57(58)60 m (3 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Jurassic and Cretaceous, worldwide. Cyathidites minor Couper 1953 Plate 18, Fig. 20

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37 Spore tetrahedral, tr ilete, amb triangular; laesurae near ly extending full distance of spore radius, laesurae gapping; si des slightly concave, apices rounded; sculpture scabrate; spore wall of uniform thickness, about 1.2 m thick. Dimensions : 24(26)28 m (4 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : Jurassic and Cretaceous, worldwide. Cyathidites punctatus (Delcourt and Sprumont 1955) Delcourt, Dettmann, and Hughes, 1963 Plate 19, Fig. 1 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laes urae extending full distance of spore radius, laesurae gapping; si des concave, apices well-rou nded; sculpture scabrate to granulate; spore wall thi nner at apices (ca. 1.5 m) and thicker at inte rradial areas (ca. 2.5 m). Dimensions : 51(52)53 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : Wealden and Aptian, England (Couper 1958); Upper Mesozoic, southeastern Australia (Dettmann 1963); and Cenomanian, Oklahoma (Hedlund 1966). Genus Deltoidospora Miner emend. Potonie Type species: Deltoidospora hallii Miner, 1935 Deltoidospora hallii Miner 1935 Plate 19, Fig. 2 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extendi ng full distance of spore radius, laesurae distinct; si des convex, apices well-rounded; sculpture scabrate; spore wall of uniform thickness, ca. 1.5 m thick. Dimensions : 32 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Throughout much of the upper Mesozoic, worldwide. Deltoidospora sp. Plate 19, Fig. 3 Spore tetrahedral, tr ilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae extending nearly full of spore radius, laesurae distinct and raised; sides convex; sculptur e scabrate; spore wall ca. 1 m. Dimensions : 77 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Undulatisporites Pflug in Thomson & Pflug 1953 Type species: Undulatisporites microcutis Pflug in Thomson & Pflug, 1953. Undulatisporites sp. Plate 19, Fig. 4 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subcircular; laesurae sinuous, extending 2/3 of spore radius; sides convex, apices well-rounded; scul pture scabrate to ps ilate; spore wall of uniform thickness, ca. 1 m thick.

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38 Dimensions : 37 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Dictyophyllidites Couper emend. Type species: Dictyophyllidites harrisii Couper, 1958. Dictyophyllidites impensus (Hedlund) Singh, 1983 Plate 19, Fig. 5 Spore tetrahedral, tr ilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae distinct and raised, laesurae nearly extending full distance of spore radius ; sides convex; sculpture psilate; spore wall ca. 2 m thick. Dimensions : 53 m (1 specimen) Remarks : This type of spore is similar to that from Goolangia minnesotensis and may have affinity to Marattiaceae. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay pit. Dictyophyllidites sp.1 Plate 19, Fig. 6 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extendi ng full distance of spore radius, laesurae distinct and ga pping; arcuate thickening at inte rradial areas; sides slightly convex, apices rounded; sculpture scabrate; sp ore wall of uniform thickness, thin, less than 1 m thick. Dimensions : 25(26)27 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Stereisporites Pflug 1953 Type species: Stereisporites stereoides (Potonie & Venitz) Pflug 1953. Stereisporites sp. Plate 19, Fig. 7 Spore tetrahedral, trile te, amb subtriangular; cingulum present (ca. 2 m); laesurae short and only half of spore radius, laes urae gapping; sides convex, apices rounded; sculpture scabrate; spore wall thickened at apices, ca. 1.5 m. Dimensions : 33(39)44 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Auritulinasporites Nilsson 1958 Type species: Auritulinasporites scanicus Nilsson, 1958. ? Auritulinasporites sp. Plate 19, Fig. 8 Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending full distance of spore radius, laesurae distinct and th ickened; distinctly thickened “lips” delineate a triangular area around the laesurae; sides concave; sc ulpture scabrate; spore wall of uniform thickness, ca. 1.5-2 m thick. Dimensions : 48(48)49 m (3 specimens) Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit.

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39 Infraturma APICULATI Bennie & Kidston emend. Potonie 1956 Genus Concavissimisporites Delcourt & Sprumont emend. Delcourt, Dettmann, & Hughes 1963 Type species: Concavissimisporites verrucosus Delcourt & Sprumont, 1955. ? Concavissimisporites sp. Plate 19, Fig. 10 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending 2/3 of spore radius; sides concave or slight convex, apices wellrounded; sculpture granulate, verrucate to rugulate; spore wall thin, less than 1 m thick. Dimensions : 24(32)39 m (4 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Baculatisporites Thomson & Pflug 1953 Type species: Baculatisporites primaries (Wolff) Thomson & Pflug 1953 Baculatisporites comaumensis (Cookson) Potonie 1956 Plate 19, Fig. 9 Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangul ar; laesurae distinct and raised, laesurae extending full distance of spore radius; side s convex; sculpture b aculate to verrucate; baculae ca. 2.5 m high, dense on distal side an d reduced on proximal side. Dimensions : 34 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : Late Triassic to Cretaceous, worldwide. Baculatisporites sp. Plate 19, Fig. 11 Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb elliptical to circular; laesurae gaping; sides convex, apices rounded; sculpture bacu late and baculae size 1.2 x 1.0 m; spore wall of uniform thickness, about 1.8 m thick. Dimensions : 34 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Converrucosisporites Potonie & Kremp 1954 Type species: Converrucosisporites triquetrus (Ibrahim) Potonie & Kremp, 1954. Converrucosisporites sp. Plate 19, Figs. 12, 13 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae exte nding full of spore radius, laesurae gapping; sides concave; verrucate, baculate and coni, evenly distributed; spore wall about 0.8 m thick (excluding ornamentation). Dimensions : 39(44)48 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Neoraistrickia Potonie 1956 Type species: Neoraistrickia truncatus (Cookson) Potonie 1956.

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40 Neoraistrickia sp. Plate 19, Fig. 14 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae difficult to observe due to ornamentation; sides stra ight or convex; sculptur e baculate, baculae ca. 0.5 m high and 2.5-3.5 m wide, baculae denser at apices on distal view; spor e wall of uniform thickness, about 3 m thick. Dimensions : 47 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Ceratosporites Cookson & Dettmann 1958 Type species: Ceratosporites equalis Cookson & Dettmann 1958. ? Ceratosporites sp. Plate 19, Fig. 15 Spore tetrahedral, trile te, amb triangular; laesurae not clear because of ornamentation; sides convex; sculpture ech inate on distal side, echinae ca. 3 x 5 m, small pits on the surface of echinae; sculptur e psilate on proximal side; spore wall thick (ca. 5 m) Dimensions : 34 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit. Genus Impardecispora Venkatachala, Kar & Raza 1969 Type species: Impardecispora apiverrucata (Couper) Venkatachala, Kar & Raza, 1969. Impardecispora sp.1 Plate 19, Fig. 16 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae distinct and raised, laesurae extending 2/3 of spore radius; sides convex; sc ulpture verrucate, big verrucae at apices region on distal side; proximal si de reduced and relatively smooth. Dimensions : 34 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Verrucosisporites Ibrahim emend. Smith & Butterworth 1967 Type species: Verrucosisporites verrucosus (Ibrahim) Ibrahim, 1933. Verrucosisporites sp. Plate 19, Fig. 17 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae ex tending ca. 2/3 distance of spore radius, laesurae gapping; sides concave; sculpture verru cate; spore wall of uniform thickness, about 1 m thick. Dimensions: 27(36)51 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Granulatisporites Ibrahim 1933 Type species: Granulatisporites granulatus Ibrahim 1933.

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41 ? Granulatisporites sp. Plate 19, Fig. 18 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laes urae extending full distance of spore radius, laesurae not straight; sides c onvex, apices rounded; a distinct triangular depression on the proximal surface; sculpture scabrate to granulat e; granules connect each other to form dense regulate structure; spore wall of uniform thickness, about 1.2 m thick. Dimensions : 38(38)39 m (3 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Punctatriletes Pierce 1961 Type species: Punctatriletes punctus Pierce, 1961. Punctatriletes punctus Pierce, 1961 Plate 19, Fig. 19 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending more than 2/3 of spore radius, laesurae distinct and straight; sides convex; sculpt ure granulate; spore wall of uniform thickness, ca. 2 m thick. Dimensions : 48(50)51 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : ? Cenomanian, Minnesota (Pierce 1961). Genus Phaeoceros cf. Phaeoceros form A Jarzen, 1979 Plate 19, Figs. 20, 21 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb sub circular to trian gular; laesurae sinuous and bifurcating when reaching the spore wall, exte nding nearly full distance of spore radius; sides slightly convex, apices rounded; baculate, ca. 3 m high and 1 m wide, baculae dense and big on distal surface and rare and small on proximal surface; spore wall 1.5-3 m, uneven. Dimensions : 56 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Infraturma MURORNATI Potonie & Kremp 1954 Genus Lycopodiacidites Couper 1953 Type species: Lycopodiacidites bullerensis Couper, 1953. Lycopodiacidites sp.1 Plate 19, Figs. 22, 23 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extendi ng full distance of spore radius, laesurae distinct a nd slightly sinuous; sides conve x; sculpture regulate. Dimensions : 25 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Lycopodiacidites sp.2 Plate 19, Figs. 24, 25

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42 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular to circul ar; laesurae distinct and straight, laesurae extendi ng full distance of spore radius; si des convex; sculpture rugulate, rugulae dense and delicate (less than 1 m wide); spore wall ca. 1 m thick. Dimensions : 36(42)47 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Foveotriletes van der Hammen ex Potonie 1956 Type species: Foveotriletes scrobiculatus (Ross) Potonie 1956. Foveotriletes sp. Plate 19, Fig. 26 Spore tetrahedral, tr ilete, amb triangular; laesurae near ly extending full distance of spore radius, laesurae slightly raised; side s straight or slight ly convex; sculpture foveolate, fovea rounded, 1.5-2 m. Dimensions : 46 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. ? Foveotriletes sp. Plate 19, Figs. 27, 28 Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending full distance of spore radius, laesurae distinct, laesur ae circled by distinctive thickeni ng areas; sides straight or slightly concave; sculpture granulate with sm all pits; spore wall of uniform thickness, ca. 1.5 m thick. Dimensions : 29(37)45 m (2 specimen) Remarks : It differs from Foveotriletes sp. in its ornamentation that is granulate with small pits. Also it has dist inct thickening areas around laesurae. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Foveosporites Balme 1957 Type species: Foveosporites canalis Balme 1957. Foveosporites sp. Plate 20, Fig. 1 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae distin ct and straight, laesurae extending 2/3 of spore radius; sides convex to concave; sculpture foveolate, fovea irregular. Dimensions : 35 m (1 specimen) Remarks : It differs from Foveotriletes sp. in its irregular fovea. The fovea is rounded for Foveotriletes sp. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Lycopodiumsporites Thiergart ex Delcourt & Sprumont 1955 Type species: Lycopodiumsporites agathoecus (Potonie) Thiergart, 1938. Lycopodiumsporites marginatus Singh, 1964 Plate 20, Figs. 2, 3

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43 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subcircula r; laesurae raised, extending nearly full distance of spore radius; psilate and with several irregular ridges on proximal surface; reticulate on distal surface, lumina 15-26 m, muri polygonal at th e areas of 3 lumina connecting, muri ca. 1 m wide in other areas, forming a 9 m high membrane layer. Dimensions : 61 (73)79 m (3 specimens) Remarks : The lumina are 9-14 m on the holotype. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Middle Albian, east-central Al berta (Singh 1964); Albian to ? Cenomanian, central Albert a (Norris 1967); Albian, Ok lahoma (Hedlund and Norris 1968); and middle to late Albian, northwestern Al berta (Singh 1971). Lycopodiumsporites sp. 1 Plate 20, Fig. 4 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extendi ng full distance of spore radius, laesurae slightly raised; sculpture reticulate, muri membrane like (ca. 4 m high), thickness even, muri polygonal, ca. 8 m in diameter. Dimensions : 35 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Klukisporites Couper 1958 Type species: Klukisporites variegatus Couper, 1958. Klukisporites sp.1 Plate 20, Fig. 5 Spore tetrahedral, tr ilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae not clear; sides straight to slightly convex; sculpture foveol ate, fovea irregular, ca. 2.5-4 m long; spore wall ca. 2.5 m thick. Dimensions : 28 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Klukisporites sp.2 Plate 20, Fig. 6 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae di stinct; sides straight to slightly convex; sculpture foveolate on distal side, fovea irregular, size 9 x13 m to 9 x 23 m; sculpture proximal side scabrate with small pits; spore wall ca. 4 m thick. Dimensions : 61 m (1 specimen) Remarks : It differs from Klukisporites sp. 1 in its large spore size and large fovea size, and from ? Klukisporites sp. in its absence of thickened apices and tori on proximal surface. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. ? Klukisporites sp. Plate 20, Figs. 7, 8 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subcircular; laesurae extending 2/3 of spore radius, sinuous and slightly raised; side s convex, apices thickened, ca. 7 m thick; sculpture

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44 reticulate (?), lumina 21 m and 36 m on distal surface, muri 12 m wide, a tori exist on proximal surface; spore wall ca. 3.5 m thick. Dimensions : 89 m (1 specimen) Remarks : It differs from other Klukisporites in its thickened apices and tori on proximal surface. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Taurocusporites Stover 1962 Type species: Taurocusporites segmentatus Stover, 1962. Taurocusporites segmentatus Stover 1962 Plate 20, Fig. 9 Spore tetrahedral, tr ilete, amb subtriangular; zonate, zona with concentric annular crassitudes; laesurae extending full distance of spore radius, laesurae distinct and thickened, laesurae do not reach into zona ; sides convex; sculpture verrucate. Dimensions : 37(42)51 m (6 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : Neocomian to Cenomanian, North America and Europe (Ravn and Witzke, 1995). Genus Januasporites Pocock 1962 Type species: Januasporites reticularis Pocock 1962 ? Januasporites sp. Plate 20, Fig. 10 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; zonate, zona membrane like and with wide base blunt spines on surface; laesur ae extending full distance of spore radius, laesurae distinct; side s convex, apices well-rounded; spore wall ca. 1.5 m thick. Dimensions : 42(54)65 m (including zona) (2 specimens) Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Cicatricosisporites Potonie & Gelletich 1933 Type species: Cicatricosisporites dorogensis Potonie & Gelletich 1933. Cicatricosisporites coconinoensis Agasie, 1969 Plate 20, Fig. 11 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb circular to subcircular; laesurae distinct and raised, extending nearly full distance of spore radius ; sides convex, apices r ounded; relative wide (ca. 2 m ) and dense ridges on distal surface and nearly smooth on proximal surface; spore wall 2 m. Dimensions : 30(40)50 m (2 specimens) Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit. Distribution : Cenomanian, northeastern Arizona (Agasie 1969). Cicatricosisporites crassiterminatus Hedlund, 1966 Plate 20, Figs. 12, 13

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45 Spore tetrahedral, tr ilete, amb triangular to subtriangul ar; laesurae raised and nearly extending to equator; sculptur e cicatricose, ridge dense and relatively wide (ca. 1.5-3 m wide), 1 m apart from each other, interconnected ridges enclose circular to elongate lumina, 2-2.5 m. Dimensions : 39 (44) 48 m (2specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Cenomanian, North America (Hedlund 1966, Kimyai 1966, Agasie 1969, Romans 1975, May and Traverse 1973, and Singh 1983). Cicatricosisporites cf. crassiterminatus Hedlund, 1966 Plate 20, Figs. 14, 15 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae sl ightly raised and nearly extending to equator; sculpture cicatricose, ridge wide (6-8 m wide) and width uneven, interconnected ridges enclose elongate or rounded lumina; spore wall 5-8 m, uneven. Dimensions : 91 m (1specimen) Remarks : The holotype is only 56 m. Also there are no thickened areas at apices for this species. Ridge width is wider and th e thickness of spore wall is thicker than that of holotype. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Cicatricosisporites hallei Delcourt and Sprumont 1955 Plate 20, Fig. 16 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending to equator, laesurae straight and distinct; sculpture cicatricose, ridge delicate and relatively narrow (less than 1 m wide). Dimensions : 25 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit. Distribution : Middle Albian, east-central Al berta (Singh 1964); Albian to ? Cenomanian, central Alberta (Norris 1967); Albian and Cenomanian, Oklahoma (Hedlund 1966; Hedlund and Norris 1968); a nd middle to late Albian (Singh 1971). Cicatricosisporites hughesi Dettmann 1963 Plate 20, Figs. 17, 18 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular to subtriangul ar; laesurae nearly extending full of the spore radius; sculpture cica tricose, ridge sinuous and wide (4-6 m wide), 3-7 m apart, there are 3 ridges in each interrad ial area, which are nearly parallel to each other and to the side of spore. Dimensions : 30 (39) 48 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : Aptian, Albian, and ? Cenomanian, southeastern Australia (Dettmann 1963); Albian to ? Cenomanian, central Albert a (Norris 1967); Maastrichtian and Danian, California (Drugg 1967); and middle to late Albian, northwestern Alberta (Singh 1971). Cicatricosisporites sp.1 Plate 20, Fig. 19

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46 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae ne arly extending to equator, laesurae distinct and raised; sculptur e cicatricose, ridge dense (ca. 1.5-2 m wide). Dimensions : 37(39)40 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Cicatricosisporites sp.2 Plate 20, Fig. 20 Spore oblique, trilete, trilete mark not clear; sculpture ci catricose, ridge dense and delicate; spore wall ca. 1 m. Dimensions : 43 m (1 specimen) Remarks : It differs from Cicatricosisporites hallei in its larger size, and from other Cicatricosisporites in this chapter in its de nse and delicat e ridges. Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit. Cicatricosisporites sp. 4 Plate 20, Figs. 21, 22 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae not clear because of ridges; sculpture cicatricose, ri dge dense and wide (2.5 m wide), small pits on the ridges. Dimensions : 47 m (1 specimen) Remarks : It differs from other Cicatricosisporites in this chapter in its dense and wide ridges with pits. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Costatoperforosporites Deak 1962 Type species: Costatoperforosporites fistulosus Deak, 1962. Costatoperforosporites sp. Plate 21, Fig. 1 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae slightly sinuous, extending nearly full distance of spore radius; sides sl ightly convex, apices r ounded; wide (ca. 6-7 m) and dense ridges evenly distributed, with small fovea on the ri dges; spore wall 2.5-5 m, uneven. Dimensions : 52(72)90 m (4 specimens) Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Ischyosporites Balme 1957 Type species: Ischyosporites crateris Balme,1957 ? Ischyosporites sp. Plate 21, Figs. 2, 3 Spore subtriangular, trilete; laesurae sinuous and raised, extending nearly full of spore radius; psilate to scabrate on proximal su rface and faint reticulate on distal surface, lumina 2-7 m, muri ca. 1 m wide, irregular; spore wall ca. 2 m. Dimensions : 51(57)63 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit.

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47 Genus Retitriletes van der Hammen ex Pierce em end. Doring et al., in Krutzsch 1963 Type species: Retitriletes globosus Pierce, 1961. Retitriletes sp.1 Plate 21, Fig. 4 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb circular to subcircular; laesurae extending 2/3 distance of spore radius, laes urae not straight; sculpture re ticulate, lumina polygonal (ca. 5 m in diameter) and muri thickness not even. Dimensions : 27(29)31 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Retitriletes sp.2 Plate 21, Figs. 5, 6 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae nearly extending full distance of spore radius; sides convex, apices rounded; sc ulpture reticulate, lumina shape irregular (1.5-3 m in diameter) and muri thickness not even; spore wall of uniform thickness, about 1.2 m thick. Dimensions : 29 m (1specimen) Remarks : It differs from Retitriletes sp.1 in its smaller and irregular lumina, and from ? Retitriletes sp. in its smaller size. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. ? Retitriletes sp. Plate 21, Figs. 7, 8 Spore tetrahedral, trile te, trilete mark not clear, amb nearly circular; sides convex; sculpture reticulate, lumina polygonal, 3-6 m in diameter. Dimensions : 40 m (1 specimen) Remarks : It differs from other Retitriletes in this chapter in its larger size. Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit. Genus Stoverisporites Burger in Norvick & Burger 1975 Type species: Stoverisporites microverrucatus Burger, 1975. ? Stoverisporites sp. Plate 21, Fig. 9 Spore tetrahedral, trilete; laesurae raised, with thick “lips” or “arcuate”; incomplete fovea on distal surface and psilate on proximal surface; spore wall thick, ca. 5 m. Dimensions : 73(78)83 m (2 specimens) Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit. Infraturma TRICRASSATI Dettmann 1963 Genus Gleicheniidites Ross ex Delcourt & Sprumont emend. Dettmann 1963 Type species: Gleicheniidites senonicus Ross 1949.

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48 Gleicheiidites senonicus Ross emend. Skarby 1964 Plate 21, Fig. 10 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extendi ng full distance of spore radius, laesurae long and raised; sides concave with interridial crassitudes, crassitude ca. 4 m wide; sculpture psilate; spore wa ll of uniform thickness, less than1 m thick. Dimensions : 19(22)25 m (3 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : upper Mesozoic, Southeastern Australia (Dettmann 1963). ? Gleichiidites sp. Plate 21, Fig. 11 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae exte nding full of spore radius, laesurae thickened and raised ; sides concave; sculpture scabrate; spore wall ca. 0.5 m. Dimensions : 21(24)26 m (2 specimens) Remarks : There are no interradial crassitudes for this species. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Sestrosporites Dettmann 1963 Type species: Sestrosporites irregulatus Dettmann 1963 Sestrosporites sp. 1 Plate 21, Fig. 12 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laes urae extending full distance of spore radius, laesurae distinct and sinuous s lightly; sides convex with thicker (ca. 2.5 m) interridial crassitudes and crassitude membrane like; sculpture foveol ate; hilate on distal view. Dimensions : 41 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Sestrosporites sp. 2 Plate 21, Figs. 13, 14 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; zonate, zona membranous, ca. 4 m thick; laesurae extending full distance of s pore radius, laesurae s lightly sinuous; sides convex; sculpture foveolate, f ovea irregular, elongate, ca. 1 m; spore wall ca. 3 m. Dimensions : 53(56)59 m (excluding zona) (2 specimens) Remarks : It differs from Sestrosporites sp. 1 in its uniform thick zona and larger size. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Camarozonosporites Pant ex Potonie emend. Klaus, 1960 Type species: Camarozonosporites cretaceous (Weyland & Krieger) Potonie, 1956. Camarozonosporites sp.1 Plate 21, Fig. 15

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49 Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb elliptical to circular; laesurae extending nearly full distance of spore radius, laesur ae gapping; crassitude present at interradial areas; sides convex; sculpture regulate, dense and delicate, ca. 1-2 m wide. Dimensions : 27(29)30 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Camarozonosporites sp.3 Plate 21, Figs. 16, 17 Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb circular to subcircular; zonate, crassitude thicker at interradial areas (7 m wide) than that at apical areas (2.5 m wide); laesurae raised and slightly sinuous, extending full distance of spore radius; side s convex; sculpture regulate on distal surface, rugulae thick and wide, ca. 5 m wide, smooth and psilate on proximal surface. Dimensions : 50(57)61 m (3 specimens) Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Suprasubturma PERINOTRILITES Erdtman Genus Crybelosporites Dettmann, 1963 Type species: Crybelosporites striatus Dettmann, 1963. Crybelosporites sp. Plate 21, Figs. 18, 19 Spore subcircular, trilete, l aesurae ragged and raised, exte nding nearly full of spore radius; scabrate to granulate; with perine, pe rine membrane like, with hair like process on the surface, hair ca. 3.5 m long; spore wall ca. 2.5 m. Dimensions : 47(54)62 m (excluding perine) (5 specimens) Remarks : This species probably shares affin ity with the Salviniaceae (Hall, 1964). Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Turma MONOLETES Ibrahim 1933 Subturma AZONOMONOLETES Luber 1935 Infraturma LAEVIGATOMONOLETI Dybova & Jachowicz 1957 Genus Laevigatosporites Ibrahim 1933 Type species: Laevigatosporites vulgaris (Ibrahim) Ibrahim,1933. Laevigatosporites ovatus Wilson and Webster 1946 Plate 21, Fig. 20 Spore monolete; aperture about half spor e length; sculpture ps ilate to scabrate; spore wall thin and less than 1 m. Dimensions : 19(22)24 x 30(34)36 m (6 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Upper Mesozoic, Australia (D ettmann 1963); middle Albian, eastcentral Alberta (Singh 1964).

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50 Laevigatosporites cf. irroratus Hedlund 1966 Plate 21, Fig. 21 Spore monolete; oval to ellipt ical, aperture about 2/3 of spore length; sculpture fine granulate; spore wall thin, ca. 0.6 m. Dimensions : 22(24)25 x 27(28)28 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit. Laevigatosporites sp.2 Plate 21, Fig. 22 Spore monolete; aperture long; scabrate, w ith fine granules occasionally; spore wall ca. 1 m. Dimensions : 32 x 61 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Microfoveolatosporis Krutzsch 1959 Type species: Microfoveolatosporis pseudodentatus Krutzsch 1959 Microfoveolatosporis pseudoreticulatus (Hedlund) Singh, 1963 Plate 21, Fig. 23 Spore monolete; elongate bean shaped; aper ture not clear; sculpture granulate to microfoveolate; spore wall about 1.2 m. Dimensions : 21(23)25 x 50(53)56 m (3 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Cenomanian, southern Oklahoma (Hedlund 1966); Albian, southern Oklahoma (Hedlund and Norris 1968); middle Cenomanian, northwestern Alberta (Singh, 1983); and middle Cenomanian, northwe stern Iowa and north eastern Nebraska (Ravn and Witzke, 1995). Turma HILATES Dettmann, 1963 Genus Aequitriradites Delcourt & Sprumont emend. Cookson & Dettmann 1961 Type species: Aequitriradites dubius Delcourt & Sprumont emend. Delcourt, Dettmann & Hughes 1963. Aequitriradites spinulosus (Cookson and Dettmann) Cookson and Dettmann 1961 Plate 21, Fig. 24 Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangul ar; zonate, zona with small pits, ca. 12 m thick; laesurae extending full distance of s pore radius and extendi ng to the margin of the zona; sculpture baculate, one thinning area (hilate) pr esent; spore wall of uniform thickness, about 1.5 m thick. Dimensions : 38(40)41 m (excluding zona); 64 m (including zona)(2 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : Lower Cretaceous, eastern Au stralia (Cookson and Dettmann 1958a); and middle Albian, eastcentral Alberta (Singh 1964).

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51 Genus Triporoletes Mtchedlishvili emend. Playford 1971 Type species: Triporoletes singularis Mtchedlishvili, in Mtchedlishvili & Samoilovich, 1960. Triporoletes involucratus (Chlonova) Playford, 1971 Plate 21, Fig. 25 Spore elliptical to circular, aperture ab sent; zonate, zona thin and membranous; spore central body undulate; 4 convex projections and 4 concave embayments present; fine closely spaced, radially arrange d, sinuous wrinkles on distal side. Dimension : 35 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : Albian, Saskatchewan and Manitoba (Playford 1971); and Cenomanian, northwester n Alberta (Singh 1983). Triporoletes reticulatus (Pocock) Playford 1971 Plate 21, Figs. 26, 27 Spores tetrahedral, trilete mark absent, am b subtriangular; zonate, zona very thin, ca. 1 m thick at the apices; sculpture reticulate on distal surface, lumina 5-11 m, psilate to scabrate on proximal surface; spore wall ca. 2 m. Dimensions : 36 (44) 49 m (3 specimens) Remarks : The Zlivisporis has a distinct trilete mark which reaches up to the equator. Zona is absent and reticulum is a rranged into a sparse ne t on the distal side. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Albian to Cenomanian, worldwide. Triporoletes sp.1 Plate 22, Fig. 1 Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtri angular; zonate, zona membranous like; laesurae extending full distance of spore radius and extending to the margin of the zona, slightly sinuous; sides convex, apices rounded; sculpture scab rate; spore wall of uniform thickness, about 1.2 m thick. Dimensions : 34(36)38 m (excluding zona) (3 specimens) Remarks : Densoisporites with interradial thickenings situated near the proximal pole. For Triporoletes the proximal aperture is not clea r or absent, and the zona have a flask-shaped to conical invagination at each radial position of the equator. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Triporoletes sp.2 Plate 22, Figs. 2, 3 Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtria ngular; zonate, zona membranous; laesurae extending full distance of spore radius and extending to the margin of the zona and laesurae branching in zona, laesurae sinuous ; sides convex, apices rounded; sculpture scabrate on proximal side and reticulate on distal side, lumina polygonal and 11-13 m in diameter, muri ca. 1 m; spore wall of uniform thickness, about 1.5 m thick. Dimensions : 42(44)45 m (4 specimens)

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52 Remarks : It differs from Triporoletes reticulates in its clear trilete mark, from Triporoletes sp.1 in its reticulate feat ure on distal side, from Triporoletes sp.3 in its sinuous laesurae and smaller size. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Triporoletes sp.3 Plate 22, Fig. 4 Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangul ar; zonate, zona membranous, usually not complete and broken; laesurae extending full distance of spore radius and extending onto zona, laesurae distinct and relatively strai ght; sides convex, apices rounded; sculpture scabrate; spore wall of un iform thickness, about 1.2 m thick. Dimensions : 49(51)52 m (excluding zona) (3 specimens) Remarks : It differs from Triporoletes reticulatus in its clear trilete mark, from Triporoletes sp.1 and Triporoletes sp.2 in its straight laesurae and larger size. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Chomotriletes Naumova 1939 ex 1953 Type species: Chomotriletes vedugensis Naumova, 1953. Chomotriletes sp. Plate 22, Fig. 5 Spore elliptical, inaperture; nearly concentric thin (less than 0.5 m) ridges on spore surface. Dimensions : 35 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Spore type 1 Plate 22, Figs. 6, 7 Spores tetrahedral, trilete (?), amb s ubtriangular; laesurae not clear because of splitting; hilate in distal view; sculpt ure scabrate, granulate to regulate. Dimensions : 40(43)46 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Subturma ZONOTRILETES Waltz Infraturma AURICULATI Schopf emend. Dettmann Genus Appendicisporites Weyland & Krieger 1953 Type species: Appendicisporites tricuspidatus Weyland & Krieger, 1953. Appendicisporites auritus Agasie 1969 Plate 22, Fig. 8 Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular ; laesurae not clear because of ridges; sculpture cicatricose, ridge wide (2-6 m wide), with wide and blunt appendages. Dimensions: 81 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Cenomanian, Arizona (Aga sie 1969; Romans 1975); and Cenomanian, northwester n Alberta (Singh 1983).

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53 Appendicisporites matesovae (Bolkhovitina) Norris 1967 Plate 22, Fig. 9 Spore subtriangular, aperture not clea r; dense ridges on surface (ca. 1.5 m wide); sparse baculae on ridges, baculae 6 m high and 2 m wide. Dimensions : 37 m (excluding baculae) (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : Albian to ? Cenomanian, central Alberta (Norris 1967); Cenomanian, Oklahoma (Hedlund 1966); and middle to late Albian (Singh 1971). Appendicisporites cf. matesovae (Bolkhovitina) Norris 1967 Plate 22, Fig. 10 Spore subtriangular, aperture not clea r; with ridges on surface (ca. 4 m wide), 2.5 m apart from each other; baculae on ap ices and distal surface, baculae 15 m high and 4 m wide, unclear for proximal surface. Dimensions : 56 m (excluding baculae) (1 specimen) Remarks : The baculae in the holotype (3-8 m long and 2-4 m wide) are shorter than those of this species. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Appendicisporites potomacensis Brenner 1963 Plate 22, Figs. 11, 12 Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular ; laesurae not clear because of ridges; sculpture cicatricose, ridge wide (2-2.5 m wide), ridges fused before projecting spore outline. Dimensions : 44(50)56 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : Barremian to Albian, Maryla nd (Brenner 1963); Albian to ? Cenomanian, central Alberta (Norris 1967); middle Albian, ea st-central Al berta (Singh 1964); and middle to late Albian (Singh 1971). Appendicisporites problematicus (Burger) Singh, 1971 Plate 22, Figs. 13, 14 Spores tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangul ar; spore with appendages at apices, appendage ca. 12 m high and 6 m wide; laesurae extending near ly full of spore radius; sculpture cicatricose; ridge wide, ca. 3 m, ridges sinuous, 2 m apart from each other; ridges on distal surface parallel to spore si des and forming a triangle in the center. Dimensions : 58(76)90 m (4 specimens) Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : middle to late Albian, nor thwestern Alberta (Singh 1971). Genus Plicatella Maljavkina 1949 emend. Potonie 1960 Type species: Plicatella trichacantha Maljavkina 1949. Plicatella fucosa (Vavrdova) Davies 1985 Plate 22, Fig. 15

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54 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae not clear because of ridges; sculpture cicatricose, ridge wide (2.5-3 m), ridges fused outside of the outline of spore. Dimensions : 45(48)50 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : ? lower to middle Cenomanian, nor thwestern Iowa and northeastern Nebraska (Ravn and Witzke 1995). Plicatella witzkei Ravn 1995 Plate 22, Fig. 16 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae not clear because of ridges; sculpture cicatricose, ridge de nse and relatively narrow (1-2 m wide), ridges fused outside of the outline of spore, tiny pits present on some ridges. Dimensions : 44(44)45 m (3 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit. Distribution : middle to upper Albian, Alberta (Norris 1967); and upper Albian, Wyoming (Ravn 1995) Plicatella sp.1 Plate 22, Fig. 17 Spore tetrahedral, trile te, amb subtriangular to elliptic al; laesurae extending ca. half of the radius, gapping; sculpture cica tricose, ridge de nse and wide (2.5 m wide), ridges apart from each other ca. 0.5 m, ridges fused outside of the outline of spore. Dimensions : 32 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Plicatella sp.2 Plate 22, Figs. 18, 19 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb subtriangular; laesurae ex tending more than 2/3 of the spore radius, laesurae ga pping; sculpture cicatricose, ridge dense and wide (6 m wide), ridges fused outside of the outline of spore; appendage small and short. Dimensions : 48 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Trilobosporites Pant ex Potonie 1956 Type species: Trilobosporites hannonicus (Delcourt & Sprumont) Potonie 1956 Trilobosporites purverulentus (Verbitskaya) Dettmann, 1963 Plate 22, Fig. 20 Spore tetrahedral, trilete, amb triangular; laesurae extending 2/3 of spore radius, distinct and straight; sides c oncave, apices well-rounded; scul pture scabrate to foveolate, fovea (ca. 1.5-3 m) on apices region and other part of surface scabra te; spore wall ca. 2 m thick. Dimensions : 43(48)52 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Aptian and Albian, southeastern Australia (Dettmann 1963); middle Albian, Oklahoma (Hedlund and Norris 1968); Albian, Saskatchewan and Manitoba

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55 (Playford 1971); Cenomanian, Louisiana (Ph illips and Felix, 1972a); and Cenomanian (Singh 1983). Algal, Fungal and Megaspore Genus Laevigatasporites Potonie & Gelletich 1933 Type species: Laevigatasporites magnus (Potonie) Potonie & Gelletich 1933 Laevigatasporites sp. Plate 23, Fig. 1 Spore large, subcircular; inaperture, psila te to scabrate, full of folds on surface; spore wall very thin, ca. 0.5 m. Dimensions: 81 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit. Genus Oedogonium Link 1820 Type species: Oedogonium cretaceum Zippi, 1998 Oedogonium cretaceum Zippi, 1998 Plate 23, Fig.2 Oospore, spherical to subspherical; th ick outer wall surrounding a solid porous body. Dimensions : 24 m (1 specimen). Remarks : Modern species of Oedogonium are distributed in fresh water throughout the world (Tiffany, 1930; Fritsch, 1961) and can indicate slow moving or still shallow fresh water (Zippi, 1998). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Albian, Ontario (Zippi 1998). Genus Ovoidites Potonie 1951 ex Thomson and Pflug 1953 emend. Krutzsch 1959 Type species: Ovoidites ligneolus Potonie ex Krutzsch, 1959. Ovoidites grandis (Pocock) Zippi, 1998 Plate 23, Fig. 3 Spore elliptical; splitting equa torially into two elongate sections, psilate; spore wall ca. 1 m. Dimensions : 58(74)89 x 125(152)178 m (2 specimens). Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Cenomanian, Oklahoma (Hedlund 1966); Albian, Ontario (Zippi 1998). Ovoidites sp. Plate 23, Fig. 4 Spore elliptical; splitting equa torially into two halves, psilate to scabrate; spore wall ca. 1 m.

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56 Dimensions : 16(19)24 x 30(39)54 m (4 specimens). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. ? Ovoidites sp. 1 Plate 23, Fig. 5 Spore elliptical; aperture wide, splitting e quatorially into two halves; reticulate, lumina uneven, 0.5-4 m, muri uneven, 0.5-1 m; spore wall 1-2 m. Dimensions : 48 x 80 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit. ? Ovoidites sp. 2 Plate 23, Fig. 6 Spore elliptical; aperture wide, splitting e quatorially into two halves; verrucate to baculate; spore wall 1 m. Dimensions : 48 x 80 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Palambages O. Wetzel 1961 Palambages sp. Plate 23, Fig. 7 Algal colony, individual cell ca. 15 m; ca. 16 cells in colony; the cell wall is psilate to scabrate; there are folds on cell surface. Dimensions : colony 38 x 54 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Pediastrum Meyen 1829 Pediastrum sp. Plate 23, Fig. 8 Algal colony; with spines, spines conn ected each other, spine point blunt. Dimensions : colony 28 x 35 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Genus Schizosporis Cookson and Dettmann emend. Pierce 1976 Type species: Schizosporis reticulates Cookson and Dettmann, 1959. Schizosporis reticulatus Cookson and Dettmann, 1959 Plate 23, Figs. 9, 10 Probable algal colony; individual cell ca. 5 x 8 m. Dimensions : 107 x 117 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution: Berriasian to Cenomanian (? Earl y Turonian) in North America, Australia, and Europe (Zippi, 1998). Genus Tetraporina Naumova emend. Lindgren 1980 Type species: Tetraporina antique Naumova, 1950.

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57 Tetraporina sp. Plate 23, Fig. 11 Spore quadrate; sides concave, surface psilate to scabrate. Dimensions : 47 m (1 specimen). Remarks : Tetraporina is similar to several genera of the modern Zygnemataceae (Jarzen, 1979) based on the characteristics such as size, wall thickness and overall quadrate morphology. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Fungal spore type 1 Plate 23, Fig. 12 Individual cell square to rectangular; cell wall ca. 0.5 m, each cell with an opening to connect each other. Dimensions : cell 7 x 8 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Fungal spore type 2 Plate 23, Fig. 13 Individual cell (?), ovate; ps ilate, cell wall thin, ca. 0.5 m, thinning area present on the center of the cell. Dimensions : 32 x 53 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit. Fungal spore type 3 Plate 23, Fig. 14 Individual cell (?), irregula r, central body elliptical. Dimensions : 12 x 25 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit. Fungal spore type 4 Plate 23, Fig. 15 Individual cell irregular elongate, at least 9 indivi dual cells link together. Dimensions : cell 4 x 22 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit. Fungal spore type 5 Plate 23, Fig. 16 Individual cell square to rectangular; cell wall ca. 1 m, cells may be linked together by a central “canal”. Dimensions : cell 12 x 12 to 11 x 16 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Fungal spore type 6 Plate 23, Fig. 17 Individual cell (?), ovate to elliptical; wall ca. 2.5 m.

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58 Dimensions: 18 x 28 m (1 specimen). Occurrence: Highway 4 Clay Pit. Fungal fruiting body of th e family Microthyriaceae Plate 23, Fig. 18 Fruiting body circular, with ra diating rows of cells; cells square to elongate, 5 to 9 m long and 3 to 6 m wide; there is a hole in the center of the body. Dimensions : body diameter 59 m (1 specimen) Remarks : This is the same as the specimen Si ngh (1971) described. It is similar to the species of Microthallites described by Dilcher (1965). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : Late Albian, northwest ern Alberta (Singh 1971). Megaspore type 1 Plate 24, Fig. 1 Spore circular; probably scabrate to fi ne granulate; proximally surmounted by a prominent trifoliate acrolamella, echinae (ca. 4 m long) evenly distributed on surface of acrolamella. Dimensions : Spore body: 62 m; overall length of the body and acrolamella: 136 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Highway 4 Clay Pit. Genus Balmeisporites Cookson and Dettmann 1958 Type species: Balmeisporites holodictyus Cookson and Dettmann, 1958. Balmeisporites glenelgensis Cookson and Dettmann Plate 23, Figs. 2, 3 Spore circular; reticulate, lumina 8-18 m, muri ca. 3 m, with acrolamella; spore wall ca. 5 m. Dimensions : Spore body: 156 m; overall length of the body and acrolamella: 190 m (1 specimen). Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Upper Cretaceous, Victoria, Australia (Cookson and Dettmann 1958b); Cenomanian, Oklahoma (Hedlund 1966); Cenomanian, Arizona (Agasie 1969; Romans 1975); middle to upper Cenomania n, northwestern Iowa and northeastern Nebraska (Ravn and Witzke 1995). Dinoflagellate Cysts and Acritarchs Dinoflagellate Cysts Genus Oligosphaeridium Davey and Williams 1966 Type species: Oligosphaeridium complex (White) Davey and Williams, 1966. Oligosphaeridium reniforme (Tasch) Davey, 1969 Plate 25, Figs. 1, 2

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59 Central body elliptical, with apical archaeopyle; with f unnel-shaped processes that expanded gradually from base to the distal ends, the extremities of the processes are flat with short (ca. 2 m) hair like spines. Dimensions : Size of central body: 50 x 55 m; length of processes: 17-22 m; width of processes at base: 2-6 m; width of processes at distal ends: 18-22 m. (1 specimen) Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Albian to Cenomanian, Saskatchewan (Davey 1969). ? Oligosphaeridium sp. Plate 25, Figs. 3-6 Central body elliptical; with funnel-shaped processes whose width is smallest at middle of the processes, the extremiti es of the processes are serrate. Dimensions : size of central body: 59 x 68 m; length of processes: 10-17 m; width of processes at base: 1-3 m; width of processes at distal ends: 4-9 m. (1 specimen) Remarks : The processes are slender for this species compared with those of Oligosphaeridium reniforme. Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Nyktericysta Bint, 1986 Type species: Nyktericysta davisii Bint, 1986 Nyktericysta cf. pentagona (Singh, 1983) Bint, 1986 Plate 25, Figs. 7, 8; Plate 26, Fig. 1 Cyst proximate, pentagonal shape; two layered, epiphragm membrane, wrinkled, epiphragm is appressed to endophragm except for at horns; one apic al, two lateral and two antapical horns; there is a small appendage on the tip of apical and antapical horns; cingulum and tabulati on are not clear. Dimension : 50(57)64 x 79(81)83 m (4 specimens) Remarks : Compared with the specimens from middle Cenomanian that Singh described in 1983 (75 x 111 m), the specimens described here are smaller. Also, the reticulate structures are not clear on endophragm. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Canningia Cookson & Eisenack 1960a Type species: Canningia reticulata Cookson & Eisenack 1960a ? Canningia sp. Plate 26, Fig. 2 Proximate cyst, with an apical archeopyle; having evenly distributed processes, tip of process branching, ca. 4 m long. Dimension : 40 x 61 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit.

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60 Genus Coronifera Cookson and Eisenack emend. Davey 1974 Type species: Coronifera oceanica Cookson and Eisenack, 1958. Coronifera oceanica Cookson and Eisenack, 1958 Plate 26, Figs. 3-5 Central body elliptical; gra nulate to scabrate, with spines, spine simple, not furcating; antapical process present, extremities of antapical process serrate. Dimensions : size of central body: 36(41)45 x 42(46)49 m; length of processes: 912 m; antapical process 7(8)9 x 10 m. (2 specimens) Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : Upper Aptian, Germany (Eisenack 1958); Albian, Australia (Cookson and Eisenack 1958); Albian to Cenomanian, England (Cookson and Hughes 1964; Davey 1969); and Albian, Saskatchewan (Davey 1969). Genus Cyclonephelium Deflandre & Cookson emend. Stover & Evitt 1978 Type species: Cyclonephelium compactum Deflandre & Cookson 1955 Cyclonephelium cf. vannophorm Davey, 1969 Plate 26, Figs. 6, 7 Shell subcircular; with apical prominence and two reduced antapical horns; with apical archaeopyle; granular shell wall with shor t processes which bifurcating sometimes, process shape irregular; a wide sulcus presen t from antapical horn to archaeopyle margin. Dimension : overall length of shell (including operculum): 74(81)88 m; overall width of shell: 66(69)72 m; length of processes: 4 m. (2 specimens) Remarks : The processes are shorter than those of the holotype (up to 8 m). Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. ? Cyclonephelium sp. Plate 26, Figs. 8, 9 Shell elliptical, operculum probably gone, antapical horns not clear; psilate to scabrate; with short funnel shaped proce sses, extremities of processes serrate. Dimension : overall length of shell: 88(93)98 m; overall width of shell: 62(73)84 m; length of processes: 2-5 m. (2 specimens) Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Odontochitina Deflandre emend. Davey 1970 Type species: Odontochitina operculata Deflandre & Cookson, 1955. cf. Odontochitina sp. Plate 26, Fig. 10 Single isolated horn; regulate to scabrate; one circular (8 m in diameter) thinning area in the middle of the hor n, another thinning area (ca.3 m in diameter) at the tip of the horn. Dimension : 63 x 26 m for entire specimen and 44 x 11 m for horn (width in middle of horn) (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit.

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61 Genus Pterodinium Eisenack 1958 Type species: Pterodinium aliferum Eisenack, 1958. cf. Pterodinium cingulatum subsp. cingulatum Plate 26, Fig. 11 Cyst proximochorate, subcir cular shape; subs pherical body with high parasutural septa, septa membrane; there are pits on central body surface; cingulum and tabulation are not clear. Dimension: 31(38)44 m (2 specimens) Remarks : The holotype specimen (50-54 m) is larger than specimens found here. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Genus: Subtilisphaera Jain & Millepied 1973 Type species: Subtilisphaera senegalensis Jain & Millepied 1973 Subtilisphaera deformans (Davey and Verdier) Stover and Evitt, 1978 Plate 26, Fig. 12 Cyst proximate; pericyst forming a prom inent, broad-based conical apical horn, two uneven antapical horns; left antapical ho rn is nearly as long as apical horn, right antapical horn is vestigia l; pericyst membranous, both pe ricyst and endocyst fine granulate, endocyst appressed laterally to one side of pericyst, tabu lation not clear. Dimensions : pericyst size: 48 x 87 m; endocyst size: 44 x 50 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Distribution : middle Albian, France (Davey an d Verdier 1971); Albian, eastern Canada (Bujak and Williams 1978); and Albi an to middle Cenomanian, northwestern Canada (Singh 1983). Genus Geiselodinium Krutzsch 1962 Type species: Geiselodinium geiseltalense Krutzsch 1962 cf. Geiselodinium sp. Plate 27, Fig. 1 Cyst cavate, heart shape; periphragm psilate and endophr agm with fine granules; tip of apical horn and antapica l horns blunt; cingulum and sulcus present but tabulation is not clear. Dimension : 36(43)47 x 47(48)50 m (3 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Trithyrodinium Drugg emend. Lentin & Williams 1976 Type species: Trithyrodinium evittii Drugg, 1967. ? Trithyrodinium sp. Plate 27, Figs. 2, 3 Cyst proximate; two layered, w ith a short apihorn, ca. 9 m long; two antapihorn may exist, periphragm psilate and endophr agm hairy, tabulation not clear.

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62 Dimensions : 48(52)58 x 65(69)73 m (3 specimens) Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. Dino cyst type A Plate 27, Fig. 4 Cyst single wall, thin; elliptical shape; psilate; a lot of folds on the surface; tabulation are not clear. Dimension : 34(36)39 x 48(49)50 m (3 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Dino cyst type B Plate 27, Fig. 5 Cyst proximochorate; subcircular to el liptical shape; subspherical body with membrane-like short parasutural septa; cingulum and tabulation are not clear. Dimension : 42(43)44 m (3 specimens) for subcircular shape; 38(41)43 x 45(47)48 m for elliptical shape (2 specimens). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Dino cyst type C Plate 27, Fig. 6 Cyst single wall, thin; subcircular shape; microgranulate; a lot of folds on the surface; tabulation are not clear. Dimensions : 39 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Dino cyst type D Plate 27, Fig. 7 Cyst single wall, very thin; subcircular sh ape; dense hair-like processes on surface, ca. 3 m long; a lot of folds on the surf ace; tabulation are not clear. Dimensions : 31(33)35 x 36(37)37 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Dino cyst type H Plate 27, Fig. 8 Cyst single wall, thin; subcircular shape; short hair-like shor t processes on surface and tip of process branching; a lot of fold s on the surface; tabulat ion are not clear. Dimensions : 29 x 30 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Dino cyst type I Plate 27, Fig. 9 Cyst two layered, subcircular; both epicys t and endocyst with granules, granule size uneven, 0.2-0.6 m. Dimensions : 41 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit.

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63 Acritarchs Genus Micrhystridium Deflandre 1937 Type species: Micrhystridium inconspicuum Deflandre, 1937. Micrhystridium singulare Firtion, 1952. Plate 27, Fig. 10 Central body polygonal; processes more than 10 on surface, processes fluffy and sinuous, hollow, ca. 14-16 m long; test wall very thin and psilate. Dimensions : diameter of central body ca. 25 m; maximum length of process ca. 16 m. (1 specimen) Remark : The process is longer than th e central body for the holotype. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : Albian to Cenomania n, England (Davey 1969). Micrhystridium sp.1 Plate 27, Fig. 11 Central body nearly circular; sparse pr ocesses on surface, processes rigid and strong, tip is very sharp, ca. 7-12 m long; test wall very thin and psilate. Dimensions : diameter of central body ca. 24 m; maximum length of process ca. 12 m. (1 specimen) Remark : The processes have broad bases and taper gradually. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Micrhystridium sp.2 Plate 27, Fig. 12 Central body subcircular to elliptical; spar se short processes on surface, processes curled at the tip, and sharp, ca. 5-7 m long; test wall membrane like, psilate. Dimensions : diameter of central body ca. 34(35)35 x 41(42)42 m; maximum length of process ca. 7 m. (2 specimens) Remark : The processes are without broad bases. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Micrhystridium sp.3 Plate 27, Fig. 13 Central body irregular; dense hair like processes on surface, long, ca. 13-17 m; processes curled and tip of processes sharp; test wall thin and psilate. Dimensions : diameter of central body ca. 24(27)30 x 30(34)37 m; maximum length of process ca. 17 m. (2 specimens) Remark : The processes are without broad bases. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Micrhystridium sp.4 Plate 27, Fig. 14 Central body circular; thick and stiff pro cesses uniformly dist ributed, long, ca. 11-17 m; processes tapering distally but tip is blunt; test wall th in and scabrate.

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64 Dimensions : diameter of central body ca. 30 m; maximum length of process ca. 17 m. (1 specimen) Remark : Compared with M sp.1, the processes of this species are thicker and longer. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Micrhystridium sp.5 Plate 27, Figs. 15, 16 Central body circular; with rare a nd sharp processes, process ca. 4-5 m long, less than 1 m wide at base; test wa ll thin and scabrate. Dimensions : diameter of central body ca. 11(12)12 m; maximum length of process ca. 5 m. (2 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit. Genus Pterospermella Eisenack 1972 Type species: Pterospermella aureolata (Cookson & Eisenack) Eisenack 1972 Pterospermella australiensis (Deflandre & Cookson) S.K. Srivastava, 1984 Plate 27, Fig. 17 Overall subcircular and cent ral body nearly circular; ce ntral body opaque; the flank scabrate. Dimensions : overall diameter ca. 23 m; central body ca. 11 m. (1 specimens) Remark : This species is relatively smaller compared to other species. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : Barremian, France (Srivastava 1984) Genus Veryhachium Deunff emend. Downie & Sarjeant 1963 Veryhachium reductum Deunff 1961 Central body triangular; bearing a process at each corner; the process hollow and tapering distally to a fine point; test wall thin and psilate to scabrate. Dimensions : diameter of central body 20(29)38 m; length of process ca. 10(12)13 m. (2 specimens) Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit. Distribution : Ordovician, Silurian, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic and lower Cretaceous, France and England (Davey 1969). Veryhachium cf. reductum Deunff Plate 27, Fig. 18 Central body triangular; bearing a process at each corner; the process hollow and tapering distally to a fine point; test wall thin and psilate to scabrate. Dimensions : diameter of central body 46 m; maximum length of process ca. 21 m. (1 specimen) Remark : It is bigger than the holotype (12(16)21 m ). Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit.

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65 Veryhachium sp.1 Plate 27, Fig. 19 Central body slightly inflated; at least 6 curved processes present; processes hollow, tip of processes blunt; test wall very thin and scabrate. Dimensions : diameter of central body ca. 19 m; maximum length of process ca. 24 m. (1 specimen) Remark : The processes are not circular in cross section Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Veryhachium sp.2 Plate 27, Fig. 20 Central body triangular; 3 curved processe s radiated from central body; processes hollow, tip of processes sharp; test wall thin and granulate. Dimensions : diameter of central body ca. 18 m; maximum length of process ca. 30 m. (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Veryhachium sp.3 Plate 27, Fig. 21 Central body nearly rectangular; bearing a process at each co rner; the processes hollow and tapering distally to a fine point; processes wide based and 11-15 m long; test wall very thin and scabrate to psilate. Dimensions : diameter of central body ca. 11x18 m; maximum length of process ca. 15 m. (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Acritarch type A Plate 27, Fig. 22 Central body circular; hollow processe s uniformly distri buted; processes acuminate, bifid or branched-bifid ; test wall thin and psilate. Dimensions : diameter of central body ca. 19(20)21 m; maximum length of process ca. 11 m. (2 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Acritarch type B Plate 27, Fig. 23 Central body irregular or elliptical; ho llow processes uniformly distributed; processes long and acuminate, bifid or bran ched-bifid; test wall thin and psilate. Dimensions : diameter of central body ca. 9 x 15 m; maximum length of process ca. 18 m. (1 specimen) Remark : The shape is different from acritarch type A. Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. Acritach type C Plate 28, Figs. 1, 2

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66 Central body elliptical; dense processes uni formly distributed; processes long and bifurcating; test wall th in and fine granulate. Dimensions : diameter of central body ca. 59 x 68 m; length of process ca. 10-13 m. (1 specimen) Occurrence : Ochs Clay Pit. ? Acritarch type 1 Plate 28, Fig. 3 Cyst single wall; subcircular shape; reticu late or regulate; folds on the surface; tabulation are not clear. Dimensions : 27 x 30 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. ? Acritarch type 2 Plate 28, Fig. 4 Cyst single wall, relatively thick, ca. 1 m; elliptical shape; scabrate, a lot of folds on surface; tabulation are not clear. Dimensions : 37 x 59 m (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. ? Acritarch type 3 Plate 28, Fig. 5 Cyst single wall, thin; subcircular to ellipt ical shape; sparse granules on surface and there is a pit on each granule, a lot of fold s on the surface; tabulation are not clear. Dimensions : 35 m for subcircular shape (1 specimen); 21 x 31 m for elliptical shape (1 specimen) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. ? Acritarch type 4 Plate 28, Fig. 6 Cyst single wall, thin; subcircular to ci rcular shape; fur-like short processes on surface, a lot of folds on the su rface; tabulation are not clear. Dimensions : 26(30)30 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit. ? Acritarch type 5 Plate 28, Fig. 7 Cyst single wall, very thin membrane-like, subcircular shape; a lot of folds on the surface; tabulation are not clear. Dimensions : 28(31)34 x 35(36)37 m (2 specimens) Occurrence : Courtland Clay Pit.

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67 CHAPTER 5 GEOLOGICAL SETTING: REGIONAL AND STUDY AREA Regional During the early Cretaceous, two epicontinen tal seas, the Boreal in the north and the Gulf in the south, were present on continental North America, with the Boreal Sea advancing southward and the Gulf Sea northward (Obradovich and Cobban, 1975). These two seas joined togeth er to form the Western Inte rior Seaway, a continuous sea extending from the Artic to the Gulf of Mexico across the North America continent, which was present by the Late Albian age (Witzke and Ludvigson, 1996) (Figure 5-1). The Western Interior Seaway was transg ressive during the Late Albian to the Cenomanian (Kauffman, 1977) and was bordered on the west by the Cordilleran thrust belt and on the east by the cratonic platform (D yman, et al., 1994). Because of variable rates of subsidence rela ted to tectonic and sediment load ing, an asymmetric sedimentary basin with thick Cretaceous sediments in the west and thin sediments in the east, was formed (Dyman, et al., 1994). The type area of the Dakota Formation is located in northeastern Nebraska and northwestern Iowa along the Missouri River (Ravn and Witzke, 1995). “Dakota” is used as a lithostratigraphic unit acr oss a vast area of central a nd west-central North America (Ravn and Witzke, 1995) (Figure 5-2). However, this name often has been used without consideration of the relations hip to the type Dakota, eith er lithostratigraphically or chronostratigraphically (Witzke, et al., 1983) So the age and lithology of the Dakota

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68 Formation are probably not the same from th e west margin to the east margin of the Western Interior Seaway. The Dakota Formation, a sequence of nonmarine to marginal marine facies, is the oldest Cretaceous sediment in southwes tern Minnesota (Witzke and Ludvigson, 1994). The Dakota Formation in southwestern Minnesota includes tw o units, the lower sandstone lithostratigraphic unit, which is similar to the Nishnabotna Member, and the upper mudstone lithostratigraphic unit, which is similar to the Woodbury Member of the Dakota Formation in age and lithology (Sette rholm, 1994) (Figure 53). Currently, the age of the Dakota Formation in southwest Minnesota is thought to be Cenomanian (Setterholm, 1994). However this suggesti on for Cenomanian age is mainly based upon the interpretation of Lesque reux (1895) and Pierce (1961). The interpretations of megafossils by Lesquereux (1895) and mi crofossils by Pier ce (1961) all need reexamination and reinterpretation (Upchurch and Dilcher, 1990; Wang H., 2002, Hu et al., 2004). The age of the Dakota Formation in southwest Minnesota is uncertain at this time and will be addressed in this dissertation. Stratigraphy and Sedimentary Environments in Study Area Courtland Clay Pit The sediments at Courtland Clay Pit ar e dominated by laminated mudstone (Figure 5-4 and Figure 5-5). Hajek et al. (2002) interpreted the sedimentary environment as a large lake based upon the mmto cm-scale lami nae, scattered well-preserved leaves, and siderite concretions. Lake Drummond in Virgin ia is a typical coastal lake and may be a good analogy of the large Cretaceous lake at Courtland Clay Pit (Figure 5-6).

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69 Highway 4 Clay Pit The sediments at Highway 4 Clay Pit c onsist predominantly of tabular crossbedded sandstone and carbonaceous siltstone (Figure 5-7and Fi gure 5-8). Hajek et al. (2002) interpreted the sedimentary environmen t as a tidally influenced meandering river system based on the inclined heterolithic st ratification (IHS) and tabular cross-bedded fine-grained sandstone. Oxbow lake, ri dge and swale, and levee are important environments associated with a m eandering river system (Figure 5-9). Ochs Clay Pit The sediments at Ochs Clay Pit are domi nated by silty mudstone and siltstone (Figure 5-10). Sloan (1964) indicated that the sediments below the lignite layer probably represent the lacustrine environment based on the varved mudstone and abundant leaf fossils, and the sediments above the lignite layer probably represent the estuarine environment based upon the silty and sandy muds tone and several vertebras of sharks. The lignite layer extended broadly and its thickness is relatively constant. The ash content of the lignite is 32%-41%. This kind of lignite is probably not from the peat accumulation in close association with active clastic depositional environments such as on the floodplain of meandering rivers, in co astal mires close to active beach barrier systems, in interdistributary bays and even levees of delta tops (McCabe, 1987). The lignite in the locality may represent the dist al side of the coastal swamp, which is not close to the active beach barrier systems. According to WaltherÂ’s Law (Boggs, 2001), the lignite probably represented a coastal sw amp. The Dismal swamp in Virginia and North Carolina is a typical coastal swamp a ssociated with the bar-built estuaries and lakes, and may be a good analogy of the Cret aceous coastal swamp at Ochs Clay Pit (Figure 5-6). Twenhofel (1932) suggested that the ideal lacustrine sequence for a low-

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70 energy lake (Figure 5-11) is one in which the lacustrine mud deposits are overlain by peat deposits of swamps. For a high-energy la ke the ideal sequence has sediments that coarsen upwards (Visher, 1965) (Figure 511). According to these ideas, the top lacustrine sediments at Ochs Clay P it seem to represent a low-energy lake paleoenvironment. The Stratigraphic Relationships of the Localities The Cretaceous sediments at the three clay pits studied here in southwestern Minnesota were isolated from each other. It is very difficult to make correlations between these three clay pits based upon thei r lithology. Megafossils are not satisfactory for comparative dating between these localit ies because even numbers of leaves are available in our collections and a stratigraphic sequence of leaf species have not been worked out yet for the Dakota Formation leaf fossils. However, plant microfossils are abundant in the sediments at these three clay pits. Pollen has been successfully used for Dakota Formation stratigraphic zonatons of other areas (Brenner et al. 2000). Based upon the common occurrence of Liliacidites reticulatus, Tricolpites cf. vulgaris, Phimopollenites striolata and Fraxinoipollenites constrictus in sample 036710 at Courtland Clay Pit, in sample 046517 at Highw ay 4 Clay Pit, and in sample 046522 at Ochs Clay pit, I suggest that the sediment s from which these samples were collected represented time equivalent de posits (Figure 5-12). Thus it is possible to make some stratigraphic comparisons between these three cl ay pits. The pollen studies also provide a framework for paleoenvironmental interpretations of localities.

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71 Figure 5-1. Map of North America with the lo cation of Western Inte rior Seaway during the Cenomanian (early Late Cretaceous). Modified from Parrish, et al., 1984, Parish, et al. modified fr om Ziegler et al., 1983.

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72 Figure 5-2. Area of west-centr al United States in which the lithostratigraphic name “Dakota” is used. (f rom Ravn et al., 1995).

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73 Figure 5-3. Schematic cross section of lower Upper Cretaceous sediments in southwestern Minnesota. (from Setterholm, 1994)

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74 Explanation Figure 5-4. Detailed stratigra phic columnar section of lowe r section at Courtland Clay Pit.

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75 Explanation Figure 5-5. Detailed stratigra phic columnar section of upper section at Courtland Clay Pit. Figure 5-6. Sketch map of the Dismal Swam p, USA; an example of a coastal swamp and coastal lake developed along the coasta l areas. (in Stach et al., 1982, after Teichmeuler, 1962).

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76 Explanation Figure 5-7. Detailed stratigraphic columnar section of SW secti on at Highway 4 Clay Pit. Explanation Figure 5-8. Detailed stratigraphi c columnar section of NE sec tion at Highway 4 Clay Pit.

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77 Figure 5-9. The morphological elements of a meandering river system. (from Walker and Cant, 1984)

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78 Explanation Figure 5-10. Detailed stratigraphic colu mnar section at Ochs Clay Pit.

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79 Figure 5-11. Ideal sequence of lacustrine de posits. After Visher (1965) and Twenhofel (1932). (from Picard and High, 1981)

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80 Explanation Figure 5-12. Inferred stratigra phic relationships, outcrop secti ons in study areas. (Solid line indicates the time equivalent level.)

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81 CHAPTER 6 THE AGE OF THE DAKOTA FO RMATION IN MINNESOTA Based upon fossil leaves, Lesquereux (1895) assigned some Cretaceous sediments that outcropped in Minnesota to the “Dakota group” and related them to the Cenomanian. Pierce (1961) also indicated that the Cretaceous deposits of the Dakota Formation in Minnesota are of Cenomanian age based upon a palynological investigation. Later, Austin (1972) proposed that the nonmarine Cretaceous sediments (above the weathered residuum of the Precambrian and Paleozoic basement rocks) in the Minnesota River Valley are about middle Cenomanian base d upon clay mineralogy. Setterholm (1994) suggested that the thick mudstone unit adj acent to the Minnesota River Valley resembles the Woodbury Member of the Dakota Forma tion in age and lithology. But Setterholm (1994) proposed that the upper mudstone unit ma y be equivalent to Graneros Shale which is placed in late Cenomanian in Minnesota. So it is obvious the accurate age assignment for the Dakota Formation in Minnesota is not cl ear due to the absence of marine fossils. Palynological investigations have been co mpleted in Alberta (Singh, 1983), the Rocky Mountain Region (Nichols, 1994), and northwe stern Iowa and northeastern Nebraska (Ravn and Witzke, 1995). Therefore, pollen and spores may be used as a tool to determine the age of mid-Cretaceous nonma rine sediments in the Western Interior Seaway. Both Liliacidites giganteus and Dictyophyllidites impensus occur first in the upper Shaftesbury Formation of the Peace River area in northwester n Alberta, Canada. Based upon a “Fish-scale” marker bed and its compar ison with marine fauna, the age of the

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82 upper Shaftesbury Formation was assumed to be Cenomanian (Singh, 1983). Therefore, the dark gray clay sediments in Courtland Clay Pit from which Liliacidites giganteus and Dictyophyllidites impensus were recovered is here consid ered to represent Cenomanian age sediments in Minnesota. Moreover, both Cicatricosisportites crassiterminatus and Stellatopollis largissimus recovered from the C ourtland Clay Pit and Artiopollis indivisus, Appendicisporites auritus and Cicatricosisportites crassiterminatus recovered from the Ochs Clay Pit all appear in Ceno manian or younger sediments in North America such as northwestern Alberta (Singh, 1983) and Arizona (Agasie, 1969). Based upon the pollen data, it appears th at the Cretaceous sediments in south central Minnesota probably are Cenomanian in age. The megaspore Balmeisporites glenelgensis was found only in the lignite of Ochs Clay pit. This species also occurs in th e Cenomanian sediments in the Peace River area of northwestern Alberta, Canada (Singh, 1983). Balmeisporites glenelgensis also occurs in the Sergeant Bluff lignite and the Stone Park lignite that outcrop in northwestern Iowa and northeastern Nebraska. The age of th ese lignites was placed as middle and upper Cenomanian (Ravn and Witzke, 1995). Ag ain, based upon the common occurrence of Balmeisporites glenelgensis, the lignite layer at the Ochs Cl ay Pit can be correlated with the Sergeant Bluff lignite and Stone Park lig nite, suggesting that the age of the lignite layer and the sediments above the lignite laye r at Ochs Clay Pit are probably middle to upper Cenomanian Witzke et al. (1996) and Br enner et al. (2000) also indicated that the first occurrence of Dictyophyllidites impensus and Cicatricosisporites crassiterminatus probably represent the middle Cenomanian. Dictyophyllidites impensus occurs at

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83 Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit and Highway 4 Clay Pit and Cicatricosisporites crassiterminatus occurs at Courtland Clay Pit and Ochs Clay Pit. So the sediments exposed at Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit and Highway 4 Clay Pit are all probably middle Cenomanian. Nichols (1994) made a revision of the palynostratigraphic zonation for the upper Cretaceous nonmarine sediments in the Rocky Mountain Region. This palynostratigraphic zonation is based upon a co mparison with marine ammonite zones. He stated that the first occurrence of th e psilate tricolporate pollen type (such as Nyssapollenites sp.) and the obligate tetrads (such as Artiopollis indivisus ) are representative of middle Cenomanian age. Both Nyssapollenites sp. and Artiopollis indivisus occur in Ochs Clay Pit and Nyssapollenites sp. occurs in Courtland Clay Pit. Because the exposed sediments in Courtland Cl ay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit and Ochs Clay Pit contain typical middle Cenomanian marker pollen, they are best considered as middle Cenomanian in age. This middle Cenomanian age is in conflic t with other pollen data that has been published. The angiosperm pollen types which o ccur in upper Zone I II, Atlantic coastal plain, Potomac Group sediments (Doyle and Robbins, 1977) included “ Foveotricolporites” rhombohedralis Retimonocolpites sp. A, Striatopollis sp. B, cf. Tricolpites barrandei and Tricolpites nemejci The sediments at th e Courtland Clay Pit contain very similar pollen such as Foveotricolporites rhombohedralis Retimonocolpites dividuus Striatopollis paraneus Tricolpites cf. vulgaris and Tricolpites nemejci The age of the Potomac Group Zone III was sugge sted to be lower Cenomanian ? (Doyle and Robbins, 1977). However, based upon typical pollen from several pollen studies (Singh,

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84 1983; Ravn and Witzke, 1995; Nichols, 1994), the age of the sediments at the Courtland Clay Pit probably are middle Cenomanian rath er than “lower Ceno manian ?”. This suggests that a revision in age may be in or der for the pollen Zone III established for the Atlantic coastal plain, Potomac Group. Doyle and Robbins (1977) mentioned that Zone IV “have not ye t been studied in detail”. Also the samples from which polle n were recovered were from outcrops, not from cores of wells. Considering that the fi rst Normapolles triporat e type pollen occurs in Zone IV and they are absent in the middle Cenomanian sediments in northwestern Iowa and northeastern Nebraska (Ravn a nd Witzke 1995), and northwestern Alberta (Singh 1983), the middle Cenomanian to lowe r Turonian age of the Zone IV may be doubtful. So defining the age of the middle Cenomanian by the occurrence of Normapolles triporate pollen probably should be open to question. Considering the comparison with Singh (1983), Nichols (1994), Ravn and Witzke (1995), Witzke et al. (1996), and Brenner et al. (2000), the age of Cretaceous sediments exposed in Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit and Ochs Clay Pit is probably middle Cenomanian.

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85 CHAPTER 7 IMPLICATION OF POLLINATION BI OLOGY AND EARLY LATE CRETACEOUS COASTAL VEGETATION Implications for Pollination Biology of the Early Late Cretaceous Angiosperm Pollen During the past 30 years early angiosperm pollination biology has been understood substantially through the research on Cret aceous fossil flowers (Dilcher et al. 1976, Dilcher 1979, Crepet 1979, Friis and Skar by 1981, Dilcher and Crane, 1984, Crane and Dilcher, 1984, Crane, et al., 1986; Drinna n, et al., 1990; Frii s, et al., 1999, 2000a, 2000b, Dilcher, 2001). It was a widely accepte d hypothesis that the do minant angiosperm pollination modes were insect-pollination in early Cretaceous (Crepet and Friis 1987, Friis et al., 1999; Field and Arens, 2005; Wing and Boucher, 1998). Even some ancient relatives of extant wind-pollinated taxa were insect-pollinated during the Cretaceous, such as Late Albian insect-pollinated flowers of Platanus -like plants (Crane, et al., 1986) and Campanian (Late Cretaceous) insect-pollina ted Fagaceous flowers (Herendeen, et al., 1995). During Cenomanian a showy flower th at is bisexual from Dakota Formation in Nebraska implied insect pollination (Basinger and Dilcher, 1984). Also Drinnan et al. (1990) described a lauraceous flower whic h was probably insect-pollinated based upon the modified stamens that may have served as pollinator rewards. For the rosids, magnoliids, and hamamelids, insect pollination probably was important (Crepet et al., 1991) by Cenomanian time. It seems that insect pollination was very common during Cenomanian. Dilcher (1979), on the other hand, presents evidence to support the presence of wind pollination by mid-Cretaceous times. Dilcher (1979) also proposed the

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86 hypothesis that the independent lineages of some anemophilous flowers may have developed separately from entomophilous flowers from a common bisexual ancestral stock. Moreover Dilcher (2000) indicated that wind pollination along with insect pollination mechanisms is also important fo r Cretaceous angiosperms. But Whitehead (1969) indicated that anemophily may evolve s econdly in angiosperms. He wrote this at a time when Magnolia was considered to repr esent the characters of the ancestor of modern flowers and when insects were thought to have been important in the evolution of angiosperms. So perhaps more studies need to be done for a better understanding the role of pollination in the evolution of early angi osperms. The palynological data may provide new evidence about the diversity and nature of pollination profiles of angiosperms during the Cenomanian. Generally the pollen types of wind-pollinated plant might be overrepresented in some paleoenvironments (Cohen, 1975). On the other hand the pollen of insectpollinated plants could be very rare or absent in areas some distance from the zoophilous plants (Faegri and Iversen, 1989; Friis, et al., 1999). But some insect-pollinated angiosperms often produce large amounts of polle n as reward for their pollinators (Faegri and van der Pijl, 1979). Lupia et al. (2002) described a new insect pollinated angiosperm flower (Santonian), which produced large quan tities of pollen. But there is no indication that this abundantly produced pollen was di spersed any distance from the plant that produced it or that it was likely to become in corporated into sedime nts. Faegri and van der Pijl (1979) indicated th at the large number of pollen grains produced by insectpollinated flowers may result in some accident al wind pollination. Re tallack and Dilcher (1981) suggested that some early angiosperms were probably generalists, pollinated by

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87 insects and wind. It is possi ble that the generalists may produce large numbers of pollen grains for wind-pollination while also bei ng visited by insects that might serve as accidental pollinators. Understanding the modes of angiosperm pollination is very important for reconstructing angiosperm diversity in diffe rent habitats based upon palynological data obtained from dispersed pollen in Cretaceous age sediments. The presence and the relative abundance of angiosperm pollen comb ined with the pollination modes of parent plants should indicate which kinds of angi osperm pollen were autochthonous. Doyle and Hickey (1976) indicated that Clavatipollenites Retimonocolpites and Liliacidites are probably insect-pollinated pollen based upon their well-developed reticulate exine sculpture. Friis et al. (19 99) indicated that the majority of pollen forms from early angiosperm flowers are monosulcate, which ma y be recognized as dispersed pollen as Clavatipollenites Retimonocolpites and Liliacidites The discrepancy between the rareness of dispersed angiosperm pollen types and the richness of in situ pollen types from angiosperm reproductive organs may indicat e widespread insect pollination (Friis et al., 1999). The only reliable wind-pollinated angiosperm pollen probably is Asteropollis type pollen based upon th e floral organs and in situ pollen which are closely comparable to extant wind-pollinated Hedyosmum (Friis et al., 1999) of the Chloranthaceae. Pedersen et al. (1991) describe s a new earliest Cenomanian fruit Couperites mauldinensis from West Mauldin Mountain locality in Maryland and the in situ pollen adhering to the sessile stigma is of the Clavatipollenites type. Although in situ pollen is comparable to extant chloranthaceous genus Ascarina which is wind-pollinated, this Clavatipollenites type pollen probably is from insect-pollinated plants based upon the presence of probable

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88 pollenkitt in Couperites in combination with an unelabor ated stigmatic area (Pedersen et al.,1991). Friis et al. (2000a) desc ribed a staminate structure with in situ monosulcate Liliacidites -type or Retimonocolpites -type pollen. Based upon the same type pollen in the insect coprolite, the fossil flowers with in-situ Liliacidites -type or Retimonocolpitestype pollen were thought to be insect-pollinated. Also, in sects very probably dispersed very small pollen (9-17 m) because of de flection around the stigma by boundary layers of air flow (Retallack and Dilcher, 1981). The methods I used for pollination interpretation are as follows: 1. Use former researchersÂ’ results about the pollinati on interpretation. 2. Analyze taxa which have no pollination data from references based upon the criteria for pollination interpretation (table 7-1). 3. Consider the clump as the first factor when analyzing pollen characteristics. Pollen in pollen clumps consisting of more than 10 grains (or tetrads) will be considered to be insect-pollinated. 4. Consider size as the second factor. If the average pollen diameter is less than 20 m or more than 40 m, the pollen will be considered to be insect-pollinated. According to the methods for pollination interpretation proposed above it is possible that the modes of angiosperm pollination during early Late Cretaceous can be partially decoded. Twenty-six angiospe rm pollen taxa were recovered from the Courtland Clay Pit (Table 7-2). Of these, tw enty taxa appear to be insect-pollinated, which accounted for 77% of total angiosperm assemblage, and six taxa appear to have been wind-pollinated, accounting for 33% (T able 7-2). The maximum relative abundance of Tricolpites cf. vulgaris accounted for 16% (for a total of 52 pollen grains out of 318 palynomorphs counted); th e maximum relative abundance of Cupuliferoidaepollenites sp. accounted for 10% (for a tota l of 30 pollen grains out of 304 palynomorphs counted); the maximum relative abundance of Tricolpites labeonis

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89 accounted for 9% (for a total of 27 pollen gr ains out of 304 palynomorphs counted); the maximum relative abundance of Rousea cf. delicipollis accounted for 9% (for a total of 26 pollen grains out of 302 palynomorphs counted); and the maximum relative abundance of Dryadopollis minnesotensis accounted for 7% (for a total of 21 pollen grains out of 318 palynomorphs counted ). Moreover the po llen clumps of Tricolpites cf. vulgaris (15+), Tricolpites labeonis (30+), Rousea cf. delicipollis (10+), Dryadopollis minnesotensis (10+, plate 13, fig. 11) were recovered fr om the lacustrine sediments at the Courtland Clay Pit. Based upon the occurren ce of these pollen clumps which were from insect-pollinated plants, these pollen taxa s hould be from local. Considering that the maximum relative abundance of these insect-pol linated pollen taxa is all greater than 5%, I propose that 5% of the maximum relative abundance is considered as an acceptable limit to define a local lake flora apart from a non-local lake flora. Therefore the plants releasing pollen grains such as Tricolpites cf. vulgaris Cupuliferoidaepollenites sp., Tricolpites labeonis Rousea cf. delicipollis and Dryadopollis minnesotensis probably inhabited coastal lake areas during the mi ddle Cenomanian. However, because of the rare or low abundance of the other pollen type s that probably were insect-pollinated (15 types) it is not possible to determine their sour ce plants (Table 8-3). Drinnan et al. (1991) suggested that Early Cenomanian flower Spanomera mauldinensis were probably insectpollinated. And the in situ pollen from Spanomera mauldinensis is comparable to Striatopollis paraneus (Drinnan et al. 1991). Consid ering that the stamens of Spanomera mauldinensis show abundant in situ pollen (Drinnan et al 1991), the low relative abundance of Striatopollis paraneus which is 2% (for a total of six pollen grains out of

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90 302 palynomorphs counted), may imply that the source plants of Striatopollis paraneus were probably not in situ but transported for a short di stance (maybe regional). Pollen taxa such as Fraxinoipollenites c onstrictus, which appear to be windpollinated and its relative abundance of 7% (f or a total of 20 pollen grains out of 302 palynomorphs counted), may have grown also around lake areas because all other types with wind-pollinated pollen morphology were rare or low abundance (Table 7-2). Inasmuch as the wind-pollinated flowers usually produce large amounts of pollen, it is probable that the plants rel easing Fraxinoipollenites constr ictus pollen inhabited areas near the coastal lakes. At Ochs Clay Pit, 29 angiosperm pollen types were recovered. There are 20 taxa that appear to be insectpollinated, wh ich accounted for 69% of total angiosperm assemblage, and 9 taxa appear to have been wind-pollinated, which accounted for 31% (Table 7-3). Moreover some types of insect-pollinated angiosperm taxa had high relative abundance among the a ngiosperm pollen group in some samples. In the lacustrine deposits the maximum relative abundance of Tricolpites labeonis accounted for 53% (for a total of 164 pollen grains out of 310 palynomorphs counted); the maximum relative abundance of Tricolpites cf. vulgaris accounted for 20% (for a total of 59 pollen grains out of 295 palynom orphs counted); and the maximum relative abundance of Cupuliferoidaepollenites sp. accounted for 11% (for a total of 31 pollen grains out of 295 palynomorphs counted). The lignite considered here to represent coastal swamps has a very different pollen profile. The maximum relative abundance of Artiopollis indivisus accounted for 17% (for a total of 50 pollen grains out of 301 palynomorphs counted). In the estuarine deposits the maximum relative abundance of Artiopollis indivisus accounted for 37% (for a total of 113 pollen grains out of 306

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91 palynomorphs counted). This situation ma y indicate that the parent plants of Tricolpites labeonis Tricolpites cf. vulgaris Cupuliferoidaepollenites sp. probably grew in close proximity to the coastal lake areas. At the same time the parent plants of Artiopollis indivisus may have inhabited the coastal swamps. The pollen clumps of Artiopollis indivisus (plate 9, figs. 57, the largest clump including more than 100 tetrads) were only recovered from the lignite samples. And the pollen clumps of Cupuliferoidaepollenites sp. (plate 10, fig. 4 ca 10 pollen grains), Tricolpites labeonis (plate 11, figs. 13-15, ca 200 pollen grains) and Psilatricolporites subtilis (plate 16, fig. 4, more than 100 pollen grains) were discovered only from the lacustrine sediments at the Ochs Clay Pit. Pollen clumps is almost never found during routine pollen counts of the slides. Most pol len clumps are located by scanning the entire slide under low power objective and then studying the clumps one by one under higher magnification to identify the specific type of pollen comprising the clump. These pollen clumps may imply that the parent plants we re probably local and not so far from the depositional sites. So the parent plants of Artiopollis indivisus Cupuliferoidaepollenites sp., Tricolpites labeonis and Psilatricolporites subtilis probably inhab ited coastal areas during early Late Cretaceous. In view of the relatively high pe rcentages the parent plants of Tricolpites cf. vulgaris may also have grown in coastal areas. Also swamps were relatively closed environments and most of the pollen/spores recovered from lignite can be considered as autochthonous (Travers e, 1988). Other insect-pollinated pollen recovered from lignite, such as Liliacidites sinuatus, Liliacidites sp. 3, Liliacidites sp. 4, Nyssapollenites sp., Doyleipollenites robbinsiae Clavatipollenites sp. 2, and Tricolpate sp.11 may have grown in swamps.

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92 For wind-pollinated pollen taxa (9 taxa to tal), the relative abundance is relatively low in all three environments. Tricolpites nemejci and Fraxinoipollenites constrictus have the highest relative abundance among the wind-pollinated pollen group. The maximum relative abundance of Tricolpites nemejci and Fraxinoipollenites constrictus both accounted for 2% (for a total of six polle n grains out of 295 palynomorphs counted) in the lacustrine sediments. So wind-polli nated pollen probably were not from local at Ochs Clay Pit. In the Highway 4 Clay Pit, seven angios perm pollen taxa were recovered from sediments representing a meandering river envi ronment (Table 7-4). Six of these pollen taxa were from insect-pollinated plants (a ccounting for 86% of the angiosperm pollen taxa) and one type was from a wind-pollin ated plant (accounting for 14% of the angiosperm pollen taxa). The maximum relative abundance of Phimopollenites striolata accounted for 62% (for a total of 188 pollen grains out of 303 palynomorphs counted). For Tricolpites cf. vulgaris the maximum relative abundance accounted for 15% (for a total of 45 pollen grains out of 303 palynom orphs counted). Also pollen clumps of Phimopollenites striolata (plate 14, figs. 19-21, ca 50 grains) and Tricolpites cf. vulgaris (plate 12, fig. 7, ca 10 grains) were discovered from this locality. It is possible that the parent plants of Phimopollenites striolata and Tricolpites cf. vulgaris may have inhabited areas along a meandering river. Because of the rare occurrence and low abundance for other insect-pollinated pollen types (Table 7-4), it is not possible to determine if they represent local or regi onal vegetation. The relative abundance of Fraxinoipollenites constrictus which is wind-pollinated, accounted fo r 5% (for a total of 14 pollen grains

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93 out of 303 palynomorphs counted). So wind-pollinated plants which released Fraxinoipollenites constrictus probably have grown in meandering areas. In conclusion, based upon the analysis of angiosperm pollen types from the Courtland Clay Pit, Ochs Clay Pit, and Highway 4 Clay Pit, the pollen types that appear to be insect-pollinated accounted for 77% of all pollen types on average, and the pollen types which appear to be windpollinated accounted for 23% of all pollen types. It seems that the wind-pollination was not dominant by the middle Cenomanian. Also, the pollen, because of the characteristics of the pollen grains as discussed previously, such as Artiopollis indivisus Cupuliferoidaepollenites sp., Tricolpites labeonis and Psilatricolporites subtilis Tricolpites cf. vulgaris Rousea cf. delicipollis and Dryadopollis minnesotensis all appear to be insect-pollin ated. The plants producing these pollen forms probably inhabited coastal areas during early Late Cretaceous based upon their relatively high relative abundance and the presence of pollen in clumps. At the same time, the pollen, such as Phimopollenites striolata and Tricolpites cf. vulgaris both appear to be insect-pollinated, suggesting that the parent plan ts probably inhabited meandering river areas during the early Late Cretaceous based upon their relatively high relative abundance and the presence of pollen in clumps. It seems that the parent plants of Tricolpites cf. vulgaris had a wide range of distribu tion. Also wind-dispersed pollen by early angiosperms may not have been a well developed syndrome of their pollination biology until middle to late Cenomanian. Angiosperm, Fern and Gymnosperm Diversit y in Coastal Areas during Early Late Cretaceous Ochs Clay Pit is used as a case study of diversity of the coas tal areas during early Late Cretaceous. In this pit sediments from lake, swamp and estuary environments are

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94 preserved. The question of species abundance and the relative abundance of the different elements in the floras of these environments is addressed here. There are 29 types of angiosperm pollen recovered from the sediments representing coastal lakes, coastal swamps, and estuarie s (Table 7-5). The pollen recovered from coastal lake environments, contains 21 types and is the most diverse. There are 15 types of angiosperm pollen recovered from the sw amp sediments. There are 16 types of angiosperm pollen recovered from estuarine sediments. A total of 15 types of angiosperm polle n types were recovered from the lignitic sediments of the coastal swamp (Table 7-5). Liliacidites sinuatus was present only in the coastal swamps. It is possi ble that the plant releasing Liliacidites sinuatus pollen could grow only in coastal swamp environments. Artiopollis indivisus is distributed in the coastal lake, swamp and estuary environm ents. However the relative abundance was different in each environment (Figure 7-1). Its relative abundance changes from 5% in coastal lake environment to 55% in the coas tal swamp environment. This may indicate that the plant releasing Artiopollis indivisus pollen was growing in the swamp and the pollen clumps (plate 9, figs. 5-7; plate 10, figs 1-3) were dropped a nd incorporated into the swamp sediments. Only dispersed pollen of this type was found in the lake sediments. There are only eight types (38%) of po llen in coastal lake sediments that overlapped with coastal swamp pollen. In the same way ther e are only nine types (43%) of pollen in coastal lakes that overlapped with estuarine pollen. This is because plants inhabiting other environments besides lakesi des and coastal swamps may have increased the pollen diversity within the lake sediment s. However, there are 11 types of pollen

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95 (accounting for 79% of pollen types from coas tal swamps and 69% of pollen types from estuaries respectively) shared by coastal sw amps and estuaries. This situation may indicate that the pollen from plants inhabiti ng coastal swamps or adjacent areas were the major input of the estuaries. A total of 32 types of ferns and fern alli es spores were recovered from the coastal lake sediments of Ochs Clay Pit (Table 7-6) In contrast, the s pores recovered from coastal swamps and estuaries were in both cas es, 16 types. There we re 13 types (41%) of spores in coastal lakes which overlapped with coastal swamp spores. At the same time, there were 12 types (38%) of spores in coastal lakes which overlapped with estuarine spores. However the shared s pores between coastal swamp a nd estuaries were 11 (69%). So the patterns of spore distribution were si milar to those of angiosperms (Figure 7-2). The spore data support the premise that the ma jor botanical input of estuaries come from coastal swamp and adjacent areas. The spore diversity recovered fr om coastal swamps indicates the diversity of ferns and fern allies in these coas tal swamps. The diversity of ferns and fern allies (16 types) was slightly higher than that of angi osperms (15 types) in coastal swamps. Because Trilobosporites purvernlentus was only recovered fro m lignite, the ferns releasing this type of spore may have gr own in coastal swamps. But its relative abundance is just 1% among the spore group of ferns and fern allies suggesting that the fern and fern ally that released Trilobosporites purvernlentus was not a dominant member of the coastal swamp community. From relativ e abundance analysis of selected spores of ferns and allies at Ochs Clay Pit (Figure 7-3) the dominant ferns and fern allies in coastal

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96 swamps were the ferns and fern allies which produced Gleichiidites senonicus (31%) and ? Gleichiidites sp. (42%) because their relative abunda nce was high among coastal lakes, coastal swamps, and estuaries. Moreover, Deltoidospora hallii ? Auritulinasporites sp., Laevigatosporites ovatus were important elements in the coastal swamps and adjacent areas because of their relatively high abundan ce in coastal lakes, coastal swamps, and estuaries. One type of megaspore Balmeisporites glenelgensis was only recovered from lignite. It is probable that th e habitat of the plant releasing Balmeisporites glenelgensis may have been restricted to coastal swamps. There were 28 types of gymnosperm pollen in the coastal lake environments (Table 7-7). 21 types of gymnosperm pollen were recovered from coastal swamps and 18 types of gymnosperm pollen recovered from estuarie s. The coastal lake environments had the most diverse gymnosperm pollen, coastal swam ps second, and the estu aries least (Figure 7-2). Among the gymnosperm pollen recovered fr om coastal swamps 14 types (67%) are bisaccate pollen. The pollen count data indi cate that the relative abundance of all 14 bisaccate pollen types was not hi gher than 5% (Figure 7-4). Traverse (1988) suggested that most pollen (including bisaccate pollen) fall as the “pollen rain” very near the parent plants and “at least 95% of all pollen has nor mally settled down well within a kilometer of the source plant”. Because wind-pollinated plants are producers of a great number of pollen grains (Faegri and Iversen, 1989), the low relative abundance of bisaccate pollen in coastal swamps probably indicates that the plants releasing these bisaccate pollen types did not grow in the coastal areas. The bisa ccate pollen in coastal lake environments showed the same pattern (Figure 7-5) and did not exceed 5% relative abundance.

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97 Bisaccate pollen became especia lly rare in estuaries (Table 7-8). Except for Cedripites cretaceous (accounting for 1%), Rugubivesiculi tes cf. reductus (accounting for 3%), other bisaccate pollen taxa were not found when the pollen count was made. The infrequent to rare occurrence of bisaccate pollen in the coastal lake environment and estuaries may support the inference that the plants releas ing bisaccate pollen did not inhabit coastal areas (Retallack and Dilcher, 1981). Other non-bisaccate pollen types such as ? Eucommiidites sp., Araucariacites australis, Bacumonoporites baculatus, Inap erturopollenites sp., Monosulcites. sp.2, Sabalpollenites scabrous, Taxodiaceaepollen ites hiatus may have grown in coastal swamps or adjacent areas. Among them ? Eucommiidites sp. was only recovered from coastal swamps and the plant releasing this ty pe of pollen may have been restricted to coastal swamps. Six other types of non-bisa ccate pollen occurred in all three different environments. The plants releasing polle n Inaperturopollenites sp., Sabalpollenites scabrous, and Taxodiaceaepollenites hiatus may have been dominant among the gymnosperm plants in coastal swamps a nd adjacent areas because of their higher percentage among the gymnosperm groups in different environments (Figure 7-6). Considering that the relative abundance of Sabalpollenites sc abrous was the highest in coastal swamps among coastal la kes, coastal swamps, and estu aries it is probable that the plants releasing Sabalpolleni tes scabrous may have been more prosperous in coastal swamps than in other environments. Species diversity analysis suggests that gymnosperm pollen is most diverse (21 types), spores of ferns and allies second (16 types), and angiosperm pollen least (14 types) in coastal swamps. The species divers ity of ferns and allies, and angiosperm was

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98 similar. Considering that bi ssacate pollen may not be local and that gymnosperm species diversity may be seven types at most, that is far below the diversity of ferns and fern allies, and angiosperms. On the other ha nd the relative abundan ce data show that angiosperm and gymnosperm had the same abundance (31%). But the ferns and fern allies had a higher abundance (38%). This result may suggest that although angiosperms became important in the view of species divers ity the ferns and allies may still have been important in the ecosystem. This result s upports the conclusion suggested by Farley and Dilcher (1986), Coe et al (1987), and Skog and Dilcher (1994). Comparison with Other Late Cretaceo us Assemblages Recovered from Coal Bearing Sequences Agasie (1969) studied the late Cret aceous (Cenomanian) palynomorphs from northeastern Arizona. The most productive samp les of that study, were black shales and the least productive were coals. This situation differs from Ochs Clay Pit where the lignite was very productive. Agasie indicat ed that the plants in coal swamps are composed primarily of ferns and angiosperm s with a minor number of gymnosperms. This swamp plant composition in general was similar to the coastal swamps recovered from Ochs Clay Pit. Although detailed sedi mentary environment interpretation were not provided, the author implied that the areas probably consisted of the low-lying coastal plains or swampy areas that were covered by ferns and angiosperm trees according to the occurrence of microplankton. While spores of ferns and fern allies dominated in both localities, the dominant elements were di fferent. The most abundant genera were Appendicisporites and Cicatricosisporites in northeastern Arizona while Gleichiidites and Deltoidospora were dominant genera at Ochs Clay Pit. For angiosperm pollen, the general pattern was similar for both localities in dominance of tricolpate pollen, absence

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99 of triporate pollen, and small size of non-monosul cate pollen. Significant differences are obvious in gymnosperm pollen between these tw o localities. Bisacat e pollen types were dominant in northwestern Arizona while inaperturate polle n types (such as Inaperturopollenites ) were dominant at the Ochs Clay Pit. Ravn and Witzke (1995) studied the earl y Late Cretaceous (middle Cenomanian) palynomorphs in northwestern Iowa and nor theastern Nebraska. The most productive samples are lignite in these areas. One lign ite sample from Sergeant Bluff was examined in detail. The authors pointe d out that angiosperm pollen wa s more diverse in the lignite although it was still subordinate to the spores of ferns and fern allies. Unfortunately the authors did not make a detailed analysis fo r the diversity of angi osperms and ferns and fern allies making further comparisons impossible. Key angiosperm elements from Sergeant Bluff lignite sample, Doyleipollenites robbinsiae Artiopollis indivisus Tricolpites nemejcii are also present in the lignite re presenting coastal swamps at Ochs Clay Pit. The common spores of ferns and fern allies include Gleicheniidites senonicus Deltoidospora hallii Dictyophyllidites impensus Microfoveolatosporis pseudoreticulatus which were recovered from the lignite samples from northwestern Iowa and northeastern Nebraska, and Ochs Clay Pit. Gymnosperm pollen included Pristinupollenites pannosus and Rugubivesiculites convolutes in these two lignite samples from northwestern Iowa and northeas tern Nebraska and Ochs Clay Pit. Moreover, the megaspore, Balmeisporites glenelgensis occurs in both lignite samples. So probably the lignite assemblages from nor thwestern Iowa and northeastern Nebraska, and Ochs Clay Pit represent similar swamps.

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100 Farley and Dilcher (1986) examined th e palynoflora of the Linnenberger Ranch lignite in Kansas. They suggested that th e lignite represents a swamp environment. However, earlier Farley (1982) indicated that the locality was tidally influenced and the proximity of the sea was obviously based upon the Dakota Graneros contact, which is only a few meters above the Linnenberger Ranc h locality. Thus it is possible that the swamp that Farley and Dilche r (1986) studied represents a coastal swamp. Spores of ferns and fern allies (17 t ypes) were most diverse; gym nosperm pollen (10 types) was second; and the pollen of angiosperms (9 types) was third. At the same time the spores of ferns and fern allies were most abundant; th e pollen of angiosperm was second; and the pollen of gymnosperm was least abundant. Bi saccate pollen was absent in the lignite and Araucariacites was the only abundant gymnosperm pollen. The authors suggested the ferns and fern allies constituted the understory beneath angiosperms and rarer gymnosperms. Therefore based on the comparison with pa lynological assembla ges recovered from coal or lignite from northwestern Arizona, northwestern Iowa and northeastern Nebraska, and central Kansas, it is possible that the char acteristic floristic features in the coastal swamps during the early Late Cretaceous were diverse angiosperms, dominant ferns and fern allies, and a relative low abundance of gymnosperms.

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101 Table 7-1. Criteria for pollination interpretation Insect-pollinated pollenWind-pollinated pollen Surface feature ornamental, sticky and oily surface smooth and dry surface Pollen size varies, small to large size20-40 m in diameter Dispersal method large clumps individually or in small groups Pollen production varies, small to large quantities large quantities (From Whitehead, 1969, Frankel and Ga lun, 1977; Retallack and Dilcher, 1981, Traverse, 1988; Faegri and Iversen, 1989; Dafni, 1992, Proctor et al., 1996)

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102 Table 7-2. Inferred mode of pollination for angiosperm pollen taxa from Courtland Clay Pit. (“Abundance” equals the numbers o f angiosperm pollen found in 3 counts of around 300 each which included all palynomorphs) TaxaUnitApertureOrnamentationDimensions Pollination Abundance Clavatipollenites tenellis monadmonosulcatereticulate28 (1 grain)insect-pollinated0 Clavatipollenites sp.2 monadmonosulcatereticulate 20 (24) 28 (2 grains) insect-pollinated0 Doyleipollenites robbinsiae monadmonosulcate reticulate to foveolate 22 (27) 34 (7 grains) insect-pollinated2 Liliacidites giganteus monadmonosulcatereticulate 48 X 76 (1 grain) insect-pollinated0 Liliacidites cf. reticulatus monadmonosulcatereticulate 19 (20) 23 X 22 (24) 28 (5 grains) insect-pollinated0 Stellatopollis largissimus monadmonosulcatereticulate 64 X 123 (1 grain). insect-pollinated0 Stellatopollis sp. monadmonosulcatereticulate 38 X 53 (1 grain). insect-pollinated0 Retimonocolpites dividuus monadmonosulcatereticulate 32 (35) 38 (2 grains) insect-pollinated0 Cupuliferoidaepollenites sp. monadtricolpatescabrate 7 (11) 17 X 10 (16) 19 (10 grains) insect-pollinated79 Tricolpites cf. vulgaris monadtricolpatereticulate 11 (14) 19 X 16 (20) 24 (5 grains) insect-pollinated 145 Tricolpites labeonis monadtricolpatereticulate 6 (10) 14 X 9 (14) 19 (14 grains) insect-pollinated 48

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103 Table 7-2—continued. TaxaUnitApertureOrnamentationDimensions Pollination Abundance (count) Tricolpate sp.4monadtricolpatereticulate 11 (17) 21 X 17 (22) 25 (5 grains) insect-pollinated13 Tricolpate sp.7monadtricolpatemicrofoveolate 17 (18) 18 (2 grains) insect-pollinated0 Tricolpate sp.11monadtricolpate reticulate to foveolate 11 (12) 12 X 14 (15) 16 (2 grains); 11 (13) 14 (2 grains) insect-pollinated0 Phimopollenites striolata monadtricolporoidatemicroreticulate 12 (14) 19 X 16 (19) 21 (10 grains), 15 (18) 24 (7 grains) insect-pollinated0 Dryadopollis minnesotensis monadtricolporatemicroreticulate 8 (15) 19 X 15 (19) 23 (5 grains), 16 (17) 19 (13 grains) insect-pollinated 24

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104Table 7-2—continued. TaxaUnitApertureOrnamentationDimensions Pollination Abundance (count) Dryadopollis minutus monadtricolporatemicroreticulate 8 X 10 (1 grain), 9 (10) 10 (2 grains) insect-pollinated 1 Nyssapollenites sp. monadtricolporatemicrofoveolate 9 (11) 14 X 11 (14) 17 (7 grains); 11 (14) 15 (3 grains) insect-pollinated3 Rousea cf delicipollis monadtricolpate reticulate to foveolate 14 X 23 (1 grain), 16 (23) 35 (7 grains) insect-pollinated 26 Satishia sp. monadtricolpatemicroreticulate 28 (1 grain). wind-pollinated (?)0 Striatopollis paraneus monadtricolpatestriato-reticulate 15 X 18 (1 grain); 21 (1 grain). insect-pollinated 6 Fraxinoipollenites constrictus monadtricolpatemicrofoveolate 18 (24) 34 X 28 (38) 48 (11 grains), 30(3)38 wind-pollinated20

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105Table 7-2—continued. TaxaUnitApertureOrnamentationDimensions Pollination Abundance (count) Foveotricolporites rhombohedralis monadtricolporatefoveolate 20 (27) 31 X 31 (34) 39 (4 grains); 42 (47) 51 (3 grains) wind-pollinated2 cf. Foveotricolporites sp. monadtricolporatefoveolate 19 X 30 (1 grain); 27 (1 grain) wind-pollinated0 Tricolpites nemejci monadtricolpatemicroreticulate 17 (19) 21 X 22 (27) 35 (10 grains); 21 (26) 31 (4 grains) wind-pollinated (?)1 ? Spinizonocolpites sp. monadmonosulcatescabrate 25 (1 grain). wind-pollinated (?)0

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106Table 7-3. Inferred mode of pollination for angiosperm pollen taxa from Ochs Clay Pit. (“Abundance” for lacustrine equals the numbers of angiosperm pollen found in 3 counts of around 300 each which included all pal ynomorphs; “Abundance” for swamps or estuarine equals the numbers of angios perm pollen found in 2 counts of around 300 each). LacustrineSwampsEstuarineTotal Artiopollis indivisus tetradtricolpate microreticulate 17 (21) 27 (whole tetrad), 9 (13) 15 (individual grain)(7 tetrads) insect pollinated2390145258 Retimonocolpites dividuus monadmonosulcatereticulate 32 (35) 38 (2 grains) insect pollinated6006 Clavatipollenites tenellis monadmonosulcatereticulate 28 (1 grain) insect pollinated1001 Clavatipollenites sp.2 monadmonosulcatereticulate 20 (24) 28 (2 grains) insect pollinated0112 Liliacidites sp.2 monadmonosulcatereticulate 21 ( 1 grain ) insect pollinated0000 Liliacidites sp.3 monadmonosulcatereticulate 15 (21) 31 X 19 (30) 43 (11 grains) insect pollinated020727 Liliacidites sp.4 monadmonosulcatereticulate 29 (37) 48 (9 grains) insect pollinated0426 Liliacidites cf. reticulatus monadmonosulcatereticulate 19 (20) 23 X 22 (24) 28 (5 grains) insect pollinated0000 Liliacidites sinuatus monadmonosulcatereticulate 18 (22) 25 X 33 (34) 34 (2 grains) insect pollinated0808 Doyleipollenites robbinsiae monadtrichotomosulcate reticulate to foveolate 22 (27) 34 (7 grains) insect pollinated0224 Tricolpites labeonis monadtricolpatereticulate 6 (10) 14 X 9 (14) 19 (14 grains) insect pollinated1711122204 Cupuliferoidaepollenites sp. monadtricolpatescabrate 7 (11) 17 X 10 (16) 19 (10 grains) insect pollinated4292475 Tricolpites cf. vulgaris monadtricolpatereticulate 11 (14) 19 X 16 (20) 24 (5 grains)insect pollinated9901100 Tricolpate sp.4monadtricolpatereticulate 11 (17) 21 X 17 (22) 25 (5 grains) wind pollinated311032 Taxa Abundance UnitApertureOrnamentationDimensions Pollination

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107Table 7-3—continued. LacustrineSwampsEstuarineTotal Tricolpate sp.7monadtricolpatemicrofoveolate 17 (18) 18 (2 grains) insect pollinated4004 Tricolpate sp.11monadtricolpate reticulate to foveolate 11 (12) 12 X 14 (15) 16 (2 grains); 11 (13) 14 (2 grains) insect pollinated 0224 Tricolpate sp.12monadtricolpatereticulate 13 (16) 18 X 15 (19) 22 (2 grains); 14 (1 grain) insect pollinated002121 Tricolpate sp.14monadtricolpatemicrofoveolate 9 (11) 13 X 15 (18) 20 (3 grains) insect pollinated0088 Phimopollenites striolata monadtricolporoidate microreticulate 13 (16) 19 X 16 (19) 23 (6 grains) insect pollinated170017 Psilatricolporites subtilis monadtricolporoidatescabrate 11 X 14 (1 grain); 11 (12) 12 (2 grains) insect pollinated2002 Nyssapollenites sp. monadtricolporate microfoveolate 9 (11) 14 X 11 (14) 17 (7 grains); 11 (14) 15 (3 grains) insect pollinated122620 Fraxinoipollenites constrictus monadtricolpate microfoveolate 18 (24) 34 X 28 (38) 48 (11 grains), 30 (35) 38 (5 grains) wind pollinated7007 Tricolpate sp.10monadtricolpate reticulate to foveolate 14 (21) 32 X 19 (29) 40 (9 grains); 46 (1 grain) wind pollinated04610 Foveotricolpites sp. monadtricolpatescabrate 30 (33) 35 X 36 (38) 40 (2 grains) wind pollinated3003 TaxaUnitApertureOrnamentationDimensions Pollination Abundance

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108Table 7-3—continued. LacustrineSwampsEstuarineTotal Foveotricolporites rhombohedralis monadtricolporatefoveolate 20 (27) 31 X 31 (34) 39 (4 grains); 42 (47) 51 (3 grains) wind pollinated4004 ? Clavatipollenites sp.3 monadmonosulcate microfoveolate24 (27) 29 (4 grains) wind pollinated (?)0628 Tricolporate sp.2monadtricolporatestriate 17 (18) 19 X 19 (25) 30 (2 grains), 15 (17) 19 (2 grains) wind-pollinated (?)0000 Tricolpites nemejci monadtricolpatemicroreticulate 17 (19) 21 X 22 (27) 35 (10 grains); 21 (26) 31 (4 grains) wind pollinated (?)851124 Tricolpate sp.8monadtricolpatescabrate 23 (26) 28 (2 grains) wind pollinated (?)2002 TaxaUnitApertureOrnamentationDimensions Pollination Abundance

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109 Table 7-4. Inferred mode of pollination for angiosperm pollen taxa from Highway 4 Clay Pit. (“ Abundance” equals the numbers o f angiosperm pollen found in 3 counts of ar ound 300 each which included all palynomorphs) TaxaUnitApertureOrnamentationDimensions Pollination Abundance (count) Liliacidites cf. inaequalis monadmonosulcatereticulate 15 (16) 18 X 22 (24) 26 (3 grains) insect-pollinated3 Liliacidites cf. reticulatus monadmonosulcatereticulate 19 (20) 23 X 22 (24) 28 (5 grains) insect-pollinated2 Liliacidites sp.5 monadmonosulcatereticulate 20 (23) 25 X 23 (24) 25 (2 grains) insect-pollinated1 Phimopollenites striolata monadtricolporoidatemicroreticulate 12 (14) 19 X 16 (19) 21 (10 grains), 15 (18) 24 (7 grains) insect-pollinated219 Tricolpites cf. vulgaris monadtricolpatereticulate 11 (14) 19 X 16 (20) 24 (5 grains) insect-pollinated63 Rousea cf delicipollis monadtricolpate reticulate to foveolate 14 X 23 (1 grain), 16 (23) 35 (7 grains) insect-pollinated 0 Fraxinoipollenites constrictus monadtricolpatemicrofoveolate 18 (24) 34 X 28 (38) 48 (11 grains), 30 (35) 38 (5 g rains ) wind-pollinated14

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110 Table 7-5. Angiosperm pollen distribution in three different environments in Ochs Clay Pit. TaxaLacustrineCoastal swampsEstuarine Clavatipollenites tenellis † Foveotricolpites sp. † Foveotricolporites rhombohedral i † Fraxinoipollenites constrictus † Liliacidites reticulatus † Liliacidites sp.2 † Phimopollenites striolata † Psilatricolporites subtilis † Retimonocolpites dividuus † Tricolpate sp.7† Liliacidites sinuatus † Tricolpate sp.12† Tricolpate sp.14† Artiopollis indivisus ††† Cupuliferoidaepollenites sp. ††† Nyssapollenites sp. ††† Tricolpites labeonis ††† Tricolpites nemejci ††† Liliacidites sp.3 †† Tricolporate sp.2†† Doyleipollenites robbinsiae ††† Tricolpites cf. vulgaris †† Tricolpate sp.4††† Tricolpate sp.8†† Clavatipollenites sp.2 †† ? Clavatipollenites sp.3 †† Liliacidites sp.4 †† Tricolpate sp.10†† Tricolpate sp.11††

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111 Table 7-6. Fern spore distri bution in three different environments at Ochs Clay Pit TaxaLacustrineCoastal swampsEstuarine Appendicisporites cf. auritus † A. cf. matesovae † Cicatricosisporites cf. crassiterminatus † C. hughesi † C. crassiterminatus † Concavissimisporites sp. † ? Concavissimisporites sp. † Costatoperforosporites sp. † Crybelosporites sp. † D e l to id ospora sp. † ? Januasporites sp. † ? Klukisporites sp. † cf. Phaeoceros form A † Plicatella fucosa † Triporoletes reticulatus † Undulatisporites sp. † Trilobosporites purvernlentus † Verrucosisporites sp. † Lycopodiacidites sp.2 † A. problematicus ††† ? Auritulinasporites sp. ††† Camarozonosporites sp.1 ††† C. sp.3††† Deltoidospora hallii ††† Dictyophyllidites impensus ††† Gleichiidites senonicus ††† ? Gleichiidites sp. ††† Laevigatosporites ovatus ††† Converrucosisporites sp. †† Ischyosporites sp. †† Lycopodiumsporites marginatus †† Punctatrile tes punctus †† Cicatricosisporites sp.4 †† Cyathidites australis †† Stereisporites sp.1 †† Microfoveolatosporis pseudoreticulatus †† Sestrosporites sp.2 ††

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112 Table 7-7. Gymnosperm pollen di stribution in three different environments at Ochs Clay Pit TaxaLacustrineCoastal swampsEstuarine Cycadopites sp. † Equisetosporites sp.1 † Eucommiidites sp. 1 † Monosulcites sp.1 † M. sp.3† Pristinupollenites microsaccus † P. canadensis † P sp. † Punctamultivesiculites cf. inchoatu s † ? Eucommiidites sp. † Monosulcites sp.4 † Alisporites rotundus ††† Araucariacites australis ††† Bacumonoporites baculatus ††† Cedripites cretaceus ††† C. sp. ††† Inaperturopollenites sp. ††† Monosulcites sp.2 ††† Pristinupollenites pannosus ††† Parvisacites radiatus ††† Rugubivesiculites rugosus ††† R. convolutus ††† Sabalpollenites scabrus ††† Taxodiaceaepollenites hiatus ††† ? Pityosporites constrictus †† Pristinupollenites sulcatus †† Podocarpidites minisculus †† Punctabivesiculites parvus †† Pristinupollenites inchoatus †† Pityosporites constrictus ††† Rugubivesiculites cf. multiplex †† R cf. reductus ††

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113 Table 7-8. Relative abundance of bisaccate pollen in estuaries at Ochs Clay Pit TaxaPercentage (%) Alisporites rotundus 0% Cedripites cretaceus 1% Cedripites sp.0% Pristinupollenites pannosus 0% Parvisacites radiatus 0% Rugubivesiculites rugosus 1% R. convolutus 0% Pristinupollenites inchoatus 0% Pityosporites constrictus 0% Rugubivesiculites cf. multiplex 0% R cf. reductus 3% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Lacustrinecoastal swampestuarine Artiopollis indivisus Cupuliferoidaepollenites sp. Tricolpites labeonis Tricolpites nemejci Nyssapollenites sp. Figure 7-1. Selected angiospe rm pollen relative abundance an alysis in three different environments at Ochs Clay Pit

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114 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 LakeSwampEstuaryNumber of types Fern Spore Gymnosperm Pollen Angiosperm Pollen Figure 7-2. The distribution of terrestrial palynomorphs in lake, swamp, and estuarine sediments at the Ochs Clay Pit 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% lacustrine coastal swamps estuarine ? Auritulinasporites sp. Deltoidospora hallii Gleichiidites senonicus ? Gleichiidites sp. Laevigatosporites ovatus Figure 7-3. Relative abundance an alysis of selected spores of ferns and allies at Ochs Clay Pit

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115 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% coastal swamps Alisporites rotundus Cedripites sp. Cedripites cretaceus Pristinupollenites pannosus Parvisacites radiatus Rugubivesiculites rugosus Rugubivesiculites convolutus ? Pityosporites constrictus Pristinupollenites sulcatus Podocarpidites minisculus Punctabivesiculites parvus Pityosporites constrictus Rugubivesiculites cf. multiplex Rugubivesiculites cf. reductus Figure 7-4. Relative abundance of bisaccate po llen in coastal swamps at Ochs Clay Pit

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116 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% coastal lakes Alisporites rotundus Cedripites sp. Cedripites cretaceus Parvisacites radiatus ? Pityosporites constrictus Podocarpidites canadensis Podocarpidites minisculus Podocarpidites sp. Pristinupollenites inchoatus Pristinupollenites microsaccus Pristinupollenites pannosus Pristinupollenites sulcatus Punctabivesiculites parvus Rugubivesiculites rugosus Rugubivesiculites convolutus Figure 7-5. Relative abundance of bisaccate po llen in coastal lake environments at Ochs Clay Pit

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117 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% lacustrine coastal swamps estuarine Inaperturopollenites sp. Sabalpollenites scabrus Taxodiaceaepollenites hiatus Figure 7-6. Relative abundance analysis of dominant non-bissacate gymnosperm pollen in three different environments

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118 CHAPTER 8 COMPARISONS BETWEEN ANGIOSPERM MEGAFOSSIL AND MICROFOSSIL RECORDS Wang H. (2002) undertook research on the megafossil angiosperm leaves of Courtland Clay Pit. He described 13 gene ra and 23 species of angiosperms based upon leaf fossils. Although none of WangÂ’s fossils we re assigned to extant genera, the extant orders Magnoliales, Laurales, Proteales, and Saxifragales and similar extant families Lauraceae, Cercidiphyllaceae, Chloranthaceae, and Platanaceae were identified. Among them the Lauraceae with four genera and ni ne species had the highest diversity. The Cercidiphyllaceae and Platanaceae both with one genus and one species, respectively, had the lowest diversity. The Lauraceae al so had the highest species abundance (102 specimens) while the Platanaceae had the second highest species abundance (36 specimens). There were 26 pollen taxa r ecovered from the sediments at Courtland Clay Pit. Tricolpites cf. vulgaris (145 pollen grains found as a result of 3 counts of around 300 palynomorphs in each count), Cupuliferoidaepollenites sp. (79 pollen grains), Tricolpites labeonis (48 pollen grains), Rousea cf. delicipollis (26 pollen grains), Dryadopollis argus (24 pollen grains), Fraxinoipollenites constrictus (20 pollen grains), a nd Tricolpate sp.4 (13 pollen grains) were the most abundant species. Tricolpites labeonis was similar to Tricolpites minutus in pollen size and ornamentation. Tricolpites minutus has affinities with Platanaceae based upon a Cretaceous me sofossil investigation (Crane et al., 1986, Friis et al., 1988). On the other hand, the Tricolpites labeonis is also similar to in situ

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119 pollen of the Early to Middle Albian flower Aquia brookensis from the “Bank near Brooke” locality, Virginia in pollen shape, size, and orname ntation (Crane et al., 1993). Crane et al. (1993) suggested that Aquia brookensis has affinities with Platanaceae based upon floral characters. Thus, the higher abundance of Tricolpites labeonis may be consistent with the megafossil record in wh ich Platanaceae was the second most abundant species. Doyle and Hickey (1976) indicated that the tricolpate pollen in late Albian and Early Cenomanian may have a relationship to platanoid leaves based upon their cooccurrence. Friis and Pedersen (1996) suggested that the dispersed pollen genus Tricolpites may have a relationship with extant Platanus based upon in situ pollen morphology of three mid-Cretaceous platanoid flowers. The tricolpate and reticulate pollen of extant Platanus of Platanaceae (Erdtman, 1943) appears to be very similar to Tricolpites cf. vulgaris The Tricolpites cf. vulgaris is the most abunda nt pollen type and its abundance might be explained by the abunda nce of leaves that co-occur w ith them. Although magnoliids, which include eight genera and 14 species (Wang H., 2002), have the highest diversity among the megafoss il flora in the megafo ssil record, the nonLauraceae species were only four, which incl uded two species of Chloranthaceae. In contrast, the leaf megafossils of Lauraceae (W ang H., 2002), with nine species that are the dominant types of angiosperms. This group is absent in the pollen record so it is probable that the palynoflora unde rrepresents this family. This is one bias that the pollen record may have because pollen of Lauraceae has very low sporopollenin content in the exine and they do not normally preserve well and survive the fossilization process (Traverse, 1988). One exception is a Turonian Lauraceae flower with in situ pollen from New Jersey described by Here ndeen et al. (1994).

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120 Doyleipollenites robbinsiae is one type of trichotomo colpate pollen recovered from both the Courtland Clay Pit and the Ochs Clay Pit. Also, Doyleipollenites robbinsiae is similar to in situ pollen on Early or Middl e Albian fruiting units Anacostia virginiensis from Puddledock locality, Virginia (Friis et al., 1997) in pollen shape, aperture, and ornamentation. Friis et al. (1997) indicated that Anacostia virginiensis has affinities with magnoliids or monocotyledons. Pedersen et al. (1991) described a new type of early Cenomanian fruit Couperites mauldinensis from the West Mauldin Mountain local ity, Maryland, and the in situ pollen adhering to the sessile stigma were Clavatipollenitestype. Pedersen et al. (1991) suggested that the dispersed pollen assigned to Clavatipollenites may have relationships to several distinct magnoliid families. Friis et al. (1999) studied the diversity of pollen associated with angiosperm reproductive structures in early Cretaceous flor as from Portugal and pointed out that the majority of pollen types of early angiosperm s are monosulcate, which may be recognized as Clavatipollenites Retimonocolpites and Liliacidites if they were disp ersed. Friis et al. (1999) suggested that thes e species with monosulcate pollen may have magnoiid affinities. Liliacidites sp.3 recovered from the Ochs Clay Pit is similar to in situ pollen of the Early or Middle Albian well-preserved flower Virginianthus calycanthoides from Puddledock locality, Virginia (Friis et al., 1994) in pollen shape, aperture, and ornamentation. Virginianthus calycanthoides is closely comparable to members of the family Calycanthaceae, which is a magnoliid of the order Laurales(Friis et al., 1994). The monosulcate pollen recovered from the Courtland Clay Pit as Clavatipollenites

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121 tenellis Clavatipollenites sp.2, Liliacidites giganteus and Liliacidites cf. reticulatus may correlate with the non-Lauraceae ma gnoliid megafossil record. The Trochodendrales and Buxales of the eudicots were absent in the leaf megafossil flora. But Striatopollis paraneus is similar to in situ pollen of an early Cenomanian inflorescence Spanomera mauldinensis which was discovered at the Mauldin Mountain locality of Maryland (Friis et al., 1991), in pollen size, aperture, and unique ornamentation. Drinnan et al. (1991) also indicated that the in situ pollen of Spanomera mauldinensis were comparable to the dispersed pollen species Striatopollis paraneus Spanomera mauldinensis provides the most comp lete evidence of midCretaceous angiosperms related to extant Tr ochodendrales and Buxales (Friis et al., 1991). So the palynoflora can complement th e megafossil flora, which may have a bias because of fossilization and preservation. From the comparison between the megafossil record and the microfossil record at the Courtland Clay Pit, it is clear that both records are influenced by biases. A combination of mega and microfossil data wi ll provide the most complete interpretation of the fossil floras. As an example, in addition to the magnoliids (which include Magnoliales and Laurales), Prot eales, Saxifragales, the Troc hodendrales and Buxales of the eudicots probably were also present in Courtland areas during middle Cenomanian based upon the microfossil records.

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122 CHAPTER 9 EUSPORANGIATE FERNS FROM THE DAKOTA FORMATION, MINNESOTA, USA (WITH DAVID DILCHER, HARAL D SCHNEIDER AND DAVID JARZEN) Abstract Fossil records of the eusporangiate fern family Marattiaceae are common in Paleozoic and early Mesozoic sediments. Ho wever, the occurrence of this family during the Cretaceous and Tertiary is unknown. W ithin the Marattiaceae, extant species of Marattia are distributed worldwide, while Danaea occurs only in the New World, and Angiopteris and Christensenia show disjunct distributi ons throughout the Old World tropics except Africa. Two previously unknown marattioid ferns, Goolangia minnesotensis Hu, Dilcher, H. Schneid. et Jarzen gen. et sp. nov. and Mesozoisynangia trilobus Hu, Dilcher, H. Schneid. et Jarzen ge n. et sp. nov., are described in this paper based on charcoalified isolated sporangi a and synangia recovered from the Dakota Formation of the Courtland Clay Pit in south central Minnesota. Thes e isolated sporangia and synangia have sessile, thick-walled spor angia and large spore output per sporangium which is consistent with features of ex tant eusporangiate ferns. The spore wall ultrastructure of Goolangia minnesotensis and Mesozoisynangia trilobus supports affinities with extant Marattiaceae. These fossils provide evidence for the existence of marattioid ferns during the mid-Cretaceous in North America and present the first unequivocal documentation of the Mara ttiaceae in post Jurassic times. ____________________ Adapted from Hu, S., Dilcher, D.L., Schneider, H., Jarzen, D.M., 2006. Eusporangiate ferns from theDakota Formation, Minnesota, U.S.A. Int J Plant Sci 167: 579-589.

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123 Introduction Outcrops of the Dakota Formation in south central Minnesota often consist of clay sediments rich in plant fossils. The plant fossils from these mid-Cretaceous sediments have been studied for megafossils (Lesquereux, 1895 ; Wang H., 2002) and palynomorphs (Pierce, 1961; Hu, et al., 2004a, 2004b). Here we report sporangia similar to those of eusporangiate ferns, isolated from Dakota Formation sediments exposed in southern Minnesota. Previous to this study, fossils of eusporangiate ferns such as Marattiaceae and Ophioglossaceae have not been recove red from the Dakota Formation or other Cretaceous sediments worldwide (Tidwell and Ash, 1994; Collinson, 1996, 2001). However fossil leptosporangiate ferns have been recovered from Dakota Formation in Kansas and Nebraska (Skog and Dilc her, 1992, 1994) and include species of Schizaeaceae, Gleicheniaceae, Matoniacea e, Dicksoniaceae and Marsileaceae. Additionally an assemblage of eight megas pore taxa, some of which have Marsileaceae affinities, were recovered from the Dakot a Formation of Iowa (Hall, 1963, 1974). Although the eusporangiate ferns have existe d since the Carboniferous (Pryer et al., 2004), the Cretaceous fossil record lacks evid ence for the occurrence of the marattioids and ophioglossids, traditionally assigned to th e eusporangiate ferns. A good fossil record for the Marattiaceae exists from the Carbonife rous to the Jurassic (Mamay, 1950; Stidd, 1974; Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert 1975, 2002; Hill, 1987; Wan and Basinger, 1992; Liu et al., 2000; Wang et al., 2001; Wang Y., 2002), with a ga p in the fossil record from the Jurassic to the Recent. The Ophioglossaceae are almost unknown as fossils with a single fossil record from the Paleocene of wester n Canada (Rothwell and Stockey, 1989). This report presents evidence for the presen ce of eusporangiate fern sporangia, with affinities to the Marattiaceae, from the midCretaceous of mid-continental North America

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124 found preserved as charcoalified mesofossils with their associated spores. This study provides a new record of marattioid ferns to what is already known from other fern mesofossil studies of gleichenioid ferns (Ga ndolfo, et al, 1997) and heterosporous ferns (Lupia, et al., 2000). Material and Methods Samples were collected from dark, gr ay clays of the Dakota Formation of Cenomanian age (Setterholm, 1994) in Minnesota Considering that Br enner et al. (2000) recognized Dakota Formation sediments in centr al Kansas and Nebras ka as Late Albian in age and the transgressive seas of the Western Interior Seaway moved towards the northeast, the age of the Dakota Formation sedi ments in south central Minnesota must be not older than Late Albian and perhaps as young as lowermost Cenomanian. Organic rich gray, clay samples containing charcoa lified mesofossils were collected from the Courtland Clay Pit, in south central Minne sota, about two miles from New Ulm (lat. 4416'29" N, long. 9423'13"W). Samples we re immersed in a detergent (Alconox™) solution (ca. 2 teaspoons of dete rgent per liter of water) over night or longer to thoroughly disaggregate the samples. The sl urry was then sieved through 500 m and 125 m mesh sieves using flowing tap water. The air-d ried residue containing many charcoalified specimens was sorted and specimens select ed and identified using a WILD M5-84581 dissecting microscope at 6 to 50 X magnification. Specimens were immersed in 25% HCl overnight to remove carbonate materials, then washed three times in distilled water and immersed in 49% HF for 48-72 hours to remove silicates. Samples were neutralized through several washes in distilled water. F our complete or nearly complete isolated sporangia and synangia were selected for detailed study by light microscope (LM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and sca nning electron microscope (SEM).

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125 For LM studies, spores were removed fr om the sporangia and treated with 5% KOH solution for about six hours, effectively disaggregating the spores. Samples were washed twice with distilled water and once w ith a 50% glycerin solution. The resulting residue was mounted on microscope slides us ing glycerin jelly and photographed using a ZEISS Axiophot™ imaging system. At least 29 spores from each sporangium were measured and observed for s pore dimensions and morphology. Fragments of entire sporangia containing spores were removed and prepared for TEM using standard protocols (Hajat, 2000). Samples were infi ltrated with 100% acetone for ten minutes. This was followed by an acetone and Spurr’s epoxy resin solution series of 30%, 50%, 70%, and 100% with the samples remaini ng in each for one hour. The infiltrated specimens were transferred to molds and embedded in 100% Spurr’s epoxy resin and placed in an oven at 60C for 24 hours. Ultrat hin sections were made using a Reichert Ultracut R™ ultra-microtome equipped with a diamond knife. Sections were transferred to butvar coated grids, and stained with 2% uranyl acetate for ten minutes and Reynolds lead citrate for five minutes. Sections we re examined and photographed using a Hitachi H7000™ transmission electron microscope at an accelerate voltage of 75 kV. SEM samples were mounted on stubs using carbon adhesive tabs and graphite glue, and photographed using a FESEM Hitachi S4000™ at an accelerate voltage of 2-6 kV. In order to estimate the spore number in each sporangium, we first calculated the actual sporangial area in whic h the spores were present. We then counted the spore layers and the spore number per layer in a cross section of sporangia. Next, we estimated the total numbers of cross sections per sporan gia. A final estimate of total spore count

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126 was reached by multiplying the number of hypothe tical cross sections by the spore count of the section measured. Results Family: Marattiaceae Genus: GOOLANGIA Hu, Dilcher, H. Schne id. et Jarzen gen. nov. Type species: Goolangia minnesotensis Hu, Dilcher, H. Schneid. et Jarzen gen. et sp. nov. Generic Diagnosis Sporangium sessile with thick sporangi al walls. Sporangium is elongate, asymmetrical, with a basal attachment scar for half of its length. The edge above the attachment scar is thin a nd the opposite edge consists of a ridge of cells elongated transversely to the sporangium. The orientati on of surface cells adjacent to this ridge is perpendicular to the long axis of the spor angium. Sporangium is homosporous and with numerous (1,000 +) spores. Spores trilete, ps ilate to scabrate and randomly covered with globules. Laesurae are raised and frequently bifurcate before reaching the equator. Etymology: “Gool” representing the name “G ooler” for Mr. Scott Gooler, owner of the Courtland Clay Pit, and “angia” from the Gr eek, capsule or containe r, referring to the sporangia. Species: Goolangia minnesotensis Hu, Dilcher, H. Schneid. et Jarzen sp. nov. Species Diagnosis General morphology Sporangium is elongate, el liptical, slightly asymmetr ical, and measures 1.2 x 3.5 mm (Plate 29, Fig. 1). An attach ment scar is evident (Plate 29, Fig. 2), along about half the length of one edge of the sporangium. The edge above the attachment scar is very thin (17 m). The opposite edge consists of a ridge (ca 90 m thick) of cells elongated transversely to the sporangium (Plate 29, Fi gs. 2, 3). The orientation of surface cells adjacent to this ridge is perpendicular to th e long axis of the sporangium (Plate 29, Fig.

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127 3). These cells are 10 x 27-51 m. Sporangium cr oss-section is 142 m thick (Plate 29, Fig. 6), consisting of an upper multicellular layer (29 m thick) and a lower multicellular layer (38 m thick) surrounding a chamber filled with spores (Plate 29, Fig. 6). Homosporous spores number about 4,500. Spore morphology Spores are circular to subcircular with a trilete mark (Plate 29, Figs. 4, 5). No distinction between exospore a nd perispore is visible, and the wall is between 1 to 2 m thick. Size range is 47-77 m (average 60 m, 29 spores measured). Laesurae are slightly raised, extending to the equator and frequently bifurcate a bout 2/3 of the length before reaching the equator (Plate 29, Fig. 5, a rrow). Ornamentation is psilate to finely scabrate and randomly covered with globules (Plate 29, Figs. 4, 5). Etymology: “minnesotensis” named for Minnesota where the fossil was discovered. Type material: holotype: 19007-036708-M1. Specimen deposited in the Paleobotany/Palynology Collection, Flor ida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida, USA. Type locality: Courtland Clay Pit, New Ulm, Minnesota, USA. Formation: Dakota Formation. Age: Latest Albian to earliest Cenomanian Description The evident attachment scar is important because it suggests that the elongate sporangium was part of a synangium. We view this sporangium as one of a cluster of sporangia (Plate 30, Figs. 1, 2) rather than consisting of a number of individual sporangia fused together. We emphasize this because along the elongate axis of the sporangium, spores appear to form a superficially con tinuous mass that is separated into 13 to 15 groups by cracks on the surface (Plate 29, Fig. 7). The spores (Plate 29, Figs. 4, 5) ranged in size from 47 to 77 m with a mode of 56 m. The spores are unremarkable in their or namentation and therefor e an isolated spore

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128 would not be recognized as belonging to th e Marattiaceae. Spor e ultrastructure as observed using TEM shows the important char acters that demonstrate their similarity with extant species of the Marattiaceae. The spore wall consists of a perispore (P ) (120-130 nm) and an exospore (E) (3-6.7 m) (Plate 29, Figs. 8, 9). The thin and ho mogenous perispore forms a nearly continuous layer surrounding the exospore (Plate 29, Fig. 9). Spherical granules are attached to the surface of the perispore (Plate 29, Fig. 9, a rrows). The exospore is thicker in the proximal face than in the distal face (Plate 29, Fig. 8). The exospore is differentiated into a homogenous outer exospore layer ( Ee in Plate 29, Fig. 11), a thicker and less dark middle exospore layer ( Em in Plate 29, Figs. 10, 11 ) with cavities, and a thin and dark inner exospore layer ( Ei in Plate 29, Fig. 11, upper arrow). The outer exospore layer is homogenous and up to 3.2 m thick. The middle exospore layer is 2-6 m thick with a maximum thickness at the flank of the aperture (Plate 29, Fig. 11). The cavities of the middle exospore layer have a diameter of 7-21 nm (Plate 29, Fig. 10, arrow). The transition between the inner and middle layer is clearly visible whereas the transition between middle and outer layer is less obvious. The inner exospore layer is thickest (200 nm) at the base of the aperture and its thic kness gradually decreases (to 30-33 nm) toward the apical part of the proximal fold and th e distal face (Plate 29, Fig. 8). A subapertual mass is present below the apertural slit (Plate 29, Fig. 11, lower arrow). Systematic Remarks The morphology of Goolangia minnesotensis resembles extant eusporangiate fern sporangia in the following characters. G. minnesotensis is sessile, has thick sporangial walls (ca 34 m thick), and has a large number of homosporous spores (ca 4,500). Ophioglossaceae and Marattiaceae are the only eusporangiate fern families. These two

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129 families can be distinguished by ultrastructure s of the spore walls. The ultrastructure of the spore walls of both families is distinctive in having three layers. The layers in Ophioglossaceae show numerous lamellae in the middle layer while these lamellae are only weakly developed in Marattiaceae (T ryon and Lugardon, 1991). The ultrastructure of the fossil spores, found in G. minnesotensis exhibits three layers (Plate 29, Fig. 11) showing small cavities in the middle exos pore layer which lacks any lamellae. The middle exospore layer can be most clearly obser ved in the apical part of the aperture. The fossil spore wall ultrastructure is similar to the Marattiaceae rather than the Ophioglossaceae (Tryon and Lugardon, 1991). Goolangia minnesotensis represents a single sporangium dispersed from a sporangial cluster laterally fused basally for ha lf of its length (Plate 30, Figs. 1, 2). The spores are present throughout the entire individual sporangium which lacks any internal septa or chambers. A scar clearly demarcates the extent of the fusion of the sporangia with others to form a synangium (Plate 30, Fi g. 1). The attachment scar terminates at about one-half of the sporangial length. The re st of the inner margin of the sporangium is thin (ca 17 m) in sectional view. This c ontrasts with the thickened ridge (ca. 90 m) that extends along the outer margin of the s porangium and may have functioned to open the sporangium along the inner thin area. G. minnesotensis may be close to Angiopteris judging from the morphology of the sporangium and spore wall ultrastructure. However G. minnesotensis sporangia are fused for about half of their length, while Angiopteris sporangia are fused basally. The size of Goolangia minnesotensis seems to be larger (3.5 mm long) than extant Angiopteris sporangia (0.3-0.6 mm long) (Hill, 1 987). The middle Jurassic fossil

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130 sporangia of Angiopteris blackii from Yorkshire, England, range in size from 0.6-1.1 mm long (Hill, 1987). Some Paleozoic fossil marattialeans had relatively large sporangia; Eoangiopteris goodii Millay may be up to 2 mm long (Millay, 1978), Sclocopteris major Mamay is 2.1-2.9 mm long (Mamay, 1950), and Millaya tularosana Mapes and Schabilion is 1.7-2.0 mm long (Mapes and Schabilion, 1979). The sporangium size (3.5 mm long) of G. minnesotensis while large, may not be inconsistent with earlier described fossil spora ngia of Marattiaceae. Angiopteris blackii Eoangiopteris andrewsii and E. goodii have basal attached sporangia (Hill, 1987; Millay, 1978; Mamay, 1950), while Sclocopteris major and Millaya tularosana have laterally attached spor angia (Millay, 1979; Mapes and Schabilion, 1979). Goolangia minnesotensis is most similar to the basally fused sporangia of A. blackii (Hill, 1987) of middle Jurassic age, and E. andrewsii (Mamay, 1950) and E. goodii (Millay, 1978) of Pennsylvanian ag e. These synangia consist of individual sporangia clustered and fused at their base as seen in A. blackii with 4-16 sporangia per sorus, E. andrewsii with 5-8 sporangia per sorus and E. goodii with 10-19 sporangia per sorus (Hill, 1987; Mamay, 1950; Millay, 1978). The basic differences between Goolangia and Eoangiopteris are obvious and they are as follows: 1) the sporangia of Goolangia were laterally fused basally for half of their length and those of Eoangiopteris were attached laterally at base and free from each other distally (Mamay, 1950; Millay, 1978); 2) the dehiscence of Goolangia occurs along upper half of the sporangium and that of Eoangiopteris extends entire length of the sporangium (Mamay, 1950); 3) the spore output of Goolangia is relatively high ( 1,000 +) and that of Eoangiopteris is low (a maximum of approximate ly one hundred) (Mamay, 1950); 4) the

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131 ornamentation of the spores of Goolangia is psilate to scabrate a nd that of the spores of Eoangiopteris is verrucate (Millay, 1978). Compared with spores of ex tant Marattiaceae, including Angiopteris the in situ spores of Goolangia minnesotensis are unique in several aspects. First, the ornamentation of the fossil spores is psilate to scabrate which is not comparable with the conspicuously ornamented spores of exta nt Marattiaceae ferns (Tryon and Lugardon, 1991). Second, the spore number per sporangium in Angiopteris is about 1,500 (Bower, 1923) and may range as high as 2,000-2,500 (Chang, 1975). Fossil Angiopteris blackii have a spore number of 3,000 per sporangium (Hill, 1987). The estimated spore content of 4500 for G. minnesotensis is larger than extant specie s or those from earlier fossil records. Third, considering the published r ecord of spore sizes ranging from 20-40 m (Camus, 1990) for extant species of Mara ttiaceae, the spore size of 47-77 m for G. minnesotensis although relatively large, is closely compared with the spore sizes of Paleozoic marattialean species, e.g. Scolecopteris major, 45-55 m; S. iowensis, 65-80 m; Eoangiopteris andrewsii 45-60 m (Mamay, 1950); E. goodii, 57-83 m (Millay, 1978); and Millaya tularosana, 90-113 m (Mapes and Scha bilion, 1979). Millay (1978) considered that large spores might constitute a primitive character in Marattiaceae. Although Lycopodiaceae and Psilotaceae have sessile and homosporous sporangia, Goolangia minnesotensis clearly differs from them in the nature of its spore ultrastructure. Spore wall ultrastructure of Lycopodiaceae is unique in having compact lamellae that are elaborated in centripetal sequence, and that of the Psilotaceae in its slightly undulate surface of outer exospore layer (T ryon and Tryon, 1982; Tryon and Lugardon, 1991). Moreover the elongate-ellipso idal shape and monolet e aperture in the

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132 spores of the Psilotaceae clearly set them apart from the spores of G. minnesotensis (Tryon and Lugardon, 1991). Family: Marattiaceae Genus: MESOZOISYNANGIA Hu, Dilcher, H. Schneid. et Jarzen gen. nov. Type species: Mesozoisynangia trilobus Hu, Dilcher, H. Schneid. et Jarzen gen. et sp. nov. Generic Diagnosis Synangium sessile, consisting of three basally fused trilobed sporangia. Each thick-walled sporangium has a cen tral protruding lobe and two la teral lobes. Cells on the tip of the central lobe are elonga ted parallel to the lobe surf ace with thickened cell walls. Sporangium is homosporous and with numerous (800 +) spores. Spores trilete, psilate to scabrate, with few globules on the sp ore surface. Laes urae are raised. Etymology: “Mesozoi” meaning Mesozoic, “s ynangia” indicating the nature of the sporangia typical of eusporangiate ferns. Species: Mesozoisynangia trilobus Hu, Dilcher, H. Schneid. et Jarzen sp. nov. Species Diagnosis General morphology The individual sporangia occur as fused synangium consisting of three sporangia (Plate 31, Figs. 1, 2, 7, 8), or as isolated 3-lobed sporangium (Plate 31, Figs. 5, 6). Individual sporangia ar e trilobed (Plate 31, Figs. 5, 6), ra nging in size from 0.6 X 0.6 mm to 0.9 X 1.2 mm. The sporangium consists of an upper multicellular layer (36 m thick) and a lower multicellular layer (39 m thick) surrounding a chamber filled with spores (Plate 32, Fig. 1). The sporangium in cross-section was 116 m thick (Plate 32, Fig. 1). Each individual sporangium may contain abou t 3,800 spores, whereas the smallest of the sporangia (Plate 31, Fig. 8) may contain a bout 900 spores. Spores are homosporous.

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133 Spore morphology Spores are subtriangular to circular with a trilete mark (Plate 32, Figs. 2, 3). The spore wall is between 0.5 to 1.5 m thick. Spores range from 27 to 44 m (average 33 m, 63 spores measured). The laesurae are ra ised and extend to the equator (Plate 32, Figs. 2-5). Ornamentation is psilate to finely scabrate wi th few globules on the spore surface (Plate 32, Figs. 2-5). Etymology: “trilobus” meaning each fo ssil sporangium has three lobes. Type material: holotype: 19007-036708M2. Paratypes: 19007-036708-M3, 19007-036708-M4. Specimens deposited at the Paleobotany/Palynology Laboratory, Florida Museum of Natural Histor y, Gainesville, Florida, USA. Type locality: Courtland Clay Pit, New Ulm, Minnesota, USA. Formation: Dakota Formation. Age: Latest Albian to earliest Cenomanian Description The individual sporangia were attached basal-centrally (Plate 31, Fig. 6, arrow denotes the attachment scar), each sporangium having a central protruding lobe and two lateral lobes (Plate 31, Fig. 5, arrows). Each synangium consists of three sporangia (Plate 31, Figs. 2, 8, arrows). Cells on the tip of the central lobe of the middle sporangium (Plate 31, Fig. 2) are elongated parallel to the lobe surface with thickened cell walls (Plate 31, Fig. 3). There are no spores in the tip of this central lobe (Plate 31, Fig. 4, arrow), perhaps suggesting that it is a sterile lobe. Average size of spores is 33 m while the mode is 32 m. The smooth ornamentation of the spores makes it very difficult to link dispersed spores to the Marattiaceae. Spore ultrastructure (TEM) is important in establishing relationship with the Marattiaceae. Granules are often found in masses betw een spores (Plate 32, Fig. 9), or are attached to the surface of the spore and o ccasionally form granule masses. The spore

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134 wall consists of an exospore (1-1.9 m) ( E in Plate 32, Fig. 6). A peri spore is not visible. The exospore is slightly thicke r at the proximal face than at the distal face (Plate 32, Fig. 6), and is differentiated into a homogenous outer exospore layer ( Ee in Plate 32, Fig. 7), a middle exospore layer ( Em in Plate 32, Fig. 8) with cavitie s (Plate 32, Fig. 8, arrow), and a thin and dark inner exospore layer ( Ei in Plate 32, Fig. 7, arrow). The transition between the inner and middle layer is clearly visible, whereas the transition between the middle and outer layer is often undetectable. The outer exospore laye r is homogenous and up to 1.6 m. The middle exospore layer is 252 nm thick with a maximum thickness at the flank of the aperture. The cavities of the middle exospore layer have a diameter of 728 nm (Plate 32, Fig. 8). The inner exospore laye r is thickest (56 nm) at the base of the aperture, and its thickne ss gradually decreases (to 28 nm) to ward the apical part of the proximal fold and the distal face (Plate 32, Fig. 7). Systematic Remarks The observed features of basal sporangia attachment, a thick sporangia wall (ca 31 m in average), a large spore output (ca 900-3,800) and homospory suggest that these specimens have eusporangiate fern affinities. The spore ultrastructure of Mesozoisynangia trilobus is relatively simple compared with that of Goolangia minnesotensis Although inner, middle and outer e xospore layers may be differentiated, the middle exospore layer, with cavities, is thin and less developed. It differs from Ophioglossaceae spore ultrastructure becau se the middle exospore layer lacks the lamellae typical of that family. The spores of M. trilobus are comparable to extant Marattiaceae because in the middle exospore la yer lamellae are absent and cavities are rare.

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135 The basally fused synangia are similar to those of Angiopteris Compared with spore output per sporangium of 1,500-2,500 in extant Angiopteris (Bower,1923; Chang, 1975) and the fossil Angiopteris blackii producing about 3,000 spores per sporangium (Hill, 1987), the spore output of Mesozoisynangia trilobus of 900-3,800 spores per sporangium is comparable to Angiopteris The spore size of M. trilobus (27-44 m) is also comparable to that of extant Angiopteris (20-37 m) as is the spore wall ultrastucture. The absence of a perispore in M. trilobus spores may indicate that the spores were immature (Wang et al., 2001). Although a comparison of the fossil specimens with extant Angiopteris is strong, there are significant differences. The three-lobed sporangium differs from that of extant Angiopteris which is typically a s quat obovoid shape (Hill, 1987) Additionally, spore ornamentation is not comparable with extant Angiopteris spores which display tuberculate to rugate ornamentation. There are important fossil records of Marattiaceae in North America from the Late Carbonifer ous to Permian (Mamay, 1950; Stidd, 1974; Millay, 1979). Acaulangium Millay, Cyathotrachus (Watson) Mamay, Scolecopteris Zenker and Eoangiopteris Mamay are the best-known genera of petrified marattialean synangia in North America (Millay, 1979) Among them, the sporangia of Eoangiopteris are free from each other and may have given ri se to the extant basally fused synangia of Angiopteris (Mamay, 1950). Characteristics of s porangia shape and low spore number in each sporangium (maximum ca. 100) (Mamay, 1950) exclude the possibility that Mesozoisynangia trilobus share affinities with Eoangiopteris The ancestors of M. trilobus are unknown.

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136 In summary, Mesozoisynangia trilobus is similar to Angiopteris in having basally fused synangia, spore output per sporangium, spore size, and spore wall ultrastructure. However, the morphology of the individual spor angia and spore ornamentation differ. Discussion The finding of this fossil eusporangiate fern material indicates that the elements of Marattiaceae were present in North Ameri ca during the mid-Cretaceous. Spores of Goolangia minnesotensis are comparable with the dispersed spore Dictyophyllidites impensus (Hedlund) Singh, differing only in spore wa ll thickness, being twice as thick in D. impensus Judging from the distribution of D. impensus which has been recovered in sediments from Arizona, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyom ing to Alberta and even in the deep sea core near the Bahamas (Singh, 1983), G. minnesotensis may have had a wide distribution in North America. To our knowledge, this is the first record of Marattiaceae in Cretaceous deposits worldwide. The poor fossil record of maratioid ferns in the Dakota Formation may be partly explained by the su sceptibility of their fronds to decay (Hill, 1987). On the other hand, charcoalified pl ant remains, produced by wildfires (Scott, 2000) are almost pure carbon and are chemica lly highly inactive and may remain threedimensional in the fossil mate rial (Eklund et al., 2004). The sedimentary environment at the C ourtland Clay Pit during mid-Cretaceous may have been a large lake (Hajek et al., 2002) with low water energy. The charcoalified isolated fern sporangia and synangia under th ese conditions would be well preserved. Considering that modern elements of Mara ttiaceae are ecologically specialized in the shaded floor of wet, tropical and subtropical forests, especially along streams, gullies and ravines (Tryon and Tryon, 1982; Camus, 1990), the fossil sporangia would have been easily transported to sedimentary basins as their habitats were generally close to the river

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137 systems. This also implies that the pale oclimate in Minnesota dur ing the mid-Cretaceous probably was lacking freezing weather (subtropical). However, the angiosperm fossil leaf record shows a mean annual temperature (MAT) of 21C (Dilcher et al., 2005), typical of a warm temperate climate. Proba bly frosts were infre quent or absent, and moisture abundant. These forests may have pr ovided extensive habitats for the evolution and diversity of ferns, which as understory plants, probably dominated the ecosystem (Coe, et al., 1987; Skog and Dilcher, 1994). The existence of two different types of Angiopteris -like ferns during mid-Cretaceous contri butes to our understanding of the fate of these ferns during the late Mesozoic and their present day diversity. Evidence suggests that a diversificati on of pteridophytes occurred in the Cretaceous after or during the rise of the angiosperms (Schneider et al., 2004). The diversity of ferns during the de position of the mid-Cretaceous Dakota Formation sediments can be best understood when we consider other fern spore and megafossil data from the Dakota Formation. Th e relative abundance of fern spores varies from 45% to 47% in sediments analyzed from Kansas and Nebraska (Farley and Dilcher, 1986). There are 22 species reported as spores (Farley and Dilcher, 1986) and 12 species reported as megafossils at the Rose Creek loca lity in Nebraska (Skog and Dilcher, 1994). These taxa are form species and do not corres pond to natural species Their affinities usually are unknown or speculative. In addition, fern spore morphology among related taxa is often similar making specific iden tification difficult or impossible (Tryon and Tryon, 1982). Analyzing the fern diversity ba sed only upon miospores will create a bias similar to that already observed for megafo ssils. The megafossil record reflects local environment while pollen and spore record s reflect regional vegetation (Dilcher and

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138 Farley, 1988; Potter, 1976). Wang (2004) noted that mesofossils recovered from the Dakota Formation reflected a re gional bias as do pollen and spore records published by Farley and Dilcher (1986). Fr iis et al. (1999) suggested th at mesofossils might reflect local vegetation because they are deposited clos e to their parent plants. The dilemma of regional vs. local origin of the eusporangiate fern spora ngia is evident and for now remains an open question. Mesofossils consist of charcoalified plant remains and are mid-sized fossils between larger megafossils and smaller microfossils. When plant tissues are charcoalified, delicate struct ures, such as anthers c ontaining pollen (Crane and Herendeen, 1996) and sporangia containing spores, are often well preserved. Therefore these mesofossils provide additional characte rs that allow comparisons to morphological features unique to extant plants. This information complements the megafossil record providing information not otherw ise available. In this study, new information includes the nature of the sporangia a nd the spores contained within them. Dispersed spores may be related to a taxon with known affinities making it possible to compare some midCretaceous dispersed spores with eusporangiate ferns. The data presented here represent only tw o taxa. However the total diversity of eusporangiate vs. leptosporangiate ferns pres ent during the mid-Cretaceous probably can not be determined from only dispersed spores and mesofossils. The broad distribution of mid-Cretaceous ferns can be seen from both megafossil and microfossil records of the Dakota Formation. There were 12 -14 fern megafossil species in the western coastal plain of the Western Interior Seaway (Rushforth, 1971) and 10 of the same species are present in the eastern coastal plain of the We stern Interior Seaway while two species are

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139 unique (Skog and Dilcher, 1994). The spore ta xa found in mid-Cretaceous localities of the Dakota Formation in Arizona (Agasi e, 1969; Romans, 1975), Utah (May and Traverse, 1973), Oklahoma (Hedlund, 1966), Ka nsas and Nebraska (Farley and Dilcher, 1986), and Minnesota (Pierce, 1961) are all similar (Farley and Dilcher, 1986). Although angiosperms may have become more diverse during the mid-Cretaceous, the pteridophytes still dominated the eco system (Skog and Dilcher, 1994). Goolangia minnesotensis and Mesozoisynangia trilobus are the first eusporangiate ferns recorded in the Dakota flora of North America. This di scovery indicates that pteridophytes had a higher diversity during the Cretaceous than prev iously thought. Although it is clear that the leptosporangiate ferns diversified during the Cretaceous along with the diversification of angiosperms (Schneider et al., 2004), this study suggests that th e eusporangiate ferns may also have been an element in this same ecosystem.

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140 CHAPTER 10 CONCLUSIONS Based upon the palynological and palybot anical investigation of the Dakota Formation, early Late Cretaceous sediments at the Courtland Clay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit, and Ochs Clay Pit in south central Mi nnesota, the following conclusions are reached. There are 218 types of palynomorphs recognized. Among them, 41 types of angiosperm pollen were recovered, five of wh ich are described as new species. The new species are Dryadopollis minnesotensis Hu, sp. nov., Dryadopollis minutus Hu, sp. nov., Liliacidites sinuatus Hu, sp. nov., Phimopollenites striolata Hu, sp. nov., and Tricolpites labeonis Hu, sp. nov.. At the same time 42 types of gymnosperm pollen, and 78 spores of ferns and fern allies were recovered. S pores of ferns and fern allies were the most diverse among the terrestrial palynomorphs. Moreover, tw o types of megaspores, ten types of algal spores and colonies, seve n types of fungal spores and fruiting body, 18 types of dinoflagellate cysts, and 20 types of acritarchs were recove red. The discovery of typical marine dinoflagellate cysts, such as Oligosphaeridium reniforme (Tasch) Davey, 1969, Coronifera oceanica Cookson and Eisenack, 1958, Cyclonephelium cf. vannophorm Davey, 1969, and Subtilisphaera deformans (Davey and Verdier) Stover and Evitt, 1978, in the sediments above the lignite at Ochs Clay Pit suppor ts the interpretation of estuarine environments by Sloan (1964). Based upon the common occurrence of Liliacidites reticulatus, Tricolpites cf. vulgaris, Phimopollenites striolata and Fraxinoipollenites constrictus in sample 036710 at the Courtland Clay Pit, in sample 046517 at the Highway 4 Clay Pit, and in sample

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141 046522 at the Ochs Clay Pit, I propose that the sediments from which these samples were collected represent time equivalent deposits (F igure 5-12). Thus it is possible to make some stratigraphic comparisons between these three clay pits. By comparison with the results of Singh (1983), Nichol s (1994), Ravn and Witzke (1995), Witzke et al. (1996), and Brenner et al. (2000), based upon the occurren ce of megaspore Balmeisporites glenelgensis fern spores Dictyophyllidites impensus and Cicatricosisporites crassiterminatus and angiosperm psilate tricolporate pollen type Nyssapollenites sp. and the obligate tetrad Artiopollis indivisus in the research areas, the age of the Cretaceous coeval sediments exposed at the Courtland Cl ay Pit, Highway 4 Clay Pit and Ochs Clay Pit is probably middle Cenomanian. Based upon the analysis of angiosperm polle n characteristics from the Ochs Clay Pit, Courtland Clay Pit, and Highway 4 Clay P it, the pollen types that appear to be insectpollinated accounted for 77% of all pollen type s, and the pollen types that appear to be wind-pollinated accounted for 23% of all polle n types. Wind-pollinated plants probably were not dominant around coastal lakes, sw amps, and the inland meandering river areas during the middle Cenomanian. It is probable that 15 angiosperm pollen t ypes recovered from the lignite represent plants that may have inhabited coastal sw amps and adjacent areas during the middle Cenomanian. Based upon the occurrence, re lative abundance, and pollen clumps, the angiosperms releasing Liliacidites sinuatus and Artiopollis indivisus may have grown in the swamps. On the other hand, the angiosperm s releasing Fraxinoipo llenites constrictus, Liliacidites reticulatus, Phimopollenites striol ata, and Tricolpites cf. vulgaris may not have grown in coastal swamps.

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142 The species diversity of ferns and fern allies (16 types) wa s slightly higher than that of angiosperms (15 types) in coastal swam p and adjacent areas during the Cenomanian. Based upon relative abundance analysis it appear s that the dominant ferns and fern allies in coastal swamps may have been th e ferns or fern allies that produced Gleichiidites senonicus (31%) and ? Gleichiidites sp. (42%). Moreover, Deltoidospora hallii ? Auritulinasporites sp., Laevigatosporites ovatus may have been important elements in the coastal swamps and adjacent areas. Based upon relative abundance, the plants releasing bisaccate pollen probably did not inhabit the coastal areas. But other non-bisaccate pollen such as ? Eucommiidites sp., Araucariacites australis Bacumonoporites baculatus Inaperturopollenites sp., Monosulcites sp.2, Sabalpollenites scabrous Taxodiaceaepollenites hiatus may have grown in coastal swamps or adjacent ar eas. Among them, the plant releasing ? Eucommiidites may have been restricted to coasta l swamps. Also, the plants releasing pollen Inaperturopollenites sp., Sabalpollenites scabrous and Taxodiaceaepollenites hiatus may have been dominant among the gymnos perm plants in coastal swamps and adjacent areas. The palynological data recovered from samples representing coastal swamps suggest that although angiosperms became impo rtant in species diversity the ferns and fern allies still play an important role in the ecosystem. This conclusion supports that proposed by Farley and Dilche r (1986) and Coe et al ( 1987). Based on the comparison with palynological assembla ges recovered from coal or lignite from northwestern Arizona, northwestern Iowa and northeastern Nebraska, and central Kansas (Agasie, 1969; Farley, 1982; Farley and Dilcher, 1986; Ra vn and Witzke, 1995), it is possible that

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143 the characteristic vegetation elements of th e coastal swamps during Cenomanian were diverse angiosperms, abundant ferns and fe rn allies, and a relative low abundance of gymnosperms. A comparison between the megafossil record and the microfossil record at the Courtland Clay Pit indicates that both record s are influenced by biases. The best method is to combine the results from both the mega fossil record and the microfossil record in order to reach a final interpretation of the natu re of the fossil floras. At Courtland Clay Pit, in addition to magnoliids (which include Magnoliales and Laurales), Proteales, Saxifragales which were rec overed from leaf records, th e Trochodendrales and Buxales of the eudicots were all present during middle Cenomanian based upon the microfossil records. Also the in situ pollen records of mesofossil inve stigations were crucial for an accurate interpretation of the dispersed pollen records. Two new marattioid ferns, Goolangia minnesotensis Hu, Dilcher, H. Schneid. et Jarzen gen. et sp. nov. and Mesozoisynangia trilobus Hu, Dilcher, H. Schneid. et Jarzen gen. et sp. nov., were discovered based on char coalified isolated s porangia and synangia recovered from the Dakota Formation of the C ourtland Clay Pit. These fossils provide evidence for the existence of marattioid ferns during the Cenomanian in North America and present the first unequivocal documenta tion of the Marattiac eae in post Jurassic times. The in situ spores of Goolangia minnesotensis are comparable with the dispersed spore Dictyophyllidites impensus (Hedlund) Singh. Accordi ng to the distribution of D. impensus which has been recovered in sedime nts from Arizona, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming to Alberta and even in the deep sea core near the Bahamas (Singh, 1983), G.

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144 minnesotensis appears to have had a wide distri bution in North America (Singh, 1983) during middle Cenomanian.

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145 APPENDIX A PROCESSING PROCEDURES USED BY GLOBAL GEOLAB LIMITED, CACADA Acid Digestion/Cleaning 1. 5-15 grams of sample is placed in a 250 polypropylene beaker. The specific weight for each sample is measured and recorded on the proce ssing record. Then two lycopodium spore tablets (batch # 124961) are added to each sample. 2. A 10% solution of HCL is added, watchi ng for an overly violent reaction, which is dampened with an atomized spray of distilled water from a spray bottle. This minimizes the dilution of the acid. 3. Allow time for carbonates to di ssolve, generally overnight. 4. Decant the spent HCL. Add distilled wa ter, allow settling and decanting again. The sample is diluted and decanted three times to remove any remaining calcium ions, which can produce a precipitate when HF is added. 5. 70% HF is added, watching for any viol ent reaction, which is dampened with distilled water as above. The sample in HF is oscillated for up to four hours until digestion completed. 6. Pour the digested sample into a 50ml. Po lypropylene test tube and centrifuge for five minutes at 2000RPM. Carefully decant the top or the spent HF. 7. Add distilled water while vortexing and centrifuge for two minutes. (Repeat until neutral) 8. This washing/centrifuging is repeated until the fine caustic material has been removed. (Three or four times) 9. To allow for a better heavy liquid sepa ration, add a few drops of concentrated HCL vortex while adding water a nd centrifuge for four minutes. Heavy Liquid Separation 1. Add Approximately 25ml of ZnBr2 Sp. Gravity 2.0; vortex thoroughly. 2. Place each test tube in an ultrasonic bath for approximately ten seconds.

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146 3. Allow the samples to sit for ten minutes before centrifuging for fifteen minutes at 2000 RPM. I feel that the ten-minut e wait allows for better separation. 4. Pour off the “float” into another 50ml t ube, wash and centrifuge for two minutes at 2000 RPM, repeat three times 5. Transfer the remaining resi due to a 20ml glass tube. Examine a small smear of the residue to determine th e amount of oxidation required. Oxidation 1. Place approximately 3ml of Schultz solution on the residue, vortex and place the tube in a hot bath for a time determined in step 14. (Notetime of oxidation for these samples was approximately 30 seconds.) 2. Remove the spent Schultz solution by washing and centrifuging until neutral. Check small smear of residue to s ee if the oxidation is sufficient. 3. Add a 10% solution of NH4OH (and place in hot water bath) for two minutes. Centrifuge and wash three times as in step 17. 4. Examine the residue to determine if th e desired level of oxidation has been achieved. If more is requires repeat steps 16-18 Mounting of Slides 1. The sieved fractions are pipetted off a nd mixed in one drop of polyvinyl alcohol with a glassstirring rod. 2. When the polyvinyl alcohol/residue has dried, one drop of clear casting resin added and the cover slip is turned and sealed. Permanent curing occurs in approximately one hour.

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147 APPENDIX B PALYNOMORPH RAW DATA SHEET Table 1. The spreadsheet of palynom orphs from Courtland Clay Pit. Fraxinoipollenites constrictus 20P Liliacidites giganteus P Liliacidites cf. reticulatus PP Nyssapollenites sp. PPP3 Phimopollenites striolata P Retimonocolpites dividuus P Rousea cf delicipollis P26P Satishia sp. P ? Spinizonocolpites sp. P Stellatopollis largissimus PP Stellatopollis sp. P Striatopollis paraneus 6 Tricolpites cf. vulgaris 44PPPP52P49P Tricolpites labeonis 27PPP15P6P Tricolpites nemejci 1PP Tricolpate sp.413PPPP Tricolpate sp.7PP Tricolpate sp.11P Total angiosperm pollen 122115133 Gymnosperm pollen Alisporites rotundus 3PP11 Araucariacites australis 1PP Bacumonoporites baculatus PPP Cedripites cretaceus PP C. sp. 2PPP43 Classopollis torosus 3PP1 Cycadopites sp. 1P2P Equisetosporites sp.1 P

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148 Table 1--continued. Taxa 03669003669403670203670403670703670803670903671018297 Gymnosperm pollen Alisporites rotundus 3PP11 Araucariacites australis 1PP Bacumonoporites baculatus PPP Cedripites cretaceus PP C. sp. 2PPP43 Classopollis torosus 3PP1 Cycadopites sp. 1P2P Equisetosporites sp.1 P E. sp.2 P5 E. sp.3 6 Eucommiidites sp. 1 P Exesipollenites sp P Inaperturopollenites sp. 80PPPP34P49 Monosulcites sp.1 1P M sp.2 P1 M sp.3 M. sp.4 P Pityosporites constrictus 3PPP6PP Pristinupollenites sulcatus 2PPPPP4 P. inchoatus 1PP P. microsaccus P23 P. pannosus 1PPP9 P. crassus P P. sp. P P. sp.2 1 Punctabivesiculites parvus 1P cf. Punctamultivesiculites inchoatus 1 Rugubivesiculites rugosus 2P1P5 R cf. multiplex PP2P R cf. reductus 111 R. convolutus PPPP ? Rugubivesiculites sp. P Sabalpollenites scabrus 3P8P25 Taxodiaceaepollenites hiatus 38PPPP23P18 Total gymnosperm pollen 14491125

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149 Table 1--continued Taxa 03669003669403670203670403670703670803670903671018297 Spore ? Acanthotriletes sp. P Aequitriradites spinulosus PP Triporoletes sp.1 P1P Triporoletes sp.2 14PP Triporoletes sp.3 P Appendicisporites cf. matesovae P A. potomacensis P Auritulinasporites sp. PP ? Auritulinasporites sp. 10PPP2P10 Baculatisporites comanmensis P Baculatisporites sp. P Biretisporites sp.1 PP Biretisporites sp.2 P Camarozonosporites sp.1 PPP3 ? Cerotosporites sp. PP ? Chomotriletes sp. P Cicatricosisporites crassiterminatus 2 C. hughesi P C. hallei P C. sp.1 P2 C. sp.4P ? Concavissimisporites sp. P Cyathidites australis P Cyathidites minor 1PPPP Cyathidites punctatus PP4 Deltoidospora halii 4PP2 Dictyophyllidites sp.1 PP Dictyophyllidites impensus 11 Foveosporites sp. 1 Foveotriletes sp. P Gleichiidites senonicus 1PP37 ? Gleichiidites sp. PP ? Granulatisporites sp. P Impardecispora sp.1 P Klukisporites sp.1 P Klukisporites sp.2 P Laevigatosporites ovatus 1PP11 L. sp2 P

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150 Table 1--continued Taxa 03669003669403670203670403670703670803670903671018297 Lycopodiacidites sp.1 P Lycopodiacidites sp.2 1P Lycopodiumsporites sp. P Microfoveolatosporis pseudoreticulatus P Neoraistrickia sp. P Plicatella fucosa PP2 P. witzkei PPP P. sp.1 P P. sp.2 1 Retitriletes sp.1 P R sp.2 P Stereisporites sp.1 P1 Sestrosporites sp.1 P Taurocusporites segmentatus P1 Trilobosporites purvernlentus PP Triporoletes reticulatus PPP Triporoletes involucratus P Verrucosisporites sp. PP spore type 1 P Total spore 232539 Total terrestrial palynomorphs 289231297 Algal and fungal spores Fungal spore sp.16PPPP5P Fungal spore sp.4P Fungal spore sp.74 Fungal fruiting body (Microthyriaceae) P Laevigatasporites sp. PP4 Oedogonium cretaceum P Palambages sp. PP Pediastrum sp. PP Ovoidites sp. 1P3 Schizosporis reticulatus P Tetraporina sp. P Total algal and fungal spores 7133

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151 Table 1--continued Taxa 03669003669403670203670403670703670803670903671018297 Dinoflagellate cysts and acritach ? Canningia sp. P Dino A4PP32PP Dino B1P Dino CP4P Dino DP2 Dino FP Dino HP cf. Geiselodinium sp. P Nyktericysta cf. pentagona P1 cf. Odontochitina sp. P cf. Pterodinium cingulatum subsp. c ingulatum P Acritach type AP Acritach type BP ? Acritach type 11 ? Acritach type 21 ? Acritach type 3P4 ? Acritach type 4P ? Acritach type 5P Micrhystridium singulare P Micrhystridium sp.1 23 M. sp.2 P M. sp.3 PP7P2 M. sp.4 PPP M sp.5 P Pterospermella australiensis P Veryhachium cf. reductum 1 Veryhachium sp.1 1 Veryhachium sp.2 P Veryhachium sp.3 P Total dinofla g ellate c y sts and acritach 8742 Total palynomorphs 304318302

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152 Table 2. The spreadsheet of palynom orphs from Highway 4 Clay Pit. Taxa 046517036716036717 Angiosperm pollen Liliacidites cf. inaequalis 2P1 Liliacidites reticulatus 2PP Liliacidites sp.5 P1 Phimopollenites striolata 188256 Rousea cf delicipollis P Tricolpites cf. vulgaris 45612 Fraxinoipollenites constrictus 14 Total angiosperm pollen 2513120 Gymnosperm pollen Araucariacites australis 157 Bacumonoporites baculatus 1816 Cedripites cretaceus 54 C. sp. 21717 Classopollis torosus 1 Entylissa sp. 6P Inaperturopollenites sp. 11166 M sp.2 2610 Parvisacites radiatus 3131 ? Pityosporites constrictus P122 Podocarpidites minisculus P11 P. sp. 89 Pristinupollenites sulcatus 552 P. inchoatus 84 P. microsaccus 33 P. pannosus 389 P. crassus 3 Punctabivesiculites parvus P1212 Rugubivesiculites multisaccus 92 Rugubivesiculites rugosus 112620 R. convolutus 11519 Sabalpollenites scabrus 22029 Taxodiaceaepollenites hiatus 312 Total gymnosperm pollen 43222208

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153 Table 2—continued. Taxa 046517036716036717 Spore ? Auritulinasporites sp. 11312 Camarozonosporites sp.1 1 ? Cerotosporites sp. PP Cicatricosisporites coconinoensis PP C. sp.2 P C. sp.3 P Deltoidospora hallii 712 Deltoidospora sp. 2 ? Dictyophyllidites impensus PPP Gleichiidites senonicus 538 ? Gleichiidites sp. 64 ? Laevigatosporites irroratus 1 Laevigatosporites ovatus P3 P. witzkei 1P P. fucosa P Punctatriletes punctus 39 ? Retitriletes sp. P ? Stoverisporites sp. PP Triporoletes reticulatus PP Total spore 73873 Total terrestrial palynomorphs 301291301 Megaspore Megaspore type 1P Algal and fungal spores Fungal spore sp.121 Fungal spore sp.2P Fungal spore sp.31 Fungal spore sp.47 Fungal spore sp.521 Fungal spore sp.61 Laevigatasporites sp. 1P Oedogonium cretaceum 2 Palambages sp. 3 ? Ovoidites sp.1 2 Total algal and fungal spores 2165 Total palynomorphs 303307306

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154 Table 3. The spreadsheet of pal ynomorphs from Ochs Clay Pit. Taxa 046522046526046533046535046536046540046545 Angiosperm pollen Artiopollis indivisus 698405032113 Clavatipollenites tenellis 1 Clavatipollenites sp.2 11 ? Clavatipollenites sp.3 611 Cupuliferoidaepollenites sp. 3111 P 45177 Doyleipollenites robbinsiae P 2 P 2 Foveotricolpites sp. 3 Foveotricolporites rhombohedralis P 4 P Fraxinoipollenites constrictus 7 Liliacidites sp.2P Liliacidites sp.3P 101025 Liliacidites sp.4 4 P 2 Liliacidites sinuatus 8 P Liliacidites cf. reticulatus P Nyssapollenites sp. 1226 Phimopollenites striolata 116 Psilatricolporites subtilis 2 Retimonocolpites dividuus 6 Tricolporate sp.2 PPP Tricolpites labeonis 716456616 Tricolpites nemejci 6223101 Tricolpites cf. vulgaris 5929111 Tricolpate sp.4201011 Tricolpate sp.74 Tricolpate sp.82 P Tricolpate sp.1022 P 6 Tricolpate sp.1122 Tricolpate sp.12912 Tricolpate sp.1462 Total angiosperm pollen 15185196818491169

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155 Table 3—continued. Taxa 046522046526046533046535046536046540046545 Gymnosperm pollen Alisporites rotundus 1 P 51 PP Araucariacites australis 131231 Bacumonoporites baculatus 2 PPP 11 Cedripites cretaceus 31 P 2111 C. sp. 75 P 62 PP Cycadopites sp. 101010 Equisetosporites sp.1 31 Eucommiidites sp. 1 2 ? Eucommiidites sp. 1 Inaperturopollenites sp. 24806025426433 Monosulcites sp.1 3 M. sp.25 P 213 M. sp.3 P M. sp.441 Pityosporites constrictus 21321 ? Pityosporites constrictus 3 P 31 Pristinupollenites sulcatus 11 P 31 P. inchoatus 1 P P. microsaccus 3 P. pannosus 41 P 4 PP Parvisacites radiatus 1 P 1 P 41 P Podocarpidites minisculus 22 P. canadensis P P sp. 2 Punctabivesiculites parvus 114 P Punctamultivesiculites cf. inchoatus 1 P Rugubivesiculites rugosus 63 P 3 P 1 R cf. multiplex 31P R cf. reductus 431 R. convolutus 47161 P Sabalpollenites scabrus 116215911 Taxodiaceaepollenites hiatus 7161431254 Total gymnosperm pollen 8815592917610146

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156 Table 3—continued. Taxa 046522046526046533046535046536046540046545 Spore Appendicisporites auritus P A. cf. matesovae P A. problematicus PPP ? Auritulinasporites sp. 6329223 Camarozonosporites sp.1 5 P 25 C. sp.3P P 1 Cicatricosisporites cf. crassiterminatus P Cicatricosisporites hughesi 2 C. crassiterminatus P C. sp.4P P Concavissimisporites sp.P ? Concavissimisporites sp.P Converrucosisporites sp.P 1 Costatoperforosporites sp. 1 P Crybelosporites sp.P Cyathidites australis P 1 P 2 Deltoidospora halii 13131028142014 Deltoidospora sp. 1 Dictyophyllidites impensus 11 PP Gleichiidites senonicus 1412630311210 ? Gleichiidites sp. 64533438 Ischyosporites sp. 1 P 1 P ? Januasporites sp. P ? Klukisporites sp. P Laevigatosporites ovatus 1561161 Lycopodiacidites sp.2 1 Lycopodiumsporites marginatus P P Microfoveolatosporis pseudoreticulatus PP cf. Phaeoceros form AP Plicatella fucosa P Punctatriletes punctus 1 P Stereisporites sp.1 123Sestrosporites sp.2P 21 Trilobosporites purvernlentus 11 Triporoletes reticulatus 1 Undulatisporites sp. P Verrucosisporites sp.P Total spore 514718117886734 Total terrestrial palynomorphs 290287306289248259249

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157 Table 3—continued. Taxa 046522046526046533046535046536046540046545 Algal and fungal spores Fungal spore sp.121P Fungal spore sp.51 Oedogonium cretaceum 4182664 Ovoidites grandis PP Ovoidites sp. 2326136 ? Ovoidites sp.2P 1 Palambages sp. 4 P Schizosporis reticulatus PP Tetraporina sp. 1 Total algal and fungal spores 5949521911 Megaspore Balmeisporites glenelgensis 1 Total megaspore 0000100 Dinoflagellate cysts and acritach Coronifera cf. oceanica P Cyclonephelium cf. vannophorm 1 P ? Cyclonephelium sp. 22 Dino A3 P 4 Dino B 3 Dino C P 1031 Dino D11 Dino H2 P Dino I P cf. Geiselodinium sp. 6 Nyktericysta cf. pentagona P 2 Oligosphaeridium reniforme 2 Oligosphaeridium sp. 21 Subtilisphaera deformans 1 ? Trithyrodinium sp. PPP Acritach type C PP Micrhystridium sp.3 11 M sp 5 3 Veryhachium reductum 1 P Total dinoflagellate cysts and acritach 62646 Total palynomorphs 295302310298301304306

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158 APPENDIX C PLATE EXPLANATION Plate 1 1. Courtland Clay Pit. Showing collection site. 2. Lower section at Courtland Clay Pit. Plate 2 1. Upper section at Courtland Clay Pit. 2. Close up of upper section at Courtland Clay Pit. Plate 3 1. Overall view of the Ochs Clay Pit. 2. Close up of the section at Ochs Clay Pit. Plate 4 1. Lignite layer evident at Ochs Clay Pit. 2. Close up of Ochs Clay Pit upper sediment s representing transitional environments. Plate 5 1. Overall view of the Highway 4 Clay Pit. 2. Close up of southwest (SW) sec tion of Highway 4 Clay Pit. Plate 6 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Clavatipollenites tenellis Phillips & Felix 1972, 046526-PY03A, N40, high focus. 2. Same as 1, mid-focus. 3. Same as 1, low focus 4. Clavatipollenites sp.2, 046535-PY02A, U40/4, high focus. 5. Same as 4, mid-focus. 6. Same as 4, low focus. 7. ? Clavatipollenites sp.3, 046536-PY05B, L23/1, high focus. 8. Same as 7, mid-focus. 9. Same as 7, low focus. 10. Liliacidites sinuatus Hu, sp. nov., 046535-PY02A, S33/3, mid-focus. 11. Liliacidites sinuatus Hu, sp. nov., 046535-PY02A, Y39/1, high focus, holotype. 12. Same as 11, mid-focus. 13. Same as 11, low focus. 14. Liliacidites giganteus Singh 1983, 036708 + 10 O41/4, mid-focus. 15. Liliacidites cf. reticulatus (Brenner) Singh 1971, 036716-A5 + 10 M16, mid-focus, showing entire pollen clumps. 16. Liliacidites cf. reticulatus (Brenner) Singh 1971, 046522-PY01A, O33/4, high focus.

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159 17. Same as 16, mid-focus. 18. Same as 16, low focus. 19. Same as 15, high focus, showing part of pollen clumps closely. Plate 7 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Same as 19 in plate 6, mid-focus. 2. Same as 19 in plate 6, low-focus. 3. Liliacidites cf. inaequalis Singh 1971, 046517-A1 +10 S26, high focus. 4. Same as 3, mid-focus. 5. Liliacidites sp.2, 046533-PY03A, Q22/1, high focus. 6. Same as 5, mid-focus. 7. Same as 5, low focus. 8. Liliacidites sp.3, 046535-PY02A, Y30/2, high focus. 9. Same as 8, mid-focus. 10. Same as 8, low focus. 11. Liliacidites sp.4, 046535-PY02A, G34, high focus. 12. Same as 11, mid-focus. 13. Same as 11, low focus. Plate 8 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Liliacidites sp.5, 036716-PY01A, U35/3, high focus. 2. Same as 1, mid-focus. 3. Same as 1, low focus. 4. Retimonocolpites dividuus Pierce 1961, 046522-PY01A, H42/1, mid-focus. 5. ? Spinizonocolpites sp., 036690 + 10 P41/4, high focus. 6. Same as 5, mid-focus. 7. Stellatopollis largissimus Singh 1983, 036690 + 10 R43/3, mid-focus. 8. Stellatopollis sp., 036710 + 10 K34/1, mid-focus. 9. Doyleipollenites robbinsiae Ravn & Witzke, 1995, 046533-PY03A, M38/3, high focus. 10. Same as 9, mid-focus. 11. Same as 9, low focus. 12. Artiopollis indivisus Agasie, 1969, 046522-PY01A, Q28, high focus. Plate 9 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Same as 12 in plate 8, mid-focus. 2. Same as 12 in plate 8, low focus. 3. Artiopollis indivisus Agasie, 1969, SEM, 046533 stub3, scale bar = 5 m. 4. Same as 3, scale bar = 2 m. 5. Artiopollis indivisus Agasie, 1969, 046535-PY02A, S32, mid-focus. Showing pollen clumps. 6. Same as 5, high focus, showing part of pollen clumps closely. 7. Same as 6, mid-focus.

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160 Plate 10 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Artiopollis indivisus Agasie, 1969, 046535-PY03A, L23/2, high focus. Showing pollen clumps. 2. Same as 1, mid-focus. 3. Same as 1, low focus. 4. Cupuliferoidaepollenites sp., 046522-PY01A, Q18/4, mi d-focus. Showing pollen clumps. 5. Cupuliferoidaepollenites sp., 046522-PY01A, x45, mid-focus. 6. Cupuliferoidaepollenites sp., SEM, 036708 stub12. Showing pollen clumps. 7. Same as 6, close-up of one pollen grain. 8. Foveotricolpites sp., 046522-PY01A, S41, high focus. 9. Same as 8, mid-focus. 10. Same as 8, low focus. 11. Fraxinoipollenites constrictus (Pierce) Chlonova, 1976, 046517-A1, R24/3, midfocus. 12. Fraxinoipollenites constrictus (Pierce) Chlonova, 1976, 046517-A1, R13/3, high focus. 13. Same as 12, mid-focus. 14. Same as 12, low focus. 15. Fraxinoipollenites constrictus (Pierce) Chlonova, 1976, SEM, 046522 stub2. 16. Rousea cf. delicipollis Srivastava, 1975, 046517-A1, H15/4, high focus. 17. Same as 16, mid-focus. 18. Same as 16, low focus. 19. Satishia sp., 036690 +10 N39/1, high focus. 20. Same as 19, mid-focus. Plate 11 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Striatopollis paraneus (Norris) Singh, 1971, 036710-PY01B, O33, high focus. 2. Same to 1, mid-focus. 3. Same to 1, low focus. 4. Striatopollis paraneus (Norris) Singh, 1971, 036710-PY01B, H32/3, high focus. 5. Same to 4, mid-focus. 6. Same to 4, low focus. 7. Tricolpites labeonis Hu, sp. nov., 046526-PY03A, Y37, high focus. 8. Same to 7, mid-focus. 9. Same to 7, low focus. 10. Tricolpites labeonis Hu, sp. nov., SEM, 046533 stub3. Scale bar = 2 m. 11. Tricolpites labeonis Hu, sp. nov., SEM, 046533 stub3. Scale bar = 2 m. 12. Tricolpites labeonis Hu, sp. nov., SEM, 046533 stub3. Scale bar = 2 m. 13. Tricolpites labeonis Hu, sp. nov., 046533-PY03A, R35/1, high focus. Showing pollen clumps. 14. Same as 13, mid-focus. 15. Same as 13, low focus. Plate 12 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Tricolpites nemejci Pacltova 1971, 046535-PY02A, B41/4, high focus.

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161 2. Same as 1, mid-focus. 3. Same as 1, low focus. 4. Tricolpites cf. vulgaris (Pierce) Srivastava, 1969, 046522-PY01A, C37/3, high focus. 5. Same as 4, mid-focus. 6. Same as 4, low focus. 7. Tricolpites cf. vulgaris (Pierce) Srivastava, 1969, 036717-PY01A, S21, mid-focus. Showing pollen clumps. 8. Tricolpate sp.4, 046522-PY01A, M45/1, high focus. 9. Same as 8, mid-focus. 10. Same as 8, low focus. 11. Tricolpate sp.7, 046526-PY03A, Y42/1, high focus. 12. Same as 11, mid-focus. 13. Same as 11, low focus. 14. Tricolpate sp.8, 046526-PY03A, Y23/2, high focus. 15. Same as 14, mid-focus. 16. Same as 14, low focus. 17. Tricolpate sp.10, 046535-PY 02A, R32/4, high focus. 18. Same as 17, mid-focus. 19. Same as 17, low focus. 20. Tricolpate sp.11, 046535-PY02A, x48, high focus. 21. Same as 20, mid-focus. 22. Same as 20, low focus. Plate 13 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Tricolpate sp.12, 046540-PY03A, J19, high focus. 2. Same as 1, mid-focus. 3. Same as 1, low focus. 4. Tricolpate sp.14, 046540-Py03A, S29, high focus. 5. Same as 4, mid-focus. 6. Same as 4, low focus. 7. Dryadopollis minnesotensis Hu, sp. nov. 036694-PY01A, S31/1, high focus. 8. Same as 7, mid-focus. 9. Same as 7, low focus. 10. Dryadopollis minnesotensis Hu, sp. nov., 036708 + 10 N36, mid-focus. Showing pollen clumps. 11. Dryadopollis minnesotensis Hu, sp. nov., 036708 + 10 M35/1, mid-focus. Showing pollen clumps. 12. Dryadopollis minnesotensis Hu, sp. nov., 036708 + 10 N34/3, mid-focus. Showing pollen clumps. 13. Dryadopollis minnesotensis Hu, sp. nov., SEM, 036708, Stub 12. Showing pollen clumps. Scale bar = 6 m. 14. Same as 13, close-up of the pore. Scale bar = 1 m. Plate 14 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Dryadopollis minnesotensis Hu, sp. nov., SEM, 036708, Stub 11. Showing pollen clumps.

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162 2. Dryadopollis minutus Hu, sp. nov., 036704-PY01A, L41, holotype, high focus. 3. Same as 2, mid-focus. 4. Same as 2, low focus. 5. Foveotricolporites rhombohedralis Pierce, 1961, 046526-PY03A, P44/4, high focus. 6. Same as 5, mid-focus. 7. Same as 5, low focus. 8. Foveotricolporites rhombohedralis Pierce, 1961, 046526-PY03A, U26/3, high focus. 9. Same as 8, mid-focus. 10. Same as 8, low focus. 11. cf. Foveotricolporites sp., 036708 +10 R35/1, high focus. 12. Same as 11, mid-focus. 13. cf. Foveotricolporites sp., 036708 +10 E42, mid-focus. 14. Phimopollenites striolata Hu, sp. nov., 046517-A1, + 10 N29/3, high focus. 15. Same as 14, mid-focus. 16. Same as 14, low focus. 17. Phimopollenites striolata Hu, sp. nov., 046517-A1, + 10 R22/1, high focus. 18. Same as 17, mid-focus. 19. Phimopollenites striolata Hu, sp. nov., 046517-A1, + 10 F14, high focus. Showing pollen clumps. 20. Same as 19, mid-focus. 21. Same as 19, low focus. Plate 15 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Phimopollenites striolata Hu, sp. nov., SEM, 046517 stub 1, polar view. Scale bar = 2 m. 2. Same as 1, close-up of pollen surface. Scale bar = 1 3. Phimopollenites striolata Hu, sp. nov., SEM, 046517 stub 1, equatorial view. Scale bar = 2 m. 4. Nyssapollenites sp., 046533-PY03A, W30/3, high focus. 5. Same as 4, mid-focus. 6. Same as 4, low focus. 7. Nyssapollenites sp., 046533-PY03A, x42, high focus. 8. Same as 7, mid-focus, 9. Same as 7, low focus. 10. Nyssapollenites sp., SEM, 046533 stub3. Scale bar = 2 m. 11. Same as 10, close-up of pollen surface. Scale bar = 1 m. 12. Same as 10, close-up of pore. Scale bar = 1 m. Plate 16 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Tricolporate sp.2, 046526-PY03A, x43/3, high focus. 2. Same as 1, mid-focus. 3. Same as 1, low focus. 4. Psilatricolporites subtilis (Groot, Penny and Gr oot) Singh 1983, 046522-PY01A, N29/3, mid-focus. Showing pollen clumps. 5. Alisporites rotundus Rouse, 1959, 046526-PY03A, U28/4, mid-focus. 6. Cedripites cretaceous Pocock 1962, 036716-A5, + 10 H32, mid-focus.

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163 7. Cedripites sp., 036716-A5, + 10 P25, mid-focus. 8. Parvisaccites radiatus Couper 1958, 036716-A5, + 10 P15/1, mid-focus. 9. Pityosporites constrictus Singh 1964, 036708 + 10 G41/3, mid-focus. 10. ? Pityosporites constrictus 036716-A5, + 10 V12/4, mid-focus. 11. Podocarpidites canadensis Pocock, 1962, 046526-PY03A, U28/4, mid-focus. 12. Podocarpidites minisculus Singh 1964, 036717-PY02A, T41, mid-focus. 13. Podocarpidites sp., 036716-A5, + 10 L12/2, mid-focus. Plate 17 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Pristinuspollenites crassus (Pierce) Tschudy, 1973, 036717-PY01A, Q20/2, mid-focus. 2. Pristinuspollenites inchoatus (Pierce) Tschudy 1973, 036717-PY01A, R26/1, midfocus. 3. Pristinuspollenites microsaccus (Couper) Tschudy 1973, 036708 +10 F39/2, midfocus. 4. Pristinuspollenites pannosus (Pierce) Tschudy 1973, 036708 +10 E34, mid-focus. 5. Pristinuspollenites sulcatus (Pierce) Tschudy 1973, 036708 +10 x39/1, mid-focus. 6. ? Pristinuspollenites sp., 036702-PY01A, L34, mid-focus. 7. Pristinuspollenites sp. 2, 036710 +10 W42, mid-focus. 8. Punctabivesiculites parvus Pierce, 1961, 036716-A5, +10 V31/4, mid-focus. 9. Rugubivesiculites convolutus Pierce 1961, 036717-PY01A, S27/4, mid-focus. 10. Rugubivesiculites cf. multiplex Pierce 1961, 046535-PY02A, W26/3, mid-focus. 11. Rugubivesiculites multisaccus Singh, 1983, 036717-PY01A, Q29/3, mid-focus. 12. Rugubivesiculites cf. reductus Pierce 1961, 046536-PY05B, S24/4, mid-focus. 13. Rugubivesiculites rugosus Pierce 1961, 036708 +10 F29/1, mid-focus. 14. ? Rugubivesiculites sp., 036708 +10 E31/2, mid-focus. 15. Araucariacites australis Cookson 1947, 036708 +10 F40/3, mid-focus. 16. Inaperturopollenites sp., 036690 +10 R40/1, mid-focus. 17. Taxodiaceaepollenites hiatus (Potonie) Kremp 1949, 036708 +10 G28/2, midfocus. 18. Eucommiidites sp.1, 046522-PY01A, H20/2, mid-focus. 19. Eucommiidites sp. 2, 046536-PY05B, O49/1, mid-focus. 20. Equisetosporites sp.1, 046526-PY03A, T40/3, mid-focus. Plate 18 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Equisetosporites sp.2, 036708 +10 W38/4, mid-focus. 2. Equisetosporites sp.3, 036708 +10 O32, mid-focus. 3. Equisetosporites sp.3, SEM, 036708 stub 12. Scale bar = 6 m. 4. Cycadopites sp., 046522-PY01A, R25/1, mid-focus. 5. Same as 4, low focus. 6. Entylissa sp., 036717-PY01A, M22, mid-focus. 7. Monosulcites sp. 1, 036708 +10 M31, mid-focus. 8. Monosulcites sp. 2, 036717-PY01A, x23, mid-focus. 9. Monosulcites sp. 3, 046526-PY03A, Q35/1, mid-focus. 10. Monosulcites sp. 4, 046540-PY03A, M40/2, high focus. 11. Same as 10, mid-focus. 12. Sabalpollenites scabrous (Brenner) Wingate, 1980, 036708 +10 F27/2, mid-focus.

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164 13. Bacumonoporites baculatus Pierce, 1961, 036717-PY01A, S24/3, mid-focus. 14. Classopollis torosus (Reissinger) Couper 1958, 036708 +10 M41, mid-focus. 15. Exesipollenites sp., 036708 +10 x38/2, mid-focus. 16. Punctamultivesiculites cf. inchoatus Pierce, 1961, 046526-PY03A, Y37, mid-focus. 17. Biretisporites sp.1, 036710 +10 R31/1, mid-focus. 18. Biretisporites sp.2, 036690 +10 Y31/2, mid-focus. 19. Cyathidites australis Couper 1953, 036708 +10 T30/1, mid-focus. 20. Cyathidites minor Couper 1953, 036708 +10 D29, mid-focus. Plate 19 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Cyathidites punctatus (Delcourt and Sprumont 1955) Delcourt, Dettmann, and Hughes, 1963, 036710 +10 O39, mid-focus. 2. Deltoidospora hallii Miner 1935, 036717-PY01A, R41/3, mid-focus. 3. Deltoidospora sp., 036716-A5 +10 U38/1, mid-focus. 4. Undulatisporites sp., 046526-PY03A, x48, mid-focus. 5. Dictyophyllidites impensus (Hedlund) Singh, 1983, 036717PY01A, M24, mid-focus. 6. Dictyophyllidites sp.1, 036710 +10 T32/1, mid-focus. 7. Stereisporites sp., 036708 +10 C40/3, mid-focus. 8. ? Auritulinasporites sp., 036717-PY01A, R25/4, mid-focus. 9. Baculatisporites comaumensis (Cookson) Potonie 1956, 036690 +10 V35, midfocus. 10. ? Concavissimisporites sp., 036690 +10 V41/4, mid-focus. 11. Baculatisporites sp., 036710 +10 V35, mid-focus. 12. Converrucosisporites sp., 046533-PY03A, N23, high focus. 13. Same as 12, mid-focus. 14. Neoraistrickia sp., 036710 +10 L28/4, mid-focus. 15. ? Ceratosporites sp., 036708 +10 H44/2, mid-focus. 16. Impardecispora sp.1, 036690 +10 V43/2, mid-focus. 17. Verrucosisporites sp., 036710 +10 U37, mid-focus. 18. ? Granulatisporites sp., 036708 +10 E39/4, mid-focus. 19. Punctatriletes punctus Pierce, 1961, 036717-PY01A, L25/1, mid-focus. 20. cf. Phaeoceros form A Jarzen, 1979, 046522PY01A, H44/1, high focus. 21. Same as 20, mid-focus. 22. Lycopodiacidites sp.1, 036708 +10 O36, high focus. 23. Same as 22, mid-focus. 24. Lycopodiacidites sp.2, 046540-PY03A, T34/3, high focus. 25. Same as 24, mid-focus. 26. Foveotriletes sp., 036710 +10 V29/1, mid-focus. 27. ? Foveotriletes sp., 036708 +10 J36, high focus. 28. Same as 27, mid-focus. Plate 20 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Foveosporites sp., 036690 +10 T47/4, mid-focus. 2. Lycopodiumsporites marginatus Singh, 1964, 046526-PY03A, Q42/1, high focus. 3. Same as 2, mid-focus. 4. Lycopodiumsporites sp. 1, 036710 +10 N33/4, mid-focus.

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165 5. Klukisporites sp.1, 036690 +10 V33/4, mid-focus. 6. Klukisporites sp.2, 036690 +10 P39, mid-focus. 7. ? Klukisporites sp., 046526-PY03A, O20/4, high focus. 8. Same as 7, low-focus. 9. Taurocusporites segmentatus Stover 1962, 036708 +10 L41/4, mid-focus. 10. ? Januasporites sp., 046526-PY03A, M40/4, mid-focus. 11. Cicatricosisporites coconinoensis Agasie, 1969, 036717-PY01A, S31/1, mid-focus. 12. Cicatricosisporites crassiterminatus Hedlund, 1966, 046533-PY03A, P25/3, high focus. 13. Same as 12, mid-focus. 14. Cicatricosisporites cf. crassiterminatus Hedlund, 1966, 046526-PY03A, Q27, high focus. 15. Same as 14, low focus. 16. Cicatricosisporites hallei Delcourt and Sprumont 1955, 036690 +10 Y42/1, midfocus. 17. Cicatricosisporites hughesi Dettmann 1963, 046526-PY03A, N40/2, high focus. 18. Same as 17, mid-focus. 19. Cicatricosisporites sp.1, 036710 +10 W37, mid-focus. 20. Cicatricosisporites sp.2, 036716-A5 +10 J25/3, mid-focus. 21. Cicatricosisporites sp.4, 046526-PY03A, J24/2, high focus. 22. Same as 21, mid-focus. Plate 21 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Costatoperforosporites sp., 046522-PY01A, P29/4, mid-focus. 2. ? Ischyosporites sp., 046526-PY03A, E33/4, high focus. 3. Same as 2, low focus. 4. Retitriletes sp.1, 036708 +10 R31/1, mid-focus. 5. Retitriletes sp.2, 036708 +10 Q28/4, high focus. 6. Same as 5, mid-focus. 7. ? Retitriletes sp., 036716-A5 +10 M28, high focus. 8. Same as 7, mid-focus. 9. ? Stoverisporites sp., 036717-PY01A, R36/2, mid-focus. 10. Gleicheiidites senonicus Ross emend. Skarby 1964, 036710 +10 S36/1, mid-focus. 11. ? Gleichiidites sp., 036716-PY01A, U18/1, mid-focus. 12. Sestrosporites sp. 1, 036710 +10 P33, mid-focus. 13. Sestrosporites sp. 2, 046535-PY02A, G34, high focus. 14. Same as 13, mid-focus. 15. Camarozonosporites sp.1, 036708 +10 H29/4, mid-focus. 16. Camarozonosporites sp.3, 046526-PY03A, V45/4, mid-focus. 17. Same as 16, low focus. 18. Crybelosporites sp., 046533-PY03A, W32/3, high focus. 19. Same as 18, mid-focus. 20. Laevigatosporites ovatus Wilson and Webster 1946, 036710 +10 K44/3, midfocus. 21. Laevigatosporites cf. irroratus Hedlund 1966, 036717-PY01A, N22/3, mid-focus. 22. Laevigatosporites sp.2, 036690 +10 N38/4, mid-focus.

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166 23. Microfoveolatosporis pseudoreticulatus (Hedlund) Singh, 1963, 036710 +10 G35/3, mid-focus. 24. Aequitriradites spinulosus (Cookson and Dettmann) Cookson and Dettmann 1961, 036708 +10 H38/4, mid-focus. 25. Triporoletes involucratus (Chlonova) Playford, 1971, 036690 +10 D28/4, midfocus. 26. Triporoletes reticulatus (Pocock) Playford 1971, 036710 +10 T46/1, high focus. 27. Same as 26, mid-focus. Plate 22 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Triporoletes sp.1, 036708 +10 Q38, mid-focus. 2. Triporoletes sp.2, 036708 +10 O35/3, high focus. 3. Same as 2, mid-focus. 4. Triporoletes sp.3, 036708 +10 F37/1, mid-focus. 5. Chomotriletes sp., 036690 +10 M42/1, mid-focus. 6. Spore type 1, 036710 +10 O35, mid-focus. 7. Same as 6, V32/3, mid-focus. 8. Appendicisporites auritus Agasie 1969, 046526-PY03A, R42, mid-focus. 9. Appendicisporites matesovae (Bolkhovitina) Norris 1967, 036690 +10 E41, midfocus. 10. Appendicisporites cf. matesovae (Bolkhovitina) Norris 1967, 046526-PY03A, C25, mid-focus. 11. Appendicisporites potomacensis Brenner 1963, 036708 +10 D30/1, high focus. 12. Same as 11, mid-focus. 13. Appendicisporites problematicus (Burger) Singh, 1971, 046535-PY02A, K37, high focus. 14. Same as 13, mid-focus. 15. Plicatella fucosa (Vavrdova) Davies 1985, 036708 +10 F41, mid-focus. 16. Plicatella witzkei Ravn 1995, 036708 +10 Q29/1, mid-focus. 17. Plicatella sp.1, 036708 +10 O35/1, mid-focus. 18. Plicatella sp.2, 036690 +10 L39/4, high focus. 19. Same as 18, low focus. 20. Trilobosporites purverulentus (Verbitskaya) Dettma nn, 1963, 046536-PY05B, K20/2, mid-focus. Plate 23 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Laevigatasporites sp., 036708 +10 V35, mid-focus. 2. Oedogonium cretaceum Zippi, 1998, 036717-PY01A, P31, mid-focus. 3. Ovoidites grandis (Pocock) Zippi, 1998, 046526PY03A, T49/2, mid-focus. 4. Ovoidites sp., 036710 +10 Q36/1, mid-focus. 5. ? Ovoidites sp. 1, 036717-PY01A, S24/4, mid-focus. 6. ? Ovoidites sp. 2, 046526-PY03A, C21/2, mid-focus. 7. Palambages sp., 046526-PY03A, O24, mid-focus. 8. Pediastrum sp., 036708 +10 F34, mid-focus. 9. Schizosporis reticulatus Cookson and Dettmann, 1959, 036710 +10 U40, mid-focus. 10. Same as 9, low focus.

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167 11. Tetraporina sp., 036690 +10 W45, mid-focus. 12. Fungal spore type 1, 036717-PY01A, H29/4, mid-focus. 13. Fungal spore type 2, 036717-PY02A, R32/2, mid-focus. 14. Fungal spore type 3, 036716-PY01A, T30/3, mid-focus. 15. Fungal spore type 4, 036716-PY01A, T31, mid-focus. 16. Fungal spore type 5, 036716-PY01A, R34/4, mid-focus. 17. Fungal spore type 6, 036716-PY01A, R36/1, mid-focus. 18. Fungal fruiting body of the family Microthyriaceae, 036690 +10 K34/3, mid-focus. Plate 24 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Megaspore type 1, 036717-PY01A, F28/1, mid-focus. 2. Balmeisporites glenelgensis Cookson and Dettmann, 046536-PY05B, S36/2, midfocus. 3. Same as 2, low focus. Plate 25 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Oligosphaeridium reniforme (Tasch) Davey, 1969, 046540-PY03A, x23/2, high focus. 2. Same as 1, mid-focus. 3. ? Oligosphaeridium sp., 046540-PY03A, U37, high focus. 4. Same as 3, mid-focus. 5. ? Oligosphaeridium sp., 046540-PY02A, P48/2, high focus. 6. Same as 5, mid-focus. 7. Nyktericysta cf. pentagona (Singh, 1983) Bint, 1986, 036708 +10 L30/2, high focus. 8. Same as 7, mid-focus. Plate 26 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Nyktericysta cf. pentagona (Singh, 1983) Bint, 1986, 036690 +10 P35/4, mid-focus. 2. ? Canningia sp., 036690 +10 D43/3, mid-focus. 3. Coronifera oceanica Cookson and Eisenack, 1958, 046540PY03A, O39/2, high focus. 4. Same as 3, mid-focus. 5. Same as 3, low focus. 6. Cyclonephelium cf. vannophorm Davay, 1969, 046540-PY03A, Q36/4, high focus. 7. Same as 6, mid-focus. 8. ? Cyclonephelium sp., 046540-PY03A, T20/1, high focus. 9. Same as 8, mid-focus. 10. cf. Odontochitina sp., 036708 +10 B34, mid-focus. 11. cf. Pterodinium cingulatum subsp. cingulatum 036708 +10 K39/2, mid-focus. 12. Subtilisphaera deformans (Davey and Verdier) Stover and Evitt, 1978, 046545PY02A, W23, mid-focus. Plate 27 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. cf. Geiselodinium sp., 036708 +10 Q32/2, mid-focus. 2. ? Trithyrodinium sp., 046526-PY03A, M20/4, high focus. 3. Same as 2, low focus. 4. Dino cyst type A, 036708 +10 G35/2, mid-focus. 5. Dino cyst type B, 036690 +10 K32/1, mid-focus.

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168 6. Dino cyst type C, 036708 +10 O37/2, mid-focus. 7. Dino cyst type D, 036708 +10 O35, mid-focus. 8. Dino cyst type H, 036690 +10 C28, mid-focus. 9. Dino cyst type I, 046545-PY02A, J22, mid-focus. 10. Micrhystridium singulare Firtion, 1952, 036690 +10 T32, mid-focus. 11. Micrhystridium sp.1, 036708 +10 N43, mid-focus. 12. Micrhystridium sp.2, 036708 +10 O44, mid-focus. 13. Micrhystridium sp.3, 036690 +10 U32, mid-focus. 14. Micrhystridium sp.4, 036690 +10 R39, mid-focus. 15. Micrhystridium sp.5, 046540-PY03A, U28/4, high focus. 16. Same as 15, mid-focus. 17. Pterospermella australiensis (Deflandre & Cookson) S.K. Srivastava, 1984, 036708 +10 Q35/4, mid-focus. 18. Veryhachium cf. reductum Deunff, 036690 +10 R47, mid-focus. 19. Veryhachium sp.1, 036708 +10 K41/1, mid-focus. 20. Veryhachium sp.2, 036690 +10 P35/2, mid-focus. 21. Veryhachium sp.3, 036690 +10 x39/4, mid-focus. 22. Acritarch type A, 036690 +10 F33/2, mid-focus. 23. Acritarch type B, 036690 +10 O42/3, mid-focus. Plate 28 (All scale bar is equal to 10 m unless otherwise indicated) 1. Acritarch type C, 046540-PY03A, H30, high focus. 2. Same as 1, mid-focus. 3. ? Acritarch type 1, 036690 +10 W27, mid-focus. 4. ? Acritarch type 2, 036690 +10 U35, mid-focus. 5. ? Acritarch type 3, 036690 +10 W34/3, mid-focus. 6. ? Acritarch type 4, 036690 +10 W36/3, mid-focus. 7. ? Acritarch type 5, 036708 +10 S44/2, mid-focus. Plate 29 Dissecting microscope, light microscopy (L M), SEM and TEM images of sporangium and in situ spores of Goolangia minnesotensis Hu, Dilcher, H. Schneid. et Jarzen (Holotype 19007-036708-M1). 1. Overview of sporangium. Scale bar = 1 mm. 2. Close up of attachment scar (arrows). Scale bar = 1 mm. 3. Close up of thickened edge, showing the or ientation of surface ce lls adjacent to this ridge as perpendicular to the long axis of the structure. Scale bar = 80 m. 4. Detail view of a spore, showing spores randomly covered with globules. Scale bar = 10 m. 5. Detail view of a spore, showing scabrate ornamentation and bifurcating trilete mark (arrow). Scale bar = 10 m. 6. Close up of cross section of sporangium, detailing the upper and lower multicellular layer. Scale bar = 60 m. 7. Surface view of sporangium, with superficially continuous spore mass. Scale bar = 100 m.

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169 8. Spore TEM section, showing exospore (E) is thicker at the proximal face than in the distal face. Scale bar = 5 m. 9. Spore TEM section, showing thin perispore (P ) and the granules (arrows). Scale bar = 1 m. 10. Close up of proximal fold, showing middle exospore layer (Em) with cavities (arrow). Scale bar = 0.5 m. 11. Close up of aperture area, showing i nner exospore layer (Ei) (arrow), middle exospore layer (Em) and outer exospore layer (Ee). Scale bar = 2.5 m. Plate 30 Suggested reconstruction of Goolangia minnesotensis Hu, Dilcher, H. Schneid. et Jarzen. 1. Synangium with seven spora ngia. Scale bar = 1 mm. 2. Individual sporangium, splitting open from upper half of left thin edge (te, arrow) for spore release; attachment scar (as, arrow) on lower half of left edge. Scale bar = 1 mm. Plate 31 Dissecting microscope and SEM imag es of sporangia/synangia of Mesozoisynangia trilobus Hu, Dilcher, H. Sc hneid. et Jarzen. 1. One side of synangium (Holotype 19007-036708-M2). Scale bar = 1 mm. 2. Obverse side of synangium (Holotype 19007-036708-M2), showing three sporangia (arrows) attached with each othe r basally. Scale bar = 1 mm. 3. Close up of the central lobe (Holotype 19007-036708-M2), showing cells at the tip of the lobe as elongated and parallel to the lobe surface. Scale bar = 36 m. 4. Close up of cross section of the centra l lobe (Holotype 19007-036708-M2), there are no spores in the tip of the lobe (arrow de notes the end of spores). Scale bar = 100 m. 5. One side of sporangium (Paratype 19007-036708-M3). Note that the three lobes of this isolated sporangium are indica ted by arrows. Scale bar = 1 mm. 6. Obverse side of the sporangium (Paratype 19007-036708-M3), arrow denotes attachment scar. Scale bar = 1mm. 7. One side of part of synangium (P aratype 19007-036708-M4). Scale bar = 100 m. 8. Another side of synangium (Paratype 19007-036708-M4), showing three sporangia (arrows) attached with each othe r basally. Scale bar = 1 mm. Plate 32 LM, SEM and TEM images of sporangium and in situ spores of Mesozoisynangia trilobus Hu, Dilcher, H. Sc hneid. et Jarzen. 1. Cross section of sporangium (Hol otype 19007-036708-M2). Scale bar = 100 m. 2. Detail view of spore (Holotype 19007-036708-M2). Scale bar = 10 m. 3. Detail view of spore (Paratype 19007-036708-M3). Scale bar = 10 m. 4. Close up of spores (Holotype 19007-036708-M2. Scale bar = 20 m. 5. Close up of spores (Paratype 19007-036708-M3. Scale bar = 20 m. 6. Spore TEM section (Holotype 19007-036708-M2), showing exospore (E). Scale bar = 2 m. 7. Apertural area of spor e (Holotype19007-036708-M2), showing inner exospore layer (Ei) and outer exospore la yer (Ee). Scale bar = 1 m.

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170 8. Close up of spore aperture area (Holotype19007-036708-M2), showing cavities (arrow) in middle exospore laye r (Em). Scale bar = 400 nm. 9. Granules between spores (Parat ype 19007-036708-M3). Scale bar = 2 m.

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171 APPENDIX D PLATES

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173 Plate 2

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176 Plate 5

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177 Plate 6

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182 Plate 11

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183 Plate 12

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217 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Shusheng Hu was born on July 18, 1965, in Sha nxi, China. He obtained a Bachelor of Engineering degree in geology from Sha nxi Mining College in 1985. He received a Master of Engineering degree in geol ogy from Beijing Graduate School, China University of Mining and Technology in 1991. In August of 2000 he began his studies toward the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Fl orida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.