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Population Dynamics and Management of Belonolaimus longicaudatus on Strawberry in Florida

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Title:
Population Dynamics and Management of Belonolaimus longicaudatus on Strawberry in Florida
Creator:
HAMILL, JON E.
Copyright Date:
2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Bromides ( jstor )
Crops ( jstor )
Mulches ( jstor )
Plant roots ( jstor )
Population density ( jstor )
Roundworms ( jstor )
Soil science ( jstor )
Soils ( jstor )
Strawberries ( jstor )
Tomatoes ( jstor )
City of Gainesville ( local )

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright Jon E. Hamill. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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3/1/2007
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658230847 ( OCLC )

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Full Text





POPULATION DYNAMICS AND MANAGEMENT OF Belonolaimus longicaudatus ON
STRAWBERRY IN FLORIDA
















By

JON E. HAMILL


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE
OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2006









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank my supervisory committee (Drs. D. W. Dickson, J. W. Noling, S. J. Locascio, W.

T. Crow, and E. A. Buss) for their helpfulness, tolerance, guidance, and friendship throughout

my graduate program. I especially thank Dr. Dickson, who provided both intellectual and

financial support. Without their time and encouragement, this project would never have been

completed.

I thank 3 commercial strawberry growers in the Plant City-Dover region (Mr. Benson

Duke's, Mr. John Beauchamp, and Mr. Rodney English) for allowing unfettered access to their

fields and providing invaluable insight into the history of growing strawberry in Florida. I

especially thank Mr. Benson Duke's, who allowed the use of his field for experiments, and cared

for them and helped with data collection.

I thank Mr. Scott Taylor, the research coordinator at the University of Florida, Plant

Science Research and Education Unit in Citra, FL. His assistance was invaluable in conducting

chemical trials on strawberry and tomato at the facility.

I also thank the two field technicians, Mr. Luis Collazo and Mr. Timothy Sheffield. They

were most helpful in traveling to and from research sites, collecting soil and plant samples,

applying fumigants, and maintaining experiments in greenhouses.

Lastly, I would like to thank my parents, John and Caroline, who always managed to be

there to help in the worst of times.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A CK N O W LED G M EN T S ............................................................. ................................... 2

L IST O F T A B L E S ............. ..... ............ ............................................................ 5

LIST OF FIGURES .................................. .. ..... ..... ................. .7

A B S T R A C T ......... ....................... .................. .......................... ................ .. 8

CHAPTER

1 G EN ER A L IN TR O D U C TIO N ..................................................................... ...................10

2 R E V IEW O F L ITER A TU R E .................................................................... ..... ..................12

T ax o n o m y ................... ........................................................... ................ 12
H o st R a n g e................... ............................................................................ ... .... 1 3
G geographical D distribution ............................................................................ .................... 14
Intraspecific V variations ................... ............ ......... ....... ............ ............15
Population Dynamics and Biology of B. longicaudatus...................................................16
M anagem ent of B. longicaudatus ........................... ..................................... ............... 18

3 POPULATION DYNAMICS OF Belonolaimus longicaudatus IN COMMERCIAL
STRAWBERRY FIELDS IN PLANT CITY-DOVER, FL ....................................... 22

Introduction ................. .................................... ............................22
M materials and M methods ...................................... .. ......... ....... ...... 23
R e su lts ............................ ............... .............. .................................. .2 7
D iscu ssion ............... ......................................... .............................. 2 9

4 PATHOGENICITY OF Belonolaimus longicaudatus ON VEGETABLES
COMMONLY GROWN AFTER STRAWBERRY IN PLANT CITY-DOVER, FL ..........42

Introduction .............. .... .......... ... ................ ....... .............................. 42
M materials and M methods ..................................... ... .. ........... ....... ......43
R results .......... .... ................................................. ... ............................4 5
D iscu ssion .................. ..................................... ............................45

5 FIELD TESTING AND VALIDATION OF CHEMICAL ALTERNATIVE
STRATEGIES TO METHYL BROMIDE ON STRAWBERRY............... ...................50

Introduction ................... .......................................................... ................. 50
M materials and M methods ..................................... ... .. ........... ....... .... ..51
R e su lts ................... ................................................................. ................5 4
D isc u ssio n ................... ................................................................ ..............5 5









6 PATHOGENICITY OF FIVE STING NEMATODE ISOLATES ON STRAWBERRY..... 65

In tro d u ctio n ................... ...................6...................5..........
M materials and M methods .................................. ... .. ...... ..... .. ............65
R e su lts ................... ...................6...................7..........
D iscu ssio n ................... ...................6...................7..........

7 EFFECTS OF REDUCED RATES OF TELONE C35 AND METHYL BROMIDE IN
CONJUNCTION WITH VIRTUALLY IMPERMEABLE FILM TECHNOLOGY ON
W E ED S A N D N EM A T O D E S ...................................................................... ....................70

In tro d u ctio n ................... ...................7...................0..........
M materials and M methods .................................. ... .. ...... ..... .. ............73
R e su lts ................... ...................7...................6..........
D iscu ssio n ................... ...................7...................7..........

8 TOLERANCE OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE STRAWBERRY CULTIVARS
GROWN IN DOVER, FL TO STING NEMATODE, Belonolaimus longicaudatus ............ 88

In tro du ctio n ................... ...................8...................8..........
M materials and M methods .................................. ... .. ...... ..... .. ............89
R e su lts ................... ...................9...................0..........
D iscu ssio n ................... ...................9...................1..........

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ...................................................................................... ....................98

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ............................................................................... ............... ..... 108


























4









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

3-1 General production practices for three cropping seasons (2002-2005) and the dates
soil samples were taken to determine densities and depth distribution of
Belonolaimus longicaudatus for each of three commercial strawberry farms in Plant
C ity-D over, FL 2002-2005. ...................................................................... ................... 33

3-2 Greenhouse soil bioassay for Belonolaimus longicaudatus residing in soil at six
depths in a commercial strawberry field at the Duke's farm, 5 days after fumigating
with m ethyl brom ide, 2004. ..... ........................... ........................................... 34

4-1 Comparisons of dry root weights of seven vegetable crops grown in pasteurized soil
inoculated with 50 Belonolaimus longicaudatus per 13-cm-diam. pots and compared
w ith noninoculated control. .................................................................... .....................47

5-1 Marketable yield of strawberry, and pre-harvest and post-harvest densities of
Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode) as affected by nematicide treatments
in Citra, FL, 2002-2003 ............................ ..... ............. ........ .. ........... 58

5-2 Marketable yield of strawberry, and pre-harvest and post-harvest densities of
Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode) as affected by fumigant treatments in
C itra, F L 2003-2004 ......... .................................................................. ......... ...... 60

5-3 Number of Carolina geranium plants as affected by fumigant and herbicide
treatm ents in Citra, FL, 2003-2004......................................................... ............... 62

5-3 Number of Carolina geranium plants as affected by fumigant and herbicide
treatm ents in Citra, FL, 2003-2004......................................................... ............... 62

5-4 Marketable numbers and yields of cantaloupe as affected by fumigants when planted
as a double-crop after strawberry, Citra, FL, 2004. ................... ......................... 63

6-1 Mean dry root weights and nematode reproduction of different isolates of
Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode) grown on strawberry cv. Sweet
Charlie in a greenhouse in 13.2-cm-diam pots ........................................... ...............69

7-1 Effects of fumigant, fumigant rate, and mulch type on control of nutsedge, Citra, FL,
S p rin g 2 0 0 4 ............................................................................ 8 0

7-2 Main effect of fumigant and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on total marketable
yield of tom ato, Citra, FL, Spring 2004....................................... .......................... 81

7-3 Main effect of fumigant and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on galling of tomato
roots, Citra, FL, Spring 2004. ................................................ ................................ 82









7-4 Main effect of fumigant and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on total marketable
yield of double-cropped cucumber, Citra, FL, Fall 2004. ............................................83

7-5 Main effect of fumigant and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on galling of
double-cropped cucumber, Citra, FL, Fall 2004.................................... ............... 84

7-6 Main effect of fumigant and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on total marketable
yield of fall-grown squash, Citra, FL, Fall 2004...................... ..... ............... 85

7-7 Main effect of fumigant and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on gall ratings of
fall-grow n squash, Citra, FL, Fall 2004 ........................................ ......................... 86

7-8 Effects of fumigant, fumigant rate, and mulch type on control of nutsedge on fall-
grow n squash, Citra, FL, Fall 2004......................................................... ............... 87

8-1 Fruit and dry root weights, and nematode reproduction at final harvest on five
commercially produced strawberry cultivars grown in Belonolaimus longicaudatus
infested and noninfested field soil, Dover, FL 2003-2004. .............................................94

8-2 Root weights of five strawberry cultivars grown in a commercial strawberry field
(Duke's farm) in noninfested soil and soil infested soil with Belonolaimus
longicaudatus, 2004-2005......................................................................... ...................95

8-3 Leaf weights of five strawberry cultivars grown in a commercial strawberry field
(Duke's farm) in noninfested soil and soil infested with Belonolaimus longicaudatus,
2004-2005................. ... ..........................96

8-4 Fruit weights of five strawberry cultivars grown in a commercial strawberry field
(Duke's farm) in sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) infested and
noninfested soil, 2004-2005............................................ ................... ...............97









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure pe

3-1 Population densities ofBelonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil
taken monthly between September 2002 and March 2005 at a 0 to 13 cm depth with
a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from three commercial strawberry fields
located in Plant City-D over, FL ............................................... .............................. 35

3-2 Population densities ofBelonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil
taken monthly between September 2002 and December 2003 at five depths from 13
to 78 cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from Duke's farm
located in D over, FL .......................... ...... ........................ ......... ......... 36

3-3 Population densities ofBelonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil
taken monthly between January 2004 and February 2005 at five depths from 13 to 78
cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from Duke's farm located
in D ov er, F L .............................................................................. 3 7

3-4 Population densities ofBelonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil
taken monthly between January 2003 and December 2003 at five depths from 13 to
78 cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from Beauchamp farm
in D ov er, F L .............................................................................. 3 8

3-5 Population densities ofBelonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil
taken monthly between January 2004 and March 2005 at five depths from 13 to 78
cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from Beauchamp farm in
D over, F L ..................................................................................39

3-6 Population densities ofBelonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil
taken monthly between January 2003 and December 2003 at five depths from 13 to
78 cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from English farm
located in D ov er, F L .............................................................................. ....................4 0

3-7 Population densities ofBelonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil
taken monthly between January 2004 and January 2005 at five depths from 13 to 78
cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from English farm in
D over, F L ..................................................................................4 1

4-1 Comparison of reproductive factor values for Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting
nematode) inoculated on seven vegetable crops commonly double-cropped with
straw b erry ................................................................................4 8

4-2 Comparison of reproductive factor values for Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting
nematode) on seven vegetable crops commonly double-cropped with strawberry. .........49









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


POPULATION DYNAMICS AND MANAGEMENT OF Belonolaimus longicaudatus ON
STRAWBERRY IN FLORIDA

By

Jon E. Hamill

December 2006

Chair: D. W. Dickson
Major Department: Entomology and Nematology

Commercial production of strawberry (Fragaria x Ananassa) in Florida is adversely

affected by the sting nematode Belonolaimus longicaudatus. This study was conducted to

determine (i) the nematode's dynamics and movement in soil, (ii) pathogenicity on vegetables

commonly double-cropped after strawberry, (iii) alternatives for methyl bromide (mbr) for

strawberry and effectiveness of reduced rates of fumigants when applied under virtually

impermeable film (VIF), (iv) the pathogenicity of different isolates of sting nematode on

strawberry, and (v) tolerance of commercially grown strawberry cultivars to sting nematode.

Sting nematode densities increased on strawberry shortly after their planting in October.

Populations increased until January when densities peaked and began to decline thereafter. Sting

nematodes could be recovered from soil at all depths sampled from 0 to 79-cm deep throughout

the year, although their densities remained low at depths below 26 cm. The potential for this

nematode to survive in-bed fumigation with mbr and move up through the soil profile was

demonstrated. Sting nematodes were pathogenic to and reproduced on six vegetables. They did

not increase on watermelon, and increased more on sweet corn and tomato than on cantaloupe,

cucumber, pepper, and squash. Strawberry yields and weed densities in beds fumigated with 1,3-









dichloropene plus chloropicrin combined with oxyfluorfen herbicide were equivalent to mbr

treated beds. Reducing rates of mbr by 25 and 50% did not negatively affect tomato yield or

root-knot nematode galling when applied under VIF film as compared to a full rate of mbr in

conjunction with standard polyethylene mulch. Five different sting nematode isolates tested

were pathogenic on strawberry, but the isolate from strawberry was the most virulent of all

isolates tested. Sting nematode negatively impacted all commercial strawberry cultivars tested.

The nematode caused a reduction in yield and plant root weights; however, in one experiment,

sting nematode reproduction did not differ among the cultivars tested.









CHAPTER 1
GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Strawberry (Fragaria x Ananassa), is produced annually on nearly 2,900 ha in Florida.

Most of the production is centered in west-central Florida in the Plant City-Dover region of

Hillsborough County. During the 2001 and 2002 growing season, 14.7 million flats were

produced on 2,834 ha, and had a farm gate value of $153.5 million (Anonymous, 2003). The

strawberry growing season begins in September when the soil is fumigated with methyl bromide

(mbr) and polyethylene mulch-covered beds are formed. Bare-root strawberry transplants are

planted in October and established with overhead irrigation for about 2 weeks. Strawberry

harvesting begins in late November and continues until late March or April, as long as market

pricing remains profitable.

The first historical record of sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) in the Plant

City-Dover region of Florida was documented by Brooks and Christie (1950), who noted a

disease of strawberry during the 1946-47 growing season. Several characteristic symptoms were

associated with this disease. Stunted plants were first observed in small circular patterns that

gradually increased in size until larger areas were prevalent. Affected plants produced no new

growth. The leaf edges turned brown, with the discoloration expanding from the edges to midrib

and engulfing the entire leaf. Plants afflicted with the disease lacked fine feeder roots and their

root tips were often killed, thereby causing lateral roots to develop which were also killed. The

root systems of infected plants had very coarse roots with knobby tips, which are commonly

known today as "stubby or abbreviated roots." Badly infected plants often die.

In 1950, sting nematode was reported to be common in soil samples from strawberry fields

in the Plant City-Dover region of Hillsborough County (Brooks and Christie, 1950). Later it was

determined that this nematode was B. longicaudatus and not B. gracilis. The pathogenicity of B.









longicaudatus has been reported on strawberry (Christie et al., 1952), and for other crops such as

peanut (Good, 1968; Owens, 1951; Perry and Norden, 1963), cotton (Crow et al., 2000a; 2000c;

Graham and Holdeman, 1953), celery and sweet corn (Christie, 1952), collards, kale and

cauliflower (Khoung, 1974), and citrus (Standifer and Perry, 1960; Suit and DuCharme, 1953).

These studies document the importance of B. longicaudatus as a highly virulent, crop-damaging

species. However, there are no reports as to its vertical distribution and population dynamics

within strawberry fields throughout the year in Florida, its pathogenicity on different strawberry

cultivars, and no explanation for the failures of mbr to provide season-long control in Florida's

annual production system. Furthermore, differences were reported in pathogenicity, host range,

and morphology among populations of sting nematode from different geographical regions or

hosts (Abu-Gharbieh and Perry, 1970; Robbins and Barker, 1973; Robbins and Hirschmann,

1974). The pathogenicity and virulence of sting nematode populations on strawberry from the

Plant City-Dover region thus may differ from other sting nematode populations from other areas

in Florida.

An assessment is needed of the pathogenicity and virulence of the sting nematode

population from the Plant City-Dover region on strawberry cultivars grown in Florida.

Documentation is also needed on its pathogenicity and virulence on other vegetable and small

fruit crops produced in this region including those double-cropped after strawberry. The

objectives of this study were to monitor the population density of the nematode in the soil profile

throughout the year, to determine the efficacy of several chemicals that may serve as mbr

alternatives, and to provide possible reasons why mbr is ineffective in providing season long

control of this pathogen (Noling and Gilreath, 2002; Noling and Becker, 1994).









CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Taxonomy

Sting nematodes, Belonolaimus longicaudatus Rau, 1958, have been reported as important

plant-parasitic nematodes since the 1940s. Belonolaimus gracilis Steiner, 1942, the first species

described in this genus, was recovered from soil around roots of slash (Pinus taeda) and longleaf

(Pinus elliotti) pines in nurseries in Ocala, Florida. It was reported later that B. gracilis was a

rare species and had not been observed since its original description (Rau, 1958). This led to the

description of a new species, B. longicaudatus, which differed from B. gracilis in that it had a

longer tail and a shorter stylet (Rau, 1958). B. longicaudatus is widely distributed in Florida,

where it occurs on a wide number of hosts and is currently recognized as the most common sting

nematode in the United States (Rau, 1958, 1961).

After B. longicaudatus and B. gracilis were described, three more North American species

were identified, including B. euthychilus Rau, 1963, B. maritimus Rau, 1963, and B. nortoni Rau,

1963. Description of three other species followed with B. hastulatus Colbran, 1960, from

Queensland, Australia, B. lineatus Roman, 1964, from Puerto Rico, and B. lolii Siviour &

McLeod, 1979, from Australia. Two other sting nematode species, B. anama Manteiro &

Lordello, 1977, and B. jara Manteiro & Lordello, 1977, were transferred from the genus Ibipora.

Currently, nine species are accepted: B. gracilis, B. longicaudatus, B. euthychilis, B. maritimus,

B. nortoni, B. anama, B. jara, B. lineatus, and B. lolii (Fortuner and Luc, 1987; Smart and

Nguyen, 1991). B. hastulatus was transferred to the genus Tylenchorhynchus (Fortuner and Luc,

1987).









Host Range

Sting nematode is an economically important pathogen of a wide range of horticultural,

agronomic, ornamental, and forest crops. B. longicaudatus was first associated with agronomic

crops (e.g., corn, cotton, soybean, and peanut in Virginia (Owens, 1951) and corn, cotton,

soybean, and cowpea in South Carolina) (Graham and Holdeman, 1953). In Florida, its

pathogenicity was established on vegetables, namely strawberry, celery, and sweet corn (Christie

et al., 1952). Sting nematode is pathogenic on citrus, which is one of the most economically

important crops in Florida (Christie, 1959; Esser and Simpson, 1984; Suit and DuCharme, 1953;

and Duncan et al., 1996). The nematode also is pathogenic to turfgrasses, particularly

bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) and its respective hybrids that are grown on golf courses,

athletic fields, and home lawns throughout the state (Giblin-Davis et al., 1991; 1992; Perry and

Smart, 1970; Rivera, 1963). Most recently sting nematode was shown to be pathogenic on

cotton (when grown in rotation with potato) and potato, causing yield losses on both crops (Crow

et al., 2000a, b). Sting nematode also is associated with many weed species (Esser, 1976;

Holdeman, 1955; Kerr and Wysong, 1979).

Other agronomic, forage, and horticultural crops reported as hosts include millet, clover,

oat, lespedeza, tobacco, snap bean, sweet potato, onion, pepper, winter pea, and lima bean

(Holdeman, 1955). Grass hosts reported for this nematode include sudan, bermuda, St.

Augustine, and centipede. Watermelon, okra, and tobacco were identified as non-hosts

(Holdeman, 1955). The plants that were identified as hosts ofB. longicaudatus isolates from

North Carolina and Georgia were characterized as excellent hosts, good hosts, poor hosts, non-

hosts, and differentiating hosts based on their ability to reproduce on each host (Robbins and

Barker, 1973). Excellent hosts included white clover, corn, pearl millet, soybean, muscadine

grape, strawberry, potato, Chinese elm, pecan, johnsongrass, and hairy crabgrass. Good hosts









included peanut, oat, carrot, peach, Japanese holly, bentgrass, and wild carrot. Poor hosts were

cotton, Camilla, gladiolus, jimson weed, lambsquarters, and cocklebur. Non-hosts included

tobacco, asparagus, okra, watermelon, buckthorn plantain, pokeweed, and sandbur. Some plants

gave a differentiating response between the North Carolina and Georgia isolates that were related

to pathogenicity and virulence. These included snap bean, eggplant, blueberry, lettuce, turnip,

onion, rabbiteye blueberry, cabbage, loblolly pine, bermudagrass, fescue, curled dock, and wild

garlic. In Florida, 116 hosts and 27 resistant or non-hosts were listed for isolates of B.

longicaudatus (Esser, 1976).

Geographical Distribution

Distribution of B. longicaudatus was originally thought to be limited to the southeastern

coastal plain region of the United States, which included all of Florida and portions of Georgia,

South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia (Christie et al., 1952; Graham and Holdeman,

1953; Holdeman, 1955; Owens, 1951). B. longicaudatus also has been reported on turfgrass in

Alabama (Sikora et al., 2001). Since the 1950's the nematodes distribution has grown to include

Alabama (Sikora et al., 2001), New Jersey (Hutchinson and Reed, 1956; Myers, 1979), Arkansas

(Riggs, 1961), Kansas (Dickerson et al., 1972), Nebraska, Texas (Christie, 1959; Norton, 1959;

Wheeler and Starr, 1987), and, most recently, California (Mundo-Ocampo et al., 1994). All of

the sting nematodes reported are believed to be B. longicaudatus with the exception of the sting

nematode found in Nebraska, which is morphologically similar to B. nortoni (Kerr and Wysong,

1979). B. longicaudatus has been reported internationally in the Bahamas, Bermuda, and Puerto

Rico (Perry and Rhoades, 1982), and Costa Rica (Lopez, 1978). It is widely assumed that the

pathogen was exported out of the United States on infested turfgrasses from Florida or Georgia

sod farms (Perry and Rhoades, 1982).









Intraspecific Variations

Several reports have been published regarding variations in pathogenicity, host range, and

morphology among different geographical isolates (Abu-Garbieh and Perry, 1970; Owens, 1951;

Perry and Norden, 1963; Robbins and Barker, 1973; Robbins and Hirschmann, 1974; Han,

2001). The pathogenicity ofB. longicaudatus has been reported on many different crops

including peanut (Good, 1968; Miller, 1972; Owens, 1951), cotton (Baird et al., 1996; Crow et

al., 2000a; Crow et al., 2000c; Graham and Holdeman, 1953), potato (Crow et al., 2000b),

strawberry, celery, and sweet corn (Christie et al., 1952), collard, kale, and cauliflower (Khoung,

1974, Khoung and Smart, 1975), and citrus (Duncan et al., 1996; Esser and Simpson, 1984;

Standifer and Perry, 1960; Suit and DuCharme, 1953). Isolates of sting nematode in Virginia

were reported to be pathogenic to peanut, whereas the Georgia and Florida isolates are not

pathogenic on peanut (Owens, 1951). It is also known that populations of B. longicaudatus in

North Carolina are pathogenic on peanut (Cooper et al., 1959).

Three different isolates of B. longicaudatus collected from different hosts in Florida had

different responses to host plants tested (Abu-Garbieh and Perry, 1970). Isolates obtained from

citrus (rough lemon rootstocks) reproduced well on citrus but failed to reproduce on strawberry.

Two different isolates obtained from sites where corn was grown were able to reproduce on

strawberry but not on rough lemon rootstock. Although morphological differences were subtle

among these three isolates, the differentiating host responses alone were not sufficient to separate

and describe new species. The three Florida isolates of B. longicaudatus were all capable of

reproducing on peanut, contradicting earlier reports (Perry and Norden, 1963; Good, 1968);

however, field damage on peanut has not been reported (Dickson and De Waele, 2005).

Morphological differences also have been reported for isolates of B. longicaudatus

collected from different locations and host plants. Morphometric variation of B. longicaudatus









was reported among isolates taken from citrus groves on Florida's central ridge (Lake, Polk, and

Highland Counties) compared to isolates collected from northeastern Polk County (Duncan et al.,

1996). These isolates from northeastern Polk County tended to have longer stylets than tails,

unlike all other populations (Duncan et al., 1996). Recently, genetic diversity has been

documented among sting nematode populations in Florida. It is possible that some isolates of

sting nematodes may need reclassification (Gozel et al., 2003; Han et al., 2006).

Population Dynamics and Biology of B. longicaudatus

Sting nematode life cycle, feeding habits, development and reproduction have been studied

using in-vitro cultivation on excised Zea mays roots (Han, 2001; Huang and Becker, 1997).

Within 24 hours, sting nematode females began to feed and lay eggs. Four days after egg

deposition, first-stage juveniles molted in the egg. Second-stage juveniles hatched 5 days after

egg deposition. Three additional molts occurred within 29 days of the original egg deposition

(Huang and Becker, 1997). Sixty days after inoculation an average of 529 nematodes and 83

eggs was obtained from a culture on excised corn roots with an initial innoculum of 60 females

and 40 males (Huang and Becker, 1997). Little is known about feeding habits and survival

stages of the sting nematode; however, it has been documented that all stages are found in the

soil throughout the year in Florida (Christie et al., 1952).

Successful reproduction for sting nematode is limited by several factors, the most

important of which are soil type, temperature, and moisture. Sting nematode was only found in

Virginia farms in the "A" horizon of the soil profile and also where the soil texture was 84 to

94% sand (Miller, 1972). The optimum size of soil particles for maximum reproduction is from

120 to 370 [m (Robbins and Barker, 1974).

Temperature also is important for sting nematode development, survival and reproduction.

In Florida, nematode reproduction was greater at 29.4 C than at 26.7 C, and was greatly









reduced at 35 C (Perry, 1964). Egg development required ca. 9 days at 18 oC, 5 days at 23 C,

and 3.7 days at 28 C, whereas no eggs were laid at 33 C (Han, 2001). It also was determined

that sting nematodes would migrate down into the soil profile if temperatures in the top 2.5 cm of

soil reached 39.5 C (Boyd and Perry, 1969; Boyd et al., 1972). In forage fields in Florida the

effects of seasonal temperatures on sting nematode population densities were observed, and it

was determined that sting nematodes favored mean soil temperatures between 26 and 28 C

(Boyd and Dickson, 1971).

The effects of soil moisture on reproduction and distribution within the soil profile was

examined by several researchers. Sting nematode numbers were highest when soil moisture was

from 15 to 20% (Brodie and Quattlebaum, 1970). Nematode reproduction was optimized at a

moisture level of 7%, which was determined to be greater than that which occurred at 2% or 30%

(Robbins and Barker, 1974).

Both temperature and moisture are important in the vertical distribution of the nematode.

In North Carolina, sting nematode population densities were greatest at 15 to 30 cm depths

between November and April. Some nematodes were found at 30 to 45 cm and very few at 0 to

15 cm (Potter, 1967). This study suggested that the nematodes present in the 30 to 45 cm soil

layer could possibly represent an overwintering population, which may conceivably escape

fumigation, that could reinfest crops in the subsequent season (Potter, 1967). Also, in North

Carolina, populations of the sting nematode were highest at 0 to 7.5 cm depth from October to

January (Barker, 1968). Before October, population densities were highest at the 7.5 to 15 and

15 to 30 cm depths, and few specimens were found at the 30 to 35 cm depth (Barker, 1968). In

March and April, the nematode almost disappeared at all depths, whereas population densities

increased slightly in May and June (Barker, 1968). The numbers of sting nematodes were









significantly greater throughout the year at depths of 0 to 20 cm than at 20 to 40 cm in a

commercial cabbage-potato field in Hastings, FL (Perez et al., 2000).

Minor factors, such as light intensity effects on plant growth, have been implicated in

playing a role in sting nematode reproduction (Barker et al., 1975). One study has shown that

when cotton was grown in a greenhouse with 12 hours of supplemental light, reproduction of the

nematode increased compared with natural light alone (Barker et al., 1975).

Management of B. longicaudatus

Sting nematode has plagued strawberry growers in the Plant City-Dover area for the past

50+ years. In 1964, it was reported that approximately 97% of all the commercial strawberry

acreage was treated with a nematicide (Overman, 1965). Little has changed since then.

Currently, nearly all of the strawberry hectarage in Florida is fumigated with methyl bromide

(mbr) (Mossler and Nesheim, 2004). Problems associated with sting nematode in strawberry

fields dates back to the late 1940's when it was first reported that strawberry plants grown in soil

fumigated with 1,2-dichloropropane-1,3-dichloropropene (D-D) had increased plant vigor and

fruit yields (Brooks and Christie, 1950). Later, the improved plant vigor and fruit yields were

identified to be a result of sting nematode control. In 1952, it was suggested that strawberry

growers in the Plant City region could effectively manage sting nematode by an in-the-row

application of soil fumigants (type not specified) (Christie et. al, 1952). In the 1960's the use of

polyethylene mulch and herbicides in conjunction with preplant nematicides resulted in four-fold

increases in yields (Overman, 1965). Preplant application of ethylene dibromide, 1,3-

dichloropropene plus metam sodium (Vorlex), methyl bromide plus chloropicrin, Sarolex, and

Zinophos all reduced sting nematode populations as compared to nontreated plots for up to 6

weeks after planting (Overman, 1965). However, with all of these preplant chemicals (except

methyl bromide plus chloropicrin), sting nematode population densities were higher than









nontreated plots at 18 weeks after application. Sting nematode continued to be a problem in

commercial strawberry fields in the 1970's where preplant fumigation was being used,

sometimes in conjunction with a preplant soil-drench applied nematicide (Overman, 1972).

Problems associated with preplant fumigation at that time included the following: (i) soil must be

treated 2 to 3 weeks before planting, (ii) fumigation only controlled nematodes that were present

at the time of application, but provided no protection later as the population resurged, (iii) and

the fruit set could be reduced because unfavorable weather conditions combined with fumigation

could prolong vegetative development (Overman, 1972). By the 1980's the preferred control

tactic being used by growers was a preplant application of methyl bromide. Attempts to show

that soil solarization could be used to manage sting nematode met with only moderate success.

Although yields were not different between fumigated and solarized plots, it was noted that

plants in solarized plots began to decline 6 weeks after strawberry planting (Overman et al.,

1987).

Strawberry growers are currently limited in their options for sting nematode control. The

phase out of mbr in 2005 is complete, but its use is currently continuing under a Montreal

Protocol interaction treaty approved critical use exemption plan (Karst, 2005; Lehnert, 2006).

Currently, there are very few preplant chemicals registered for use on strawberry, and no

postplant chemicals are available for controlling nematodes in strawberry in Florida. Most

recently, field trials have been focused on the most promising alternatives to mbr and have been

conducted in Dover, FL, for sting nematode management on strawberry (Gilreath et al., 2003;

Noling et al., 2002). The most promising alternatives included 1,3-D (Telone C-35, Telone-II,

Dow AgroSciences LLC, Indianapolis, IN), chloropicrin, and metam sodium alone or in









combination with herbicides. Strawberry yields obtained with these treatments have been nearly

equivalent to yields obtained with mbr (Gilreath et al., 2003; Noling and Gilreath, 2002).

Experimentation using nematicides and preplant fumigants was conducted on a number of

crops for control of sting nematode. Ethylene dibromide (EDB) (Dowfume W-40) provided

effective control of sting nematode on snap bean, cabbage, and pepper in Lake Monroe, FL

(Christie, 1953), and EDB, D-D, and 1,2 dibromo-3-chloropropane(DBCP) were efficacious on

sweet potato and soybean in South Carolina (Holdeman, 1956). Both soil fumigants, 1,3-D and

metam sodium, and fenamiphos effectively reduced sting nematode population densities on

broccoli and squash (Rhoades, 1987). Studies conducted using EDB, 1,3-D, and aldicarb for

sting nematode management in potato increased marketable yield (Weingartner and Shumaker,

1990). Fosthiazate was as effective in reducing sting nematode numbers on bermudagrass as

fenamiphos (Giblin-Davis et al., 1993).

Different fumigant application methods are promising for sting nematode management in

strawberry and other crops, especially for products other than methyl bromide. In 2002, a new

application system for applying 1,3-D products, the Yetter Avenger coulter system, was

developed by Mirusso Fumigation (Delray Beach, FL) (Anonymous, 2001a; b; Noling and

Gilreath, 2002). With this equipment the placement and containment of fumigants (e.g., 1,3-D)

are improved especially by the closure of the soil opening that remains after passage of the

coulter-chisel through the soil. If these chisel slits remain open there is a premature loss of

fumigants into the atmosphere. With the improved containment by the Avenger coulter system

volatilization from the soil is reduced after application. Applying fumigant products such as

metam sodium, carbon disulfide, and emulsified 1,3-D with and without chloropicrin on

strawberry through the drip system (chemigation) for sting nematode control has been tested









with favorable results (Noling and Gilreath, 2002). The use of parachisels or subsurface hooded

chisels improved the efficacy of 1,3-D compared with a conventional chisel application (Riegel

et al., 2001).









CHAPTER 3
POPULATION DYNAMICS OF Belonolaimus longicaudatus IN COMMERCIAL
STRAWBERRY FIELDS IN PLANT CITY-DOVER, FL

Introduction

Strawberry (Fragaria x Ananassa) is produced on nearly 2,900 ha in Florida, with most of

the production centered in west-central Florida in the Plant City-Dover region. During the 2003

and 2004 growing season, 13.6 million flats were produced on 2,875 ha, having a farm gate

value of $178 million dollars (Anonymous, 2005). For the past 26 years Florida has maintained

a 5 to 8% market share of the total United States strawberry production (Sjulin, 2004).

Currently, 99% of the production hectarage is fumigated by an in-bed application with

methyl bromide (mbr) (Mossler and Nesheim, 2004). The use of mbr as a broad-spectrum

fumigant for strawberry began during the mid-to late 1960s (Overman, 1965; 1972). Following

mbr application, bedded rows are formed and covered with low density polyethylene mulch

(PE). A single drip tape for irrigation is applied simultaneously under the polyethylene mulch

near the bed center. This is nearly an ideal production system in that most weeds and soilborne

pathogens are managed effectively, plus the system prevents premature leaching of fertilizers by

heavy rainfall. However, a major limitation to the system is poor sting nematode control.

This nematode is a pathogen of great concern for Florida strawberry growers. During the

1960s and 1970s this pathogen was managed effectively with mbr, and other fumigant and

nonfumigant nematicides (Overman, 1965; 1972). The number of products registered for

nematode control on strawberry during the late 1970s and early 1980s declined. As a

consequence almost all strawberry growers began treating their fields solely with mbr.

Currently, many commercial strawberry fields in the Plant City-Dover, FL region that were

fumigated with mbr before planting experience substantial losses from sting nematode

parasitism. It is unknown why mbr fails to provide season long control of this pathogen. This is









one of the few cases where a soilborne pathogen or pest resurfaces to cause major economic

losses following treatment with mbr. Other examples include poor control of stubby-root

nematode Trichodorus spp. (Perry, 1953; Rhoades, 1968; and Weingartner et al., 1983) and

Carolina geranium Geranium carolinanum (Noling, Pers. Comm.). The vertical distribution of

sting nematodes at the time of fumigation may be an important reason why this pathogen

rebuilds to damaging levels within the first 6 weeks following the transplanting of strawberry

(Potter, 1967). It was suggested previously that sting nematodes at deeper soil depths (30 to 45

cm) were capable of surviving fumigation and could reinvade the root zone in subsequent

seasons (Potter, 1967).

Our objectives were to (i) determine the seasonal population densities of sting nematodes

at five soil depths on three commercial strawberry fields that were treated with mbr in the Plant

City-Dover, FL region, (ii) determine the number of infective sting nematodes at different depths

within 2 weeks after fumigation, and (iii) determine ability of the sting nematode to move in the

soil profile.

Materials and Methods

Studies were conducted in three commercial strawberry fields that were heavily infested

with sting nematode. They were all located within an 8 km radius in the Plant City-Dover

region. Each field was denoted by the name of the manager or owner of the farms. The first

field site (Duke's farm) had continuous strawberry production that dated back to the 1950s.

Predicated on the success of the strawberry season, squash (Curcurbitapepo), cantaloupe

(Cucumis melo var. reticulatis), or pepper (Capiscum annum) was double-cropped. The soil at

this location was classified as Seffner fine sand (96% sand, 2% silt, 2% clay; 1% OM). The

second field site (Beauchamp farm) had a history of continuous strawberry production that dated

back more than 15 years and the grower double-cropped with cucumber. Sting nematode caused









near-total losses in the 2002-2003 growing season so the grower planted cucumber in the field

instead of strawberry during the 2003-2004 season. Symptoms of sting nematode damage

appeared in an adjacent strawberry field managed by the same grower in November 2004 and

sampling was moved to that location. The soil at both locations was classified as Seffner fine

sand (95% sand, 3% silt, 2% clay; 1.5% OM). The third field site, (English farm) had an

uncertain history of strawberry production, but continuous strawberry production dated back to

at least 2000. A mixture of eggplant (Solanum melongena), cucumber (Cucumis sativus),

cantaloupe, and sweet corn (Zea mays var. rugosa) were double-cropped annually. The soil at

this location was classified as a Seffner fine sand (94% sand, 2% silt, 4% clay; <1% OM).

Strawberry production. Strawberry season began each September when fields were

disked, prepared for bedding, and fumigated. In late September, fertilizer was broadcast and

beds were formed and fumigated in one tractor pass. Polyethylene mulch was laid, and a single

drip tube was placed simultaneously in the fumigated beds. Fumigant (typically methyl

bromide-chloropicrin) formulations, rates, and strawberry cultivars planted, double-crops, and

cover crops differed with each farm (Table 3-1). Growers purchased strawberry transplants from

Canadian nurseries and planted them in late October. Overhead irrigation was applied

intermittently during the warmest periods of the day for approximately 2 weeks to establish

transplants. Strawberry harvesting began in December and continued through February. The

double-crop was planted in March. The double-crop season ended in late May when the mulch

was removed, fields were disked, and a cover crop planted (Beauchamp only). The Duke's and

English fields were left in weed fallow following the double-crop until the following season.

Sampling. Soil sampling to estimate sting nematode densities was initiated on different

dates for the three field sites (Table 3-1). After initiation, sampling continued on a monthly basis









for nearly three full strawberry seasons. An AMS soil bucket auger (American Falls, ID) (13-

cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) was used to remove soil cores at six soil depths (0 to 13, 13 to 26, 26 to

39, 39 to 52, 52 to 65, and 65 to 78 cm). Three sampling locations at each farm were chosen

arbitrarily during the season among strawberry plants that showed visible symptoms of sting

nematode damage. At other times when strawberry plants were removed, soil samples were

taken in the same beds where a double crop was planted in the same vicinity as for strawberry. If

no beds existed, sampling sites were chosen arbitrarily in areas where nematode damage to

strawberry was noted. Samples were returned to the lab and nematodes were extracted from a

100 cm3 subsample of soil using the centrifugal-flotation method (Jenkins, 1964). All life stages

of sting nematodes, except eggs, were counted using an inverted microscope at 20x

magnification, and the mean number of nematodes was determined from three samples from

each depth. Soil temperature was recorded at each of six depths: 6.5, 19.5, 32.5, 45.5, 58.5, and

71.5 cm throughout the season using temperature data recorders (StowAway Tidbit, Onset

Computer Corp., Bourne, MA). These six depths represent the midpoint of the depth at which

the soil cores, previously mentioned above, were taken. Volumetric soil moisture reading was

taken from each sample with a soil moisture meter (Fieldscout TDR 100, Spectrum

Technologies, Plainfield, IL). Monthly mean soil temperature and moisture readings were

quantitatively related with the sting nematode monthly nematode population densities using

regression analysis with a linear model (SAS Institute, 2000, Cary, NC).

Soil bioassay. During the fall of 2004, the viability and reproductive potential of sting

nematode occurring in soil collected at different depths at the Duke's farm was determined. On

5 October 2004, 5 days following fumigation by in-bed chisel injection of a mixture of 67% mbr

and 33% chloropicrin (350 lbs/acre) was applied to preformed beds with two chisels, 26-cm









spacing, 26-cm deep using a bed-press unit. Eight subsamples of soil were collected with the

same AMS bucket auger described above from each of six depths (0 to 13, 13 to 26, 26 to 39, 39

to 52, 52 to 65, and 65 to 78 cm). Nematodes were extracted from a 100-cm3 subsample of soil

using the centrifugal-flotation method (Jenkins, 1964). All life stages except eggs were counted

using an inverted microscope at 20x magnification to determine the initial population from each

sample (not determining whether dead or alive). The remaining soil from each sample was

thoroughly mixed (ca. 1,400 cm3) and was placed in a 13.2-cm-diam. clay pot in a greenhouse.

The pots were arranged on a bench in a completely randomized block design with eight

replicates for each soil depth. Three seeds of sweet corn cv. Silver Queen were planted in each

pot. Fifteen grams of Osmocote (Scotts, Marysville, OH) 20% N, 20% P205, and 20% K20

fertilizer was incorporated into the soil in each pot.

Forty-five days after planting corn, plants and soil were removed from the pots and

returned to the laboratory. A 100-cm3 soil sample was taken where nematodes were extracted

and counted as stated above. A ratio of final population numbers (Pf) to initial population

numbers (Pi) was calculated to express nematode reproduction (Griffin and Asay, 1996). Data

were transformed logo (x + 1) before analysis and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA)

followed by mean separation using Duncan's multiple-range test (SAS Institute, 2000, Cary,

NC).

Nematode movement. To determine if sting nematode is capable of migrating through

the soil profile, plant-chamber columns were built. Three lengths of 9.9-cm-diam.

polyvinylchloride pipe (PVC), each 45, 59, and 89 cm in length, were used for migration

columns. Each length was replicated five times for a total of 15 tubes. A 13-cm section of the

same pipe were cut and affixed with PVC cement to each migration tube to form a plant









chamber. A 12 x 12 cm piece of screen with 500-[m pore openings (Nytex, Bioquip Products,

Rancho Dominguez, CA) was affixed with PVC glue between each plant chamber and migration

tube. The screen prevented roots from growing down into the migration chamber, therefore

nematodes had to move up the migration tube, through the screen, into the plant chamber to feed.

Soil (ca. 200 kg) was taken from between the rows of polyethylene mulched beds within

the strawberry field at the Duke's farm and autoclaved at 121 C at 124 kPa for 99 minutes.

Each migration tube and plant chamber was filled with this soil to approximate the bulk density

that was present in the field. A 100 cm3 sample of sting nematode infested soil that was pre-

determined to contain ca. 424 sting nematodes/100-cm3 of soil was placed in the bottom of each

migration tube and the bottom was sealed with a plastic cap. Three seeds of sweet corn cv.

Silver Queen were planted 2.4-cm-deep in each plant chamber. The plants were fertilized with

15 g of coated fertilizer as described above. Forty-five days after nematodes were introduced,

soil from around the sweet corn roots was removed and nematodes were extracted using the

centrifugal-flotation method (Jenkins, 1964) from a 100 cm3 subsample. Sting nematodes were

counted with the aid of an inverted microscope at 10x magnification.

Results

Population dynamics. Population densities of sting nematode were highest at all three

field sites during the months of December, January, and February (Fig. 3-1). However,

population densities from year to year within field sites followed the same trends only at Duke's

farm at the 0 to 13 cm depth during all three strawberry growing seasons (Fig. 3-1). This was the

only location managed in a near identical manner from year to year. There were variations in

crop planted (cucumber was planted at the Beauchamp farm instead of strawberry one year) and

farming practices (English farm retained a new manager after September 2003).









At the Duke's farm at the 0-13-cm depth, population levels began to increase each

November, 30 to 45 days after strawberry planting. Population densities within the top 13 cm

continued to increase November through January, then peak, and declined until June when

population levels dropped to 10 to 15 nematodes/100 cm3 of soil and remained low until the

following growing season. During the 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 growing seasons sting

nematodes were found in soil samples at all depths during each month (Figs. 3-2; 3-3). Among

depths other than 0 to 13 cm, sting nematode densities were generally highest in the 13 to 26 cm

and 26 to 39 cm depths (Figs. 3-2; 3-3). Sting nematodes remained low in the 52-65 and 65-78

cm depths throughout the year (Figs. 3-2; 3-3). During 2004, there was an additional population

peak occurring at deeper soil depths during March and April (Fig. 3-3).

At the Beauchamp field site, population densities were highest in January of 2003 and

2005 (Fig. 3-1). However, from October 2003 to May 2004 this grower planted cucumber

instead of strawberry in October 2003 and February 2004. Sting nematode numbers never

reached 100 nematodes/100 cm3 of soil in the 0 to 13 cm depth while cucumber was being grown

in the field (Fig. 3-1). Sting nematode population densities remained low during this time,

especially at 13 to 78 cm depths (Figs. 3-4; 3-5), when cucumber was in production. Sting

population densities were again highest during January and February 2005 and declined

thereafter (Fig. 3-1). During this same time period sting nematode densities also increased in the

26 to 39 cm depth (Fig. 3-5).

At the third location, English field site, nematode population densities were highest during

February 2003 (Fig. 3-1) and January 2004 (Fig. 3-1). The planting of cantaloupe as a double-

crop after strawberry tended to increase sting nematode population densities at all depths

sampled from April through August 2003 (Figs. 3-1; 3-6). Sting nematode population densities









at the 0 to 13-cm-depth did not increase at the English farm on strawberry from November

through December 2004 and January 2005 (Fig. 3-1).

Linear regression equations quantitatively relating both mean monthly soil temperatures

and soil moisture to nematode population densities (0 to 13 cm depth) were significant (P <

0.05). There was no significant relationship between soil temperature or moisture to nematode

population densities at all other depths sampled. The linear model Y = -17.141x + 475.35 (R2 =

0.569, P < 0.02) was fitted to the untransformed data for soil temperature and nematode

population density. The linear model Y = -5.1904x + 57.506 (R2 = 0.0247, P < 0.05) was fitted

to the untransformed data for soil moisture and nematode population density.

Soil-bioassay. The highest initial population densities of sting nematodes was in the 0 to

13, 13 to 26, and 26 to 39 cm depths, whereas the highest overall population densities were

detected in the 13 to 26 cm depth (P < 0.05) (Table 3-2). The highest final population densities

in pots where nematodes were raised on corn were from the 26 to 39, 39 to 52, 52 to 65, and 65

to 78 cm depths, which were different from soil assayed from the 0 to 13 cm depth (P < 0.05)

(Table 3-2). However, Pf/Pi ratios from soil taken from 39 to 52, 52 to 65, and 75 to 78 depths

were greater than from soil taken from 0 to 13 and 13 to 26 cm depths (P < 0.05) (Table 3-2).

Nematode movement. Within 45 days, a mean number of 12, 21, and 16 nematodes were

recovered from plant chambers affixed to 45, 59, and 89-cm migration tubes, respectively. A

mixture ofjuveniles, females, and males were recovered from each of the plant chambers.

Discussion

One of the reasons that mbr has been ineffective at controlling sting nematode in

commercial strawberry fields in the Plant City-Dover, FL region may be due, in part, to the

nematode migrating down into the soil profile during the summer months, presumably because

of both soil temperature and food source-quality or quantity (Potter, 1967). In a cotton









production system in Florida, declines in sting nematode population densities were attributed to

the quality or absence of a food source (Crow et al., 2000c). In Hastings, FL sting nematode

numbers were highest in the 0 to 20 cm depths in cabbage and potato rotations; however, sting

nematode numbers were present in the 20 to 40 cm depths and increased during the summer

months (Perez et al., 2000). In another study in a soybean field, sting nematode was

predominately recovered in the top 30 cm of soil, however, this nematode was detected at soil at

depths down to 60 cm (Brodie, 1976). In this same study, at depths below 60 cm, the clay

content increased above 15% and thus was presumably unhabitable by sting nematode (Robbins

and Barker, 1974).

Population decreases in strawberry fields during the months of February and March are not

directly affected by temperature alone, but perhaps more directly affected by quality and quantity

of food source (Brodie, 1976). Mean monthly temperatures in the 0 to 13 cm depths during

February, March, and April 2003 were 19.4, 20.4, and 22.8 C, respectively. During 2004, mean

monthly temperatures in the 0 to 13 cm depths during the months of February and March were

20.4 and 21.6 C, respectively. Temperatures in excess of 30 C were reported as levels that

would negatively impact sting nematodes (Boyd et al., 1972; Boyd and Perry, 1969; Han, 2001;

Perry, 1964).

Soil moisture appeared to have only a short-term effect on nematode population change. A

common practice that one of the growers (Duke's) employed at the end of each growing season

was to remove the polyethylene mulch from the beds leaving the live plants. During a dry, hot

spring, the soil dries out rapidly, plants wilt, and nematodes appeared to respond by moving

down in the soil profile to avoid desiccation. In one instance, after a period of drying in the

spring of 2004, a period of rainy weather allowed strawberry plants to recover and put on









growth. As a consequence, sting nematode population densities increased slightly from the

previous month at all depths sampled, but ultimately declined the following month. This

demonstrates the need to destroy the strawberry crop after the final harvest, any delays in

eliminating the food source may allow sting nematode densities to increase, which could

ultimately create more of a problem in subsequent seasons. It has been demonstrated that an

application of metam sodium through the drip irrigation at the end of the strawberry season is

effective in killing the strawberry plants (Noling et al., 2006).

In greenhouse experiments, it was clearly demonstrated that some of the sting nematodes

recovered from a commercial strawberry field at depths below 26 cm were alive and infective

following mbr application. In these experiments, nematode pf/pi ratios were highest in depths

below 39 cm, reinforcing the theory that sting nematodes at deeper soil depths (30 to 45 cm)

were capable of surviving fumigation and could reinvade the root zone in subsequent seasons

(Potter, 1967). I observed (under a microscope) that nematodes were moving, and thus

presumed to be alive in soil taken from 13 to 26 cm deep. The reason for this is not known, but

could possibly be a result of improper application, layers of impermeable soil (hardpan), or non-

decomposed plant residues (Lembright, 1990). Experiments conducted in Tifton sandy loam soil

demonstrated that gas formulations of mbr (chisel injected 15 to 20 cm deep) and covered with

polyethylene mulch) had the highest mbr gas concentrations in the 0 to 15 cm depths (Rohde et

al., 1980). Concentrations of mbr were higher in the 0 to 15 cm depths than at 30, 45, and 60 cm

depths and the concentration of mbr decreased with greater depths (Rhode et al., 1980). Further

experimentation is needed to determine whether the concentration of mbr after fumigation in

these commercial strawberry fields, at depths greater than 39 cm, is sufficient to kill sting

nematode.









Movement of plant-parasitic nematodes in the soil profile has been clearly demonstrated

for Meloidogyne incognita, Radopholus similis, and Tylenchulus semipenetrans (Baines, 1974;

Prot and Van Gundy, 1981; Tarjan, 1971). In PVC chamber experiments, movement ofM.

incognita second-stage juveniles was affected by clay content of the soil, nematodes were

incapable of moving up in the soil profile in 100% sand (Prot and Van Gundy, 1981). By

demonstrating the survival capabilities of sting nematodes at deeper depths after fumigation, it

was necessary to demonstrate the ability of these nematodes to move up to the root zone of

strawberry plants from these deeper depths. Studies conducted in controlled environments (PVC

chambers) showed that nematodes could indeed move nearly 80 cm in 45 days. It appears that

the sand-silt-clay ratio in these soils present within the fields of this particular strawberry grower

are conducive to movement of sting nematode in the soil profile. Further experiments are

needed, replicated at different time intervals, to determine precisely how fast these nematodes

can move up to the root zone after fumigation.










Table 3-1. General production practices for three cropping seasons (2002-2005) and the dates soil samples were taken to determine
densities and depth distribution of Belonolaimus longicaudatus for each of three commercial strawberry farms in Plant
City-Dover, FL 2002-2005.


Farm


Fumigant Formulation
(mbr:pic)


Duke's


Beauchamp


English


methyl
bromide

methyl
bromide
metam
potassium


methyl
bromide


67:33


80:20


Rate/ha
(broadcast)


393 kg


449 kg


Strawberry
cultivar

Camarosaa
Festival'

Festival'


Double-crop
planted


none


cucumber


114 liters


98:2


449 kg


Camarosad
Camino Reale


cantaloupe


a2002-2003 season
bFields left fallow during summer months, weeds predominate
`2003-2004, 2004-2005 season
d2003-2004 season
e2004-2005 season


Cover
crop

b
none


cowpea


Sampling
initiated

Sept 2002


Jan 2003


noneb


Jan 2003









Table 3-2. Greenhouse soil bioassay for Belonolaimus longicaudatus residing in soil at six depths in a commercial strawberry field at
the Duke's farm, 5 days after fumigating with methyl bromide, 2004.


Initial population (Pi)a


0to 13
13 to 26
26 to 39
39 to 52
52 to 65
65 to 78


4.2 be
10.0 a
7.3 ab
2.9 cd


1.9 d
1.1 d


Final population (pf)b


0.4 b
5.3 ab
19.3 a
16.9 a
12.2 a
11.0 ab


Data are means of eight replicates. Means within a column with the same letter are not different (P < 0.05) according to
Duncan's multiple-range test. Data were transformed logio(x + 1), before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are
presented.
aNematodes were extracted from 100 cm3 of soil using the centrifugal-flotation method.
bNematodes were extracted 45 days after inoculation from 100 cm3 of soil using the centrifugal-flotation method.


Depth (cm)


Pf/Pi ratio


0.1 b
0.4 b
2.0 ab
6.1 a
5.7 a
5.9 a











800

4 700
o -- Dukes Farm
E 600 /
6 I -i- Beauchamp Farm
2 500
S 0 -A- English Farm

E 400
0

300

.! 200
4'
0 100

0 + --








Figure 3-1. Population densities ofBelonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between September
2002 and March 2005 at a 0 to 13 cm depth with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from three commercial
strawberry fields located in Plant City-Dover, FL.













80 --- 13-26 cm

E 70 26-39 cm

o 60 -A- 39-52 cm g

S-- -- 52-65 cm
50
65-78 cm
40

030

20 ,

10 -








Figure 3-2. Population densities ofBelonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between September
2002 and December 2003 at five depths from 13 to 78 cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from
Duke's farm located in Dover, FL.












90 -
o /- --- 13-26 cm
E 80 /

S 70 I -E 26-39 cm

S 60 -A-39-52 cm

E 50 *
5 x0 --0-- 52-65 cm
/
to 40
S-- 65-78 cm
30 ,30

20

10

10





Figure 3-3. Population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between January 2004
and February 2005 at five depths from 13 to 78 cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from Duke's farm
located in Dover, FL




























z~c


Figure 3-4. Population densities ofBelonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between January 2003
and December 2003 at five depths from 13 to 78 cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from
Beauchamp farm in Dover, FL.







































Figure 3-5. Population densities ofBelonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between January 2004
and March 2005 at five depths from 13 to 78 cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from Beauchamp
farm in Dover, FL.


b
G
p91~


b










80

o 70 13-26 cm

o 60 -- -I- 26-39 cm

S 50 -A-- 39-52 cm
50 --
40 -- --- 52-65 cm
40 ,

S 30 65-78 cm
30 e \ o


%. 4
20 \ b

10 .----
--"







Figure 3-6. Population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between January 2003
and December 2003 at five depths from 13 to 78 cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from English
farm located in Dover, FL.













O



-6
0
o
o
o



-d







,.
rc
iU


gd~


SPopulation densities ofBelonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between January 2004
and January 2005 at five depths from 13 to 78 cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from English farm
in Dover, FL.


Figure 3-7









CHAPTER 4
PATHOGENICITY OF Belonolaimus longicaudatus ON VEGETABLES COMMONLY
GROWN AFTER STRAWBERRY IN PLANT CITY-DOVER, FL

Introduction

At the end of the strawberry (Fragaria x Ananassa) season in Florida many growers

choose to double-crop their strawberry hectarage (Albregts and Howard, 1985; Duval et al.,

2004a). Double-cropping is important to the economic success of vegetable growers in Florida

and the southern United States (Gilreath et al., 1999). During the 2002 season 56% of the

surveyed strawberry hectarage had a crop grown on the same polyethylene mulched beds

immediately after the strawberry crop concluded in February or March (Anonymous, 2002).

Double crops identified in the survey included cantaloupe (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus),

watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Curcurbita pepo), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), pepper

(Capsicum annuum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). At

the time that growers were planting the double crop the population densities of sting nematodes

on strawberry were declining in the surface soil horizon (Hamill and Dickson, 2003).

Planting a crop that is less susceptible to sting nematode would be a good way to

incorporate a season-long sting nematode management program. This nematode is known to

have a very wide host range (Esser, 1976; Holdeman, 1955; Robbins and Barker, 1973);

however, there is little information available on the susceptibility of the commonly grown double

crops to the strawberry sting nematode population. The planting of a less susceptible or non-host

crop such as watermelon (Holdeman, 1955) could reduce numbers of nematodes in strawberry

fields during the spring and early summer months (March-June). Also, by reducing the number

of nematodes that oversummer in these strawberry fields, it may be possible to reduce injury to

the subsequent strawberry crop.









The objective was to evaluate seven vegetables commonly planted as double-crops for

their susceptibility to sting nematode obtained from strawberry grown in the Dover-Plant City,

FL region.

Materials and Methods

Nematode culture. An isolate of B. longicaudatus that was collected from infested soil

taken from around roots of stunted strawberry plants in a commercial strawberry field (Dover,

Hillsborough County, FL) was cultured in the greenhouse. The nematodes were extracted by the

Baermann method (Ayoub, 1977) and approximately 200 adult nematodes were transferred

manually to each of twenty 13.2-cm-diam. clay pots filled with pasteurized sandy soil (95.5%

sand, 2.0% silt, and 2.5% clay). Sweet corn (Zea mays var. rugosa cv. Silver Queen) was

planted in each pot. Plants were fertilized once with 15 g of slow release fertilizer (20% N, 20%

P205, and 20% K20) and maintained in a greenhouse at 25 + 5 C. Adult nematodes collected

from these pots were used as inoculum for the following experiment.

Greenhouse experiment. Seven vegetables selected for the experiment were: (i) sweet

corn cv. Silver Queen, (ii) tomato cv. Rutgers, (iii) pepper cv. California Wonder, (iv) cantaloupe

cv. Athena, (v) cucumber cv. Dasher II, (vi), squash cv. Yellow Crookneck, and (vii) watermelon

cv. Sangria. Initially three seeds were planted in each pot and later thinned to a single plant. All

vegetables were direct-seeded (except tomato and pepper, which included ca. 6 week old

transplants) in 13.2-cm-diam. clay pots filled with pasteurized sandy soil (95.5% sand, 2.0% silt,

and 2.5% clay). Each plant was fertilized with 15 g of controlled release fertilizer incorporated

into the soil (20% N, 20% P205, and 20% K20). Pots were arranged in a randomized complete

block design on a greenhouse bench with five replicates, and noninoculated controls were

included for each vegetable. Pots were inoculated manually by placing 25 males and 25 females









of sting nematode into a 2.5 cm deep depression near the base of plant stems. The nematodes

were hand picked following extraction by the Baermann method (Ayoub, 1977).

Data collection. After 40 days, plants were destructively sampled. Roots were oven-dried

at 90 C for 1 week and dry root weights were recorded. Nematodes were extracted from 100-

cm3 of soil using the centrifugal-flotation method (Jenkins, 1964). Sting nematodes were

counted using an inverted microscope at 20x magnification. Nematode numbers per 1,400 cm3

of soil (each 13.2-cm-diam. pot contained ca. 1,400 cm3 of soil) were used to determine the

percentage increase in nematode densities (Pi/Pf ratio). Data were transformed by arcsin \(x)

before analysis and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by mean separation

using Duncan's multiple-range test (SAS Institute, 2000, Cary, NC).

Field experiment. The seven vegetables as listed above were planted on 24 February

2004 on strawberry beds with 71-cm bed tops spaced 132-cm apart prepared in a commercial

grower's field infested with sting nematode. Each plot was approximately 3.5 m long. The soil

at this location was classified as Seffner fine sand (96% sand, 2% silt, 2% clay; 1% OM). Each

treatment consisted of 10 plants that were arranged in a completely randomized design with four

replicates. Before planting, nine soil cores were removed from each plot using a 20-cm deep,

2.5-cm-diam. cone-shaped sampling tube. Cores from each plot were composite and nematodes

were extracted from a 100 cm3 aliquant by the centrifugal-flotation method (Jenkins, 1964).

Sting nematodes were counted using an inverted microscope at 20x magnification. Forty-two

days after the initial sampling, a second set of soil samples were taken from each plot as stated

above. Nematodes were again extracted and counted as above. A reproductive factor was

calculated for each treatment (Rf = Pf/Pi; reproductive factor = final nematode population/initial

nematode population) (Griffin and Asay, 1996). Data were transformed by arcsin \(x) before









analysis and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by mean separation using

Duncan's multiple-range test (SAS Institute, 2000, Cary, NC).

Results

Greenhouse experiments. All vegetables, except watermelon, grown in soil inoculated

with sting nematode had lower root weights than those grown in noninoculated soil and had an

Rf index >1 (P < 0.05) (Table 4-1; Fig. 4-1). The reproduction rate on sweet corn was higher

than all other crops, and the index was more than 8-fold greater than the mean of all four

curcurbits (P < 0.05) (Fig. 4-1). Tomato also proved to be an excellent host for sting nematode

with a 6-fold greater reproductive rate than the mean of all four curcurbits (Fig. 4-1).

Field experiment. All treatments, except watermelon, had a Rf >1. The Rf for sweet corn

was highest for all crops tested except tomato (P < 0.05). No differences in the reproductive

rates were detected among tomato, pepper, and cantaloupe (Fig. 4-2).

Discussion

Watermelon was a nonhost for the strawberry population of sting nematode, which is

consistent with previous findings (Holdeman, 1955; Robbins and Hirschmann, 1974). It is

important to validate the host range of sting nematode populations from different locations on

different crops because recent literature suggests that some populations may be different species

(Gozel et al., 2003; Han, 2001). Examples of differences in host range among different

populations of sting nematodes are recurrent in the literature (Abu-Gharbieh and Perry, 1970;

Owens, 1951; Robbins and Barker, 1973). However, contradicting reports are also reported. For

example, a Florida sting population was incapable of reproducing on peanut (Owens, 1951),

whereas others reported peanut as a suitable host (Abu-Gharbieh and Perry, 1970).

Sting nematode reproduction rates in the field never reached equivalent numbers to those

obtained on the same crops grown in the greenhouse, thus Rf values were much lower in the field









than expected. However, root systems of all field-grown plants, except watermelon, showed

classic abbreviated root symptoms typical of sting nematode damage. Although there was a

reduction in root systems of all susceptible plants in the greenhouse, the classic abbreviated root

symptom typical of sting nematode was rarely observed. It is likely that the more extensive root

systems observed for greenhouse grown plants contributed to higher sting nematode densities. In

summary, choosing watermelon as a crop to grow after strawberry in the Dover-Plant City region

would be a good choice if the primary goal was to reduce sting nematode population densities.

In both greenhouse and field experiments watermelon was shown to be a nonhost and would not

increase nematode population densities. Also, incorporating watermelon as a double-crop in

fields badly infested with sting nematodes would be a component suitable for a season-long

nematode management program.









Table 4-1. Comparisons of dry root weights of seven vegetable crops grown in pasteurized soil
inoculated with 50 Belonolaimus longicaudatus per 13-cm-diam. pots and compared
with noninoculated control.


Dry root weight (g/plant) SEMa


Noninoculated

20.9 4.1 a

17.6+ 3.0 a

26.8 3.1 a

6.7 + 0.9 a

11.7 2.5 a


Pepper

Cantaloupe

Cucumber


Squash


9.5 1.8 a

1.9 0.6 a


Watermelon


aMeans followed by the same letter across rows were not significantly different (P <
0.05), according to Duncan's multiple-range test. Data were transformed by arcsin \(x) before
analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are presented.
bAll crops were direct seeded into pots except tomato and pepper (ca. 6 week old
transplants).


Cropb

Corn


Tomato


Inoculated

5.7 0.8 b

5.4 0.9 b

4.2 0.6 b

0.9 0.2 b

5.7 1.9 b

1.2 0.5 b

1.2 + 0.3 a








45
a
40

35 b

30

25

20

15

10
d d

Sf

corn tomato pepper cantaloupe cucumber squash watermelon


Figure 4-1. Comparison of reproductive factor values for Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode) inoculated on seven vegetable
crops commonly double-cropped with strawberry. The crops were grown in 13.2-cm-diam. clay pots in the greenhouse.
[Rf = Pf/Pi; reproductive factor = final nematode population density/initial nematode population density]. Bars with the
same letter are not significantly different according to Duncan's multiple-range test (P < 0.05). Data were transformed by
arcsin ~(x) before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are presented.













12

10

8-

6 ab b
bcd
4 ed d



0 0
Scorn tomato pepper cantaloupe cucumber squash watermelon


Figure 4-2. Comparison of reproductive factor values for Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode) on seven vegetable crops
commonly double-cropped with strawberry. The crops were grown in a commercial strawberry field after final strawberry
harvest. [Rf= Pf/Pi; reproductive factor = final nematode population density/initial nematode population density]. Bars
with the same letter are not significantly different according to Duncan's multiple-range test (P < 0.05). Data were
transformed by arcsin /(x) before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are presented.









CHAPTER 5
FIELD TESTING AND VALIDATION OF CHEMICAL ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIES TO
METHYL BROMIDE ON STRAWBERRY

Introduction

Strawberry (Fragaria x Ananassa) is a high value crop in Florida that requires in-bed

fumigation for production (Mossler and Nesheim, 2004). The greatest pest and pathogen

concerns for Florida strawberry growers include the sting nematode Belonolaimus longicaudatus

(Noling, 1999; Overman, 1972; Overman et al., 1987), anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.), weeds

such as Carolina geranium (Geranium carolinanum), and various arthropods including spider

mites (Tetranychus urticae) and sap beetles (Carpophilus spp.) (Mossler and Nesheim, 2004;

Whidden et al., 1995). Currently 99% of the strawberry hectarage in Florida is fumigated with

methyl bromide (mbr) (Mossler and Neshheim, 2004). The phase out of mbr in 2005 is

complete, but its use is currently continuing under a Montreal Protocol treaty approved critical

use exemption plan (Trout, 2005). At this time, the most promising chemical replacement

strategy is to combine chemical treatments (fungicides, nematicides, and herbicides) to provide

similar broad spectrum control to that of mbr. The fumigant, chloropicrin, provides control of

soilborne fungal organisms (Dunn and Noling, 2003), whereas the fumigant nematicide, 1,3-

dichloropropene (1,3-D) provides sting nematode control (Noling and Gilreath, 2002; Noling et

al., 2003; Smart and Locascio, 1968), and herbicides with the active ingredient, oxyfluorfen,

provide weed control in strawberry (Daugovish et al., 2004). Arthropods are managed with

various insecticides and biologicals (Duval et al., 2004b)

Study objectives were to test a combination of pest-specific soil-applied pesticides via

different application techniques, e. g., 1, 3-D plus chloropicrin (via drip, in-bed, or broadcast

applied) along with an alternative herbicide, to control the spectrum of weeds and pathogens that

plague strawberry producers. Other mbr alternatives investigated include metam sodium









(Gilreath et al. 2003; Rhoades, 1987) and Plant Pro, a water soluable iodine based compound

(Kokalis-Burelle and Dickson, 2003). All treatments were compared against an in-bed mbr

application, which is currently the grower standard (Mossler and Nesheim, 2004).

Materials and Methods

Field inoculation of sting nematode. During April-June, 2002 soil infested with sting

nematodes was collected from commercial strawberry fields in Dover, FL and transported to the

Plant Science Research and Education Unit located in Citra, FL. The field, which was initially

tracked using a tractor with 1.8 m wheel spacing was 21 m wide and 183 m long and soils in the

field were classified as a mixture of Arredondo and Sparr fine sand (96% sand, 2.5% silt, 1.5%

clay, 1.5% OM, pH 6.5). A cultivating sweep was used to open a furrow ca. 20-cm deep on 1.8

m centers in the center of the wheel tracks. Infested soil was placed in these furrows and

covered. In May 2002 the field was planted to sweet corn (Zea mays var. rugosa cv. Silver

Queen). After harvest the field was tilled and planted to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor cv.

Silomaster D). Sorghum was tilled under in August 2002 and the field was prepared for autumn

strawberry planting. This succession of susceptible crops was planted to increase sting nematode

population densities within the field.

Field trials. Two field trials were conducted during the fall-spring 2002-2003 and 2003-

2004 seasons, with each referred to as trials 1 and 2, respectively. For both trials a randomized

complete block design was used with four replicates.

Trial 1 treatments and methods of application. The proprietary products evaluated

were: Inline (65% 1, 3-dichloropropene [1, 3-D] and 35% chloropicrin), Telone C35 (65% 1, 3-D

and 35% chloropicrin), Telone II (96% 1, 3-D), and Goal 2XL (oxyfluorfen) (Dow

AgroSciences, Indianapolis, IN); Vapam HL (42% metam sodium) (AMVAC, Los Angeles,









CA); and Plant Pro 20 EC (20% water soluble iodine based compound [Kokalis-Burelle and

Dickson, 2003]) (Ajay North America, Powder Springs, GA).

Nine treatments tested were: (i) nontreated control; (ii) drip applied Inline at 243 liters/ha

plus Goal 2XL at 0.56 kg ai/ha); (iii) drip applied Vapam at 701 liters/ha; (iv) in-bed chisel

applied Telone C35 at 331 liters/ha plus Goal 2XL at 0.56 kg ai/ha; (v) broadcast chisel applied

Telone II at 168 liters/ha plus in bed chisel applied chloropicrin at 135 kg/ha, plus Goal 2XL at

0.56 kg ai/ha; (vi) bed spray incorporated Plant Pro 20EC at 181 kg/ha; (vii) bed spray

incorporated Plant Pro 20 EC at 135 kg/ha; (viii) drip applied Plant Pro 20 EC at 135 kg/ha; and

(ix) in-bed chisel applied 67% mbr and 33% chloropicrin at 397 kg/ha.

Methods used for the application of the above mentioned treatments were: Drip = applied

in irrigation water to preformed bed via a single twin-wall drip tape (Chapin, Watertown, NY)

placed in the center of the 52.8-cm-wide bed and ca. 2.5-cm below the soil surface with emitters

spaced 26.4 cm apart and a flow rate of 1.9 liters/minute per 30.5 m over a period of 4 hours; In-

bed chisel injection = applied on a preformed bed with two chisels, 26-cm spacing, 26-cm deep

using a mini-combo bed press unit (Kennco, Ruskin, FL); Bed spray incorporated = applied over

the top of a preformed bed with three Floodjet TFV10 nozzles (TeeJet Spraying Systems,

Wheaton, IL), spaced 76-cm apart at 255 kPa in 9,463 liters of water/ha, rototilled in while re-

bedding; Broadcast chisel injection = applied on flat soil surface by a commercial applicator

(Mirruso Fumigation, Delray Beach, FL) using a Yetter Avenger coulter injection system

(Yetter, Colchester, IL) with six chisels spaced 26-cm apart and 26-cm deep, then bedded 7 days

later. Goal XL herbicide was applied over the preformed bed surface with three 8004 TeeJet

nozzles (TeeJet Spraying Systems, Wheaton, IL), spaced 39.6-cm, at 255 kPa in 284 liters of

water/ha.









Trial 2 treatments and methods of application. The proprietary products evaluated

were: Telone II, Telone C35, Goal 2XL, and K-Pam HL (60% metam potassium) (AMVAC, Los

Angeles, CA). Eight treatments tested were: (i) nontreated control; (ii) broadcast chisel applied

Telone II applied at 168 liters/ha plus in bed chisel applied chloropicrin at 135 kg/ha plus Goal

2XL at 0.56 kg of ai/ha; (iii) in bed chisel applied Telone C-35 at 327 liters/ha plus Goal 2XL at

0.56 kg ai/ha; (iv) drip applied K-Pam HL at 568 liters/ha; (v) drip applied InLine at 243

liters/ha; (vi) K-Pam HL broadcast spray incorporated at 568 liters/ha plus drip applied InLine at

243 liters/ha 5 days after K-Pam HL application; (vii) in bed chisel applied chloropicrin at 135

kg/ha; (viii) in bed chisel applied mbr 67:33 at 397 kg/ha.

Methods used for the application of the above mentioned treatments were identical with

those mentioned above with the exception of broadcast spray incorporated of Goal 2XL =

applied over the flat soil surface with three floodjet TFV10 nozzles, (TeeJet Spraying Systems,

Wheaton, IL) spaced 76-cm, at 255 kPa in 153 liters of water/ha, rototilled in, then bedded.

Trial 1. Twenty-four days post-fumigation, strawberry cv. Camarosa transplants

(Strawberry Tyme Farms, Simcoe, ON) were set with 26-cm-spacing staggered (double row) on

the bed top, ca. 80 plants per bed. Applications of both N (ammonium nitrate) and K20 (muriate

of potash) were applied weekly at 4.3 kg/ha via drip irrigation for a total of 24 applications.

Overhead irrigation was applied during the first 10 days following transplanting to aid in plant

establishment. Arthropods were managed with methomyl and malathion, and fruit and foliar

pathogens were managed with captain, azoxystrobin, and thiophanate-methyl (Duval et al.,

2004b). Strawberry was harvested weekly beginning in February and yields compared among

treatments. Estimates of nematode population densities were determined 6 weeks after

transplanting and then again after the final strawberry harvest by collecting soil samples. Nine









soil cores per treatment were removed with a cone-shaped sampler (20-cm-deep, 2.5-cm-diam.)

and composite. Sting nematodes were extracted from 100 cm3 of soil by a centrifugal-flotation

method (Jenkins, 1964) and counted using an inverted microscope at 20x magnification. Data

were transformed by arcsin \(x) before analysis and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA)

followed by mean separation using Duncan's multiple-range test (SAS Institute, 2000, Cary,

NC).

Trial 2. Strawberry cv. Festival was used during 2003-2004. All other fertilizer and

insecticide-fungicide applications remained the same as mentioned above. Efficacy was

determined as in 2002-2003; however, an additional evaluation was made by identifying and

counting the number of Carolina geranium weeds per plot. Strawberry harvesting began in

January and was terminated on 1 April 2004. Plant foliage was twisted off and a double-crop of

cantaloupe was planted. Cantaloupe cv. Athena was planted from seed in April. Applications of

both N (ammonium nitrate) and K20 (muriate of potash) were applied weekly at 4.3 kg/ha via

drip irrigation for a total of 10 applications. Arthropods and diseases were managed with weekly

sprays rotating methomyl, malathion, azoxystrobin, and chlorothalonil (Duval et al., 2004b).

Harvest data collected included the numbers and weights of cantaloupe fruit. Data were

transformed by arcsin \(x) before analysis and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA)

followed by mean separation using Duncan's multiple-range test (SAS Institute, 2000, Cary,

NC).

Results

2002-2003. Strawberry was harvested for 10 weeks and marketable weights of fruit

among treatments were not different (P < 0.05) (Table 5-1). The highest number of sting

nematodes were from soil samples taken after the final harvest from plots treated with a









broadcast application of 1,3-D (Telone II) followed by an in-bed application of chloropicrin (P <

0.05) (Table 5-1). No phytotoxicity was observed in any of the treatment plots.

2003-2004. Strawberry was harvested for 12 weeks. Compared to nontreated controls,

highest marketable yields were obtained in plots treated with (i)1,3-D plus chloropicrin (Telone

C35), (ii) metam potassium plus 1,3-D and chloropicrin (InLine), (iii) mbr, and (iv) chloropicrin

(P < 0.05) (Table 5-2). The highest numbers of sting nematodes after final harvest were detected

in plots treated with metam potassium at 574 liters/ha (P < 0.05) (Table 5-2). Where oxyfluorfen

was incorporated the lowest densities of Carolina geranium plants were detected as compared to

the nontreated plots (P < 0.05) (Table 5-3). Plots treated with metam potassium or chloropicrin

alone had higher Carolina geranium densities than nontreated plots (P < 0.05) (Table 5-3). Plots

treated with InLine via drip irrigation and mbr had the highest weight of marketable cantaloupe

fruit compared to nontreated plots (P < 0.05) (Table 5-4). No phytotoxicity was observed in any

of the treatment plots.

Discussion

Although relatively large quantities (ca. 2,000 kg) of sting nematode infested soil were

transferred to the Citra field research site, sting nematode densities remained low relative to

numbers found infecting strawberry in Dover-Plant City, FL (Hamill and Dickson, 2003).

Similar small increases in sting nematode population densities also were observed previously in

chemical evaluations conducted on strawberry at another location in Gainesville, FL (Locascio et

al., 1999).

Experiments that were conducted in 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 both evaluated fumigant

chemical alternatives to mbr such as 1,3-D formulations and methylisothiocyanate (MITC)

generators that can be applied via drip irrigation for soilborne pest and pathogen control

(Desaeger et al., 2004; Noling and Becker, 1994), and thus warranted further testing for efficacy









against sting nematode. However, achieving control of targeted pathogens with application of

fumigants via the drip irrigation can be difficult on the sandy soils of Florida. A drip applied

fumigant is subject to differences in concentration within the soil profile as it radiates out from

drip tape emitters (Lembright, 1990). Also, in these two field seasons, broadcast applications of

1,3-D (Telone II) were tested for nematode control, followed a week later by an in-bed

application of chloropicrin for soilborne disease management.

Strawberry growers routinely apply overhead irrigation to their fields to optimize soil

moisture before bed formation. In both field seasons this practice was duplicated at Citra;

however before bedding and applying chloropicrin, which was applied 7 days after Telone II

broadcast, irrigation was not re-applied. All other treatments were applied on the same day as

the broadcast application of Telone II on pre-wet soil. This did not seem to be a problem at the

time, however in retrospect, it seems evident that bed formation under proper soil moisture

conditions was critical. Two of the five treatment plots where 1,3-D (Telone II) was applied

broadcast lay fallow for a week, before bedding and in-bed chloropicrin application, had the

polyethylene mulch torn from them. Bed integrity was not of the same quality as in the other

treated plots. Two plots treated with 1,3-D (Telone II) plus chloropicrin in-bed had the lowest

number of fruits as well as lowest marketable weight of cantaloupe fruits. This was due mainly

to the quality of bed formation and thus two of the replicates had the polyethylene mulch torn

from them when strawberry plants were removed. In other field experiments, broadcast

applications of 1,3-D (Telone II) did not penetrate compaction or "traffic" layers (1,3-D not

detected by sampling) that were present in many commercial fields in Dover-Plant City, FL

(Noling et al., 2003).









After the 2002-2003 growing season it became evident that weed control was going to be a

significant issue when applying alternative treatment strategies that did not have a herbicide

component. Ongoing research suggested that oxyfluorfen applied at 0.56 kg of a.i./ha under the

PE mulch as a fallow-bed treatment 30 days before strawberry planting provided effective

control of winter annuals (Gilreath and Santos, 2005; Stall, pers. comm.). In these trials Carolina

geranium was especially problematic and yields with some treatments may have been reduced

due to relatively high weed densities. Further research that includes virtually impermeable film

(VIF), to enhance retention of soil applied fumigants, and other integrated pest management

practices (eradication, preventing seed maturation, and hand weeding) may be necessary to

manage this particular weed species (Noling and Gilreath, 2004). In these trials, even mbr failed

to control this weed. Under field conditions, double-cropped vegetables were often severely

affected by sting nematode.

Cantaloupe is a popular crop grown after strawberry because it can be direct seeded and

advanced planning of a planting date is often not needed (Duval et al., 2004a). During the past

three seasons it was observed that sting nematode damaged field grown cantaloupe in Dover-

Plant City, FL region. However, no below ground damage (abbreviated roots) or significant

increases in nematode population densities occurred in these experimental plots located at Citra,

FL









Table 5-1. Marketable yield of strawberry, and pre-harvest and post-harvest densities ofBelonolaimus longicaudatus (sting
nematode) as affected by nematicide treatments in Citra, FL, 2002-2003.


Treatment and
broadcast rate/ha


Application
method


Weight of
marketable fruit
(kg/ha)


Pre-harvesta
sting nema/100 cm3
soil


Post-harvestb
sting nema/100cm3
soil


Nontreated

InLine, 243 liters

Metam sodium, 701 liters

Telone C35, 327 liters

0Telone II, 168 liters +

chloropicrin, 135 kg

Plant Pro 20 EC, 136 kg

Plant Pro 20 EC, 136 kg


In-bed

Drip

In-bed

Broadcast, in-bed



Drip

Broadcast


22,393

23,267

23,267

25,889

24,410


0.25

0.25

0.25

0.75

0.25


2.0 b

4.0 b

4.5 b

5.5 b

10.0 a



5.5 b

3.3 b


24,275

22,393


0.75

0.75









Table 5-1. (cont.)


Treatment and Application Weight of Pre-harvesta Post-harvestb
broadcast rate/ha method marketable fruit sting nema/100 cm3 sting nema/100 cm3
(kg/ha) soil soil


Plant Pro 20 EC, 181 kg Drip 22,393 0.0 4.3 b

Mbr/pic 67:33 In-bed 26,794 1.5 6.5 b


Data are means of four replicates. Means within a column with the same letter are not different (P < 0.05) according to
Duncan's multiple-range test. Data were transformed by arcsin \(x), before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are
Presented.
SaMean number of sting nematodes per 100 cm3 of soil taken with a 2.5-cm-diam. cone-shaped sampling tube from around
strawberry roots 4 weeks after strawberry plant establishment.
bMean number of sting nematodes per 100 cm3 of soil taken with a 2.5-cm-diam. cone-shaped sampling tube from around
strawberry roots after final strawberry harvest.











Table 5-2. Marketable yield of strawberry, and pre-harvest and post-harvest densities ofBelonolaimus longicaudatus (sting
nematode) as affected by fumigant treatments in Citra, FL, 2003-2004.


Treatment and
broadcast rate/ha


Application
method


Weight of
marketable fruit
(kg/ha)


Pre-harvesta
sting nema/100 cm3
soil


Post-harvestb
sting nema/100 cm3
soil


Nontreated

InLine, 243 liters

Metam potassium, 561 liters

0 Telone C35, 327 liters

Telone II, 168 liters, +

chloropicrin, 135 kg

Metam potassium 561 liters,

65% 1,3-D and 35%

chloropicrin, 243 liters


Drip

Drip

In-bed

Broadcast,

in-bed

Broadcast, drip


40,549 b

43,373 b

44,046 b

45,861 a

44,969 b



45,524 a


1.8c

2.2 c

5.5 b

7.2 a

2.0 c


1.0 c









Table 5-2. (cont.)


Treatment and Application Weight of Pre-harvesta Post-harvestb
broadcast rate/ha method marketable fruit sting nema/100 cm3 sting nema/100 cm3
(kg/ha) soil soil

Mbr/pic 67:33, 393 kg In-bed 48,484 a 0.4 1.8 c

Chloropicrin, 135 kg In-bed 45,996 a 0.4 2.0 c



Data are means of four replicates. Means within a column with the same letter are not different (P < 0.05) according to
Duncan's multiple range test. Data were transformed by arcsin \(x), before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are
Presented.
aMean number of sting nematodes per 100 cm3 of soil taken with a cone-shaped sampling tube from around strawberry roots 4
weeks after strawberry plant establishment.
bMean number of sting nematodes per 100 cm3 of soil taken with a cone-shaped sampling tube from around strawberry roots
after final strawberry harvest.









Table 5-3. Number of Carolina geranium plants as affected by fumigant and herbicide treatments in Citra, FL, 2003-2004.


Fumigant treatment and
broadcast rate/ha


Application
method


Herbicide treatment
and broadcast rate a.i./haa


Number of Carolina geranium/
12.2 m row


Nontreated


InLine, 243 liters
Metam potassium, 561 liters
Telone C35, 327 liters
Telone II, 170 liters, +
chloropicrin, 135 kg
Metam potassium 561 liters, +
InLine, 243 liters


Mbr/pic 67:33, 393 kg
Chloropicrin, 135 kg


Drip
Drip
In-bed


Broadcast,
in-bed


oxyfluorfen, 0.56 kg/ha


oxyfluorfen, 0.56 kg/ha
oxyfluorfen, 0.56 kg/ha


Broadcast, drip


In-bed
In-bed


Data are means of five replicates. Means within a column with the same letter are not different (P < 0.05) according to
Duncan's multiple range test. Data were transformed \(x + 1), before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are presented.
aAll oxyfluorfen herbicide treatments were applied with three 8004 TeeJet nozzles (TeeJet Spraying Systems Co., Wheaton,
IL.), spaced 39.6-cm, at 255 kPa in 284 liters of water/ha.


19.4 b
12.6 b
29.6 a
8.6 c
8.6 c


23.2 a


14.0 b
23.2 a









Table 5-4. Marketable numbers and yields of cantaloupe as affected by fumigants when planted as a double-crop after strawberry,
Citra, FL, 2004.


Fumigant treatment and
broadcast rate/ha


Application
method


Number of fruits/ha


Weight of fruits
(kg/ha)


Nontreated

InLine, 243 liters

Metam potassium, 560 liters

Telone C35, 327 liters

Telone II, 168 liters, +

chloropicrin, 135 kg

metam potassium 561 liters, +

InLine, 243 liter


Drip

Drip

In-bed

Broadcast,

in-bed

Broadcast, drip


3,551 a

3,981 a

4,196 a

4,227 a

968 b



4,438 a


8,314b

11,242 a

10,009 ab

9,354 b

1,559 c



9,652 b









Table 5-4. (cont.)


Fumigant treatment and
broadcast rate/ha


Mbr/pic 67:33, 393 kg


Chloropicrin, 135 kg


Application
method


In-bed


In-bed


Number of fruits/ha


4,169 a


4,331 a


Weight of fruits
(kg/ha)


11,022 a


9,853 b


Data are means of five replicates. Means within a column with the same letter are not different (P < 0.05) according to
Duncan's multiple-range test. Data were transformed by arcsin \(x), before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are
o presented.









CHAPTER 6
PATHOGENICITY OF FIVE STING NEMATODE ISOLATES ON STRAWBERRY

Introduction

Yield losses due to sting nematode feeding within some commercial strawberry (Fragaria

x Anansassa) fields may be as high as 100% (Noling, pers. comm.). Prior investigation has

shown that different pathotypes or physiological races of sting nematode occur in the

southeastern United States (Abu-Gharbieh and Perry, 1970; Duncan et al., 1996; Robbins and

Hirschmann, 1974). Genetic analysis of different populations has suggested that some of these

isolates may be different species in the genus Belonolaimus (Gozel et al. 2003; Han, 2001).

Prior experiments determined that two sting nematode isolates (Sanford and Fuller's crossing)

were not pathogenic on strawberry (Abu-Gharbieh and Perry, 1970). The former was from a

vegetable production region, and the latter was from a citrus production region. The objective of

these experiments was to test for differences in virulence among different sting nematode

isolates on strawberry.

Materials and Methods

Nematode isolates. Populations of sting nematodes were collected from the following

locations in Florida: (i) a corn (Zea mays, unknown variety) field at a dairy farm in Trenton, (ii)

Orange Blossom golf course in Belleview, (iii) a sugarcane (unknown Saccharum hybrid) field

in Indiantown, (iv) a commercial strawberry field (Benson Duke's Farm) in Dover, and (v) a

citrus (unknown Citrus hybrid) grove at the Citrus Research and Education Center in Lake

Alfred. The original isolates were retrieved June 2002 (Trenton), July 2002 (Indiantown),

September 2002 (Lake Alfred), and October 2002 (Belleview), whereas the isolate from Dover

was retrieved multiple times because it was used for other experiments. All isolates except









Dover and Lake Alfred were initially detected in soil samples that were processed through the

Florida Nematode Assay Laboratory.

Nematode culture. Nematodes were extracted by the Baermann method (Ayoub, 1977).

Approximately 200 adults were transferred manually into 13.2-cm-diam. clay pots filled with

pasteurized sandy soil (95.5% sand, 2.0% silt, and 2.5% clay). Sweet corn (Zea mays var.

rugosa 'Silver Queen') was planted in each pot, except for pots with the Lake Alfred population

which was raised on rough lemon (Citrusjambhiri). A polymer-coated fertilizer (Osmocote,

Scotts, Marysville, OH) (20% N, 20% P205, and 20% K20) was incorporated monthly and pots

maintained in a greenhouse at 25 + 5 C. Soil from pots containing nematode cultures was

examined every 60 days by Baermann method to ensure presence of nematodes. Nematodes that

were extracted were then manually transferred to new pots with a new host plant.

Greenhouse experiments. Strawberry cv. Sweet Charlie transplants were obtained from a

strawberry nursery (Nourse Farms, South Deerfield, MA) and planted in 13.2-cm-diam. clay pots

filled with pasteurized sandy soil. Fertilization was the same as previously mentioned. Pots

were arranged in a randomized complete block design with five replicates, and a non-inoculated

control was included. Treatment pots were inoculated manually with each isolate of sting

nematodes (25 males and 25 females) per pot, obtained by the Baermann method. Each

experiment was repeated.

Data collection. After 40 days, strawberry plants were destructively sampled. Strawberry

roots were oven-dried at 90 C for 1 week and dry root weights were recorded. Nematodes were

extracted from 100-cm3 of soil using the centrifugal-flotation method (Jenkins, 1964) and

counted using an inverted microscope at 10x magnification. Data were transformed by arcsin









\(x) before analysis and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by mean

separation using Duncan's multiple-range test (SAS Institute, 2000, Cary, NC).

Results

Results from the two experiments were tested for heterogeneity and determined to be

different; thus data were not combined (P < 0.05).

Experiment 1. Dry root weights of strawberry inoculated with the Dover nematode

isolate were lower than root weights from non-inoculated pots (P < 0.05) (Table 6-1). All

nematode isolates reproduced on strawberry and reproduction ranged from 3-fold for LA to 4.5-

fold greater for the Dover and Belleview isolates. Nematode reproduction on strawberry was

greater for the Dover and Belleview isolates as compared to the Lake Alfred isolate (P < 0.05)

(Table 6-1).

Experiment 2. Dry root weights of strawberry inoculated with the Dover nematode

isolate were lower than root weights from nontreated pots (P < 0.05) (Table 6-1). Nematode

reproduction was greatest for the Dover isolate (P < 0.05). Other than the Dover isolate, only the

Belleview isolate reproduced.

Discussion

The results obtained from the two experiments differed greatly. In the first experiment, all

nematode isolates increased a minimum of 3-fold. In the second experiment only the Dover

isolate reproduced. In general, the dry root weights of strawberry were greater in the second

experiment as compared to the first which indicates there was likely less nematode feeding in the

second experiment.

Upon close examination, it was discovered that all isolates, except for the Dover isolate,

were infected with Pasteuria spp. Considerable efforts were made to screen these Pasteuria

infected (Giblin-Davis et al., 2001) isolates so as to inoculate with only healthy individuals. The









second experiment was initiated in February 2004. At that time all isolates had lower numbers

of sting nematodes and it was difficult to find specimens free of Pasteuria spp. for

experimentation. Nematode reproduction in the second experiment was considerably lower than

in the first experiment. Pasteuria spp. could be responsible for suppressing nematode

reproduction. In both experiments, the Dover isolate was the most virulent, causing the greatest

reduction in root growth. However, lack of virulence in the other isolates may have been due to

the presence of Pasteuria spp. in these populations.

Propagation of sting nematodes under greenhouse conditions was difficult and oftentimes

quite variable. Precise conditions for maintaining cultures were not known at that time. It is

possible that critical components include a certain temperature range and soil moisture (Robbins

and Barker, 1974) as well as adequate cycling of host plants as to insure the quality of the food

source has not deteriorated.









Table 6-1. Mean dry root weights and nematode reproduction of different isolates of Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode)
grown on strawberry cv. Sweet Charlie in a greenhouse in 13.2-cm-diam. pots.


Isolate (Location)


Dry root weight (g)


Sting nematodes/100 cm3 of soil


Experiment 1


9.8 ab

10.6 a


Belleview

Indiantown


9.3 ab

8.5 b

10.1 a

11.4 a


Lake Alfred

Noninoculated


Experiment 2


15.9 a

14.6 b


14.3 b

12.3 c

14.7 b

14.4 b


Experiment 1


Experiment 2


14.0 ab

16.4 a

14.0 ab

16.0 a

11.2b

Oc


2.4 c

5.0b

3.6 bc

11.0 a

3.2 bc


Data are means of five replicates. Means within a column with the same letter are not different according to Duncan's
multiple-range test (P < 0.05). Data were transformed by arcsin /(x) before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are
presented.
aPots contained ca. 1,400 cm3 of soil.


Trenton


Dover









CHAPTER 7
EFFECTS OF REDUCED RATES OF TELONE C35 AND METHYL BROMIDE IN
CONJUNCTION WITH VIRTUALLY IMPERMEABLE FILM TECHNOLOGY ON WEEDS
AND NEMATODES

Introduction

For approximately the past 35 years vegetable growers in the southern United States have

been using methyl bromide (mbr) very effectively as a part of a polyethylene mulch production

system (Locascio, et al., 1999; Noling and Becker, 1994). This system includes raised beds

tightly covered with polyethylene mulch, high fertility rates, and drip or subsurface irrigation.

Often, the system entails double cropping (a primary crop followed by a second crop on the same

mulched beds). Double cropping is very important to the economic success of this production

system in Florida and the southern United States (Gilreath et al., 1999). A primary soil treatment

before the first crop is needed that will also provide for satisfactory production of a second crop

or rotational crop that is planted on the original polyethylene mulch covered beds. In Florida,

fresh market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is generally considered as a primary crop

followed by cucumber (Cucumis sativus), bell pepper (Capsicum annuum), or eggplant (Solanum

melongena). Tomato is valued at more than $600 million and represents nearly 30% of the total

value of all vegetable crops grown in Florida, and bell pepper and eggplant are valued at $220

and $15 million, respectively (Anonymous, 2003).

Growers depend on mbr as part of the polyethylene mulch production system because it

provides economical management of nematodes, most soilbome diseases, and weeds (Noling and

Becker, 1994). Mbr is especially effective in controlling yellow (Cyperus exculentus) and purple

(C. rotundus) nutsedge as compared to other preplant treatments (Gilreath et al., 2004; Gilreath

and Santos, 2004; 2005; Locascio et al., 1999). The fumigant is injected into the soil in

preformed beds where it kills nematodes, fungi, and weed seeds (Lembright, 1990). After









injected into beds, mbr rapidly dissipates allowing for a short re-entry period and planting 48

hours following application. When mixed with chloropicrin (e.g., 33% chloropicrin) this

chemical remains in the soil solution and soil air pores for a longer period of time. Because of

lower volatility and the reduced rate of biological degradation of chloropicrin compared to mbr,

there is an extended re-entry period and a longer waiting period before planting.

Methyl bromide has been identified as an ozone-depleting substance and has been

completely phased out, effective 1 January 2005, under the Montreal Protocol (Lehnert, 2006;

Rich and Olson, 2004; Trout, 2005). Currently, under the United States nomination and critical

use exemption (CUE) program growers are allowed to continue using a specified allocation of

mbr (Anonymous 2005; Lehnert, 2006). These nominations are evaluated yearly and granted to

commodity groups who have demonstrated attempts to reduce rates and emissions of the product.

The lower production rate of mbr, a requirement of the phaseout, is increasing cost.

The use of virtually impermeable film (VIF) mulch technology coupled with lower rates of

mbr may serve to lower emissions from the soil, maintain the same efficacy on soilborne pests

and pathogens, and reduce or essentially eliminate emissions of the fumigant from the mulched

beds (Noling, 2004). VIF film has been shown to be at least 75-fold less permeable to mbr than

conventional low-density polyethylene mulch films (LDPE) and may be as much as 500 to

1,000-fold less permeable than LDPE films (Yates et al., 2002).

A likely alternative to mbr for tomato production in Florida is 1,3-D formulated with 35%

chloropicrin (Telone C35, Dow AgroSciences, Indianapolis, IN). The benefits of using VIF are

reducing fumigant rates yet maintaining marketable vegetable yield, and equivalent reductions of

root-knot nematode galling, nutsedge densities, and root rotting comparable to that obtained with

standard mulch films (Gilreath et al. 2004;2005; Locascio et al., 2002; Nelson, et al., 2000). VIF









retained larger amounts of mbr, 1,3-D, and chloropicrin in the root zone with longer residential

time in the subsurface of field soil than LDPE after application of mbr or 1,3-D plus chloropicrin

(Telone C35) by standard chisel injection, Avenger coulter injection (Yetter, Colchester, IL)

(Anonymous, 2001a,b), or drip irrigation (Ou et al., 2005). With the improved retention,

concentrations of 1,3-D and chloropicrin under the VIF covered beds were greater than that in

the LDPE covered beds after application of 1,3-D plus chloropicrin (Telone C35) (Ou et al.,

2005). However, no data is available on the effects of VIF on efficacy of 1,3-D plus chloropicrin

(Telone C35), whether applied at labeled rates or lower rates. Objectives were to determine the

efficacy of lower rates of mbr and 1,3-D plus chloropicrin (Telone C35) compared to standard

rates under LDPE vs. VIF, and 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin emulsified (InLine, Dow

AgroSciences, Indianapolis, IN) and metam potassium (60 % a.i.) (K-pam HL, American

Vanguard, Newport Beach, CA) applications via drip irrigation for the double crop. 1,3-D plus

chloropicrin (Telone C35) applied at lower rates was included to provide growers information on

its effectiveness as an alternative to mbr.

These experiments focusing on reducing fumigant rates and the uses of VIF were carried

out in tomato and squash because an available site in a commercial strawberry field infested with

sting nematodes could not be identified. Past attempts to artificially inoculate a field site with

sting nematode had been unsuccessful, and an available site at a University of Florida

experiment station was available, had a uniform distribution of root-knot nematodes, and was

more suited to conducting this experiment. The system of growing tomato and squash using

reduced rates of fumigants in conjunction with VIF can be used as a model system for strawberry

should promise be demonstrated in these experiments.









Materials and Methods

Experiments were conducted at the Plant Science Research and Education Unit, University

of Florida located in Citra, FL. Field dimensions were 21 m wide by 183 m long. The site used

in spring 2004 was artificially inoculated in the summer of 1999 by distributing infected

Meloidogyne arenaria tomato cv. Rutgers roots placed in 25-cm-deep plowed furrows spaced 7

m apart, and the site used in fall 2004 was similarly inoculated using tomato roots infected with

M. javanica. Over time, both sites have become infested with mixed populations of

Meloidogyne spp. Endemic plant-parasitic nematodes populations of Trichodorus spp. and

Criconemoides spp. also were present at the time of each experiment. Root-knot nematodes

were maintained at uniform, high levels by planting okra (Hibiscus esculentum cv. Clemson

Spineless) across the field where experiments were conducted. The field sites also had a

moderate to heavy infestation of both purple and yellow nutsedges. Classification of soils in the

field ranged from Arredondo fine sand to Sparr fine sand, both loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic

Grossarenic Paleudults with characteristics of 95% sand, 3% silt, 2% clay, 1.5% OM, and pH

6.5.

Treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with four replicates. Fumigant treatments

comprised the whole-plots and mulch type (VIF and LDPE) comprised the sub-plots. All

treatments were applied in raised beds 23-cm tall, 91-cm wide, 12-m long and spaced on 1.8-m

centers. Raised beds were formed using a Kennco powerbedder (Kennco Mfg., Ruskin, FL).

Immediately before bed formation a 6-17-16 (N-P20O-K20) fertilizer mix was banded over the

plots at 842 kg/ha. After bed formation, fumigant treatments were applied with a Kennco mini-

combo unit (Kennco Mfg., Ruskin, FL) and beds were covered with mulch. The virtually

impermeable mulch was 0.356 mm black on white (Hytibar Flex, Klerks Plastic Products Mfg.,

Richburg, SC), LDPE mulch was 0.254 mm black embossed (Pliant Plastics, Muskegon, MI). A









single drip tube (8 mil, 30-cm emitter spacing) with a flow equivalent of 1.9 liters/minute/30.5 m

of row (Roberts Irrigation Products, San Marcos, CA) was inserted into the bed center at the

same time the beds were fumigated and covered with mulch. All fumigant treatments were

applied with three chisels per bed, 26.4-cm spacing, 26.4-cm deep. Additional N and K20 were

applied via drip tube as ammonium nitrate and muriate of potash, respectively in 8 weekly

applications divided equally to deliver a total of 168 kg/ha N and 168 kg/ha K20 for the crop.

Foliar fungal pathogens were managed using chlorothalonil, mancozeb, and azoxystrobin, and

arthropod pests were managed using methomyl and esfenvalerate (Maynard et al., 2004).

Spring tomato. Fumigants evaluated include 67% mbr and 33% chloropicrin (mbr 67:33)

at 197, 295, and 393 kg/ha and 1,3-D plus chloropicrin (Telone C35) at 164, 243, and 327

liters/ha. The calibration of rates was done by weight with a closed system (the fumigant was

shunted into a spare cylinder during the calibration process). A nontreated control bed was

included for a total of seven treatments. Tomato cv. Tygress was transplanted in March 2004.

Fruit was harvested and root-knot nematode root galling was rated in June 2004. Data collected

included: (i) number of nutsedge plants per replicate (4 weeks after transplanting), (ii) harvest

data, tomato fruit from each treatment were graded (Kerian speed sizer, Kerian Machines Inc.,

Grafton, ND ) into extra-large, large, medium, and culls and each of the first three categories

weighed for marketable yield, and (iii) after the final harvest, six plant root systems, chosen

arbitrarily, were dug per plot and subjected to a root-gall rating based on a 0 to 100 scale where 0

= no visible galls, 10 = 10% of the root system galled...100 = 100% of the root system galled

(Barker et al., 1986). All data were subjected to ANOVA and mean separation by Duncan's

multiple-range test.









Double crop fall cucumber. After the final spring tomato harvest, all tomato plants were

sprayed with a non-selective herbicide (paraquat) at 0.4 liters/ha. Two weeks later remaining

plant debris was manually removed from the beds. The black plastic was sprayed over with

white Kool Grow paint (Suntec Paints, Gainesville, FL) at 37.9 liters product in 378.5 liters

water. On 12 August 2004 beds were seeded with cucumber cv. Dasher II ca. 25 seeds per bed.

Beds were fertilized five times weekly via drip irrigation with 13.4 kg/ha N and K20 formulated

as ammonium nitrate and muriate of potash, respectively. All fungicide and insecticide

applications were made as specified for the spring tomato crop. Cucumber fruit were harvested

once weekly for 6 weeks in 2004 and marketable fruit was weighed for yield. After the final

harvest, six plant root systems, chosen arbitrarily, were dug per plot and galling determined

based on the subjective root-gall rating scale of 0 to 100, where 0 = no visible galls, 10 = 10% of

the root system galled...100 = 100% of the root system galled (Barker et al., 1986). All data

were subjected to ANOVA and mean separation by Duncan's multiple-range test.

Fall squash. Methods in the fall were the same as the spring, except that a white on black

low density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch was used. The VIF was the same Hytibar flex, but laid

with the white side exposed to surface, LDPE was 0.254 mm white on black embossed (Pliant

Plastics, Muskegon, MI). Fumigants evaluated were (i) mbr 67:33 at 393, 295, and 197 kg/ha,

(ii) 98% mbr plus 2% chloropicrin (mbr 98:2) at 197 kg/ha, (iii) 1,3-D pus chloropicrin (Telone

C35) at 327 liters/ha, (iv) chloropicrin at 136 kg/ha, and (v) chloropicrin at 136 kg/ha plus

metam potassium applied via the drip system at 561 liters/ha, plus (vi) a nontreated control for a

total of eight treatments replicated four times. Fumigant treatments comprised the whole-plots

and mulch type comprised the sub-plots. Experiments were initially designed to be conducted

with tomato and then double cropped with squash, but the tomato seedlings that were initially









transplanted in August 2004 were severely injured by strong winds and heavy rainfall from

hurricanes.

Results

Spring tomato. There was an interaction (P < 0.05) between fumigants and mulch type

for densities of nutsedge plants per meter square, thus comparisons were made only within

mulch types. Under VIF film, all fumigant treatments except 1,3-D plus chloropicrin (Telone

C35) at 164 liters/ha (lowest rate) had lower nutsedge densities than nontreated plots (P < 0.05)

(Table 7-1). Under LDPE film, treatments ofmbr 67:33 at 393 and 295 kg/ha and 1,3-D plus

chloropicrin (Telone C35) at 327 liters/ha had lower nutsedge densities than nontreated plots (P

K 0.05) (Table 7-1).

For marketable yield of tomato fruit and galling of tomato roots there was no interaction (P

> 0.05) between fumigants and mulch type, therefore the data were combined for analyses. All

fumigant treatments had higher marketable yields of tomato fruit as compared to nontreated plots

(P < 0.05) (Table 7-1). All treatments, except 1,3-D plus chloropicrin (Telone C35) at 164

liters/ha, had gall ratings lower than nontreated plots (P < 0.05) (Table 7-2).

Double crop fall cucumber. No interactions were detected (P > 0.05) between fumigants

and mulch type for marketable yield of cucumber fruit or galling of cucumber roots, thus the data

were combined for the two mulch types. All fumigant treatments had higher marketable yields

than nontreated plots except mbr at 392 kg/ha (P < 0.05) (Table 7-3). None of the fumigant

treatments had gall ratings significantly different than nontreated plots (P < 0.05) (Table 7-3).

Fall squash. There was no interaction (P > 0.05) between mulch type and fumigant

treatments for marketable yield and gall ratings, thus data were combined for the two variables.

All fumigant treatments had higher marketable yields than nontreated plots except both

chloropicrin treatments (with and without metam potassium) (P < 0.05) (Table 7-4). All









fumigant treatments had lower gall ratings than nontreated plots except the two chloropicrin

treatments (with and without metam potassium) (P < 0.05) (Table 7-4). A significant interaction

occurred (P < 0.05) between fumigant and mulch type for nutsedge density per treatment and

thus treatments were compared only within mulch type. Under VIF mulch, all treatments except

chloropicrin or chloropicrin plus metam potassium controlled nutsedges better than the control

(P < 0.05) (Table 5). There was a higher density of nutsedge following chloropicrin plus metam

potassium than in the nontreated control (P < 0.05). Under LDPE mulch none of the treatments

were different than the nontreated control except chloropicrin plus metam potassium which had

higher nutsedge densities (P < 0.05).

Discussion

In these experiments we planned to further demonstrate the advantage of using virtually

impermeable film technology to enhance fumigant efficacy when applied at labeled rates as well

as determining the effects of these fumigants applied at a 25 and 50% reduction of labeled rates.

To date, formulations containing 1,3-D plus chloropicrin have shown the most promise as

alternatives to mbr (Gilreath and Santos, 2004). However, the lack of activity of this chemical

against weeds remains an impediment to its use as a drop-in replacement for mbr. In the spring

tomato trial, treatments containing 1,3-D plus chloropicrin (Telone C35) at 327 liters/ha in

conjunction with both VIF and LDPE films significantly reduced nutsedge densities and root

galling, and increased marketable yields of primary grown crops. Although good nutsedge

control was obtained with 1,3-D plus chloropicrin (Telone C35) in our trial, such results are

inconsistent from year to year (Dickson, pers. comm.). In the spring trial we attempted to reduce

the rates of this treatment to 243 and 164 liters/ha. In all instances the densities of nutsedge

plants emerging through the plastic beds increased, the root-gall indices increased, and the









marketable yield decreased. Thus, in the fall of 2004 we purposely omitted the reduced rates of

1,3-D plus chloropicrin (Telone C35).

In spring grown tomato, reducing the rate of mbr applied under VIF made it possible to

reduce nutsedge densities and root-knot nematode galling while maintaining yields comparable

to those obtained under standard dosage regardless of mulch type. Similar findings were

reported with half-rates of mbr under VIF in spring grown tomato (Nelson et al. 2000). In fall

grown squash, all mbr treatments led to larger marketable yields of fruit and lower root-knot

nematode gall ratings regardless of film type.

Double-cropping has become essential to the economic survival of vegetable growers in

Florida. In our experiments we hoped to demonstrate the efficacy of reduced rates of mbr and

1,3-D in conjunction with VIF against root-knot nematodes in double-cropped cucumber. The

results that we obtained were unexpected. In general, treatments that had the lowest marketable

yields of tomato had the highest marketable yields of cucumber. No treatment, rate, or mulch

type demonstrated any control of root-knot nematode in double cropped cucumber. All

treatments had gall ratings greater than 80%. We had attempted, in a separate experiment, to

demonstrate that applying either 65% 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin (Inline) or metam potassium

before planting would provide control of root-knot nematodes on the second crop. However, this

experiment was mined by a succession of three hurricanes that hit Florida in the fall of 2004.

Further experiments should be designed to utilize these two fumigants applied via drip irrigation

before a second crop is planted, and compare their efficacy with the use of resistance genes, in a

primary crop, to limit nematode reproduction on the first crop (Rich and Olson, 2004).

Because the mulched beds were left undamaged by the hurricanes, squash was planted in

mid-October to salvage the experiment. The late planting of squash and the lack of a primary









crop led to lower than expected galling of roots. One interesting observation in the fall studies

concerned nutsedge densities in each of the treatments. In treatments where chloropicrin was

applied in-bed followed by metam potassium via drip irrigation, nutsedge densities were

significantly higher than nontreated plots. Nutsedge plants in all plots treated with chloropicrin

were notably more vigorous and healthy than nutsedge plants in nontreated plots. It appears that

chloropicrin in combination with metam potassium, at the rates that we tested, has more of a

stimulating effect on nutsedge rather than producing an herbicidal effect.











Table 7-1. Effects of fumigant, fumigant rate, and mulch type on control of nutsedge, Citra, FL,
Spring 2004.


Fumigant Broadcast rate/haa Nutsedge plants/m2

Mulch type

VIFb PEc

Nontreated -33.0 a 50.0 a

Methyl bromide 393 kg 0.8 d 1.3 d

Methyl bromide 295 kg 0.8 d 5.3 c

Methyl bromide 197 kg 1.8 c 28.3 ab

1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 327 liters 5.8 bc 11.8 b

1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 243 liters 6.0 bc 32.5 a

1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 164 liters 16.3 ab 32.3 a



Data are means of four replicates. Means within columns with the same letter are not
different according to Duncan's multiple-range test (P < 0.05)
aRates were based on 1.8 m row spacing.
bVirtually impermeable film 0.356 mm black on white.
cStandard commercial polyethylene mulch 0.254 mm black embossed.









Table 7-2. Main effect of fumigant and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on total marketable
yield of tomato, Citra, FL, Spring 2004.


Fumigant Broadcast rate/hac Total marketable yield
(boxes/ha)

Mulch type mean

Nontreated 3,319 d

Methyl bromide 393 kg 8,745 ab

Methyl bromide 295 kg 8,183 b

Methyl bromide 197 kg 9,105 a

1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 327 liters 7,962 b

1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 243 liters 7,315 c

1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 164 liters 5,936 c



Data are means of four replicates. Means within columns with the same letter are not
different according to Duncan's multiple-range test (P < 0.05)
virtually impermeable film 0.356 mm black on white.
bStandard commercial polyethylene mulch 0.254 mm black embossed.
CRates were based on 1.8 m row spacing.
dTotal marketable yield equals yields of extra-large, large, and medium tomatoes (Kerian
Speed Sizer). One box is equivalent to 11.36 kg.









Table 7-3. Main effect of fumigant and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on galling of tomato
roots, Citra, FL, Spring 2004.


Fumigant Broadcast rate/hac Gall rating

Mulch type mean


Nontreated -31.6 a

Methyl bromide 393 kg 1.4 d

Methyl bromide 295 kg 2.0 d

Methyl bromide 197 kg 6.8 c

1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 327 liters 15.2 b

1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 243 liters 17.0 b

1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 164 liters 41.5 a



Data are means of four replicates. Means within columns with the same letter are not
different according to Duncan's multiple-range test (P < 0.05)
aVirtually impermeable film 0.356 mm black on white.
bStandard commercial polyethylene mulch 0.254 mm black embossed.
cRates were based on 1.8 m row spacing.
dBased on a 0 to 100 scale, where 0 = no galls, 10 = 10% of the root system galled... 100 =
100% of root system galled.









Table 7-4. Main effect of fumigant and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on total marketable
yield of double-cropped cucumber, Citra, FL, Fall 2004.


Fumigant


Broadcast rate/hac


Total marketable yield
(kg/ha)


Mulch type mean


Nontreated


Methyl bromide

Methyl bromide

Methyl bromide

1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin

1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin

1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin


1,549 d


500 e


393 kg

295 kg

197 kg


327 liters

243 liters

164 liters


2,923 c

3,168 ab

3,086 bc

4,375 a

4,460 a


Data are means of four replicates. Means within columns with the same letter are not
different according to Duncan's multiple-range test (P < 0.05)
aVirtually impermeable film 0.356 mm black on white.
bStandard commercial polyethylene mulch 0.254 mm black embossed.
cRates were based on 1.8 m row spacing.










Table 7-5. Main effect of fumigant and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on galling of double-
cropped cucumber, Citra, FL, Fall 2004.


Fumigant Broadcast rate/hac Gall rating

Mulch type mean

Nontreated 80.0 a

Methyl bromide 393 kg 88.7 a

Methyl bromide 295 kg 92.5 a

Methyl bromide 197 kg 80.9 a

1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 327 liters 96.1 a

1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 243 liters 84.1 a

1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 164 liters 87.7 a



Data are means of four replicates. Means within columns with the same letter are not
different according to Duncan's multiple-range test (P < 0.05)
aVirtually impermeable film 0.356 mm black on white.
bStandard commercial polyethylene mulch 0.254 mm black embossed.
cRates were based on 1.8 m row spacing.
dBased on a 0 to 100 scale, where 0 = no galls, 10 = 10% of the root system galled... 100 =
100% of root system galled.









Table 7-6. Main effect of fumigant and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on total marketable
yield of fall-grown squash, Citra, FL, Fall 2004.


Broadcast rate/hac


Total marketable yield
(kg/ha)


Mulch type mean


Nontreated


Methyl bromide 67:33

Methyl bromide 67:33

Methyl bromide 67:33

1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin

Methyl bromide 98:2


Chloropicrin


Chloropicrin plus metam


393 kg

295 kg

197 kg


327 liters

197 kg


133 kg


133 kg, 561 liters


potassium'


Data are means of four replicates. Means within columns with the same letter are not
different according to Duncan's multiple-range test (P < 0.05)
aVirtually impermeable film 0.356 mm black on white.
bStandard commercial polyethylene mulch 0.254 mm black embossed.
cRates were based on 1.8 m row spacing.
dChloropicrin was applied as an in-bed treatment followed by metam potassium applied
through the drip irrigation.


Fumigant


2,353 b

3,367 a

3,339 a

4,333 a

4,422 a

4,915 a

2,381 b

2,110b









Table 7-7. Main effect of fumigant and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on gall ratings of
fall-grown squash, Citra, FL, Fall 2004.


Broadcast rate/hac


Total marketable yield
(kg/ha)


Mulch type mean


Nontreated


Methyl bromide 67:33

Methyl bromide 67:33

Methyl bromide 67:33

1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin

Methyl bromide 98:2

Chloropicrin

Chloropicrin plus metam


393 kg

295 kg

197 kg


327 liters


197 kg

133 kg


133 kg, 561 liters


potassium'


Data are means of four replicates. Means within columns with the same letter are not
different according to Duncan's multiple-range test (P < 0.05)
aVirtually impermeable film 0.356 mm black on white.
bStandard commercial polyethylene mulch 0.254 mm black embossed.
cRates were based on 1.8 m row spacing.
dChloropicrin was applied as an in-bed treatment followed by metam potassium applied
through the drip irrigation.


Fumigant


20.6 a

1.9 cd

4.4 cd

8.2 bc

5.0 cd

0.0 d

17.6 a

11.9 ab









Table 7-8. Effects of fumigant, fumigant rate, and mulch type on control of nutsedge on fall-
grown squash, Citra, FL, Fall 2004.


Broadcast rate/haa


Nutsedge plants/m2


Mulch type


Nontreated


Methyl bromide 67:33

Methyl bromide 67:33

Methyl bromide 67:33

1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin

Methyl bromide 98:2


Chloropicrin


Chloropicrin plus metam


393 kg

295 kg


197 kg

327 liters


197 kg

133 kg


133 kg, 561 liters


potassiumd



Data are means of four replicates. Means within columns with the same letter are not
different according to Duncan's multiple-range test (P < 0.05)
aRates were based on 1.8 m row spacing.
bVirtually impermeable film 0.356 mm black on white.
cStandard commercial polyethylene mulch 0.254 mm black embossed.
dChloropicrin was applied as an in-bed treatment followed by metam potassium applied
through the drip irrigation.


Fumigant


VIFb

19.1 b

3.9 d

6.5 cd

11.9 cd

0.0 d


PEc

18.0 bc

15.9 c

21.5 bc

24.0 bc

11.4 d

12.8 d

29.6 ab

40.9 a


2.4 d


23.9 ab

35.1 a









CHAPTER 8
TOLERANCE OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE STRAWBERRY CULTIVARS GROWN
IN DOVER, FL TO STING NEMATODE, Belonolaimus longicaudatus

Introduction

Belonolaimus longicaudatus is a highly virulent pathogen of strawberry Fragaria x

Ananassa (Christie et al., 1952; Noling, 2004). Due to the impending phase out of methyl

bromide (mbr), research efforts have focused not only on chemical alternatives, but also cultural

practices to reduce sting nematode injury to strawberry (Hamill and Dickson, unpubl.). There is

no known resistance in strawberry to sting nematode however, strawberry cultivars are known to

differ in response to infection by other plant-parasitic nematodes, e.g., lesion nematode,

Pratylenchuspenetrans Cobb, 1917, (Adams and Hickman, 1970; Dale and Potter, 1998;

Kimpinski, 1985). There are reports where different cultivars of crop plants respond differently

to sting nematode. For example, Coker 100WR cotton was a good host for a South Carolina

population of sting nematode (Holdeman and Graham, 1953), but Stoneville 7A was a poor host

(Robbins and Barker, 1973). In turfgrass, Tifway bermudagrass was tolerant to sting nematode.

There was less root reduction on this cultivar compared to cultivars Midiron, Tifdwarf, Tifgreen,

Tifgreen II, Tifway II, and Turfcote (Giblin-Davis et al., 1992).

The importance of developing resistance or tolerance to sting nematode within strawberry

germplasm is currently being emphasized (Chandler, pers. comm.). One recently released

cultivar, Festival, was speculated to have sting nematode tolerance by growers however, this was

never documented experimentally. The objective of this project was to evaluate whether

strawberry cultivars commonly grown in the Plant City-Dover region of Florida would respond

differently to the virulence of sting nematodes.









Materials and Methods

2003-2004 Sting nematode infested and noninfested sites. The experiment was

conducted in two separate fields, one with a history of sting nematode infestation and the other

without a history of sting nematode. The infested site was located on the Benson Duke farm,

whereas the noninfested site was located on the Southwest Florida Research and Education

Center, Dover, FL. These two field sites were located ca. 0.5 km apart and soil analysis show

them to have near identical soil type. The sites had a long history of strawberry production

dating back to the 1950's. The experiment was conducted in an area ca. 15 x 15 m2. At the

Duke's farm the experiment was place within an area with a known sting nematode problem

even though fumigated annually with mbr.

Both sites had raised beds 24.7-cm high, and 69.2-cm wide, spaced on 1.2 m centers and

fumigated with 67% mbr and 33% chloropicrin at 392 kg/ha. Two weeks after fumigation,

seedlings of five cultivars, Treasure, Camarosa, Carmine, Festival, and Sweet Charlie

(Strawberry Tyme Farms, Simcoe, ON) were planted in a RCBD with four replicates.

Strawberry plants were set with 26.4-cm spacing staggered in double rows on the bed top, 20

plants per replicate. Data collected from these sites included: (i) fruit harvested from each

treatment three times during the growing season, (ii) nematode numbers, and (iii) dried root

weight. Soil samples for nematode extraction were taken from each plot by collecting 20 soil

cores, ca. 500 cm3 of soil total, from each plot with a 2.5-cm-diam. cone-shaped sampling tube

and composite. Nematodes were extracted from 100 cm3 of soil by the centrifugal-flotation

method (Jenkins, 1964), and counted using an inverted microscope at 20x magnification. Soil

was collected 4 weeks after planting and again after final strawberry harvest. Four strawberry

root systems were removed per plot and oven-dried at 90 C for 2 weeks. Data were transformed









/(x + 1) before analysis and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by mean

separation using Duncan's multiple-range test (SAS Institute, 2000, Cary, NC).

2004-2005 Duke's farm. Two experiments were conducted, one located in an area

determined free of sting nematodes based on nematode extraction from soil samples and the

second located in an area with a history of sting nematode damage. Soil samples, nematode

extraction, counts, and fumigation practices were as reported for 2003. Two weeks after

fumigation, five cultivars, Camino Real, Camarosa, Festival, Ventana (Strawberry Tyme Farms,

Simcoe, ON), and Carmine (Allen Nursery, Centreville, NS) were planted in a RCBD with four

replicates in both locations. Strawberry plants were set with 26.4-cm spacing staggered in

double rows on the bed top, 20 plants per replicate. The data collected from this site were the

same as stated above for 2003 except that two strawberry plants were dug from each plot, 10

weeks after planting, and again at the end of the strawberry season. The root systems and plant

foliage were separated and each were oven dried at 90 C for 2 weeks and weighed. Data were

transformed \(x+ 1) before analysis and cultivars grown in infested and noninfested soil were

compared using single degree of freedom contrasts using the GLM model (SAS Institute, 2000,

Cary, NC).

Results

2003-2004 Sting nematode infested and noninfested sites. At the infested site, mean

fruit weights and dry root weights for all cultivars were not different (P > 0.05) (Table 8-1).

Initial nematode population densities were not different for any of the treatments (P > 0.05);

however, a greater number of sting nematodes were recovered from soil samples taken from

around roots of cv. Treasure as compared to all other cultivars except Camarosa (P < 0.05)

(Table 8-2).









At the noninfested site, the cv. Treasure had the highest mean fruit weight of all cultivars

tested, whereas Camarosa had the lowest mean fruit weight (P < 0.05) (Table 8-1). Dry root

weights for all cultivars at this site were not different (P > 0.05) (Table 8-1).

All cultivars grown at the noninfested site had greater yields than those grown at the

infested site, ranging from 2-fold for Camarosa to 4-fold for Treasure. Mean dry root weights

were 2-fold greater for all cultivars at the non-infested site as compared to the infested site.

2004-2005 Duke's Farm. Ten weeks after planting, only the cv. Festival had lower dry

root weights grown in infested soil as compared to noninfested soil (P < 0.05) (Table 8-2). Also,

at 10 weeks after planting, the cvs. Festival, Camino Real, and Ventana had lower dry leaf

weights when grown in infested soil as compared to noninfested soil (P < 0.05) (Table 8-3).

At the end of the strawberry season (ca. 18 weeks after planting), nearly all dry leaf and

root weights were higher for cultivars grown in noninfested soil as compared to cultivars grown

in infested soil (P < 0.05) (Tables 8-2; 8-3). Only the cv. Camino Real had dry leaf weights that

were not different when grown in infested as compared to noninfested soil (P > 0.05) (Table 8-

3).

Fruit harvest (2005). The cvs. Festival and Camarosa had greater fruit weights from

plants picked in noninfested plots as compared to infested plots (P < 0.05) (Table 8-4). The cvs.

Festival and Camarosa had yields more than 2-fold greater when grown in noninfested soil as

compared to infested soil.

Discussion

To test the tolerance of strawberry cultivars within commercial strawberry fields,

experiments were conducted in two separate locations. There were a number of factors that

could not be controlled that affected the results. First, sting nematode distribution within fields

is often too patchy for a randomized complete block design. Secondly, arranging a design









blocked by nematode density is difficult because of the number of samples that need to be taken

to assure that the blocks contain equivalent sting nematode numbers, and also whether the

individuals detected are healthy and will feed and reproduce. And lastly it was difficult to find

grower fields that have sufficient sting nematodes for experimentation but also have sting

nematode free areas within the field where control plots can be located.

During the course of these experiments it seemed evident that all five commercial cultivars

were severely impacted by sting nematodes. Abbreviated root symptoms were observed on all

five cultivars at the Duke's farm in both 2003-2004 and 2004-2005.

At the Dover station only one of the five cultivars, Camarosa, had a lower amount of

harvested fruit. The above ground plant growth appeared normal, but when roots were dug at the

end of the season they were nearly 100% galled by Meloidogyne hapla. The infection by M.

hapla certainly could be responsible for the lower yields. Since the Camarosa transplants all

came from the same place, all Camarosa plants were dug from the Duke's farm as well as

another research farm in Citra, FL, where other experiments were being conducted. Roots from

cv. Camarosa plants dug at Plant Science Research and Education Unit located in Citra, FL, were

also galled, and the species was again identified as M hapla. At the Duke's farm, however, none

of the plant roots were galled. It is difficult to ensure that transplants received from nurseries in

Canada are free of nematode pathogens; however, it is common to find them infected with

Pratyleenchuspenetrans, M hapla, and Verticillium dahliae.

Experiments conducted in 2004-2005 demonstrated that cultivars with increased vigor

appeared to be less affected by low densities of sting nematodes. The cvs. Camino Real and

Ventana grew larger than the other cultivars evaluated regardless of whether grown in infested or

noninfested soil. These two cultivars have peak fruit production during March and April, but









horticulturally, they are not as acceptable to growers as cvs. Festival or Treasure. Growers prefer

cultivars that begin producing fruit earlier in the growing season. Prices for fruit are always

highest in late December through February and usually decline after 1 March. The cv. Carmine

planted in fall of 2004 was received from a different nursery (Allen Nursery) than other cultivars.

The root systems of these plants were noticeably more vigorous than the other cultivars received

from Strawberry Tyme farms. It is estimated that the initial root densities of these plants was

more than 3-fold greater than the other cultivars from Canada. Perhaps the increased density of

roots on strawberry transplants could be a major factor in reducing losses to sting nematode.













Table 8-1. Fruit and dry root weights, and nematode reproduction at final harvest on five commercially produced strawberry cultivars
grown in Belonolaimus longicaudatus infested and noninfested field soil, Dover, FL 2003-2004.


Fruit weight (g)


Cultivar

Treasure

Festival

Sweet Charlie

Carmine

Camarosa


Infested

819 a

1,110 a

906 a

948 a

1,053 a


Dry root weight (g)


Noninfested

3,792 a

3,051 b

2,721 b

2,940 b

1,971 c


Infested

10.6 a

9.9 a

8.9 a

9.3 a

10.5 a


Nematode reproduction


Noninfested

18.8 a

21.7 a

19.7 a

15.7 a

21.7 a


Data are means of four replicates. Means within columns with the same letter are not different according to Duncan's
multiple-range test (P < 0.05). Data were transformed by arcsin <(x), before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are
presented.
aDuke's farm only, no sting nematodes present in experimental plots at Dover experiment station.
bInitial population (Pi) determined from 100 cm3 of soil taken with a cone-shaped sampling tube before fumigation.
CFinal population (Pf) determined from 100 cm3 of soil taken with a cone-shaped sampling tube at final harvest (March 2004).


5.0 a

4.8 a

3.8 a

4.0 a

3.4 a


193.6 a

131.8 b

105.0 b

118.8 b

160.0 ab












Table 8-2. Root weights of five strawberry cultivars grown in a commercial strawberry field (Duke's farm) in noninfested soil and
soil infested soil with Belonolaimus longicaudatus, 2004-2005.


Grams of root 10 weeks after planting


Grams of root at final harvest


Cultivar

Carmine

Festival

Camino Real

,0 Camarosa

Ventana


Infested

24.3

19.7

24.9

20.6

20.6


Noninfested Significance

25.3 NS

29.5 **

25.3 NS

25.2 NS

23.2 NS


Infested

13.3

12.9

15.9

11.9

13.9


Noninfested Significance

33.3 **

30.4 **

25.5 *

26.9 **

32.1 **


Data are means of four replicates. Data were transformed by arcsin -(x) before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means
are presented.
aRoots were oven dried at 90 C for 2 weeks before weighing.













Table 8-3. Leaf weights of five strawberry cultivars grown in a commercial strawberry field (Duke's farm) in noninfested soil and soil
infested with Belonolaimus longicaudatus, 2004-2005.


Grams of leaves 10 weeks after planting


Grams of leaves at final harvest


Cultivar

Carmine

Festival

Camino Real

SCamarosa

Ventana


Infested

46.9

37.1

36.9

36.9

42.2


Noninfested Significance

59.7 NS

65.3 **

59.9 *

50.5 NS

91.7 ***


Infested

44.6

45.7

86.4

44.1

81.2


Noninfested

125.1

117.9

108.9

132.9

162.4


Significance

**

**

NS

**

**


Data are means of four replicates. Data were transformed by arcsin /(x) before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means
are presented.
aLeaves were oven dried at 90 C for 2 weeks before weighing.









Table 8-4. Fruit weights of five strawberry cultivars grown in a commercial strawberry field
(Duke's farm) in sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) infested and
noninfested soil, 2004-2005.


Cultivar Mean fruit weight
(kg/20 plants)a


Infested


Noninfested Significance


Carmine

Festival


Camino Real


Camarosa


Ventana


Data are means of four replicates. Data were transformed \(x + 1) before analysis, but
untransformed arithmetic means are presented.
aFruit were harvested three times at 2 week intervals beginning 11 January 2005.









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Boyd, F. T., and V. G. Perry. 1969. Effect of sting nematodes on establishment, yield, and
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Boyd, F. T., V. N. Schroeder, and V. G. Perry. 1972. Interaction of nematodes and soil
temperatures on growth of three tropical grasses. Agronomy Journal 64:497-500.

Brodie, B. B. 1976. Vertical distribution of three nematode species in relation to certain soil
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Brodie, B. B., and B. H. Quattlebaum. 1970. Vertical distribution and population fluctuations of
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Brooks, A. N., and J. R. Christie. 1950. A nematode attacking strawberry roots. Proceedings of
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Colbran, R. C. 1960. Studies of plant and soil nematodes. 3. Belonolaimus hastulatus,
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Cooper, W. E., J. C. Wells, J. N. Sasser, and T. G. Bowery. 1959. The efficacy ofpreplant and
post plant applications of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, on control of sting nematode,
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Crow, W. T., D. W. Dickson, D. P. Weingartner, R. McSorley, and G. L. Miller. 2000a. Yield
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Crow, W. T., D. P. Weingartner, R. McSorley, and D. W. Dickson. 2000b. Damage function
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Crow, W. T., D. P. Weingartner, R. McSorley, and D. W. Dickson. 2000c. Population dynamics
of Belonolaimus longicaudatus in a cotton production system. Journal of Nematology
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Desaeger, J. A., A. S. Csinos, and J. E. Laska. 2004. Drip-applied soil pesticides for nematode
control in double-cropped vegetable systems. Proceedings of the methyl bromide
alternative and emission reductions conference. Orlando, FL. 10: 1-4.

Dickerson, O. J., W. G. Willis, F. J. Dainello, and J. C. Pair. 1972. The sting nematode,
Belonolaimus longicaudatus, in Kansas. Plant Disease Reporter 56:957.

Dickson, D. W., and D. De Waele. 2005. Nematode parasites of peanut. Pp. 393-436 in M.
Luc, R. A. Sikora, and J. Bridge, eds. Plant parasitic nematodes in subtropical and tropical
agriculture. Cambridge, MA: CABI.

Duncan, L. W., J. W. Noling, R. N. Inserra, and D. Dunn. 1996. Spatial patterns of
Belonolaimus spp. among and within citrus orchards on Florida's central ridge. Journal of
Nematology 28:352-359.

Dunn, R. A., and J. W. Noling. 2003. Characteristics of principal nematicides. Document
RFNG009. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. Florida Cooperative Extension
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Duval, J. R., E. A. Golden, and A. Whidden. 2004a Interplanting secondary crops into existing
strawberry fields. Document HS988. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Duval, J. R., J. F. Price, G. J. Hochmuth, W. M. Stall, T. A. Kucharek, S. M. Olson, T. G.
Taylor, S. A. Smith, and E. H. Simonne. 2004b. Strawberry production in Florida.
Document HS736. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. Florida Cooperative Extension
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Circular No. 18. Gainesville, FL: Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service,
Division of Plant Industry.




Full Text

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1 POPULATION DYNAMICS AND MANAGEMENT OF Belonolaimus longicaudatus ON STRAWBERRY IN FLORIDA By JON E. HAMILL A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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2 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my supervisory committee (Drs. D. W. Dickson, J. W. Noling, S. J. Locascio, W. T. Crow, and E. A. Buss) for their helpfulne ss, tolerance, guidance, and friendship throughout my graduate program. I especially thank Dr Dickson, who provided both intellectual and financial support. Without their time and encour agement, this project would never have been completed. I thank 3 commercial strawberry growers in the Plant City-Dover region (Mr. Benson DukeÂ’s, Mr. John Beauchamp, and Mr. Rodney Eng lish) for allowing unfettered access to their fields and providing invaluable insight into the history of growing strawberry in Florida. I especially thank Mr. Benson DukeÂ’s who allowed the use of his fi eld for experiments, and cared for them and helped with data collection. I thank Mr. Scott Taylor, the research coordi nator at the University of Florida, Plant Science Research and Education Unit in Citra, FL. His assistance was invaluable in conducting chemical trials on strawberry and tomato at the facility. I also thank the two field technicians, Mr. Lu is Collazo and Mr. Timo thy Sheffield. They were most helpful in traveling to and from rese arch sites, collecting soil and plant samples, applying fumigants, and maintain ing experiments in greenhouses. Lastly, I would like to thank my parents, J ohn and Caroline, who always managed to be there to help in the worst of times.

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3 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................2 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........5 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .........7 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ..............8 CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................10 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE.................................................................................................12 Taxonomy....................................................................................................................... ........12 Host Range..................................................................................................................... .........13 Geographical Distribution...................................................................................................... 14 Intraspecific Variations....................................................................................................... ....15 Population Dynamics and Biology of B. longicaudatus .........................................................16 Management of B. longicaudatus ...........................................................................................18 3 POPULATION DYNAMICS OF Belonolaimus longicaudatus IN COMMERCIAL STRAWBERRY FIELDS IN PLANT CITY-DOVER, FL...................................................22 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........22 Materials and Methods.......................................................................................................... .23 Results........................................................................................................................ .............27 Discussion..................................................................................................................... ..........29 4 PATHOGENICITY OF Belonolaimus longicaudatus ON VEGETABLES COMMONLY GROWN AFTER STRAWBERRY IN PLANT CITY-DOVER, FL...........42 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........42 Materials and Methods.......................................................................................................... .43 Results........................................................................................................................ .............45 Discussion..................................................................................................................... ..........45 5 FIELD TESTING AND VALIDATION OF CHEMICAL ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIES TO METHYL BROMIDE ON STRAWBERRY..........................................50 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........50 Materials and Methods.......................................................................................................... .51 Results........................................................................................................................ .............54 Discussion..................................................................................................................... ..........55

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4 6 PATHOGENICITY OF FIVE STING NEMATODE ISOLATES ON STRAWBERRY.....65 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........65 Materials and Methods.......................................................................................................... .65 Results........................................................................................................................ .............67 Discussion..................................................................................................................... ..........67 7 EFFECTS OF REDUCED RATES OF TELONE C35 A ND METHYL BROMIDE IN CONJUNCTION WITH VIRTUALLY IM PERMEABLE FILM TECHNOLOGY ON WEEDS AND NEMATODES...............................................................................................70 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........70 Materials and Methods.......................................................................................................... .73 Results........................................................................................................................ .............76 Discussion..................................................................................................................... ..........77 8 TOLERANCE OF COMMERCIALLY A VAILABLE STRAWBERRY CULTIVARS GROWN IN DOVER, FL TO STING NEMATODE, Belonolaimus longicaudatus ............88 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........88 Materials and Methods.......................................................................................................... .89 Results........................................................................................................................ .............90 Discussion..................................................................................................................... ..........91 LIST OF REFERENCES............................................................................................................. ..98 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................108

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5 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 General production practices for thre e cropping seasons (2002-2005) and the dates soil samples were taken to determine densities and depth distribution of Belonolaimus longicaudatus for each of three commercial strawberry farms in Plant City-Dover, FL 2002-2005................................................................................................33 3-2 Greenhouse soil bioassay for Belonolaimus longicaudatus residing in soil at six depths in a commercial strawberry field at the DukeÂ’s farm, 5 days after fumigating with methyl bromide, 2004................................................................................................34 4-1 Comparisons of dry root weights of seve n vegetable crops grown in pasteurized soil inoculated with 50 Belonolaimus longicaudatus per 13-cm-diam. pots and compared with noninoculated control................................................................................................47 5-1 Marketable yield of strawberry, and pre-harvest and post-ha rvest densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode) as affected by nematicide treatments in Citra, FL, 2002-2003.....................................................................................................58 5-2 Marketable yield of strawberry, and pre-harvest and post-ha rvest densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode) as affected by fumigant treatments in Citra, FL, 2003-2004..........................................................................................................6 0 5-3 Number of Carolina geranium plants as affected by fumigant and herbicide treatments in Citra, FL, 2003-2004....................................................................................62 5-3 Number of Carolina geranium plants as affected by fumigant and herbicide treatments in Citra, FL, 2003-2004....................................................................................62 5-4 Marketable numbers and yields of cantal oupe as affected by fumigants when planted as a double-crop after stra wberry, Citra, FL, 2004............................................................63 6-1 Mean dry root weights and nematode reproduction of different isolates of Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode) grown on strawberry cv. Sweet Charlie in a greenhouse in 13.2-cm-diam. pots.................................................................69 7-1 Effects of fumigant, fumigan t rate, and mulch type on cont rol of nutsedge, Citra, FL, Spring 2004.................................................................................................................... ....80 7-2 Main effect of fumiga nt and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on total marketable yield of tomato, Citra, FL, Spring 2004.............................................................................81 7-3 Main effect of fumiga nt and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on galling of tomato roots, Citra, FL, Spring 2004.............................................................................................82

PAGE 6

6 7-4 Main effect of fumiga nt and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on total marketable yield of double-cropped cucumb er, Citra, FL, Fall 2004..................................................83 7-5 Main effect of fumiga nt and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on galling of double-cropped cucumber, Citra, FL, Fall 2004................................................................84 7-6 Main effect of fumiga nt and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on total marketable yield of fall-grown squash, Citra, FL, Fall 2004................................................................85 7-7 Main effect of fumiga nt and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on gall ratings of fall-grown squash, C itra, FL, Fall 2004.............................................................................86 7-8 Effects of fumigant, fu migant rate, and mulch type on control of nutsedge on fallgrown squash, Citra, FL, Fall 2004....................................................................................87 8-1 Fruit and dry root weights, and nemat ode reproduction at final harvest on five commercially produced strawberry cultivars grown in Belonolaimus longicaudatus infested and noninfested fiel d soil, Dover, FL 2003-2004................................................94 8-2 Root weights of five strawberry cultiv ars grown in a commercial strawberry field (DukeÂ’s farm) in noninfested soil and soil infested soil with Belonolaimus longicaudatus 2004-2005..................................................................................................95 8-3 Leaf weights of five strawberry cultiv ars grown in a commercial strawberry field (DukeÂ’s farm) in noninfested soil and soil infested with Belonolaimus longicaudatus 2004-2005...................................................................................................................... ....96 8-4 Fruit weights of five strawberry cultiv ars grown in a commercial strawberry field (DukeÂ’s farm) in sting nematode ( Belonolaimus longicaudatus) infested and noninfested soil, 2004-2005...............................................................................................97

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7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3-1 Population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between September 2002 and March 2005 at a 0 to 13 cm depth with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from three commercial strawberry fields located in Plant City-Dover, FL.........................................................................................35 3-2 Population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between September 2002 and December 2003 at five depths from 13 to 78 cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from DukeÂ’s farm located in Dover, FL..........................................................................................................3 6 3-3 Population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between January 2004 and Febr uary 2005 at five depths from 13 to 78 cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from DukeÂ’s farm located in Dover, FL................................................................................................................... ....37 3-4 Population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between January 2003 and December 2003 at five depths from 13 to 78 cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm -long, 10-cm-diam.) from Beauchamp farm in Dover, FL................................................................................................................... ....38 3-5 Population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between January 2004 and Ma rch 2005 at five depths from 13 to 78 cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from Beauchamp farm in Dover, FL...................................................................................................................... .....39 3-6 Population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between January 2003 and December 2003 at five depths from 13 to 78 cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from English farm located in Dover, FL..........................................................................................................4 0 3-7 Population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between January 2004 and Ja nuary 2005 at five depths from 13 to 78 cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm-l ong, 10-cm-diam.) from English farm in Dover, FL...................................................................................................................... .....41 4-1 Comparison of reproductive factor values for Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode) inoculated on seven vegeta ble crops commonly double-cropped with strawberry..................................................................................................................... .....48 4-2 Comparison of reproductive factor values for Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode) on seven vegetable crops comm only double-cropped with strawberry...........49

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8 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy POPULATION DYNAMICS AND MANAGEMENT OF Belonolaimus longicaudatus ON STRAWBERRY IN FLORIDA By Jon E. Hamill December 2006 Chair: D. W. Dickson Major Department: Entomology and Nematology Commercial production of strawberry ( Fragaria x A nanassa ) in Florida is adversely affected by the sting nematode Belonolaimus longicaudatus This study was conducted to determine (i) the nematodeÂ’s dynamics and moveme nt in soil, (ii) pathogenicity on vegetables commonly double-cropped after stra wberry, (iii) alternatives fo r methyl bromide (mbr) for strawberry and effectiveness of reduced rates of fumigant s when applied under virtually impermeable film (VIF), (iv) the pathogenicity of different isolates of sting nematode on strawberry, and (v) tolerance of commercially gr own strawberry cultivars to sting nematode. Sting nematode densities increased on strawberry shortly after their planting in October. Populations increased until January when densities peaked and began to decline thereafter. Sting nematodes could be recovered from soil at all depths sampled from 0 to 79-cm deep throughout the year, although their densities remained low at depths below 26 cm. The potential for this nematode to survive in-bed fumigation with mbr and move up through the soil profile was demonstrated. Sting nematodes were pathogenic to and reproduced on six vegetables. They did not increase on watermelon, and increased more on sweet corn and tomato than on cantaloupe, cucumber, pepper, and squash. Strawberry yields and weed densities in be ds fumigated with 1,3-

PAGE 9

9 dichloropene plus chloropicrin combined with oxyfluorfen herbicide we re equivalent to mbr treated beds. Reducing rates of mbr by 25 and 50% did not negatively affect tomato yield or root-knot nematode galling when applied under VIF film as compared to a full rate of mbr in conjunction with standard polyethylene mulch. Fi ve different sting nematode isolates tested were pathogenic on strawberry, but the isolate from strawberry was the most virulent of all isolates tested. Sting nematode negatively impact ed all commercial strawberry cultivars tested. The nematode caused a reduction in yield and plant root weights; however, in one experiment, sting nematode reproduction did not differ among the cultivars tested.

PAGE 10

10 CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION Strawberry ( Fragaria x Ananassa ), is produced annually on nearly 2,900 ha in Florida. Most of the production is centere d in west-central Florida in the Plant City-Dover region of Hillsborough County. During the 2001 and 2002 growing season, 14.7 million flats were produced on 2,834 ha, and had a farm gate value of $153.5 million (Anonymous, 2003). The strawberry growing season begins in September wh en the soil is fumigated with methyl bromide (mbr) and polyethylene mulch-covered beds are fo rmed. Bare-root strawberry transplants are planted in October and established with overhead irrigation for about 2 weeks. Strawberry harvesting begins in late November and continue s until late March or April, as long as market pricing remains profitable. The first historical reco rd of sting nematode ( Belonolaimus longicaudatus ) in the Plant City-Dover region of Florida was documented by Brooks and Christie (1950), who noted a disease of strawberry during th e 1946-47 growing season. Several characteristic symptoms were associated with this disease. Stunted plants we re first observed in small circular patterns that gradually increased in size until larger areas we re prevalent. Affected plants produced no new growth. The leaf edges turned brown, with the discoloration expanding fro m the edges to midrib and engulfing the entire leaf. Plants afflicted w ith the disease lacked fine feeder roots and their root tips were often killed, ther eby causing lateral roots to deve lop which were also killed. The root systems of infected plants had very co arse roots with knobby tip s, which are commonly known today as “stubby or abbreviated roots. ” Badly infected plants often die. In 1950, sting nematode was reported to be comm on in soil samples from strawberry fields in the Plant City-Dover region of Hillsborough County (Brooks and Christie, 1950). Later it was determined that this nematode was B. longicaudatus and not B. gracilis The pathogenicity of B.

PAGE 11

11 longicaudatus has been reported on strawberry (Christie et al., 1952), and for other crops such as peanut (Good, 1968; Owens, 1951; Perry and No rden, 1963), cotton (Cro w et al., 2000a; 2000c; Graham and Holdeman, 1953), celery and sweet corn (Christie, 1952), collards, kale and cauliflower (Khoung, 1974), and citr us (Standifer and Perry, 1960; Suit and DuCharme, 1953). These studies document the importance of B. longicaudatus as a highly virulent, crop-damaging species. However, there are no reports as to its vertical distribution and population dynamics within strawberry fields throughout the year in Fl orida, its pathogenicity on different strawberry cultivars, and no explanation for the failures of mbr to provide s eason-long control in FloridaÂ’s annual production system. Furthermore, differen ces were reported in pa thogenicity, host range, and morphology among populations of sting nematode from differe nt geographical regions or hosts (Abu-Gharbieh and Perry, 1970; Robbins and Barker, 1973; Robbins and Hirschmann, 1974). The pathogenicity and virulence of sting nematode populations on strawberry from the Plant City-Dover region thus may differ from othe r sting nematode populations from other areas in Florida. An assessment is needed of the pathogenici ty and virulence of the sting nematode population from the Plant City-Dover region on st rawberry cultivars grown in Florida. Documentation is also needed on its pathogenicity and virulen ce on other vegetable and small fruit crops produced in this region including those double-cropped after strawberry. The objectives of this study were to monitor the population density of th e nematode in the soil profile throughout the year, to determine the efficacy of several chemicals that may serve as mbr alternatives, and to provide po ssible reasons why mbr is ineff ective in providing season long control of this pathogen (Noling and Gilreath, 2002; Noling and Becker, 1994).

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12 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Taxonomy Sting nematodes, Belonolaimus longicaudatus Rau, 1958, have been reported as important plant-parasitic nematodes since the 1940s. Belonolaimus gracilis Steiner, 1942 the first species described in this genus, was recove red from soil around roots of slash ( Pinus taeda ) and longleaf ( Pinus elliotti ) pines in nurseries in Ocala, Florida. It was reported later that B. gracilis was a rare species and had not been obs erved since its original descrip tion (Rau, 1958). This led to the description of a new species, B. longicaudatus which differed from B. gracilis in that it had a longer tail and a shorte r stylet (Rau, 1958). B. longicaudatus is widely distributed in Florida, where it occurs on a wide number of hosts and is currently recognized as the most common sting nematode in the United States (Rau, 1958, 1961). After B. longicaudatus and B. gracilis were described, three more North American species were identified, including B. euthychilus Rau, 1963, B. maritimus Rau, 1963, and B. nortoni Rau, 1963. Description of three ot her species followed with B. hastulatus Colbran, 1960, from Queensland, Australia, B. lineatus Roman, 1964, from Puerto Rico, and B. lolii Siviour & McLeod, 1979, from Australia. Two othe r sting nematode species, B. anama Manteiro & Lordello, 1977, and B. jara Manteiro & Lordello, 1977, were transferred from the genus Ibipora Currently, nine species are accepted: B. gracilis, B. longicaudatus, B. euthychilis, B. maritimus, B. nortoni, B. anama, B. jara, B. lineatus and B. lolii (Fortuner and Luc, 1987; Smart and Nguyen, 1991). B. hastulatus was transferred to the genus Tylenchorhynchus (Fortuner and Luc, 1987).

PAGE 13

13 Host Range Sting nematode is an economi cally important pathogen of a wide range of horticultural, agronomic, ornamental, and forest crops. B. longicaudatus was first associated with agronomic crops (e.g., corn, cotton, soybean, and peanut in Virginia (Owens, 1951) and corn, cotton, soybean, and cowpea in South Carolina) (Gra ham and Holdeman, 1953). In Florida, its pathogenicity was established on vegetables, namely strawberry, celery, and sweet corn (Christie et al., 1952). Sting nematode is pathogenic on citrus, which is one of the most economically important crops in Florida (C hristie, 1959; Esser and Simpson, 1984; Suit and DuCharme, 1953; and Duncan et al., 1996). The nematode also is pathogenic to turfgr asses, particularly bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon ) and its respective hybrids th at are grown on golf courses, athletic fields, and home lawns throughout the st ate (Giblin-Davis et al., 1991; 1992; Perry and Smart, 1970; Rivera, 1963). Most recently st ing nematode was shown to be pathogenic on cotton (when grown in rotation w ith potato) and potato, causing yi eld losses on both crops (Crow et al., 2000a, b). Sting nematode also is asso ciated with many weed species (Esser, 1976; Holdeman, 1955; Kerr and Wysong, 1979). Other agronomic, forage, and horticultural crops reported as hosts include millet, clover, oat, lespedeza, tobacco, snap bean, sweet pot ato, onion, pepper, winter pea, and lima bean (Holdeman, 1955). Grass hosts reported for th is nematode include sudan, bermuda, St. Augustine, and centipede. Watermelon, okra, and tobacco were identified as non-hosts (Holdeman, 1955). The plants that were identified as hosts of B. longicaudatus isolates from North Carolina and Georgia were characterized as excellent hosts, good hosts, poor hosts, nonhosts, and differentiating hosts based on their ability to reproduce on each host (Robbins and Barker, 1973). Excellent hosts included white clover, corn, pearl millet, soybean, muscadine grape, strawberry, potato, Chinese elm, pecan, johnsongrass, and hairy cr abgrass. Good hosts

PAGE 14

14 included peanut, oat, carrot, peach, Japanese holly, bentgrass, and wild carr ot. Poor hosts were cotton, Camilla, gladiolus, jimson weed, lambs quarters, and cocklebur. Non-hosts included tobacco, asparagus, okra, watermelon, buckthorn pl antain, pokeweed, and sandbur. Some plants gave a differentiating response between the North Ca rolina and Georgia isolates that were related to pathogenicity and virulence. These included snap bean, eggplant, blueberry, lettuce, turnip, onion, rabbiteye blueberry, cabbage, loblolly pine bermudagrass, fescue, curled dock, and wild garlic. In Florida, 116 hosts and 27 resistant or non-hosts were list ed for isolates of B. longicaudatus (Esser, 1976) Geographical Distribution Distribution of B. longicaudatus was originally thought to be limited to the southeastern coastal plain region of the United States, which in cluded all of Florida a nd portions of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia (Christie et al., 1952; Graham and Holdeman, 1953; Holdeman, 1955; Owens, 1951). B. longicaudatus also has been reported on turfgrass in Alabama (Sikora et al., 2001). Since the 1950Â’s the nematodes dist ribution has grown to include Alabama (Sikora et al., 2001), New Jersey (Hut chinson and Reed, 1956; Myers, 1979), Arkansas (Riggs, 1961), Kansas (Dickerson et al., 1972) Nebraska, Texas (Christie, 1959; Norton, 1959; Wheeler and Starr, 1987), and, most recently, Ca lifornia (Mundo-Ocampo et al., 1994). All of the sting nematodes reported are believed to be B. longicaudatus with the exception of the sting nematode found in Nebraska, whic h is morphologically similar to B. nortoni (Kerr and Wysong, 1979). B. longicaudatus has been reported internationally in the Bahamas, Bermuda, and Puerto Rico (Perry and Rhoades, 1982), and Costa Rica (L opez, 1978). It is widely assumed that the pathogen was exported out of the United States on infested turfgrasses fr om Florida or Georgia sod farms (Perry and Rhoades, 1982).

PAGE 15

15 Intraspecific Variations Several reports have been published regarding variations in pathoge nicity, host range, and morphology among different geographical isolat es (Abu-Garbieh and Perry, 1970; Owens, 1951; Perry and Norden, 1963; Robbins and Barker 1973; Robbins and Hirschmann, 1974; Han, 2001). The pathogenicity of B. longicaudatus has been reported on many different crops including peanut (Good, 1968; Mi ller, 1972; Owens, 1951), cotton (B aird et al., 1996; Crow et al., 2000a; Crow et al., 2000c; Graham and Holdeman, 1953), potato (Crow et al., 2000b), strawberry, celery, and sweet corn (Christie et al., 1952), co llard, kale, and cauliflower (Khoung, 1974, Khoung and Smart, 1975), and citrus (Duncan et al., 1996; Esser and Simpson, 1984; Standifer and Perry, 1960; Suit and DuCharme, 1953). Isolates of sting nematode in Virginia were reported to be pathogenic to peanut, wher eas the Georgia and Flor ida isolates are not pathogenic on peanut (Owens, 1951). It is also known th at populations of B. longicaudatus in North Carolina are pathogenic on peanut (Cooper et al., 1959). Three different isolates of B. longicaudatus collected from different hosts in Florida had different responses to host plants tested (AbuGarbieh and Perry, 1970). Isolates obtained from citrus (rough lemon rootstocks) reproduced well on citrus but failed to reproduce on strawberry. Two different isolates obtained from sites wh ere corn was grown were able to reproduce on strawberry but not on rough lemon rootstock. Although morphological differences were subtle among these three isolates, the diffe rentiating host responses alone we re not sufficient to separate and describe new species. Th e three Florida isolates of B. longicaudatus were all capable of reproducing on peanut, contradi cting earlier reports (Perry and Norden, 1963; Good, 1968); however, field damage on peanut has not b een reported (Dickson and De Waele, 2005). Morphological differences also have been reported for isolates of B. longicaudatus collected from different locations and host plants. Morphom etric variation of B. longicaudatus

PAGE 16

16 was reported among isolates taken from citrus gr oves on Florida’s central ridge (Lake, Polk, and Highland Counties) compared to isolates collecte d from northeastern Polk County (Duncan et al., 1996). These isolates from northeastern Polk Count y tended to have longer stylets than tails, unlike all other populations (Duncan et al., 1996 ). Recently, genetic diversity has been documented among sting nematode populations in Florid a. It is possible that some isolates of sting nematodes may need reclassification (Gozel et al., 2003; Han et al., 2006). Population Dynamics and Biology of B. longicaudatus Sting nematode life cycle, feeding habits, de velopment and reproduction have been studied using in-vitro cultivation on excised Zea mays roots (Han, 2001; Huang and Becker, 1997). Within 24 hours, sting nematode females began to feed and lay eggs. Four days after egg deposition, first-stage juveniles molted in the egg. Second-stage juveniles hatched 5 days after egg deposition. Three additional molts occurred within 29 days of the original egg deposition (Huang and Becker, 1997). Sixty days after in oculation an average of 529 nematodes and 83 eggs was obtained from a culture on excised corn roots with an initial innoculum of 60 females and 40 males (Huang and Becker, 1997). Little is known about feeding habits and survival stages of the sting nematode; however, it has been documented that all stages are found in the soil throughout the year in Fl orida (Christie et al., 1952). Successful reproduction for sting nematode is limited by several factors, the most important of which are soil type, temperature, and moisture. Sting nematode was only found in Virginia farms in the “A” horizon of the soil pr ofile and also where the soil texture was 84 to 94% sand (Miller, 1972). The optimum size of so il particles for maximu m reproduction is from 120 to 370 m (Robbins and Barker, 1974). Temperature also is important for sting nema tode development, survival and reproduction. In Florida, nematode reproduction was greate r at 29.4 C than at 26.7 C, and was greatly

PAGE 17

17 reduced at 35 C (Perry, 1964). Egg de velopment required ca. 9 days at 18 oC, 5 days at 23 oC, and 3.7 days at 28 oC, whereas no eggs were laid at 33 oC (Han, 2001). It also was determined that sting nematodes would migrat e down into the soil prof ile if temperatures in the top 2.5 cm of soil reached 39.5 C (Boyd and Perry, 1969; Boyd et al ., 1972). In forage fields in Florida the effects of seasonal temperatures on sting nema tode population densities were observed, and it was determined that sting nematodes favored mean soil temperatures between 26 and 28 oC (Boyd and Dickson, 1971). The effects of soil moisture on reproduction and distribution within the soil profile was examined by several researchers. Sting nematode numbers were highest when soil moisture was from 15 to 20% (Brodie and Quattlebaum, 1970) Nematode reproduction was optimized at a moisture level of 7%, which was determined to be greater than that which occurred at 2% or 30% (Robbins and Barker, 1974). Both temperature and moisture are important in the vertical distribut ion of the nematode. In North Carolina, sting nematode population dens ities were greatest at 15 to 30 cm depths between November and April. Some nematodes we re found at 30 to 45 cm and very few at 0 to 15 cm (Potter, 1967). This study suggested that the nematodes present in the 30 to 45 cm soil layer could possibly represent an overwint ering population, which ma y conceivably escape fumigation, that could reinfest crops in the subs equent season (Potter, 1967). Also, in North Carolina, populations of the sting nematode were highest at 0 to 7.5 cm depth from October to January (Barker, 1968). Before October, populati on densities were highest at the 7.5 to 15 and 15 to 30 cm depths, and few specimens were found at the 30 to 35 cm depth (Barker, 1968). In March and April, the nematode almost disappea red at all depths, whereas population densities increased slightly in May and June (Barker, 1968). The numbers of sting nematodes were

PAGE 18

18 significantly greater thro ughout the year at depths of 0 to 20 cm than at 20 to 40 cm in a commercial cabbage-potato field in Hastings, FL (Perez et al., 2000). Minor factors, such as light intensity eff ects on plant growth, have been implicated in playing a role in sting nematode reproduction (Barker et al., 1975). One study has shown that when cotton was grown in a greenhouse with 12 hours of supplemental light, reproduction of the nematode increased compared with natu ral light alone (Barker et al., 1975). Management of B. longicaudatus Sting nematode has plagued strawberry grower s in the Plant City-D over area for the past 50+ years. In 1964, it was reported that approx imately 97% of all the commercial strawberry acreage was treated with a ne maticide (Overman, 1965). Little has changed since then. Currently, nearly all of the strawberry hectarag e in Florida is fumigate d with methyl bromide (mbr) (Mossler and Nesheim, 2004). Problems asso ciated with sting nematode in strawberry fields dates back to the late 1940Â’s when it was fi rst reported that strawberry plants grown in soil fumigated with 1,2-dichloropropane-1,3-dichloro propene (D-D) had increased plant vigor and fruit yields (Brooks and Christie, 1950). Later, the improved plant vigor and fruit yields were identified to be a result of sting nematode c ontrol. In 1952, it was suggested that strawberry growers in the Plant City region could effec tively manage sting nematode by an in-the-row application of soil fumigants (type not specified) (Christi e et. al, 1952). In the 1960Â’s the use of polyethylene mulch and herbicides in conjunction with preplant nematicides resulted in four-fold increases in yields (Overman, 1965). Prepla nt application of et hylene dibromide, 1,3dichloropropene plus metam sodium (Vorlex), me thyl bromide plus chloropicrin, Sarolex, and Zinophos all reduced sting nematode populations as compared to nontreated plots for up to 6 weeks after planting (Overman, 1965). However, with all of these preplant chemicals (except methyl bromide plus chloropicrin), sting ne matode population densities were higher than

PAGE 19

19 nontreated plots at 18 weeks after application. Sting nematode continued to be a problem in commercial strawberry fields in the 1970Â’s where preplant fumigation was being used, sometimes in conjunction with a preplant so il-drench applied nematicide (Overman, 1972). Problems associated with preplant fumigation at th at time included the following: (i) soil must be treated 2 to 3 weeks before plan ting, (ii) fumigation only controlled nematodes that were present at the time of application, but provided no prot ection later as the populat ion resurged, (iii) and the fruit set could be reduced because unfavorab le weather conditions combined with fumigation could prolong vegetative development (Overma n, 1972). By the 1980Â’s the preferred control tactic being used by growers was a preplant application of methyl bromide. Attempts to show that soil solarization coul d be used to manage sting nematode met with only moderate success. Although yields were not different between fumi gated and solarized plots, it was noted that plants in solarized plots began to decline 6 w eeks after strawberry planting (Overman et al., 1987). Strawberry growers are currently limited in th eir options for sting nematode control. The phase out of mbr in 2005 is complete, but its use is currently continuing under a Montreal Protocol interaction treaty a pproved critical use exemption pl an (Karst, 2005; Lehnert, 2006). Currently, there are very few preplant chemi cals registered for use on strawberry, and no postplant chemicals are available for controlling nematodes in strawberry in Florida. Most recently, field trials have been focused on the most promising alternatives to mbr and have been conducted in Dover, FL, for sting nematode ma nagement on strawberry (Gilreath et al., 2003; Noling et al., 2002). The most promising altern atives included 1,3-D (Telone C-35, Telone-II, Dow AgroSciences LLC, Indianapolis, IN), ch loropicrin, and metam sodium alone or in

PAGE 20

20 combination with herbicides. Strawberry yields ob tained with these treatments have been nearly equivalent to yields obtained with mbr (G ilreath et al., 2003; Noli ng and Gilreath, 2002). Experimentation using nematicides and prep lant fumigants was conducted on a number of crops for control of sting nematode. Ethyl ene dibromide (EDB) (Dowfume W-40) provided effective control of sting nema tode on snap bean, cabbage, a nd pepper in Lake Monroe, FL (Christie, 1953), and EDB, D-D, and 1,2 dibr omo-3-chloropropane(DBCP) were efficacious on sweet potato and soybean in South Carolina (Hol deman, 1956). Both soil fumigants, 1,3-D and metam sodium, and fenamiphos effectively reduced sting nematode population densities on broccoli and squash (Rhoades, 1987). Studies conducted using EDB, 1,3-D, and aldicarb for sting nematode management in potato increased marketable yield (Weingartner and Shumaker, 1990). Fosthiazate was as effective in reduci ng sting nematode numbers on bermudagrass as fenamiphos (Giblin-Davis et al., 1993). Different fumigant application methods are pr omising for sting nematode management in strawberry and other crops, especially for produc ts other than methyl bromide. In 2002, a new application system for applying 1,3-D products the Yetter Avenger coulter system, was developed by Mirusso Fumigation (Delray Beach, FL) (Anonymous, 2001a; b; Noling and Gilreath, 2002). With this equipment the placement and containment of fumigants (e.g., 1,3-D) are improved especially by the closure of the soil opening that remains after passage of the coulter-chisel through the soil. If these chisel slits remain open there is a premature loss of fumigants into the atmosphere. With the impr oved containment by the Avenger coulter system volatilization from the so il is reduced after application. Ap plying fumigant products such as metam sodium, carbon disulfide, and emulsifi ed 1,3-D with and without chloropicrin on strawberry through the drip system (chemigation) for sting nematode control has been tested

PAGE 21

21 with favorable results (Noling and Gilreath, 2002). The use of parachisels or subsurface hooded chisels improved the efficacy of 1,3-D compared w ith a conventional chisel application (Riegel et al., 2001).

PAGE 22

22 CHAPTER 3 POPULATION DYNAMICS OF Belonolaimus longicaudatus IN COMMERCIAL STRAWBERRY FIELDS IN PLANT CITY-DOVER, FL Introduction Strawberry ( Fragaria x Ananassa ) is produced on nearly 2,900 ha in Florida, with most of the production centered in west-central Florida in the Plan t City-Dover region. During the 2003 and 2004 growing season, 13.6 million flats were produced on 2,875 ha, having a farm gate value of $178 million dollars (Anonymous, 2005). Fo r the past 26 years Florida has maintained a 5 to 8% market share of the total United States strawberry production (Sjulin, 2004). Currently, 99% of the production hectarage is fumigated by an in-bed application with methyl bromide (mbr) (Mossler and Nesheim, 2004). The use of mbr as a broad-spectrum fumigant for strawberry began during the midto late 1960s (Overman, 1965; 1972). Following mbr application, bedded rows are formed and co vered with low density polyethylene mulch (PE). A single drip tape for irrigation is applied simultaneously under the polyethylene mulch near the bed center. This is nearly an ideal pr oduction system in that most weeds and soilborne pathogens are managed effectively, plus the system prevents premature leaching of fertilizers by heavy rainfall. However, a major limitation to th e system is poor sting nematode control. This nematode is a pathogen of great concern for Florida strawberry growers. During the 1960s and 1970s this pathogen was managed effec tively with mbr, and other fumigant and nonfumigant nematicides (Overman, 1965; 1972). The number of products registered for nematode control on strawberry during the la te 1970s and early 1980s declined. As a consequence almost all strawberry growers bega n treating their fields solely with mbr. Currently, many commercial strawb erry fields in the Plant City -Dover, FL region that were fumigated with mbr before planting experien ce substantial losses from sting nematode parasitism. It is unknown why mbr fails to provide season long contro l of this pathogen. This is

PAGE 23

23 one of the few cases where a soilborne pathoge n or pest resurfaces to cause major economic losses following treatment with mbr. Other examples include poor control of stubby-root nematode Trichodorus spp. (Perry, 1953; Rhoades, 1968; and Weingartner et al., 1983) and Carolina geranium Geranium carolinanum (Noling, Pers. Comm.). The vertical distribution of sting nematodes at the time of fumigation may be an important reason why this pathogen rebuilds to damaging levels within the first 6 weeks following the transplanting of strawberry (Potter, 1967). It was suggested previously that sting nematodes at deeper soil depths (30 to 45 cm) were capable of surviving fumigation and c ould reinvade the root zone in subsequent seasons (Potter, 1967). Our objectives were to (i) de termine the seasonal population de nsities of sting nematodes at five soil depths on three comm ercial strawberry fields that were treated with mbr in the Plant City-Dover, FL region, (ii) determine the number of infective sting nematodes at different depths within 2 weeks after fumigation, and (iii) determin e ability of the sting nematode to move in the soil profile. Materials and Methods Studies were conducted in three commercial strawberry fields that were heavily infested with sting nematode. They were all located wi thin an 8 km radius in the Plant City-Dover region. Each field was denoted by the name of the manager or owner of the farms. The first field site (DukeÂ’s farm) had continuous strawb erry production that da ted back to the 1950s. Predicated on the success of the strawberry season, squash ( Curcurbita pepo ), cantaloupe ( Cucumis melo var. reticulatis ), or pepper ( Capiscum annum ) was double-cropped. The soil at this location was classified as Seffner fine sa nd (96% sand, 2% silt, 2% clay; 1% OM). The second field site (Beauchamp farm ) had a history of continuous st rawberry production that dated back more than 15 years and the grower double-cr opped with cucumber. Sting nematode caused

PAGE 24

24 near-total losses in the 2002-2003 growing season so the grower planted cucumber in the field instead of strawberry during the 2003-2004 season. Symptoms of sting nematode damage appeared in an adjacent stra wberry field managed by the same grower in November 2004 and sampling was moved to that location. The soil at both locations was classified as Seffner fine sand (95% sand, 3% silt, 2% clay; 1.5% OM). The third field site, (English farm) had an uncertain history of strawberry production, but continuous strawb erry production dated back to at least 2000. A mixture of eggplant ( Solanum melongena ), cucumber ( Cucumis sativus ), cantaloupe, and sweet corn ( Zea mays var. rugosa ) were double-cropped annually. The soil at this location was classified as a Seffner fine sa nd (94% sand, 2% silt, 4% clay; <1% OM). Strawberry production Strawberry season began each September when fields were disked, prepared for bedding, and fumigated. In late September, fertilizer was broadcast and beds were formed and fumigated in one tractor pass. Polyethylene mulch was laid, and a single drip tube was placed simultaneously in the fumigated beds. Fumigant (typically methyl bromide-chloropicrin) formulations, rates, a nd strawberry cultivars planted, double-crops, and cover crops differed with each farm (Table 3-1). Growers purchased strawberry transplants from Canadian nurseries and planted them in late October. Overhead irrigation was applied intermittently during the warmest periods of the day for approximately 2 weeks to establish transplants. Strawberry harvesting began in December and continued through February. The double-crop was planted in March. The double-crop season ended in late May when the mulch was removed, fields were disked, and a cover crop planted (Beauchamp only). The DukeÂ’s and English fields were left in weed fallow fo llowing the double-crop until the following season. Sampling. Soil sampling to estimate sting nemat ode densities was initiated on different dates for the three field sites (Table 3-1). Af ter initiation, sampling con tinued on a monthly basis

PAGE 25

25 for nearly three full strawberry seasons. An AMS soil bucket auger (American Falls, ID) (13cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) was used to remove soil core s at six soil depths (0 to 13, 13 to 26, 26 to 39, 39 to 52, 52 to 65, and 65 to 78 cm). Three sampling locations at each farm were chosen arbitrarily during the season among strawberry plan ts that showed visibl e symptoms of sting nematode damage. At other times when strawb erry plants were removed, soil samples were taken in the same beds where a double crop was plante d in the same vicinity as for strawberry. If no beds existed, sampling sites were chosen arbi trarily in areas where nematode damage to strawberry was noted. Samples we re returned to the lab and ne matodes were extracted from a 100 cm3 subsample of soil using the centrifugal-flotation method (Je nkins, 1964). All life stages of sting nematodes, except eggs, were count ed using an inverted microscope at 20 magnification, and the mean number of nematode s was determined from three samples from each depth. Soil temperature was recorded at each of six depths: 6.5, 19.5, 32.5, 45.5, 58.5, and 71.5 cm throughout the season using temperatur e data recorders (StowAway Tidbit, Onset Computer Corp., Bourne, MA). These six depths represent the midpoint of the depth at which the soil cores, previously men tioned above, were taken. Volume tric soil moisture reading was taken from each sample with a soil mois ture meter (Fieldscout TDR 100, Spectrum Technologies, Plainfield, IL). Monthly mean soil temperature and moisture readings were quantitatively related with the sting nematode monthly nematode population densities using regression analysis with a linear mo del (SAS Institute, 2000, Cary, NC). Soil bioassay. During the fall of 2004, the viability and reproductive po tential of sting nematode occurring in soil collected at different depths at the D ukeÂ’s farm was determined. On 5 October 2004, 5 days following fumigation by in-bed chisel injection of a mixture of 67% mbr and 33% chloropicrin (350 lbs/acre) was applied to preformed beds with two chisels, 26-cm

PAGE 26

26 spacing, 26-cm deep using a bed-press unit. Eigh t subsamples of soil we re collected with the same AMS bucket auger described above from each of six depths (0 to 13, 13 to 26, 26 to 39, 39 to 52, 52 to 65, and 65 to 78 cm). Nema todes were extracted from a 100-cm3 subsample of soil using the centrifugal-flotation me thod (Jenkins, 1964). All life st ages except eggs were counted using an inverted microscope at 20 magnificati on to determine the initial population from each sample (not determining whether dead or aliv e). The remaining soil from each sample was thoroughly mixed (ca. 1,400 cm3) and was placed in a 13.2-cm-diam. clay pot in a greenhouse. The pots were arranged on a bench in a comp letely randomized block design with eight replicates for each soil depth. Three seeds of sw eet corn cv. Silver Queen were planted in each pot. Fifteen grams of Osmocote (S cotts, Marysville, OH) 20% N, 20% P2O5, and 20% K2O fertilizer was incorporated into the soil in each pot. Forty-five days after planting corn, plants and soil were removed from the pots and returned to the laboratory. A 100-cm3 soil sample was taken where nematodes were extracted and counted as stated above. A ratio of final population numbe rs (Pf) to initial population numbers (Pi) was calculated to express nemat ode reproduction (Griffin and Asay, 1996). Data were transformed log10 ( x + 1) before analysis and subjecte d to analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by mean separation using DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test (SAS Institute, 2000, Cary, NC). Nematode movement. To determine if sting nematode is capable of migrating through the soil profile, plant-chamber columns we re built. Three lengths of 9.9-cm-diam. polyvinylchloride pipe (PVC), each 45, 59, and 89 cm in length, were used for migration columns. Each length was replicated five times for a total of 15 tubes. A 13-cm section of the same pipe were cut and affixed with PVC ceme nt to each migration tube to form a plant

PAGE 27

27 chamber. A 12 12 cm piece of screen with 500 m pore openings (Nytex, Bioquip Products, Rancho Dominguez, CA) was affixed with PVC glue between each plant chamber and migration tube. The screen prevented roots from growi ng down into the migration chamber, therefore nematodes had to move up the migration tube, through the screen, into the plan t chamber to feed. Soil (ca. 200 kg) was taken from between the rows of polyethylene mulched beds within the strawberry field at the Duke Â’s farm and autoclaved at 121 oC at 124 kPa for 99 minutes. Each migration tube and plant chamber was filled with this soil to approximate the bulk density that was present in the field. A 100 cm3 sample of sting nematode infested soil that was predetermined to contain ca. 424 sting nematodes/100-cm3 of soil was placed in the bottom of each migration tube and the bottom was sealed with a plastic cap. Three seeds of sweet corn cv. Silver Queen were planted 2.4-cm-d eep in each plant chamber. Th e plants were fertilized with 15 g of coated fertilizer as de scribed above. Forty-five days after nematodes were introduced, soil from around the sweet corn roots was remo ved and nematodes were extracted using the centrifugal-flotation method (Jenkins, 1964) from a 100 cm3 subsample. Sting nematodes were counted with the aid of an inverted microscope at 10 magnification. Results Population dynamics. Population densities of sting ne matode were highest at all three field sites during the months of December, Ja nuary, and February (Fig. 3-1). However, population densities from year to year within fiel d sites followed the same trends only at DukeÂ’s farm at the 0 to 13 cm depth during all three stra wberry growing seasons (Fig. 3-1). This was the only location managed in a near id entical manner from year to y ear. There were variations in crop planted (cucumber was planted at the Beauch amp farm instead of strawberry one year) and farming practices (English farm retained a new manager after September 2003).

PAGE 28

28 At the DukeÂ’s farm at the 0-13-cm dept h, population levels began to increase each November, 30 to 45 days after strawberry planti ng. Population densities within the top 13 cm continued to increase November through January then peak, and declined until June when population levels dropped to 10 to 15 nematodes/100 cm3 of soil and remained low until the following growing season. During the 20022003 and 2003-2004 grow ing seasons sting nematodes were found in soil samples at all dept hs during each month (Figs. 3-2; 3-3). Among depths other than 0 to 13 cm, sting nematode de nsities were generally hi ghest in the 13 to 26 cm and 26 to 39 cm depths (Figs. 3-2; 3-3). S ting nematodes remained low in the 52-65 and 65-78 cm depths throughout the year (F igs. 3-2; 3-3). During 2004, ther e was an additional population peak occurring at deeper soil depths during March and April (Fig. 3-3). At the Beauchamp field site, population dens ities were highest in January of 2003 and 2005 (Fig. 3-1). However, from October 2003 to May 2004 this grower planted cucumber instead of strawberry in October 2003 and February 2004. Sting nematode numbers never reached 100 nematodes/100 cm3 of soil in the 0 to 13 cm dept h while cucumber was being grown in the field (Fig. 3-1). Sting nematode populat ion densities remained low during this time, especially at 13 to 78 cm depths (Figs. 3-4; 3-5), when cucumber was in production. Sting population densities were again highest duri ng January and February 2005 and declined thereafter (Fig. 3-1). During this same time peri od sting nematode densities also increased in the 26 to 39 cm depth (Fig. 3-5). At the third location, English field site, nematode population densities were highest during February 2003 (Fig. 3-1) and January 2004 (Fig. 3-1). The planting of cantaloupe as a doublecrop after strawberry tended to increase sti ng nematode population de nsities at all depths sampled from April through August 2003 (Figs. 3-1; 3-6). Sting nematode population densities

PAGE 29

29 at the 0 to 13-cm-depth did not increase at the English farm on strawberry from November through December 2004 and Ja nuary 2005 (Fig. 3-1). Linear regression equations qua ntitatively relating both mean monthly soil temperatures and soil moisture to nematode population densi ties (0 to 13 cm depth) were significant ( P 0.05). There was no significant re lationship between soil temperatur e or moisture to nematode population densities at all other depths sa mpled. The linear model Y = -17.141x + 475.35 ( R2 = 0.569, P 0.02) was fitted to the untransformed da ta for soil temperature and nematode population density. The linear model Y = -5.1904x + 57.506 ( R2 = 0.0247, P 0.05) was fitted to the untransformed data for soil mois ture and nematode population density. Soil-bioassay. The highest initial popul ation densities of sting nematodes was in the 0 to 13, 13 to 26, and 26 to 39 cm depths, whereas the highest overall popul ation densities were detected in the 13 to 26 cm depth ( P 0.05) (Table 3-2). The highest final population densities in pots where nematodes were raised on corn were from the 26 to 39, 39 to 52, 52 to 65, and 65 to 78 cm depths, which were different from soil assayed from the 0 to 13 cm depth ( P 0.05) (Table 3-2). However, Pf/Pi ratios from soil ta ken from 39 to 52, 52 to 65, and 75 to 78 depths were greater than from soil taken from 0 to 13 and 13 to 26 cm depths ( P 0.05) (Table 3-2). Nematode movement. Within 45 days, a mean number of 12, 21, and 16 nematodes were recovered from plant chambers affixed to 45, 59, and 89-cm migration tubes, respectively. A mixture of juveniles, females, and males were r ecovered from each of the plant chambers. Discussion One of the reasons that mbr has been ine ffective at controlling sting nematode in commercial strawberry fields in the Plant City -Dover, FL region may be due, in part, to the nematode migrating down into the soil profile during the summer months, presumably because of both soil temperature and food source-qualit y or quantity (Potter, 1967). In a cotton

PAGE 30

30 production system in Florida, declines in sting ne matode population densities were attributed to the quality or absence of a food source (Crow et al., 2000c). In Hastings, FL sting nematode numbers were highest in the 0 to 20 cm depths in cabbage and potato rotations; however, sting nematode numbers were present in the 20 to 40 cm depths and increa sed during the summer months (Perez et al., 2000). In another st udy in a soybean field, sting nematode was predominately recovered in the top 30 cm of soil, however, this nematode was detected at soil at depths down to 60 cm (Brodie, 1976). In this same study, at depths below 60 cm, the clay content increased above 15% and thus was pres umably unhabitable by sting nematode (Robbins and Barker, 1974). Population decreases in strawber ry fields during the months of February and March are not directly affected by temperature alone, but perhap s more directly affected by quality and quantity of food source (Brodie, 1976). Mean monthly temp eratures in the 0 to 13 cm depths during February, March, and April 2003 were 19.4, 20.4, and 22.8 oC, respectively. During 2004, mean monthly temperatures in the 0 to 13 cm depths during the months of February and March were 20.4 and 21.6 oC, respectively. Temperatures in excess of 30 oC were reported as levels that would negatively impact sting nematodes (Boyd et al., 1972; Boyd and Perry, 1969; Han, 2001; Perry, 1964). Soil moisture appeared to have only a short-te rm effect on nematode population change. A common practice that one of the growers (DukeÂ’s ) employed at the end of each growing season was to remove the polyethylene mulch from the be ds leaving the live plants. During a dry, hot spring, the soil dries out rapidly, plants wilt, and nematodes appeared to respond by moving down in the soil profile to avoid desiccation. In one instance, after a period of drying in the spring of 2004, a period of rainy weather allowe d strawberry plants to recover and put on

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31 growth. As a consequence, sting nematode pop ulation densities increased slightly from the previous month at all depths sampled, but ul timately declined the following month. This demonstrates the need to destroy the strawberry crop after the final harvest, any delays in eliminating the food source may allow sting ne matode densities to increase, which could ultimately create more of a problem in subsequent seasons. It has been demonstrated that an application of metam sodium through the drip irri gation at the end of the strawberry season is effective in killing the strawberry plants (Noling et al., 2006). In greenhouse experiments, it was clearly demo nstrated that some of the sting nematodes recovered from a commercial strawberry field at depths below 26 cm were alive and infective following mbr application. In thes e experiments, nematode pf/pi ratios were highest in depths below 39 cm, reinforcing the theory that sting nematodes at deeper soil depths (30 to 45 cm) were capable of surviving fumigation and could re invade the root zone in subsequent seasons (Potter, 1967). I observed (under a microsc ope) that nematodes were moving, and thus presumed to be alive in soil taken from 13 to 26 cm deep. The reason for this is not known, but could possibly be a result of improper applicatio n, layers of impermeable soil (hardpan), or nondecomposed plant residues (Lembright, 1990). Experiments conducted in Tifton sandy loam soil demonstrated that gas formulations of mbr (chi sel injected 15 to 20 cm deep) and covered with polyethylene mulch) had the highest mbr gas concen trations in the 0 to 15 cm depths (Rohde et al., 1980). Concentrations of mbr were higher in the 0 to 15 cm depths than at 30, 45, and 60 cm depths and the concentration of mbr decreased w ith greater depths (Rhode et al., 1980). Further experimentation is needed to determine whethe r the concentration of mbr after fumigation in these commercial strawberry fields, at depths gr eater than 39 cm, is sufficient to kill sting nematode.

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32 Movement of plant-parasitic nematodes in th e soil profile has been clearly demonstrated for Meloidogyne incognita Radopholus similis and Tylenchulus semipenetrans (Baines, 1974; Prot and Van Gundy, 1981; Tarjan, 1971). In PVC chamber experiments, movement of M. incognita second-stage juveniles was affected by cl ay content of the soil, nematodes were incapable of moving up in th e soil profile in 100% sand (Prot and Van Gundy, 1981). By demonstrating the survival capabil ities of sting nematodes at d eeper depths after fumigation, it was necessary to demonstrate the ability of these nematodes to move up to the root zone of strawberry plants from these deeper depths. St udies conducted in controlled environments (PVC chambers) showed that nematodes could indeed move nearly 80 cm in 45 days. It appears that the sand-silt-clay ratio in these soils present within the fields of th is particular strawberry grower are conducive to movement of sting nematode in the soil profile. Further experiments are needed, replicated at different time intervals, to determine precisely how fast these nematodes can move up to the root zone after fumigation.

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33Table 3-1. General production pr actices for three cropping seasons (2002-2005) and the dates soil samples were taken to determ ine densities and depth distribution of Belonolaimus longicaudatus for each of three commercial strawberry farms in Plant City-Dover, FL 2002-2005. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Farm Fumigant Formulation Rate/ha St rawberry Double-crop Cover Sampling (mbr:pic) (broadcast) cultivar planted crop initiated ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ DukeÂ’s methyl 67:33 393 kg Camarosaa none noneb Sept 2002 bromide Festivalc Beauchamp methyl 80:20 449 kg Festivalc cucumber cowpea Jan 2003 bromide metam -----114 liters potassium English methyl 98:2 449 kg Camarosad cantaloupe noneb Jan 2003 bromide Camino Reale ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ a2002-2003 season bFields left fallow during summ er months, weeds predominate c2003-2004, 2004-2005 season d2003-2004 season e2004-2005 season

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34Table 3-2. Greenhouse soil bioassay for Belonolaimus longicaudatus residing in soil at six depths in a commercial strawberry field at the DukeÂ’s farm, 5 days after fumigating with methyl bromide, 2004. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Depth (cm) Initial population (Pi)a Final population (Pf)b Pf/Pi ratio ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 0 to 13 4.2 bc 0.4 b 0.1 b 13 to 26 10.0 a 5.3 ab 0.4 b 26 to 39 7.3 ab 19.3 a 2.0 ab 39 to 52 2.9 cd 16.9 a 6.1 a 52 to 65 1.9 d 12.2 a 5.7 a 65 to 78 1.1 d 11.0 ab 5.9 a ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Data are means of eight replicates Means within a column with the same letter are not different ( P 0.05) according to DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test. Data were transformed log10( x + 1), before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are presented. aNematodes were extracted from 100 cm3 of soil using the centrifugal-flotation method. bNematodes were extracted 45 days after inoculation from 100 cm3 of soil using the centrifugal-flotation method.

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35 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800S e p 0 2 N o v 0 2 J a n 0 3 M a r 0 3 M a y 0 3 J u l 0 3 S e p 0 3 N o v 0 3 J a n 0 4 M a r 0 4 M a y 0 4 J u l 0 4 S e p 0 4 N o v 0 4 J a n 0 5 M a r 0 5 Dukes Farm Beauchamp Farm English Farm Mean number of sting nematodes/100 cm 3 of soil Figure 3-1. Population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between September 2002 and March 2005 at a 0 to 13 cm depth with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from three commercial strawberry fields located in Plant City-Dover, FL.

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36 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90S e p 0 2 O c t 0 2 N o v 0 2 D e c 0 2 J a n 0 3 F e b 0 3 M a r 0 3 A p r 0 3 M a y 0 3 J u n 0 3 J u l 0 3 A u g 0 3 S e p 0 3 O c t 0 3 N o v 0 3 D e c 0 3Mean number of sting nematodes/100 cm 3 of soi l 13-26 cm 26-39 cm 39-52 cm 52-65 cm 65-78 cm Figure 3-2. Population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between September 2002 and December 2003 at five depths from 13 to 78 cm de ep with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from DukeÂ’s farm located in Dover, FL.

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37 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100J a n 0 4 F e b 0 4 M a r 0 4 A p r 0 4 M a y 0 4 J u n 0 4 J u l 0 4 A u g 0 4 S e p 0 4 O c t 0 4 N o v 0 4 D e c 0 4 J a n 0 5 F e b 0 5 13-26 cm 26-39 cm 39-52 cm 52-65 cm 65-78 cm Mean number of sting nematodes/ 100 cm 3 of soil Figure 3-3. Population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between January 2004 and February 2005 at five depths from 13 to 78 cm deep w ith a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10cm-diam.) from DukeÂ’s farm located in Dover, FL

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38 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70Jan 03 Feb0 3 Mar-03 Apr-03 M ay-0 3 Jun-03 Ju l -0 3 Au g-03 S ep -03 Oct-03 Nov-03 Dec 0 3 13-26 cm 26-39 cm 39-52 cm 52-65 cm 65-78 cm Mean number of sting nematodes/100 cm 3 of soil Figure 3-4. Population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between January 2003 and December 2003 at five depths from 13 to 78 cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from Beauchamp farm in Dover, FL.

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39 0 20 40 60 80 100 120J a n 0 4 F e b 0 4 M a r 0 4 A p r 0 4 M a y 0 4 J u n 0 4 J u l 0 4 A u g 0 4 S e p 0 4 O c t 0 4 N o v 0 4 D e c 0 4 J a n 0 5 F e b 0 5 13-26 cm 26-39 cm 39-52 cm 52-65 cm 65-78 cm Mean number of sting nematodes/100 cm 3 of soil Figure 3-5. Population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between January 2004 and March 2005 at five depths from 13 to 78 cm deep w ith a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from Beauchamp farm in Dover, FL.

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40 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80J a n 0 3 F e b 0 3 M a r 0 3 A p r 0 3 M a y 0 3 J u n 0 3 J u l 0 3 A ug 0 3 S e p 0 3 O c t 03 N o v 0 3 D e c 0 3 13-26 cm 26-39 cm 39-52 cm 52-65 cm 65-78 cm Mean number of sting nematodes/100 cm 3 of soil Figure 3-6. Population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between January 2003 and December 2003 at five depths from 13 to 78 cm deep w ith a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from English farm located in Dover, FL.

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41 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45J a n 0 4 F e b 0 4 M a r 0 4 A p r 0 4 M a y 0 4 J u n 0 4 J u l 0 4 A u g 0 4 S e p 0 4 O c t 0 4 N o v 0 4 D e c 0 4 13-26 cm 26-39 cm 39-52 cm 52-65 cm 65-78 cm Mean number of sting nematodes/100 cm 3 of soil Figure 3-7. Population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from 100 cm3 of soil taken monthly between January 2004 and January 2005 at five depths from 13 to 78 cm deep with a bucket auger (13-cm-long, 10-cm-diam.) from English farm in Dover, FL.

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42 CHAPTER 4 PATHOGENICITY OF Belonolaimus longicaudatus ON VEGETABLES COMMONLY GROWN AFTER STRAWBERRY IN PLANT CITY-DOVER, FL Introduction At the end of the strawberry ( Fragaria x Ananassa ) season in Florida many growers choose to double-crop their strawberry hectar age (Albregts and Howa rd, 1985; Duval et al., 2004a). Double-cropping is important to the eco nomic success of vegetabl e growers in Florida and the southern United States (Gilreath et al., 1999). During the 2002 season 56% of the surveyed strawberry hectarage had a crop gr own on the same polyethylene mulched beds immediately after the strawberry crop concl uded in February or March (Anonymous, 2002). Double crops identified in th e survey included cantaloupe ( Cucumis melo var. reticulatus ), watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ), squash ( Curcurbita pepo ), cucumber ( Cucumis sativus ), pepper ( Capsicum annuum ), eggplant ( Solanum melongena ), and tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ). At the time that growers were planting the double crop the population densities of sting nematodes on strawberry were declining in the su rface soil horizon (Hamill and Dickson, 2003). Planting a crop that is less susceptible to sting nematode would be a good way to incorporate a season-long sting nematode mana gement program. This nematode is known to have a very wide host range (Esser, 1976; Holdeman, 1955; Robbins and Barker, 1973); however, there is little information available on the susceptibility of the commonly grown double crops to the strawberry sting nematode populatio n. The planting of a less susceptible or non-host crop such as watermelon (Holdeman, 1955) could reduce numbers of nematodes in strawberry fields during the spring and early summer months (March-June). Also, by reducing the number of nematodes that oversummer in these strawberry fields, it may be possibl e to reduce injury to the subsequent strawberry crop.

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43 The objective was to evaluate seven vegeta bles commonly planted as double-crops for their susceptibility to sting ne matode obtained from strawberry grown in the Dover-Plant City, FL region. Materials and Methods Nematode culture. An isolate of B. longicaudatus that was collected from infested soil taken from around roots of stunted strawberry plants in a commer cial strawberry field (Dover, Hillsborough County, FL) was cultured in the greenhouse. The nematodes were extracted by the Baermann method (Ayoub, 1977) and approximately 200 adult nematodes were transferred manually to each of twenty 13.2-cm-diam. clay pots filled with pasteurized sandy soil (95.5% sand, 2.0% silt, and 2.5% clay). Sweet corn ( Zea mays var. rugosa cv. Silver Queen) was planted in each pot. Plants were fertilized once with 15 g of slow release fertilizer (20% N, 20% P2O5, and 20% K2O) and maintained in a greenhouse at 25 5 oC. Adult nematodes collected from these pots were used as inoculum for the following experiment. Greenhouse experiment. Seven vegetables selected fo r the experiment were: (i) sweet corn cv. Silver Queen, (ii) tomato cv. Rutgers, (iii) pepper cv. California Wonder, (iv) cantaloupe cv. Athena, (v) cucumber cv. Dasher II, (vi), squash cv. Yellow Crookneck, and (vii) watermelon cv. Sangria. Initially three seeds were planted in each pot and later thinned to a single plant. All vegetables were direct-seeded (except tomato and pepper, which included ca. 6 week old transplants) in 13.2-cm-diam. cl ay pots filled with pasteurize d sandy soil (95.5% sand, 2.0% silt, and 2.5% clay). Each plant was fertilized with 15 g of controlled release fertilizer incorporated into the soil (20% N, 20% P2O5, and 20% K2O). Pots were arranged in a randomized complete block design on a greenhouse bench with five replicates, and noninocul ated controls were included for each vegetable. Pots were inocul ated manually by placing 25 males and 25 females

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44 of sting nematode into a 2.5 cm deep depression near the base of plant stems. The nematodes were hand picked following extract ion by the Baermann method (Ayoub, 1977). Data collection. After 40 days, plants were destruc tively sampled. Roots were oven-dried at 90 oC for 1 week and dry root weights were re corded. Nematodes were extracted from 100cm3 of soil using the centrifugal-flotation met hod (Jenkins, 1964). Sting nematodes were counted using an inverted microscope at 20 magnification. Nema tode numbers per 1,400 cm3 of soil (each 13.2-cm-diam. pot contained ca. 1,400 cm3 of soil) were used to determine the percentage increase in nematode densities (Pi/ Pf ratio). Data were transformed by arcsin ( x ) before analysis and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by mean separation using DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test (SAS Institute, 2000, Cary, NC). Field experiment. The seven vegetables as listed above were planted on 24 February 2004 on strawberry beds with 71-cm bed tops sp aced 132-cm apart prepared in a commercial growerÂ’s field infested with s ting nematode. Each plot was a pproximately 3.5 m long. The soil at this location was classified as Seffner fine sa nd (96% sand, 2% silt, 2% clay; 1% OM). Each treatment consisted of 10 plants that were arranged in a complete ly randomized design with four replicates. Before planting, nine soil cores we re removed from each plot using a 20-cm deep, 2.5-cm-diam. cone-shaped sampling tube. Cores from each plot were composited and nematodes were extracted from a 100 cm3 aliquant by the centrifugal-flot ation method (Jenkins, 1964). Sting nematodes were counted using an inverted microscope at 20 ma gnification. Forty-two days after the initial sampling, a second set of soil samples were taken from each plot as stated above. Nematodes were again ex tracted and counted as above. A reproductive factor was calculated for each treatment (Rf = Pf/Pi; reproduc tive factor = final nematode population/initial nematode population) (Griffin and Asay, 1996) Data were transformed by arcsin ( x ) before

PAGE 45

45 analysis and subjected to an alysis of variance (ANOVA) fo llowed by mean separation using DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test (SAS Institute, 2000, Cary, NC). Results Greenhouse experiments. All vegetables, except waterm elon, grown in soil inoculated with sting nematode had lower root weights th an those grown in noninoc ulated soil and had an Rf index >1 ( P 0.05) (Table 4-1; Fig. 4-1). The repr oduction rate on sweet corn was higher than all other crops, and the index was more than 8-fold greater than the mean of all four curcurbits ( P 0.05) (Fig. 4-1). Tomato also proved to be an excellent host for sting nematode with a 6-fold greater reproductive rate than th e mean of all four curc urbits (Fig. 4-1). Field experiment. All treatments, except watermelon, ha d a Rf >1. The Rf for sweet corn was highest for all crops tested except tomato ( P 0.05). No differences in the reproductive rates were detected among tomato, pepper, and cantaloupe (Fig. 4-2). Discussion Watermelon was a nonhost for the strawberry population of sting nematode, which is consistent with previous findings (Holdema n, 1955; Robbins and Hi rschmann, 1974). It is important to validate the host range of sting ne matode populations from different locations on different crops because recent lit erature suggests that some populat ions may be different species (Gozel et al., 2003; Han, 2001). Examples of differences in host range among different populations of sting nematodes ar e recurrent in the literature (Abu-Gharbieh and Perry, 1970; Owens, 1951; Robbins and Barker, 1973). However, contradicting reports are also reported. For example, a Florida sting population was incapab le of reproducing on peanut (Owens, 1951), whereas others reported peanut as a su itable host (Abu-Gharbieh and Perry, 1970). Sting nematode reproduction rates in the fiel d never reached equivalent numbers to those obtained on the same crops grown in the greenhouse, thus Rf values were much lower in the field

PAGE 46

46 than expected. However, root systems of a ll field-grown plants, except watermelon, showed classic abbreviated root sympto ms typical of sting nematode damage. Although there was a reduction in root systems of all susceptible plants in the greenhouse, the classic abbreviated root symptom typical of sting nematode was rarely observ ed. It is likely that the more extensive root systems observed for greenhouse grown plants contri buted to higher sting ne matode densities. In summary, choosing watermelon as a crop to grow afte r strawberry in the Dover-Plant City region would be a good choice if the primary goal was to reduce sting nematode population densities. In both greenhouse and field experiments waterm elon was shown to be a nonhost and would not increase nematode population densities. Als o, incorporating watermelon as a double-crop in fields badly infested with s ting nematodes would be a compon ent suitable for a season-long nematode management program.

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47 Table 4-1. Comparisons of dry r oot weights of seven vegetable crops grown in pasteurized soil inoculated with 50 Belonolaimus longicaudatus per 13-cm-diam. pots and compared with noninoculated control. ______________________________________________________________________________ Dry root weight (g/plant) SEMa ______________________________________________________________________________ Cropb Noninoculated Inoculated ______________________________________________________________________________ Corn 20.9 4.1 a 5.7 0.8 b Tomato 17.6 3.0 a 5.4 0.9 b Pepper 26.8 3.1 a 4.2 0.6 b Cantaloupe 6.7 0.9 a 0.9 0.2 b Cucumber 11.7 2.5 a 5.7 1.9 b Squash 9.5 1.8 a 1.2 0.5 b Watermelon 1.9 0.6 a 1.2 0.3 a _____________________________________________________________________ aMeans followed by the same letter across ro ws were not significantly different ( P 0.05), according to DuncanÂ’s multiple-range te st. Data were transformed by arcsin ( x ) before analysis, but untransformed ar ithmetic means are presented. bAll crops were direct seeded into pots except tomato and pepper (ca. 6 week old transplants).

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48 Figure 4-1. Comparison of re productive factor values for Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode) inocul ated on seven vegetable crops commonly double-cropped with strawber ry. The crops were grown in 13.2-cm-d iam. clay pots in the greenhouse. [Rf = Pf/Pi; reproductive factor = final ne matode population density/initial nematode population density]. Bars with the same letter are not significantly different according to DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test ( P 0.05). Data were transformed by arcsin ( x ) before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are presented. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 corn tomatopeppercantaloupe cucumbersquashwatermelon R f a b c d d e f

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49 Figure 4-2. Comparison of re productive factor values for Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode) on seven vegetable crops commonly double-cropped with strawberry. The crops were grown in a commercial st rawberry field after final strawberry harvest. [Rf= Pf/Pi; reproductive factor = final nematode population density/initial nematode population density]. Bars with the same letter are not significantly diffe rent according to DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test ( P 0.05). Data were transformed by arcsin ( x ) before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are presented. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 corn tomato p eppe r cantaloupecucumbersquashwatermelon R f a ab bc bcd cd d e

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50 CHAPTER 5 FIELD TESTING AND VALIDATI ON OF CHEMICAL ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIES TO METHYL BROMIDE ON STRAWBERRY Introduction Strawberry ( Fragaria x Ananassa ) is a high value crop in Flor ida that requires in-bed fumigation for production (Mossler and Neshei m, 2004). The greatest pest and pathogen concerns for Florida strawberry gr owers include the sting nematode Belonolaimus longicaudatus (Noling, 1999; Overman, 1972; Overman et al., 1987), anthracnose ( Colletotrichum spp.), weeds such as Carolina geranium ( Geranium carolinanum ), and various arthropods including spider mites ( Tetranychus urticae ) and sap beetles ( Carpophilus spp ) (Mossler and Nesheim, 2004; Whidden et al., 1995). Currently 99 % of the strawberry hectarage in Florida is fumigated with methyl bromide (mbr) (Mossler and Neshhe im, 2004). The phase out of mbr in 2005 is complete, but its use is currently continuing under a Montreal Prot ocol treaty approved critical use exemption plan (Trout, 2005). At this tim e, the most promising chemical replacement strategy is to combine chemical treatments (fungi cides, nematicides, and herbicides) to provide similar broad spectrum control to that of mbr. The fumigant, chloropicrin, provides control of soilborne fungal organisms (Dunn and Noling, 2003), whereas the fumigant nematicide, 1,3dichloropropene (1,3-D) provides sting nematode control (Noling and Gilreath, 2002; Noling et al., 2003; Smart and Locascio, 1968), and herbicid es with the active i ngredient, oxyfluorfen, provide weed control in strawberry (Daugovish et al., 2004). Arthropods are managed with various insecticides and bi ologicals (Duval et al., 2004b) Study objectives were to test a combination of pest-specifi c soil-applied pesticides via different application techniques, e. g., 1, 3-D plus chloropicrin (via drip, in-bed, or broadcast applied) along with an alternativ e herbicide, to contro l the spectrum of weed s and pathogens that plague strawberry producers. Other mbr alte rnatives investigated include metam sodium

PAGE 51

51 (Gilreath et al. 2003; Rhoades, 1987) and Plan t Pro, a water soluable iodine based compound (Kokalis-Burelle and Dickson, 2003) All treatments were compared against an in-bed mbr application, which is currently the grower st andard (Mossler and Nesheim, 2004). Materials and Methods Field inoculation of sting nematode. During April-June, 2002 soil infested with sting nematodes was collected from commercial strawberry fields in Dover, FL and transported to the Plant Science Research and Education Unit located in Citra, FL. The field, which was initially tracked using a tractor with 1.8 m wheel spaci ng was 21 m wide and 183 m long and soils in the field were classified as a mi xture of Arredondo and Sparr fine sand (96% sand, 2.5% silt, 1.5% clay, 1.5% OM, pH 6.5). A cultivating sweep wa s used to open a furrow ca. 20-cm deep on 1.8 m centers in the center of the wheel tracks. Infested soil was placed in these furrows and covered. In May 2002 the field was planted to sweet corn ( Zea mays var. rugosa cv. Silver Queen). After harvest the field wa s tilled and planted to sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor cv. Silomaster D). Sorghum was tilled under in Augus t 2002 and the field was prepared for autumn strawberry planting. This succession of susceptib le crops was planted to increase sting nematode population densities within the field. Field trials. Two field trials were conducte d during the fall-spring 2002-2003 and 20032004 seasons, with each referred to as trials 1 an d 2, respectively. For both trials a randomized complete block design was used with four replicates. Trial 1 treatments and methods of application. The proprietary products evaluated were: Inline (65% 1, 3-dichloropr opene [1, 3-D] and 35% chloropi crin), Telone C35 (65% 1, 3-D and 35% chloropicrin), Telone II (96% 1, 3-D), and Goal 2XL (oxyfluorfen) (Dow AgroSciences, Indianapolis, IN ); Vapam HL (42% metam so dium) (AMVAC, Los Angeles,

PAGE 52

52 CA); and Plant Pro 20 EC (20% water solubl e iodine based compound [Kokalis-Burelle and Dickson, 2003]) (Ajay North America, Powder Springs, GA). Nine treatments tested were: (i) nontreated co ntrol; (ii) drip applied Inline at 243 liters/ha plus Goal 2XL at 0.56 kg ai/ha); (iii) drip applied Vapam at 701 liters/ha; (iv) in-bed chisel applied Telone C35 at 331 liters/ ha plus Goal 2XL at 0.56 kg ai/ha; (v) broadcast chisel applied Telone II at 168 liters/ha plus in bed chisel applied chloropicrin at 135 kg/ha, plus Goal 2XL at 0.56 kg ai/ha; (vi) bed spray incorporated Pl ant Pro 20EC at 181 kg/ha; (vii) bed spray incorporated Plant Pro 20 EC at 135 kg/ha; (viii) drip applied Pl ant Pro 20 EC at 135 kg/ha; and (ix) in-bed chisel appl ied 67% mbr and 33% chloropicrin at 397 kg/ha. Methods used for the application of the above mentioned treatments were: Drip = applied in irrigation water to preformed bed via a singl e twin-wall drip tape (Chapin, Watertown, NY) placed in the center of the 52.8-cm-wide bed and ca. 2.5-cm below the soil surface with emitters spaced 26.4 cm apart and a flow rate of 1.9 liters /minute per 30.5 m over a period of 4 hours; Inbed chisel injection = applied on a preformed be d with two chisels, 26 -cm spacing, 26-cm deep using a mini-combo bed press unit (Kennco, Ruskin, FL); Bed spray incorpor ated = applied over the top of a preformed bed w ith three Floodjet TFV10 nozzles (TeeJet Spraying Systems, Wheaton, IL), spaced 76-cm apart at 255 kPa in 9,463 liters of water/ha, rototilled in while rebedding; Broadcast chisel injection = applied on flat soil surface by a commercial applicator (Mirruso Fumigation, Delray Beach, FL) usi ng a Yetter Avenger coul ter injection system (Yetter, Colchester, IL) with si x chisels spaced 26-cm apart and 26-cm deep, then bedded 7 days later. Goal XL herbicide was applied over th e preformed bed surface with three 8004 TeeJet nozzles (TeeJet Spraying Systems, Wheaton, IL ), spaced 39.6-cm, at 255 kPa in 284 liters of water/ha.

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53 Trial 2 treatments and methods of application. The proprietary products evaluated were: Telone II, Telone C35, Goal 2XL, and K-Pam HL (60% metam potassium) (AMVAC, Los Angeles, CA). Eight treatments tested were: (i) nontreated control; (ii) br oadcast chisel applied Telone II applied at 168 liters/ha plus in bed chisel applied chlo ropicrin at 135 kg/ha plus Goal 2XL at 0.56 kg of ai/ha; (iii) in be d chisel applied Telone C-35 at 327 liters/ha plus Goal 2XL at 0.56 kg ai/ha; (iv) drip applied K-Pam HL at 568 liters/ha; (v) drip applied InLine at 243 liters/ha; (vi) K-Pam HL broadcast spray incorporated at 568 liters/ha plus drip applied InLine at 243 liters/ha 5 days after K-Pam HL application; (vii) in bed chisel applied chloropicrin at 135 kg/ha; (viii) in bed chisel a pplied mbr 67:33 at 397 kg/ha. Methods used for the application of the above mentioned treatments were identical with those mentioned above with the exception of broadcast spray incorpor ated of Goal 2XL = applied over the flat soil surface with three fl oodjet TFV10 nozzles, (TeeJet Spraying Systems, Wheaton, IL) spaced 76-cm, at 255 kPa in 153 liters of water/ha, rototilled in, then bedded. Trial 1. Twenty-four days post-fumigation, st rawberry cv. Camarosa transplants (Strawberry Tyme Farms, Simcoe, ON) were se t with 26-cm-spacing staggered (double row) on the bed top, ca. 80 plants per bed. Applica tions of both N (ammonium nitrate) and K2O (muriate of potash) were applied weekly at 4.3 kg/ha via drip irrigation for a total of 24 applications. Overhead irrigation was applied during the first 10 days following transpla nting to aid in plant establishment. Arthropods were managed with methomyl and malathion, and fruit and foliar pathogens were managed with captan, azoxystr obin, and thiophanatemethyl (Duval et al., 2004b). Strawberry was harvested weekly beginn ing in February and yields compared among treatments. Estimates of nematode populati on densities were determined 6 weeks after transplanting and then again after the final stra wberry harvest by collecting soil samples. Nine

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54 soil cores per treatment were removed with a cone-shaped sampler (20-cm-deep, 2.5-cm-diam.) and composited. Sting nematode s were extracted from 100 cm3 of soil by a centrifugal-flotation method (Jenkins, 1964) and counted using an inverted microscope at 20 magnification. Data were transformed by arcsin ( x ) before analysis and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by mean separation using DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test (SAS Institute, 2000, Cary, NC). Trial 2. Strawberry cv. Festival was used during 2003-2004. All other fertilizer and insecticide-fungicide applica tions remained the same as mentioned above. Efficacy was determined as in 2002-2003; however, an add itional evaluation was made by identifying and counting the number of Carolina geranium weed s per plot. Strawberry harvesting began in January and was terminated on 1 April 2004. Plan t foliage was twisted off and a double-crop of cantaloupe was planted. Cantaloupe cv. Athena was planted from seed in April. Applications of both N (ammonium nitrate) and K2O (muriate of potash) were a pplied weekly at 4.3 kg/ha via drip irrigation for a total of 10 applications. Arthropods and diseases we re managed with weekly sprays rotating methomyl, malathion, azoxystrob in, and chlorothalonil (Duval et al., 2004b). Harvest data collected included the numbers and weights of cantaloupe fruit. Data were transformed by arcsin ( x ) before analysis and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by mean separation using DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test (SAS Institute, 2000, Cary, NC). Results 2002-2003. Strawberry was harvested for 10 weeks and marketable weights of fruit among treatments were not different ( P 0.05) (Table 5-1). The highest number of sting nematodes were from soil samples taken after the final harvest from plots treated with a

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55 broadcast application of 1,3-D (Telone II) followed by an in-bed application of chloropicrin ( P 0.05) (Table 5-1). No phytotoxicity was obs erved in any of the treatment plots. 2003-2004. Strawberry was harvested for 12 week s. Compared to nontreated controls, highest marketable yields were obt ained in plots treated with (i) 1,3-D plus chloropicrin (Telone C35), (ii) metam potassium plus 1,3-D and chloropicr in (InLine), (iii) mbr, and (iv) chloropicrin ( P 0.05) (Table 5-2). The highest numbers of sting nematodes afte r final harvest were detected in plots treated with metam potassium at 574 liters/ha ( P 0.05) (Table 5-2). Where oxyfluorfen was incorporated the lowest densities of Carolina geranium plants were de tected as compared to the nontreated plots ( P 0.05) (Table 5-3). Plots treated w ith metam potassium or chloropicrin alone had higher Carolina geranium densities than nontreated plots ( P 0.05) (Table 5-3). Plots treated with InLine via drip ir rigation and mbr had the highest weight of marketable cantaloupe fruit compared to nontreated plots ( P 0.05) (Table 5-4). No phytotoxicity was observed in any of the treatment plots. Discussion Although relatively large quantitie s (ca. 2,000 kg) of sting nematode infested soil were transferred to the Citra field research site, sti ng nematode densities remained low relative to numbers found infecting strawberry in Dove r-Plant City, FL (Hamill and Dickson, 2003). Similar small increases in sting nematode populati on densities also were observed previously in chemical evaluations conducted on strawberry at a nother location in Gainesville, FL (Locascio et al., 1999). Experiments that were conducted in 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 both evaluated fumigant chemical alternatives to mbr such as 1,3-D fo rmulations and methylisothiocyanate (MITC) generators that can be applie d via drip irrigation for soilbor ne pest and pathogen control (Desaeger et al., 2004; Noling and Becker, 1994), a nd thus warranted further testing for efficacy

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56 against sting nematode. However, achieving contro l of targeted pathogens with application of fumigants via the drip irrigation can be difficult on the sandy soils of Florida. A drip applied fumigant is subject to differences in concentration within the soil profile as it radiates out from drip tape emitters (Lembright, 1990 ). Also, in these two field s easons, broadcast applications of 1,3-D (Telone II) were tested for nematode control, followed a week later by an in-bed application of chloropicrin for soilborne disease management. Strawberry growers routinely apply overhead ir rigation to their fields to optimize soil moisture before bed formation. In both field s easons this practice was duplicated at Citra; however before bedding and applying chloropicri n, which was applied 7 days after Telone II broadcast, irrigation was not re-applied. All othe r treatments were applied on the same day as the broadcast application of Telone II on pre-wet soil. This did not seem to be a problem at the time, however in retrospect, it seems evident that bed formation under proper soil moisture conditions was critical. Two of the five treatment plots where 1,3-D (Telone II) was applied broadcast lay fallow for a week, before bedding and in-bed chloropicrin application, had the polyethylene mulch torn from them. Bed integrit y was not of the same quality as in the other treated plots. Two plots treated with 1,3-D (Tel one II) plus chloropicrin in-bed had the lowest number of fruits as well as lowest marketable we ight of cantaloupe fruits. This was due mainly to the quality of bed formation and thus two of the replicates had the polyethylene mulch torn from them when strawberry plants were rem oved. In other field experiments, broadcast applications of 1,3-D (Telone II ) did not penetrate compaction or “traffic” layers (1,3-D not detected by sampling) that were present in ma ny commercial fields in Dover-Plant City, FL (Noling et al., 2003).

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57 After the 2002-2003 growing season it became ev ident that weed cont rol was going to be a significant issue when applying a lternative treatment strategies that did not have a herbicide component. Ongoing research sugg ested that oxyfluorfen applied at 0.56 kg of a.i./ha under the PE mulch as a fallow-bed treatment 30 days be fore strawberry planting provided effective control of winter annuals (Gilreath and Santos, 2005; Stall, pers. co mm.). In these trials Carolina geranium was especially problematic and yields with some treatments may have been reduced due to relatively high weed densities. Further re search that includes virtually impermeable film (VIF), to enhance retention of soil applied fumigants, and other integrated pest management practices (eradication, preventing seed maturati on, and hand weeding) may be necessary to manage this particular weed species (Noling and Gilreath, 2004). In thes e trials, even mbr failed to control this weed. Under field conditions, double-cropped vegetables were often severely affected by sting nematode. Cantaloupe is a popular crop grow n after strawberry because it can be direct seeded and advanced planning of a planting date is often no t needed (Duval et al., 2004a). During the past three seasons it was observed that sting nemato de damaged field grown cantaloupe in DoverPlant City, FL region. However, no below groun d damage (abbreviated r oots) or significant increases in nematode population de nsities occurred in these experi mental plots located at Citra, FL

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58Table 5-1. Marketable yield of strawberry, and pre-harvest and post-harvest densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode) as affected by nematicid e treatments in Citra, FL, 2002-2003. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Treatment and Application We ight of Pre-harvesta Post-harvestb broadcast rate/ha method marketable fruit sting nema/100 cm3 sting nema/100cm3 (kg/ha) soil soil ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Nontreated 22,393 0.25 2.0 b InLine, 243 liters In-bed 23,267 0.25 4.0 b Metam sodium, 701 liters Drip 23,267 0.25 4.5 b Telone C35, 327 liters In-bed 25,889 0.75 5.5 b Telone II, 168 liters + Broa dcast, in-bed 24,410 0.25 10.0 a chloropicrin, 135 kg Plant Pro 20 EC, 136 kg Drip 24,275 0.75 5.5 b Plant Pro 20 EC, 136 kg Broadcast 22,393 0.75 3.3 b

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59Table 5-1. ( cont.) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Treatment and Application We ight of Pre-harvesta Post-harvestb broadcast rate/ha method marketable fruit sting nema/100 cm3 sting nema/100 cm3 (kg/ha) soil soil ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Plant Pro 20 EC, 181 kg Drip 22,393 0.0 4.3 b Mbr/pic 67:33 In-bed 26,794 1.5 6.5 b ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Data are means of four replicates Means within a column with the same letter are not different ( P 0.05) according to DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test. Data were transformed by arcsin ( x ), before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are presented. aMean number of sting nematodes per 100 cm3 of soil taken with a 2.5-cm-diam. cone-shaped sampling tube from around strawberry roots 4 weeks after st rawberry plant establishment. bMean number of sting nematodes per 100 cm3 of soil taken with a 2.5-cm-diam. cone-shaped sampling tube from around strawberry roots after final strawberry harvest.

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60 Table 5-2. Marketable yield of strawberry, and pre-harvest and post-harvest densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode) as affected by fumigant treatments in Citra, FL, 2003-2004. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Treatment and Application Weight of Pre-harvesta Post-harvestb broadcast rate/ha method ma rketable fruit sting nema/100 cm3 sting nema/100 cm3 (kg/ha) soil soil ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Nontreated 40,549 b 0.4 1.8 c InLine, 243 liters Drip 43,373 b 0.8 2.2 c Metam potassium, 561 liters Drip 44,046 b 0.0 5.5 b Telone C35, 327 liters In-bed 45,861 a 0.4 7.2 a Telone II, 168 liters, + Broadcast, 44,969 b 0.4 2.0 c chloropicrin, 135 kg in-bed Metam potassium 561 liters, Broadcast, drip 45,524 a 0.4 1.0 c 65% 1,3-D and 35% chloropicrin, 243 liters

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61Table 5-2. (cont.) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Treatment and Application Weight of Pre-harvesta Post-harvestb broadcast rate/ha method ma rketable fruit sting nema/100 cm3 sting nema/100 cm3 (kg/ha) soil soil ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Mbr/pic 67:33, 393 kg In-bed 48,484 a 0.4 1.8 c Chloropicrin, 135 kg In-bed 45,996 a 0.4 2.0 c ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Data are means of four replicates Means within a column with the same letter are not different ( P 0.05) according to DuncanÂ’s multiple range test. Data were transformed by arcsin ( x ), before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are presented. aMean number of sting nematodes per 100 cm3 of soil taken with a cone-shaped sampling tube from around strawberry roots 4 weeks after strawberry plant establishment. bMean number of sting nematodes per 100 cm3 of soil taken with a cone-shaped samp ling tube from around strawberry roots after final strawberry harvest.

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62Table 5-3. Number of Carolina geranium plants as affected by fumigant and herbicide treatments in Citra, FL, 2003-2004. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Fumigant treatment and Application Herbicide treatment Number of Carolina geranium/ broadcast rate/ha method and broadcast rate a.i./haa 12.2 m row ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Nontreated 19.4 b InLine, 243 liters Drip oxyfluorfen, 0.56 kg/ha 12.6 b Metam potassium, 561 liters Drip 29.6 a Telone C35, 327 liters In-bed oxyfluorfen, 0.56 kg/ha 8.6 c Telone II, 170 liters, + Broadcast, oxyfluorfen, 0.56 kg/ha 8.6 c chloropicrin, 135 kg in-bed Metam potassium 561 liters, + Broadcast, drip 23.2 a InLine, 243 liters Mbr/pic 67:33, 393 kg In-bed 14.0 b Chloropicrin, 135 kg In-bed 23.2 a ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Data are means of five replicates. Means within a column with the same letter are not different ( P 0.05) according to DuncanÂ’s multiple range test. Data were transformed (x + 1), before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are presented. aAll oxyfluorfen herbicide treatments were applied with th ree 8004 TeeJet nozzles (TeeJet Spraying Systems Co., Wheaton, IL.), spaced 39.6-cm, at 255 kP a in 284 liters of water/ha.

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63Table 5-4. Marketable numbers and yields of cantaloupe as affected by fumiga nts when planted as a double-crop after strawberry Citra, FL, 2004. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Fumigant treatment and Application Number of fruits/ha We ight of fruits broadcast rate/ha method (kg/ha) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Nontreated 3,551 a 8,314 b InLine, 243 liters Drip 3,981 a 11,242 a Metam potassium, 560 liters Drip 4,196 a 10,009 ab Telone C35, 327 liters In-bed 4,227 a 9,354 b Telone II, 168 liters, + Broadcast, 968 b 1,559 c chloropicrin, 135 kg in-bed metam potassium 561 liters, + Broadcast, drip 4,438 a 9,652 b InLine, 243 liter

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64Table 5-4. (cont.) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Fumigant treatment and Application Number of fruits/ha We ight of fruits broadcast rate/ha method (kg/ha) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Mbr/pic 67:33, 393 kg In-bed 4,169 a 11,022 a Chloropicrin, 135 kg In-bed 4,331 a 9,853 b ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Data are means of five replicates. Means within a column with the same letter are not different ( P 0.05) according to DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test. Data were transformed by arcsin ( x ), before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are presented.

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65 CHAPTER 6 PATHOGENICITY OF FIVE STING NEMA TODE ISOLATES ON STRAWBERRY Introduction Yield losses due to sting nematode feedi ng within some commercial strawberry ( Fragaria x Anansassa ) fields may be as high as 100% (Noling, pers. comm.). Prior investigation has shown that different pathotypes or physiologi cal races of sting nematode occur in the southeastern United States (Abu-Gharbieh a nd Perry, 1970; Duncan et al., 1996; Robbins and Hirschmann, 1974). Genetic analys is of different populations has suggested that some of these isolates may be different species in the genus Belonolaimus (Gozel et al. 2003; Han, 2001). Prior experiments determined that two sting nema tode isolates (Sanford and FullerÂ’s crossing) were not pathogenic on strawberry (Abu-Gharbi eh and Perry, 1970). The former was from a vegetable production region, and the latter was from a citrus produc tion region. The objective of these experiments was to test for differences in virulence among different sting nematode isolates on strawberry. Materials and Methods Nematode isolates. Populations of sting nematodes were collected from the following locations in Florida: (i) a corn ( Zea mays unknown variety) field at a da iry farm in Trenton, (ii) Orange Blossom golf course in Be lleview, (iii) a sugarcane (unknown Saccharum hybrid) field in Indiantown, (iv) a commercial strawberry fi eld (Benson DukeÂ’s Farm) in Dover, and (v) a citrus (unknown Citrus hybrid) grove at the Citrus Resear ch and Education Center in Lake Alfred. The original isolates were retrie ved June 2002 (Trenton), Ju ly 2002 (Indiantown), September 2002 (Lake Alfred), and October 2002 (B elleview), whereas the isolate from Dover was retrieved multiple times because it was used for other experiments. All isolates except

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66 Dover and Lake Alfred were initially detected in soil samples that were processed through the Florida Nematode Assay Laboratory. Nematode culture. Nematodes were extracted by the Baermann method (Ayoub, 1977). Approximately 200 adults were transferred manua lly into 13.2-cm-diam. clay pots filled with pasteurized sandy soil (95.5% sand, 2.0% si lt, and 2.5% clay). Sweet corn ( Zea mays var rugosa ‘Silver Queen’) was planted in each pot, excep t for pots with the Lake Alfred population which was raised on rough lemon ( Citrus jambhiri ). A polymer-coated fertilizer (Osmocote, Scotts, Marysville, OH) (20% N, 20% P2O5, and 20% K2O) was incorporated monthly and pots maintained in a greenhouse at 25 5 oC. Soil from pots containing nematode cultures was examined every 60 days by Baermann method to ensu re presence of nematodes. Nematodes that were extracted were then manually transferre d to new pots with a new host plant. Greenhouse experiments. Strawberry cv. Sweet Charlie transplants were obtained from a strawberry nursery (Nourse Farms, South Deerfi eld, MA) and planted in 13.2-cm-diam. clay pots filled with pasteurized sandy soil. Fertilization was the same as previously mentioned. Pots were arranged in a randomized complete block de sign with five replicates and a non-inoculated control was included. Treatment pots were inoc ulated manually with each isolate of sting nematodes (25 males and 25 females) per pot obtained by the Baermann method. Each experiment was repeated. Data collection. After 40 days, strawberry plants we re destructively sampled. Strawberry roots were oven-dried at 90 oC for 1 week and dry root weights were recorded. Nematodes were extracted from 100-cm3 of soil using the centrifugal-f lotation method (Jenkins, 1964) and counted using an inverted microscope at 10 ma gnification. Data were transformed by arcsin

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67 ( x ) before analysis and subjected to anal ysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by mean separation using DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test (SAS Institute, 2000, Cary, NC). Results Results from the two experiments were tested for heterogeneity and determined to be different; thus data were not combined ( P 0.05). Experiment 1. Dry root weights of strawberry inoculated with the Dover nematode isolate were lower than root we ights from non-inoculated pots ( P 0.05) (Table 6-1). All nematode isolates reproduced on strawberry an d reproduction ranged from 3-fold for LA to 4.5fold greater for the Dover and Belleview isol ates. Nematode reproduction on strawberry was greater for the Dover and Belleview isolates as compared to the Lake Alfred isolate ( P 0.05) (Table 6-1). Experiment 2. Dry root weights of strawberry inoculated with the Dover nematode isolate were lower than root weights from nontreated pots ( P 0.05) (Table 6-1). Nematode reproduction was greatest for the Dover isolate ( P 0.05). Other than the Dover isolate, only the Belleview isolate reproduced. Discussion The results obtained from the two experiments di ffered greatly. In the first experiment, all nematode isolates increased a minimum of 3-fo ld. In the second expe riment only the Dover isolate reproduced. In general, the dry root we ights of strawberry were greater in the second experiment as compared to the first which indica tes there was likely less nematode feeding in the second experiment. Upon close examination, it was discovered that all isolates, except fo r the Dover isolate, were infected with Pasteuria spp. Considerable efforts were made to screen these Pasteuria infected (Giblin-Davis et al., 2001) isolates so as to inoculate w ith only healthy individuals. The

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68 second experiment was initiated in February 2004. At that time all isolates had lower numbers of sting nematodes and it was di fficult to find specimens free of Pasteuria spp. for experimentation. Nematode reproduction in the second experiment was considerably lower than in the first experiment. Pasteuria spp. could be responsible for suppressing nematode reproduction. In both experiments, the Dover isol ate was the most virulent causing the greatest reduction in root growth. However, lack of virulence in the other isolates may have been due to the presence of Pasteuria spp. in these populations. Propagation of sting nematode s under greenhouse conditions was difficult and oftentimes quite variable. Precise conditions for maintaining cultures were not known at that time. It is possible that critical component s include a certain temperature range and soil moisture (Robbins and Barker, 1974) as well as adequate cycling of host plants as to insure the quality of the food source has not deteriorated.

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69Table 6-1. Mean dry root we ights and nematode reproducti on of different isolates of Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode) grown on strawberry cv. Sweet Charlie in a greenhouse in 13.2-cm-diam. pots. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Isolate (Location) Dry root wei ght (g) Sting nematodes/100 cm3 of soila Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Experiment 1 Experiment 2 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Trenton 9.8 ab 15.9 a 14.0 ab 2.4 c Belleview 10.6 a 14.6 b 16.4 a 5.0 b Indiantown 9.3 ab 14.3 b 14.0 ab 3.6 bc Dover 8.5 b 12.3 c 16.0 a 11.0 a Lake Alfred 10.1 a 14.7 b 11.2 b 3.2 bc Noninoculated 11.4 a 14.4 b 0 c 0 d ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Data are means of five replicates. Means within a column with the same letter are not di fferent according to DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test ( P 0.05). Data were transformed by arcsin ( x ) before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are presented. aPots contained ca. 1,400 cm3 of soil.

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70 CHAPTER 7 EFFECTS OF REDUCED RA TES OF TELONE C35 AND METHYL BROMIDE IN CONJUNCTION WITH VIRTUALLY IMPE RMEABLE FILM TECHNOLOGY ON WEEDS AND NEMATODES Introduction For approximately the past 35 years vegetable growers in the southern United States have been using methyl bromide (mbr) very effectiv ely as a part of a polyethylene mulch production system (Locascio, et al., 1999; Noling and Becker 1994). This system includes raised beds tightly covered with polyethylene mulch, high fertil ity rates, and drip or subsurface irrigation. Often, the system entails double cropping (a prim ary crop followed by a second crop on the same mulched beds). Double cropping is very importa nt to the economic succ ess of this production system in Florida and the southern United States (Gilreath et al., 1999). A primary soil treatment before the first crop is needed that will also provide for satisfactory production of a second crop or rotational crop that is plante d on the original polyethylene mu lch covered beds. In Florida, fresh market tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) is generally consider ed as a primary crop followed by cucumber ( Cucumis sativus ), bell pepper ( Capsicum annuum ), or eggplant ( Solanum melongena ). Tomato is valued at more than $600 m illion and represents nearly 30% of the total value of all vegetable crops grown in Florida, and bell pepper and eggplant are valued at $220 and $15 million, respectively (Anonymous, 2003). Growers depend on mbr as part of the polyethylene mulch production system because it provides economical management of nematodes, most soilborne diseases, and weeds (Noling and Becker, 1994). Mbr is especially effective in controlling yellow ( Cyperus exculentus ) and purple ( C rotundus ) nutsedge as compared to other preplant treatments (Gilreath et al., 2004; Gilreath and Santos, 2004; 2005; Locascio et al., 1999). The fumigant is injected into the soil in preformed beds where it kills nematodes, f ungi, and weed seeds (Lembright, 1990). After

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71 injected into beds, mbr rapidly dissipates allo wing for a short re-entry period and planting 48 hours following application. When mixed with chloropicrin (e.g., 33% chloropicrin) this chemical remains in the soil solution and soil air pores for a longer period of time. Because of lower volatility and the reduced ra te of biological degradation of chloropicrin compared to mbr, there is an extended re-entry period a nd a longer waiting period before planting. Methyl bromide has been identified as an ozone-depleting subs tance and has been completely phased out, effective 1 January 2005 under the Montreal Pr otocol (Lehnert, 2006; Rich and Olson, 2004; Trout, 2005). Currently, unde r the United States nomination and critical use exemption (CUE) program growers are allowed to continue using a sp ecified allocation of mbr (Anonymous 2005; Lehnert, 2006). These nomina tions are evaluated y early and granted to commodity groups who have demonstrated attempts to reduce rates and emi ssions of the product. The lower production rate of mbr, a requireme nt of the phaseout, is increasing cost. The use of virtually impermeable film (VIF) mulch technology coupled with lower rates of mbr may serve to lower emissions from the soil, maintain the same efficacy on soilborne pests and pathogens, and reduce or essentially eliminat e emissions of the fumigant from the mulched beds (Noling, 2004). VIF film has been shown to be at least 75-fold less permeable to mbr than conventional low-density polyethylene mulch f ilms (LDPE) and may be as much as 500 to 1,000-fold less permeable than LDPE films (Yates et al., 2002). A likely alternative to mbr for tomato producti on in Florida is 1,3-D formulated with 35% chloropicrin (Telone C35, Dow Agro Sciences, Indianapolis, IN). The benefits of using VIF are reducing fumigant rates yet maintaining marketable vegetable yield, and e quivalent reductions of root-knot nematode galling, nutsedge densities, and root rotting comp arable to that obtained with standard mulch films (Gilreath et al. 2004;2005; Locascio et al., 2002; Ne lson, et al., 2000). VIF

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72 retained larger amounts of mbr, 1,3-D, and chloropicrin in the r oot zone with longer residential time in the subsurface of field soil than LDPE af ter application of mbr or 1,3-D plus chloropicrin (Telone C35) by standard chisel injection, Aven ger coulter injection (Y etter, Colchester, IL) (Anonymous, 2001a,b), or drip ir rigation (Ou et al., 2005). With the improved retention, concentrations of 1,3-D and chloro picrin under the VIF covered beds were greater than that in the LDPE covered beds after a pplication of 1,3-D plus chloropi crin (Telone C35) (Ou et al., 2005). However, no data is available on the effect s of VIF on efficacy of 1,3-D plus chloropicrin (Telone C35), whether applied at labeled rates or lower rates. Objectives were to determine the efficacy of lower rates of mbr and 1,3-D plus ch loropicrin (Telone C35) compared to standard rates under LDPE vs. VIF, and 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin emulsified (InLine, Dow AgroSciences, Indianapolis, IN ) and metam potassium (60 % a.i.) (K-pam HL, American Vanguard, Newport Beach, CA) applications via dr ip irrigation for the double crop. 1,3-D plus chloropicrin (Telone C35) applie d at lower rates was included to provide growers information on its effectiveness as an alternative to mbr. These experiments focusing on reducing fumigant rates and the uses of VIF were carried out in tomato and squash because an available site in a commercial strawberry field infested with sting nematodes could not be identified. Past attempts to artificially inoculate a field site with sting nematode had been unsuccessful, and an available site at a University of Florida experiment station was available, had a uniform distribution of rootknot nematodes, and was more suited to conducting this experiment. Th e system of growing tomato and squash using reduced rates of fumigants in co njunction with VIF can be used as a model system for strawberry should promise be demonstrated in these experiments.

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73 Materials and Methods Experiments were conducted at the Plant Scie nce Research and Education Unit, University of Florida located in Citra, FL. Field dimens ions were 21 m wide by 183 m long. The site used in spring 2004 was artificially inoculated in the summer of 1999 by distributing infected Meloidogyne arenaria tomato cv. Rutgers roots placed in 25-cm-deep plowed furrows spaced 7 m apart, and the site used in fall 2004 was similarly inoculated using tomato roots infected with M. javanica Over time, both sites have become infested with mixed populations of Meloidogyne spp. Endemic plant-parasitic nematodes populations of Trichodorus spp. and Criconemoides spp. also were present at the time of each experiment. Root-knot nematodes were maintained at uniform, high levels by planting okra ( Hibiscus esculentum cv. Clemson Spineless) across the field where experiments were conducted. The field sites also had a moderate to heavy infestation of both purple and yellow nutsedges. Classification of soils in the field ranged from Arredondo fine sand to Sparr fine sand, both loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Grossarenic Paleudults with ch aracteristics of 95% sand, 3% si lt, 2% clay, 1.5% OM, and pH 6.5. Treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with four replicates. Fumigant treatments comprised the whole-plots and mulch type (VIF and LDPE) comprised the sub-plots. All treatments were applied in raised beds 23cm tall, 91-cm wide, 12-m long and spaced on 1.8-m centers. Raised beds were formed using a Kennco powerbedder (Kennco Mfg., Ruskin, FL). Immediately before bed formation a 6-17-16 (N-P2O5-K2O) fertilizer mix was banded over the plots at 842 kg/ha. After bed fo rmation, fumigant treatments were applied with a Kennco minicombo unit (Kennco Mfg., Ruskin, FL) and beds were covered with mulch. The virtually impermeable mulch was 0.356 mm black on white (H ytibar Flex, Klerks Plastic Products Mfg., Richburg, SC), LDPE mulch was 0.254 mm black embossed (Pliant Plastics, Muskegon, MI). A

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74 single drip tube (8 mil, 30-cm emitter spacing) w ith a flow equivalent of 1.9 liters/minute/30.5 m of row (Roberts Irriga tion Products, San Marcos, CA) was inse rted into the bed center at the same time the beds were fumigated and covere d with mulch. All fumigant treatments were applied with three chisels per bed, 26.4-cm spacing, 26.4-cm deep. Additional N and K2O were applied via drip tube as ammonium nitrate a nd muriate of potash, respectively in 8 weekly applications divided equa lly to deliver a total of 168 kg/ha N and 168 kg/ha K2O for the crop. Foliar fungal pathogens were managed using ch lorothalonil, mancozeb, and azoxystrobin, and arthropod pests were managed using methomyl a nd esfenvalerate (Maynard et al., 2004). Spring tomato. Fumigants evaluated include 67% mbr and 33% chloropicrin (mbr 67:33) at 197, 295, and 393 kg/ha and 1,3-D plus chlo ropicrin (Telone C35) at 164, 243, and 327 liters/ha. The calibration of rates was done by wei ght with a closed syst em (the fumigant was shunted into a spare cylinder during the calibration process). A nontreated control bed was included for a total of seven treatments. Toma to cv. Tygress was transplanted in March 2004. Fruit was harvested and root-knot nematode root galling was rate d in June 2004. Data collected included: (i) number of nutsedge plants per replicate (4 weeks af ter transplanting), (ii) harvest data, tomato fruit from each treatment were grad ed (Kerian speed sizer, Kerian Machines Inc., Grafton, ND ) into extra-large, large, medium, and culls and each of the first three categories weighed for marketable yield, and (iii) after the final harvest, six plant root systems, chosen arbitrarily, were dug per plot and subjected to a root-g all rating based on a 0 to 100 scale where 0 = no visible galls, 10 = 10% of the root syst em galled...100 = 100% of the root system galled (Barker et al., 1986). All data were subjected to ANOVA and mean separation by DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test.

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75 Double crop fall cucumber. After the final spring tomato harvest, all tomato plants were sprayed with a non-selective herbicide (paraquat) at 0.4 liters/ha. Two weeks later remaining plant debris was manually removed from the beds The black plastic was sprayed over with white Kool Grow paint (Suntec Paints, Gainesvi lle, FL) at 37.9 liter s product in 378.5 liters water. On 12 August 2004 beds were seeded with cucumber cv. Dasher II ca. 25 seeds per bed. Beds were fertilized five times weekly via drip irrigation w ith 13.4 kg/ha N and K2O formulated as ammonium nitrate and muri ate of potash, respectively. Al l fungicide a nd insecticide applications were made as specified for the spri ng tomato crop. Cucumber fruit were harvested once weekly for 6 weeks in 2004 and marketable fruit was weighed for yield. After the final harvest, six plant root systems, chosen arbitr arily, were dug per plot and galling determined based on the subjective root-gall rating scale of 0 to 100, where 0 = no visible galls, 10 = 10% of the root system galled...100 = 100% of the root sy stem galled (Barker et al., 1986). All data were subjected to ANOVA and mean separa tion by DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test. Fall squash. Methods in the fall were the same as the spring, except that a white on black low density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch was used. The VIF was the same Hytibar flex, but laid with the white side exposed to surface, LDPE was 0.254 mm white on black embossed (Pliant Plastics, Muskegon, MI). Fumigants evalua ted were (i) mbr 67:33 at 393, 295, and 197 kg/ha, (ii) 98% mbr plus 2% chloropicr in (mbr 98:2) at 197 kg/ha, (iii ) 1,3-D pus chloropicrin (Telone C35) at 327 liters/ha, (iv) chlo ropicrin at 136 kg/ha, and (v) ch loropicrin at 136 kg/ha plus metam potassium applied via the drip system at 561 liters/ha, plus (vi) a nontreated control for a total of eight treatments replicated four times Fumigant treatments co mprised the whole-plots and mulch type comprised the sub-plots. Expe riments were initially designed to be conducted with tomato and then double cropped with squas h, but the tomato seedlings that were initially

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76 transplanted in August 2004 were severely injured by strong wi nds and heavy rainfall from hurricanes. Results Spring tomato. There was an interaction ( P 0.05) between fumigants and mulch type for densities of nutsedge plants per meter squa re, thus comparisons were made only within mulch types. Under VIF film, a ll fumigant treatments except 1,3-D plus chloropicrin (Telone C35) at 164 liters/ha (lowest rate) had lowe r nutsedge densities than nontreated plots ( P 0.05) (Table 7-1). Under LDPE film, treatments of mbr 67:33 at 393 and 295 kg/ha and 1,3-D plus chloropicrin (Telone C35) at 327 liters/ha had lower nutsedge de nsities than nontreated plots ( P 0.05) (Table 7-1). For marketable yield of tomato fruit and gall ing of tomato roots there was no interaction ( P > 0.05) between fumigants and mulch type, therefor e the data were combined for analyses. All fumigant treatments had higher marketable yields of tomato fruit as compared to nontreated plots ( P 0.05) (Table 7-1). All treatments, except 1,3-D plus chloropicrin (Telone C35) at 164 liters/ha, had gall ratings lo wer than nontreated plots ( P 0.05) (Table 7-2). Double crop fall cucumber. No interactions were detected ( P > 0.05) between fumigants and mulch type for marketable yiel d of cucumber fruit or galling of cucumber roots, thus the data were combined for the two mulch types. All fu migant treatments had higher marketable yields than nontreated plots except mbr at 392 kg/ha ( P 0.05) (Table 7-3). None of the fumigant treatments had gall ratings significan tly different than nontreated plots ( P 0.05) (Table 7-3). Fall squash. There was no interaction ( P > 0.05) between mulch type and fumigant treatments for marketable yield and gall ratings, t hus data were combined for the two variables. All fumigant treatments had higher marketable yields than nontreated plots except both chloropicrin treatments (with and without metam potassium) ( P 0.05) (Table 7-4). All

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77 fumigant treatments had lower gall ratings than nontreated plots excep t the two chloropicrin treatments (with and without metam potassium) ( P 0.05) (Table 7-4). A significant interaction occurred ( P 0.05) between fumigant and mulch type for nutsedge density per treatment and thus treatments were compared only within mulch type. Under VIF mulch, all treatments except chloropicrin or chloropicrin plus metam potassi um controlled nutsedges better than the control ( P 0.05) (Table 5). There was a higher density of nutsedge following chloropicrin plus metam potassium than in the nontreated control ( P 0.05). Under LDPE mulc h none of the treatments were different than the nontreated control excep t chloropicrin plus metam potassium which had higher nutsedge densities ( P 0.05). Discussion In these experiments we planned to further demonstrate the advantag e of using virtually impermeable film technology to enhance fumigant efficacy when applied at labeled rates as well as determining the effects of these fumigants app lied at a 25 and 50% reduc tion of labeled rates. To date, formulations containi ng 1,3-D plus chloropicrin have shown the most promise as alternatives to mbr (Gilreath and Santos, 2004). However, the lack of activity of this chemical against weeds remains an impediment to its use as a drop-in replacement for mbr. In the spring tomato trial, treatments containing 1,3-D plus chloropicrin (Telone C35) at 327 liters/ha in conjunction with both VIF and LDPE films signi ficantly reduced nutsedge densities and root galling, and increased marketable yields of primary grown crops. Although good nutsedge control was obtained with 1,3-D plus chloropicrin (Telone C35) in our trial, such results are inconsistent from year to year (Dickson, pers. comm.). In the sp ring trial we attempted to reduce the rates of this treatment to 243 and 164 liters/ha In all instances the densities of nutsedge plants emerging through the plastic beds incr eased, the root-gall indices increased, and the

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78 marketable yield decreased. Thus, in the fall of 2004 we purposely omitted the reduced rates of 1,3-D plus chloropicrin (Telone C35). In spring grown tomato, reducing the rate of mbr applied under VIF made it possible to reduce nutsedge densities and r oot-knot nematode galling while maintaining yields comparable to those obtained under standard dosage regard less of mulch type. Similar findings were reported with half-rates of mbr under VIF in spri ng grown tomato (Nelson et al. 2000). In fall grown squash, all mbr treatments led to larger ma rketable yields of fruit and lower root-knot nematode gall ratings regardless of film type. Double-cropping has become esse ntial to the economic survival of vegetable growers in Florida. In our experiments we hoped to demo nstrate the efficacy of reduced rates of mbr and 1,3-D in conjunction with VIF against root-knot nematodes in double-cropped cucumber. The results that we obtained were unexpe cted. In general, treatments that had the lowest marketable yields of tomato had the highest marketable yiel ds of cucumber. No treatment, rate, or mulch type demonstrated any control of root-knot nematode in double cropped cucumber. All treatments had gall ratings greater than 80%. We had attempted, in a separate experiment, to demonstrate that applying either 65% 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin (Inlin e) or metam potassium before planting would provide control of root-kno t nematodes on the second crop. However, this experiment was ruined by a succession of three hu rricanes that hit Florida in the fall of 2004. Further experiments should be designed to utilize these two fumigants app lied via drip irrigation before a second crop is planted, and compare their e fficacy with the use of re sistance genes, in a primary crop, to limit nematode reproducti on on the first crop (Rich and Olson, 2004). Because the mulched beds were left undamage d by the hurricanes, squash was planted in mid-October to salvage the experiment. The late planting of squash and the lack of a primary

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79 crop led to lower than expected ga lling of roots. One interesti ng observation in the fall studies concerned nutsedge densities in each of the trea tments. In treatments where chloropicrin was applied in-bed followed by metam potassium vi a drip irrigation, nutsedge densities were significantly higher than nontreated pl ots. Nutsedge plants in all plots treated with chloropicrin were notably more vigorous and he althy than nutsedge plan ts in nontreated plots. It appears that chloropicrin in combination with metam potassium at the rates that we tested, has more of a stimulating effect on nutsedge rather than producing an herbicidal effect.

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80 Table 7-1. Effects of fumigant, fumigant rate, and mulch type on c ontrol of nutsedge, Citra, FL, Spring 2004. _____________________________________________________________________ Fumigant Broadcast rate/haa Nutsedge plants/m2 Mulch type _____________________________________________________________________ VIFb PEc _____________________________________________________________________ Nontreated 33.0 a 50.0 a Methyl bromide 393 kg 0.8 d 1.3 d Methyl bromide 295 kg 0.8 d 5.3 c Methyl bromide 197 kg 1.8 c 28.3 ab 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 327 liters 5.8 bc 11.8 b 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 243 liters 6.0 bc 32.5 a 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 164 liters 16.3 ab 32.3 a _____________________________________________________________________ Data are means of four replicates. Means within columns with the same letter are not different according to DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test ( P 0.05) aRates were based on 1.8 m row spacing. bVirtually impermeable film 0.356 mm black on white. cStandard commercial polyethyle ne mulch 0.254 mm black embossed.

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81 Table 7-2. Main effect of fu migant and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on total marketable yield of tomato, Citra, FL, Spring 2004. _____________________________________________________________________ Fumigant Broadcast rate/hac Total marketable yield (boxes/ha)d Mulch type mean _____________________________________________________________________ Nontreated 3,319 d Methyl bromide 393 kg 8,745 ab Methyl bromide 295 kg 8,183 b Methyl bromide 197 kg 9,105 a 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 327 liters 7,962 b 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 243 liters 7,315 c 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 164 liters 5,936 c _____________________________________________________________________ Data are means of four replicates. Means within columns with the same letter are not different according to DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test ( P 0.05) aVirtually impermeable film 0.356 mm black on white. bStandard commercial polyethyle ne mulch 0.254 mm black embossed. cRates were based on 1.8 m row spacing. dTotal marketable yield equals yields of extr a-large, large, and medium tomatoes (Kerian Speed Sizer). One box is equivalent to 11.36 kg.

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82 Table 7-3. Main effect of fu migant and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on galling of tomato roots, Citra, FL, Spring 2004. _____________________________________________________________________ Fumigant Broadcast rate/hac Gall ratingd Mulch type mean _____________________________________________________________________ Nontreated 31.6 a Methyl bromide 393 kg 1.4 d Methyl bromide 295 kg 2.0 d Methyl bromide 197 kg 6.8 c 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 327 liters 15.2 b 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 243 liters 17.0 b 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 164 liters 41.5 a _____________________________________________________________________ Data are means of four replicates. Means within columns with the same letter are not different according to DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test ( P 0.05) aVirtually impermeable film 0.356 mm black on white. bStandard commercial polyethyle ne mulch 0.254 mm black embossed. cRates were based on 1.8 m row spacing. dBased on a 0 to 100 scale, where 0 = no galls, 10 = 10% of the root system galledÂ… 100 = 100% of root system galled.

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83 Table 7-4. Main effect of fu migant and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on total marketable yield of double-cropped cucu mber, Citra, FL, Fall 2004. _____________________________________________________________________ Fumigant Broadcast rate/hac Total marketable yield (kg/ha) Mulch type mean _____________________________________________________________________ Nontreated 1,549 d Methyl bromide 393 kg 500 e Methyl bromide 295 kg 2,923 c Methyl bromide 197 kg 3,168 ab 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 327 liters 3,086 bc 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 243 liters 4,375 a 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 164 liters 4,460 a _____________________________________________________________________ Data are means of four replicates. Means within columns with the same letter are not different according to DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test ( P 0.05) aVirtually impermeable film 0.356 mm black on white. bStandard commercial polyethyle ne mulch 0.254 mm black embossed. cRates were based on 1.8 m row spacing.

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84 Table 7-5. Main effect of fu migant and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on galling of doublecropped cucumber, Citra, FL, Fall 2004. _____________________________________________________________________ Fumigant Broadcast rate/hac Gall ratingd Mulch type mean _____________________________________________________________________ Nontreated 80.0 a Methyl bromide 393 kg 88.7 a Methyl bromide 295 kg 92.5 a Methyl bromide 197 kg 80.9 a 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 327 liters 96.1 a 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 243 liters 84.1 a 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 164 liters 87.7 a _____________________________________________________________________ Data are means of four replicates. Means within columns with the same letter are not different according to DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test ( P 0.05) aVirtually impermeable film 0.356 mm black on white. bStandard commercial polyethyle ne mulch 0.254 mm black embossed. cRates were based on 1.8 m row spacing. dBased on a 0 to 100 scale, where 0 = no galls, 10 = 10% of the root system galledÂ… 100 = 100% of root system galled.

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85 Table 7-6. Main effect of fu migant and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on total marketable yield of fall-grown squash, Citra, FL, Fall 2004. _____________________________________________________________________ Fumigant Broadcast rate/hac Total marketable yield (kg/ha) Mulch type mean _____________________________________________________________________ Nontreated 2,353 b Methyl bromide 67:33 393 kg 3,367 a Methyl bromide 67:33 295 kg 3,339 a Methyl bromide 67:33 197 kg 4,333 a 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 327 liters 4,422 a Methyl bromide 98:2 197 kg 4,915 a Chloropicrin 133 kg 2,381 b Chloropicrin plus metam 133 kg, 561 liters 2,110 b potassiumd _____________________________________________________________________ Data are means of four replicates. Means within columns with the same letter are not different according to DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test ( P 0.05) aVirtually impermeable film 0.356 mm black on white. bStandard commercial polyethyle ne mulch 0.254 mm black embossed. cRates were based on 1.8 m row spacing. dChloropicrin was applied as an in-bed tr eatment followed by metam potassium applied through the drip irrigation.

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86 Table 7-7. Main effect of fu migant and rate (mean of VIFa and PEb mulch) on gall ratings of fall-grown squash, C itra, FL, Fall 2004. _____________________________________________________________________ Fumigant Broadcast rate/hac Total marketable yield (kg/ha) Mulch type mean _____________________________________________________________________ Nontreated 20.6 a Methyl bromide 67:33 393 kg 1.9 cd Methyl bromide 67:33 295 kg 4.4 cd Methyl bromide 67:33 197 kg 8.2 bc 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 327 liters 5.0 cd Methyl bromide 98:2 197 kg 0.0 d Chloropicrin 133 kg 17.6 a Chloropicrin plus metam 133 kg, 561 liters 11.9 ab potassiumd _____________________________________________________________________ Data are means of four replicates. Means within columns with the same letter are not different according to DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test ( P 0.05) aVirtually impermeable film 0.356 mm black on white. bStandard commercial polyethyle ne mulch 0.254 mm black embossed. cRates were based on 1.8 m row spacing. dChloropicrin was applied as an in-bed tr eatment followed by metam potassium applied through the drip irrigation.

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87 Table 7-8. Effects of fumigant fumigant rate, and mulch type on control of nutsedge on fallgrown squash, Citra, FL, Fall 2004. _____________________________________________________________________ Fumigant Broadcast rate/haa Nutsedge plants/m2 Mulch type _____________________________________________________________________ VIFb PEc _____________________________________________________________________ Nontreated 19.1 b 18.0 bc Methyl bromide 67:33 393 kg 3.9 d 15.9 c Methyl bromide 67:33 295 kg 6.5 cd 21.5 bc Methyl bromide 67:33 197 kg 11.9 cd 24.0 bc 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin 327 liters 0.0 d 11.4 d Methyl bromide 98:2 197 kg 2.4 d 12.8 d Chloropicrin 133 kg 23.9 ab 29.6 ab Chloropicrin plus metam 133 kg, 561 liters 35.1 a 40.9 a potassiumd ____________________________________________________________________ Data are means of four replicates. Means within columns with the same letter are not different according to DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test ( P 0.05) aRates were based on 1.8 m row spacing. bVirtually impermeable film 0.356 mm black on white. cStandard commercial polyethyle ne mulch 0.254 mm black embossed. dChloropicrin was applied as an in-bed tr eatment followed by metam potassium applied through the drip irrigation.

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88 CHAPTER 8 TOLERANCE OF COMMERCIA LLY AVAILABLE STRAWBER RY CULTIVARS GROWN IN DOVER, FL TO STING NEMATODE, Belonolaimus longicaudatus Introduction Belonolaimus longicaudatus is a highly virulent pathogen of strawberry Fragaria x Ananassa (Christie et al., 1952; Noling, 2004). Due to the impending phase out of methyl bromide (mbr), research efforts have focused not only on chemical alternatives, but also cultural practices to reduce sting nematode injury to strawberry (Hamill and Dickson, unpubl.). There is no known resistance in strawberry to sting nematode however, stra wberry cultivars are known to differ in response to infection by other plan t-parasitic nematodes, e.g., lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans Cobb, 1917, (Adams and Hickman, 1970; Dale and Potter, 1998; Kimpinski, 1985). There are reports where differe nt cultivars of crop plants respond differently to sting nematode. For example, Coker 100WR cotton was a good host for a South Carolina population of sting nematode (Holdeman and Gr aham, 1953), but Stoneville 7A was a poor host (Robbins and Barker, 1973). In tu rfgrass, Tifway bermudagrass was tolerant to sting nematode. There was less root reduction on this cultivar compared to cultiv ars Midiron, Tifdwarf, Tifgreen, Tifgreen II, Tifway II, and Turfco te (Giblin-Davis et al., 1992). The importance of developing resistance or tole rance to sting nematode within strawberry germplasm is currently being emphasized (Chand ler, pers. comm.). One recently released cultivar, Festival, was speculated to have sting nematode tolerance by growers however, this was never documented experimentally. The objective of this project was to evaluate whether strawberry cultivars commonly grown in the Pl ant City-Dover region of Florida would respond differently to the virulence of sting nematodes.

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89 Materials and Methods 2003-2004 Sting nematode infested and noninfested sites. The experiment was conducted in two separate fields, one with a history of sting nematode infestation and the other without a history of sting nematode. The infe sted site was located on the Benson Duke farm, whereas the noninfested site wa s located on the Southwest Flor ida Research and Education Center, Dover, FL. These two field sites were located ca. 0.5 km apart and soil analysis show them to have near identical soil type. The s ites had a long history of strawberry production dating back to the 1950Â’s. The experiment was conducted in an area ca. 15 15 m2. At the DukeÂ’s farm the experiment was place within an area with a known sting nematode problem even though fumigated annually with mbr. Both sites had raised beds 24.7-cm high, and 69.2-cm wide, spaced on 1.2 m centers and fumigated with 67% mbr and 33% chloropicrin at 392 kg/ha. Two weeks after fumigation, seedlings of five cultivars, Treasure, Cama rosa, Carmine, Festival, and Sweet Charlie (Strawberry Tyme Farms, Simcoe, ON) were pl anted in a RCBD with four replicates. Strawberry plants were set with 26.4-cm sp acing staggered in double rows on the bed top, 20 plants per replicate. Data collected from th ese sites included: (i) fruit harvested from each treatment three times during the growing season, (ii) nematode numbers, and (iii) dried root weight. Soil samples for nematode extraction were taken from each plot by collecting 20 soil cores, ca. 500 cm3 of soil total, from each plot with a 2.5-cm-diam. cone-shaped sampling tube and composited. Nematodes were extracted from 100 cm3 of soil by the centrifugal-flotation method (Jenkins, 1964), and counted using an inverted microsc ope at 20 magnification. Soil was collected 4 weeks after planting and again afte r final strawberry harvest. Four strawberry root systems were removed per plot and oven-dried at 90 oC for 2 weeks. Data were transformed

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90 ( x + 1) before analysis and subjected to an alysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by mean separation using DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test (SAS Institute, 2000, Cary, NC). 2004-2005 DukeÂ’s farm. Two experiments were conduc ted, one located in an area determined free of sting nematodes based on ne matode extraction from soil samples and the second located in an area with a history of s ting nematode damage. Soil samples, nematode extraction, counts, and fumigati on practices were as reported for 2003. Two weeks after fumigation, five cultivars, Camino Real, Camarosa Festival, Ventana (Str awberry Tyme Farms, Simcoe, ON), and Carmine (Allen Nursery, Centrevi lle, NS) were planted in a RCBD with four replicates in both locations. Strawberry plants were set w ith 26.4-cm spacing staggered in double rows on the bed top, 20 plants per replicate. The data collected from this site were the same as stated above for 2003 except that two st rawberry plants were dug from each plot, 10 weeks after planting, and again at the end of the strawb erry season. The root systems and plant foliage were separated and each were oven dried at 90 oC for 2 weeks and weighed. Data were transformed ( x + 1) before analysis and cultivars grown in infested and noninfested soil were compared using single degree of freedom cont rasts using the GLM model (SAS Institute, 2000, Cary, NC). Results 2003-2004 Sting nematode infested and noninfested sites. At the infested site, mean fruit weights and dry root weights fo r all cultivars were not different ( P > 0.05) (Table 8-1). Initial nematode population densities were not different for any of the treatments ( P > 0.05); however, a greater number of sting nematodes we re recovered from soil samples taken from around roots of cv. Treasure as compared to all other cultivars except Camarosa ( P 0.05) (Table 8-2).

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91 At the noninfested site, the cv. Treasure had the highest mean fruit weight of all cultivars tested, whereas Camarosa had th e lowest mean fruit weight ( P 0.05) (Table 8-1). Dry root weights for all cultivars at th is site were not different ( P > 0.05) (Table 8-1). All cultivars grown at the noninfested site ha d greater yields than those grown at the infested site, ranging from 2-fold for Camarosa to 4-fold for Treasure. Mean dry root weights were 2-fold greater for all cultivars at the non-inf ested site as compared to the infested site. 2004-2005 DukeÂ’s Farm. Ten weeks after planting, only the cv. Festival had lower dry root weights grown in infested soil as compared to noninfested soil ( P 0.05) (Table 8-2). Also, at 10 weeks after planting, the cvs. Festival, Camino Real, and Ventana had lower dry leaf weights when grown in infested soil as compared to noninfested soil ( P 0.05) (Table 8-3). At the end of the strawberry season (ca. 18 w eeks after planting), near ly all dry leaf and root weights were higher for cultivars grown in noni nfested soil as compared to cultivars grown in infested soil ( P 0.05) (Tables 8-2; 8-3). Only the cv. Camino Real had dry leaf weights that were not different when grown in infest ed as compared to noninfested soil ( P > 0.05) (Table 83). Fruit harvest (2005). The cvs. Festival and Camarosa had greater fruit weights from plants picked in noninfested plots as compared to infested plots ( P 0.05) (Table 8-4). The cvs. Festival and Camarosa had yields more than 2fold greater when grow n in noninfested soil as compared to infested soil. Discussion To test the tolerance of strawberry cultivars within commercial strawberry fields, experiments were conducted in two separate lo cations. There were a number of factors that could not be controlled that affect ed the results. First, sting ne matode distribution within fields is often too patchy for a randomized comple te block design. Secondly, arranging a design

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92 blocked by nematode density is difficult because of the number of samples that need to be taken to assure that the blocks cont ain equivalent sting nematode numbers, and also whether the individuals detected are healthy and will feed and reproduce. A nd lastly it was difficult to find grower fields that have sufficient sting nema todes for experimentati on but also have sting nematode free areas within the field where control plots can be located. During the course of these experiments it seemed evident that all five commercial cultivars were severely impacted by sting nematodes. Abbreviated root symptoms were observed on all five cultivars at the DukeÂ’s farm in both 2003-2004 and 2004-2005. At the Dover station only one of the five cultivars, Camarosa, had a lower amount of harvested fruit. The above ground plant growth a ppeared normal, but when roots were dug at the end of the season they were nearly 100% galled by Meloidogyne hapla The infection by M. hapla certainly could be responsible for the lower yields. Since the Camarosa transplants all came from the same place, all Camarosa plants were dug from the DukeÂ’s farm as well as another research farm in Citra, FL, where othe r experiments were bei ng conducted. Roots from cv. Camarosa plants dug at Plant Science Research and Education Unit located in Citra, FL, were also galled, and the species was again identified as M. hapla At the DukeÂ’s farm, however, none of the plant roots were galled. It is difficult to en sure that transplants received from nurseries in Canada are free of nematode pathogens; however it is common to find them infected with Pratylenchus penetrans M. hapla and Verticillium dahliae. Experiments conducted in 2004-2005 demonstrated that cultivars with increased vigor appeared to be less affected by low densities of sting nematodes. The cvs. Camino Real and Ventana grew larger than the other cultivars evalua ted regardless of whether grown in infested or noninfested soil. These two cultivars have peak fruit production during March and April, but

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93 horticulturally, they are not as accep table to growers as cvs. Festival or Treasure. Growers prefer cultivars that begin producing fr uit earlier in the growing season. Prices for fruit are always highest in late December through February and us ually decline after 1 March. The cv. Carmine planted in fall of 2004 was received from a differen t nursery (Allen Nursery) than other cultivars. The root systems of these plants were noticeably more vigorous than the other cultivars received from Strawberry Tyme farms. It is estimated th at the initial root densities of these plants was more than 3-fold greater than the other cultivar s from Canada. Perhaps the increased density of roots on strawberry transplants could be a major factor in reducing losses to sting nematode.

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94 Table 8-1. Fruit and dry root weights, a nd nematode reproduction at final harvest on five commercially produced strawberry cul tivars grown in Belonolaimus longicaudatus infested and noninfested fi eld soil, Dover, FL 2003-2004. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Fruit weight (g) Dry root weight (g) Nematode reproductiona ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Cultivar Infested Noninfested Infested Noninfested Pib Pfc ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Treasure 819 a 3,792 a 10.6 a 18.8 a 5.0 a 193.6 a Festival 1,110 a 3,051 b 9.9 a 21.7 a 4.8 a 131.8 b Sweet Charlie 906 a 2,721 b 8.9 a 19.7 a 3.8 a 105.0 b Carmine 948 a 2,940 b 9.3 a 15.7 a 4.0 a 118.8 b Camarosa 1,053 a 1,971 c 10.5 a 21.7 a 3.4 a 160.0 ab ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Data are means of four replicates. Means within columns with the same letter are not different according to DuncanÂ’s multiple-range test ( P 0.05). Data were transformed by arcsin (x), before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are presented. aDukeÂ’s farm only, no sting nematodes present in e xperimental plots at D over experiment station. bInitial population (Pi) determined from 100 cm3 of soil taken with a cone-shape d sampling tube before fumigation. cFinal population (Pf) determined from 100 cm3 of soil taken with a cone-shaped sampli ng tube at final harvest (March 2004).

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95Table 8-2. Root weights of five strawberry cultivars grown in a commercial st rawberry field (DukeÂ’s farm) in noninfested soil and soil infested soil with Belonolaimus longicaudatus 2004-2005. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Grams of root 10 weeks after plantinga Grams of root at final harvesta ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Cultivar Infested Noninfested Significance Infested Noninfested Significance ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Carmine 24.3 25.3 NS 13.3 33.3 ** Festival 19.7 29.5 ** 12.9 30.4 ** Camino Real 24.9 25.3 NS 15.9 25.5 Camarosa 20.6 25.2 NS 11.9 26.9 ** Ventana 20.6 23.2 NS 13.9 32.1 ** ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Data are means of four replicates Data were transformed by arcsin (x) before analysis, but un transformed arithmetic means are presented. aRoots were oven dried at 90 oC for 2 weeks before weighing.

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96Table 8-3. Leaf weights of five strawbe rry cultivars grown in a commercial strawb erry field (DukeÂ’s farm) in noninfested soil and soil infested with Belonolaimus longicaudatus 2004-2005. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Grams of leaves 10 weeks after plantinga Gr ams of leaves at final harvesta ___________________________________ _____________________________________ Cultivar Infested Noninfested Significance Infested Noninfested Significance ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Carmine 46.9 59.7 NS 44.6 125.1 ** Festival 37.1 65.3 ** 45.7 117.9 ** Camino Real 36.9 59.9 86.4 108.9 NS Camarosa 36.9 50.5 NS 44.1 132.9 ** Ventana 42.2 91.7 *** 81.2 162.4 ** ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Data are means of four replicates Data were transformed by arcsin (x) before analysis, but un transformed arithmetic means are presented. aLeaves were oven dried at 90 oC for 2 weeks before weighing.

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97 Table 8-4. Fruit weights of five strawberry cu ltivars grown in a commer cial strawberry field (DukeÂ’s farm) in sting nematode ( Belonolaimus longicaudatus) infested and noninfested soil, 2004-2005. _______________________________________________________________ Cultivar Mean fruit weight (kg/20 plants)a _______________________________________________________________ Infested Noninfested Significance _______________________________________________________________ Carmine 1.5 1.9 NS Festival 0.9 2.0 *** Camino Real 0.6 1.0 NS Camarosa 0.7 1.5 ** Ventana 1.2 0.9 NS _______________________________________________________________ Data are means of four replicates. Data were transformed (x + 1) before analysis, but untransformed arithmetic means are presented. aFruit were harvested three times at 2 week intervals beginning 11 January 2005.

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98 LIST OF REFERENCES Abu-Gharbieh, W. I., and V. G. Perry. 1970. Host differences among Florida populations of Belonolaimus longicaudatus Rau. Journal of Nematology 2:209-216. Adams, R. E., and C. E. Hickman. 1970. Infl uence of nematicidal treatments and fungicidal sprays on yield of strawberries. Plant Disease Reporter 54:923-926. Albregts, E. E., and C. M. Howard. 1985. D ouble cropping strawberries with vegetables. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 98:299-301. Anonymous 2001a. Application technology for injec ting Telone. Methyl bromide alternatives 7:5-6. Anonymous 2001b. YetterÂ’s new rig makes Telone application easy. Florida Grower 94:20. Anonymous 2002. Berry vegetable times. Available: http://strawberry.ifas.ufl.edu/ BerryTimes/GrowerSurvery2002.htm Accessed 13 October 2005. Anonymous 2003. Florida Agricultur al Statistics Service. Vegeta bles: Acreage, production, and value. 2003. Orlando, FL: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Marketing and Development. Anonymous 2005. Florida Agricultur al Statistics Service. Vegetables: Acreage, production, and value. Orlando, FL: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Marketing and Development. Ayoub, S. M. 1977. Plant nematology agricultural training aid. Sacram ento, CA: Department of Food and Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry. Baines, R. C. 1974. The effect of soil type on movement and infection rate of larvae of Tylenchulus semipenetrans Journal of Nematology 6:60-62. Baird, R. E., R. F. Davis, P. J. Alt, B. G. Mullinix, and G. B. Padgett. 1996. Frequency and geographical distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes on co tton in Georgia. Journal of Nematology 28:661-667. Barker, K. R. 1968. Seasonal population dynamics of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylench us zeae, Trichodorus christei and Tylenchorynchus claytoni Nematologica 14:2-3. Barker, K. R., R. S. Hussey, and H. Yang. 1975. Effects of light intensity and quality on reproduction of plant parasitic nematode s. Journal of Nematology 7:364-368.

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99 Barker, K. R., J. L. Townshend, G. W. Bir d, I. J. Thomason, and D. W. Dickson. 1986. Determining nematode population responses to control agents. Pp. 283-296 in K. D. Hickey, ed. Methods for evalua ting pesticides for control of plant pathogens. St. Paul, MN: APS Press. Boyd, F. T., and D. W. Dickson. 1971. Plantparasitic nematodes: Occurrence in Florida, sensitivity to temperatures, and effect on trop ical forage yields. Proceedings of the Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida 31:267-268. Boyd, F. T., and V. G. Perry. 1969. Effect of sting nematodes on establishment, yield, and growth of forage grasses on Florida sandy soils Proceedings of the Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida 29:288-300. Boyd, F. T., V. N. Schroeder, and V. G. Pe rry. 1972. Interaction of nematodes and soil temperatures on growth of three tropical grasses. Agrono my Journal 64:497-500. Brodie, B. B. 1976. Vertical distribution of thr ee nematode species in relation to certain soil properties. Journal of Nematology 8:243-247. Brodie, B. B., and B. H. Quattlebaum. 1970. Vert ical distribution and population fluctuations of three nematode species correlated with soil temperature, moisure, and texture. Phytopathology 60:1286 (Abstr.). Brooks, A. N., and J. R. Christie. 1950. A nemat ode attacking strawberry roots. Proceedings of the Florida State Hortic ultural Society 63:123-125. Christie, J. R. 1953. The sting nematode can be controlled by soil fumigation. Down to Earth 9:9. Christie, J. R. 1959. The sti ng and awl nematode. Pp. 126-135 in J. R. Christie, ed. Plant nematodes, their bionomics and control. Gain esville, FL: University of Florida Press. Christie, J. R., A. N. Brooks, and V. G. Perry. 1952. The sting nematode, Belonolaimus gracilis a parasite of major importance on strawberri es, celery, and sweet corn in Florida. Phytopathology 42:173-176. Colbran, R. C. 1960. Studies of plant and soil nematodes. 3. Belonolaimus hastulatus Psilenchus tumidus and Hemicycliophora labiata three new species from Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agronomic Animal Science 17:175-181. Cooper, W. E., J. C. Wells, J. N. Sasser, and T. G. Bowery. 1959. The efficacy of preplant and post plant applications of 1,2-dibromo-3-ch loropropane, on control of sting nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudatus Plant Disease Reporter 42: 903-908. Crow, W. T., D. W. Dickson, D. P. Weingartner, R. McSorley, a nd G. L. Miller. 2000a. Yield reduction and root damage to cotton induced by Belonolaimus longicaudatus Journal of Nematology 32:205-208.

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100 Crow, W. T., D. P. Weingartne r, R. McSorley, and D. W. Dickson. 2000b. Damage function and economic threshold for Belonolaimus longicaudatus on potato. Journal of Nematology 32:318-322. Crow, W. T., D. P. Weingartne r, R. McSorley, and D. W. Di ckson. 2000c. Population dynamics of Belonolaimus longicaudatus in a cotton production syst em. Journal of Nematology 32:210-214. Dale, A., and J. W. Potter. 1998. Strawberry cul tivars vary in their resistance to northern lesion nematode. Supplement to the Journal of Nematology 30:577-580. Daugovish, O., S. A. Fennimore, J. A. Valdez, K. Roth, and J. S. Rachuy. 2004. Proceedings of the methyl bromide alternative and emission reductions conference. Orlando, FL. 10: 1-4. Desaeger, J. A., A. S. Csinos, and J. E. Laska. 2004. Drip-applied soil pesticides for nematode control in double-cropped vegetable systems. Proceedings of the methyl bromide alternative and emission reductions conference. Orlando, FL. 10: 1-4. Dickerson, O. J., W. G. Willis, F. J. Dainell o, and J. C. Pair. 1972. The sting nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudatus in Kansas. Plant Disease Reporter 56:957. Dickson, D. W., and D. De Waele. 2005. Ne matode parasites of peanut. Pp. 393-436 i n M. Luc, R. A. Sikora, and J. Bridge, eds. Plant parasitic nematodes in s ubtropical and tropical agriculture. Cambridge, MA: CABI. Duncan, L. W., J. W. Noling, R. N. Inserr a, and D. Dunn. 1996. Spatial patterns of Belonolaimus spp. among and within citrus orchards on FloridaÂ’s central ridge. Journal of Nematology 28:352-359. Dunn, R. A., and J. W. Noling. 2003. Character istics of principal nematicides. Document RFNG009. Gainesville, FL: Univ ersity of Florida. Flor ida Cooperative Extension Service. Duval, J. R., E. A. Golden, and A. Whidden. 200 4a Interplanting seconda ry crops into existing strawberry fields. Document HS988. Gainesvi lle, FL: University of Florida. Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Duval, J. R., J. F. Price, G. J. Hochmuth, W. M. Stall, T. A. Kucharek, S. M. Olson, T. G. Taylor, S. A. Smith, and E. H. Simonne. 2004b. Strawberry production in Florida. Document HS736. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Esser, R. P. 1976. Sting nematodes, devasta ting parasites of Florid a crops. Nematology Circular No. 18. Gainesville, FL: Departme nt of Agriculture and Consumer Service, Division of Plant Industry.

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101 Esser, R. P., and S. E. Simpson. 1984. Sting nematode on citrus. Nematology Circular No. 106. Gainesville, FL: Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service, Division of Plant Industry. Fortuner, R., and M. Luc. 1987. The reapprai sal of Tylenchida (Nemata). The family Belonolaimidae; Whitehead, 1960. Annual Review of Nematology 10: 183-202. Giblin-Davis, R. M., J. L Cisar, and F. G. Bilz. 1993. Evaluation of fosthiazate for the suppression of phytoparasitic nematodes in turfgrass. Nematropica 23:167-175. Giblin-Davis, R. M., J. L Cisar, F. G. Bilz, and K. E. Williams. 1991. Management practices affecting phytoparasitic nematodes in ‘tifgr een’ bermudagrass. Nematropica 21:59-64. Giblin-Davis, R. M., J. L Cisar, F. G. Bilz, a nd K. E. Williams. 1992. Ho st status of different bermudagrasses ( Cynodon spp.) for the sting nematode Belonolaimus longicaudatus Journal of Nematology 24:749-756. Giblin-Davis, R. M., D. S. Williams, W. P. Wergi n, D. W. Dickson, T. E. Hewlett, S. Bekal, and J. O. Becker. 2001. Ultrastructure and development of Pasteuria spp. (S-1 strain) an obligate parasite of Belonolaimus longicaudatus (Nemata: Tylenchida). Journal of Nematology 33: 227-238. Gilreath J. P., T. N. Motis, and B. M. Santos. 2005. Cyperus spp. control with reduced methyl bromide plus chloropicrin doses under virtually impermeable films in pepper. Crop Protection 24:285-287. Gilreath, J. P., J. W. Noling, a nd P. R. Gilreath. 1999. Soilborne pest control in tomato and double-cropped cucumber. EDIS Publications, Un iversity of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Available: http://www.imok.ufl.edu/veghort/ pubs/workshop/Gilreath99.htm Accessed 4/13/05. Gilreath, J. P., T. N. Motis, J. Norton, and J. W. Noling. 2003. Results of the IR-4 strawberry methyl bromide alternatives program in Florida during 2002. Proceedings of the methyl bromide alternative and emission reduc tions conference. San Diego, CA. 1:1. Gilreath, J. P., and B. M. Santos. 2004. Met hyl bromide alternatives for weed and soilborne disease control in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ). Crop Protection 23:1193-1198. Gilreath, J. P., and B. M. Santos. 2005. W eed management with oxyfluorfen and napropamide in mulched strawberry. Weed Technology 19:65-68. Good, J. M. 1968. Relation of plant parasitic nematodes to soil management practices. Pp. 113138 in G. C. Smart, Jr. and V. G. Perry, eds. Tropical Nematology. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press. Gozel, U., K. B. Nguyen, L. W. Duncan, J. E. Hamill, and B. J. Adams. 2003. Morphological and molecular variability among Belonolaimus (Nemata: Belonolaimidae) populations in Florida. Journal of Nematology 35:340 (Abstr.).

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102 Graham, T. W., and Q. L. Holdeman. 1953. The sting nematode Belonolaimus gracilis Steiner: A parasite on cotton and other crops in South Carolina. Phytopathology 43:434-439. Griffin, G. D., and K. H. Asay. 1996. Biol ogy and pathogenicity of three ectoparasitic nematode species on crested wheat grasses. Nematropica 26:15-25. Hamill, J. E., and D. W. Dickson. 2003. Sti ng nematode plagues local strawberry growers during the 2002-2003 season. Berry/Vegetable Times. August 2003, 3(7):2-3. Han, H-R. 2001. Characterization of intraspecific variations of Belonolaimus longicaudatus by morphology, developmental biology, host specif icity, and sequence analysis of ITS-1 rDNA. PhD Dissertation, Department of Entomology and Nematology, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville. Han, H-R, A. Jeyaprakash, D. P. Weingartner, and D. W. Dickson. 2006. Morphological and molecular biological characterization of Belonolaimus longicaudatu s. Nematropica 36:3752. Holdeman, Q. L. 1955. The present know n distribution of the sting nematode Belonolaimus gracilis in the coastal plains of the southeas tern United States. Plant Disease Reporter 39:5-8. Holdeman, Q. L. 1956. Effectiveness of ethylen e dibromide, DD, and Nemagon in controlling the sting nematode on sandy soils in South Carolina. Phytopathology 46:15 (Abstr.). Holdeman, Q. L, and T. W. Graham. 1953. Th e effects of different plant species on the population trends of the sting nematode. Plant Disease Reporter. 37:577-580. Huang, X., and J. O. Becker. 1997. In-vit ro culture and feeding behavior of Belonolaimus longicaudatus on excised Zea mays roots. Journal of Nematology 29:411-415. Hutchinson, M. T., and J. P. Reed. 1956. The sting nematode Belonolaimus gracilis found in New Jersey. Plant Disease Reporter 40:1049. Jenkins, W. R. 1964. A rapid centrifugal-flot ation technique for separating nematodes from soil. Plant Diseas e Reporter 48:692. Karst, T., 2005. Methyl bromide exempti on granted. Florida Farmers, Available: http://www.floridafarmers.org/ news/articles/exemption.htm Accessed 15 February 2006. Kerr, E. D., and D. S. Wysong. 1979. Sting nematode, Belonolaimus sp. in Nebraska. Plant Disease Reporter 63:506-507. Khuong, N. B. 1974. Some nematodes associated with vegetables in North Florida, and pathogenicity of Belonolaimus longicaudatus to collard, kale, and cauliflower. M.S. Thesis, Department of Entomology and Nematology, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville.

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103 Khoung, N. B, and G. C. Smart, Jr. 1975. The effect of Belonolaimus longicaudatus on growth of collard, kale, and cauliflower. Plant Disease Reporter 59: 819-822. Kimpinski, J. 1985. Nematodes in strawberries on prince Edward Island, Canada. Plant Disease 69:105-107. Kokalis-Burelle, N., and D. W. Dickson. 2003. Evaluation of Pl antpro 45 and Plantpro 20 EC as alternatives to methyl bromide soil fu migation for tomato production in Florida. Nematropica 33:171-178. Lehnert, D. 2006. Phase-out continues; Critical use exemptions continue. Vegetable Growers News. Available: http://www.vegetablegrowersnews.com/pages/arts.php?ns=273 Accessed 4/16/2006. Lembright, H. W. 1990. Soil fumigation: Princi ples and application t echnology. Supplement to the Journal of Nematology 22:632-644. Locascio, S. J., D. W. Dickson, S. M. Olson, J. P. Gilreath, J. W. Noling, C. A. Chase, T. R. Sinclair, and E. N. Rosskoff. 1999. Alte rnative treatments to methyl bromide for strawberry. Proceedings of the Florid a State Horticultural Society 112:297-302. Locascio, S. J., D. W. Dickson, and E. Rosskopf 2002. Alternative fumigants applied with standard and virtually impermeable mulches in tomato. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 115:192-194. Lopez, R. 1978. Belonolaimus, un Nuevo integrante de la nematofauna de Costa Rica. Agronomia Costarricense 2:83-85. Manteiro, A. R., and L. G. E. Lordello. 1977. Dois novos nematoides encontrados associados a canade-acucar. Revistade Agricu ltura Piracicaba, Brazil 52:5-11. Maynard, D. N., G. J. Hochmuth, S. M. Olson, C. S. Vavrina, W. M Stall, T. A. Kucharek, S. E. Webb, T. G. Taylor, S. A. Smith, and E. H. Simonne. 2004. Tomato Production in Florida in 271-284 Vegetable Production Guide for Florida, S. M. Olson and E. H. Simonne eds. University of Florida Cooperative Extension. Miller, L. I. 1972. The influence of soil texture on the survival of Belonolaimus longicaudatus Phytopathology 62:670-671. Mossler, M. A., and O. N. Nesheim. 2004. Florida crop/pest management profiles: Strawberries. Document CIR1239. Gainesville FL: University of Florida. Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Mundo-Ocampo, M., J. O. Becker, and J. G. Baldwin. 1994. Occurrence of Belonolaimus longicaudatus on bermudagrass in the Coachella Valley. Plant Disease 78:529. Myers, R. F. 1979. The sting nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudatus from New Jersey, USA. Plant Disease Reporter 63:756-757.

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104 Nelson, S. D., L. H. Allen, Jr., J. Gan, C. Rieg el, D. W. Dickson, S. J. Locascio, and D. J. Mitchell. 2000. Can virtually impermeable films reduce the amount of fumigant required for pest-pathogen management in high value crops. Proceedings of the Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida 59:85-89. Noling, J. W. 1999. Nematode management in st rawberries. Document ENY-31. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. Flor ida Cooperative Extension Service. Noling, J. W. 2004. Reducing methyl bromide field application rates with plastic mulch technology. Document ENY-046. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Noling, J. W., A. Whidden, and P. Gilreath. 2006. Integrated strategies of sting nematode management: What growers should be consid ering. Berry/Vegetable times. Available: http://strawberry.ifas.uf l.edu/BerryTimes/BVT0506.pdf Accessed 5/20/2006. Noling, J. W., and J. O. Becker. 1994. The chal lenge of research and extension to define and implement alternatives to methyl brom ide. Journal of Nematology 26:573-586. Noling, J. W., and J. P. Gilreath. 2002. Fiel d scale demonstration/ validation studies of alternatives for methyl bromide in plastic mulc h culture in Florida. Citrus and Vegetable Magazine 65:19-31. Noling, J. W., and J. P. Gilreath. 2004. Use of impermeable film plastic mulches (VIF) in Florida strawberry. Proceedings of the methyl bromide alternative and emission reductions conference. Orlando, FL. 10:1-3. Noling, J. W., J. P. Gilreath, and J. Nance. 2003. Influence of soil compaction layers on downward diffusion of fumigants in soil. Proc eedings of the methyl bromide alternative and emission reductions conference. San Diego, CA. 9:1-3. Norton, D. C. 1959. Plant parasitic nematode in Te xas. Bulletin 32: 1-10. College Station, TX. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. Ou, L.-T., J. E. Thomas, L. H. Allen, Jr., L. A. McCormack, J. C. Vu, and D. W. Dickson. 2005. Effects of application methods and plasti c covers on diffusion of cisand trans-1,3dichloropropene and chloropicrin in r oot zone. Journal of Nematology 37:483-488. Overman, A. J. 1965. Organophosphates, soil fumiga nts, and strawberries. Proceedings of the Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida 25: 351-356. Overman, A. J. 1972. Bionomic response of strawb erry plants to nematicides. Proceedings of the Soil and Crop Science So ciety of Florida 32: 182-184. Overman, A. J., C. M. Howard, and E. E. Albr egts. 1987. Soil solarization for strawberries. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society. 100: 236-239.

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105 Owens, J. V. 1951. The pathological effects of Belonolaimus gracilis on peanuts in Virginia. Phytopathology 41:29 (Abstr.). Perez, E. E., D. P. Weingartner, and R. McSorley. 2000. Niche distribution of Paratrichodorus minor and Belonolaimus longicaudatus following fumigation on potato and cabbage. Journal of Nematology 32:343-348. Perry, V. G. 1953. Return of nematodes following fumigation of Florida soils. Proceedings of the Florida State Hortic ultural Society. 77:212-215. Perry, V. G. 1964. Nematode host-parasitic re lationships. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Annual Report 1964:115-116. Perry, V. G., and A. J. Norden. 1963. Some effects of cropping sequence on populations of certain plant nematodes. Proceedings of the Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida 23:116-120. Perry, V. G., and H. Rhoades. 1982. The genus Belonolaimus Pp. 144-149 in R. D. Riggs, ed. Nematology in the southern region of the Un ited States. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 276. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Agricultural Publications. Perry, V. G., and G. C. Smart, Jr. 1970. Nemat ode problems of turfgrasses in Florida and their control. Florida Agricultural Expe riment Station Annual Report 1970:489-492. Potter, J. W. 1967. Vertical distribution and ove rwintering of sting, stunt, and ring nematodes in Norfolk sandy loam soil following peanuts. Nematologica 13:150 (Abstr.). Prot, J. C., and S. D. Van Gundy. 1981. Effect of soil texture and clay component on migration of Meloidogyne incognita second stage juve niles. Journal of Nematology 13:213-217. Rau, G. J. 1958. A new species of sting nema tode. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 25:95-98. Rau, G. J. 1961. Amended descriptions of Belonolaimus gracilis Steiner, 1949 and B. longicaudatus Rau, 1958 (Nematoda: Tylenchida). Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 28:198-200. Rau, G. J. 1963. Three new species of Belonolaimus (Nematoda: Tylenchida) with additional data on B. longicaudatus and B. gracilis Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 30:119-128. Rhoades, H. L. 1968. Re-establishment of Trichodorus christiei subsequent to soil fumigation in central Florida. Plant Disease Reporter 52:573-575. Rhoades, H. L. 1987. Effects of fumiga nt and nonfumigant nematicides on nematode populations and yields of broccoli and s quash in Florida. Nematropica 17:193-198.

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106 Rich, J. R., and S. M. Olson. 2004. Influence of MI -gene resistance and soil fumigant application in first crop tomato on root-ga lling and yield in a succeeding cantaloupe crop. Nematropica 34:103-108. Riegel, C., D. W. Dickson, L. N. Shaw, L. G. Peterson, and E. B. Whitty. 2001. Comparison of different chisel types for 1,3-dichloropropene fumigation in deep sandy soils. Nematropica 31:289-293. Riggs, R. D. 1961. Sting nematode in Arkansas. Plant Disease Reporter 45:392. Rivera, J. E. 1963. Pathogenic and biological asp ects of sting nematodes. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville. Robbins, R. T., and K. R. Barker. 1973. Comparison of host range and reproduction among populations of Belonolaimus longicaudatus from North Carolina and Georgia. Plant Disease Reporter 57:750-756. Robbins, R. T., and K. R. Barker. 1974. The effe cts of soil type, particle size, temperature and moisture on reproduction of Belonolaimus longicaudatus Journal of Nematology 6:1-6. Robbins, R. T., and H. Hirschmann. 1974. Variation among populations of Belonolaimus longicaudatus Journal of Nematology 6:87-94. Rohde, W. A., A. W. Johnson, L. V. White, D. L. Mcallister, and N. C. Glaze. 1980. Dispersion, dissipation, and efficacy of met hyl bromide-chloropicrin gas vs. gel formulations on nematodes and weeds in Tifton sandy loam. Journal of Nematology 12:39-44. Roman, J. 1964. Belonolaimus lineatus n. sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchida). Journal of Agriculture of University of Puerto Rico 48:131-134. Sikora, E. J., E. A. Guertal, and K. L Bowen. 2001. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with hybrid bermudagrass and creeping bentgrass putting greens in Alabama. Nematropica 31:301-305. Siviour, T. R., and R. W. Mc Leod. 1979. Redescription of Ibiopora lolli (Siviour, 1978) comb. N. (Nematoda; Belonolaimidae) with observa tions on its host range and pathogenicity. Nematologica 25:487-493. Sjulin, T. 2004. Twenty-f ive years of the North Amer ican strawberry industry. Berry/Vegetable Times. April/May 2004, 4(4/5):2-3. Smart, G. C., Jr., and S. J. Locascio. 1968. In fluence of nematicides and polyethylene mulch color on the control of nematodes on strawb erry. Proceedings of the Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida 28:292-299.

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107 Smart, G. C., Jr., and K. B. Nguye n. 1991. Sting and awl nematodes: Belonolaimus spp. and Dolichodorus spp. Pp. 627667 in W. R. Nickle, ed. Manual of agricultural nematology. New York: Marcel Dekker. Standifer, M. S., and V. G. Perry. 1960. Some effects of sting and stubby root nematodes on grapefruit roots. Phytopathology 50:152-156. Steiner, G. 1942. Plant nematodes the grower should know. Proceedings of the Soil Science Society of Florida 4-B:72-117. Suit, R. F., and E. P. DuCharme. 1953. The burrowing nematode and other parasitic nematodes in relation to spreading decline of citrus. Plan t Disease Reporter 37:379-83. Tarjan, A. C. 1971. Migration of three pathoge nic citrus nematodes through two Florida citrus soils. Proceedings of the Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida. 31:253-255. Trout, T. 2005. Fumigant use in California. Pr oceedings of the methyl bromide alternative and emission reductions conference. San Diego, CA 12: 1-5. Weingartner, D. P., and J. R. Shumaker. 1990. Effects of soil fumigants and aldicarb on nematodes, tuber quality, and yield in potato. Journal of Nematology 22:767-774. Weingartner, D. P., J. R. Shumaker, and G. C. Smart, Jr. 1983. Why soil fumigation fails to control potato corky ringspot dise ase in FL. Plant Disease 67:130-134. Wheeler, T. A., and J. L. Starr. 1987. Inci dence and economic importa nce of plant parasitic nematodes in Texas (USA). Peanut Science 14:94-96. Whidden, A. J., C. K. Chandler, E. E. Albr egts, and D. E. Legard. 1995. Incidence and occurrence of strawberry diseases in di agnostic samples from 1991-1995 in Florida. Phytopathology 85:1194. Yates, S. R., J. Gan, S. K. Papiernik, R. Dungan, and D. Wang. 2002. Reducing fumigant emissions after soil applica tion. Phytopathology 92:1344-1348.

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108 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH I was born in Rhode Island, USA, on Octobe r 14, 1974. With one other sibling, I was raised by my dedicated parents John and Caro line. My entire chil dhood was spent in Rhode Island. Eventually I attended the University of Rhode Island, where I began my university education. My bachelorÂ’s degree was in biology and my M.S. was in entomology. Both degrees were from the Department of Plant Science. During my undergraduate studies I gained a general background in biology, including plant pathology and entomology. For my M.S., I studied chemical attractants and various c ontrol tactics (includi ng novel attract-and-kill technology and using entomopathogenic nematodes ta rgeted at larvae in soil for the blueberry maggot fly, Rhagoletis mendax ). In 2001, I finished my MS program, and decided to relocate to Michigan State University to take a job working with fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis that were problematic in Michigan. In 2001, I moved to Florida and took a job working as a biological scientist in the Department of Entomology and Nematology. In the Summer 20 02, I entered the University of Florida Ph.D. graduate program under the supervision of Dr. D. W. Dickson. Currently I am a member of the Entomological Society of America, Florida Entomological Society, and the Society of Nematologists.