Citation
Genetic Determinants of Host Range Specificity of the Wellington Strain of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri

Material Information

Title:
Genetic Determinants of Host Range Specificity of the Wellington Strain of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri
Copyright Date:
2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Diseases ( jstor )
DNA ( jstor )
Genes ( jstor )
Grapefruits ( jstor )
Leaves ( jstor )
Lesions ( jstor )
Plasmids ( jstor )
Stall ( jstor )
Symptomatology ( jstor )
Xanthomonas axonopodis ( jstor )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Embargo Date:
7/30/2007

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text











GENETIC DETERMINANTS OF HOST RANGE SPECIFICITY OF THE
WELLINGTON STRAIN OF Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri
















By

MYRIAN ASUCENA RYBAK


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005

































Copyright 2005

by

Myrian Asucena Rybak


























To God my guide and fortitude















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I wish to express my thanks and compliments to the chairman of my supervisory

committee, Dr. Jeffrey B. Jones, for his encouragement and guidance. I also want for to

thank the members of my committee, Dr. James Graham and Dr. Gloria Moore for their

critical reading of the manuscript and for their helpful suggestions

My most considerable debt is to Dr. Robert E. Stall who was generous with his

time and expertise in this research. His knowledge, patience and constant support were

equally important to the completion of this manuscript. My appreciation and gratitude go

to him now and always.

Special thanks go to Mr. Jerry Minsavage for his indispensable help; he generously

donated many hours of his valuable time with his technical assistance.

I owe gratitude to the Plant Pathology Department at the University of Florida;

especially I want to thank the members of our laboratory that I met between 2001-2005.

Sincere gratitude is extended to the faculty staff members and other people in Fifield Hall

for their assistance and friendship.

I would like to thank friends and relatives in Argentina, especially Dr. Nelly

Canteros; her guidance and useful advice will be always appreciated.

My family helped and their faith kept me going though some pretty hard times. I

would particularly like to acknowledge Raquel, my dear sister and friend, and my

wonderful mother Veronica, my sisters and brothers, nieces and nephews and thanks go

to the memory of my father for his example and integrity.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES .................. .................. .................. ........... .............. vii

LIST OF FIGU RE S ................ ............................ ............ ........... .......... viii

ABSTRAC T ................. .............. ........................................ .................. x

CHAPTER

1 IN TR O D U C TIO N ......................................................................... .... .. ........

2 L IT E R A TU R E R E V IE W .................................................................... ....................4

3 EVIDENCE FOR HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTION IN XAC-Aw STRAIN IN
G R A PEFR U IT ........................................................................... .. 10

In tro d u ctio n ...................................... ................................................ 10
M materials and M methods ........................................................................ .................. 10
R e su lts ...........................................................................................1 2
D isc u ssio n .............................................................................................................. 1 2

4 CHANGE OF HOST RANGE BY MUTATION. ................................................ 16

In tro d u ctio n ............................................................................................................ 1 6
M materials and M methods ........................................................................ .................. 16
R e su lts ...........................................................................................1 7
D isc u ssio n .............................................................................................................. 1 8

5 CHANGE OF HOST RANGE BY CONJUGATION....................................23

Intro du action ...................................... ................................................ 2 3
M materials and M methods ........................................................................ ..................23
R e su lts ...........................................................................................2 6
D isc u ssio n .............................................................................................................. 2 7

6 CLONING AN A VR GENE FROM THE XAC-Aw STRAIN...............................33

Introduction............................................................... 33


v









M materials and M methods ........................................................................ ..................33
R e su lts ...........................................................................................3 7
D isc u ssio n .............................................................................................................. 3 9

7 D IS C U S S IO N .............. ..... ............ ................. ............................................ 5 0

LIST OF REFERENCES .......................... ..................54

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ........................................................................................ 61
















LIST OF TABLES


Table pge

4-1 Effect in vitro of NTG mutagenesis on development of white colonies and
streptomycin resistant colonies of Xac-A" strain................. ................ ............20

4-2 Total area of inoculated Key lime and grapefruit leaves in all experiments...........21

4-3 Number of lesions per cm2 that were produced in Key lime and grapefruit leaves
inoculated with 103 cfu/m l of Xac-A" ................................. .. ....... ...............21

5-1 List of bacterial strain used in chapter 5 ...................................... ............... 31

5-2 Frequency of transfer of copper resistance genes among Xanthomonas
axonopodis pv. citri (Xac-A) after conjugation in a liquid medium........................31

5-3 Frequency of transfer of copper resistance genes among strains of Xanthomonas
axonopodis pv. citri (Xac-A) after conjugation in a liquid medium........................32

5-4 Frequency of transfer of copper resistant genes from Xanthomonas campestris
pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) to copper sensitive strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv.
citri by conjugation on a solid medium ...................................... ...............32

6-1 List of bacterial strains used in chapter 6 ..... ......... ........................................ 49















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure pge

3-1 Electrolyte leakage in grapefruit leaves inoculated with Xac-Aw and Xac-A
strains at a concentration of 5x108 cells per milliliter..............................................14

3-2 Internal bacterial populations in grapefruit leaves inoculated with Xac-Aw and
Xac-A strains at various times after inoculation. ............................................ 14

3-3 Symptoms of Xac-Aw (left side of leaf) and Xac-A (right side of leaf) in old
(left) and young leaves (right) of grapefruit ........................................................15

4-1 Symptoms of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri strain Xac-Aw in grapefruit
leaf after infiltration with 103 cfu/ml bacterial concentration ...............................22

4-2 Symptoms ofXanthmonas axonopodis pv. citri strain Xac-Aw in Key lime leaf
after infiltration with 103 cfu/ml bacterial concentration.........................................22

5-1 Agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Lanes contain plasmid extractions
from different strains .............................................................. .. ........ ........ 28

5-2 Agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Lanes contain plasmid extractions
from different strains:1= Xac-A (16, Cur), 2= Xac-A (26, Cur), 3= Xac-A
( 1 8 7 4 C u s)...................................................................... 2 9

5-3 Agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Lanes contained plasmid extractions
from different strains: 1= Xcv 75-3 (Cur) 2= Xac-A 20 (1874, GFP+, Cus), 3=
X cv 75-x X ac-A 20) ................................................................... ........ ......30

6-1 Symptoms caused by Xac-A (left) and Xac-Aw (right) strains in tobacco, tomato,
and pepper leaves. ........................ .... .................. .. .... ..... .. ............42

6-2 Symptoms in grapefruit leaves after infiltration with the bacterial suspensions.....43

6 -3 Symptoms in Key lime leaves after infiltration with different bacterial
suspensions..................................................... .......................... 43

6-4 Symptoms in grapefruit following inoculation with Xac-A 40 strain (A), Xac-Aw
12879 strain (A") and X ac-Aw Q (3)..................................... ....................... 44









6-5 Symptoms in grapefruit after inoculation by needle pricks with Xac-Aw strain
12879 (right top), Xac-Aw Q (bottom left), and Xac-A 40 (bottom right) ..............44

6-6 Bacterial populations in grapefruit leaves infiltrated with Xac-A 40; Xac-A" 0;
Xac-Aw 12879;Xac-A 40 (pU799-3), Xac-A" 0 (pU799-3)...............................45

6-7 Electrolyte leakage in grapefruit leaves infiltrated with of Xac-A 40, Xac- A"O,
Xac-Aw 12879, Xac-A 40 (pU799-3), Xac-Aw" (pU799-3) ...................................45

6-8 Hybridization of the subclone pU799-3 fragment in avrGfl to total genomic
DNA of Xanthomonas strains digested with HindI ...........................................46

6-9 Nucleotide sequence of the 2.3 kb fragment of DNA from Xac-AW containing
avrGfl nucleotide sequencing (bold letters) ................................. ................47

6-10 Alignment between the complete sequence of XCC3600 from Xanthomonas
campestris pv. campestris and the avrGfl .................................... ............... 48















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

GENETIC DETERMINANTS OF HOST RANGE SPECIFICITY OF THE
WELLINGTON STRAIN OF Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri

By

Myrian Asucena Rybak

August 2005

Chair: Jeffrey B. Jones
Major Department: Plant Pathology

A new strain of the citrus canker bacterium (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri)

was detected in Florida. It was significant in that it was primarily pathogenic on Key lime

trees, but not on grapefruit trees. This strain has been designated as Xac-A". This strain

has caused concern among regulators with regard to how to treat this bacterium in the

eradication program. Of major concern was the stability of the bacterium in regard to host

specificity of the strain; for example, could the strain mutate to attack grapefruit and

other citrus plants. We investigated the frequency of the development of mutants, the

transfer of genes by conjugation, and the presence of an avirulence gene to grapefruit in

the genome. We never were able to find a mutant, either natural or induced, that changed

host range. In conjugation studies, transfer of marker genes on the chromosome to and

from the Xac-Aw strain by conjugation was not successful. In an attempt to locate

possible avirulence genes, a genetic library of Xac-Aw DNA was made using the pLAFR

vector and transformed into Escherichia coli. This library was transferred to strain 91-









118 of X perforans, which is pathogenic to tomato, but causes a null reaction in

grapefruit leaves. The transconjugants were screened for HR in grapefruit leaves. The

inoculated leaves were observed for development of an HR in the infiltrated area. In the

screening of the Xac-Aw genomic library we found an avirulence gene in the genome of

Xac-Aw that interacts with grapefruit leaves to cause an HR. This is the first report of an

avirulence gene in the genome of a citrus canker bacterium that interacts with a citrus

species. This gene was designated as avrGfl, was sequenced, and then was characterized.

The possibility of a second avr gene exists in the Xac-Aw strain, because the Xac-A"w

lacking a functional avrGfl did not cause exactly the same symptoms and develop the

same population as the wild-type Xac-A strain when it was inoculated into grapefruit

leaves.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Citrus production in Florida contributes greatly to the economy of the state.

Production for the 2003-04 seasons totaled 16.4 million tons from 679,000 acres of trees.

Florida accounted for 79 percent of the total U.S. citrus production, followed by

California with 18 percent; and Texas and Arizona which accounted for the remaining 3

percent. The value of the 2003-04 U.S. citrus crop was up 4 percent from the previous

season to $2.35 billion (packinghouse-door equivalent) as published by the USDA,

Statistical Service (2004).

Citrus plants are susceptible to diseases caused by bacteria. One of these diseases,

citrus canker, is caused by two pathovars of Xanthomonas axonopodis. Pathovars of this

bacterium have been distinguished based on phenotypic reactions on different hosts, i.e.,

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. aurantifoii

(Xaa). The most destructive bacterium is Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri which causes

Asiatic citrus canker (Xac-A).

Asiatic citrus canker was discovered in North America in 1912 and was distributed

throughout the Gulf states (Loucks, 1934; Dopson, 1964). Eradication of the disease

began in 1915 and the disease was eradicated in 1947. This disease was rediscovered

again in 1986 in Manatee County, Florida, and declared eradicated in 1994 (Schubert et

al., 1996). A new focus of this disease appeared in Miami in 1995 (Gottwald et al.,

1997a; Schubert et al., 2001), and a current eradication program exists. This disease was

also successfully eradicated from the United States, South Africa, Australia, and New









Zealand, but a new focus of citrus canker appeared in Australia in 2004 (Hibberd, A.,

personal communication). An eradication program currently exists in Brazil. The disease

is endemic to Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. It is also endemic to all countries in

eastern Asia.

The symptoms of the disease are erumpent lesions on fruit, foliage, and young

stems of susceptible citrus cultivars (Schubert et al., 2001 and Gottwald et al., 2002a).

The occurrence of citrus canker lesions on the fruit rind decreases the commercial quality

and infected fruit is not accepted by the most important markets. The warm spring and

summer conditions of Florida, together with rains with strong winds that occasionally

occur, offer ideal conditions for the spread of Xac. Optimum temperatures for infection

range between 20 and 300C (Koizumi, 1985).

The introduction of the leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, in Florida in

1993, has increased citrus canker severity due to wounds caused by the insect that expose

leaf mesophyll tissues to splashed inoculum, thus increasing the probability of ingress by

Xac (Gottwald et al., 1997a). The leafminer adults, however, are not efficient vectors of

the pathogen (Belasque et al., 2005).

Changes have recently occurred in the eradication protocols performed by the

Division of Plant Industry (Gottwald et al., 2002b). The increased disease severity

associated with the leafminer has resulted in increased areas of tree disposal around a

focus of infection (Schubert et al., 2001 and Gottwald et al., 2002a). In addition, tornados

and hurricanes during the summer months have caused dissemination of Xac-A much

greater distances than previously thought possible. Legal questions about eradications, in









general, have hindered eradication (Gottwald et al., 2002b). Citrus canker has spread

rapidly in Florida despite changes in eradication protocols (McEver, 2005).

Schubert et al. (2001) described at least two separate introductions of Xac-A in

Florida since 1985. In one of the introductions a strain of Xac that is pathogenic to Key

lime and alemow plants, but not to grapefruit and orange was found. This strain (Xac-A")

was characterized by Sun et al. (2004) and found to be related genetically to Xac-A rather

than Xaa-B or Xaa-C, which have more similar host ranges. Regulations and eradication

protocols adopted for this strain were different from those adopted for Asiatic citrus

canker. For the Xac-Aw only Key lime and alemow plants were destroyed. Because of the

relationship of Xac-Aw to Xac-A, questions as to whether Xac-Aw could revert to an Xac-

A strain exist. If this occurred, a new focus of Xac-A could occur with the eradication

program that was adopted.

The purpose of this work was to investigate the stability of the Xac-Aw strain in

terms of host specificity. The Xac-Aw strain causes a hypersensitive reaction in

grapefruit. Such a reaction is usually the result of an avirulence gene interacting with a

resistance gene in the host (Minsavage et al., 1990b). If resistance in grapefruit to the

Xac-Aw strain is the result of the presence of a single gene in the bacterium, then the

stability of the host specificity of the Xac-Aw may be low. The change to virulence in

grapefruit of the Xac-Aw strain was studied by mutagenesis of the strain, by conjugations

of strains, and by isolation of avirulence genes in the genome of Xac-Aw.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Many reviews have been published on the citrus canker disease (Locks, 1934;

Garnsey et al., 1979; Schoulties et al., 1987; Graham and Gottwald, 1991; Stall and

Civerolo, 1991; Schubert et al., 2001 Gottwald et al., 2002a; Graham et al., 2004). An

excellent early review is an unpublished manuscript that was written by K. W. Loucks in

1934. The review is located in the library of the Division of Plant Industry, Florida

Department of Agriculture, Gainesville. It is a review of research on regulation and

eradication of this disease from the appearance of citrus canker disease in Florida until

eradication of citrus canker was declared in 1933. This manuscript contains a history and

geographical distribution of citrus canker in the world, United States, and Florida. Hosts

reported to be susceptible and the economic importance of citrus canker were included. A

description of citrus canker symptoms of leaves, twigs, thorns, branches and fruits is

given. The general appearance on an infected tree with citrus canker was described. The

morphology, physiology, cultural characteristics and taxonomy of the causal organism at

that time were described in this review. The viability and longevity of the pathogen were

described; including describing the ability of the bacterium to enter the host tissue and

remain quiescent until higher temperatures occurred. The means of dissemination,

methods of infection, and the incubation period involved with the disease cycle were

reviewed. The histology of the disease was described. Humidity and temperature

relationships for disease development, as well the seasonal development of the host and

disease, were included. Progress on the eradication and control of citrus canker and the









epidemiological situation at the time that this review was written were discussed. The last

issue that Louck considered in his review was the future danger of the disease to citrus in

Florida.

An analytical bibliography of research publications relating to citrus canker was

annotated by Rossetti et al. (1981). This huge effort contains abstracts of scientific

papers, reviews, extension reports and notes from 1912 though 1981. There are 1246

abstracts included from all over the world.

Before the reintroduction of citrus canker in Florida in 1985 there were concerns

about the reintroduction of citrus canker after it was declared eradicated in 1933 from

Florida and in 1947 from the USA (Stall and Seymour, 1983). Those concerns were

based on importation of citrus fruits into the United States from Japan, where citrus

canker is endemic; an epidemic of canker occurring in South America, and the

interception of citrus canker at ports of entry. This article described the causal agent, the

disease, the history of citrus canker, information about losses due to this disease,

measures of control and finally the outlook about the real risks of the reintroduction of

citrus canker in the USA.

A bacterial disease of citrus was observed in Florida in 1984. This disease was

referred to as the nursery form of citrus canker, or sometimes as canker E (Schoulties et

al., 1987). In this review they described the nursery form of the disease, diagnosis,

symptoms, distribution, host range, eradication and regulatory program. The review also

discussed the introduction of the Asiatic form of the disease in Florida in 1985 and the

eradication policies regarding the reintroduction of Asiatic citrus canker. The article also









mentioned the costs of the eradications and regulatory programs which were $25 million

from September 1984 to July 1986.

Stall and Civerolo (1991) described Asiatic canker and ongoing research with both

types of diseases of citrus in Florida. They reviewed the history of the disease in Florida,

and the efforts on eradication, the different forms of citrus canker, and the localization of

citrus canker in the USA. Research related to regulation, and eradication problems

included the comparisons between the citrus canker and the bacterial spot disease.

Isozyme analyses, serological studies, and DNA analyses of different strains involved in

the two diseases were included in the comparison of the strains.

Two recent reviews pertain mostly to the introduction of Asiatic citrus canker in

Florida in 1995 (Schubert et al., 2001 and Gottwald et al., 2002a). These reviews provide

a history of the disease in Florida and describe a citrus canker disease cycle. Both reviews

describe the host range of the citrus canker disease, although Gottwald et al. (2002a)

provide a more expansive list. Schubert et al. (2001) list three separate introductions of

the Asiatic citrus canker from 1910 until now and describe a fourth introduction in 2000.

The pathogen associated with the 2000 introduction has a limited host range and was

designated as the Wellington strain. Both reviews treated the problems of regulation and

eradication of citrus canker in Florida. Gottwald et al. (2002b) discuss the epidemiology

of the disease in the urban setting which was not considered previously. Both reviews

discuss the role of the Asian citrus leafminer (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton) damage in

the epidemiology of the disease.

From the above reviews it is apparent that different xanthomonads are pathogenic

to various citrus species. Only those that cause a lesion that is erumpent or pustule-like in









the early stages of symptoms on leaves are now included in the citrus canker disease

(Graham and Gottwald, 1990). These lesions become crateriform as they increase in size.

The bacteria that do not cause such lesions are not presently classed as causing citrus

canker, and this includes the xanthomonad that causes the citrus bacterial spot disease.

The nomenclature of the bacterial strains that cause citrus canker has evolved.

Gabriel et al. (1989) proposed that Xanthomonas citri be restored for the name of the

Xac-A group. They also proposed that the Xaa-B and Xaa-C strains be named

Xanthomonas campestris pv. aurantifolii. Their primary evidence for this nomenclature

was based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using DNA probes

hybridizing to total DNA of the strains. The change in nomenclature based on this

technique was criticized by Young et al. (1991) and Vauterin et al. (1990). Vauterin et al.

(1991) studied the xanthomonads that cause the citrus canker disease using DNA-DNA

hybridization and other techniques and concluded that they should be divided into two

groups.

Vauterin et al. (1995) revised the nomenclature of the genus Xanthomonas and

placed the bacteria that cause citrus canker into X. axonopodis that also included many

other plant disease-causing xanthomonads. The A group was given pathovar status and

named X axonopodis pv. citri. The B and C strains were placed into the pathovar

aurantifolii as was proposed by Gabriel et al. (1989) previously. This nomenclature

seems to be the most accepted at present for the bacteria that cause the citrus canker

disease.

Two groups of strains that are placed in X axonopodis pv. citri cause citrus canker

can be distinguished, based on DNA and other genetic aspects (Vemiere, 1998). The first









group is the most important group and consists of X. axonopodis pv. citri strain A (Xac-

A) that causes Asiatic citrus canker. Several subgroups have been identified. One

subgroup is referred to as A* because strains are genetically similar to the Xac-A strains

(Hartung and Civerolo, 1989; Cubero and Graham, 2004), but have different host

specificities and a few physiological differences from typical Xac-A strains (Sun et al.

2004). This subgroup of strains occurs in southeastern Asia, Iran and possibly India.

Another subgroup of strains was recently found in Florida and is referred to as Xac-Aw

strains (Sun et al., 2004). These strains are pathogenic on Key lime and alemow plants,

but not on grapefruit or orange plants. The Xac-Aw strains are also closely related

genetically to the Xac-A and Xac-A* strains, but have some physiological differences

from the latter strains.

Another group consists of strains that cause citrus canker and are significantly

different genetically from the Xac-A strains.The members within this group are closely

related genetically (Vauterin et al; in 1991). The strains that cause canker B and C, X

axonopodis pv. aurantifolii, are in this group. This group can be subdivided based on

pathogenicity and a few physiological tests. Both subgroups are not pathogenic on

grapefruit and oranges, but are pathogenic on Key lime. The B subgroup (Xaa-B) of

strains is pathogenic on lemon trees also. After the introduction of Xac-A in Argentina in

1973 the B subgroup was not isolated from the field any more and is only present in

pathogen collections (Nelly Canteros, personal communication). The Xaa-C strain was

isolated in Brazil, but does not occur in nature at this time.

Some work has been done regarding the host specificities of the strains of bacteria

that cause citrus canker. In Loucks review it was pointed out that some species of citrus









are more susceptible than others. Levels of resistance, or susceptibility, of the citrus

species and cultivars were recorded during evaluations in the field. The extreme

susceptibility of grapefruit to the Xac-A strains was attributed to the larger stomatal pores

compared to the mandarins which are more resistant and have smaller stomatal pores (Mc

Lean, 1921). This may be a factor, but Stall et al. (1982a) demonstrated that many more

lesions developed in grapefruit leaves also after infiltration with a low level of inoculum.

The infiltration technique of inoculation was used to evaluate a few cultivars of orange

and grapefruit plants in the field. There was good correlation of disease and susceptibility

in the field results. Viloria et al. (2004) used this technique to evaluate many citrus

genotypes under greenhouse conditions. There seemed to be a continuum of resistance or

susceptibility levels in the genotypes tested.

Hypersensitivity in citrus to Xac-A strains has not been reported. However, a

hypersensitivity reaction was suggested as occurring after inoculations of grapefruit

leaves with a strain of the canker C (Xaa-C) from Brazil (Stall et al., 1982b). This was

suggested because a rapid necrosis occurred in young grapefruit leaves inoculated with

high concentrations of cells (108 cfu/ ml). The rapid necrosis was compared to relatively

slow necrosis in grapefruit caused by the Xac-A strain and a strain of canker B (Xaa-B).

Further documentation of the hypersensitive reaction in grapefruit caused by the C strain

has not been reported.














CHAPTER 3
EVIDENCE FOR HYPERSENSITIV REACTION IN XAC-Aw STRAIN IN
GRAPEFRUIT

Introduction

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri strain AW (Xac-Aw) was compared with Xac-A

(strain that causes Asiatic citrus canker) in Duncan grapefruit and Key lime (Sun et al.,

2004). Even though rapid necrosis occurs when high concentrations of the Xac-Aw

bacterium are infiltrated into grapefruit leaves, data for the development of a

hypersensitive reaction (HR) in grapefruit were not reported. In this chapter we present

experiments on electrolyte leakage and bacterial growth after inoculations with high

concentrations of Xac-A and Xac-Aw strains into grapefruit leaves to determine if a

typical HR occurs in grapefruit leaves.

Materials and Methods

Plants. Plants of grapefruit (Citrus paradi Macf), cultivar Duncan, were kept in a

quarantine greenhouse at the Division Plant Industry at 200 to 350 C and used in this

experiment. Before inoculation the plants were pruned to stimulate new growth. Leaves

on the newly developed shoots were inoculated ca. 10 days after new shoots began

growth. The leaves chosen for inoculations were fully expanded, but soft to the touch,

and not as fully green as mature leaves. By using this procedure all the inoculated leaves

were in a similar developmental stage.

Bacterial strains and preparation of inoculum. Two Xac strains were used.

Suspensions of strains Xac-Aw 12879 and Xac-A 40 (Corrientes, Argentina) were each









transferred to nutrient agar medium (NA) from culture stored at -800C and isolated

colonies were obtained. Several colonies of each strain were transferred to nutrient broth.

After the cultures were shaken overnight, the bacterial suspensions were centrifuged and

the cells were resuspended in sterile tap-water, and standardized to an absorbance of 0.3

at a light wavelength of 600 nm in a Spectronic 20 spectrophotomer. This optical density

corresponds to a bacterial concentration of 5x108 cfu /ml.

Electrolyte leakage. Leaves of grapefruit were inoculated with 5x108 cfu/ml of

Xac-Aw or Xac-A strains (15 leaves each). The inoculations were made by infiltrating

leaves with 10 ml syringe and 27 g nettle (Klement, 1963). After 2 h and 2, 4, 6, and 8

days electrolyte leakage was measured from three leaves infiltrated with each strain.

Electrolyte leakage was determined as an increase in electrical conductivity over a 2 h

period of 3 ml of de-ionized water containing six 0.5 cm2 leaf disks of each inoculated

area (Cook and Stall, 1968; Hibberd et al., 1987). The mean of the three determinations

was used as the conductivity at each time, but each determination was used to determine

the experimental error.

Bacterial populations. The populations of the Xac-Aw and Xac-A strains in

grapefruit leaves were determined in the same leaves and the same times as electrolyte

leakage determinations. From each inoculated leaf 0.5 cm2 of leaf area was taken and

triturated in one ml of sterile tap-water, and after appropriate ten-fold dilutions, 50 il

were plated on NA medium. The colonies were counted 3 days later (Cook and Stall,

1968; Hibberd et al., 1987). Three replicates were included at each time period. The

experiment with population and electrolyte leakage was repeated three times.









Results

The appearance of rapid necrosis in grapefruit leaves occurred only on young

leaves of grapefruit plants (Figure 3-3). Therefore, the inoculation of leaves in a young

stage of development is essential for consistent results. The inoculation of new growth

that resulted from pruning of shoots of grapefruit plants gave consistent reactions.

Electrolyte leakage of grapefruit leaves. The conductivity of water containing

leaf disks inoculated with the Xac-Aw strain was very high at day four compared to

conductivity of water containing leaf disks inoculated with the Xac-A strain (Figure 3-1).

Conductivity of water containing leaf disks inoculated with the Xac-A strain was highest

at day eight. Thus, the Xac-Aw strain caused more rapid electrolyte leakage from

grapefruit leaves than the Xac-A strain.

Growth of Xac-Aw and Xac-A strains. The populations of the Xac-A strain were

significantly higher than the Xac-Aw strain in grapefruit leaves at day four and day six.

The populations reached 109 cfu/cm2 of leaf tissue with the Xac-A strain, but the

populations of the Xac-Aw strain were slightly lower and reached only 108 cfu/cm2

(Figure 3-2).

Discussion

The populations obtained in leaves inoculated with Xac-Aw were very similar to the

results obtained by Sun et al. (2004). Growth was slower in leaves inoculated with the

Xac-Aw strain than growth in leaves inoculated with Xac-A strain. In both studies the

Xac-Aw populations were nearly ten-fold less than the Xac-A strain. Comparisons of

growth after infiltration in Key lime leaves were not determined in this study, because we

were only interested in determination of HR in grapefruit leaves of the Xac-Aw strain.









However, Sun et al. (2004) found no differences in growth of Xac-A and Xac-Aw in

leaves of Key lime.

To determine if necrosis occurs more rapidly in leaves inoculated with strain Xac-

A" compared with Xac-A, electrolyte leakage was monitored in grapefruit leaves after

infiltration with these strains. Leakage of electrolytes from citrus leaf tissue infected by

Xac-A was determined previously (Goto, et al., 1979). In this work necrosis caused by

Xac-Aw occurred more rapidly compared with Xac-A strain (Figure 3-1). Electrolyte

leakage reflects the extent of necrosis in leaves. A rapid necrosis in plant tissue and lower

populations in leaves compared to a susceptible reaction are indications of a HR.

Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that Xac-Aw causes an HR in grapefruit leaves based

on this work. HR is the result of an avirulence (avr) gene interacting with a resistance

gene (Flor, 1955; Ellingboe, 1976; Klement, 1982; Staskawicz et al. 1984; Crute, 1985;

Gabriel et al. 1986). In future work we will determine if an avr gene is involved in this

reaction.












400
350
S300
S250
200
150
100
50-- Xac-A
0
0 2 4 6 8
Time (days)
Figure 3-1. Electrolyte leakage in grapefruit leaves inoculated with Xac-Aw and Xac-A
strains at a concentration of 5x108 cells per milliliter at various times after
inoculation. The leaves inoculated with Xac-Aw abscised 6 days after
inoculation. Vertical bars represent standard error.


-2- Xac-A
-e- Xac-Aw


Time (days)


Figure 3-2. Internal bacterial populations in grapefruit leaves inoculated with Xac-Aw and
Xac-A strains at various times after inoculation. The leaves inoculated with
Xac-Aw abscised 6 days after inoculation. Vertical bars represent standard
error.


(^]

































Figure 3-3: Symptoms of Xac-Aw (left side of leaf) and Xac-A (right side of leaf) in old
(left) and young leaves (right) of grapefruit on the abaxial face of the leaves
(Four days after inoculation).














CHAPTER 4
CHANGE OF HOST RANGE BY MUTATION.

Introduction

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri strain AW (Xac-Aw) causes a hypersensitive

response (HR) in grapefruit leaves. The HR is correlated with the gene-for-gene

relationship in many plants. In such gene-for-gene interactions an avirulence (avr) gene

in the pathogen interacts with a corresponding resistance (R) gene in the plant

(Minsavage et al., 1990b). Mutation of an avr gene often leads to a susceptible reaction.

Such mutations can occur in high frequency in some strains of Xanthomonas (Dahlbeck

and Stall, 1979). The purpose of this chapter is to determine if a mutation in a postulated

avr gene would change the host specificity of the Xac-Aw strain after treatment with a

mutagen and if so, to determine the frequency of the mutation.

Materials and Methods

Inoculum. The Xac-Aw 12879 strain was used because it causes an HR in

grapefruit leaves and a susceptible reaction in leaves of Key lime. The preparation of

inoculum was the same as described in Chapter 3.

Mutation in vitro. The Xac-Aw cells were treated with N-methyl-nitro-N-

nitrosoguanidine (NTG), which is a strong mutagen (Gerhardt et al., 1981). A stock

solution of NTG containing 1 pg/ml in deionized water was made and 100 pl of stock

NTG were added to 900 tl of a suspension of 5 x 108 cfu/ml of Xac-Aw cells in sterile

tap-water. After 1 h at 28 C the suspension was diluted serially ten-fold, and 200 tl of a

5 x 103 cfu/ml bacterial suspension were spread onto the surface of nutrient agar in Petri









plates. In previous work (unpublished) the NTG treatment killed ca. 50 % of bacterial

cells. After 3 days the colonies were counted to determine the actual concentration of

viable cells following treatment with NTG and to observe for development of mutant

white colonies from the typical yellow colonies. In addition 200 pl of a suspension

consisting of the 105 cfu/ ml were spread onto nutrient agar containing 200 tg/ml

streptomycin sulfate to check for growth of colonies resistant to streptomycin.

About 30 young grapefruit leaves were completely infiltrated with a suspension

consisting of 5 X 103 cfu/ml of mutagenized cells. At the same time ten leaves of Key

lime were infiltrated with the same inoculum as a control. The leaves used in these

experiments were at the same stage of development as described in Chapter 3. The

technique used by Klement (1963) was used to infiltrate each leaf with inoculum. Lesions

in both Key lime and grapefruit were counted and were calculated as lesions per cm2 of

inoculated leaf area (Table 4-3). The leaf area of tissue infiltrated was determined using

the dot-counting method (Marshall, 1968). The mutagenesis experiment was repeated

eleven times.

Results

Mutagenesis. The numbers of Xac-Aw cells remaining after NTG treatment ranged

from 0.5 to 3.0 x 108 cfu/ml in the eleven experiments. White colonies developed in five

of the experiments in which 103 cfu/ml were spread on NA. Streptomycin-resistant

colonies formed in which 105 cfu/ml were spread on NA containing streptomycin in only

one experiment (Table 4-1). No white colonies of Xac-Aw or streptomycin resistant

colonies developed with non-treated suspensions. These results were evidence that NTG

did cause mutations in the population of Xac-Aw cells used for inoculum.









Change of host range. The Xac-A" strain caused fleck lesions in grapefruit leaves

(Figure 4-1) and typical citrus canker lesions in Key lime (Figure 4-2). Each lesion was

probably caused by a single cell of the bacterium, because of the low inoculum level

used. Over the eleven experiments an average of 10.1 canker lesions per cm2 occurred in

Key lime and 2.7 fleck lesions per cm2 occurred in grapefruit leaves. Assuming the

intercellular spaces on grapefruit and Key lime leaves were similar, only 27 % of the

Xac-A" cells in grapefruit actually caused a visible fleck lesion.

The total area of grapefruit leaves infiltrated with inoculum in the eleven

experiments was 20,827 cm2 (Table 4-2). Using the estimate of 10.0 lesions/cm2 based on

what occurred in Key lime leaves (Table-4-3), approximately 2.0 x 105 cells of Xac-A"

were infiltrated into grapefruit leaves in the eleven experiments. Typical citrus canker

lesions were never observed in grapefruit leaves receiving the mutagenized cells of Xac-

A".

Discussion

Cells of Xac-A" were treated with NTG, a powerful mutagenic agent, to increase

the frequency of mutation. The number of white colonies and streptomycin resistant

colonies after NTG treatment reflected the development of mutants in culture.

The frequency to streptomycin resistance in non-mutagenized cultures of X.

campestris pv. vesicatoria was around 1.9 x 10-9 per cell per division (Dahlbeck and

Stall, 1979). In this work, streptomycin resistant colonies occurred rarely after NTG

treatment but did occur in one test and was determined to be approximately one per 105

cells. The frequency of mutation for white colonies was higher than for streptomycin

resistance. At least seven genes are involved in the development of the yellow pigment

(Poplawsky and Chun, 1997). Mutation in any of them will result in loss of pigmentation.









Thus, one would expect a higher frequency of white colonies than streptomycin resistant

colonies after NTG treatment. As resistance to streptomycin is encoded by a single gene,

the frequency of streptomycin resistance probably corresponds better to an avr gene

mutation, if the change of the host range depends only on a single avr gene. Thus, one

would not expect a change of host range of the Xac-Aw strain unless nearly 105 cfu were

infiltrated into the leaves of grapefruit. We inoculated grapefruit leaves with 2 x 105 cells

and, thus, one would have expected a single avirulence gene to be mutated and detected

in our work. However, this did not occur. Therefore, possibly more than one gene is

involved in the incompatibility of the grapefruit leaves to the Xac-Aw strain.










Table 4-1. Effect in vitro of NTG mutagenesis on development of white colonies and
streptomycin resistant colonies of Xac-Aw strain


Expeiment no.


Yellow a
colonies


x 108 cfu


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Average


3.00
0.90
0.68
1.70
1.31
1.99
2.11
0.85
1.75
0.50
0.76
1.41


White b
colonies

x 103

0.00
0.00
0.00
2.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
3.80
2.00
2.00
0.20
0.91


Streptomycin '
resistant colonies

x 105

0.00
0.00
0.00
1.80
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.16


a These values were based on the colonies that developed on nutrient agar after dilution to
103 cfu/ml. The values are based on three replicates per experiment.

b These values are number of colonies that developed on nutrient agar after dilution to 103
cfu/ml. A suspension of 200 ul were spread on the plate. Average of three replicates per
experiment

' There values are number of colonies that developed on nutrient agar containing 200 Ltg
of streptomycin per liter. A suspension of 200 ul of 105 cfu/ml were spread on the plate.
Average of three replicates per experiment.










Table 4-2. Total area of inoculated Key lime and grapefruit leaves in all experiments


Experiment No


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Total


Key lime
2
cm

34.5
60.0
40.6
39.5
379
246
32.8
60.8
25.6
51.0
56.0
1025.8


Grapefruit
2
cm

711.50
2122.5
1632.6
1136.5
1853.8
3115.0
1597.0
1653.3
1263.0
3093.8
2647.5
20826.5


Table 4-3. Number of lesions per cm2 that were produced in Key lime and grapefruit
leaves inoculated with 103 cfu/ml of Xac-Aw


Numbers of lesion per cm


Experiment No


Key lime a


Grapefruitb


1 12.5
2 7.1
3 3.5
4 19.6
5 4.8
6 11.5
7 18.2
8 1.3
9 15.3
10 4.5
11 12.2
Average 10.1
a Lesions were typical of citrus canker


b Lesions were sunken and very small (typical fleck lesion caused by HR)













w, .


r -"y r 1~.
F~4~_ ~ r "ll~
LI


4,1,
. ..r*


Figure 4-1. Symptoms ofXanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri strain Xac-AW in grapefruit
leaf after infiltration with 103 cfu/ml bacterial concentration. Fleck lesions
occur on upper half of leaf (30 days after inoculation).


Figure 4-2. Symptoms ofXanthmonas axonopodis pv. citri strain Xac-AW in Key lime
leaf after infiltration with 103 cfu/ml bacterial concentration. Typical pustule
type lesions occur on upper half of leaf (21 days after inoculation).














CHAPTER 5
CHANGE OF HOST RANGE BY CONJUGATION

Introduction

More than one avr gene may be involved in the hypersensitive reaction (HR) by the

Xac-Aw strain in grapefruit leaves. If that is true, the host specificity of the Xac-Aw strain

would not change by simple mutation. However, the factor for host specificity of the

Xac-Aw strain might cause the Xac-A strain to change after conjugation of the strains,

because large amounts of DNA transfer during conjugation. Conjugation is a process in

which the DNA of a donor bacterium moves to a recipient bacterium. Plasmid or

chromosomal DNA can move to recipient cells in conjugation. Conjugation requires cell

to cell contact and the presence of transfer genes in the DNA of the donor. Many

avirulence genes involved in host and cultivar specificities (Leyns et al., 1984; Hayward,

1993), and the genes for resistance to copper (Stall et al., 1986) and streptomycin are

located on plasmids (Minsavage et al., 1990a). However, some avirulence genes are

located on the chromosome (Ronald and Staskawicz, 1988; Tamaki et al., 1988; 1988;

Minsavage et al., 1990b; Jenner et al., 1991; Mansfield et al., 1994; Whalen et al., 1993;

Lorang and Keen, 1995). Horizontal transfer of chromosomal genes among strains of X

axonopodis pv. vesicatoria was confirmed by Basim et al. (1999), but the frequency of

transfer of plasmid DNA is usually higher than for chromosomal DNA.

Materials and Methods

Bacterial strains. All bacterial strains, relevant characteristics, and origin are listed

in Table 5-1.









Change of host range by conjugation. To test for conjugation among strains,

genetic markers were incorporated into both Xac-Aw and Xac-A so that each could be

used as a donor or recipient. Some strains were marked with fluorescent proteins by G.V.

Minsavage (Plant Pathology, Department of University of Florida) using the pMODTM

2 vector that carries 19-bp mosaic end sequence flanking restriction sites. The

antibiotic cassette used in this experiment was excised from pKRP11 plasmid (KmR) and

pKRP13 (SmR SpR). A KmR clone was marked with the EYFP gene with lacZ promoter

from pEYFP and a clone that carried the SmR SpR was marked with the ECFP gene with

the lacZ promoter from pECFP. The fluorescent-marked strains were obtained by

electroporation using EZ::TN transposase enzyme and Biorad Gene Pulser (for more

details contact G.V. Minsavage).

Strains with antibiotic resistance were selected after plating 200 pl of a culture

containing 108-109 cfu/ml onto nutrient agar containing the selective antibiotic. Colonies

that developed on the selective medium were purified by single-colony selection on the

antibiotic medium. Strains of Xac-A and Xac-Aw containing the GFP in the chromosome

or non-pigmented strains obtained in Chapter 4 were sometimes used for selection of

antibiotic resistance. Strains were stored at -800 C. The antibiotics used and final

concentrations were: rifamicyn (80 ig/ml), nalidixic acid (50 ig/ml), kanamycin (50

ig/ml), streptomycin (50 ig/ml), and spectinomycin (50 ig/ml).

For conjugation on a solid medium, donor and recipient strains were grown in

nutrient broth (NB) overnight on a rotary shaker at 280 C, after which 100 il of culture

was added to 900 il of sterile tap-water and centrifuged. The pellets obtained were

resuspended in 100 ul of sterile tap-water and donor and recipient strains were mixed in









different proportions (10 or 200 tl of donor was added to 100 tl of recipient). Then 10 tl

of each mixture was plated on nutrient-yeast-glycerol agar (NYGA), (Daniels, et al.,

1984). The same suspensions sometimes were inoculated into leaves of grapefruit or Key

lime for conjugation. After 48 h each mixture was resuspended in 800 pl of sterile tap-

water and 400 tl was transferred to each of two plates of an antibiotic selective medium.

For conjugation in liquid medium, bacteria were grown during shaking at 280 C

overnight in 4 ml of NB, then donor and recipient strains were mixed, and incubated with

very gentle shaking for 5 h. Afterward 200 ul of the mixture were plated on appropriate

selective medium and incubated at 280C for 2-3 days until conjugants developed.

Sometimes colonies grew on media containing two antibiotics. To test whether the

colonies were mutants or conjugants, cells were observed for the presence of GFP using a

UV microscope was performed and PCR with the primers specific for GFP (G.V.

insavage). Sometimes they were inoculated into grapefruit leaves for strain identification.

To determine if Xac-A" and Xac-A could act as donors, or recipients in

conjugation, experiments were designed for transfer of Cu resistance genes which were

known to be transferred by conjugation (Basim et al, 1999). Two strains ofX. campestris

pv. vesicatoria (one contained Cu resistance on a plasmid, the other on a chromosome)

were mated with Xac-A" and Xac-A recipient strains and screened for transfer of copper-

resistance genes (Cur). In addition, four Cur Xac-A strains (plasmid-borne Cur) from

Argentina and a strain of X axonopodis pv. citrumelo that was copper resistant were

mated with an Xac-A copper sensitive (Cu') strain from Florida. The conjugations using

only the strains from Florida were made on solid NYGA medium and the conjugations

among strains from Argentina and Florida were made using liquid medium. Copper









resistance was determined by growth on nutrient agar supplemented with copper sulfate

(200 [tg/ml). The frequency of Cur transfer during conjugations was determined from

dilution plating of bacteria after matings.

Plasmid DNA isolation. Plasmid DNA was extracted by a modification of the

method of Kado and Liu (1981). Detection of plasmids was performed by electrophoresis

of the plasmid extraction as described previously (Stall et al., 1986). Donors and

recipients could be identified by plasmid profiles (Figure 5-1, Lanes 2 and 4).

Results

Selected Xac-Aw strains were mated with Xac-A strains in all combinations of the

donor and recipient. In addition, the Xac-Aw strain was mated with itself and the A strain

was also mated with itself. In these tests a marker gene on a chromosome was never

transferred by conjugation. Putative transconjugants that grew on antibiotic media all

were negative for transfer of chromosomal genes.

The copper resistance genes on a plasmid in Xcv 75-3 were transferred to Xac-A in

vitro and in plant in all tests performed; however, these copper resistant genes were

transferred to the Xac-Aw strain only one time, and that occurred in plant (Figure 5-1).

No transfer to either Xac-A or Xac-Aw of the chromosomal Cu genes was observed.

Conjugal transfer of Cur genes from copper resistant Xac-A strain from Argentina

to copper sensitive Xac-A strain from Florida also occurred (Figure 5-2). The copper

resistance genes in Xac-A were found to be plasmid-bome (Figure 5-3). The frequency

of transfer of the Cur plasmid (per donor cell) was variable depending on the donor and

recipient combination (Table 5-2). The same variability of transfer frequency was

observed when the conjugation was made with the Cur and Cus strains from Argentina









(Table 5-3). It is interesting that in this combination, the Xac-A 16 Cur strain was the best

donor and had the highest frequency of transfer with the Xac-A 40 Cus strain. However,

no transfer was observed with the Xac-A 45 Cur strain used as the donor and with any

recipient strain (Table 5-3). When Xcv 75-3 Cur was used as a plasmid donor, the

frequency of transfer of Cur genes to Xac-A Cus strains was very high (Table 5-4). When

the copper resistant donor, X axonopodis pv. citrumelo strain (2a, Cur), was mated with

Xac-A 20, (Cus), the Cu plasmid was transferred from the donor to the Xac-A recipient

strain (Lane 12 of the Figure 5-3).

Discussion

The marker genes developed in these experiments were probably inserted in the

chromosome. The genes for yellow pigment had been determined to be in the

chromosome (Poplawsky and Chun, 1997). The markers were developed to primarily see

if chromosomal movement occurs in Xac-A and Xac-A" by conjugation. The

experiments were designed to have two markers in the donor strain, but only one marker

was included in the recipient strain. The development of some colonies on selective

media after mating was due to mutation for the donor selective marker in the recipient.

The mutants could be detected by the lack of movement of the other chromosomal genes,

such as the GFP or pigment genes.

Apparently chromosomal movement between strains of Xac is not a significant

factor in change of host specificities in nature. However, conjugal movement of plasmids

between strains of Xac does occur. Movement of plasmids among strains of Xac can be

particularly significant for the movement of copper resistance genes between strains.

Copper is used in the field to control citrus canker and the development of resistance

among strains would hinder control. The first report of copper resistance in strains of Xac









was by Canteros et al. (2004). In the present work we found that the copper resistance

genes in strains from Argentina were plasmid borne, which had not been demonstrated

previously. Copper resistance among strains of Xac in Florida was not detected when

over 100 random strains were screened for resistance. However, copper resistance was

detected in a strain of X axonopodis pv. citrumelo from Florida (R.E. Stall, personal

communication) and the resistance was determined to be plasmid-borne and could be

transferred by conjugation to an Xac-A Cus strain. Since X axonopodis pv. citrumelo and

Xac-A both cause disease of citrus it is expected that cell to cell contact of the two

pathovars can occur in nature. If citrus canker were to become widespread in Florida and

copper is used for control, it would be expected that copper resistance strains of Xac-A

would be selected quickly in the field.

1 2 3 4 5


















Figure 5-1. Agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Lanes contain plasmid
extractions from different strains: 1= Xcv 75-3 (Cur), 2= Xac-A (1874, GFP+,
Cus), 3= Xcv 75-3 x Xac-A conjugantt), 4= Xac-Aw (GFP+ Cus), and 5= Xcv
x Xac-Aw conjugantt). Strains in lanes 1, 3, and 5 were resistant to copper and
contained a large plasmid (arrow). The large plasmid was transferred by
conjugation to copper sensitive strains.









I I A A


Figure 5-2. Agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Lanes contain plasmid
extractions from different strains: 1= Xac-A (16, Cur), 2= Xac-A (26, Cur), 3=
Xac-A (1874, Cus), 4= Xac-A (16) x Xac-A (1874) conjugant, and 5= Xac-
A (26) x Xac-A (1874) conjugant. Strains in lanes 1, 2, 4 and 5 were copper
resistant and contained a large plasmid (arrow). The large plasmid from
strains 16 and 26 were transferred to 1874 by conjugation.









1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14


-101


Figure 5-3. Agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Lanes contained plasmid
extractions from different strains: 1= Xcv 75-3 (Cur) 2= Xac-A 20 (1874,
GFP+, CuS), 3= Xcv 75-x Xac-A 20) conjugant, 4=Xac-Aw (GFP+ Cus),
5=Xcv x Xac-A" conjugantt, 6=Xac-A (16 Cur), 7- Xac=A (26 Cur ), 8= Xac-
A 16 (Cur) x Xac-A 20 (Cus) conjugant, 9= Xac-A 26 x Xac-A 20, conjugant,
10= Xac-E (104, Cu'), 11= Xac-E (2a, Cur),12= Xac-E (2a x Xac-A 20 ),
conjugant, 13= Xac-E (lc Cur), 14= Xac-E (9 a Cur). Strains in lanes 1, 3, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13 and 14 were copper resistant and contained a large
plasmid (arrow).









Table 5-1. List of bacterial strain used in chapter 5


Relevant characteristics


Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri
Xac-Aw (12879)
Xac-A 20 (1874
Xac-A 20 (1874
Xac-A" (12879
Xac-A 16 (Xc02-1443)
Xac-A 26 (Xc01-1394-1)
Xac-A 44 (Xcc03-1338-1-1)
Xac-A 45 (Xcc03-1639-1-4)
Xac-A 40 (Xcc03-1633-1)
Xac-A 40 (Xcc03-1634)
Xac-A 42 (Xcc03)
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citrumelo
Xac-E (104)
Xac-E (2a)
Xac-E (Ic)
Xac-E (9a)
Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria
Xcv (75-3)
Xcv (XVP26)


GFP+;
GFP+;
GFP-;
GFP-;
Cur
Cur
Cur
Cur
Cus
Cus
Cus


GFP-;
GFP-;


Kanr
Strepr; Rif;White
Rif ; Specr
Specr; Rif


Cur plasmidd)
Cur (chromosomal)


Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv),
Fl, Florida, provided by Robert Stall from DPI Gainesville Fl. collection and Ctes,
Corrientes, provided by Nelly Canteros from INTA, Bella Vista, Corrientes, Argentina,
Kanamycin resistant (Kanr), Streptomicyn resistant (Strepr) Rifamycin resistant (Rif ),
Spectinomycin resistant (Specr ), Copper resistance (Cur); Copper sensitive (Cus).


Table 5-2. Frequency of transfer of copper resistance genes among Xanthomonas
axonopodis pv. citri (Xac-A) after conjugation in a liquid medium


Donor strain


Xac-A 16
Xac-A 26
Xac-A 44
Xac-A 45


Recipient strain


Xac-A 20
Xac-A 20
Xac-A 20
Xac-A 20


Range of frequency of transfer
(per donor cell)a


3.9 x 10-6 to 1.25 x 10-
0 to 1.12 x 10-6
0 to 8.66 x 10-6
0 to 4 x 10-7


a Based on four determinations per donor x recipient combinations.


Designation


Source


Fl.
Fl.
Fl.
Fl.
Ctes.
Ctes.
Ctes.
Ctes.
Ctes.
Ctes.
Ctes.

Ctes.
Ctes.
Ctes.
Ctes.

Fl.
Fl.









Table 5-3.Frequency of transfer of copper resistance genes among strains of
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac-A) after conjugation in a liquid
medium


Donor strain


Recipient strain


Range of frequency of transfer
(per donor cell)a


0 to 2.4 x 10-4
0 to 5 x 105
0 to 1.82 x 10-9
0
0 to 9.09 x 10-9
Oto 1.3 x 105
0
0
0


a Based on four tests of conjugation.


Table 5-4. Frequency of transfer of copper resistant genes from Xanthomonas campestris
pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) to copper sensitive strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis
pv. citri by conjugation on a solid medium


Donor strain Recipient strain


Xcv 75-3
Xcv 75-3
Xcv 75-3


Range of frequency of transfer
(per donor cell)a


Xac-A 40
Xac-A 41
Xac-A 42


0 to 2 x 10-4
Oto 1.33 x 10-6
Oto 1.33 x 10-6


a Based on four tests of conjugation.


Xac-A
Xac-A
Xac-A
Xac-A
Xac-A
Xac-A
Xac-A
Xac-A
Xac-A


Xac-A 40
Xac-A 41
Xac-A 42
Xac-A 40
Xac-A 41
Xac-A 42
Xac-A 40
Xac-A 41
Xac-A 42














CHAPTER 6
CLONING ANA VR GENE FROM THE XAC-Aw STRAIN

Introduction

Previously we found no evidence for a genetic basis for the host specificity of Xac-

A" strains compared to the Xac-A strains. In many cases, however, hypersensitivity of a

strain in a particular host is the basis for and is the result of the interaction of an avr gene

in the pathogen and a resistance gene in a host. The purpose of this chapter is to provide

results of screening a DNA library of Xac-Aw for the presence of avr genes in Xac-Aw

that cause a hypersensitivity in grapefruit leaves.

Materials and Methods

Bacterial strains and media. Strains used in this study are listed in Table 6-1. All

strains were maintained at -800 C and subcultured, when needed, on nutrient agar (NA).

Rifamycin-resistant strains were obtained by plating 500 .il of Xac-Aw strain 12879 at

109 colony-forming units (cfu) /ml onto nutrient agar supplemented with 80 tg/ml of

rifamycin. Escherichia coli (Ec) strains were cultured on Luria-Bertani medium

(Maniatis et. al., 1982). Conjugations were performed on nutrient-yeast-glycerol agar

(NYGA, Daniels et. al., 1984). The antibiotics and concentration used in media were:

rifamycin, 75 [tg/ml; tetracycline, 12.5 [tg/ml; and kanamycin 5 [tg/ml.

Growth of plants and inoculum preparation. Growth of plants and inoculum

preparation were the same as described in Chapter 3.

Electrolyte leakage determinations. Electrolyte-leakage determinations were

made in the same way as described in Chapter 3.









Bacterial growth curves. Bacterial growth curves were obtained in the same way

as described in Chapter 3.

Recombinant DNA techniques. Techniques used for cosmid cloning, enzyme

digestion, ligation, Southern transfer, plasmid alkaline lysis, and agarose gel

electrophoresis were described by Maniatis et al. (1982).

A genomic library of Xac-A" strain 12879 was constructed in the vector pLAFR3

as previously described (Metz et al., 2005) and supplied by G. V. Minsavage (Plant

Pathology Dept., University of Florida). Individual clones were maintained in Ec DH5a

(BRL) and maintained on Luria-Bertani medium. The helper plasmid pRK2013 in Ec HB

101 was used in conjugations involving triparental matings.

Individual clones of an Xac-A" genomic library in Ec DH5a were conjugated into

strain 91-118 of X perforans (Jones et al., 2004). Transconjugants were infiltrated into a

1 cm2 area of leaf tissue with a syringe and needle. The recipient bacterium is pathogenic

to tomato, but causes a null reaction in grapefruit leaves. A clone that caused an HR

reaction in both grapefruit and tomato leaves was detected by rapid necrosis in the

infiltrated area of the leaf. Tomato leaves were inoculated as a control, because the Xac-

A" strain also elicits an HR in tomato leaves (Figure 6-1). Grapefruit leaves and tomato

leaves were inoculated with ca. 300 transconjugants individually. Each clone contained

approximately a 25-kb fragment of Xac-A" DNA.

Subcloning. A clone, pL799-1 with HR activity in grapefruit, but not tomato was

obtained and consisted of about a 25-kb insert of Xac-A" DNA. This clone was

subcloned to contain only DNA necessary for HR activity. In this subcloning, to identify

the exact location of the gene in pL799-1, the transposon pHoGus was used to knock out









the gene responsible for HR activity by the procedure described by Huguet and Bonas,

1997. About 160 kanamycin resistant clones, which contained pHoGus inserts were

screened for the lack of HR in grapefruit after they were transferred to X perforans.

Three clones were selected for lack of an HR and one clone (pL799-1) was selected from

the three for further work. The clone pL799-1 was restricted with each of several

enzymes to find a fragment that contained the Tn3 insert. A HindIII restriction fragment,

contained the Tn3 insert and about 3.0 kb of DNA. This fragment was ligated into

pBluescript II KS and labeled pBs3.0. A portion of the 3.0 kb insert in pBs3.0 was then

sequenced using forward and reverse primers from the cloning vector. Custom

oligonucleotide primers were designed to complete the sequencing of the intact HindIII

fragment.

An open reading frame (ORF) was identified in the sequence of the intact HindIII

fragment. However, the ORF was at the end of the fragment and was not complete. When

the intact HindIII fragment was ligated into pLAFR6 (pL799-2) and conjugated into X.

perforans, no HR occurred in grapefruit leaves. Then primers were selected for

sequencing beyond the end of the HindIII fragment in the original clone to obtain the

sequence of the complete ORF. Primers were selected from the sequence to amplify by

PCR a 2.3-kb fragment containing the complete ORF, which was then ligated into

pGEMT Easy Vector (Promega, Madison, Wisconsin). The 2.3 kb insert was removed

from pGEMT Easy Vector with EcoRI enzyme and then ligated into the vector

pUFR043, and designated pU799-3. The pUFR043 cosmid was used as a vector because

DNA inserts in this vector could be conjugated into strains of Xac-A", whereas pLAFR









derivatives could not be transferred to strains of Xac-A". The pU799-3 in X perforans

caused an HR in grapefruit leaves. The open reading frame was labeled avrGfl.

Mutation of avrGfl in Xac-A". The avrGfl gene in Xac-Aw was mutated to

investigate the role of the gene in the host specificity of the bacterium. Mutation in

avrGfl in pGEMT Easy Vector occurred by inserting an Omega cassette into the gene

by the procedure described by Huguet et al., (1998). The inactive gene was exchanged

into the Xac-Aw strain by using the suicide vector pOK1. Eventually an Xac-Aw strain

with the mutated avr gene was obtained. This strain was labeled Xac-Aw Q.

DNA sequence analysis. Sequencing of pBluescript clone pBs3.0 was initiated at

the sequencing facility (University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl, USA) with the Applied

Biosystems model 373 system (Foster City, CA, U.S.A.). To complete sequencing of

both strands of DNA, custom primers were synthesized at the ICBR facility with an

Applied Biosystem model 394 DNA synthesizer. The computer program SeqAid II

version 3.81 was used to analyze nucleotide sequence data and predicted protein products

of the 2.3 kb region that contained avrGfl. A search for nucleotide and amino acid

sequence homology was conducted with the BLASTN and BLASTP 2.2.11 programs

(Altschul et al. 1997).

PCR procedure. Based on DNA sequence analysis of the avirulence gene

identified in Xac-A custom primers were designed to amplify a fragment from the

avirulence gene from DNA of xanthomonads that cause disease in citrus plants. The

primers used were forward 5-'CGCCGGTTTCTGTCCTGCACTTG-3' and reverse 5'-

GCCGCCTTTGCCATCGACCAG-3'. The final product was 199 bp. PCR reactions were

performed in a thermocycler (M.J. Research, Watertown, MA, U.S.A.).









Southern hybridization. All hybridization experiments were performed on

nitrocellulose membranes using the GENIUS nonradioactive DNA labeling and detection

kit according to the manufacturers instructions (Boeheringer Mannheim Biochemicals,

Indianapolis, IN, U.S.A). Genomic DNA extractions were made using the

GenomicPrepTM Cells and Tissue DNA Isolation Kit (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech,

Inc. 800 Centennial Avenue, PO Box 1327 Piscataway, NJ 08855, USA). Plasmid

extraction from Xac-A and Xac-Aw strains was as described in Chapter 5.

Results

Selection of avirulence gene. Three clones were selected that caused rapid

necrosis in grapefruit leaves but not in tomato leaves, and three other clones caused rapid

necrosis in tomato leaves, but not in grapefruit. The first three clones were designated

pL799-1, pL22, and pL622. All three clones were successfully transferred from E. coli

by conjugation into a strain that causes Asiatic citrus canker (Xac-A) in grapefruit and

Key lime. Only one of the three clones, pL799-1, caused an HR in grapefruit leaves

when expressed in the Xac-A strain (Figure 6-2). The pL799-1 clone in the Xac-A strain

did not cause an HR in Key lime leaves, which is typical of the host range of the wild

Xac-Aw strain (Figure 6-3). This clone was further characterized in this work.

To obtain more information about the significance of the avirulence gene in the

host range of Xac-A", primer sequences were obtained for amplification of a portion of

avirulence genes by PCR from the sequence of the 2.3 fragment in pU799-3. DNA from

three Xac-A strains and four Xac-Aw strains was extracted and tested for the presence of

the avirulence gene by amplification of DNA with those primer sequences. Amplification

of a product of the expected size occurred with all of the Xac-Aw strains, but no

amplification of a fragment of the expected size occurred with any Xac-A strain. Using









Southern hybridization with the pU799-3 clone as a probe, the avirulence gene was

determined to be present in the Xac-Aw strains but not in the Xac-A strains. In addition,

the avirulence gene was not present in strains of the B and C groups of X. axonopodis pv.

aurantifolii, or in strains of the Xac-A* strains of the Xac group, or in strains of X.

axonopodis pv. citrumelo (Figure 6-8). The B strain and strains of X axonopodis pv.

citrumelo did not cause rapid necrosis in grapefruit leaves but the C strain did. Also, at

least some of the Xac-A* strains also caused rapid necrosis in grapefruit leaves (Data not

presented). Apparently, other avirulence genes may exist in those strains. The avirulence

gene (avrGfl) hybridized with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris strain 8004 but

the restriction pattern was different. Strain 8004 causes rapid necrosis in grapefruit

leaves. The avirulence gene (avrGfl) was located in the chromosome because the

plasmid DNA did not hybridize with the avrGfl probe (Figure 6-8).

Comparison of mutated Xac-Aw with the Xac-A and Xac-A". The strain Xac-

A" with the mutated avirulence gene was compared with the Xac-A and Xac-Aw strains

in inoculation tests in grapefruit leaves. Visually, the symptoms caused by the mutant

strain of Xac-Aw were more like the wild-type Xac-A strain than the wild-type Xac-Aw

strain (Figure 6-4 and 6-5). However, the symptoms of the mutated strain were not

identical to Xac-A strain. Nevertheless, inactivation of the avirulence gene in Xac-Aw did

alter the disease reaction in grapefruit leaves.

Growth of the strains in grapefruit leaves was compared. In addition, electrolyte

leakage from the leaves inoculated with the strains was determined to differentiate the

time to necrosis after inoculations. In these experiments cultures, of Xac-A 40, Xac-Aw

12879, Xac-A 40 (pU799-3), Xac-AwQ, and Xac-Awf (pU799-3) were compared.









Illustrations of the results are included in Figures 6-6 and 6-7. Growth of all strains was

about equal for the first four days after inoculation. However, at day six the populations

of the strains were different. At day ten the population of the Xac-A strain was the

greatest. The population of the Xac-Aw strain was about 1.5 log units lower than the Xac-

A strain. The Xac-AwQ strain reached a population intermediate between the Xac-A and

the Xac-A". The strains with the pU799-3 clone had the lowest populations.

In electrolyte leakage determinations the Xac-Aw strain and the Xac-A strains with

the clone pU799-3 began to increase at day four compared to that caused by Xac-A and

Xac-AwQ strains. At day eight the strains with the avirulence gene had significantly

greater electrolyte leakage than the strains that did not contain the avirulence gene. This

data confirmed the visual observations of necrosis caused by those strains.

DNA sequencing analysis. Sequence analysis of the 2.3 kb fragment in pU799-3

was determined. A 1599 bp nucleotide open reading frame (ORF) was found that was

sufficient for avrGfl activity. The complete sequence of the 2.3 kb, the avrGfl gene and

the primers used to amplify the avrGfl are shown in the Figure 6-9. The upstream regions

of this ORF do not contain a hrp box but do contain an imperfect PIP box TTCGT-N10-

TTCGC 80 bp upstream of the start codon (Huguet and Bonas, 1997). The GenBank

search identified significant homology with a gene in the genome of Xanthomonas

campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) str. 8004 (84 % identical). When an alignment was done

between the completely sequenced Xcc3600 gene and avrGfl using the clustal W (1.82)

multiple sequence alignment 84.99 % identity was found (Figure 6-10).

Discussion

A genomic library of an Xac-Aw strain was successfully produced and incorporated

into E. coli DH5a. For successful screening of the library for avirulence genes one would









normally transfer each clone into a strain that was pathogenic on the plant in question; in

this case into a strain of Xac-A. However, in previous experiments the transfer of clones

in pLAFR3 cosmid to strains of Xac-A did not occur at high frequency by triparental

matings (G. V. Minsavage, Plant Pathology Dept., University of Florida, Gainesville). To

circumvent this problem the Xac-Aw library was transferred from E. coli to strain 91-118

of X perforans by triparental conjugations and nearly 100 % of the matings were

successful. The X perforans strain contains the hrp genes (Bonas et al., 1991) necessary

for transfer of avirulence gene proteins into host cells, so it was thought that an

avirulence gene in the genome of Xac-Aw to grapefruit could be found by this procedure.

In fact, an avirulence gene in the Xac-Aw library was found. This procedure could

possibly be used to locate other avirulence genes when transfer of clones to a pathogen

occurs very infrequently during triparental matings with E. coli.

Three clones from the Xac-Aw library were obtained that produced an HR in

grapefruit leaves when expressed in X perforans. When the three clones were transferred

to the Xac-A strain only one caused an HR in grapefruit leaves. The two clones that did

not cause an HR probably have similar DNA sequences based on restriction enzyme

digestion (data not given). One of the clones, pL22, is being investigated further to

determine the reason that no HR occurred in grapefruit when expressed in the Xac-A

strain.

The clone that was expressed in Xac-A and that caused an HR in grapefruit leaves

did not cause an HR in leaves of Key lime. This is the same reaction as the Xac-Aw strain

in the two hosts. The importance of the avirulence gene in determination of the host

specificity of the Xac-Aw strain was further investigated by determining the presence of









the gene in other bacterial strains pathogenic to citrus. This gene was only found in Xac-

A" strains by PCR and Southern hybridization techniques. When the gene was mutated in

an Xac-Aw strain the symptoms caused by the mutated strain were similar to those caused

by the Xac-A strains. However, the symptoms were not quite the same. In addition the

growth of the mutated strain in grapefruit leaves was significantly greater than the wild-

type Xac-Aw strain but lower than the Xac-A strain. Therefore, the avirulence gene

avrGfl seems to be important in delimiting the pathogenic specificity of the Xac-Aw

strain.

An assumption could be made that another avr gene exists in the wild type of Xac-

Aw that prevents the symptoms of the mutated strain to be equal to as the wild-type Xac-

A strain and also prevents the populations of the two strains from being the same. There

could be another avr gene in the genomic library that was not identified because we only

screened 300 clones. More clones should be screened to search for another avr gene or

host range limiting factor.

Clones causing an HR in tomato, but not in grapefruit were also found in the

genomic library of Xac-A". Wild-type strains of Xac-A and Xac-Aw cause an HR in

tomato, but not in leaves of tobacco or pepper (Figure 6-1). Very little was done with

these clones in this work. It would be interesting to determine if those clones contain an

avirulence gene that provides the differential reactions in the three plants.














































Figure 6-1. Symptoms caused by Xac-A (left) and Xac-Aw (right) strains in tobacco,
tomato, and pepper leaves.


"" i, '* !" .*
.:v :
"


Ab
/
,


























Figure 6-2. Symptoms in grapefruit leaves after infiltration with the following bacterial
suspensions: 1= Xac-A 40; 2= Xac-A 40 (pL799-1); 3= Xac-A 40 (pL22); 4=
Xac-A 40 (pL622).


Figure 6 -3. Symptoms in Key lime leaves after infiltration with different bacterial
suspensions: 1= Xac-A 40; 2= Xac-A 40 (pL799-1); 3= Xac-A 40 (pL22); 4=
Xac-A 40 (pL622).































Figure 6-4. Symptoms in grapefruit following inoculation with Xac-A 40 strain (A), Xac-
A" 12879 strain (A") and Xac-Aw Q (3).


Figure 6-5. Symptoms in grapefruit after inoculation by needle pricks with Xac-A" strain
12879 (right top), Xac-Aw Q (bottom left), and Xac-A 40 (bottom right).


























2 4 6 8


Time (Days)

Figure 6-6. Bacterial populations in grapefruit leaves infiltrated with Xac-A 40; Xac-Aw
0; Xac-Aw 12879;Xac-A 40 (pU799-3), Xac-A" 0 (pU799-3) at various times
after inoculation.


0 2 4 6 8 10
Time (Days)

Figure 6-7. Electrolyte leakage in grapefruit leaves infiltrated with of Xac-A 40, Xac-
A"W, Xac-Aw 12879, Xac-A 40 (pU799-3), Xac-Aw O(pU799-3) at a
concentration of 5x108 cells (cfu/ml).









1 2 3 4 5 6 .7 8 91011 12 13 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1213 14


... ....... .... .. ...... -. i
Figure 6-8. Hybridization of the subclone pU799-3 fragment in avrGfl to total genomic
DNA of Xanthomonas strains digested with HindIII. Lanes 1= Xac-A"; 2=
Xac-Aw" ; 3= Xac-A 40; 4= Xac-A 306; 5=Xac- A* 1574; 6=Xac-A* 1575;
7= Xaa-B; 8=Xaa-C; 9= Xac-E 1887; 10= Xcc 8004; 11= Xac-Aw 12879; 12=
plasmid Xac-A"; 13= Plasmid Xac-A 40; 14= X Marker digested with HindIII.
Ethidium bromide stained gel on the left. Southern blot of gel on the right.








47



GATCGGCGCCAGGAAGGGCCTGCCATGTCACAACCTGATTCATCTGTGCCAAGACCACCTCGCACCGCGT
GCGCGCATGGTGTACTCCGCGTCTCCAAAGAAAGCTGCATCGCCATCTTCCGATTCGGCTCAGTGTGTCTT
TTTTGCAAGCGTCTGATGGGGGTTGGAGTTATTCAAGCCTCCCGAGTCAACGTGATGCGGACACGCTTAC
ACCAAACCGAAATGCATCGGTCCGCCTGGTGCGATCGCCGAGCTTTCGCACAGCCACTCGTTTGTGACAT
CGCTTTTTCGCATTCGAGATGCAGACAGCTCAGGCCTTCAGGAAAAATAGGTCGTCAATCCGGTAGCAGT
GAAATACACGGCGTTATATGCACATTTACGTCTTGTCATCCCGATGGCTTGTCGCTCCGGATCGCTGGTAA
CTCACCACGGTCGATGAGTGCCGCCAGCCCAGGCACGCACAGTCAACACGGCCTCGCCGCGGACTGATA
GCAATCTTCCATGTGATACCCGCAGAGTGGATCGATATGTCGTCGGTAGCGCGCGGCCATGCTTTTCATA
GTCCCTATTCCA CCATCAGCAC CTAGTCAACAAGCTCCGATGGCTCCGAGCATGCATTCGG
CGGCGTCGCCGGTTTCTGTCCTGCACTTGAGAGATACATCCATGGCTCCGAGCATGCATTCGGCGGCG
TCGCCGGTTTCTGTCCTGCACTTGAGAGATACATCCATGCGCACCAAAGCCCAACTCCCATTGACT
GCCATTCAACGGTTTCTTGCCCATGATGCAGCGTCAACGCAGGCCCCCTCTGCATCGGCATCCACA
TCGCTCCACAAAAATGAGACCGCAGGCTTGCTGGCAGCCTTGCCAGCGCGAAACGCCAGGCAAGG
AGCGCAGAGGAAGTCCGGCGAAAAAGAAGGCGCACGCCAAAACAACGGGGGCCGGGGCGGACAA
TGGGCATCTCGGGCGGCCAAGTACGCCCTGGGAATCGCCGGTGCTGGCTATGTTGCAGACAATTT
CGTTCTGTCCACGACATCGCTGGTCGATGGCAAAGGCGGCTTTACCAGTAATGATCGTTTGGATAA
AGCATGCGCAAAGGCCGAGACGTATTACGCCCGGTACCACAGTGCCACTGAGGATGAGCGTGCAT
CCCATAGCCGCCCCTTTGTACCGATCAGAACGTGCGGTTCCAACCAGTTCGCCACCATGACCGACT
ACCGCGCGGCGACCAAGGTCCATGTCGGTCATCTTTTCGACAGCCAAGCCGCGCGCGAATCGCTC
GTCACCAACCTCGCCTGCCTCAAGGGCGAGCGGATCAAGCAGGAGTGCATCATCAGGTATGCGCC
TGCGCAGGTGCCAGCGGATCCGGACCTAAGCAAGAGCGAGCTGTACGACAGGAAAAACAAGTACT
CGTTGGTTGGCATGCCCAACGCCCAAACCGGAGCAAGTGGATATACCTCACGCTCGATCACCCAGC
CCTTCATCAACCGCGGCATGGAGCATTTCAGACAGGCTTCACAGAGCGACAAGGCACTGTCCCTGA
GGCAGTGCATGCAATCGCTTGAACGGGCACTGCAGGACACTGACAAGCTTGGCAAGCAAGCACAG
CACGCCGCCGGCCAGGCAATCCTGAATTTCCGGCAGGTCTATGCGGCCGACGAGCATTGGGGTCA
CCCGGAGAAAGTCATCATGAAAACCCTGATCGCCAACGGACTGCTATCGCAAGAACAAACCGACA
GGATCGATGCGACCCTGATGTTCGAAGATCCCTCCATCAGTGTCCTGAAAAGAAATACCAGCATCG
CCGGACCGTTACTGCAAAAACTGGAAACGAAGATTCAGTCAAAACGTCTGCAGGATCAACCTGAAA
CGCTTGCAGACTTCATGGAAATGGCTAAGCAGAAGAACATGGAAGGCCTGCCGATCGCGCACTTC
AAACTCAACGCCGAAGGCACCGGTTTTGAAGACTGCTCTGGCCTGGGCGACTCGTTTACTAGTGCA
AATGCCGTTGCATGCATCAACCATGCACGCTTGATGAGCGGAGAGCCGCGCCTTTCGAAAGAGGA
TGTCGGTGTCGTGGTTGCCTGCCTCAATGCTGTATACGACGATGCCAGCAGCATCCGGCACTCGCT
TCATGAAATCGCACGCGGATGCTTCGTAGGTGCCGGCTATACAACGGAAGATGCCGATGCGTTCTA
TGAGCAGATTTGCAAGGATGCTGCACGGGCATTCTATGCAGGAAAGTCAATGACCAGCAGCGACT
AATCGCCCCCTTCCCACCTCATTGCGCTGACGCAACTTGGCGCCCGGTTGAGG



Figure 6-9. Nucleotide sequence of the 2.3 kb fragment of DNA from Xac-AW containing
avrGfl nucleotide sequencing (bold letters).The primer sequences used to
amplify a fragment of avrGfl by PCR are underlined. Imperfect PIP-box is
shaded in gray.








48



seq ------------------------------CTGATTTCCGTCCTGCACTCTAGGAGACCC
seq 2 ATGGCTCCGAGCATGCATTCGGCGGCGTCGCCGGTTTCTGTCCTGCACT-TGAGAGATAC
**** ********** **** *


seq 1 ATC-ATGCGAACAAAAACCTCACTGCCGTTGGCCACCGTCCAGCGGCTACTGACCCCTGG
seq 2 ATCCATGCGCACCAAAGCCCAACTCCCATTGACTGCCATTCAACGGTTTCTTGCCCATGA


seq 1 CACCTCCACCGGGTTATCCACCCCCGCGTCGGCGTCAGCCACTCCCTGTGCAGAAACGAC
seq 2 TGCAGCGTCAACGCAGGCCCCCTCTGCATCGGCATCCACATCGCTCCACAAAAATGAGAC



seq 1 GGCAGGCTTACTGGGAGCGTTGCCAACTCGAAAGAACAAGCAAAAACAGCAAAGCCAGCG
seq 2 CGCAGGCTTGCTGGCAGCCTTGCCAGCGCGAAACGCCAGGCAAGGAGCGCAGAG--GAAG



seq 1 TCCACCCAATACGCAGGACGGTACACCAAAGAATGGCAGAGACCATGGCGGACAGTGGGC
seq 2 TCCGGCGAAAAAGAAGGC--GCACGCCAAA--ACAACGGGGGCCGGGGCGGACAATGGGC


seq 1 AACACGAGCTGCCAAGTACGCTCTTGGCATTGCTGGCGCAGGCTATGTGGCAGACAACTT
seq 2 ATCTCGGGCGGCCAAGTACGCCCTGGGAATCGCCGGTGCTGGCTATGTTGCAGACAATTT


seq 1 CTTTCTTTCAACGACCTCGCTCCGCGACGGCAAGGCCGGATTTAGCAGCAATGATCGGCT
seq 2 CGTTCTGTCCACGACATCGCTGGTCGATGGCAAAGGCGGCTTTACCAGTAATGATCGTTT


seq 1 TGAGAAAGCATGCGTGAAAGCGGAGAGCTATCACGCGCGGTATCACAGCGCTACCGAAGG
seq 2 GGATAAAGCATGCGCAAAGGCCGAGACGTATTACGCCCGGTACCACAGTGCCACTGAGGA

seq AGAACGCGCATCGCACAGCCGTCCCTTCGTACCGATCAGAACGTGCGGGTCCAACCAGTT

seq 2 AGAGCGGCATCCATAGCCGCCCCTTCGTACCGATCAGAACGTGCGGTTCCAACCAGTT
seq 2 TGAGCGTGCATCCCATAGCCGCCCCTTTGTACCGATCAGAACGTGCGGTTCCAACCAGTT


seq 1 CGCCACCATGAGCGACTACCGTGCGGCGACCAAGGTTCATATCGGCCACCTCTTCGACAG
seq 2 CGCCACCATGACCGACTACCGCGCGGCGACCAAGGTCCATGTCGGTCATCTTTTCGACAG


seq 1 CCAGCACGCACGGCAATCGCTGCTCACCAACCTTGCCTGCCTCAAGGGCGAGCGCATCAG
seq 2 CCAAGCCGCCGCGGAATCGCTCGTCACCAACCTCGCCTGCCTCAAGGGCGAGCGGATCAA



seq 1 GGACGAGTGCATTGCCCAGTACGCCCCTACGCATGTCCCGGCCAATCCGGACCTGAGTAG
seq 2 GCAGGAGTGCATCATCAGGTATGCGCCTGCGCAGGTGCCAGCGGATCCGGACCTAAGCAA


seq 1 AAGCCCGCTCTACGAAACCAAGAACAAGTACTCTCTGACCGGCGTACCCAATGCTCAGAC
seq 2 GAGCGAGCTGTACGACAGGAAAAACAAGTACTCGTTGGTTGGCATGCCCAACGCCCAAAC


seq 1 CGGTGCAAGCGGATATACCTCACGATCAATCACCCAGCCCTTCATCAATCGCGGCATGCA
seq 2 CGGAGCAAGTGGATATACCTCACGCTCGATCACCCAGCCCTTCATCAACCGCGGCATGGA
*** ***** ************** ** ******************** ********* *

Figure 6-10. Alignment between the complete sequence of XCC3600 from Xanthomonas
campestris pv. campestris and the avrGfl using the clustal W (1.82) multiple
sequence alignment (seq_l xc3600 and seq_2 avrGFI). The Xcc 3600 gene
and avrGfl are 84.99 % similar.










seq 1
seq 2


seq 1
seq 2


seq 1
seq 2


seq 1
seq 2


seq 1
seq 2


Figure 6-10---continued.


Table 6-1. List of bacterial strains used in chapter 6


Bacterium
X perforans
91-118 (pL799-1)
91-118 (PL799-2)
91-118 (pL22)
91-118 (pL622)
Xa pv. citri
Xac-A 40 (pL799-1)
Xac-A 40 (PL799-2)
Xac-A 40 (pL22)
Xac-A 40 (pL622)
Xa pv. citri
Xac-Aw (pU799-3)
Xac-A" f
Xac-AWQ(pU799-3)
Xa pv. citri
Xa pv.citri
Xa pv.citri
Xa pv.aurantifolii
Xa pv. aurantifolii
Xa pv.citrumelo
Xc pv. campestris


Abbreviation


Original strain number Origin
J.B Jones
This work
This work
This work


Xac-A 40 (Xcc03-1633-1)


Xac-Aw




Xac-A 306
Xac-A*
Xac-A*
Xaa-B
Xaa-C
Xac-E
Xcc


12879




2422
1974
1975
1622
5979
1887
8004


This work
Ctes.
This work
This work
This work
This work
DPI
This work
This work
This work
DPI
DPI
DPI
DPI
DPI
DPI
DPI


Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv),
Fl, Florida, provided by Robert Stall from DPI Gainesville Fl. Collection and Ctes,
Corrientes, provided by Nelly Canteros from INTA, Bella Vista, Corrientes, Argentina.


GCATTTCAAGCAGGATTCCCAGAGCGACAGAGCGTTGTCGCTCAAACAGTGCATGGAATT
GCATTTCAGACAGGCTTCACAGAGCGACAAGGCACTGTCCCTGAGGCAGTGCATGCAATC
GCTTGAACGTACACTGGAGGGCGACGACAAACTTGGCAAGCAGGCACAACACGCTGCCGG
GCTTGAACGGGCACTGGAGGACACTGACAAGCTTGGCAAGCAAGCACAGCACGCCGCCGG
GCTTGAACGGGCACTGCAGGACACTGACAAGCTTGGCAAGCAAGCACAGCACGCCGCCGG


CCAAGCGATCCTGAATTTCCGTCAGGTGTATGCCGCCGACGAGCATTGGGGACACCCCGA
CCAGGCAATCCTGAATTTCCGGCAGGTCTATGCGGCCGACGAGCATTGGGGTCACCCGGA

AAAAGTCATCATGAAAACGCTGATCGCCAACGGGCTGCTATCGCAGGAGCAAACGGACAG
GAAAGTCATCATGAAAACCCTGATCGCCAACGGACTGCTATCGCAAGAACAAACCGACAG


GATCGATGCGACCCTGATGTTCGAAGATCCGTCCATCAGCGTATTGAAAAAAAACACCAG
GATCGATGCGACCCTGATGTTCGAAGATCCCTCCATCAGTGTCCTGAAAAGAAATACCAG
****************************** ******** ** ****** *** *****














CHAPTER 7
DISCUSSION

Many pathogenically different strains of the causal agent of citrus canker

(Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and X axonopodis pv. aurantifoli) have been

described. These strains sometimes differ genetically and pathologically. The variation

within the strains involved in citrus canker disease is not unusual. For example, the

xanthomonads that cause the bacterial spot disease of tomato and pepper consist of many

strains and some have significant genetic differences, resulting in different species of

Xanthomonas (Jones et al., 2004).

The Xac-Aw strain that was characterized by Sun et al. (2004) was found to be a

close relative of Xac-A even though they had pathogenic differences (Cubero and

Graham, 2002). Contrary to the xanthomonads that cause the bacterial spot disease of

pepper and tomato, there were no reports of a hypersensitive reaction (possible exception

Xac-C strain) responsible for host range differences. The characterization of the HR

caused by Xac-Aw in grapefruit leaves is new.

The Xac-Aw strains presented a problem for the eradication and regulation program

of the Division of Plant Industry (DPI) for citrus canker (Sun et al., 2004). After careful

consideration, DPI decided to destroy only Key lime and alemow plants in a 1900 ft

radius, and not other citrus plants, near the focus of disease caused by the Xac-Aw strain.

One of the considerations in establishing the program was the lack of knowledge of the

stability of the pathogenicity of the Xac-Aw strain. To obtain information on this

problem, we chose three avenues of research. We investigated the frequency of









development of mutants for host specificity of the Xac-Aw strain, the transfer of genes by

conjugation, and the search of the genome of the Xac-Aw strain for an avirulence gene.

We never were able to find a mutant of the Xac-Aw strain that was pathogenic on

grapefruit after treatment with the mutagen NTG. However, streptomycin and pigment

production mutants of the Xac-Aw strain developed in vitro. The methods used to find

mutants pathogenic to grapefruit were used previously with X campestris pv. vesicatoria

to find mutants for virulence on pepper plants with a plant resistance gene (Dahlbeck and

Stall, 1979). Mutants for change of race 2 to race 1, which occurred very frequently in X

campestris pv. vesicatoria, was due to an insertion element that inactivated an avirulence

gene (Kearney et al., 1990). In addition, inactivation of the avrBs2 gene in X campestris

pv. vesicatoria by several ways makes the pathogen susceptible to plants with the Bs2

gene for resistance. This has occurred frequently in the field (Gassmann et al., 2000).

Chromosomal genes were also transferred from donor to recipient in X campestris

pv. vesicatoria by conjugation (Basim, 1999). The hrp genes, which are involved in

pathogenicity and hypersensitivity in bacteria, were transferred in that work. The hrp

gene cluster contains ca. 25 kb of DNA. However, it is not known if the host specificity

genes in Xac-Aw are in the chromosome or in a plasmid. We did determine that a plasmid

can move by conjugation between strains of Xac and this was demonstrated by using

copper (Cu) resistant strains. It was determined that Cu resistance genes occur on a

plasmid in Xac-A from Argentina and in X axonopodis pv. citrumelo strains from

Florida. The Cu resistance genes from both pathogens were transferred to Cu sensitive

strains. Copper resistance was not found in strains of Xac-A from Florida (R.E. Stall,









personal communication). Copper resistance was associated with transfer of a large

plasmid.

The most important part of this work was that we found an avirulence gene,

avrGfl, in the genome of Xac-Aw that interacts with grapefruit leaves to cause an HR.

The avr gene was found to be located in the chromosome. This is the first report of an

avirulence gene in the genome of the citrus canker bacterium that functions in citrus. The

HR depends on a gene for resistance in grapefruit, based on the gene-for-gene hypothesis

(Minsavage, 1990b). The evidence for a resistance gene in the grapefruit genome will be

very difficult to obtain, because crossing between susceptible and resistant plants is

usually required. Genetic analysis of characteristics in citrus is difficult (Novelli et al.,

2000).

Identification of the Xac-Aw strain by the division of plant industry is currently

done by inoculation of citrus plants. In addition, the Xac-Aw strain can be identified by

serological means in an ELISA test (Sun et al., 2004). The primers selected in the

avirulence gene (avrGfl) can also be used to identify the Xac-Aw strain by PCR. The

avirulence gene was not found in other strains of xanthomonads pathogenic to citrus.

The regulation and eradication procedures of the Division of Plant Industry were

probably correct for the Xac-Aw strain. The factors for host specificity of the Xac-Aw

strain seem to be quite stable based on this work. Even if the single avrGfl gene is

responsible for host specificity, inactivation of the gene in the Xac-Aw genome does not

appear to be of a high frequency as occurs with avr genes in X campestris pv. vesicatoria

(Dahlbeck and Stall, 1979). One should note, however, that the frequency of inactivation









of avrGfl could change with the introduction of an insertion sequence (Kearney et al.,

1990).

The stability of the host specificity of the Xac-Aw strain could be the result of the

presence of a second avr gene in wild Xac-A". The fact that we did not obtain mutants

that were pathogenic to grapefruit when the cells of Xac-Aw were treated with the

mutagen NTG (Chapter 4) would support this. If only one gene was present, mutants

should have been found. If two genes were present in Xac-A", each of which was

important in susceptibility to grapefruit, one would not expect to find pathogenic mutants

after treatment with a mutagen. Other evidence for another avr gene in Xac-Aw was that

there were differences in populations and symptoms for the Xac-A strain with the mutant

lacking a functional avrGfl in comparison with the wild-type Xac-A.
















LIST OF REFERENCES


Altschul, S.F., Madden, T.L., Schaffer, A.A., Zhang,J., Zhang,Z., Miller,W. and Lipman,
D.J. 1997. Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database
search programs. Nucleic Acids Res. 25: 3389-3402.

Basim, H., Stall, R.E., Minsavage, G.V., and Jones, J.B. 1999. Chromosomal gene
transfer by conjugation in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv.
vesicatoria. Phytopathology 89: 1044-1049.

Belasque, J., Jr., Parra-Pedrazzoli, A.L., Rodrigues Neto, J., Yamamoto, P.T., Chagas, M.
C.M., Parra, J. R.P., Vinyard, B.T., and Hartung, J. S. 2005. Adult citrus leafminers
(Phillocnitis citrella) are not efficient vectors for Xanthomonas axonopodis pv.
citri. Plant Dis. 89: 590-594.

Bonas, U., Schulte, R., Fenselau, D., Minsavage, G.V, Staskawicz, B. and Stall, R.E
1991. Isolation of a cluster from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria that
determines pathogenicity and the hypersensitive response on pepper and tomato.
Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 4: 81-85.

Canteros, B.I., Rybak, M., Naranjo, M., Gochez, A.; Minsavage, G.; Jones, J., and Stall,
R.E. 2004. Caracterizaci6n molecular de la resistencia al cobre en Xanthomonas
axonopodis pv. citri. CD Resumenes de los trabajos presentados. XV0 Reuni6n de
Comunicaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas. Corrientes, 4-6 Agosto 2004 FCA UNNE.
Resumen P020.

Cook, A.A., and Stall, R.E. 1968. Effect of Xanthomonas vesicatoria in loss of
electrolytes from leaves of Capsicum annuum. Phytopathology 58: 617-619.

Crute, I.R. 1985. Mechanisms of Resistance to Plant Diseases, ed, Fraser R, S.S. (Nijhoff
& Junk, Dordrecht, The Netherlands), pp. 80-142.

Cubero, J., and Graham, J. H. 2002. Genetic relationship among worldwide strains of
Xanthomonas causing canker in citrus species and design of new primers for their
identification by PCR. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:1257-1264.

Cubero, J., and Graham J.H. 2004. The leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Irp) gene
for characterization of the relationship among Xanthomonas species. Int. J. Syst.
Evol. Microbiol. 54: 429-437.

Dahlbeck, D., and R.E. Stall 1979. Mutations for change of race in cultures of
Xanthomonas vesicatoria. Phytopathology 69: 634-636.









Daniels, M.J., Barber, C.E., Turner, D.C., Cleary, W.G., and Sawzyc, M. 1984. Isolation
of mutants of Xanthomonas campestris showing altered pathogenicity. J. Gen.
Microbiol. 130: 2447-2455.

Dopson, R.N. 1964. The eradication of citrus canker. Plant Dis. 48:30-31.

Ellingboe, A.H. 1976. Genetics of host-parasite interactions. In Physiological Plant
Pathology (Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, New Series, vol. 4), pp. 761-778.
Edited by R. Heitefuss & P. H.Williams. Berlin: Springer.

Flor, H.H. 1955. Host-parasite interaction in flax rust-its genetics and other implications.
Phytopathololy 45: 680-685.

Gabriel, D.W., Burges, A., and Lazo, G.R. 1986. Gene-for-gene recognition of five
cloned avirulence genes from Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum by
specific resistance genes in cotton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 6415-6419.

Gabriel, D.W., Kingsley, M.T., Hunter, J.E., and Gottwald, T., 1989. Reinstatement of
Xanthomonas citri (ex Hasse) and X phaseoli (ex Smith) to species and
reclassification of all X. campestris pv. citri strains. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 39: 14-
22.

Garnsey S.M., DuCharme, E.P., Lightfield J. W., Seymour, C.P., and Griffiths J.T.
1979. Citrus canker. Preventive action to protect the U.S. citrus industry. The
Citrus Industry. pp. 5-14.

Gassmann, W., Dahlbeck, D., Chesnokova, O., Minsavage, G.V., Jones, J. B., Staskawicz
B.J. 2000. Molecular evolution of virulence in natural field strains of Xanthomonas
campestris pv. vesicatoria. J. Bacteriol. 182: 7053-7059.

Gerhardt, P., Murray, R.G.E., Costilow, R.N., Nester, E.W., Wood, W.A., Krieg, N.R.
and Phillips, G.B., Editors, 1981. Manual of Methods for General Bacteriology.
American Society for Microbiology. Washington, DC pp. 226.

Goto, M., Takemura, I., and Yamanaka K. 1979. Leakage of electrolytes and amino acids
from susceptible and resistant citrus leaf tissues infected by Xanthomonas citri.
Ann. Phytopath. Soc. Japan 45: 625-634.

Gottwald, T.R., Graham, J.H., and Schubert, T.S. 1997a. An epidemiological analysis of
the spread of citrus canker in urban Miami, Florida, and synergistic interaction with
the Asian citrus leafminer. Fruits 52: 371-378.

Gottwald, T.R., Graham, J.H., and Schubert, T.S. 1997b. Citrus canker in urban Miami:
An analysis of spread and prognosis for the future. Citrus Industry 78: 72-78.

Gottwald, T.R., Graham, J.H., and Schubert, T.S. 2002a. Citrus canker: The pathogen and
its impact. Online. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2002-0812-01-RV.









Gottwald, T. R., Sun, X, Riley, T., Graham, J.H., Ferrandino, F., and Taylor, E.L. 2002b.
Geo-referenced spatiotemporal analysis of the urban citrus canker epidemic in
Florida. Phytopathology. 92: 361-377.

Graham, J.H., and Gottwald, T.R. 1990. Variation in aggressiveness of Xanthomonas
campestris pv. citrumelo associated with citrus bacterial spot in Florida citrus
nurseries. Phytopathology: 80: 190-196.

Graham, J.H., and Gottwald, T.R. 1991. Research perspectives on eradication of citrus
bacterial disease in Florida. Plant Dis. 75: 1193-1200.

Graham, J. H., Gottwald, T. R., Cubero, J. and Achor, D. S. 2004. Xanthomonas
axonopodis pv. citri: factors affecting successful eradication of citrus canker.
Molecular Plant Pathology. 5: 1-15

Hartung J. S., and Civerolo, E. L. 1989. Restriction fragment length polymorphims
distinguish Xanthomonas campestris strains isolated from Florida citrus nurseries
from Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri. Pages 503-508 in: Proc. 7th Int. Conf.
Plant Path. Bacteria, Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, Hungary.

Hayward A. C. 1993. The hosts of Xanthomonas. Pages 1-19 in Xanthomonas. J. G.
Swings and E.L. Civerolo, eds. Chapman & Hall, London.

Hibberd, A. M., Stall, R. E., and Bassett, M. J. 1987. Different phenotypes associated
with incompatible races and resistance genes in bacterial spot disease of pepper.
Plant Dis. 71: 1075-1078.

Huguet, E. and Bonas, U. 1997. hrpF of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria
encodes an 87-kDa protein with homology to NolX of Rhizobiumfredii. Mol. Plant
Microbe Interact. 10: 488-498.

Huguet, E, Hahn, K, Wengelnik, K., and U. Bonas U. 1998. hpaA mutants of
Xanthomonas ampestris pv. vesicatoria are affected in pathogenicity but retain the
ability to induce host-specific hypersensitive reaction. Molecular Microbiology
29:1379-1390.

Jenner, C., Hitchin, E., Mansfield, J., Walters, K., Betteridge, P., Teverson, D. Taylor, J.
(1991). Gene-for-gene interactions between Pseudomonas syringae pv.
phaseolicola and Phaseolus. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact. 4: 553-562.

Jones, B.J., Lacy, G.H., Bouzar, H., Stall, R.E., and Schaad, N.W. 2004. Reclassification
of the xanthomonads associated with bacterial spot disease of tomato and pepper.
System. Appl. Microbiol., 27: 755-762.

Kado, C.I., and Liu, S.T. 1981. Rapid procedure for detection and isolation of large and
small plasmids. J. Bacteriol. 145: 1365-1373.









Kearney, B., and B.J. Staskawicz 1990. Characterization of IS416 and its role in bacterial
spot disease of pepper and tomato. J. Bacteriol. 172: 143-148.

Klement, Z. 1963. Rapid detection of the pathogenicity of phytopathogenic
pseudomonads. Nature 199: 299-300.

Klement, Z. 1982. Hypersensitivity. In Phytopathogenic Prokaryotes, vol. 2, pp. 149-
177. Edited by M. S. Mount & G. H. Lacy. New York: Academic Press.

Koizumi, M. 1985. Citrus canker: The world situation. Pages 2-7 in: Citrus Canker: An
International Perspective. L. W. Timmer, ed. Citrus Research & Education Center,
University of Florida, Lake Alfred.

Leyns, F., DeCleene, M., Swings, J.G., and De Ley, J. 1984. The host range of genus
Xanthomonas. Bot. Rev. 50: 308-356.

Lorang, J.M., and Keen, N.T. 1995. Characterization of avrE from Pseudomonas
syringae pv. tomato: a hrp-linked avirulence locus consisting of at least two
transcriptional units. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 8: 49-57.

Loucks, K.W. 1934. Citrus canker and its eradication in Florida. (Unpublished
manuscript. Original copy in the files of the Division of Plant Industry, Florida
Department of Agriculture, Gainesville).

Mansfield, J., Jenner, C., Hockenhull, R., Bennett, M.A., and Stewart, R. 1994.
Characterization of avrPphE, a gene for cultivar-specific avirulence from
Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola which is physically linked to hrpY, a new
hrp gene identified in the halo-blight bacterium. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 7:
726-739.

Maniatis, T., Fritsch, E.F., and Sambrook, J. 1982. Molecular cloning: A laboratory
Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. 545 pp.

Marshall, J.K. 1968. Methods for leaf area measurement of large and small leaf samples.
Phytosynthetica 2: 41-47.

McEver, K. 2005. Canker eradication costly, but effective. Citrus & Vegetable
Magazine. pp. 13.

McLean, F.T. 1921. A study of the stomata of two species of citrus in relation to citrus
canker. Bul. Torr. Bot. Club 48: 101-106.

Metz, M., Dahlbeck, D., Morales, C., Al Sady, B., Clark, E., and Staskawicz, B. 2005.
The conserved Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria effector protein XopX is a
virulence factor and suppresses host defense in Nicotiana benthamiana. The Plant
Journal 41: 801-814.









Minsavage, G.V., Canteros, B. I. and Stall, R. E. 1990a. Plasmid-mediated resistance to
streptomycin in Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. Phytopathology 80: 719-
723.

Minsavage, G.V., Dahlbeck, D., Whalen, M.C., Keamey, B., Bonas, U., Staskawicz, B.J.
and Stall, R.E. 1990b. Gene-for-gene relationships specifying disease resistance in
Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria-pepper interactions. Mol. Plant-Microbe
Interact. 3: 41-47.

Novelli, V.M., Machado, M.A., and Lopes, C.R. 2000. Isoenzymatic polymorphism in
Citrus spp. and Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf (Rutaceae). Genet. Mol. Biol.23:163-
168.

Poplawsky, A.R and Chun W., 1997. pigB determines a diffusible factor needed for
extracellular polysaccharide slime and xanthomonadin production in Xanthomonas
campestris pv. campestris. J. Bacteriol. 179: 439-444.

Ronald, P.C., and Staskawicz B. 1988.The avirulence gene avrBs] from Xanthomonas
campestris pv. vesicatoria encodes a 50-kD protein. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact 1:
191-198.

Rossetti, V.E. Feichtenberger, and M.L. Silveira 1982. Citrus Canker: An analytical
bibliography. Institute Biologico, Sao Paulo. 230 p.

Schoulties, C.L., Civerolo, E.L, Miller, J.W., Stall, R.E., Krass, C.J., Poe, S.R and
DuCharme,. E.P. 1987. Citrus canker in Florida. Plant Dis. 71: 388-395.

Schubert, T. S., Miller, J. W., and Gabriel, D.W. 1996. Another outbreak of bacterial
canker on citrus in Florida. Plant Dis. 80:1208.

Schubert, T. S., Rizvi, S. A., Sun, X. A., Gottwald, T.R., Graham, J. H, and Dixon,. W.
N. 2001. Meeting the challenge of eradicating citrus canker in Florida-again. Plant
Dis. 85: 340-356.

Stall, R.E. and E. L. Civerolo 1991. Research relating to the recent outbreak of citrus
canker in Florida. Annu. Rev. Phytopathology 29: 399-420.

Stall, R.E., Loschke, D.C., and Jones, J.B. 1986. Linkage of copper resistance and
avirulence loci on self-transmissible plasmid in Xanthomonas campestris pv.
vesicatoria. Phythopathology 76: 240-243.

Stall, R.E., Marco, G.M., and Canteros de Echenique, B. I. 1982a. Importance of
mesophyll in mature-leaf resistance to citrus canker. Phytopathology 72: 1097-
1100.

Stall, R.E., Miller, J.W., Marco, G.M., and Canteros, B.I. 1982b. Pathogenicity of three
strains of the citrus canker organism on grapefruit. Fifth Int. Conf. Plant Path.
Bacteria Proc. CIAT. Cali, Colombia pp 334-340.









Stall, R.E. and C.P. Seymour. 1983. Canker, a threat to citrus in the Gulf-Coast States.
Plant Dis. 67: 581-585.

Staskawicz, B.J., Dahlbeck, D., and Keen, N.T. 1984. Cloned avirulence gene of
Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea determines race-specific incompatibility on
Glycine max (L.) Merr. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 6024-6028.

Sun, X., Stall, R.E., Jones, J.B., Cubero, J., Gottwald, T.R., Graham, J.H., Dixon, W.N.,
Schubert, T.S., Chaloux, P.H., Stromberg, V.K., Lacy, G.H. and Sutton, B.D. 2004.
Detection and characterization of a new strain of citrus canker bacteria from
Key/Mexican lime and Alemow in South Florida. Plant Dis. 88: 1179-1188.

Tamaki, S., Dahlbeck, D., Staskawicz, B.J. and Keen, N.T. 1988. Characterization and
expression of two avirulence genes cloned from Pseudomonas syringae pv.
glycinea. JBacteriol 170, 4846-4854.

USDA, Statistical Service, 2004. United States Department of Agriculture. National
Agricultural Statistics Service. Citrus Fruits 2004 Summary Agricultural Statistics
Board September 2004 1 NASS, USDA.

Vauterin, L., Hoste, B., Kersters, K., and Swings, J. 1995. Reclassification of
Xanthomonas. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45: 472-489.

Vauterin, L., Swings, J., Kersters, K., Gillis, M., Mew, T.W., Schroth, M.N., Palleroni,
N.J., Hildebrand, D.C., Stead, D.E., Civerolo, E.L., Hayward, A.C., Maraite, H.,
Stall, R.E., Vidaver, A.K. and Bradbury, J.F. 1990. Towards an improved
taxonomy of Xanthomonas. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 40: 312-316.

Vauterin L., Yang P., Hoste B., Vancanneyt M., Civerolo E.L., Swings J. and Kersters K.
1991. Differentiation of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri strains by sodium
dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins, fatty acid analysis,
and DNA-DNA hybridization. Int. J. of Syst. Bacteriol. 41: 535-542.

Verniere, C., Hartung, O.P. Pruvost, E.L., Civerolo, A.M. Alvarez, P. Maestri, and
Luisetti, J. 1998. Characterization of phenotypically distinct strains of
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri from Southwest Asia. European Journal of Plant
Pathology. 104: 477-487.

Viloria, Z., Drouillard, D.L., Graham, J.H, and Grosser J.W. 2004. Screening triploid
hybrids of 'Lakeland' limequat for resistance to citrus canker. Plant Dis. 88: 1056-
-1060.






60


Whalen, M.C., Wang, J.F., Carland, F.M., Heiskell, M.E., Dahlbeck, D., Minsavage,
G.V., Jones, J.B., Scott, J.W., Stall, R.E., and Staskawicz, B.J. 1993. Avirulence
gene avrRxv from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria specifies resistance on
tomato lines Hawaii 7998. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 6: 616-627.

Young, J.M., Bradbury, J.F., Gardan, L., Gvozdyak, R.I., Stead, D.E., Takikawa, Y., and
Vidaver, A.K., 1991. Comment on the reinstatement of Xanthomonas citri (ex
Hasse 1915) Gabriel et al. 1989 and X phaseoli (ex Smith 1897) Gabriel et al.
1989: indication of the need for minimal standards for the genus Xanthomonas. Int.
J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41: 172-177.















BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Myrian Rybak was born in Leandro N. Alem, Misiones, Republica Argentina, on

June 29, 1967. She is the daughter of Veronica Kuyesen and Jose Rybak.

Myrian graduated from the Nacional University of the Northeast in Corrientes,

Argentina, in 1992 with the Agricultural Engineer degree. In 1993 she began to work in

the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA). In April-May of 1995 Myrian

was awarded a fellowship of Rotary International, Exchange Study Groups (IGE),

Mexico. In 1998 she was awarded a fellowship to pursue graduate studies in the

University of La Plata, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. She graduated with the

master's degree in 2000.

In 2001 she was awarded a fellowship from INTA-FULBRIGHT to pursue

graduate studies in the United States.

Myrian enrolled at the University of Florida in Fall 2001 with Dr. Jeffrey Jones as

her adviser. She is currently a candidate for the degree of Doctor in Philosophy. At the

end of her studies she will resume her position in INTA, Argentina.

Myrian was awarded the Francis Aloysius Wood Memorial Award in recognition

of outstanding graduate student research in plant pathology at the College of Agricultural

and Life Sciences, on March, 2005.

Myrian is a member of Argentinean Society of Horticulture (ASHAO),

International Society of Citriculture (ISC), Professional Council of Agricultural Engineers

(CPIA) and American Phytopathological Society (APS)




Full Text

PAGE 1

GENETIC DETERMINANTS OF HOST RANGE SPECIFICITY OF THE WELLINGTON STRAIN OF Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri By MYRIAN ASUCENA RYBAK A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

PAGE 2

Copyright 2005 by Myrian Asucena Rybak

PAGE 3

To God my guide and fortitude

PAGE 4

iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to express my thanks and compliments to the chairman of my supervisory committee, Dr. Jeffrey B. Jones, for his enco uragement and guidance. I also want for to thank the members of my committee, Dr. Jame s Graham and Dr. Gloria Moore for their critical reading of the manuscript and for their helpful suggestions My most considerable debt is to Dr. R obert E. Stall who was generous with his time and expertise in this research. His knowledge, patience and constant support were equally important to the completion of this manuscript. My appreci ation and gratitude go to him now and always. Special thanks go to Mr. Jerry Minsavage fo r his indispensable help; he generously donated many hours of his valuable time with his technical assistance. I owe gratitude to the Plant Pathology Depa rtment at the University of Florida; especially I want to thank the members of our laboratory that I met between 2001-2005. Sincere gratitude is extended to the faculty staff members and other people in Fifield Hall for their assistance and friendship. I would like to thank friends and relatives in Argentina, especially Dr. Nelly Canteros; her guidance and useful a dvice will be alwa ys appreciated. My family helped and their faith kept me going though some pretty hard times. I would particularly like to acknowledge Ra quel, my dear sister and friend, and my wonderful mother Veronica, my sisters and brothers, nieces and nephews and thanks go to the memory of my father for his example and integrity.

PAGE 5

v TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................viii ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ..x CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................4 3 EVIDENCE FOR HYPERSENSI TIVITY REACTION IN XAC-AW STRAIN IN GRAPEFRUIT............................................................................................................10 Introduction.................................................................................................................10 Materials and Methods...............................................................................................10 Results........................................................................................................................ .12 Discussion...................................................................................................................12 4 CHANGE OF HOST RANGE BY MUTATION......................................................16 Introduction.................................................................................................................16 Materials and Methods...............................................................................................16 Results........................................................................................................................ .17 Discussion...................................................................................................................18 5 CHANGE OF HOST RANGE BY CONJUGATION................................................23 Introduction.................................................................................................................23 Materials and Methods...............................................................................................23 Results........................................................................................................................ .26 Discussion...................................................................................................................27 6 CLONING AN AVR GENE FROM THE XAC-AW STRAIN...................................33 Introduction.................................................................................................................33

PAGE 6

vi Materials and Methods...............................................................................................33 Results........................................................................................................................ .37 Discussion...................................................................................................................39 7 DISCUSSION.............................................................................................................50 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................54 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................61

PAGE 7

vii LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1 Effect in vitro of NTG mutagenesis on development of white colonies and streptomycin resistant colonies of Xac-Aw strain.....................................................20 4-2 Total area of inoculated Key lime and grapefruit leaves in all experiments............21 4-3 Number of lesions per cm2 that were produced in Key lime and grapefruit leaves inoculated with 103 cfu/ml of Xac-Aw.....................................................................21 5-1 List of bacterial stra in used in chapter 5..................................................................31 5-2 Frequency of transfer of copper resistance genes among Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac-A) after conjugati on in a liquid medium........................31 5-3 Frequency of transfer of coppe r resistance genes among strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac-A) after conjugati on in a liquid medium........................32 5-4 Frequency of transfer of copper resistant genes from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) to copper se nsitive strains of Xanthomonas axonopo dis pv. citri by conjugation on a solid medium....................................................................32 6-1 List of bacterial strains used in chapter 6.................................................................49

PAGE 8

viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3-1 Electrolyte leakage in grapefru it leaves inoculated with Xac-Aw and Xac-A strains at a concentration of 5x108 cells per milliliter..............................................14 3-2 Internal bacterial populations in gr apefruit leaves inoc ulated with Xac-Aw and Xac-A strains at various times after inoculation......................................................14 3-3 Symptoms of Xac-Aw (left side of leaf) and XacA (right side of leaf) in old (left) and young leaves (right) of grapefruit.............................................................15 4-1 Symptoms of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri strain Xac-Aw in grapefruit leaf after infiltration with 103 cfu/ml bacterial concentration..................................22 4-2 Symptoms of Xanthmonas axonopodi s pv. citri strain Xac-Aw in Key lime leaf after infiltration with 103 cfu/ml bacterial concentration.........................................22 5-1 Agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Lanes contain plasmid extractions from different strains................................................................................................28 5-2 Agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Lanes contain plasmid extractions from different strains:1= Xac-A (16, Cur), 2= Xac-A (26, Cur), 3= Xac-A (1874, Cus)................................................................................................................29 5-3 Agarose gel stained with ethidium brom ide. Lanes contained plasmid extractions from different strains: 1= Xcv 75-3 (Cur) 2= Xac-A 20 (1874, GFP+, Cus), 3= Xcv 75-x Xac-A 20).................................................................................................30 6-1 Symptoms caused by Xac-A (left) and Xac-Aw (right) strains in tobacco, tomato, and pepper leaves.....................................................................................................42 6-2 Symptoms in grapefruit leaves after infiltration with the bacterial suspensions.....43 6 -3 Symptoms in Key lime leaves after infiltration with different bacterial suspensions...............................................................................................................43 6-4 Symptoms in grapefruit following inoculation with Xac-A 40 strain (A), Xac-Aw 12879 strain (Aw) and Xac-Aw (3)........................................................................44

PAGE 9

ix 6-5 Symptoms in grapefruit after inoc ulation by needle pricks with Xac-Aw strain 12879 (right top), Xac-Aw (bottom left), and Xac-A 40 (bottom right)...............44 6-6 Bacterial populations in grapefruit leaves infilt rated with Xac-A 40; Xac-Aw ; Xac-Aw 12879;Xac-A 40 (pU799-3), Xac-Aw (pU799-3)....................................45 6-7 Electrolyte leakage in grapefruit leav es infiltrated with of Xac-A 40, XacAw Xac-Aw 12879, Xac-A 40 (pU799-3), Xac-Aw (pU799-3)....................................45 6-8 Hybridization of the subclone pU799-3 fragment in avrGf 1 to total genomic DNA of Xanthomonas strains digested whith Hind II..............................................46 6-9 Nucleotide sequence of the 2.3 kb fragment of DNA from Xac-Aw containing avrGf1 nucleotide sequencing (bold letters)............................................................47 6-10 Alignment between the complete sequence of XCC3600 from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and the avrGf1 ...............................................................48

PAGE 10

x Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy GENETIC DETERMINANTS OF HOST RANGE SPECIFICITY OF THE WELLINGTON STRAIN OF Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri By Myrian Asucena Rybak August 2005 Chair: Jeffrey B. Jones Major Department: Plant Pathology A new strain of the citrus canker bacterium ( Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri ) was detected in Florida. It was significant in that it was primarily pathogenic on Key lime trees, but not on grapefruit trees. This st rain has been designated as Xac-Aw. This strain has caused concern among regulator s with regard to how to tr eat this bacterium in the eradication program. Of major c oncern was the stability of the bacterium in regard to host specificity of the strain; for example, could the strain mutate to attack grapefruit and other citrus plants. We invest igated the frequency of the development of mutants, the transfer of genes by conjugati on, and the presence of an avirul ence gene to grapefruit in the genome. We never were able to find a muta nt, either natural or induced, that changed host range. In conjugation studies, transfer of marker genes on the chromosome to and from the Xac-Aw strain by conjugation was not succ essful. In an attempt to locate possible avirulence genes, a genetic library of Xac-Aw DNA was made using the pLAFR vector and transformed into Escherichia coli This library was tran sferred to strain 91-

PAGE 11

xi 118 of X. perforans which is pathogenic to tomat o, but causes a null reaction in grapefruit leaves. The transconjugants were screened for HR in grapefruit leaves. The inoculated leaves were observed for developmen t of an HR in the infiltrated area. In the screening of the Xac-Aw genomic library we found an avirulence gene in the genome of Xac-Aw that interacts with grapefru it leaves to cause an HR. This is the first report of an avirulence gene in the genome of a citrus ca nker bacterium that interacts with a citrus species. This gene was designated as avrGf1 was sequenced, and then was characterized. The possibility of a second avr gene exists in the Xac-Aw strain, because the Xac-Aw lacking a functional avrGf1 did not cause exactly the same symptoms and develop the same population as the wild-type Xac-A strain when it was inoculated into grapefruit leaves.

PAGE 12

1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Citrus production in Florid a contributes greatly to the economy of the state. Production for the 2003-04 seasons totaled 16.4 million tons from 679,000 acres of trees. Florida accounted for 79 percent of the total U.S. citrus production, followed by California with 18 percent; and Texas and Ar izona which accounted for the remaining 3 percent. The value of the 2003-04 U.S. citrus crop was up 4 percent from the previous season to $2.35 billion (pack inghouse-door equivalent) as published by the USDA, Statistical Service (2004). Citrus plants are susceptible to diseases caused by bacteria. One of these diseases, citrus canker, is caused by two pathovars of Xanthomonas axonopodis Pathovars of this bacterium have been distinguished based on phenotypic reactions on di fferent hosts, i.e., Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. aurantifoii (Xaa). The most destructive bacterium is Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri which causes Asiatic citrus canker (Xac-A). Asiatic citrus canker was discovered in North America in 1912 and was distributed throughout the Gulf states (Loucks, 1934; Dopson, 1964). Eradication of the disease began in 1915 and the disease was eradicat ed in 1947. This disease was rediscovered again in 1986 in Manatee County, Florida, a nd declared eradicated in 1994 (Schubert et al., 1996). A new focus of this disease appe ared in Miami in 1995 (Gottwald et al., 1997a; Schubert et al., 2001), and a current er adication program exis ts. This disease was also successfully eradicated from the Unite d States, South Africa, Australia, and New

PAGE 13

2 Zealand, but a new focus of citrus canker a ppeared in Australia in 2004 (Hibberd, A., personal communication). An erad ication program currently exis ts in Brazil. The disease is endemic to Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. It is also endemic to all countries in eastern Asia. The symptoms of the disease are erum pent lesions on fruit, foliage, and young stems of susceptible citrus cultivars (Sc hubert et al., 2001 and Go ttwald et al., 2002a). The occurrence of citrus canker lesions on the fruit rind decreases the commercial quality and infected fruit is not accepted by the most important markets. The warm spring and summer conditions of Florida, together with rains with strong winds that occasionally occur, offer ideal conditions for the spread of Xac. Optimum temperatures for infection range between 20 and 30C (Koizumi, 1985). The introduction of the leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, in Florida in 1993, has increased citrus canker severity due to wounds cause d by the insect that expose leaf mesophyll tissues to splashed inoculum thus increasing the pr obability of ingress by Xac (Gottwald et al., 1997a). The leafminer a dults, however, are not efficient vectors of the pathogen (Belas que et al., 2005). Changes have recently occurred in the eradication protocols performed by the Division of Plant Industry (Gottwald et al., 2002b). The increased disease severity associated with the leafminer has resulted in increased areas of tree disposal around a focus of infection (Schubert et al., 2001 and Gottwald et al., 2002a). In addition, tornados and hurricanes during the summer months have caused dissemination of Xac-A much greater distances than previously thought possi ble. Legal questions about eradications, in

PAGE 14

3 general, have hindered eradi cation (Gottwald et al., 2002b). Citrus canker has spread rapidly in Florida despit e changes in eradication protocols (McEver, 2005). Schubert et al. (2001) descri bed at least two separate introductions of Xac-A in Florida since 1985. In one of the introductions a strain of Xac that is pathogenic to Key lime and alemow plants, but not to grapefru it and orange was f ound. This strain (Xac-Aw) was characterized by Sun et al. (2004) and found to be related genetically to Xac-A rather than Xaa-B or Xaa-C, which have more sim ilar host ranges. Regulations and eradication protocols adopted for this strain were diffe rent from those adopted for Asiatic citrus canker. For the Xac-Aw only Key lime and alemow plants were destroyed. Because of the relationship of Xac-Aw to Xac-A, questions as to whether Xac-Aw could revert to an XacA strain exist. If this occurred, a new focu s of Xac-A could occur with the eradication program that was adopted. The purpose of this work was to investigate the stability of the Xac-Aw strain in terms of host specificity. The Xac-Aw strain causes a hypersensitive reaction in grapefruit. Such a reaction is usually the resu lt of an avirulence ge ne interacting with a resistance gene in the host (Minsavage et al., 1990b). If re sistance in grap efruit to the Xac-Aw strain is the result of the presence of a single gene in the bacterium, then the stability of the host specificity of the Xac-Aw may be low. The change to virulence in grapefruit of the Xac-Aw strain was studied by mutagenesi s of the strain, by conjugations of strains, and by isolation of avir ulence genes in the genome of Xac-Aw.

PAGE 15

4 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Many reviews have been published on the citrus canker disease (Locks, 1934; Garnsey et al., 1979; Schoulties et al., 1987; Graham and Gottwald, 1991; Stall and Civerolo, 1991; Schubert et al., 2001 Gottwal d et al., 2002a; Graham et al., 2004). An excellent early review is an unpublished manuscr ipt that was written by K. W. Loucks in 1934. The review is located in the library of the Division of Pl ant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville. It is a review of resear ch on regulation and eradication of this disease from the appearan ce of citrus canker dise ase in Florida until eradication of citrus canker was declared in 1933. This manuscript c ontains a history and geographical distribution of citr us canker in the world, United States, and Florida. Hosts reported to be susceptible and the economic importance of ci trus canker were included. A description of citrus canker sy mptoms of leaves, twigs, thor ns, branches and fruits is given. The general appearance on an infected tree with citrus ca nker was described. The morphology, physiology, cultural characteristics and taxonomy of the causal organism at that time were described in this review. The viability and longevity of the pathogen were described; including describing the ability of the bacterium to enter the host tissue and remain quiescent until higher temperatures occurred. The means of dissemination, methods of infection, and the incubation period involved w ith the disease cycle were reviewed. The histology of the disease was described. Humidity and temperature relationships for disease development, as well the seasonal development of the host and disease, were included. Progre ss on the eradication and cont rol of citrus canker and the

PAGE 16

5 epidemiological situation at the time that this review was written were discussed. The last issue that Louck considered in his review was the future danger of the disease to citrus in Florida. An analytical bibliography of research publications relating to citrus canker was annotated by Rossetti et al. (1981). This huge effort contains abstracts of scientific papers, reviews, extension reports and notes from 1912 though 1981. There are 1246 abstracts included from all over the world. Before the reintroduction of citrus canker in Florida in 1985 there were concerns about the reintroduction of c itrus canker after it was decl ared eradicated in 1933 from Florida and in 1947 from the USA (Stall and Seymour, 1983). Those concerns were based on importation of citrus fruits into the United States from Japan, where citrus canker is endemic; an epidemic of canke r occurring in South America, and the interception of citrus can ker at ports of entry. This articl e described the causal agent, the disease, the history of citr us canker, information about losses due to th is disease, measures of control and finally the outlook ab out the real risks of the reintroduction of citrus canker in the USA. A bacterial disease of citrus was observ ed in Florida in 1984. This disease was referred to as the nursery form of citrus can ker, or sometimes as canker E (Schoulties et al., 1987). In this review they described the nursery form of the disease, diagnosis, symptoms, distribution, host ra nge, eradication and regulator y program. The review also discussed the introduction of the Asiatic form of the disease in Florida in 1985 and the eradication policies regarding the reintroduction of Asiatic citrus canke r. The article also

PAGE 17

6 mentioned the costs of the eradications a nd regulatory programs which were $25 million from September 1984 to July 1986. Stall and Civerolo (1991) described Asiatic canker and ongoing research with both types of diseases of citrus in Florida. They reviewed the history of the disease in Florida, and the efforts on eradication, th e different forms of citrus canker, and the localization of citrus canker in the USA. Research relate d to regulation, and eradication problems included the comparisons between the citrus canker and the bacter ial spot disease. Isozyme analyses, serological studies, and DNA analyses of different strains involved in the two diseases were included in the comparison of the strains. Two recent reviews pertain mostly to the introduction of Asiatic citrus canker in Florida in 1995 (Schubert et al ., 2001 and Gottwald et al., 20 02a). These reviews provide a history of the disease in Flor ida and describe a citrus canke r disease cycle. Both reviews describe the host range of the citrus canke r disease, although Gottwald et al. (2002a) provide a more expansive list. Schubert et al. ( 2001) list three separate introductions of the Asiatic citrus canker from 1910 until now and describe a fourth introduction in 2000. The pathogen associated with the 2000 introduction has a limited host range and was designated as the Wellington strain. Both revi ews treated the problems of regulation and eradication of citrus canker in Florida. Gottw ald et al. (2002b) disc uss the epidemiology of the disease in the urban setting which wa s not considered prev iously. Both reviews discuss the role of the Asian citrus leafminer ( Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton) damage in the epidemiology of the disease. From the above reviews it is apparent th at different xanthom onads are pathogenic to various citrus species. Only those that caus e a lesion that is erumpe nt or pustule-like in

PAGE 18

7 the early stages of symptoms on leaves ar e now included in the citrus canker disease (Graham and Gottwald, 1990). These lesions become crateriform as they increase in size. The bacteria that do not cause such lesions are not presently cla ssed as causing citrus canker, and this includes the xa nthomonad that cause s the citrus bacterial spot disease. The nomenclature of the bacterial strain s that cause citrus canker has evolved. Gabriel et al. (1989) proposed that Xanthomonas citri be restored for the name of the Xac-A group. They also proposed that the Xaa-B and Xaa-C strains be named Xanthomonas campestris pv. aurantifolii. Their primary evidence for this nomenclature was based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using DNA probes hybridizing to total DNA of the strains. Th e change in nomenclature based on this technique was criticized by Young et al. (1991) and Vauterin et al. (1990). Vauterin et al. (1991) studied the xanthomonads that cause the citrus canker disease using DNA-DNA hybridization and other techniqu es and concluded that they should be divided into two groups. Vauterin et al. (1995) revised the nomenclature of the genus Xanthomonas and placed the bacteria that cause citrus canker into X axonopodis that also included many other plant disease-causing xanthomonads. The A group was given pathovar status and named X. axonopodis pv. citri. The B and C strains were placed into the pathovar aurantifolii as was proposed by Gabriel et al. (1989) previously. This nomenclature seems to be the most accepted at present for the bacteria that cause the citrus canker disease. Two groups of strains that are placed in X. axonopodis pv. citri cause citrus canker can be distinguished, based on DNA and other genetic aspects (Verniere, 1998). The first

PAGE 19

8 group is the most important group and consists of X. axonopodis pv. citri strain A (XacA) that causes Asiatic citrus canker. Se veral subgroups have been identified. One subgroup is referred to as A* because strains are genetically similar to the Xac-A strains (Hartung and Civerolo, 1989; Cubero and Gr aham, 2004), but have different host specificities and a few physiological differen ces from typical Xac-A strains (Sun et al. 2004). This subgroup of strains occurs in southeastern Asia Iran and possibly India. Another subgroup of strains was recently f ound in Florida and is referred to as Xac-Aw strains (Sun et al., 2004). These strains ar e pathogenic on Key lime and alemow plants, but not on grapefruit or orange plants. The Xac-Aw strains are also closely related genetically to the Xac-A and Xac-A* strains, but have some physiological differences from the latter strains. Another group consists of strains that cause citrus canker and are significantly different genetically from the Xac-A strain s.The members within this group are closely related genetically (V auterin et al; in 1991). The strain s that cause canker B and C, X. axonopodis pv. aurantifolii, are in this group. This group can be subdivided based on pathogenicity and a few physiological tests. Both subgroups are not pathogenic on grapefruit and oranges, but are pathogeni c on Key lime. The B subgroup (Xaa-B) of strains is pathogenic on lemon trees also. Afte r the introduction of Xac-A in Argentina in 1973 the B subgroup was not isolated from the field any more and is only present in pathogen collections (Nelly Canteros, pers onal communication). Th e Xaa-C strain was isolated in Brazil, but does not occur in nature at this time. Some work has been done regarding the host specificities of the strains of bacteria that cause citrus canker. In L oucks review it was pointed out that some species of citrus

PAGE 20

9 are more susceptible than others. Levels of resistance, or susceptibility, of the citrus species and cultivars were recorded duri ng evaluations in the field. The extreme susceptibility of grapefruit to th e Xac-A strains was attributed to the larger stomatal pores compared to the mandarins which are more re sistant and have smaller stomatal pores (Mc Lean, 1921). This may be a factor, but Stall et al. (1982a) demonstrated that many more lesions developed in grapefruit leaves also after infiltration with a low level of inoculum. The infiltration technique of inoculation was used to evaluate a few cultivars of orange and grapefruit plants in the field. There was good correlation of dis ease and susc eptibility in the field results. Viloria et al. (2004) us ed this technique to evaluate many citrus genotypes under greenhouse conditions. There seem ed to be a continuum of resistance or susceptibility levels in the genotypes tested. Hypersensitivity in citrus to Xac-A st rains has not been reported. However, a hypersensitivity reaction was suggested as oc curring after inocula tions of grapefruit leaves with a strain of the canker C (Xaa-C) from Brazi l (Stall et al., 1982b). This was suggested because a rapid necrosis occurred in young grapefruit leav es inoculated with high concentrations of cells (108 cfu/ ml). The rapid necrosis was compared to relatively slow necrosis in grapefruit caused by the Xa c-A strain and a strain of canker B (Xaa-B). Further documentation of the hypersensitive re action in grapefruit ca used by the C strain has not been reported.

PAGE 21

10 CHAPTER 3 EVIDENCE FOR HYPERSENSI TIV REACTION IN XAC-AW STRAIN IN GRAPEFRUIT Introduction Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri strain Aw (Xac-Aw) was compared with Xac-A (strain that causes Asiatic citrus canker) in Duncan grapefruit and Key lime (Sun et al., 2004). Even though rapid necrosis occurs wh en high concentrations of the Xac-Aw bacterium are infiltrated into grapefruit leaves, data for the development of a hypersensitive reaction (HR) in grapefruit were not reported. In this chapter we present experiments on electrolyte leakage and bacter ial growth after inoculations with high concentrations of Xac-A and Xac-Aw strains into grapefruit leaves to determine if a typical HR occurs in grapefruit leaves. Materials and Methods Plants. Plants of grapefruit ( Citrus paradi Macf.), cultivar Duncan, were kept in a quarantine greenhouse at the Division Plant Indus try at 20 to 35 C and used in this experiment. Before inoculation the plants were pruned to stimulate new growth. Leaves on the newly developed shoots were inoculated ca. 10 da ys after new shoots began growth. The leaves chosen for inoculations were fully expanded, but soft to the touch, and not as fully green as mature leaves. By us ing this procedure all the inoculated leaves were in a similar developmental stage. Bacterial strains and preparation of inoculum. Two Xac strains were used. Suspensions of strains Xac-Aw 12879 and Xac-A 40 (Corrientes, Argentina) were each

PAGE 22

11 transferred to nutrient agar medium (NA) fr om culture stored at -80C and isolated colonies were obtained. Several colonies of each strain were transferred to nutrient broth. After the cultures were shaken overnight, the bacterial suspensions were centrifuged and the cells were resuspended in sterile tap-water, and standardized to an absorbance of 0.3 at a light wavelength of 600 nm in a Spectr onic 20 spectrophotomer. This optical density corresponds to a bacteria l concentration of 5x108 cfu /ml. Electrolyte leakage. Leaves of grapefruit we re inoculated with 5x108 cfu/ml of Xac-Aw or Xac-A strains (15 leaves each). The inoculations were made by infiltrating leaves with 10 ml syringe and 27 g nettle (Klement, 1963). After 2 h and 2, 4, 6, and 8 days electrolyte leakage was measured from three leaves infiltrated with each strain. Electrolyte leakage was determined as an in crease in electrical conductivity over a 2 h period of 3 ml of de-ioni zed water containing six 0.5 cm2 leaf disks of each inoculated area (Cook and Stall, 1968; Hibberd et al., 1987) The mean of the three determinations was used as the conductivity at each time, but each determination was used to determine the experimental error. Bacterial populations. The populations of the Xac-Aw and Xac-A strains in grapefruit leaves were determined in the sa me leaves and the same times as electrolyte leakage determinations. From each inoculated leaf 0.5 cm2 of leaf area was taken and triturated in one ml of sterile tap-water, a nd after appropriate ten-fold dilutions, 50 l were plated on NA medium. The colonies we re counted 3 days later (Cook and Stall, 1968; Hibberd et al., 1987). Three replicates were included at each time period. The experiment with population and electrolyte leakage was repeat ed three times.

PAGE 23

12 Results The appearance of rapid necrosis in grapefruit leaves occurred only on young leaves of grapefruit plants (Figure 3-3). Ther efore, the inoculation of leaves in a young stage of development is essential for consis tent results. The inocul ation of new growth that resulted from pruning of shoots of grap efruit plants gave consistent reactions. Electrolyte leakage of grapefruit leaves. The conductivity of water containing leaf disks inoculated with the Xac-Aw strain was very high at day four compared to conductivity of water containing leaf disks inoculated w ith the Xac-A strain (Figure 3-1). Conductivity of water containing leaf disks inoculated with the Xac-A strain was highest at day eight. Thus, the Xac-Aw strain caused more rapid electrolyte leakage from grapefruit leaves than the Xac-A strain. Growth of Xac-Aw and Xac-A strains The populations of the Xac-A strain were significantly higher than the Xac-Aw strain in grapefruit leaves at day four and day six. The populations reached 109 cfu/cm2 of leaf tissue with the Xac-A strain, but the populations of the Xac-Aw strain were slightly lower and reached only 108 cfu/cm2 (Figure 3-2). Discussion The populations obtained in leaves inoculated with Xac-Aw were very similar to the results obtained by Sun et al. (2004). Growth was slower in leaves inoculated with the Xac-Aw strain than growth in leaves inoculat ed with Xac-A strain. In both studies the Xac-Aw populations were nearly ten-fold less than the Xac-A strain. Comparisons of growth after infiltration in Key lime leaves we re not determined in this study, because we were only interested in determination of HR in grapefruit leaves of the Xac-Aw strain.

PAGE 24

13 However, Sun et al. (2004) found no differe nces in growth of Xac-A and Xac-Aw in leaves of Key lime. To determine if necrosis occurs more rapi dly in leaves inoculated with strain XacAw compared with Xac-A, electrolyte leakag e was monitored in grapefruit leaves after infiltration with these strains. Leakage of el ectrolytes from citrus leaf tissue infected by Xac-A was determined previously (Goto, et al., 1979). In this work necrosis caused by Xac-Aw occurred more rapidly compared with Xac-A strain (Figur e 3-1). Electrolyte leakage reflects the extent of n ecrosis in leaves. A rapid necr osis in plant tissue and lower populations in leaves compared to a sus ceptible reaction are i ndications of a HR. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that Xac-Aw causes an HR in grapefruit leaves based on this work. HR is the result of an avirulence ( avr ) gene interacting with a resistance gene (Flor, 1955; Ellingboe, 1976; Klement, 1982; Staskawicz et al. 1984; Crute, 1985; Gabriel et al. 1986). In future work we will determine if an avr gene is involved in this reaction.

PAGE 25

14 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 02468Time (days)Conductivity (umhos) Xac-AwXac-A Figure 3-1. Electrolyte leakage in grap efruit leaves inoculated with Xac-Aw and Xac-A strains at a concentration of 5x108 cells per milliliter at various times after inoculation. The leaves inoculated with Xac-Aw abscised 6 days after inoculation. Vertical bars represent standard error. 0 2 4 6 8 10 02468 Time (days)Log10 cfu/cm2 Xac-A Xac-Aw Figure 3-2. Internal bacterial populations in grapef ruit leaves inoculated with Xac-Aw and Xac-A strains at various times after i noculation. The leaves inoculated with Xac-Aw abscised 6 days after inoculation. Vertical bars represent standard error.

PAGE 26

15 Figure 3-3: Symptoms of Xac-Aw (left side of leaf) and XacA (right side of leaf) in old (left) and young leaves (ri ght) of grapefruit on the abax ial face of the leaves (Four days after inoculation).

PAGE 27

16 CHAPTER 4 CHANGE OF HOST RANGE BY MUTATION. Introduction Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri strain Aw (Xac-Aw) causes a hypersensitive response (HR) in grapefruit leaves. The HR is correlated with the gene-for-gene relationship in many plants. In such gene -for-gene interactions an avirulence ( avr ) gene in the pathogen interacts with a corresponding resistance ( R ) gene in the plant (Minsavage et al., 1990b ). Mutation of an avr gene often leads to a susceptible reaction. Such mutations can occur in high frequency in some strains of Xanthomonas (Dahlbeck and Stall, 1979). The purpose of th is chapter is to determine if a mutation in a postulated avr gene would change the host specificity of the Xac-Aw strain after treatment with a mutagen and if so, to determine the frequency of the mutation. Materials and Methods Inoculum. The Xac-Aw 12879 strain was used because it causes an HR in grapefruit leaves and a suscep tible reaction in leaves of Key lime. The preparation of inoculum was the same as described in Chapter 3. Mutation in vitro The Xac-Aw cells were treated with N-methyl-nitro-Nnitrosoguanidine (NTG), whic h is a strong mutagen (Gerha rdt et al., 1981). A stock solution of NTG containing 1 g/ml in deioni zed water was made and 100 l of stock NTG were added to 900 l of a suspension of 5 x 108 cfu/ml of Xac-Aw cells in sterile tap-water. After 1 h at 28 C the suspension wa s diluted serially ten-fold, and 200 l of a 5 x 103 cfu/ml bacterial suspension were spread onto the surface of nutrient agar in Petri

PAGE 28

17 plates. In previous work (unpublished) the NTG treatment killed ca. 50 % of bacterial cells. After 3 days the colonies were counted to determine the actual concentration of viable cells following treatment with NTG a nd to observe for development of mutant white colonies from the typical yellow col onies. In addition 200 l of a suspension consisting of the 105 cfu/ ml were spread onto nutrient agar containing 200 g/ml streptomycin sulfate to check for growth of colonies resistant to streptomycin. About 30 young grapefruit leaves were comp letely infiltrated with a suspension consisting of 5 X 103 cfu/ml of mutagenized cells. At the same time ten leaves of Key lime were infiltrated with the same inoculum as a control. The leaves used in these experiments were at the same stage of development as described in Chapter 3. The technique used by Klement (1963) was used to infiltrate each leaf w ith inoculum. Lesions in both Key lime and grapefruit were counted and were calculated as lesions per cm2 of inoculated leaf area (Table 4-3). The leaf ar ea of tissue infiltrated was determined using the dot-counting method (Marshall, 1968). Th e mutagenesis experiment was repeated eleven times. Results Mutagenesis. The numbers of Xac-Aw cells remaining after NTG treatment ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 x 108 cfu/ml in the eleven experiments. White colonies developed in five of the experiments in which 103 cfu/ml were spread on NA. Streptomycin-resistant colonies formed in which 105 cfu/ml were spread on NA cont aining streptomycin in only one experiment (Table 4-1). No white colonies of Xac-Aw or streptomycin resistant colonies developed with non-treated suspensi ons. These results were evidence that NTG did cause mutations in the population of Xac-Aw cells used for inoculum.

PAGE 29

18 Change of host range. The Xac-Aw strain caused fleck lesions in grapefruit leaves (Figure 4-1) and typical citrus canker lesions in Key lime (Figure 4-2). Each lesion was probably caused by a single cell of the bacter ium, because of the low inoculum level used. Over the eleven experiments an average of 10.1 canker lesions per cm2 occurred in Key lime and 2.7 fleck lesions per cm2 occurred in grapefruit leaves. Assuming the intercellular spaces on grapefruit and Key lim e leaves were similar, only 27 % of the Xac-Aw cells in grapefruit actually caused a visible fleck lesion. The total area of grapefruit leaves infiltrated with inoculum in the eleven experiments was 20,827 cm2 (Table 4-2). Using the estimate of 10.0 lesions/cm2 based on what occurred in Key lime leaves (Table-4-3), approximately 2.0 x 105 cells of Xac-Aw were infiltrated into grapefruit leaves in th e eleven experiments. Typical citrus canker lesions were never observed in grapefruit leaves receiving the mutagenized cells of XacAw Discussion Cells of Xac-Aw were treated with NTG, a powerful mutagenic agent, to increase the frequency of mutation. The number of wh ite colonies and streptomycin resistant colonies after NTG treatment reflected th e development of mutants in culture. The frequency to streptomycin resist ance in non-mutagenized cultures of X campestris pv. vesicatoria was around 1.9 x 10-9 per cell per divi sion (Dahlbeck and Stall, 1979). In this work, st reptomycin resistant colonies occurred rarely after NTG treatment but did occur in one test and was determined to be approximately one per 105 cells. The frequency of mutation for white co lonies was higher than for streptomycin resistance. At least seven ge nes are involved in the develo pment of the yellow pigment (Poplawsky and Chun, 1997). Mutation in any of them will result in lo ss of pigmentation.

PAGE 30

19 Thus, one would expect a higher frequency of white colonies than streptomycin resistant colonies after NTG treatment. As resistance to streptomycin is encoded by a single gene, the frequency of streptomycin resist ance probably corresponds better to an avr gene mutation, if the change of the host range depends only on a single avr gene. Thus, one would not expect a change of host range of the Xac-Aw strain unless nearly 105 cfu were infiltrated into the leaves of grapefruit. We inoculated grapefruit leaves with 2 x 105 cells and, thus, one would have expected a single av irulence gene to be mutated and detected in our work. However, this did not occur. Therefore, possibly more than one gene is involved in the incompatibility of th e grapefruit leaves to the Xac-Aw strain.

PAGE 31

20 Table 4-1. Effect in vitro of NTG mutagene sis on development of white colonies and streptomycin resistant colonies of Xac-Aw strain ________________________________________________________________________ Expeiment no. Yellow a White b Streptomycin c colonies colonies resistant colonies ________________________________________________________________________ x 108 cfu x 103 x 105 1 3.00 0.00 0.00 2 0.90 0.00 0.00 3 0.68 0.00 0.00 4 1.70 2.00 1.80 5 1.31 0.00 0.00 6 1.99 0.00 0.00 7 2.11 0.00 0.00 8 0.85 3.80 0.00 9 1.75 2.00 0.00 10 0.50 2.00 0.00 11 0.76 0.20 0.00 Average 1.41 0.91 0.16 ________________________________________________________________________ a These values were based on the colonies that developed on nutrient ag ar after dilution to 103 cfu/ml. The values are based on three replicates per experiment. b These values are number of colonies that de veloped on nutrient agar after dilution to 103 cfu/ml. A suspension of 200 l were spread on the plate. Average of three replicates per experiment c There values are number of colonies that developed on nutrient agar containing 200 g of streptomycin per liter. A suspension of 200 l of 105 cfu/ml were spread on the plate. Average of three replicates per experiment.

PAGE 32

21 Table 4-2. Total area of inoculated Key lime and grapefruit leaves in all experiments ________________________________________________________________________ Experiment No Key lime Grapefruit cm2 cm2 ________________________________________________________________________ 1 34.5 711.50 2 60.0 2122.5 3 40.6 1632.6 4 39.5 1136.5 5 379 1853.8 6 246 3115.0 7 32.8 1597.0 8 60.8 1653.3 9 25.6 1263.0 10 51.0 3093.8 11 56.0 2647.5 Total 1025.8 20826.5 ________________________________________________________________________ Table 4-3. Number of lesions per cm2 that were produced in Key lime and grapefruit leaves inoculated with 103 cfu/ml of Xac-Aw ________________________________________________________________________ Numbers of lesion per cm2 Experiment No Key lime a Grapefruitb ________________________________________________________________________ 1 12.5 4.4 2 7.1 1.7 3 3.5 0.9 4 19.6 5.2 5 4.8 2.4 6 11.5 1.1 7 18.2 1.7 8 1.3 0.5 9 15.3 0.4 10 4.5 2.4 11 12.2 8.4 Average 10.1 2.7 a Lesions were typical of citrus canker b Lesions were sunken and very sma ll (typical fleck lesion caused by HR)

PAGE 33

22 Figure 4-1. Symptoms of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri strain Xac-Aw in grapefruit leaf after infiltration with 103 cfu/ml bacterial con centration. Fleck lesions occur on upper half of leaf (30 days after inoculation). Figure 4-2. Symptoms of Xanthmonas axonopodi s pv. citri strain Xac-Aw in Key lime leaf after infiltration with 103 cfu/ml bacterial concen tration. Typical pustule type lesions occur on upper half of leaf (21 days after inoculation).

PAGE 34

23 CHAPTER 5 CHANGE OF HOST RANGE BY CONJUGATION Introduction More than one avr gene may be involved in the h ypersensitive reaction (HR) by the Xac-Aw strain in grapefruit leaves. If that is true, the host specificity of the Xac-Aw strain would not change by simple mutation. However, the factor for host specificity of the Xac-Aw strain might cause the Xac-A strain to ch ange after conjugation of the strains, because large amounts of DNA transfer during conjugation. Conjugation is a process in which the DNA of a donor bacterium moves to a recipient bacterium. Plasmid or chromosomal DNA can move to recipient cells in conjugation. Conjugation requires cell to cell contact and the presence of tran sfer genes in the DNA of the donor. Many avirulence genes involved in host and cultivar specificities (Leyns et al., 1984; Hayward, 1993), and the genes for resistance to copper (Stall et al., 1986) and streptomycin are located on plasmids (Minsavage et al., 1990 a). However, some avirulence genes are located on the chromosome (Ronald and St askawicz, 1988; Tamaki et al., 1988; 1988; Minsavage et al., 1990b; Jenner et al., 1991; Mans field et al., 1994; Whalen et al., 1993; Lorang and Keen, 1995). Horizont al transfer of chromoso mal genes among strains of X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria was confirmed by Basim et al (1999), but the frequency of transfer of plasmid DNA is usually higher than for chromosomal DNA. Materials and Methods Bacterial strains. All bacterial strains, relevant char acteristics, and origin are listed in Table 5-1.

PAGE 35

24 Change of host range by conjugation. To test for conjugation among strains, genetic markers were incorporated into both Xac-Aw and Xac-A so that each could be used as a donor or recipient. Some strains were marked with fluorescent proteins by G.V. Minsavage (Plant Pathology, Department of University of Florida) using the pMODTM2 vector that carries 19-bp mosaic e nd sequence flanking restriction sites. The antibiotic cassette used in this experime nt was excised from pKRP11 plasmid (KmR) and pKRP13 (SmR SpR). A KmR clone was marked with the EY FP gene with lacZ promoter from pEYFP and a clone that carried the SmR SpR was marked with the ECFP gene with the lacZ promoter from pECFP. The fluorescent-marked strains were obtained by electroporation using EZ::TN transposase enzy me and Biorad Gene Pulser (for more details contact G.V. Minsavage). Strains with antibiotic resistance were se lected after plating 200 l of a culture containing 108-109 cfu/ml onto nutrient agar containing the selective antibiotic. Colonies that developed on the selective medium we re purified by single-c olony selection on the antibiotic medium. Strain s of Xac-A and Xac-Aw containing the GFP in the chromosome or non-pigmented strains obtained in Chapter 4 were sometimes used for selection of antibiotic resistance. Strains were stored at -80 C. The antibiotics used and final concentrations were: rifamicyn (80 g/ml), nalidixic acid (50 g/ml), kanamycin (50 g/ml), streptomycin (50 g/ml), and spectinomycin (50 g/ml). For conjugation on a solid medium, donor a nd recipient strains were grown in nutrient broth (NB) overnight on a rotary shaker at 28 C, after which 100 l of culture was added to 900 l of sterile tap-water and centrifuged. The pellets obtained were resuspended in 100 l of sterile tap-water an d donor and recipient st rains were mixed in

PAGE 36

25 different proportions (10 or 200 l of donor wa s added to 100 l of recipient). Then 10 l of each mixture was plated on nutrient-yeas t-glycerol agar (NYGA), (Daniels, et al., 1984). The same suspensions sometimes were inoc ulated into leaves of grapefruit or Key lime for conjugation. After 48 h each mixture was resuspended in 800 l of sterile tapwater and 400 l was transferred to each of tw o plates of an antibiotic selective medium. For conjugation in liquid medium, bact eria were grown during shaking at 28 C overnight in 4 ml of NB, then donor and reci pient strains were mixe d, and incubated with very gentle shaking for 5 h. Afterward 200 l of the mixture were plated on appropriate selective medium and incubated at 28C fo r 2-3 days until conjugants developed. Sometimes colonies grew on media containing two antibiotics. To test whether the colonies were mutants or conjugants, cells we re observed for the presence of GFP using a UV microscope was performed and PCR with the primers specific for GFP (G.V. insavage). Sometimes they were inoculated into grapefruit leaves for strain identification. To determine if Xac-Aw and Xac-A could act as donors, or recipients in conjugation, experiments were designed for tran sfer of Cu resistance genes which were known to be transferred by conjugation (Basim et al, 1999). Two strains of X. campestris pv vesicatoria (one contained Cu resistance on a plasmid, the other on a chromosome) were mated with Xac-Aw and Xac-A recipient strains and sc reened for transfer of copperresistance genes (Cur). In addition, four Cur Xac-A strains (plasmid-borne Cur) from Argentina and a strain of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo that was copper resistant were mated with an Xac-A copper sensitive (Cus) strain from Florida. The conjugations using only the strains from Florida were made on solid NYGA medium and the conjugations among strains from Argentina and Florida were made using liquid medium. Copper

PAGE 37

26 resistance was determined by growth on nutri ent agar supplemented with copper sulfate (200 g/ml). The frequency of Cur transfer during conjugati ons was determined from dilution plating of bacteria after matings. Plasmid DNA isolatio n Plasmid DNA was extracted by a modification of the method of Kado and Liu (1981). Detection of plasmids was perfor med by electrophoresis of the plasmid extraction as described pr eviously (Stall et al., 1986). Donors and recipients could be identified by plas mid profiles (Figure 5-1, Lanes 2 and 4). Results Selected Xac-Aw strains were mated with Xac-A strains in all combinations of the donor and recipient. In addition, the Xac-Aw strain was mated with itself and the A strain was also mated with itself. In these tests a marker gene on a chromosome was never transferred by conjugation. Puta tive transconjugants that gr ew on antibiotic media all were negative for transfer of chromosomal genes. The copper resistance genes on a plasmid in Xcv 75-3 were transferred to Xac-A in vitro and in planta in all tests performed; however, thes e copper resistan t genes were transferred to the Xac-Aw strain only one time, and that o ccurred in planta (Figure 5-1). No transfer to either Xac-A or Xac-Aw of the chromosomal Cu genes was observed. Conjugal transfer of Cur genes from copper resistant Xac-A strain from Argentina to copper sensitive Xac-A strain from Flor ida also occurred (F igure 5-2). The copper resistance genes in Xac-A were found to be plasmid-borne (Figure 5-3). The frequency of transfer of the Cur plasmid (per donor cell) was va riable depending on the donor and recipient combination (Table 5-2). The same variability of transfer frequency was observed when the conjugation was made with the Cur and Cus strains from Argentina

PAGE 38

27 (Table 5-3). It is interesting that in this combination, the Xac-A 16 Cur strain was the best donor and had the highest frequency of transfer with the Xac-A 40 Cus strain. However, no transfer was observed with the Xac-A 45 Cur strain used as the donor and with any recipient strain (Table 5-3). When Xcv 75-3 Cur was used as a plasmid donor, the frequency of transfer of Cur genes to Xac-A Cus strains was very high (Table 5-4). When the copper resistant donor, X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo strain (2a, Cur), was mated with Xac-A 20, (Cus), the Cu plasmid was transferred fr om the donor to the Xac-A recipient strain (Lane 12 of the Figure 5-3). Discussion The marker genes developed in these expe riments were probably inserted in the chromosome. The genes for yellow pigmen t had been determined to be in the chromosome (Poplawsky and Chun, 1997). The ma rkers were developed to primarily see if chromosomal movement occurs in Xac-A and Xac-Aw by conjugation. The experiments were designed to have two mark ers in the donor strain, but only one marker was included in the recipient strain. The de velopment of some colonies on selective media after mating was due to mutation for th e donor selective marker in the recipient. The mutants could be detected by the lack of movement of the other chromosomal genes, such as the GFP or pigment genes. Apparently chromosomal movement between strains of Xac is not a significant factor in change of host speci ficities in nature. However, conjugal movement of plasmids between strains of Xac does o ccur. Movement of plasmids among strains of Xac can be particularly significant for the movement of copper resistance genes between strains. Copper is used in the field to control citr us canker and the devel opment of resistance among strains would hinder control. The first re port of copper resistance in strains of Xac

PAGE 39

28 was by Canteros et al. (2004). In the present work we found that the copper resistance genes in strains from Argentina were plas mid borne, which had not been demonstrated previously. Copper resistance among strains of Xac in Florida was not detected when over 100 random strains were screened for resi stance. However, copper resistance was detected in a strain of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo from Florida (R.E. Stall, personal communication) and the resistance was determ ined to be plasmid-borne and could be transferred by conjugation to an Xac-A Cus strain. Since X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo and Xac-A both cause disease of citrus it is expe cted that cell to cell contact of the two pathovars can occur in nature. If citrus canker were to beco me widespread in Florida and copper is used for control, it would be exp ected that copper resistance strains of Xac-A would be selected quickly in the field. 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 5-1. Agarose gel stained with et hidium bromide. Lanes contain plasmid extractions from different strains: 1= Xcv 75-3 (Cur), 2= Xac-A (1874, GFP+, Cus), 3= Xcv 75-3 x Xac-A (conjugant), 4= Xac-Aw (GFP+ Cus), and 5= Xcv x Xac-Aw (conjugant).Strains in lanes 1, 3, and 5 were resistant to copper and contained a large plasmid (arrow). Th e large plasmid was transferred by conjugation to copper sensitive strains.

PAGE 40

29 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 5-2. Agarose gel stained with et hidium bromide. Lanes contain plasmid extractions from different strains:1= Xac-A (16, Cur), 2= Xac-A (26, Cur), 3= Xac-A (1874, Cus), 4= Xac-A (16) x Xac-A ( 1874) conjugant, and 5= XacA (26) x Xac-A (1874) conjugant. Strain s in lanes 1, 2, 4 and 5 were copper resistant and contained a large plasmid (arrow). The large plasmid from strains 16 and 26 were transf erred to 1874 by conjugation.

PAGE 41

30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Figure 5-3. Agarose gel stained with ethi dium bromide. Lanes contained plasmid extractions from different strains: 1= Xcv 75-3 (Cur) 2= Xac-A 20 (1874, GFP+, Cus), 3= Xcv 75-x Xac-A 20) conjugant, 4=Xac-Aw (GFP+ Cus), 5=Xcv x Xac-Aw ,conjugant, 6=Xac-A (16 Cur), 7Xac=A (26 Cur ), 8= XacA 16 (Cur) x Xac-A 20 (Cus) conjugant 9= Xac-A 26 x Xac-A 20, conjugant, 10= Xac-E (104, Cus), 11= Xac-E (2a, Cur),12= Xac-E (2a x Xac-A 20 ), conjugant, 13= Xac-E (1c Cur), 14= Xac-E (9 a Cur). Strains in lanes 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13 and 14 were copper resistant and contained a large plasmid (arrow).

PAGE 42

31 Table 5-1. List of bacterial strain used in chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________________ Designation Relevant characteristics Source ________________________________________________________________________ Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri Xac-Aw (12879) GFP+; Kanr Fl. Xac-A 20 (1874 GFP+; Strepr; Rifr;White Fl. Xac-A 20 (1874 GFP-; Rifr ; Specr Fl. Xac-Aw (12879 GFP-; Specr; Rifr Fl. Xac-A 16 (Xc02-1443) Cur Ctes. Xac-A 26 (Xc01-1394-1) Cur Ctes. Xac-A 44 (Xcc03-1338-1-1) Cur Ctes. Xac-A 45 (Xcc03-1639-1-4) Cur Ctes. Xac-A 40 (Xcc03-1633-1) Cus Ctes. Xac-A 40 (Xcc03-1634) Cus Ctes. Xac-A 42 (Xcc03) Cus Ctes. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citrumelo Xac-E (104) Cus Ctes. Xac-E (2a) Cur Ctes. Xac-E (1c) Cur Ctes. Xac-E (9) Cur Ctes. Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Xcv (75-3) GFP-; Cur (plasmid) Fl. Xcv (XVP26) GFP-; Cur (chromosomal) Fl. ________________________________________________________________________ Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv), Fl, Florida, provided by Robe rt Stall from DPI Gainesville Fl. collection and Ctes, Corrientes, provided by Nelly Ca nteros from INTA, Bella Vist a, Corrientes, Argentina, Kanamycin resistant (Kanr ), Streptomicyn resistant (Strepr ) Rifamycin resistant (Rifr ), Spectinomycin resistant (Specr ), Copper resistance (Cur); Copper sensitive (Cus). Table 5-2. Frequency of transfer of copper resistance genes among Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac-A) after conjugati on in a liquid medium __________________________________________________________________ Donor strain Recipi ent strain Range of frequency of transfer (per donor cell)a ___________________________________________________________________ Xac-A 16 Xac-A 20 3.9 x 10-6 to 1.25 x 10-5 Xac-A 26 Xac-A 20 0 to 1.12 x 10-6 Xac-A 44 Xac-A 20 0 to 8.66 x 10-6 Xac-A 45 Xac-A 20 0 to 4 x 10-7 ________________________________________________________________ a Based on four determinations per donor x recipient combinations.

PAGE 43

32 Table 5-3.Frequency of transfer of c opper resistance genes among strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac-A) after conjugation in a liquid medium ___________________________________________________________________ Donor strain Recipien t strain Range of frequency of transfer (per donor cell)a ___________________________________________________________________ Xac-A 16 Xac-A 40 0 to 2.4 x 10-4 Xac-A 16 Xac-A 41 0 to 5 x 10-5 Xac-A 16 Xac-A 42 0 to 1.82 x 10-9 Xac-A 26 Xac-A 40 0 Xac-A 26 Xac-A 41 0 to 9.09 x 10-9 Xac-A 26 Xac-A 42 0 to 1.3 x 10-5 Xac-A 45 Xac-A 40 0 Xac-A 45 Xac-A 41 0 Xac-A 45 Xac-A 42 0 ________________________________________________________________________ a Based on four tests of conjugation. Table 5-4. Frequency of transfer of copper resistant genes from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) to copper sensitive strains of Xanthomonas axonopo dis pv. citri by conjugation on a solid medium ________________________________________________________________________ Donor strain Recipient strain Range of frequency of transfer (per donor cell)a ________________________________________________________________________ Xcv 75-3 Xac-A 40 0 to 2 x 10-4 Xcv 75-3 Xac-A 41 0 to 1.33 x 10-6 Xcv 75-3 Xac-A 42 0 to 1.33 x 10-6 _______________________________________________________________________ a Based on four tests of conjugation.

PAGE 44

33 CHAPTER 6 CLONING AN AVR GENE FROM THE XAC-AW STRAIN Introduction Previously we found no eviden ce for a genetic basis for th e host specific ity of XacAw strains compared to the Xac-A strains. In many cases, however, hypersensitivity of a strain in a particular host is the basis for and is the result of the interaction of an avr gene in the pathogen and a resistance gene in a host. The purpose of this chapter is to provide results of screening a DNA library of Xac-Aw for the presence of avr genes in Xac-Aw that cause a hypersensitivity in grapefruit leaves. Materials and Methods Bacterial strains and media Strains used in this study are listed in Table 6-1. All strains were maintained at -80 C and subc ultured, when needed, on nutrient agar (NA). Rifamycin-resistant strains were obtained by plating 500 l of Xac-Aw strain 12879 at 109 colony-forming units (cfu) /ml onto nutrient agar supplemented with 80 g/ml of rifamycin. Escherichia coli (Ec) strains were cultured on Luria-Bertani medium (Maniatis et. al., 1982). Conj ugations were performed on nut rient-yeast-glycerol agar (NYGA, Daniels et. al., 1984). The antibiotics and concentration used in media were: rifamycin, 75 g/ml; tetracycline, 12.5 g/ml; and kanamycin 5 g/ml. Growth of plants and inoculum preparation Growth of plants and inoculum preparation were the same as described in Chapter 3. Electrolyte leakage determinations. Electrolyte-leakage determinations were made in the same way as described in Chapter 3.

PAGE 45

34 Bacterial growth curves. Bacterial growth curves were obtained in the same way as described in Chapter 3. Recombinant DNA techniques Techniques used for cosmid cloning, enzyme digestion, ligation, Southern transfer, plasmid alkalin e lysis, and agarose gel electrophoresis were describe d by Maniatis et al. (1982). A genomic library of Xac-Aw strain 12879 was constructe d in the vector pLAFR3 as previously described (M etz et al., 2005) and supplied by G. V. Minsavage (Plant Pathology Dept., University of Florida). Indi vidual clones were maintained in Ec DH5 (BRL) and maintained on Luria-Bertani medi um. The helper plasmid pRK2013 in Ec HB 101 was used in conjugations i nvolving tripar ental matings. Individual clones of an Xac-Aw genomic library in Ec DH5 were conjugated into strain 91-118 of X. perforans (Jones et al., 2004). Transconjuga nts were infiltrated into a 1 cm2 area of leaf tissue with a syringe and needle. The recipi ent bacterium is pathogenic to tomato, but causes a null reaction in grap efruit leaves. A clone that caused an HR reaction in both grapef ruit and tomato leaves was det ected by rapid necrosis in the infiltrated area of the leaf. Tomato leaves we re inoculated as a c ontrol, because the XacAw strain also elicits an HR in tomato leaves (Figure 6-1). Grapefruit leaves and tomato leaves were inoculated with ca. 300 transc onjugants individually. Each clone contained approximately a 25-kb fragment of Xac-Aw DNA. Subcloning. A clone, pL799-1 with HR activity in grapefruit, but not tomato was obtained and consisted of about a 25-kb insert of Xac-Aw DNA. This clone was subcloned to contain only DNA necessary for HR activity. In this subcloning, to identify the exact location of the gene in pL799-1, th e transposon pHoGus was used to knock out

PAGE 46

35 the gene responsible for HR activity by the procedure described by Huguet and Bonas, 1997. About 160 kanamycin resistant clones, which contained pHoGus inserts were screened for the lack of HR in grap efruit after they were transferred to X. perforans Three clones were selected for lack of an HR and one clone (pL799-1) was selected from the three for further work. The clone pL7991 was restricted with each of several enzymes to find a fragment that contained the Tn3 insert. A Hin dIII restriction fragment, contained the Tn3 insert and about 3.0 kb of DNA. This fragment was ligated into pBluescript II KS and labeled pBs3.0. A portion of the 3.0 kb insert in pBs3.0 was then sequenced using forward and reverse prim ers from the cloning vector. Custom oligonucleotide primers were designed to complete the sequen cing of the intact Hin dIII fragment. An open reading frame (ORF) was identified in the sequence of the intact Hin dIII fragment. However, the ORF was at the end of the fragment and was not complete. When the intact Hin dIII fragment was ligated into pL AFR6 (pL799-2) and conjugated into X perforans no HR occurred in grapefruit leaves Then primers were selected for sequencing beyond the end of the Hind III fragment in the original clone to obtain the sequence of the complete ORF. Primers were selected from the sequence to amplify by PCR a 2.3-kb fragment containing the comple te ORF, which was then ligated into pGEMT Easy Vector (Promega, Madison, Wisc onsin). The 2.3 kb insert was removed from pGEMT Easy Vector with Eco RI enzyme and then ligated into the vector pUFR043, and designated pU799-3. The pUFR043 co smid was used as a vector because DNA inserts in this vector could be conjugated into strains of Xac-Aw, whereas pLAFR

PAGE 47

36 derivatives could not be tran sferred to strains of Xac-Aw. The pU799-3 in X. perforans caused an HR in grapefruit leaves. The open reading frame was labeled avrGf1. Mutation of avrGfl in Xac-Aw. The avrGf1 gene in Xac-Aw was mutated to investigate the role of the gene in the hos t specificity of the bacterium. Mutation in avrGf1 in pGEMT Easy Vector occurred by inserting an Omega cassette into the gene by the procedure described by Huguet et al., (1998). The inactive gene was exchanged into the Xac-Aw strain by using the suicide vector pOK1. Eventually an Xac-Aw strain with the mutated avr gene was obtained. This strain was labeled Xac-Aw DNA sequence analysis Sequencing of pBluescript cl one pBs3.0 was initiated at the sequencing facility (Unive rsity of Florida, Gainesville, Fl, USA) with the Applied Biosystems model 373 system (Foster City, CA, U.S.A.). To complete sequencing of both strands of DNA, custom primers were sy nthesized at the ICBR facility with an Applied Biosystem model 394 DNA synthesi zer. The computer program SeqAid II version 3.81 was used to analy ze nucleotide sequence data an d predicted protein products of the 2.3 kb region that contained avrGf1 A search for nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology was conducted with th e BLASTN and BLASTP 2.2.11 programs (Altschul et al. 1997). PCR procedure. Based on DNA sequence analysis of the avirulence gene identified in Xac-Aw custom primers were designed to amplify a fragment from the avirulence gene from DNA of xanthomonads that cause di sease in citrus plants. The primers used were forward 5-CGCCG GTTTCTGTCCTGCACTTG-3 and reverse 5GCCGCCTTTGCCATCGACCAG-3. The final product was 199 bp. PCR reactions were performed in a thermocycler (M.J. Research, Watertown, MA, U.S.A.).

PAGE 48

37 Southern hybridization. All hybridization experiments were performed on nitrocellulose membranes using the GENIUS nonradioactive DNA labeling and detection kit according to the manufact urers instructions (Boeheri nger Mannheim Biochemicals, Indianapolis, IN, U.S.A). Genomic D NA extractions were made using the GenomicPrepTM Cells and Tissue DNA Isolat ion Kit (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Inc. 800 Centennial Avenue, PO Box 1327 Piscataway, NJ 08855, USA). Plasmid extraction from Xac-A and Xac-Aw strains was as described in Chapter 5. Results Selection of avirulence gene. Three clones were selected that caused rapid necrosis in grapefruit leaves but not in toma to leaves, and three other clones caused rapid necrosis in tomato leaves, but not in grapef ruit. The first three clones were designated pL799-1, pL22, and pL622. All three clones were successfully transferred from E. coli by conjugation into a strain that causes Asia tic citrus canker (Xac-A) in grapefruit and Key lime. Only one of the three clones, pL 799-1, caused an HR in grapefruit leaves when expressed in the Xac-A strain (Figure 6-2). The pL799-1 clone in the Xac-A strain did not cause an HR in Key lime leaves, whic h is typical of the host range of the wild Xac-Aw strain (Figure 6-3). This clone wa s further characterized in this work. To obtain more information about the significance of th e avirulence gene in the host range of Xac-Aw, primer sequences were obtained for amplification of a portion of avirulence genes by PCR from the sequence of the 2.3 fragment in pU799-3. DNA from three Xac-A strains and four Xac-Aw strains was extracted and tested for the presence of the avirulence gene by amplification of DNA with those primer sequences. Amplification of a product of the expected size occurred with all of the Xac-Aw strains, but no amplification of a fragment of the expected size occurred with any Xac-A strain. Using

PAGE 49

38 Southern hybridization with the pU799-3 clone as a probe, the avirulence gene was determined to be present in the Xac-Aw strains but not in the X ac-A strains. In addition, the avirulence gene was not present in strains of the B and C groups of X. axonopodis pv. a urantifolii or in strains of the Xac-A* strains of the Xac gr oup, or in strains of X axonopodis pv. citrumelo (Figure 6-8). The B strain and strains of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo did not cause rapid necrosis in grapefruit leaves but the C strain did. Also, at least some of the Xac-A* strains also caused ra pid necrosis in grapefruit leaves (Data not presented). Apparently, other avirulence genes may exist in those strains. The avirulence gene ( avrGf1 ) hybridized with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris strain 8004 but the restriction pattern was di fferent. Strain 8004 causes ra pid necrosis in grapefruit leaves. The avirulence gene ( avrGf1 ) was located in the chromosome because the plasmid DNA did not hybridize with the avrGf1 probe (Figure 6-8). Comparison of mutated Xac-Aw with the Xac-A and Xac-Aw. The strain XacAw with the mutated avirulence gene was compared with the Xac-A and Xac-Aw strains in inoculation tests in grapefruit leaves. Visually, the symptoms caused by the mutant strain of Xac-Aw were more like the wild-type XacA strain than the wild-type Xac-Aw strain (Figure 6-4 and 6-5). However, the symptoms of the mutated strain were not identical to Xac-A strain. Nevertheless, in activation of the avir ulence gene in Xac-Aw did alter the disease reaction in grapefruit leaves. Growth of the strains in grapefruit leaves was compared. In addition, electrolyte leakage from the leaves inoculated with the strains was determined to differentiate the time to necrosis after inocul ations. In these experiments cultures, of Xac-A 40, Xac-Aw 12879, Xac-A 40 (pU799-3), Xac-Aw and Xac-Aw (pU799-3) were compared.

PAGE 50

39 Illustrations of the results are included in Figures 6-6 and 6-7. Growth of all strains was about equal for the first four days after inoculation. Howeve r, at day six the populations of the strains were different. At day te n the population of the Xac-A strain was the greatest. The population of the Xac-Aw strain was about 1.5 log units lower than the XacA strain. The Xac-Aw strain reached a population inte rmediate between the Xac-A and the Xac-Aw The strains with the pU799-3 cl one had the lowest populations. In electrolyte leakage determinations the Xac-Aw strain and the Xac-A strains with the clone pU799-3 began to increase at day f our compared to that caused by Xac-A and Xac-Aw strains. At day eight the strains with the avirulence gene had significantly greater electrolyte leakage than the strains th at did not contain the avirulence gene. This data confirmed the visual observations of necrosis caused by those strains. DNA sequencing analysis. Sequence analysis of the 2.3 kb fragment in pU799-3 was determined. A 1599 bp nucleotide open reading frame (ORF) was found that was sufficient for avrGf1 activity. The complete sequence of the 2.3 kb, the avrGf1 gene and the primers used to amplify the avrGf1 are shown in the Figure 6-9. The upstream regions of this ORF do not contain a hrp box but do contain an imperfect PIP box TTCGT-N10TTCGC 80 bp upstream of the start codon (Huguet and Bonas, 1997). The GenBank search identified significant homol ogy with a gene in the genome of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) str. 8004 (84 % identical). When an alignment was done between the completely se quenced Xcc3600 gene and avrGf1 using the clustal W (1.82) multiple sequence alignment 84.99 % identity was found (Figure 6-10). Discussion A genomic library of an Xac-Aw strain was successfully produced and incorporated into E. coli DH5 For successful screening of the lib rary for avirulence genes one would

PAGE 51

40 normally transfer each clone into a strain that was pathogenic on the plant in question; in this case into a strain of Xac-A. However, in previous experiments the transfer of clones in pLAFR3 cosmid to strains of Xac-A di d not occur at high frequency by triparental matings (G. V. Minsavage, Plant Pathology Dept ., University of Florida, Gainesville). To circumvent this problem the Xac-Aw library was transferred from E. coli to strain 91-118 of X. perforans by triparental conjugations and n early 100 % of the matings were successful. The X. perforans strain contains the hrp genes (Bonas et al., 1991) necessary for transfer of avirulence gene proteins into host cells, so it was thought that an avirulence gene in the genome of Xac-Aw to grapefruit could be found by this procedure. In fact, an avirulence gene in the Xac-Aw library was found. This procedure could possibly be used to locate othe r avirulence genes when transf er of clones to a pathogen occurs very infrequently dur ing triparental matings with E. coli. Three clones from the Xac-Aw library were obtained that produced an HR in grapefruit leaves when expressed in X. perforans When the three clones were transferred to the Xac-A strain only one caused an HR in grapefruit leaves. The two clones that did not cause an HR probably have similar DNA sequences based on restriction enzyme digestion (data not given). On e of the clones, pL22, is bei ng investigated further to determine the reason that no HR occurred in grapefruit when expressed in the Xac-A strain. The clone that was expressed in Xac-A and that caused an HR in grapefruit leaves did not cause an HR in leaves of Key lime. This is the same reaction as the Xac-Aw strain in the two hosts. The importance of the avir ulence gene in determination of the host specificity of the Xac-Aw strain was further investigated by determining the presence of

PAGE 52

41 the gene in other bacterial st rains pathogenic to citrus. This gene was only found in XacAw strains by PCR and Southern hybridization techniques. When the gene was mutated in an Xac-Aw strain the symptoms caused by the mutated strain were similar to those caused by the Xac-A strains. However, the symptoms were not quite the same. In addition the growth of the mutated strain in grapefruit l eaves was significantly greater than the wildtype Xac-Aw strain but lower than the Xac-A st rain. Therefore, the avirulence gene avrGf1 seems to be important in delimiting the pathogenic specificity of the Xac-Aw strain. An assumption could be made that another avr gene exists in the wild type of XacAw that prevents the symptoms of the mutated strain to be equal to as the wild-type XacA strain and also prevents the populations of the two strains from being the same. There could be another avr gene in the genomic library that was not identified because we only screened 300 clones. More clones should be screened to search for another avr gene or host range limiting factor. Clones causing an HR in tomato, but not in grapefruit were also found in the genomic library of Xac-Aw. Wild-type strains of Xac-A and Xac-Aw cause an HR in tomato, but not in leaves of tobacco or pepp er (Figure 6-1). Very little was done with these clones in this work. It would be intere sting to determine if those clones contain an avirulence gene that provides the differential reactions in the three plants.

PAGE 53

42 Figure 6-1. Symptoms caused by Xac-A (left) and Xac-Aw (right) strains in tobacco, tomato, and pepper leaves.

PAGE 54

43 Figure 6-2. Symptoms in grapefruit leaves after infiltration with the following bacterial suspensions: 1= Xac-A 40; 2= Xac-A 40 (pL799-1); 3= Xac-A 40 (pL22); 4= Xac-A 40 (pL622). Figure 6 -3. Symptoms in Key lime leaves after infiltration with different bacterial suspensions: 1= Xac-A 40; 2= Xac-A 40 (pL799-1); 3= Xac-A 40 (pL22); 4= Xac-A 40 (pL622).

PAGE 55

44 Figure 6-4. Symptoms in grapef ruit following inoculation with Xac-A 40 strain (A), XacAw 12879 strain (Aw) and Xac-Aw (3). Figure 6-5. Symptoms in grapefruit after i noculation by needle pricks with Xac-Aw strain 12879 (right top), Xac-Aw (bottom left), and Xac-A 40 (bottom right).

PAGE 56

45 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0246810 Time (Days)Log10 cfu/cm2 leaf Xac-A 40 Xac-Aw Xac-Aw 12879 Xac-A 40 (pU799-3) Xac-Aw (pU799-3) Figure 6-6. Bacterial populations in grapefruit leaves infi ltrated with Xac-A 40; Xac-Aw ; Xac-Aw 12879;Xac-A 40 (pU799-3), Xac-Aw (pU799-3) at various times after inoculation. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 0246810 Time (Days)Conductivity (umhos) Xac-A 40 Xac-Aw Xac-Aw 12879 Xac-A 40 (pU799-3) Xac-Aw (pU799-3)w Figure 6-7. Electrolyte leakage in grapefruit leaves infiltrated with of Xac-A 40, XacAw Xac-Aw 12879, Xac-A 40 (pU799-3), Xac-Aw (pU799-3) at a concentration of 5x108 cells (cfu/ml).

PAGE 57

46 1 2 3 4 5 6 .7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1213 14 Figure 6-8. Hybridization of the subclone pU799-3 fragment in avrGf 1 to total genomic DNA of Xanthomonas strains digested whith Hind III. Lanes 1= Xac-Aw; 2= Xac-Aw ; 3= Xac-A 40; 4= Xac-A 306; 5=XacA* 1574; 6=Xac-A* 1575; 7= Xaa-B; 8=Xaa-C; 9= XacE 1887; 10= Xcc 8004; 11= Xac-Aw 12879; 12= plasmid Xac-Aw; 13= Plasmid Xac-A 40; 14= Marker digested with Hind III. Ethidium bromide stained gel on the left Southern blot of gel on the right.

PAGE 58

47 GATCGGCGCCAGGAAGGGCCTGCCATG TCACAACCTGATTCATCTGTGCCAAGACCACCTCGCACCGCGT GCGCGCATGGTGTACTCCGCGTCTCCAAAGAAAGCTGCATCGCCATCTTCCGATTCGGCTCAGTGTGTCTT TTTTGCAAGCGTCTGATGGGGGTTGGAGTTATTCAAGCCTCCCGAGTCAACGTGATGC GGACACGCTTAC ACCAAACCGAAATGCATCGGTCCGCCTGGTGCGATCGCCGAGCTTTCGCACAGCCACTCGTTTGTGACAT CGCTTTTTCGCATTCGAGATGCAGACAGCTCAGGCCTTCAGGAAAAATAGGTCGTCAATCCGGTAGCAGT GAAATACACGGCGTTATATGCACATTTACGTCTTGTCATCCCGATGGCTTGTCGCTCCGGATCGCTGGTAA CTCACCACGGTCGATGAGTGCCGCCAGCCCAGG CACGCACAGTCAACACGGCCTCGCCGCGGACTGATA GCAATCTTCCATGTGATACCCGCAGAGTGGATCGATATGTCGTCGGTAGCGCGCGGCCATGCTTTTCATA GTCCCTATTCCATTCGTCCATCAGCACTTCGCCTAGTCAACAAGCTCCGATGGCTCCGAGCATGCATTCGG CGGCGTCGCCGGTTTCTGTCCTGCACTTGAGAGATACATCC ATGGCTCCGAGCATGCATTCGGCGGCG TCGCCGGTTTC TGTCCTGCACTTGAGAGATACATCCAT GCGCACCAAAGCCCAACTCCCATTGACT GCCATTCAACGGTTTCTTGCCCATGATGCAGCGT CAACGCAGGCCCCCTCTGCATCGGCATCCACA TCGCTCCACAAAAATGAGACCGCAGGCTTGCTGGC AGCCTTGCCAGCGCGAAACGCCAGGCAAGG AGCGCAGAGGAAGTCCGGCGAAAAAGAAG GCGCACGCCAAAACAACGGGGGCCGGGGCGGACAA TGGGCA TCTCGGGCGGCCAAGTACGCCCTGGGAATCGCCGGTGCTGGCTATGTTGCAGACAATTT CGTTCTGTCCACGACATCGCTGGTCGATGGCAAAGG CGGCTTTACCAGTAATGATCGTTTGGATAA AGCATGCGCAAAGGCCGAGACGTATTACGCCCGGTACCACAGTGCCACTGAGGATGAGCGTGCAT CCCATAGCCGCCCCTTTGTACCGATCAGAACGT GCGGTTCCAACCAGTTCGCCACCATGACCGACT ACCGCGCGGCGACCAAGGTCCATGTCGGTCATC TTTTCGACAGCCAAGCCGCGCGCGAATCGCTC GTCACCAACCTCGCCTGCCTCAAGGGCGAGCGGATCAAGCAGGAGTGCATCATCAGGTATGCGCC TGCGCAGGTGCCAGCGGATCCGGACCTAAGCA AGAGCGAGCTGTACGACAGGAAAAACAAGTACT CGTTGGTTGGCATGCCCAACGCCCAAACCGGAGCAAGTGGATATACCTCACGCTCGATCAC CCAGC CCTTCATCAACCGCGGCATGGAGCATTTCAG ACAGGCTTCACAGAGCGACAAGGCACTGTCCCTGA GGCAGTGCATGCAATCGCTTGAACGGGCACTGCAGGACACTGACAAGCTTGGCAAGCAAGCACAG CACGCCGCCGGCCAGGCAATCCT GAATTTCCGGCAGGTCTATGCGGCCGACGAGCATTGGGGTCA CCCGGAGAAAGTCATCATGAAAACCCTGATCGCCAACGGACTGCTATCGCAAGAA CAAACCGACA GGATCGATGCGACCCTGATGTTCGAAGATCCCT CCATCAGTGTCCTGAAAAGAAATACCAGCATCG CCGGACCGTTACTGCAAAAACTGGAAACGAAGATTC AGTCAAAACGTCTGCAGGATCAACCTGAAA CGCTTGCAGACTTCATGGAAATGGCTAAGCAG AAGAACATGGAAGGCCTGCCGATCGCGCACTTC AAACTCAACGCCGAAGGCACCGGTTTTGAAGACTGCTCTGGCCTGGGCG ACTCGTTTACTAGTGCA AATGCCGTTGCATGCATCAACCATGCACGCTTG ATGAGCGGAGAGCCGCGCCTTTCGAAAGAGGA TGTCGGTGTCGTGGTTGCCTGCCTCAATGCTG TATACGACGATGCCAGCAGCATCCGGCACTCGCT TCATGAAATCGCACGCGGATGCTTCGTAGGTG CCGGCTATACAACGGAAGATGCCGATGCGTTCTA TGAGCAGATTTGCAAGGATG CTGCACGGGCATTCTATGCAGG AAAGTCAATGACCAGCAGCGACT AA TCGCCCCCTTCCCACCTCATTGCG CTGACGCAACTTGGCGCCCGGTTGAGG Figure 6-9. Nucleotide sequence of the 2.3 kb fragment of DNA from Xac-Aw containing avrGf1 nucleotide sequencing ( bold letters).The primer sequences used to amplify a fragment of avrGf1 by PCR are underlined. Imperfect PIP-box is shaded in gray.

PAGE 59

48 seq_1 ------------------------------CTGATTTCCGTCCTGCACTCTAGGAGACCC seq_2 ATGGCTCCGAGCATGCATTCGGCGGCGTCGCCGGTTTCTGTCCTGCACT-TGAGAGATAC * **** ********** **** seq_1 ATC-ATGCGAACAAAAACCTCACTGCCGTTGGCCACCGTCCAGCGGCTACTGACCCCTGG seq_2 ATCCATGCGCACCAAAGCCCAACTCCCATTGACTGCCATTCAACGGTTTCTTGCCCATGA *** ***** ** *** ** *** ** *** ** ** *** ** *** ** seq_1 CACCTCCACCGGGTTATCCACCCCCGCGTCGGCGTCAGCCACTCCCTGTGCAGAAACGAC seq_2 TGCAGCGTCAACGCAGGCCCCCTCTGCATCGGCATCCACATCGCTCCACAAAAATGAGAC * * ** ** ** ***** ** * * * *** seq_1 GGCAGGCTTACTGGGAGCGTTGCCAACTCGAAAGAACAAGCAAAAACAGCAAAGCCAGCG seq_2 CGCAGGCTTGCTGGCAGCCTTGCCAGCGCGAAACGCCAGGCAAGGAGCGCAGAG--GAAG ******** **** *** ****** ***** ** **** *** ** seq_1 TCCACCCAATACGCAGGACGGTACACCAAAGAATGGCAGAGACCATGGCGGACAGTGGGC seq_2 TCCGGCGAAAAAGAAGGC--GCACGCCAAA--ACAACGGGGGCCGGGGCGGACAATGGGC *** ** * *** ** ***** * * ** ******** ***** seq_1 AACACGAGCTGCCAAGTACGCTCTTGGCATTGCTGGCGCAGGCTATGTGGCAGACAACTT seq_2 ATCTCGGGCGGCCAAGTACGCCCTGGGAATCGCCGGTGCTGGCTATGTTGCAGACAATTT * ** ** *********** ** ** ** ** ** ** ******** ******** ** seq_1 CTTTCTTTCAACGACCTCGCTCCGCGACGGCAAGGCCGGATTTAGCAGCAATGATCGGCT seq_2 CGTTCTGTCCACGACATCGCTGGTCGATGGCAAAGGCGGCTTTACCAGTAATGATCGTTT **** ** ***** ***** *** ***** *** **** *** ******** seq_1 TGAGAAAGCATGCGTGAAAGCGGAGAGCTATCACGCGCGGTATCACAGCGCTACCGAAGG seq_2 GGATAAAGCATGCGCAAAGGCCGAGACGTATTACGCCCGGTACCACAGTGCCACTGAGGA ** ********** ** ** **** *** **** ***** ***** ** ** ** seq_1 AGAACGCGCATCGCACAGCCGTCCCTTCGTACCGATCAGAACGTGCGGGTCCAACCAGTT seq_2 TGAGCGTGCATCCCATAGCCGCCCCTTTGTACCGATCAGAACGTGCGGTTCCAACCAGTT ** ** ***** ** ***** ***** ******************** *********** seq_1 CGCCACCATGAGCGACTACCGTGCGGCGACCAAGGTTCATATCGGCCACCTCTTCGACAG seq_2 CGCCACCATGACCGACTACCGCGCGGCGACCAAGGTCCATGTCGGTCATCTTTTCGACAG *********** ********* ************** *** **** ** ** ******** seq_1 CCAGCACGCACGGCAATCGCTGCTCACCAACCTTGCCTGCCTCAAGGGCGAGCGCATCAG seq_2 CCAAGCCGCGCGCGAATCGCTCGTCACCAACCTCGCCTGCCTCAAGGGCGAGCGGATCAA *** *** ** ******* ********** ******************** **** seq_1 GGACGAGTGCATTGCCCAGTACGCCCCTACGCATGTCCCGGCCAATCCGGACCTGAGTAG seq_2 GCAGGAGTGCATCATCAGGTATGCGCCTGCGCAGGTGCCAGCGGATCCGGACCTAAGCAA * ******** *** ** *** **** ** ** ** ********** ** seq_1 AAGCCCGCTCTACGAAACCAAGAACAAGTACTCTCTGACCGGCGTACCCAATGCTCAGAC seq_2 GAGCGAGCTGTACGACAGGAAAAACAAGTACTCGTTGGTTGGCATGCCCAACGCCCAAAC *** *** ***** ** *********** ** *** ***** ** ** ** seq_1 CGGTGCAAGCGGATATACCTCACGATCAATCACCCAGCCCTTCATCAATCGCGGCATGCA seq_2 CGGAGCAAGTGGATATACCTCACGCTCGATCACCCAGCCCTTCATCAACCGCGGCATGGA *** ***** ************** ** ******************** ********* Figure 6-10. A lignment between the complete sequence of XCC3600 from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and the avrGf1 using the clustal W (1.82) multiple sequence alignment ( seq_1 xc3600 and seq_2 avrGF1 ). The Xcc 3600 gene and avrGf1 are 84.99 % similar.

PAGE 60

49 seq_1 GCATTTCAAGCAGGATTCCCAGAGCGACAGAGCGTTGTCGCTCAAACAGTGCATGGAATT seq_2 GCATTTCAGACAGGCTTCACAGAGCGACAAGGCACTGTCCCTGAGGCAGTGCATGCAATC ******** **** *** ********** ** **** ** ********* *** seq_1 GCTTGAACGTACACTGGAGGGCGACGACAAACTTGGCAAGCAGGCACAACACGCTGCCGG seq_2 GCTTGAACGGGCACTGCAGGACACTGACAAGCTTGGCAAGCAAGCACAGCACGCCGCCGG ********* ***** *** ***** *********** ***** ***** ***** seq_1 CCAAGCGATCCTGAATTTCCGTCAGGTGTATGCCGCCGACGAGCATTGGGGCCACCCCGA seq_2 CCAGGCAATCCTGAATTTCCGGCAGGTCTATGCGGCCGACGAGCATTGGGGTCACCCGGA *** ** ************** ***** ***** ***************** ***** ** seq_1 AAAAGTCATCATGAAAACGCTGATCGCCAACGGGCTGCTATCGCAGGAGCAAACGGACAG seq_2 GAAAGTCATCATGAAAACCCTGATCGCCAACGGACTGCTATCGCAAGAACAAACCGACAG ***************** ************** *********** ** ***** ***** seq_1 GATCGATGCGACCCTGATGTTCGAAGATCCGTCCATCAGCGTATTGAAAAAAAACACCAG seq_2 GATCGATGCGACCCTGATGTTCGAAGATCCCTCCATCAGTGTCCTGAAAAGAAATACCAG ****************************** ******** ** ****** *** ***** Figure 6-10---continued. Table 6-1. List of bacterial strains used in chapter 6 Bacterium Abbreviation Original strain number Origin X. perforans J.B Jones 91-118 (pL799-1) This work 91-118 (PL799-2) This work 91-118 (pL22) This work 91-118 (pL622) This work Xa pv. citri Xac-A 40 (Xcc03-1633-1) Ctes. Xac-A 40 (pL799-1) This work Xac-A 40 (PL799-2) This work Xac-A 40 (pL22) This work Xac-A 40 (pL622) This work Xa pv. citri Xac-Aw 12879 DPI Xac-Aw (pU799-3) This work Xac-Aw This work Xac-Aw (pU799-3) This work Xa pv. citri Xac-A 306 2422 DPI Xa pv. citri Xac-A* 1974 DPI Xa pv. citri Xac-A* 1975 DPI Xa pv. aurantifolii Xaa-B 1622 DPI Xa pv. aurantifolii Xaa-C 5979 DPI Xa pv. citrumelo Xac-E 1887 DPI Xc pv. campestris Xcc 8004 DPI Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv), Fl, Florida, provided by Robe rt Stall from DPI Gainesv ille Fl. Collection and Ctes, Corrientes, provided by Nelly Ca nteros from INTA, Bella Vist a, Corrientes, Argentina.

PAGE 61

50 CHAPTER 7 DISCUSSION Many pathogenically different strains of the causal agent of citrus canker ( Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri and X. axonopodis pv aurantifolii) have been described. These strains sometimes differ ge netically and pathologically. The variation within the strains involved in citrus canke r disease is not unusual. For example, the xanthomonads that cause the bacterial spot di sease of tomato and pepper consist of many strains and some have significant genetic di fferences, resulting in different species of Xanthomonas (Jones et al., 2004). The Xac-Aw strain that was characterized by S un et al. (2004) was found to be a close relative of Xac-A even though they had pathogenic differences (Cubero and Graham, 2002). Contrary to the xanthomonads that cause the bacter ial spot disease of pepper and tomato, there were no reports of a hypersensitive reaction (possible exception Xac-C strain) responsible for host range di fferences. The characte rization of the HR caused by Xac-Aw in grapefruit leaves is new. The Xac-Aw strains presented a problem for th e eradication and regulation program of the Division of Plant Industr y (DPI) for citrus canker (Sun et al., 2004). After careful consideration, DPI decided to destroy only Key lime and alemow plants in a 1900 ft radius, and not other citrus plants, near the focus of disease caused by the Xac-Aw strain. One of the considerations in establishing th e program was the lack of knowledge of the stability of the pathogenicity of the Xac-Aw strain. To obtain information on this problem, we chose three avenues of resear ch. We investigated the frequency of

PAGE 62

51 development of mutants for hos t specificity of the Xac-Aw strain, the transfer of genes by conjugation, and the search of the genome of the Xac-Aw strain for an avirulence gene. We never were able to find a mutant of the Xac-Aw strain that was pathogenic on grapefruit after treatment with the mutage n NTG. However, streptomycin and pigment production mutants of the Xac-Aw strain developed in vitro. The methods used to find mutants pathogenic to grapefruit were used previously with X. campestris pv. vesicatoria to find mutants for virulence on pepper plants with a plant resistance gene (Dahlbeck and Stall, 1979). Mutants for change of race 2 to race 1, which occurred very frequently in X. campestris pv. vesicatoria was due to an insertion element that inactivated an avirulence gene (Kearney et al ., 1990). In addition, inactivation of the avrBs2 gene in X. campestris pv. vesicatoria by several ways makes the pathogen susceptible to plants with the Bs2 gene for resistance. This has occurred freque ntly in the field (Gassmann et al., 2000). Chromosomal genes were also transf erred from donor to recipient in X. campestris pv. vesicatoria by conjugation (Basim, 1999). The hrp genes, which are involved in pathogenicity and hypersensitivity in bacter ia, were transferred in that work. The hrp gene cluster contains ca. 25 kb of DNA. However, it is no t known if the hos t specificity genes in Xac-Aw are in the chromosome or in a plasmid. We did determine that a plasmid can move by conjugation between strains of Xac and this was demonstrated by using copper (Cu) resistant strains. It was determined that Cu resistance genes occur on a plasmid in Xac-A from Argentina and in X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo strains from Florida. The Cu resistance genes from both pa thogens were transferred to Cu sensitive strains. Copper resistance wa s not found in strains of XacA from Florida (R.E. Stall,

PAGE 63

52 personal communication). Copper resistance wa s associated with transfer of a large plasmid. The most important part of this work was that we found an avirulence gene, avrGf1 in the genome of Xac-Aw that interacts with grapefru it leaves to cause an HR. The avr gene was found to be located in the ch romosome. This is the first report of an avirulence gene in the genome of the citrus canker bacterium that functions in citrus. The HR depends on a gene for resistance in gr apefruit, based on the gene-for-gene hypothesis (Minsavage, 1990b). The evidence for a resistance gene in the grapefruit genome will be very difficult to obtain, because crossing be tween susceptible and resistant plants is usually required. Genetic analysis of characteris tics in citrus is difficult (Novelli et al., 2000). Identification of the Xac-Aw strain by the division of plant industry is currently done by inoculation of citrus plants. In addition, the Xac-Aw strain can be identified by serological means in an ELISA test (Sun et al., 2004). The primers selected in the avirulence gene ( avrGf1 ) can also be used to identify the Xac-Aw strain by PCR. The avirulence gene was not found in other stra ins of xanthomonads pathogenic to citrus. The regulation and eradication procedures of the Division of Plant Industry were probably correct for the Xac-Aw strain. The factors for host specificity of the Xac-Aw strain seem to be quite stable based on this work. Even if the single avrGf1 gene is responsible for host specificity, inac tivation of the gene in the Xac-Aw genome does not appear to be of a high frequency as occurs with avr genes in X. campestris pv. vesicatoria (Dahlbeck and Stall, 1979) One should note, however, that the frequency of inactivation

PAGE 64

53 of avrGf1 could change with the in troduction of an insertion sequence (Kearney et al., 1990). The stability of the host specificity of the Xac-Aw strain could be the result of the presence of a second avr gene in wild Xac-Aw. The fact that we did not obtain mutants that were pathogenic to grapefruit when the cells of Xac-Aw were treated with the mutagen NTG (Chapter 4) would support this If only one gene was present, mutants should have been found. If two genes were present in Xac-Aw, each of which was important in susceptibility to grapefruit, one would not expect to find pathogenic mutants after treatment with a mutage n. Other evidence for another avr gene in Xac-Aw was that there were differences in populations and symp toms for the Xac-A strain with the mutant lacking a functional avrGf1 in comparison with the wild-type Xac-A.

PAGE 65

54 LIST OF REFERENCES Altschul, S.F., Madden, T.L., Schffer, A. A., Zhang,J., Zhang,Z., Miller,W. and Lipman, D.J. 1997. Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res. 25: 3389. Basim, H., Stall, R.E., Minsavage, G.V ., and Jones, J.B. 1999. Chromosomal gene transfer by conjugation in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria Phytopathology 89: 1044-1049. Belasque, J., Jr., Parra-Pedrazzoli, A.L., Rodr igues Neto, J., Yamamoto, P.T., Chagas, M. C.M., Parra, J. R.P., Vinyard, B.T., and Ha rtung, J. S. 2005. Adult citrus leafminers (Phillocnitis citrella ) are not efficient vectors for Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. Plant Dis. 89: 590-594. Bonas, U., Schulte, R., Fenselau, D., Minsav age, G.V, Staskawicz, B. and Stall, R.E 1991. Isolation of a cluster from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria that determines pathogenicity and the hypers ensitive response on pepper and tomato. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 4: 81-85. Canteros, B.I., Rybak, M., Naranj o, M., Gochez, A.; Minsavage, G.; Jones, J., and Stall, R.E. 2004. Caracterizacin molecular de la resistenci a al cobre en Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri CD Resmenes de los trabaj os presentados. XV Reunin de Comunicaciones Cientficas y Tcnicas. Corrientes, 4-6 Agosto 2004 FCA UNNE. Resumen P020. Cook, A.A., and Stall, R.E. 1968. Effect of Xanthomonas vesicatoria in loss of electrolytes from leaves of Capsicum annuum Phytopathology 58: 617-619. Crute, I.R. 1985. Mechanisms of Resistance to Plant Diseases, ed, Fraser R, S.S. (Nijhoff & Junk, Dordrecht, The Netherlands), pp. 80-142. Cubero, J., and Graham, J. H. 2002. Genetic relationship among wo rldwide strains of Xanthomonas causing canker in citrus species and design of new primers for their identification by PCR. Appl. E nviron. Microbiol. 68:1257-1264. Cubero, J., and Graham J.H. 2004. The le ucine-responsive regulatory protein ( Irp ) gene for characterization of the relationship among Xanthomonas species. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54: 429-437. Dahlbeck, D., and R.E. Stall 1979. Mutati ons for change of race in cultures of Xanthomonas vesicatoria. Phytopathology 69: 634-636.

PAGE 66

55 Daniels, M.J., Barber, C.E., Turner, D.C., Cleary, W.G., and Sa wzyc, M. 1984. Isolation of mutants of Xanthomonas campestris showing altered pat hogenicity. J. Gen. Microbiol. 130: 2447-2455. Dopson, R.N. 1964. The eradication of citrus canker. Plant Dis. 48:30-31. Ellingboe, A.H. 1976 Genetics of host-parasite intera ctions. In Physiological Plant Pathology (Encyclopedia of Plant P hysiology, New Series, vol. 4), pp. 761. Edited by R. Heitefuss & P. H.Williams. Berlin: Springer. Flor, H.H. 1955. Host-parasite in teraction in flax rust-its ge netics and other implications. Phytopathololy 45: 680-685. Gabriel, D.W., Burges, A., and Lazo, G.R. 1986. Gene-for-gene recognition of five cloned avirulence genes from Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum by specific resistance genes in cotton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 6415. Gabriel, D.W., Kingsley, M.T., Hunter, J.E ., and Gottwald, T., 1989. Reinstatement of Xanthomonas citri ( ex Hasse) and X phaseoli ( ex Smith) to species and reclassification of all X campestris pv. citri strains. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 39: 1422. Garnsey S.M., DuCharme, E.P., Lightfield J. W., Seymour, C.P., and Griffiths J.T. 1979. Citrus canker. Preventive action to protect the U.S. citrus industry. The Citrus Industry. pp. 5-14. Gassmann, W., Dahlbeck, D., Chesnokova, O., Mins avage, G.V., Jones, J. B., Staskawicz B.J. 2000. Molecular evolution of viru lence in natural field strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria J. Bacteriol. 182: 7053. Gerhardt, P., Murray, R.G.E., Costilow, R.N ., Nester, E.W., Wood, W.A., Krieg, N.R. and Phillips, G.B., Editors, 1981. Manual of Methods for Gene ral Bacteriology. American Society for Microbio logy. Washington, DC pp. 226. Goto, M., Takemura, I., and Yamanaka K. 1979. Leakage of electrolytes and amino acids from susceptible and resistant ci trus leaf tissues infected by Xanthomonas citri Ann. Phytopath. Soc. Japan 45: 625-634. Gottwald, T.R., Graham, J.H., and Schubert, T. S. 1997a. An epidemiological analysis of the spread of citrus canker in urban Miami, Florida, and synergistic interaction with the Asian citrus leafmi ner. Fruits 52: 371-378. Gottwald, T.R., Graham, J.H., and Schubert, T.S. 1997b. Citrus canker in urban Miami: An analysis of spread and prognosis for the future. Citrus Industry 78: 72-78. Gottwald, T.R., Graham, J.H., and Schubert, T. S. 2002a. Citrus canker: The pathogen and its impact. Online. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2002-0812-01-RV.

PAGE 67

56 Gottwald, T. R., Sun, X, Riley, T., Graham, J. H., Ferrandino, F., and Taylor, E.L. 2002b. Geo-referenced spatiotemporal analysis of the urban citrus canker epidemic in Florida. Phytopathology. 92: 361-377. Graham, J.H., and Gottwald, T.R. 1990. Variation in aggressiveness of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citrumelo associated with citrus bact erial spot in Florida citrus nurseries. Phytopathology: 80: 190-196. Graham, J.H., and Gottwald, T.R. 1991. Research perspectives on eradication of citrus bacterial disease in Florida. Plant Dis. 75: 1193-1200. Graham, J. H., Gottwald, T. R., C ubero, J. and Achor, D. S. 2004. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri : factors affecting successful eradication of citrus canker. Molecular Plant Pathology. 5: 1-15 Hartung J. S., and Civerolo, E. L. 1989. Re striction fragment length polymorphims distinguish Xanthomonas campestris strains isolated from Florid a citrus nurseries from Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri. Pa ges 503-508 in: Proc 7th Int. Conf. Plant Path. Bacteria, Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, Hungary. Hayward A. C. 1993. The hosts of Xanthomonas Pages 1-19 in Xanthomonas J. G. Swings and E.L. Civerolo, eds. Chapman & Hall, London. Hibberd, A. M., Stall, R. E., and Bassett, M. J. 1987. Different phenotypes associated with incompatible races and resistance gene s in bacterial spot disease of pepper. Plant Dis. 71: 1075-1078. Huguet, E. and Bonas, U. 1997. hrpF of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria encodes an 87-kDa protein wi th homology to NolX of Rhizobium fredii. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 10: 488-498. Huguet, E, Hahn, K, Wengelnik, K., and U. Bonas U. 1998. hpaA mutants of Xanthomonas ampestris pv. vesicatoria are affected in pathogenicity but retain the ability to induce host-specific hypersensi tive reaction. Molecu lar Microbiology 29:1379-1390. Jenner, C., Hitchin, E., Mansfi eld, J., Walters, K., Betteridge, P., Teverson, D. Taylor, J. (1991). Gene-for-gene in teractions between Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola and Phaseolus. Mol PlantMicrobe Interact. 4: 553-562. Jones, B.J., Lacy, G.H., Bouzar, H., Stall, R.E., and Schaad, N.W. 2004. Reclassification of the xanthomonads associated with bact erial spot disease of tomato and pepper. System. Appl. Micr obiol., 27: 755-762. Kado, C.I., and Liu, S.T. 1981. Rapid procedure for detection and isol ation of large and small plasmids. J. Bacteriol. 145: 1365-1373.

PAGE 68

57 Kearney, B., and B.J. Staskawicz 1990. Characterization of IS416 and its role in bacterial spot disease of pepper and toma to. J. Bacteriol. 172: 143-148. Klement, Z. 1963. Rapid detection of the pathogenicity of phytopathogenic pseudomonads. Nature 199: 299-300. Klement, Z. 1982. Hypersensitivity. In Phytopathogenic Prokaryotes vol. 2, pp. 149 177. Edited by M. S. Mount & G. H. Lacy. New York: Academic Press. Koizumi, M. 1985. Citrus canker: The world si tuation. Pages 2-7 in: Citrus Canker: An International Perspective. L. W. Timmer, ed. Citrus Research & Education Center, University of Florida, Lake Alfred. Leyns, F., DeCleene, M., Swings, J.G., a nd De Ley, J. 1984. The host range of genus Xanthomonas Bot. Rev. 50: 308-356. Lorang, J.M., and Keen, N.T. 1995. Characterization of avrE from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato : a hrp -linked avirulence locus consisting of at least two transcriptional units. Mol. Pl ant-Microbe Interact. 8: 49-57. Loucks, K.W. 1934. Citrus canker and its eradication in Florida. (Unpublished manuscript. Original copy in the files of the Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville). Mansfield, J., Jenner, C., Hockenhull, R., Bennett, M.A., and Stewart, R. 1994. Characterization of avrPphE, a gene for cultivar-specific avirulence from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola which is physically linked to hrpY, a new hrp gene identified in the halo-blight bacter ium. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 7: 726-739. Maniatis, T., Fritsch, E.F., and Sambr ook, J. 1982. Molecular cloning: A laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. 545 pp. Marshall, J.K. 1968. Methods for leaf area meas urement of large and small leaf samples. Phytosynthetica 2: 41-47. McEver, K. 2005. Canker eradication costl y, but effective. Citrus & Vegetable Magazine. pp. 13. McLean, F.T. 1921. A study of the stomata of two species of citrus in relation to citrus canker. Bul. Torr. Bot. Club 48: 101-106. Metz, M., Dahlbeck, D., Morales, C., Al Sady, B., Clark, E., and Staskawicz, B. 2005. The conserved Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria effector protein XopX is a virulence factor and suppresses host defense in Nicotiana benthamiana The Plant Journal 41: 801-814.

PAGE 69

58 Minsavage, G.V., Canteros, B. I. and Stall, R. E. 1990a. Plasmid-mediated resistance to streptomycin in Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Phytopathology 80: 719723. Minsavage, G.V., Dahlbeck, D., Whalen, M.C ., Kearney, B., Bonas, U., Staskawicz, B.J. and Stall, R.E. 1990b. Gene-for-gene relations hips specifying disease resistance in Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria -pepper interactions. Mol. PlantMicrobe Interact. 3: 41-47. Novelli, V.M., Machado, M.A., and Lopes, C.R. 2000. Isoenzymatic polymorphism in Citrus spp. and Poncirus tr ifoliata (L.) Raf. (Rutaceae). Genet. Mol. Biol.23:163168. Poplawsky, A.R and Chun W., 1997. pigB determines a diffusible factor needed for extracellular polysaccharide slime and xanthomonadin production in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris J. Bacteriol. 179: 439-444. Ronald, P.C., and Staskawicz B. 1988.The avirulence gene avrBs1 from Xanthomonas campestris pv. v esicatoria encodes a 50-kD protein. Mol. PlantMicrobe Interact 1: 191. Rossetti, V.E. Feichtenberger, and M.L. Silveira 1982. Citrus Canker: An analytical bibliography. Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo. 230 p. Schoulties, C.L., Civerolo, E.L, Miller, J.W. Stall, R.E., Krass, C.J., Poe, S.R and DuCharme,. E.P. 1987. Citrus canker in Florida. Plant Dis. 71: 388-395. Schubert, T. S., Miller, J. W., and Gabrie l, D.W. 1996. Another outbreak of bacterial canker on citrus in Florida. Plant Dis. 80:1208. Schubert, T. S., Rizvi, S. A., Sun, X. A., Gottwald, T.R., Graham, J. H, and Dixon,. W. N. 2001. Meeting the challenge of eradicat ing citrus canker in Florida-again. Plant Dis. 85: 340-356. Stall, R.E. and E. L. Civerolo 1991. Research relating to the recent outbreak of citrus canker in Florida. Annu. Rev. Phytopathology 29: 399-420. Stall, R.E., Loschke, D.C., and Jones, J. B. 1986. Linkage of copper resistance and avirulence loci on self-transmissible plasmid in Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Phythopathology 76: 240-243. Stall, R.E., Marco, G.M., and Canteros de Echenique, B. I. 1982a. Importance of mesophyll in mature-leaf resistance to citrus canker. Phytopathology 72: 10971100. Stall, R.E., Miller, J.W., Marco, G.M., and Canteros, B.I. 1982b. Pathogenicity of three strains of the citrus canker organism on grapefruit. Fifth Int. Conf. Plant Path. Bacteria Proc. CIAT. Cali, Colombia pp 334-340.

PAGE 70

59 Stall, R.E. and C.P. Seymour. 1983. Canker, a threat to citrus in the Gulf-Coast States. Plant Dis. 67: 581-585. Staskawicz, B.J., Dahlbeck, D., and Keen, N.T. 1984. Cloned avirulence gene of Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea determines race-specific incompatibility on Glycine max (L.) Merr. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 6024-6028. Sun, X., Stall, R.E., Jones, J.B., Cubero, J., Gottwald, T.R., Graham, J.H., Dixon, W.N., Schubert, T.S., Chaloux, P.H., Stromberg, V. K., Lacy, G.H. and Sutton, B.D. 2004. Detection and characterizati on of a new strain of citr us canker bacteria from Key/Mexican lime and Alemow in Sout h Florida. Plant Dis. 88: 1179-1188. Tamaki, S., Dahlbeck, D., Staskawicz, B.J. and Keen, N.T. 1988. Characterization and expression of two avirulence genes cloned from Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea J Bacteriol 170, 4846-4854. USDA, Statistical Service, 2004. United States Department of Agriculture. National Agricultural Statistics Service. Citrus Fr uits 2004 Summary Agri cultural Statistics Board September 2004 1 NASS, USDA. Vauterin, L., Hoste, B., Kersters, K., and Swings, J. 1995. Re classification of Xanthomonas Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45: 472-489. Vauterin, L., Swings, J., Kersters, K., Gilli s, M., Mew, T.W., Schroth, M.N., Palleroni, N.J., Hildebrand, D.C., Stead, D.E., Civero lo, E.L., Hayward, A.C., Maraite, H., Stall, R.E., Vidaver, A.K. and Br adbury, J.F. 1990. Towards an improved taxonomy of Xanthomonas Int. J. Syst. Bact eriol. 40: 312-316. Vauterin L., Yang P., Hoste B., Vancanneyt M., Civerolo E.L., Swings J. and Kersters K. 1991. Differentiation of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri strains by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacry lamide gel electrophoresis of proteins, fatty acid analysis, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Int. J. of Syst. Bacteriol. 41: 535. Verniere, C., Hartung, O.P. Pruvost, E.L., Civerolo, A.M. Alvarez, P. Maestri, and Luisetti, J. 1998. Characte rization of phenotypically distinct strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri from Southwest Asia. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 104: 477-487. Viloria, Z., Drouillard, D.L., Graham, J.H, and Grosser J.W. 2004. Screening triploid hybrids of Lakeland limequat for resistance to citrus canker. Plant Dis. 88: 1056-1060.

PAGE 71

60 Whalen, M.C., Wang, J.F., Carland, F.M., He iskell, M.E., Dahlbeck, D., Minsavage, G.V., Jones, J.B., Scott, J.W., Stall, R.E., and Staskawicz, B.J. 1993. Avirulence gene avrRxv from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria specifies resistance on tomato lines Hawaii 7998. Mol. Plan t-Microbe Intera ct. 6: 616-627. Young, J.M., Bradbury, J.F., Gardan, L., Gvozdy ak R.I., Stead, D.E., Takikawa, Y., and Vidaver, A.K., 1991. Comment on the reinstatement of Xanthomonas citri ( ex Hasse 1915) Gabriel et al 1989 and X phaseoli ( ex Smith 1897) Gabriel et al 1989: indication of the need for minimal standards for the genus Xanthomonas Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41: 172-177.

PAGE 72

61 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Myrian Rybak was born in Leandro N. Al em, Misiones, Republic a Argentina, on June 29, 1967. She is the daughter of Veronica Kuyesen and Jose Rybak. Myrian graduated from the Nacional Univ ersity of the Northeast in Corrientes, Argentina, in 1992 with the Agricultural Engi neer degree. In 1993 sh e began to work in the National Institute of Agricultural T echnology (INTA). In April-May of 1995 Myrian was awarded a fellowship of Rotary Inte rnational, Exchange Study Groups (IGE), Mexico. In 1998 she was awar ded a fellowship to pursue graduate studies in the University of La Plata, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. She graduated with the masters degree in 2000. In 2001 she was awarded a fellowship from INTA-FULBRIGHT to pursue graduate studies in the United States. Myrian enrolled at the Univer sity of Florida in Fall 2001 with Dr. Jeffrey Jones as her adviser. She is currently a candidate fo r the degree of Doctor in Philosophy. At the end of her studies she will resume her position in INTA, Argentina. Myrian was awarded the Francis Aloysius Wood Memorial Award in recognition of outstanding graduate student research in p lant pathology at the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, on March, 2005. Myrian is a member of Argentinean Society of Horticulture (ASHAO), International Society of Citriculture (ISC), Professional Council of Agricultural Engineer s (CPIA) and American Phytopathological Society (APS)