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Effect of Alcohol Cosolvents on the Aqueous Solubility of Toxaphene

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Effect of Alcohol Cosolvents on the Aqueous Solubility of Toxaphene
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2008

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Alcohols ( jstor )
Environmental remediation ( jstor )
Ethanol ( jstor )
Groundwater ( jstor )
Linear models ( jstor )
Material concentration ( jstor )
Pesticides ( jstor )
Solubility ( jstor )
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Solvents ( jstor )

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EFFECT OF ALCOHOL COSOLVENTS ON THE AQUEOUS
SOLUBILITY OF TOXAPHENE


















By

PADMA PAAN


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005

































Copyright 2005

by

Padma Paan

































Dedicated to my parents, for all I was, am and will be, I owe it to them. They endured
financial and social hardships, and defied age-old traditions, to encourage me to explore
my own world. I would never have made it this far without their unwavering strength and
unconditional love.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Clayton J. Clark II, chairperson

of my supervisory committee, for his invaluable guidance and constant encouragement

throughout the duration of this work. I would also like to thank my committee members

Dr. Angela Lindner and Dr. Kirk Hatfield for their valuable time and suggestions. I

greatly appreciate the help and constant guidance of Mr. Xiaosong Chen, PhD student of

the hydrology group, in performing laboratory experiments.

I also want to thank my family and friends for their emotional support and

encouragement throughout my education.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TA BLE S .............................. ....... ...... .. .............. .. vii

LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................... ................... viii

ABSTRACT .............. .......................................... ix

CHAPTER

1 IN TRODU CTION ................................................. ...... .................

2 LITER A TU R E REV IEW ............................................................. ....................... 3

Cosolvents and Enhanced Solubility ........................................ ........................ 3
Factors A affecting Cosolvency ..................................................... ...... ......... 5
W after m iscibility of cosolvent ............................................ .....................5
Solute hydrophobicity ............................................................................. 6
Predicting Cosolvency .............................................. .. ......... ........ .. ..
L og linear m odel ................... .. ........................ .. ....... ................ .7
U N IFA C m odel .................................. .... ............ .... .
Extended log linear equations ............................. ..... ....... ............... 10
T o x ap h en e ............................................................................................................ 1 1
Com position of Toxaphene ........................................ ........................... 12
T oxaphene in W ater ..................... .. ...... .................. ....... .... ...........14

3 M ATERIALS AND M ETHOD S ........................................ ......................... 16

M a te ria ls .......................................................................................................1 6
E xperim ental M ethods........................................................................ .................. 17
Analytical M methods for Toxaphene .................................. .............................. ...... 18

4 RESULTS AND DISCU SSION ........................................... .......................... 20

E xperim mental R results ............................................................................ ........... 20
Theoretical E stim nations ............. .............................................. ......... ...... 25
Comparison of Experimental Values with Estimations............................................26
F u tu re W o rk ...................................................... ................ 3 0



v









5 C O N C L U SIO N S ..................... .... .......................... .. .... ........ .... ......... ..3 1

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ............................................................................. .............. 33

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ...................................................................... ..................37
















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1 Chemical/physical properties of toxaphene .................. ............ ...............12

3-1 Cosolvent properties........................................................... .. ............... 17

4-1 Cosolvency power of toxaphene in water alcohol mixtures................................23

4-2 Estimation of cosolvency power for methanol, ethanol and IPA...........................25

4-3 Comparison of experimental cosolvency power with estimated............................26

4-4 Comparison of experimental toxaphene solubility with estimations in different
cosolvents ..................................... ................................. ........... 27
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure p

2-1 Basic structure of components of toxaphene ............... .................... ............... 13

4-1 Log solubility of toxaphene in water-methanol system as a function of cosolvent
volume e fraction .......................................................................20

4-2 Log solubility of toxaphene in water-ethanol system as a function of cosolvent
volume e fraction .......................................................................2 1

4-3 Log solubility of toxaphene in water-IPA system as a function of cosolvent
volume e fraction .......................................................................2 1

4-4 Log solubility of toxaphene in different cosolvents..............................................23

4-5 Linearity between toxaphene solubility and 0-0.2 volume fraction region of
m eth a n o l .......................................................................... 2 4

4-6 Comparison of log linear model with experimental values for methanol ...............28

4-7 Comparison of log linear model with experimental values for ethanol ...................28

4-8 Comparison of log linear model with experimental values for IPA ......................29















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

EFFECT OF ALCOHOL COSOLVENTS ON THE AQUEOUS
SOLUBILITY OF TOXAPHENE

By

Padma Paan

August 2005

Chair: Clayton J. Clark II
Major Department: Civil and Coastal Engineering

Remediation of sites contaminated with chlorinated organic compounds is a

significant priority in the environmental field. Traditional pump and treat methods have

been found to be inefficient for removal of hydrophobic contaminants from subsurface

environments. Research has shown that addition of chemicals known as cosolvents to

water increases the aqueous solubility and thus the ease of removal of hydrophobic

organic compounds. Toxaphene, a chlorinated hydrophobic organic contaminant, was

widely in use as a pesticide until it was banned in 1982 by the USEPA (Environmental

Protection Agency). Despite the ban, it is still prevalent in groundwater and is listed by

the USEPA as a priority pollutant. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the

aqueous solubility of toxaphene as a function of addition of alcohol cosolvents.

Experiments were conducted with three completely water miscible alcohols: methanol,

ethanol, and isopropyl alcohol. Results showed a log linear increase of toxaphene

solubility in water-cosolvent systems as a function of cosolvent fraction added. The









experimental results were compared with estimations using a log linear model from the

literature. The logarithm of ratios of solubilities of toxaphene in pure cosolvent and pure

water, known as the cosolvency power, for methanol, ethanol, and isopropyl alcohol was

found to be 3.5, 3.6 and 4.3, respectively. It was also seen that cosolvency power

increased with increasing carbon numbers in cosolvent. Addition of 75% alcohol

cosolvents increased the solubility of the toxaphene in water ranging from 300-800%,

depending on the cosolvent type. This provides a promising application such as in-situ

flushing, in the field of environmental remediation of hazardous sites contaminated with

toxaphene.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Toxaphene is a pesticide that was banned by the United States Environmental

Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1982, due to its high toxicity and health hazards

(Glassmeyer et al., 1999), and has also identified as a priority pollutants by the USEPA.

It has been found in at least 58 of the 1,430 current or former National Priorities List

(NPL) sites (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry [ATSDR], 1996). Due

to its hydrophobic nature, toxaphene may be immobilized in the subsurface as entrapped

pools, as ganglia in soil macropores, or as a residual saturation in soil micropores. As

with most hydrophobic, dense non-aqueous phase liquids, traditional pump and treat

methods are not likely to be very effective. Also, the immobilized toxaphene may serve

as a long-term source of soil and groundwater contamination due to its slow dissolution

in water.

Groundwater contamination due to hydrophobic organic compounds continues to

be a significant problem in the environmental field. As a result, new remediation

techniques including in-situ flushing using cosolvent-water solutions have been

demonstrated successfully in the field (Imhoff et al., 1995; Rao et al., 1997; USEPA,

1999). It has been well-established that when added to water, cosolvents increase the

solubilization of hydrophobic contaminants in water and hence the rate at which the

contaminant can be removed from a contaminated environment (Morris et al., 1988;

Falta, 1988; Li and Andren, 1994). In addition to the environmental field, cosolvent-

enhanced solubilization was also seen in the fields of enhanced oil recovery and









pharmaceutical sciences, where use of smaller molecular weight alcohols has been

reported to be effective (Rubino and Yalkowsky, 1987a; Imhoff et al., 1995; Rao et al.,

1997). Compounds of interest for environmental cosolvent research to date have been

dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE),

tetrachloroethylene (PCE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), etc. (Pinal et al., 1990; Li

and Andren, 1994; Chawla et al., 2001). It is not known whether cosolvent technologies

are effective with other compound types, especially pesticides like toxaphene.

The purpose of this research was to investigate how the addition of different

alcohol cosolvents affected the aqueous solubility of toxaphene. In this investigation, a

comparison was conducted between experimentally derived cosolvency powers of

different alcohols and their theoretical values estimated from the literature.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Cosolvents and Enhanced Solubility

One of the most common groundwater contamination problems is the presence of

dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) like trichloroethene (TCE),

tetrachloroethene (PCE) and many pesticides. Due to their wide usage in industrial and

environmental settings, groundwater at these sites is often contaminated. Removal of

these contaminants from groundwater using traditional pump and treat methods, in which

contaminated groundwater is pumped out and treated above ground, is not very efficient

(Jafvert 1996; USEPA, 1999). There are two primary reasons for the ineffectiveness of

pump and treat technologies in removing DNAPLs. Firstly, hydrophobic compounds are

tightly held within the pore space of the soil sediments by capillary forces; and secondly,

their low aqueous solubility results in a slow rate of removal and necessitates elevated

time to achieve remedial objectives (Jafvert 1996; USEPA, 1999).

In-situ flushing using alcohol cosolvents or surfactants has been shown to be a

solution to the problem of low removal efficiencies of DNAPLs (Imhoff et al., 1995; Rao

et al., 1997). Research in this area has shown that cosolvents can promote contaminant

removal in a number of complementary mechanisms. First, by increasing the aqueous

solubility of the contaminant in water, the mass removal per pore volume is improved

and the dissolution process expedited (Banerjee and Yalkowsky, 1988; Pinal et al., 1990;

Li and Andren, 1994; Imhoff et al., 1995). The second mechanism is the reduction of the

interfacial tension between the water and the contaminant, which may result in physical









mobilization ofNAPLs (Brandes and Farley, 1993; Rao et al., 1997). In addition to these

main mechanisms, others such as the swelling of the NAPL phase relative to the aqueous

phase (Brandes and Farley, 1993; Imhoff et al., 1995); and, under certain conditions,

complete miscibility of the aqueous and NAPL phases take place (USEPA, 1999). The

relative importance of these different mechanisms depends on the phase behavior of the

specific system including the water, cosolvent, and NAPL (Falta, 1998). Solubility

enhancements caused by cosolvent addition generally occur because of changes in the

bulk properties of the isotropic solution (Jafvert, 1996). The addition of cosolvents to

water results in a "cosolvent effect" that affects the ideal equilibrium partitioning

relationships. Cosolvents reduce the polarity of the aqueous phase, resulting in reduction

in the aqueous phase activity coefficient that allows higher concentrations of hydrophobic

solutes to solubilize in the aqueous phase (Groves, 1988). As a water-miscible or

partially miscible organic solvent, the cosolvent reduces strong water-water interactions

and thereby reduces the ability of water to squeeze out a nonpolar solute (Li et al., 1999).

Conversely, there are cosolvents such as chloroform that depress the solubility of the

hydrophobic chemicals in water, a polar solvent (Cho et al., 2003).

Ladaa et al. (2001) stated that only hydrophilic compounds that are completely

miscible in water, such as low molecular weight alcohols and ketones, can be used as

cosolvents. In their study that evaluated the cosolvent effects of ethanol, isopropyl

alcohol, and tert-butyl alcohol on aqueous solubility of PCE, all three alcohols were

observed to increase the aqueous solubility of PCE with tert-butyl alcohol performing

better than isopropyl alcohol, which, in turn, performed better than ethanol as a

cosolvent. Cosolvency in this case increased with the increase in carbon number in the









cosolvent. According to Jafvert (1996), short-chained linear alcohols are excellent in

solubilizing small chlorohydrocarbons, whereas larger hydrocarbon cosolvents work best

for larger and more hydrophobic contaminants.

Factors Affecting Cosolvency

Cosolvency is defined as the effect of the addition of one or more completely

water-miscible organic cosolvents on the water solubility of organic compounds (Li and

Yalkowsky, 1998). Cosolvency is a phenomenon that can be applied for many purposes

in various scientific and engineering fields, such as environmental remediation,

pharmaceutical research, etc. (Rubino and Yalkowsky, 1987a; Imhoff et al. 1995).

Cosolvency power is used to quantify cosolvency and it is defined as the ratio of

solute solubility in a specific organic solvent to the solubility of that solute in pure water

as shown below:

S= log (S//Sw) (2-1)

where Sc and S, are the molar solubilities of solute in pure organic cosolvent and in pure

water, respectively (Fu and Luthy, 1986; Li et al., 1998b; Pinal et al., 1990; Lee et al.,

1993). The values of a can be positive, near-zero, or negative, depending on the relative

polarity of water, solute, and cosolvent (Li et al., 1998b). There are two main factors that

affect cosolvency in solution-the water solubility of the cosolvent and the solute

hydrophobicity.

Water miscibility of cosolvent

The power of cosolvency is stronger for more highly water-miscible alcohols.

According to Ladaa et al. (2001), as the carbon chain length of the alcohols increases, and

thus as they become more hydrophobic, their cosolvency power is expected to increase.

Li and Andren (1994) studied the solubility of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in









water/alcohol mixtures and found that for a given PCB congener, the solubility

enhancement increased with increasing carbon number in the water miscible alcohols

used such as methanol, ethanol and IPA.

Also, the cosolvency of completely miscible organic solvents (CMOS) increases

with decreasing solvent polarity. Pinal and co-workers (1990) investigated the

cosolvency of CMOSs-methanol, 2-propanol, acetone, acetonitrite, dioxane, dimethyl

sulfoxide on solubility of various hydrophobic organic chemicals, and these authors

concluded that the lower the polarity of the solvent, the better its ability to solubilize a

hydrophobic solute (Pinal et al., 1990). Rubino and Yalkowsky (1987a) discussed the

variation of cosolvency power with different polarity indices such as dielectric constant,

solubilization parameter, interfacial tension, surface tension and octanol water partition

coefficient. It was concluded that cosolvency power decreased linearly with the increase

in all of these parameters except log (octanol water partition coefficient), in which case

the trend was in reverse order. Overall, as the polarity of the cosolvent increased, the

cosolvency power decreased.

Solute hydrophobicity

It is also evident that solubility enhancement is related to the degree of chlorination

or the hydrophobicity of the organic solutes. The extent of solubility enhancement by the

same alcohol increases as the solute hydrophobicity increases. Li and Andren (1994)

found that using the same alcohol, methanol, the aqueous solubilities of different PCB

congeners were increased to a higher degree in increasing order of the their chlorination.

In a 20% methanol solution, the aqueous solubilities of 4-monochlorobiphenyl, 2, 4, 6-

trichlorobiphenyl and 2, 2, 4, 4', 6, 6'-hexachloroblphenyl were determined to be 3.89,

6.14, and 14.88 times their solubilities in pure water, respectively.









Predicting Cosolvency

In addition to experimental data, there are approximations for estimation of

solubility enhancement in aqueous solutions due to the addition of cosolvents. Various

models are available in literature based on regression analysis from experimental data

(Morris et al, 1988; Li et al, 1998b); however, the most widely used is the log linear

model (Yalkowsky and Roseman, 1981; Imhoff et al., 1995; Rao et al., 1997)

Log linear model

The log linear model, proposed by Yalkowsky and Roseman (1981), estimates the

solubility of a non polar solute in a mixed (cosolvent-water) solvent (Sm) by

ln(Sm) = fln(S) + (1-f) ln(Sw) (2-2)

where f is the cosolvent volume fraction and So and Sw are the solubilities in pure

cosolvent and pure water (Morris et al., 1988). It assumes the absence of specific solute-

solvent interactions and is based upon a linear relationship between the free energy of the

solution and solute surface area. The solute contacts both water and cosolvent, and the

fraction of the solute component is approximately proportional to the volume fraction of

that component. Eq. (2-2) can be rewritten as

log(Sm) = flog(Sc/Sw) + log(Sw) (2-3)

log(Sm) = fo + log(Sw) (2-4)

Plotting log solubility of hydrophobic solute in water and cosolvent mixture vs.

volume fraction of cosolvent used generally results in a straight line, and the slope of this

line is referred to as cosolvency power (a).

Also, there is a correlation between cosolvency power of an organic solvent and the

log octanol water partition coefficient (log Kow) of the solute (Li et al., 1998a; Corseuil et









al., 2004). Cosolvency power has been reported by these authors to correlate linearly

with the log Kow, as given below:

c = M Kow + N (2-5)

For a specified solute/cosolvent/water system, the regression parameters M and N are

specific for the cosolvent and independent of the solutes, and can be viewed as measures

of cosolvent polarity (Rubino and Yalkowsky, 1987a; Li et al., 1998a).

Eq. (2-2) treats water and cosolvent as two distinct entities and neglects the

interaction between them. Sometimes, this approximation cannot hold under conditions

where the cosolvent is present at infinite dilution. In these situations, the solute will on

average be influenced by only one cosolvent molecule at a time, and any solubility

enhancement will be proportional to the number of cosolvent molecules present (Powers

et al., 2001). Work by Banerjee and Yalkowsky (1988), and Cho et al. (2003) focusing

on cosolvency in dilute systems seems to indicate that the magnitude of the solubility

enhancement is linear up to some 10-20% cosolvent fraction. At very low concentrations

of cosolvent, the assumption of non-interaction between the cosolvent and water does not

hold. In dilute solutions, the individual cosolvent molecules will be fully hydrated and,

as a result, will disrupt the water network structure (Grunwald, 1986). If the total volume

disrupted is regarded as the extended hydration shell and if S,* is the average solubility

of the solute within this shell, then the overall solubility Sm of the solute in the water-

cosolvent mixture will be approximated by

Sm = fcVH Sc* + (1- fcVH) Sw ; fcVH < 1 (2-6)

where VH is the ratio of the hydration shell volume to the volume of the cosolvent

(Banerjee and Yalkowsky, 1988).









In dilute solutions, the solute will generally contact only one hydrated cosolvent

molecule at a time, and the degree of solubilization should be a linear rather than a

logarithmic function of cosolvent content (Banerjee and Yalkowsky, 1988). Thus, it is

expected that the log-linear relationship between Sm and f, that applies at high cosolvent

concentrations will become linear at low cosolvent levels due to a change in the

mechanism of solubilization.

UNIFAC model

An alternative approach to modeling the solubilities of hydrophobic organic

compounds in a cosolvent mixture uses a thermodynamic basis to estimate the activity

coefficients of each component in each phase. The activity coefficient of component i, yi,

is a measure of the extent of deviation from the ideal behavior. These activity

coefficients in different phases are then used in a set of equations that equate the

chemical activities of a species between the two phases. A model known as UNIFAC

divides the activity coefficient, y, into a combinatorial part, y7, which reflects the size and

shape of the molecules, and a residual portion yr, which depends on the functional group

interactions.

In y = In yc + In yr (2-7)

The basic assumption of UNIFAC is that a physical property of a fluid is due to the

sum of contributions made by the molecule's functional groups (Li, 2001). The UNIFAC

model, allows the necessary parameters to be estimated from the number and type of

functional groups that comprise the chemical species (Gupte and Danner, 1987; Pinal et

al., 1990; Powers et al., 2001; Li, 2001).

One of the major advantages of the UNIFAC model is that two of the assumptions

made in the log linear model are not necessary because all the possible interactions are









explicitly considered. Furthermore, calculations of y in mixtures with UNIFAC are

possible using only pure component data. One disadvantage, however, is that a number

of interaction parameters of environmental interest are not yet available. In addition,

being a group contribution method, distribution between isomers is not possible with

UNIFAC. For ternary solvent systems where mutual solubility is significant, UNIFAC

can be implemented into available algorithms for constructing phase diagrams. The

composition of each component in each phase as well as the relative amounts of organic

and aqueous phases present can be obtained from the phase diagram. Gupte et al. (1987)

discussed that UNIFAC predictions are not always very accurate, especially for systems

including water and alcohol (Pinal et al., 1990).

Extended log linear equations

Work by Yalkowsky et al. (1985), Rubino and Yalkowsky (1987b), Morris et al.

(1988), and Li and Andren (1994), showed that deviations from the log linear model were

also observed in the case of water and miscible cosolvent mixtures, which are considered

mainly due to nonideality of the solvent mixture. The nonideality of a mixture is

quantitatively measured by the excess free energy of mixing,

AGE= RT (X, In y,) (2-8)

where R is the gas constant, T is the absolute temperature, and Xi is the mole fraction of

component i in the solution. The activity coefficient of component i, yi, is a measure of

the extent of deviation from the ideal behavior.

Pinal et al. (1991) proposed that a term 2.303 (fi log yi), which is the analogue to

(Xi In Yi), be added to the simple log linear model to account for the effect of the

solvent nonideality. Li (2001) further provided an approach to accurately predict









cosolvency by extending the log linear model. Activity coefficients of the system

components are estimated using UNIFAC group contribution method, and the sum of

their logarithms weighted by either mole fractions or volume fractions is added to the

log-linear model. Four such extended forms were given:

Equation I: Log Sm = Log Sw + o f+ log yw + f log(y7 / yw) (2-9)

Equation II: Log Sm = Log Sw + f + log yw + x log(y7 / yw) (2-10)

Equation III: Log Sm= Log Sw + o f+ In yw + f ln(y7 / yw) (2-11)

Equation IV: Log Sm = Log Sw + o f+ In yw + x ln(y7 / y) (2-12)

where Sm and Sw are the molar solubilities of hydrophobic solute in mixed solvent and

pure water, respectively. The constants yw and y are activity coefficients of water and

cosolvent in a solute-free mixed solvent, respectively. The volume fraction of the

cosolvent is labeled f and x is the mole fraction of the cosolvent. The last two terms in

the above equations are the infinite dilution activity coefficient of a solute in a solvent

mixture expressed as a power series in the volume fractions of solvent components.

Toxaphene

Toxaphene is identified by CAS# 8001-35-2 and by its United Nations Department

of Transportation number, UN# 2761 (USEPA, 1998). Because of its toxicity,

persistence and heavy use, toxaphene is one of the "dirty dozen," 12 chlorinated

compounds designated for international action by the United Nations Environmental

Program (ATSDR, 1996). In the United States, about 85% of the toxaphene was used for

the control of cotton insect pests, 15% was used to control insect pests on livestock,

poultry, and a few field crops other than cotton (IARC, 1979). Toxaphene solutions were

often mixed with other pesticides partly because toxaphene solutions appear to help

solubilize other insecticides with low water solubility. Toxaphene was frequently applied









with methyl or ethyl parathion and lindane (WHO 1974; IARC 1979; ATSDR, 1996).

Table 2-1 gives the physical/chemical properties of toxaphene (ATSDR, 1996).

Table 2-1. Chemical/physical properties of toxaphene
Property Value or Information
Chemical name(s) Toxaphene, camphechlor; chlorinated camphene
Chemical formula C0oH10Cls (average; includes components with 6 to
10 chlorines)
Molecular weight 414 (average)
CAS number 8001-35-2
USEPA hazardous waste code P123
Trade names Agricide Maggot Killer, Alltox, Camphofene,
Huilex, Geniphene, Hercules 3956, Hercules
Toxaphene, Motto, Penphene, Phenicide, Phenatox,
Strobane-T, Synthetic 3956, Toxakil
Color/form/odor Yellow waxy solid with mild turpentine odor
Melting point 65-90 C
Octanol-water partition 3.3 (Log Kow)
coefficient (Kow)
Density/specific gravity 1.65 at 25 C
Solubility in water 3 mg/L


Composition of Toxaphene

Toxaphene is a mixture of chlorinated camphenes that occurs as a waxy yellow or

amber solid, with a pleasant odor (Sergeant and Onuska, 1989). It consists of 600 hexa-

to decachlorinated bornanes and bornenes. Toxaphene, also known as chlorinated

camphene, is a complex mixture of polychlorobicyclic terpenes, with chlorinated

camphenes predominating (67-69% chlorine) (Food and Agricultural Organization

[FAO], World Health Organization [WHO], 1968). The source ofterpene and the degree

of chlorination outside the 67-69 percent range alter the insecticidal activity. The









composition of toxaphene is very complex, consisting of over 32,000 possible congeners,

of these, only a limited number of congeners have been individually isolated and

characterized. The average empirical formula is CloHioCls (ATSDR, 1996). A double

bond is present in some congeners but absent in others and the level of chlorination

ranges between 6 and 10. Ten different carbon atoms are present which can be

substituted with 1 or 2 chlorines, each leading to a very large number of isomers, many of

which are chiral. The basic structure of components in toxaphene is as shown in figure 2-

1 (Buser and Muller, 1994).










Camphene Polychlorobornane Polychlorobornene
Figure 2-1. Basic structure of components of toxaphene

Toxaphene was first synthesized in 1947 by the Hercules Chemical Co. and was

patented in 1951 (James and Hites, 2002). The mixture was produced in three steps: (a)

the extraction of a-pinene from pine stumps, (b) the isomerization of this compound to

camphene, and (c) the photochlorination of camphene to produce toxaphene (Rumker et

al., 1975). The toxaphene mixtures are prepared commercially as dusts, sprays, and

wettable powders and are used alone or in combination with other pesticides for use on

cotton and food crops. Toxaphene is now most often produced by the controlled

chlorination of camphene (2,2-dimethyl-3-methylene-bicyclo[2.2.1 ]heptane) under UV

light (James and Hites, 2002).









Toxaphene in Water

Deposition of airborne toxaphene and/or its direct application to water bodies for

the elimination of undesirable species has resulted in the detection of significant

quantities in surface waters (ATSDR, 1996). Due to the low water solubility (3 mg/L), a

majority of the toxaphene molecules strongly bind to particles and is deposited on

sediments; however, there is a presence in groundwater as a result of normal agricultural

use. Toxaphene enters surface waters through runoff from rain, by direct application to

lakes as a pesticide, by wastewater release from manufacturing facilities, and through

activities related to disposal of waste pesticides (James and Hites, 2002). Toxaphene also

enters water bodies when it is transported with soil particles.

In water, toxaphene appears to be resistant to all forms of degradation. It is not

known to undergo photolysis or photo-oxidation. A hydrolytic half-life of 10 years was

estimated for water at pH 5 to 8 (ATSDR, 1996). The ability to persist in the

environment with little or extremely slow decay, its ability to bioaccumulate

(Bioconcentration factor of the order of 10,000) and the general toxicity danger to

environment and humans make toxaphene a pollutant of concern (ATSDR, 1996).

Toxaphene has been detected at hazardous waste sites in surface water,

groundwater, and leachates (ATSDR, 1996). Toxaphene was detected at a maximum

concentration of 17 ppb in surface water samples taken from 2 of 9 disposal ponds at a

Super-fund site (USEPA 1986). In a study of the chemical composition of leachates

within existing landfills, toxaphene was not detected in any of the municipal landfill

leachates examined; however, the mixture was detected in industrial landfill leachates at

a concentration of 10 ppb. In a review of groundwater monitoring data collected in 1981-

1984 from more than 500 wells at 334 hazardous waste disposal sites (RCRA and






15


CERCLA sites) located in all 10 USEPA regions and 42 states, Plumb (1987) reported

that toxaphene was detected at 0.2% frequency at the 178 CERCLA sites examined and

at 1.1% frequency at the 156 RCRA sites examined. Toxaphene has also been detected

in surface water samples from 12 of 58 NPL sites, in groundwater samples from 20 of 58

NPL sites and in leachate samples from 1 of 58 NPL sites where toxaphene has been

detected in some environmental media; however, concentrations were not reported

(ATSDR 1996).














CHAPTER 3
MATERIALS AND METHODS

Enhanced solubilization of toxaphene by addition of alcohol cosolvents in the water

was evaluated by performing batch experiments according to Pinal et al. (1990) but

changed for toxaphene according to analytical methods for toxaphene using USEPA

method 8081B, which suggests the total area approach for toxaphene analysis using a gas

chromatograph fitted with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD).

Materials

Toxaphene was obtained from Chem Service, West Chester, PA as a mix of

isomers and was used as received for batch tests. For GC-ECD analytical calibration

curve, toxaphene was obtained from AccuStandard with a concentration of 1000-ppm in

hexane matrix. Methanol, ethanol, and IPA were chosen as cosolvents in this research.

They were used as received from Fisher-Scientific. Alcohols with higher carbon

numbers were found to be only partially miscible in water and hence were not used. The

following criteria were used for the selection of cosolvents for this research and were

similar to those considered by Chawla et al. (2001) a) non-toxic, b) biodegradable, c)

completely miscible with water, d) relatively inexpensive; and e) commonly available.

Physical/chemical properties of the cosolvents, methanol, ethanol and IPA are provided

in Table 3-1 (Chawla et al., 2001).









Table 3-1. Cosolvent properties
Property Methanol Ethanol IPA
Boiling point (C) 65 79 80
Vapor pressure at 20 C (mm Hg) 127 40 33
Specific gravity at 20 C 0.791 0.79 0.786
Solubility in water 100% 100% 100%
Carcinogenicity No No No
Biodegradability in soil Readily Readily Moderately
Biodegradability in water Readily Readily Moderately
Half life in soil (days) 1-10 N/A 1-10
Environmental toxicity Slightly toxic Not toxic Not toxic
LD5o (mg/kg) 5628 7060 5045
Bioaccumulation No No No
Price ($/200L) 672.50 917.80 868.15
Dipole moment (debye) 1.70 1.69 1.58
(Lide, 1996)

Experimental Methods

Cosolvent solutions, over a wide range of concentrations (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%,

50%, 60%, and 75% alcohol by volume), were prepared by adding methanol/ethanol/IPA

separately in water in 50 ml flasks. Samples were prepared in 5 ml glass vials fitted with

a Teflon-coated, septum-lined screw cap to prevent potential volatilization. Each vial

was weighed empty; and 5 mg of toxaphene was then added to each vial and the vials

were weighed again. The vials were subsequently filled with cosolvent solutions

allowing no headspace and reweighed. All samples were prepared in triplicate. Samples

were then placed on a rotator (40% revolution, 24 rpm) for about a 24-hr equilibrium

period. Tests were conducted for equilibrium period of 1 week, results from which did









not show a significant difference from those of the equilibrium period of 24 hrs; hence it

was assumed that the equilibrium was reached.

A known volume (2 ml for 0%, 10% and 20%, 1 ml for 30% and 40%, and 0.5 ml

for 50%, 60% and 75% cosolvent concentration) of these solutions was transferred to

other 5 ml glass vials for volatilization. After approximately 48 hrs, a known volume of

hexane was added to the vials, which were then put on the rotator. After about 24 hrs,

two layers could distinctly be seen in the vials. Samples from the upper layer containing

hexane and toxaphene were used for GC-ECD analysis.

Analytical Methods for Toxaphene

GC-ECD is the most frequently used analytical method for characterization and

quantification of toxaphene in air, drinking water, fish, and other environmental samples.

Analysis of the sample includes extraction in organic solvent; a Florisil silica, gel

permeation, or TLC clean-up step; and detection by GC. It is also the standardized

method used by USEPA (method 8081B) for determining toxaphene in water and soil

samples. A typical gas chromatogram contains a series of hills and valleys with three

main peaks (USEPA, 1998; Clark et al., In press). While toxaphene contains a large

number of compounds that will produce well-resolved peaks in a GC-ECD

chromatogram, it also contains many other components that are not chromatographically

resolved. Although, the resolved peaks are important for the identification of the

mixture, the area of the unresolved complex mixture contributes a significant portion of

the area of the total response (USEPA, 1998). For the above reason, the area under the

curve is used for the quantitation of total toxaphene (USEPA, 1998; Clark et al., In

press). Detection limits of 0.086 tg/L of water and 5.7 pg/kg of soil were reported for

toxaphene (ATSDR, 1996).






19


For this research, GC-17A Shimadzu equipped with DB-30 column and a 63Ni

electron capture detector was used for analysis of samples. The program was set for

calculating constant velocity and total area approach was used for measuring the

toxaphene present in the hexane extracted aqueous phase. Concentration of toxaphene in

each solution was determined from an 8-point calibration curve, ranging from 0.2-50 ppm

of toxaphene concentration, developed experimentally using known standard toxaphene

solution. Samples were diluted to bring the solute concentrations within this range.















CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Toxaphene solubility in binary water-cosolvent solutions was determined

experimentally by performing batch experiments. In addition, the cosolvency powers for

toxaphene solubilized in different alcohols/water systems were determined using the

experimental results from the batch tests and compared with theoretical values predicted

from the literature.

Experimental Results

Toxaphene concentrations in the cosolvent-water mixture were obtained using GC-

ECD methods as previously described. Solubility of toxaphene was plotted as a function

of the volume fraction of the cosolvents (Figures 4-1 4-3):



Methanol as cosolvent

4





Slope = 3.46
R2 = 0.99
1-1


0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Volume fraction cosolvent

Figure 4-1. Log solubility of toxaphene in water-methanol system as a function of
cosolvent volume fraction












Ethanol as cosolvent


Slope = 3.60
R2 = 0.98


0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Volume fraction cosolvent

Figure 4-2. Log solubility of toxaphene in water-ethanol system as a function of
cosolvent volume fraction


IPA as cosolvent


Slope = 4.30
R2 = 0.98


0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Volume fraction cosolvent

Figure 4-3. Log solubility of toxaphene in water-IPA system as a function of cosolvent
volume fraction

In Figures 4-1 4-3, each datum point represents the logarithm of single batch test

solubility result and each error bar represents a fixed value of 0.1. These log-linear plots

show that the aqueous solubility of toxaphene increases with an increase in volume









fraction (f) of cosolvent in the solution. This trend is similar to the previous works on

solubility ofPCBs, PCE and other chlorinated compounds (Yalkowsky et al., 1985; Pinal

et al., 1990; Li and Andren, 1994; Chawla et al., 2001). Previously mentioned, the slopes

of these plots (Figures 4-1 4-3) represent the cosolvency powers of the cosolvents,

which is the parameter used for evaluation of the effectiveness of the cosolvent in

enhancing solubilization of toxaphene in water (Pinal et al., 1990). Therefore, solvents

with higher cosolvency power values solubilize more contaminant for equivalent amount

of volume fraction in binary solution.

It was observed from plots (Figures 4-1 4-3), that they display two distinctive

regions, divided at a volume fraction of 0.2. More specifically, slope of the line f< 0.2 is

usually less than the slope of the line f > 0.2. For clarification, solubility values at each

fraction of cosolvent, f, were averaged and then plotted as shown in Figure 4-4, which

clearly shows the two parts of the curve for each cosolvent, similar to observations have

been made by Banerjee and Yalkowsky (1988), Morris et al. (1988), Pinal et al. (1990)

and Li and Andren (1994). Banerjee and Yalkowsky (1988) attributed this to the

hydration of cosolvent molecules in dilute solutions, and interaction between hydrated

shells of the cosolvent molecules.










Log solubility of toxpahene in different cosolvents

4


S---- Methanol
2 --Ethanol
SL--IPA


0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Volume fraction cosolvent

Figure 4-4. Log solubility of toxaphene in different cosolvents

Cosolvency powers of toxaphene in binary solutions containing water for methanol,

ethanol and IPA were determined and listed in Table 4-1.

Table 4-1. Cosolvency power of toxaphene in water alcohol mixtures
Fraction Cosolvency 2 Overall cosolvency
Cosolvent R R
range power power

0 0.2 2.71 0.94
Methanol 3.46 0.99
0.2 0.75 3.63 0.99

0 -0.2 4.00 0.80
Ethanol 3.60 0.98
0.2 0.75 3.79 0.98

0 -0.2 2.97 0.98
IPA 4.30 0.98
0.2-0.75 4.37 0.95


Results indicate that toxaphene cosolvency was directly related to the number of

carbons in the cosolvent utilized. As the number of carbon atoms in the cosolvent

increases, so did the toxaphene solubility. A similar trend was observed by Ladaa et al.

(2001) and, Li and Andren (1994). The following trend was observed for this research:

IPA > ethanol > methanol









It was found that the cosolvency of toxaphene in the aqueous solution increased

with decreasing solvent polarity in agreement with Pinal et al. (1990). Methanol was

most polar (highest dipole moment; Table 3-1) among the three alcohols used and was

found to be least effective in solubilization of toxaphene. It has a smaller non-polar alkyl

group than ethanol and IPA, and, hence, its ability to reduce the polarity of the whole

solution is less than other two alcohols, as a result, its cosolvency on the solubility of the

toxaphene was the least.

Also, it was found that for methanol fractions less than 20%, the relationship

between solubility and volume fraction of methanol is linear. The similar observation for

methanol was also seen by Banerjee and Yalkowsky (1988), and Li (2001). These

differences are attributed to the hydration of the cosolvent molecules at low

concentrations (Banerjee and Yalkowsky, 1988). This trend was only seen for methanol,

perhaps because methanol has a smaller molecular weight and size, it may become

integrated into water structure better than other two cosolvents, which tend to perturb the

water network (Grunwald, 1986; Rubino and Yalkowsky, 1987b).


Linearity between solubility and
volume fraction of methanol



12 -



0 ,

0 0.1 0.2
Volume fraction cosolvent

Figure 4-5. Linearity between toxaphene solubility and 0-0.2 volume fraction region of
methanol









Theoretical Estimations

Cosolvency power can also be estimated using its relationship with log (octanol

water partition coefficient) using the relationship:

o = a log P + b (4-1)

Where P is the octanol/water partition coefficient of the solute and a, b are the regression

parameters (slope and y-intercept) obtained from the a vs. log P curve (Morris et al.,

1988). For toxaphene, the value of log P of 3.3 was used for these estimations (ATSDR,

1996). Estimated values of cosolvency power for methanol, ethanol and IPA are as listed

in Table 4-2.

Table 4-2. Estimation of cosolvency power for methanol, ethanol and IPA
Cosolvent Cosolvency power
Cosolvent
Morris et al., 1988 Li et al., 1998b
Methanol 3.31 3.16-3.43
Ethanol 3.62 3.33 3.54
IPA 3.57 2.75 3.57


Based on cosolvency power and using the log linear model, the solubility of

toxaphene can also be estimated in the presence of different volume fractions of different

cosolvents. Toxaphene solubility in different water-cosolvent systems were determined

theoretically using the log linear model (Equation 2-4) by substituting the value of

toxaphene solubility in pure water (3 ppm, ATSDR 1996) and cosolvency power values

(Table 4-2). Equation 2-2b takes the final form for different cosolvents as shown below

(Equations 4-2 4-4):

Methanol: Log(Sm)est = 3.31 *f+ log (3) (4-2)

Ethanol: Log(Sm)est = 3.62*f+ log (3) (4-3)

IPA: Log(Sm)est = 3.57*f+ log (3) (4-4)









Comparison of Experimental Values with Estimations

Values of cosolvency powers for methanol, ethanol and IPA were estimated from

data available in literature. These estimated values of cosolvency powers were plotted

and compared with experimental results from solubility batch tests. The percentage

difference between estimated values and experimental values were also calculated using

the following relationship,

% difference= exp)-est))*100 (4-5)
[ G(exp) J

Table 4-3. Comparison of experimental cosolvency power with estimated
Cosolvent Cosolvency power
Cosolvent
Estimated G(est) Experimental G(exp) % Difference
Methanol 3.31 3.46 4.34
Ethanol 3.62 3.60 -0.56
IPA 3.57 4.30 16.98


There was a discrepancy found in estimated and experimental cosolvency powers

of IPA, which may be due to the branched nature of the IPA molecule compared to the

other straight-chain alcohols. Cho et al. (2002) studied the effect of molecular structures

of surfactants on the solubility enhancement of polycyclic aromatic compounds and

found that surfactants with a bulky polar heads were somewhat less efficient for solute

solubilization. Overall, research in this field seems to be limited and requires further

exploration. For the straight chain alcohols, methanol and ethanol, theoretical and

experimental values of cosolvency power, are within a range of 95-100%.

Toxaphene solubility obtained theoretically using equations 4-2 4-4 were

compared with experimental values as shown in Table 4-4, where log(Sm)exp and

log(Sm)est are the logarithms of toxaphene solubility in ppm in mixed water-cosolvent









system, obtained experimentally and estimated from log linear model. Each (Sm)exp is the

mean of at least 2 experimental values of solubility. Diff. is the difference between

log(Sm)exp and log(Sm)est.

Table 4-4. Comparison of experimental toxaphene solubility with estimations in different
cosolvents
Methanol Ethanol IPA
f log(Sm)exp log(Sm)est Diff. Log(SLog(S) og(Sm)est Diff. log(Sm)exp Log(Sm)est Diff.
0 0.48 0.48 0.00 0.46 0.48 -0.01 0.52 0.48 0.04
0.1 0.83 0.81 0.02 1.16 0.84 0.32 0.82 0.83 -0.01
0.2 0.99 1.14 -0.15 1.27 1.20 0.06 1.11 1.19 -0.08
0.3 1.43 1.47 -0.04 1.59 1.56 0.02 1.67 1.55 0.13
0.4 1.72 1.80 -0.08 1.86 1.93 -0.06 2.34 1.91 0.43
0.5 2.17 2.13 0.04 2.48 2.29 0.19 2.78 2.26 0.52
0.6 2.59 2.46 0.12 2.75 2.65 0.10 3.17 2.62 0.55
0.75 3.01 2.96 0.05 3.30 3.19 0.11 3.45 3.15 0.30
Average absolute difference 0.06 0.11 0.26


Results in Table 4-4 show that the solubility of toxaphene was increased from 3

ppm in pure water to 1000-2000 ppm for high concentrations of cosolvents, varying with

the cosolvent. Average absolute difference was calculated for each cosolvent. These

differences or deviations from log linear model were generally negative for dilute

solutions and positive for higher volume fractions of cosolvent, similar to results reported

by Rubino and Yalkowsky (1987b) and Li (2001). To further quantify these deviations,

log linear model was modified as with the equations offered by Li (2001). Extended log

linear equations described in Chapter 2 were plotted and compared with experimental

results, as shown in the Figures 4-6 4-8.












Best fit for methanol


Experimental
-- Log linear
- Extended log linear I
....... Extended log linear II
----- Extended log linear III
----- Extended log linear IV


0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8


Volume fraction cosolvent


Figure 4-6. Comparison of log linear model with experimental values for methanol



Best fit for ethanol


Experimental
-- Log linear
- Extended log linear I
-...... Extended log linear II
----- Extended log linear III
----- Extended log linear IV


0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Volume fraction cosolvent


Figure 4-7. Comparison of log linear model with experimental values for ethanol


1.5


1.0


0.5


0.0


3.0


2.5


2.0
E

S1.5


1.0


0.5

0.0











Best fit for IPA

3.5

3.0 -

2.5 -. Experimental
S- Log linear
S2.0 "
S2/ / -Extended log linear I
S1.5 -./ -.......-- Extended log linear II
Sl *' -.- Extended log linear III
1^ -.. -. Extended log linear IV



0.0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Volume fraction cosolvent


Figure 4-8. Comparison of log linear model with experimental values for IPA

Equations 2-9 2-12 were used and the mole fraction, x, of the cosolvent was

calculated on the basis of solute-free solvent mixture. Activity coefficients for different

mole fractions and different cosolvents were taken from Li (2001). Average absolute

differences in estimations from different extended log linear equations and experimental

results were calculated in a similar fashion as done previously for log linear model and

experimental results. For methanol, none of the extended equations generate improved

solubility estimates than the original log linear model. For ethanol, extended log linear

equation II gives the best results, and the lowest average absolute difference. For IPA,

however, the trend has a jump from log linear for the low cosolvent fractions (f <0.3) to

extended log linear equation III.

These extended log linear equations give estimated solubility in mixed solvent

higher than log linear model because of the additional terms in the equations which take









nonideality of solvent mixture into consideration. Therefore, the extended log linear

model did not improve the negative deviations from log linear model, however the

positive deviations were improved in case of methanol, ethanol, and greatly in case of

IPA.

Overall, toxaphene solubility in water increased significantly with addition of

cosolvent. The log linear model can be used for predicting the cosolvency power and,

therefore, the solubility oftoxaphene in other water-cosolvent solutions as well. Results

from this research have promising applications in the field of environmental remediation

using in-situ flushing and studies of fate and transport of pollutants.

The results from this research has a limitation to field application, Since cosolvency

of alcohols also depends on the solute hydrophobicity (Yalkowsky et al., 1985; Li and

Andren, 1994), toxaphene in the field sites can have a different chlorine atom number and

hence different hydrophobicity levels than that were explored in the present research.

Pilot studies could be performed using samples from the site under consideration.

Future Work

As it was concluded from this research that toxaphene cosolvency increases with

increase in carbon numbers in the cosolvent, higher molecular weight alcohols (e.g.,

butanol, pentanol etc.) should be used for further research in order to quantify the

deviations from log linear model. Effect of branched and straight chain alcohols on

aqueous solubility of toxaphene can also be evaluated.














CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of alcohol cosolvents

in enhancing the solubility of toxaphene in water. Batch experiments were conducted for

toxaphene solubility in binary water-cosolvent solutions, including methanol, ethanol and

IPA. It was concluded that alcohol cosolvents do indeed increase the solubility of

toxaphene in water, sometimes on the order of hundred-fold increase. Plots of toxaphene

solubility in mixed solvent vs. volume fraction of cosolvent in the mixed solvent showed

a log linear relationship. The cosolvency power was determined and found to be within

the range of 83-100% of the values estimated from literature. Methanol showed linearity

for the above-mentioned plot for cosolvent fractions less than 20% which was attributed

to its lower molecular weight.

Deviations from the log linear model were observed, similar to what has been seen

in the literature as well. Approaches from literature were used to modify the log linear

model to more accurately predict the toxaphene cosolvency. It was found that for

methanol none of the approaches used gave less average absolute difference than the log

linear. For ethanol, one of the approaches based on the nonideality of the solvent mixture

gave better match with experimental results. For IPA, the experimental values moved

from the log linear to modified log linear.

Comparing the effect of different alcohols, it was found that with increasing carbon

number in the cosolvent, the solubility enhancement was increased. IPA is more polar

than ethanol, which in turn is more polar than methanol. The performance of the






32


cosolvents in increasing aqueous solubility of toxaphene was in reverse order of their

polarity.

Overall, this research proved the potential of alcohol cosolvents in increasing

aqueous solubility of toxaphene. Prospective applications of this research are in the field

of environmental remediation of hazardous sites or aquifers contaminated with toxaphene

by in-situ flushing.















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Padma Paan was born in 1980 in Dhamnod, Madhya Pradesh, India. She did her

undergraduate studies in civil engineering and received a Bachelor of Technology degree

from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay, India, in 2003. In the spring of

2004, she joined the University of Florida for a Master of Science degree in the

Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering under the tutelage of Dr. Clayton J. Clark

II.




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EFFECT OF ALCOHOL COSOLVENTS ON THE AQUEOUS SOLUBILITY OF TOXAPHENE By PADMA PAAN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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Copyright 2005 by Padma Paan

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Dedicated to my parents, for all I was, am and will be, I owe it to them. They endured financial and social hardships, and defied age-old traditions, to encourage me to explore my own world. I would never have made it this far without their unw avering strength and unconditional love.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Clayton J. Clark II, chairperson of my supervisory committee, for his invaluable guidance and constant encouragement throughout the duration of this work. I would also like to thank my committee members Dr. Angela Lindner and Dr. Kirk Hatfield for their valuable time and suggestions. I greatly appreciate the help and constant guidance of Mr. Xiaosong Chen, PhD student of the hydrology group, in performing laboratory experiments. I also want to thank my family and friends for their emotional support and encouragement throughout my education. iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................viii ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................3 Cosolvents and Enhanced Solubility............................................................................3 Factors Affecting Cosolvency...............................................................................5 Water miscibility of cosolvent.......................................................................5 Solute hydrophobicity....................................................................................6 Predicting Cosolvency...........................................................................................7 Log linear model............................................................................................7 UNIFAC model..............................................................................................9 Extended log linear equations......................................................................10 Toxaphene...................................................................................................................11 Composition of Toxaphene.................................................................................12 Toxaphene in Water............................................................................................14 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS...............................................................................16 Materials.....................................................................................................................16 Experimental Methods................................................................................................17 Analytical Methods for Toxaphene............................................................................18 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.................................................................................20 Experimental Results..................................................................................................20 Theoretical Estimations..............................................................................................25 Comparison of Experimental Values with Estimations..............................................26 Future Work................................................................................................................30 v

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5 CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................................31 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................33 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................37 vi

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Chemical/physical properties of toxaphene.............................................................12 3-1 Cosolvent properties.................................................................................................17 4-1 Cosolvency power of toxaphene in water alcohol mixtures.....................................23 4-2 Estimation of cosolvency power for methanol, ethanol and IPA.............................25 4-3 Comparison of experimental cosolvency power with estimated..............................26 4-4 Comparison of experimental toxaphene solubility with estimations in different cosolvents.................................................................................................................27 vii

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Basic structure of components of toxaphene............................................................13 4-1 Log solubility of toxaphene in water-methanol system as a function of cosolvent volume fraction........................................................................................................20 4-2 Log solubility of toxaphene in water-ethanol system as a function of cosolvent volume fraction........................................................................................................21 4-3 Log solubility of toxaphene in water-IPA system as a function of cosolvent volume fraction........................................................................................................21 4-4 Log solubility of toxaphene in different cosolvents.................................................23 4-5 Linearity between toxaphene solubility and 0-0.2 volume fraction region of methanol...................................................................................................................24 4-6 Comparison of log linear model with experimental values for methanol................28 4-7 Comparison of log linear model with experimental values for ethanol...................28 4-8 Comparison of log linear model with experimental values for IPA........................29 viii

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science EFFECT OF ALCOHOL COSOLVENTS ON THE AQUEOUS SOLUBILITY OF TOXAPHENE By Padma Paan August 2005 Chair: Clayton J. Clark II Major Department: Civil and Coastal Engineering Remediation of sites contaminated with chlorinated organic compounds is a significant priority in the environmental field. Traditional pump and treat methods have been found to be inefficient for removal of hydrophobic contaminants from subsurface environments. Research has shown that addition of chemicals known as cosolvents to water increases the aqueous solubility and thus the ease of removal of hydrophobic organic compounds. Toxaphene, a chlorinated hydrophobic organic contaminant, was widely in use as a pesticide until it was banned in 1982 by the USEPA (Environmental Protection Agency). Despite the ban, it is still prevalent in groundwater and is listed by the USEPA as a priority pollutant. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the aqueous solubility of toxaphene as a function of addition of alcohol cosolvents. Experiments were conducted with three completely water miscible alcohols: methanol, ethanol, and isopropyl alcohol. Results showed a log linear increase of toxaphene solubility in water-cosolvent systems as a function of cosolvent fraction added. The ix

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experimental results were compared with estimations using a log linear model from the literature. The logarithm of ratios of solubilities of toxaphene in pure cosolvent and pure water, known as the cosolvency power, for methanol, ethanol, and isopropyl alcohol was found to be 3.5, 3.6 and 4.3, respectively. It was also seen that cosolvency power increased with increasing carbon numbers in cosolvent. Addition of 75% alcohol cosolvents increased the solubility of the toxaphene in water ranging from 300-800%, depending on the cosolvent type. This provides a promising application such as in-situ flushing, in the field of environmental remediation of hazardous sites contaminated with toxaphene. x

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Toxaphene is a pesticide that was banned by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1982, due to its high toxicity and health hazards (Glassmeyer et al., 1999), and has also identified as a priority pollutants by the USEPA. It has been found in at least 58 of the 1,430 current or former National Priorities List (NPL) sites (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry [ATSDR], 1996). Due to its hydrophobic nature, toxaphene may be immobilized in the subsurface as entrapped pools, as ganglia in soil macropores, or as a residual saturation in soil micropores. As with most hydrophobic, dense non-aqueous phase liquids, traditional pump and treat methods are not likely to be very effective. Also, the immobilized toxaphene may serve as a long-term source of soil and groundwater contamination due to its slow dissolution in water. Groundwater contamination due to hydrophobic organic compounds continues to be a significant problem in the environmental field. As a result, new remediation techniques including in-situ flushing using cosolvent-water solutions have been demonstrated successfully in the field (Imhoff et al., 1995; Rao et al., 1997; USEPA, 1999). It has been well-established that when added to water, cosolvents increase the solubilization of hydrophobic contaminants in water and hence the rate at which the contaminant can be removed from a contaminated environment (Morris et al., 1988; Falta, 1988; Li and Andren, 1994). In addition to the environmental field, cosolvent-enhanced solubilization was also seen in the fields of enhanced oil recovery and 1

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2 pharmaceutical sciences, where use of smaller molecular weight alcohols has been reported to be effective (Rubino and Yalkowsky, 1987a; Imhoff et al., 1995; Rao et al., 1997). Compounds of interest for environmental cosolvent research to date have been dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), etc. (Pinal et al., 1990; Li and Andren, 1994; Chawla et al., 2001). It is not known whether cosolvent technologies are effective with other compound types, especially pesticides like toxaphene. The purpose of this research was to investigate how the addition of different alcohol cosolvents affected the aqueous solubility of toxaphene. In this investigation, a comparison was conducted between experimentally derived cosolvency powers of different alcohols and their theoretical values estimated from the literature.

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Cosolvents and Enhanced Solubility One of the most common groundwater contamination problems is the presence of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) like trichloroethene (TCE), tetrachloroethene (PCE) and many pesticides. Due to their wide usage in industrial and environmental settings, groundwater at these sites is often contaminated. Removal of these contaminants from groundwater using traditional pump and treat methods, in which contaminated groundwater is pumped out and treated above ground, is not very efficient (Jafvert 1996; USEPA, 1999). There are two primary reasons for the ineffectiveness of pump and treat technologies in removing DNAPLs. Firstly, hydrophobic compounds are tightly held within the pore space of the soil sediments by capillary forces; and secondly, their low aqueous solubility results in a slow rate of removal and necessitates elevated time to achieve remedial objectives (Jafvert 1996; USEPA, 1999). In-situ flushing using alcohol cosolvents or surfactants has been shown to be a solution to the problem of low removal efficiencies of DNAPLs (Imhoff et al., 1995; Rao et al., 1997). Research in this area has shown that cosolvents can promote contaminant removal in a number of complementary mechanisms. First, by increasing the aqueous solubility of the contaminant in water, the mass removal per pore volume is improved and the dissolution process expedited (Banerjee and Yalkowsky, 1988; Pinal et al., 1990; Li and Andren, 1994; Imhoff et al., 1995). The second mechanism is the reduction of the interfacial tension between the water and the contaminant, which may result in physical 3

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4 mobilization of NAPLs (Brandes and Farley, 1993; Rao et al., 1997). In addition to these main mechanisms, others such as the swelling of the NAPL phase relative to the aqueous phase (Brandes and Farley, 1993; Imhoff et al., 1995); and, under certain conditions, complete miscibility of the aqueous and NAPL phases take place (USEPA, 1999). The relative importance of these different mechanisms depends on the phase behavior of the specific system including the water, cosolvent, and NAPL (Falta, 1998). Solubility enhancements caused by cosolvent addition generally occur because of changes in the bulk properties of the isotropic solution (Jafvert, 1996). The addition of cosolvents to water results in a cosolvent effect that affects the ideal equilibrium partitioning relationships. Cosolvents reduce the polarity of the aqueous phase, resulting in reduction in the aqueous phase activity coefficient that allows higher concentrations of hydrophobic solutes to solubilize in the aqueous phase (Groves, 1988). As a water-miscible or partially miscible organic solvent, the cosolvent reduces strong water-water interactions and thereby reduces the ability of water to squeeze out a nonpolar solute (Li et al., 1999). Conversely, there are cosolvents such as chloroform that depress the solubility of the hydrophobic chemicals in water, a polar solvent (Cho et al., 2003). Ladaa et al. (2001) stated that only hydrophilic compounds that are completely miscible in water, such as low molecular weight alcohols and ketones, can be used as cosolvents. In their study that evaluated the cosolvent effects of ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, and tert-butyl alcohol on aqueous solubility of PCE, all three alcohols were observed to increase the aqueous solubility of PCE with tert-butyl alcohol performing better than isopropyl alcohol, which, in turn, performed better than ethanol as a cosolvent. Cosolvency in this case increased with the increase in carbon number in the

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5 cosolvent. According to Jafvert (1996), short-chained linear alcohols are excellent in solubilizing small chlorohydrocarbons, whereas larger hydrocarbon cosolvents work best for larger and more hydrophobic contaminants. Factors Affecting Cosolvency Cosolvency is defined as the effect of the addition of one or more completely water-miscible organic cosolvents on the water solubility of organic compounds (Li and Yalkowsky, 1998). Cosolvency is a phenomenon that can be applied for many purposes in various scientific and engineering fields, such as environmental remediation, pharmaceutical research, etc. (Rubino and Yalkowsky, 1987a; Imhoff et al. 1995). Cosolvency power is used to quantify cosolvency and it is defined as the ratio of solute solubility in a specific organic solvent to the solubility of that solute in pure water as shown below: = log (Sc/Sw) (2-1) where Sc and Sw are the molar solubilities of solute in pure organic cosolvent and in pure water, respectively (Fu and Luthy, 1986; Li et al., 1998b; Pinal et al., 1990; Lee et al., 1993). The values of can be positive, near-zero, or negative, depending on the relative polarity of water, solute, and cosolvent (Li et al., 1998b). There are two main factors that affect cosolvency in solutionthe water solubility of the cosolvent and the solute hydrophobicity. Water miscibility of cosolvent The power of cosolvency is stronger for more highly water-miscible alcohols. According to Ladaa et al. (2001), as the carbon chain length of the alcohols increases, and thus as they become more hydrophobic, their cosolvency power is expected to increase. Li and Andren (1994) studied the solubility of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in

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6 water/alcohol mixtures and found that for a given PCB congener, the solubility enhancement increased with increasing carbon number in the water miscible alcohols used such as methanol, ethanol and IPA. Also, the cosolvency of completely miscible organic solvents (CMOS) increases with decreasing solvent polarity. Pinal and co-workers (1990) investigated the cosolvency of CMOSsmethanol, 2-propanol, acetone, acetonitrite, dioxane, dimethyl sulfoxide on solubility of various hydrophobic organic chemicals, and these authors concluded that the lower the polarity of the solvent, the better its ability to solubilize a hydrophobic solute (Pinal et al., 1990). Rubino and Yalkowsky (1987a) discussed the variation of cosolvency power with different polarity indices such as dielectric constant, solubilization parameter, interfacial tension, surface tension and octanol water partition coefficient. It was concluded that cosolvency power decreased linearly with the increase in all of these parameters except log (octanol water partition coefficient), in which case the trend was in reverse order. Overall, as the polarity of the cosolvent increased, the cosolvency power decreased. Solute hydrophobicity It is also evident that solubility enhancement is related to the degree of chlorination or the hydrophobicity of the organic solutes. The extent of solubility enhancement by the same alcohol increases as the solute hydrophobicity increases. Li and Andren (1994) found that using the same alcohol, methanol, the aqueous solubilities of different PCB congeners were increased to a higher degree in increasing order of the their chlorination. In a 20% methanol solution, the aqueous solubilities of 4-monochlorobiphenyl, 2, 4, 6trichlorobiphenyl and 2, 2, 4, 4', 6, 6'-hexachloroblphenyl were determined to be 3.89, 6.14, and 14.88 times their solubilities in pure water, respectively.

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7 Predicting Cosolvency In addition to experimental data, there are approximations for estimation of solubility enhancement in aqueous solutions due to the addition of cosolvents. Various models are available in literature based on regression analysis from experimental data (Morris et al, 1988; Li et al, 1998b); however, the most widely used is the log linear model (Yalkowsky and Roseman, 1981; Imhoff et al., 1995; Rao et al., 1997) Log linear model The log linear model, proposed by Yalkowsky and Roseman (1981), estimates the solubility of a non polar solute in a mixed (cosolvent-water) solvent (Sm) by ln(Sm) = f ln(Sc) + (1-f) ln(Sw) (2-2) where f is the cosolvent volume fraction and Sc and Sw are the solubilities in pure cosolvent and pure water (Morris et al., 1988). It assumes the absence of specific solute-solvent interactions and is based upon a linear relationship between the free energy of the solution and solute surface area. The solute contacts both water and cosolvent, and the fraction of the solute component is approximately proportional to the volume fraction of that component. Eq. (2-2) can be rewritten as log(Sm) = f log(Sc/Sw) + log(Sw) (2-3) log(Sm) = f + log(Sw) (2-4) Plotting log solubility of hydrophobic solute in water and cosolvent mixture vs. volume fraction of cosolvent used generally results in a straight line, and the slope of this line is referred to as cosolvency power (). Also, there is a correlation between cosolvency power of an organic solvent and the log octanol water partition coefficient (log Kow) of the solute (Li et al., 1998a; Corseuil et

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8 al., 2004). Cosolvency power has been reported by these authors to correlate linearly with the log Kow, as given below: = M Kow + N (2-5) For a specified solute/cosolvent/water system, the regression parameters M and N are specific for the cosolvent and independent of the solutes, and can be viewed as measures of cosolvent polarity (Rubino and Yalkowsky, 1987a; Li et al., 1998a). Eq. (2-2) treats water and cosolvent as two distinct entities and neglects the interaction between them. Sometimes, this approximation cannot hold under conditions where the cosolvent is present at infinite dilution. In these situations, the solute will on average be influenced by only one cosolvent molecule at a time, and any solubility enhancement will be proportional to the number of cosolvent molecules present (Powers et al., 2001). Work by Banerjee and Yalkowsky (1988), and Cho et al. (2003) focusing on cosolvency in dilute systems seems to indicate that the magnitude of the solubility enhancement is linear up to some 10-20% cosolvent fraction. At very low concentrations of cosolvent, the assumption of non-interaction between the cosolvent and water does not hold. In dilute solutions, the individual cosolvent molecules will be fully hydrated and, as a result, will disrupt the water network structure (Grunwald, 1986). If the total volume disrupted is regarded as the extended hydration shell and if Sc* is the average solubility of the solute within this shell, then the overall solubility Sm of the solute in the water-cosolvent mixture will be approximated by Sm = fcVH Sc* + (1fcVH) Sw ; fcVH < 1 (2-6) where VH is the ratio of the hydration shell volume to the volume of the cosolvent (Banerjee and Yalkowsky, 1988).

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9 In dilute solutions, the solute will generally contact only one hydrated cosolvent molecule at a time, and the degree of solubilization should be a linear rather than a logarithmic function of cosolvent content (Banerjee and Yalkowsky, 1988). Thus, it is expected that the log-linear relationship between Sm and fc that applies at high cosolvent concentrations will become linear at low cosolvent levels due to a change in the mechanism of solubilization. UNIFAC model An alternative approach to modeling the solubilities of hydrophobic organic compounds in a cosolvent mixture uses a thermodynamic basis to estimate the activity coefficients of each component in each phase. The activity coefficient of component i, i, is a measure of the extent of deviation from the ideal behavior. These activity coefficients in different phases are then used in a set of equations that equate the chemical activities of a species between the two phases. A model known as UNIFAC divides the activity coefficient, into a combinatorial part, c, which reflects the size and shape of the molecules, and a residual portion r, which depends on the functional group interactions. ln = ln c + ln r (2-7) The basic assumption of UNIFAC is that a physical property of a fluid is due to the sum of contributions made by the molecules functional groups (Li, 2001). The UNIFAC model, allows the necessary parameters to be estimated from the number and type of functional groups that comprise the chemical species (Gupte and Danner, 1987; Pinal et al., 1990; Powers et al., 2001; Li, 2001). One of the major advantages of the UNIFAC model is that two of the assumptions made in the log linear model are not necessary because all the possible interactions are

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10 explicitly considered. Furthermore, calculations of in mixtures with UNIFAC are possible using only pure component data. One disadvantage, however, is that a number of interaction parameters of environmental interest are not yet available. In addition, being a group contribution method, distribution between isomers is not possible with UNIFAC. For ternary solvent systems where mutual solubility is significant, UNIFAC can be implemented into available algorithms for constructing phase diagrams. The composition of each component in each phase as well as the relative amounts of organic and aqueous phases present can be obtained from the phase diagram. Gupte et al. (1987) discussed that UNIFAC predictions are not always very accurate, especially for systems including water and alcohol (Pinal et al., 1990). Extended log linear equations Work by Yalkowsky et al. (1985), Rubino and Yalkowsky (1987b), Morris et al. (1988), and Li and Andren (1994), showed that deviations from the log linear model were also observed in the case of water and miscible cosolvent mixtures, which are considered mainly due to nonideality of the solvent mixture. The nonideality of a mixture is quantitatively measured by the excess free energy of mixing, ln EiGRTX i (2-8) where R is the gas constant, T is the absolute temperature, and Xi is the mole fraction of component i in the solution. The activity coefficient of component i, i, is a measure of the extent of deviation from the ideal behavior. Pinal et al. (1991) proposed that a term 2.303 (fi log i), which is the analogue to (Xi ln i), be added to the simple log linear model to account for the effect of the solvent nonideality. Li (2001) further provided an approach to accurately predict

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11 cosolvency by extending the log linear model. Activity coefficients of the system components are estimated using UNIFAC group contribution method, and the sum of their logarithms weighted by either mole fractions or volume fractions is added to the log-linear model. Four such extended forms were given: Equation I: Log Sm = Log Sw + f + log w + f log(c / w) (2-9) Equation II: Log Sm = Log Sw + f + log w + x log(c / w) (2-10) Equation III: Log Sm = Log Sw + f + ln w + f ln(c / w) (2-11) Equation IV: Log Sm = Log Sw + f + ln w + x ln(c / w) (2-12) where Sm and Sw are the molar solubilities of hydrophobic solute in mixed solvent and pure water, respectively. The constants w and c are activity coefficients of water and cosolvent in a solute-free mixed solvent, respectively. The volume fraction of the cosolvent is labeled f and x is the mole fraction of the cosolvent. The last two terms in the above equations are the infinite dilution activity coefficient of a solute in a solvent mixture expressed as a power series in the volume fractions of solvent components. Toxaphene Toxaphene is identified by CAS# 8001-35-2 and by its United Nations Department of Transportation number, UN# 2761 (USEPA, 1998). Because of its toxicity, persistence and heavy use, toxaphene is one of the dirty dozen, 12 chlorinated compounds designated for international action by the United Nations Environmental Program (ATSDR, 1996). In the United States, about 85% of the toxaphene was used for the control of cotton insect pests, 15% was used to control insect pests on livestock, poultry, and a few field crops other than cotton (IARC, 1979). Toxaphene solutions were often mixed with other pesticides partly because toxaphene solutions appear to help solubilize other insecticides with low water solubility. Toxaphene was frequently applied

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12 with methyl or ethyl parathion and lindane (WHO 1974; IARC 1979; ATSDR, 1996). Table 2-1 gives the physical/chemical properties of toxaphene (ATSDR, 1996). Table 2-1. Chemical/physical properties of toxaphene Property Value or Information Chemical name(s) Toxaphene, camphechlor; chlorinated camphene Chemical formula C10H10Cl8 (average; includes components with 6 to 10 chlorines) Molecular weight 414 (average) CAS number 8001-35-2 USEPA hazardous waste code P123 Trade names Agricide Maggot Killer, Alltox, Camphofene, Huilex, Geniphene, Hercules 3956, Hercules Toxaphene, Motto, Penphene, Phenicide, Phenatox, Strobane-T, Synthetic 3956, Toxakil Color/form/odor Yellow waxy solid with mild turpentine odor Melting pointa 65-90 0C Octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) 3.3 (Log Kow) Density/specific gravity 1.65 at 25 oC Solubility in water 3 mg/L Composition of Toxaphene Toxaphene is a mixture of chlorinated camphenes that occurs as a waxy yellow or amber solid, with a pleasant odor (Sergeant and Onuska, 1989). It consists of 600 hexato decachlorinated bornanes and bornenes. Toxaphene, also known as chlorinated camphene, is a complex mixture of polychlorobicyclic terpenes, with chlorinated camphenes predominating (67-69% chlorine) (Food and Agricultural Organization [FAO], World Health Organization [WHO], 1968). The source of terpene and the degree of chlorination outside the 67-69 percent range alter the insecticidal activity. The

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13 composition of toxaphene is very complex, consisting of over 32,000 possible congeners, of these, only a limited number of congeners have been individually isolated and characterized. The average empirical formula is C10H10Cl8 (ATSDR, 1996). A double bond is present in some congeners but absent in others and the level of chlorination ranges between 6 and 10. Ten different carbon atoms are present which can be substituted with 1 or 2 chlorines, each leading to a very large number of isomers, many of which are chiral. The basic structure of components in toxaphene is as shown in figure 2-1 (Buser and Muller, 1994). Figure 2-1. Basic structure of components of toxaphene Toxaphene was first synthesized in 1947 by the Hercules Chemical Co. and was patented in 1951 (James and Hites, 2002). The mixture was produced in three steps: (a) the extraction of -pinene from pine stumps, (b) the isomerization of this compound to camphene, and (c) the photochlorination of camphene to produce toxaphene (Rumker et al., 1975). The toxaphene mixtures are prepared commercially as dusts, sprays, and wettable powders and are used alone or in combination with other pesticides for use on cotton and food crops. Toxaphene is now most often produced by the controlled chlorination of camphene (2,2-dimethyl-3-methylene-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane) under UV light (James and Hites, 2002).

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14 Toxaphene in Water Deposition of airborne toxaphene and/or its direct application to water bodies for the elimination of undesirable species has resulted in the detection of significant quantities in surface waters (ATSDR, 1996). Due to the low water solubility (3 mg/L), a majority of the toxaphene molecules strongly bind to particles and is deposited on sediments; however, there is a presence in groundwater as a result of normal agricultural use. Toxaphene enters surface waters through runoff from rain, by direct application to lakes as a pesticide, by wastewater release from manufacturing facilities, and through activities related to disposal of waste pesticides (James and Hites, 2002). Toxaphene also enters water bodies when it is transported with soil particles. In water, toxaphene appears to be resistant to all forms of degradation. It is not known to undergo photolysis or photo-oxidation. A hydrolytic half-life of 10 years was estimated for water at pH 5 to 8 (ATSDR, 1996). The ability to persist in the environment with little or extremely slow decay, its ability to bioaccumulate (Bioconcentration factor of the order of 10,000) and the general toxicity danger to environment and humans make toxaphene a pollutant of concern (ATSDR, 1996). Toxaphene has been detected at hazardous waste sites in surface water, groundwater, and leachates (ATSDR, 1996). Toxaphene was detected at a maximum concentration of 17 ppb in surface water samples taken from 2 of 9 disposal ponds at a Super-fund site (USEPA 1986). In a study of the chemical composition of leachates within existing landfills, toxaphene was not detected in any of the municipal landfill leachates examined; however, the mixture was detected in industrial landfill leachates at a concentration of 10 ppb. In a review of groundwater monitoring data collected in 1981-1984 from more than 500 wells at 334 hazardous waste disposal sites (RCRA and

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15 CERCLA sites) located in all 10 USEPA regions and 42 states, Plumb (1987) reported that toxaphene was detected at 0.2% frequency at the 178 CERCLA sites examined and at 1.1% frequency at the 156 RCRA sites examined. Toxaphene has also been detected in surface water samples from 12 of 58 NPL sites, in groundwater samples from 20 of 58 NPL sites and in leachate samples from 1 of 58 NPL sites where toxaphene has been detected in some environmental media; however, concentrations were not reported (ATSDR 1996).

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CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS Enhanced solubilization of toxaphene by addition of alcohol cosolvents in the water was evaluated by performing batch experiments according to Pinal et al. (1990) but changed for toxaphene according to analytical methods for toxaphene using USEPA method 8081B, which suggests the total area approach for toxaphene analysis using a gas chromatograph fitted with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Materials Toxaphene was obtained from Chem Service, West Chester, PA as a mix of isomers and was used as received for batch tests. For GC-ECD analytical calibration curve, toxaphene was obtained from AccuStandard with a concentration of 1000-ppm in hexane matrix. Methanol, ethanol, and IPA were chosen as cosolvents in this research. They were used as received from Fisher-Scientific. Alcohols with higher carbon numbers were found to be only partially miscible in water and hence were not used. The following criteria were used for the selection of cosolvents for this research and were similar to those considered by Chawla et al. (2001) a) non-toxic, b) biodegradable, c) completely miscible with water, d) relatively inexpensive; and e) commonly available. Physical/chemical properties of the cosolvents, methanol, ethanol and IPA are provided in Table 3-1 (Chawla et al., 2001). 16

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17 Table 3-1. Cosolvent properties Property Methanol Ethanol IPA Boiling point (C) 65 79 80 Vapor pressure at 20 C (mm Hg) 127 40 33 Specific gravity at 20 C 0.791 0.79 0.786 Solubility in water 100% 100% 100% Carcinogenicity No No No Biodegradability in soil Readily Readily Moderately Biodegradability in water Readily Readily Moderately Half life in soil (days) 1-10 N/A 1-10 Environmental toxicity Slightly toxic Not toxic Not toxic LD50 (mg/kg) 5628 7060 5045 Bioaccumulation No No No Price ($/200L) 672.50 917.80 868.15 Dipole moment (debye) (Lide, 1996) 1.70 1.69 1.58 Experimental Methods Cosolvent solutions, over a wide range of concentrations (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, and 75% alcohol by volume), were prepared by adding methanol/ethanol/IPA separately in water in 50 ml flasks. Samples were prepared in 5 ml glass vials fitted with a Teflon-coated, septum-lined screw cap to prevent potential volatilization. Each vial was weighed empty; and 5 mg of toxaphene was then added to each vial and the vials were weighed again. The vials were subsequently filled with cosolvent solutions allowing no headspace and reweighed. All samples were prepared in triplicate. Samples were then placed on a rotator (40% revolution, 24 rpm) for about a 24-hr equilibrium period. Tests were conducted for equilibrium period of 1 week, results from which did

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18 not show a significant difference from those of the equilibrium period of 24 hrs; hence it was assumed that the equilibrium was reached. A known volume (2 ml for 0%, 10% and 20%, 1 ml for 30% and 40%, and 0.5 ml for 50%, 60% and 75% cosolvent concentration) of these solutions was transferred to other 5 ml glass vials for volatilization. After approximately 48 hrs, a known volume of hexane was added to the vials, which were then put on the rotator. After about 24 hrs, two layers could distinctly be seen in the vials. Samples from the upper layer containing hexane and toxaphene were used for GC-ECD analysis. Analytical Methods for Toxaphene GC-ECD is the most frequently used analytical method for characterization and quantification of toxaphene in air, drinking water, fish, and other environmental samples. Analysis of the sample includes extraction in organic solvent; a Florisil silica, gel permeation, or TLC clean-up step; and detection by GC. It is also the standardized method used by USEPA (method 8081B) for determining toxaphene in water and soil samples. A typical gas chromatogram contains a series of hills and valleys with three main peaks (USEPA, 1998; Clark et al., In press). While toxaphene contains a large number of compounds that will produce well-resolved peaks in a GC-ECD chromatogram, it also contains many other components that are not chromatographically resolved. Although, the resolved peaks are important for the identification of the mixture, the area of the unresolved complex mixture contributes a significant portion of the area of the total response (USEPA, 1998). For the above reason, the area under the curve is used for the quantitation of total toxaphene (USEPA, 1998; Clark et al., In press). Detection limits of 0.086 g/L of water and 5.7 g/kg of soil were reported for toxaphene (ATSDR, 1996).

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19 For this research, GC-17A Shimadzu equipped with DB-30 column and a 63Ni electron capture detector was used for analysis of samples. The program was set for calculating constant velocity and total area approach was used for measuring the toxaphene present in the hexane extracted aqueous phase. Concentration of toxaphene in each solution was determined from an 8-point calibration curve, ranging from 0.2-50 ppm of toxaphene concentration, developed experimentally using known standard toxaphene solution. Samples were diluted to bring the solute concentrations within this range.

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Toxaphene solubility in binary water-cosolvent solutions was determined experimentally by performing batch experiments. In addition, the cosolvency powers for toxaphene solubilized in different alcohols/water systems were determined using the experimental results from the batch tests and compared with theoretical values predicted from the literature. Experimental Results Toxaphene concentrations in the cosolvent-water mixture were obtained using GC-ECD methods as previously described. Solubility of toxaphene was plotted as a function of the volume fraction of the cosolvents (Figures 4-1 4-3): Methanol as cosolventSlope = 3.46 R2 = 0.990123400.20.40.60.81Volume fraction cosolventlog solubility (ppm) Figure 4-1. Log solubility of toxaphene in water-methanol system as a function of cosolvent volume fraction 20

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21 Ethanol as cosolventSlope = 3.60R2 = 0.980123400.20.40.60.81Volume fraction cosolventlog solubility (ppm) Figure 4-2. Log solubility of toxaphene in water-ethanol system as a function of cosolvent volume fraction IPA as cosolventSlope = 4.30R2 = 0.980123400.20.40.60.81Volume fraction cosolventlog solubility (ppm) Figure 4-3. Log solubility of toxaphene in water-IPA system as a function of cosolvent volume fraction In Figures 4-1 4-3, each datum point represents the logarithm of single batch test solubility result and each error bar represents a fixed value of 0.1. These log-linear plots show that the aqueous solubility of toxaphene increases with an increase in volume

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22 fraction (f) of cosolvent in the solution. This trend is similar to the previous works on solubility of PCBs, PCE and other chlorinated compounds (Yalkowsky et al., 1985; Pinal et al., 1990; Li and Andren, 1994; Chawla et al., 2001). Previously mentioned, the slopes of these plots (Figures 4-1 4-3) represent the cosolvency powers of the cosolvents, which is the parameter used for evaluation of the effectiveness of the cosolvent in enhancing solubilization of toxaphene in water (Pinal et al., 1990). Therefore, solvents with higher cosolvency power values solubilize more contaminant for equivalent amount of volume fraction in binary solution. It was observed from plots (Figures 4-1 4-3), that they display two distinctive regions, divided at a volume fraction of 0.2. More specifically, slope of the line f < 0.2 is usually less than the slope of the line f > 0.2. For clarification, solubility values at each fraction of cosolvent, f, were averaged and then plotted as shown in Figure 4-4, which clearly shows the two parts of the curve for each cosolvent, similar to observations have been made by Banerjee and Yalkowsky (1988), Morris et al. (1988), Pinal et al. (1990) and Li and Andren (1994). Banerjee and Yalkowsky (1988) attributed this to the hydration of cosolvent molecules in dilute solutions, and interaction between hydrated shells of the cosolvent molecules.

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23 Log solubility of toxpahene in different cosolvents0123400.20.40.60.8Volume fraction cosolventlog solubility (ppm) Methanol Ethanol IPA Figure 4-4. Log solubility of toxaphene in different cosolvents Cosolvency powers of toxaphene in binary solutions containing water for methanol, ethanol and IPA were determined and listed in Table 4-1. Table 4-1. Cosolvency power of toxaphene in water alcohol mixtures Cosolvent Fraction range Cosolvency power R2 Overall cosolvency power R2 0 0.2 2.71 0.94 Methanol 0.2 0.75 3.63 0.99 3.46 0.99 0 0.2 4.00 0.80 Ethanol 0.2 0.75 3.79 0.98 3.60 0.98 0 0.2 2.97 0.98 IPA 0.2 0.75 4.37 0.95 4.30 0.98 Results indicate that toxaphene cosolvency was directly related to the number of carbons in the cosolvent utilized. As the number of carbon atoms in the cosolvent increases, so did the toxaphene solubility. A similar trend was observed by Ladaa et al. (2001) and, Li and Andren (1994). The following trend was observed for this research: IPA > ethanol > methanol

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24 It was found that the cosolvency of toxaphene in the aqueous solution increased with decreasing solvent polarity in agreement with Pinal et al. (1990). Methanol was most polar (highest dipole moment; Table 3-1) among the three alcohols used and was found to be least effective in solubilization of toxaphene. It has a smaller non-polar alkyl group than ethanol and IPA, and, hence, its ability to reduce the polarity of the whole solution is less than other two alcohols, as a result, its cosolvency on the solubility of the toxaphene was the least. Also, it was found that for methanol fractions less than 20%, the relationship between solubility and volume fraction of methanol is linear. The similar observation for methanol was also seen by Banerjee and Yalkowsky (1988), and Li (2001). These differences are attributed to the hydration of the cosolvent molecules at low concentrations (Banerjee and Yalkowsky, 1988). This trend was only seen for methanol, perhaps because methanol has a smaller molecular weight and size, it may become integrated into water structure better than other two cosolvents, which tend to perturb the water network (Grunwald, 1986; Rubino and Yalkowsky, 1987b). Linearit y between solubilit y and volume fraction of methanol0481200.1Volume fraction cosolventSolubility (ppm)) 0.2 Figure 4-5. Linearity between toxaphene solubility and 0-0.2 volume fraction region of methanol

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25 Theoretical Estimations Cosolvency power can also be estimated using its relationship with log (octanol water partition coefficient) using the relationship: = a log P + b (4-1) Where P is the octanol/water partition coefficient of the solute and a, b are the regression parameters (slope and y-intercept) obtained from the vs. log P curve (Morris et al., 1988). For toxaphene, the value of log P of 3.3 was used for these estimations (ATSDR, 1996). Estimated values of cosolvency power for methanol, ethanol and IPA are as listed in Table 4-2. Table 4-2. Estimation of cosolvency power for methanol, ethanol and IPA Cosolvency power Cosolvent Morris et al., 1988 Li et al., 1998b Methanol 3.31 3.16 3.43 Ethanol 3.62 3.33 3.54 IPA 3.57 2.75 3.57 Based on cosolvency power and using the log linear model, the solubility of toxaphene can also be estimated in the presence of different volume fractions of different cosolvents. Toxaphene solubility in different water-cosolvent systems were determined theoretically using the log linear model (Equation 2-4) by substituting the value of toxaphene solubility in pure water (3 ppm, ATSDR 1996) and cosolvency power values (Table 4-2). Equation 2-2b takes the final form for different cosolvents as shown below (Equations 4-2 4-4): Methanol: Log(Sm)est = 3.31*f + log (3) (4-2) Ethanol: Log(Sm)est = 3.62*f + log (3) (4-3) IPA: Log(Sm)est = 3.57*f + log (3) (4-4)

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26 Comparison of Experimental Values with Estimations Values of cosolvency powers for methanol, ethanol and IPA were estimated from data available in literature. These estimated values of cosolvency powers were plotted and compared with experimental results from solubility batch tests. The percentage difference between estimated values and experimental values were also calculated using the following relationship, exp)est)exp)(-)*100% difference= (4-5) Table 4-3. Comparison of experimental cosolvency power with estimated Cosolvency power Cosolvent Estimated (est) Experimental (exp) % Difference Methanol 3.31 3.46 4.34 Ethanol 3.62 3.60 -0.56 IPA 3.57 4.30 16.98 There was a discrepancy found in estimated and experimental cosolvency powers of IPA, which may be due to the branched nature of the IPA molecule compared to the other straight-chain alcohols. Cho et al. (2002) studied the effect of molecular structures of surfactants on the solubility enhancement of polycyclic aromatic compounds and found that surfactants with a bulky polar heads were somewhat less efficient for solute solubilization. Overall, research in this field seems to be limited and requires further exploration. For the straight chain alcohols, methanol and ethanol, theoretical and experimental values of cosolvency power, are within a range of 95-100%. Toxaphene solubility obtained theoretically using equations 4-2 4-4 were compared with experimental values as shown in Table 4-4, where log(Sm)exp and log(Sm)est are the logarithms of toxaphene solubility in ppm in mixed water-cosolvent

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27 system, obtained experimentally and estimated from log linear model. Each (Sm)exp is the mean of at least 2 experimental values of solubility. Diff. is the difference between log(Sm)exp and log(Sm)est. Table 4-4. Comparison of experimental toxaphene solubility with estimations in different cosolvents Methanol Ethanol IPA f log(Sm)exp log(Sm)est Diff. Log(Sm)exp Log(Sm)est Diff. log(Sm)exp Log(Sm)est Diff. 0 0.48 0.48 0.00 0.46 0.48 -0.01 0.52 0.48 0.04 0.1 0.83 0.81 0.02 1.16 0.84 0.32 0.82 0.83 -0.01 0.2 0.99 1.14 -0.15 1.27 1.20 0.06 1.11 1.19 -0.08 0.3 1.43 1.47 -0.04 1.59 1.56 0.02 1.67 1.55 0.13 0.4 1.72 1.80 -0.08 1.86 1.93 -0.06 2.34 1.91 0.43 0.5 2.17 2.13 0.04 2.48 2.29 0.19 2.78 2.26 0.52 0.6 2.59 2.46 0.12 2.75 2.65 0.10 3.17 2.62 0.55 0.75 3.01 2.96 0.05 3.30 3.19 0.11 3.45 3.15 0.30 Average absolute difference 0.06 0.11 0.26 Results in Table 4-4 show that the solubility of toxaphene was increased from 3 ppm in pure water to 1000-2000 ppm for high concentrations of cosolvents, varying with the cosolvent. Average absolute difference was calculated for each cosolvent. These differences or deviations from log linear model were generally negative for dilute solutions and positive for higher volume fractions of cosolvent, similar to results reported by Rubino and Yalkowsky (1987b) and Li (2001). To further quantify these deviations, log linear model was modified as with the equations offered by Li (2001). Extended log linear equations described in Chapter 2 were plotted and compared with experimental results, as shown in the Figures 4-6 4-8.

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28 Best fit for methanol0.00.51.01.52.02.53.00.00.20.40.60.81.0Volume fraction cosolventLog (Sm/Sw) Experimental Log linear Extended log linear I Extended log linear II Extended log linear III Extended log linear IV Figure 4-6. Comparison of log linear model with experimental values for methanol Best fit for ethanol0.00.51.01.52.02.53.03.50.00.20.40.60.81.0Volume fraction cosolventLog (Sm/Sw) Experimental Log linear Extended log linear I Extended log linear II Extended log linear III Extended log linear IV Figure 4-7. Comparison of log linear model with experimental values for ethanol

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29 Best fit for IPA0.00.51.01.52.02.53.03.50.00.20.40.60.81.0Volume fraction cosolventLog (Sm/Sw) Experimental Log linear Extended log linear I Extended log linear II Extended log linear III Extended log linear IV Figure 4-8. Comparison of log linear model with experimental values for IPA Equations 2-9 2-12 were used and the mole fraction, x, of the cosolvent was calculated on the basis of solute-free solvent mixture. Activity coefficients for different mole fractions and different cosolvents were taken from Li (2001). Average absolute differences in estimations from different extended log linear equations and experimental results were calculated in a similar fashion as done previously for log linear model and experimental results. For methanol, none of the extended equations generate improved solubility estimates than the original log linear model. For ethanol, extended log linear equation II gives the best results, and the lowest average absolute difference. For IPA, however, the trend has a jump from log linear for the low cosolvent fractions (f <0.3) to extended log linear equation III. These extended log linear equations give estimated solubility in mixed solvent higher than log linear model because of the additional terms in the equations which take

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30 nonideality of solvent mixture into consideration. Therefore, the extended log linear model did not improve the negative deviations from log linear model, however the positive deviations were improved in case of methanol, ethanol, and greatly in case of IPA. Overall, toxaphene solubility in water increased significantly with addition of cosolvent. The log linear model can be used for predicting the cosolvency power and, therefore, the solubility of toxaphene in other water-cosolvent solutions as well. Results from this research have promising applications in the field of environmental remediation using in-situ flushing and studies of fate and transport of pollutants. The results from this research has a limitation to field application, Since cosolvency of alcohols also depends on the solute hydrophobicity (Yalkowsky et al., 1985; Li and Andren, 1994), toxaphene in the field sites can have a different chlorine atom number and hence different hydrophobicity levels than that were explored in the present research. Pilot studies could be performed using samples from the site under consideration. Future Work As it was concluded from this research that toxaphene cosolvency increases with increase in carbon numbers in the cosolvent, higher molecular weight alcohols (e.g., butanol, pentanol etc.) should be used for further research in order to quantify the deviations from log linear model. Effect of branched and straight chain alcohols on aqueous solubility of toxaphene can also be evaluated.

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CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of alcohol cosolvents in enhancing the solubility of toxaphene in water. Batch experiments were conducted for toxaphene solubility in binary water-cosolvent solutions, including methanol, ethanol and IPA. It was concluded that alcohol cosolvents do indeed increase the solubility of toxaphene in water, sometimes on the order of hundred-fold increase. Plots of toxaphene solubility in mixed solvent vs. volume fraction of cosolvent in the mixed solvent showed a log linear relationship. The cosolvency power was determined and found to be within the range of 83-100% of the values estimated from literature. Methanol showed linearity for the above-mentioned plot for cosolvent fractions less than 20% which was attributed to its lower molecular weight. Deviations from the log linear model were observed, similar to what has been seen in the literature as well. Approaches from literature were used to modify the log linear model to more accurately predict the toxaphene cosolvency. It was found that for methanol none of the approaches used gave less average absolute difference than the log linear. For ethanol, one of the approaches based on the nonideality of the solvent mixture gave better match with experimental results. For IPA, the experimental values moved from the log linear to modified log linear. Comparing the effect of different alcohols, it was found that with increasing carbon number in the cosolvent, the solubility enhancement was increased. IPA is more polar than ethanol, which in turn is more polar than methanol. The performance of the 31

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32 cosolvents in increasing aqueous solubility of toxaphene was in reverse order of their polarity. Overall, this research proved the potential of alcohol cosolvents in increasing aqueous solubility of toxaphene. Prospective applications of this research are in the field of environmental remediation of hazardous sites or aquifers contaminated with toxaphene by in-situ flushing.

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LIST OF REFERENCES Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 1996. Toxicological Profile for Toxaphene (Update), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, August, Atlanta, GA. Banerjee S, Yalkowsky S H, 1988. Cosolvent-induced Solubilization of Hydrophobic Compounds into Water, Analytical Chemistry, 60, 2153-2155. Brandes D, Farley K, 1993. Importance of Phase Behavior on the Removal of Residual DNAPLs from Porous Media by Alcohol Flooding. Water Environmental Research, 65, 896-878. Chawla R C, Doura K F, McKay D, 2001. Effect of Alcohol Cosolvents on the Aqueous Solubility of Trichloroethylene. Proceedings of the 2001 Conference on Environmental Research, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, 52-66. Cho J, Annable M D, Rao P S C, 2003. Residual Alcohol Influence on NAPL Saturation Estimates based on Partition Tracers. Environmental Science and Technology, 37, 1639-1644. Clark II C J, Chen X, Babu S, In Press. Degradation of Toxaphene by Zero-Valent Iron and Bimetallic Substrates. Journal of Environmental Engineering. Corseuil H X, Kaipper B I A, Fernandes M, 2004. Cosolvency Effect in Subsurface Systems Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Ethanol. Water Research, 38, 1449-1456. Falta RW, 1998. Using Phase Diagrams to Predict the Performance of Cosolvent Floods for NAPL Remediation, Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, 18 (3), 94-102. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, World Health Organization (WHO), 1968. Evaluations of Some Pesticide Residues in Food, The Monographs, Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Geneva. Fu J K, Luthy R G, 1986. Aromatic Compound Solubility in Solvent/Water Mixtures. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 112 (2), 328-345. Glassmeyer S T, Shanks K E, Hites R A, 1999. Automated Toxaphene Quantitation by GC/MS. Analytical Chemistry, 71, 1448-1453. 33

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34 Groves F R, 1988. Effects of Cosolvents on the Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Water. Environmental Science and Technology, 22 (3), 282-286. Grunwald E, 1986. Thermodynamic Properties of Nonpolar Solutes in Water and the Structure of Hydrophobic Hydration Shells. Journal of American Chemical Society, 108, 5726-5731. Gupte P A, Danner R P, 1987. Prediction of Liquid-Liquid Equilibria with UNIFAC: a Critical Evaluation. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 26, 2036-2042. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 1979. Second Annual Report on Carcinogens, 20, Geneva. Imhoff P T, Glyzer S, McBride J, Vancho L, Okuda I, Miller T, 1995. Cosolvent-Enhanced Remediation of Residual Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids: Experimental Investigation. Environmental Science and Technology, 29, 1966-1975. Jafvert C T, 1996. Technology Evaluation Report: Surfactants/Cosolvents. TE-96-02, Ground-Water Remediation Technologies Analysis Center, Pittsburgh, PA. James R R and Hites R A, 2002. Atmospheric Transport of Toxaphene from the Southern United States to the Great Lakes Region. Environmental Science and Technology, 36 (16), 3474-3481. Ladaa T I, Lee C M, Coates J T, Falta R W Jr, 2001. Cosolvent Effects of Alcohols on the Henrys Law Constant and Aqueous Solubility of Tetrachloroethylene (PCE). Chemosphere, 44, 1137-1143. Lee L S, Bellin C A, Pinal R, Rao P S C, 1993. Cosolvent Effects of Sorption of Organic Acids by Soils from Mixed Solvents. Environmental Science and Technology, 27, 165-171. Li A, 2001. Predicting cosolvency. 3. Evaluation of Extended Log Linear Model. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 40, 5029-5035. Li A, Andren A W, 1994. Solubility of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Water/Alcohol Mixtures. 1. Experimental data. Environmental Science and Technology, 28 (1), 47-52. Li A, Yalkowsky S H, 1998a. Predicting Cosolvency. 1. Solubility Ratio and Solute Log Kow. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 37, 4470-4475. Li A, Yalkowsky S H, 1998b. Predicting Cosolvency. 2. Correlation with Solvent Physicochemical Properties. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 37, 4476-4480.

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35 Li P, Zhao L, Yalkowsky S H, 1999. Combined Effect of Cosolvent and Cyclodextrin on Solubilization of Non Polar Drugs. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 88 (11), 1107-1111. Lide D R, 1996. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 76th Ed, 1995-1996. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl. Morris K R, Abramowitz R, Pinal R, Davis P, Yalkowsky S H, 1988. Solubility of Aromatic Pollutants in Mixed Solvents. Chemosphere, 17, 285-298. Pinal R, Rao P S C, Lee L S, Cline P V, 1990. Cosolvency of Partially Miscible Organic Solvents on the Solubility of Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals. Environmental Science and Technology, 24(5), 639-647. Pinal R, Lee S L, Rao P S C, 1991. Prediction of the Solubility of Hydrophobic Compounds in Nonideal Solvent Mixtures, Chemosphere, 22, 939-951. Plumb R H, 1987. A Comparison of Ground Water Monitoring Data from CERCLA and RCRA Sites. Ground Water Monitoring Review, 7, 94-100. Powers S E, Hunt C S, Heermann S E, Corseuil H X, Rice D, Alvarez P J J, 2001. The Transport and Fate of Ethanol and BTEX in Groundwater Contaminated by Gasohol. Critical Review in Environmental Science and Technology, 31 (1), 79-123. Rao P S C, Annable M D, Sillan R K, Dai D, Hatfield K, Graham W D, Wood A L, Enfield C G, 1997. Field-Scale Evaluation of In Situ Cosolvent Flushing for Enhanced Aquifer Remediation. Water Resources Research, 33 (12), 2673-2686. Rubino J T, Yalkowsky S H, 1987a. Cosolvency and Cosolvent Polarity. Pharmaceutical Research, 4 (3), 220-230. Rubino J T, Yalkowsky S H, 1987b. Cosolvency and Deviations from Log Linear Solubilization. Pharmaceutical Research, 4 (3), 231-236. Rumker V, Lawless W, Neiners A F, Lawrence K A, Kelso G C, Horaz F, 1975. A Case Study of the Efficiency of the Use of Pesticides on Agriculture. USEPA 540/9-75-025, Washington, DC. Sergeant D B, Onuska F, 1989. Analysis of Trace Organics in the Aquatic Environment. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 69-118. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 1986. Superfund Record of Decision (USEPA region 4) Gallaway Ponds Site. USEPA/ROD/R04-X6/013, Gallaway, TN.

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36 United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 1998. Method 8081B: Organochlorine Pesticides by Gas Chromatography. Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods. Revision 2, Washington, DC. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 1999. In Situ Enhanced Source Removal. Project Completion Report. USEPA/600/C-99/002, Ada, OK. Yalkowsky S H, 1985. Solubility of Organic Solutes in Mixed Aqueous Solvent. Project Completion Report, USEPA CR811852-01-0, Ada, OK Yalkowsky S H, Roseman T J, 1981. Techniques of Solubilization of Drugs. Marcel Dekker, New York, 91-134.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Padma Paan was born in 1980 in Dhamnod, Madhya Pradesh, India. She did her undergraduate studies in civil engineering and received a Bachelor of Technology degree from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay, India, in 2003. In the spring of 2004, she joined the University of Florida for a Master of Science degree in the Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering under the tutelage of Dr. Clayton J. Clark II. 37