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Field Testing of Prestressed Concrete Piles Spliced with Steel Pipes

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Title:
Field Testing of Prestressed Concrete Piles Spliced with Steel Pipes
Copyright Date:
2008

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Subjects / Keywords:
Compressive strength ( jstor )
Compressive stress ( jstor )
Concretes ( jstor )
Hammers ( jstor )
Moduli of elasticity ( jstor )
Mortars ( jstor )
Plugs ( jstor )
Software ( jstor )
Steels ( jstor )
Tensile stress ( jstor )

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Embargo Date:
7/30/2007

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FIELD TESTING OF PRESTR ESSED CONCRETE PILES SPLICED WITH STEEL PIPES By ISAAC W. CANNER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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By Isaac W. Canner

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This document is dedicated to my family and friends.

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The field testing for this pr oject would not have been possible without the gracious donations of time, equipment and materials from those involved. We express thanks to the following individuals and companies for their time and resources. Paul Gilbert and Frank Woods of Wood H opkins Contracting, LLC allowed piles to be driven in their equipment yard and provide d useful input on the assembly process. Mike Elliott of Pile Equipm ent Inc. was very gracious in the donation of a Delmag D46-32 diesel hammer and a set of leads fo r the two-week long testing period. Pile Equipment also provided a hammer operator to assist with the pile driving. Don Robertson and Chris Kohlhof of A pplied Foundation Testing, Inc. monitored both the top and bottom set of accelerometers and strain gages for both pile driving events. Applied Foundation Testing also lent the software (CAPWA P) for the analysis the pile driving data. Brian Bixler of FDOT performed cone pe netration tests at the field site to determine the depth of the rock layer. He facilitated the FDOTÂ’s donation of strain transducers and accelerometers that were sacrificed because they went below ground. Walt Hanford of Degussa Building Systems was very helpful in the selection of grouts for the steel pipe splice. John Newton of Dywidag Systems Interna tional performed the grout mixing and pumping for both pile splices with a consistent grout mix and the correct flow cone time. Kathy Grey of District 5, FDOT, also lent a PDA unit for one of the pile drive tests.

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v John Farrell of District 2, FDOT, lent a set of accelerometers, and a PDA unit for one of the pile drives, as well as monitore d one of the spliced p iles during driving, and provided valuable insight into the analysis of pile driving data.

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vi TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................ix LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................................................xi ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................xv i CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 1.1 Problem Statement.................................................................................................1 1.2 Goals and Objectives.............................................................................................1 1.3 Background............................................................................................................2 1.3.1 FDOT Structures Labor atory Flexural Tests...............................................3 1.3.2 Field Testing at St Johns River Bridge.......................................................4 1.3.3 Previous Steel Pipe Splice Resear ch at the University of Florida...............5 2 PILE SPLICE TEST SPECIMEN MATERIALS........................................................7 2.1 Prestressed Concrete Piles.....................................................................................7 2.2 HSS Steel Pipe with Shear Transfer Mechanism..................................................9 2.3 Annulus Cementitious Grout...............................................................................11 2.4 Mating Surface Grout..........................................................................................14 3 ANALYSIS OF DRIVING A PR ESTRESSED CONCRETE PILE.........................17 3.1 Pile Driving Test Site Selection...........................................................................17 3.2 Cone Penetration Test from Field Site.................................................................17 3.3 Software Analysis of Pile Driving at the Test Site..............................................20 3.3.1 Static Pile Capacity Assessment with PL-AID.........................................20 3.3.2 GRLWEAP Software Analysis.................................................................21 3.3.3 Results of GRLWEAP Software...............................................................24 3.4 FDOT Standard Specifications fo r Road and Bridge Construction.....................25 3.5 Summary of Analyses..........................................................................................27

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vii 4 CONSTRUCTION PROCESS AN D FIELD TESTING METHOD.........................29 4.1 Pile Support and Spliced Pile Bracing Method...................................................29 4.1.1 Steel Template used to brace Spliced Piles...............................................29 4.1.2 Steel Channels used to brace Spliced Piles...............................................31 4.2 Initial Pile Drive to Cutoff Elevation...................................................................32 4.3 Top Half of Piles Cutoff......................................................................................33 4.4 Assembly of the Steel Pipe Splice.......................................................................35 4.5 Mating Surface Grouted a nd Annulus Grout Pumped.........................................37 4.6 Driving of Spliced Piles.......................................................................................40 4.6.1 Spliced Pile #1 Driven after Grout Cured 24 hours..................................40 4.6.2 Spliced Pile #2 Driven after Grout Cured 20 hours..................................40 4.6.3 Spliced Pile #1 Re-Driven after 4 days.....................................................41 4.7 Summary of Splice C onstruction Process............................................................42 5 COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF PILE DRIVING DATA...............................45 5.1 Data Collection with a Pile Driving Analyzer.....................................................45 5.2 PDA Input Information........................................................................................48 5.3 PDA Instrumentation Attachment Locations.......................................................49 5.4 PDA Unit Output.................................................................................................51 5.4.1 Maximum Stress in th e Pile from PDA Output.........................................51 5.4.2 Pile Capacity from PDA Output................................................................54 5.5 CAPWAP Software Analysis of PDA Data........................................................55 5.5.1 CAPWAP Analysis Method......................................................................55 5.5.2 Analysis of Hammer Impacts at Critical Tip Elevations...........................57 5.6 Results of CAPWAP Software Analysis.............................................................57 5.6.1 Maximum Tensile Stress in the Splice Section.........................................58 5.6.2 Maximum Pile Capacity and Compre ssive Stress in the Splice Section...60 5.7 Comparison of PDA Output w ith CAPWAP Software Output...........................63 5.8 Summary of Data Analysis Results.....................................................................68 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION...........................................................................71 6.1 Summary..............................................................................................................71 6.2 Conclusion...........................................................................................................73 6.3 Recommended Pile Splice Specifications...........................................................73 APPENDIX A CEMENTITIOUS GROUTS......................................................................................78 B INSTRUMENTATION ATTACHEMENT METHOD.............................................87 C PDA OUTPUT FROM PILE DRIVING....................................................................90 D MATHCAD WORKSHEET CALCULATIONS.....................................................100

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viii E CAPWAP OUTPUT FO R TENSILE FORCES.......................................................108 F CAPWAP OUTPUT FOR COMPRESSIVE FORCES...........................................125 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................142 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................144

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ix LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Soil classification ba sed on friction ratio.................................................................18 3-2 PL-AID static pile capacity analysis output.............................................................21 3-3 Spliced pile model used in GRLWEAP software....................................................23 3-4 GRLWEAP output for spliced pile with Delmag D46-32 OED hammer................25 3-5 Variables for calculation of maximu m allowable pile driving stresses...................26 4-1 Blow Count Log for initial pile drive to cutoff elevation........................................33 4-2 Blow Count Log for Driving Spliced Piles #1 and #2.............................................41 4-3 Blow count log for continued driving of spliced Pile #1.........................................42 5-1 Pile input information used in PDA unit..................................................................48 5-2 AASHTO Elastic Modulus Equations for a range of f`c values..............................49 5-3 High tensile stresses for pile #2, PDA output calculated with voided cross sectional area of 646 in2...........................................................................................52 5-4 High compressive stresses for pile #1, PDA output calculated with the voided cross sectional area of 646 in2..................................................................................54 5-5 Pile model input to CAPWAP Soft ware for effective length of pile.......................56 5-6 Maximum value table for BN 17 of 383 for each segment of Pile #2.....................58 5-7 Summary of BN with high tensile stre sses in the splice of Pile #2 with spliced cross sectional of 891 in2..........................................................................................60 5-8 Summary of BN with high pile capac ity and compressive stresses in Pile #1 with spliced cross se ctional area of 891 in2..............................................................61 5-9 Maximum value table for BN 116 of 183 for each segment of Pile #1...................62 5-10 Pile #2 comparisons of PDA and CAPWAP maximum stresses.............................67

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x 5-11 Pile #1 comparisons of PDA and CAPW AP maximum compressive stresses and pile capacity.......................................................................................................67 E-1 CAPWAP output of fina l results for BN 17 of 383...............................................109 E-2 CAPWAP output of extr eme values for BN 17 of 383..........................................110 E-3 CAPWAP output of fina l results for BN 18 of 383...............................................113 E-4 CAPWAP output of extr eme values for BN 18 of 383..........................................114 E-5 CAPWAP software output of final results for BN 119 of 383...............................117 E-6 CAPWAP software output of ex treme values for BN 119 of 383.........................118 E-7 CAPWAP output of fina l results for BN 227 of 383.............................................121 E-8 CAPWAP output of extreme values for BN 227 of 383........................................122 F-1 CAPWAP output of fina l results for BN 116 of 183.............................................126 F-2 CAPWAP output of extreme values for BN 116 of 183........................................127 F-3 CAPWAP output of fina l results for BN 117 of 183.............................................130 F-4 CAPWAP output of extreme values for BN 117 of 183........................................131 F-5 CAPWAP software output of final results for BN 154 of 183...............................134 F-6 CAPWAP software output of ex treme values for BN 154 of 183.........................135 F-7 CAPWAP output of fina l results for BN 155 of 183.............................................138 F-8 CAPWAP output of extreme values for BN 155 of 183........................................139

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xi LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 The steel pipe splice compone nts and minimum splice length..................................5 2-1 Details of 30 inch square prestr essed concrete pile as constructed............................7 2-2 Corrugated metal for the entire length of void is required.........................................8 2-3 Pile void material location for piles used in pipe splice test......................................8 2-4 HSS steel pipes. A) Details of pipe with welded bars, B) HSS steel pipes with bars as-built..............................................................................................................10 2-5 Masterflow 928 annulus grout cube compressive strength test results....................13 2-6 The Set 45 mating surface grout. A) A pply mating surface grout, B) ready to lower the top pile into position.................................................................................15 2-7 Set 45 grout used to seal mating surface. A) – D) Different views of the grouted mating surface..........................................................................................................16 3-1 CPT results with soil divided into layers of cohesive and cohesionless..................19 3-2 Side friction and tip resistance on a 30 in ch pile at the test si te, used to describe the soil profile in GRLWEAP..................................................................................22 4-1 Splice testing prep aration. A) Template, piles and HSS pipes, B) the piles in the template....................................................................................................................30 4-2 Steel C channels to s upport spliced pile section......................................................32 4-3 Pile cutoff to expose void. A) Concrete pile is cut with diamond blade circular saw; B) metal liner of pile void is cut with an oxyacetylene torch..........................34 4-4 Void in each pile after removi ng cardboard sonotube below 54 inches..................35 4-5 Holes drilled to receive bo lts to support the steel pipe............................................36 4-6 Details of the grout plug. A) The di mensions of the grout plug, B) the grout plug is bolted on and compressed with a pl ywood disc, C) plug in the pile void....37

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xii 4-7 Steel bolts greased and inserted to support HSS pipe, annulus grout globe valve was attached with epoxy, and mating surface grout was applied.............................38 4-8 Vent hole active and wooden wedge s bracing the spliced pile section....................39 5-1 Force at the top instruments, Pile #2 BN 227 of 383, high tensile stresses.............47 5-2 Force at the top instruments, Pile #1, BN 116 of 183, high compressive stress......47 5-3 PDA instrumentation attached at the top and bottom of the piles............................50 5-4 Pile divided into 1 foot l ong segments for CAPWAP software...............................56 5-5 CAPWAP output of force at thr ee pile segments for BN 17 of 383 with maximum tensile force for spliced Pile #2...............................................................59 5-6 CAPWAP output of force at thr ee pile segments for BN 116 of 383 with maximum compressive force for spliced Pile #1.....................................................61 5-7 Match quality of output of CAPWAP computed wave up and PDA measured wave up at the top of Pile #2 for BN 17 of 383.......................................................64 5-8 Match quality of output of CAPWAP computed force and PDA measured force at the top of Pile #2 for BN 17 of 383......................................................................65 5-9 Match quality of output of CAPWAP computed velocity and PDA measured velocity at the top of Pile #2 for BN 18 of 383........................................................65 5-10 Comparison of PDA output and CAPWAP output at the lower gage location........66 6-1 Steel pipe splice speci fications for construction......................................................74 6-2 Elevation view of splice construction process.........................................................75 6-3 Mating surface detail of the steel pipe splice...........................................................76 6-4 Grout plug detail with materials and dimensions.....................................................76 6-5 Cross section view of the spliced p ile at the steel pipe vertical support..................77 A-1 Grout mixing operation. A) DSI grout mixer and flow cone time measured by FDOT, B) DSI grout mixer and pump machine.......................................................79 B-1 Top set of instruments; accelerometer on left side and strain transducer on right side........................................................................................................................... 87 B-2 Middle set of instruments, acceleromete r on left side and strain transducer on right side...................................................................................................................88

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xiii B-3 Bottom set of instruments with concrete anchor sleeves installed, A) accelerometer ready, B) strain transducer with casing ready..............................88 B-4 Bottom set of instruments, with steel cover plates attached on Pile #2; Pile #1 driven to cutoff elevation with tip at -14 feet...........................................................89 E-1 Pile divided into 1 foot l ong segments for CAPWAP software.............................108 E-2 CAPWAP output of force at th ree pile segments for BN 17 of 383......................111 E-3 Match quality of CAPWAP computed wave up and PDA measured wave up at the top of Pile #2 for BN 17 of 383........................................................................111 E-4 Match quality of CAPWAP computed force and PDA measured force at the top of Pile #2 for BN 17 of 383....................................................................................112 E-5 BN 17 of Pile #2 comparison of PDA output and CAPWAP output at the lower gage location..........................................................................................................112 E-6 CAPWAP output of force at th ree pile segments for BN 18 of 383......................115 E-7 Match quality of CAPWAP computed wave up and PDA measured wave up at the top of Pile #2 for BN 18 of 383........................................................................115 E-8 Match quality of CAPWAP computed force and PDA measured force at the top of Pile #2 for BN 18 of 383....................................................................................116 E-9 Pile #2 BN 18 comparison of PDA ou tput and CAPWAP output at the lower gage location..........................................................................................................116 E-10 CAPWAP output of force at three pi le segments for BN 119 of 383 of spliced Pile #2.....................................................................................................................119 E-11 Match quality of CAPWAP computed wave up and PDA measured wave up at the top of Pile #2 for BN 119 of 383......................................................................119 E-12 Match quality of CAPWAP computed force and PDA measured force at the top of Pile #2 for BN 119 of 383..................................................................................120 E-13 Pile #2 BN 119 comparison of PDA out put and CAPWAP output at the lower gage location..........................................................................................................120 E-14 CAPWAP output of force at thr ee pile segments for BN 227 of 383 with maximum tensile force for spliced Pile #2.............................................................123 E-15 Match quality of CAPWAP computed wave up and PDA measured wave up at the top of Pile #2 for BN 227 of 383......................................................................123

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xiv E-16 Match quality of CAPWAP computed force and PDA measured force at the top of Pile #2 for BN 227 of 383............................................................................124 E-17 Pile #2 BN 227 comparison of PDA out put and CAPWAP output at the lower gage location..........................................................................................................124 F-1 Pile divided into 1 foot l ong segments for CAPWAP software.............................125 F-2 CAPWAP output of force at th ree pile segments for BN 116 of 183....................128 F-3 Match quality of CAPWAP computed wave up and PDA measured wave up at the top of Pile #1 for BN 116 of 183......................................................................128 F-4 Match quality of CAPWAP computed force and PDA measured force at the top of Pile #1 for BN 116 of 183............................................................................129 F-5 BN 116 of Pile #1 Comparison of PDA output and CAPWAP output at the lower gage location................................................................................................129 F-6 CAPWAP output of force at th ree pile segments for BN 117 of 183....................132 F-7 Match quality of CAPWAP computed wave up and PDA measured wave up at the top of Pile #1 for BN 117 of 183......................................................................132 F-8 Match quality of CAPWAP computed force and PDA measured force at the top of Pile #1 for BN 117 of 183............................................................................133 F-9 Pile #1 BN 117 Comparison of PDA out put and CAPWAP output at the lower gage location..........................................................................................................133 F-10 CAPWAP output of force at th ree pile segments for BN 154 of 183....................136 F-11 Match quality of CAPWAP computed wave up and PDA measured wave up at the top of Pile #1 for BN 154 of 183......................................................................136 F-12 Match quality of CAPWAP computed force and PDA measured force at the top of Pile #1 for BN 154 of 183..................................................................................137 F-13 Pile #1 BN 154 comparison of PDA out put and CAPWAP output at the lower gage location..........................................................................................................137 F-14 CAPWAP output of force at th ree pile segments for BN 155 of 183....................140 F-15 Match quality of CAPWAP computed wave up and PDA measured wave up at the top of Pile #1 for BN 155 of 183......................................................................140 F-16 Match quality of CAPWAP computed force and PDA measured force at the top of Pile #1 for BN 155 of 183............................................................................141

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xv F-17 Pile #1 BN 155 Comparison of PDA out put and CAPWAP output at the lower gage location..........................................................................................................141

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xvi Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering FIELD TESTING OF PRESTR ESSED CONCRETE PILES SPLICED WITH STEEL PIPES By Isaac W. Canner August 2005 Chair: Ronald A. Cook Major Department: Civil and Coastal Engineering This project involved the de sign and field testing of a splice for square precast prestressed concrete piles cont aining a cylindrical void. The pile splice incorporates a 20 foot long 14 inch diameter steel pipe grouted into the 18 inch diameter cylindrical void of a 30 inch square pile. The material specifi cations and a descripti on of the construction process are included. Two spliced piles were driven using a di esel hammer. The forces propagating through the piles during inst allation were measured us ing dynamic load testing equipment. The maximum forces were us ed to calculate the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in the pile to compare these with the allowable pile driving stress limits. The maximum measured tensile stre sses exceeded the allowable limit. The maximum measured compressive stress was comp arable to the allowable limit. Field observations and review of data acquired dur ing installation indicated no signs of splice deterioration or pile damage.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Currently, the Florida Department of Tr ansportation [FDOT] uses a dowel bar splice for prestressed concrete piles (FDOT 2005). The deta ils consist of steel dowels and epoxy mortar. The size and number of dow els depend on the cross sectional area of the pile. There are no standa rd national guidelines on how to splice together piles; however guidelines suggest that a pile splice should be of equal strength and performance of the unspliced pile (Issa 1999). The steel pi pe splice method presented in this thesis is an alternative method to be used for an unplanned splice of a voided 30 inch square prestressed concrete pile. 1.1 Problem Statement An alternative pile splice method was need ed for prestressed concrete piles. The alternative method investigated in corporates a steel pipe groute d into the void of the pile. The flexural strength of the steel pipe sp lice method was verified by laboratory testing (Issa 1999); however the axial cap acity of the splice needed to be checked to verify that the stresses caused during pile driving would not cause the splice to fail. Furthermore, the construction method and construction materi als needed to be tested in the field environment to determine if the means and me thods were adequate to be specified by the Florida Department of Transportation. 1.2 Goals and Objectives The goal of this research was to test th e steel pipe splice de sign, by selecting the best materials and construction method, to dete rmine the axial capacity of the splice. The

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2 reason for conducting a full scale pile driving te st on the pile splice design was that the stresses caused by pile driving are the largest axial load the pile will be subjected to during its design life. The best way to veri fy that the steel pipe splice design could withstand the allowable stresses was to drive it in the ground a nd use dynamic load testing equipment to measure the axial load applied to the pile for each hammer impact. The dynamic load test results would provide the maximum forces carried by the splice, which can be converted to an equivalent stre ss to compare with the allowable pile driving stress limits from Section 455 of the FDOT St andard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction (FDOT 2004a) and the computed axial design strength of the splice from the Alternatives for Precast Pile Spli ces report (Britt, Cook, and McVay 2003). After proving the minimum axial strengt h of the splice was greater than the maximum allowable pile driving load, the objec tive was to create the first draft of the FDOT specification for the steel pipe splice method. This would include: Detailed material specifications used in the splice. Outline of the construction process to follow for a successful splice. Design drawings to illustrate the materials and construction process. 1.3 Background Previous research on the alternative pile splice method in th e state of Florida includes both laboratory and field testing. The steel pipe splic e method was first tested in the laboratory to determine the flexural capacity of a spliced 30 inch square prestressed concrete pile (Issa 1999). Success in the labo ratory was followed by the testing of three splices being constructed at an FDOT site (Goble Rauche Likens and Associates [GRL], Inc. 2000). However, due to problems during construction with assembly of the splice, the pile driving was not successful because of failure of the splice re gion. The next step

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3 was Part 1 of the Alternatives for Precas t Pile Splices report (Britt, Cook, and McVay 2003) which calculated the design capacity of th e splice, developed a lab test setup to determine the static axial strength, and outlined field assembly guidelines. Details of these projects are presented in the following sections. 1.3.1 FDOT Structures Laboratory Flexural Tests At the FDOT Structures Laboratory in Tall ahassee, the splice was tested in flexure with 10 foot and 15 foot long steel pipe spli ces, to provide 5 feet and 7.5 feet embedment on either side of the joint. A report was written by Issa (1999) on the results of the testing. For both tests, the pipe was a HSS 14.00 x 0.500 and made of grade 42 steel. Rebar was welded to the outside of the pipe at a 6 inch pitch. The 10 foot long steel pipe splice was test ed by simply supporting the ends of the 22 foot long pile, and placing hydraulic jacks at a distance of 2.5 feet from either side of the splice interface to provide a region of uni form moment. The 10 foot long steel pipe splice did not work because hor izontal cracks occurred in the splice region at a moment of 255 kip-ft with a failure moment of 581 kip-ft. The second specimenÂ’s steel pipe was a to tal of 15 feet long and was filled with concrete to prevent buckling of the steel pipe. The 30 foot long pile was simply supported at each end and hydraulic jacks were pl aced at a distance of 5 feet from either side of the splice interface. The ultimate te st moment capacity was observed to be 840 kip-ft. The unspliced pile had a calculated nomi nal moment capacity of 1000 kip-ft and the steel pipe spliced pile section had a calculated nominal mome nt capacity of 878 kipft. Therefore, the pile developed 84% of th e calculated unspliced pile capacity and 96% of the calculated spliced pile capacity (Issa 1999).

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4 1.3.2 Field Testing at St. Johns River Bridge After completion of the laboratory flexural test of the splice, a minimum splice length of 12 feet was recommende d, with 6 feet on either side of the joint (Issa 1999). The splices tested at St. Johns River Bridge were constructed using 20 foot long steel pipes. The steel pipe splice design was test ed in the field by driv ing three 75 foot long piles, splicing a 75 foot long section on t op of each, and re-driving the spliced 150 foot long piles. All three spliced piles experienced failure of th e splice and the spliced piles would not drive (GRL, Inc. 2003). Several issues may have contributed to th e spliced pile failure. The 75 foot long upper pile section was not released from the cr ane while the grout in the annulus cured. This may have resulted in the annulus grout not setting properly be cause of small sway movements of the crane. Secondly, the steel pipe was smooth; a inch diameter steel bar was not welded to the pipe to add deform ations to create a mechanical bond. Lastly, an epoxy mortar bed between pile ends was cr eated by placing steel sh ims at the joint. These steel shims were not removed prior to driving and therefor e created four stiff points at the joint. One possible cause of the mating surface to fail during pile driving was stress concentrations in the epoxy grout caused by the difference in elastic modulus between the epoxy grout and the steel shims. It is not known if the splice interface at the pile ends, or the grout in the annulus failed fi rst. If the grout in the annulus had cured properly, the tension stresses cau sed during driving would have been transferred to the steel pipe through shear and carri ed across the splice. Howeve r, if the epoxy mortar bed and the concrete at the splice mating surface de teriorated, a large di scontinuity in crosssection properties would be cr eated. The large decrease in pile impedance at the joint would result in smaller refracted compression wa ves and larger reflected tension waves at

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5 the splice. The reflected tension waves woul d act to pull the piles apart, which could only be transferred across the splice by the annulus gr out through shear transfer. The problems in the prior splice tests were considered during the design of the new splice and the development of the construction gu idelines utilized. For example, the steel pipe was deformed with a inch diameter ba r spirally wound at an 8 inch pitch. Also, the steel shims were removed from the sp lice interface to create a more homogenous transition between pile end materials. Additi onally, the pile was released from the crane and supported by an external rigid frame while the annulus grout cured overnight. 1.3.3 Previous Steel Pipe Splice Resea rch at the University of Florida The Alternatives for Precast Pile Splices report by Britt, Cook, and McVay (2003) provides the design of the stee l pipe splice for tension, fl exure, and compression. The load path for each loading was considered and then designed in order to provide adequate capacity. The minimum length of steel pipe was determined to provide a capacity equal to a continuous unspliced 30 inch square pres tressed concrete pile. The minimum length of steel pipe included the development and tran sfer lengths of the steel pipe and strands in the concrete. The required length of st eel pipe embedment was determined to be 7 feet, for a 14 foot long pipe as shown in Figure 1-1. Figure 1-1 The steel pipe splice co mponents and minimum splice length. After the splice failures during pile driving at the St. Johns River Bridge (GRL, Inc. 2003), the axial design of the splice was invest igated. The splice was designed to resist 30” Square Prestressed Concrete Pile Annulus Grout HSS 14.000 x 0.500

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6 the pile driving load. The load from the hamm er was transferred from the pile to the steel pipe through the grout in the annulus. A mechanical bond was provided between the inside of the pile, the grout, and the deformed steel pipe. In tension, the steel pipe carries the entire load across the spli ce mating surface. The steel pi pe has a cross sectional area of 19.8 in2 and is Grade 42 steel; ther efore the pipe can resist a tensile load of 832 kips before yielding. The nominal moment capacity of an unspliced 30 inch pile was determined to be 966 kip-ft. The nominal moment capacity of the steel pipe spliced section was determined to be 855 kip-ft (Britt, Cook, and McVay 2003).

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7 CHAPTER 2 PILE SPLICE TEST SPECIMEN MATERIALS This chapter presents information on the materials that were used to construct the splice. Two steel pipe splices were constructe d using the same prestressed concrete piles, hollow structural steel pipes, cementitious annulus grout, and mating surface grout. 2.1 Prestressed Concrete Piles The prestressed concrete piles tested were constructed by Standard Concrete Products of Tampa, FL. The FDOT sta ndard drawing Index No. 630 (FDOT 2005) was used to specify the two 40 feet long 30 inch square prestressed concrete piles with a strand pattern of twenty 0.6 inch diameter, 270 Low Relaxation Strands at 41 kips each. The solid ends of the pile were 4 feet long and the middle 32 feet s ection was hollow with a mean diameter of 18 inches as shown in Figure 2-1. Figure 2-1 Details of 30 inch square pres tressed concrete pile as constructed. Solid Section Hollow Section 18” Void 2” Vent Hole 4 ft 32 ft 4 ft W4.0 Spiral Ties

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8 The form used to construct the void was requested to be corrugated metal for the entire length as shown in Figure 2-2. The depth of the corrugation was 0.5 inches, measured as the vertical distance from a straig ht edge resting on the corrugation crests to the bottom of the intervening valley (ASTM A760 1994). Figure 2-2 Corrugated metal for the entire length of void is required. After driving both piles and cutting them in half, it was discovered that corrugated metal was used to form 20 feet of the 32 foot void length, with the remaining 12 feet being cardboard sonotube. The top half was entirely corrugated metal. The bottom half of pile in the ground had 4.5 feet of corruga ted metal below the cutoff elevation, and the remaining 7.5 feet below were cardboard s onotube. Figure 2-3 shows the corrugated metal liner in the splice section on the left side and the cutoff driven pile on the right side with both corrugated metal and cardboard sonotube. Figure 2-3 Pile void material location for piles used in pipe splice test.

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9 In future applications of the steel pipe sp lice, the piles should be required to have a corrugated metal pipe to form the void. Meta l void liner was requested for the entire void, but was not provided for the entire void, the only option was to remove the cardboard and continue the sp lice construction. To strip the cardboard, the void in the pile was filled with water and allowed to soak overnight. The next morning the cardboard was stripped using a variety of tools to expose smooth bare concrete. Galvanized steel pipe will no longer be used to form the void of prestressed concrete piles, because the potentials devel oped upon the steel strands is of sufficient magnitude and duration to cause hydrogen embritt lement of the strands (Hartt and Suarez 2004). Acceptable alternatives to galvanized steel pipe woul d be either bare steel corrugated pipe or two options provided by Contech are Aluminized Steel Type 2, which is bare steel hot-dipped in commercially pure aluminum, or a polymer coated steel pipe, such as Trenchcoat (Contech Products 2005). 2.2 HSS Steel Pipe with Shear Transfer Mechanism The steel pipe used to splice the p iles was a 20 foot long HSS 14.000 x 0.500. The preferred material specification for round Ho llow Structural Sections [HSS] is ASTM A500 grade B with minimum yield stress of 42 ksi (AISC 2001). The minimum design length of the steel pipe recommended in the Al ternatives for Precast Pile Splices report (Britt, Cook and McVay 2003) was increased from 14 feet to 20 feet, providing 10 feet of bond length on both sides of the splice. Prior to testing, the steel pipe was prepar ed with inch diameter plain steel bar welded to the pipe to provide deformations at 8 inch spacing. The bar was spirally

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10 wound and fillet welded in posit ion with two inches of 3/16 in ch fillet weld per foot of steel bar as shown in Figure 2-4. A B Figure 2-4 HSS steel pipes. A) Details of pipe with welded bars, B) HSS steel pipes with bars as-built. Steel hoops could also be us ed and would likely be more cost effective than the spirally wound bar. After forming them to 14 inch diameter hoops, they would be

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11 welded to the pipe at 8 inch spacing with two inches of 3/16 inch fillet weld per foot of steel bar. The steel pipe was filled with concrete to prevent local buckling when loaded in bending. To allow gasses to escape through the spliced section, a 3 inch diameter pipe was provided inside of the 14 inch diameter pipe. To accomplish this, a 14 inch diameter steel plate with a 3 inch diamet er center hole was welded to the bottom end of the 14 inch diameter steel pipe. The 3 inch diameter stee l pipe was welded in place, and the 14 inch diameter steel pipe was filled with normal weight concrete. The steel pipe filled with concrete weighed approximately 2 tons. 2.3 Annulus Cementitious Grout One of the most critical parts of the sp lice was the grout in the annulus that bonded the HSS steel pipe to the inside of the pile. The grout provided a mechanical bond because of the deformations on the steel pipe and the corrugation on the inside of the pile. Degussa Building SystemsÂ’s product Masterfl ow 928, a high-precision mineral-aggregate grout with extended working time was chosen as the best option. The Masterflow 928 product specification sheet is attached in Appendix A. The extended working time was essential because 14 cubic feet or 30 bags of grout had to be mixed and pumped continuously into the splice. This requirement eliminated the possibility of using a polymer epoxy grout or a rapid setting cemen titious product such as Master Builders 747 Rapid Setting Grout. Another requirement of the grout was that it be designated a nonshrink grout and reach 3800 psi within 20 hours. The products on the FDOT list of approve d post-tensioning grouts were fluid and could be pumped into the annulus, but di d not have the required 24 hour compressive

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12 strength for this type of dynamic loading. No prior FDOT specification existed for this type of grouting application. The fluid grout consistency was used to ensure good consolidation in the small crevices in the annulus of the splice and to fill the 20 foot grout head. According to the product specification sheet, at a fluid consistency, the unit weight of Masterflow 928 was approximately 135 pounds per cubic foot and the flow cone time was between 25-30 seconds per ASTM C939. The compressive strength for the fluid consistency was 3500 psi after 1 day, and 7500 psi after 28 days. Dywidag Systems International performe d the grout mixing and pumping using their colloidal mixer with an agitator holding tank. Two large air compressors were used to power the mixers and pump. The mixer had a water tank with a volume measurement so that the mixing process could be consiste ntly repeated, after a trial batch was mixed with the correct water volume to achieve the re quired flow time. Th e first batch of grout was mixed and the flow cone time was measured at 44 seconds for Pile #1. The product specification sheet specified a flow time between 25 and 30 seconds for a fluid grout consistency. A longer flow time corresponded to a more plastic gr out; therefore water was added to decrease the flow time to 30 seconds for Pile #1, before pumping continued. For Pile #2, the first flow time was measured at 22 seconds; the grout mix was adjusted to a flow time of 35 seconds before pumping continued. During the grouting process, grout cubes we re cast for testing in accordance with ASTM C942. Before driving the spliced piles, the grout cubes were tested to measure the compressive strength.

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13 Pile #1 was spliced and driven 24 hour s after the grout pumping was completed when the annulus grout cube compressive stre ngth was 4500 psi. Pile #2 was spliced and driven 20 hours after the grout pumpi ng was completed. The minimum grout compressive strength required was set at 3800 psi because spliced Pile #2 was driven successfully when the grout cube compressive strength was equal to 3800 psi. Figure 2-5 is a plot of the average compressive strength of the grout cubes. Each point represents the average of three cubes tested. Masterflow 928 Grout Cube Compressive Strength Test Results 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0481216202428 Time After Grout Placement (Hours)Compressive Strength (psi) Pile #1 (flow time 44 sec, 30 sec) Pile #2 (flow time 22 sec, 35 sec) Figure 2-5 Masterflow 928 annul us grout cube compressive strength test results. The characteristics of the Masterflow 928 annulus grout are outlined below. An equivalent product could be used in the annulus of the splic e, provided that it meets the requirements outlined below: Designated as a non-shrink grout. Extended working time to allow con tinuous placement of 14 cubic feet. Fluid consistency pumpable into the 2 inch wide by 20 feet verti cal splice annulus. High early compressive stre ngth: minimum 3800 psi. Strength required = 3800 psi

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14 2.4 Mating Surface Grout At the mating surface between the two piles a rapid setting mortar was needed to fill and seal the gap between th e piles. The fluid Masterflow 928 grout would leak if the mating surface was not sealed. The other purpose of the mating surface grout was to provide compressive force transfer between th e pile ends. The characteristics of the mating surface grout are outlined below: High compressive strength with a cure time less than one hour. Easy to trowel onto the mating surface in a mortar bed. Good workability so the contractor has time to align the piles plumb. Provide a seal at the mating surface for th e grout to be pumped into the annulus. The pile head was removed using an air powered diamond blade circular saw and a choker cable from the crane. After the saw cut through the prestressing strands the crane slowly bent the pile until it broke. When the splice secti on was lowered into position, the gap at the mating surface was measured at the outer edge and ranged from 0.5 to 1 inch depending on the side of the pile. Initially for the splice mating surface, Concresive 1420 general purpose gel epoxy adhesive seemed like the best product because of its high strength and ability to seal the mating surface. While in the field on the day of the spli ce assembly, the plan to use Concresive 1420 general purpose gel epoxy adhesive changed because the product was supplied in two-part tubes with a mixing gun to apply it. If the product were supplied in a gallon bucket, the volume required could have been mixed at once and applied to the mating surface. However, for the supply on hand, the volume required to fill the gap was too large to dispense using tube s. Also, after mixing a tria l batch, the product setup too quickly and would not give the contractor enough time to align the piles plumb. The

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15 FDOT dowel splice method had a similar pr oblem of short setup time with an epoxy adhesive. The Degussa Building Systems product Set 45 was used because it had sufficient working time with a quick setup and high stre ngth. Two bags were enough to spread a bed of mortar on the mating surface as shown in Figure 2-6. The Set 45 was mixed with the minimum recommended water volume. Th e extra mortar was pushed out when the top pile was lowered into position. A plyw ood form was not used because it was not needed for the mortar consistency. Howe ver, a plywood form should be required for FDOT jobs for quality control, and to ensure the gap is entirely filled no matter what the water content. The Set 45 product specifica tion sheet is attached in Appendix A. A B Figure 2-6 The Set 45 mating surface grout. A) Apply mating surface grout, B) ready to lower the top pile into position. At this point during construction it was impor tant for the spliced pile section to be braced from moving while the grout cured. For this test, the top pile was braced in position by the template with wood wedges holding it plumb when the crane cable was released as shown in Figure 4-8. After a bout 45 minutes, the mortar was solid and the grout could be pumped into the annulus wit hout leaking as shown in Figure 2-7 below.

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16 Figure 2-7 Set 45 grout used to seal mating surface after curing 45 minutes.

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17 CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS OF DRIVING A PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PILE This chapter discusses the methods used to analyze the so il profile and the prestressed concrete pile driv ing at the site where the steel pipe splice tests were conducted. The pile driving hammer was select ed for the pile size and soil profile at the site. The goal of this analys is was to determine the effect of the weak layers and stiff layers in the soil profile on the pile capaci ty and maximum stresses in the pile during driving. 3.1 Pile Driving Test Site Selection The pile splice test site was selected base d on several factors. An initial goal was to find a test site that had a layered soil stratum with Florida limestone approximately 40 feet below grade. A shallow limestone rock layer was desired b ecause a shorter pile length would be less expensive and mo re easily handled by the contractor. A soil profile consisting of both strong and weak layers was preferred to test the splice design under the most strenuous pile dr iving conditions. The p ile resistance is a combination of side friction along the length of the pile and end bear ing at the tip. The relative magnitude of side friction to end bearing will cause different magnitudes of stresses in the pile during driving. Layers of sand, silt, and clay would provide the type of pile driving conditions necessary to stress the pile in both tens ion and compression. 3.2 Cone Penetration Test from Field Site The University of Florida Cone Penetr ation Test [CPT] truck was used to determine the soil profile at th e test site in Jacksonville. The cone was continuously

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18 pushed into the soil at a rate of about 20 mm/sec powered by hydraulics in the truck. The electronic cone penetrometer measured e nd resistance and sleeve friction on the steel cone as a function of depth. The friction ratio, Rf, was equal to the sleeve friction divided by the tip resistance on the cone. The friction ratio was used to classify the soil into cohesive and cohesionless layers based on Table 3-1. Table 3-1 Soil classificati on based on friction ratio. Soil TypeRf Sand 0 < Rf <1.5 Silt 1.5 < Rf < 3.0 Clay 3.0 < Rf < 6.0 At the test site in Jacksonville, two cones were pushed into the ground, approximately 130 feet apart, numbered 9604 and 9606, on either side of the proposed pile driving location. The sleeve friction and end bearing on the electronic cone penetrometer was measured from ground elev ation to the impenetr able rock layer, possibly limestone. Both cone tests showed similar soil profile layer data and the impenetrable rock layer at a depth of 31 f eet below grade. The truck moved when the cone was pushed into the rock layer. The pressure was released to avoid bending the steel rod. Figure 3-1 is a plot of the sl eeve friction, end bearing, and friction ratio recorded from each cone sounding with soil laye r divisions of cohesive and cohesionless. The piles were driven 30 feet away from the cone penetration test hole. During driving of spliced pile #1, th e rock layer was not encountered at 31 feet below grade as predicted by both CPT results. Two additional c ones were pushed adjacent to the piles to determine the depth of limestone rock. The CPT test performed 15 feet east of pile #1 showed the rock layer at eleva tion -36 feet. The CPT test performed 20 feet west of pile #2 showed the rock layer at elevation -39 feet.

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19 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 00.511.52 Side Friction (tsf)Depth (ft ) CPT #9606 CPT #9604 0100200300 Tip Resistance (tsf) CPT #9606 CPT #9604 01.534.56 Friction Ratio (%) CPT #9606 CPT #9604 Figure 3-1 CPT results with soil divided in to layers of cohesive and cohesionless. Cohesionless Cohesive Cohesionless Cohesive Cohesionless Cohesive Rock

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20 3.3 Software Analysis of Pile Driving at the Test Site Geotechnical engineering software was used to estimate the side friction and end bearing on a 30 inch square prestressed concrete pile from the CPT data recorded at the test site. The side friction and end bearing was used to model the soil profile in GRL, Inc. software titled GRLWEAP, which was us ed to simulate the proposed pile driving hammer system. 3.3.1 Static Pile Capacity Assessment with PL-AID The PL-AID software was used to estimate the static pile capacity, which was a combination of side friction and end b earing. The data recorded by the cone penetrometer was input into PL-AID with th e pile material, cross section, and length to determine the unit side friction and unit end bearing on a 30 inch square prestressed concrete pile as a function of depth. The PL -AID software output the design side friction and end bearing in tons at one foot depth increments. PL-AID used the minimum path rule (AASHTO 2004a) considering the soil 8 diameters above the tip and 0.7 to 4 diameters below the tip to determine the tip resistance. The output from PL-AID was a table of the estimated static pile capacity versus tip elevation as shown in Table 3-2. The ultimate unit side friction was calculated by multiplying the average side friction for a layer by two to get an ultimate value and dividing by the surface area of pile in the layer. The ultimate end bearing wa s calculated by multiplying the design value by three to get an ultimate value. The side fric tion on a prestressed concrete pile can also be estimated as 40% of the side friction record ed on the cone penetrom eter. The output of these calculations was shown in Figure 3-2 as a plot of side friction and end bearing on a 30 inch square prestressed concre te pile versus depth. The shape of the plot was similar to the CPT results highlighting bot h strong and weak layers. Th e ultimate unit side friction

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21 and ultimate end bearing on a 30 inch square co ncrete pile were used to model the soil profile at the test site fo r GRLWEAP software analysis. Table 3-2 PL-AID static pile capacity analysis output. Test Pile Length feet Pile Tip Elevation feet Design Side Friction tons Design End Bearing tons Design Pile Capacity tons Ultimate Pile Capacity tons Factor of Safety 2 -2 0.64 24.1 24.7 73.5 0.24 3 -3 1.62 20.1 21.7 63.5 0.21 4 -4 2.65 13.3 16.0 45.3 0.15 5 -5 3.31 7.30 10.6 28.5 0.09 6 -6 4.24 6.40 10.7 27.7 0.09 7 -7 4.81 6.70 11.5 29.6 0.10 8 -8 5.07 20.4 25.4 71.2 0.24 9 -9 5.73 32.3 38.0 108 0.36 10 -10 7.7 34.2 41.9 117 0.39 11 -11 11.2 34.6 45.7 126 0.42 12 -12 13.6 35.3 48.9 133 0.44 13 -13 16.0 36.4 52.4 141 0.47 14 -14 19.0 32.7 51.7 136 0.45 15 -15 21.5 32.2 53.6 139 0.46 16 -16 22.8 36.0 58.8 153 0.51 17 -17 22.7 56.7 79.4 215 0.71 18 -18 22.7 73.3 95.9 265 0.87 19 -19 23.6 75.9 99.5 274 0.91 20 -20 25.9 73.3 99.2 271 0.89 21 -21 28.4 88.4 117 322 1.06 22 -22 30.6 115 145 405 1.33 23 -23 33.3 96.3 129 355 1.17 24 -24 36.8 81.6 118 318 1.04 25 -25 39.2 79.9 119 318 1.04 26 -26 41.3 98.5 139 378 1.24 27 -27 44.3 84.7 128 342 1.12 28 -28 47.0 51.8 98.7 249 0.82 3.3.2 GRLWEAP Software Analysis The Wave Equation Analysis for Piles (WEA P) is the standard method to evaluate the suitability of the ContractorÂ’s proposed pi le driving system, as well as to estimate the driving resistance, in blows per 12 inches, to achieve the pile bear ing requirements, and to evaluate pile driving stresses (FDOT 2004a).

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22 Figure 3-2 Side friction and tip resistance on a 30 inch pile at the test site, used to describe the soil profile in GRLWEAP. GRL WEAP Ultimate Tip Resistance 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 0100200300 Tip Resistance (tons)Depth (ft ) Ulitmate Tip Resistance Cohesive Cohesionless Cohesionless Cohesive Cohesionless Cohesive Limestone GRL WEAP Ultimate Unit Side Friction 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 00.51 Side Friction (tsf)Depth (ft ) Ultimate Unit Side Friction Cohesionless Cohesive Cohesionless Cohesionless Cohesive Cohesive Limestone

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23 For this project, the University of Flor ida proposed the pile driving system and evaluated it based on the soil pr ofile at the test site. The proposed pile driving system was simulated using GRLWEAP software. It wa s necessary to simulate the soil profile at the site, the spliced pile geometry, the pile cushion thickness, and di fferent pile driving hammer types to estimate the pile ca pacity, and stresses during driving. The spliced pile was modeled in GR LWEAP by inputting the cross section properties as a function of lengt h, as shown below in Table 3-3. Table 3-3 Spliced pile model used in GRLWEAP software. Distance Below Top feet Cross Sectional Area in2 Elastic Modulus ksi Unit Weight lb / ft3 0 900 4,000 150 4 900 4,000 150 4 646 4,170 150 10 646 4,170 150 10 891 4,680 150 30 891 4,680 150 30 646 4,170 150 36 646 4,170 150 36 900 4,000 150 40 900 4,000 150 The soil profile data of skin friction a nd end bearing on a 30 inch pile shown in Figure 3-2 was input. A drivab ility analysis was used to estimate the maximum stresses in the pile, the pile capacit y, and the blow count log. To choose the correct size hammer for the field site and pile size, the cushion thickness and fuel settings were adjusted for different Open End Diesel [OED] hammers. The optimal hammer would cause stresses in th e pile equivalent to the allowable limits set by Section 455 of the FDOT Standard Speci fication for Road and Bridge Construction (FDOT 2004a).

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24 3.3.3 Results of GRLWEAP Software A Delmag D46-32 single-acting OED hamme r was donated by Pile Equipment, Inc. of Green Cove Springs. The output s hown below is for the Delmag D46-32 hammer with a 3 inch thick plywood pile cushion. Th e properties of the hammer are included in GRLWEAP and are summarized below. The hammer piston weighed approximately 5 tons, the operating weight of the hammer wa s 10 tons, and the pile cap weighed 7.5 tons. The hammer had four fuel settings which were all used during pile driving, with the majority being fuel settings 2 and 3. The energy per blow delivered to the pile ranged from 52.26 ft-kips to 122.14 ft-kips for a D46-32 hammer. The output from GRLWEAP was provided at one foot depth increments as shown below in Table 3-4, which included the estimat ed ultimate pile capacity, side friction, end bearing, blow count, compressive stress, and tension stress. The stroke height was a function of pile resistance whic h would be useful to control tensile stresses in concrete piles during easy driving. The pile capaci ty increased near the rock layer. The compressive stresses were consistent until the rock layer at elevation -31 feet when they increased. The tension stresses were high, but could be controlled by using a lower fuel setting or increasing the plywood pile cushion thickness from 3 to 6 inches. The maximum stresses in the pile were compared with the maximum allowable stresses specified in Section 455 of the F DOT Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction. The estimated pile cap acity was compared w ith the design capacity of 200 to 450 tons for a 30 inch pile. The es timated blow counts were compared with the recommended range of 20 to 120 blows per foot for a correct sized hammer (FDOT 2004a).

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25 Table 3-4 GRLWEAP output for spliced pile with Delmag D46-32 OED hammer. Depth feet Ultimate Capacity kips Side Friction kips End Bearing kips Blow Count Blows/ft Compressive Stress ksi Tensile Stress ksi 1 345 1.2 344 17.1 2.55 -0.56 2 366 6.3 360 18.6 2.56 -0.52 3 245 14.6 231 10.6 2.47 -0.74 4 167 20.1 147 6.2 2.40 -0.87 5 133 24.6 108 4.6 2.33 -0.90 6 97.0 27.5 69.5 3.2 2.27 -0.93 7 59.6 28.7 30.9 2.3 2.15 -0.90 8 101 29.1 71.6 3.3 2.28 -0.93 9 193 30.2 162 7.7 2.43 -0.84 10 218 32.1 186 9.1 2.45 -0.80 11 235 35.0 200 10.2 2.47 -0.77 12 217 38.1 178 9.1 2.45 -0.80 13 198 41.0 157 8.1 2.43 -0.83 14 186 44.7 141 7.4 2.42 -0.86 15 179 49.1 129 7 2.41 -0.87 16 202 52.8 149 8.4 2.44 -0.83 17 254 53.3 201 11.5 2.49 -0.74 18 373 53.8 319 19.6 2.56 -0.53 19 393 55.0 338 21.2 2.58 -0.50 20 383 58.2 325 20.4 2.57 -0.52 21 404 61.1 343 22.1 2.59 -0.49 22 402 64.5 337 22 2.59 -0.49 23 401 69.3 332 22 2.59 -0.50 24 402 75.6 326 22.1 2.59 -0.50 25 438 81.6 357 25 2.61 -0.44 26 468 85.5 383 27.5 2.63 -0.40 27 417 91.3 326 23.5 2.61 -0.48 28 358 96.6 262 18.9 2.59 -0.59 29 331 100 231 17 2.58 -0.64 30 302 102 200 15.2 2.55 -0.70 31 906 106 800 66.6 2.74 -0.22 32 907 107 800 66.9 2.74 -0.22 3.4 FDOT Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction Section 455 of the FDOT Standard Sp ecifications for Road and Bridge Construction (FDOT 2004a) provided requi rements to properly install foundation structures including piling, drilled shafts and spread footings. This section was used as a

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26 guideline for determining the pile capacity and the maximum allowable stresses in prestressed concrete piles. The maximum allowable stresses in the pile are a function of the specified minimum compressive strength of concrete f`c, and the effective prestress, fpe, on the cross section at the time of driving, taken as 0.8 times the initial prestress force, after all losses. The calculation of fpe for a 30 inch square prestresse d concrete pile with twenty 0.6 inch diameter prestressing strands, at 41 ki ps each, is summarized below in Table 3-5. Table 3-5 Variables for calcu lation of maximum allowabl e pile driving stresses. f`c 6,000 psi Specified minimum compressive strength of concrete Aconc 646 in2 Cross sectional area of voided pile Astrand 0.217 in2 Area of 0.6 inch diameter strand fpu 270 ksi Ultimate prestress fpi = fpu 0.70 189 ksi Initial prestre ss, specified at 41 kips feff = 0.90 fpi 170 ksi Effective prestress, assume 10% losses. Fstrand = feff Astrand 37 kips Force per strand after losses. Ftotal = 20 Fstrand 738 kips Total force on cross section fpe = 0.8 Ftotal / Aconc 920 psi Effective prestress on the cross section for a continuous pile fpe = 0 0 psi Zero effective prestress at the splice. The equations provided in Section 455 of the FDOT Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction (FDOT 2004a) in non SI units are provided below. The maximum allowable compressive stress was co mputed in equation (1), and the maximum allowable tensile stress was computed in equation (2).

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27 Sapc = 0.7 f`c 0.75 fpe (psi) Eqn. (1) Sapt = 3.25 (f`c)0.5 +1.05 fpe (psi) Eqn. (2) For a continuous unspliced 30 inch squa re prestressed concrete pile, the prestressing strands contribute an effective prestress, fpe, to the concrete of about 920 psi. This net compression in the section helps the concrete to survive the tensile stresses caused during pile driving. For a continuous unspliced 30 inch square prestressed concrete pile, the maximum allowable co mpressive stress is equal to 3,500 psi by equation (1), and the maximum allowable te nsile stress is equal to 1,200 psi by equation (2). For a spliced pile, the fpe is equal to zero because the prestress force is transferred to the concrete by bond. For 0.6 inch diameter strands with an eff ective prestress of 170 ksi, the transfer length is e qual to 34 inches (ACI 318 2002). The concrete in this 34 inch zone adjacent to the mating surface is more likely to fail in tension than the fully prestressed portion of the pile during pile driving. For a spliced 30 inch square prestressed concrete pile with twenty 0.6 in ch diameter strands the maximum allowable compressive stress in the non-prestressed region is 4,200 psi by equation (1), and the maximum allowable tensile stress is 250 psi by equation (2). 3.5 Summary of Analyses The University of Florida CPT truck dete rmined the depth of the limestone rock layer at the test site to be 31 feet below grade. The piles were driven 30 feet away from the CPT hole location. At the location the pile s were driven, the rock depth increased to 36 feet adjacent to pile #1, and 39 feet adj acent to pile #2. Also, layers with high end bearing were located at depths of -15 feet, -23 feet, and -27 feet below grade, these were

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28 identified because they would likely generate tension stresses in the pile after the tip punched through the layer. The CPT data from th e test site was used to calculate the unit side friction and unit end bearing on a 30 in ch square prestressed concrete pile. GRLWEAP software was used to simulate pile driving at the test site with a Delmag D46-32 OED hammer and a soil profile model to estimate the pile capacity and stresses. The D46-32 was determined to be an adequate hammer for the piles and the soil profile. For a spliced pile the effec tive prestress is zero in th e splice region, thus, does not increase the allowable tensile stress in the pile. The maximum allowable tensile stress was 250 psi for a spliced 30 inch square pr estressed concrete p ile, and the maximum allowable compressive stress was 4,200 ps i in the spliced region or 3,500 in the prestressed region of th e pile (FDOT 2004a).

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29 CHAPTER 4 CONSTRUCTION PROCESS AND FIELD TESTING METHOD The construction process, heavy equipment and material details were determined during three project meetings at Wood Hopkins Construction in Jacksonville, FL. For example, the necessary equipment to drive the piles, the splice bracing and template design, the pile cutoff method, the steel pipe ve rtical support, the gr out inlet port location, the foam rubber plug design, and the selec tion of the annulus cementitious grout were discussed. The project construction schedul e was also discussed at the meeting. 4.1 Pile Support and Spliced Pile Bracing Method A steel template was used to support the pi les while the crane lif ted the pile driving hammer. After splicing, the template was used to secure the top pile section without moving while the grout cured. The contractor Â’s means and methods were used to support the top half of the splice while the grout cu red; the template me thod effectively braced the splice to prevent movement. 4.1.1 Steel Template used to brace Spliced Piles The template was constructed by driving f our steel H-piles as the foundation which extended up to approximately 15 feet as colu mns. Two steel beams spanned between the columns as the primary frame, and the templa te rested on the steel beams as shown in Figure 4-1. The template was raised a nd lowered by changing the welds and bolted connections to the columns. The two openi ngs in the template were approximately 2 inches larger than the pile width and approximately 10 feet apart.

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30 The template was initially set at 9 feet a bove grade. Each pile was lifted using a double choker with a load stabi lizer plate so that it would ha ng vertically. After being lowered into the opening in the template, wooden wedges were used to secure the pile from moving as shown in Figure 4-1. A B Figure 4-1 Splice testing prepara tion. A) Template, piles and HSS pipes, B) the piles in the template.

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31 The template supported both piles while the crane lifted th e pile driving assembly. After driving the piles to a tip elevation of -14 feet, the template was lowered to the ground. The template had to be lowered to the ground so that it would not interfere with removal of the top half of the pile. The pile s were cut in half, at the 20 foot mark, with 14 feet below the ground and 6 feet remaining above ground as shown in Figure 4-3. Before assembling the pile splice, the template was raised up to its maximum height to support the top half of the spliced pile while the grout was pumped into the annulus and given overnight to cure. After the grout cured, be fore the pile was driven the template was lifted off the top so it w ould not interfere wi th the leads. 4.1.2 Steel Channels used to brace Spliced Piles In the Alternatives for Precast Pile Splices report (Britt, Cook and McVay 2003) a support method was developed using four C15 x 33.9 sections to brace the top half of the splice while the grout cured. The channels w ould squeeze the pile from four sides using threaded rods. The channels would also force the two halves of the pile into alignment. The attachment method assumed 10 feet of th e driven pile was above ground after the head of the pile was cutoff. For this situation, the channels would be bolted on by drilling through the pile above and below the 20 foot long section to in sert threaded rods to bolt the channels to the pile as shown in Figure 4-2. The bottom threaded rods would also be used to support the stee l pipe in position. If less th an 10 feet of the lower half was above ground, the contractorÂ’s means and methods would be used to attach the channels to the bottom pile. For example, addi tional steel sections, ba rs, or threaded rods would be bolted together to brac e the pile sections from moving.

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32 Figure 4-2 Steel C channels to support spliced pile section. 4.2 Initial Pile Drive to Cutoff Elevation The East side pile, or Pile #1, was driven to a tip elevation of -14 feet. The pile began to gain resistance at 10 feet. Before that depth, th e blow counts were very low, less than approximately 5 blow s per foot. The pile drivi ng blow count record for each pile is shown below in Table 4-1. The final bl ow count at a tip elev ation of -14 feet was 18 blows per foot. The West side pile, or Pile #2, was driven with similarly low blow counts with an increase in capacity and blow count at a tip elevation of -10 feet. The final blow count at a tip elevation of -14 feet was 19 blows per foot. Pile driving st opped for the day after both piles were driven to a tip elevation of -14 feet. The CPT test performed 15 feet east of pile #1 showed a local maximum tip resistance at a depth of -15.7 feet. The CP T test performed 20 feet west of pile #2 showed a local maximum tip resistance at a de pth of -14.4 feet. Pile driving was stopped

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33 before the tip punched through the stiff layer fo r either pile. Based on the CPT test, after 24 hours of wait time, the spliced piles woul d begin with an incr eased capacity and moderate compressive stresses due to the soil setup after the pore water pressure dissipated, and after punching th rough the stiff layer, the tip resistance would decrease which could cause high tensile stresses for a spliced prestressed concrete pile. Table 4-1 Blow Count Log for initia l pile drive to cutoff elevation. Pile #1 Pile #2 Tip Elevation (ft) Blow Count ( Blows/ft ) Total # of Blows Blow Count (Blows/ft ) Total # of Blows -1 0 0 0 0 -2 0 0 0 0 -3 9 9 1 1 -4 4 13 2 3 -5 2 15 2 5 -6 3 18 2 7 -7 2 20 2 9 -8 5 25 2 11 -9 2 27 2 13 -10 2 29 4 17 -11 2 31 6 23 -12 4 35 6 29 -13 9 44 7 36 -14 18 62 19 55 4.3 Top Half of Piles Cutoff Both of the piles were cut in half at a tip elevation of -14 feet, thus 6 feet of pile remained above ground surface. An air powered concrete saw with a 14 inch diameter diamond blade was used to cut through the pres tressing strands as shown in Figure 4-3. After all of the strands were cut, the crane was used to pull the pile slowly to the side, until it broke. The metal liner was cut with an oxy-acetylene torch to release it from the lower half of the pile as shown in Figure 4-3.

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34 A B Figure 4-3 Pile cutoff to expose void. A) Concrete pile is cut with diamond blade circular saw; B) metal liner of pile vo id is cut with an oxyacetylene torch. In both piles the metal liner only extended 54 inches below the cutoff elevation as shown in Figure 2-3. The cardboard sonotube was spliced to the corrugated metal to form the void below 54 inches. To test the 10 foot splice bond length in each half of the pile, the cardboard was removed so the annulus grout coul d bond to the bare concrete insi de of the pile to transfer the load. The void in both piles was filled w ith water to soften the cardboard so that it could be more easily removed the next mo rning. The water was pumped out using a submersible pump. Figure 4-4 is the inside of the pile after the cardboard sonotube was removed to expose the bare concrete.

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35 Figure 4-4 Void in each pile after rem oving cardboard sonotube below 54 inches. For this test, the pile was cut in half and the top half was reattached using the steel pipe splice. In typical field splice conditions, only the top 5 fe et of pile would need to be removed to expose the 18 inch diameter void. 4.4 Assembly of the Steel Pipe Splice To support the steel pipe vert ically inside the pile, two 1 inch diameter steel bolts were used. The steel pipe was lowered into the void, and the pile wa s drilled to receive two 1 inch diameter bolts approximately 12 inches below the mating surface near the centerline of two sides of th e pile as shown below in Figure 4-5. The steel pipe was marked so that holes could be cut in the steel pipe in-line with the holes in the pile. The holes were cut in the steel pipe with an oxyacetylene torch and the concrete inside was drilled 4 inches deep. A hole was also drilled in the side of the pile to receive the grout inlet port.

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36 Figure 4-5 Holes drilled to receive bolts to support the steel pipe. The foam rubber plug was attached to the bottom end of the steel pipe to prevent the annulus grout from leaking out of the sp liced section as shown in Figure 4-6. Four 5/8 inch diameter threaded rods were welded to the bottom end plate when the steel pipe was hanging from the crane. The plywood on the bottom layer and the foam rubber plug were drilled to fit the thread ed rods. The plywood was used to compress the 5 inch thick piece of polyurethane mattress type foam. The other layers of the plug were Poron Quick Recovery Polyurethane Foam. In the center of the plug a 3 inch diameter hole was cut to allow gasses to escape. The contractorÂ’s m eans and methods may be used to prevent the annulus grout from leaking out of the spliced section and filling th e void of the driven pile below. The steel pipe was slowly lowered into the void of the pile to avoid damage to the foam rubber plug. After positioning the steel pipe, the steel bolts were greased, so the

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37 annulus grout would not bond to them, and were inserted into the predrilled holes as shown in Figure 4-7. A B C Figure 4-6 Details of the grout plug. A) The dimensions of the grout plug, B) the grout plug is bolted on and compressed with a plywood disc, C) plug in the pile void. 4.5 Mating Surface Grouted and Annulus Grout Pumped The mating surface was clean and ready for th e grout. The spliced section of pile was lowered down to observe the gap and to al ign the template. The spliced section was one foot above the mating surface as shown in Figure 4-7.

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38 Figure 4-7 Steel bolts greased and inserted to support HSS pipe, annulus grout globe valve was attached with epoxy, and mating surface grout was applied. For Pile #1, Set 45 Hot Weather was used instead of regular Set 45, because it was a very hot day and the grout sets in a shorter amount of time in warmer weather. For Pile #2 regular Set 45 was used. For both pile s the grout was mixed with the minimum recommended water content and the required volume was applied to the mating surface to fill the gap. The spliced p ile section was lowered into contact, wooden wedges were at the template to secure the spliced section of pile plumb, and the pile choker cable was slackened so that it would not disturb the bond of the grout at the splice interface. After about 15 minutes the grout had setup, and the grout had cured after 45 minutes. After the mating surface grout cured fo r about 45 minutes mixing began for the Masterflow 928 grout. The mixer had an agitat or holding tank so th e grout could be premixed and continuously pumped to fill the void. Grout pumping began at 4:00 pm and ended at 4:30 pm. The FDOT State Material s Office personnel were present to measure

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39 the fluidity of the grout by recording the flow cone time with the cone type specified in ASTM C939. A flow time of 25 – 30 seconds was specified for a fluid grout consistency. The flow cone time was measured after mixing the first batch of grout, to verify the consistency was fluid. At th e end of grout pumping the flow cone times were 30 seconds and 35 seconds for Pile #1, and Pile #2, resp ectively, as shown in Figure 2-5. A globe valve was used for the top vent for Pile #1 to have a second inlet location ready, if the lower valve became clogged. The vent hole at the top of the splice section was used to monitor the grout level as shown in Figure 4-8. Figure 4-8 Vent hole active and wooden we dges bracing the spliced pile section.

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40 4.6 Driving of Spliced Piles Spliced Pile #1 was spliced and driven fi rst, and then Pile #2 was spliced and driven. The top set of instruments were 6 feet below the top of the pile, so driving stopped for both piles when the inst ruments were at ground elevation. 4.6.1 Spliced Pile #1 Driven after Grout Cured 24 hours Driving of spliced Pile #1 resumed 24 hours after the grout was finished pumping, when the grout cube compressive strength wa s measured at 4500 psi as shown in Figure 2-5. Approximately three-hundred-and-ninety-f our hammer impacts were recorded to penetrate the pile from a tip el evation of -14 feet to -34 feet as shown in Table 4-2. For Pile #1, the highest blow count recorded was 56 blows per foot at a tip elevation of -16 feet. Based on the CPT performed at the site, the tip was above a stiff layer. Below a tip elevation of -17 feet, the blow counts averaged 18 blows per f oot. The hard layer was not encountered at the predicted depth of -31 f eet, and the top sets of gages were at the ground surface, so driving was stopped for the day. 4.6.2 Spliced Pile #2 Driven after Grout Cured 20 hours Driving spliced Pile #2 resumed 20 hours after the grout was finished pumping, when the grout cube compressive strength wa s measured at 3800 psi as shown in Figure 2-5. Approximately four-hundr ed-and-three hammer impacts we re recorded to penetrate the pile from a tip elevation of -14 feet to -34 feet as shown in Table 4-2. Pile #2 punched through a stiff layer at a tip elevati on of -17 feet with the maximum recorded blow count of 40 blows per foot. The pile wa s driven until the top se ts of gages were at ground elevation and would be damaged by cont inued driving. The rock layer was not penetrated with Pile #2 because the depth of the rock layer was approximately 39 feet below grade.

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41 Table 4-2 Blow Count Log for Dr iving Spliced Piles #1 and #2 Pile #1 Pile #2 Tip Elevation (ft) Blow Count ( Blows/ft) Total # of Blows Blow Count (Blows/ft) Total # of Blows -15 26 26 17 17 -16 56 82 18 35 -17 6 88 40 75 -18 13 101 15 90 -19 22 123 11 101 -20 11 134 16 117 -21 25 159 28 145 -22 23 182 14 159 -23 23 205 7 166 -24 24 229 8 174 -25 13 242 32 206 -26 11 253 8 214 -27 21 274 18 232 -28 23 297 22 254 -29 23 320 23 277 -30 18 338 21 298 -31 25 363 22 320 -32 18 381 23 343 -33 13 394 21 364 -34 19 383 4.6.3 Spliced Pile #1 Re-Driven after 4 days The CPT test performed 15 feet east of Pile #1 showed that a hard layer, possibly limestone rock was 36 feet below grade. To dr ive Pile #1 into rock, the top 5 feet of soil was excavated adjacent to the pile so the ga ges would not be damaged by soil and water. Pile #1 was driven to a tip elevation of -39 feet with a maximum blow count of 35 blows per foot as shown in Table 4-3.

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42 Table 4-3 Blow count log for con tinued driving of spliced Pile #1 Pile #1 Tip Elevation (ft) Blow Count ( Blows / f t ) Total # of Blows -34 26 26 -35 34 60 -36 29 89 -37 29 118 -38 30 148 -39 35 183 4.7 Summary of Splice Construction Process The detailed summary of the splice construc tion process is outlined in the order the steps would be performed to construct the splice. 1. Prepare Steel Pipe The HSS pipe was deformed with inch diameter dowel bars at eight inch spacing with 2 inches of 3/16 fillet weld per foot of bar. The HSS pipe was filled with concrete a three inch diameter vent pipe, a plate with a 3 inch diameter center hole was welded to the bottom to accomplish this. 2. Cutoff Pile and Prepare void The pile was cutoff in the hollow section, below the solid driving head to expose the 18 inch diameter void. The corrugated metal liner was cut near the top using an oxyacetylene torch, as the crane slowly broke off the solid driving head. The metal liner was hammered down out of the way, so that the foam rubber plug would not catch the edges when inserted into the void. 3. Drill Holes in Pile Holes were drilled through two opposite sides of the pile approximately 12 inches below the top of the cutoff driven pile to receive 1 inch diameter steel bolts. The HSS pipe was temporarily lowe red into the void (with out the foam rubber plug attached), so the hol e locations would be marked. A hole for pumping in grout was drilled 8 inches below the top of the cutoff driven pile. Epoxy was used to attach an inlet port compatible with the grout pump hose. A vent hole was drilled in the top pile section, 10 feet above the splice interface to let air escape during pumping of the gr out, and to monitor the grout level.

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43 4. Cut Holes in HSS Pipe Holes were cut in the HSS pipe on two si des with a cutting torch at the location marked during drilling in step 6 The concrete was drilled 4 inches deep to accept the dowels at the correct angle, based on the holes in the side s of the pile from step 6. 5. Setup Splice Bracing Channels or Template Setup and assemble bracing for the top half of the splice. A template or steel channel system or equivalent must be used to support the pile overnight. The crane choker cable must be loose or rem oved from the pile while the grout at the mating surface hardens. 6. Attach Foam Rubber Plug Attach the foam rubber plug or equivalent to the end of the HSS pipe. The grout plug shall seal a 2 inch wide ga p in the annulus of the splice. An equivalent method may be used to prohibi t the grout from filling the pile past the end of the splice. A plastic grout c ould be placed at the bottom of the splice to seal a poorly designed plug. 7. Insert HSS Pipe into Driven Pile Void Slowly lower the HSS pipe with the foam rubber plug attached into the void of the pile. The two steel bolts are greased and inserted through the holes in the side of the pile and into the holes drilled into the HSS pipe to support it vertically. 8. Attach Mating Surface Formwork A plywood form should be attached ar ound the splice interface so that the mortar completely fills the gap at the interface between the piles. Concrete shims may be used at the mating surface in the gap, but definitely not metal shims. 9. Place Spliced Pile Section The top pile will be lifted into position and dry fit to observe the gap at the splice interface. This helps to identify the size of the necessary formwork at the splice interface. Also, the channel suppor t or template can be adjusted plumb. 10. Mix and Place Mating Surface Mortar With the top pile in position and approximately a one foot gap between the piles, place the mortar, Set 45 or equivalent to the top of the bottom pile in a 1 to 2 inch thick layer, depending on the ga p at the splice interface. The mating surface should be prepared for mort ar in accordance the manufacturers recommendations.

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44 11. Release Choker Cable from Spliced Pile Section The top pile shall be checked that it is st able and then shall be released from the crane to prevent disturbing the bond with movement. The bonding material is given time to cure, approximately 45 mi nutes, so the fluid grout does not leak out at the interface. 12. Mix and Pump Annulus Grout The grout is mixed and the flow cone time is measured to compare with the flow cone time for a fluid consistency. The grout mix should be adjusted to the proper flow cone time. The grout is pumped into th e inlet port below the splice interface. Grout shall be placed in a continuous flow Pumping continues until the grout starts to flow out of the upper vent hole. Cast grout cubes during grout pumping. 13. Test Grout Cube Strength Pile driving may continue once the grout cube strength has reached 3800 psi.

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45 CHAPTER 5 COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF PILE DRIVING DATA This chapter discusses the dynamic load testing methods used to determine the maximum stresses in the pile during driving. A Pile Driving Analyzer [PDA] unit was used with strain transducer and accelerometer instruments attached to the top of each pile. A general discussion of the collection of PD A data and the meaning of the output is discussed. 5.1 Data Collection with a Pile Driving Analyzer It is standard practice to monitor spliced prestressed c oncrete piles during driving so they are not damaged by high stresses. The standard monitoring equipment consists of a PDA unit model PAK, which is a laptop comput er that accepts inputs from the strain transducer and accelerometer sensors. For each impact of the hammer to the pile, the sensors acquire acceleration and strain si gnals at a sampling rate of 0.076 milliseconds and send the signals to the PDA unit. The PDA unit conditions, digitizes, displays, stores, and performs automatic calculations on the input signals based on the pile properties input by the user. For example, the average strain is converted to an equivalent force through th e elastic modulus and the cr oss sectional area, and the acceleration is time integrated to velocity. Both strain transducers and accelerometers we re attached to the top of the pile, the same distance from the top, to be able to separate the waves traveling down from the waves traveling up the pile. The total force a nd velocity are measured at the top of the pile. The total force at any location in th e pile is the sum of the upward and downward

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46 traveling waves. The pile impedance, Z, defi ned in equation (1) is a property of the pile. The particle velocity multiplied by the pile im pedance has units of force. The force due to a downward traveling wave is defined in equation (2). The force due to an upward traveling wave is defined in equation (3). The total force is equal to the sum of the upward and downward traveling waves, equation (4). The sign convention used for force was positive for compression and negative for te nsion. The sign convention for particle velocity was positive for downward and nega tive for upward particle velocities. Equations used to separate the upward and downward traveling waves in piles: WC AR EM Z Eqn. (1) down downV Z F Eqn. (2) up downV Z F Eqn. (3) up down totalF F F Eqn. (4) The net force was measured by the strain tran sducers at the top of the pile as shown in Figure 5-1 for blow number [BN] 227 of 383 for Pile #2. The wave down and wave up are automatically calculated by the PDA unit using the velocity at the gage location. The wave up and wave down are used to calcul ate the maximum compressive and tensile stress in the pile. The large magnitude of the tensile wave up caused the maximum tensile stress in the pile. Figure 5-2 is a second example of the for ce at the top gage versus time for BN 116 of 183, when the maximum compressive stress was recorded. The net force at the top gages was greater than the magnitude of the wave down because the wave up was also initially compressive, which was caused by hi gh end bearing at the tip of the pile.

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47 837 1467 93.4 1373 0 -927 927 306 -531 -1000 -500 0 500 1000 1500 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.04 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure 5-1 Force at the top instruments, P ile #2 BN 227 of 383, high tensile stresses. 328 1454 -172 1782 827 1000 -258 -300 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure 5-2 Force at the top instruments, Pile #1, BN 116 of 183, hi gh compressive stress. Wave Down Wave Up NetForce Wave Down Wave Up NetForce

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48 5.2 PDA Input Information The properties of the 30 inch square prestr essed concrete piles were input to the PDA unit, as shown in Table 5-1. The effec tive length of pile, LE, was the distance from the top gages to the tip of the pile as show n in Figure 5-3. In the PDA unit, the cross section of the pile must be constant over the effective length. The top set of instruments were attached to the pile in the hollow voided section, theref ore, the cross sectional area, AR, of the voided pile was used. The elas tic modulus, EM, and specific weight, SP, of the pile were input and the wave speed, WS, was calculated as the square root of the elastic modulus divided by the mass density, of the pile, as shown below in Table 5-1. Table 5-1 Pile input information used in PDA unit. Input Description of Input Value Units LE Length of Pile Below Gages34 feet EM Elastic Modulus of Pile 5,506 ksi AR Cross Sectional Area of Pile646 in2 SP Specific Weight of Pile 0.151 kips/feet3 EM WS Wave Speed Input 13,000feet/sec t L WC 2 Wave Speed Calculated 13,080feet/sec For verification, the wave speed, WC, is automatically calculated by recording the time for the wave to travel down the pile and back up to the instruments. The wave speed, WC, is calculated as twice the eff ective pile length divided by the time between peak values. During initial hammer impacts, the elastic modulus, EM, of the pile was adjusted so that the wave speed input, WS, would match the wave speed calculated, WC.

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49 The PDA unit accounted for the increase in s tiffness of the spliced pile by requiring an increased modulus of elasticity to matc h the wave speed, WC, in the pile. For comparison, the static elastic modul us of the pile was computed by AASHTO Section 5.4.2.4 (AASHTO 2004b). The mini mum specified unconfined compressive strength, f`c, of the piles was 6000 psi (FDOT 2005). The unit weight of the pile was input to the PDA unit was 151 lb/ft3 to account for the steel pipe splice. The minimum static modulus of the pile was 4,740 ksi, a nd the modulus used in the PDA unit was 125% greater than the minimum elastic modulus for normal weight concrete. This may be due to a higher value of f`c, or the increased sti ffness of the spliced pile with the steel pipe cross section. The elastic modulus of the p ile was also calculated for higher strength concrete as shown in Table 5-2. Table 5-2 AASHTO Elastic Modu lus Equations for a range of f`c values. Unit weight = 151 lb/ft3 f`c c f w Ec` 335 1 psi ksi 6,0004,740 7,0005,120 8,0005,480 9,0005,810 5.3 PDA Instrumentation Attachment Locations One PDA model PAK unit can accept inputs from eight instruments. Each pile was monitored using four strain transducers and four accelerometers. A set of instruments included two strain transducers and two accelerometers. At the top of the pile a pair of instruments was attached on each of two opposit e sides of the pile, exactly 6 feet below the head of the pile. A strain transducer a nd an accelerometer are attached side by side, 1.5 inches from the centerline, and reversed le ft and right on the opposit e side of the pile as shown in Figure 5-3. The instruments are attached in this manne r so that the average

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50 strain and acceleration may be used. Th e top set of instruments was the minimum required for dynamic pile testing. For this project an additional set of instruments was attached to each pile 27 feet be low the top sets of gages, or 7 feet above the toe of the pile in the voided section. The purpose of this lower set of instrumentation was to measure the axial strain below the splice section. Th e measured strain would be plotted versus time and compared with the computed force at the same pile segment as discussed in Section 5.6. The top set of instruments wa s attached on the face of the pile with the lower strain transducer, not th e lower accelerometer as shown in Figure 5-3, so that strain gage measurements would be on the same side of the pile. Figure 5-3 PDA instrumentation attached at the top and bottom of the piles. The lower set of instruments was to be dr iven 30 feet below grade and had to be sealed and covered to be prot ected from damage by soil and wa ter. The piles were cast with indentions on the centerline of each side of the pile. The indentions were 3 inches by 6 inches and 1.5 inches deep, to allow cl earance for one instrument per indention.

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51 Each instrument was covered with a thick layer of silicone window caulk after being plugged into the PDA unit for a verification of signal. A 1/ 16 inch thick steel plate was bolted on using six inch diameter bolts threaded into concrete sleeve anchors. A bead of silicone caulk was applied near the edges of the plate so that it would seal when the plate was tightened down. The bottom set of instruments were sacrificed for the project because they went below ground and would not be recovered. A groove was cut along the centerline of each side of each pile to mount the instrumentation wire. The groove was cut inch deep by inch wide to allow a 3/16 inch diameter wire to fit below the surface. Hilti HY 150 adhesive was used to glue the wire into the groove. Several figures of the instrumentation are provided in Appendix B. 5.4 PDA Unit Output The PDA unit has the capability to output every variable versus depth or BN. The maximum forces, stresses and pile capacity are summarized below. Additional PDA unit output is presented using PDIP LOT software in Appendix C. 5.4.1 Maximum Stress in the Pile from PDA Output The PDA unit calculated the stress in the pile with a cross sectional area of the hollow section, AR, and an adjusted elastic modulus, EM, to account for the increased stiffness due to the 20 foot long solid secti on as shown in Table 5-1. For each hammer impact the maximum and minimum net force in the pile was computed. The stress computed by the PDA unit was the force divi ded by the voided cross sectional area, AR. The PDA unit does not show the force distri bution in the pile, only the maximum and minimum are provided, and th eir location is unknown.

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52 The maximum compressive stress typically occurred when the pile had a high end bearing, for example when the tip of the pile was above a hard soil layer. The maximum tensile stress typically occurred after the pile tip punched thro ugh the hard soil layer. The tensile stresses ranged from zero to 0. 39 ksi during driving of spliced Pile #2. For example, hammer impacts or blow nu mbers [BN] 119 and 227 of 383 had tension stresses of 0.37 and 0.39 ksi, respectively. The hammer impacts with maximum tensile or compressive stresses typically occurred durin g successive BN. For example, in Pile #2 after splicing the pile at a tip elevation of 14 feet, the tip was above a stiff layer. Table 5-3 below summarizes the PDA output informa tion for BN 14 – 21 when the pile tip was at elevation -15 feet. The PDA estimated the maximum pile capacity to be 180 kips during driving for the BN su mmarized in Table 5-3. Table 5-3 High tensile stresses for pile #2, PDA output calculated with voided cross sectional area of 646 in2. BN Max Compressive Force kips Max Compressive Stress ksi Max Tensile Force kips Max Tensile Stress ksi 14 1264 1.96 -151 0.23 15 1296 2.01 -178 0.28 16 1300 2.01 -200 0.31 17 1364 2.11 -252 0.39 18 1351 2.09 -254 0.39 19 1319 2.04 -217 0.34 20 1291 2.00 -206 0.32 21 1254 1.94 -128 0.20 The tensile stresses were compared with the maximum allowable tensile stress of 252 psi, for a spliced prestressed concrete pile computed in Section 3.4. The stresses recorded for BN 15 – 20 were greater than the allowable tensile stress of 252 psi for a spliced pile. The maximum allowable tensile stress was exceeded purposefully to test the

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53 splice design. The allowable tensile stre ss was exceeded when the splice mating surface was above ground, yet no degradation of the spliced pile was observed. The middle 20 feet of the pile had a spliced cross sect ional area of 891 in2, not 646 in2, which was used in the calculation of th e maximum stress. Thus, if the maximum tensile force for each BN in Table 5-3 was divided by the cross sectional area of the solid pile, then the maximum tensile stress would be less than the value automatically calculated by the PDA unit. The effect of the change in cross sectional area is discussed further in Section 5.5. The maximum compressive stress in the sp liced piles ranged from 1.2 to 2.8 ksi during pile driving. The maximum compressive stress recorded duri ng driving of spliced Pile #2 was 2.4 ksi at a tip el evation of -26 feet for BN 226 of 383. The tip of spliced Pile #2 did not reach the rock layer becau se the depth of rock was greater than anticipated. Spliced Pile #1 was driven to a tip elev ation of -39 feet, and pile driving was stopped to prevent damage of the top set of instruments from soil and water. The maximum compressive stress recorded during dr iving of spliced Pile #1 was 2.8 ksi at a tip elevation of -36 feet on BN 116 of 183. The successive blows near BN 116 also had high compressive stresses, and low tension stresses. Table 5-4 summarizes the PDA output information for BN 113 – 121. The maximum compressive stress from the PDA output was less than the maximum allowable compressive stress of 3.4 for a continuous pile or 4.2 ksi for a spliced pile computed in Section 3.4. Ho wever, concrete has a lower stress limit for tension than compression, so even though the maximum compressive stress was not

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54 exceeded, the pile splice should be able to carry a higher compressive force than measured by the PDA. Table 5-4 High compressive stresses for pile #1, PDA output calculated with the voided cross sectional area of 646 in2. BN Max Compressive Force kips Max Compressive Stress ksi Max Tensile Force kips Max Tensile Stress ksi 113 1572 2.43 0 0 114 1682 2.6 0 0.03 115 1717 2.66 0 0.06 116 1782 2.76 0 0.05 117 1685 2.61 0 0.02 118 1610 2.49 0 0.02 119 1609 2.49 0 0.05 120 1594 2.47 0 0.05 121 1473 2.28 0 0.07 5.4.2 Pile Capacity from PDA Output The pile capacity, or failure load, accor ding to the FDOT Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Constructi on (FDOT 2004b) is defined as the load that causes a pile top deflection equal to the calculated elastic compression plus 0.15 inch plus 1/30 of the pile diameter for piles greater than 24 inches in width. The pile capacity was automatically calculated by the PDA unit based on the measured data at the top set of instruments. Both pile s had similar capacities for tip elevations above -34 feet, the capacity of Pile #1 did not exceed 256 kips, and Pile #2 did not exceed 242 kips. Pile #1 had the maximum ca pacity recorded at a tip elevation of -38 feet on BN 155 of 183. The P DA unit estimated the pile capac ity to be 1080 kips with a maximum compressive force of 1540 kips.

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55 5.5 CAPWAP Software Analysis of PDA Data One-dimensional wave propagation through a pile is effected by changes in cross sectional properties. The axial strain a nd acceleration data recorded by the PDA unit included the effect of the steel pipe splice on wave propagation. The pile properties input to the PDA unit as shown in Table 5-1 did not include the changes in cross sectional area. The PDA automatic calculation of maximum stre ss used the voided cross sectional area of 646 in2, however, twenty feet of the pile was pr imarily solid with a cross sectional area of 891 in2. The pile impedance, Eqn. 1, was a f unction of both the modulus of elasticity and cross sectional area of the pile. The pile impedance, Eq n. 1, would increase in the 20 foot long spliced section because of the in creased area and the increased transformed modulus of elastic ity due to the steel pipe. To account for the changes of cross sectio nal area and elastic modulus, the GRL, Inc. Case Pile Wave Analysis Program [CAPWAP] was used. The advantage of CAPWAP was the ability to model a spliced p ile and the detailed output of force versus time for each pile segment. The CAPWAP so ftware modeled the pile – soil interaction by considering equilibrium of forces acting on a short segment of pile. The pile was divided into a finite number of rigid wei ghts, with elastic springs connecting them together to model the elastic compression of th e pile. The inertial force of the segment was included to account for the weight of each segment. A nonlinear spring with the force dependent on the displacement was used to model the interaction between the pile tip (end bearing) and the soil, and the surface of the pile (sid e friction) and the soil. 5.5.1 CAPWAP Analysis Method The strain transducer an d accelerometer data for hammer impacts with high magnitudes of stress were imported into th e CAPWAP software for more detailed

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56 analysis. The steel pipe splic e method added a 20 foot long 99% solid section to the pile with a different cross-sectiona l area, specific weight and elastic modulus than the hollow section. The pile was modeled in CAPWAP by dividing the pile into one foot long segments and inputting the unit weight, cro ss sectional area, and transformed elastic modulus for each segment. The pile model input to CAPWAP is shown below in Table 5-5 and Figure 5-4. Table 5-5 Pile model input to CAPWAP Software for effective length of pile. Distance Below Top Gages Cross Sectional Area Elastic Modulus Specific Weight Pile Impedance (Eqn. 1) feet in2 ksi lb/ft3 kips/ft/sec 0 646 5500 151 273 4 646 5500 151 273 4 891 6180 159 410 24 891 6180 159 410 24 646 5500 151 273 30 646 5500 151 273 30 900 5500 151 381 Figure 5-4 Pile divided into 1 foot long segments for CAPWAP software. The elastic modulus of 5,500 ksi was the approximate value us ed in the PDA unit for the spliced pile with a uniform cross s ection. The elastic m odulus of 6,180 ksi was calculated based on the ratio of the transformed elastic modulus in the splice to the elastic modulus of the voided pile. Th e calculation of transformed cross section properties were computed in the MathCAD worksheet in appendix D.

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57 5.5.2 Analysis of Hammer Impacts at Critical Tip Elevations The PDA output was used to identify the hammer impacts with high magnitudes of stress which typically occurred in the tip elev ation range of -14 to -18 feet for tension, and between -36 to -39 feet for compression. The data from these hammer impacts was imported into CAPWAP for further analys is and verification. Additional hammer impacts for Pile #2 at other tip elevations, su ch as BN 119 and 227 were also analyzed in CAPWAP due to high te nsile stresses. The piles were both spliced at a tip elevation of -14 feet which was in a stiff layer. The initial 4 feet of driving of the spliced piles was critical because after punching through the stiff layer with compressive stre sses, the tip was unsupported causing tensile stresses. For example, BN 17 and 18 from Table 5-3 were analyzed in CAPWAP. The range of tip elevations between 36 feet and 39 feet below grade was only reached by Pile #1 because to reach this de pth range, the soil adjacent to the pile was excavated so the top set of instruments woul d not be damaged by soil and water when the instruments went 5 feet below grade. The lim estone rock layer was penetrated by Pile #1 at a tip elevation of -36 feet. The blow numbers with the maximum compressive stress and maximum pile capacity from Table 5-4 a nd sections 5.4.1 and 5.4.2 were analyzed using CAPWAP, for example, BN 116, 117, 154, and 155. 5.6 Results of CAPWAP Software Analysis The results of interest were the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in the steel pipe splice section a nd the maximum pile capacity. The maximum compressive stress and maximum pile capacity occurred du ring the same range, thus are discussed together.

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58 5.6.1 Maximum Tensile Stress in the Splice Section The output of maximum force and stress in each one foot long pile segment was used to identify the hammer impact that caused the maximum tensile stress in the 20 foot long spliced pile cross section. The maxi mum value table was output by CAPWAP for each hammer impact analyzed. Presented belo w in Table 5-6 is the extreme values table for BN 17 of 383, the hammer impact with th e maximum magnitude of tensile stress in the steel pipe splice section. Table 5-6 Maximum value table for BN 17 of 383 for each segment of Pile #2. Distance Below Top Gages Max Compressive Force Max Compressive Stress Max Tensile Force Max Tensile Stress Cross Sectional Area Pile Segment No. feet kips ksi kips ksi in2 1 1 1345 2.08 -149 -0.23 646 2 2 1340 2.08 -152 -0.235 646 4 4 1324 1.51 -155 -0.177 646 6 6 1300 1.46 -159 -0.178 891 8 8 1271 1.43 -173 -0.195 891 10 10 1237 1.39 -221 -0.248 891 12 12.1 1191 1.34 -258 -0.289 891 14 14.1 1138 1.28 -291 -0.326 891 16 16.1 1074 1.21 -315 -0.353 891 18 18.1 1001 1.12 -326 -0.366 891 20 20.1 933 1.05 -335 -0.376 891 22 22.2 858 0.96 -329 -0.369 891 24 24.2 771 0.91 -302 -0.357 891 26 26.2 700 1.08 -268 -0.414 646 27 27.1 663 1.03 -246 -0.381 646 28 28.1 625 0.97 -222 -0.344 646 29 29.1 586 0.91 -196 -0.303 646 30 30.1 543 0.81 -167 -0.25 646 31 31.1 485 0.55 -125 -0.14 891 32 32 379 0.43 -165 -0.185 891 33 33 322 0.36 -113 -0.127 891 34 34 313 0.35 -55 -0.062 891 Another output of CAPWAP wa s a force versus time plot for any pile segment of interest. The pile segments chosen were at the top of the pile, the segment with the

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59 maximum tensile force in the spliced section of the pile, and at segment 27 which is the location of the lower set of instruments. S hown below in Figure 5-5 is the force versus time plot which shows the magnitude of tensi on and compression at three locations in the pile. For this plot, segment 20 was chosen b ecause it had the maximum tensile force. In Figure 5-5, note that the maximum compressi ve force at time 0.021 seconds was the largest at the top of the pile from the ha mmer impact, and decreased for each segment down the pile. This trend was also seen in Table 5-6 in the maximum force column. 1359 -90 660 -246 933 -335 -500 -250 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure 5-5 CAPWAP output of force at thr ee pile segments for BN 17 of 383 with maximum tensile force for spliced Pile #2. The maximum tensile force originated at th e bottom of the pile and propagated up the pile. The tensile force in the bottom se gments of the pile was small because the downward traveling compressive wave was st ill arriving when the tensile wave was traveling upward. At the middle of the pile the total force was predominantly tensile Seg. 1 Seg. 20 Seg. 27

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60 because the downward force had passed and th e upward traveling tensile force controlled the magnitude. The upward traveling tensile wave can also be seen in Figure 5-1. During several hammer impacts, the tensil e stress in the splice was close to the maximum for BN 17 of 383 of Pile #2. Tabl e 5-7 summarizes the output from CAPWAP of several BN with the maximum top force, the maximum tensile force and stress in the splice, and the distance below the top gages to the pile segment. Table 5-7 Summary of BN with high tensile st resses in the splice of Pile #2 with spliced cross sectional of 891 in2. BN Max Top Force kips Max Tensile Force in the Splice kips Max Tension Stress in the Splice ksi Distance Below Top Gages to Pile Segment feet 17 1345 -335 -0.376 20.1 18 1358 -305 -0.342 20.1 119 1346 -319 -0.358 20.1 227 1346 -321 -0.36 16.1 In appendix E, maximum value tables are included for each BN included in Table 5-7, in addition to figures such as, wave up matc h, force at top, force at middle, and force at segment 27 plotted versus time. 5.6.2 Maximum Pile Capacity and Compressive Stress in the Splice Section High compressive stresses were recorded for several hammer impacts of Pile #1 when the pile tip was above the hard laye r. The hammer impact with the maximum magnitude of compressive stress in the pile was BN 116 of 183. During several hammer impacts, the compressive stress in the pile was close to the maximum for BN 116 of 183 of Pile #1. Table 5-8 below summarizes the output from CAPWAP of several BN with a high pile capacity and high compressive stre sses. The maximum top force, the maximum compressive stress in the pile, and the dist ance below the top gages to the pile segment are included in Table 5-8.

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61 Table 5-8 Summary of BN with high pile cap acity and compressive stresses in Pile #1 with spliced cross se ctional area of 891 in2. BN Length of Penetration feet Pile Capacity kips Max Top Force kips Max Compressive Stress in the Splice ksi Distance Below Top Gages to Pile Segment feet 116 36.9 782 1780 2.00 6 117 37 699 1685 1.89 6 154 38.2 951 1485 1.66 6 155 38.2 1184 1520 1.69 6 Shown below in Figure 5-6 is the force at the top, middle, and segment 27 of the pile versus time for BN 116 of 183. In appendix F, maximum value tables are included for each BN included in Table 58, in addition to figures such as wave up match, force at top, force at middle, and force at segment 27 plotted versus time. 1718 1619 682 -300 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure 5-6 CAPWAP output of force at thr ee pile segments for BN 116 of 383 with maximum compressive force for spliced Pile #1. Seg. 1 Seg. 17 Seg. 27

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62 Presented below in Table 5-9 is the maximu m value table for BN 116 of 183. Note that the maximum compressive force is fr om the initial downward traveling wave because it decreased as the force moved dow n the pile. The maximum values from Figure 5-6 were includ ed in Table 5-9. Table 5-9 Maximum value table for BN 116 of 183 for each segment of Pile #1. Distance Below Top Gages Max Compressive Force Max Compressive Stress Max Tensile Force Max Tensile Stress Cross Sectional Area Pile Segment No. feet kips ksi kips ksi in2 1 1 1771 2.74 -0.6 -0.001 646 2 2 1776 2.75 -0.5 -0.001 646 4 4 1779 2.02 -3.3 -0.004 646 6 6 1772 1.99 -3.9 -0.004 891 8 8 1762 1.98 -1.8 -0.002 891 10 10 1749 1.96 -13.2 -0.015 891 12 12.1 1723 1.93 -17.9 -0.02 891 14 14.1 1683 1.89 -15.3 -0.017 891 16 16.1 1642 1.84 -13.8 -0.015 891 18 18.1 1590 1.78 -7.6 -0.009 891 20 20.1 1224 1.37 0 0 891 22 22.2 1151 1.29 0 0 891 24 24.2 943 1.11 0 0 891 26 26.2 949 1.47 0 0 646 27 27.1 830 1.29 0 0 646 28 28.1 828 1.28 0 0 646 29 29.1 824 1.28 0 0 646 30 30.1 816 1.22 0 0 646 31 31.1 725 0.81 -0.2 0 891 32 32 715 0.8 -0.3 0 891 33 33 708 0.79 -0.4 0 891 34 34 696 0.78 -0.3 0 891 The maximum pile capacity occurred duri ng BN 155 of 183 of Pile #1 at a tip elevation of -38 feet. The maximum compressive force in the pile was 1525 kips, the pile capacity was 1184 kips, with 575 kips shaft resistance and 608 tip resistance.

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63 5.7 Comparison of PDA Output with CAPWAP Software Output The match quality was used in CAPWAP to rate the correctness of the computed solution. The match quality was based on a comparison between the PDA measured values and the CAPWAP computed values at the top set of instruments for the items outlined below: Blow Count match. Wave Up at top gages versus time, as shown in Figure 5-7. Force at top gages versus tim e, as shown in Figure 5-8. Velocity at top gages versus time, as shown in Figure 5-9. Wave up matching was the preferred me thod of analysis, because it used information from both the strain transducer s and the accelerometers, whereas the other two matching methods only used one type of in strument, the average strain or the average acceleration versus time. The shape of the computed wave versus time as shown in Figures 5-7, 5-8, and 5-9 was adjusted by changing the variables that define the interaction between the soil and the pile below the top set of instruments. For example, the resist ance distribution on the shaft and the force at the toe of the pile were adjusted to improve the match quality. The estimated pile capacity and the magnitude of stresses output from P DA unit were used to estimate the shaft resistance and toe force fo r the iterations. The soil quake and damping values were also adjusted to improve the match quality. The other method of improving the match quality was by using the automatic features of CAPWAP. The soil parameters were optimized by defining the minimum, maximum and tolerance value for each variable, and the software would iterate the parameters. The parameters to be adjusted were chosen all at once, or the unloading rela ted parameters or the toe related parameters. The impedance of each pile segment was also adjusted to the values recommended by

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64 CAPWAP to increase the match quality. The input pile impedance and the adjusted pile impedance are included in appendix E and F fo r each BN included in Table 5-7 and Table 5-8, respectively. Iterations were performed until the matc h quality was less than five, or further improvement was not possible. The match quality for BN 17 was 2.92 without including the input blow count, or 5.85 with the blow count included for matching the measured wave up to the computed wave up versus time as shown in Figure 5-7. The match of the top force measured by the PDA unit and the top force computed using CAPWAP for BN 17 is shown in Figure 5-8. The match of th e velocity measured by the PDA unit at the top of the pile and the velo city computed using CAPWAP for BN 18 is shown in Figure 5-9. Figures 5-7, 5-8, 5-9 are fo r the top set of instruments. 146 139 -876 -868 -1000 -800 -600 -400 -200 0 200 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure 5-7 Match quality of output of CAPW AP computed wave up and PDA measured wave up at the top of Pile #2 for BN 17 of 383. CAPWAP PDA

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65 1358 1359 -90 -43 -200 200 600 1000 1400 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure 5-8 Match quality of output of CA PWAP computed force and PDA measured force at the top of P ile #2 for BN 17 of 383. -200 200 600 1000 1400 1800 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure 5-9 Match quality of output of CAPW AP computed velocity and PDA measured velocity at the top of Pile #2 for BN 18 of 383. CAPWAP PDA CAPWAP PDA

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66 The bottom set of instruments were used to verify the CAPWAP software output at the location of the bottom set of instrument s. For each hammer impact analyzed in CAPWAP, the computed force at the bottom inst rument location was plo tted versus time. The average measured strain at the bottom set of instruments was plotted versus time as an equivalent force by multiplying by the cross-sectional area of the voided pile, AR, and the elastic modulus, EM. For example, BN 17 of 383 of Pile #2 was the hammer impact with the maximum tensile stress. Figur e 5-10 is the PDA measured and CAPWAP computed force at the lower strain tran sducers for BN 17 of 383 for Pile #2. 480 701 -146 663 -246 508 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 800 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure 5-10 Comparison of PDA output and CAPWAP output at the lower gage location. A comparison of the PDA output and CAPWAP output at the lower gage location, similar to Figure 5-10, is included in appendi x E and F for each BN included in Table 5-7 and Table 5-8, respectively. CAPWAP PDA

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67 Another output to compare between the PDA unit and the CAPWAP software was the maximum pile stresses and the maximu m pile capacity. Table 5-10 and 5-11 is a comparison between the values of interest from the PDA unit output and the CAPWAP software output. For the percentage differe nce calculation, the CAPWAP value was the true value. The maximum stresses output by CAPWAP in Table 5-10 are included in the maximum value tables in Appendix E. The goal of the CAPWAP so ftware analysis was not to match the output from the PDA unit. CAPWAP considered pile impedance changes that were not considered in the PDA unit. Table 5-10 Pile #2 comparisons of PDA and CAPWAP maximum stresses. BN PDA Compressive Stress ksi CAPWAP Compressive Stress ksi % Difference PDA Tensile Stress ksi CAPWAP Tensile Stress ksi % Difference 17 2.11 2.08 1.44 -0.39 -0.444 12.2 18 2.09 2.09 0 -0.393 -0.408 3.68 119 2.11 2.08 1.44 -0.377 -0.401 5.96 227 2.27 2.27 0 -0.393 -0.362 8.56 Avg. % Difference0.72 Avg. % Difference 7.6 Table 5-11 Pile #1 comparisons of PDA a nd CAPWAP maximum compressive stresses and pile capacity. BN PDA Compressive Stress ksi CAPWAP Compressive Stress ksi % Difference PDA Pile Capacity kips CAPWAP Pile Capacity ksi % Difference 116 2.76 2.74 0.73 891 782 14 117 2.61 2.61 0 717 699 2.6 154 2.27 2.29 0.87 1058 951 11.3 155 2.38 2.35 1.27 1077 1184 9 Avg. % Difference0.72 Avg. % Difference 9.3 The maximum compressive stress and tensile stress typically occurred for times less than 5.2 milliseconds, which is for the first time the wave traveled down the pile and back up the pile.

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68 The PDA data of force, velocity and wa ve up versus time from the top set of instruments was compared with the CAPWAP output as shown in Figures 5-7, 5-8, and 5-9. The two traces in each figure are we ll matched for shape and maximum values. The data recorded at the bottom of the pile was used as a second check to verify the CAPWAP software output of the force in each one foot long pile segment as shown in Figure 5-10. The CAPWAP software output of maximum force in each one foot long pile segment was accurate because it was verified at the top and bottom set of instruments. 5.8 Summary of Data Analysis Results Dynamic load testing was used to assess the pile capacity and maximum forces in the pile during driving. The PDA data was analyzed using CAPWAP software to account for the changes in cross sectional area a nd elastic modulus. The CAPWAP software modeled the pile – soil interaction by dividing the pile into one foot long segments. This provided the output of maximum force in ea ch segment. The CAPWAP output was verified to be accurate by a comparison of th e force, velocity and wave up traces at the top set of instruments. The bottom set of in struments also verified the computed force versus time output below the sp lice section at segment 27. The maximum compressive force of 1780 kips was measured at the top of Pile #1 during BN 116. The high force was due to the high pile capacity. The net compressive force was larger than the magnitude of the downward traveling wave, because the reflection from the toe of the pile was comp ressive. Several other BN had equivalent compressive forces in the splice section in Pile #1, such as BN 116, 117, 154, and 155. The maximum compressive stress measured during pile driving was less than the maximum allowable specified in Section 455 of the FDOT Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction. However, th e unconfined compressive strength of the

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69 prestressed concrete pile is specified at 6000 psi. Thus the compressive stresses during driving are not as problematic as the tensil e stresses which typically cause concrete to fail. Even though the maximum compressive stress was not exceeded, the pile splice should be able to carry a higher compressi ve force than measured by the PDA. The maximum net tensile force recorded in the spliced section of Pile #2 was 335 kips, or 0.375 ksi when divided by th e spliced cross sect ional area of 891 in2. If the largest measured tension load was assumed to be carried only by the steel, the resulting tensile stress in the pipe was 16 ksi during pile driving. Several ot her BN had equivalent tensile forces in the splice section in Pile #2, such as BN 17, 18, 119, and 227. The magnitude of the upward traveling tensile fo rce wave was 876 kips, for BN 17 as shown in Figure 5-7. The short pile length caused the maximum net force to only be 335 kips tensile, because of the downward tr aveling compressive force wave. For the 40 foot long pile with an effective length of 34 feet, the time for the wave to go down the pile and be reflected back to th e top set of instruments was 5.2 milliseconds. The duration of the hammer impact was the rise time on the force graph as shown in Figure 5-8. It can be seen in Figure 5-1 that the upward traveling wave was occurring while the downward traveling wave was still occurring. This was because the rise time was approximately equal to the time required for the wave to go down the pile and back up. This was a problem because the maximum tensile force in the wave up was covered up by the initial downwar d traveling compression wave. If the pile were twice as long, the full tensile wave up could have crosse d the splice region and the tensile stresses would have been higher. In actual application, during pile driving, the PDA would alert the field engineer to the high tensile stress es, and the pile cushion thickness would be

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70 increased, or the hammer fuel setting decrea sed to limit the stresses within those specified in Section 455 of the FDOT Standard Specifi cations for Road and Bridge Construction. The concrete in the transfer length of th e prestressing strands would be more likely to fail in tension than the concrete outside of the transfer length, because of the net compression transferred to the concrete. For th is splice design, the tensile load would be redistributed to the steel pipe to be carri ed across the splice inte rface (Britt, Cook, and McVay 2003). The steel pipe can resist a tensile load before yielding of 832 kips, so the full magnitude tensile wave up could be carri ed across the splice by the steel pipe. The maximum tensile stresses recorded exceeded 350 psi tension within the transfer length of the spli ce mating surface between pile ends. The maximum allowable tensile stress is limited to 252 psi anywhere in the pile by Section 455 of the FDOT Standard Specifications for Ro ad and Bridge Construction. The splice design was tested with stresses greater than the allowable stre sses, for example, in Table 5-6 the maximum tensile stress in the voided pile at segmen t 26 was 414 psi. Therefore if Section 455 is observed during driving of the st eel pipe splice, it should be strong enough to resist the tensile stresses.

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71 CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 6.1 Summary The steel pipe splice method presented in this report is an alternative method for splicing voided 30 inch square prestressed conc rete piles. Previous laboratory research (Issa 1999) on the steel pipe splice has shown th at a 15 foot long steel pipe splice, with 7.5 feet on either side of the joint, developed an ultimate moment capacity that was 96% of the calculated spliced pile nominal mome nt capacity, and 84% of the unspliced pile nominal moment capacity. The goal of this research project was to test the axial capacity of the splice to validate that it could withstand the maximum allowable stress limits specified in Section 455 of the FDOT Standard Specifications (2004) Since the maximum axial load that the pile will undergo occurs duri ng pile driving installation, this project involved the installation of two spliced piles constructed with the same materials and time schedule as in typical field conditions. Basically, the sp lice utilized a 20 foot long 14 inch diameter steel pipe grouted into the 18 in ch diameter void of the pile with 10 feet on either side of the joint. Details on the construction and inst allation process are prov ided in Section 4.7 and information on the materials speci fied is provided in Chapter 2. During the installation the axial forces propagating through the piles for each hammer impact were measured. Details on the instrumentation and analysis of the field data are provided in Chapter 5. The stresses resulting from these forces were then compared to the maximum allowable stresses.

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72 Section 455 of the FDOT Standard Sp ecifications for Road and Bridge Construction were used to determine the maximum allowable pile driving stresses. For a continuous unspliced 30 inch prestressed concrete pile, th e maximum allowable tensile stress is 1,200 psi and the maximum allowable compressive stress is 3,500 psi. For a spliced 30 inch prestressed concrete pile, th e maximum allowable tensile stress is 250 psi because the prestressing strands are terminat ed at the splice. The maximum allowable compressive stress is 3,500 psi in the prestressed portion and 4,200 psi in the nonprestressed splice region. Based on analysis of the measured field data, the spliced pile withstood a maximum concrete tensile stress of 375 psi in the splice section and 444 psi in the voided section of pile without showing a visibl e signs of degradation. Although it may not be prudent to permit an increase in the maximum allowable tensile stress of 250 psi for piles spliced using this method, the results certainly show that this type of pile splice can be implemented under the current limits for concrete tensile stress. The maximum compressive stress determined from analysis of the field data was 2,800 psi in the voided section of pile and 2, 000 psi in the splice section (note that there is a larger concrete area at the splice). Although the measured compressive stress was less than the allowable compressive stress (due to the rock layer not being firm enough to cause a higher compressive load), there should be no need to limit the allowable compressive stress for this type of splice sin ce in the area of the sp lice there is a larger cross-sectional area of concrete to transfer the compression load than that of the currently approved dowel splice system.

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73 Regarding the steel pipe, the minimum speci fied yield strength of the pipe was 42 ksi and the splice length of 20 f eet was designed to ensure that the steel could yield. If the largest measured tension load is assumed to be carried only by the steel, the resulting tensile stress in the pipe was limited to 16 ksi during pile driving. 6.2 Conclusion The results of this research project indi cate that an alterna tive pile splice method using a 20 foot long 14 inch diameter steel pi pe section grouted into 30 inch voided piles is a viable method that should be consid ered for FDOT approval. The recommended materials for the splice are specified in Ch apter 2 and details of the construction and installation processes ar e provided in Section 4.7. For in stallation, it is recommended to continue with the allowable stress limits curre ntly specified in Section 455 of the FDOT Standard Specifications for Ro ad and Bridge Construction. 6.3 Recommended Pile Splice Specifications The following recommendation include s steel pipe sp lice construction specifications and detailed draw ings of the construction pr ocess. Figure 6-1 provides recommended construction specifications for th e pile splice. Figure 6-2 is an elevation view showing three stages in the construc tion process: pre-splice preparation, splice assembly setup for grouting, and grout mi x and placement. Figure 6-3 is a mating surface detail showing the steel pipe filled w ith concrete, the form used to retain the mating surface grout, the grout inlet hole, and the hole for temporary steel bolts. Figure 6-4 is a detail of the foam rubber plug that was used to seal the void below the splice section. Figure 6-5 is a pile cross section view at the location of the steel bolts that support the steel pipe vertically.

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74 Figure 6-1 Steel pipe splice spec ifications for construction. CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS PRE-SPLICE PREPARATION 1. The HSS 14.00 x 0.500 pipe shall be filled with concrete and a 3 inch diameter vent pipe shall extend 6 inches above top of splice section. 2. inch diameter steel bars shall be form ed into hoops and fillet welded (2 inches of 3/16 inch fillet weld per foot) to the HSS pipe at 8 inches on center. 3. The pile shall be cutoff in the voided section, approximately 5 feet below the pile top. The metal liner shall be trimmed and the edges shall be bent smooth after the pile is cutoff, to allow the fo am rubber plug to be inserted. 4. Two (2) holes, 1.25 inch diameter shall be drilled on two (2) opposite faces of the pile 1 foot below the cutoff, to receive steel bolts. Before attaching the grout plug, fit the HSS into the pile void to mark th e hole location on the HSS pipe to receive steel bolts. 5. One (1) hole, 1 inch diameter shall be dr illed 8 inches below the cutoff to attach the grout inlet port. 6. One (1) hole, 1 inch diameter shall be dr illed 10 feet from the end of the splice section to monitor the grout level. 7. Cut holes in the HSS pipe to receive temporary steel dowels. SPLICE ASSEMBLY SETUP FOR GROUTING 1. Setup and assemble bracing for top half of splice. A template, steel channels or equivalent shall be used. The top half sh all be supported so the crane choker cable is slackened. 2. Attach foam rubber plug or equivalent to seal the 2 inch wide annulus gap. The grout plug shall prohibit the grout from f iling the pile below the splice section. 3. Insert the HSS pipe with grout plug attach ed into the void, insert steel dowels to support the HSS pipe vertically. 4. Attach mating surface formwork. 5. Lower the spliced section into positon, check bracing alignment and gap between pile ends. GROUT MIX AND PLACEMENT 1. The mating surface grout shall seal the gap between the pile ends. 2. The mating surface grout shall set quickly and have a high strength. (Masterbuilders Set 45 or e quivalent shall be used.) 3. The choker cable shall be slackened and the splice section shall be braced to prevent movement. 4. The annulus grout shall be mixed and continuously pumped to fill the splice annulus. (Masterbuilders Masterflow 928 or equivalent shall be used). 5. Verify flow cone time is in accordan ce with product specification sheet. 6. Annulus grout cubes shall be made to ve rify grout strength is greater than 3800 psi, prior to driving spliced piles.

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78 APPENDIX A CEMENTITIOUS GROUTS This appendix contains the product specifi cation sheets for the grouts used in the annulus and at the mating surface of the splice. Pictures of the grout mixing and pumping machine are also included.

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79 A B Figure A-1 Grout mixing operation. A) DSI grout mixer and flow cone time measured by FDOT, B) DSI grout mixer and pump machine. Water Tank Mixed Grout in Agitator Tank Centrifugal Transfer Pump Colloidal Mixer

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How to Apply Surface Preparation 1.Steel surfaces must be free of dirt, oil, grease, or other contaminants. 2.The surface to be grouted must be clean, SSD, strong, and roughened to a CSP of 5 9 following ICRI Guideline 03732 to permit proper bond. For freshly placed concrete, consider using Liquid Surface Etchant (see Form No. 1020198) to achieve the required surface profile. 3.When dynamic, shear or tensile forces are anticipated, concrete surfaces should be chipped with a chisel-point hammer, to a roughness of (plus or minus) 3/8" (10 mm). Verify the absence of bruising following ICRI Guideline 03732. 4.Concrete surfaces should be saturated (ponded) with clean water for 24 hours just before grouting. 5.All freestanding water must be removed from the foundation and bolt holes immediately before grouting. 6.Anchor bolt holes must be grouted and sufficiently set before the major portion of the grout is placed. 7.Shade the foundation from sunlight 24 hours before and 24 hours after grouting. MASTERFLOW928High-precision mineral-aggregate grout with extended working timeDescriptionMasterflow928 grout is a hydraulic cement-based mineralaggregate grout with an extended working time. It is ideally suited for grouting machines or plates requiring precision load-bearing support. It can be placed from fluid to damp pack over a temperature range of 45 to 90F (7 to 32C). Masterflow928 grout meets the requirements of ASTM C 1107, Grades B and C, and the Army Corp of Engineers CRD C 621, Grades B and C, at a fluid consistency over a 30-minute working time. Yield One55lb(25kg)bagofMasterflow928groutmixedwithapproximately 10.5lbs(4.8kg)or1.26gallons (4.8L)ofwater,yieldsapproximately 0.50ft3(0.014m3)ofgrout. Thewaterrequirementmayvarydue tomixingefficiency,temperature, andothervariables. Packaging 55 lb (25 kg) multi-wall paper bags 3,300 lb (1,500 kg) bulk bags Shelf Life 1 year when properly stored Storage Store in unopened bags in clean, dry conditions.Where to UseAPPLICATIONWhere a nonshrink grout is required for maximum effective bearing area for optimum load transfer Where high one-day and later-age compressive strengths are required Nonshrinkgroutingofmachineryandequipment, baseplates,soleplates;precastwallpanels, beams,columns;curtainwalls,concrete systems,otherstructuralandnonstructural buildingmembers;anchorbolts,reinforcingbars, anddowelrods Applications requiring a pumpable grout Repairing concrete, including grouting voids and rock pockets Marine applications Freeze/thaw environmentsLOCATIONInterior or exterior PRODUCT DATA Grouts 036003 www.DegussaBuildingSystems.com Protection and Repair FeaturesBenefitsExtended working timeEnsures sufficient time for placement Can be mixed at a wide range of consistenciesEnsures proper placement under a variety of conditions Freeze/thaw resistantSuitable for exterior applications Hardens free of bleeding, segregation, Provides a maximum effective bearing area for or settlement shrinkageoptimum load transfer Contains high-quality, well-gradedProvides optimum strength and workability quartz aggregate Sulfate resistantFor marine, wastewater, and other sulfatecontaining environments

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MBT PROTECTION & REPAIR PRODUCT DATA MASTERFLOW928Technical DataComposition Masterflow928 is a hydraulic cement-based mineral-aggregate grout. Compliances ASTM C 1107, Grades B and C, and CRD 621, Grades B and C, requirements at a fluid consistency over a temperature range of 40 to 90F (4 to 32C) City of Los Angeles Research Report Number RR 23137 Test DataCompressive strengths, psi (MPa)ASTM C 942, according to ASTM C 1107 Consistency Plastic1Flowable2Fluid31 day 4,500 (31) 4,000 (28) 3,500 (24) 3 days 6,000 (41) 5,000 (34) 4,500 (31) 14 days 7,500 (52) 6,700 (46) 6,500 (45) 28 days 9,000 (62) 8,000 (55) 7,500 (52) Volume change* ASTM C 1090 % Requirement % Changeof ASTM C 1107 1 day > 0 0.0 0.30 3 days 0.04 0.0 0.30 14 days 0.05 0.0 0.30 28 days 0.06 0.0 0.30 Setting time, hr:minASTM C 191 Consistency Plastic1Flowable2Fluid3Initial set2:30 3:00 4:30 Final set 4:00 5:00 6:00 Flexural strength,* psi (MPa)ASTM C 78 3 days 1,000 (6.9) 7 days 1,050 (7.2) 28 days 1,150 (7.9) Modulus of elasticity,* psi (MPa)ASTM C 469, modified 3 days 2.82 x 106(1.94 x 104) 7 days 3.02 x 106(2.08 x 104) 28 days 3.24 x 106(2.23 x 104) Coefficient of thermal expansion,* 6.5 x 10-6(11.7 x 10-6)ASTM C 531 in/in/F (mm/mm/C) Split tensile and tensile ASTM C 496 (splitting tensile) strength,* psi (MPa)ASTM C 190 (tensile) Splitting TensileTensile 3 days 575 (4.0) 490 (3.4) 7 days 630 (4.3) 500 (3.4) 28 days 675 (4.7) 500 (3.4) Punching shear strength,* psi (MPa), Degussa Method 3 by 3 by 11" (76 by 76 by 279 mm) beam 3 days 2,200 (15.2) 7 days 2,260 (15.6) 28 days 2,650 (18.3) Resistance to rapid 300 Cycles RDF 99%ASTM C 666, freezing and thawing Procedure A1100 125% flow on flow table per ASTM C 2302125 145% flow on flow table per ASTM C 230325 to 30 seconds through flow cone per ASTM C 939 *Test conducted at a fluid consistency Test results are averages obtained under laboratory conditions. Expect reasonable variations. PROPERTY RESULTSTEST METHODS

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Forming 1.Forms should be liquid tight and nonabsorbent. Seal forms with putty, sealant, caulk, polyurethane foam. 2.Moderately sized equipment should utilize a head form sloped at 45 degrees to enhance the grout placement. A moveable head box may provide additional head at minimum cost. 3.Side and end forms should be a minimum 1" (25 mm) distant horizontally from the object grouted to permit expulsion of air and any remaining saturation water as the grout is placed. 4.Leave a minimum of 2" between the bearing plate and the form to allow for ease of placement. 5.Use sufficient bracing to prevent the grout from leaking or moving. 6.Eliminate large, nonsupported grout areas wherever possible. 7.Extend forms a minimum of 1" (25 mm) higher than the bottom of the equipment being grouted. 8.Expansion joints may be necessary for both indoor and outdoor installation. Consult your local Degussa field representative for suggestions and recommendations. Temperature 1.For precision grouting, store and mix grout to produce the desired mixed-grout temperature. If bagged material is hot, use cold water, and if bagged material is cold, use warm water to achieve a mixed-product temperature as close to 70F (21C) as possible.Recommended Temperature Guidelines for Precision Grouting Foundation 4550 8090 and plates(7)(10 27)(32) Mixing water 4550 8090 (7)(10 27)(32) Grout at mixed 4550 80 90 and placed temp(7)(10 27)(32)2.If temperature extremes are anticipated or special placement procedures are planned, contact your local Degussa representative for assistance. 3.When grouting at minimum temperatures, see that the foundation, plate, and grout temperatures do not fall below 40F (7C) until after final set. Protect the grout from freezing (32F or 0C) until it has attained a compressive strength of 3,000 psi (21 MPa). Mixing 1.Place estimated water (use potable water only) into the mixer, then slowly add the grout. For a fluid consistency, start with 9 lbs (4 kg) (1.1 gallon [4.2L]) per 55 lb bag. 2.The water demand will depend on mixing efficiency, material, and ambient-temperature conditions. Adjust the water to achieve the desired flow. Recommended flow is 25 30 seconds using the ASTM C 939 Flow-Cone Method. Use the minimum amount of water required to achieve the necessary placement consistency. 3.Moderately sized batches of grout are best mixed in one or more clean mortar mixers. For large batches, use ready-mix trucks and 3,300 lb (1,500 kg) bags for maximum efficiency and economy. 4.Mix grout a minimum of 5 minutes after all material and water is in the mixer. Use mechanical mixer only. 5.Do not mix more grout than can be placed in approximately 30 minutes. 6.Transport by wheelbarrow or buckets or pump to the equipment being grouted. Minimize the transporting distance. 7.Do not retemper grout by adding water and remixing after it stiffens. 8.DO NOT VIBRATE GROUT TO FACILITATE PLACEMENT. MBT PROTECTION & REPAIR PRODUCT DATA MASTERFLOW928 Test Data, continuedUltimate tensile strength and bond stress ASTME488, tests* Diameter DepthTensile strengthBond stress in (mm)in (mm) lbs (kg) psi (MPa) 5/8 (15.9)4 (101.6)23,500 (10,575) 2,991 (20.3) 3/4 (19.1)5 (127.0)30,900 (13,905)2,623 (18.1) 1 (25.4)6.75 (171.5)65,500 (29,475)3,090 (21.3)*Average of 5 tests in 4,000 psi (27.6 MPa) concrete using 125 ksi threaded rod in 2" (51mm) diameter, damp, core-drilled holes. Notes: 1. Grout was mixed to a fluid consistency. 2. Recommended design stress: 2,275 psi (15.7 MPa). 3. Refer to the Adhesive and Grouted Fastener Capacity Design Guidelines for more detailed information. 4. Tensile tests with headed fasteners were governed by concrete failure.Jobsite TestingIf strength tests must be made at the jobsite, use 2" (51 mm) metal cube molds as specified by ASTM C 942 and ASTM C 1107. DO NOT use cylinder molds. Control field and laboratory tests on the basis of desired placement consistency rather than strictly on water content. PROPERTY RESULTSTEST METHODS MINIMUM PREFERREDMAXIMUM F ( C) F ( C) F ( C)

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9.For aggregate extension guidelines, refer to Appendix MB-10: Guide to Cementitious Grouting. Application 1.Always place grout from only one side of the equipment to prevent air or water entrapment beneath the equipment. Place Masterflow928 in a continuous pour. Discard grout that becomes unworkable. Make sure that the material fills the entire space being grouted and that it remains in contact with plate throughout the grouting process. 2.Immediately after placement, trim the surfaces with a trowel and cover the exposed grout with clean wet rags (not burlap). Keep rags moist until grout surface is ready for finishing or until final set. 3.Thegroutshouldofferstiffresistanceto penetrationwithapointedmasonstrowelbefore thegroutformsareremovedorexcessivegroutis cutback.Afterremovingthedamprags,immediately coatwitharecommendedcuringcompoundcompliantwithASTMC309orpreferablyASTMC1315. 4.Do not vibrate grout. Use steel straps inserted under the plate to help move the grout. 5.Consult your Degussa representative before placing lifts more than 6" (152 mm) in depth. Curing Cure all exposed grout with an approved membrane curing compound compliant with ASTM C 309 or preferably ASTM C 1315. Apply curing compound immediately after the wet rags are removed to minimize potential moisture loss.For Best PerformanceFor guidelines on specific anchor-bolt applications, contact Degussa Technical Service. Do not add plasticizers, accelerators, retarders, or other additives unless advised in writing by Degussa Technical Service. The water requirement may vary with mixing efficiency, temperature, and other variables. Hold a pre-job conference with your local representative to plan the installation. Hold conferences as early as possible before the installation of equipment, sole plates, or rail mounts. Conferences are important for applying the recommendations in this product data sheet to a given project, and they help ensure a placement of highest quality and lowest cost. The ambient and initial temperature of the grout should be in the range of 45 to 90F (7 to 32C) for both mixing and placing. Ideally the amount of mixing water used should be that which is necessary to achieve a 25 30 second flow according to ASTM C 939 (CRD C 611). For placement outside of the 45 to 90F (7 to 32C) range, contact your local Degussa representative. For pours greater than 6" (152 mm) deep, consult your local Degussa representative for special precautions and installation procedures. Use Embeco885 grout for dynamic loadbearing support and similar application conditions as Masterflow928. Use Masterflow816, Masterflow1205, or Masterflow1341 post-tensioning cable grouts when the grout will be in contact with steel stressed over 80,000 psi (552 MPa). Masterflow928 is not intended for use as a floor topping or in large areas with exposed shoulders around baseplates. Where grout has exposed shoulders, occasional hairline cracks may occur. Cracks may also occur near sharp corners of the baseplate and at anchor bolts. These superficial cracks are usually caused by temperature and moisture changes that affect the grout at exposed shoulders at a faster rate than the grout beneath the baseplate. They do not affect the structural, nonshrink, or vertical support provided by the grout if the foundationpreparation, placing, and curing procedures are properly carried out. The minimum placement depth is 1" (25 mm). Make certain the most current versions of product data sheet and MSDS are being used; call Customer Service (1-800-433-9517) to verify the most current version. Properapplicationistheresponsibilityoftheuser. FieldvisitsbyD egussapersonnelareforthe purposeofmakingtechnicalrecommendations onlyandnotforsupervisingorprovidingquality controlonthejobsite.Health and SafetyMASTERFLOW928 Caution Risks Eye irritant. Skin irritant. Causes burns. Lung irritant. May cause delayed lung injury. Precautions KEEP OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN. Avoid contact with eyes. Wear suitable protective eyewear. Avoid prolonged or repeated contact with skin. Wear suitable gloves. Wear suitable protective clothing. Do not breathe dust. In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment. Wash soiled clothing before reuse. First Aid Wash exposed skin with soap and water. Flush eyes with large quantities of water. If breathing is difficult, move person to fresh air. Waste Disposal Method This product when discarded or disposed of, is not listed as a hazardous waste in federal regulations. Dispose of in a landfill in accordance with local regulations. For additional information on personal protective equipment, first aid, and emergency procedures, refer to the product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) on the job site or contact the company at the address or phone numbers given below. Proposition 65 This product contains materials listed by the state of California as known to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. VOC Content 0 lbs/gal or 0 g/L. For medical emergencies only, call ChemTrec (1-800-424-9300). MBT PROTECTION & REPAIR PRODUCT DATA MASTERFLOW928Form No. 1019303 9/03 (Replaces 1/02) Printed on recycled paper including 10% post-consumer fiber.Degussa Building Systems 889 Valley Park Drive Shakopee, MN, 55379 www.degussabuildingsystems.com Customer Service 800-433-9517 Technical Service 800-243-6739For professional use only. Not for sale to or use by the general public. 2003 Degussa Printed in U.S.A. LIMITED WARRANTY NOTICE Every reasonable effort is made to apply Degussa exacting standards both in the manufacture of our pro ducts and in the information which we issue concerning these products and their use. We warrant our products to be of good quality and will replace or, at our election, refund the purchase price of any products prov ed defective. Satisfactory results depend not only upon quality products, but also upon many factors beyond our control. Therefore, except for such replacement or refund, Degussa MAKES NO WARRANTY OR GUARANTEE, EXPRESS OR IMPLIE D, INCLUDING WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR MERCHANTABILITY, RESPECTING ITS PRODUCTS, and Degussa shall have no other liability with respect thereto. Any claim regarding p roduct defect must be received in writing within one (1) year from the date of shipment. No claim will be considered without such written notice or after the specified time interval. User shall determine the suitability of the products for the intended use and assume all risks and liability in connection therewith. Any authorized change in the printed recommendations concerning the use of our products must bear the signature of the Degussa Tec hnical Manager. This information and all further technical advice are based on Degussas present knowledge and experience. However, Degussa ass umes no liability for providing such information and advice including the extent to which such information and advice may relate to existing third party intellectual property rights, especially patent rights. In particular, Degussa di sclaims all WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR MERCHANTABILITY. DEGUSSA SHALL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR CONSEQUENTIAL, INDIRECT OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING LOSS OF PROFITS) OF ANY KIND. Degussa reserves the right to make any changes according to technological progress or further developments. It is the customers responsibility and obligatio n to carefully inspect and test any incoming goods. Performance of the product(s) described herein should be verified by testing and carried out only by qualified experts. It is the sole responsibility of the customer to carry out and arrange for any such testing. Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation, nor an endorsement of any product and does not imply that similar products could not be used.

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SET45 AND SET45 HWChemical-action repair mortarDescriptionSet45 is a one-component magnesium phosphate-based patching and repair mortar. This concrete repair and anchoring material sets in approximately 15 minutes and takes rubber-tire traffic in 45 minutes. It comes in two formulations: Set45 Regular for ambient temperatures below 85F (29C) and Set45 Hot Weather for ambient temperatures ranging from 85 to 100F (29 to 38C). Yield A 50 lb (22.7 kg) bag of mixed with the required amount of water produces a volume of approximately 0.39 ft3(0.011 m3); 60%extension using1/2"(13mm)rounded,sound aggregateproduces approximately 0.58ft3(0.016m3). Packaging 50 lb (22.7 kg) multi-wall bags Color Dries to a natural gray color Shelf Life 1 year when properly stored Storage Store in unopened containers in a clean, dry area between 45 and 90F (7 and 32C).Where to UseAPPLICATIONHeavy industrial repairs Dowel bar replacement Concrete pavement joint repairs Full-depth structural repairs Setting of expansion device nosings Bridge deck and highway overlays Anchoring iron or steel bridge and balcony railings Commercial freezer rooms Truck docks Parking decks and ramps Airport runway-light installationsLOCATIONHorizontal and formed vertical or overhead surfaces Indoor and outdoor applications How to ApplySurface Preparation 1.A sound substrate is essential for good repairs. Flush the area with clean water to remove all dust. 2.Any surface carbonation in the repair area will inhibit chemical bonding. Apply a pH indicator to the prepared surface to test for carbonation. 3.Air blast with oil-free compressed air to remove all water before placing Set45. Mixing 1.Set45 must be mixed, placed, and finished within 10 minutes in normal temperatures (72F [22C]). Only mix quantities that can be placed in 10 minutes or less. 2.Do not deviate from the following sequence; it is important for reducing mixing time and producing a consistent mix. Use a minimum 1/2" slow-speed drill and mixing paddle or an appropriately sized mortar mixer. Do not mix by hand. 3.Pour clean (potable) water into mixer. Water content is critical. Use a maximum of 4 pts (1.9 L) of water per 50 lb (22.7 kg) bag of Set45. Do not deviate from the recommended water content. FeaturesBenefitsSingle componentJust add water and mix Reaches 2,000 psi compressive strength Rapidly returns repairs to service in 1 hour Wide temperature use rangeFrom below freezing to hot weather exposures Superior bondingBonds to concrete and masonry without a bonding agent Very low drying shrinkageImproved bond to surrounding concrete Resistant to freeze/thaw cycles Usable in most environments and deicing chemicals Only air curing requiredFast, simple curing process Thermal expansion and contraction similar More permanent repairs to Portland cement concrete Sulfate resistantStable where conventional mortars degrade PRODUCT DATA Concrete Rehabilitation 039303 Protection and Repair www.DegussaBuildingSystems.com

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Technical DataComposition Set45 is a magnesium-phosphate patching and repair mortar. Test Data MBT PROTECTION & REPAIR PRODUCT DATA SET45 AND SET45 HW PROPERTY RESULTSTEST METHODSTypical Compressive Strengths*, psi (MPa)ASTM C 109, modified Plain Concrete Set45 RegularSet45 RegularSet45 HW 72F (22C) 72F (22C) 36F (2C) 95F (35C) 1 hour 2,000 (13.8) 3 hour 5,000 (34.5)3,000 (20.7) 6 hour5,000 (34.5)1,200 (8.3)5,000 (34.5) 1 day 500 (3.5) 6,000 (41.4) 5,000 (34.5) 6,000 (41.4) 3 day 1,900 (13.1) 7,000 (48.3) 7,000 (48.3) 7,000 (48.3) 28 day 4,000 (27.6) 8,500 (58.6) 8,500 (58.6) 8,500 (55.2) NOTE: Only Set45 Regular formula, tested at 72F (22C), obtains 2,000 psi (13.8 MPa) compressive strength in 1 hour.Modulus of Elasticity, psi (MPa)ASTM C 469 7 days 28 days Set45 Regular 4.18 x 1064.55 x 106(2.88 x 104) (3.14 x 104) Set45 Hot Weather 4.90 x 1065.25 x 106 (3.38 x 104) (3.62 x 104) Freeze/thaw durability test, 80ASTM C 666, Procedure A % RDM, 300 cycles, for(modified**) Set45 and Set 45HW Scaling resistance to deicing chemicals, ASTM C 672 Set45 and Set 45HW 5 cycles0 25 cycles0 50 cycles1.5 (slight scaling) Sulfate resistance ASTM C 1012 Set45 length change after 52 weeks, % 0.09 Type V cement mortar after 52 weeks, % 0.20 Typical setting times, min,Gilmore ASTM C 266, modified for Set45 at 72F (22C), and Set45 Hot Weather at 95F (35C) Initial set9 15 Final set10 20 Coefficient of thermal expansion,*** CRD-C 39 both Set45 Regular and Set45 Hot Weather coefficients7.15 x 10-6/F (12.8 x 10-6/C) Flexural Strength, psi (MPa),ASTM C 78, modified 3 by 4 by 16" (75 by 100 by 406 mm) prisms, 1 day strength, Set45 mortar 550 (3.8) Set45 mortar with 3/8" (9 mm) pea gravel600 (4.2) Set45 mortar with 3/8" (9 mm) crushed angular650 (4.5) noncalcareous hard aggregate All tests were performed with neat material (no aggregate) **Method discontinues test when 300 cycles or an RDM of 60% is reached. ***Determined using 1 by 1 by 11" (25 mm by 25 mm by 279 mm) bars. Test was run with neat mixes (no aggregate). Extended mixes (with aggregate) produce lower coefficients of thermal expansion. Test results are averages obtained under laboratory conditions. Expect reasonable variations.

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4.Add the powder to the water and mix for approximately 1 1-1/2 minutes. 5.Useneatmaterialforpatchesfrom1/22" (651mm)indepthorwidth.Fordeeperpatches, extenda50lb(22.7kg)bagofSet45HWbyadding upto30lbs(13.6kg)ofproperlygraded,dust-free, hard,roundedaggregateornoncalcareouscrushed angularaggregate,notexceeding1/2"(6 mm) in accordancewithASTMC33,#8.Ifaggregateis damp,reducewatercontentaccordingly.Special proceduresmustbefollowedwhenangular aggregateisused.Contactyourlocal Degussa representativeformoreinformation.(Donotuse calcareousaggregatemadefromsoftlimestone. Testaggregateforfizzingwith10%HCL). Application 1.Immediately place the mixture onto the properly prepared substrate. Work the material firmly into the bottom and sides of the patch to ensure good bond. 2.Level the Set45 and screed to the elevation of the existing concrete. Minimal finishing is required. Match the existing concrete texture. Curing No curing is required, but protect from rain immediately after placing. Liquid-membrane curing compounds or plastic sheeting may be used to protect the early surface from precipitation, but never wet cure Set45. For Best PerformanceColor variations are not indicators of abnormal product performance. Regular Set45 will not freeze at temperatures above -20F (-29C) when appropriate precautions are taken. Do not add sand, fine aggregate, or Portland cement to Set45. Do not use Set45 for patches less than 1/2" (13 mm) deep. For deep patches, use Set45 Hot Weather formula extended with aggregate, regardless of the temperature. Consult your Degussa representative for further instructions. Do not use limestone aggregate. Water content is critical. Do not deviate from the recommended water content printed on the bag. Precondition these materials to approximately 70F (21C) for 24 hours before using. Protect repairs from direct sunlight, wind, and other conditions that could cause rapid drying of material. When mixing or placing Set45 in a closed area, provide adequate ventilation. Do not use Set45 as a precision nonshrink grout. Never featheredge Set45; for best results, always sawcut the edges of a patch. Prevent any moisture loss during the first 3 hours after placement. Protect Set45 with plastic sheeting or a curing compound in rapidevaporation conditions. Do not wet cure. Do not place Set45 on a hot (90F [32C]), dry substrate. When using Set45 in contact with galvanized steel or aluminum, consult your local Degussa sales representative. Make certain the most current versions of product data sheet and MSDS are being used; call Customer Service (1-800-433-9517) to verify the most current versions. Proper application is the responsibility of the user. Field visits by Degussa personnel are for the purpose of making technical recommendations only and not for supervising or providing quality control on the jobsite. Health and SafetySET45 Caution Risks Eye irritant. Skin irritant. Lung irritant. May cause delayed lung injury. Precautions KEEP OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN. Avoid contact with eyes. Wear suitable protective eyewear. Avoid prolonged or repeated contact with skin. Wear suitable gloves. Wear suitable protective clothing. Do not breathe dust. In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment. Wash soiled clothing before reuse. First Aid Wash exposed skin with soap and water. Flush eyes with large quantities of water. If breathing is difficult, move person to fresh air. Waste Disposal Method This product when discarded or disposed of is not listed as a hazardous waste in federal regulations. Dispose of in a landfill in accordance with local regulations. For additional information on personal protective equipment, first aid, and emergency procedures, refer to the product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) on the job site or contact the company at the address or phone numbers given below. Proposition 65 This product contains materials listed by the state of California as known to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. VOC Content 0 lbs/gal or 0 g/L. For medical emergencies only, call ChemTrec (1-800-424-9300). MBT PROTECTION & REPAIR PRODUCT DATA SET45 AND SET45 HW

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87 APPENDIX B INSTRUMENTATION ATTACHEMENT METHOD This appendix contains details about the method used to attach the top and bottom sets of instruments. The lower instruments went below ground and had to be sealed and protected from damage by soil and water. The following figures show the indentions provided by Standard Concrete, the groove that was cut to mount the wire flush, the plates bolted on, and the top set of instruments. Figure B-1 Top set of instruments; acceleromet er on left side and strain transducer on right side. Strain Transducer Accelerometer Top Indentions provided, but not used. Wire from Bottom Instrument protected.

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88 Figure B-2 Middle set of instruments, accelerome ter on left side and strain transducer on right side. A B Figure B-3 Bottom set of instruments with concrete anchor sleeves installed, A) accelerometer ready, B) strain tr ansducer with casing ready. Strain Transducer Accelerometer

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89 Figure B-4 Bottom set of instruments, with stee l cover plates attached on Pile #2; Pile #1 driven to cutoff elevatio n with tip at -14 feet. Pile #2 Cover Plates Pile #1

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90 APPENDIX C PDA OUTPUT FROM PILE DRIVING This appendix contains the PDA output for each pile in Tabular Form. The software PDIPLOT was used to create the tables. The PDA results presented in the tables below inlcude: FMX Max COMPRESSIVE FORCE at sensors (MEX Max STRAIN) CTN Max TENSION FORCE at or be low sensors (1ST 2L/C only) CTX Max TENSION FORCE (UP 1ST 2L/C, or DOWN TENSION later) TSX* Max TENSION STRESS below sensors (CTX/AREA); TSN=CTN/AR CSX* Max average axial COMPRESSI ON STRESS at gage (FMX/AREA) CSI* Max INDIVIDUAL COMPRESSION STRESS for either transducer EMX* ENERGY TRANSFERRED to p ile (most important measure) ETR ENERGY TRANSFER RATIO (EMX/E R) (must input "ER" RATING) VMX Max VELOCITY at sensors

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AppliedFoundationTesting,Inc. CaseMethodResults PDIPLOTVer.2005.1-Printed:28-Apr-2005 FDOTSPLICERESEARCH-TP-1ARS Testdate:17-Sep-2004 AR: 645.53 in^2 SP: 0.151 k/ft3 LE: 34.00 ft EM: 5,672 ksi WS: 13,200.0 f/s JC: 0.50 FMX: MaximumForce RMX: MaxCaseMethodCapacity CSI: MaxF1orF2Compr.Stress CSX: MaxMeasuredCompr.Stress EMX: MaxTransferredEnergy ETR: EnergyTransferRatio CTN: MaxComputedTension CTX: MaxComputedTension TSX: TensionStressMaximum BL# depth BLC FMX RMX CSI CSX EMX ETR CTN CTX TSX ft bl/ft kips kips ksi ksi k-ft (%) kips kips ksi 1 12.25 4 635 198 1.2 1.0 15.1 2,044.7 0 -65 0.1 6 13.11 18 884 209 1.6 1.4 16.1 2,176.2 0 -65 0.1 11 13.39 18 763 180 1.4 1.2 12.2 1,651.4 0 -65 0.1 16 13.67 18 935 199 1.7 1.4 16.5 2,233.4 0 -65 0.1 21 13.94 18 877 185 1.5 1.4 14.2 1,927.3 0 -22 0.0 26 14.15 26 908 199 1.7 1.4 15.9 2,162.1 0 -20 0.0 31 14.35 26 882 192 1.6 1.4 14.6 1,977.1 0 -20 0.0 36 14.54 26 929 202 1.7 1.4 16.0 2,172.4 0 -11 0.0 41 14.73 26 848 176 1.5 1.3 13.4 1,810.3 0 -17 0.0 46 14.92 26 1,020 212 1.8 1.6 17.9 2,431.5 0 -36 0.1 51 15.05 56 1,055 186 1.7 1.6 18.0 2,445.9 0 -24 0.0 56 15.14 56 1,028 216 1.9 1.6 18.3 2,482.7 0 -24 0.0 61 15.23 56 1,057 203 1.7 1.6 18.0 2,437.6 0 -27 0.0 66 15.32 56 1,022 190 1.7 1.6 17.3 2,350.2 0 -17 0.0 71 15.41 56 1,137 194 1.9 1.8 19.9 2,694.5 0 -37 0.1 76 15.50 56 1,143 188 1.9 1.8 19.9 2,694.7 0 -38 0.1 81 15.59 56 1,116 202 1.9 1.7 19.1 2,595.6 0 -31 0.0 86 15.68 56 1,014 191 1.7 1.6 16.7 2,266.6 0 -25 0.0 91 15.77 56 1,137 182 1.9 1.8 19.6 2,653.1 0 -39 0.1 96 15.86 56 1,061 187 1.8 1.6 18.1 2,457.7 0 -37 0.1 101 15.95 56 1,119 187 1.9 1.7 19.7 2,669.0 0 -41 0.1 106 16.33 6 1,030 189 1.8 1.6 17.4 2,365.2 0 -36 0.1 111 17.08 13 1,142 190 2.0 1.8 20.4 2,767.2 0 -50 0.1 116 17.46 13 1,040 196 1.8 1.6 17.9 2,429.6 0 -40 0.1 121 17.85 13 1,020 201 1.8 1.6 18.0 2,435.7 0 -43 0.1 126 18.14 22 1,014 216 1.9 1.6 18.0 2,437.4 0 -37 0.1 131 18.36 22 1,097 196 1.9 1.7 18.6 2,523.6 0 -49 0.1 136 18.59 22 527 116 0.9 0.8 7.4 996.8 0 -39 0.1 141 18.82 22 1,297 225 2.3 2.0 24.0 3,248.7 0 -47 0.1 146 19.09 11 1,213 154 2.1 1.9 20.4 2,759.7 0 5 0.0 151 19.55 11 1,171 221 2.0 1.8 22.1 3,002.0 0 -29 0.0 156 20.00 11 1,306 220 2.1 2.0 24.1 3,273.8 0 -46 0.1 161 20.20 25 1,112 235 1.7 1.7 21.6 2,923.5 0 -10 0.0 166 20.40 25 1,267 231 2.0 2.0 22.7 3,079.7 0 -34 0.1 171 20.60 25 1,278 227 2.1 2.0 22.8 3,096.9 0 -41 0.1 176 20.80 25 1,231 203 2.0 1.9 21.6 2,923.8 0 -36 0.1 181 21.00 25 1,318 215 2.2 2.0 23.5 3,182.6 0 -38 0.1 186 21.22 23 1,287 210 2.2 2.0 23.0 3,115.2 0 -39 0.1 Page1of3

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AppliedFoundationTesting,Inc. CaseMethodResultsPDIPLOTV er.2005.1-Printed:28-Apr-2005 FDOTSPLICERESEARCH-TP-1ARS Testdate:17-Sep-2004 BL#depthBLCFMXRMXCSICSXEMXETRCTNCTXTSX ftbl/ftkipskipsksiksik-ft(%)kipskipsksi 19121.43231,2322062.11.921.72,947.20-390.1 19621.65231,3432052.32.123.93,247.00-370.1 20121.87231,2922002.22.023.43,173.80-370.1 20622.09231,2962082.32.024.13,264.30-410.1 21122.30231,3052042.32.024.13,269.40-380.1 21622.52231,2272032.21.922.33,025.10-360.1 22122.74231,2412072.21.922.53,055.70-410.1 22622.96231,2361922.21.922.23,014.50-390.1 23123.17241,2961962.32.023.63,193.70-450.1 23623.38241,2732112.32.023.23,139.90-400.1 24123.58241,3312052.32.124.43,307.80-420.1 24623.79241,2962192.32.023.83,220.80-430.1 25124.00241,4032232.32.226.23,552.90-500.1 25624.38131,3212262.32.023.83,232.20-390.1 26124.77131,2632032.22.022.33,027.80-440.1 26625.18111,2142002.11.921.22,875.20-400.1 27125.64111,3182202.32.023.13,127.20-360.1 27626.05211,4672302.52.327.03,654.2-45-460.1 28126.29211,3862172.42.124.93,375.4-8-380.1 28626.52211,3462142.32.123.73,215.90-350.1 29126.76211,3182032.22.023.03,123.00-330.1 29627.00211,2962042.22.022.53,051.80-310.0 30127.22231,3542042.32.123.83,223.0-2-340.1 30627.43231,3542052.32.123.93,234.70-340.1 31127.65231,3782042.32.124.53,322.0-2-400.1 31627.87231,3091962.22.022.83,092.90-360.1 32128.09231,3471972.32.123.43,175.40-360.1 32628.30231,3251972.32.123.13,133.10-410.1 33128.52231,3881952.32.224.53,315.6-10-440.1 33628.74231,3461772.22.123.03,116.6-1-440.1 34128.96231,3191892.22.022.73,079.40-370.1 34629.22181,3741922.42.123.93,242.0-4-440.1 35129.50181,3821982.32.124.03,247.3-12-420.1 35629.78181,4202072.22.224.03,254.3-8-560.1 36130.04251,4362142.42.224.23,277.0-9-530.1 36630.24251,3852142.32.122.83,094.60-490.1 37130.44251,3652222.32.122.23,012.60-480.1 37630.64251,3902142.32.222.83,093.1-1-420.1 38130.84251,3672102.22.122.23,016.60-430.1 38631.06181,3682112.32.122.33,025.4-9-510.1 39131.33181,3392052.22.121.82,950.5-4-560.1 39631.61181,3612072.22.122.13,001.0-9-540.1 40131.89181,3522092.22.122.23,006.2-8-490.1 Page2of3

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AppliedFoundationTesting,Inc. CaseMethodResultsPDIPLOTV er.2005.1-Printed:28-Apr-2005 FDOTSPLICERESEARCH-TP-1ARS Testdate:17-Sep-2004 FMXRMXCSICSXEMXETRCTNCTXTSX kipskipsksiksik-ft(%)kipskipsksi Average1,2092022.11.921.22,872.8-2-390.1 Std.Dev.181220.30.33.7501.77110.0 Maximum1,5322562.62.431.64,290.6050.1 @Blow#57472525713413411461 Totalnumberofblowsanalyzed:403 TimeSummary Drive2minutes47seconds4:03:28PM-4:06:15PM(9/17/2004) Stop29minutes8seconds4:06:15PM-4:35:23PM Drive11seconds4:35:23PM-4:35:34PM Stop37minutes47seconds4:35:34PM-5:13:21PM Drive39minutes18seconds5:13:21PM-5:52:39PM Totaltime[1:49:11]=(Driving[0:42:16]+Stop[1:06:55]) Page3of3

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AppliedFoundationTesting,Inc. CaseMethodResults PDIPLOTVer.2005.1-Printed:28-Apr-2005 FDOTSPLICERESEARCH-TP-1RS2 Testdate:21-Sep-2004 AR: 645.53 in^2 SP: 0.151 k/ft3 LE: 34.00 ft EM: 5,506 ksi WS: 13,000.0 f/s JC: 0.50 FMX: MaximumForce RMX: MaxCaseMethodCapacity CSI: MaxF1orF2Compr.Stress CSX: MaxMeasuredCompr.Stress EMX: MaxTransferredEnergy ETR: EnergyTransferRatio CTN: MaxComputedTension TSN: MaxTensionStress-1st2L/conly TRP: Timefromrisetopeak BL# depth BLC FMX RMX CSI CSX EMX ETR CTN TSN TRP ft bl/ft kips kips ksi ksi k-ft (%) kips ksi ms 1 1.31 1 897 174 1.4 1.4 11.6 1,577.3 0 0.0 5.20 3 3.92 1 1,214 236 1.9 1.9 19.8 2,678.8 0 0.0 5.40 5 6.54 1 1,217 241 2.2 1.9 19.3 2,618.6 0 0.0 5.00 7 9.15 1 1,315 232 2.2 2.0 22.2 3,009.9 0 0.0 4.60 9 11.77 1 1,276 243 2.2 2.0 20.7 2,801.2 0 0.0 5.00 11 14.38 1 1,264 237 2.1 2.0 20.6 2,786.7 0 0.0 4.80 13 17.00 1 1,256 238 2.1 1.9 20.5 2,777.0 0 0.0 5.00 15 19.62 1 1,416 236 2.2 2.2 24.2 3,275.8 -86 0.1 4.60 17 22.23 1 1,447 237 2.3 2.2 25.1 3,404.6 -100 0.2 4.60 19 24.85 1 1,410 236 2.2 2.2 23.8 3,227.1 -78 0.1 4.60 21 27.46 1 1,459 246 2.3 2.3 25.2 3,419.0 -138 0.2 4.60 23 30.08 1 1,416 239 2.2 2.2 23.5 3,190.1 -83 0.1 4.60 25 32.69 1 1,401 233 2.2 2.2 23.3 3,160.9 -83 0.1 4.60 27 34.03 34 1,407 238 2.2 2.2 23.8 3,225.7 -87 0.1 4.80 29 34.09 34 1,451 234 2.3 2.2 24.8 3,363.8 -112 0.2 4.60 31 34.15 34 1,388 235 2.2 2.2 23.1 3,135.5 -67 0.1 4.80 33 34.21 34 1,462 248 2.3 2.3 25.2 3,414.8 -114 0.2 4.60 35 34.26 34 1,510 256 2.4 2.3 26.6 3,613.0 -177 0.3 4.40 37 34.32 34 1,441 247 2.3 2.2 24.6 3,334.4 -108 0.2 4.40 39 34.38 34 1,517 268 2.4 2.4 26.7 3,625.5 -162 0.3 4.40 41 34.44 34 1,470 273 2.3 2.3 25.4 3,442.2 -108 0.2 4.40 43 34.50 34 1,430 277 2.3 2.2 24.1 3,271.0 -66 0.1 4.60 45 34.56 34 1,415 277 2.2 2.2 24.0 3,249.3 -55 0.1 4.80 47 34.62 34 1,494 273 2.4 2.3 26.4 3,574.9 -130 0.2 4.60 49 34.68 34 1,522 277 2.4 2.4 27.4 3,709.3 -138 0.2 4.40 51 34.74 34 1,473 286 2.3 2.3 25.8 3,504.2 -107 0.2 4.60 53 34.79 34 1,512 295 2.4 2.3 26.8 3,638.7 -131 0.2 4.60 55 34.85 34 1,419 298 2.3 2.2 24.2 3,277.7 -52 0.1 4.80 57 34.91 34 1,473 300 2.3 2.3 25.7 3,490.0 -104 0.2 4.60 59 34.97 34 1,533 299 2.4 2.4 27.5 3,725.2 -148 0.2 4.40 61 35.03 29 1,421 303 2.3 2.2 24.0 3,251.4 -78 0.1 4.80 63 35.10 29 1,394 308 2.2 2.2 23.4 3,171.3 -61 0.1 4.80 65 35.17 29 1,429 297 2.2 2.2 24.3 3,293.5 -100 0.2 4.60 67 35.24 29 1,477 296 2.3 2.3 25.8 3,492.5 -133 0.2 4.60 69 35.31 29 1,481 292 2.3 2.3 25.8 3,493.4 -135 0.2 4.40 71 35.38 29 1,470 287 2.3 2.3 25.4 3,449.7 -114 0.2 4.60 73 35.45 29 1,410 290 2.2 2.2 23.6 3,194.9 -81 0.1 4.60 75 35.52 29 1,458 291 2.3 2.3 25.1 3,407.1 -124 0.2 4.80 Page1of3

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AppliedFoundationTesting,Inc. CaseMethodResultsPDIPLOTV er.2005.1-Printed:28-Apr-2005 FDOTSPLICERESEARCH-TP-1RS2 Testdate:21-Sep-2004 BL#depthBLCFMXRMXCSICSXEMXETRCTNTSNTRP ftbl/ftkipskipsksiksik-ft(%)kipsksims 7735.59291,4752862.32.325.63,470.7-1440.24.40 7935.66291,4183052.22.223.73,217.4-1900.34.60 8135.72291,0423211.81.614.01,898.200.06.40 8335.79291,4943022.52.326.13,535.8-1100.24.40 8535.86291,3533022.12.121.82,954.7-530.14.80 8735.93291,4562992.42.324.33,294.3-1010.24.60 8936.00291,5232722.52.428.43,847.7-1510.24.00 9136.07291,4733032.32.325.53,451.3-1210.24.40 9336.14291,3993032.22.223.63,199.4-490.14.80 9536.21291,5022942.42.327.13,675.9-1050.24.60 9736.28291,3923182.32.223.23,144.9-330.14.60 9936.34291,4193192.22.224.03,249.6-640.14.80 10136.41291,4483302.42.224.73,344.5-630.14.60 10336.48291,4563392.42.324.73,348.4-800.14.40 10536.55291,4453632.32.224.63,334.8-300.04.60 10736.62291,4583942.42.325.53,452.600.04.60 10936.69291,4934532.52.326.83,638.300.04.40 11136.76291,5414772.62.430.04,061.100.04.60 11336.83291,5726042.72.432.54,409.600.04.60 11536.90291,7178472.82.742.55,763.700.04.60 11736.97291,6857172.72.636.04,882.500.04.60 11937.03301,6097122.52.534.54,682.400.04.40 12137.10301,4736542.32.330.04,062.500.04.60 12337.17301,3815962.22.127.23,681.000.04.60 12537.23301,2294852.01.921.42,898.6-1500.24.00 12737.30308692111.41.39.51,289.7-1530.25.00 12937.37301,0683921.71.715.72,135.0-1820.34.60 13137.43301,1734892.21.820.32,750.8-930.14.60 13337.50301,3405392.22.124.33,289.1-1200.24.40 13537.57301,3295632.22.123.73,207.7-450.14.60 13737.63301,3195632.22.022.93,109.3-540.14.60 13937.70301,3345542.22.122.63,061.5-880.14.60 14137.77301,3055302.12.021.22,874.6-1340.24.40 14337.83301,3295642.32.122.02,986.7-1800.34.60 14537.90301,2915672.32.021.22,875.5-1010.24.60 14737.97301,3496282.42.124.23,284.9-890.14.60 14938.03351,3586432.52.124.93,380.0-760.14.40 15138.09351,3516692.52.125.13,405.4-290.04.60 15338.14351,3867892.72.128.23,816.900.04.40 15538.20351,5391,0773.22.435.64,829.200.04.40 15738.26351,4638172.92.330.34,101.400.04.40 15938.31351,4259302.82.230.54,134.800.04.40 16138.37351,4297492.92.229.64,006.800.04.40 16338.43351,2605562.42.023.13,133.500.04.40 16538.49351,2305782.21.922.83,086.9-730.14.40 16738.54351,1446352.11.821.82,961.900.04.80 Page2of3

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AppliedFoundationTesting,Inc. CaseMethodResultsPDIPLOTV er.2005.1-Printed:28-Apr-2005 FDOTSPLICERESEARCH-TP-1RS2 Testdate:21-Sep-2004 BL#depthBLCFMXRMXCSICSXEMXETRCTNTSNTRP ftbl/ftkipskipsksiksik-ft(%)kipsksims 16938.60351,2156642.31.924.73,342.600.04.60 17138.66351,1696282.21.823.43,173.300.04.60 17338.71351,0815032.01.719.82,683.4-880.15.00 17538.77359724482.01.517.32,346.0-340.15.40 17738.83351,0454812.21.619.92,702.6-1240.24.80 17938.89351,0445242.31.621.22,876.9-860.14.80 18138.94359855482.21.520.42,766.2-130.05.40 18339.00354773011.30.75.6755.5-220.05.20 Average1,3654102.32.124.43,302.9-710.14.62 Std.Dev.1811920.30.34.9668.1580.10.30 Maximum1,7821,0773.32.842.55,763.700.56.40 @Blow#116155156116115115112881 Totalnumberofblowsanalyzed:183 TimeSummary Drive13minutes35seconds1:32:51PM-1:46:26PM(9/21/2004) Page3of3

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AppliedFoundationTesting,Inc. CaseMethodResults PDIPLOTVer.2005.1-Printed:28-Apr-2005 FDOTSPLICERESEARCH-TP-2RS Testdate:21-Sep-2004 AR: 645.53 in^2 SP: 0.151 k/ft3 LE: 34.00 ft EM: 5,506 ksi WS: 13,000.0 f/s JC: 0.50 FMX: MaximumForce RMX: MaxCaseMethodCapacity CSI: MaxF1orF2Compr.Stress CSX: MaxMeasuredCompr.Stress EMX: MaxTransferredEnergy ETR: EnergyTransferRatio CTN: MaxComputedTension CTX: MaxComputedTension TSX: TensionStressMaximum BL# depth BLC FMX RMX CSI CSX EMX ETR CTN CTX TSX ft bl/ft kips kips ksi ksi k-ft (%) kips kips ksi 1 14.06 17 814 163 1.3 1.3 15.1 2,047.5 0 -56 0.1 5 14.29 17 1,342 215 2.2 2.1 26.2 3,547.1 -182 -182 0.3 9 14.53 17 1,239 203 2.1 1.9 22.9 3,108.7 -108 -108 0.2 13 14.76 17 1,204 200 2.1 1.9 21.9 2,963.3 -46 -53 0.1 17 15.00 17 1,364 183 2.3 2.1 26.8 3,628.9 -252 -252 0.4 21 15.22 18 1,254 175 2.2 1.9 23.1 3,128.5 -128 -128 0.2 25 15.44 18 1,296 174 2.3 2.0 24.3 3,295.4 -218 -218 0.3 29 15.67 18 844 158 1.5 1.3 12.6 1,714.1 0 -34 0.1 33 15.89 18 783 153 1.4 1.2 12.0 1,620.7 0 -38 0.1 37 16.05 40 802 157 1.5 1.2 12.1 1,637.3 0 -36 0.1 41 16.15 40 965 167 1.8 1.5 15.2 2,058.8 -48 -48 0.1 45 16.25 40 882 159 1.6 1.4 13.5 1,835.0 -11 -39 0.1 49 16.35 40 974 159 1.8 1.5 15.7 2,122.8 -60 -60 0.1 53 16.45 40 1,057 161 1.9 1.6 17.7 2,399.6 -104 -104 0.2 57 16.55 40 1,166 160 2.1 1.8 20.5 2,775.2 -171 -171 0.3 61 16.65 40 982 148 1.7 1.5 16.1 2,177.1 -64 -64 0.1 65 16.75 40 1,009 153 1.8 1.6 16.6 2,248.7 -77 -77 0.1 69 16.85 40 854 142 1.5 1.3 13.2 1,785.6 0 -28 0.0 73 16.95 40 884 142 1.5 1.4 14.0 1,903.1 -7 -29 0.0 77 17.13 15 894 127 1.6 1.4 14.2 1,921.2 -12 -37 0.1 81 17.40 15 919 135 1.6 1.4 14.7 1,989.1 -28 -40 0.1 85 17.67 15 975 133 1.8 1.5 16.2 2,195.3 -49 -49 0.1 89 17.93 15 1,022 132 1.8 1.6 16.8 2,277.8 -85 -85 0.1 93 18.27 11 1,059 142 1.9 1.6 18.2 2,474.3 -114 -114 0.2 97 18.64 11 1,059 146 1.9 1.6 18.2 2,468.8 -110 -110 0.2 101 19.00 11 957 151 1.7 1.5 16.4 2,229.1 -54 -54 0.1 105 19.25 16 983 150 1.7 1.5 16.8 2,271.8 -69 -69 0.1 109 19.50 16 729 134 1.3 1.1 11.4 1,543.6 0 -22 0.0 113 19.75 16 770 139 1.4 1.2 12.2 1,649.6 0 -22 0.0 117 20.00 16 966 168 1.8 1.5 16.5 2,240.4 0 -32 0.1 121 20.14 28 1,278 183 2.2 2.0 24.9 3,379.1 -205 -205 0.3 125 20.29 28 1,186 173 2.1 1.8 21.7 2,936.7 -64 -64 0.1 129 20.43 28 1,007 180 1.8 1.6 17.8 2,409.2 -107 -107 0.2 133 20.57 28 1,031 118 1.9 1.6 20.0 2,707.5 -107 -107 0.2 137 20.71 28 1,064 169 1.9 1.6 19.3 2,620.5 -148 -148 0.2 141 20.86 28 1,028 145 2.0 1.6 18.5 2,502.5 -112 -112 0.2 145 21.00 28 1,053 146 2.0 1.6 19.1 2,585.9 -117 -117 0.2 149 21.29 14 865 107 1.6 1.3 12.6 1,712.1 -66 -66 0.1 Page1of3

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AppliedFoundationTesting,Inc. CaseMethodResultsPDIPLOTV er.2005.1-Printed:28-Apr-2005 FDOTSPLICERESEARCH-TP-2RS Testdate:21-Sep-2004 BL#depthBLCFMXRMXCSICSXEMXETRCTNCTXTSX ftbl/ftkipskipsksiksik-ft(%)kipskipsksi 15321.57141,1211712.21.721.32,884.4-97-970.2 15721.86141,1051692.11.720.72,810.6-108-1080.2 16122.2971,0961752.01.720.72,809.5-113-1130.2 16522.8671,1912052.21.822.23,015.0-171-1710.3 16923.3881,0622031.91.618.42,499.8-86-860.1 17323.8881,1561922.11.820.52,781.5-159-1590.2 17724.09321,1162072.01.719.62,653.8-107-1070.2 18124.22321,1401962.01.819.82,686.8-118-1180.2 18524.34321,2712022.22.023.63,197.2-173-1730.3 18924.47321,1801992.11.821.32,891.2-47-470.1 19324.59321,1311892.01.820.02,715.3-23-310.0 19724.72321,1381792.01.820.22,743.1-40-400.1 20124.84321,1721822.11.820.62,794.1-77-770.1 20524.97329651741.61.515.42,088.90-180.0 20925.3881,1362062.01.819.52,649.4-67-670.1 21325.8881,1992112.11.921.42,903.2-53-530.1 21726.17181,2532122.31.922.93,111.2-123-1230.2 22126.39181,2831952.32.024.03,257.6-145-1450.2 22526.61181,0962241.91.720.62,787.00-280.0 22926.83181,1491882.01.820.02,718.1-55-550.1 23327.05221,1401822.11.819.82,680.4-61-610.1 23727.23221,3201992.42.025.33,431.8-171-1710.3 24127.41221,2261982.21.922.02,989.4-109-1090.2 24527.59221,2471912.31.922.73,077.3-122-1220.2 24927.77221,2581882.31.923.03,120.7-118-1180.2 25327.95221,2281852.21.922.13,001.7-107-1070.2 25728.13231,2551832.31.923.23,142.7-121-1210.2 26128.30231,2561792.31.923.23,149.6-118-1180.2 26528.48231,2451792.21.922.93,099.7-117-1170.2 26928.65231,3211832.42.025.73,483.2-165-1650.3 27328.83231,2381822.31.922.83,093.7-106-1060.2 27729.00231,2701832.32.023.73,215.5-120-1200.2 28129.19211,2761792.42.023.93,243.9-124-1240.2 28529.38211,2561792.31.923.43,169.8-112-1120.2 28929.57211,1911702.21.821.52,911.6-23-240.0 29329.76211,2471672.31.922.93,106.4-89-890.1 29729.95211,2271622.21.922.23,012.0-67-670.1 30130.14221,1811482.11.821.32,883.5-14-280.0 30530.32221,2521492.21.923.03,122.7-95-950.1 30930.50221,2671512.32.023.13,131.7-90-900.1 31330.68221,2131372.11.921.82,961.4-42-420.1 31730.86221,2871492.42.023.73,210.5-105-1050.2 32131.04231,2801472.32.023.83,223.8-102-1020.2 32531.22231,2351372.31.922.02,983.9-63-630.1 32931.39231,2601432.32.023.13,129.6-91-910.1 33331.57231,2691422.32.023.13,127.6-88-880.1 Page2of3

PAGE 115

AppliedFoundationTesting,Inc. CaseMethodResultsPDIPLOTV er.2005.1-Printed:28-Apr-2005 FDOTSPLICERESEARCH-TP-2RS Testdate:21-Sep-2004 BL#depthBLCFMXRMXCSICSXEMXETRCTNCTXTSX ftbl/ftkipskipsksiksik-ft(%)kipskipsksi 33731.74231,2311332.21.921.92,966.4-49-490.1 34131.91231,2261312.21.921.62,926.2-51-510.1 34532.10211,2101372.21.921.22,875.5-28-300.0 34932.29211,1871252.11.820.52,785.3-19-290.0 35332.48211,2221292.21.921.52,918.3-53-530.1 35732.67211,2131322.11.921.32,885.9-40-400.1 36132.86211,2151382.11.921.12,866.6-68-680.1 36533.05191,2581342.21.922.73,070.9-106-1060.2 36933.26199861391.61.515.42,081.90-430.1 37333.47191,2231642.11.921.92,965.5-81-810.1 37733.68191,2431652.01.922.53,053.2-98-980.2 38133.89191,2381632.11.922.23,009.4-105-1050.2 Average1,1331652.01.820.22,734.2-83-880.1 Std.Dev.153270.30.23.8509.554480.1 Maximum1,5582422.72.435.44,795.10-180.4 @Blow#226226226226226226120518 Totalnumberofblowsanalyzed:383 TimeSummary Drive20minutes33seconds10:36:47AM-10:57:20AM(9/21/2004) Stop10minutes32seconds10:57:20AM-11:07:52AM Drive6minutes56seconds11:07:52AM-11:14:48AM Totaltime[0:38:01]=(Driving[0:27:29]+Stop[0:10:32]) Page3of3

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100 APPENDIX D MATHCAD WORKSHEET CALCULATIONS This appendix contains a copy of a MA THCAD worksheet used to calculate the transformed section properties in the splice. Also, with a perfect bond between the pile and the HSS steel pipe, the stra ins in both materials is equal. The stress and equivalent force carried by each component is also computed for the maximum compressive and tensile forces in the splice. The maximum compressive force at the joint of the splice was 1700 kips during pile driving. The maximum tensile force at the joint of the splice was 335 kips during pile driving. The steel pipe was designed to transfer the entire tensile load across the splice.

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Pile Dimensions w30in width of pile D v 18in diamter of void D118in Dpipe14.0in Outside diamter of HSS pipe tpipe0.5in thickness of HSS pipe Dvent3in Diameter of vent in HSS to allow gases to escape Apipe19.8in2 HSS14.000 x 0.500 Specific Weight of Materials conc150 lbf ft3 conc conc g unit weight and density of concrete ste490 lbf ft3 ste ste g unit weight and density of steel ORIGIN1 Units kip1000lbf Input Material Properties ksi 1000lbf in2 Modulus of Elasticity Est29000ksi Steel strands and HSS pipe Econc5300ksi Modulus of pile used in PDA unit Egrout2820ksi Masterbuilders Master Flow Product 928 Eset454500ksi Masterbuilders Product Set 45 Prestressing Steel Strand0.217in2 strand x-sectional area n20 number of strands used AstnStrand Ast4.34in2 Area of prestressing steel reinforcement

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Z5Z1 Z1273.45kip sec ft Z1E1AconcAst () c1 Impedence of Voided Cross Section c5c1 c112887.67 ft sec c1E11 Wave Speed in Voided Cross Section 51 10.15 kip ft3 11g 51 10.01lbftin4 1 concAconc steAst AconcAst Density of Voided Cross Section E5E1 E15459.34ksi E1EconcAconc EstAst AconcAst Young's Modulus for Voided Cross Section Aconc641.19in2 Aconcw2 D v24 Ast Area of concrete in Voided Cross Section Cross Section #1 and #5: Above/Below the Splice in the Voided Section of Pile

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Z2393.249 sec ft kip Z4Z2 Z2E2AgrouconAsteel () c2 Impedence of Spliced Cross Section c212836.36 ft sec c4c2 c2E22 Wave Speed in Spliced Cross Section 25122.31 lb ft2sec2 42g 22g 20.01lbftin4 42 2 concAgroucon steAsteel AgrouconAsteel Density of Composite in Spliced Cross Section E4E2Cross Section #2 and #4: In the Steel Pipe Spliced Cross Section Total Area of Steel AsteelApipeAst Asteel24.14in2 Cross Sectional Area of Concrete and Grout Aannulus 4 D v2Dpipe ()2 Area of grout in Annulus of pile void masterflow 928 Aannulus100.53in2 Ainner 4 Dpipe2tpipe ()2Dvent ()2 Area of concrete inside HSS Pipe Ainner125.66in2 AgrouconAconcAannulus Ainner Total area of concrete and grout Agroucon867.39in2 Composite Young's Modulus for Spliced Cross Section : including concrete, grout and st e E2EconcAinnerAconc () EgroutAannulus EstAsteel AgrouconAsteel E25662.08ksi

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Z3366.418 sec ft kip Z3E3Agrout3Apipe () c3 Impedence in Cross Section #3 Bonded c312086.2 ft sec c3E33 Wave Speed in Cross Section #3 Bonded 35122.31 lb ft2sec2 32g 30.0076lbftin4 3 concAgrout3 steApipe Agrout3Apipe Density of Composite at Cross Section #3 Bonded E34967.44ksi E3EconcAinner Eset45Aouter EstApipe EgroutAannulus Agrout3Apipe Composite Young's Modulus for X-section #3 Bonded Agroucon867.39in2 Agrout3871.73in2 Agrout3AouterAinner Aannulus Fills Pipe Ainner125.66in2 Annulus grout Aannulus100.53in2 Bonded or Not Bonded Aouter645.53in2 Aouterw2 D v24 Cross Sectional Area of Concrete and Grout Cross Section #3: At the mating surface (joint) between piles.

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Z3366.42 sec ft kip c312086.2 ft sec 3157.55 lb ft3 E34967.44ksi A3891.53in2 A3AouterAinner Aannulus Apipe Cross Section #3 at the Joint Z2393.25 sec ft kip Z1273.45 sec ft kip c212836.36 ft sec c112887.67 ft sec 2159.21 lb ft3 1152.29 lb ft3 E25662.08ksi E15459.34ksi A4A2 A2891.53in2 A1645.53in2 A2AgrouconAsteel A5A1 A1AconcAst Cross Section #2 and #4 in the splice Cross Section #1 and #5 in the void Summary of X-sections

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stress in steel pipe Fset45 set45Aouter Fset451115kip Force in set 45 grout Finner concAinner Finner255.7kip Force in concrete inside HSS pip e Fannu annuAannulus Fannu108.8kip Force in annulus 928 grout Fst stApipe Fst220.4kip Force in steel pipe Fstrand st0 in2 Fstrand0kip No strand at joint FtotalFset45Finner Fannu Fst Ftotal1700kip Fcomp1700kip Maximum Compressive Force of 1700 kips at the joint of the splice, cross section #3 Fcomp1700kip Fcomp A3 1.91ksi Avg stress in X-section #3 E3 0.000384 Avg Strain in X-section #3 conc Econc conc2.03ksi stress in concrete annu Egrout annu1.08ksi stress in annulus grout set45 Eset45 set451.73ksi stress in mating surface grout st Est st11.1ksi

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Force in concrete inside HSS pipe Fannu annuAannulus Fannu21.4 kip Force in annulus 928 grout Fst stApipe Fst43.44 kip Force in steel pipe Fstrand st0 in2 Fstrand0kip No strand at joint FtotalFset45Finner Fannu Fst Ftotal335 kip Ftens335 kip If assume steel pipe carries entire tensile force: Ftens Apipe 16.92 ksi Avg stress in steel pipe Est 0.000583 Avg Strain in steel pipe Fst Apipe Fst335 kip Force in steel pipe Fst335 kip Ftens335 kip Maximum Tensile Force of -335 kips at the joint of the splice Ftens335 kip Ftens A3 0.38 ksi Avg stress in X-section #3 E3 0.000076 Avg Strain in X-section #3 conc Econc conc0.4 ksi stress in concrete annu Egrout annu0.21 ksi stress in annulus grout set45 Eset45 set450.34 ksi stress in mating surface grout st Est st2.19 ksi stress in steel pipe Fset45 set45Aouter Fset45219.7 kip Force in concrete Finner concAinner Finner50.4 kip

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108 APPENDIX E CAPWAP OUTPUT FOR TENSILE FORCES Appendix E contains figures showing a comparison between the PDA output and the CAPWAP output for Pile #2 blow numbers 17, 18, 119, and 227, which were the hammer impacts that caused high tensile stre sses. The figures included for each blow number are: CAPWAP computed force at top, middle, and segment 27 of pile versus time. PDA measured force at top of pile and CAPWAP computed force at top of pile versus time. PDA measured wave up at top of pile a nd CAPWAP computed wave up at top of pile versus time. PDA measured force at lower gage and CAPWAP computed force at segment 27 versus time. The maximum value table output from CA PWAP was also included because it shows the maximum force in each pile se gment defined in Figure E-1 below. Figure E-1 Pile divided into 1 foot long segments for CAPWAP software.

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109 Table E-1 CAPWAP output of final results for BN 17 of 383.

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110 Table E-2 CAPWAP output of extr eme values for BN 17 of 383.

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111 1359 -90 660 -246 933 -335 -500 -250 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure E-2 CAPWAP output of force at three pile segments for BN 17 of 383. 146 139 -876 -868 -1000 -800 -600 -400 -200 0 200 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure E-3 Match quality of CAPWAP computed wave up and PDA measured wave up at the top of Pile #2 for BN 17 of 383. Seg. 1 Seg. 20 Seg. 27 CAPWAP PDA

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112 1358 1359 -90 -43 -200 200 600 1000 1400 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure E-4 Match quality of CAPWAP computed force and PDA measured force at the top of Pile #2 for BN 17 of 383. 480 701 -146 663 -246 508 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 800 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure E-5 BN 17 of Pile #2 comparison of PDA output and CAPWAP output at the lower gage location. CAPWAP PDA CAPWAP PDA

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113 Table E-3 CAPWAP output of final results for BN 18 of 383.

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114 Table E-4 CAPWAP output of extr eme values for BN 18 of 383.

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115 1381 1046 -73 651 -300 -221 -300 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure E-6 CAPWAP output of force at three pile segments for BN 18 of 383. 153 157 -850 -818 -1000 -800 -600 -400 -200 0 200 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure E-7 Match quality of CAPWAP computed wave up and PDA measured wave up at the top of Pile #2 for BN 18 of 383. CAPWAP PDA Seg. 1 Seg. 20 Seg. 27

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116 1345 1381 -73 -44 282 207 -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure E-8 Match quality of CAPWAP computed force and PDA measured force at the top of Pile #2 for BN 18 of 383. 476 683 -148 651 -221 539 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 800 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure E-9 Pile #2 BN 18 comparison of PDA output and CAPWAP output at the lower gage location. CAPWAP PDA CAPWAP PDA

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117 Table E-5 CAPWAP software output of final results for BN 119 of 383.

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118 Table E-6 CAPWAP software output of extreme values for BN 119 of 383.

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119 1071 -229 -331 643 1345 -148 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure E-10 CAPWAP output of force at th ree pile segments for BN 119 of 383 of spliced Pile #2. 143 161 -860 -844 -1000 -800 -600 -400 -200 0 200 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure E-11 Match quality of CAPWAP computed wave up and PDA measured wave up at the top of Pile #2 for BN 119 of 383. CAPWAP PDA Seg. 1 Seg. 20 Seg. 27

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120 1344 1345 -32 -148 265 232 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure E-12 Match quality of CAPWAP computed force and PDA measured force at the top of Pile #2 for BN 119 of 383. -135 697 643 -229 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 800 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure E-13 Pile #2 BN 119 comparison of PDA output and CAPWAP output at the lower gage location. CAPWAP PDA CAPWAP PDA

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121 Table E-7 CAPWAP output of final results for BN 227 of 383.

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122 Table E-8 CAPWAP output of extr eme values for BN 227 of 383.

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123 1498 -199 1157 748 -311 -140 -400 0 400 800 1200 1600 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure E-14 CAPWAP output of force at th ree pile segments for BN 227 of 383 with maximum tensile force for spliced Pile #2. 146 152 -864 -879 -1000 -800 -600 -400 -200 0 200 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure E-15 Match quality of CAPWAP computed wave up and PDA measured wave up at the top of Pile #2 for BN 227 of 383. CAPWAP PDA Seg. 1 Seg. 20 Seg. 27

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124 -199 1498 1462 -4 -400 0 400 800 1200 1600 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure E-16 Match quality of CAPWAP computed force and PDA measured force at the top of Pile #2 for BN 227 of 383. 790 -173 748 -140 -200 0 200 400 600 800 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure E-17 Pile #2 BN 227 comparison of PDA output and CAPWAP output at the lower gage location. CAPWAP PDA CAPWAP PDA

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125 APPENDIX F CAPWAP OUTPUT FOR COMPRESSIVE FORCES Appendix F contains figures showing a comparison between the PDA output and the CAPWAP output for Pile #1 blow numb ers 116, 117, 154, and 155, which were the hammer impacts that caused high compressive stresses. The figures included for each blow number are: CAPWAP computed force at top, middle, and segment 27 of pile versus time. PDA measured force at top of pile and CAPWAP computed force at top of pile versus time. PDA measured wave up at top of pile a nd CAPWAP computed wave up at top of pile versus time. PDA measured force at lower gage and CAPWAP computed force at segment 27 versus time. The maximum value table output from CA PWAP was also included because it shows the maximum force in each pile se gment defined in Figure F-1 below. Figure F-1 Pile divided into 1 foot long segments for CAPWAP software.

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126 Table F-1 CAPWAP output of final results for BN 116 of 183.

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127 Table F-2 CAPWAP output of extr eme values for BN 116 of 183.

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128 1718 1619 682 -300 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure F-2 CAPWAP output of force at three pile segments for BN 116 of 183. 424 423 -150 -170 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure F-3 Match quality of CAPWAP computed wave up a nd PDA measured wave up at the top of Pile #1 for BN 116 of 183. Seg. 1 Seg. 17 Seg. 27 CAPWAP PDA

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129 962 1780 1718 622 517 966 -300 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure F-4 Match quality of CAPWAP computed force and PDA measured force at the top of Pile #1 for BN 116 of 183. 852 682 900 830 -6.0 173 -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure F-5 BN 116 of Pile #1 Comparison of PDA output and CAPWAP output at the lower gage location. CAPWAP PDA CAPWAP PDA

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130 Table F-3 CAPWAP output of final results for BN 117 of 183.

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131 Table F-4 CAPWAP output of extr eme values for BN 117 of 183.

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132 1672 1542 1121 85 738 305 716 685 374 -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure F-6 CAPWAP output of force at three pile segments for BN 117 of 183 300 304 -342 -325 -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure F-7 Match quality of CAPWAP computed wave up a nd PDA measured wave up at the top of Pile #1 for BN 117 of 183. CAPWAP PDA Seg. 1 Seg. 17 Seg. 27

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133 305 717 1681 1672 416 685 -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure F-8 Match quality of CAPWAP computed force and PDA measured force at the top of Pile #1 for BN 117 of 183. 1115 716 738 45 526 85 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure F-9 Pile #1 BN 117 Comparison of PDA output and CAPWAP output at the lower gage location. CAPWAP PDA CA PWAP PDA

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134 Table F-5 CAPWAP software output of final results for BN 154 of 183.

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135 Table F-6 CAPWAP software output of extreme values for BN 154 of 183.

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136 1511 162 1088 741 116 415 947 1105 1086 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure F-10 CAPWAP output of force at three pile segments for BN 154 of 183. 274 253 -339 -331 -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure F-11 Match quality of CAPWAP computed wave up and PDA measured wave up at the top of Pile #1 for BN 154 of 183. CAPWAP PDA Seg. 1 Seg. 20 Seg. 27

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137 116 274 1078 1463 1511 918 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure F-12 Match quality of CAPWAP computed force and PDA measured force at the top of Pile #1 for BN 154 of 183. 561 741 1086 1091 -9.8 415 -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure F-13 Pile #1 BN 154 comparison of PDA output and CAPWAP output at the lower gage location. CAPWAP PDA CAPWAP PDA

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138 Table F-7 CAPWAP output of final results for BN 155 of 183.

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139 Table F-8 CAPWAP output of extr eme values for BN 155 of 183.

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140 459 1492 1448 1012 523 615 1090 1527 1353 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure F-14 CAPWAP output of force at three pile segments for BN 155 of 183. 274 259 -199 -183 478 447 -300 -150 0 150 300 450 600 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure F-15 Match quality of CAPWAP computed wave up and PDA measured wave up at the top of Pile #1 for BN 155 of 183. CAPWAP PDA Seg. 1 Seg. 20 Seg. 27

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141 1535 1492 523 561 1090 1067 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 0.010.0150.020.0250.030.0350.040.0450.05 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure F-16 Match quality of CAPWAP computed force and PDA measured force at the top of Pile #1 for BN 155 of 183. 1353 547 1059 1012 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 0.0100.0150.0200.0250.0300.0350.0400.0450.050 Time (sec)Force (kips) Figure F-17 Pile #1 BN 155 Comparison of PDA output and CAPWAP output at the lower gage location. CAPWAP PDA CAPWAP PDA

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142 LIST OF REFERENCES American Association of State Highway a nd Transportation Offici als [AASHTO] Load and Resistance Factor Desi gn Bridge Design Specificat ions. Washington, DC, Third Edition, 2004a. Section 10.7.3.4 Pile Re sistance Estimates Based on In-Situ Tests, Pp. 10-66 10-70. American Association of State Highway a nd Transportation Offici als [AASHTO] Load and Resistance Factor Desi gn Bridge Design Specificat ions. Washington, DC, Third Edition, 2004b. Section 5.4.2.4 M odulus of Elasticity, Pp. 5-16. American Concrete Institut e [ACI] 318-02, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. Farmington Hills, Michigan. Section 12.9 Development of Prestressing Strands, Pp. 191-192. American Institute of Steel Construction [A ISC] Manual of Steel Construction, Load and Resistance Factor Design. Chicago, Illin ois, Third Edition, 2001. Table 2-1, Pp. 224. American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] (1994), Standard Specification for Corrugated Steel Pipe, Metallic Coated Se wers and Drains, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, A 760 94. West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, Volume 1, Thirty First Edition, 1994. Britt, Cook, McVay, August 2003, Alternatives fo r Precast Pile Splices Report Part 1. University of Florida, Department of Ci vil and Coastal Engin eering, Gainesville, FL, FDOT Report No. BC354 RPWO #80 Part 1. Contech Products, http://www.contech-cpi.com/products/productGroups.asp?id=4 Corrugated metal drain pipe and pipe coating alternatives. Accessed May 2005 Goble Rauche Likins and Associates [G RL], Inc, February 2000, Preliminary Investigation of Existing Conditions Pile Driving and Dynamic Pile Testing Results at I-4 Over St. Johns Rive r Bridge. Orlando, Florida. Florida Department of Transportation [FDO T] Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction, 2004a. Tallahass ee, FL. Section 455-5.11 Methods to Determine Pile Capacity, Pp. 15-17. Florida Department of Transportation [FDO T] Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction, 2004b. Tallahassee, FL. Section 455-2.2.1 Modified Quick Test, Pp. 5.

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143 Florida Department of Transportation [F DOT] Structures Design Office, March 2005.2, English Standard Drawings, Notes and De tails for Square Prestressed Concrete Piles, Index No. 600, Square Prestressed Concrete Pile Splices, Index No. 601, 30 Square Prestressed Concre te Piles, Index No. 630. Hartt and Suarez, August 2004, Potential for Hydrogen Generation and Embrittlement of Prestressing Steel in Galvanized Pipe Vo ided Pile. Florida Atlantic University, Department of Ocean Engineering, Dani a, FL. F DOT Report No. FL/DOT/SMO 04-477. Issa, Moussa A., February 1999, Experimental Investigation of Pipe -Pile Splices For 30 Hollow Core Prestressed Concrete Piles. Structural Research Center, Tallahassee, FL. FDOT Report No. 98-8.

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144 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Isaac W. Canner was born in West Palm Beach, Florida, on March 26, 1980. Isaac graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Civi l Engineering from the University of Florida in August of 2003. Isaac continued studying civil and structural engineering at the University of Florida in the fall semester of 2003 in pursuit of a Master of Engineering degree. Isaac worked as a graduate research assistant for Dr. Ronald A. Cook, and was a teacher’s assistant during the spring semester of 2005 for CGN 3421—Computer Methods in Civil Engineering. Upon his gr aduation with a Master of Engineering degree in August of 2005, he plans to pursue a career in the exciting and challenging field of structural engineering with the goal of becoming a licensed professional engineer.