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Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Pedestrian Countdown Signals

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Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Pedestrian Countdown Signals
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2008

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EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF
PEDESTRIAN COUNTDOWN SIGNALS















By

DEBORAH LINDORO LEISTNER


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005

































Copyright 2005

by

Deborah Lindoro Leistner

































This document is dedicated to my father.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank my fiance, Douglas Robinson, for his patient love and care, and for all of

his support during the completion of my degree over the past two years.

I thank Dr. Scott Washburn for the thoughtful direction and guidance, and the

members of my committee, Dr. Lily Elefteriadou and Dr. Ruth Steiner, for participating

in this project and sharing their knowledge and expertise.

I thank Brian Kanely, Transportation Services Manager at the City of Gainesville

Public Works Department, for allowing me the necessary flexibility to complete this

project. I also thank Phil Mann, Conrad Renshaw, and Kris McCoy.

Finally, I thank the University of Florida students that contributed in many ways to

this effort: Byungkon Ko, Christian Gyle, Jessica Morriss, and Jennifer Webster
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES ................................................... ........ ........... vii

LIST OF FIGURES ................................................. ........ ........... viii

ABSTRACT ........ .............. ............. ...... ...................... ix

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ............... ................. ........... ................. ... ..... 1

2 LITERA TURE REVIEW .......................................................... ..............5

Meaning of Pedestrian Signal Indications ...........................................................5
Understanding of Pedestrian Signal Indications.............. ..... ...............6
Conventional vs. Countdown Pedestrian Signal Indications......................................7
Influence on Pedestrian B ehavior........................................... .......................... 8

3 RESEARCH APPROACH ............................................................ ............... 12

Site Selection ................................................................... 12
Site D description ............................... .................................... 13
E U university A venue and E 1st Street............................................................... 13
W University Avenue and W 2nd Street ................................... ............... 14
W University Avenue and W 17th Street.................................14
W University and North-South Drive..... ........... ...............15
A rcher R oad and SW 16th Street ........................................ ...... ............... 15
D ata C collection .................................................................................................. 16
D ata R e d u ctio n ..................................................................................................... 2 0

4 RE SU LTS AN D AN ALY SIS............................................................................... 23

Perform ance M easures............................................... .................. ...............23
Statistical Analysis............. ...... ..... ............ ........... .............. .. .... 24
Discussion of Results by Performance Measure .................................................25
Pedestrians Entering the Crossw alk ....................................... ............... 25
Pedestrians Exiting the Crossw alk ........................................... .....................29









Com pliance w ith FDW Indication.................................... ....................... 30
Erratic Pedestrian B ehavior....................................................... .... ........... 31
Pedestrian-Vehicle Conflicts .................................................... ........ ....... 33

5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................... 37

Sum m ary of C onclu sion s ................................................................. .....................39
Recom m endations for Future Study ........................................ ....................... 39

APPENDIX

A DATA COLLECTION SAM PLE ........................................ ......................... 41

B SAMPLE PROCESSED DATA FILE ............................................ ............... 65

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ....................................................................... ... ................... 7 1

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E TCH ..................................................................... ..................73
















LIST OF TABLES

Table pag

3-1 Data Collection Periods Used for Observation and Analysis ................................22

4-1 Calculated Test Statistic by Performance Measure...............................................26

4-2 Pedestrians Entering Crosswalk................. ...................................27

4-3 Pedestrians Exiting Crosswalk...... .............................................. .. ............... 29

4-4 Compliance with the Flashing Don't Walk Indication ........................... ..........31

4-5 Erratic Behavior D during Crossing....................................... ......................... 32

4-6 Pedestrian-V vehicle Conflicts......................................................... ............... 34
















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure pge

1-1 Conventional Pedestrian Signal Indications....................... ...................... 2

1-2 Pedestrian Countdown Signal Indications....................................... ............... 2

3-1 Schematic of Count Station Locations ......... ... ..... ....... ..................... ............... 13

3-2 Signage for Pedestrian Crossings ......... ........ ....... ............ ... ............... 14

3-3 Intersections in the Downtown Area .......... ......... ........................ ............... 15

3-4 Intersections Adjacent to UF campus ...................................... ........ ............... 16

3-5 Intersection of Archer Rd & SW 16t St ................. ...............16

3-6 Location of Camera Installation and Field of View at Each Study Intersection ......17

3-7 C om posite Im age C apture ...................... .... ............... .................... ............... 19















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF
PEDESTRIAN COUNTDOWN SIGNALS


By

Deborah Lindoro Leistner

August 2005

Chair: Scott S. Washburn
Major Department: Civil and Coastal Engineering

According to the National Highway Safety Administration, thousands of

pedestrians are injured or killed in collisions with vehicles every year. Approximately

one quarter of all fatalities occur at urban intersections, and the main cause of fatalities is

improper crossing. Pedestrians' misunderstanding of pedestrian signal indications at

crossings is identified in the literature as a contributing factor to improper crossings.

To address this problem and potentially increase the safety at signalized

intersection crossings, pedestrian countdown signals were created by incorporating a

countdown timer that is displayed simultaneously during the flashing 'DON'T WALK'

(FDW) interval. The timer counts down the number of seconds remaining until the

display of the solid 'DON'T WALK' (DW) interval. It has been purported that this signal

design leads to a higher level of pedestrian safety by enabling pedestrians to make better

crossing decisions with the added information.









A before-and-after study of pedestrian countdown signals was conducted at five

intersections in Gainesville, Florida. All of the intersections had high pedestrian and

vehicular traffic volumes during certain times of the day. Additionally, several distinct

pedestrian populations were present across the intersections.

The data were collected from October 2003 to April 2004, using a video detection

system that simultaneously captures pedestrian and vehicular movements and the

corresponding traffic signal indications. Over the course of the study, a total of 7,639

pedestrians were observed before and 6,339 pedestrians were observed after the

installation of the countdown signals. Overall, the countdown signals appear to have had

a positive influence on pedestrian crossing behavior. At most of the study intersections,

the proportion of pedestrians entering the crosswalk on the 'WALK' indication increased,

while the proportion entering on the steady DW indication decreased. The countdown

signals have also had the effect of increasing the proportion of pedestrians exiting on the

FDW interval as opposed to the DW interval, therefore decreasing the number of

pedestrians that remain in the crosswalk at the release of conflicting traffic. Pedestrians

appear to be adjusting their walking speed to finish crossing during the FDW interval.

The countdown signals have not had the potentially negative effect of increasing the

proportion of pedestrians entering the crosswalk during the FDW interval, for those

pedestrians that also arrived at the crosswalk during the FDW. Overall, the countdown

signals did not have a negative effect on pedestrian behavior such as running, hesitating

and going back to point of start. In addition, the overall proportion of conflicts with

vehicles decreased after the installation of the countdown signals.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The National Center for Statistics and Analysis reports that in the United States on

average a pedestrian is killed every 111 minutes, and that every 8 minutes a pedestrian is

injured in a crash, with 21 percent of fatalities occurring at intersections. In 2003, 4,288

pedestrians were killed and 68,000 pedestrians were injured in a crash. Improper crossing

of an intersection is the main factor in pedestrian fatalities, followed by failure to yield

the right of way and darting or running into the roadway. Florida ranked second in 2003

in the number of pedestrians killed, with a rate of 2.94 per 100,000 persons. The national

rate for the same period was 1.63 per 100,000 persons (1).

A common underlying problem that affects pedestrian safety at intersection

crossings is the lack of understanding of the meaning of the pedestrian signal indications,

particularly the Flashing UPRAISED HAND or FLASHING DON'T WALK (FDW).

The problems associated with the conventional pedestrian signal heads (Figure 1-1) are

well documented in the literature: pedestrians are not sure about the meaning of the FDW

indication; some pedestrians revert to their point of origin when the FDW indication is

displayed; pedestrians illegally enter the crosswalk during the FDW, and with insufficient

time to complete the crossing, are still in the crosswalk when the steady DW indication is

displayed. The latter increases the potential for conflicts between pedestrians and

vehicles, given that when pedestrians receive the DW indication, conflicting vehicle

movements receive the green light to proceed.



















Figure 1-1 Conventional Pedestrian Signal Indications. From Left: Steady DW and
WALK. The clearance interval is indicated by the Flashing UPRAISED
HAND or Flashing "DON'T WALK." Source: MUTCD 2003 (2) Chapter 4E.

To address this problem and potentially increase the safety at signalized

intersection crossings, the pedestrian countdown signal (Figure 1-2) was created by

incorporating a countdown timer that is displayed simultaneously with the FDW

indication. This timer displays the number of seconds remaining before the onset of the

steady DW indication. It has been purported that this signal design leads to a higher level

of pedestrian safety by enabling pedestrians to make better crossing decisions with the

added information. The intended result is that a smaller percentage of pedestrians will

remain in the crosswalk when the DW indication is displayed.









Figure 1-2 Pedestrian Countdown Signal Indications. From Left: WALK, FDW and DW.
The clearance interval displays the countdown timer concurrent with Flashing
UPRAISED HAND or Flashing "DON'T WALK." Source: Photos of current
installation at one of the study sites.

The literature suggests that the compliance with the pedestrian signal indications

may increase with the installation of pedestrian countdown signals. At the same time,

some researchers have suggested that such signals may encourage more pedestrians to









enter during the FDW indication instead of waiting for the next WALK indication, by

misjudging the time needed to safely complete the crossing.

Due to considerable statewide interest in pedestrian safety from the traffic

engineering community in Florida, the Florida Department of Transportation and the City

of Gainesville sponsored this study of pedestrian countdown signals with the University

of Florida Transportation Research Center. This study consists of observations of

pedestrian behavior before and after the installation of pedestrian countdown signals at

five intersections in Gainesville, Florida.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pedestrian countdown

signals on several performance measures, such as pedestrians' compliance with the

pedestrian signal indications and the percentage of pedestrians in the crosswalk during

the DW interval, relative to the non-countdown pedestrian signals. The following tasks

were conducted in support of this objective:

* A literature review was performed as the basis for comparison of similar studies
and findings;
* Study sites were selected based on levels of pedestrian and vehicular traffic
volumes, location, roadway geometry, and pedestrian population characteristics;
* Data collection was conducted using video cameras and signal status recording
devices;
* The performance measures and methodology for data reduction were established;
* The data were reduced from the video tapes and coded into a spreadsheet format so
that results could be summarized and analyzed; and,
* The data were analyzed using a population proportions (before and after installation
of countdown signals) comparison test statistic for each selected performance
measure.

Chapter 2 consists of a literature review of regulations applicable to pedestrian

signals as well as a comprehensive review of studies that investigate the applications and

influences of both conventional pedestrian signals and countdown signals on pedestrian

behavior and understanding of the signal indications. Chapter 3 presents the research






4


approach for this study, including detailed site descriptions and the methodology for data

collection and data reduction. Chapter 4 discusses the selected performance measures for

evaluation of the effectiveness of pedestrian countdown signals, the statistical analysis

performed and the results obtained. Chapter 5 documents the findings and conclusions,

and recommendations for further study.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

A common underlying problem that affects pedestrian safety at crossings is the lack

of understanding of the meaning of the pedestrian signal indications, particularly the

Flashing UPRAISED HAND or FLASHING DON'T WALK (FDW). Pedestrian

countdown signals were created to address the problem. This chapter presents a review of

the studies performed to date on the effectiveness of the implementation of pedestrian

countdown signals as well as applicable regulations.

Meaning of Pedestrian Signal Indications

The 2001 edition of the Manual for Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) (2)

defines the meaning of the pedestrian signal indications as follows:

Steady WALKING PERSON (symbolizing WALK) ... means that a pedestrian
facing the signal indication may start to cross the roadway in the direction of the
signal indication;

Flashing UPRAISED HAND (symbolizing DON'T WALK) ... means that a
pedestrian shall not start to cross the roadway in the direction of the signal
indication, but that any pedestrian who has already started to cross on a steady
WALKING PERSON (symbolizing WALK) signal indication shall proceed out of
the traveled way;

Steady UPRAISED HAND (symbolizing DON'T WALK) ... means that a
pedestrian shall not enter the roadway in the direction of the signal indication.

In the 2003 edition of the MUTCD (3) pedestrian countdown signals were included

in the manual to facilitate the comprehension of the signal indications. A countdown

timer was added to the FLASHING DON'T WALK (FDW) interval to help "inform

pedestrians of the number of seconds remaining in the pedestrian change interval". In









April 2003 the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) added the application of

pedestrian countdown signals to the Traffic Engineering Manual (4) to "enhance the

safety of the pedestrian crossing a street during the pedestrian phasing of the signal

cycle."

Florida law (5) states that pedestrians are subject to traffic signal control at

intersections. It adopts the MUTCD as a standard regulation for traffic control devices,

and states that pedestrians must conform to its requirements.

Understanding of Pedestrian Signal Indications

According to the FDOT State Safety Office (6), the majority of pedestrians who

contact the office are found to be confused about the meaning of FDW indications.

Pedestrians interpret this indication to mean that their allotted time to complete the

crossing has ended and that vehicles will be given the green signal to resume movement.

Robertson and Carter (7) found that only about half of the pedestrians understood the

meaning of the FDW indication. Zegeer et al. (8) identifies the major pedestrian safety

problem as the misunderstanding and confusion associated with pedestrian signal

indications.

Tidwell and Doyle (9) conducted a survey of over 4,800 people in 48 states to

determine their level of understanding of pedestrian law and traffic control devices. The

results indicated that nearly 50% of responders did not understand the meaning of the

FDW indication, and that pedestrians tend to underestimate the ratio of pedestrian

fatalities in relation to all traffic fatalities. Zegeer et al. (10) found that in some

circumstances conventional pedestrian signal indications may create a false sense of

security leading pedestrians to feel protected from vehicles and decrease their caution









while crossing. One third of the accidents observed by Zegeer et al. were caused by

illegal pedestrian crossings.

Khasnabis et al. (11) found that pedestrians tend to ignore pedestrian signal

indications under low traffic volume conditions, and that the compliance with flashing

signals tend to be lower than for steady signals. Yauch and Davis (12) relate the problems

of lack of compliance with pedestrian indications to the continuing changes in design and

operation associated with the pedestrian signals, which generate confusion and distrust.

Conventional vs. Countdown Pedestrian Signal Indications

A survey of 1,918 pedestrians conducted for the Federal Highway Administration

(13) found that 80 percent of the pedestrians surveyed both before and after the

installation of the countdown devices did not understand the meaning of the FDW

indication. The countdown signals installed did not improve the pedestrians'

understanding of this indication. However, pedestrians felt safer at the crossings where

the countdown devices were installed. Ullman et al. (14) compared five different

treatments installed at seven intersections. Pedestrians were surveyed at each site. One of

the sites included a pedestrian countdown signal. At this site 68 percent of pedestrians

surveyed indicated that they felt the countdown signal was an effective crossing treatment

and that it enhanced pedestrian safety at crossing, while 30 percent of respondents

indicated that they did not understand the meaning of the countdown interval and felt

unsure about how to proceed in the crossing due to turning vehicles.

Botha et al. (15) conducted a before-and-after study of pedestrian countdown

signals in the City of San Jose, CA. As part of the study he surveyed the pedestrians'

understanding of the FDW indication and found that misunderstanding of the FDW

indication increases with the installation of countdown devices. Eighty percent of the









pedestrians surveyed indicated that they believed they could enter the crosswalk during

the FDW indication if they were able to complete the crossing before the countdown

reached zero. This assumption may have undesirable implications as the study also found

that pedestrians were not able to correctly estimate the time needed to cross an

intersection.

Eccles et al. (16) conducted a similar before-and-after study of five intersections in

Montgomery County, MD, and found that 62.6 percent of the pedestrians surveyed

correctly interpreted the meaning of the countdown signals to be the remaining time for

completing the crossing. Pulugurtha and Nambian (17) also found that understanding of

the FDW interval increased after the installation of pedestrian countdown signals. Ninety

percent of pedestrians surveyed correctly responded that the countdown timer indicates

the time remaining to complete the crossing, and 85 percent associating the countdown

signals with enhanced pedestrian safety at crossings.

Influence on Pedestrian Behavior

Eccles et al. (16) concluded that the pedestrian countdown signals had a positive

effect on pedestrian behavior. While 2 of the 20 crosswalks evaluated resulted in a

decrease in the number of pedestrians entering during the WALK interval, 6 experienced

a significant increase. In addition, none of the intersections had a significant increase in

the number of phases with pedestrians remaining in the crosswalk at the release of

conflicting traffic, indicating that pedestrians adjusted their walking speed to clear the

intersection faster even if entering the crosswalk later in the cycle. This study also found

a significant decrease in the number of conflicts between pedestrian and motor vehicles

after the installation of the countdown signals indicating that the use of such devices may

increase pedestrian safety.









Huang and Zegeer (18) used a "treatment" and "control" study design to evaluate

the effectiveness of pedestrian countdown signals in enhancing pedestrian compliance

and understanding of the signals. The results indicate that the devices had a positive

effect in reducing the number of pedestrians that started running once the FDW

indication started. This study corroborates the findings of Eccles et al. in that the

installation of countdown signals did not increase the number of pedestrians remaining in

the crosswalk at the release of conflicting traffic, also citing the increase in walking speed

to complete the crossing. The study, however, states that the compliance with the WALK

indication decreased at the treatment sites. The authors did not recommend the

installation of pedestrian countdown signals at standard intersections in Florida. It is

noted that as a "treatment" and "control" site study, the results obtained may have been

influenced by outside characteristics other than the treatment itself, such as intersection

design and pedestrian population characteristics. Furthermore, the camera installation for

data collection, at ground level, may have influenced pedestrian behavior.

A Dutch review of pedestrian safety studies showed that on average only 35

percent of pedestrians cross during the WALK interval and that the type of destination

had no impact on the probability of pedestrians crossing during the DW indication (19). It

also mentioned a type of installation where the steady DW indication was replaced by a

flashing indication which allows pedestrians to cross but at the same time alerts them that

"there could be traffic; crossing is at your own risk". The authors point out that the

WALK indication does not necessarily mean a vehicle-free period as turning movements

are frequently allowed during the pedestrian interval. The flashing indication is thought

to improve safety by establishing a clear relationship between vehicles and pedestrians.









A study on the effects of such indications showed that the number of crossings outside of

the WALK interval doubled, the waiting time for pedestrians was reduced and there was

no increase in the number of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts. The argument on the potential

for conflicts during the WALK interval is also found in Zegeer et al. (10) stating that the

majority of crashes between pedestrians and vehicles at intersections involve a turning

vehicle.

Botha et al. (15) found, for the countdown signals, that the number of pedestrians

entering the crosswalk during the FDW interval increased while the number exiting

during the DW interval decreased, indicating that pedestrians may be adjusting their

walking speeds to clear the intersection before traffic receives the green indication. At the

same time, the compliance with the FDW indication has decreased, as a higher

percentage of pedestrians that arrive during this interval enter the crosswalk instead of

waiting for the next WALK interval. The authors conclude that although the countdown

signals may have the undesirable effect of encouraging more people to enter the

crosswalk during the FDW it also causes them to complete the crossing before the release

of on-coming traffic, therefore reducing the chances of a conflict. No significant changes

were observed in erratic pedestrian behavior such as running, stopping or hesitating.

Pedestrian behavior at the crossing and willingness to comply with the pedestrian

signal indication is also influenced by pedestrian delay caused by the signal as a function

of timing, by the volumes of pedestrian and vehicular traffic, and by roadway

characteristics such as width. According to Zegeer et al. (10) "pedestrians that are willing

to trust their own judgment of gaps in traffic incur less delay than those who comply with

the signal".









FDOT's Traffic Engineering Manual (4) states that "providing additional

pedestrian clearance time information [using pedestrian countdown signals] will help the

pedestrian decide whether to start the crossing or wait for the next WALK indication".

Botha et al. (15) finds that this statement is correct, as the countdown signals provide

additional information, and help in the pedestrian decision-making process. The noted

reduction in the proportion of pedestrians remaining in the crosswalk during the DW

interval was greater than the increase in the proportion of pedestrians entering during the

FDW interval and can be considered as a positive effect.

None of the studies reviewed have found an effect either positive or negative in the

crash rate between pedestrians and motor vehicles after the installation of pedestrian

countdown signals.














CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH APPROACH

This chapter presents a detailed overview of the research methods and techniques

used to evaluate the effectiveness of the pedestrian countdown signals using a before-

and-after study approach.

Site Selection

Five intersections in the City of Gainesville, Florida, were selected for the

installation of pedestrian countdown signals. The selected intersections are located in the

downtown area and in the vicinity of the University of Florida Campus. The user

population at such intersections is representative of the City's population, with the

exception of school-age children. Also, given the young profile of the City, the

observations in this study do not represent the elderly segment of the population. The

selected intersections are:

1. E University Avenue and E 1st Street;
2. W University Avenue and W 2nd Street;
3. W University Avenue and W 17th Street;
4. W University Avenue and North-South Drive; and,
5. Archer Road and SW 16th Street.

All of the above intersections have high pedestrian traffic volumes during certain

times of the day. Pedestrian counts will be presented later in the study. The vehicular

traffic volumes are also high (annual average daily traffic above 20,000 veh/day) on the

main approaches as illustrated by Figure 3-1 below.







13



{ {7 3026
2031 2058
I I UNIVERSITY AVE
--- ----- 2 -m- 1 -
6026 6028 6030 6031
{.,X00} z U s23,00 .23,0'X?4.K
4043 75 4041
{11.2S^4 =4 .5
^



ARCHER RD
----------____ 1^:141 6
0 14a 0 .

---4-__
NOTE: Drawing not to scale.
Figure 3-1 Schematic of Count Station Locations SOURCE: City of Gainesville Public
Works Department and Florida Department of Transportation Annual Average
Daily Traffic Reports. Count data based on 2003 report.


All of the study intersections are equipped with pedestrian push buttons with the

exception of the minor approaches on E 1st Street, W 2nd Street and W 17th Street. The

pedestrian crossing cycles are push button-actuated, and are activated once per cycle if

actuated. In addition, all crossings are signalized following the MUTCD guidance with

R10-4 signs. At the intersection of W 17th Street, the R10-3b signs are also installed. This

is an educational sign that is used to help pedestrians understand the crossing signal

indications. See Figure 3-2 for a sample installation at the intersection of W 17th Street.

The following section provides a detailed description of each site.

Site Description

E University Avenue and E 1st Street

This intersection is located in the downtown area and is surrounded by civic

buildings such as City Hall, the County Administration Building, and the Civil

Courthouse among others (see Figure 3-3). In addition, the downtown plaza and the main









bus transfer station are immediately adjacent to this intersection. The pedestrian

population at this site is very diverse, composed of a mix of professionals (e.g., lawyers,

engineering and financial consultants, etc.), retail and restaurant employees and patrons,

students, and other miscellaneous users that visit the downtown area.








R10-3b







> R10-4



., Push Button


Figure 3-2 Signage for Pedestrian Crossings

W University Avenue and W 2nd Street

This intersection is also located in the downtown area, a few blocks to the west of

the previous site (see Figure 3-3). This site has lower pedestrian traffic volume during

daytime but a higher volume during nighttime, particularly on Thursday, Friday and

Saturday nights, due to the presence of several nightclubs and bars in the surrounding

area.

W University Avenue and W 17th Street

The intersection of W University Avenue and NW 17th Street is immediately

adjacent to the University of Florida campus (see Figure 3-4). Other surrounding uses









include retail and restaurant areas. The volume of pedestrian traffic at this location is high

throughout the day and consists primarily of students, staff and faculty. The user

population at this site is composed primarily of university students, faculty and staff




-- ,. J -' ,Jl^ "j" S-










Figure 3-3 Intersections in the Downtown Area: E University Ave and E 1st St (high
daytime activity level) and W University Avenue and W 2nd St (high
nighttime activity level)

W University Avenue and North-South Drive

This site is also adjacent to the University of Florida campus (see Figure 3-4). The

pedestrian traffic level at this intersection is not as high as the intersection ofNW 17th

Street mainly due to the surrounding uses, which are primarily residential with the

exception of the University of Florida Foundation office and Alumni Hall, whose offices

are on the north side of University Avenue. This intersection is heavily traveled during

special events at the university (e.g., sporting events, graduation, concerts, etc.) due to the

close proximity of stadium, gymnasium and parking areas.

Archer Road and SW 16th Street

This intersection is immediately adjacent to, and provides direct access to Shands

Hospital at the University of Florida. The pedestrian population at this site is composed

mainly of hospital staff (e.g., doctors, nurses, janitorial, etc). Patients may also use this








intersection but it is not the primary access point for patients and visitors. Figure 3-5

below illustrates the intersection and surrounding area.








.






Figure 3-4 Intersections adjacent to UF campus: W University Ave & 17" St & N/S Dr
















Figure 3-5 Intersection of Archer Rd & SW 16t St

Data Collection

Once the study sites were determined, the next step was to proceed with data

collection. The data collection system used in this study is capable of simultaneously











capturing pedestrian and vehicular movements with a video camera and the


corresponding traffic signal indications (20). The video cameras were mounted on signal


poles at a specific location at each intersection as shown in Figure 3-6.









-Videoa- c -- -*^


--------- ------------


Video cara rakcati-n




Wnr v&2S


Video canrracatiDn


Mf


Figure 3-6 Location of Camera Installation and Field of View at Each Study Intersection











4
MiZaa!^Ha^ ......... Inr-in^^~a^^, L^^^^^^H


1 11111111b ^ 111 ^
- ---


Figure 3-6 Continued
The videotapes collected from the field were then processed in the lab to obtain a
composite video image of all vehicular and pedestrian movements along with the traffic


Arch Dr Rd & SW I ff1h St


4L
LW]~ tf~~ Tl~rscE I e-t~
-----------


_F& ,rrm


Aid -lei









signal status for all recorded phases. A snapshot of this composite image, from W

University Avenue and W 17th Street, can be seen in Figure 3-7. The bars in the image

screen indicate the signal phase interval for each approach and movement (either red or

green). The ellipses correspond to the pedestrian signal indication: red for DW, yellow

for FDW and green for WALK. Careful observation allows for the determination of

pedestrian arrival time at the intersection, time of entry and exit at the crosswalk, any

unusual pedestrian behavior due to the pedestrian signal indication, any conflicts between

pedestrians and vehicles, the direction of movement, and in some instances, if the

crossing was activated by the push of the pedestrian button.


RlING I Ria u W'



4' 2.66












8hhm: inge: NOOMA1 0omonns Tnime: 0057:51

Figure 3-7 Composite Image Capture (W University Ave & NW 17th St)

The data collection system used in this study has several advantages: first, it is

virtually undetectable by the subjects as all components but the video cameras are housed

in the signal controller cabinet and the video camera (approximately 4 inches in length









and 1 inch in diameter) is mounted well above ground. Second, the recorded composite

images allow for accurate and efficient data reduction.

Data were recorded for several periods before and after the installation of the

countdown signals. The before data were collected during the period from 9/30/2003 to

11/1/2003. The after data were collected during the period from 11/17/2003 to 3/24/2004

and 3/24/2004 to 4/15/2004. Data used for analysis in this study are shown in Table 3-2.

The pedestrian countdown signals were installed between 10/28/2003 and

11/04/2003. In general, a minimum period of two weeks was allowed between the

installation of the pedestrian countdown signals at each site and the beginning of the data

collection for the 'after' period of this study. A public education campaign did not

accompany the activation of the countdown signals.

Data Reduction

For each intersection, data for one crosswalk crossing the major street and one

crosswalk crossing the minor street were recorded. Periods of peak pedestrian traffic

volume were selected for data reduction, typically: 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., 11:00 a.m. to

1:00 p.m., and 4:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m. Also, for one intersection a late data collection

period was used (10:00 p.m. to 2:00 a.m.) due to its vicinity to nightclubs and heavy

pedestrian volume at nighttime (refer to Table 3-1).

Data reduction from the videotapes was performed using an Excel spreadsheet (see

Appendix A for sample data collection sheet). The following events were manually

collected from each videotape and recorded in the spreadsheets:

* Time of pedestrian arrivals at the curb;

* Pedestrian signal indication at the time of pedestrian arrival;

* Whether the pedestrian used the pedestrian signal actuation button (if present);






21


* Phase during which the pedestrian entered the crosswalk (W, FDW or DW);

* Cycle at which the pedestrian entered the crosswalk (same as arrival or following);

* Phase during which the pedestrian exited the crosswalk (W, FDW or DW);

* Erratic pedestrian behavior during crossing (hesitating, running or going back to
starting point) due to the signal indication; and,

* Pedestrian-vehicle conflicts (stop, run, evade or crash).















Data Collection Periods Used for Observation and Analysis


10/03/03
Friday


700AM 900AM
11 00 AM 2 00 PM
300PM 600PM


4/02/04
Friday


730AM- 845AM
11 45 AM -1 00 PM
430PM 600PM


700AM- 900AM 730AM- 845AM
10/07/03 4/13/04
Tuesday 11 00 AM 2 00 PM Tuesday 11 45 AM -1 00 PM
3 00 PM- 600 PM 4 30 PM- 600 PM
700AM- 900AM 730AM- 845AM
10/13/03 4/14/04
Monday 11 00 AM 2 00 PM Wednesday 11 45 AM -1 00 PM
3 00 PM- 600 PM 430 PM- 600 PM


4/19/04
Monday


730AM- 900AM
11 30 AM- 12 50 PM
4 40 PM 6 00 PM


TOTAL HOURS: 24 TOTAL HOURS: 16

10/07 00 AM 9 00 AM 12/05/03 M A
10/02/03 Fnda 10 00 PM-2 00 AM
Thursday 11 00 AM- 2 00 PM Fr
3 00 PM 6 00 PM 12/06/03 1000PM 200AM
S7 00 AM 9 00 AM Saturday
< 10/07/03
,r Tuesday 11 00 AM 2 00 PM 4/03/04 11 30 AM 12 50 PM
3 00 PM 6 00 PM Saturday 440AM 600 PM
C' __________________________4 40 AM 6 00 PM
10/17/03 1000PM-200AM 4/05/04 1230 PM- 1 50 PM
Friday Monday 5 40 PM 7 00 PM

10/18/03 M AM 7 40AM 9 00 AM
Saturday 100 PM 200AM 4/13/04
Tuesday 11 30 AM -12 50 PM
4 40 AM 6 00 PM
TOTAL HOURS: 24 TOTAL HOURS: 24
10/9/03 M M 7 00 AM 9 00 AM
Thursday 200 PM 6 00 PM 11/17/03
o Monday 11 00 AM 2 00 PM
10/10/03 3 00 PM 6 00 PM
S10/10/03 3 00 PM -6 00 PM300PM 00
SFriday 11/18/04 11 00 AM 2 00 PM
r 7 00 AM 9 00 AM Tuesday 3 00 PM 6 00 PM
10/13/03
E Monday 11 00 AM 2 00 PM 11/19/04 7 00 AM 9 00 AM
3 1 3 00 PM 6 00 PM Wednesday

10/14/04 7 00 AM 9 00 AM 3/26/04 11 00 AM 2 00 PM
Tuesday 11 00 AM 2 00 PM Friday 3 00 PM 6 00 PM
TOTAL HOURS: 21 TOTAL HOURS: 16
10/01/03 12/09/03 Tuesday 4 30 PM 6 00 PM
Wednesday 1030AM- 630PM
SW12/10/03 7 30 AM 8 45 AM
7 30 AM- 8 45 AM Wednesday 11 45 AM- 1 00 PM
S10/07/03
> Tuesday 11 45 AM 1 00 PM 7 30 AM 8 45 AM
SN3/24/04
z 4 30 PM 6 00 PM Wednesday 11 45 AM -1 00 PM
S- 10/08/03 11 45 AM 1 00 PM 4 30 PM 6 00 PM
Wednesday 4 30 PM -6 00 PM 7 30 AM 8 45 AM
S3/25/04
10/09/03 7 30 AM 8 45 AM Thursday 11 45 AM 1 00PM
Th ursday 4 30 PM 6 00 PM
TOTAL HOURS: 16 TOTAL HOURS: 12
645AM- 800AM 645AM- 800AM
10/07/03 3/25/04
Tuesday 11 45 AM 1 00 PM Thursday 11 45 AM 1 00 PM
430PM- 600PM 430PM- 600PM
645AM- 800AM 645AM- 800AM
S10/09/03 3/26/04
-a Thursday 11 45 AM 1 00 PM Friday 11 45 AM 1 00 PM
430PM- 600PM 430PM- 600PM
6 45AM- 800AM 645AM- 800AM
S10/10/03 4/06/04
< V) Friday 11 45 AM 1 00 PM Tuesday 11 45 AM 1 00 PM
430 PM- 600 PM 4 30 PM- 600 PM
6 45 AM 8 00 AM
10/13/03
Monday 11 45 AM- 1 00 PM
4 30 PM- 6 00 PM


Table 3-1


TOTAL HOURS: 16


TOTAL HOURS: 12














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

This chapter presents the findings of the research. A total of 7,639 pedestrians were

observed before and 6,339 pedestrians were observed after the installation of the

pedestrian countdown signals. The observations recorded are shown in Tables 4-2 to 4-6.

The results for each performance measure are analyzed using a test for difference in

population proportions to evaluate if a significant difference between the before and after

measurements can be attributed to the installation of the pedestrian countdown signals.

Performance Measures

From the reduced data described in Chapter 3, a number of performance measures

were calculated for this study (for both 'before' and 'after' periods), including:

* The percentage of pedestrians entering the crosswalk during each signal indication
(W, FDW and DW);
* The percentage of pedestrians exiting the crosswalk during each signal indication
(W, FDW and DW);
* Compliance with the FDW indication;
* Percentage of pedestrians hesitating, running or going back to the point of start;
and,
* Percentage of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts.

Based on the assigned performance measures, the following questions were posed

to evaluate the effectiveness of the pedestrian countdown signals:

* Are pedestrians more or less likely to comply with the W indication?
* Are pedestrians more or less likely to comply with the FDW indication?
* Are pedestrians more or less likely to be in the crosswalk during the DW indication
when conflicting vehicle movement receives the green light?
* Did the occurrence of erratic behavior increase or decrease with the installation of
countdown signals?









* Did the occurrence of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts increase or decrease with the
installation of countdown signals?


Statistical Analysis

To test the significance of the results observed, a test for the difference in

population proportions was used (21). This test was performed to evaluate if the changes

in the performance measures observed between the before and after measurements are

statistically significant, indicating that the pedestrian countdown signals have influenced

pedestrian behavior. The hypothesis testing is based on the z statistic from a normal

distribution. The calculations were performed using the following formula:


ZP P2
+piP+) P2(-P2)
n1 n2

where

z = calculated test statistic,

z/2= critical z value from table of normal distribution probabilities for a given

confidence level,

p, = estimate of before population proportion (for specified performance measure),

p2 = estimate of after population proportion (for specified performance measure),

nl = before sample size, and

n2 = after sample size.

The null hypothesis tested in all cases is that there is no difference between the

before and after proportions, with the alternate hypothesis that there is a difference. The

rejection region (R.R.) for the statistical test is defined for a two-tailed z test as follows:










Ho :1 =
Ha p P2 # 0

R.R.: z > za/2

A two-tailed z test was performed at a confidence level of 95%. The critical z value

(za/2) obtained from the table of normal distribution probabilities for the given confidence

level is 1.96. The calculated z values for each performance measure are shown in Table

4-1 below. These values are compared to the critical z value. The null hypothesis that the

proportion values observed during the before and after periods are equal is rejected if the

absolute calculated z value is higher than the critical z value. Positive z-values indicate

that the proportion observed in the after period has decreased for the particular

performance measure. The reverse is true for negative values, which indicate that the

proportion observed during the after period has increased. A discussion of findings is

presented in the following section.

Discussion of Results by Performance Measure

Pedestrians Entering the Crosswalk

The number of pedestrians entering the crosswalk during each of the pedestrian

phase intervals (WALK, FDW, DW) was recorded during the before and after phase of

the study for peak periods of pedestrian activity as indicated in the previous chapter. The

proportions for each performance measure are shown in Table 4-2. There was a

significant increase in the proportion of pedestrians entering the crosswalk during the

WALK indication and a significant decrease in the proportion of pedestrians entering

during the DW indication at 3 of the 5 study intersections. As for the proportion of

pedestrians entering the crosswalk during the FDW, there was a significant increase











observed at the intersection of Archer Road and SW 16th Street; and a significant

decrease at the intersection of E University Avenue and E 1st Street. No significant

changes were observed for pedestrians entering during FDW at the remaining 3

intersections. Overall, the installation of pedestrian countdown signals had a positive

effect on the behavior of pedestrians entering the crosswalk. The findings are discussed

below.

Table 4-1 Calculated Test Statistic (z value) by Performance Measure



Exit-FDW 9.231 -5.211 -8.148 -3.729 -8.307 -8.693

Exit-DW -10.670 1.296 7.864 3.909 9.322 6.624

Enter-W 6.161 -0.690 -11.882 -3.268 -8.791 -3.829

Enter-FDW 4.639 -1.556 -1.628 0.964 -2.960 0.479

Enter-DW -8.759 1.617 12.329 3.242 13.111 15.804
Compliance FDW-
Wait for WALK 0.223 -3.698 0.139 -0.361 1.051 0.083
Non-Compliance -
Enter at FDW -0.136 3.306 0.329 -0.147 -1.175 4.525
Non-Compliance -
Enter at DW 0.000 0.134 -0.449 1.019 0.422 1.017

Hesitating 2.623 -3.077 2.933 0.346 1.724 3.015

Running -3.525 -1.840 -0.288 -1.832 0.815 -3.482

Going Back -0.323 1.000 1.447 1.418 0.075 1.480

Conflict Run -1.811 -8.115 1.602 1.001 2.839 4.065

Conflict Stop 0.024 -4.129 4.247 2.407 3.792 14.289

Conflict Evade 0.000 0.344 -2.363 0.000 0.465 1.133
Note: 1. Intersections are: 1) E University Ave and E 1st St; 2) W University Ave an d W 2nd St; 3) W

University Ave and W 17th St; 4) W University Ave and N/S Dr; and, 5) Archer Rd and SW 16th St. 2. Bold

values are statistically significant at the 95% confidence level.

Pedestrians entering at WALK. The proportion of pedestrians entering the

crosswalk during the WALK indication significantly increased after the installation of the

pedestrian countdown signals at 3 of the study intersections: W University Avenue and

W 17th Street, W University Avenue and North-South Drive, and Archer Road and SW










16th Street. It significantly decreased at the intersection of E University Avenue and E 1st

Street, and no significant change occurred at the intersection of W University Avenue and

W 2nd Street.

Table 4-2 Pedestrians Entering Crosswalk



EUA & E 1st ST 808 501 51 73% 3473% -1700% 1399% 639% -760% 3428% 5848% 2420%

WUA &W 2nd ST 1434 1076 3243% 3374% 131% 941% 1134% 193% 5816% 5493% -323%

WUA &W 17th ST 3378 3225 2703% 4074% 1371% 814% 927% 113% 6483% 4998% -1485%

WUA & N/S DR 409 259 7579% 8571% 992% 856% 656% -200% 1565% 772% -793%
ARCHER &SW 16th 1610 1278 5366% 6941% 1575% 1335% 1737% 402% 3298% 1322% -1976%
AVE



Pedestrians entering at FDW. The proportion of pedestrians entering the

crosswalk during the FDW interval increased at only one of the study intersections

Archer Road and SW 16th Street. At the intersection of W University Avenue and E 1st

Street there was a decrease, while at all other intersections no statistically significant

change was noted.

Pedestrians entering at DW. One of the most significant performance measures is

the number of pedestrians that enter the crosswalk illegally during the DW indication, as

this has the highest potential for a conflict between pedestrians and vehicles. The study

results show that the proportion of pedestrians entering the crosswalk during the DW

significantly decreased at 3 of the sites after the installation of the pedestrian countdown

signals: W University Avenue and W 17th Street, W University Avenue and North-South

Drive, and Archer Road and SW 16th Street. At the intersection of E University Avenue

and E 1st Street the proportion increased significantly, while at W University Avenue and

W 2nd Street no significant change occurred.









At the intersection of W University Avenue and W 2nd Street, the peak period of

pedestrian activity is during the nighttime, particularly between 1:30 a.m. and 2:00 a.m.

when the bars and nightclubs close and customers must leave. At this time of night there

is a general disregard for the pedestrian signal indications. First, there is a good chance

that pedestrians (mostly college students) are under the influence of alcohol, and second

because large groups of people attempt to cross at the same time and vehicles tend to

yield the right-of-way.

It should be noted that the results observed at the intersection of E University

Avenue and E 1st Street may have been influenced by signal timing changes that

decreased the length of time allowed for the pedestrian crossings. The cycle length at this

intersection is very high during the peak times of observation. During mid-day the traffic

volume is lower, and pedestrians tend to enter and exit during the DW interval taking

advantage of gaps in traffic for completing the crossing. In some instances pedestrians

cross to the mid point of the roadway and wait at the centerline for a gap to finish the

crossing. Furthermore, pedestrians do not always press the push button for actuation of

the pedestrian cycle, generating longer periods of delay. Another factor that influences

the differences in behavior at this site is the presence of the Regional Transit System

(RTS) downtown bus transfer station located in close proximity to this intersection. A

high volume of pedestrians arrive at the intersection after getting off a bus. Pedestrians

also cross University Avenue to get to the transfer station. There was little compliance

with the pedestrian signal indication from pedestrians arriving at the intersection coming

from or going to the bus station.










Pedestrians Exiting the Crosswalk

The number of pedestrians exiting the crosswalk was recorded. The proportion of

pedestrians exiting the crosswalk during the FDW indication significantly increased at 4

of the 5 study sites after the installation of the pedestrian countdown signals, while the

proportion exiting during the DW indication significantly decreased at 3 of the 5 study

sites. The proportion exiting during the WALK interval is not considered as a useful

indication as pedestrians finishing during this interval are most likely completing the

crossing after starting during the DW indication. In addition, pedestrians are not expected

to finish during this interval as it is timed for only a few seconds allowing the pedestrian

to reach a certain distance but not to finish the crossing. The desired outcome is for the

pedestrians to finish during the FDW indication, clearing the intersection prior to

conflicting vehicles receiving the green light. The proportion of pedestrians exiting

during each interval is shown in Table 4-3.

Table 4-3 Pedestrians Exiting Crosswalk



EUA & E 1st ST 808 501 656% 279% -377% 61 26% 3593% -2533% 32 18% 61 28% 29 10%

WUA & W 2nd ST 1434 1076 1409% 688% -721% 2692% 3671% 979% 5900% 5641% -259%

WUA & W 17th ST 3378 3225 477% 440% -037% 4364% 5361% 997% 5160% 4198% -962%

WUA & N/S DR 409 259 098% 116% 018% 7775% 8842% 1067% 21 27% 1042% -1085%
ARCHER & SW
AR1 &SV 1610 1278 801% 845% 044% 5832% 7285% 1453% 3366% 1870% -1496%
16th AVE


Pedestrians exiting on FDW. There was a significant increase in the proportion of

pedestrians exiting the crosswalk during the FDW indication after the installation of the

pedestrian countdown signals. This behavior is observed at all study intersections with

the exception of the intersection of E University Avenue and E 1st Street. The increase in









exits during the FDW may be a result of pedestrians taking advantage of the information

given by the countdown and adjusting their walking speed to complete the crossing prior

to the release of conflicting vehicular traffic.

Pedestrians exiting on DW. The proportion of pedestrians exiting the crosswalk

during the DW indication significantly decreased after the installation of the countdown

signals at 3 of the study intersections: W University Ave and W 17th Street, W University

Avenue and North-South Drive, and Archer Road and SW 16th Street. There was no

significant change at the intersection of W University Avenue and W 2nd Street. At the

intersection of E University Avenue and E 1st Street there was an increase in the number

of pedestrians exiting during the DW interval. The latter may also be associated with

unique conditions present at this intersection as discussed in the previous section.

Compliance with FDW Indication

In the literature there is extensive documentation of pedestrians' misunderstanding

of and lack of compliance with, the FDW indication. In this study, compliance with the

FDW indication is measured by the behavior of pedestrians arriving at the intersection

during the FDW. A pedestrian complies with the FDW indication if upon arrival during

the FDW, (s)he stops and waits for the next WALK interval during the next cycle. Non-

compliance is measured by (s)he entering the crosswalk during the FDW or DW

indication after arriving during the FDW. Of the total arrivals observed over the course of

this study, 8.5% (655) of the pedestrians arrived during the FDW on the before phase,

and 9.4% (598) of the pedestrians arrived during the FDW on the after phase.

The results indicate that there was no statistically significant difference in the

compliance of pedestrians with the FDW indication between the before and after

installation of the pedestrian countdown signals, except at the intersection of W











University Avenue and W 2nd Street. At this intersection there was an increase in the

proportion of pedestrians that complied with the FDW indication by waiting for the next

WALK indication and refraining from entering during the FDW. The proportions

observed are shown in Table 4-4.

Table 4-4 Compliance with the Flashing Don't Walk Indication


EUA & E 1st ST


481%


385%


-0 96%


87 50%


88 46%


096%


7 69%


7 69%


000%


WUA & W 2nd ST 81 98 000% 1224% 1224% 9877% 8673% -1204% 123% 102% -021%

WUA & W17th ST 241 263 207% 190% -0 17% 91 70% 9087% -083% 6 22% 722% 100%

WUA & N/S DR 27 16 370% 6 25% 255% 9259% 9375% 1 16% 370% 000% -370%

ARCHER &SW16th 202 195 1881% 1487% -394% 7178% 7692% 514% 941% 821% -120%
AVE



Erratic Pedestrian Behavior

Pedestrian behavior as a function of the pedestrian signal indication was recorded

and analyzed during the before and after phases of this study. The erratic behaviors

observed are defined as:

* Pedestrian hesitates: pedestrian is unsure if (s)he can start the crossing. This is
observed by pedestrian initiating the movement by stepping off the curb and
waiting in the crosswalk before deciding to proceed and complete the crossing;
* Pedestrian runs: pedestrian starts to run when the pedestrian signal indication
changes or as timer during the FDW approaches zero; and,
* Pedestrian goes back to point of start: pedestrian initiates the crossing but turns
around and returns to point of origin based on interpretation of the pedestrian
signal.

Pedestrians that crossed diagonally and jogging were not included in the analysis.

In addition, pedestrians that crossed outside of the marked crosswalk, jaywalking, were

considered to be outside of the field of influence of the pedestrian signals, and were also










excluded from the analysis. Table 4-5 shows the proportions observed during the before

and after phases of the study.

Table 4-5 Erratic Behavior Durinn Crossin



EUA& E 1stST 808 501 260% 080% 180% 532% 1098% 566% 012% 020% 008%

WUA & W 2nd ST 1434 1076 014% 121% 107% 600% 790% 190% 007% 000% -007%

WUA & W 17th ST 3378 3225 047% 009% -038% 337% 350% 013% 024% 009% -015%

WUA & N/S DR 409 259 147% 1 16% -031% 220% 502% 282% 049% 000% -049%
AR & SW 1610 1278 037% 008% -029% 652% 579% -073% 025% 023% -002%
16th AVE



Hesitating. At 2 of the 5 study intersections there was a significant decrease in the

proportion of pedestrians hesitating after the installation of the countdown signals: E

University Avenue and E 1st Street and W University Avenue and W 17th Street. The only

significant increase was at the intersection ofW University Avenue and W 2nd Street. At

this intersection the peak period of pedestrian activity is during the nighttime, particularly

between 1:30 a.m. and 2:00 a.m. when the bars and nightclubs close and customers must

leave. There is a good chance that pedestrians (mostly college students) are under the

influence of alcohol at this time, which may cause hesitation at crossing. No changes

were observed at the remaining two intersections.

Running. There was an increase in the proportion of pedestrians that started

running after the installation of the pedestrian countdown signals at the intersection of E

University Avenue and E 1st Street. Further analysis indicates that the increase observed

is related to the increase in the number of pedestrians that start crossing during the DW

interval. Running as an effect of the pedestrian indication during the DW may be

explained by the pedestrian taking advantage of gaps in traffic to avoid the delays caused









by the pedestrian signal. At this intersection pedestrians tend to take advantage of gaps in

traffic to initiate the crossing. They will reach the center lane and then wait for another

gap in the opposite direction to complete the crossing, usually running. At all other

intersections no significant differences were measured.

Going back. There were no significant differences in the proportions of pedestrians

going back to the point of start between the before and after phase of the study.


Pedestrian-Vehicle Conflicts

Observations of pedestrian behavior due to the presence of vehicles were analyzed

to determine if there were any significant changes that could be attributed to the

installation of pedestrian countdown signals. The behaviors observed were:

* Pedestrian ran to avoid on-coming vehicles,
* Pedestrian stopped to avoid on-coming vehicles,
* Pedestrian had to evade a vehicle to avoid a conflict, and,
* Pedestrian and vehicle collided.

The conflicts observed were mainly due to pedestrians crossing during the DW

indication: taking advantage of a gap in traffic by running across the intersection; by

crossing to the mid-point of the crosswalk and having to wait for a suitable gap to

complete the crossing; and by evading vehicles that were blocking the crosswalk. The

potential for conflicts exists with left-turning and right-turning vehicles; however, no

incidents were observed during the study period. Since no collisions were observed, the

'Crash' column is not shown in Table 4-6.

Run. The proportion of pedestrians that ran to avoid a conflict with a vehicle

significantly increased at one intersection and significantly decreased at another. At all

other intersections the difference was small and not significant. The increase at the










intersection of W University Avenue and W 2nd Street may be explained by the general

disrespect for the pedestrian indication at nighttime. As explained in the previous section,

at this intersection the peak period of pedestrian activity is during the nighttime when the

pedestrian population is likely under the influence of alcohol, and the traffic volume is

low. This behavior may be associated with the increase in the proportion of pedestrians

that hesitated and stopped while crossing at the same intersection. Pedestrians tend to dart

into the street in the path of vehicles, stop and continue running to clear the crossing.

Table 4-6 Pedestrian-Vehicle Conflicts



EUA & E 1st ST 808 501 037% 140% 103% 322% 3 19% -0 03% 000% 0 00% 000%

WUA & W 2nd ST 1434 1076 007% 595% 588% 042% 251% 209% 014% 009% -005%
17th 3378 3225 015% 003% -012% 346% 180% -166% 003% 025% 022%
ST
WUA & N/S DR 409 259 0 24% 0 00% -0 24% 244% 038% -2 06% 0 00% 0 00% 0 00%
ARCHER & SW
ARC &SW 1610 1278 002% 001% -001% 004% 002% -002% 001% 001% 000%
16th AVE


Stop. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of pedestrians that had to

stop while crossing the intersection due to a conflict with vehicles at 3 of the 5 study

intersections. This may also be related to the decrease in the number of pedestrians that

initiated the crossing during the DW indication. As the proportion of pedestrians present

in the crosswalk at the same time that vehicles have the right-of-way it is expected that

the number for potential conflicts would also decrease. This relationship is particularly

noted at the intersections of W University Avenue and NW 17th Street, W University

Avenue and North-South Drive and at Archer Road and SW 16th Street. The only

significant increase occurred at the intersection ofW University Avenue and W 2nd

Street, and is likely due to the unusual behavior of pedestrians under the influence of









alcohol after the bars close. At this intersection large groups of pedestrians attempt to

cross at the same time and vehicles tend to yield the right-of-way. Pedestrians may be

unsure of the vehicle driver's behavior and tend to stop prior to proceeding with the

crossing to make sure that the driver will in fact yield.

Evade. The only noted difference in the proportion of pedestrians that exhibit this

behavior was at the intersection of W University Avenue and NW 17th Street, where a

significant increase was observed after the installation of the pedestrian countdown

signals. At this intersection vehicles and buses are observed making a northbound left-

turn at the end of the phase, which coincides with the beginning of the pedestrian WALK

interval. When pedestrians start crossing, during the peak vehicular traffic periods, there

is often a turning vehicle clearing the intersection during the beginning of the pedestrian

WALK phase; thus, resulting in a situation where pedestrians have to evade a vehicle.

The increase observed in the proportion of pedestrians evading vehicles at this

intersection may be directly related to the increase in the compliance with the WALK

indication as the vehicular turning movement has not changed.

Crash. During the study period, no crashes were observed either before or after the

installation of the pedestrian countdown signals. Historical data shows the occurrence of

29 pedestrian-vehicle crashes at the study intersections between 1997 and 2002. Of these,

31% occurred between the hours of 12:40 a.m. and 2:40 a.m. when the pedestrian signals

most likely were not a factor, given the location of such occurrences, at the intersections

of W University Avenue and W 2nd Street and W University Avenue and NW 17th Street.

These two sites are in the vicinity of bars and nightclubs. The pedestrian population

between the hours indicated is composed mainly of college students who are likely under






36


the influence of alcohol. The scope of this project did not allow for a determination of the

influence of pedestrian countdown signals upon the incidence of severe conflict.














CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the observations of pedestrians before and after the installation of

pedestrian countdown signals at five intersections in Gainesville, Florida, it is concluded

from this study that the pedestrian countdown signals generally had a positive effect on

pedestrian behavior. Five questions were posed for the research to evaluate the

effectiveness of pedestrian countdown signals based on pre-defined performance

measures as presented below:

Are pedestrians more or less likely to comply with the WALK indication?

Based on observations of pedestrian behavior before and after the installation of

pedestrian countdown signals, it is concluded from this study that pedestrians are more

likely to comply with the WALK indication of pedestrian countdown signals. The

proportion of pedestrians entering the crosswalk during the WALK indication increased

significantly after the installation on three of the five study locations.

Are pedestrians more or less likely to comply with the FDW indication? The

impact of countdown signals was significant on the increase in the proportion of

pedestrians that completed the crossing during the FDW indication. The results indicate

that pedestrians are adjusting their walking speed to complete the crossing prior to the

onset of the DW indication. The results also indicate that there was no significant impact

on pedestrians' compliance with the FDW indication as there was no increase in the

proportion that entered the crosswalk during this interval at four of the five study

intersections.









Are pedestrians more or less likely to be in the crosswalk during the DW

indication? The results indicate that pedestrians are less likely to be in the crosswalk

during the DW for countdown signals. The study results show that there was a significant

decrease in both the proportion of pedestrians that entered and exited the crosswalk

during the DW indication at three of the five study intersections. As indicated above,

pedestrians are generally finishing the crossing during the FDW interval.

Did the occurrence of erratic pedestrian behavior increase or decrease?

Overall, there were no significant changes in the occurrence of erratic pedestrian

behavior due to the countdown signal indication. The proportion of pedestrians that ran

increased at only one of the study sites; however, at this location the changes may be

attributed to factors other than the countdown signal, such as signal timing changes and

the availability of gaps in the traffic stream. The proportion that hesitated while crossing

decreased at two of the study sites and increased at one. At the latter, the peak pedestrian

activity is during the nighttime, and the behavior observed may be explained by the

unusual behavior of pedestrians under the influence of alcohol after the bars close. In

addition, a large number of pedestrians attempt to cross at the same time and given the

low traffic volume during this time of night, vehicles tend to yield the right-of-way.

Did the occurrence of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts increase or decrease?

Overall, there was no significant change in proportion of conflicts between pedestrians

and vehicles during the study period. The significant observations include a decrease in

the proportion of pedestrians that had to stop in the crosswalk to avoid a conflict with a

vehicle at three intersections during the after period. This may be related to the decrease

in the proportion observed entering the crosswalk during the DW interval, as the subject









intersections had the highest decrease in the proportion of pedestrians entering the

crosswalk during the DW interval.

Summary of Conclusions

The installation of pedestrian countdown signals had several positive effects on

pedestrian behavior. First, there was an increase in the proportion of pedestrians that

complied with the WALK indication at three of the five intersections observed. Second,

the proportion of pedestrians that initiated the crossing during the DW indication

decreased significantly after the installation of the countdown signals. Moreover, the

number of pedestrians remaining in the crosswalk at the release of conflicting traffic

during the DW indication significantly decreased at three of the study intersections.

The countdown signals did not encourage more pedestrians to enter the crosswalk

during the FDW interval, but pedestrians seem to be using the additional information

provided by the countdown timer to adjust their walking speeds and finish crossing prior

to the release of conflicting traffic. Therefore, the pedestrian countdown signals appear to

have a positive impact on pedestrian behavior as the proportion of pedestrians left in the

crosswalk at the release of conflicting traffic is significantly smaller. This ultimately

could lead to increased pedestrian safety as pedestrian exposure to conflicting vehicle

movements is reduced, in turn reducing the probability for pedestrian-vehicle conflicts.

Recommendations for Future Study

Given the composition of the Gainesville population and the location of the study

intersections, the findings of this research may not be directly applicable to age groups

younger than 17 or older than 65 years of age. Both the school age and elderly

populations are under-represented and further research is needed to evaluate their

understanding and behavior associated with pedestrian countdown signals.









Given the findings presented in the literature, further research is needed before

pedestrian countdown signals are installed in school zones, where the presence of school

crossing guards may send conflicting messages to the crossing population, particularly

those of younger age, such as 15 and younger. This may encourage young pedestrians to

interpret the countdown signal as a safe interval to enter the crosswalk when crossing

guards are not present, thus increasing the potential for conflicts.

The older segment of the population is the fastest growing. It is predicted that by

2030 this group will comprise 20 percent of the population or 70 million people (22). It is

well documented in the literature that this segment of the population is the most

vulnerable. In 2003, 33 percent of all pedestrian fatalities and 12 percent of all pedestrian

injuries that occurred at intersections involved a pedestrian 65 or older (1). Further study

is necessary to determine the level of understanding of the countdown indications by the

elderly, and the countdown impact on their behavior given age related components such

as visual impairments and physical limitations.

Further study is also needed to determine the long-term effect of the countdown

signals. It needs to be determined whether pedestrian compliance with the countdown

indications will decrease once pedestrians grow accustomed to the new devices.

While the intersections in this study offered some diversity in geometric and signal

operation characteristics, a wider range of conditions should ultimately be studied as

well. This will allow for a more thorough investigation of any interaction effects between

the countdown signals and geometric and operational characteristics and their influence

on pedestrian behavior.














APPENDIX A
DATA COLLECTION SAMPLE

The data was compiled using a video recording system that simultaneously

captured pedestrian and vehicular movements and the corresponding signal indications.

Once the video tapes were decoded and processed in the Transportation Research Center

laboratory, the tapes were viewed and the data from the tapes were recorded in Excel

spreadsheets based on the selected performance measures identified for this study. The

spreadsheet entries reflect: time of pedestrian arrival at the intersection and

corresponding pedestrian signal indication at time of arrival; signal indication at time of

entry and exit the crosswalk; erratic pedestrian behavior due to the pedestrian signal

indications; pedestrian-vehicle conflicts; actuation of pedestrian signal; cycle length; and,

number of cycles observed. A sample file is included in the following pages. The data

were collected after the installation of pedestrian countdown signals at the intersection of

W University Avenue and W 17th Street on Monday, November 13, 2003.


















W University Ave & W 17th St Tape # 1, AFTER

Date November 17/03 MONDAY

Time Period 7 00 AM to 9 00 AM, 11 00 AM to 2 00 PM, 3 00 PM to 6 00 PM


Crosswalk Peds Arriving at Cycle Peds Entering Fnsh at Erratic ed havor ed Behavaor Due to
Cycle NB/SB ActivatedL- Connect when Crosswalk at Vehicle Conflict
Cycle (NB/SB Activated Time when Going
/EB/VB) Tlme Entering Goig
/EB/VB) W FDW DW Entering W FDW DW W FDW DW Hesitating Running Bak Run Stop Evade Crash

1 WB N B 000217 2 B B

1 NB/SB N

2 SB Y 2 000323 2 2 2

2 NB Y 2 000347 2 2 2

2 EB N B 00410 2 B B

2 EB N 1 00417 2 1

3 NB/SB N

3 EBNVB N

4 SB N 3 00626 4 3 3

4 EBNVB N

5 EBNVB N

5 NB/SB N

6 EB N 1 00852 6 1 1

6 WB N B 00857 6 B B

6 NB/SB N

7 NB/SB N

7 EBN/VVB N

8 EB N B 01121 8 B B

8 SB Y 1 01213 8 1 1

9 WB N B 01300 9 B B

9 NB/SB N

10 NB Y 1 01423 10 1 1

10 NB Y 1 01435 10 1 1

10 EBNVB N

11 NB N 2 01630 11 2 2

11 EBNVB N

12 WB N 2 01658 12 2 2

12 NB/SB N

13 NB/SB N

13 EBNVB N

14 NB Y 2 02039 14 2 2

14 NB Y 1 02045 14 1 1

14 EBNVB N

15 WB N B 02215 15 B B

15 NB/SB N

16 NB/SB N

16 EBNVB N

17 SB N B 02503 17 B B

17 NB N 1 02506 17 1 1

17 NB N 4 02511 17 4 4 4

17 EBNVB N

18 EBNVB N

18 NB/SB N

19 WB N 1 02653 19 1 1 1

19 SB N 2 02736 19 2 2 2

19 EB Y B 02757 19 B B

19 EB Y B 02822 B B

20 NB/SB N

20 EBNVB N

21 SB Y 1 02959 21 1 1

21 EB/VB N


















22 EB N B 031 50 22 B B

22 NB/SB N

23 NB Y 3 03300 23 3 3

23 NB Y 3 03328 23 3 3

23 SB Y 1 03343 23 1 1

23 EBNVB N

24 NB N 1 03458 24 1 1

24 EBNVB N

25 WB N B 03548 25 B B

25 EB N 1 03636 25 1 1 1

25 NB/SB N

26 EB N B 03746 26 B B

26 NB/SB N

27 WB N B 03846 27 B B

27 NB/SB N

28 SB Y 1 03942 28 1 1

28 NB Y 2 04019 28 2 2

28 EBNVB N

29 NB/SB N

29 EBNVB N

30 SB N 1 04340 30 1 1

30 EBNVB N

31 SB N 1 04507 32 1 1

31 EBNVB N

32 NB Y 1 04605 32 1 1

32 SB Y 1 04630 32 1 1 1

32 SB Y 2 04631 32 2 2 1

32 EBNVB N

33 NB N 1 04736 33 1 1

33 WB N 1 04750 33 1 1

34 NB Y 1 04826 34 1 1

34 NB Y 1 04908 34 1 1

34 EBNVB N

35 NB/SB N

35 EBNVB N

36 SB N 2 05159 36 2 2

36 EBNVB N

37 SB Y 1 05230 37 1 1

37 EBNVB N

38 NB Y B 05438 38 B B

38 NB Y 2 05440 38 2 2

38 EBNVB N

39 SB Y 1 05536 39 1 1

39 NB Y B 05610 39 B B

39 NB Y B 05614 39 B B

39 EBNVB N

40 SB N 2 05734 40 2 2

40 EBNVB N

41 SB 2 05906 43 2 2

41 EBNVB N

42 NB N 1 05931 42 1 1

42 WB N 1 1 0001 42 1 1

42 NB N 1 10025 42 1 1

43 NB Y 2 1 01 37 43 2 2

43 NB Y 1 1 01 41 43 1 1

43 NB Y 1 1 01 47 43 1 1

43 EB N 1 10207 43 1 1 RUNNER


















44 NB N 1 10313 44 1 1

44 WB N 1 1 0327 44 1 1

45 NB N 3 10438 45 3 3

45 NB N 2 10448 45 2 2

45 NB N 2B 1 0449 45 2B 2B

45 EBNVB N

46 EB N B 1 0609 46 B B

46 NB/SB N

47 EB N 2 10636 47 2 2

47 NB/SB N

48 SB Y 1 1 0823 48 1 1

48 EBNVB N

49 EB N 1 1 0939 49 1 1 RUNNER

49 NB N 2 11016 49 2 2

49 WB N 2 1 1040 49 2 2

50 WB N 1 11112 50 1 1

50 SB Y 1 1 11 31 50 1 1

50 SB Y 2 1 11 50 51 2 2

51 WB N 1 11208 51 1 1

51 NB Y 1 11249 51 1 1

51 SB Y 1 1 1257 51 1 1

51 EB N 1 11321 51 1 1 RUNNER

52 NB Y 1 11451 52 1 1

52 NB Y 1 1 1452 52 1 1

52 WB N 1 1 1456 52 1 1

52 WB N 1 11501 52 1 1

53 NB Y 2 1 1526 53 2 2

53 NB Y 1 1 1550 53 1 1

53 NB Y 1 1 1602 53 1 1

53 EBNVB N

54 WB N 1 1 1646 54 1 1

54 SB N 1 1 1729 54 1 1

55 NB/SB N

55 EBNVB N

56 WB Y 1 1 2048 56 1 1

56 EB N 1 12120 56 1 1

57 SB N 1 12309 57 1 1

57 EBNVB N

58 NB Y 1 1 2336 58 1 1

58 NB Y B 1 2427 58 B B

58 EBNVB N

59 EBNVB N

59 NB/SB N

60 WB N 1 1 2649 60 1 1 RUNNER

60 WB N B 12713 60 B B

60 NB Y 1 1 2720 60 1 1

61 WB N 1 1 2848 61 1 1 RUNNER

61 NB/SB N

62 NB/SB N

62 EBNVB N

63 EB N B 1 3031 63 B B

63 WB N B 1 31 48 63 B B

63 NB/SB N

64 NB/SB N

64 EBNVB N

65 NB/SB N

65 EBNVB N


















66 EBNVB N

66 NB/SB N

67 EB/NVB N

67 NB/SB N

68 NB/SB N

68 EB/NVB N

69 NB/SB N

69 EB/NVB N

70 WB N B 1 41 09 70 B B

70 EB N 1 14112 70 1 1 RUNNER

70 NB/SB N

71 WB N 1 1 4309 71 1 1

71 NB/SB N

72 EB/NVB N

72 NB/SB N

73 WB N B 14438 73 B B

73 NB/SB N

74 EB N 2 14630 74 2 2 RUNNERS

74 NB/SB N

75 SB N B 1 4824 75 B B

75 WB N B 14830 75 B B

76 NB Y 2 1 4908 76 2 2

76 EB/NVB N

77 EB N 3 15019 77 3 3

77 EB N 1 1 5029 77 1 1 RUNNER

77 EB N 1 15035 77 1 1

77 WB N 1 1 5055 77 1 1

77 NB/SB N

78 EB N 1 15152 78 1 1 1

78 EB N B 1 5252 79 B B

78 NB/SB N

79 NB Y 1 15410 79 1 1 1

79 EB/NVB N

80 SB N 1 1 5511 80 1 1

80 SB N 1 15514 80 1 1

80 WB N 1 1 5559 80 1 1 RUNNER

81 NB/SB N

81 EB/NVB N

82 NB/SB N

82 EB/NVB N

83 NB Y 2 1 5859 83 2 2

83 EB/NVB N

84 NB Y 2 20045 84 2 2

84 EB/NVB N

85 NB/SB N

85 EB/NVB N

86 NB/SB N

86 EB/NVB N

87 WB N 2B 20509 87 2B 2B

87 WB N 1 20549 87 1 1

87 NB/SB N

88 NB/SB N

88 EB/NVB N

89 EB N 1 20732 89 1 1

89 NB N B 20819 89 B B

89 EB N B 20831 89 B B

89 EB N B 20838 89 B B


















90 NB N 2 20954 90 2 2

90 EBNVB N

91 EB N 1 21131 91 1 1 RUNNER

NB/SB N

92 SB Y B 21213 92 B B

EB/NVB N

93 SB N 1 21420 94 1 1

EB/NVB N

94 WB N 1 21452 94 1 1

NB N B 21511 94 B B

95 EB N 1 21616 95 1 1

WB N 1 21619 95 1 1 RUNNER

NB/SB N

96 WB N 1 21837 96 1 1 1

NB/SB N

97 WB N 1 21851 97 1 1

97 NB/SB N

98 EB N 1 22013 98 1 1 RUNNER

98 NB N B 221 07 98 B B

98 WB N 1 22112 98 1 1

98 NB N 1 22121 98 1 1 1

98 EB N 1 22135 98 1 1 RUNNER

99 NB/SB N

99 EB/NVB N

100 EB N 2 22339 100 2 2

100 NB N 1 22345 100 1 1 1

101 EB N 1 22524 101 1 1 RUNNER

101 EB N 1 22551 101 1 1

101 NB/SB N

102 SB N 1 22629 102 1 1

102 EB N 1 22632 102 1 1

102 SB N 1 22645 102 1 1

102 EB N 2 22703 102 2 2

103 EB N 1 22739 103 1 1 RUNNER

103 NB N 3 22818 103 3 3

103 EB Y 1 22826 104 1 1

104 WB N 1 22901 104 1 1 RUNNER

104 NB/SB N

105 EB N 1 23051 105 1 1

105 WB N B 23054 105 B B

105 SB N 1 23058 105 1 1

105 EB N 1 23115 105 1 1

106 EB Y 1 23151 106 1 1

106 SB Y 1 23203 106 1 1

106 NB Y 1 23220 106 1 1

107 EB N 1 23311 107 1 1 RUNNER

107 EB N 2 23422 107 2 2

107 EB N 2 23430 107 2 2 RUNNERS

107 NB/SB N

108 NB/SB N

108 EB/NVB N

109 EB N 1 23603 109 1 1 RUNNER

109 WB N B 23617 109 B B

109 NB/SB N

110 EB N 1 23746 110 1 1

110 NB/SB N

111 NB/SB N


















111 EBNVB N

112 WB N B 24035 112 B B

112 NB/SB N

113 EB N 1 24217 113 1 1 1

113 NB/SB N

114 WB N 1 24334 114 1 1 1

114 SB N 1 24342 114 1 1

114 WB N 1 24343 114 1 1 RUNNER

114 WB N B 24355 114 B B

114 WB N 1 24400 114 1 1

115 WB N 1 24517 115 1 1 1

115 WB N 1 24518 115 1 1 1

115 NB/SB N

116 NB/SB N

116 EBNVB N

117 NB N 1 24832 117 1 1 1

117 WB N 1 24834 117 1 1

117 EB N B 24918 117 B B

117 EB N 2 24940 117 2 2 RUNNERS

118 NB Y 2 251 00 118 2 2

118 NB Y 2B 251 05 118 2B 2B

118 NB Y 2 251 05 118 2 2

118 EB N 1 25117 118 1 1

119 NB/SB N

119 EBNVB N

120 EB N B 25331 120 B B

120 NB Y 1 25344 120 1 1

121 WB N 1 25422 121 1 1

121 WB N 1 25524 121 1 1 1

121 NB/SB N

122 WB N 1 25613 122 1 1

122 EB N B 25650 122 B B

122 NB/SB N

123 WB N 1 25724 123 1 1 RUNNER

123 SB Y 2 25733 123 2 2

123 EB N 1 25749 123 1 1

123 NB Y 1 25753 123 1 1 1

123 SB Y 1 25757 123 1 1

124 EB Y 2 2 5852 124 2 2 1

124 SB Y 1 25905 124 1 1

125 NB N B 30033 125 B B

125 WB N B 30040 126 B B

126 NB/SB N

126 EB/NVB N

127 NB Y 1 30259 127 1 1

127 EBNVB N

128 NB/SB N

128 EBNVB N

129 EB N B 30528 129 B B

129 NB/SB N

130 NB/SB N

130 EB/NVB N

131 WB N 2 30858 131 2 2

131 NB/SB N

132 NB Y 1 31011 132 1 1

132 EB/NVB N

133 NB/SB N


















133 EBN/VB N

134 NB Y 1 31258 134 1 1

134 NB Y B 31306 134 B B

134 NB Y B 31310 134 B B

134 EB/NVB N

135 NB N B 31433 135 B B

135 EB/NVB N

136 NB Y 1 31556 136 1 1

136 EB N 2 31556 136 2 2

136 NB Y 1 31557 136 1 1

136 NB Y B 31558 136 B B

136 NB Y B 31602 136 B B

137 WB N B 31640 137 B B

137 NB/SB N

138 NB/SB N

138 EB/NVB N

139 NB N B 31950 139 B B

139 EB/NVB N

140 NB Y 1 32125 140 1 1

140 EB/NVB N

141 EB N B 32235 141 B B

141 NB/SB N

142 WB N B 32419 142 B B

142 EB N 1 32503 142 1 1

142 WB N B 32513 142 B B

142 NB/SB N

143 NB N B 32730 143 B B

143 EB/NVB N

144 EB N 1 32928 144 1 1 RUNNER

144 NB/SB N

145 NB N B 33048 145 B B

145 NB N 1 33126

145 EB/NVB N

146 EB N 1 33235 146 1 1 1

146 NB/SB N

147 EB N B 33436 147 B B

147 NB/SB N

148 WB N 1 33556 148 1 1

148 NB/SB N

149 NB N 1 33724 149 1 1 1

149 EB/NVB N

150 EB Y 1 33816 150 1 1

150 NB Y 1 33819 150 1 1

150 NB Y 1 33848 150 1 1

151 NB N 1 33939 151 1 1 1

151 NB Y 1 33950 151 1 1

151 EB Y B 34003 151 B B

151 NB Y 2 34041 151 2 2

151 WB N 1 34110 152 1 1

152 NB N B 341 30 152 B B

152 EB N 1 34132 152 1 1

152 EB N 1 34223 152 1 1

153 WB N B 34310 153 B B

153 NB/SB N

154 WB N B 34448 154 B B

154 EB N 1 34456 154 1 1

154 NB Y 1 34537 154 1 1


















154 NB Y 1 34538 154 1 1

155 EB N B 34611 155 B B

155 SB N B 34620 155 B B

155 EB N 1 34716 155 1 1 RUNNER

156 NB N 1 34908 156 1 1

156 WB N 1 34922 157 1 1

157 WB N 1 35013 157 1 1

157 WB N B 35013 157 B B

157 NB Y 1 35057 157 1 1

158 WB N B 35214 158 B B

158 NB N B 35231 158 B B

159 NB Y 1 35405 159 1 1

159 SB Y B 35410 159 B B

159 EBNVB N

160 EB N B 35533 160 B B

160 NB N B 35538 160 B B

160 WB N B 35557 160 B B

160 WB N B 35604 160 B B

160 WB Y 1 35606 161 1 1

160 WB Y 1 35611 161 1 1

161 NB Y 1 35724 161 1 1

161 EBNVB N

162 WB N 1 35759 162 1 1

162 WB N 1 35801 162 1 1

162 EB N B 35801 162 B B

162 NB Y B 35803 162 B B B

162 NB Y B 35921 162 B B

162 NB Y 1 35921 162 1 1

162 NB Y B 35933 162 B B

162 WB N B 35935 163 B B

163 EB N 1 35948 163 1 1 RUNNER

163 NB N 1 40049 163 1 1

163 WB N 1 40055 163 1 1 1

163 NB N B 401 08 163 B B

164 NB N B 40218 164 B B

164 EBNVB N

165 NB Y B 40404 165 B B

165 NB Y 1 40405 165 1 1

165 NB Y 2 40410 165 2 2

165 WB N 1 40430 165 1 1

166 WB N 1 40451 166 1 1 RUNNER

166 WB N 1 40609 167 1 1

166 NB/SB N

167 EB N 1 40644 167 1 1

167 NB Y B 40720 167 B B

167 NB Y 1 40727 167 1 1

167 NB Y B 40727 167 B B

168 WB Y B 40800 168 B B

168 WB Y 1 40807 168 1 1

168 WB N 1 40846 168 1 1

168 WB N 1 40933 168 1 1

168 NB/SB N

169 EB N 1 40951 169 1 1

169 NB N 1 41007 169 1 1

169 SB N 1 41012 169 1 1

169 NB N B 41051 169 B B

170 NB Y 2 41219 170 2 2


















170 NB Y 2B 41220 170 2B 2B

170 WB N B 41222 170 B B

171 WB Y 1 41319 171 1 1

171 NB N 1 41411 171 1 1

172 WB N B 41434 172 B B

172 NB Y 1 41440 172 1 1

172 WB N B 41448 172 B B

172 NB Y 2 41545 172 2 2

172 NB Y B 41547 172 B B

172 NB Y B 41549 172 B B

173 NB/SB N

173 EB/NVB N

174 NB Y 1 41832 174 1 1

174 WB N B 41840 174 B B

174 NB Y 2 41907 174 2 2

174 NB Y B 41907 174 B B

174 WB N 1 41912 174 1 1 1

174 NB Y 1 41919 174 1 1

174 WB Y 3 41924 174 3 3

174 WB Y 1 41927 174 1 1

175 SB N 1 42037 175 1 1

175 WB N B 42054 175 B B

176 NB Y B 421 40 176 B B

176 EB N B 42154 176 B B

176 NB Y 1 42157 176 1 1

176 EB N B 42157 176 B B

176 WB N B 42216 176 B B

176 NB Y 3B 42230 176 3B 3B

176 NB Y 1 42231 176 1 1

176 NB Y 2B 42231 176 2B 2B

176 NB Y 2B 42235 176 2B 2B

176 NB Y 2B 42237 176 2B 2B

176 NB Y 2 42246 176 2 2

176 NB Y 1 42247 176 1 1

176 WB N B 42306 176 B B

177 EB N 1 42310 177 1 1

177 SB Y 2 42326 177 2 2

177 EB N B 42327 177 B B

177 NB Y 1 42351 177 1 1

177 NB Y B 42407 177 B B

177 NB Y 1 42410 177 1 1

177 NB Y B 42410 177 B B

177 NB Y 1 42426 177 1 11

178 WB N 1 42443 178 1 1

178 NB Y 2 42511 178 2 2

178 NB Y 2 42526 178 2 2

178 SB Y 2 42532 178 2 2

178 NB Y B 42537 178 B B

178 NB Y 2 42540 178 2 2

178 NB Y B 42546 178 B B

179 EB N B 42615 179 B B

179 EB N 1 42635 179 1 1

179 NB Y 1 42651 179 1 1

179 WB N 1 42656 179 1 1 1

179 EB N 1 42703 179 1 1

179 EB N B 42732 179 B B

180 WB Y B 42748 180 B B


















180 SB Y 1 42826 180 1 1

180 WB N B 42845 180 B B

180 NB Y B 42849 180 B B

180 SB Y 1 42906 180 1 1

180 NB Y B 42908 180 B B

180 NB Y 1 42918 180 1 1

181 NB N 1 42937 181 1 1 1

181 EB N B 42937 181 B B

181 EB N 1 43015 181 1 1

181 NB N B 43043 181 B B

181 NB N B 43045 181 B B

181 NB N B 43046 181 B B

182 EB N 1 43110 182 1 11

182 NB Y 1 43158 182 1 1

182 NB Y 1 43209 182 1 1

182 NB Y 2 43221 182 2 2

182 NB Y 1 43225 182 1 1

182 NB Y B 43237 182 B B

182 WB N 1 43244 182 1 1

183 WB N B 43310 183 B B

183 WB N B 43348 183 B B

183 NB N 1 43359 183 1 1

184 WB N B 43603 184 B B

184 WB N B 43626 184 B B

184 NB Y B 43626 184 B B

184 WB N B 43634 184 B B

185 NB N B 43906 185 B B

185 EBNVB N

186 WB N 1 44002 186 1 11

186 NB N B 44046 186 B B

186 NB N B 44047 186 B B

187 EB N 1 44119 187 1 1

187 NB N B 44226 187 B B

188 WB N 1 44344 188 1 1

188 NB/SB N

189 EBNVB N

189 NB/SB N

190 NB Y 1 44633 190 1 1

190 SB Y 1 44651 190 1 1

190 EBNVB N

191 NB Y B 44729 191 B B

191 NB Y 1 44734 191 1 1

191 WB N 2 44746 191 2 2

192 EB N 1 44845 192 1 1

192 NB Y 1 44902 192 1 1

192 NB Y B 44915 192 B B

193 SB Y B 45028 193 B B

193 NB Y B 45052 193 B B

193 EBNVB N

194 EB N 1 45150 194 1 1

194 NB Y 1 45154 194 1 1

194 SB Y 1 45200 194 1 1

194 NB Y 2 45218 194 2 2

194 WB N 1 45223 194 1 1

195 WB N B 45322 195 B B

195 NB N B 45404 195 B B

195 NB N B 45411 195 B B


















196 WB N 1 45430 196 1 1

196 NB/SB N

197 WB N B 45552 197 B B

197 NB/SB N

198 NB/SB N

198 EB/NVB N

199 EB N 1 45819 199 1 1 RUNNER

199 EB N B 45821 199 B B

199 SB N 1 45934 199 1 1

200 SB Y 1 45945 200 1 1

200 NB Y B 45957 200 B B

200 EB/NVB N

201 WB N B 50054 201 B B

201 WB N 1 501 30 201 1 1

201 NB N 1 50143 201 1 1

201 WB N B 501 46 201 B B

201 NB N 1 50208 201 1 1

201 NB N B 50210 201 B B

201 WB Y 1 50225 201 1 1

202 EB Y B 50234 202 B B

202 NB/SB N

203 WB N 2 50340 203 2 2 RUNNERS

203 NB/SB N

204 WB N B 50436 204 B B

204 EB N B 50448 204 B B

204 WB N 1 50508 204 1 1

204 SB Y 1 50540 204 1 1

204 WB N 1 50542 204 1 1 RUNNER

204 SB Y 1 50546 204 1 1

204 NB Y 1 50557 204 1 1

204 SB Y 1 50629 204 1 1 1

205 NB N 1 50651 205 1 1

205 NB N 1 50719 205 1 1

205 EB N 1 50727 205 1 1

205 SB N 2 50730 205 2 2

205 SB N 1 50736 205 1 1

205 EB N 1 50753 205 1 1 1

205 SB N 1 50759 205 1 1

205 NB N B 50808 205 B B

206 WB N B 50859 206 B B

206 WB N 1 50907 206 1 1 RUNNER

206 EB N 1 50918 206 1 1

206 WB N 1 50924 206 1 1 1

206 NB Y 1 50924 206 1 1

206 NB Y 1 50927 206 1 1

206 SB Y 1 50930 206 1 1

206 NB Y 1 50956 206 1 1

207 SB Y 3 51044 207 3 3

207 NB Y 1 51044 207 1 1

207 WB N B 511 08 207 B B

207 NB Y 1 51208 207 1 1

207 WB N B 51214 207 B B

207 SB Y 1 51219 207 1 1

208 EB N 2 51325 208 2 2

208 NB Y 1 51327 208 1 1

208 SB Y 2 51336 208 2 2

209 NB/SB N


















209 EBNVB N

210 NB N 1 51511 210 1 1

210 WB N B 51517 210 B B

210 WB N 1 51543 210 1 1

210 WB N 1 51608 210 1 1

211 NB Y B 51740 211 B B

211 WB N B 51744 211 B B

211 NB Y 3 51801 211 3 3

211 NB Y B 51808 211 B B

211 EB N 1 51840 211 1 1

212 NB Y 1 51911 212 1 1

212 NB Y 1 51928 212 1 1

212 SB Y 2 51936 212 2 2

212 SB Y 1 51945 212 1 1

212 WB N 1 52006 212 1 1

213 WB N 1 52047 213 1 1

213 NB Y 1 52131 213 1 1

213 NB Y 1 52152 213 1 1

213 SB Y 2 521 54 213 2 2

213 EB N 1 52218 213 1 1 1

214 NB N B 52356 214 B B

214 EB N 4 52408 214 4 4

215 EB N 1 5 2431 214 1 1

215 SB N 1 52554 215 1 1

215 SB N 1 52608 215 1 1

215 EB N 1 5 2608 215 1 1

215 EB N 1 52616 215 1 1

215 WB N 1 52620 215 1 1

216 NB Y 1 52730 216 1 1

216 NB Y 1 52755 216 1 1

216 NB Y B 52810 216 B B

216 NB Y 1 52821 216 1 1 1

216 EBNVB N

217 SB Y 1 52848 217 1 1

217 EB N 1 5 2939 217 1 1

217 SB Y 1 52951 217 B B

217 NB Y 1 53005 217 1 1

217 NB Y 1 53034 1 1

218 EB N 1 53112 218 1 1

218 EB Y 1 53129 218 1 1

218 EB Y B 531 31 218 B B

218 SB Y 1 53140 218 1 1

218 WB Y 1 531 40 218 1 1

218 SB Y 1 53146 218 1 1

218 NB Y 1 53153 218 1 1

218 NB Y B 531 56 218 B B

219 EB N 2 53236 219 2 2

219 NB Y 1 53315 219 1 1

219 EB N B 53330 219 B B

219 NB Y 2 53332 219 2 2

219 EB N 1 5 3340 219 1 1

219 SB Y 1 53354 219 1 1

219 NB Y 2 53408 219 2 2

219 NB Y 2B 5 3408 219 2B 2B

219 NB Y 2 53410 219 2 2

219 EB N 1 53415 219 1 1

219 WB N 1 53431 219 1 1




















220 EB N B 53500 220 B B

220 SB Y 1 53507 220 1 1

220 NB Y 1 53507 220 1 1

220 NB Y 1 53535 220 1 1

220 SB Y 2 53547 220 2 2

220 NB Y 1 53556 220 1 1

220 SB Y 2 53558 220 2 2

220 NB Y 1 53609 220 1 1

220 WB N 2 53627 220 2 2

220 WB N 1 53632 220 1 1

221 SB Y 2 53703 221 2 2

221 NB Y 1 53734 221 1 1

221 WB N B 53745 221 B B

221 SB Y 2 53756 221 2 2

221 NB Y 1 53803 221 1 1

221 SB Y 1 53803 221 1 1

221 WB N 1 53824 222 1 1

222 SB Y 3 53852 222 3 3

222 WB N 1 53913 222 1 1

222 EB N 1 53915 222 1 1

222 EB N 1 53925 222 1 1

222 SB Y 3 53938 222 3 3

222 EB N 1 53943 222 1 1

222 SB Y 1 53953 222 1 1

222 NB Y 2 53956 222 2 2

222 NB Y 2B 53956 222 2B 2B

222 WB N 1 54022 222 1 1

223 EB N 2 54035 223 2 2

223 EB Y 3 5 4050 223 3 2 1

223 WB Y 1 54054 223 1 1

223 EB Y 1 54058 223 1 1

223 NB Y 2 541 01 223 2 2

223 NB Y 2 541 06 223 2 2

223 SB Y 1 54106 223 1 1

223 SB Y 1 54138 223 1 1

223 SB Y 2 54143 223 2 2

223 SB Y 1 54146 223 3 3

223 SB Y 3 541 59 223 3 3

223 EB N 2 54151 223 2 2

223 NB Y 1 54157 223 1 1

223 NB Y 3 54207 223 3 3

223 NB Y B 54212 223 B B

223 SB Y B 54222 223 B B

223 WB N 1 54222 223 1 1

224 SB Y 1 54251 224 1 1

224 NB Y 1 54312 224 1 1

224 SB Y 1 54334 224 1 1

224 EB N 1 54348 224 1 1

224 NB Y 2 54355 224 2 2

224 SB Y B 54403 224 B B

224 NB Y B 54404 224 B B

224 NB Y 1 54416 224 1 1 1

224 SB Y B 54418 224 B B

224 NB Y 2 54428 224 2 2 2

224 WB N 1 54428 224 1 1

225 EB N 2 54514 225 2 2


53500 220


2 2


















225 SB Y 2 54523 225 2 2

225 SB Y 2 54527 225 2 2

225 EB N B 54536 225 B B

225 NB Y 1 54601 225 1 1

226 EB N B 54644 226 B B

226 EB N 1 54701 226 1 1

226 NB N B 54741 226 B B

226 NB Y B 54751 226 B B

226 NB Y 1 54753 226 1 1

226 WB N 1 54812 226 1 1

227 EB N B 54841 227 B B

227 NB Y 2 54913 227 2 2

227 SB Y 1 54914 227 1 1

227 NB Y B 54953 227 B B

227 NB Y B 54956 227 B B

227 SB Y 2 55000 227 2 2

227 NB Y 1 55002 227 1 1

227 NB Y 1 55027 227 1 1

227 EB N 2 55039 227 2 2

228 SB Y 2 55050 228 2 2

228 EB N 2 55050 228 2 2

228 SB Y 2 551 00 228 2 2

228 SB Y 1 55157 228 1 1

228 WB N 1 55222 228 1 1

229 WB N B 55306 229 B B

229 WB N 1 55314 229 1 1 RUNNER

229 SB Y 2 55336 229 2 2

229 WB N 3 55419 229 3 3

229 NB Y 3 55420 230 3 3

230 WB N B 55429 230 B B

230 NB Y B 55431 230 B B

230 SB Y 2 55556 230 2 2

230 NB Y 1 55557 230 1 1

230 SB Y 1 55600 230 1 1

230 NB Y 1 55600 230 1 1

230 SB Y 1 55602 230 1 1

230 EB N B 55602 230 B B

230 WB Y 1 5 5630 231 1 1

231 EB Y 1 55636 231 1 1

231 EB Y 1 55643 231 1 1

231 WB N 1 55649 231 1 1

231 SB Y 1 55654 231 1 1

231 WB N B 55730 231 B B

231 WB N 1 55737 231 1 1

231 NB Y 1 55800 231 1 1

231 SB Y 1 55807 231 1 1 1

231 WB N 1 55817 231 1 1

232 EB Y 1 55836 232 1 1

232 SB Y 1 55837 232 1 1

232 SB Y 3 55847 232 3 3

232 SB Y 2 55918 232 2 2

232 NB Y 1 55943 232 1 1

232 NB Y B 60003 232 B B

232 SB Y 2 60008 232 2 2

233 NB Y 1 60051 233 1 1

233 SB Y 1 60050 233 1 1

233 SB Y 1 60135 233 1 1


















233 SB Y 4 601 58 233 4 4

233 NB Y 2 601 56 233 2 2

233 NB Y 1 60209 233 1 1

233 WB Y 1 60223 233 1 1

234 EB N 1 60254 234 1 1

234 EB N 2 60317 234 2 2

234 SB Y 2 60329 234 2 2

234 NB Y B 60356 234 B B

234 NB Y 1 60401 234 1 1

235 SB Y 1 60516 235 1 1 1

235 SB Y 1 60509 235 1 1 1

235 SB Y 1 60516 235 1 1 1

235 SB Y 1 60608 235 1 1

235 EB N 1 60632 235 1 1

236 WB N 1 60719 236 1 1

236 NB Y 1 60739 236 1 1

236 SB Y 5 60755 236 5 5

236 SB Y 3 60754 236 3 3

236 NB Y 3 60758 236 3 3

236 NB Y B 60802 236 B B

236 NB Y 2 60804 236 2 2

236 WB N 2 60805 236 2 2

236 NB Y B 60808 236 B B

236 EB N B 60812 236 B B

236 SB Y 1 60820 236 1 1

236 WB N 2 60827 236 2 2

237 NB Y 2 60925 237 2 2

237 SB Y 1 60937 237 1 1

237 WB N 1 60952 237 1 1

237 NB Y 1 60954 237 1 1

237 NB Y 1 60955 237 1 1

237 SB Y 1 61002 237 1 1

237 SB Y 2 61003 237 2 2

237 SB Y 1 61008 237 1 1

237 SB Y 3 61027 238 3 3

237 NB Y 2 61033 238 2 2

238 EB N 2 61056 238 2 2

238 SB Y 3 61058 238 3 3

238 SB Y 2 61109 238 2 2

238 EB N B 61124 238 B B

238 NB Y 2 61147 238 2 2

238 NB Y B 61207 238 B B

238 NB Y 2 61207 238 2 2

238 NB Y 2 61208 238 2 2

238 NB Y B 61209 238 B B

238 NB Y 1 61217 238 1 1 1

238 WB N 4 61220 238 4 4

238 WB N B 61240 238 B B

239 EB N 1 61308 239 1 1

239 SB N 3 61358 239 3 3

239 WB N 1 61410 239 1 1 RUNNER

239 NB N 2 61413 239 2 2

240 EB N B 61430 240 B B

240 SB Y 1 61452 240 1 1

240 WB Y B 61517 240 B B

240 SB Y 1 61527 240 1 1

240 EB N 1 61533 240 1 1


















240 EB N B 61542 240 B B

240 SB Y 1 61543 240 1 1

240 NB Y 2 61553 240 2 2

241 EB N B 61637 241 B B

241 WB N 1 61718 241 1 1

241 WB N 1 61718 241 1 1

241 WB N B 61721 241 B B

241 SB Y 2 61739 241 2 2

241 EB N B 61740 241 B B

241 SB Y B 61746 241 B B

241 NB Y 1 61751 241 1 1

241 EB N 1 61802 241 1 1

242 WB N 1 61857 242 1 1

242 NB Y 3 61953 242 3 3

242 NB Y B 61956 242 B B

242 SB Y 2 62004 242 2 2

242 SB Y 3 62019 242 3 3 3

242 NB N 2 62033 243 2 2

243 EB N 1 62114 243 1 1

243 NB N 2 621 35 243 2 2

243 WB N 1 62202 243 1 1

243 EB N B 62204 243 B B

243 SB N 1 62207 243 1 1

243 NB N 1 62158 243 1 1

243 NB N 1 62209 243 1 1

243 NB N 4 62213 243 4 4

243 NB N B 62215 243 B B

243 EB N 1 62243 243 1 1

244 SB Y B 62245 244 B B

244 SB Y 1 62254 244 1 1

244 NB Y B 62256 244 B B

244 SB Y 1 62316 244 1 1

244 EB Y B 62329 244 B B

244 EB Y 1 62330 244 1 1

244 SB Y 1 62342 244 1 1

244 WB N B 62348 244 B B

245 WB N 1 62445 245 1 1

245 EB N 1 62444 245 1 1

245 EB N 2 62510 245 2 2

245 SB Y 2 62522 245 2 2 1

245 SB Y 3 62530 245 3 3

245 SB Y 2 62538 245 2 2

245 NB Y 2 62540 245 2 2

245 NB Y B 62557 245 B B

245 WB N 1 62612 245 1 1

245 WB N 1 62615 245 1 1

246 SB Y 2 62642 246 2 2

246 NB Y 1 62708 246 1 1

246 SB Y 1 62711 246 1 1

246 NB Y 3 62719 246 3 3

246 SB Y 1 62750 246 1 1

246 NB Y 3 62758 246 3 3

246 NB Y 2 62759 246 2 2

246 NB Y 1 62814 246 1 1

246 EB/NVB N

247 NB Y 1 62856 247 1 1 1

247 SB Y 2 62945 247 2 2


















247 SB Y B 62952 247 B B

247 NB Y B 62956 247 B B

247 NB Y 1 62956 247 1 1

247 SB Y 1 63030 248 1 1

247 NB Y 1 63042 248 1 1

247 EBNVB Y

248 NB Y 1 63048 248 1 1

248 EB N 1 63109 248 1 1

248 NB Y 1 63137 248 1 1

248 EB N B 63142 248 B B

248 WB N 2 631 44 248 2 2

248 WB N B 63200 248 B B

248 NB Y 1 63202 248 1 1

248 SB Y 1 63218 248 1 1

249 NB Y 1 63335 249 1 1

249 NB Y 2 63354 249 2 2

249 NB Y 6 63355 249 6 6

249 NB Y B 63355 249 B B

249 SB Y 1 63355 249 1 1

249 EB N 1 63402 249 1 1

249 WB N 1 63409 249 1 1

249 NB Y 1 63413 249 1 1

250 WB Y B 63430 250 B B

250 NB Y 2 63435 250 2 2

250 WB Y 1 63452 250 1 1

250 NB Y 1 63454 250 1 1

250 WB N B 62513 250 B B

250 EB Y 1 63528 250 1 1

250 SB Y 2 63530 250 2 2

250 WB N 1 63541 250 1 1

250 SB Y 1 63541 250 1 1

250 NB Y 6 63556 250 6 6

250 NB Y 1 63557 250 1 1

250 NB Y 1 63617 250 1 1

250 WB N 1 63630 250 1 1

251 SB Y 2 63657 251 2 2

251 SB Y 1 63703 251 1 1

251 NB Y 1 63710 251 1 1

251 SB Y 2 63727 251 2 2

251 NB Y 1 63731 251 1 1

251 NB Y 1 63737 251 1 1

251 WB N 2 63750 251 2 2

251 NB Y 3 63755 251 3 3

251 NB Y 4 63806 251 4 4

251 NB Y 1 63810 251 1 1

251 SB Y 1 63815 251 1 1

251 WB N 1 63833 251 1 1

251 WB N 1 63845 252 1 1

252 SB Y 2 63917 252 2 2

252 WB N 1 63922 252 1 1

252 NB Y 1 63947 252 1 1

252 WB N 1 63949 253 1 1

252 SB Y 1 63949 252 1 1

252 SB Y 1 63952 252 1 1

252 NB Y 1 64000 252 1 1

252 WB N 1 64005 252 1 1

252 EB N 1 64005 252 1 1


















252 WB YN B 64006 252 B B

252 NB Y 1 64008 252 1 1

252 NB Y 1 64010 252 1 1

252 NB Y 1 64020 252 1 1 1

252 WB N 1 64021 252 1 1

252 WB N 3 64032 252 3 3

252 EB N 2 64032 252 2 2

252 SB Y 2 64045 252 2 2

253 EB Y 1 64055 253 1 1

253 WB Y B 641 05 253 B B

253 SB Y 1 64106 253 1 1

253 SB Y 3 641 53 253 3 3

253 NB Y 2 641 55 253 2 2

253 NB Y 2 64158 253 2 2

253 NB Y 2B 641 58 253 2B 2B

253 WB Y 1 64204 253 1 11

253 WB Y B 64204 253 B B

254 SB Y 1 64258 254 1 1

254 SB Y 1 64306 254 1 1

254 WB N B 64311 254 B B

254 WB N B 64320 254 B B

254 WB N 1 64322 254 1 1

254 EB N B 64328 254 B B

254 NB Y 1 64347 254 1 1

254 NB Y 1 64352 254 1 1

254 SB Y 1 64357 254 1 1

254 NB Y 2B 64408 254 2B 2B

254 SB Y 2 64422 255 2 2

255 NB Y 1 64440 255 1 1

255 SB Y 3 64554 255 3 3

255 NB Y 1 64554 255 1 1

255 EB/NVB N

256 WB N 1 64616 256 1 1

256 SB Y 3 64628 257 3 3

256 EB N B 64628 256 B B

257 SB Y 2 64659 257 2 2

257 WB N B 64721 257 B B

257 EB N 1 64728 257 1 1

257 EB N B 64733 257 B B

257 EB N B 64736 257 B B

257 EB N 1 64752 257 1 1

257 SB Y 1 64754 257 1 1

257 NB Y 1 64756 257 1 1

257 SB Y 1 64801 257 1 1

257 WB N 1 64815 257 1 1

258 SB N 1 64835 258 1 1 1

258 WB N B 64837 258 B B

258 EB N 2 64856 258 2 2

258 SB N 2 64907 258 2 2 2

258 WB N 1 64912 258 1 1

258 NB N 1 64923 258 1 1

258 SB N 2 64950 258 2 2 2

258 SB N 3 65004 258 3 3 3

258 NB N B 65009 258 B B

258 NB N 1 65010 258 1 1

259 EB N 3 65053 259 3 3

259 EB N B 65106 259 B B


















259 SB Y 3 651 06 259 3 3

259 SB Y 1 65112 259 1 1

259 NB Y 1 65129 259 1 1

259 SB Y 2 65147 259 2 2

259 SB Y 2 651 53 259 2 2

259 NB Y 1 65158 259 1 1

259 NB Y 1 65201 259 1 1

259 WB N B 65216 259 B B

260 SB Y 1 65246 260 1 1

260 WB N 1 65250 260 1 1

260 SB Y 1 65316 260 1 1

260 NB Y 2 65323 260 2 2

260 EB N 1 65330 260 1 1

260 SB Y 1 65343 260 1 1

260 WB N 1 65357 260 1 1

260 NB Y 3 6,5408 260 3 3

260 WB N 2 65416 260 2 2

260 WB N 1 65424 260 1 1

261 SB Y 1 65437 261 1 1

261 EB N B 65520 261 B B

261 WB N B 65526 261 B B

261 WB N 1 65530 261 1 1

261 NB Y B 65559 261 B B

261 SB Y 1 65601 261 1 1

261 NB Y B 65603 261 B B

261 NB Y B 65605 261 B B

261 NB Y 2 65613 261 2 2

261 SB Y 1 65623 261 1 1

261 WB N 2 65628 261 2 2

261 EB N 2 65630 261 2 2

261 SB Y 2 65641 262 2 2

262 SB Y 3 55707 262 3 3

262 NB Y 1 65749 262 1 11

262 NB Y 2 65759 262 2 2

262 SB Y 4 65819 262 4 4

262 WB N 1 65829 262 1 1

263 SB Y 2 65846 263 2 2

263 SB Y 1 65907 263 1 1

263 NB Y 1 65913 263 1 1

263 WB N B 65920 263 B B

263 NB Y 1 65936 263 1 1

263 EB N B 65946 263 B B

263 SB Y 4 65959 263 4 4

264 NB Y 1 70057 264 1 1

264 SB Y 2 70228 264 2 2

264 SB Y 3 70232 265 3 3

264 EB/NVB N

265 EB N 1 70256 265 1 1

265 NB Y 2 70308 265 2 2

265 SB Y 1 70310 265 1 1

265 SB Y 1 70318 265 1 1

265 NB Y 1 70318 265 1 1

265 NB Y 1 70346 265 1 1

265 SB Y 1 70346 265 1 1

265 NB Y 4 70405 265 4 4

265 NB Y 1 70420 265 1 1

265 WB N 1 70427 265 1 1


















266 NB Y 1 70526 266 1 1

266 NB Y 1 70555 266 1 1

266 SB Y 2 70615 266 2 2

266 EBNVB N

267 WB N 1 70701 267 1 1

267 NB Y 3 70736 267 3 3

267 SB Y 5 70740 267 5 5

267 NB Y 2B 70759 267 2B 2B

267 EB N 1 70805 267 1 1

268 EB N 1 70841 268 1 1

268 SB Y 1 70905 268 1 1

268 NB Y 1 70950 268 1 1

268 WB N 2 70953 268 2 2

268 SB Y 1 70957 268 1 1

268 NB Y 2 70959 268 2 2

268 EB Y 1 71045 268 1 1

268 SB Y 1 71047 269 1 1

269 SB Y 1 71055 269 1 1

269 NB Y 1 71055 269 1 1 1

269 WB N 2 711 08 269 2 2

269 NB Y 1 71240 270 1 1

270 NB Y 1 71245 270 1 1

270 SB Y 1 71300 270 2 2

270 NB Y 1 71357 270 1 1

270 NB Y B 71357 270 B B

270 NB Y 2 71359 270 2 2

270 WB N 1 71413 270 1 1

271 SB Y 1 71447 271 1 1

271 SB Y 1 71508 271 1 1

271 SB Y 1 71540 271 1 1

271 NB Y 1 71544 271 1 1

271 NB Y 5 71602 271 4 4

271 SB Y 1 71608 271 1 1

271 SB Y 1 71644 272 1 1

271 EB N 3 71644 271 3 3

272 EB N 3 71653 272 3 3

272 SB Y 3 71703 272 3 3

272 NB Y 2 71755 272 2 2

272 NB Y B 71755 272 B B

272 WB N 2 71812 272 2 2

273 WB N B 71825 273 B B

273 NB Y 1 71833 273 1 1

273 EB N 1 71836 273 1 1

273 SB Y 2 71847 273 2 2

273 SB Y 1 71924 273 1 1

273 NB Y 1 72019 273 1 1

273 SB Y 1 72019 273 1 1

273 WB N 1 72024 273 1 1

273 WB N 1 72024 273 1 1

273 NB N 1 72035 274 1 1

274 SB N 1 72122 274 1 1

274 NB N 1 721 55 274 1 1

274 NB N 1 72200 274 1 1

274 NB N B 72212 274 B B

274 EB/NVB N

275 NB N B 72339 275 B B

275 WB N 1 72344 275 1 1


















275 NB N 2 72357 275 2 2

276 SB Y 1 72444 276 1 1

276 NB Y 2 72508 276 2 2

276 NB Y 1 72611 276 1 1

276 EBNVB N

277 WB N B 72658 277 B B

277 WB N 1 72700 277 B B

277 NB Y 1 72704 277 1 1

277 EB N B 72745 277 B B

277 NB Y 1 72758 277 1 1

277 NB Y 1 72801 277 1 1

277 WB N 1 72811 278 1 1

277 NB Y 1 72813 277 1 1

277 WB N 1 72824 278 1 1

278 EB N B 72854 278 B B

278 EB N 2 72857 278 2 2

278 WB N B 72902 278 B B

278 SB Y 2 72959 278 2 2

279 SB Y 2 731 35 279 2 2

279 NB Y 7 73111 279 7 7

279 NB Y 2 73213 279 2 2

279 WB N 1 73228 279 1 1

279 WB N 2 73244 279 2 2 2

280 NB Y 2 73251 280 2 2

280 SB Y 1 73318 280 1 1

280 NB Y 1 73329 280 1 1

280 NB Y 1 73407 280 1 1

280 EBNVB N

281 NB Y 1 73451 281 1 1

281 WB N B 73455 281 B B

281 NB Y 2 73522 281 2 2

281 SB Y 1 73609 281 1 1

281 NB Y 3 73611 281 3 3

281 NB Y B 73611 281 B B

281 WB N 1 73630 281 1 1

282 NB Y 1 73641 282 1 1

282 NB Y 1 73713 282 1 1

282 EB N 1 73743 282 1 1

282 NB Y 2B 73754 282 2B 2B

282 SB Y 1 73754 282 1 1

282 NB Y 4 73809 282 4 4

283 NB N 1 73851 283 1 1

283 EB N B 73909 283 B B

283 NB N 4 73909 283 4 4

283 NB N 1 74007 283 1 1

283 NB N 2B 74011 283 2B 2B

283 WB N 1 74014 283 1 1

283 EB N 1 74017 283 1 1

284 EB N B 74110 284 B B

284 NB N 4 74143 284 4 4

284 NB N 3 74155 284 3 3

284 SB N 1 74209 284 1 1

284 SB N 1 74217 284 1 1 1

285 EB Y 2 74241 285 2 2

285 WB Y 1 74240 285 1 1

285 EB Y B 74246 285 B B

285 EB Y 2 74250 285 2 2


















285 SB Y 1 74256 285 1 1

285 EB N 2 74308 285 2 2

285 SB Y 2 74321 285 2 2

285 NB Y 1 74328 285 1 1

285 NB Y 2 74338 285 2 2

285 SB Y 1 74348 285 1 1

285 SB Y 1 74406 285 1 1

286 EB Y 1 74441 286 1 1

286 EB Y 1 74443 286 1 1

286 WB Y 2B 7 4446 286 2B 2B

286 SB Y 1 74459 286 1 1

286 NB Y 1 74459 286 1 1

286 WB N 1 74459 286 1 1

286 EB N B 74504 286 B B

286 EB N 1 74543 286 1 1

286 WB N B 74544 286 B B

286 EB N 1 74548 286 1 1

286 NB Y 1 74557 286 1 1

286 NB Y B 74600 286 B B

286 SB Y 1 74603 286 1 1

286 WB N 1 74618 286 1 1

286 SB Y B 74629 286 B B

286 NB Y 2 74632 286 2 2

287 WB N 2 74653 287 2 2

287 EB N 1 74653 287 1 1

287 EB N 2 74659 287 2 2

287 SB Y 2 74707 287 2 2 2

287 SB Y 2 74709 287 2 2 2

287 EB N 1 74726 287 1 1

287 NB Y 1 74730 287 1 1

287 EB N B 74733 287 B B

287 EB N 1 74734 287 1 1

287 SB Y 1 74745 287 1 1 1

287 SB Y 2 74804 287 2 2 2

287 NB Y 1 74800 287 1 1

287 EB N 1 74821 287 1 1

287 WB N 1 74843 287 1 1

288 NB Y 1 74859 288 1 1

288 WB N B 74908 288 B B

288 SB Y 2 74912 288 2 2

288 NB Y 1 74927 288 1 1

288 NB Y 1 74954 288 1 1

288 NB Y 1 74959 288 1 1

288 SB Y 3 74959 288 3

288 NB Y B 75010 288 B B

288 NB Y 2 75010 288 2 2

288 SB Y 2 75012 288 2 2

288 SB Y 1 75017 288 1 1

288 NB Y B 75028 288 B B

289 EB Y 1 75102 289 1 1

289 WB N B 751 38 289 B B

289 WB N 1 751 40 289 1 1

289 NB Y 2 751 59 289 2 2

289 NB Y 1 75215 289 1 1

289 NB Y B 75215 289 B B

289 SB Y 1 75215 289 1 1

289 EB N B 75230 289 B B


















290 WB N B 75241 290 B B

290 EB Y 1 75245 290 1 1

290 NB Y 2 75239 290 2 2

290 SB Y 2 75300 290 2 2

290 NB Y 1 75319 290 1 1

290 EB N 1 75335 290 1 1

290 EB N 1 75336 290 1 1

290 SB Y 2 75346 290 2 2

290 EB B 75346 290 B B

290 EB N 2 75347 290 2 2

290 EB N 3 75353 290 3 3

290 NB Y 4 75356 290 4 4

290 SB Y 1 75357 290 1 1

290 SB Y 2 75401 290 2 2

290 SB Y 1 75414 290 1 1

290 NB Y B 75420 290 B B

290 WB N 1 75442 290 1 1

290 WB N 1 75445 290 1 1

291 NB Y 1 75449 291 1 1 1

291 NB Y 1 75511 291 1 1

291 NB Y 1 75516 291 1 1

291 WB N 1 75542 291 1 1

291 SB Y 1 75548 291 1 1

291 NB Y 1 75603 291 1 1

291 NB Y B 75611 291 B B

291 NB Y 4 75613 291 4 1

291 WB N 1 75633 292 1 1

292 WB N 1 75652 292 1 1

292 EB N 2 75652 292 2 2

292 EB N 1 75720 292 1 1

292 WB N 1 75723 292 1 1

292 WB N B 75723 292 B B

292 NB Y 2 75803 292 2 2

293 EB N 4 75901 293 4 4


END OF TAPE














APPENDIX B
SAMPLE PROCESSED DATA FILE

The data gathered from the video tapes was processed and analyzed for each study

intersection. Five performance measures were observed and recorded: behavior of

pedestrians entering the crosswalk; behavior of pedestrian exiting the crosswalk; erratic

pedestrian behavior due to the pedestrian signal indication; pedestrian-vehicle conflicts;

and, pedestrian compliance with the FDW indication. A sample of the processed data for

the intersection of W University Avenue and W 17th Street is presented in this section.














W University Ave & W 17th St


PEDESTRIANS
Total Entering on WALK Entering on FDW Entering on DW
Observations Total % Total % Total %
T-A1 Mon 1161 410 35.31% 106 9.13% 645 55.56%
T-A2 Tue/Wed 1490 638 42.82% 130 8.72% 722 48.46%
T-A10 Fri 574 266 46.34% 63 10.98% 245 42.68%


TOTAL
AFTER


3225 1314 40.74% 299 9.27% 1612 49.98%


T B1 Thu/Fri
T B2 Fri/Mon
T B3 Mon/Tue


644
1272
1462


142 22.05% 38 5.90% 464
305 23.98% 97 7.63% 870
466 31.87% 140 9.58% 856


TOTAL
BEFORE 3378


913 27.03% 275 8.14% 2190 64.83%


72.05%
68.40%
58.55%














W University Ave & W 17th St


PEDESTRIANS
Total Exiting on WALK Exiting on FDW Exiting on DW
TAPE/Weekday Observatio
ns Total % Total % Total %
T-A1 Mon 1161 51 4.39% 560 48.23% 550 47.37%
T-A2 Tue/Wed 1490 44 2.95% 793 53.22% 653 43.83%
T-A10 Fri 574 47 8.19% 376 65.51% 151 26.31%

TOTAL
AFTER 3225 142 4.40% 1729 53.61% 1354 41.98%
AFTER


T B1 Thu/Fri
T B2 Fri/Mon
T B3 Mon/Tue

TOTAL
BEFORE


644
1272
1462


32 4.97% 258
72 5.66% 521
57 3.90% 695


40.06% 354 54.97%
40.96% 679 53.38%
47.54% 710 48.56%


3378 161 4.77% 1474 43.64% 1743 51.60%













W University Ave & W 17th St


PEDESTRIANS
Total HESITATING RUNNING GOING BACK
P ee ay Observations Total % Total % Total %
T-A1 Mon 1161 0 0.00% 51 4.39% 1 0.09%
T-A2 Tue/Wed 1490 0 0.00% 31 2.08% 2 0.13%
T-A10 Fri 574 3 31 0

TOTAL
AFTER 3225 3 0.09% 113 3.50% 3 0.09%
AFTER


T B1 Thu/Fri
T B2 Fri/Mon
T B3 Mon/Tue

TOTAL
BEFORE


644
1272
1462


0.00%
0.94%
0.27%


2.48%
4.80%
2.53%


0.00%
0.55%
0.07%


16 0.47% 114 3.37% 8 0.24%


3378














W University Ave & W 17th St


PEDESTRIANS
TAPE/Weekday
T-A1 Mon
T A2 Tue/Wed
T-A10 Fri
TOTAL
AFTER


Total
1161
1490
574


RUN
0
1
0


STOP
23
17
18


3225 1 58


EVADE
1
5
2

8


CRASH
0
0
0


TOTAL CONFLICTS
24
23
20


0 67


T B1 Thu/Fri
T B2 Fri/Mon
T B3 Mon/Tue
TOTAL
BEFORE


644
1272
1462


3378 5 117 1


0 123













(Arrival during FDW and wait for WALK before entering crosswalk)
W University Ave & W 17th St


PEDESTRIAN

Tape


T-A1
T A2
T-A10

TOTAL
AFTER


NS

Arrivals at FDW

89
107
67


COMPLIANCE
WITH FDW
INDICATION
2
0
3


263


Percentage enter

2.25% 84
0.00% 97
4.48% 58


Percentage enter
DW
94.38% 3
90.65% 10
86.57% 6


1.90% 239 90.87% 19 7.22%


30 90.91%
83 86.46%
108 96.43%


TOTAL
BEFORE 241


2.07% 221 91.70% 15 6.22%


Percentage

3.37%
9.35%
8.96%


T-B1
T- B2
T- B3


9.00%
1.04%
0.89%


0.00%
12.50%
2.68%















LIST OF REFERENCES


1. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Safety Administration.
Traffic Safety Facts 2003. Report No. DOT-HS-809-769. Online at: http://www-
nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pdf/nrd-30/NCSA/TSFAnn/TSF2003Final.pdf Accessed April
14, 2005.

2. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Manual of
Uniform Traffic Control Devices, Millennium Edition, Revision Number 1.
December 2001. Online at: http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/kno-
millennium_12.28.01.htm Accessed April 14, 2005.

3. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Manual of
Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2003 Edition.
November 2003. Online at: http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/kno-2003.htm Accessed
April 14, 2005.

4. Florida Department of Transportation. Traffic Engineering Manual. Manual
Number 750-000-005, March 1999. Online at:
http://www.dot.state.fl.us/trafficoperations/temanual/temanual.htm April 14, 2005.

5. 2002 Florida Statutes, Title XXIII, Chapter 316. Online at:
http://www.leg.state.fl.us/Statutes/ Accessed April 14, 2005.

6. Kingsbury, Dwight. Florida Department of Transportation State Safety Office, E-
mail, December 21, 2004.

7. Robertson, H.D. and Carter, E.C. "The Safety, Operational and Cost Impacts of
Pedestrian Indications." Transportation Research Record 959, pp. 1-7, 1984.

8. Zegeer, C., Cynecki, M.J., and Opiela, K.S. "Evaluation of Innovative Pedestrian
Signalization Alternatives." Transportation Research Record 959, pp. 7-18, 1984

9. Tidwell, J.E. and Doyle, D.P. "Driver and Pedestrian Comprehension of Pedestrian
Law and Traffic Control Devices." Transportation Research Record 1502, pp. 119
-128, 1995.

10. Zegeer, C., Opiela, K.S., and Cynecki, M.J. "The Effect of Pedestrian Signals and
Signal Timing on Pedestrian Accidents." Transportation Research Record 847, pp.
62-72, 1982.









11. Khasnabis, S., Zegeer, C.V., and Cynecki, M.J. "Effects of Pedestrian Signals on
Safety, Operations, and Pedestrian Behavior Literature Review." Transportation
Research Record 847, pp. 78-86, 1982

12. Yauch, P.J. and Davis, R.E. III. "Pedestrian Signals A Call to Action". ITE
Journal, pp. 32-35, April 2001.

13. U.S. Department of Transportation. Canadian Research on Pedestrian Safety.
Publication No. FHWA-RD-99-090, December 1999. Online at:
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/99090/99090.pdf Accessed April 14,
2005

14. Ullman, B., Fitzpatrick, K., and Trout N. "On-Street Pedestrian Surveys of
Pedestrian Crossing Treatments." Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of
Transportation Engineers 2004 Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL, August 2004.

15. Botha, J.L., Zabyshny, A.A., and Day, J.E. "Pedestrian Countdown Signals: An
Experimental Evaluation." San Jose State University, Department of Civil and
Environmental Engineering, Prepared for the City of San Jose Department of
Transportation, May 2002.

16. Eccles, K.A., Ruihua, T., and Magnum, B.C. "Evaluation of Pedestrian Countdown
Signals in Montgomery County, Maryland." Presented at the 83rd Annual Meeting
of the Transportation Research Board, January 2004.

17. Pulugurtha, S.S. and Nambian, S.S. "An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of
Pedestrian Countdown Signals." Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of
Transportation Engineers 2004 Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL, August 2004.

18. Huang, H., and Zegeer, C. "The Effects of Pedestrian Countdown Signals in Lake
Buena Vista." University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center,
Prepared for the Florida Department of Transportation, November 2000.

19. U.S. Department of Transportation. Dutch Pedestrian Safety Review. Publication
No. FHWA-RD-99-092, December 1999. Online at:
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/99092/99092.pdfAccessed April 14,
2005.

20. Washburn, S.S., and Courage, K.G. "Development and Testing of a Red Light
Violation Data Collection Tool." University of Tennessee Southeast Transportation
Center, May 2001. Online at: http://stc.utk.edu/htm/researchcom.htm Accessed
April 14, 2005.

21. Ott, R.L., and Longnecker, M. An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data
Analysis, Fifth Edition. Duxbury/Wadsworth Group. Pacific Grove, CA. 2001.

22. U.S. Census Bureau, 2004, "U.S. Interim Projections by Age, Sex, Race, and
Hispanic Origin," http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/usinterimproj/, March 2004.















BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Deborah L. Leistner received a bachelor's degree in architecture and urbanism from

Universidade Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 1996, and a master's degree in urban and

regional planning from the University of Florida in 2000. Deborah worked for 2 years in

Marion County, Florida, as a Planner. Since January of 2002, she has worked for the City

of Gainesville, Florida, Public Works Department as a Transportation Planning Analyst.




Full Text

PAGE 1

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PEDESTRIAN COUNTDOWN SIGNALS By DEBORAH LINDORO LEISTNER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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Copyright 2005 by Deborah Lindoro Leistner

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This document is dedicated to my father.

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my fianc, Douglas Robinson, for his patient love and care, and for all of his support during the completion of my degree over the past two years. I thank Dr. Scott Washburn for the thoughtful direction and guidance, and the members of my committee, Dr. Lily Elefteriadou and Dr. Ruth Steiner, for participating in this project and sharing their knowledge and expertise. I thank Brian Kanely, Transportation Services Manager at the City of Gainesville Public Works Department, for allowing me the necessary flexibility to complete this project. I also thank Phil Mann, Conrad Renshaw, and Kris McCoy. Finally, I thank the University of Florida students that contributed in many ways to this effort: Byungkon Ko, Christian Gyle, Jessica Morriss, and Jennifer Webster

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v TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................viii ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................5 Meaning of Pedestrian Signal Indications....................................................................5 Understanding of Pedestrian Signal Indications...........................................................6 Conventional vs. Countdown Pe destrian Signal Indications........................................7 Influence on Pedestrian Behavior.................................................................................8 3 RESEARCH APPROACH.........................................................................................12 Site Selection..............................................................................................................12 Site Description..........................................................................................................13 E University Avenue and E 1st Street..................................................................13 W University Avenue and W 2nd Street..............................................................14 W University Avenue and W 17th Street.............................................................14 W University and North-South Drive..................................................................15 Archer Road and SW 16th Street.........................................................................15 Data Collection...........................................................................................................16 Data Reduction...........................................................................................................20 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS.....................................................................................23 Performance Measures................................................................................................23 Statistical Analysis......................................................................................................24 Discussion of Results by Performance Measure........................................................25 Pedestrians Entering the Crosswalk....................................................................25 Pedestrians Exiting the Crosswalk......................................................................29

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vi Compliance with FDW Indication.......................................................................30 Erratic Pedestrian Behavior.................................................................................31 Pedestrian-Vehicle Conflicts...............................................................................33 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.....................................................37 Summary of Conclusions............................................................................................39 Recommendations for Future Study...........................................................................39 APPENDIX A DATA COLLECTION SAMPLE..............................................................................41 B SAMPLE PROCESSED DATA FILE.......................................................................65 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................71 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................73

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vii LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Data Collection Periods Used for Observation and Analysis..................................22 4-1 Calculated Test Statistic by Performance Measure..................................................26 4-2 Pedestrians Entering Crosswalk...............................................................................27 4-3 Pedestrians Exiting Crosswalk.................................................................................29 4-4 Compliance with the Flashing Don't Walk Indication..............................................31 4-5 Erratic Behavior During Crossing............................................................................32 4-6 Pedestrian-Vehicle Conflicts....................................................................................34

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viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Conventional Pedestri an Signal Indications...............................................................2 1-2 Pedestrian Countdown Signal Indications..................................................................2 3-1 Schematic of Count Station Locations.....................................................................13 3-2 Signage for Pedestrian Crossings.............................................................................14 3-3 Intersections in the Downtown Area........................................................................15 3-4 Intersections Adjacent to UF campus.......................................................................16 3-5 Intersection of Archer Rd & SW 16th St..................................................................16 3-6 Location of Camera Installation and Fi eld of View at Each Study Intersection......17 3-7 Composite Image Capture........................................................................................19

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ix Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PEDESTRIAN COUNTDOWN SIGNALS By Deborah Lindoro Leistner August 2005 Chair: Scott S. Washburn Major Department: Civil and Coastal Engineering According to the National Highway Safety Administration, thousands of pedestrians are injured or killed in collisions with vehicles every year. Approximately one quarter of all fatalities occur at urban intersections, and the main cause of fatalities is improper crossing. Pedestrians misunderstandi ng of pedestrian signal indications at crossings is identified in the literature as a contributing factor to improper crossings. To address this problem and potentially increase the safety at signalized intersection crossings, pedestrian countdown signals were created by incorporating a countdown timer that is displayed simulta neously during the flashing DONT WALK (FDW) interval. The timer counts down the number of seconds remaining until the display of the solid DONT WALK (DW) interval. It has been purported that this signal design leads to a higher level of pedestrian safety by enabling pedestrians to make better crossing decisions with the added information.

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x A before-and-after study of pedestrian countdown signals was conducted at five intersections in Gainesville, Florida. All of the intersections had high pedestrian and vehicular traffic volumes during certain times of the day. Additionally, several distinct pedestrian populations were present across the intersections. The data were collected from October 2003 to April 2004, using a video detection system that simultaneously captures pedestrian and vehicular movements and the corresponding traffic signal indications. Over the course of the study, a total of 7,639 pedestrians were observed before and 6,339 pedestrians were observed after the installation of the countdown signals. Overall, the countdown signals appear to have had a positive influence on pedestrian crossing behavior. At most of the study intersections, the proportion of pedestrians entering the crosswalk on the WALK indication increased, while the proportion entering on the steady DW indication decreased. The countdown signals have also had the effect of increasing the proportion of pedestrians exiting on the FDW interval as opposed to the DW interval, therefore decreasing the number of pedestrians that remain in the crosswalk at the release of conflicting traffic. Pedestrians appear to be adjusting their walking speed to finish crossing during the FDW interval. The countdown signals have not had the potentially negative effect of increasing the proportion of pedestrians entering the crosswalk during the FDW interval, for those pedestrians that also arrived at the cro sswalk during the FDW. Overall, the countdown signals did not have a negative effect on pede strian behavior such as running, hesitating and going back to point of start. In addition, the overall proportion of conflicts with vehicles decreased after the installation of the countdown signals.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The National Center for Statistics and Analysis reports that in the United States on average a pedestrian is killed every 111 minutes, and that every 8 minutes a pedestrian is injured in a crash, with 21 percent of fatalities occurring at intersections. In 2003, 4,288 pedestrians were killed and 68,000 pedestrians were injured in a crash. Improper crossing of an intersection is the main factor in pedestrian fatalities, followed by failure to yield the right of way and darting or running into the roadway. Florida ranked second in 2003 in the number of pedestrians killed, with a rate of 2.94 per 100,000 persons. The national rate for the same period was 1.63 per 100,000 persons (1). A common underlying problem that affects pedestrian safety at intersection crossings is the lack of understanding of the meaning of the pedestrian signal indications, particularly the Flashing UPRAISED HAND or FLASHING DONT WALK (FDW). The problems associated with the conventional pedestrian signal heads (Figure 1-1) are well documented in the literature: pedestrians are not sure about the meaning of the FDW indication; some pedestrians revert to their point of origin when the FDW indication is displayed; pedestrians illegally enter the crosswalk during the FDW, and with insufficient time to complete the crossing, are still in the crosswalk when the steady DW indication is displayed. The latter increases the potential for conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles, given that when pedestrians r eceive the DW indication, conflicting vehicle movements receive the green light to proceed.

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2 Figure 1-1 Conventional Pedestrian Signal Indications. From Left: Steady DW and WALK. The clearance interval is indicated by the Flashing UPRAISED HAND or Flashing DONT WALK. Source: MUTCD 2003 (2) Chapter 4E. To address this problem and potentially increase the safety at signalized intersection crossings, the pedestrian countdown signal (Figure 1-2) was created by incorporating a countdown timer that is displayed simultaneously with the FDW indication. This timer displays the number of seconds remaining before the onset of the steady DW indication. It has been purported that this signal design leads to a higher level of pedestrian safety by enabling pedestrians to make better crossing decisions with the added information. The intended result is that a smaller percentage of pedestrians will remain in the crosswalk when the DW indication is displayed. Figure 1-2 Pedestrian Countdown Signal Indi cations. From Left: WALK, FDW and DW. The clearance interval displays the countdown timer concurrent with Flashing UPRAISED HAND or Flashing DONT WALK . Source: Photos of current installation at one of the study sites. The literature suggests that the compliance with the pedestrian signal indications may increase with the installation of pedestrian countdown signals. At the same time, some researchers have suggested that such signals may encourage more pedestrians to

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3 enter during the FDW indication instead of waiting for the next WALK indication, by misjudging the time needed to safely complete the crossing. Due to considerable statewide interest in pedestrian safety from the traffic engineering community in Florida, the Florida Department of Transportation and the City of Gainesville sponsored this study of pedestrian countdown signals with the University of Florida Transportation Research Center This study consists of observations of pedestrian behavior before and after the in stallation of pedestrian countdown signals at five intersections in Gainesville, Florida. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pedestrian countdown signals on several performance measures, such as pedestrians compliance with the pedestrian signal indications and the percenta ge of pedestrians in the crosswalk during the DW interval, relative to the non-countdown pedestrian signals. The following tasks were conducted in support of this objective: A literature review was performed as the basis for comparison of similar studies and findings; Study sites were selected based on levels of pedestrian and vehicular traffic volumes, location, roadway geometry, and pedestrian population characteristics; Data collection was conducted using video cameras and signal status recording devices; The performance measures and methodology for data reduction were established; The data were reduced from the video tapes and coded into a spreadsheet format so that results could be summarized and analyzed; and, The data were analyzed using a population proportions (before and after installation of countdown signals) comparison test statistic for each selected performance measure. Chapter 2 consists of a literature review of regulations applicable to pedestrian signals as well as a comprehensive review of studies that investigate the applications and influences of both conventional pedestrian signals and countdown signals on pedestrian behavior and understanding of the signal indications. Chapter 3 presents the research

PAGE 14

4 approach for this study, including detailed site descriptions and the methodology for data collection and data reduction. Chapter 4 discusses the selected performance measures for evaluation of the effectiveness of pedestrian countdown signals, the statistical analysis performed and the results obtained. Chapter 5 documents the findings and conclusions, and recommendations for further study.

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5 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW A common underlying problem that affects pedestrian safety at crossings is the lack of understanding of the meaning of the pedestrian signal indications, particularly the Flashing UPRAISED HAND or FLASHING DONT WALK (FDW). Pedestrian countdown signals were created to address the problem. This chapter presents a review of the studies performed to date on the effectiv eness of the implementation of pedestrian countdown signals as well as applicable regulations. Meaning of Pedestrian Signal Indications The 2001 edition of the Manual for Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) (2) defines the meaning of the pedestrian signal indications as follows: Steady WALKING PERSON (symbolizing WALK) . means that a pedestrian facing the signal indication may start to cross the roadway in the direction of the signal indication; Flashing UPRAISED HAND (symbolizing DONT WALK) . means that a pedestrian shall not start to cross the roadway in the direction of the signal indication, but that any pedestrian who has already started to cross on a steady WALKING PERSON (symbolizing WALK) signal indication shall proceed out of the traveled way; Steady UPRAISED HAND (symbolizing DONT WALK) . means that a pedestrian shall not enter the roadway in the direction of the signal indication. In the 2003 edition of the MUTCD (3) pedestrian countdown signals were included in the manual to facilitate the comprehension of the signal indications. A countdown timer was added to the FLASHING DONT WALK (FDW) interval to help inform pedestrians of the number of seconds remaining in the pedestrian change interval. In

PAGE 16

6 April 2003 the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) added the application of pedestrian countdown signals to the Traffic Engineering Manual (4) to enhance the safety of the pedestrian crossing a street during the pedestrian phasing of the signal cycle. Florida law (5) states that pedestrians are subject to traffic signal control at intersections. It adopts the MUTCD as a standa rd regulation for traffic control devices, and states that pedestrians must conform to its requirements. Understanding of Pedestrian Signal Indications According to the FDOT State Safety Office (6), the majority of pedestrians who contact the office are found to be confused about the meaning of FDW indications. Pedestrians interpret this indication to mean that their allotted time to complete the crossing has ended and that vehicles will be given the green signal to resume movement. Robertson and Carter (7) found that only about half of the pedestrians understood the meaning of the FDW indication. Zegeer et al. (8) identifies the major pedestrian safety problem as the misunderstanding and confusion associated with pedestrian signal indications. Tidwell and Doyle (9) conducted a survey of over 4,800 people in 48 states to determine their level of understanding of pedestrian law and traffic control devices. The results indicated that nearly 50% of responders did not understand the meaning of the FDW indication, and that pedestrians tend to underestimate the ratio of pedestrian fatalities in relation to all traffic fatalities. Zegeer et al. (10) found that in some circumstances conventional pedestrian signal indications may create a false sense of security leading pedestrians to feel protected from vehicles and decrease their caution

PAGE 17

7 while crossing. One third of the accidents observed by Zegeer et al. were caused by illegal pedestrian crossings. Khasnabis et al. (11) found that pedest rians tend to ignore pedestrian signal indications under low traffic volume conditions, and that the compliance with flashing signals tend to be lower than for steady signals. Yauch and Davis (12) relate the problems of lack of compliance with pedestrian indications to the continuing changes in design and operation associated with the pedestrian signals, which generate confusion and distrust. Conventional vs. Countdown Pe destrian Signal Indications A survey of 1,918 pedestrians conducted for the Federal Highway Administration (13) found that 80 percent of the pedestrians surveyed both before and after the installation of the countdown devices did not understand the meaning of the FDW indication. The countdown signals installed did not improve the pedestrians understanding of this indication. However, pedestrians felt safer at the crossings where the countdown devices were installed. Ullman et al. (14) compared five different treatments installed at seven intersections. Pedestrians were surveyed at each site. One of the sites included a pedestrian countdown signal. At this site 68 percent of pedestrians surveyed indicated that they felt the countdow n signal was an effective crossing treatment and that it enhanced pedestrian safety at crossing, while 30 percent of respondents indicated that they did not understand the meaning of the countdown interval and felt unsure about how to proceed in the crossing due to turning vehicles. Botha et al. (15) conducted a before-and-after study of pedestrian countdown signals in the City of San Jose, CA. As part of the study he surveyed the pedestrians understanding of the FDW indication and found that misunderstanding of the FDW indication increases with the installation of countdown devices. Eighty percent of the

PAGE 18

8 pedestrians surveyed indicated that they believed they could enter the crosswalk during the FDW indication if they were able to complete the crossing before the countdown reached zero. This assumption may have undesirable implications as the study also found that pedestrians were not able to correctly estimate the time needed to cross an intersection. Eccles et al. (16) conducted a similar before-and-after study of five intersections in Montgomery County, MD, and found that 62.6 percent of the pedestrians surveyed correctly interpreted the meaning of the countdown signals to be the remaining time for completing the crossing. Pulugurtha and Nambian (17) also found that understanding of the FDW interval increased after the installa tion of pedestrian countdown signals. Ninety percent of pedestrians surveyed correctly responded that the countdown timer indicates the time remaining to complete the crossing, and 85 percent associating the countdown signals with enhanced pedestrian safety at crossings. Influence on Pedestrian Behavior Eccles et al. (16) concluded that the pedestrian countdown signals had a positive effect on pedestrian behavior. While 2 of the 20 crosswalks evaluated resulted in a decrease in the number of pedestrians entering during the WALK interval, 6 experienced a significant increase. In addition, none of the intersections had a significant increase in the number of phases with pedestrians remaining in the crosswalk at the release of conflicting traffic, indicating that pedestrians adjusted their walking speed to clear the intersection faster even if entering the crossw alk later in the cycle. This study also found a significant decrease in the number of conflicts between pedestrian and motor vehicles after the installation of the countdown signals indicating that the use of such devices may increase pedestrian safety.

PAGE 19

9 Huang and Zegeer (18) used a treatment and control study design to evaluate the effectiveness of pedestrian countdown signals in enhancing pedestrian compliance and understanding of the signals. The results indicate that the devices had a positive effect in reducing the number of pedestrians that started running once the FDW indication started. This study corroborates the findings of Eccles et al. in that the installation of countdown signals did not increase the number of pedestrians remaining in the crosswalk at the release of conflicting traffi c, also citing the increase in walking speed to complete the crossing. The study, however, states that the compliance with the WALK indication decreased at the treatment sites. The authors did not recommend the installation of pedestrian countdown signals at standard intersections in Florida. It is noted that as a treatment and control site study, the results obtained may have been influenced by outside characteristics other than the treatment itself, such as intersection design and pedestrian population characteristics. Furthermore, the camera installation for data collection, at ground level, may have influenced pedestrian behavior. A Dutch review of pedestrian safety studies showed that on average only 35 percent of pedestrians cross during the WALK interval and that the type of destination had no impact on the probability of pedestrian s crossing during the DW indication (19). It also mentioned a type of installation wher e the steady DW indication was replaced by a flashing indication which allows pedestrians to cross but at the same time alerts them that there could be traffic; crossing is at your own risk. The authors point out that the WALK indication does not necessarily mean a vehicle-free period as turning movements are frequently allowed during the pedestrian interval. The flashing indication is thought to improve safety by establishing a clear relationship between vehicles and pedestrians.

PAGE 20

10 A study on the effects of such indications show ed that the number of crossings outside of the WALK interval doubled, the waiting time for pedestrians was reduced and there was no increase in the number of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts. The argument on the potential for conflicts during the WALK interval is also found in Zegeer et al. (10) stating that the majority of crashes between pedestrians and vehicles at intersections involve a turning vehicle. Botha et al. (15) found, for the countdown signals, that the number of pedestrians entering the crosswalk during the FDW interval increased while the number exiting during the DW interval decreased, indicating that pedestrians may be adjusting their walking speeds to clear the intersection before traffic receives the green indication. At the same time, the compliance with the FDW indication has decreased, as a higher percentage of pedestrians that arrive during this interval enter the crosswalk instead of waiting for the next WALK interval. The authors conclude that although the countdown signals may have the undesirable effect of encouraging more people to enter the crosswalk during the FDW it also causes them to complete the crossing before the release of on-coming traffic, therefore reducing the chances of a conflict. No significant changes were observed in erratic pedestrian behavior such as running, stopping or hesitating. Pedestrian behavior at the crossing and willingness to comply with the pedestrian signal indication is also influenced by pedestrian delay caused by the signal as a function of timing, by the volumes of pedestrian and vehicular traffic, and by roadway characteristics such as width. According to Zegeer et al. (10) pedestrians that are willing to trust their own judgment of gaps in traffi c incur less delay than those who comply with the signal.

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11 FDOTs Traffic Engineering Manual (4) states that providing additional pedestrian clearance time information [using pedestrian countdown signals] will help the pedestrian decide whether to start the crossing or wait for the next WALK indication. Botha et al. (15) finds that this statement is correct, as the countdown signals provide additional information, and help in the pedestrian decision-making process. The noted reduction in the proportion of pedestrians remaining in the crosswalk during the DW interval was greater than the increase in the proportion of pedestrians entering during the FDW interval and can be considered as a positive effect. None of the studies reviewed have found an effect either positive or negative in the crash rate between pedestrians and motor vehicles after the installation of pedestrian countdown signals.

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12 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH APPROACH This chapter presents a detailed overview of the research methods and techniques used to evaluate the effectiveness of the pedestrian countdown signals using a beforeand-after study approach. Site Selection Five intersections in the City of Gainesville, Florida, were selected for the installation of pedestrian countdown signals. The selected intersections are located in the downtown area and in the vicinity of the University of Florida Campus. The user population at such intersections is representative of the Citys population, with the exception of school-age children. Also, given the young profile of the City, the observations in this study do not represent the elderly segment of the population. The selected intersections are: 1. E University Avenue and E 1st Street; 2. W University Avenue and W 2nd Street; 3. W University Avenue and W 17th Street; 4. W University Avenue and North-South Drive; and, 5. Archer Road and SW 16th Street. All of the above intersections have high pedestrian traffic volumes during certain times of the day. Pedestrian counts will be presented later in the study. The vehicular traffic volumes are also high (annual averag e daily traffic above 20,000 veh/day) on the main approaches as illustrated by Figure 3-1 below.

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13 Figure 3-1 Schematic of Count Station Loca tions SOURCE: City of Gainesville Public Works Department and Florida Departme nt of Transportation Annual Average Daily Traffic Reports. Count data based on 2003 report. All of the study intersections are equipped with pedestrian push buttons with the exception of the minor approaches on E 1st Street, W 2nd Street and W 17th Street. The pedestrian crossing cycles are push button-actuated, and are activated once per cycle if actuated. In addition, all crossings are signalized following the MUTCD guidance with R10-4 signs. At the intersection of W 17th Street, the R10-3b signs are also installed. This is an educational sign that is used to help pedestrians understand the crossing signal indications. See Figure 3-2 for a sample installation at the intersection of W 17th Street. The following section provides a detailed description of each site. Site Description E University Avenue and E 1st Street This intersection is located in the downtown area and is surrounded by civic buildings such as City Hall, the County Administration Building, and the Civil Courthouse among others (see Figure 3-3). In addition, the downtown plaza and the main 1 3 4 2 5 N OTE: Drawing not to scale.

PAGE 24

14 bus transfer station are immediately adjacent to this intersection. The pedestrian population at this site is very diverse, composed of a mix of professionals (e.g., lawyers, engineering and financial consultants, etc.), retail and restaurant employees and patrons, students, and other miscellaneous users that visit the downtown area. Figure 3-2 Signage for Pedestrian Crossings W University Avenue and W 2nd Street This intersection is also located in the downtown area, a few blocks to the west of the previous site (see Figure 3-3). This site has lower pedestrian traffic volume during daytime but a higher volume during nighttime, particularly on Thursday, Friday and Saturday nights, due to the presence of several nightclubs and bars in the surrounding area. W University Avenue and W 17th Street The intersection of W University Avenue and NW 17th Street is immediately adjacent to the University of Florida campus (see Figure 3-4). Other surrounding uses Push Button R10-4 R10-3b

PAGE 25

15 include retail and restaurant areas. The volume of pedestrian traffic at this location is high throughout the day and consists primarily of students, staff and faculty. The user population at this site is composed primarily of university students, faculty and staff. Figure 3-3 Intersections in the Downtown Area: E University Ave and E 1st St (high daytime activity level) and W University Avenue and W 2nd St (high nighttime activity level) W University Avenue and North-South Drive This site is also adjacent to the University of Florida campus (see Figure 3-4). The pedestrian traffic level at this intersection is not as high as the intersection of NW 17th Street mainly due to the surrounding uses, which are primarily residential with the exception of the University of Florida Foundation office and Alumni Hall, whose offices are on the north side of University Avenue. This intersection is heavily traveled during special events at the university (e.g., sporting events, graduation, concerts, etc.) due to the close proximity of stadium, gymnasium and parking areas. Archer Road and SW 16th Street This intersection is immediately adjacent to, and provides direct access to Shands Hospital at the University of Florida. The pedestrian population at this site is composed mainly of hospital staff (e.g., doctors, nurses, janitorial, etc). Patients may also use this

PAGE 26

16 intersection but it is not the primary access point for patients and visitors. Figure 3-5 below illustrates the intersection and surrounding area. Figure 3-4 Intersections adjacent to UF campus: W University Ave & 17th St & N/S Dr Figure 3-5 Intersection of Archer Rd & SW 16th St Data Collection Once the study sites were determined, the next step was to proceed with data collection. The data collection system used in this study is capable of simultaneously

PAGE 27

17 capturing pedestrian and vehicular movements with a video camera and the corresponding traffic signal indications (20). The video cameras were mounted on signal poles at a specific location at each intersection as shown in Figure 3-6. Figure 3-6 Location of Camera Installation a nd Field of View at Each Study Intersection

PAGE 28

18 Figure 3-6 Continued The videotapes collected from the field were then processed in the lab to obtain a composite video image of all vehicular and pedestrian movements along with the traffic

PAGE 29

19 signal status for all recorded phases. A snapshot of this composite image, from W University Avenue and W 17th Street, can be seen in Figure 3-7. The bars in the image screen indicate the signal phase interval for each approach and movement (either red or green). The ellipses correspond to the pedestrian signal indication: red for DW, yellow for FDW and green for WALK. Careful observation allows for the determination of pedestrian arrival time at the intersection, time of entry and exit at the crosswalk, any unusual pedestrian behavior due to the pedestrian signal indication, any conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles, the direction of movement, and in some instances, if the crossing was activated by the push of the pedestrian button. Figure 3-7 Composite Image Capture (W University Ave & NW 17th St) The data collection system used in this study has several advantages: first, it is virtually undetectable by the subjects as all components but the video cameras are housed in the signal controller cabinet and the video camera (approximately 4 inches in length

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20 and 1 inch in diameter) is mounted well above ground. Second, the recorded composite images allow for accurate and efficient data reduction. Data were recorded for several periods before and after the installation of the countdown signals. The before data were co llected during the period from 9/30/2003 to 11/1/2003. The after data were collected during the period from 11/17/2003 to 3/24/2004 and 3/24/2004 to 4/15/2004. Data used for analysis in this study are shown in Table 3-2. The pedestrian countdown signals were installed between 10/28/2003 and 11/04/2003. In general, a minimum period of two weeks was allowed between the installation of the pedestrian countdown signals at each site and the beginning of the data collection for the after period of this study. A public education campaign did not accompany the activation of the countdown signals. Data Reduction For each intersection, data for one crosswalk crossing the major street and one crosswalk crossing the minor street were reco rded. Periods of peak pedestrian traffic volume were selected for data reduction, typically: 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., 11:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m., and 4:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m. Also, for one intersection a late data collection period was used (10:00 p.m. to 2:00 a.m.) due to its vicinity to nightclubs and heavy pedestrian volume at nighttime (refer to Table 3-1). Data reduction from the videotapes was performed using an Excel spreadsheet (see Appendix A for sample data collection sheet). The following events were manually collected from each videotape and recorded in the spreadsheets: Time of pedestrian arrivals at the curb; Pedestrian signal indication at the time of pedestrian arrival; Whether the pedestrian used the pedestrian signal actuation button (if present);

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21 Phase during which the pedestrian entered the crosswalk (W, FDW or DW); Cycle at which the pedestrian entered the crosswalk (same as arrival or following); Phase during which the pedestrian exited the crosswalk (W, FDW or DW); Erratic pedestrian behavior during crossing (hesitating, running or going back to starting point) due to the signal indication; and, Pedestrian-vehicle conflicts (stop, run, evade or crash).

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22 Table 3-1 Data Collection Periods Used for Observation and Analysis SITE Data Collection: BEFORE Data Collection: AFTER 7:00 AM 9:00 AM 7:30 AM 8:45 AM 11:00 AM 2:00 PM 11:45 AM 1:00 PM 10/03/03 Friday 3:00 PM 6:00 PM 4/02/04 Friday 4:30 PM 6:00 PM 7:00 AM 9:00 AM 7:30 AM 8:45 AM 11:00 AM 2:00 PM 11:45 AM 1:00 PM 10/07/03 Tuesday 3:00 PM 6:00 PM 4/13/04 Tuesday 4:30 PM 6:00 PM 7:00 AM 9:00 AM 7:30 AM 8:45 AM 11:00 AM 2:00 PM 11:45 AM 1:00 PM 10/13/03 Monday 3:00 PM 6:00 PM 4/14/04 Wednesday 4:30 PM 6:00 PM 7:30 AM 9:00 AM 11:30 AM 12:50 PM E University Ave & E 1st St 4/19/04 Monday 4:40 PM 6:00 PM TOTAL HOURS: 24 TOTAL HOURS: 16 7:00 AM 9:00 AM 11:00 AM 2:00 PM 12/05/03 Friday 10:00 PM 2:00 AM 10/02/03 Thursday 3:00 PM 6:00 PM 7:00 AM 9:00 AM 12/06/03 Saturday 10:00 PM 2:00 AM 11:00 AM 2:00 PM 11:30 AM 12:50 PM 10/07/03 Tuesday 3:00 PM 6:00 PM 4/03/04 Saturday 4:40 AM 6:00 PM 12:30 PM 1:50 PM 10/17/03 Friday 10:00 PM 2:00 AM 4/05/04 Monday 5:40 PM 7:00 PM 7:40 AM 9:00 AM 10/18/03 Saturday 10:00 PM 2:00 AM 11:30 AM 12:50 PM W University Ave & W 2nd St 4/13/04 Tuesday 4:40 AM 6:00 PM TOTAL HOURS: 24 TOTAL HOURS: 24 7:00 AM 9:00 AM 10/9/03 Thursday 2:00 PM 6:00 PM 11:00 AM 2:00 PM 11/17/03 Monday 3:00 PM 6:00 PM 10/10/03 Friday 3:00 PM 6:00 PM 11:00 AM 2:00 PM 7:00 AM 9:00 AM 11/18/04 Tuesday 3:00 PM 6:00 PM 11:00 AM 2:00 PM 10/13/03 Monday 3:00 PM 6:00 PM 11/19/04 Wednesday 7:00 AM 9:00 AM 7:00 AM 9:00 AM 11:00 AM 2:00 PM W University Ave & W 17th St 10/14/04 Tuesday 11:00 AM 2:00 PM 3/26/04 Friday 3:00 PM 6:00 PM TOTAL HOURS: 21 TOTAL HOURS: 16 12/09/03 Tuesday 4:30 PM 6:00 PM 10/01/03 Wednesday 10:30 AM 6:30 PM 7:30 AM 8:45 AM 7:30 AM 8:45 AM 12/10/03 Wednesday 11:45 AM 1:00 PM 11:45 AM 1:00 PM 7:30 AM 8:45 AM 10/07/03 Tuesday 4:30 PM 6:00 PM 11:45 AM 1:00 PM 11:45 AM 1:00 PM 3/24/04 Wednesday 4:30 PM 6:00 PM 10/08/03 Wednesday 4:30 PM 6:00 PM 7:30 AM 8:45 AM 11:45 AM 1:00 PM W University Ave & W N/S Dr 10/09/03 Thursday 7:30 AM 8:45 AM 3/25/04 Thursday 4:30 PM 6:00 PM TOTAL HOURS: 16 TOTAL HOURS: 12 6:45 AM 8:00 AM 6:45 AM 8:00 AM 11:45 AM 1:00 PM 11:45 AM 1:00 PM 10/07/03 Tuesday 4:30 PM 6:00 PM 3/25/04 Thursday 4:30 PM 6:00 PM 6:45 AM 8:00 AM 6:45 AM 8:00 AM 11:45 AM 1:00 PM 11:45 AM 1:00 PM 10/09/03 Thursday 4:30 PM 6:00 PM 3/26/04 Friday 4:30 PM 6:00 PM 6:45 AM 8:00 AM 6:45 AM 8:00 AM 11:45 AM 1:00 PM 11:45 AM 1:00 PM 10/10/03 Friday 4:30 PM 6:00 PM 4/06/04 Tuesday 4:30 PM 6:00 PM 6:45 AM 8:00 AM 11:45 AM 1:00 PM Archer Rd & SW 16th St 10/13/03 Monday 4:30 PM 6:00 PM TOTAL HOURS: 16 TOTAL HOURS: 12

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23 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS This chapter presents the findings of the research. A total of 7,639 pedestrians were observed before and 6,339 pedestrians were observed after the installation of the pedestrian countdown signals. The observations recorded are shown in Tables 4-2 to 4-6. The results for each performance measure are analyzed using a test for difference in population proportions to evaluate if a significant difference between the before and after measurements can be attributed to the installation of the pedestrian countdown signals. Performance Measures From the reduced data described in Chapter 3, a number of performance measures were calculated for this study (for both before and after periods), including: The percentage of pedestrians entering the crosswalk during each signal indication (W, FDW and DW); The percentage of pedestrians exiting the crosswalk during each signal indication (W, FDW and DW); Compliance with the FDW indication; Percentage of pedestrians hesitating, runni ng or going back to the point of start; and, Percentage of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts. Based on the assigned performance measures, the following questions were posed to evaluate the effectiveness of the pedestrian countdown signals: Are pedestrians more or less likely to comply with the W indication? Are pedestrians more or less likely to comply with the FDW indication? Are pedestrians more or less likely to be in the crosswalk during the DW indication when conflicting vehicle movement receives the green light? Did the occurrence of erratic behavior increase or decrease with the installation of countdown signals?

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24 Did the occurrence of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts increase or decrease with the installation of countdown signals? Statistical Analysis To test the significance of the results observed, a test for the difference in population proportions was used (21). This test was performed to evaluate if the changes in the performance measures observed between the before and after measurements are statistically significant, indicating that the pedestrian countdown signals have influenced pedestrian behavior. The hypothesis testing is based on the z statistic from a normal distribution. The calculations were performed using the following formula: 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 n p p n p pp p z where z = calculated test statistic, 2 /z = critical z value from table of normal distribution probabilities for a given confidence level, 1 p = estimate of before population proportion (for specified performance measure), 2 p = estimate of after population proportion (for specified performance measure), n1 = before sample size, and n2 = after sample size. The null hypothesis tested in all cases is that there is no difference between the before and after proportions, with the alternate hypothesis that there is a difference. The rejection region (R.R.) for the statistical test is defined for a two-tailed z test as follows:

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25 2 / 2 1 2 1: . 0 : 0 :z z R R p p H p p Ha o A two-tailed z test was performed at a confidence level of 95%. The critical z value (z /2) obtained from the table of normal distribution probabilities for the given confidence level is 1.96. The calculated z values for each performance measure are shown in Table 4-1 below. These values are compared to the critical z value. The null hypothesis that the proportion values observed during the before and after periods are equal is rejected if the absolute calculated z value is higher than the critical z value. Positive z -values indicate that the proportion observed in the after period has decreased for the particular performance measure. The reverse is true for negative values, which indicate that the proportion observed during the after period ha s increased. A discussion of findings is presented in the following section. Discussion of Results by Performance Measure Pedestrians Entering the Crosswalk The number of pedestrians entering the crosswalk during each of the pedestrian phase intervals (WALK, FDW, DW) was recorded during the before and after phase of the study for peak periods of pedestrian activity as indicated in the previous chapter. The proportions for each performance measure are shown in Table 4-2. There was a significant increase in the proportion of pedestrians entering the crosswalk during the WALK indication and a significant decrease in the proportion of pedestrians entering during the DW indication at 3 of the 5 study intersections. As for the proportion of pedestrians entering the crosswalk during the FDW, there was a significant increase

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26 observed at the intersection of Archer Road and SW 16th Street; and a significant decrease at the intersection of E University Avenue and E 1st Street. No significant changes were observed for pedestrians entering during FDW at the remaining 3 intersections. Overall, the installation of pedestrian countdown signals had a positive effect on the behavior of pedestrians ente ring the crosswalk. The findings are discussed below. Table 4-1 Calculated Test Statistic ( z value) by Performance Measure Intersection1 Event 1 2 3 4 5 Overall Exit-FDW 9.231 -5.211 -8.148 -3.729 -8.307 -8.693 Exit-DW -10.670 1.296 7.864 3.909 9.322 6.624 Enter-W 6.161 -0.690 -11.882 -3.268 -8.791 -3.829 Enter-FDW 4.639 -1.556 -1.628 0.964 -2.960 0.479 Enter-DW -8.759 1.617 12.329 3.242 13.111 15.804 Compliance FDW Wait for WALK 0.223 -3.698 0.139 -0.361 1.051 0.083 Non-Compliance Enter at FDW -0.136 3.306 0.329 -0.147 -1.175 4.525 Non-Compliance Enter at DW 0.000 0.134 -0.449 1.019 0.422 1.017 Hesitating 2.623 -3.077 2.933 0.346 1.724 3.015 Running -3.525 -1.840 -0.288 -1.832 0.815 -3.482 Going Back -0.323 1.000 1.447 1.418 0.075 1.480 Conflict Run -1.811 -8.115 1.602 1.001 2.839 4.065 Conflict Stop 0.024 -4.129 4.247 2.407 3.792 14.289 Conflict Evade 0.000 0.344 -2.363 0.000 0.465 1.133 Note: 1. Intersections are: 1) E University Ave and E 1st St; 2) W University Ave an d W 2nd St; 3) W University Ave and W 17th St; 4) W University Ave and N/S Dr; and, 5) Archer Rd and SW 16th St. 2. Bold values are statistically significan t at the 95% confidence level. Pedestrians entering at WALK. The proportion of pedestrians entering the crosswalk during the WALK indication significan tly increased after the installation of the pedestrian countdown signals at 3 of the study intersections: W University Avenue and W 17th Street, W University Avenue and NorthSouth Drive, and Archer Road and SW

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27 16th Street. It significantly decreased at the intersection of E University Avenue and E 1st Street, and no significant change occurred at th e intersection of W University Avenue and W 2nd Street. Table 4-2 Pedestrians Entering Crosswalk Pedestrians entering at FDW. The proportion of pedestrians entering the crosswalk during the FDW interval increased at only one of the study intersections Archer Road and SW 16th Street. At the intersection of W University Avenue and E 1st Street there was a decrease, while at all other intersections no statistically significant change was noted. Pedestrians entering at DW. One of the most significant performance measures is the number of pedestrians that enter the crosswalk illegally during the DW indication, as this has the highest potential for a conflict between pedestrians and vehicles. The study results show that the proportion of pedestrians entering the crosswalk during the DW significantly decreased at 3 of the sites afte r the installation of the pedestrian countdown signals: W University Avenue and W 17th Street, W University Avenue and North-South Drive, and Archer Road and SW 16th Street. At the intersection of E University Avenue and E 1st Street the proportion increased significan tly, while at W University Avenue and W 2nd Street no significant change occurred. TOTAL ENTERING AT "W" ENTERING AT "FDW" ENTERING AT "DW" SITE Before After Before After Diff. Before After Diff. Before After Diff. EUA & E 1st ST 808 501 51.73% 34.73% -17.00% 13.99% 6.39% -7.60% 34.28% 58.48% 24.20% WUA & W 2nd ST 1434 1076 32.43% 33.74% 1.31% 9.41% 11.34% 1.93% 58.16% 54.93% -3.23% WUA & W 17th ST 3378 3225 27.03% 40.74% 13.71% 8.14% 9.27% 1.13% 64.83% 49.98% -14.85% WUA & N/S DR 409 259 75.79% 85.71% 9.92% 8.56% 6.56% -2.00% 15.65% 7.72% -7.93% ARCHER & SW 16th AVE 1610 1278 53.66% 69.41% 15.75% 13.35% 17.37% 4.02% 32.98% 13.22% -19.76%

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28 At the intersection of W University Avenue and W 2nd Street, the peak period of pedestrian activity is during the nighttime, particularly between 1:30 a.m. and 2:00 a.m. when the bars and nightclubs close and customers must leave. At this time of night there is a general disregard for the pedestrian signal indications. First, there is a good chance that pedestrians (mostly college students) are under the influence of alcohol, and second because large groups of people attempt to cross at the same time and vehicles tend to yield the right-of-way. It should be noted that the results observed at the intersection of E University Avenue and E 1st Street may have been influenced by signal timing changes that decreased the length of time allowed for the pedestrian crossings. The cycle length at this intersection is very high during the peak times of observation. During mid-day the traffic volume is lower, and pedestrians tend to enter and exit during the DW interval taking advantage of gaps in traffic for completing the crossing. In some instances pedestrians cross to the mid point of the roadway and wait at the centerline for a gap to finish the crossing. Furthermore, pedestrians do not al ways press the push button for actuation of the pedestrian cycle, generating longer periods of delay. Another factor that influences the differences in behavior at this site is the presence of the Regional Transit System (RTS) downtown bus transfer station located in close proximity to this intersection. A high volume of pedestrians arrive at the in tersection after getting off a bus. Pedestrians also cross University Avenue to get to the transfer station. There was little compliance with the pedestrian signal indication from pedestrians arriving at the intersection coming from or going to the bus station.

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29 Pedestrians Exiting the Crosswalk The number of pedestrians exiting the crosswalk was recorded. The proportion of pedestrians exiting the crosswalk during the FD W indication significantly increased at 4 of the 5 study sites after the installation of the pedestrian countdown signals, while the proportion exiting during the DW indication si gnificantly decreased at 3 of the 5 study sites. The proportion exiting during the WALK interval is not considered as a useful indication as pedestrians finishing during this interval are most likely completing the crossing after starting during the DW indicati on. In addition, pedestrians are not expected to finish during this interval as it is timed for only a few seconds allowing the pedestrian to reach a certain distance but not to finish the crossing. The desired outcome is for the pedestrians to finish during the FDW indication, clearing the intersection prior to conflicting vehicles receiving the green li ght. The proportion of pedestrians exiting during each interval is shown in Table 4-3. Table 4-3 Pedestrians Exiting Crosswalk TOTAL EXITING AT "W" EXITING AT "FDW" EXITING AT "DW" SITE Before After Before After Diff. Before After Diff. Before After Diff. EUA & E 1st ST 808 501 6.56% 2.79% -3.77% 61.26% 35.93% -25.33% 32.18% 61.28% 29.10% WUA & W 2nd ST 1434 1076 14.09% 6.88% -7.21% 26.92% 36.71% 9.79% 59.00% 56.41% -2.59% WUA & W 17th ST 3378 3225 4.77% 4.40% -0.37% 43.64% 53.61% 9.97% 51.60% 41.98% -9.62% WUA & N/S DR 409 259 0.98% 1.16% 0.18% 77.75% 88.42% 10.67% 21.27% 10.42% -10.85% ARCHER & SW 16th AVE 1610 1278 8.01% 8.45% 0.44% 58.32% 72.85% 14.53% 33.66% 18.70% -14.96% Pedestrians exiting on FDW. There was a significant increase in the proportion of pedestrians exiting the crosswalk during the FD W indication after the installation of the pedestrian countdown signals. This behavior is observed at all study intersections with the exception of the intersection of E University Avenue and E 1st Street. The increase in

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30 exits during the FDW may be a result of pedestrians taking advantage of the information given by the countdown and adjusting their walking speed to complete the crossing prior to the release of conflicting vehicular traffic. Pedestrians exiting on DW. The proportion of pedestrians exiting the crosswalk during the DW indication significantly decreas ed after the installation of the countdown signals at 3 of the study intersections: W University Ave and W 17th Street, W University Avenue and North-South Drive, and Archer Road and SW 16th Street. There was no significant change at the intersection of W University Avenue and W 2nd Street. At the intersection of E University Avenue and E 1st Street there was an increase in the number of pedestrians exiting during the DW interval. The latter may also be associated with unique conditions present at this intersection as discussed in the previous section. Compliance with FDW Indication In the literature there is extensive documentation of pedestrians misunderstanding of and lack of compliance with, the FDW i ndication. In this study, compliance with the FDW indication is measured by the behavior of pedestrians arriving at the intersection during the FDW. A pedestrian complies with the FDW indication if upon arrival during the FDW, (s)he stops and waits for the next WALK interval during the next cycle. Noncompliance is measured by (s)he entering the crosswalk during the FDW or DW indication after arriving during the FDW. Of the total arrivals observed over the course of this study, 8.5% (655) of the pedestrians arrived during the FDW on the before phase, and 9.4% (598) of the pedestrians arrived during the FDW on the after phase. The results indicate that there was no statistically significant difference in the compliance of pedestrians with the FDW indication between the before and after installation of the pedestrian countdown signals, except at the intersection of W

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31 University Avenue and W 2nd Street. At this intersection there was an increase in the proportion of pedestrians that complied with the FDW indication by waiting for the next WALK indication and refraining from en tering during the FDW. The proportions observed are shown in Table 4-4. Table 4-4 Compliance with the Flashing Dont Walk Indication Erratic Pedestrian Behavior Pedestrian behavior as a function of the pedestrian signal indication was recorded and analyzed during the before and after phases of this study. The erratic behaviors observed are defined as: Pedestrian hesitates: pedestrian is unsure if (s)he can start the crossing. This is observed by pedestrian initiating the movement by stepping off the curb and waiting in the crosswalk before deciding to proceed and complete the crossing; Pedestrian runs: pedestrian starts to run when the pedestrian signal indication changes or as timer during the FDW approaches zero; and, Pedestrian goes back to point of start: pedestrian initiates the crossing but turns around and returns to point of origin based on interpretation of the pedestrian signal. Pedestrians that crossed diagonally and jogging were not included in the analysis. In addition, pedestrians that crossed outside of the marked crosswalk, jaywalking, were considered to be outside of the field of infl uence of the pedestrian signals, and were also COMPLIANCE NON-COMPLIANCE ARRIVALS AT "FDW" WAITING FOR "W" ENTERING AT "FDW" ENTERING AT "DW" SITE Before After Before After Diff. Before After Diff. Before After Diff. EUA & E 1st ST 104 26 4.81% 3.85% -0.96% 87.50% 88.46% 0.96% 7.69% 7.69% 0.00% WUA & W 2nd ST 81 98 0.00% 12.24% 12.24% 98.77% 86.73% -12.04% 1.23% 1.02% -0.21% WUA & W 17th ST 241 263 2.07% 1.90% -0.17% 91.70% 90.87% -0.83% 6.22% 7.22% 1.00% WUA & N/S DR 27 16 3.70% 6.25% 2.55% 92.59% 93.75% 1.16% 3.70% 0.00% -3.70% ARCHER & SW 16th AVE 202 195 18.81% 14.87% -3.94% 71.78% 76.92% 5.14% 9.41% 8.21% -1.20%

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32 excluded from the analysis. Table 4-5 show s the proportions observed during the before and after phases of the study. Table 4-5 Erratic Behavior During Crossing TOTAL HESITATING RUNNING GOING BACK SITE Before After Before After Diff. Before After Diff. Before After Diff. EUA & E 1st ST 808 501 2.60% 0.80% -1.80% 5.32% 10.98% 5.66% 0.12% 0.20% 0.08% WUA & W 2nd ST 1434 1076 0.14% 1.21% 1.07% 6.00% 7.90% 1.90% 0.07% 0.00% -0.07% WUA & W 17th ST 3378 3225 0.47% 0.09% -0.38% 3.37% 3.50% 0.13% 0.24% 0.09% -0.15% WUA & N/S DR 409 259 1.47% 1.16% -0.31% 2.20% 5.02% 2.82% 0.49% 0.00% -0.49% ARCHER & SW 16th AVE 1610 1278 0.37% 0.08% -0.29% 6.52% 5.79% -0.73% 0.25% 0.23% -0.02% Hesitating. At 2 of the 5 study intersections there was a significant decrease in the proportion of pedestrians hesitating after the installation of the countdown signals: E University Avenue and E 1st Street and W University Avenue and W 17th Street. The only significant increase was at the intersection of W University Avenue and W 2nd Street. At this intersection the peak period of pedestrian activity is during the nighttime, particularly between 1:30 a.m. and 2:00 a.m. when the bars and nightclubs close and customers must leave. There is a good chance that pedestrians (mostly college students) are under the influence of alcohol at this time, which may cause hesitation at crossing. No changes were observed at the remaining two intersections. Running. There was an increase in the proportion of pedestrians that started running after the installation of the pedestrian countdown signals at the intersection of E University Avenue and E 1st Street. Further analysis indicates that the increase observed is related to the increase in the number of pedestrians that start crossing during the DW interval. Running as an effect of the pedestrian indication during the DW may be explained by the pedestrian taking advantage of gaps in traffic to avoid the delays caused

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33 by the pedestrian signal. At this intersection pedestrians tend to take advantage of gaps in traffic to initiate the crossing. They will reach the center lane and then wait for another gap in the opposite direction to complete the crossing, usually running. At all other intersections no significant differences were measured. Going back. There were no significant differences in the proportions of pedestrians going back to the point of start between the before and after phase of the study. Pedestrian-Vehicle Conflicts Observations of pedestrian behavior due to the presence of vehicles were analyzed to determine if there were any significant changes that could be attributed to the installation of pedestrian countdown signals. The behaviors observed were: Pedestrian ran to avoid on-coming vehicles, Pedestrian stopped to avoid on-coming vehicles, Pedestrian had to evade a vehicle to avoid a conflict, and, Pedestrian and vehicle collided. The conflicts observed were mainly due to pedestrians crossing during the DW indication: taking advantage of a gap in traffic by running across the intersection; by crossing to the mid-point of the crosswalk and having to wait for a suitable gap to complete the crossing; and by evading vehicles that were blocking the crosswalk. The potential for conflicts exists with left-turning and right-turning vehicles; however, no incidents were observed during the study period. Since no collisions were observed, the Crash column is not shown in Table 4-6. Run. The proportion of pedestrians that ran to avoid a conflict with a vehicle significantly increased at one intersection and significantly decreased at another. At all other intersections the difference was small and not significant. The increase at the

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34 intersection of W University Avenue and W 2nd Street may be explained by the general disrespect for the pedestrian indication at ni ghttime. As explained in the previous section, at this intersection the peak period of pedestrian activity is during the nighttime when the pedestrian population is likely under the influe nce of alcohol, and the traffic volume is low. This behavior may be associated with the increase in the proportion of pedestrians that hesitated and stopped while crossing at th e same intersection. Pedestrians tend to dart into the street in the path of vehicles, stop and continue running to clear the crossing. Table 4-6 Pedestrian-Vehicle Conflicts TOTAL RUN STOP EVADE SITE Before After Before After Diff. Before After Diff. Before After Diff. EUA & E 1st ST 808 501 0.37% 1.40% 1.03% 3.22% 3.19% -0.03% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% WUA & W 2nd ST 1434 1076 0.07% 5.95% 5.88% 0.42% 2.51% 2.09% 0.14% 0.09% -0.05% WUA & W 17th ST 3378 3225 0.15% 0.03% -0.12% 3.46% 1.80% -1.66% 0.03% 0.25% 0.22% WUA & N/S DR 409 259 0.24% 0.00% -0.24% 2.44% 0.38% -2.06% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% ARCHER & SW 16th AVE 1610 1278 0.02% 0.01% -0.01% 0.04% 0.02% -0.02% 0.01% 0.01% 0.00% Stop. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of pedestrians that had to stop while crossing the intersection due to a conflict with vehicles at 3 of the 5 study intersections. This may also be related to the decrease in the number of pedestrians that initiated the crossing during the DW indication. As the proportion of pedestrians present in the crosswalk at the same time that vehicles have the right-of-way it is expected that the number for potential conflicts would also decrease. This relationship is particularly noted at the intersections of W University Avenue and NW 17th Street, W University Avenue and North-South Drive and at Archer Road and SW 16th Street. The only significant increase occurred at the intersection of W University Avenue and W 2nd Street, and is likely due to the unusual behavior of pedestrians under the influence of

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35 alcohol after the bars close. At this intersection large groups of pedestrians attempt to cross at the same time and vehicles tend to yield the right-of-way. Pedestrians may be unsure of the vehicle drivers behavior and tend to stop prior to proceeding with the crossing to make sure that the driver will in fact yield. Evade. The only noted difference in the proportion of pedestrians that exhibit this behavior was at the intersection of W University Avenue and NW 17th Street, where a significant increase was observed after the installation of the pedestrian countdown signals. At this intersection vehicles a nd buses are observed making a northbound leftturn at the end of the phase, which coincides with the beginning of the pedestrian WALK interval. When pedestrians start crossing, during the peak vehicular traffic periods, there is often a turning vehicle clearing the intersection during the beginning of the pedestrian WALK phase; thus, resulting in a situation where pedestrians have to evade a vehicle. The increase observed in the proportion of pedestrians evading vehicles at this intersection may be directly related to the increase in the compliance with the WALK indication as the vehicular turning movement has not changed. Crash. During the study period, no crashes were observed either before or after the installation of the pedestrian countdown signals Historical data shows the occurrence of 29 pedestrian-vehicle crashes at the study intersections between 1997 and 2002. Of these, 31% occurred between the hours of 12:40 a.m. and 2:40 a.m. when the pedestrian signals most likely were not a factor, given the location of such occurrences, at the intersections of W University Avenue and W 2nd Street and W University Avenue and NW 17th Street. These two sites are in the vicinity of bars and nightclubs. The pedestrian population between the hours indicated is composed mainly of college students who are likely under

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36 the influence of alcohol. The scope of this project did not allow for a determination of the influence of pedestrian countdown signals upon the incidence of severe conflict.

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37 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the observations of pedestrians before and after the installation of pedestrian countdown signals at five intersections in Gainesville, Florida, it is concluded from this study that the pedestrian countdown signals generally had a positive effect on pedestrian behavior. Five questions were posed for the research to evaluate the effectiveness of pedestrian countdown si gnals based on pre-defined performance measures as presented below: Are pedestrians more or less likely to comply with the WALK indication? Based on observations of pedestrian behavi or before and after the installation of pedestrian countdown signals, it is concluded from this study that pedestrians are more likely to comply with the WALK indication of pedestrian countdown signals. The proportion of pedestrians entering the crossw alk during the WALK indication increased significantly after the installation on three of the five study locations. Are pedestrians more or less likely to comply with the FDW indication? The impact of countdown signals was significant on the increase in the proportion of pedestrians that completed the crossing during the FDW indication. The results indicate that pedestrians are adjusting their walking speed to complete the crossing prior to the onset of the DW indication. The results also indicate that there was no significant impact on pedestrians compliance with the FDW indication as there was no increase in the proportion that entered the crosswalk during th is interval at four of the five study intersections.

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38 Are pedestrians more or less likely to be in the crosswalk during the DW indication? The results indicate that pedestrians are less likely to be in the crosswalk during the DW for countdown signals. The study re sults show that there was a significant decrease in both the proportion of pedestrians that entered and exited the crosswalk during the DW indication at three of the fi ve study intersections. As indicated above, pedestrians are generally finishing the crossing during the FDW interval. Did the occurrence of erratic pedestrian behavior increase or decrease? Overall, there were no significant changes in the occurrence of erratic pedestrian behavior due to the countdown signal indica tion. The proportion of pedestrians that ran increased at only one of the study sites; however, at this location the changes may be attributed to factors other than the countdown signal, such as signal timing changes and the availability of gaps in the traffic stream. The proportion that hesitated while crossing decreased at two of the study sites and increased at one. At the latter, the peak pedestrian activity is during the nighttime, and the behavior observed may be explained by the unusual behavior of pedestrians under the influence of alcohol after the bars close. In addition, a large number of pedestrians attempt to cross at the same time and given the low traffic volume during this time of night vehicles tend to yield the right-of-way. Did the occurrence of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts increase or decrease? Overall, there was no significant change in proportion of conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles during the study period. The significant observations include a decrease in the proportion of pedestrians that had to stop in the crosswalk to avoid a conflict with a vehicle at three intersections during the after period. This may be related to the decrease in the proportion observed entering the crosswalk during the DW interval, as the subject

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39 intersections had the highest decrease in the proportion of pedestrians entering the crosswalk during the DW interval. Summary of Conclusions The installation of pedestrian countdown signals had several positive effects on pedestrian behavior. First, there was an increase in the proportion of pedestrians that complied with the WALK indication at three of the five intersections observed. Second, the proportion of pedestrians that initiated the crossing during the DW indication decreased significantly after the installation of the countdown signals. Moreover, the number of pedestrians remaining in the crosswalk at the release of conflicting traffic during the DW indication significantly decreased at three of the study intersections. The countdown signals did not encourage more pedestrians to enter the crosswalk during the FDW interval, but pedestrians seem to be using the additional information provided by the countdown timer to adjust their walking speeds and finish crossing prior to the release of conflicting traffic. Therefor e, the pedestrian countdown signals appear to have a positive impact on pedestrian behavior as the proportion of pedestrians left in the crosswalk at the release of conflicting traffic is significantly smaller. This ultimately could lead to increased pedestrian safety as pedestrian exposure to conflicting vehicle movements is reduced, in turn reducing the probability for pedestrian-vehicle conflicts. Recommendations for Future Study Given the composition of the Gainesville population and the location of the study intersections, the findings of this research may not be directly applicable to age groups younger than 17 or older than 65 years of age. Both the school age and elderly populations are under-represented and further research is needed to evaluate their understanding and behavior associated with pedestrian countdown signals.

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40 Given the findings presented in the literature, further research is needed before pedestrian countdown signals are installed in school zones, where the presence of school crossing guards may send conflicting messages to the crossing population, particularly those of younger age, such as 15 and younger. This may encourage young pedestrians to interpret the countdown signal as a safe interval to enter the crosswalk when crossing guards are not present, thus increasing the potential for conflicts. The older segment of the population is the fastest growing. It is predicted that by 2030 this group will comprise 20 percent of the population or 70 million people (22). It is well documented in the literature that this segment of the population is the most vulnerable. In 2003, 33 percent of all pedestrian fatalities and 12 percent of all pedestrian injuries that occurred at intersections involved a pedestrian 65 or older (1). Further study is necessary to determine the level of understanding of the countdown indications by the elderly, and the countdown impact on their behavior given age related components such as visual impairments and physical limitations. Further study is also needed to determine the long-term effect of the countdown signals. It needs to be determined whether pedestrian compliance with the countdown indications will decrease once pedestrians grow accustomed to the new devices. While the intersections in this study offered some diversity in geometric and signal operation characteristics, a wider range of conditions should ultimately be studied as well. This will allow for a more thorough investigation of any interaction effects between the countdown signals and geometric and operational characteristics and their influence on pedestrian behavior.

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41 APPENDIX A DATA COLLECTION SAMPLE The data was compiled using a video recording system that simultaneously captured pedestrian and vehicular movements and the corresponding signal indications. Once the video tapes were decoded and processed in the Transportation Research Center laboratory, the tapes were viewed and the data from the tapes were recorded in Excel spreadsheets based on the selected performance measures identified for this study. The spreadsheet entries reflect: time of pedestrian arrival at the intersection and corresponding pedestrian signal indication at time of arrival; signal indication at time of entry and exit the crosswalk; erratic pedestrian behavior due to the pedestrian signal indications; pedestrian-vehicle conflicts; actuation of pedestrian signal; cycle length; and, number of cycles observed. A sample file is included in the following pages. The data were collected after the installation of pedestrian countdown signals at the intersection of W University Avenue and W 17th Street on Monday, November 13, 2003.

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42 W University Ave & W 17th St Tape # 1, AFTER Date: November 17/03 MONDAY Time Period: 7:00 AM to 9:00 AM; 11:00 AM to 2:00 PM; 3:00 PM to 6:00 PM Peds Arriving at Peds Entering Crosswalk at Finish at Erratic Ped Behavior Ped Behavior Due to Vehicle Conflict Cycle Crosswalk (NB/SB /EB/WB) Activated W FDW DW Connect Time Cycle when Entering W FDW DW W FDW DW Hesitating Running Going Back Run Stop Evade Crash 1 WB N B 00:02:17 2 B B 1 NB/SB N 2 SB Y 2 00:03:23 2 2 2 2 NB Y 2 00:03:47 2 2 2 2 EB N B 0:04:10 2 B B 2 EB N 1 0:04:17 2 1 3 NB/SB N 3 EB/WB N 4 SB N 3 0:06:26 4 3 3 4 EB/WB N 5 EB/WB N 5 NB/SB N 6 EB N 1 0:08:52 6 1 1 6 WB N B 0:08:57 6 B B 6 NB/SB N 7 NB/SB N 7 EB/WB N 8 EB N B 0:11:21 8 B B 8 SB Y 1 0:12:13 8 1 1 9 WB N B 0:13:00 9 B B 9 NB/SB N 10 NB Y 1 0:14:23 10 1 1 10 NB Y 1 0:14:35 10 1 1 10 EB/WB N 11 NB N 2 0:16:30 11 2 2 11 EB/WB N 12 WB N 2 0:16:58 12 2 2 12 NB/SB N 13 NB/SB N 13 EB/WB N 14 NB Y 2 0:20:39 14 2 2 14 NB Y 1 0:20:45 14 1 1 14 EB/WB N 15 WB N B 0:22:15 15 B B 15 NB/SB N 16 NB/SB N 16 EB/WB N 17 SB N B 0:25:03 17 B B 17 NB N 1 0:25:06 17 1 1 17 NB N 4 0:25:11 17 4 4 4 17 EB/WB N 18 EB/WB N 18 NB/SB N 19 WB N 1 0:26:53 19 1 1 1 19 SB N 2 0:27:36 19 2 2 2 19 EB Y B 0:27:57 19 B B 19 EB Y B 0:28:22 B B 20 NB/SB N 20 EB/WB N 21 SB Y 1 0:29:59 21 1 1 21 EB/WB N

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43 22 EB N B 0:31:50 22 B B 22 NB/SB N 23 NB Y 3 0:33:00 23 3 3 23 NB Y 3 0:33:28 23 3 3 23 SB Y 1 0:33:43 23 1 1 23 EB/WB N 24 NB N 1 0:34:58 24 1 1 24 EB/WB N 25 WB N B 0:35:48 25 B B 25 EB N 1 0:36:36 25 1 1 1 25 NB/SB N 26 EB N B 0:37:46 26 B B 26 NB/SB N 27 WB N B 0:38:46 27 B B 27 NB/SB N 28 SB Y 1 0:39:42 28 1 1 28 NB Y 2 0:40:19 28 2 2 28 EB/WB N 29 NB/SB N 29 EB/WB N 30 SB N 1 0:43:40 30 1 1 30 EB/WB N 31 SB N 1 0:45:07 32 1 1 31 EB/WB N 32 NB Y 1 0:46:05 32 1 1 32 SB Y 1 0:46:30 32 1 1 1 32 SB Y 2 0:46:31 32 2 2 1 32 EB/WB N 33 NB N 1 0:47:36 33 1 1 33 WB N 1 0:47:50 33 1 1 34 NB Y 1 0:48:26 34 1 1 34 NB Y 1 0:49:08 34 1 1 34 EB/WB N 35 NB/SB N 35 EB/WB N 36 SB N 2 0:51:59 36 2 2 36 EB/WB N 37 SB Y 1 0:52:30 37 1 1 37 EB/WB N 38 NB Y B 0:54:38 38 B B 38 NB Y 2 0:54:40 38 2 2 38 EB/WB N 39 SB Y 1 0:55:36 39 1 1 39 NB Y B 0:56:10 39 B B 39 NB Y B 0:56:14 39 B B 39 EB/WB N 40 SB N 2 0:57:34 40 2 2 40 EB/WB N 41 SB 2 0:59:06 43 2 2 41 EB/WB N 42 NB N 1 0:59:31 42 1 1 42 WB N 1 1:00:01 42 1 1 42 NB N 1 1:00:25 42 1 1 43 NB Y 2 1:01:37 43 2 2 43 NB Y 1 1:01:41 43 1 1 43 NB Y 1 1:01:47 43 1 1 43 EB N 1 1:02:07 43 1 1 RUNNER

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44 44 NB N 1 1:03:13 44 1 1 44 WB N 1 1:03:27 44 1 1 45 NB N 3 1:04:38 45 3 3 45 NB N 2 1:04:48 45 2 2 45 NB N 2B 1:04:49 45 2B 2B 45 EB/WB N 46 EB N B 1:06:09 46 B B 46 NB/SB N 47 EB N 2 1:06:36 47 2 2 47 NB/SB N 48 SB Y 1 1:08:23 48 1 1 48 EB/WB N 49 EB N 1 1:09:39 49 1 1 RUNNER 49 NB N 2 1:10:16 49 2 2 49 WB N 2 1:10:40 49 2 2 50 WB N 1 1:11:12 50 1 1 50 SB Y 1 1:11:31 50 1 1 50 SB Y 2 1:11:50 51 2 2 51 WB N 1 1:12:08 51 1 1 51 NB Y 1 1:12:49 51 1 1 51 SB Y 1 1:12:57 51 1 1 51 EB N 1 1:13:21 51 1 1 RUNNER 52 NB Y 1 1:14:51 52 1 1 52 NB Y 1 1:14:52 52 1 1 52 WB N 1 1:14:56 52 1 1 52 WB N 1 1:15:01 52 1 1 53 NB Y 2 1:15:26 53 2 2 53 NB Y 1 1:15:50 53 1 1 53 NB Y 1 1:16:02 53 1 1 53 EB/WB N 54 WB N 1 1:16:46 54 1 1 54 SB N 1 1:17:29 54 1 1 55 NB/SB N 55 EB/WB N 56 WB Y 1 1:20:48 56 1 1 56 EB N 1 1:21:20 56 1 1 57 SB N 1 1:23:09 57 1 1 57 EB/WB N 58 NB Y 1 1:23:36 58 1 1 58 NB Y B 1:24:27 58 B B 58 EB/WB N 59 EB/WB N 59 NB/SB N 60 WB N 1 1:26:49 60 1 1 RUNNER 60 WB N B 1:27:13 60 B B 60 NB Y 1 1:27:20 60 1 1 61 WB N 1 1:28:48 61 1 1 RUNNER 61 NB/SB N 62 NB/SB N 62 EB/WB N 63 EB N B 1:30:31 63 B B 63 WB N B 1:31:48 63 B B 63 NB/SB N 64 NB/SB N 64 EB/WB N 65 NB/SB N 65 EB/WB N

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45 66 EB/WB N 66 NB/SB N 67 EB/WB N 67 NB/SB N 68 NB/SB N 68 EB/WB N 69 NB/SB N 69 EB/WB N 70 WB N B 1:41:09 70 B B 70 EB N 1 1:41:12 70 1 1 RUNNER 70 NB/SB N 71 WB N 1 1:43:09 71 1 1 71 NB/SB N 72 EB/WB N 72 NB/SB N 73 WB N B 1:44:38 73 B B 73 NB/SB N 74 EB N 2 1:46:30 74 2 2 RUNNERS 74 NB/SB N 75 SB N B 1:48:24 75 B B 75 WB N B 1:48:30 75 B B 76 NB Y 2 1:49:08 76 2 2 76 EB/WB N 77 EB N 3 1:50:19 77 3 3 77 EB N 1 1:50:29 77 1 1 RUNNER 77 EB N 1 1:50:35 77 1 1 77 WB N 1 1:50:55 77 1 1 77 NB/SB N 78 EB N 1 1:51:52 78 1 1 1 78 EB N B 1:52:52 79 B B 78 NB/SB N 79 NB Y 1 1:54:10 79 1 1 1 79 EB/WB N 80 SB N 1 1:55:11 80 1 1 80 SB N 1 1:55:14 80 1 1 80 WB N 1 1:55:59 80 1 1 RUNNER 81 NB/SB N 81 EB/WB N 82 NB/SB N 82 EB/WB N 83 NB Y 2 1:58:59 83 2 2 83 EB/WB N 84 NB Y 2 2:00:45 84 2 2 84 EB/WB N 85 NB/SB N 85 EB/WB N 86 NB/SB N 86 EB/WB N 87 WB N 2B 2:05:09 87 2B 2B 87 WB N 1 2:05:49 87 1 1 87 NB/SB N 88 NB/SB N 88 EB/WB N 89 EB N 1 2:07:32 89 1 1 89 NB N B 2:08:19 89 B B 89 EB N B 2:08:31 89 B B 89 EB N B 2:08:38 89 B B

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46 90 NB N 2 2:09:54 90 2 2 90 EB/WB N 91 EB N 1 2:11:31 91 1 1 RUNNER NB/SB N 92 SB Y B 2:12:13 92 B B EB/WB N 93 SB N 1 2:14:20 94 1 1 EB/WB N 94 WB N 1 2:14:52 94 1 1 NB N B 2:15:11 94 B B 95 EB N 1 2:16:16 95 1 1 WB N 1 2:16:19 95 1 1 RUNNER NB/SB N 96 WB N 1 2:18:37 96 1 1 1 NB/SB N 97 WB N 1 2:18:51 97 1 1 97 NB/SB N 98 EB N 1 2:20:13 98 1 1 RUNNER 98 NB N B 2:21:07 98 B B 98 WB N 1 2:21:12 98 1 1 98 NB N 1 2:21:21 98 1 1 1 98 EB N 1 2:21:35 98 1 1 RUNNER 99 NB/SB N 99 EB/WB N 100 EB N 2 2:23:39 100 2 2 100 NB N 1 2:23:45 100 1 1 1 101 EB N 1 2:25:24 101 1 1 RUNNER 101 EB N 1 2:25:51 101 1 1 101 NB/SB N 102 SB N 1 2:26:29 102 1 1 102 EB N 1 2:26:32 102 1 1 102 SB N 1 2:26:45 102 1 1 102 EB N 2 2:27:03 102 2 2 103 EB N 1 2:27:39 103 1 1 RUNNER 103 NB N 3 2:28:18 103 3 3 103 EB Y 1 2:28:26 104 1 1 104 WB N 1 2:29:01 104 1 1 RUNNER 104 NB/SB N 105 EB N 1 2:30:51 105 1 1 105 WB N B 2:30:54 105 B B 105 SB N 1 2:30:58 105 1 1 105 EB N 1 2:31:15 105 1 1 106 EB Y 1 2:31:51 106 1 1 106 SB Y 1 2:32:03 106 1 1 106 NB Y 1 2:32:20 106 1 1 107 EB N 1 2:33:11 107 1 1 RUNNER 107 EB N 2 2:34:22 107 2 2 107 EB N 2 2:34:30 107 2 2 RUNNERS 107 NB/SB N 108 NB/SB N 108 EB/WB N 109 EB N 1 2:36:03 109 1 1 RUNNER 109 WB N B 2:36:17 109 B B 109 NB/SB N 110 EB N 1 2:37:46 110 1 1 110 NB/SB N 111 NB/SB N

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47 111 EB/WB N 112 WB N B 2:40:35 112 B B 112 NB/SB N 113 EB N 1 2:42:17 113 1 1 1 113 NB/SB N 114 WB N 1 2:43:34 114 1 1 1 114 SB N 1 2:43:42 114 1 1 114 WB N 1 2:43:43 114 1 1 RUNNER 114 WB N B 2:43:55 114 B B 114 WB N 1 2:44:00 114 1 1 115 WB N 1 2:45:17 115 1 1 1 115 WB N 1 2:45:18 115 1 1 1 115 NB/SB N 116 NB/SB N 116 EB/WB N 117 NB N 1 2:48:32 117 1 1 1 117 WB N 1 2:48:34 117 1 1 117 EB N B 2:49:18 117 B B 117 EB N 2 2:49:40 117 2 2 RUNNERS 118 NB Y 2 2:51:00 118 2 2 118 NB Y 2B 2:51:05 118 2B 2B 118 NB Y 2 2:51:05 118 2 2 118 EB N 1 2:51:17 118 1 1 1 119 NB/SB N 119 EB/WB N 120 EB N B 2:53:31 120 B B 120 NB Y 1 2:53:44 120 1 1 121 WB N 1 2:54:22 121 1 1 121 WB N 1 2:55:24 121 1 1 1 121 NB/SB N 122 WB N 1 2:56:13 122 1 1 122 EB N B 2:56:50 122 B B 122 NB/SB N 123 WB N 1 2:57:24 123 1 1 RUNNER 123 SB Y 2 2:57:33 123 2 2 123 EB N 1 2:57:49 123 1 1 123 NB Y 1 2:57:53 123 1 1 1 123 SB Y 1 2:57:57 123 1 1 124 EB Y 2 2:58:52 124 2 2 1 124 SB Y 1 2:59:05 124 1 1 125 NB N B 3:00:33 125 B B 125 WB N B 3:00:40 126 B B 126 NB/SB N 126 EB/WB N 127 NB Y 1 3:02:59 127 1 1 127 EB/WB N 128 NB/SB N 128 EB/WB N 129 EB N B 3:05:28 129 B B 129 NB/SB N 130 NB/SB N 130 EB/WB N 131 WB N 2 3:08:58 131 2 2 131 NB/SB N 132 NB Y 1 3:10:11 132 1 1 132 EB/WB N 133 NB/SB N

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48 133 EB/WB N 134 NB Y 1 3:12:58 134 1 1 134 NB Y B 3:13:06 134 B B 134 NB Y B 3:13:10 134 B B 134 EB/WB N 135 NB N B 3:14:33 135 B B 135 EB/WB N 136 NB Y 1 3:15:56 136 1 1 136 EB N 2 3:15:56 136 2 2 136 NB Y 1 3:15:57 136 1 1 136 NB Y B 3:15:58 136 B B 136 NB Y B 3:16:02 136 B B 137 WB N B 3:16:40 137 B B 137 NB/SB N 138 NB/SB N 138 EB/WB N 139 NB N B 3:19:50 139 B B 139 EB/WB N 140 NB Y 1 3:21:25 140 1 1 140 EB/WB N 141 EB N B 3:22:35 141 B B 141 NB/SB N 142 WB N B 3:24:19 142 B B 142 EB N 1 3:25:03 142 1 1 142 WB N B 3:25:13 142 B B 142 NB/SB N 143 NB N B 3:27:30 143 B B 143 EB/WB N 144 EB N 1 3:29:28 144 1 1 RUNNER 144 NB/SB N 145 NB N B 3:30:48 145 B B 145 NB N 1 3:31:26 145 EB/WB N 146 EB N 1 3:32:35 146 1 1 1 146 NB/SB N 147 EB N B 3:34:36 147 B B 147 NB/SB N 148 WB N 1 3:35:56 148 1 1 148 NB/SB N 149 NB N 1 3:37:24 149 1 1 1 149 EB/WB N 150 EB Y 1 3:38:16 150 1 1 150 NB Y 1 3:38:19 150 1 1 150 NB Y 1 3:38:48 150 1 1 151 NB N 1 3:39:39 151 1 1 1 151 NB Y 1 3:39:50 151 1 1 151 EB Y B 3:40:03 151 B B 151 NB Y 2 3:40:41 151 2 2 151 WB N 1 3:41:10 152 1 1 152 NB N B 3:41:30 152 B B 152 EB N 1 3:41:32 152 1 1 152 EB N 1 3:42:23 152 1 1 153 WB N B 3:43:10 153 B B 153 NB/SB N 154 WB N B 3:44:48 154 B B 154 EB N 1 3:44:56 154 1 1 154 NB Y 1 3:45:37 154 1 1

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49 154 NB Y 1 3:45:38 154 1 1 155 EB N B 3:46:11 155 B B 155 SB N B 3:46:20 155 B B 155 EB N 1 3:47:16 155 1 1 RUNNER 156 NB N 1 3:49:08 156 1 1 156 WB N 1 3:49:22 157 1 1 157 WB N 1 3:50:13 157 1 1 157 WB N B 3:50:13 157 B B 157 NB Y 1 3:50:57 157 1 1 158 WB N B 3:52:14 158 B B 158 NB N B 3:52:31 158 B B 159 NB Y 1 3:54:05 159 1 1 159 SB Y B 3:54:10 159 B B 159 EB/WB N 160 EB N B 3:55:33 160 B B 160 NB N B 3:55:38 160 B B 160 WB N B 3:55:57 160 B B 160 WB N B 3:56:04 160 B B 160 WB Y 1 3:56:06 161 1 1 160 WB Y 1 3:56:11 161 1 1 161 NB Y 1 3:57:24 161 1 1 161 EB/WB N 162 WB N 1 3:57:59 162 1 1 162 WB N 1 3:58:01 162 1 1 162 EB N B 3:58:01 162 B B 162 NB Y B 3:58:03 162 B B B 162 NB Y B 3:59:21 162 B B 162 NB Y 1 3:59:21 162 1 1 162 NB Y B 3:59:33 162 B B 162 WB N B 3:59:35 163 B B 163 EB N 1 3:59:48 163 1 1 RUNNER 163 NB N 1 4:00:49 163 1 1 163 WB N 1 4:00:55 163 1 1 1 163 NB N B 4:01:08 163 B B 164 NB N B 4:02:18 164 B B 164 EB/WB N 165 NB Y B 4:04:04 165 B B 165 NB Y 1 4:04:05 165 1 1 165 NB Y 2 4:04:10 165 2 2 165 WB N 1 4:04:30 165 1 1 166 WB N 1 4:04:51 166 1 1 RUNNER 166 WB N 1 4:06:09 167 1 1 166 NB/SB N 167 EB N 1 4:06:44 167 1 1 167 NB Y B 4:07:20 167 B B 167 NB Y 1 4:07:27 167 1 1 167 NB Y B 4:07:27 167 B B 168 WB Y B 4:08:00 168 B B 168 WB Y 1 4:08:07 168 1 1 168 WB N 1 4:08:46 168 1 1 168 WB N 1 4:09:33 168 1 1 168 NB/SB N 169 EB N 1 4:09:51 169 1 1 169 NB N 1 4:10:07 169 1 1 169 SB N 1 4:10:12 169 1 1 169 NB N B 4:10:51 169 B B 170 NB Y 2 4:12:19 170 2 2

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50 170 NB Y 2B 4:12:20 170 2B 2B 170 WB N B 4:12:22 170 B B 171 WB Y 1 4:13:19 171 1 1 171 NB N 1 4:14:11 171 1 1 172 WB N B 4:14:34 172 B B 172 NB Y 1 4:14:40 172 1 1 172 WB N B 4:14:48 172 B B 172 NB Y 2 4:15:45 172 2 2 172 NB Y B 4:15:47 172 B B 172 NB Y B 4:15:49 172 B B 173 NB/SB N 173 EB/WB N 174 NB Y 1 4:18:32 174 1 1 174 WB N B 4:18:40 174 B B 174 NB Y 2 4:19:07 174 2 2 174 NB Y B 4:19:07 174 B B 174 WB N 1 4:19:12 174 1 1 1 174 NB Y 1 4:19:19 174 1 1 174 WB Y 3 4:19:24 174 3 3 174 WB Y 1 4:19:27 174 1 1 175 SB N 1 4:20:37 175 1 1 175 WB N B 4:20:54 175 B B 176 NB Y B 4:21:40 176 B B 176 EB N B 4:21:54 176 B B 176 NB Y 1 4:21:57 176 1 1 176 EB N B 4:21:57 176 B B 176 WB N B 4:22:16 176 B B 176 NB Y 3B 4:22:30 176 3B 3B 176 NB Y 1 4:22:31 176 1 1 176 NB Y 2B 4:22:31 176 2B 2B 176 NB Y 2B 4:22:35 176 2B 2B 176 NB Y 2B 4:22:37 176 2B 2B 176 NB Y 2 4:22:46 176 2 2 176 NB Y 1 4:22:47 176 1 1 176 WB N B 4:23:06 176 B B 177 EB N 1 4:23:10 177 1 1 177 SB Y 2 4:23:26 177 2 2 177 EB N B 4:23:27 177 B B 177 NB Y 1 4:23:51 177 1 1 177 NB Y B 4:24:07 177 B B 177 NB Y 1 4:24:10 177 1 1 177 NB Y B 4:24:10 177 B B 177 NB Y 1 4:24:26 177 1 1 1 178 WB N 1 4:24:43 178 1 1 178 NB Y 2 4:25:11 178 2 2 178 NB Y 2 4:25:26 178 2 2 178 SB Y 2 4:25:32 178 2 2 178 NB Y B 4:25:37 178 B B 178 NB Y 2 4:25:40 178 2 2 178 NB Y B 4:25:46 178 B B 179 EB N B 4:26:15 179 B B 179 EB N 1 4:26:35 179 1 1 179 NB Y 1 4:26:51 179 1 1 179 WB N 1 4:26:56 179 1 1 1 179 EB N 1 4:27:03 179 1 1 179 EB N B 4:27:32 179 B B 180 WB Y B 4:27:48 180 B B

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51 180 SB Y 1 4:28:26 180 1 1 180 WB N B 4:28:45 180 B B 180 NB Y B 4:28:49 180 B B 180 SB Y 1 4:29:06 180 1 1 180 NB Y B 4:29:08 180 B B 180 NB Y 1 4:29:18 180 1 1 181 NB N 1 4:29:37 181 1 1 1 181 EB N B 4:29:37 181 B B 181 EB N 1 4:30:15 181 1 1 181 NB N B 4:30:43 181 B B 181 NB N B 4:30:45 181 B B 181 NB N B 4:30:46 181 B B 182 EB N 1 4:31:10 182 1 1 1 182 NB Y 1 4:31:58 182 1 1 182 NB Y 1 4:32:09 182 1 1 182 NB Y 2 4:32:21 182 2 2 182 NB Y 1 4:32:25 182 1 1 182 NB Y B 4:32:37 182 B B 182 WB N 1 4:32:44 182 1 1 183 WB N B 4:33:10 183 B B 183 WB N B 4:33:48 183 B B 183 NB N 1 4:33:59 183 1 1 184 WB N B 4:36:03 184 B B 184 WB N B 4:36:26 184 B B 184 NB Y B 4:36:26 184 B B 184 WB N B 4:36:34 184 B B 185 NB N B 4:39:06 185 B B 185 EB/WB N 186 WB N 1 4:40:02 186 1 1 1 186 NB N B 4:40:46 186 B B 186 NB N B 4:40:47 186 B B 187 EB N 1 4:41:19 187 1 1 187 NB N B 4:42:26 187 B B 188 WB N 1 4:43:44 188 1 1 188 NB/SB N 189 EB/WB N 189 NB/SB N 190 NB Y 1 4:46:33 190 1 1 190 SB Y 1 4:46:51 190 1 1 190 EB/WB N 191 NB Y B 4:47:29 191 B B 191 NB Y 1 4:47:34 191 1 1 191 WB N 2 4:47:46 191 2 2 192 EB N 1 4:48:45 192 1 1 192 NB Y 1 4:49:02 192 1 1 192 NB Y B 4:49:15 192 B B 193 SB Y B 4:50:28 193 B B 193 NB Y B 4:50:52 193 B B 193 EB/WB N 194 EB N 1 4:51:50 194 1 1 194 NB Y 1 4:51:54 194 1 1 194 SB Y 1 4:52:00 194 1 1 194 NB Y 2 4:52:18 194 2 2 194 WB N 1 4:52:23 194 1 1 195 WB N B 4:53:22 195 B B 195 NB N B 4:54:04 195 B B 195 NB N B 4:54:11 195 B B

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52 196 WB N 1 4:54:30 196 1 1 196 NB/SB N 197 WB N B 4:55:52 197 B B 197 NB/SB N 198 NB/SB N 198 EB/WB N 199 EB N 1 4:58:19 199 1 1 RUNNER 199 EB N B 4:58:21 199 B B 199 SB N 1 4:59:34 199 1 1 200 SB Y 1 4:59:45 200 1 1 200 NB Y B 4:59:57 200 B B 200 EB/WB N 201 WB N B 5:00:54 201 B B 201 WB N 1 5:01:30 201 1 1 201 NB N 1 5:01:43 201 1 1 201 WB N B 5:01:46 201 B B 201 NB N 1 5:02:08 201 1 1 201 NB N B 5:02:10 201 B B 201 WB Y 1 5:02:25 201 1 1 202 EB Y B 5:02:34 202 B B 202 NB/SB N 203 WB N 2 5:03:40 203 2 2 RUNNERS 203 NB/SB N 204 WB N B 5:04:36 204 B B 204 EB N B 5:04:48 204 B B 204 WB N 1 5:05:08 204 1 1 204 SB Y 1 5:05:40 204 1 1 204 WB N 1 5:05:42 204 1 1 RUNNER 204 SB Y 1 5:05:46 204 1 1 204 NB Y 1 5:05:57 204 1 1 204 SB Y 1 5:06:29 204 1 1 1 205 NB N 1 5:06:51 205 1 1 205 NB N 1 5:07:19 205 1 1 205 EB N 1 5:07:27 205 1 1 205 SB N 2 5:07:30 205 2 2 205 SB N 1 5:07:36 205 1 1 205 EB N 1 5:07:53 205 1 1 1 205 SB N 1 5:07:59 205 1 1 205 NB N B 5:08:08 205 B B 206 WB N B 5:08:59 206 B B 206 WB N 1 5:09:07 206 1 1 RUNNER 206 EB N 1 5:09:18 206 1 1 206 WB N 1 5:09:24 206 1 1 1 206 NB Y 1 5:09:24 206 1 1 206 NB Y 1 5:09:27 206 1 1 206 SB Y 1 5:09:30 206 1 1 206 NB Y 1 5:09:56 206 1 1 207 SB Y 3 5:10:44 207 3 3 207 NB Y 1 5:10:44 207 1 1 207 WB N B 5:11:08 207 B B 207 NB Y 1 5:12:08 207 1 1 207 WB N B 5:12:14 207 B B 207 SB Y 1 5:12:19 207 1 1 208 EB N 2 5:13:25 208 2 2 208 NB Y 1 5:13:27 208 1 1 208 SB Y 2 5:13:36 208 2 2 209 NB/SB N

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53 209 EB/WB N 210 NB N 1 5:15:11 210 1 1 210 WB N B 5:15:17 210 B B 210 WB N 1 5:15:43 210 1 1 210 WB N 1 5:16:08 210 1 1 211 NB Y B 5:17:40 211 B B 211 WB N B 5:17:44 211 B B 211 NB Y 3 5:18:01 211 3 3 211 NB Y B 5:18:08 211 B B 211 EB N 1 5:18:40 211 1 1 212 NB Y 1 5:19:11 212 1 1 212 NB Y 1 5:19:28 212 1 1 212 SB Y 2 5:19:36 212 2 2 212 SB Y 1 5:19:45 212 1 1 212 WB N 1 5:20:06 212 1 1 213 WB N 1 5:20:47 213 1 1 213 NB Y 1 5:21:31 213 1 1 213 NB Y 1 5:21:52 213 1 1 213 SB Y 2 5:21:54 213 2 2 213 EB N 1 5:22:18 213 1 1 1 214 NB N B 5:23:56 214 B B 214 EB N 4 5:24:08 214 4 4 215 EB N 1 5:24:31 214 1 1 215 SB N 1 5:25:54 215 1 1 215 SB N 1 5:26:08 215 1 1 215 EB N 1 5:26:08 215 1 1 215 EB N 1 5:26:16 215 1 1 215 WB N 1 5:26:20 215 1 1 216 NB Y 1 5:27:30 216 1 1 216 NB Y 1 5:27:55 216 1 1 216 NB Y B 5:28:10 216 B B 216 NB Y 1 5:28:21 216 1 1 1 216 EB/WB N 217 SB Y 1 5:28:48 217 1 1 217 EB N 1 5:29:39 217 1 1 217 SB Y 1 5:29:51 217 B B 217 NB Y 1 5:30:05 217 1 1 217 NB Y 1 5:30:34 1 1 218 EB N 1 5:31:12 218 1 1 218 EB Y 1 5:31:29 218 1 1 218 EB Y B 5:31:31 218 B B 218 SB Y 1 5:31:40 218 1 1 218 WB Y 1 5:31:40 218 1 1 218 SB Y 1 5:31:46 218 1 1 218 NB Y 1 5:31:53 218 1 1 218 NB Y B 5:31:56 218 B B 219 EB N 2 5:32:36 219 2 2 219 NB Y 1 5:33:15 219 1 1 219 EB N B 5:33:30 219 B B 219 NB Y 2 5:33:32 219 2 2 219 EB N 1 5:33:40 219 1 1 219 SB Y 1 5:33:54 219 1 1 219 NB Y 2 5:34:08 219 2 2 219 NB Y 2B 5:34:08 219 2B 2B 219 NB Y 2 5:34:10 219 2 2 219 EB N 1 5:34:15 219 1 1 219 WB N 1 5:34:31 219 1 1

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54 220 NB Y 2 5:35:00 220 2 2 220 EB N B 5:35:00 220 B B 220 SB Y 1 5:35:07 220 1 1 220 NB Y 1 5:35:07 220 1 1 220 NB Y 1 5:35:35 220 1 1 220 SB Y 2 5:35:47 220 2 2 220 NB Y 1 5:35:56 220 1 1 220 SB Y 2 5:35:58 220 2 2 220 NB Y 1 5:36:09 220 1 1 220 WB N 2 5:36:27 220 2 2 220 WB N 1 5:36:32 220 1 1 221 SB Y 2 5:37:03 221 2 2 221 NB Y 1 5:37:34 221 1 1 1 221 WB N B 5:37:45 221 B B 221 SB Y 2 5:37:56 221 2 2 221 NB Y 1 5:38:03 221 1 1 221 SB Y 1 5:38:03 221 1 1 221 WB N 1 5:38:24 222 1 1 222 SB Y 3 5:38:52 222 3 3 222 WB N 1 5:39:13 222 1 1 222 EB N 1 5:39:15 222 1 1 222 EB N 1 5:39:25 222 1 1 222 SB Y 3 5:39:38 222 3 3 222 EB N 1 5:39:43 222 1 1 222 SB Y 1 5:39:53 222 1 1 222 NB Y 2 5:39:56 222 2 2 222 NB Y 2B 5:39:56 222 2B 2B 222 WB N 1 5:40:22 222 1 1 223 EB N 2 5:40:35 223 2 2 223 EB Y 3 5:40:50 223 3 2 1 223 WB Y 1 5:40:54 223 1 1 223 EB Y 1 5:40:58 223 1 1 223 NB Y 2 5:41:01 223 2 2 223 NB Y 2 5:41:06 223 2 2 223 SB Y 1 5:41:06 223 1 1 223 SB Y 1 5:41:38 223 1 1 223 SB Y 2 5:41:43 223 2 2 223 SB Y 1 5:41:46 223 3 3 223 SB Y 3 5:41:59 223 3 3 223 EB N 2 5:41:51 223 2 2 223 NB Y 1 5:41:57 223 1 1 223 NB Y 3 5:42:07 223 3 3 223 NB Y B 5:42:12 223 B B 223 SB Y B 5:42:22 223 B B 223 WB N 1 5:42:22 223 1 1 224 SB Y 1 5:42:51 224 1 1 224 NB Y 1 5:43:12 224 1 1 224 SB Y 1 5:43:34 224 1 1 224 EB N 1 5:43:48 224 1 1 224 NB Y 2 5:43:55 224 2 2 224 SB Y B 5:44:03 224 B B 224 NB Y B 5:44:04 224 B B 224 NB Y 1 5:44:16 224 1 1 1 224 SB Y B 5:44:18 224 B B 224 NB Y 2 5:44:28 224 2 2 2 224 WB N 1 5:44:28 224 1 1 225 EB N 2 5:45:14 225 2 2

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55 225 SB Y 2 5:45:23 225 2 2 225 SB Y 2 5:45:27 225 2 2 225 EB N B 5:45:36 225 B B 225 NB Y 1 5:46:01 225 1 1 226 EB N B 5:46:44 226 B B 226 EB N 1 5:47:01 226 1 1 226 NB N B 5:47:41 226 B B 226 NB Y B 5:47:51 226 B B 226 NB Y 1 5:47:53 226 1 1 226 WB N 1 5:48:12 226 1 1 227 EB N B 5:48:41 227 B B 227 NB Y 2 5:49:13 227 2 2 227 SB Y 1 5:49:14 227 1 1 227 NB Y B 5:49:53 227 B B 227 NB Y B 5:49:56 227 B B 227 SB Y 2 5:50:00 227 2 2 227 NB Y 1 5:50:02 227 1 1 227 NB Y 1 5:50:27 227 1 1 227 EB N 2 5:50:39 227 2 2 228 SB Y 2 5:50:50 228 2 2 228 EB N 2 5:50:50 228 2 2 228 SB Y 2 5:51:00 228 2 2 228 SB Y 1 5:51:57 228 1 1 228 WB N 1 5:52:22 228 1 1 229 WB N B 5:53:06 229 B B 229 WB N 1 5:53:14 229 1 1 RUNNER 229 SB Y 2 5:53:36 229 2 2 229 WB N 3 5:54:19 229 3 3 229 NB Y 3 5:54:20 230 3 3 230 WB N B 5:54:29 230 B B 230 NB Y B 5:54:31 230 B B 230 SB Y 2 5:55:56 230 2 2 230 NB Y 1 5:55:57 230 1 1 230 SB Y 1 5:56:00 230 1 1 230 NB Y 1 5:56:00 230 1 1 230 SB Y 1 5:56:02 230 1 1 230 EB N B 5:56:02 230 B B 230 WB Y 1 5:56:30 231 1 1 231 EB Y 1 5:56:36 231 1 1 231 EB Y 1 5:56:43 231 1 1 231 WB N 1 5:56:49 231 1 1 231 SB Y 1 5:56:54 231 1 1 231 WB N B 5:57:30 231 B B 231 WB N 1 5:57:37 231 1 1 231 NB Y 1 5:58:00 231 1 1 231 SB Y 1 5:58:07 231 1 1 1 231 WB N 1 5:58:17 231 1 1 232 EB Y 1 5:58:36 232 1 1 232 SB Y 1 5:58:37 232 1 1 232 SB Y 3 5:58:47 232 3 3 232 SB Y 2 5:59:18 232 2 2 232 NB Y 1 5:59:43 232 1 1 232 NB Y B 6:00:03 232 B B 232 SB Y 2 6:00:08 232 2 2 233 NB Y 1 6:00:51 233 1 1 233 SB Y 1 6:00:50 233 1 1 233 SB Y 1 6:01:35 233 1 1

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56 233 SB Y 4 6:01:58 233 4 4 233 NB Y 2 6:01:56 233 2 2 233 NB Y 1 6:02:09 233 1 1 233 WB Y 1 6:02:23 233 1 1 234 EB N 1 6:02:54 234 1 1 234 EB N 2 6:03:17 234 2 2 234 SB Y 2 6:03:29 234 2 2 234 NB Y B 6:03:56 234 B B 234 NB Y 1 6:04:01 234 1 1 235 SB Y 1 6:05:16 235 1 1 1 235 SB Y 1 6:05:09 235 1 1 1 235 SB Y 1 6:05:16 235 1 1 1 235 SB Y 1 6:06:08 235 1 1 235 EB N 1 6:06:32 235 1 1 236 WB N 1 6:07:19 236 1 1 236 NB Y 1 6:07:39 236 1 1 236 SB Y 5 6:07:55 236 5 5 236 SB Y 3 6:07:54 236 3 3 236 NB Y 3 6:07:58 236 3 3 236 NB Y B 6:08:02 236 B B 236 NB Y 2 6:08:04 236 2 2 236 WB N 2 6:08:05 236 2 2 236 NB Y B 6:08:08 236 B B 236 EB N B 6:08:12 236 B B 236 SB Y 1 6:08:20 236 1 1 236 WB N 2 6:08:27 236 2 2 237 NB Y 2 6:09:25 237 2 2 237 SB Y 1 6:09:37 237 1 1 237 WB N 1 6:09:52 237 1 1 237 NB Y 1 6:09:54 237 1 1 237 NB Y 1 6:09:55 237 1 1 237 SB Y 1 6:10:02 237 1 1 237 SB Y 2 6:10:03 237 2 2 237 SB Y 1 6:10:08 237 1 1 237 SB Y 3 6:10:27 238 3 3 237 NB Y 2 6:10:33 238 2 2 238 EB N 2 6:10:56 238 2 2 238 SB Y 3 6:10:58 238 3 3 238 SB Y 2 6:11:09 238 2 2 238 EB N B 6:11:24 238 B B 238 NB Y 2 6:11:47 238 2 2 238 NB Y B 6:12:07 238 B B 238 NB Y 2 6:12:07 238 2 2 238 NB Y 2 6:12:08 238 2 2 238 NB Y B 6:12:09 238 B B 238 NB Y 1 6:12:17 238 1 1 1 238 WB N 4 6:12:20 238 4 4 238 WB N B 6:12:40 238 B B 239 EB N 1 6:13:08 239 1 1 239 SB N 3 6:13:58 239 3 3 239 WB N 1 6:14:10 239 1 1 RUNNER 239 NB N 2 6:14:13 239 2 2 240 EB N B 6:14:30 240 B B 240 SB Y 1 6:14:52 240 1 1 240 WB Y B 6:15:17 240 B B 240 SB Y 1 6:15:27 240 1 1 240 EB N 1 6:15:33 240 1 1

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57 240 EB N B 6:15:42 240 B B 240 SB Y 1 6:15:43 240 1 1 240 NB Y 2 6:15:53 240 2 2 241 EB N B 6:16:37 241 B B 241 WB N 1 6:17:18 241 1 1 241 WB N 1 6:17:18 241 1 1 241 WB N B 6:17:21 241 B B 241 SB Y 2 6:17:39 241 2 2 241 EB N B 6:17:40 241 B B 241 SB Y B 6:17:46 241 B B 241 NB Y 1 6:17:51 241 1 1 241 EB N 1 6:18:02 241 1 1 242 WB N 1 6:18:57 242 1 1 242 NB Y 3 6:19:53 242 3 3 242 NB Y B 6:19:56 242 B B 242 SB Y 2 6:20:04 242 2 2 242 SB Y 3 6:20:19 242 3 3 3 242 NB N 2 6:20:33 243 2 2 243 EB N 1 6:21:14 243 1 1 243 NB N 2 6:21:35 243 2 2 243 WB N 1 6:22:02 243 1 1 243 EB N B 6:22:04 243 B B 243 SB N 1 6:22:07 243 1 1 243 NB N 1 6:21:58 243 1 1 243 NB N 1 6:22:09 243 1 1 243 NB N 4 6:22:13 243 4 4 243 NB N B 6:22:15 243 B B 243 EB N 1 6:22:43 243 1 1 244 SB Y B 6:22:45 244 B B 244 SB Y 1 6:22:54 244 1 1 244 NB Y B 6:22:56 244 B B 244 SB Y 1 6:23:16 244 1 1 244 EB Y B 6:23:29 244 B B 244 EB Y 1 6:23:30 244 1 1 244 SB Y 1 6:23:42 244 1 1 244 WB N B 6:23:48 244 B B 245 WB N 1 6:24:45 245 1 1 245 EB N 1 6:24:44 245 1 1 245 EB N 2 6:25:10 245 2 2 245 SB Y 2 6:25:22 245 2 2 1 245 SB Y 3 6:25:30 245 3 3 245 SB Y 2 6:25:38 245 2 2 245 NB Y 2 6:25:40 245 2 2 245 NB Y B 6:25:57 245 B B 245 WB N 1 6:26:12 245 1 1 245 WB N 1 6:26:15 245 1 1 246 SB Y 2 6:26:42 246 2 2 246 NB Y 1 6:27:08 246 1 1 246 SB Y 1 6:27:11 246 1 1 246 NB Y 3 6:27:19 246 3 3 246 SB Y 1 6:27:50 246 1 1 246 NB Y 3 6:27:58 246 3 3 246 NB Y 2 6:27:59 246 2 2 246 NB Y 1 6:28:14 246 1 1 246 EB/WB N 247 NB Y 1 6:28:56 247 1 1 1 247 SB Y 2 6:29:45 247 2 2

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58 247 SB Y B 6:29:52 247 B B 247 NB Y B 6:29:56 247 B B 247 NB Y 1 6:29:56 247 1 1 247 SB Y 1 6:30:30 248 1 1 247 NB Y 1 6:30:42 248 1 1 247 EB/WB Y 248 NB Y 1 6:30:48 248 1 1 248 EB N 1 6:31:09 248 1 1 248 NB Y 1 6:31:37 248 1 1 248 EB N B 6:31:42 248 B B 248 WB N 2 6:31:44 248 2 2 248 WB N B 6:32:00 248 B B 248 NB Y 1 6:32:02 248 1 1 248 SB Y 1 6:32:18 248 1 1 249 NB Y 1 6:33:35 249 1 1 249 NB Y 2 6:33:54 249 2 2 249 NB Y 6 6:33:55 249 6 6 249 NB Y B 6:33:55 249 B B 249 SB Y 1 6:33:55 249 1 1 249 EB N 1 6:34:02 249 1 1 249 WB N 1 6:34:09 249 1 1 249 NB Y 1 6:34:13 249 1 1 250 WB Y B 6:34:30 250 B B 250 NB Y 2 6:34:35 250 2 2 250 WB Y 1 6:34:52 250 1 1 250 NB Y 1 6:34:54 250 1 1 250 WB N B 6:25:13 250 B B 250 EB Y 1 6:35:28 250 1 1 250 SB Y 2 6:35:30 250 2 2 250 WB N 1 6:35:41 250 1 1 250 SB Y 1 6:35:41 250 1 1 250 NB Y 6 6:35:56 250 6 6 250 NB Y 1 6:35:57 250 1 1 250 NB Y 1 6:36:17 250 1 1 250 WB N 1 6:36:30 250 1 1 251 SB Y 2 6:36:57 251 2 2 251 SB Y 1 6:37:03 251 1 1 251 NB Y 1 6:37:10 251 1 1 251 SB Y 2 6:37:27 251 2 2 251 NB Y 1 6:37:31 251 1 1 251 NB Y 1 6:37:37 251 1 1 251 WB N 2 6:37:50 251 2 2 251 NB Y 3 6:37:55 251 3 3 251 NB Y 4 6:38:06 251 4 4 251 NB Y 1 6:38:10 251 1 1 251 SB Y 1 6:38:15 251 1 1 251 WB N 1 6:38:33 251 1 1 251 WB N 1 6:38:45 252 1 1 252 SB Y 2 6:39:17 252 2 2 252 WB N 1 6:39:22 252 1 1 252 NB Y 1 6:39:47 252 1 1 252 WB N 1 6:39:49 253 1 1 252 SB Y 1 6:39:49 252 1 1 252 SB Y 1 6:39:52 252 1 1 252 NB Y 1 6:40:00 252 1 1 252 WB N 1 6:40:05 252 1 1 252 EB N 1 6:40:05 252 1 1

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59 252 WB N B 6:40:06 252 B B 252 NB Y 1 6:40:08 252 1 1 252 NB Y 1 6:40:10 252 1 1 252 NB Y 1 6:40:20 252 1 1 1 252 WB N 1 6:40:21 252 1 1 252 WB N 3 6:40:32 252 3 3 252 EB N 2 6:40:32 252 2 2 252 SB Y 2 6:40:45 252 2 2 253 EB Y 1 6:40:55 253 1 1 253 WB Y B 6:41:05 253 B B 253 SB Y 1 6:41:06 253 1 1 253 SB Y 3 6:41:53 253 3 3 253 NB Y 2 6:41:55 253 2 2 253 NB Y 2 6:41:58 253 2 2 253 NB Y 2B 6:41:58 253 2B 2B 253 WB Y 1 6:42:04 253 1 1 1 253 WB Y B 6:42:04 253 B B 254 SB Y 1 6:42:58 254 1 1 254 SB Y 1 6:43:06 254 1 1 254 WB N B 6:43:11 254 B B 254 WB N B 6:43:20 254 B B 254 WB N 1 6:43:22 254 1 1 254 EB N B 6:43:28 254 B B 254 NB Y 1 6:43:47 254 1 1 254 NB Y 1 6:43:52 254 1 1 254 SB Y 1 6:43:57 254 1 1 254 NB Y 2B 6:44:08 254 2B 2B 254 SB Y 2 6:44:22 255 2 2 255 NB Y 1 6:44:40 255 1 1 255 SB Y 3 6:45:54 255 3 3 255 NB Y 1 6:45:54 255 1 1 255 EB/WB N 256 WB N 1 6:46:16 256 1 1 256 SB Y 3 6:46:28 257 3 3 256 EB N B 6:46:28 256 B B 257 SB Y 2 6:46:59 257 2 2 257 WB N B 6:47:21 257 B B 257 EB N 1 6:47:28 257 1 1 257 EB N B 6:47:33 257 B B 257 EB N B 6:47:36 257 B B 257 EB N 1 6:47:52 257 1 1 257 SB Y 1 6:47:54 257 1 1 257 NB Y 1 6:47:56 257 1 1 257 SB Y 1 6:48:01 257 1 1 257 WB N 1 6:48:15 257 1 1 258 SB N 1 6:48:35 258 1 1 1 258 WB N B 6:48:37 258 B B 258 EB N 2 6:48:56 258 2 2 258 SB N 2 6:49:07 258 2 2 2 258 WB N 1 6:49:12 258 1 1 258 NB N 1 6:49:23 258 1 1 258 SB N 2 6:49:50 258 2 2 2 258 SB N 3 6:50:04 258 3 3 3 258 NB N B 6:50:09 258 B B 258 NB N 1 6:50:10 258 1 1 259 EB N 3 6:50:53 259 3 3 259 EB N B 6:51:06 259 B B

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60 259 SB Y 3 6:51:06 259 3 3 259 SB Y 1 6:51:12 259 1 1 259 NB Y 1 6:51:29 259 1 1 259 SB Y 2 6:51:47 259 2 2 259 SB Y 2 6:51:53 259 2 2 259 NB Y 1 6:51:58 259 1 1 259 NB Y 1 6:52:01 259 1 1 259 WB N B 6:52:16 259 B B 260 SB Y 1 6:52:46 260 1 1 260 WB N 1 6:52:50 260 1 1 260 SB Y 1 6:53:16 260 1 1 260 NB Y 2 6:53:23 260 2 2 260 EB N 1 6:53:30 260 1 1 260 SB Y 1 6:53:43 260 1 1 260 WB N 1 6:53:57 260 1 1 260 NB Y 3 6;54:08 260 3 3 260 WB N 2 6:54:16 260 2 2 260 WB N 1 6:54:24 260 1 1 261 SB Y 1 6:54:37 261 1 1 261 EB N B 6:55:20 261 B B 261 WB N B 6:55:26 261 B B 261 WB N 1 6:55:30 261 1 1 261 NB Y B 6:55:59 261 B B 261 SB Y 1 6:56:01 261 1 1 261 NB Y B 6:56:03 261 B B 261 NB Y B 6:56:05 261 B B 261 NB Y 2 6:56:13 261 2 2 261 SB Y 1 6:56:23 261 1 1 261 WB N 2 6:56:28 261 2 2 261 EB N 2 6:56:30 261 2 2 261 SB Y 2 6:56:41 262 2 2 262 SB Y 3 5:57:07 262 3 3 262 NB Y 1 6:57:49 262 1 1 1 262 NB Y 2 6:57:59 262 2 2 262 SB Y 4 6:58:19 262 4 4 262 WB N 1 6:58:29 262 1 1 263 SB Y 2 6:58:46 263 2 2 263 SB Y 1 6:59:07 263 1 1 263 NB Y 1 6:59:13 263 1 1 263 WB N B 6:59:20 263 B B 263 NB Y 1 6:59:36 263 1 1 263 EB N B 6:59:46 263 B B 263 SB Y 4 6:59:59 263 4 4 264 NB Y 1 7:00:57 264 1 1 264 SB Y 2 7:02:28 264 2 2 264 SB Y 3 7:02:32 265 3 3 264 EB/WB N 265 EB N 1 7:02:56 265 1 1 265 NB Y 2 7:03:08 265 2 2 265 SB Y 1 7:03:10 265 1 1 265 SB Y 1 7:03:18 265 1 1 265 NB Y 1 7:03:18 265 1 1 265 NB Y 1 7:03:46 265 1 1 265 SB Y 1 7:03:46 265 1 1 265 NB Y 4 7:04:05 265 4 4 265 NB Y 1 7:04:20 265 1 1 265 WB N 1 7:04:27 265 1 1

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61 266 NB Y 1 7:05:26 266 1 1 266 NB Y 1 7:05:55 266 1 1 266 SB Y 2 7:06:15 266 2 2 266 EB/WB N 267 WB N 1 7:07:01 267 1 1 267 NB Y 3 7:07:36 267 3 3 267 SB Y 5 7:07:40 267 5 5 267 NB Y 2B 7:07:59 267 2B 2B 267 EB N 1 7:08:05 267 1 1 268 EB N 1 7:08:41 268 1 1 268 SB Y 1 7:09:05 268 1 1 268 NB Y 1 7:09:50 268 1 1 268 WB N 2 7:09:53 268 2 2 268 SB Y 1 7:09:57 268 1 1 268 NB Y 2 7:09:59 268 2 2 268 EB Y 1 7:10:45 268 1 1 268 SB Y 1 7:10:47 269 1 1 269 SB Y 1 7:10:55 269 1 1 269 NB Y 1 7:10:55 269 1 1 1 269 WB N 2 7:11:08 269 2 2 269 NB Y 1 7:12:40 270 1 1 270 NB Y 1 7:12:45 270 1 1 270 SB Y 1 7:13:00 270 2 2 270 NB Y 1 7:13:57 270 1 1 270 NB Y B 7:13:57 270 B B 270 NB Y 2 7:13:59 270 2 2 270 WB N 1 7:14:13 270 1 1 271 SB Y 1 7:14:47 271 1 1 271 SB Y 1 7:15:08 271 1 1 271 SB Y 1 7:15:40 271 1 1 271 NB Y 1 7:15:44 271 1 1 271 NB Y 5 7:16:02 271 4 4 271 SB Y 1 7:16:08 271 1 1 271 SB Y 1 7:16:44 272 1 1 271 EB N 3 7:16:44 271 3 3 272 EB N 3 7:16:53 272 3 3 272 SB Y 3 7:17:03 272 3 3 272 NB Y 2 7:17:55 272 2 2 272 NB Y B 7:17:55 272 B B 272 WB N 2 7:18:12 272 2 2 273 WB N B 7:18:25 273 B B 273 NB Y 1 7:18:33 273 1 1 273 EB N 1 7:18:36 273 1 1 273 SB Y 2 7:18:47 273 2 2 273 SB Y 1 7:19:24 273 1 1 273 NB Y 1 7:20:19 273 1 1 273 SB Y 1 7:20:19 273 1 1 273 WB N 1 7:20:24 273 1 1 273 WB N 1 7:20:24 273 1 1 273 NB N 1 7:20:35 274 1 1 274 SB N 1 7:21:22 274 1 1 274 NB N 1 7:21:55 274 1 1 274 NB N 1 7:22:00 274 1 1 274 NB N B 7:22:12 274 B B 274 EB/WB N 275 NB N B 7:23:39 275 B B 275 WB N 1 7:23:44 275 1 1

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62 275 NB N 2 7:23:57 275 2 2 276 SB Y 1 7:24:44 276 1 1 276 NB Y 2 7:25:08 276 2 2 276 NB Y 1 7:26:11 276 1 1 276 EB/WB N 277 WB N B 7:26:58 277 B B 277 WB N 1 7:27:00 277 B B 277 NB Y 1 7:27:04 277 1 1 277 EB N B 7:27:45 277 B B 277 NB Y 1 7:27:58 277 1 1 277 NB Y 1 7:28:01 277 1 1 277 WB N 1 7:28:11 278 1 1 277 NB Y 1 7:28:13 277 1 1 277 WB N 1 7:28:24 278 1 1 278 EB N B 7:28:54 278 B B 278 EB N 2 7:28:57 278 2 2 278 WB N B 7:29:02 278 B B 278 SB Y 2 7:29:59 278 2 2 279 SB Y 2 7:31:35 279 2 2 279 NB Y 7 7:31:11 279 7 7 279 NB Y 2 7:32:13 279 2 2 279 WB N 1 7:32:28 279 1 1 279 WB N 2 7:32:44 279 2 2 2 280 NB Y 2 7:32:51 280 2 2 280 SB Y 1 7:33:18 280 1 1 280 NB Y 1 7:33:29 280 1 1 280 NB Y 1 7:34:07 280 1 1 280 EB/WB N 281 NB Y 1 7:34:51 281 1 1 281 WB N B 7:34:55 281 B B 281 NB Y 2 7:35:22 281 2 2 281 SB Y 1 7:36:09 281 1 1 281 NB Y 3 7:36:11 281 3 3 281 NB Y B 7:36:11 281 B B 281 WB N 1 7:36:30 281 1 1 282 NB Y 1 7:36:41 282 1 1 282 NB Y 1 7:37:13 282 1 1 282 EB N 1 7:37:43 282 1 1 282 NB Y 2B 7:37:54 282 2B 2B 282 SB Y 1 7:37:54 282 1 1 282 NB Y 4 7:38:09 282 4 4 283 NB N 1 7:38:51 283 1 1 283 EB N B 7:39:09 283 B B 283 NB N 4 7:39:09 283 4 4 283 NB N 1 7:40:07 283 1 1 283 NB N 2B 7:40:11 283 2B 2B 283 WB N 1 7:40:14 283 1 1 283 EB N 1 7:40:17 283 1 1 284 EB N B 7:41:10 284 B B 284 NB N 4 7:41:43 284 4 4 284 NB N 3 7:41:55 284 3 3 284 SB N 1 7:42:09 284 1 1 284 SB N 1 7:42:17 284 1 1 1 285 EB Y 2 7:42:41 285 2 2 285 WB Y 1 7:42:40 285 1 1 285 EB Y B 7:42:46 285 B B 285 EB Y 2 7:42:50 285 2 2

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63 285 SB Y 1 7:42:56 285 1 1 285 EB N 2 7:43:08 285 2 2 285 SB Y 2 7:43:21 285 2 2 285 NB Y 1 7:43:28 285 1 1 285 NB Y 2 7:43:38 285 2 2 285 SB Y 1 7:43:48 285 1 1 285 SB Y 1 7:44:06 285 1 1 286 EB Y 1 7:44:41 286 1 1 286 EB Y 1 7:44:43 286 1 1 286 WB Y 2B 7:44:46 286 2B 2B 286 SB Y 1 7:44:59 286 1 1 286 NB Y 1 7:44:59 286 1 1 286 WB N 1 7:44:59 286 1 1 286 EB N B 7:45:04 286 B B 286 EB N 1 7:45:43 286 1 1 286 WB N B 7:45:44 286 B B 286 EB N 1 7:45:48 286 1 1 286 NB Y 1 7:45:57 286 1 1 286 NB Y B 7:46:00 286 B B 286 SB Y 1 7:46:03 286 1 1 286 WB N 1 7:46:18 286 1 1 286 SB Y B 7:46:29 286 B B 286 NB Y 2 7:46:32 286 2 2 287 WB N 2 7:46:53 287 2 2 287 EB N 1 7:46:53 287 1 1 287 EB N 2 7:46:59 287 2 2 287 SB Y 2 7:47:07 287 2 2 2 287 SB Y 2 7:47:09 287 2 2 2 287 EB N 1 7:47:26 287 1 1 287 NB Y 1 7:47:30 287 1 1 287 EB N B 7:47:33 287 B B 287 EB N 1 7:47:34 287 1 1 287 SB Y 1 7:47:45 287 1 1 1 287 SB Y 2 7:48:04 287 2 2 2 287 NB Y 1 7:48:00 287 1 1 287 EB N 1 7:48:21 287 1 1 287 WB N 1 7:48:43 287 1 1 288 NB Y 1 7:48:59 288 1 1 288 WB N B 7:49:08 288 B B 288 SB Y 2 7:49:12 288 2 2 288 NB Y 1 7:49:27 288 1 1 288 NB Y 1 7:49:54 288 1 1 288 NB Y 1 7:49:59 288 1 1 288 SB Y 3 7:49:59 288 3 288 NB Y B 7:50:10 288 B B 288 NB Y 2 7:50:10 288 2 2 288 SB Y 2 7:50:12 288 2 2 288 SB Y 1 7:50:17 288 1 1 288 NB Y B 7:50:28 288 B B 289 EB Y 1 7:51:02 289 1 1 289 WB N B 7:51:38 289 B B 289 WB N 1 7:51:40 289 1 1 289 NB Y 2 7:51:59 289 2 2 289 NB Y 1 7:52:15 289 1 1 289 NB Y B 7:52:15 289 B B 289 SB Y 1 7:52:15 289 1 1 289 EB N B 7:52:30 289 B B

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64 290 WB N B 7:52:41 290 B B 290 EB Y 1 7:52:45 290 1 1 290 NB Y 2 7:52:39 290 2 2 290 SB Y 2 7:53:00 290 2 2 290 NB Y 1 7:53:19 290 1 1 290 EB N 1 7:53:35 290 1 1 290 EB N 1 7:53:36 290 1 1 290 SB Y 2 7:53:46 290 2 2 290 EB B 7:53:46 290 B B 290 EB N 2 7:53:47 290 2 2 290 EB N 3 7:53:53 290 3 3 290 NB Y 4 7:53:56 290 4 4 290 SB Y 1 7:53:57 290 1 1 290 SB Y 2 7:54:01 290 2 2 290 SB Y 1 7:54:14 290 1 1 290 NB Y B 7:54:20 290 B B 290 WB N 1 7:54:42 290 1 1 290 WB N 1 7:54:45 290 1 1 291 NB Y 1 7:54:49 291 1 1 1 291 NB Y 1 7:55:11 291 1 1 291 NB Y 1 7:55:16 291 1 1 291 WB N 1 7:55:42 291 1 1 291 SB Y 1 7:55:48 291 1 1 291 NB Y 1 7:56:03 291 1 1 291 NB Y B 7:56:11 291 B B 291 NB Y 4 7:56:13 291 4 1 291 WB N 1 7:56:33 292 1 1 292 WB N 1 7:56:52 292 1 1 292 EB N 2 7:56:52 292 2 2 292 EB N 1 7:57:20 292 1 1 292 WB N 1 7:57:23 292 1 1 292 WB N B 7:57:23 292 B B 292 NB Y 2 7:58:03 292 2 2 293 EB N 4 7:59:01 293 4 4 END OF TAPE

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65 APPENDIX B SAMPLE PROCESSED DATA FILE The data gathered from the video tapes was processed and analyzed for each study intersection. Five performance measures were observed and recorded: behavior of pedestrians entering the crosswalk; behavior of pedestrian exiting the crosswalk; erratic pedestrian behavior due to the pedestrian signal indication; pedestrian-vehicle conflicts; and, pedestrian compliance with the FDW indication. A sample of the processed data for the intersection of W University Avenue and W 17th Street is presented in this section.

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66 ENTERING CROSSWALK W University Ave & W 17th St PEDESTRIANS Entering on WALK Entering on FDW Entering on DW TAPE Total Observations Total % Total % Total % T A1 Mon 1161 410 35.31% 106 9.13% 645 55.56% T A2 Tue/Wed 1490 638 42.82% 130 8.72% 722 48.46% T A10 Fri 574 266 46.34% 63 10.98% 245 42.68% 3225 1314 40.74%299 9.27% 1612 49.98% TOTAL AFTER T B1 Thu/Fri 644 142 22.05% 38 5.90% 464 72.05% T B2 Fri/Mon 1272 305 23.98% 97 7.63% 870 68.40% T B3 Mon/Tue 1462 466 31.87% 140 9.58% 856 58.55% 3378 913 27.03%275 8.14% 2190 64.83% TOTAL BEFORE

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67 EXITING CROSSWALK W University Ave & W 17th St PEDESTRIANS Exiting on WALK Exiting on FDW Exiting on DW TAPE/Weekday Total Observatio ns Total % Total % Total % T A1 Mon 1161 51 4.39% 560 48.23% 550 47.37% T A2 Tue/Wed 1490 44 2.95% 793 53.22% 653 43.83% T A10 Fri 574 47 8.19% 376 65.51% 151 26.31% 3225 142 4.40%1729 53.61%1354 41.98%TOTAL AFTER T B1 Thu/Fri 644 32 4.97% 258 40.06% 354 54.97% T B2 Fri/Mon 1272 72 5.66% 521 40.96% 679 53.38% T B3 Mon/Tue 1462 57 3.90% 695 47.54% 710 48.56% TOTAL BEFORE 3378 161 4.77%1474 43.64%1743 51.60%

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68 ERRATIC BEHAVIOR W University Ave & W 17th St PEDESTRIANS HESITATING RUNNING GOING BACK TAPE/Weekday Total Observations Total % Total % Total % T A1 Mon 1161 0 0.00% 51 4.39% 1 0.09% T A2 Tue/Wed 1490 0 0.00% 31 2.08% 2 0.13% T A10 Fri 574 3 31 0 3225 3 0.09% 113 3.50% 3 0.09% TOTAL AFTER T B1 Thu/Fri 644 0 0.00% 16 2.48% 0 0.00% T B2 Fri/Mon 1272 12 0.94% 61 4.80% 7 0.55% T B3 Mon/Tue 1462 4 0.27% 37 2.53% 1 0.07% 3378 16 0.47% 114 3.37% 8 0.24% TOTAL BEFORE

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69 CONFLICTS WITH VEHICLES W University Ave & W 17th St PEDESTRIANS TAPE/Weekday Total RUN STOP EVADE CRASH TOTAL CONFLICTS T A1 Mon 1161 0 23 1 0 24 T A2 Tue/Wed 1490 1 17 5 0 23 T A10 Fri 574 0 18 2 0 20 TOTAL AFTER 3225 1 58 8 0 67 T B1 Thu/Fri 644 5 26 0 0 31 T B2 Fri/Mon 1272 0 45 0 0 45 T B3 Mon/Tue 1462 0 46 1 0 47 TOTAL BEFORE 3378 5 117 1 0 123

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70 COMPLIANCE WITH FDW INDICATION (Arrival during FDW and wait for WALK before entering crosswalk) W University Ave & W 17th St PEDESTRIANS Tape Arrivals at FDW COMPLIANCE WITH FDW INDICATION Percentage enter @ FDW Percentage enter @ DW Percentage T A1 89 2 2.25% 84 94.38% 3 3.37% T A2 107 0 0.00% 97 90.65% 10 9.35% T A10 67 3 4.48% 58 86.57% 6 8.96% 263 5 1.90% 239 90.87% 19 7.22% TOTAL AFTER T B1 33 3 9.00% 30 90.91% 0 0.00% T B2 96 1 1.04% 83 86.46% 12 12.50% T B3 112 1 0.89% 108 96.43% 3 2.68% 241 5 2.07% 221 91.70% 15 6.22% TOTAL BEFORE

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71 LIST OF REFERENCES 1. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Safety Administration. Traffic Safety Facts 2003 Report No. DOT-HS-809-769. Online at: http://wwwnrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pdf/nrd-30/NCSA/TSFAnn/TSF2003Final.pdf Accessed April 14, 2005. 2. U.S. Department of Transporta tion, Federal Highway Administration. Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices, Millennium Edition Revision Number 1. December 2001. Online at: http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/knomillennium_12.28.01.htm Accessed April 14, 2005. 3. U.S. Department of Transporta tion, Federal Highway Administration. Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2003 Edition November 2003. Online at: http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/kno-2003.htm Accessed April 14, 2005. 4. Florida Department of Transportation. Traffic Engineering Manual Manual Number 750-000-005, March 1999. Online at: http://www.dot.state.fl.us/trafficoperations/temanual/temanual.htm April 14, 2005. 5. 2002 Florida Statutes, Title XXIII, Chapter 316. Online at: http://www.leg.state.fl.us/Statutes/ Accessed April 14, 2005. 6. Kingsbury, Dwight. Florida Department of Transportation State Safety Office, Email, December 21, 2004. 7. Robertson, H.D. and Carter, E.C. The Safety, Operational and Cost Impacts of Pedestrian Indications. Transportation Research Record 959 pp. 1-7, 1984. 8. Zegeer, C., Cynecki, M.J., and Opiela, K.S. Evaluation of Innovative Pedestrian Signalization Alternatives. Transportation Research Record 959 pp. 7-18, 1984 9. Tidwell, J.E. and Doyle, D.P. Driver a nd Pedestrian Comprehension of Pedestrian Law and Traffic Control Devices. Transportation Research Record 1502 pp. 119 -128, 1995. 10. Zegeer, C., Opiela, K.S., and Cynecki, M.J. The Effect of Pedestrian Signals and Signal Timing on Pedestrian Accidents. Transportation Research Record 847 pp. 62-72, 1982.

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72 11. Khasnabis, S., Zegeer, C.V., and Cynecki, M.J. Effects of Pedestrian Signals on Safety, Operations, and Pedestrian Behavior Literature Review. Transportation Research Record 847 pp. 78-86, 1982 12. Yauch, P.J. and Davis, R.E. III. Pedestrian Signals A Call to Action. ITE Journal pp. 32-35, April 2001. 13. U.S. Department of Transportation. Canadian Research on Pedestrian Safety Publication No. FHWA-RD-99-090, December 1999. Online at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/99090/99090.pdf Accessed April 14, 2005 14. Ullman, B., Fitzpatrick, K., and Trout N. On-Street Pedestrian Surveys of Pedestrian Crossing Treatments. Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers 2004 Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL, August 2004. 15. Botha, J.L., Zabyshny, A.A., and Day, J.E. Pedestrian Countdown Signals: An Experimental Evaluation. San Jose Stat e University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Prepared for the City of San Jose Department of Transportation, May 2002. 16. Eccles, K.A., Ruihua, T., and Magnum, B.C. Evaluation of Pedestrian Countdown Signals in Montgomery County, Maryland. Presented at the 83rd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 2004. 17. Pulugurtha, S.S. and Nambian, S.S. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Pedestrian Countdown Signals. Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers 2004 Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL, August 2004. 18. Huang, H., and Zegeer, C. The Effects of Pedestrian Countdown Signals in Lake Buena Vista. University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Prepared for the Florida Department of Transportation, November 2000. 19. U.S. Department of Transportation. Dutch Pedestrian Safety Review Publication No. FHWA-RD-99-092, December 1999. Online at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/99092/99092.pdf Accessed April 14, 2005. 20. Washburn, S.S., and Courage, K.G. Development and Testing of a Red Light Violation Data Collection Tool. Univers ity of Tennessee Southeast Transportation Center, May 2001. Online at: http://stc.utk.edu/htm/researchcom.htm Accessed April 14, 2005. 21. Ott, R.L., and Longnecker, M. An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis Fifth Edition. Duxbury/Wadswort h Group. Pacific Grove, CA. 2001. 22. U.S. Census Bureau, 2004, "U.S. Interim Projections by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin," http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/usinterimproj/ March 2004.

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73 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Deborah L. Leistner received a bachelors degree in architecture and urbanism from Universidade Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 1996, and a masters degree in urban and regional planning from the University of Florida in 2000. Deborah worked for 2 years in Marion County, Florida, as a Planner. Since January of 2002, she has worked for the City of Gainesville, Florida, Public Works Department as a Transportation Planning Analyst.