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Emotional Response to Beauty

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Emotional Response to Beauty
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HUCKEBA, JENNIFER ( Author, Primary )
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2008

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Advertising ( jstor )
Advertising research ( jstor )
Beauty ( jstor )
Brands ( jstor )
Celebrities ( jstor )
Emotional expression ( jstor )
Femininity ( jstor )
Kittens ( jstor )
Modeling ( jstor )
Women ( jstor )

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University of Florida
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EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO BEAUTY


By

JENNIFER HUCKEBA
















A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ADVERTISING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005

































Copyright 2005

by

Jennifer Huckeba



































This thesis is dedicated to my parents, Leurise Phillips and Jerre Steve Huckeba, and my
stepfather, Ken Phillips, for their love and continued support throughout life and my
academic career. And to my boyfriend, Chris Pattillo, for his continued patience and
reassurance.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank Alaina Rodriguez and Julia Thomas-this project would not

have been possible without their help and continued encouragement. Academically, I

would like to thank two of my committee members-Dr. John Sutherland for sharing his

fatherly advice and guidance, and Dr. Robyn Goodman for her patience. I truly

appreciate the help that Dr. Jim Geason, Patrick Reaves, Jody Hedge, and James Albury

offered to me-this project would not have completed in time without them.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES ............... ............................... ... .................. vii

LIST OF FIGURES .............................................. ........ ...... ........... .. viii

ABSTRACT .............. ................. .......... .............. ix

CHAPTER

1 IN TRODU CTION ................................................. ...... .................

2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ......................................................... .............. 3

A attractiveness and Persuasion ............................................... ........................... 3
Attractive Models' Effect on the Perceptions of Advertising in Women .............6
W hy W om en U se Cosm etics ......................................................... ............... 8
Types of Spokespeople ......... ..... ........ .. .. ......... ................. .. 10
Celebrity Endorsers ..................... .... .. ... .. .. .. ........ .... ...... ... .... 11
The Beauty Match Up Hypothesis and the Six Types of Beauty ............................12
Using AdSAM to Measure Emotional Response .......................................... 16
N eed for Present Research......................................................... ............... 20
R research Q u estion s........... .................................................. ...... .... .. .. ........ 2 1
C conclusion ...................................................................................................... ....... 2 1
H y p o th e sis : ......................................................................................2 1

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ............................................................................ ................... 22

R research D esign and Stim uli ......................................................................... ... ... 22
Subjects and Q questionnaires .......................................................................... .. .... 23
T e st O n e ...................................................... ................ 2 4
T est T w o ...................................... ............................... ................ 2 4









v









4 R E S U L T S .......................................................... ................ 2 6

R1: What are the Strongest and Weakest Examples for Each of the Six Types of
B eauty? ............... ......... ..... ........ ... ........................................... 26
R2: How Many Types of Beauty are Present in the Data? .....................................29
R3: Which are the Strongest, Weakest, and Middle Examples for Each of the
N ew T y p es of B eauty ? ......... ................. ...........................................................3 8

5 DISCU SSION ........... .......... ...... .. ......... ............ ... ..... 48

C o n c lu sio n s...................... ..... ..... ..................................................... ............. 4 8
Hypothesis and Research Question One................................... ............... 48
R research Q u estion T w o ............................................................ .....................4 8
R research Q question Three.......................................................... ............... 49
Research Question Four ................................................................. 49
This Study's Possible Effects on the Industry...............................................51
L im stations ............................................................... .... ..... ........ 51
F future R research ........................................................................52

L IST O F R EFER EN CE S ............................................................................ ..............53

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E TCH ..................................................................... ..................56
















LIST OF TABLES


Table p

4-1 Best examples of beauty types according to agree versus disagree respondent
rating s. .............................................................................. 2 7

4-2 Worst examples of beauty types according to agree versus disagree respondent
rating s. .............................................................................. 2 7

4-3 A grid of the photographs of each model corresponding to their numbers in the
sets of photographs .................................................... ... .. ........ .... 28

4-4 Varimax rotated component matrix factor loadings for each of the 42 models.......30

4-5 Strongest, weakest, and middle model examples for sensual/sexual and young
fem in in e ............................................... ................... .......................3 9

4-6 Pleasure, arousal, and dominance scores for the strong, weak, and middle
scoring models for sensual/sexual and young feminine ............. ................40

4-11 AdSAM prominent emotional index table showing respondents' feeling
towards the strongest young feminine model, C. ................................................46

4-12 AdSAM prominent emotional index table showing respondents' feeling
towards the strongest sensual/sexual model, SK2............................................. 46
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure p

2-1 Prototypes of beauty dimensions elicited from fashion editors ............................15

2-2 Example of the self assessment manikin used in AdSAM testing. Row one
represents pleasure, row two represents arousal and row three represents
dom in an ce. ........................................................ ................. 17

2-3 Example of AdSAM scores graphed on a scale of pleasure and arousal .............19

2-4 Pleasure and arousal scale used to graph AdSAM scores...............................19

4-1 Strong, middle, and weak examples of models for young feminine emotional
response means graphed on a scale or pleasure and arousal.................................42

4-2 Strong, middle, and weak examples of models for sensual/sexual emotional
response means graphed on a scale or pleasure and arousal.................................43

4-3 Strong, middle, and weak examples of models for sensual/sexual and young
feminine emotional response means graphed on a scale or pleasure and arousal....44















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising

EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO BEAUTY

By

Jennifer Huckeba

May 2005

Chair: Jon Morris
Major Department: Journalism and Communications

It has been said that advertisers believe that the beautiful are credible. Personal

attractiveness is important persuasion because there is a tendency to consistently attribute

more positive qualities to people who are physically attractive rather than unattractive.

The current study attempts to continue the research of Michael Solomon, Richard

Ashmore, and Laura C. Longo's study "The Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis: Congruence

Between Types of Beauty and Product Images in Advertising," Journal of Advertising

(21), 23-24. This study continues the previous research first by testing the six

dimensions of beauty using factor analyses, then by measuring emotional responses to the

pre-determined beauty types.

This research goes one step further than the previous study by using a factor

analysis to combine the types of beauty into two opposite dimensions-sensual/sexual

and young feminine. Additionally, the present study attempts to measure the emotional

responses of college females to models so that we may better understand which images of

models most effectively appeal to them in advertising.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Advertisers believe the beautiful are credible (Joseph, 1982). The increasing use of

attractive models as a persuasion method can be found in advertisements for nearly every

item that may have an influence on a women's appearance.

Many studies link the way a woman feels about her body to the effectiveness of

attractiveness as a persuasion method (Zinkhan and Hong, 1991; Hanson and Hill, 1994).

Women who are less confident about their bodies may respond more positively to ads

that feature physically attractive endorsers (Hanson, Hill and Stephens, 1994).

Certain types of beauty are more appropriately paired with one product or brand,

than with another (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). The Beauty Match-up

Hypothesis theorized that people have theories of beauty that influence their emotional

responses to models in advertising (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). For example,

attractive people vary in exactly how they are attractive and different types of

attractiveness may be best matched with different products (Solomon, Ashmore and

Longo, 1992). The Beauty Match-up Hypothesis study divided beauty into types based

on facial features, appearance of age, attire (if applicable), and flaws (Solomon, Ashmore

and Longo, 1992). The types are: Classic Beauty/Feminine, Cute, Sex Kitten,

Sensual/Exotic, Trendy, and Girl-Next-Door (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992).

Studies have determined that attractiveness can persuade women to buy products,

but they fail to explore how women feel about the models they are shown in the

advertisements and if they prefer one type of beauty to another (Solomon, Ashmore and






2


Longo, 1992; Joseph, 1982). To further research and knowledge surrounding

attractiveness as a persuasion method to women, women's emotional responses models

should be studied.

Continuing the research of Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo by measuring women's

emotional responses to numerous models will lead to a better understanding of how

women feel about the images they encounter in advertising, in addition to showing us

how to more successfully attract women to numerous products (1992).














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Attractiveness and Persuasion

According to The Physical Attractiveness Phenomena, "no objective or absolute

answer exists for the question of who is physically attractive or what determines physical

attractiveness" (Patzer, 1985, 187). Because of this, the truth-of-consensus method is

often used to measure physical attractiveness (Patzer, 1985). "This method is based on

the premise that judgments of physical attractiveness are necessarily subjective, and that

such judgments are formed through gestalt principles of person perception rather than

single characteristics" (Patzer, 1985, 187). In the truth-of-consensus method, if

numerous judges rate a stimulus person as high or low in physical attractiveness, then the

stimulus person represents that level of physical attractiveness (Patzer, 1985).

The present study asks subjects not to rate the physical attractiveness of a stimulus

person, but to judge the type of attractiveness. It may be suggested that the principles

behind the truth-of-consensus method may also apply to deciphering type of beauty if

they are an accredited form of measuring level of attractiveness.

It is a thought that physical attractiveness are worldly and evolutionary. "Many

physical characteristics have evolved in specific ways that make a given animal attractive

to another" (Sarwer, Magee, and Clark, 2004, 29). Clear skin, bright eyes, and lustrous

hair are the beauty characteristics of youthfulness, pathogen resistance, symmetry, body

ratios, and averageness (Sarwer, Magee, and Clark, 2004). "These features are desired by

men and women the world over" (Sarwer, Magee, and Clark, 2004, 29).









The results of Patzer's study suggest that as communicator attractiveness increases,

persuasive communication effectiveness increases (Patzer, 1985). "Low, moderate, and

high communicator physical attractiveness produce negative, neutral, and positive

effectiveness, respectively" (Patzer, 1985, 187).

"Source attractiveness becomes critical to persuasive impact to the extent that the

receiver is motivated to enhance sense of self, social reputation, or gratifying role

relationships by identifying with admired sources and interjecting their attitudes"

(McGuire, 1985, 264). These findings suggest that "persuasion occurs through the

compliance process when the receiver wants to get a reward or avoid a punishment from

a powerful source" (McGuire, 1985, 266).

According to an article entitled "The Credibility of Physically Attractive

Communicators: A Review," advertisers believe that the beautiful are credible and that

physically attractive sources can contribute to a communication's effectiveness (Joseph,

1982). "Personal attractiveness is an important and pervasive source of influence in a

variety of interpersonal situations [there is the] presence of a physical attractiveness

stereotype-a tendency to consistently attribute more positive qualities to people who are

physically attractive rather than unattractive" (Joseph, 1982, 16).

Other research results coincide by stating that attractive people are likely to be

viewed "as more sensitive, kind, sociable, interesting, outgoing, strong, poised, and

exciting than less attractive people" (Bertolissi, Lind and Perlini, 1999, 1). American

females who dislike their bodies may respond more positively to products in ads that

feature physically attractive (thin) female endorsers, when compared to women who are

satisfied with their body types (Hanson, and Hill, 1994).









When the product has little to do with appearance, the model may be more credible

if less or unattractive (Baker and Churchill, 1977). "The results suggest that in trying to

sell a nonromantically-oriented product to males, an unattractive female model may be

more persuasive in creating eventual product purchase than an attractive model" (Baker

and Churchill, 1977, 553). Baker and Churchill used a seven-point Likert scale to have

subjects determine how attractive or unattractive they believed each model was. "The

results suggest that the sex and physical attractiveness of an ad model do influence

peoples' evaluations of aesthetic qualities of an advertisement and therefore seem to be

important determinants of the attention-getting value of the ad and the subjects' liking of

the ad" (Baker and Churchill, 1977, 553).

Automobile manufacturers are just one of many who use attractiveness as a

persuasive measure. Ford Motor Company uses models at auto shows to "spin on the

turntables with automakers' latest models Although some auto show models are

basically decorative, many narrate technical scripts and are expected to be informed

about the vehicles they promote" (Stroud, 1990, S-2). Car companies choose carefully

which type of model they want representing their cars (Stroud, 1990). "Mazda employed

'California-looking' blond, blue-eyed, young, perky talent dressed informally in long

jackets and yellow walking shorts to promote its sporty Miata convertible [in 1989]...

Chrysler narrator/models tend to be 'tall, classy and very mid-American' but are as

approachable as the girl next door" (Stroud, 1990, S-2).

Numerous cosmetics companies also carefully choose models to convey a specific

image. "To Elizabeth Arden, beauty is a glamorous, Grace Kelly-esque woman. Chanel

sees it as the dark-haired, serene Carole Bouquet and Estee Lauder as the foreign,









perfectly gorgeous Paulina Porizkova" (Wells, 1989, 46). The article also states that

"consistent among all is a reliance on the model to telegraph a precise message about the

company" (Wells, 1989, 46).

Attractive Models' Effect on the Perceptions of Advertising in Women

The media can be a powerful and persuasive tool in influencing young viewers'

self-images (Parker, 2000). High levels of identification and realism can enhance the

power of the media and shape college students' sexual attitudes and assumptions (Ward,

Gorvine, and Cytron-Walker, 2002).

One of the reasons that the attractiveness of models in the media can have a

positive effect on the credibility of advertising is self-concept. "Ideal self concept is the

reference point in which actual self is compared. If there is a gap between them, an

individual strives to achieve the ideal state. In this respect, ideal self is a motive force

driving and individual upward" (Zinkhan and Hong, 1991, 348). Therefore, if an

individual views an advertisement featuring a model that she views to be better in some

way than her, she is more likely to purchase that item (Zinkhan and Hong, 1991).

"Self concept is a promising variable for explaining the effectiveness of various

promotional strategies. Specifically, promotional efforts may be more effective if they

are directed toward establishing a product image congruent with a consumer's own self-

concept, compared to non-matching appeals, may lead consumers to subsequent

behaviors favorable to the product advertised" (Zinkhan and Hong, 1991). Zinkhan and

Hong's research efforts suggest that when a product is consumed primarily in private, the

consumer is less concerned about what others think about them consuming the product

(1991). In this situation, the main consideration is the degree to which the product is

satisfactory in the eyes of the individual consuming the product (Zinkhan and Hong,









1991). "Thus, products congruent with ideal self would evoke low buying intention

when the gap between product image and the present state of self is excessive" (Zinkhan

and Hong, 1991, 352).

According to the Social-Comparison Theory, people may compare themselves to

others for reasons other than self-evaluation (Martin and Kennedy, 1993). "The tendency

of female preadolescents and adolescents to compare themselves to models in ads

increases, and this tendency is greater for those with lower self-perceptions of physical

attractiveness and/or lower self-esteem" (Martin and Kennedy, 1993, 526). Self-

improvement prompts upward comparisons with others (Martin and Gentry, 1997).

Girls are likely to view their bodies as objects, allowing physical appearance to

determine how they, and others, judge their overall value as a person (Martin and Gentry,

1997). According to the Social-Comparison Theory, people may compare themselves to

others for reasons other than self-evaluation (Martin and Kennedy, 1993). "The tendency

is greater for those with lower self-perceptions of physical attractiveness and/or lower

self-esteem to compare themselves to models in ads" (Martin and Gentry, 1997, 20).

This may be true because the more someone wants to become a member of a group (i.e.

supermodels), the more important it becomes for the individual to compare herself to that

group (Festinger, personal communication with Goodman).

Yet, when women are exposed to a highly attractive model for an extended period

of time, as a result of comparison, evaluations of both the model and the model as a

spokesperson may be affected negatively because of model derogation (Bower, 2001).

Another study found that after viewing attractive models, women rated average women

as less attractive (Richins, 1991). "Images of highly attractive individuals can cause









viewers to rate the attractiveness of more ordinary others lower than they would

otherwise" (Richins, 1991, 81). Highly attractive models are best when paired with

enhancing, attractiveness-related products, yet normally attractive models may be better

in ads for problem-solving products (Bower and Landreth, 2001).

Richins also argues that the temporary dissatisfaction among individuals with

themselves may be beneficial if it stimulates consumers to buy to improve their

appearance, eventually enhancing satisfaction (Richins, 1991). "Research generally,

although not always, finds that ads with attractive models are more effective than those

with less attractive models or without models" (Richins, 1991, 82.)

Why Women Use Cosmetics

In order to better understand how models with different types of beauty affect the

perceptions, and possibly purchase intentions, of women through advertising we need a

better understanding of one industry primarily targeted toward women. Makeup use by

women may be attributed to fulfilling a need to feel attractive in addition to enhancing

feelings of well being (Bloch and Richins, 1992). Adornments can be divided into three

different categories by the way they affect the attractiveness in terms of physical

characteristics:

SRemedies are adornments used to remove or significantly alter a mutable attribute that
is thought to be unsatisfactory by others or the self (i.e. appetite suppressants, hair
coloring).
SCamouflages are adornments that conceal or downplay innate physical characteristics
the consumer is unable to change (i.e. the skillful application of cosmetics).
SEnhancers are adornments that enhance or draw attention to innate physical
characteristics that are viewed positively (i.e. makeup that accentuates a person's
pleasing eye color) (Bloch and Richins, 1992, 5-6).


"Because adornments serve to enhance one's appearance, it follows that heavy

users of adornments place greater importance on physical appearance than do light users.









Certain personality traits may be associated with a greater emphasis on appearance, and

thus on adornment use" (Bloch and Richins, 1992, 7). Remedies, camouflages and

enhancers can enhance the self-image of the consumer (Bloch and Richins, 1992). For

example, women may have an increase in self-esteem after using cosmetics if they are

prone to acne, because cosmetics can help camouflage or conceal the problem (Bloch and

Richins, 1992).

Cosmetics, and other adornment, use may also be increased short-term in the

context of situational self-image (Bloch and Richins, 1992). "A woman who typically

used few adornments may be motivated by a special party to significantly increase her

usage level" (Bloch and Richins, 1992, 8).

As previously mentioned, the ideal self-concept is another reason women may use

cosmetics. If there is a gap between the consumer's ideal self-concept and actual self-

concept, an individual will strive to achieve the ideal state (Zinkhan and Hong, 1991).

This may include more adornment use. "It is possible that consumers who perceive

themselves to be inherently unattractive will rely heavily on adornments as compensatory

tools ... In the context of attractiveness, adornment usage would be highest among

persons with strong desires to be attractive couples with a sense that adornments are part

of being attractive and self-doubts concerning current attractiveness" (Bloch and Richins,

1992, 8-9).

It is this way that adornment marketing may actually decrease consumer

satisfaction. "Adornment advertising often features models that approach some societal

consensus of perfection. For example, YSL cosmetics, whose target market is affluent

older women, uses 16-year-old models to demonstrate a completely wrinkle-free ideal in









its advertisements" (Bloch and Richins, 1992, 11). This study suggests that repeated

exposure to extremely attractive models in advertising and other mediums may influence

consumers' perceptions of what constitutes an acceptable physical appearance (Bloch and

Richins, 1992).

In a study entitled "Physical Attractiveness and Personality Among American

College Students," Cash and Smith found that more attractive women have a tendency to

infer that their own appearance, rather than other enduring personal assets, causes males'

overtures (Cash and Smith, 1982, 189). "Physical attractiveness per se affects

perceptions of mental health by both peers and professionals" (Cash and Smith, 1982,

184).

Types of Spokespeople

The current study will use of mix of familiar celebrities and unrecognized models.

To fully understand the subjects' responses to both types of endorsers, we must first

review the literature surrounding different types of endorsement.

A study conducted by Friedman and Friedman divided endorsers into three types:

the celebrity, the professional (or recognized) expert and the typical consumer (Friedman

and Freidman, 1979). This study used vacuum cleaner, cookies and costume jewelry ads

to test the effectiveness of the different types of endorsers for each of the products.

Results of the study found costume jewelry yielded the most positive response when

paired with the celebrity endorser, vacuum cleaner with expert and cookies with the

typical consumer (Friedman and Friedman, 1979). "If brand-name and advertisement

recall are most desirable, advertisers should use a celebrity. If, on the other hand,

believability of the endorsement, overall attitude toward the advertised product, and









initial intent to purchase the advertised product are desired, the type of endorser should

be considered more carefully" (Friedman and Friedman, 1979).

According to "Product Matchup Key to Effective Star Presentations," Stars will

shine brightest as advertising endorsers if adpeople take care to match their personalities

with products and copy" (Forkhan, 1980, 42). In the study, McCollum/Speilman & Co.

collected data from hundreds of celebrity commercial tests over a span of 12 years

(Forkhan, 1980). Results of the study suggest that veteran actors and athletes scored the

highest while younger actors preformed very poorly. Comedians also emerged as "quite

risky endorsers" (Forkhan, 1980, 42). "The main advice M/S/C execs offered was to

decide [first] on what you're going to say about a product and then find the

personality to fit it" (Forkhan, 1980, 42). Although there are exceptions, M/S/C believes

that non-entertainment personalities (ranging from ex-astronauts to corporate executives),

have a limited appeal and effectiveness (Forkhan, 1980).

Celebrity Endorsers

For an attractiveness-related product, use of a physically attractive spokesperson

celebrity (Tom Selleck) was observed to significantly enhance spokesperson credibility

and attitude toward an ad, relative to use of a physically unattractive celebrity (Telly

Savalas) (Kamins, 1990). Kamins used 89 graduate students from a major west-coast

university to study advertiser believability and credibility, spokesperson believability and

credibility, expectancy-value brand attitude, attitude toward the ad and purchaser

intention (Kamins, 1990). Results of the study implied an interaction effect between

celebrity attractiveness and product type, suggesting that for the product which is

attractiveness related (i.e. luxury car), the attractive celebrity outperformed the









unattractive celebrity, and for the product which was unrelated to attractiveness (i.e.

home computer), celebrity attractiveness had no significant impact (Kamins, 1990).

Conformity of identification of a celebrity could foster an attractiveness effect

similar to arousal altering information processing in advertisements (Kahle and Homer,

1985). "Sometimes an attractive model may lure readers into an advertisement, in effect

increasing the ad's involvement by transforming it into a source of information about that

adaptive topic, sexuality" (Kahle and Homer, 1985, 959). The study also found that the

extent to which the model exudes sexuality, and thus arousal, has a catalytic effect on

information processing (Kahle and Homer, 1985).

The celebrity endorser can be defined as "any individual who enjoys public

recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing

with it in an advertisement" (McCracken, 1989, 310). This research suggests that the

effectiveness of celebrity endorsers stems from cultural meanings that surround that

rather than psychological meanings, as suggested by the source credibility and source

attractiveness models (McCracken, 1989). "The effectiveness of the endorser depends, in

part, upon the meanings he or she brings to the endorsement process... Distinctions of

status, class, gender, and age, as well as personality and lifestyle type, are represented in

the pool of available celebrities ." (McCracken, 1989, 312).

The Beauty Match Up Hypothesis and the Six Types of Beauty

According to "The Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis: Congruence Between Types of

Beauty and Product Images in Advertising," certain beauty ideals are more appropriate

when paired with specific products rather than others (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo,

1992). "The Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis suggests that people have implicit theories of

beauty that influence responses to models in advertising" (Solomon, Ashmore and









Longo, 1992, 24). According to this study, an implicit theory of beauty is a hypothetical

construct that compromises beliefs about various types of good looks, including what

physical and other features define each type, and how the types are related one to another

and inferences about what personal qualities (i.e. traits and lifestyles) go with each type

(Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992).

This study suggests that attractive people vary in exactly how they are attractive

(Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). The Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis attempts to

divide attractive female models in to categories of beauty and match up each type of

beauty with an appropriate product. "A model whose type of beauty and associated

image matched the product with which it is paired will provide a coherent message,

which, if consistent with the consumers' desired self-image, may enhance acceptance of

the advertisement" (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992, 24).

To divide photographs of attractive models into categories of beauty, Solomon,

Ashmore and Longo elicited the help of fashion and beauty editors. "These cultural

gatekeepers are instrumental in framing standards of beauty by virtue of the models they

choose (over literally thousands of other aspirants) to adorn their pages" (Solomon,

Ashmore and Longo, 1992, 24).

Solomon further explained the idea of cultural, or imagery gatekeepers in an article

entitled "Building Up and Breaking Down". Solomon believes that these gatekeepers

"are pivotal in determining the eventual market success or failure of many symbolic

products" (Solomon, 1988, 339). Much like casting a part, gatekeepers such as

publishers, journal editors and retail buyers determine the future path of symbolic









vehicles (Solomon, 1988). In this case, we may assume that the symbolic products are

models and the products they represent.

In Solomon, Ashmore and Longo's study, the participants were given a set of

photographs of models employed by major agencies and asked to sort the models' photos

based on similarity of looks (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). "The interviews

were transcribed, and terms were chosen that appeared to be common across informants

and represented a range of probable subtypes" (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992, 26).

The descriptors were: Sensual, Cute, Exotic, Girl-Next-Door, Feminine, Sex-Kitten,

Trendy and Classic Beauty (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). See Figure 2-4 for

photographs pf the Prototypes of Beauty Dimensions from Solomon, Ashmore and

Longo's study.

According to the study, the types of beauty may be described as follows:

SClassic Beauty, as perfect physical, especially facial, features
> Cute, as child-like physical features and/or attire
SSex-Kitten and Sensual both are sexual looks, but the former is more overt and
youthful Girl-Next-Door, denoting a natural, unmade-up appearance and simple attire
SExotic, non-Caucasian; Feminine, a soft and/or romantic look
STrendy, an offbeat look, perhaps flawed or asymmetrical, in contrast to a Classic
Beauty type (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992, 25).











CLASSIC BEAUTYFEMININE
I


CUTE


GImL NEXT DOOR


TRENDY


Figure 2-1: Prototypes of Beauty Dimensions Elicited from Fashion Editors

Then participants were asked to rate the congruence between each model's look

and specific perfumes and magazines. For each perfume and magazine, subjects were

asked to indicate on a three-point scale whether she would cast that model in an

advertisement for that brand (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992).

Three of the perfumes showed a clear and strong match-up with one beauty type-

Chanel positively with Classic Beauty/Feminine, Poison negatively with Girl-Next-Door

and White Linen positively with Girl-Next-Door and negatively with Trendy (Solomon,

Ashmore and Longo, 1992). Additionally, the magazine Cosmopolitan matched up









closely with Sex-Kitten (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). "These data suggest that

advertisers have successfully articulated a well-differentiated position for both the

magazine and the three perfume brands discussed" (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992,

31).

"Future work needs to explore the types of beauty and product match-ups

distinguished by audience members to whom advertising is targeted, and how the

associations of these decoders correspond with those obtained from the culture

gatekeepers, or encoders, examined here" (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992, 33).

Additionally, the magazine Cosmopolitan matched up closely with Sex Kitten (Solomon,

Ashmore and Longo, 1992). The present study will add to Solomon, Ashmore and

Longo's work by exploring college females' emotional responses to the beauty types.

Additionally, the present study will explore the subject's responses not to products such

as perfume or magazines, but to cosmetics brands as a whole.

Using AdSAM to Measure Emotional Response

To study the emotional responses of college females to models, we use AdSAM,

a non-verbal pictorial method of measuring emotional responses to communication

stimuli (Morris, Woo, Geason and Kim, 2002). AdSAM uses a database of 232

emotional adjectives such as love and fear "to gain insight and diagnose the relationships

among attitude, cognition, brand interest, and purchase intention" (Morris, Woo, Geason

and Kim, 2002, 8; Morris 1996).

SAM, or Self-Assessment Manikin, is used to measure the respondents' responses

to each item based on a nine-point scale for each of the three dimensions of emotion-

pleasure, arousal, and dominance, or PAD (Morris, Woo and Cho, 2003).




















00 0o 000 00





000 0000 00

Figure 2-2: Example of the Self Assessment Manikin Used in AdSAM Testing. Row
one represents pleasure, row two represents arousal and row three represents
dominance.

"The Self-Assessment Manikin visually assesses each PAD dimension with a

graphic character arrayed along a continuous nine-point scale. The first row of figures is

the pleasure scale, which ranges from a smiling, happy face to a frowning, unhappy face.

The second row is the arousal scale, which ranges from extremely calm with eyes closed

to extremely excited with eyes open and elevated eyebrows. The third row, the

dominance dimension, represents changes in control with changes in the size of SAM:

from a large figure indicating maximum control in the situation to a tiny figure which

indicates being under control" (Morris and Pai, 1997, 186, personal communication with

Morris). See figure 2-1.

AdSAM is thought to be the best way to measure emotional responses because it

has proven to reliably and accurately assess human emotions (McMullen and Morris,








18



2004). "SAM may be used to evaluate feelings or other promotional tools or for the


brands itself' (Morris, 1995, 67).


AdSAM, Perceptual Map,


-rA

ADSAI


ictorlous
happy cheerful
kind


polite thankful warm stimulated

rela> ed bold
m iture

childlike

provocativE
serene wholeso ie
modo.

te pted
a( aggressive
L.- nor chalant

Caloof
a) anxious
Quietly indignant

unemotional cy ical startled
--------- --------- ---------s~~b ke p tiu a ---------------------
bored sus vicious
blase disbelieving
irrta ed
displeased eaiful
w ary
disgusted angry
glo my disappoint, d troubled

insecure
te rrlfied
decei ed
sad
reject d crushed

Aro jsal








Figure 2-3: Example of AdSAM Scores Graphed on a Scale of Pleasure and Arousal.

Respondents are asked to choose the manikin in each of the three rows

(representing the three dimensions of emotion, PAD) that best represents how they feel.

Results can be translated into a PAD score for each item tested which can then be

graphed on a scale of pleasure and arousal (Morris, 1995). See figures 2-2 and 2-3.

"The PAD ratings may be used to evaluate the advertiser's success in reaching the

desired levels of response or goals or may be compared to other ad scores" (Morris, 1995,

65-66).




High Pleasure High Pleasure
Low Arousal High Arousal




Low Pleasure Low Pleasure
Low Arousal High Arousal



Figure 2-4: Pleasure and Arousal Scale Used to Graph AdSAM Scores.

"Emotional response is a powerful predictor of intention and brand attitude, and

given the diagnostic capabilities that are missing in other measures of affect (Aad), it is a

valuable tool for strategic planning, message testing and brand tracking" (Morris, Woo

and Cho, 2003, 30).

In previous research, AdSAM has been used to test emotional responses cross-

culturally because it requires little or no verbal communication. For example, AdSAM

was recently used to test the reliability and validity of the Internet as a cross-cultural









platform of data gathering for marketing communications. Although AdSAM will not

necessarily be used as a cross-cultural measure in the current study, it will be beneficial

to use because much of the bias associated with verbal methods of measurement will be

eliminated (Morris, Woo and Cho, 2003). "A problem inherent in verbal measures of

emotional response is the lack of universally accepted adjectives. It is difficult to design

an instrument that contains words that share the same meaning when translated from

language to language" (Morris and Pai, 1997, 186). Yet, the non-verbal measure, SAM,

has been shown to be a reliable method for measuring the three dimensions of affect-

pleasure, dominance and arousal (Morris and Pai, 1997).

SAM is also an appropriate measure for the current study because the respondents'

"mental activity prompted by the emotional cues in commercials occurs very rapidly and

often subconsciously, making it difficult for people to verbally report their responses"

(Morris and Waine, 2004, 160). AdSAM's nine-point scale will make it easy for

respondents to accurately respond to each item (Morris and Pai 1997, personal

communication with Morris).

Need for Present Research

Although a great deal of research exists addressing women in advertising,

attractiveness in advertising, emotional response to advertising, the use of spokespeople

in advertising, and persuasion in advertising, very little research exists concerning use of

different types of beauty in advertising and the affect of using one type over another onto

a brand. The present study attempts to continue the research of Solomon, Ashmore, and

Longo and is the next step in bridging the gap in attractiveness research in advertising so

that we may have a better understanding of how women, particularly women in college,

feel about the models they encounter in advertising.









Research Questions

The previous study matched the beauty types, negatively and positively, with

products including magazines and perfumes. The current study attempts to go one step

by measuring respondents' emotional responses to these types so that they may be tested

with tested with brand names in future research. In addition, the current study has

chosen the respondents group of college females, rather than cultural gatekeepers, to

attempt to understand one of the possible target audiences of cosmetics brands

companies.

Conclusion

Using the research and knowledge of the preceding studies, the following

prediction is made concerning the outcome of the current study:

Hypothesis:


The subjects' categorization of the models will be consistent with the six

dimensions of beauty as determined in the Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo study (1992).

The current study also attempts to answer the following questions:

SWhat are the strongest and weakest examples for each of the six dimensions of
beauty?
SWhat will the emotional responses of college females be to the models showing the
different types of beauty?














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo's Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis used fashion

experts and editors to divide numerous black-and-white photographs of women into

categories, or dimensions, of beauty. The all-women subjects used by Solomon,

Ashmore, and Longo in their study were asked to describe why the women were

categorized as such and the subjects, although interviewed separately, agreed on many

accounts in their description (1992). It is suspected that the same physical traits used by

subjects to categorize the photographs in 1992 will be used by subjects in 2004, despite

the difference in subject groups (this study uses college students rather than fashion

experts and editors). Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to determine if these

models will be divided into the same categories. Thus the following hypothesis:

Hypothesis:

The subjects' categorization of the models will be consistent with the six

dimensions of beauty as determined in the Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo study (1992).

Research Design and Stimuli

The photographs for the current study were gathered from numerous fashion

magazines such as Vogue, Cosmopolitan, Cosmopolitan Style, In Style, and Allure no

older than one year. They were chosen according to the beauty dimension criteria set

forth by Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo as explained in the literature review (1992). Just

as with the Beauty Match-Up study done by Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, photographs

additionally abided by the following:









Only above-the-waist or full-body shots
Sno visible product logos or brand names
Sthe models are pictured alone in the photo (without other people or animals)
Sno pictures deviate markedly from the modal size
no color photographs, only clothed models and only photographs of sufficiently high
quality (26).


In this study, AdSAM was used to measure the emotional responses of the

participants so that we may better understand how the subjects feel about the models.

AdSAM uses a graphic character (SAM, Self-Assessment Manikin), representing

pleasure, dominance, and arousal, to measure the emotional reactions of individuals

(Morris, 1995). In the current study, arousal refers to the degree to which respondents

have strong feelings towards the models, not necessarily in a sexual manner (i.e. disgust).

Pleasure refers to the degree to which respondents enjoyed or likes the appearance of the

models.

AdSAM is non-verbal, completely visual, accurate, and effective in assessing

motivation, consistency in feelings, and level of empowerment in addition to identifying

emotional drivers of perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors (Morris, Woo, and Cho, 2003;

Morris, 1995). To use AdSAM, subjects simply choose the graphic character (SAM) in

each row that best identifies how she feels (Morris, Woo, and Cho, 2003). AdSAM

emotional response scores can then be used to create perceptual maps, where the results

are scatter-plotted to be analyzed for consistency and similarity (Morris, 1995).

Subjects and Questionnaires

The participants in this study were a convenience sample taken from classes in the

College of Journalism and Communications at the University of Florida. Only females

were allowed to participate. A total of 258 participated in the study. Subjects were

awarded with extra credit for participation in the study.









There were a total of six versions of the questionnaires. Instructions were read to

the participants by the principal investigator and were also be included at the top of each

section of the packet for reference. The informed consent document was attached to the

front of each packet and a third party collected the separated informed consent forms

from the participants upon completion so that the principal investigator would not know

the names of the participants. Table 3-1 shows the demographics of the respondents.

Test One

Test one subjects were given packets containing models' photographs and space

below to mark responses using a five-point Likert scale, ranging from "completely agree"

to "completely disagree" to rate each photograph on each of the six pre-established

dimensions of beauty (Solomon, Ashmore, Longo, 1992). Subjects were asked to

evaluate the model as pictured (ignoring anything else they may know about the model)

(Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo, 1992). To eliminate bias, there were three different

versions of the questionnaire, each version containing a different set of models.

Test Two

Test two subjects were given the same packets of models' photographs as the first.

This time, the subjects will be using AdSAM to give their emotional responses to each

of the photographs. AdSAM uses a scale of pleasure, dominance and arousal to

determine emotional responses to the stimuli without introducing verbal bias into the

experiment. As with test one, there were three different versions of the questionnaire,

each version containing a different set of models.

Version one in this test had the same set of models as version one in the first test.

The same goes for versions two in both tests and versions three. Each version had 14

models. The version one tests consisted of photographs cfl, cl, gl, sel, ski, tl, cf2, c2,









g2, se2, sk2, t2, cf3, and c3. Version two tests consisted of g3, se3, sk3, t3, cf4, c4, g4,

se4, sk4, t4, cf5, c5, g5, and se5. Version three tests consisted of sk5, t5, cf6, c6, g6, se6,

sk6, t6, cf7, c7, g7, se7, sk7, and t7. Models were presented to respondents in the

questionnaires in the orders above.

To randomize the questionnaires, first they were put in to piles based on test type

and version. Second, the test one versions were pulled from their piles in a random order

and placed into one combined pile for test one. The same was done for test two. This

way, respondents were less likely to have the version, thus the same set of models, as

someone sitting next to them was.














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

R1: What are the Strongest and Weakest Examples for Each of the Six Types of
Beauty?

First, a basic frequency analysis for each of the 42 models was conducted to

determine the strongest and weakest examples of each type of beauty based on the

respondents' evaluation of each model on a 5-point Likert scale. Because only the first

test required respondents to evaluate each model based on type of beauty, N=131, each of

the three versions of test one contained 14 models, so each model was evaluated by

between 43 and 46 respondents.

Tables 4-1 and 4-2 show the best and worst (respectively) examples for each of the

six pre-determined dimensions of beauty based on the results of test one. In order to

avoid analysis of small groups, "completely agree" and "agree" responses were combined

into one category while "disagree" and "completely disagree" responses were combined

into another. Table 4-3 shows a grid containing the photographs of each model

corresponding to their numbers in the sets of photographs.

Notice that the worst examples for Cute, Trendy, Classic/Feminine, and Girl-Next-

Door were the same photograph-t7. Similarly, the worst examples for Sex Kitten and

Sensual Exotic were photograph c2. Again, Sensual and Exotic are grouped opposite of

Girl-Next-Door, Cute, and Classic/Feminine. This shows that the determinants

developed by Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo exist, but are not pure.









Table 4-1: Best examples of beauty types according to agree versus disagree respondent
ratings.
Beauty Type Photograph N Percentage that Mean
Number Agreed

Cute c6 43 97.7% 1.6047

Trendy g5 46 91.3% 1.6087

Classic/Feminine c6 43 97.7% 1.6279

Sex Kitten sk6 43 93% 1.7209

Girl-Next-Door c7 43 100% 1.6744

Sensual/Exotic sel 44 86.4% 1.7955


Table 4-2: Worst examples of beauty types according to agree versus disagree respondent
ratings.
Beauty Type Photograph N Percentage that Mean
Number Disagreed

Cute t7 43 65.1% 3.6047

Trendy t7 43 53.5% 3.2558

Classic/Feminine t7 43 58.1% 3.4419

Sex Kitten c2 44 72.7% 3.8636

Girl-Next-Door t7 43 86% 3.8372

Sensual/Exotic c2 44 81.8% 4.0000







Table 4-3: A grid of the photographs of each model corresponding to their numbers in the


OF


I


I r


'-\


,a
8
9ii c









R2: How Many Types of Beauty are Present in the Data?

It is not clear how Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo combined beauty types in their

study so in order to find pure beauty types in the current study, a factor analysis for each

model was conducted. This determined how many types of beauty were present in the

models' photographs, according to the respondents. All but two (se5 and cf4) of the

factor analyses results were significant.

The Varimax Rotated Component Matrixes from the factor analyses revealed that

several variables repeatedly correlated with the factors-Sex Kitten and Sensual/Exotic

were the variables that appeared most together in a component. Second, the variables

Classic/Feminine, Cute, and Girl-Next-Door appeared together, usually opposite to the

component in which Sex Kitten and Sensual/Exotic belonged to. Trendy appeared

equally with both sets of variables. Ambiguous variables were not included in the table

because they did not clearly belong to one component or another (cross-loaded). Thus,

the variable Trendy is not included in the table because it did not clearly fit with any

combination of variables. Table 4-4 shows the factor loadings for each models that

determined the two new pure beauty types-Sex Kitten and Sensual/Exotic, renamed

"Sexual/Sensual" and Girl-Next-Door, Cute, and Classic/Feminine, renamed "Young

Feminine."











Table 4-4: Varimax Rotated Component Matrix factor
models


loadings for each of the 42


Model N P Question F1 F2 F3
cfl 43 .001 Trendy .443 .309
Classic/
Feminine .832 .006
Sex Kitten .169 .766
Girl-Next-
Door .649 -.435
Sensual!
Exotic -.019 .771
Cute .612 .376
cl 44 .005 Trendy .356 .180
Classic/
feminine .719 -.122
Sex Kitten -.082 -.773
Girl-Next-
Door .764 -.155
Sensual!
Exotic -.098 .801
Cute .692 .498
gl 44 .000 Trendy .595 .397
Classic/
Feminine .458 .728
Sex Kitten .858 -.033
Girl-Next-
Door -.413 .656
Sensual!
Exotic .844 -.121
Cute -.009 .576
sel 44 .000 Trendy .674 .199
Classic/
Feminine .633 .428
Sex Kitten .124 .691
Girl-Next-
Door .801 -.215
Sensual/
Exotic .003 .868
Cute .846 .114
ski 44 .000 Trendy .724 .169
Classic/
Feminine .719 .372
Sex Kitten .859 -.133
Girl-Next-
Door .021 .868
Sensual!
Exotic .857 -.067
Cute .064 .872











Table 4-4. Continued
Model N P Question F1 F2 F3
tl 44 .000 Trendy .635 .259
Classic/
Feminine .730 .144
Sex Kitten .753 -.113
Girl-Next-
Door -.209 .794
Sensual/
Exotic .771 -.377
Cute .270 .789
cf2 44 .000 Trendy .758 .284
Classic/
Feminine .636 .245
Sex Kitten .073 .875
Girl-Next-
Door .725 -.132
Sensual/
Exotic .085 .909
Cute .780 .003
c2 44 .000 Trendy .386 .469
Classic/
Feminine .696 .240
Sex Kitten -.077 .867
Girl-Next-
Door .864 -.149
Sensual/
Exotic -.110 .900
Cute .885 -.171
g2 44 .000 Trendy .550 .533
Classic/
Feminine .794 .222
Sex Kitten -.006 .916
Girl-Next-
Door .881 -.170
Sensual/
Exotic -.012 .826
Cute .811 -.010
se2 44 .000 Trendy .594 .375
Classic/
Feminine .280 .767
Sex Kitten .881 .042
Girl-Next-
Door -.175 .711
Sensual/
Exotic .927 -.106
Cute .103 .878











Table 4-4. Continued
Model N P Question F1 F2 F3
sk2 44 .000 Trendy .591 .291
Classic/
Feminine .737 .011
Sex Kitten .040 .924
Girl-Next-
Door .561 -.310
Sensual/
Exotic .025 .904
Cute .862 .054
t2 44 .000 Trendy .043 .871
Classic/
Feminine .766 .319
Sex Kitten .702 .259
Girl-Next-
Door .878 -.009
Sensual/
Exotic .312 .753
Cute .820 .149
cf3 44 .000 Trendy .686 .284
Classic/
Feminine .285 .779
Sex Kitten .928 .083
Girl-Next-
Door .102 .822
Sensual/
Exotic .886 .006
Cute -.012 .812
c3 44 .000 Trendy .572 .067
Classic/
Feminine .733 .179
Sex Kitten .076 .871
Girl-Next-
Door .778 -.212
Sensual/
Exotic .094 .900
Cute .647 .214
g3 46 .000 Trendy .581 .337
Classic/
Feminine .604 .537
Sex Kitten .692 -.414
Girl-Next-
Door -.094 .744
Sensual/
Exotic .820 .048
Cute .215 .802











Table 4-4. Continued
Model N P Question F1 F2 F3
se3 46 .000 Trendy .134 -.456
Classic/
Feminine .647 .019
Sex Kitten .702 -.198
Girl-Next-
Door .082 .864
Sensual/
Exotic .818 -.292
Cute .699 .370
sk3 46 .000 Trendy .567 .438
Classic/
Feminine .485 .690
Sex Kitten .857 .060
Girl-Next-
Door -.119 .791
Sensual/
Exotic .830 .023
Cute .191 .853
t3 46 .000 Trendy .147 .508
Classic/
Feminine .663 .326
Sex Kitten -.127 .842
Girl-Next-
Door .808 -.231
Sensual/
Exotic .004 .770
Cute .829 .046
cf4 46 .272 Trendy .403 .555 .420
Classic/
Feminine -.081 .836 -.129
Sex Kitten .768 -.403 .037
Girl-Next-
Door .085 -.185 .690
Sensual/
Exotic .827 .230 .009
Cute -.045 .117 .746
c4 46 .000 Trendy .762 .002
Classic/
Feminine .788 .095
Sex Kitten .010 .914
Girl-Next-
Door .753 .056
Sensual/
Exotic .082 .914
Cute .628 .004











Table 4-4. Continued
Model N P Question F1 F2 F3
g4 46 .000 Trendy .704 .180
Classic/
Feminine .347 .750
Sex Kitten .877 .136
Girl-Next-
Door -.109 .817
Sensual/
Exotic .860 .042
Cute .249 .868
se4 46 .000 Trendy .697 .316
Classic/
Feminine .653 .305
Sex Kitten .784 -.017
Girl-Next-
Door .166 .773
Sensual/
Exotic .839 -.148
Cute -.032 .828
sk4 45 .003 Trendy .687 .032
Classic/
Feminine .721 .033
Sex Kitten .495 .333
Girl-Next-
Door -.129 .852
Sensual/
Exotic .823 .093
Cute .345 .633
t4 46 .001 Trendy .217 .430
Classic/
Feminine .656 .371
Sex Kitten -.101 .824
Girl-Next-
Door .832 -.084
Sensual/
Exotic .176 .774
Cute .787 .166
cf5 46 .000 Trendy .708 .439
Classic/
Feminine .689 -.012
Sex Kitten .053 .899
Girl-Next-
Door .691 .006
Sensual/
Exotic .023 .830
Cute .760 .022











Table 4-4. Continued
Model N P Question F1 F2 F3
c5 46 .000 Trendy .037 .768
Classic/
Feminine .866 .142
Sex Kitten -.059 .877
Girl-Next-
Door .922 -.007
Sensual/
Exotic .224 .645
Cute .887 .087
g5 46 .000 Trendy .773
Classic/
Feminine .831
Sex Kitten .698
Girl-Next-
Door .671
Sensual/
Exotic .770
Cute .818
se5 46 .524 Trendy -.018 .833 .202
Classic/
Feminine .152 .646 -.588
Sex Kitten .075 .156 .834
Girl-Next-
Door .720 .074 -.004
Sensual/
Exotic -.666 .345 .149
Cute .613 .277 .292
sk5 43 .001 Trendy .807 .026
Classic/
Feminine .490 .533
Sex Kitten .686 .104
Girl-Next-
Door .137 .690
Sensual/
Exotic .720 .210
Cute .024 .821
t5 43 .000 Trendy .799 .228 -.236
Classic/
Feminine .145 .875 .092
Sex Kitten .676 -.081 .585
Girl-Next-
Door -.187 .268 .865
Sensual/
Exotic .792 -.010 -.019
Cute -.019 .855 .127











Table 4-4. Continued
Model N P Question F1 F2 F3
cf6 43 .000 Trendy .720 .344
Classic/
Feminine .856 .138
Sex Kitten -.006 .726
Girl-Next-
Door .657 -.309
Sensual/
Exotic .118 .879
Cute .831 .032
c6 43 .000 Trendy .562 .274
Classic/
Feminine .722 .267
Sex Kitten .109 .936
Girl-Next-
Door .743 -.159
Sensual/
Exotic .026 .931
Cute .852 -.020
g6 43 .000 Trendy .706 .179
Classic/
Feminine .748 .264
Sex Kitten .268 .775
Girl-Next-
Door .809 -.208
Sensual/
Exotic .007 .880
Cute .644 .237
se6 43 .000 Trendy .606 .273
Classic/
Feminine .121 .796
Sex Kitten .797 -.187
Girl-Next-
Door -.014 .887
Sensual/
Exotic .845 .196
Cute .483 .539
sk6 43 .000 Trendy .620 .460
Classic/
Feminine .093 .828
Sex Kitten .920 .168
Girl-Next-
Door .172 .859
Sensual/
Exotic .867 .114
Cute .455 .627











Table 4-4. Continued
Model N P Question F1 F2 F3
t6 43 .000 Trendy .816 .283
Classic/
Feminine .268 .752
Sex Kitten .776 .080
Girl-Next-
Door .028 .742
Sensual/
Exotic .878 .114
Cute .172 .858
cf7 43 .000 Trendy .525 .412
Classic/
Feminine .765 .300
Sex Kitten .095 .874
Girl-Next-
Door .858 -.119
Sensual!
Exotic .135 .907
Cute .763 .161
c7 43 .000 Trendy -.080 .713
Classic/
Feminine .851 .112
Sex Kitten .124 .837
Girl-Next-
Door .897 .011
Sensual/
Exotic .200 .868
Cute .885 .091
g7 43 .000 Trendy .743 .186
Classic/
Feminine .431 .684
Sex Kitten .867 -.031
Girl-Next-
Door -.212 .815
Sensual/
Exotic .807 -.146
Cute .006 .885
se7 43 .000 Trendy .660 .505
Classic/
Feminine .661 .415
Sex Kitten .863 .041
Girl-Next-
Door -.044 .860
Sensual!
Exotic .859 -.021
Cute .229 .780










Table 4-4. Continued
Model N P Question F1 F2 F3
sk7 43 .000 Trendy .573 .530
Classic/
Feminine .779 .282
Sex Kitten .549 .225
Girl-Next-
Door .142 .781
Sensual/
Exotic .884 -.043
Cute .141 .823
t7 43 .000 Trendy .564 .038
Classic/
Feminine .810 .066
Sex Kitten -.055 .921
Girl-Next-
Door .627 .324
Sensual/
Exotic .366 .629
Cute .901 .131

The variables Sensual/Exotic and Sex Kitten were combined into one type of

beauty (renamed Sensual/Sexual) based on the results of the factor analyses. Although

occurring less frequently than the Sensual/Sexual combination, the factor analyses also

showed that the variables Cute, Girl-Next-Door, and Classic/Feminine should also be

combined into one type (named Young/Feminine).

R3: Which are the Strongest, Weakest, and Middle Examples for Each of the New
Types of Beauty?

Now that the number of beauty types present in the research has been determined

using factor analysis, it is important to conduct a General Linear Model Repeated

Measures test. This will determine the strongest and weakest models for the two types.

Strong, weak, and middle examples were chosen for each of the two types of

beauty based on their estimated marginal means. Table 4-5 shows the model that is the

strongest example for each type, the weakest example of each type, and the model closest

to the grand mean for each type. The grand means were found by calculating the overall









mean for each of the two types of beauty. The table clearly shows that the opposite of

Sensual/Sexual is Young Feminine. The Repeated Measures Analysis also showed

significant differences in the respondents' evaluations to the two new types of beauty in

addition to significant differences between strong, weak, and middle examples of models.

Table 4-5: Strongest, weakest, and middle model examples for Sensual/Sexual and
Young Feminine.


SENSUAL/SEXUAL
(SE + SK)


Mean Score


Photograph


YOUNG FEMININE
(CF + C + G)


Mean Score


Photograph


Strongest 1.721 1.636
Lowest mean
score.


SK2 Cl




Middle 2.825 2.525 -
Score closest to
the grand mean
score. (Grand Mean (Grand Mean
for SS = 2.825) G6 for YF = 2.525) SK4






Weakest 3.930 3.628
Highest mean
score.

T7
C2










R4: What are the Emotional Responses of College Women to Models?

In order to examine the emotional responses of the subjects to the photographs of

the models, we used AdSAM as described in the Literature Review and Methodology

sections of this study. Table 4-6 shows the Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance scores for

the Strong, Weak, and Middle scoring models for the new types of beauty.

Table 4-6: Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance scores for the Strong, Weak, and Middle
scoring models for Sensual/Sexual and Young Feminine.

Group Beauty Emotional Mean Std. 95% Confidence Interval
Type Response Error Lower Bound Upper Bound

Strong Young Pleasure 7.564 .266 7.037 8.091
Feminine Arousal 5.615 .305 5.011 6.220
Dominance 5.872 .334 5.210 6.534
Sensual/ Pleasure 4.103 .265 3.579 4.627
Sexual Arousal 3.615 .295 3.032 4.199
Dominance 4.769 .333 4.111 5.428
Middle Young Pleasure 4.976 .257 4.468 5.484
Feminine Arousal 4.762 .294 4.179 5.344
Dominance 5.357 .322 4.719 5.995
Sensual/ Pleasure 5.810 .255 5.305 6.315
Sexual Arousal 4.452 .284 3.890 5.015
Dominance 5.690 .321 5.056 6.325
Weak Young Pleasure 4.077 .266 3.550 4.604
Feminine Arousal 2.795 .305 2.190 3.399
Dominance 6.513 .334 5.851 7.175
Sensual/ Pleasure 5.410 .265 4.886 5.934
Sexual Arousal 3.692 .295 3.109 4.276
Dominance 5.769 .333 5.111 6.428
p=.000

In the table, we see equal pleasure and dominance scores for Young Feminine.

Arousal scores varied from 5.615 (strong model) to 2.795 (weak model). This means that

the respondents, who were all women, were not very aroused by the photos they

evaluated. The dominance score for the weakest model was significantly higher than the

other two scores. This shows us that dominance, in this case, may have not been a

positive reaction of the respondents. Pleasure scores in this table are higher, especially for

the strongest model.









The table shows much lower pleasure and arousal scores for Sensual/Sexual than

for Young Feminine. The pleasure scores for the weak and middle models were the

same, but significantly lower for the strongest model. This means that women did not

have pleasure in viewing these photographs. The scores for both beauty types showed

significant differences from one type to another.

Figures 4-1 and 4-2 show the means graphed on a scale of pleasure and arousal.

The mean for the strongest model for Young Feminine resides in the upper right-hand

quadrant (the most positive) near adjectives such as bold, warm, and mature. Meanwhile,

the mean for the strongest Sensual/Sexual model resides in the lower left-hand quadrant

(the most negative) near adjectives such as skeptical, blase, and unemotional.

This suggests that respondents felt much more positively about the Young

Feminine type than the Sensual/Sexual type. Notice that the weak example lays almost

exactly opposite to the strongest example for Young Feminine on the graph. Also notice

that the Sensual/ Sexual plots are close to the midpoint while the Young Feminine plots

reach from the upper right-hand quadrant to the lower-left. In Figure 4-3, we see the

strong, middle, and weak examples of models for both types of beauty graphed on a scale

of pleasure and arousal. Dominance is represented in the graphs by the size of the plot

marks.

AdSAM Prominent Emotional Index tables showed a strong difference between

the emotions that respondents felt towards C1, the strongest Young Feminine model, and

the middle and weakest feminine models (SK4 and T7, respectively). Table 4-11 shows

that 38 percent of respondents indicated that they felt appreciative, 26 percent felt

grateful, and 26 percent felt amused by the strongest Young Feminine model.



















-SAM
ADSAM


AdSA M Perceptual Map,


ictorlous
happy cheerful
kind


polte thankful warm stimulated
relaxed bold
m iture

childlike

provocativE
serene wholesol ie


tempted
( aggressive
L. nor chalant

aloof
a o anxious
Quietly indignant

un motional cy ical startled
skeptical
bored sus vicious
0 blase disbelieving
irrita ed
displeased ,u
w ary
disgusted angry
gloc my disappoint d troubled

inse cure
te rrlfied
decei ed
sad
rejected crushed

Aro jsal


Pleasure Arousal and Dominance scores
Young Feminine (cf+ c+ g)


SYoung Feminine (cf+ c+ g) C1 Strongest
SYoung Feminine (cf+ c+ g) SK4 Middle
SYoung Feminine (cf+ c+ g) T7 Weakest


Figure 4-1: Strong, middle, and weak examples of models for Young Feminine emotional
response means graphed on a scale or pleasure and arousal.

















ADSAM
ADSAM


AdSAM, Perceptual Map,


ictorlous
happy cheerful
kind

thankful warm
polite thankful warm stimulated

relaxed bold
m iture

childlike

provocativE
serene wholeso ie


tempted
Sm aggressive
L-. nor chalant

0 aloof
a, anxious
Quietly indignant

unemotional cy ical startled

bored sus iclous
blase disbelieving
irrita ed
displeased ,ul
w ary
disgusted angry
glo my disappoint d troubled

inse cure
te rrlfied
decei ed
sad
reject d crushed

Aro jsal


Pleasure Arousal and Dominance scores
Sexual/ Sensual (se + sk)


* Sexual/ Sensual (se + sk) SK2 Strongest
m Sexual/ Sensual (se + sk) G6 Middle
* Sexual/ Sensual (se + sk) C2 Weakest


Copyright @1996 2003 AdSAM Marketing, LLC All rights reserve


Figure 4-2: Strong, middle, and weak examples of models for Sensual/Sexual emotional
response means graphed on a scale or pleasure and arousal.
















ASAM
ADSAM


AdSA M Perceptual Map


ictorlous
happy cheerful
kind

thankful warm
polite thankful warm stimulated

relaxed bold
m iture

childlike

provocativE
serene wholeso ie
mode-

tenpted
ssm
Sssm aggressive
L. nor chalant

alooff
( r anxious
Quietly indignant

un motional cy ical ;tartled


bored sus iclous
0 blase disbelieving
irrita ed
jispleased
w ary
disgusted angry
glo my disappoint d troubled

insecure
t_ rrlfied


sad
reject


crushec


deceked


Aro sal __
SYoung Feminine (cf+ c+ g) Cl Strongest
t Young Feminine (cf+ c+ g) SK4 Middle
Pleasure, Arousal and Dominance scores Young Feminine (cf+ c+ g) T7 Weakest
Sexual/ Sensual (se + sk) SK2 Strongest
ssm Sexual/ Sensual (se + sk) G6 Middle
Sexual/ Sensual (se + sk) C2 Weakest


Copyright @1996 2003 AdSAM Marketing, LLC All rights reserved


Figure 4-3: Strong, middle, and weak examples of models for Sensual/Sexual and Young
Feminine emotional response means graphed on a scale or pleasure and
arousal.









For the strongest and weakest Young Feminine models, respondents indicated that they

felt unimpressed (14 percent, 58 percent), unconcerned (19 percent, 56 percent),

uninterested (19 percent, 51 percent), and nonchalant (26 percent, 56 percent).

AdSAM Prominent Emotional Index tables showed a strong difference between

the emotions that respondents felt towards C1, the strongest Young Feminine model, and

the middle and weakest feminine models (SK4 and T7, respectively). Table 4-11 shows

that 38 percent of respondents indicated that they felt appreciative, 26 percent felt

grateful, and 26 percent felt amused by the strongest Young Feminine model. For the

strongest and weakest Young Feminine models, respondents indicated that they felt

unimpressed (14 percent, 58 percent), unconcerned (19 percent, 56 percent), uninterested

(19 percent, 51 percent), and nonchalant (26 percent, 56 percent).

Respondents indicated that they felt uninterested, unconcerned, unimpressed, and

nonchalant towards the models. The adjectives for the middle model, G6, were

somewhat more positive than those for the other two models, including soft hearted,

sensitive, and logical. Table 4-12 shows the AdSAM Prominent Emotional Index table

for the strongest Sensual/Sexual model, SK2.

Overall, the adjectives listed for the Sensual/Sexual models were much more

negative then those listed for the Young Feminine Models. This reaffirms that

respondents had more positive emotional responses to the models in the Young Feminine

category than the Sensual/Sexual category.










Table 4-11: AdSAM Prominent Emotional Index table showing respondents' feeling
towards the strongest Young Feminine model, Cl.
AdSAM Prominent Emotion Index,
Young Feminine (cf+ c+ g) Cl Strongest


Adjective Percent of Mentions
appreciative 38%
grateful 26%
amused 26%
protected 23%
soft hearted (t) 23%
impressed 21%
cooperative 21%
awed 21%
surprised 18%
joyful 15%


Table 4-12: AdSAM Prominent Emotional Index table showing respondents' feeling
towards the strongest Sensual/Sexual model, SK2.
AdSAM Prominent Emotion Index,
Sexual/ Sensual (se + sk) SK2
Strongest


Adjective Percent of Mentions
uninterested 28%
unconcerned 28%
unimpressed 23%
indifferent 23%
nonchalant 23%
listless 21%
sluggish 18%
bored 18%
unexcited 18%
meek 15%


Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis: The subjects' categorization of the models will be consistent with the

six dimensions of beauty as determined in the Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo study

(1992).

Although prior research suggested that the girl-next door types were similar to the

cute types, it did not combine them into one group. Nor did it combine sensual/exotic






47


with sex kitten (though they were also suggested as being very similar). This research

goes one step further than the previous study by using a factor analysis to combine the

types of beauty into two opposite dimensions-sensual/sexual and young feminine.














CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

Conclusions

Hypothesis and Research Question One


H: The subjects' categorization of the models will be consistent with the six

dimensions of beauty as determined in the Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo study (1992).

R1: What are the strongest and weakest examples for each of the six types of beauty?

After conducting Basic Frequency analyses, it became obvious that the magazine

editors that Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo used to conduct their study viewed models

differently than the college females who responded to the current study. This difference

caused overlap in the frequency tests and helped us to produce two pure types of

beauty-Sensual/Sexual and Young Feminine. The knowledge of this difference in

response may be useful to companies because it shows a clear difference in opinions from

the women who choose the models for fashion magazines and the women who may view

them.

Research Question Two

R2: How many types of beauty are present in the data?

In this study we found two contrasting types of beauty-Sensual/Sexual and Young

Feminine. This continues the precedence set forth by Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo

(1992) by continuing to combine types. These findings supports the previous study in the









sense that the frequency analyses showed that the dimensions existed, yet disputed it

because the dimensions were not pure.

Research Question Three

R3: Which are the strongest, weakest, and middle examples for each of the new types of

beauty?

The strongest, weakest, and middle examples for each type of beauty clearly

showed that the opposite of Young Feminine is Sensual/Sexual. This neither disputes nor

supports previous research because previous research did not test the relationships

between these two types. This knowledge may be beneficial to companies because it will

help them to create advertisements that feature precisely the image they wish to portray to

women.

Research Question Four

R4: What are the emotional responses of college women to models?

Respondents indicated that they felt more pleased in viewing the strongest Young

Feminine model, C1, and had equal arousal and dominance for the strongest and middle

models. Surprisingly, the weakest Young Feminine photo, T7, showed more dominance.

As pleasure and arousal scores decreased in the photographs, dominance increased. The

highest dominance score in the weakest Young Feminine model may be justified by the

respondents' feelings of domination over that model, as in feeling better or better looking

than she looks.

The respondents consistently indicated Sensual/Sexual little arousal coupled with

slightly increasing pleasure. The pleasure score for the strongest Sensual/Sexual model

was significantly lower than the pleasure score for the strongest young feminine model.

These findings suggest, surprisingly, that although the respondents felt a model resided









strongly in the Sensual/Sexual category, they had very little or no pleasure or arousal in

viewing her. Also, these models aroused respondents very little. This implies a clear

difference between viewed attractiveness and sexiness in the respondents.

It is the opinion of the researcher that the definition of sexy may have been altered

over time by the media through sexually provocative images named by them to be sexy.

Over time, society, namely women, may have adopted the definition of sexy not to mean

attractive in a sexual way, but to mean overly sexual and not attractive. Others may argue

that the respondents may have scored the Sensual/Sexual images lower than the Young

Feminine models because they feel jealous of the model and unable to achieve to look

themselves. This idea may be discounted because the models chosen for the Young

Feminine category exhibited nearly the same body types as the Sensual/Sexual models

and, arguably, the same amount of beauty potential. The main differences between the

strongest Sensual/Sexual model and the strongest Young Feminine model are clothing,

position, and expression.

Through this research it is evident that many advertisers may have been mislead in

using more sexual models to attract women to their products. It may be a common

misconception that women may be attracted to a product if an overly sexual and

provocative model endorses it-that they may look at the model and somehow desire to

be like her and therefore purchase the product. While previous research suggests that a

women is more likely to purchase a product if she is unhappy with her own body and

desires to be more like the endorser, this study shows that the model should not be

Sensual/Sexual. Advertisers should, rather, be using models in the Young Feminine

category to appeal to women, as women showed more pleasure in viewing these models.









Through this, it can be assumed that women desire to be more like the Young Feminine

models, and in turn, will purchase the products they endorse more readily than they

would a product endorsed by a more overtly sexual model.

This Study's Possible Effects on the Industry

This research is the first step in an entirely new approach to advertising to women:

advertising to women using models women like and wish to be like. The results of this

study may be useful to companies (such as cosmetics and clothing) that wish to target

educated females. Through this research, we learned that companies should be cautious

when choosing a model to represent a brand. Models who are photographed in sexy and

provocative ways may overwhelm consumers and consumers may transfer the negative

feelings they have toward the model's representation onto the brand. Companies who

wish to elicit feelings of boldness, triumph, energy, victory, protection, and appreciation

may want to use only models in the Young Feminine category to target college females.

Limitations

Although there were numerous significant findings in this study, there are some

limitations that need to be mentioned. First, the validity may be questioned because

respondents were a convenient sample taken from two classes taught with the same

professor in a large southeastern university (restricted by place and time). Second,

because the sample consisted of only students, the study was limited to an age range of

17 to 26. Third, the study may contain non-response error because some of the students

may have chosen not to answer some of the questions. Fourth, the photographs used may

have introduced some bias as some showed only the model's face, while others showed

what the model was wearing. Fifth, the characteristics listed by Solomon, Ashmore, and









Longo made it difficult for the researcher in this study to choose models who exemplified

the six types of beauty for the study accurately (1992).

Future Research

Future research should attempt to test the emotional responses of multiple

respondent groups to numerous combinations of brands paired with models in the two

beauty categories. It should further test models and brands that are trendy (as trendy did

not clearly fit into either type of beauty). Additionally, tests should be conducted to

determine whether models that are more clothed relegate a difference in emotional

response than models that are more scantily clad. Future research testing this should be

constant in using clothed, unclothed, or photographs only showing model's faces. Future

research should also use a sample not limited by age or education, and if possible, time

and place.















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Jennifer Huckeba was born on April 5, 1981, and was raised in Orlando, Florida.

She graduated from William R. Boone High School in 1999 and continued her education

at the University of Florida with a major in public relations. Upon graduation in 2003,

Jennifer continued her academic career at the University of Florida with a Master of

Advertising. After graduation, Jennifer plans to pursue a career in public relations and

advertising in North Florida.




Full Text

PAGE 1

EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO BEAUTY By JENNIFER HUCKEBA A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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Copyright 2005 by Jennifer Huckeba

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This thesis is dedicated to my parents, Le urise Phillips and Jerre Steve Huckeba, and my stepfather, Ken Phillips, for their love and continued support throughout life and my academic career. And to my boyfriend, Chri s Pattillo, for his continued patience and reassurance.

PAGE 4

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Alaina Rodriguez and Julia Thomasthis project would not have been possible without their help and continued encouragement. Academically, I would like to thank two of my committee membersDr. John Sutherland for sharing his fatherly advice and guidance, and Dr. Robyn Goodman for her patience. I truly appreciate the help that Dr. Jim Geason, Patrick Reaves, Jody Hedge, and James Albury offered to methis project would not have completed in time without them. iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................viii ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE.......................................................................................3 Attractiveness and Persuasion......................................................................................3 Attractive Models Effect on the Perceptions of Advertising in Women.............6 Why Women Use Cosmetics........................................................................................8 Types of Spokespeople...............................................................................................10 Celebrity Endorsers....................................................................................................11 The Beauty Match Up Hypothesis and the Six Types of Beauty...............................12 Using AdSAM to Measure Emotional Response....................................................16 Need for Present Research..........................................................................................20 Research Questions.....................................................................................................21 Conclusion..................................................................................................................21 Hypothesis:..........................................................................................................21 3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................22 Research Design and Stimuli......................................................................................22 Subjects and Questionnaires.......................................................................................23 Test One...............................................................................................................24 Test Two..............................................................................................................24 v

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4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................26 R1: What are the Strongest and Weakest Examples for Each of the Six Types of Beauty?..................................................................................................................26 R2: How Many Types of Beauty are Present in the Data?........................................29 R3: Which are the Strongest, Weakest, and Middle Examples for Each of the New Types of Beauty?...........................................................................................38 5 DISCUSSION.............................................................................................................48 Conclusions.................................................................................................................48 Hypothesis and Research Question One..............................................................48 Research Question Two.......................................................................................48 Research Question Three.....................................................................................49 Research Question Four......................................................................................49 This Studys Possible Effects on the Industry.....................................................51 Limitations..................................................................................................................51 Future Research..........................................................................................................52 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................53 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................56 vi

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1 Best examples of beauty types according to agree versus disagree respondent ratings.......................................................................................................................27 4-2 Worst examples of beauty types according to agree versus disagree respondent ratings.......................................................................................................................27 4-3 A grid of the photographs of each model corresponding to their numbers in the sets of photographs...................................................................................................28 4-4 Varimax rotated component matrix factor loadings for each of the 42 models.......30 4-5 Strongest, weakest, and middle model examples for sensual/sexual and young feminine....................................................................................................................39 4-6 Pleasure, arousal, and dominance scores for the strong, weak, and middle scoring models for sensual/sexual and young feminine...........................................40 4-11 AdSAM prominent emotional index table showing respondents feeling towards the strongest young feminine model, C1....................................................46 4-12 AdSAM prominent emotional index table showing respondents feeling towards the strongest sensual/sexual model, SK2....................................................46 vii

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Prototypes of beauty dimensions elicited from fashion editors...............................15 2-2 Example of the self assessment manikin used in AdSAM testing. Row one represents pleasure, row two represents arousal and row three represents dominance................................................................................................................17 2-3 Example of AdSAM scores graphed on a scale of pleasure and arousal..............19 2-4 Pleasure and arousal scale used to graph AdSAM scores.....................................19 4-1 Strong, middle, and weak examples of models for young feminine emotional response means graphed on a scale or pleasure and arousal....................................42 4-2 Strong, middle, and weak examples of models for sensual/sexual emotional response means graphed on a scale or pleasure and arousal....................................43 4-3 Strong, middle, and weak examples of models for sensual/sexual and young feminine emotional response means graphed on a scale or pleasure and arousal....44 viii

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO BEAUTY By Jennifer Huckeba May 2005 Chair: Jon Morris Major Department: Journalism and Communications It has been said that advertisers believe that the beautiful are credible. Personal attractiveness is important persuasion because there is a tendency to consistently attribute more positive qualities to people who are physically attractive rather than unattractive. The current study attempts to continue the research of Michael Solomon, Richard Ashmore, and Laura C. Longo's study "The Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis: Congruence Between Types of Beauty and Product Images in Advertising," Journal of Advertising (21), 23-24. This study continues the previous research first by testing the six dimensions of beauty using factor analyses, then by measuring emotional responses to the pre-determined beauty types. This research goes one step further than the previous study by using a factor analysis to combine the types of beauty into two opposite dimensionssensual/sexual and young feminine. Additionally, the present study attempts to measure the emotional responses of college females to models so that we may better understand which images of models most effectively appeal to them in advertising. ix

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Advertisers believe the beautiful are credible (Joseph, 1982). The increasing use of attractive models as a persuasion method can be found in advertisements for nearly every item that may have an influence on a women's appearance. Many studies link the way a woman feels about her body to the effectiveness of attractiveness as a persuasion method (Zinkhan and Hong, 1991; Hanson and Hill, 1994). Women who are less confident about their bodies may respond more positively to ads that feature physically attractive endorsers (Hanson, Hill and Stephens, 1994). Certain types of beauty are more appropriately paired with one product or brand, than with another (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). The Beauty Match-up Hypothesis theorized that people have theories of beauty that influence their emotional responses to models in advertising (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). For example, attractive people vary in exactly how they are attractive and different types of attractiveness may be best matched with different products (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). The Beauty Match-up Hypothesis study divided beauty into types based on facial features, appearance of age, attire (if applicable), and flaws (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). The types are: Classic Beauty/Feminine, Cute, Sex Kitten, Sensual/Exotic, Trendy, and Girl-Next-Door (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). Studies have determined that attractiveness can persuade women to buy products, but they fail to explore how women feel about the models they are shown in the advertisements and if they prefer one type of beauty to another (Solomon, Ashmore and 1

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2 Longo, 1992; Joseph, 1982). To further research and knowledge surrounding attractiveness as a persuasion method to women, women's emotional responses models should be studied. Continuing the research of Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo by measuring women's emotional responses to numerous models will lead to a better understanding of how women feel about the images they encounter in advertising, in addition to showing us how to more successfully attract women to numerous products (1992).

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Attractiveness and Persuasion According to The Physical Attractiveness Phenomena, no objective or absolute answer exists for the question of who is physically attractive or what determines physical attractiveness (Patzer, 1985, 187). Because of this, the truth-of-consensus method is often used to measure physical attractiveness (Patzer, 1985). This method is based on the premise that judgments of physical attractiveness are necessarily subjective, and that such judgments are formed through gestalt principles of person perception rather than single characteristics (Patzer, 1985, 187). In the truth-of consensus method, if numerous judges rate a stimulus person as high or low in physical attractiveness, then the stimulus person represents that level of physical attractiveness (Patzer, 1985). The present study asks subjects not to rate the physical attractiveness of a stimulus person, but to judge the type of attractiveness. It may be suggested that the principles behind the truth-of-consensus method may also apply to deciphering type of beauty if they are an accredited form of measuring level of attractiveness. It is a thought that physical attractiveness are worldly and evolutionary. Many physical characteristics have evolved in specific ways that make a given animal attractive to another (Sarwer, Magee, and Clark, 2004, 29). Clear skin, bright eyes, and lustrous hair are the beauty characteristics of youthfulness, pathogen resistance, symmetry, body ratios, and averageness (Sarwer, Magee, and Clark, 2004). These features are desired by men and women the world over (Sarwer, Magee, and Clark, 2004, 29). 3

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4 The results of Patzers study suggest that as communicator attractiveness increases, persuasive communication effectiveness increases (Patzer, 1985). Low, moderate, and high communicator physical attractiveness produce negative, neutral, and positive effectiveness, respectively (Patzer, 1985, 187). Source attractiveness becomes critical to persuasive impact to the extent that the receiver is motivated to enhance sense of self, social reputation, or gratifying role relationships by identifying with admired sources and interjecting their attitudes (McGuire, 1985, 264). These findings suggest that persuasion occurs through the compliance process when the receiver wants to get a reward or avoid a punishment from a powerful source (McGuire, 1985, 266). According to an article entitled "The Credibility of Physically Attractive Communicators: A Review," advertisers believe that the beautiful are credible and that physically attractive sources can contribute to a communications effectiveness (Joseph, 1982). Personal attractiveness is an important and pervasive source of influence in a variety of interpersonal situations . [there is the] presence of a physical attractiveness stereotypea tendency to consistently attribute more positive qualities to people who are physically attractive rather than unattractive (Joseph, 1982, 16). Other research results coincide by stating that attractive people are likely to be viewed as more sensitive, kind, sociable, interesting, outgoing, strong, poised, and exciting than less attractive people (Bertolissi, Lind and Perlini, 1999, 1). American females who dislike their bodies may respond more positively to products in ads that feature physically attractive (thin) female endorsers, when compared to women who are satisfied with their body types (Hanson, and Hill, 1994).

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5 When the product has little to do with appearance, the model may be more credible if less or unattractive (Baker and Churchill, 1977). The results suggest that in trying to sell a nonromantically-oriented product to males, an unattractive female model may be more persuasive in creating eventual product purchase than an attractive model (Baker and Churchill, 1977, 553). Baker and Churchill used a seven-point Likert scale to have subjects determine how attractive or unattractive they believed each model was. The results suggest that the sex and physical attractiveness of an ad model do influence peoples evaluations of aesthetic qualities of an advertisement and therefore seem to be important determinants of the attention-getting value of the ad and the subjects liking of the ad (Baker and Churchill, 1977, 553). Automobile manufacturers are just one of many who use attractiveness as a persuasive measure. Ford Motor Company uses models at auto shows to spin on the turntables with automakers latest models . Although some auto show models are basically decorative, many narrate technical scripts and are expected to be informed about the vehicles they promote (Stroud, 1990, S-2). Car companies choose carefully which type of model they want representing their cars (Stroud, 1990). Mazda employed California-looking blond, blue-eyed, young, perky talent dressed informally in long jackets and yellow walking shorts to promote its sporty Miata convertible [in 1989]. . Chrysler narrator/models tend to be tall, classy and very mid-American but are as approachable as the girl next door (Stroud, 1990, S-2). Numerous cosmetics companies also carefully choose models to convey a specific image. To Elizabeth Arden, beauty is a glamorous, Grace Kelly-esque woman. Chanel sees it as the dark-haired, serene Carole Bouquet and Este Lauder as the foreign,

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6 perfectly gorgeous Paulina Porizkova (Wells, 1989, 46). The article also states that consistent among all is a reliance on the model to telegraph a precise message about the company (Wells, 1989, 46). Attractive Models Effect on the Perceptions of Advertising in Women The media can be a powerful and persuasive tool in influencing young viewers self-images (Parker, 2000). High levels of identification and realism can enhance the power of the media and shape college students sexual attitudes and assumptions (Ward, Gorvine, and Cytron-Walker, 2002). One of the reasons that the attractiveness of models in the media can have a positive effect on the credibility of advertising is self-concept. Ideal self concept is the reference point in which actual self is compared. If there is a gap between them, an individual strives to achieve the ideal state. In this respect, ideal self is a motive force driving and individual upward (Zinkhan and Hong, 1991, 348). Therefore, if an individual views an advertisement featuring a model that she views to be better in some way than her, she is more likely to purchase that item (Zinkhan and Hong, 1991). Self concept is a promising variable for explaining the effectiveness of various promotional strategies. Specifically, promotional efforts may be more effective if they are directed toward establishing a product image congruent with a consumers own self-concept, compared to non-matching appeals, may lead consumers to subsequent behaviors favorable to the product advertised (Zinkhan and Hong, 1991). Zinkhan and Hongs research efforts suggest that when a product is consumed primarily in private, the consumer is less concerned about what others think about them consuming the product (1991). In this situation, the main consideration is the degree to which the product is satisfactory in the eyes of the individual consuming the product (Zinkhan and Hong,

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7 1991). Thus, products congruent with ideal self would evoke low buying intention when the gap between product image and the present state of self is excessive (Zinkhan and Hong, 1991, 352). According to the Social-Comparison Theory, people may compare themselves to others for reasons other than self-evaluation (Martin and Kennedy, 1993). The tendency of female preadolescents and adolescents to compare themselves to models in ads increases, and this tendency is greater for those with lower self-perceptions of physical attractiveness and/or lower self-esteem (Martin and Kennedy, 1993, 526). Self-improvement prompts upward comparisons with others (Martin and Gentry, 1997). Girls are likely to view their bodies as objects, allowing physical appearance to determine how they, and others, judge their overall value as a person (Martin and Gentry, 1997). According to the Social-Comparison Theory, people may compare themselves to others for reasons other than self-evaluation (Martin and Kennedy, 1993). The tendency is greater for those with lower self-perceptions of physical attractiveness and/or lower self-esteem to compare themselves to models in ads (Martin and Gentry, 1997, 20). This may be true because the more someone wants to become a member of a group (i.e. supermodels), the more important it becomes for the individual to compare herself to that group (Festinger, personal communication with Goodman). Yet, when women are exposed to a highly attractive model for an extended period of time, as a result of comparison, evaluations of both the model and the model as a spokesperson may be affected negatively because of model derogation (Bower, 2001). Another study found that after viewing attractive models, women rated average women as less attractive (Richins, 1991). Images of highly attractive individuals can cause

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8 viewers to rate the attractiveness of more ordinary others lower than they would otherwise (Richins, 1991, 81). Highly attractive models are best when paired with enhancing, attractiveness-related products, yet normally attractive models may be better in ads for problem-solving products (Bower and Landreth, 2001). Richins also argues that the temporary dissatisfaction among individuals with themselves may be beneficial if it stimulates consumers to buy to improve their appearance, eventually enhancing satisfaction (Richins, 1991). Research generally, although not always, finds that ads with attractive models are more effective than those with less attractive models or without models (Richins, 1991, 82.) Why Women Use Cosmetics In order to better understand how models with different types of beauty affect the perceptions, and possibly purchase intentions, of women through advertising we need a better understanding of one industry primarily targeted toward women. Makeup use by women may be attributed to fulfilling a need to feel attractive in addition to enhancing feelings of well being (Bloch and Richins, 1992). Adornments can be divided into three different categories by the way they affect the attractiveness in terms of physical characteristics: Remedies are adornments used to remove or significantly alter a mutable attribute that is thought to be unsatisfactory by others or the self (i.e. appetite suppressants, hair coloring). Camouflages are adornments that conceal or downplay innate physical characteristics the consumer is unable to change (i.e. the skillful application of cosmetics). Enhancers are adornments that enhance or draw attention to innate physical characteristics that are viewed positively (i.e. makeup that accentuates a persons pleasing eye color) (Bloch and Richins, 1992, 5-6). Because adornments serve to enhance ones appearance, it follows that heavy users of adornments place greater importance on physical appearance than do light users.

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9 Certain personality traits may be associated with a greater emphasis on appearance, and thus on adornment use (Bloch and Richins, 1992, 7). Remedies, camouflages and enhancers can enhance the self-image of the consumer (Bloch and Richins, 1992). For example, women may have an increase in self-esteem after using cosmetics if they are prone to acne, because cosmetics can help camouflage or conceal the problem (Bloch and Richins, 1992). Cosmetics, and other adornment, use may also be increased short-term in the context of situational self-image (Bloch and Richins, 1992). A woman who typically used few adornments may be motivated by a special party to significantly increase her usage level (Bloch and Richins, 1992, 8). As previously mentioned, the ideal self-concept is another reason women may use cosmetics. If there is a gap between the consumers ideal self-concept and actual self-concept, an individual will strive to achieve the ideal state (Zinkhan and Hong, 1991). This may include more adornment use. It is possible that consumers who perceive themselves to be inherently unattractive will rely heavily on adornments as compensatory tools . In the context of attractiveness, adornment usage would be highest among persons with strong desires to be attractive couples with a sense that adornments are part of being attractive and self-doubts concerning current attractiveness (Bloch and Richins, 1992, 8-9). It is this way that adornment marketing may actually decrease consumer satisfaction. Adornment advertising often features models that approach some societal consensus of perfection. For example, YSL cosmetics, whose target market is affluent older women, uses 16-year-old models to demonstrate a completely wrinkle-free ideal in

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10 its advertisements (Bloch and Richins, 1992, 11). This study suggests that repeated exposure to extremely attractive models in advertising and other mediums may influence consumers perceptions of what constitutes an acceptable physical appearance (Bloch and Richins, 1992). In a study entitled "Physical Attractiveness and Personality Among American College Students," Cash and Smith found that more attractive women have a tendency to infer that their own appearance, rather than other enduring personal assets, causes males overtures (Cash and Smith, 1982, 189). Physical attractiveness per se affects perceptions of mental health by both peers and professionals (Cash and Smith, 1982, 184). Types of Spokespeople The current study will use of mix of familiar celebrities and unrecognized models. To fully understand the subjects responses to both types of endorsers, we must first review the literature surrounding different types of endorsement. A study conducted by Friedman and Friedman divided endorsers into three types: the celebrity, the professional (or recognized) expert and the typical consumer (Friedman and Freidman, 1979). This study used vacuum cleaner, cookies and costume jewelry ads to test the effectiveness of the different types of endorsers for each of the products. Results of the study found costume jewelry yielded the most positive response when paired with the celebrity endorser, vacuum cleaner with expert and cookies with the typical consumer (Friedman and Friedman, 1979). If brand-name and advertisement recall are most desirable, advertisers should use a celebrity. If, on the other hand, believability of the endorsement, overall attitude toward the advertised product, and

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11 initial intent to purchase the advertised product are desired, the type of endorser should be considered more carefully (Friedman and Friedman, 1979). According to "Product Matchup Key to Effective Star Presentations," Stars will shine brightest as advertising endorsers if adpeople take care to match their personalities with products and copy (Forkhan, 1980, 42). In the study, McCollum/Speilman & Co. collected data from hundreds of celebrity commercial tests over a span of 12 years (Forkhan, 1980). Results of the study suggest that veteran actors and athletes scored the highest while younger actors preformed very poorly. Comedians also emerged as quite risky endorsers (Forkhan, 1980, 42). The main advice M/S/C execs offered was to decide [first] on what youre going to say about a product . and then find the personality to fit it (Forkhan, 1980, 42). Although there are exceptions, M/S/C believes that non-entertainment personalities (ranging from ex-astronauts to corporate executives), have a limited appeal and effectiveness (Forkhan, 1980). Celebrity Endorsers For an attractiveness-related product, use of a physically attractive spokesperson celebrity (Tom Selleck) was observed to significantly enhance spokesperson credibility and attitude toward an ad, relative to use of a physically unattractive celebrity (Telly Savalas) (Kamins, 1990). Kamins used 89 graduate students from a major west-coast university to study advertiser believability and credibility, spokesperson believability and credibility, expectancy-value brand attitude, attitude toward the ad and purchaser intention (Kamins, 1990). Results of the study implied an interaction effect between celebrity attractiveness and product type, suggesting that for the product which is attractiveness related (i.e. luxury car), the attractive celebrity outperformed the

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12 unattractive celebrity, and for the product which was unrelated to attractiveness (i.e. home computer), celebrity attractiveness had no significant impact (Kamins, 1990). Conformity of identification of a celebrity could foster an attractiveness effect similar to arousal altering information processing in advertisements (Kahle and Homer, 1985). Sometimes an attractive model may lure readers into an advertisement, in effect increasing the ads involvement by transforming it into a source of information about that adaptive topic, sexuality (Kahle and Homer, 1985, 959). The study also found that the extent to which the model exudes sexuality, and thus arousal, has a catalytic effect on information processing (Kahle and Homer, 1985). The celebrity endorser can be defined as any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an advertisement (McCracken, 1989, 310). This research suggests that the effectiveness of celebrity endorsers stems from cultural meanings that surround that rather than psychological meanings, as suggested by the source credibility and source attractiveness models (McCracken, 1989). The effectiveness of the endorser depends, in part, upon the meanings he or she brings to the endorsement process. . Distinctions of status, class, gender, and age, as well as personality and lifestyle type, are represented in the pool of available celebrities . . (McCracken, 1989, 312). The Beauty Match Up Hypothesis and the Six Types of Beauty According to "The Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis: Congruence Between Types of Beauty and Product Images in Advertising," certain beauty ideals are more appropriate when paired with specific products rather than others (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). The Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis suggests that people have implicit theories of beauty that influence responses to models in advertising (Solomon, Ashmore and

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13 Longo, 1992, 24). According to this study, an implicit theory of beauty is a hypothetical construct that compromises beliefs about various types of good looks, including what physical and other features define each type, and how the types are related one to another and inferences about what personal qualities (i.e. traits and lifestyles) go with each type (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). This study suggests that attractive people vary in exactly how they are attractive (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). The Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis attempts to divide attractive female models in to categories of beauty and match up each type of beauty with an appropriate product. A model whose type of beauty and associated image matched the product with which it is paired will provide a coherent message, which, if consistent with the consumers desired self-image, may enhance acceptance of the advertisement (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992, 24). To divide photographs of attractive models into categories of beauty, Solomon, Ashmore and Longo elicited the help of fashion and beauty editors. These cultural gatekeepers are instrumental in framing standards of beauty by virtue of the models they choose (over literally thousands of other aspirants) to adorn their pages (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992, 24). Solomon further explained the idea of cultural, or imagery gatekeepers in an article entitled "Building Up and Breaking Down". Solomon believes that these gatekeepers are pivotal in determining the eventual market success or failure of many symbolic products (Solomon, 1988, 339). Much like casting a part, gatekeepers such as publishers, journal editors and retail buyers determine the future path of symbolic

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14 vehicles (Solomon, 1988). In this case, we may assume that the symbolic products are models and the products they represent. In Solomon, Ashmore and Longos study, the participants were given a set of photographs of models employed by major agencies and asked to sort the models photos based on similarity of looks (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). The interviews were transcribed, and terms were chosen that appeared to be common across informants and represented a range of probable subtypes (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992, 26). The descriptors were: Sensual, Cute, Exotic, Girl-Next-Door, Feminine, Sex-Kitten, Trendy and Classic Beauty (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). See Figure 2-4 for photographs pf the Prototypes of Beauty Dimensions from Solomon, Ashmore and Longos study. According to the study, the types of beauty may be described as follows: Classic Beauty, as perfect physical, especially facial, features Cute, as child-like physical features and/or attire Sex-Kitten and Sensual both are sexual looks, but the former is more overt and youthful Girl-Next-Door, denoting a natural, unmade-up appearance and simple attire Exotic, non-Caucasian; Feminine, a soft and/or romantic look Trendy, an offbeat look, perhaps flawed or asymmetrical, in contrast to a Classic Beauty type (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992, 25).

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15 Figure 2-1: Prototypes of Beauty Dimensions Elicited from Fashion Editors Then participants were asked to rate the congruence between each models look and specific perfumes and magazines. For each perfume and magazine, subjects were asked to indicate on a three-point scale whether she would cast that model in an advertisement for that brand (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). Three of the perfumes showed a clear and strong match-up with one beauty typeChanel positively with Classic Beauty/Feminine, Poison negatively with Girl-Next-Door and White Linen positively with Girl-Next-Door and negatively with Trendy (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). Additionally, the magazine Cosmopolitan matched up

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16 closely with Sex-Kitten (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). These data suggest that advertisers have successfully articulated a well-differentiated position for both the magazine and the three perfume brands discussed (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992, 31). Future work needs to explore the types of beauty and product match-ups distinguished by audience members to whom advertising is targeted, and how the associations of these decoders correspond with those obtained from the culture gatekeepers, or encoders, examined here (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992, 33). Additionally, the magazine Cosmopolitan matched up closely with Sex Kitten (Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, 1992). The present study will add to Solomon, Ashmore and Longos work by exploring college females emotional responses to the beauty types. Additionally, the present study will explore the subjects responses not to products such as perfume or magazines, but to cosmetics brands as a whole. Using AdSAM to Measure Emotional Response To study the emotional responses of college females to models, we use AdSAM, a non-verbal pictorial method of measuring emotional responses to communication stimuli (Morris, Woo, Geason and Kim, 2002). AdSAM uses a database of 232 emotional adjectives such as love and fear to gain insight and diagnose the relationships among attitude, cognition, brand interest, and purchase intention (Morris, Woo, Geason and Kim, 2002, 8; Morris 1996). SAM, or Self-Assessment Manikin, is used to measure the respondents responses to each item based on a nine-point scale for each of the three dimensions of emotionpleasure, arousal, and dominance, or PAD (Morris, Woo and Cho, 2003).

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17 Figure 2-2: Example of the Self Assessment Manikin Used in AdSAM Testing. Row one represents pleasure, row two represents arousal and row three represents dominance. The Self-Assessment Manikin visually assesses each PAD dimension with a graphic character arrayed along a continuous nine-point scale. The first row of figures is the pleasure scale, which ranges from a smiling, happy face to a frowning, unhappy face. The second row is the arousal scale, which ranges from extremely calm with eyes closed to extremely excited with eyes open and elevated eyebrows. The third row, the dominance dimension, represents changes in control with changes in the size of SAM: from a large figure indicating maximum control in the situation to a tiny figure which indicates being under control (Morris and Pai, 1997, 186, personal communication with Morris). See figure 2-1. AdSAM is thought to be the best way to measure emotional responses because it has proven to reliably and accurately assess human emotions (McMullen and Morris,

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18 2004). SAM may be used to evaluate feelings or other promotional tools or for the brands itself (Morris, 1995, 67). ArousalPleasurecrushedinsecuregloomyangryirritatednonchalantprovocativeaggressivealoofanxiousblaseboldboredcheerfulchildlikecynicaldeceiveddisappointeddisbelievingdisgusteddispleasedfearfulhappykindquietly indignantrejectedrelaxedsadskepticalstartledstimulatedsuspicioustemptedterrifiedthankfultroubledunemotionalvictoriouswarmwearywholesomepoliteserenematuremodestCopyright 1996-2003 AdSAM Marketing, LLC.All rights reserved.AdSAMPerceptual Map TM

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19 Figure 2-3: Example of AdSAM Scores Graphed on a Scale of Pleasure and Arousal. Respondents are asked to choose the manikin in each of the three rows (representing the three dimensions of emotion, PAD) that best represents how they feel. Results can be translated into a PAD score for each item tested which can then be graphed on a scale of pleasure and arousal (Morris, 1995). See figures 2-2 and 2-3. The PAD ratings may be used to evaluate the advertisers success in reaching the desired levels of response or goals or may be compared to other ad scores (Morris, 1995, 65-66). Figure 2-4: Pleasure and Arousal Scale Used to Graph AdSAM Scores. Emotional response is a powerful predictor of intention and brand attitude, and given the diagnostic capabilities that are missing in other measures of affect (Aad), it is a valuable tool for strategic planning, message testing and brand tracking (Morris, Woo and Cho, 2003, 30). In previous research, AdSAM has been used to test emotional responses cross-culturally because it requires little or no verbal communication. For example, AdSAM was recently used to test the reliability and validity of the Internet as a cross-cultural

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20 platform of data gathering for marketing communications. Although AdSAM will not necessarily be used as a cross-cultural measure in the current study, it will be beneficial to use because much of the bias associated with verbal methods of measurement will be eliminated (Morris, Woo and Cho, 2003). A problem inherent in verbal measures of emotional response is the lack of universally accepted adjectives. It is difficult to design an instrument that contains words that share the same meaning when translated from language to language (Morris and Pai, 1997, 186). Yet, the non-verbal measure, SAM, has been shown to be a reliable method for measuring the three dimensions of affectpleasure, dominance and arousal (Morris and Pai, 1997). SAM is also an appropriate measure for the current study because the respondents mental activity prompted by the emotional cues in commercials occurs very rapidly and often subconsciously, making it difficult for people to verbally report their responses (Morris and Waine, 2004, 160). AdSAMs nine-point scale will make it easy for respondents to accurately respond to each item (Morris and Pai 1997, personal communication with Morris). Need for Present Research Although a great deal of research exists addressing women in advertising, attractiveness in advertising, emotional response to advertising, the use of spokespeople in advertising, and persuasion in advertising, very little research exists concerning use of different types of beauty in advertising and the affect of using one type over another onto a brand. The present study attempts to continue the research of Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo and is the next step in bridging the gap in attractiveness research in advertising so that we may have a better understanding of how women, particularly women in college, feel about the models they encounter in advertising.

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21 Research Questions The previous study matched the beauty types, negatively and positively, with products including magazines and perfumes. The current study attempts to go one step by measuring respondents emotional responses to these types so that they may be tested with tested with brand names in future research. In addition, the current study has chosen the respondents group of college females, rather than cultural gatekeepers, to attempt to understand one of the possible target audiences of cosmetics brands companies. Conclusion Using the research and knowledge of the preceding studies, the following prediction is made concerning the outcome of the current study: Hypothesis: The subjects categorization of the models will be consistent with the six dimensions of beauty as determined in the Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo study (1992). The current study also attempts to answer the following questions: What are the strongest and weakest examples for each of the six dimensions of beauty? What will the emotional responses of college females be to the models showing the different types of beauty?

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo's Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis used fashion experts and editors to divide numerous black-and-white photographs of women into categories, or dimensions, of beauty. The all-women subjects used by Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo in their study were asked to describe why the women were categorized as such and the subjects, although interviewed separately, agreed on many accounts in their description (1992). It is suspected that the same physical traits used by subjects to categorize the photographs in 1992 will be used by subjects in 2004, despite the difference in subject groups (this study uses college students rather than fashion experts and editors). Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to determine if these models will be divided into the same categories. Thus the following hypothesis: Hypothesis: The subjects categorization of the models will be consistent with the six dimensions of beauty as determined in the Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo study (1992). Research Design and Stimuli The photographs for the current study were gathered from numerous fashion magazines such as Vogue, Cosmopolitan, Cosmopolitan Style, In Style, and Allure no older than one year. They were chosen according to the beauty dimension criteria set forth by Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo as explained in the literature review (1992). Just as with the Beauty Match-Up study done by Solomon, Ashmore and Longo, photographs additionally abided by the following: 22

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23 only above-the-waist or full-body shots no visible product logos or brand names the models are pictured alone in the photo (without other people or animals) no pictures deviate markedly from the modal size no color photographs, only clothed models and only photographs of sufficiently high quality (26). In this study, AdSAM was used to measure the emotional responses of the participants so that we may better understand how the subjects feel about the models. AdSAM uses a graphic character (SAM, Self-Assessment Manikin), representing pleasure, dominance, and arousal, to measure the emotional reactions of individuals (Morris, 1995). In the current study, arousal refers to the degree to which respondents have strong feelings towards the models, not necessarily in a sexual manner (i.e. disgust). Pleasure refers to the degree to which respondents enjoyed or likes the appearance of the models. AdSAM is non-verbal, completely visual, accurate, and effective in assessing motivation, consistency in feelings, and level of empowerment in addition to identifying emotional drivers of perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors (Morris, Woo, and Cho, 2003; Morris, 1995). To use AdSAM, subjects simply choose the graphic character (SAM) in each row that best identifies how she feels (Morris, Woo, and Cho, 2003). AdSAM emotional response scores can then be used to create perceptual maps, where the results are scatter-plotted to be analyzed for consistency and similarity (Morris, 1995). Subjects and Questionnaires The participants in this study were a convenience sample taken from classes in the College of Journalism and Communications at the University of Florida. Only females were allowed to participate. A total of 258 participated in the study. Subjects were awarded with extra credit for participation in the study.

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24 There were a total of six versions of the questionnaires. Instructions were read to the participants by the principal investigator and were also be included at the top of each section of the packet for reference. The informed consent document was attached to the front of each packet and a third party collected the separated informed consent forms from the participants upon completion so that the principal investigator would not know the names of the participants. Table 3-1 shows the demographics of the respondents. Test One Test one subjects were given packets containing models photographs and space below to mark responses using a five-point Likert scale, ranging from completely agree to completely disagree to rate each photograph on each of the six pre-established dimensions of beauty (Solomon, Ashmore, Longo, 1992). Subjects were asked to evaluate the model as pictured (ignoring anything else they may know about the model) (Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo, 1992). To eliminate bias, there were three different versions of the questionnaire, each version containing a different set of models. Test Two Test two subjects were given the same packets of models' photographs as the first. This time, the subjects will be using AdSAM to give their emotional responses to each of the photographs. AdSAM uses a scale of pleasure, dominance and arousal to determine emotional responses to the stimuli without introducing verbal bias into the experiment. As with test one, there were three different versions of the questionnaire, each version containing a different set of models. Version one in this test had the same set of models as version one in the first test. The same goes for versions two in both tests and versions three. Each version had 14 models. The version one tests consisted of photographs cf1, c1, g1, se1, sk1, t1, cf2, c2,

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25 g2, se2, sk2, t2, cf3, and c3. Version two tests consisted of g3, se3, sk3, t3, cf4, c4, g4, se4, sk4, t4, cf5, c5, g5, and se5. Version three tests consisted of sk5, t5, cf6, c6, g6, se6, sk6, t6, cf7, c7, g7, se7, sk7, and t7. Models were presented to respondents in the questionnaires in the orders above. To randomize the questionnaires, first they were put in to piles based on test type and version. Second, the test one versions were pulled from their piles in a random order and placed into one combined pile for test one. The same was done for test two. This way, respondents were less likely to have the version, thus the same set of models, as someone sitting next to them was.

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS R1: What are the Strongest and Weakest Examples for Each of the Six Types of Beauty? First, a basic frequency analysis for each of the 42 models was conducted to determine the strongest and weakest examples of each type of beauty based on the respondents evaluation of each model on a 5-point Likert scale. Because only the first test required respondents to evaluate each model based on type of beauty, N=131, each of the three versions of test one contained 14 models, so each model was evaluated by between 43 and 46 respondents. Tables 4-1 and 4-2 show the best and worst (respectively) examples for each of the six pre-determined dimensions of beauty based on the results of test one. In order to avoid analysis of small groups, completely agree and agree responses were combined into one category while disagree and completely disagree responses were combined into another. Table 4-3 shows a grid containing the photographs of each model corresponding to their numbers in the sets of photographs. Notice that the worst examples for Cute, Trendy, Classic/Feminine, and Girl-Next-Door were the same photographt7. Similarly, the worst examples for Sex Kitten and Sensual Exotic were photograph c2. Again, Sensual and Exotic are grouped opposite of Girl-Next-Door, Cute, and Classic/Feminine. This shows that the determinants developed by Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo exist, but are not pure. 26

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27 Table 4-1: Best examples of beauty types according to agree versus disagree respondent ratings. Beauty Type Photograph Number N Percentage that Agreed Mean Cute c6 43 97.7% 1.6047 Trendy g5 46 91.3% 1.6087 Classic/Feminine c6 43 97.7% 1.6279 Sex Kitten sk6 43 93% 1.7209 Girl-Next-Door c7 43 100% 1.6744 Sensual/Exotic se1 44 86.4% 1.7955 Table 4-2: Worst examples of beauty types according to agree versus disagree respondent ratings. Beauty Type Photograph Number N Percentage that Disagreed Mean Cute t7 43 65.1% 3.6047 Trendy t7 43 53.5% 3.2558 Classic/Feminine t7 43 58.1% 3.4419 Sex Kitten c2 44 72.7% 3.8636 Girl-Next-Door t7 43 86% 3.8372 Sensual/Exotic c2 44 81.8% 4.0000

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28 Table 4-3: A grid of the photographs of each model corresponding to their numbers in the sets of photographs. NUMBER CLASSIC FEM CUTE GIRL NEXT DOOR SENSUAL EXOTIC SEX KITTEN TRENDY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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29 R2: How Many Types of Beauty are Present in the Data? It is not clear how Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo combined beauty types in their study so in order to find pure beauty types in the current study, a factor analysis for each model was conducted. This determined how many types of beauty were present in the models photographs, according to the respondents. All but two (se5 and cf4) of the factor analyses results were significant. The Varimax Rotated Component Matrixes from the factor analyses revealed that several variables repeatedly correlated with the factorsSex Kitten and Sensual/Exotic were the variables that appeared most together in a component. Second, the variables Classic/Feminine, Cute, and Girl-Next-Door appeared together, usually opposite to the component in which Sex Kitten and Sensual/Exotic belonged to. Trendy appeared equally with both sets of variables. Ambiguous variables were not included in the table because they did not clearly belong to one component or another (cross-loaded). Thus, the variable Trendy is not included in the table because it did not clearly fit with any combination of variables. Table 4-4 shows the factor loadings for each models that determined the two new pure beauty typesSex Kitten and Sensual/Exotic, renamed Sexual/Sensual and Girl-Next-Door, Cute, and Classic/Feminine, renamed Young Feminine.

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30 Table 4-4: Varimax Rotated Component Matrix factor loadings for each of the 42 models. Model N P Question F1 F2 F3 Trendy .443 .309 Classic/ Feminine .832 .006 Sex Kitten .169 .766 Girl-Next-Door .649 -.435 Sensual/ Exotic -.019 .771 cf1 43 .001 Cute .612 .376 Trendy .356 .180 Classic/ feminine .719 -.122 Sex Kitten -.082 -.773 Girl-Next-Door .764 -.155 Sensual/ Exotic -.098 .801 c1 44 .005 Cute .692 .498 Trendy .595 .397 Classic/ Feminine .458 .728 Sex Kitten .858 -.033 Girl-Next-Door -.413 .656 Sensual/ Exotic .844 -.121 g1 44 .000 Cute -.009 .576 Trendy .674 .199 Classic/ Feminine .633 .428 Sex Kitten .124 .691 Girl-Next-Door .801 -.215 Sensual/ Exotic .003 .868 se1 44 .000 Cute .846 .114 Trendy .724 .169 Classic/ Feminine .719 .372 Sex Kitten .859 -.133 Girl-Next-Door .021 .868 Sensual/ Exotic .857 -.067 sk1 44 .000 Cute .064 .872

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31 Table 4-4. Continued Model N P Question F1 F2 F3 Trendy .635 .259 Classic/ Feminine .730 .144 Sex Kitten .753 -.113 Girl-Next-Door -.209 .794 Sensual/ Exotic .771 -.377 t1 44 .000 Cute .270 .789 Trendy .758 .284 Classic/ Feminine .636 .245 Sex Kitten .073 .875 Girl-Next-Door .725 -.132 Sensual/ Exotic .085 .909 cf2 44 .000 Cute .780 .003 Trendy .386 .469 Classic/ Feminine .696 .240 Sex Kitten -.077 .867 Girl-Next-Door .864 -.149 Sensual/ Exotic -.110 .900 c2 44 .000 Cute .885 -.171 Trendy .550 .533 Classic/ Feminine .794 .222 Sex Kitten -.006 .916 Girl-Next-Door .881 -.170 Sensual/ Exotic -.012 .826 g2 44 .000 Cute .811 -.010 Trendy .594 .375 Classic/ Feminine .280 .767 Sex Kitten .881 .042 Girl-Next-Door -.175 .711 Sensual/ Exotic .927 -.106 se2 44 .000 Cute .103 .878

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32 Table 4-4. Continued Model N P Question F1 F2 F3 Trendy .591 .291 Classic/ Feminine .737 .011 Sex Kitten .040 .924 Girl-Next-Door .561 -.310 Sensual/ Exotic .025 .904 sk2 44 .000 Cute .862 .054 Trendy .043 .871 Classic/ Feminine .766 .319 Sex Kitten .702 .259 Girl-Next-Door .878 -.009 Sensual/ Exotic .312 .753 t2 44 .000 Cute .820 .149 Trendy .686 .284 Classic/ Feminine .285 .779 Sex Kitten .928 .083 Girl-Next-Door .102 .822 Sensual/ Exotic .886 .006 cf3 44 .000 Cute -.012 .812 Trendy .572 .067 Classic/ Feminine .733 .179 Sex Kitten .076 .871 Girl-Next-Door .778 -.212 Sensual/ Exotic .094 .900 c3 44 .000 Cute .647 .214 Trendy .581 .337 Classic/ Feminine .604 .537 Sex Kitten .692 -.414 Girl-Next-Door -.094 .744 Sensual/ Exotic .820 .048 g3 46 .000 Cute .215 .802

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33 Table 4-4. Continued Model N P Question F1 F2 F3 Trendy .134 -.456 Classic/ Feminine .647 .019 Sex Kitten .702 -.198 Girl-Next-Door .082 .864 Sensual/ Exotic .818 -.292 se3 46 .000 Cute .699 .370 Trendy .567 .438 Classic/ Feminine .485 .690 Sex Kitten .857 .060 Girl-Next-Door -.119 .791 Sensual/ Exotic .830 .023 sk3 46 .000 Cute .191 .853 Trendy .147 .508 Classic/ Feminine .663 .326 Sex Kitten -.127 .842 Girl-Next-Door .808 -.231 Sensual/ Exotic .004 .770 t3 46 .000 Cute .829 .046 Trendy .403 .555 .420 Classic/ Feminine -.081 .836 -.129 Sex Kitten .768 -.403 .037 Girl-Next-Door .085 -.185 .690 Sensual/ Exotic .827 .230 .009 cf4 46 .272 Cute -.045 .117 .746 Trendy .762 .002 Classic/ Feminine .788 .095 Sex Kitten .010 .914 Girl-Next-Door .753 .056 Sensual/ Exotic .082 .914 c4 46 .000 Cute .628 .004

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34 Table 4-4. Continued Model N P Question F1 F2 F3 Trendy .704 .180 Classic/ Feminine .347 .750 Sex Kitten .877 .136 Girl-Next-Door -.109 .817 Sensual/ Exotic .860 .042 g4 46 .000 Cute .249 .868 Trendy .697 .316 Classic/ Feminine .653 .305 Sex Kitten .784 -.017 Girl-Next-Door .166 .773 Sensual/ Exotic .839 -.148 se4 46 .000 Cute -.032 .828 Trendy .687 .032 Classic/ Feminine .721 .033 Sex Kitten .495 .333 Girl-Next-Door -.129 .852 Sensual/ Exotic .823 .093 sk4 45 .003 Cute .345 .633 Trendy .217 .430 Classic/ Feminine .656 .371 Sex Kitten -.101 .824 Girl-Next-Door .832 -.084 Sensual/ Exotic .176 .774 t4 46 .001 Cute .787 .166 Trendy .708 .439 Classic/ Feminine .689 -.012 Sex Kitten .053 .899 Girl-Next-Door .691 .006 Sensual/ Exotic .023 .830 cf5 46 .000 Cute .760 .022

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35 Table 4-4. Continued Model N P Question F1 F2 F3 Trendy .037 .768 Classic/ Feminine .866 .142 Sex Kitten -.059 .877 Girl-Next-Door .922 -.007 Sensual/ Exotic .224 .645 c5 46 .000 Cute .887 .087 Trendy .773 Classic/ Feminine .831 Sex Kitten .698 Girl-Next-Door .671 Sensual/ Exotic .770 g5 46 .000 Cute .818 Trendy -.018 .833 .202 Classic/ Feminine .152 .646 -.588 Sex Kitten .075 .156 .834 Girl-Next-Door .720 .074 -.004 Sensual/ Exotic -.666 .345 .149 se5 46 .524 Cute .613 .277 .292 Trendy .807 .026 Classic/ Feminine .490 .533 Sex Kitten .686 .104 Girl-Next-Door .137 .690 Sensual/ Exotic .720 .210 sk5 43 .001 Cute .024 .821 Trendy .799 .228 -.236 Classic/ Feminine .145 .875 .092 Sex Kitten .676 -.081 .585 Girl-Next-Door -.187 .268 .865 Sensual/ Exotic .792 -.010 -.019 t5 43 .000 Cute -.019 .855 .127

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36 Table 4-4. Continued Model N P Question F1 F2 F3 Trendy .720 .344 Classic/ Feminine .856 .138 Sex Kitten -.006 .726 Girl-Next-Door .657 -.309 Sensual/ Exotic .118 .879 cf6 43 .000 Cute .831 .032 Trendy .562 .274 Classic/ Feminine .722 .267 Sex Kitten .109 .936 Girl-Next-Door .743 -.159 Sensual/ Exotic .026 .931 c6 43 .000 Cute .852 -.020 Trendy .706 .179 Classic/ Feminine .748 .264 Sex Kitten .268 .775 Girl-Next-Door .809 -.208 Sensual/ Exotic .007 .880 g6 43 .000 Cute .644 .237 Trendy .606 .273 Classic/ Feminine .121 .796 Sex Kitten .797 -.187 Girl-Next-Door -.014 .887 Sensual/ Exotic .845 .196 se6 43 .000 Cute .483 .539 Trendy .620 .460 Classic/ Feminine .093 .828 Sex Kitten .920 .168 Girl-Next-Door .172 .859 Sensual/ Exotic .867 .114 sk6 43 .000 Cute .455 .627

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37 Table 4-4. Continued Model N P Question F1 F2 F3 Trendy .816 .283 Classic/ Feminine .268 .752 Sex Kitten .776 .080 Girl-Next-Door .028 .742 Sensual/ Exotic .878 .114 t6 43 .000 Cute .172 .858 Trendy .525 .412 Classic/ Feminine .765 .300 Sex Kitten .095 .874 Girl-Next-Door .858 -.119 Sensual/ Exotic .135 .907 cf7 43 .000 Cute .763 .161 Trendy -.080 .713 Classic/ Feminine .851 .112 Sex Kitten .124 .837 Girl-Next-Door .897 .011 Sensual/ Exotic .200 .868 c7 43 .000 Cute .885 .091 Trendy .743 .186 Classic/ Feminine .431 .684 Sex Kitten .867 -.031 Girl-Next-Door -.212 .815 Sensual/ Exotic .807 -.146 g7 43 .000 Cute .006 .885 Trendy .660 .505 Classic/ Feminine .661 .415 Sex Kitten .863 .041 Girl-Next-Door -.044 .860 Sensual/ Exotic .859 -.021 se7 43 .000 Cute .229 .780

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38 Table 4-4. Continued Model N P Question F1 F2 F3 Trendy .573 .530 Classic/ Feminine .779 .282 Sex Kitten .549 .225 Girl-Next-Door .142 .781 Sensual/ Exotic .884 -.043 sk7 43 .000 Cute .141 .823 Trendy .564 .038 Classic/ Feminine .810 .066 Sex Kitten -.055 .921 Girl-Next-Door .627 .324 Sensual/ Exotic .366 .629 t7 43 .000 Cute .901 .131 The variables Sensual/Exotic and Sex Kitten were combined into one type of beauty (renamed Sensual/Sexual) based on the results of the factor analyses. Although occurring less frequently than the Sensual/Sexual combination, the factor analyses also showed that the variables Cute, Girl-Next-Door, and Classic/Feminine should also be combined into one type (named Young/Feminine). R3: Which are the Strongest, Weakest, and Middle Examples for Each of the New Types of Beauty? Now that the number of beauty types present in the research has been determined using factor analysis, it is important to conduct a General Linear Model Repeated Measures test. This will determine the strongest and weakest models for the two types. Strong, weak, and middle examples were chosen for each of the two types of beauty based on their estimated marginal means. Table 4-5 shows the model that is the strongest example for each type, the weakest example of each type, and the model closest to the grand mean for each type. The grand means were found by calculating the overall

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39 mean for each of the two types of beauty. The table clearly shows that the opposite of Sensual/Sexual is Young Feminine. The Repeated Measures Analysis also showed significant differences in the respondents evaluations to the two new types of beauty in addition to significant differences between strong, weak, and middle examples of models. Table 4-5: Strongest, weakest, and middle model examples for Sensual/Sexual and Young Feminine. SENSUAL/SEXUAL (SE + SK) YOUNG FEMININE (CF + C + G) Mean Score Photograph Mean Score Photograph Strongest Lowest mean score. 1.721 SK2 1.636 C1 Middle Score closest to the grand mean score. 2.825 (Grand Mean for SS = 2.825) G6 2.525 (Grand Mean for YF = 2.525) SK4 Weakest Highest mean score. 3.930 C2 3.628 T7

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40 R4: What are the Emotional Responses of College Women to Models? In order to examine the emotional responses of the subjects to the photographs of the models, we used AdSAM as described in the Literature Review and Methodology sections of this study. Table 4-6 shows the Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance scores for the Strong, Weak, and Middle scoring models for the new types of beauty. Table 4-6: Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance scores for the Strong, Weak, and Middle scoring models for Sensual/Sexual and Young Feminine. 95% Confidence Interval Group Beauty Type Emotional Response Mean Std. Error Lower Bound Upper Bound Pleasure 7.564 .266 7.037 8.091 Arousal 5.615 .305 5.011 6.220 Young Feminine Dominance 5.872 .334 5.210 6.534 Pleasure 4.103 .265 3.579 4.627 Arousal 3.615 .295 3.032 4.199 Strong Sensual/ Sexual Dominance 4.769 .333 4.111 5.428 Pleasure 4.976 .257 4.468 5.484 Arousal 4.762 .294 4.179 5.344 Young Feminine Dominance 5.357 .322 4.719 5.995 Pleasure 5.810 .255 5.305 6.315 Arousal 4.452 .284 3.890 5.015 Middle Sensual/ Sexual Dominance 5.690 .321 5.056 6.325 Pleasure 4.077 .266 3.550 4.604 Arousal 2.795 .305 2.190 3.399 Young Feminine Dominance 6.513 .334 5.851 7.175 Pleasure 5.410 .265 4.886 5.934 Arousal 3.692 .295 3.109 4.276 Weak Sensual/ Sexual Dominance 5.769 .333 5.111 6.428 p=.000 In the table, we see equal pleasure and dominance scores for Young Feminine. Arousal scores varied from 5.615 (strong model) to 2.795 (weak model). This means that the respondents, who were all women, were not very aroused by the photos they evaluated. The dominance score for the weakest model was significantly higher than the other two scores. This shows us that dominance, in this case, may have not been a positive reaction of the respondents. Pleasure scores in this table are higher, especially for the strongest model.

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41 The table shows much lower pleasure and arousal scores for Sensual/Sexual than for Young Feminine. The pleasure scores for the weak and middle models were the same, but significantly lower for the strongest model. This means that women did not have pleasure in viewing these photographs. The scores for both beauty types showed significant differences from one type to another. Figures 4-1 and 4-2 show the means graphed on a scale of pleasure and arousal. The mean for the strongest model for Young Feminine resides in the upper right-hand quadrant (the most positive) near adjectives such as bold, warm, and mature. Meanwhile, the mean for the strongest Sensual/Sexual model resides in the lower left-hand quadrant (the most negative) near adjectives such as skeptical, blas, and unemotional. This suggests that respondents felt much more positively about the Young Feminine type than the Sensual/Sexual type. Notice that the weak example lays almost exactly opposite to the strongest example for Young Feminine on the graph. Also notice that the Sensual/ Sexual plots are close to the midpoint while the Young Feminine plots reach from the upper right-hand quadrant to the lower-left. In Figure 4-3, we see the strong, middle, and weak examples of models for both types of beauty graphed on a scale of pleasure and arousal. Dominance is represented in the graphs by the size of the plot marks. AdSAM Prominent Emotional Index tables showed a strong difference between the emotions that respondents felt towards C1, the strongest Young Feminine model, and the middle and weakest feminine models (SK4 and T7, respectively). Table 4-11 shows that 38 percent of respondents indicated that they felt appreciative, 26 percent felt grateful, and 26 percent felt amused by the strongest Young Feminine model.

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42 ArousalPleasurecrushedinsecuregloomyangryirritatednonchalantprovocativeaggressivealoofanxiousblaseboldboredcheerfulchildlikecynicaldeceiveddisappointeddisbelievingdisgusteddispleasedfearfulhappykindquietly indignantrejectedrelaxedsadskepticalstartledstimulatedsuspicioustemptedterrifiedthankfultroubledunemotionalvictoriouswarmwearywholesomepoliteserenematuremodestCopyright 1996-2003 AdSAM Marketing, LLC. All rights reserved. AdSAM Perceptual Map TMPleasure Arousal and Dominance scores Young Feminine (cf+ c+ g) s m w Young Feminine (cf+ c+ g) C1 StrongestYoung Feminine (cf+ c+ g) SK4 MiddleYoung Feminine (cf+ c+ g) T7 Weakest m s w Figure 4-1: Strong, middle, and weak examples of models for Young Feminine emotional response means graphed on a scale or pleasure and arousal.

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43 ArousalPleasurecrushedinsecuregloomyangryirritatednonchalantprovocativeaggressivealoofanxiousblaseboldboredcheerfulchildlikecynicaldeceiveddisappointeddisbelievingdisgusteddispleasedfearfulhappykindquietly indignantrejectedrelaxedsadskepticalstartledstimulatedsuspicioustemptedterrifiedthankfultroubledunemotionalvictoriouswarmwearywholesomepoliteserenematuremodestCopyright 1996-2003 AdSAM Marketing, LLC. All rights reserved. AdSAM Perceptual Map TMPleasure Arousal and Dominance scores Sexual/ Sensual (se + sk) s m w Sexual/ Sensual (se + sk) SK2 StrongestSexual/ Sensual (se + sk) G6 MiddleSexual/ Sensual (se + sk) C2 Weakest s m w Figure 4-2: Strong, middle, and weak examples of models for Sensual/Sexual emotional response means graphed on a scale or pleasure and arousal.

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44 ArousalPleasurecrushedinsecuregloomyangryirritatednonchalantprovocativeaggressivealoofanxiousblaseboldboredcheerfulchildlikecynicaldeceiveddisappointeddisbelievingdisgusteddispleasedfearfulhappykindquietly indignantrejectedrelaxedsadskepticalstartledstimulatedsuspicioustemptedterrifiedthankfultroubledunemotionalvictoriouswarmwearywholesomepoliteserenematuremodestCopyright 1996-2003 AdSAM Marketing, LLC. All rights reserved. AdSAM Perceptual Map TMPleasure, Arousal and Dominance scores yfs yfm yfw sss ssm ssw Young Feminine (cf+ c+ g) C1 StrongestYoung Feminine (cf+ c+ g) SK4 MiddleYoung Feminine (cf+ c+ g) T7 WeakestSexual/ Sensual (se + sk) SK2 StrongestSexual/ Sensual (se + sk) G6 MiddleSexual/ Sensual (se + sk) C2 Weakest yfm yfs yfw sss ssm ssw Figure 4-3: Strong, middle, and weak examples of models for Sensual/Sexual and Young Feminine emotional response means graphed on a scale or pleasure and arousal.

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45 For the strongest and weakest Young Feminine models, respondents indicated that they felt unimpressed (14 percent, 58 percent), unconcerned (19 percent, 56 percent), uninterested (19 percent, 51 percent), and nonchalant (26 percent, 56 percent). AdSAM Prominent Emotional Index tables showed a strong difference between the emotions that respondents felt towards C1, the strongest Young Feminine model, and the middle and weakest feminine models (SK4 and T7, respectively). Table 4-11 shows that 38 percent of respondents indicated that they felt appreciative, 26 percent felt grateful, and 26 percent felt amused by the strongest Young Feminine model. For the strongest and weakest Young Feminine models, respondents indicated that they felt unimpressed (14 percent, 58 percent), unconcerned (19 percent, 56 percent), uninterested (19 percent, 51 percent), and nonchalant (26 percent, 56 percent). Respondents indicated that they felt uninterested, unconcerned, unimpressed, and nonchalant towards the models. The adjectives for the middle model, G6, were somewhat more positive than those for the other two models, including soft hearted, sensitive, and logical. Table 4-12 shows the AdSAM Prominent Emotional Index table for the strongest Sensual/Sexual model, SK2. Overall, the adjectives listed for the Sensual/Sexual models were much more negative then those listed for the Young Feminine Models. This reaffirms that respondents had more positive emotional responses to the models in the Young Feminine category than the Sensual/Sexual category.

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46 Table 4-11: AdSAM Prominent Emotional Index table showing respondents feeling towards the strongest Young Feminine model, C1. AdSAM Prominent Emotion Index Young Feminine (cf+ c+ g) C1 Strongest Adjective Percent of Mentions appreciative 38% grateful 26% amused 26% protected 23% soft hearted (t) 23% impressed 21% cooperative 21% awed 21% surprised 18% joyful 15% Table 4-12: AdSAM Prominent Emotional Index table showing respondents feeling towards the strongest Sensual/Sexual model, SK2. AdSAM Prominent Emotion Index Sexual/ Sensual (se + sk) SK2 Strongest Adjective Percent of Mentions uninterested 28% unconcerned 28% unimpressed 23% indifferent 23% nonchalant 23% listless 21% sluggish 18% bored 18% unexcited 18% meek 15% Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis: The subjects categorization of the models will be consistent with the six dimensions of beauty as determined in the Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo study (1992). Although prior research suggested that the girl-next door types were similar to the cute types, it did not combine them into one group. Nor did it combine sensual/exotic

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47 with sex kitten (though they were also suggested as being very similar). This research goes one step further than the previous study by using a factor analysis to combine the types of beauty into two opposite dimensionssensual/sexual and young feminine.

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CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Conclusions Hypothesis and Research Question One H: The subjects categorization of the models will be consistent with the six dimensions of beauty as determined in the Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo study (1992). R1: What are the strongest and weakest examples for each of the six types of beauty? After conducting Basic Frequency analyses, it became obvious that the magazine editors that Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo used to conduct their study viewed models differently than the college females who responded to the current study. This difference caused overlap in the frequency tests and helped us to produce two pure types of beautySensual/Sexual and Young Feminine. The knowledge of this difference in response may be useful to companies because it shows a clear difference in opinions from the women who choose the models for fashion magazines and the women who may view them. Research Question Two R2: How many types of beauty are present in the data? In this study we found two contrasting types of beautySensual/Sexual and Young Feminine. This continues the precedence set forth by Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo (1992) by continuing to combine types. These findings supports the previous study in the 48

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49 sense that the frequency analyses showed that the dimensions existed, yet disputed it because the dimensions were not pure. Research Question Three R3: Which are the strongest, weakest, and middle examples for each of the new types of beauty? The strongest, weakest, and middle examples for each type of beauty clearly showed that the opposite of Young Feminine is Sensual/Sexual. This neither disputes nor supports previous research because previous research did not test the relationships between these two types. This knowledge may be beneficial to companies because it will help them to create advertisements that feature precisely the image they wish to portray to women. Research Question Four R4: What are the emotional responses of college women to models? Respondents indicated that they felt more pleased in viewing the strongest Young Feminine model, C1, and had equal arousal and dominance for the strongest and middle models. Surprisingly, the weakest Young Feminine photo, T7, showed more dominance. As pleasure and arousal scores decreased in the photographs, dominance increased. The highest dominance score in the weakest Young Feminine model may be justified by the respondents feelings of domination over that model, as in feeling better or better looking than she looks. The respondents consistently indicated Sensual/Sexual little arousal coupled with slightly increasing pleasure. The pleasure score for the strongest Sensual/Sexual model was significantly lower than the pleasure score for the strongest young feminine model. These findings suggest, surprisingly, that although the respondents felt a model resided

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50 strongly in the Sensual/Sexual category, they had very little or no pleasure or arousal in viewing her. Also, these models aroused respondents very little. This implies a clear difference between viewed attractiveness and sexiness in the respondents. It is the opinion of the researcher that the definition of sexy may have been altered over time by the media through sexually provocative images named by them to be sexy. Over time, society, namely women, may have adopted the definition of sexy not to mean attractive in a sexual way, but to mean overly sexual and not attractive. Others may argue that the respondents may have scored the Sensual/Sexual images lower than the Young Feminine models because they feel jealous of the model and unable to achieve to look themselves. This idea may be discounted because the models chosen for the Young Feminine category exhibited nearly the same body types as the Sensual/Sexual models and, arguably, the same amount of beauty potential. The main differences between the strongest Sensual/Sexual model and the strongest Young Feminine model are clothing, position, and expression. Through this research it is evident that many advertisers may have been mislead in using more sexual models to attract women to their products. It may be a common misconception that women may be attracted to a product if an overly sexual and provocative model endorses itthat they may look at the model and somehow desire to be like her and therefore purchase the product. While previous research suggests that a women is more likely to purchase a product if she is unhappy with her own body and desires to be more like the endorser, this study shows that the model should not be Sensual/Sexual. Advertisers should, rather, be using models in the Young Feminine category to appeal to women, as women showed more pleasure in viewing these models.

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51 Through this, it can be assumed that women desire to be more like the Young Feminine models, and in turn, will purchase the products they endorse more readily than they would a product endorsed by a more overtly sexual model. This Studys Possible Effects on the Industry This research is the first step in an entirely new approach to advertising to women: advertising to women using models women like and wish to be like. The results of this study may be useful to companies (such as cosmetics and clothing) that wish to target educated females. Through this research, we learned that companies should be cautious when choosing a model to represent a brand. Models who are photographed in sexy and provocative ways may overwhelm consumers and consumers may transfer the negative feelings they have toward the models representation onto the brand. Companies who wish to elicit feelings of boldness, triumph, energy, victory, protection, and appreciation may want to use only models in the Young Feminine category to target college females. Limitations Although there were numerous significant findings in this study, there are some limitations that need to be mentioned. First, the validity may be questioned because respondents were a convenient sample taken from two classes taught with the same professor in a large southeastern university (restricted by place and time). Second, because the sample consisted of only students, the study was limited to an age range of 17 to 26. Third, the study may contain non-response error because some of the students may have chosen not to answer some of the questions. Fourth, the photographs used may have introduced some bias as some showed only the models face, while others showed what the model was wearing. Fifth, the characteristics listed by Solomon, Ashmore, and

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52 Longo made it difficult for the researcher in this study to choose models who exemplified the six types of beauty for the study accurately (1992). Future Research Future research should attempt to test the emotional responses of multiple respondent groups to numerous combinations of brands paired with models in the two beauty categories. It should further test models and brands that are trendy (as trendy did not clearly fit into either type of beauty). Additionally, tests should be conducted to determine whether models that are more clothed relegate a difference in emotional response than models that are more scantily clad. Future research testing this should be constant in using clothed, unclothed, or photographs only showing models faces. Future research should also use a sample not limited by age or education, and if possible, time and place.

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LIST OF REFERENCES Baker, Michael J. and Gilbert A. Churchill, Jr. (1977), "The Impact of Physically Attractive Models on Advertising Evaluations," Journal of Marketing Research, 14 (November), 538-555. Bertolissi, Susan, David L. Lind, and Arthur H. Perlini (1999)., "The effects of women's age and physical appearance on attractiveness and social desirability ," Journal of Social Psychology, 139 (3), 343-354. Bloch, Peter H. and Marsha L. Richins (1992), "You Look 'Mahvelous': The Pursuit of Beauty and the Marketing Concept," Psychology Marketing (January), 3-15. Bower, Amanda B. (2001), Highly Attractive Models in Advertising and the Women Who Loathe Them: The Implications of Negative Affect for Spokesperson Effectiveness, Journal of Advertising, 3 (Fall), 51-63. Bower, Amanda B. and Stacy Landreth (2001), Is Beauty Best? Highly Versus Normally Attractive Models in Advertising, Journal of Advertising, 1 (Spring), 1-12. Cash, Thomas F. and Everett Smith (1982), "Physical Attractiveness and Personalit Among American College Students," Journal of Psychology, 111, 183-191. Cunningham, Michael R. (1981), "Sociobiology as a Supplementary Paradigm for Social Psychology Research," in Review of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.2, ed. Ladd Wheeler, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 69-106. Festinger, Leon, A Theory of Social Comparison, 118-138. Photocopy obtained from Dr. J Robyn Goodman, Assistant Professor, Journalism and Communications, University of Florida. Forkan, J. (1980), "Product Matchup Key to Effective Star Presentations," Advertising Age, 51 (October 6), 42. Friedman, Hershey H. and Linda Friedman (1979), "Endorser Effectiveness by Product Type," Journal of Advertising Research, 19 (October), 63-71. Hanson, Cynthia, and Ronald P. Hill. (1994), "The beauty myth and female consumers: the controversial role of advertising," Journal of Consumer Affairs, 28 (57), 10-23. 53

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54 Joseph, W. Benoy (1982), "The Credibility of Physically Attractive Communicators: A Review," Journal of Advertising, 11 (3), 15-24. Kahle, Lynn R. and Pamela M. Homer (1985), "Physically Attractiveness of the Celebrity Endorser: A Social Adaptation Perspective," Journal of Consumer Research, 11 (March), 954-961. Kamins, Michael A. (1990), "An Investigation into the 'Match-Up' Hypothesis in Celebrity Advertising: When Beauty May be Only Skin Deep," Journal of Advertising, 19 (1), 4-13. Martin, Mary C. and James W. Gentry (1997), Stuck in the Model Trap: The Effects of Beautiful Models in Ads of Female Pre-Adolescents and Adolescents, Journal of Advertising, 2 (Summer), 19-33 Martin, Mary C. and Patricia F. Kennedy (1993), Advertising and Social Comparison: Consequences for Female Preadolescents and Adolescents, Psychology & Marketing, 6 (November/December), 513-530. McCracken, Grant (1989), "Who is the Celebrity Endorser? Cultural Foundations of the Endorsement Process," Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (December), 310-321. McGuire, William J. (1985), "Attitudes and Attitude Change," in The Handbook of Social Psychology, eds. Gardner Lindzey and Elliott Aronson, vol 2, 3rd ed., New York: Random House, 233-346. Morris, Jon D. (1995), "Observations: SAM: The Self-Assessment Manikin. An Efficient Cross-Cultural Measurement of Emotional Response," Journal of Advertising Research, (November/December), 63-68. Morris, Jon D., Chongmoo Woo, and Chang-Hoan Cho (2003), "Internet Measures of Advertising Effects: A Global Issue," Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, vol. 25 (1), 25-43. Morris, Jon D., Chongmoo Woo, James A. Geason, and Jooyoung Kim (2002), "The Power of Affect: Predicting Intention," Journal of Advertising Research, (June), 7-17. Morris, Jon D. and Fei-wen Pai (1997), "Fit For the Global Future," Where East Meets West, 132-205. Photocopy obtained from Dr. Jon Morris, Professor, Journalism and Communications, University of Florida. Parker, Dorthy Davis (2000), Thinking Critically about the Message of the Media: Female Images and Roles, Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences (April), 3261. Patzer, Gordon L. (1985), The Physical Attractiveness Phenomena, New York: Plenum.

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55 Richins, Marsha L. (1991), "Social Comparison and the Idealized Images of Advertising," Journal of Consumer Research, 18 (June), 71-83. Sarwer, David B., Leanne Magee, and Vicki Clark (2004), Physical Appearance and Cosmetic Medical Treatments: Physiological and Socio-cultural Influences, Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 2, 29-30. Solomon, Michael R. (1989), "Building Up and Breaking Down: The Impact of Cultural Sorting on Symbolic Consumption," in Research in Consumer Behavior, Vol. 3., ed. Elizabeth C. Hirschman, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 325-351. Solomon., Michael R., Ashmore, Richard D., and Laura C. Longo (1992), "The beauty Match-up Hypothesis: Congruence Between Types of Beauty and Product Images in Advertising," Journal of Advertising (21), 23-34. Stroud, Ruth (1990), "At Up to $250 a Day, They're Show Narrators, Not Models," Advertising Age, January 22, S-2. Ward, Monique L., Benjamin Gorvine, and Adena Cytron-Walker (2002), Would That Really Happen? Adolescents Perceptions of Sexual Relationships According to Prime-time Television, Sexual Teens, Sexual Media: Investigating Medias Influence on Adolescent Sexuality, (xiv), 308. Wells, Linda (1989), "Face Value," New York Times Magazine, Part 2 (February 26), 46 (3). Zinkhan, George M. and Jae W. Hong (1991), "Self Concept and Advertising Effectiveness: A Conceptual Model of Congruency, Conspicuousness, and Response Mode," in eds. Rebecca H. Holman and Michael R. Solomon, Advances in Consumer Research, vol. 18, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 348-354.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jennifer Huckeba was born on April 5, 1981, and was raised in Orlando, Florida. She graduated from William R. Boone High School in 1999 and continued her education at the University of Florida with a major in public relations. Upon graduation in 2003, Jennifer continued her academic career at the University of Florida with a Master of Advertising. After graduation, Jennifer plans to pursue a career in public relations and advertising in North Florida. 56