Citation
Temperature Rise of Mass Concrete in Florida

Material Information

Title:
Temperature Rise of Mass Concrete in Florida
Creator:
PARHAM, ARASH
Copyright Date:
2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Cements ( jstor )
Compressive strength ( jstor )
Fly ash ( jstor )
Room temperature ( jstor )
Slag ( jstor )
Temperature control ( jstor )
Temperature gradients ( jstor )
Thermal diffusivity ( jstor )
Thermocouples ( jstor )
Water temperature ( jstor )
City of Miami ( local )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Arash Parham. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Embargo Date:
12/18/2004
Resource Identifier:
57731734 ( OCLC )

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Full Text












TEMPERATURE RISE OF MASS CONCRETE
IN FLORIDA
















By

ARASH PARHAM


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004

































Copyright 2004

by

Arash Parham















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First, I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. Abdol R. Chini for his guidance

and assistance throughout this project. I also greatly appreciate the guidance of Dr. Larry

C. Muszynski and Dr. R. Raymond Issa as members of my research committee.

I would like to thank the Florida Department of Transportation for providing the

funding for this project.

I am grateful to Charles Ishee, Structural Materials Engineer, State Materials Office

in Gainesville, Florida, for his guidance. I owe a great deal of gratitude to Lucy Acquaye

for her help in getting this project underway. In addition, I would like to thank Richard

DeLorenzo for his guidance and help in sampling and testing concrete specimens. I also

have to thank Jeffrey Cole for his assistance in the field experiments.

Most importantly, I would like to thank my parents, Vahideh Eslami and Daryoush

Parham. I cannot give enough credit for their love and support. I also would like to thank

my sister, Mandana, other family members and my friends for their continuous support.















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iii

LIST OF TA BLE S ......... .... ........ .... .... ...... ..................... .. .... vii

L IST O F F IG U R E S ................ .............................................. .. ........ .. ............ x

AB STRA C T ..................... ................................................ ................ xiv

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ........ ...... ........................ ........... ........ 1

O b j e c tiv e s ............................................................................................................ 1
B ack g ro u n d .................................................................. 1
Scope of Work .............. .. ................ .......................... 3
L literature R eview ......................................... 3
Mix Design Selection.................................. ........ 3
Survey of State H ighw ay A agencies .......................................................... ....... 4
Concrete Testing ............... ............................. 4
D ata A n aly sis ...................................................... 4

2 LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................ 5

In tro d u c tio n ................................................................................................................ 5
M ass C oncrete................................................. 5
M ass C concrete H history ................. ........................ .................. 6
Portland Cement Types ..................... ............................. ................ 7
Composition and Hydration of Portland Cement............................................... 8
Fly Ash and Blast Furnace Slag..................... ........ .............. 9
Therm al Properties of Concrete ........................................................ ................ 10
Factors Affecting Heat Generation of Concrete .................................................. 11
Methods to Predict Temperature Rise in Mass Concrete ...................................... 19
Experimental Methods to Measure the Heat of Hydration of Concrete ................. 25

3 METHODOLOGY ... ....... ...................................... ...... 27

Intro du action ......................................................................... ...... .............. 2 7
M ix D design Selection...................................................... ......................... 27









Concrete Class ......................................... 28
C em en t T y p e ........................................................................................................ 2 8
Pozzolanic M materials Proportion...................................................... .............. 29
C em ent Source ............. .............................................................................. 30
Fly Ash Source......................................................... 32
B last Furnace Slag Source .............. ............................................ .............. 33
Coarse Aggregate Source.................... ................................. ......................... 33
Fine A ggregate Source.................... .................................... .......................... 34
T otal C em entitious M aterials..................................................... ... ................. 34
Mix Temperature ........................................... ................ 34
Number of M ixes ............................... .............. .. ...................... 34
Test M ethods and Equipm ents.................................................... ... .................. 35
A diabetic Tem perature Rise ........................................ .......................... 35
Therm al D iffusivity of C oncrete................................... ..................................... 39
S cop e ............................. .............. ...... 4 0
Apparatus ............................................... .............. ......... 40
Procedure ......................................... 42
Calculations ............................. .............. 42
C om pressive Strength ................................................................ .............. 43
H eat of H ydration ............................................................................................. 44
T est P rocedures.................................................................................. ............. 44
Tests Perform ed For Each M ix.................................... .......................... ........ 44
Size and N um ber of Specim ens .................................... ..................................... 44
A diabetic Tem perature Rise ........................................ .......................... 45
T est procedure................................... .............. 45
L laboratory tests.. ........ ........... .... .... .... .............. .................. .. ................ 46
Field tests ......................................... 48
Thermal Diffusivity .............. .............................................. ........ 50
Test Procedure ......................................... 50
Sam ple preparation ..................... ............... ...................................... 51
H eating .................................................................................................. ........ 5 1
Cooling................................................... .............. 51
C om pressive Strength .......................................................... .............. 52
H eat of H ydration .......................... .................. ................ .... ..... .......... 53
T est Series I....................................... .............. 53
Test Series II ............................................................................. 54

4 TE ST R E SU L TS............................. .................... 55

Introduction................................... .............. 55
M mixture P properties ...................................................... .............. 55
Fresh Concrete Properties ................................. .................................. 57
H eat of H ydration .......................... .................................................. .... .............. 59
A diabetic Tem perature Rise ................ ........................................................... 60
Laboratory Tests .......................................... ........................... 60
Cement A with 73F Placing Temperature .................................... ............... 60



v









Cement B with 73F Placing Temperature .............................................. 65
Cement A with 95F Placing Temperature ............. ..... ................. 68
Cement B with 95F Placing Temperature .............................................. 70
F field T e sts ................................................................................. .............. 7 2
Thermal Diffusivity .. ................. ........................ .............. 74
Com pressive Strength ................................................. .... .... .. ........ .. 78

5 DISCU SSION OF RESULTS................................ ......... .... .............. 85

In tro d u ctio n ................... .................................................................... ............. 8 5
Adiabatic Temperature Rise Curves .................................................................... 85
Comparison Between Temperature Rise Curves.................... ............. 90
Effect of percentage of pozzolans................. ........ ............................... 90
Effect of placing temperature................... ....... ...................................... 99
Comparison Between Field and Laboratory Test Results ............. .............. 103
Comparison Between the Test Results and ACI Curves .................................. 106
H eat of H ydration ......... .. .... ..... .......... .... ......... ..... .......... .. .. .......... 107
Thermal Diffusivity .. ................. ........................ .... .. ........ .. 108
Com pressive Strength ................................................ .... .. .. .. ...... .... 110

6 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS....................... 112

S u m m a ry ......... .. ............. .................................................................................. 1 1 2
Conclusion ............ .............................. ............... 113
Recom m endations ........... ...... ....... .................. ...... .................. 114

APPENDIX

A SURVEY OF STATE HIGHWAY AGENCIES............................................. 115

B SURE CURE MICRO COMPUTER SYSTEM ........................................... 118

C CALCULATION EXAMPLES.... ......................... .................. 134

LIST O F R EFEREN CE S ....... ............................................................. .............. 139

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ......... .. ................. ......... .... ..................... 142
















LIST OF TABLES


Table pge

2-1 AASHTO M 85 Standard Requirements for Portland Cement............... ...............7

2-2 Specific Heat of Hydration of Individual Compounds of Portland Cement ..............8

2-3 Class F Fly Ash Chemical Properties .......................... ..................................... 9

2-4 GGBFS Chemical Composition................................. ....................10

2-5 Minimum Level of Replacement Percentage.......................................................16

2-6 Compound Composition of Cements Represented in Figure 2-7 ..........................20

3-1 Cement Type Distribution in FDOT Approved Mixes ........................................28

3-2 Results of Chemical and Physical Analysis for the Cement Samples....................31

3-3 Results of Heat of Hydration Tests ..... .....................................32

3-4 Percentage of Mixes With Fly Ash From Different Sources ..............................32

3-5 Percentage of Mixes With Slag From Different Sources............... .................. 33

3-6 Percentages of Coarse Aggregates From Different Sources ..................................33

3-7 Total Cementitious Materials In FDOT Approved Class IV Concrete Mixes.........34

3-8 N um ber of T est M ixes...................................................................... ..................35

4-1 Concrete M ixture Properties .............................................................................. 56

4-2 Fresh C concrete Properties ............................................... ............................. 58

4-3 Heat of Hydration Test Results for Cement.......................................................59

4-4 Heat of Hydration for Cement and Pozzolanic Material Blends.............................59

4-5 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete with Cement A and 73F Placing
T em p eratu re ....................................................... ................ 6 2









4-1 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete With Cement B and 73F Placing
T em p eratu re ....................................................... ................ 6 5

4-2 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete with Cement A and 95F Placing
T em p eratu re ....................................................... ................ 6 8

4-3 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete with Cement B and 95F Placing
T em p eratu re ....................................................... ................ 7 0

4-4 M ix Proportions of Field Test Samples... .. ...................................... ............ ............. 72

4-5 Fresh Concrete Properties of Field Test Samples ........ ....................... ............... 73

4-6 Adiabatic Temperature Rise for Samples Taken from the Field............................73

4-7 Thermal Diffusivity of Concrete Samples .................................... ............... 75

4-8 History of Temperature Difference Between Concrete Specimen Core and Water.77

4-9 Compressive Strength of High Temperature Cured Concrete Specimens ..............78

4-10 Compressive Strength of Room Temperature Cured Concrete Specimens ...........79

4-11 Compressive Strength at 28 Days for Moisture Room Cured Concrete Specimens84

5-1 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete with Cement A and 73F Placing
T em p eratu re ....................................................... ................ 8 6

5-2 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete with Cement B and 73F Placing
T em p eratu re ....................................................... ................ 8 7

5-3 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete with Cement A and 95F Placing
T em p eratu re ....................................................... ................ 8 8

5-4 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete with Cement B and 95F Placing
T em p eratu re ....................................................... ................ 8 9

5-5 Effect of Pozzolans on the Peak Temperature of Concrete..............................93

5-6 Constant Factors of Prp Equation .............................. ............... 96

5-7 Temperature Rise of the Core of the Bella Vista Bridge Footers ..........................103

5-8 Adiabatic Temperature Rise for Samples Taken from the Field............................105

5-9 Comparison Between ACI Curves and Test Results.............................................106

5-10 Effect of Pozzolans on Heat of Hydration .................................. ............... 107









5-11 Effect of Pozzolan Content on 28-day Compressive Strength..............................111
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure pge

2-1 Adiabatic Temperature Rise in Different Types of Concrete .................................13

2-2 Rate of Heat Generation as Affected by Fineness of Cement ...............................13

2-3 Effect of Placing Temperature Adiabatic Temperature Rise of Mass Concrete .....14

2-4 Variation In Maximum Temperature as Reported by Bamforth ..........................15

2-5 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Curves Developed by AtiS ......................................17

2-6 Effect of Admixtures on Heat Generation........................ ................... 18

2-7 Typical H eat-G generation Curves ........................................ ........................ 21

3-1 M ix Design Breakdown By Concrete Class................................... .....................28

3-2 Fly Ash Percentage In FDOT Approved Mixes With Fly Ash.............................29

3-3 Slag Percentage In FDOT Approved Mixes With Slag ..........................................30

3-4 H ydration Cham ber ........................................... .......................... ............... 37

3-5 C cylinder M old ........................................................................37

3-6 Sure Cure System ........... .. .................... .... .................... .... 38

3-7 Sure Cure System Setup ......... ................. ................... .................. ............... 39

3-8 H eating B ath .......................................................40

3-9 D iffu sion C ham ber........... ................................................................ ...... ..... .. 4 1

3-10 Tem perature Recorder and Tim er ........................................ ........................ 41

3-11 Example Showing Calculation Of Thermal Diffusivity Of A Concrete Cylinder...43

3-12 M materials Prepared For The Next Day Test .................................. ............... 46

3-13 H ydration Cham ber ......................................................... ...... .........47









3-14 Cure Chambers and Metal Molds Connected to the Computer ............................47

3-15 Hydration Chambers, Controller and Computer in Minivan................................49

3-16 Cure Cham bers in the M inivan ........................................... ......................... 50

3-17 Specimens Transferred From Heating Bath to Diffusion Chamber.........................51

3-18 Specimens Connected To Temperature Recorder During Cooling Stage ..............52

4-1 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages
of Fly A sh (First Run) .............. .................. ................. .... .... ...... 63

4-2 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages
of Slag (First R un) .............. .......................... ...... .... .. .. .. ........ .... 63

4-3 Temperature Rise for Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages of Fly Ash
(Second R un) ........................... ..................................................... .......... 64

4-4 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages
of Slag (Second R un) ...................... .................. ................... .. ...... 64

4-5 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different Percentages
of F ly A sh ........................... .................................... ...................... 66

4-6 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different Percentages
of Slag (First Run) ....... ..... ......................................... .. ...... .. .. .. ........ .... 66

4-7 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different Percentages
of Slag (Second R un) ...................... .................. ................... .. ...... 67

4-8 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages
of Fly A sh .................................... .................... ... ......... 67

4-9 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages
o f S lag .............................................................................. 6 9

4-10 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages
of Slag (First & Second Run) .............................................................................69

4-11 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different Percentages
of Fly A sh ..................................... .......................... .... ..... ......... 71

4-12 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different Percentages
o f S lag .............................................................................. 7 1

4-13 Temperature Rise for Field Test Samples............... ....... ...................74









4-14 Thermal Diffusivity of Concrete Samples with Different Percentage of Pozzolanic
M materials ..................................... .......................... ..... ..... ......... 76

4-15 Sm all D iffusion Cham ber................................................ ............................. 76

4-16 L arge D iffusion C ham ber............................................................................ ...... 76

4-17 Compressive Strength for Concrete Specimens with Cement A and 730F Placing
Tem perature at 15 D ays A ge......................................................... ............... 80

4-18 Compressive Strength for Concrete Specimens with Cement B and 730F Placing
Tem perature at 15 D ays A ge......................................................... ............... 80

4-19 Compressive Strength for Concrete Specimens with Cement A and 95F Placing
Tem perature at 15 D ays A ge......................................................... ............... 81

4-20 Compressive Strength for Concrete Specimens with Cement B and 950 F Placing
Tem perature at 15 D ays A ge......................................................... ............... 81

4-21 Compressive Strength for Concrete Specimens with Cement A and 730 F Placing
T em perature at 28 D ays A ge........................................................................ .. .... 82

4-22 Compressive Strength for Concrete Specimens with Cement B and 730 F Placing
T em perature at 28 D ays A ge........................................................................ .. .... 82

4-23 Compressive Strength for Concrete Specimens with Cement A and 950 F Placing
T em perature at 28 D ays A ge........................................................................ .. .... 83

4-24 Compressive Strength for Concrete Specimens with Cement B and 950 F Placing
T em perature at 28 D ays A ge........................................................................ .. .... 83

5-1 Effect of Replacing Cement With Fly Ash on Adiabatic Temperature Rise (73F
Placing Tem perature) ......................... ........ ........... ........... .....91

5-2 Effect of Replacing Cement With Fly Ash on Adiabatic Temperature Rise (95F
Placing Tem perature) ......................... ........ ........... ................91

5-3 Effect of Replacing Cement With Slag on Adiabatic Temperature Rise (73F
Placing Tem perature) ......................... ........ ........... ................92

5-4 Effect of Replacing Cement With Slag on Adiabatic Temperature Rise (95F
Placing Tem perature) ......................... ........ ........... ................92

5-5 Pr for M ixes with 730F Placing Temperature ................................ ..................... 94

5-6 Pr for M ixes with 95F Placing Temperature ................................ ..................... 94

5-7 Average Pr for Mixes with 73F and 95F Placing Temperatures.........................95









5-8 The Relationship Between Pp, Rp, and Different Placing Temperatures ................97

5-9 R relationship B etw een op and R ................................................................... ......99

5-10 Effect of Placing Temperature on Adiabatic Temperature Rise for Mixes with Plain
C em en t ............................................................................10 0

5-11 Effect of Placing Temperature on Adiabatic Temperature Rise for Mixes with 20%
Fly A sh .................................... ............................ ........ .......... 101

5-12 Effect of Placing Temperature on Adiabatic Temperature Rise for Mixes with 35%
Fly A sh .................................... ............................ ........ .......... 101

5-13 Effect of Placing Temperature on Adiabatic Temperature Rise for Mixes with 50%
S la g .......................................................................... 1 0 2

5-14 Effect of Placing Temperature on Adiabatic Temperature Rise for Mixes with 70%
S la g .......................................................................... 1 0 2

5-15 Temperature Rise For Footers A, B and C.................................. ............... 104

5-16 Comparison of Temperature Rise Between Field and Laboratory Tests .............105

5-17 Effect of Thermal Diffusivity on Maximum Temperature Rise.............................109

5-18 Effect of Thermal Diffusivity on Thermal Gradient ............................................. 110

5-19 Effect of Placing Temperature and Pozzolan Content on 28-day Compressive
Strength ... ........... .... ..... ............. ... .......................................111
















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction

TEMPERATURE RISE OF MASS CONCRETE
IN FLORIDA

By

Arash Parham

December 2004

Chair: Abdol R. Chini
Cochair: Larry Muszynski
Major Department: Building Construction

Mass concrete is used in many projects carried out by the Florida Department of

Transportation (FDOT) such as bridge foundations, bridge piers, and concrete abutments.

Cement hydration is an exothermic reaction, so the temperature rise within a large

concrete mass can be quite high. Significant tensile stresses and strains may develop from

the volume change associated with the increase and decrease of temperature within the

mass concrete. It is necessary to predict the temperature rise and take measures to prevent

cracking due to thermal behavior. Cracks caused by thermal gradient may cause loss of

structural integrity and monolithic action or shortening of the service life of the

structures.

The prediction of temperature rise is very important to control the heat of

hydration. The objective of this research is to develop the adiabatic temperature rise

curves of different types of mass concrete used in FDOT projects. These curves will be

used to predict the expected temperature rise in mass concrete structures used in FDOT









projects. The following is a summary of steps undertaken to achieve the goals of the

project.

* A literature review was conducted to identify the factors affecting temperature rise
in concrete and to study previous works in this field.

* A series of experiments to determine the temperature rise of mass concrete and the
effects of high temperature cure on the properties of concrete was conducted. The
first step in the experimental phase of the project was to determine concrete mix
designs and materials which needed to be tested. A total of 20 mixes with cements
from two different sources with two different placing temperatures and various
percentages of pozzolanic materials contain were tested for adiabatic temperature
rise, thermal diffusivity and compressive strength. The heat of hydration of cement
samples and blends of cement and pozzolan was also determined.

* The results of the tests were analyzed. The effect of placing temperature, curing
temperature and pozzolan content on temperature rise curves, thermal diffusivity,
and compressive strength were studied.

Analysis of the test results indicates the following:

* Fly ash is more effective in reducing the peak temperature of the mass concrete.

* Replacement of less than 50% of cement with slag does not have a significant
effect on the peak temperature.

* A higher placing temperature reduces the effectiveness of fly ash and slag in peak
temperature reduction.

Finally the Pozzolan Modification Factor (ap) was calculated for Florida mass

concrete mixes. This factor can be used to modify ACI adiabatic temperature rise curves

and develop new curves to be used in FDOT projects to predict the peak temperature.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION


Objectives


Mass concrete is used in many projects related to the Florida Department of

Transportation (FDOT) such as bridge foundations, bridge piers, and concrete abutments.

Since cement hydration is an exothermic reaction, the temperature rise within a large

concrete mass can be quite high. As a result, significant tensile stresses and strains may

develop from the volume change associated with the increase and decrease of

temperature within the mass concrete. It is, therefore, necessary to predict the

temperature rise and take measures to prevent cracking due to thermal behavior. Cracks

caused by thermal gradient may cause loss of structural integrity and monolithic action or

shortening of service life of the structures.

The prediction of temperature rise is important in controlling the heat of hydration.

The objective of this research is to develop the adiabatic temperature rise curves of

different types of mass concrete used in FDOT projects. These curves will be used to

predict the expected temperature rise in mass concrete structures used in FDOT projects.

Background


FDOT Structures Design Guidelines defines mass concrete as "any large volume of

cast-in-place or precast concrete with dimensions large enough to require that measures

be taken to cope with generation of heat and attendant volume change so as to minimize









cracking" (FDOT, 2002). Thermal action, durability and economy are the main factors in

the design of mass concrete structures. The most important characteristic of mass

concrete is thermal behavior. Hydration of Portland cement is exothermic and a large

amount of heat is generated during the hydration process of mass concrete elements.

Since concrete has a low conductivity, a great portion of generated heat is trapped in the

center of mass concrete element and escapes very slowly. This situation leads to a

temperature difference between center and outer part of the mass concrete element.

Temperature difference is a cause for tensile stresses, which forms thermal cracks in

concrete structure. These cracks are called thermal cracks. Thermal cracks may cause loss

of structural integrity and shortening of the service life of the concrete element.

Predicting the maximum temperature of mass concrete has always been the main

concern of designers and builders of mass concrete structures. One of the earliest efforts

to predict the maximum temperature of the mass concrete were carried in late 20's and

early 30's during the design phase of Hoover Dam (Blanks, 1933). Later on various

studies were performed to develop methods to predict the maximum temperature in mass

concrete elements.

One of the most popular methods to predict the mass concrete peak temperature

rise is using adiabatic temperature rise curves. These curves have been developed for

concrete with different cement types and placing temperature. American Concrete

Institute (ACI) Committee 207 has published adiabatic temperature rise curves that are

widely used.

Currently FDOT mandates contractors to provide temperature rise predictions for

mass concrete pours using ACI adiabatic temperature rise curves. These curves were









developed a few decades ago by testing concrete mixes made with American Society for

Testing Materials (ASTM) approved cements (ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996). However, FDOT

specifies American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHTO) approved

cements, which have different chemical composition and fineness.

Research is needed to investigate if the temperature rise predictions using ACI

curves are accurate for mass concrete mixes used in Florida projects. The objective of

this research is to study adiabatic temperature rise in mass concrete for concrete mixes

which are used in Florida.

Scope of Work


Literature Review


A comprehensive review of the previously performed research on adiabatic

temperature rise of mass concrete was undertaken. In this review researches on thermal

diffusivity of concrete were also studied.

Mix Design Selection


A comprehensive list of concrete mix designs approved by the FDOT since 1990

was compiled. The list of mix designs was analyzed and different designs were

categorized based on cement type, aggregate type, type and ratio of pozzolanic materials,

cement suppliers, and pozzolanic materials suppliers.

More frequently used mixes were chosen as representative mixes in each category.

Representative mixes were tested to develop adiabatic temperature rise curves.









Survey of State Highway Agencies


A group of states were selected based on previous studies about mass concrete

regulations. A questioner was send via e-mail to Material Engineers in selected states

concerning each state's regulation on temperature rise in mass concrete to see if they

have ever undertaken any research to develop adiabatic temperature raise curves for mass

concrete. The results of this survey are presented in Appendix A.

Concrete Testing


In this phase, concrete mixes were prepared based on different mix designs selected

earlier. Samples were tested for slump, air content, adiabatic temperature rise,

compressive strength, and thermal diffusivity.

Data Analysis


After collecting data from the tests, adiabatic temperature rise curves were

developed for each mix and the new curves were compared to ACI curves for similar

concrete mixes. Also a correction factor was determined to predict the adiabatic

temperature rise curves for the mixes with pozzolanic materials.

Concrete thermal diffusivity test results led to a lower diffusivity number for

concretes used in Florida compared to ACI suggested numbers.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

Before focusing on the adiabatic temperature rise of mass concrete, it is necessary

to review the definition and characteristics of mass concrete and its components. Also,

methods to predict the temperature rise of mass concrete are reviewed.

Mass Concrete

As mentioned before, mass concrete is defined as "any volume of concrete with

dimensions large enough to require that measures be taken to cope with generation of

heat from hydration of the cement and attendant volume change to minimize cracking"

(ACI 116R, 2000). In the design of mass concrete structures thermal action, durability

and economy are the main factors that are taken into consideration, while strength is

often a secondary concern. Since water cement reaction is an exothermic reaction and

mass concrete structures have large dimensions, the most important characteristic of mass

concrete is thermal behavior. A large amount of heat is generated during the hydration

process of cementitious material in mass concrete elements. A great portion of generated

heat that is trapped in the center of mass concrete element escapes very slowly because

concrete has a low conductivity. This situation leads to a temperature difference between

center and outer part of the mass concrete element. Temperature difference is a cause for

tensile strains, which in turn is a source for tensile stress. Tensile stress forms cracks in

concrete structure. These cracks are called thermal cracks. Thermal cracks may cause loss

of structural integrity and shortening of the service life of the concrete element.









Thermal cracks were first observed in dam construction. Other thick section

concrete structures including mat foundations, pile caps, bridge piers, thick walls and

tunnel linings also experienced temperature related cracks (ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996).

Mass Concrete History

During years 1930 to 1970 mass concrete construction developed rapidly. Some

records are available from this period of using mass concrete in few dams. These records

show wide internal temperature variation due to cement hydration. The degree of

cracking was associated with temperature rise (ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996).

Hoover Dam was in the early stages of planning by the beginning of 1930. Since

there were no examples of such a large concrete structure before Hoover Dam, an

elaborate investigation was undertaken to determine the effects of composition and

fineness of cement, cement factor, temperature of curing and, maximum size of aggregate

on heat of hydration of cement, comprehensive strength, and other properties of concrete.

Blanks (1933) reported some of the findings of these investigations. The results of these

investigations led to the use of low heat cement and embedded pipe cooling system in

Hoover dam. Low heat cement was used for the first time in construction of Morris Dam,

near Pasadena, California, a year before Hoover Dam (ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996).

Chemical admixtures as materials that could benefit mass concrete were recognized

in the 1950s. Wallace and Ore (1960) published their report on the benefit of these

materials to lean mass concrete in 1960. Since then, chemical admixtures have come to

be used in most mass concrete (ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996).

Use of purposely-entrained air for concrete became a standard practice in about

1945. Since then, air-entraining admixtures were used in concrete dams and other

structures such as concrete pavements (ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996).










Placement of conventional mass concrete has not largely changed since the late

1940s. Roller-compacted concrete is the new major development in the field of mass

concrete (ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996).

Portland Cement Types

AASHTO standard specifications for Portland cement (M85-93) cover different

types of Portland cement.

Table 2-1 shows AASHTO requirements for Type I, Type II, Type III, Type IV and

Type V cements are shown.

Table 2-1 AASHTO M 85 Standard Requirements for Portland Cement
ype SiO2 A1203 Fe203 SO3 SO3 C3S C2S C3A
ype of Cement min max max C3A<8 C3A>8 max min max

Type I
When Special properties specified for any other type 3 3.5 -
are not required
Type II
When moderate sulfate resistance or moderate hear of 20 6 6 3 58* 8
hydration is desired
Type I 3.5 4.5 15
When high early strength is desired
Type IV 6.5 2.3 35 40 7
When low heat of hydration is desired
Type V 2.3 5
When high sulfate resistance is desired

Not required for ASTM C 150

Type I Portland cement is commonly used in general construction. It is not
recommended for use by itself in mass concrete without other measures that help to
control temperature problems because of its substantially higher heat of hydration
(ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996).

* Type II Portland cement is suitable for mass concrete construction because it has a
moderate heat of hydration important to control cracking.

* Type IP Portland-pozzolan cement is a uniform blend of Portland cement or
Portland blast-furnace slag cement and fine pozzolan.









Composition and Hydration of Portland Cement

Portland cement is a composition of several different chemicals: SiO2, A1203,

Fe203, MgO, SO3, C3A, C3S, C2S and C3AF are the main components of Portland

cement. The proportions of these components change in different types of cements.

The major compounds of Portland cement are C3S, C2S, C3A and C3AF. These

constituents have different contributions in heat of hydration of cement. Table 2-2 shows

heat of hydration of main components of Portland cement as reported by Cannon (1986).

These numbers have been originally determined by heat of solution method by Lerch and

Bogue (1934).

Table 2-2 S ecific Heat of Hydration of Individual Compounds of Portland Cement
Compound Specific Heat of Hydration
(cal/gr)
C3S 120

C2S 62

C3A + gypsum 320

C3AF 100



Heat of hydration of Portland cement can be calculated as the sum of specific heat

of each compound weighted by the mass percentage of the individual compound

(Swaddiwudhipong et al., 2002).

C3A reaction with gypsum to form ettringite releases about 150 cal/g. After the

depletion of gypsum, C3A reacts with ettringite forming a more stable monosulphate and

releases additional heat of hydration of 207 cal/g. Therefore the total heat of hydration of

C3A and gypsum is 357 cal/g (Swaddiwudhipong et al., 2002). However,

Swaddiwudhipong (2002) suggests the total heat of hydration of C3A and gypsum be









considered as 320 cal/g. This suggestion is based on a series of least square analyses

carried out by Detwiler (1996).

Fly Ash and Blast Furnace Slag

In most of the FDOT approved mix designs, fly ash or slag has been used. Fly ash

is the flue dust from burning ground or powdered coal. Suitable fly ash can be an

excellent pozzolan if it has a low carbon content, a fineness about the same as that of

Portland cement, and occurs in the form of very fine, glassy spheres. Because of its shape

and texture, the water requirement is usually reduced when fly ash is used in concrete.

Class F fly ash is designated in ASTM C 618 and originates from anthracite and

bituminous coals. It consists mainly of alumina and silica and has a higher loss on

ignition (LOI) than Class C fly ash. Class F fly ash also has a lower calcium content than

Class C fly ash. Additional chemical requirements are listed in Table 2-3.

Table 2-3 Class F Fly Ash Chemical Properties
Property ASTM C618 Requirements, %
SiO2 plus A1203 plus Fe203, min 70
SO3, max 5
Moisture content, max 3
Loss on Ignition, max 6


Finely ground granulated iron blast-furnace slag may also be used as a separate

ingredient with Portland cement as cementitious material in mass concrete (ACI 207.1 R-

96, 1996).

Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) is designated in ASTM C 989 and

consists mainly of silicates and aluminosilicates of calcium. GGBFS is divided into three

classifications based on its activity index. Grade 80 has a low activity index and is used

primarily in mass structures because it generates less heat than Portland cement. Grade









100 has a moderate activity index, is most similar to Portland cement with respect to

cementitious behavior, and is readily available. Grade 120 has a high activity index and is

more cementitious than Portland cement. To be used in cement, GGBFS must have the

chemical requirements listed in Table 2-4.

Table 2 4 GGBFS Chemical Composition
Che l Maximum Requirements
(ASTM 989), %
Sulfide sulfur (S) 2.5

Sulfate ion reported as SO3 4


Thermal Properties of Concrete

It is essential to know the thermal properties of concrete to deal with any problem

caused by temperature rise. These properties are specific heat, conductivity and

diffusivity. The main factor affecting the thermal properties of concrete is the

mineralogical composition of the aggregate (Rhodes, 1978).

The specific heat is defined as the amount of thermal energy required to change the

temperature per unit mass of material by one degree. Values for various types of concrete

are about the same and vary from 0.22 to 0.25 Btu's/pound/OF. Lu (Lu et. al., 2001)

reported that changes in aggregate types, mixture proportions, and concrete age did not

have a great influence on the specific heat of ordinary concrete at normal temperature, as

concrete volume is mainly occupied by aggregates with thermal stability.

The thermal conductivity of a material is the rate at which it transmits heat and is

defined as the ratio of the flux of heat to the temperature gradient. Water content, density,

and temperature significantly influence the thermal conductivity of a specific concrete.

Typical values are 2.3, 1.7, and 1.2 British thermal units (Btu)/hour/foot/Fahrenheit









degree (F) for concrete with quartzite, limestone, and basalt aggregates, respectively

(USACE, 1995).

Thermal Diffusivity is described as an index of the ease or difficulty with which

concrete undergoes temperature change and, numerically, is the thermal conductivity

divided by the product of specific heat and density (USACE, 1995). Aggregate type

largely affects concrete thermal diffusivity. In ACI 207.1R-96 typical diffusivity values

for concrete are from 0.77 ft2/day for basalt concrete to 1.39 ft2/day for quartzite

concrete. Other sources report slightly different numbers for concrete thermal diffusivity.

Vodak and associates (1997) report thermal diffusivity numbers between 0.73 to 1.16

ft2/day for various siliceous concretes.

Thermal diffusivity of cement paste and mortar (cement + sand) is lower than

concrete. Xu and Cheng (2000) measured cement paste and mortar thermal diffusivity

with laser flash method. In laser flash method, laser beam is flashed to one side of the

specimen (a disc with 13mm diameter and 2mm in thickness). Temperature of the other

side of the specimen is measured by a thermocouple and thermal diffusivity is calculated

from the temperature vs. time curve. Thermal diffusivity of cement paste without silica

fume and mortar without silica was determined to be 0.33 ft2/day and 0.41 ft2/day

respectively (Xu and Cheng, 2000).

Factors Affecting Heat Generation of Concrete

The total amount of heat generated during hydration of concrete, as well as the rate

of heat generation, is affected by different factors.

The first factor affecting heat generation and the total amount of heat generated is

the type of the used cement. As mentioned before, the ratio of chemical compounds is

different in each cement type. Heat of hydration is also different for each of the cement









chemical compounds. Therefore combination of these compounds with various portions

results in different heats of hydration for each cement type (See Figure 2-1). Tricalcium

Silicate (C3S) and Tricalcium Aluminate (C3A) generate more heat and at a faster rate

than other cement compounds (Copland et. al., 1960). Therefore concrete mixes

containing cement types with higher percentage of C3S and C3A generate more heat.

Cement content of concrete is the next factor in heat generation. As cement is the

main source of heat generation during the hydration process, larger portion of cement

leads to larger amount of heat generated.

Another factor that affects the thermal behavior of concrete is cement fineness. The

cement fineness affects the rate of heat generation more than the total generated heat

(Price, 1982). Greater fineness increases the surface available for hydration, causing more

rapid generation of heat (the fineness of Type III is higher than that of Type I cement)

(U.S. Dept. Trans. 1990). This causes an increase in rate of heat liberation at early ages,

but may not influence the total amount of heat generated in several weeks.

Figure 2-2 shows how cement fineness affects rat of heat generation in cement

paste. These curves were developed by Verbeck and Foster for cement paste specimen

cured at 750F (ACI 207.2R, 1996).

Placing temperature of concrete is another effective element on the maximum

temperature of concrete. A higher initial temperature results in higher maximum

temperature. The inner part of a mass concrete element is in a semi-adiabatic condition,

which means heat exchange with the outer environment is very difficult. Therefore the

initial heat entraps and the heat of hydration adds to the initial temperature. Placing

temperature also affects the rate of adiabatic temperature rise of concrete.

































TIME DAYS


Figure 2-1 Adiabatic Temperature Rise in Different Types of Concrete (ACI 207.1R-96,
1996)



100

90


90 70--'

F 2 R Fineness of Cement
iU 360
z^ 50^--- ----------
z w
|i 10


5 /75 'F CURING TEMP.
20

1o

2 1 2 3 4 7 28
TIME IN DAYS


Figure 2-2 Rate of Heat Generation as Affected by Fineness of Cement (ACI 207.2R-96,
1996)
















100

90

80

1- 0



0
i 50

F 40


5 TYPE I CEMENT
20

10 V--

S 2 3 4 7 14 26
TIME IN DAYS
Figure 2-3 Effect of Placing Temperature and Time on Adiabatic Temperature Rise of
Mass Concrete Containing 376 lb/yd3 of Type I Cement (ACI 207.2R-96,
1996)

As it is shown in Figure 2-3 concrete mixes with higher placing temperatures reach

the maximum temperature faster than concrete mixes with low placing temperature.

However the maximum temperature is not significantly different within the mixes with

different placing temperatures (ACI 207.2R-96, 1996).

Replacement of cement with pozzolanic materials in the concrete mix reduces

maximum temperature. One of the earliest indication of effects of fly ash on heat

generation was made by Davis et. al. (1937). The first use of fly ash in mass concrete was

reported by Philleo (1967).

Bamforth (1980) performed an extensive study on effects of using fly ash or

GGBFS (Slag) on the performance of mass concrete. He monitored temperature and










strain in three pours of mass concrete each 14.75 ft deep, which formed part of

foundation of a grinding mill in the United Kingdom. The total cementitious material in

each pour was 675 lb/yd3 In one of the pours, 30% of cement was replaced by fly ash. In

another pour, 75% of cement was replaced bay GGBFS. OPC (Ordinary Portland

Cement) was used in the mixes. As reported, the cement contained 13.6% of C3A so it

will be categorized as Type III cement in the AASHTO standard (See Table).





176-
1670

158 156.2

S / 1472


OPC/liy asn -. \

S122- /

V in t r
S 104 -/
/ OPC/ita ,ulXed slag



S /\
L/




13 i 5 it) day
Time from casting
Variation in concrete temperature recorded at mid-height


Figure 2-4 Variation In Maximum Temperature as Reported by Bamforth (1980)

Temperature rise of concrete was measured by Copper/Constantan thermocouples

placed in foundations. Initial temperature of the concrete was measured immediately after









each thermocouple was covered by concrete. Temperature rise was recorded for 40 days.

The results are shown in Figure 2-4.

In pour 1 (OPC only), 98.1F rise in temperature was recorded. Temperature rise of

85.50F and 82.80F was recorded for Pour 2 (OPC/Fly Ash) and Pour 3 (OPC/GGBFS)

respectively. Maximum temperature was reduced by 12.8% for Pour 2 and 15.5% for

Pour 3. This shows that replacement of cement with 30% fly ash has almost the same

effect as replacing cement with 75% slag. Bamforth (1980) believes this reduction in

maximum temperature was smaller than what was observed in smaller concrete pours

with lower cement content. He also reports from a survey of data relating to the use of

slag in concrete mixes that as the size of pour is increased, the effectiveness of using slag

to reduce the maximum concrete temperature reduces. However, he reports that in pours

of up to 6.5 ft deep, reduction of 50% in maximum temperature has been achieved by a

70% replacement. Bamforth (1980) believes that in smaller pours the initial mix

temperature is of greater significance. He reports the same trend in mixes with fly ash

replacement. Bamforth (1980) recommends the minimum replacement percentage for

pozzolanic materials, as shown in Table 2-5, to achieve benefits in reduced thermal

stress. He believes that, in pours deeper than 8.2 ft, the benefit of reduced temperature

resulting from replacement of cement with pozzolanic material is unlikely to be sufficient

to offset the increased stiffness of concrete.

Table 2-5 Minimum Level of Replacement Percentage
Pour Thickness Fly Ash GGBFS (Slag)
(ft)
Up to 3.3 20 40
3.3-4.9 25 50
4.9-6.6 30 60
6.6-8.2 35 70









A study (Atis, 2002) on high-volume fly ash concrete showed that using of 50% fly

ash causes a reduction of 23% in the peak temperature. The same study showed 70% fly

ash replacement leads to 45% reduction in the peak temperature (Figure 2-5). Atis (2002)

believes that 20-30% of fly ash replacement may not cause significant reduction in the

maximum temperature of concrete. According to him, with 20-30% of fly ash

replacement a reduction of 10-15% in the maximum temperature is expected. He also

reports that changes in W/C ratio influence the temperature rise in concrete. A study on

concretes with 675 lb/yd3 OPC and W/C ratios of 0.35, 0.45, and 0.55 showed 104.4,

108.3 and 111.9 F of peak temperature in nonadiabatic conditions with no insulation

(Atis, 2002).




60 60
50 ++++ 50 +-++
S40- 40

+ ++.. +
l20O -- MO ++20 4--MO
M3 -- M
10 M4 10 -M2
0 1 0O
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Time ( Hour [s]) Time ( Hour [s])
(b) 50 % Replacement (a) 70% Replacement


Figure 2-5 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Curves Developed by Atis (2002)

(MO: Control Mix 6751b/yd3 Cement, Ml: 70% Fly Ash with Superplasticizer,
M2: 70% Fly Ash without Superplasticizer, M3:50% Fly Ash with
Superplasticizer, M4: 50% Fly Ash without Superplasticizer)

ACI 207.2R-96 recommends that the total quantity of heat generation is directly

proportional to an equivalent cement content (Ceq), which is the total quantity of cement

plus a percent to total pozzolan content. The contribution of pozzolans to heat generation









varies with age of concrete, type of pozzolan, the fineness of pozzolan compared to the

cement and pozzolans themselves. ACI 207.2R-96 suggests to test the cement and

pozzolan mixes to determine the fineness and heat of hydration of the blend. A rule of

thumb that has worked fairly well on preliminary computations has been to assume that

pozzolan produces only about 50 percent as much heat as the cement that it replaces (ACI

207.1 R-96, 1996).

60 60
50- ++ 50- +++



20 MO 20 MO M
M1 1 M2
10 10
M---3 A M4

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Time (Hour [s] ) Time (Hour [s] )
(a) Workable Concrete (b) Zero-Slump Concrete


Figure 2-6 Effect of Admixtures on Heat Generation

(Atis, 2002)(MO: Control Mix 6751b/yd3 Cement, Ml: 70% Fly Ash with
Superplasticizer, M2: 70% Fly Ash without Superplasticizer, M3:50% Fly Ash
with Superplasticizer, M4: 50% Fly Ash without Superplasticizer)


Using chemical admixtures as water-reducing, set-retarding agents affects the

concrete mix in the first 12 to 16 hours after mixing. These chemicals do not alter the

total heat generated in the concrete after the first 24 hours (ACI 207.2R-96, 1996).

However, for studies involving a large amount of mass concrete the proposed mix should

be tested for adiabatic temperature rise (ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996). Results from study

performed by Atis (2002) on using high-volume fly ash concretes with low water cement

ratios and superplasticizers showed that concrete mixes with similar ingredients and

different amounts of superplasticizers have the same peak temperature. Mixes with









superplasticizers showed a delay in reaching the maximum temperature (Figure 2-6). This

fact is caused by the retarding effect of superplasticizers on cement hydration (AtiS,

2002).

The size of the element and ambient temperature are factors that affect the concrete

peak temperature in nonadiabatic conditions. However Bamforth (1980) showed that

mixes with high percentage of pozzolan in large concrete members may be affected by

cement replacement. As mentioned before, he believes pozzolan replacement in large

members increases concrete stiffness.

Methods to Predict Temperature Rise in Mass Concrete

One of the main problems of mass concrete construction is the necessity for

controlling the heat entrapped within it as the cement hydrates. Both the rate and the total

adiabatic temperature rise differ among the various types of cement (ACI 207.1 R-96,

1996).

Predicting the maximum temperature of mass concrete has always been the main

concern of designers and builders of mass concrete structures. As mentioned before,

planning phase for the construction of Hoover Dam was a turning point in mass concrete

studies. One of the earliest efforts to predict the maximum temperature of the mass

concrete is reported by Blanks (1933). He describes a series of tests on adiabatic

temperature rise of concretes with different cement types. Those test had been supported

by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation. To develop the adiabatic temperature rise curves,

cylinders of full mass concrete with 1881b/yd3 cement content were cast in place in

accurately controlled adiabatic calorimeter rooms and immediately sealed by soldering a

cover on the light sheet metal mold. The temperature of the air in the room and the

temperature of the specimen were measured by resistance thermometers. These









thermometers were connected to control instruments. The control instruments operated to

maintain the temperature of the air in the calorimeter room the same as that of the

specimen. Blanks (1933) mentions that the special design of the room insured the

uniformity of temperature and the controls provide equality of temperature between the

air and the specimen within 0.100F.

Figure 2-7 shows the results of tests reported by Blanks (1933). At that time the

final objective of the tests was to find the most proper commercial cement for the

construction of Hoover Dam. ASTM standard cements had not been defined therefore

different cements were designated by numbers (See Table 2-6).

Table 2-6 Compound Composition of Cements Represented in Figure 2-7
Cement
Cement C3S C2S C3A C4AF MgO CaSO4 Free Lime
No.
I-1 49.1 21.9 13.6 10.3 0.7 2.8 0.9
R-2252 57.8 17.4 6.7 10 2.6 3.6 1.2
Y-9 52.9 26.5 8.8 5.9 1.6 2.3
U-2 23.2 50.1 12.9 6.2 3.5 2.9 0.3
S-310 Not a True Portland Cement
R-2249 25.6 46.2 2.8 18.1 2.4 4.1 1.0


Figure 2-1 shows adiabatic temperature rise curves for mass concrete containing

3761b/yd3 of various types of cement. These curves are published in ACI 207.1R and are

widely used to predict the adiabatic temperature rise in mass concrete. ACI curves have

been traced to early 1960s.

As mentioned before, when a portion of the cement is replaced by pozzolan, the

temperature rise curves are greatly modified, particularly in the early ages. Depending on

the composition and fineness of the pozzolan and cement used in combination, the effect

of pozzolans differs greatly.
















































Figure 2-7 Typical Heat-Generation Curves (Blanks, 1933)

Specifications for mass concrete often require particular cement types, minimum

cement contents, and maximum supplementary cementitious material contents. Once this

information is available, the process of predicting maximum concrete temperatures and

temperature differences can begin. Several options are available to predict maximum

concrete temperatures.









Gajda (2002) reports a simplistic method, which is briefly described in a Portland

Cement Association document. This method is useful if the concrete contains between

500 and 1000 lbs of cement per cubic yard of concrete and the minimum dimension is

greater than 6 ft. For this approximation, every 100 lbs of cement increases the

temperature of the concrete by 12.8 F. Using this method, the maximum concrete

temperature of a concrete element that contains 900 lb of cement per cubic yard and is

cast at 600F is approximately 1750F. This PCA method does not, however, consider

surface temperatures or supplementary cementitious materials (Gajda et al., 2002).

A more precise method is known as Schmidt's method. This method is most

frequently used in connection with temperature studies for mass concrete structures in

which the temperature distribution is to be estimated. Determining the approximate date

for grouting a relatively thin arch dam after a winter's exposure, the depth of freezing,

and temperature distributions after placement are typical applications of this step-by-step

method. Different exposure temperatures on the two faces of a theoretical slab and heat

of hydration of cement can be taken into consideration (Townsend, 1981).

In its simpler form, Schmidt's Method assumes no heat flow normal to the slab and

is adapted to a slab of any thickness with any initial temperature distribution. Schmidt's

Method states that the temperature, t2, of an elemental volume at any subsequent time is

dependent not only upon its own temperature but also upon the temperatures, ti and t3, of

the adjacent elemental volumes. At time At, this can be expressed as:

t2,At = [t + (M-2) t2 + t3] / M

Where M = [Cp(Ax)2]/[KAt] = (Ax)2/(h2At), since the diffusivity of concrete, h2

(ft2/hr), is given as K/Cp.









K= Concrete Conductivity. Btu/ft.hr.F

C= Specific Heat, Btu/lb.F

p= Density of Concrete, lb/ft3

If At = (Ax)2/(2h2), then M=2. Therefore the temperature, t2 at time At, becomes t2,At

= (tl+t3)/2. It means that the subsequent temperature of an elemental volume is simply the

average of the two adjacent elemental temperatures.

The principal objection to the Schmidt Method of temperature is the time required

to complete the step-by-step computation. This has been overcome by the use of

computer programs (Townsend, 1981).

In recent years, there have been some efforts to develop models to simulate the

hydration process.

Construction Technology Laboratories (CTL) staff have developed a software

based on Schmidt's method and have validated it by field calibrations since early 1990s

(Gajda et al., 2002). Gadja (2002) describes this software as being capable of predicting

maximum concrete temperature and temperature differences for any concrete mix

proportion under various placing conditions. He also indicates that CTL's software has

the ability to thermally analyze a concrete element 1-, 2- and 3-dimensionaly.

Bentz and associates (1998) used a 3-D microstructural model to predict the

adiabatic temperature rise. They tested a series of conventional and high performance

concrete with and without silica fume. Before mixing, the materials were placed in a

room having a regulated temperature equal to that of the adiabatic calorimeter to ensure

thermal equilibrium at the beginning of the test.









Cement was imaged using scanning electron microscope/X-ray analysis to obtain a

two-dimensional image. Each phase of the cement was uniquely identified in the image.

This image and measured particle size distribution for the cement were used to

reconstruct a three-dimensional representation of the cement (Bentz et al., 1998).

The cellular automatom-based 3-D cement hydration and microstructural model

operates as a sequence of cycles, each consisting of dissolution, diffusion, and reaction

steps.

Bentz and associates (1998) concluded that the 3-D microstructural model had

successfully predicted the adiabatic temperature rise and there have been a reasonable

relation between the developed model and experimental work. However, the accuracy of

the model's prediction is restricted to correct computation of kinetic constants, activation

energies, and reaction product stoichiometries.

Swaddiwudhipong and associates proposed a numerical model to simulate the

exothermic hydration process of cement and temperature rise in mass concrete pours

(Swaddiwudhipong et al. 2002). In their model the hydration reaction of each major

mineral compound found in Portland cement, C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF, is considered.

The hydration of each mineral compound is characterized by its thermal activity and the

reference rate of heat of hydration. Reference rate of heat of hydration is the rate of heat

of hydration per unit mass of mineral compound in cement under specified hydration

conditions.

In this model the influence of various factors on the exothermic hydration process

is taken into consideration. The applicability of the proposed model is verified by a series

of adiabatic temperature rise tests. Swaddiwudhipong and associates (2002) believe that









with the establishment of this approach, it is possible to simulate the exothermic

hydration process of Portland cement and the temperature rise directly on the basis of

intrinsic mechanism of hydration, chemical composition of cement, and mix proportion

of concrete mixture.

They concluded, "Compared with other empirical methods, the proposed model

serves as a more reasonable and effective tool to predict the evolution of heat of

hydration, the degree of hydration and the temperature rise in concrete mixtures"

(Swaddiwudhipong et al.,2002).

Ballim (2004) developed a finite difference heat model for predicting time-based

temperature profiles in mass concrete elements. In this study, a model representing a two-

dimensional solution to the Fourier heat flow equation was developed. This model runs

on a commercially available spreadsheet package. The model uses the results of a heat

rate determination using an adiabatic calorimeter together with Arrhenius maturity

function to indicate the rate and extent of hydration at any time and position within the

concrete element. Ballim (2004) reports that this model is able to predict the temperature

within 3.6F throughout temperature monitoring period.

Experimental Methods to Measure the Heat of Hydration of Concrete

There are normally four methods to measure the heat of hydration of concrete.

(Gibbon et al., 1997).

* Heat of Solution Test: This method determines the total heat produced by the binder
content of the concrete over a 28-day period, but does not indicate the rate of heat
production at any point in time.

* Conduction Calorimetry: In this method heat removed from a sample of hydrating
cementitious paste is measured. Since the rate of hydration is dependent on
temperature, this method does not allow the sample to attain temperatures that it
would in a concrete structure and therefore does not simulate the true condition.






26


* Adiabatic Calorimetry: This method allows determination of both the total heat and
the rate of heat generation. In this method, there is no heat transfer from or into the
test sample.

* Iotlhei, inaMethod: This method is similar to adiabatic calorimetry but uses a
Dewar or thermos flask to prevent heat loss, instead of an adiabatic control system.
The heat loss from the flask is difficult to determine and will affect the hydration
process.














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Introduction

In this chapter, the materials and the test methods to study the adiabatic

temperature rise of mass concrete are presented. In the first section of the chapter

procedures that were undertaken to choose sample concrete mixes' materials and their

proportion are explained. Test methods and equipment used to measure the temperature

rise and other characteristics of concrete samples are presented in the second section. In

the third section, test procedures to determine adiabatic temperature rise, concrete

thermal diffusivity, compressive strength, and heat of hydration are described.

Mix Design Selection

The first step to prepare a concrete sample is to design the mix proportions and

choose the materials. There are many different mass concrete mix designs that have been

approved and used in various FDOT projects in the past. The goal was to choose a mix

design which is a representative of the majority of the mixes used in FDOT mass

concrete projects. To achieve this goal a comprehensive list of 87 FDOT approved mix

designs used for mass concrete elements in the time interval between 1990 and 2000 was

compiled. Based on the information gathered about these mix designs, concrete class,

cement type, proportion of pozzolanic material, and coarse and fine aggregates were

selected.










Concrete Class

The breakdown of concrete classes of the mixes used in mass concrete projects in

Florida is shown in Figure 3-1. The majority of the mixes were FDOT Class IV (5500

psi) concrete. It was therefore decided to use a Class IV concrete mix.


Class V Class I
3% 2%


Class II
15%
Class III


Figure 3-1 Mix Design Breakdown By Concrete Class

Cement Type

The next step was to choose the cement type. Table 3-1 shows the distribution of

different types of cement used in 87 FDOT approved mass concrete mixes. Cements from

two different sources that satisfy the AASHTO criteria for type II cement were used.


Table 3-1 Cement Type Distribution in FDOT Approved Mixes
Cement type Number Percentage Comment
Type IP 10 11
Type I 5 6
Type II 72 83 -- Selected
Total 87 100


Class IV
74%









Pozzolanic Materials Proportion

Pozzolanic materials (Fly Ash or Slag) are generally used in mass concrete mixes.

The following approach was used to determine the percentage of pozzolanic materials to

be used in this project's mix designs.

Figure 3-2 shows the percentage of mixes made with different ratios of fly ash in

FDOT approved mass concrete mixes. As one can readily observe, the ratio of fly ash to

total cementitious material varies from 18% to 40%. It was decided to make two mixes

with two different percentages of fly ash to have good representatives of the mixes.

Mixes were divided into two groups. First group included mixes with 18% to 22% of fly

ash. Based on weighted average and frequency of fly ash percentage, 20% was chosen for

this group. The second group consisted of mixes with 30% to 40% of fly ash. The

proportion of fly ash in this group was determined to be 35%.




40%

S35%

> 30%

25%

S20%

S15%
0
S10%

% 5%
0% 1 -1
18% 19% 20% 21% 22% 30% 35% 39% 40%
Fly Ash/Cementitious Material


Figure 3-2 Fly Ash Percentage In FDOT Approved Mixes With Fly Ash












As shown in Figure 3-3, within the FDOT approved mass concrete mixes with slag,

slag to cementitious materials percentage was 50%, 60% or 70%. It was decided to test

two different mix designs with slag. For this purpose, 50% and 70% of slag in the mix

were chosen. These proportions are the most frequent ones.




60%


50%
C)

c 40%


.x 30%


20%
U
C-
10%


0%
50% 60% 70%
Slag/Cementitious Material


Figure 3-3 Slag Percentage In FDOT Approved Mixes With Slag

Cement Source

Data from FDOT approved mass concrete mixes showed that cements used are

generally produced by the following cement manufacturers:

1. Rinker Materials (Miami)

2. Florida Rock Ind. (Newberry)

3. Florida Mining and Materials (Cemex in Brooksville)

4. Tarmac (Miami)










Samples from all four cements were tested for chemical analysis, physical analysis

and, heat of hydration. In Table 3-2 results of chemical and physical analysis tests are

presented. The final selection was based on the factors that are believed to affect the heat

generation in cement. As mentioned in Chapter 2, Tricalcium Silicate (C3S) and

Tricalcium Aluminate (C3S) have the largest contribution to the heat of hydration. Study

of the chemical analysis test results showed that the cement from source 2 has the

maximum C3S content. Chemical analysis test also showed that the cement from source 3

has the maximum C3A content while the other samples contain an equal percentage of

C3S. Based on the chemical analysis tests, cements from sources 2 and 3 were selected

preliminarily.

Table 3-2 Results of Chemical and Physical Analysis for the Cement Samples
Source Number
1 2 3 4
Cement Source 1 2 3 4
Rinker Materials Florida Rock Ind. Flonda Mining and Tarmac
Matenals
(Miami) (Newberry) (Cemex in Brooksville) (Miami)
Chemical Analysis
Loss of Ignition 1.5% 1.7% 0.1% 1.5%
Insoluble Residue 0.20% 0.21% 0.15% 0.16%
Sulfur Trioxide 2.7% 2.9% 2.9% 2.8%
Magnesium Oxide 0.9% 0.7% 0.9% 0.9%
Tricalcium Aluminate (C3A) 6% 6% 7% 6%
Total Alkali as Na20 0.34% 0.36% 0.48% 0.440,
Silicon Oxide 21.3% 20.1% 21.5% 21.2%
Aluminum Oxide 4.6% 5.0% 5.1% 5.1%
Ferric Oxide 3.8% 4.2% 3.8% 3.8%
Tricalcium Silicate (CS) 56% 58% 48% 50%
Physical Analysis
3 3330 2740 2860 3050
Compressive strength (psi) 3330 740 280 305
7 4360 3490 4110 4130
Fineness (m2/kg) 390 401 350 370
Setting time Gilmore Initial 148 123 137 133
(minutes) Final 208 183 235 216
Soundness Autoclave 0.00 -0.02 0.00 0.00
Normal Consistency -
Comments Selected A Selected B










The results of heat of hydration test showed cement 2 has the minimum heat of

hydration at days and 28 days (see Table 3-3). Cement 3 did not have the maximum heat

of hydration but its heat of hydration at 7 an 28 days was only 2.3% and 0.7% smaller

than the heat of hydration of the cement 4 with the maximum heat of hydration. Thus

cements 2 (Florida Rock Ind.) and 3 (Florida Mining and Material) were selected as

cement A and cement B respectively.

Table 3-3 Results of Heat of Hydration Tests
Heat of Hydration Heat of Hydration
No Cement Source @ 7 days (cal/g) @ 28 days (cal/g)

1 Rinker 77.6 88.2
(Miami)
2 Florida Rock Ind. 66.2 84.1
(Newberry)
3 Florida mining and materials 78.2 94.4
(Cemex in Brooksville)
4 Tarmac 80.0 95.1
(Miami)


Fly Ash Source

Table 3-4 shows the percentage of mixes with fly ash from different sources.

Monex/Boral fly has the highest frequency of use in FDOT approved mass concrete

mixes and was selected to be used in this project.

Table 3-4 Percentage of Mixes With Fly Ash From Different Sources
Source Percent
Monex/Boral 30%
Ash Management (Carbo) 18%
Florida Fly Ash 16%
Ash Management 14%
Florida Mining and Materials 10%
Ash Management (St Johns Power) 6%
Monier 2%
JTM (Jacksonville) 2%
Conversion System 2%










Blast Furnace Slag Source

Table 3-5 shows the percentage of mixes with blast furnace slag from different

sources. Although Blue Circle's Newcem slag has the highest frequency of use, Lafarge

slag was used in this project because of the difficulty in obtaining Newcem.

Table 3-5 Percentage of Mixes With Slag From Different Sources
Source Percent

Blue Circle (Nico\ cII) 70%
Lafarge Florida inc 15%
Pencem Pennsuco 15%


Table 3-6 Percentages of Coarse Aggregates From Different Sources
Number of
Coarse Aggregate Source S.G. Pit Number Percentage
Mixes
Rinker Materials 2.451 87-090 18 39%
Vulcan/Ica 2.455 08-005 8 17%
Florida Rock Ind. 2.493 08-004 4 9%
Vulcan/Ica 2.738 AL-149 4 9%
S & S Materials 2.620 AL-288 3 7%
Cabbage Grove 2.480 38-268 2 4%
SHarper Brothers 2.500 12-260 2 4%
| Florida Rock Ind. 2.370 TM-478 1 2%
Rinker Materials 2.420 87-035 1 2%
Tarmac 2.430 87-145 1 2%
Florida Rock Ind. 2.450 08-012 1 2%
White Construction 2.630 38-036 1 2%
Total 46 100%
Rinker Materials 2.434 87-090 8 40%
STarmac 2.430 87-145 8 40%
S= Florida Rock Ind. 2.375 87-049 2 10%
Florida Rock Ind. 2.430 08-004 2 10%
Total 20 100%


Coarse Aggregate Source

The other important component of a mix is coarse aggregate. Based on data

collected from FDOT approved mass concrete mixes, the most frequently used coarse

aggregate was produced by Rinker Materials (Pit Number 87).Table 3-6 shows source,









specific gravity, and pit number of coarse aggregates used in FDOT approved mass

concrete mixes with fly ash or slag. Coarse aggregate produced by Rinker Materials form

Pit Number 87-090 was therefore chosen for the test.

Fine Aggregate Source

Fine aggregate selected for this project was from the same source as the coarse

aggregate (Rinker Materials).

Total Cementitious Materials

The amount of cementitious material is one of the important factors in generating

heat of hydration in the concrete mix. Considering Table 3-7 and the fact that higher total

cementitious material generates more heat of hydration, 760 lbs/yd3 total cementitious

materials was used in this project.

Table 3-7 Total Cementitious Materials In FDOT Approved Class IV Concrete Mixes
Total Cementitious N
Number Percentage
Materials (lbs)
650-709 27 47%
710-769 26 46%
770-869 4 7%


Mix Temperature

Concrete placing temperature also affects the heat of hydration. To demonstrate

how placing temperature affects maximum curing temperature, two placing temperatures,

73F and 95 F, were used in this project.

Number of Mixes

The objective of this study was to develop adiabatic temperature rise for typical

mass concrete mixes made with Florida materials. To accomplish this objective 20

different mixes were made using two different cement sources, two placing temperatures,










and different percentages of pozzolanic materials. Table 3-8 exhibits the type and amount

of pozzolanic materials, cement source, and placing temperature for these 20 mixes.

Table 3-8 Number of Test Mixes
Binder Placing Cement Mix
Binder
Temp (OF) Source Designation
73 A 73A00P
Type II Cement 0% Pozzolanic Material 73 B 73BOOP
95 A 95A00P
95 B 95BOOP
73 A 73A20F
80% Type II Cement + 20% Fly Ash 73 B 73B20F
95 A 95A20F
95 B 95B20F
73 A 73A35F
65% Type II Cement + 35% Fly Ash 73 B 73B35F
95 A 95A35F
95 B 95B35F
73 A 73A50S
50% Type II Cement + 50% Slag 73 B 73B50S
95 A 95A50S
95 B 95B50S
73 A 73A70S
30% Type II Cement + 70% Slag 73 B 73B70S
95 A 95A70S
95 B 95B70S
Total Number of Mixes 20

Test Methods and Equipments

This research project involved development of adiabatic temperature rise curves for

FDOT approved concrete mixes, measuring concrete thermal diffusivity, and testing

compressive strength at different ages. In addition, the heat of hydration for plain and

blended cements used in different mixes was measured.

Adiabatic Temperature Rise

There is no standard method to measure the adiabatic temperature rise of mass

concrete. Literature review showed that the basis of all previous tests to monitor and

record the adiabatic temperature rise of mass concrete was to provide an adiabatic or semi

adiabatic condition for the concrete sample and at the same time record the temperature









rise by thermocouples placed in the core of the concrete samples. Different methods have

been used to provide an adiabatic condition for concrete samples. These methods range

from building an isolated room with controlled temperature to small chambers or

cylinders that are connected to heaters and thermocouples and are monitored by

computers.

Apparatus

For this study Sure Cure system was used. This system had been previously used

by FDOT in similar research projects. The system consists of a Hydration Chamber,

Cylinder Molds, I/O Controller Cabinet and Personal Computer.

Hydration Chamber

Hydration Chamber (Figure 3-4) is a caped cylinder that holds a fresh concrete

sample approximately equal to a 6"x12" cylinder. It has an insulated wall and cap which

prevents heat exchange between the concrete and the outside ambient. Two

thermocouples are mounted in the Hydration Chamber. The first one is called "Inner" and

is placed inside a cone in the middle of the cylinder (see Figure 3-6). This thermocouple

records the temperature of the core of the concrete sample placed in the Hydration

Chamber. The second thermocouple, called "Outer," is placed in the wall of the cylinder

and monitors the temperature of the surface of the sample. These thermocouples are

connected to the I/O controller. Two heaters are placed in the wall and the cap of the

Hydration Chamber. Each heater is connected to the I/O Controller separately. Whenever

the temperature recorded by the Inner thermocouple is smaller than the one recorded by

the Outer, heaters will start heating the sample to eliminate the temperature gap between

the inside and the outside of the sample.
























Figure 3-4 Hydration Chamber


Cylinder Molds

A cylinder mold holds a 4" by 8" concrete sample. A thermocouple is placed in

each mold and relays the temperature to the controller. The controller sends the data to

the computer and the control software compares the temperature of the mold to the

temperature recorded from the Inner thermocouple of the Hydration Chamber. If the

temperature of the cylinder mold is lower than the temperature of the Inner thermocouple,

the software orders the controller to turn on the heater inside the cylinder mold. Each

cylinder mold is insulated by flexible polyurethane insulation to protect the mold from

the environment (Figure 3-5). The specimens from the cylinder molds were used for

compressive strength test.


Figure 3-5 Cylinder Molds











I/O Controller Cabinet and Personal Computer

The I/O Controller can monitor and control up to 15 thermocouple channels and 8

heater channels. The computer provides complete time vs. temperature information. The

PC can control cylinder molds to follow the specimen in the Hydration Chamber or any

pre-programmed time/temperature curve. The thermocouple and 120V power circuits

from the Hydration Chambers and the cylinder molds can be plugged directly into the I/O

cabinet of the PC controller. As specified by the Sure Cure System Manufacturer, the

system controls the temperature of the cylinder molds within +2F of the "master"

thermocouple. In these tests the Inner thermocouple of the Hydration Chamber was the

"master" thermocouple.



Hydration Chamber


Heater Connection


Outer Thermocoupleoncrete
Inner Thermocouple co__ tev '




I/O Controller
Computer _


Figure 3-6 Sure Cure System

Concrete is placed in the Hydration Chamber. Immediately after the concrete

placement, the temperature data from Inner and Outer thermocouples is read every 6

seconds by I/O Controller. The software that monitors the I/O Controller compares the

core temperature and the outer surface temperature. As soon as the difference between











the core temperature and the surface temperature is more than a user-defined amount, the

software orders the I/O Controller to turn on the heaters connected to the chamber and

heat the specimen surface to reduce the temperature difference between the core and the

surface of the specimen (Figure 3-6). The software records temperature readings from

thermocouples for a specific period of time every minute. Recorded data is saved on the

PC and is later used to develop the adiabatic temperature rise curves.

For each mix two specimens in the Hydration Chamber and six in the Cylinder

Molds were tested. The setup of the system is shown in Figure 3-7.




Heater Connections ---- I --
Thermocuople Connections I I


LE ^ ^Cylmnder Cylnder
I/O Controller old old
Cabinet


Cylnder Cylnder

Computer

SCyinde Cyinde

Hydration Hydration
Chamber Chamber





Figure 3-7 Sure Cure System Setup

Thermal Diffusivity of Concrete

To measure concrete thermal diffusivity the CRD-C 36-73 Method (Method of Test

for the Thermal Diffusivity of Concrete) developed by Army Corps of Engineers was

used.









Scope

This test is used to determine the thermal diffusivity of concrete. The thermal

diffusivity is equal to the thermal conductivity divided by the heat capacity per unit

volume and may be used as an index of the facility with which the material will undergo

temperature change.

Apparatus

The apparatus consists of Bath, Diffusion Chamber and Temperature Indicating and

recording instrument and Timer.

Bath.

A heating bath (Figure 3-8) in which concrete cylinders can be raised to uniform

high temperature (212 F).

Diffusion chamber

A chamber containing running cold water (Figure 3-9).

Temperature indicating and recording instrument and timer

This device records time and temperature (Figure 3-10).


Figure 3-8 Heating Bath

































Figure 3-9 Diffusion Chamber


Figure 3-10 Temperature Recorder and Timer









Procedure

Preparation of specimen

The test specimens were 6 by 12 in. cylinder. Molded specimens were moist-cured

for 28 days prior to testing.

Heating

Each specimen was heated to the same temperature by continuous immersion in

boiling water until the temperature of the center reached 2120 F (1000C). The specimen

was then transferred to a bath of running cold water, and suspended in the bath so that the

entire surface of the specimen is in contact with the water. The temperature of the cold

water was determined by means of another thermocouple.

Cooling

The cooling history of the specimen was obtained from readings of the temperature

of the interior of the specimen at 1-min intervals from the time the temperature difference

between the center and the water reached 120 F (67 C) until the temperature difference

between the center and water reached 8 F (4 C). The data was recorded. Two such

cooling histories were obtained for each test specimen, and the diffusivities were

calculated within + 0.002 ft2/ h.

Calculations

The temperature difference in F was plotted against the time in minutes on a semi

logarithmic scale. The best possible straight line was then drawn through the points so

obtained. A typical graph is shown in Figure 3-11. The time elapsed between the

temperature difference of 80 F and 20 F was read from the graph, and this value was

inserted in equation below from which the thermal diffusivity was calculated:









a = 0.812278/(tl t2)

Where:

a = thermal diffusivity, ft2/ h r

And,

(tl t2) = elapsed time between


minutes, and

0.812278


Equation 3.1


Temperature differences of 80 F and 20 F in


numerical factor applicable to 6- by 12-in cylinder.


0 5 10 5 20 25 31
TIME IN MINUTES
Figure 3-11 Example Showing Calculation Of Thermal Diffusivity Of A Concrete
Cylinder

Compressive Strength

The compressive strengths of the samples were determined at ages of 14 and 28

days. The compressive strengths were determined according to ASTM C39-93a,









Standard Test Method for Compressive S. eugith of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens,

using FDOT physical laboratory equipment.

Heat of Hydration

The heat of hydration for cementitious materials was determined at 7 and 28 days.

The heat of hydration was determined according to ASTM C186, Standard Test Method

for the Determination of Heat ofHydration ofHydraulic Cement, by Construction

Technology Laboratories (CTL) in Skokie, Illinois.

Test Procedures

In this section test procedures to determine adiabatic temperature rise, thermal

diffusivity, and compressive strength for concrete and the heat of hydration for plain and

blended cement paste are described. Concrete tests were performed at the FDOT physical

laboratory, while Construction Technology Laboratories performed the heat of hydration

test for cement.

Tests Performed For Each Mix

The following tests were performed for each mix:

1-Fresh Concrete Properties

2-Adiabatic Temperature Rise

3-Compressive Strength at different ages

4- Concrete Thermal Diffusivity

5- Cementitious Materials Heat of Hydration

Procedures for each test will be described in the following sections.

Size and Number of Specimens

For each mix different sizes of specimen were prepared.









Hydration Chamber: 2 Hydration Chambers were used to monitor the adiabatic

temperature rise for each mix.

Cylinder molds: These molds are 4"x8" cylinder shaped and are connected to the

Sure Cure System I/O Controller. They are heated by electric heaters to follow

temperature rise of concrete in Hydration Chambers. Six cylinder molds were used for

each mix. Three of the specimens were tested for compressive strength at 14 days along

with three specimens cured at room temperature. The other three specimens were kept in

the moisture room for another 14 days. Three of the specimens cured at room temperature

were also kept in the moisture room for another 14 days. These specimens were tested for

compressive strength at 28 days.

Plastic molds:

6"x]2" Cylinder: Six samples were prepared. Three were used for compressive

strength at 28 days and the other three were used for concrete diffusivity test.

4"x8" Cylinder: Six samples were prepared. All of them were kept in the molds in

room temperature and were covered to prevent moisture loss. At the age of 14 days molds

were stripped. Three specimens were broken for compressive strength test. The other

three specimens were transferred to moisture room and kept for 14 days. As explained

earlier, these specimens were tested for compressive strength at 28 days along with high

temperature cured specimens.

Adiabatic Temperature Rise

Test procedure

As explained earlier in this chapter, Sure Cure System was used to measure the

adiabatic temperature rise.









Laboratory tests

Preparation of mix materials

Concrete materials were prepared a day before the mix date with propitiations

determined in mix design calculations (Figure 3-12). For 730F placing temperature tests,

materials were kept in the laboratory area with a controlled temperature of 72-75F. For

the mixes with 95F placing temperature, fine aggregates were placed in an oven with

200F temperature for 24 hours.

























Figure 3-12 Materials Prepared For The Next Day Test

Concrete mixing and placing stage

For each test a 3 Cubic Feet mix was prepared. As suggested by Hydration

Chamber manufacturer, there should not be a direct contact between concrete and the

chamber's wall. Therefore concrete was placed in a plastic bag which was inside the

chamber (Figure 3-13)


























Figure 3-13 Hydration Chamber

Immediately after concrete placing, Hydration Chambers were connected to the

controller and computer system and temperature recording started. At the same time

concrete was also placed in metal cylinder molds (Figure 3-5) and they were also

connected to the controller and computer. Hydration Chambers and cylinder molds were

placed on a table for the period of temperature rise monitoring (Figure 3-14).


Figure 3-14 Cure Chambers and Metal Molds Connected to the Computer











Temperature rise monitoring stage

Temperature monitoring started immediately after placing concrete in Hydration

Chambers. For first five mixes (73A00P, 73A20F, 73A35F, 73A50S and 73A70S)

temperature rise were monitored for 28 days. It was realized that there is not a significant

temperature gain after the second week, so for the following tests temperature rise was

monitored for 14 days.

At the end of the temperature rise monitoring stage, recorded temperature rise log

was saved for later analysis. Samples from Hydration Chambers were transferred to

moisture room and kept there for future use in microcrack test. Samples from metal

molds were used for compressive strength test.

Field tests

In addition to the laboratory tests, it was necessary to take samples from mass

concrete projects and monitor their temperature rise with hydration Chambers to evaluate

the correlation between the laboratory results and the field temperature readings.

The first step was to find FDOT mass concrete projects throughout the State of

Florida. Different regional offices of FDOT were contacted. Finally Interstate 4 project

was chosen. Test equipment were mounted in a minivan and were ready to be dispatched

to the project site at the notice from the project administrator (Figure 3-15).




























Figure 3-15 Hydration Chambers, Controller and Computer in Minivan

On April 2nd 2004, the first group of samples were taken from Bella Vista Bridge (a

bridge over I-4 west of Memorial Blvd.) footing A in Lakeland. However because of

equipment malfunction temperature monitoring could not be started immediately after

sample placement so the results from this test was not considered reliable. On April 9th,

footing C of the same project was poured, so samples were taken again at this date.

Sample preparation

It was decided to take samples from the center of the concrete pour. This decision

was based on the fact that the middle core of a mass concrete element will most likely

reach the maximum curing temperature, in addition, temperature sensors to monitor

temperature rise of concrete are installed at the center of the pour.

Concrete was poured directly from the truck mixer to a wheel borrow. Immediately

concrete from the wheel borrow was placed in Hydration Chambers. Hydration Chambers

were transferred to the minivan and connected to the controller and the computer. Power

was supplied from minivan through a converter (Figure 3-16)




























Figure 3-16 Cure Chambers in the Minivan

The samples were not moved during the initial set time of the concrete. After four

hours (initial set time) samples were moved to FDOT laboratory located about 140 miles

from the project site. Upon arrival at the FDOT facility, Hydration Chambers, controller,

and the computer were transferred to a stable location and temperature rise was

monitored for 14 days.

Thermal Diffusivity

Test Procedure

The method to measure concrete thermal diffusivity was described in the previous

section. Samples were tested for thermal diffusivity at 90 days age. The method to

measure thermal diffusivity was not identified before the first group of samples was

about 90 days age. To keep the consistency, other samples were tested at this age as well.

Also literature review did not show any indication of the effect of age of concrete on its

thermal diffusivity.









Sample preparation

For each mix three 6"xl2" cylinders were cast. Within each cylinder a wire

thermocouple was placed. Specimens were kept in moisture room before they were tested

for thermal diffusivity.

Heating

Specimens were placed in a heating bath at the age of 90 days. Specimens remained

in the heating bath until their core temperature reached 212F.

















Figure 3-17 Specimens Transferred From Heating Bath to Diffusion Chamber

Cooling

Specimens were then transferred to a diffusion chamber. Diffusion chamber

contained a relatively large body of water and was connected to running water. These

factors kept water temperature constant during concrete cooling period.




























Figure 3-18 Specimens Connected To Temperature Recorder During Cooling Stage


Core temperature of the specimen was recorded in one-minute intervals from the

time specimen was placed in the diffusion chamber until the temperature difference

between the specimen core and water was less than 80F. Temperature drop history was

later used to calculate the thermal diffusivity.

Compressive Strength

Compressive strength test was performed for the specimens with different ages and

sizes as mentioned in previous sections according to ASTM C39.

Test Procedure

Sample preparation

In total, 18 samples were cast for compressive strength tests. All specimens were

placed in molds after placing concrete in Cure Chambers.

Testing of samples

Samples were tested at 2 different ages: 14 and 28 days.









14-Day tests

Two groups of specimens were tested at this age. Each group consisted of three

4"x8" cylinders. The first group was cured in high temperature. The second group was

kept in molds in room temperature. Test results for two groups were compared to study

the effect of high curing temperature on compressive strength.

28-Day tests

Two series of tests were performed at this age. The first series of tests included two

groups of specimens. Each group consisted of three 4"x8" cylinders. The first group was

cured in high temperature for 14 days and was then cured in moisture room for another

14 days. The second group was kept in molds in room temperature and later was moved

to the moisture room and was kept there for additional 14 days. Test results for two

groups were compared to study the effect of high curing temperature on compressive

strength. For the second series, three 6"x12" samples were cured in moisture room and

were tested at 28 days age.

Heat of Hydration

Two series of Heat of Hydration tests were performed by CTL in August 2003 and

April 2004. ASTM C186 method was used to determine Heat of Hydration at 7 and 28

days.

Test Series I

In the first series four samples of plain cement (from four different sources) and

samples of fly ash and blast furnace slag were sent to CTL laboratory in Illinois to

perform the test. The results of Heat of Hydration tests were used to choose the two

cement sources to use for mix preparation. Also to study the correlation of Heat of









Hydration and maximum adiabatic temperature rise, blends of 80% cement A with 20%

fly ash and 50% cement A with 50% slag were tested for Heat of Hydration.

Test Series II

The first supply of cement A was finished during the test period due to the

repetition of some of the test mixes. It was necessary to measure Heat of Hydration for a

new supply of cement A. Therefore, sample of this cement was sent to CTL to perform

Heat of Hydration test. Along with the cement sample, fly ash and slag samples were also

sent to CTL. In this series, Heat of Hydration of cement A, 65% cement A with 35% fly

ash and 30% cement A with 70% slag was determined.














CHAPTER 4
TEST RESULTS

Introduction

This chapter provides the results of the various tests performed to measure the

properties of mass concrete mixes. Mixture properties can be found in the first section.

The second section provides fresh concrete properties measured for each mix. The heat of

hydration data, as reported by CTL is shown in the third section. In the forth section the

temperature of concrete samples recorded by Sure Cure system as well as adiabatic

temperature rise curves for different mixes are shown. In the fifth section results for the

thermal diffusivity tests are presented. In this section a sample calculation to determine

the thermal diffusivity of concrete is also shown. In the last section of the chapter,

compressive strength tests results are presented.

Mixture Properties

In Table 4-1 mixture properties of different test mixes are shown. The proportions

of cement, pozzolanic materials (fly ash or blast furnace slag), water, fine aggregate,

coarse aggregate, air entertainer and admixture for each mix can be found in this table.

Darex air entertainer and WARDA 56 water reducer were used in all of the mixes.













Table 4-1 Concrete Mixture Properties
FDOT Class IV (5500 psi)
(Mix proportions per cubic yard)

Mix Cement Fly Ash Slag Water Fine Coarse Air Admixtu
No. Designation ( ( ( l Aggregate Aggregate Entertainer re
Designation (lb) (lb) (lb) (lb) (b) (b) (o) (oz)
1 73A00P 760.00 0.00 0.00 279.00 1033.00 1736.00 2.30 68.20
2 73A20F 608.00 152.00 0.00 279.00 1033.00 1708.00 4.00 68.20
3 73A35F 494.00 266.00 0.00 279.00 980.00 1687.00 4.00 68.20
4 73A50S 380.00 0.00 380.00 279.00 1021.00 1724.00 2.30 68.20
5 73A70S 228.00 0.00 532.00 279.00 1021.00 1724.00 2.30 68.20
6 73B00P 760.00 0.00 0.00 279.00 1033.00 1736.00 2.30 45.65
7 73B20F 608.00 152.00 0.00 279.00 1033.00 1708.00 4.00 45.65
8 73B35F 494.00 266.00 0.00 279.00 980.00 1687.00 4.00 45.65
9 73B50S 380.00 0.00 380.00 279.00 1021.00 1724.00 2.30 68.20
10 73B70S 228.00 0.00 532.00 279.00 1021.00 1724.00 2.30 30.40
11 95A00P 760.00 0.00 0.00 279.00 1033.00 1736.00 2.30 60.86
12 95A20F 608.00 152.00 0.00 279.00 1033.00 1708.00 4.00 68.20
13 95A35F 494.00 266.00 0.00 279.00 980.00 1687.00 4.00 60.86
14 95A50S 380.00 0.00 380.00 279.00 1021.00 1724.00 2.30 25.87
15 95A70S 228.00 0.00 532.00 279.00 1021.00 1724.00 2.30 68.20
16 95BOOP 760.00 0.00 0.00 279.00 1033.00 1736.00 2.30 60.86
17 95B20F 608.00 152.00 0.00 279.00 1033.00 1708.00 4.00 30.40
18 95B35F 494.00 266.00 0.00 279.00 980.00 1687.00 4.00 68.20
19 95B50S 380.00 0.00 380.00 279.00 1021.00 1724.00 2.30 38.06
20 95B70S 228.00 0.00 532.00 279.00 1021.00 1724.00 2.30 68.20









Fresh Concrete Properties

Table 4-2 shows the results of Slump and Air Content tests. The slump tests were

performed in accordance with ASTM C143. The objective was to maintain the slump in

3"1 '2". Air Content tests were run according to ASTM C231. Air temperature and mix

temperature were measured at the time of placing concrete in hydration Chambers. Water

to Cementitious Material Ratio was calculated using following equation:

WCr= Ww / W Equation 4-1

Where:

WCr= Water to Cementitious Material Ratio

Ww= Weight of Water in lbs from Table 4-1

W,= Weight of Total Cementitious Materials (Cement + Fly Ash or Slag) in lbs

from Table 4-1

Weight of Total Cementitious Materials (Cement + Fly Ash or Slag) and water was

constant, therefore WCr equal to 0.37 in all mixes.

Unit weight was calculated by dividing the summation of all materials weights

from Table 4-1 by mix volume. For example unit weight of mix 73A00P was calculated

as follows:

Weight of Cement = 760 lbs

Weight of Water = 279 lbs

Weight of Fine Aggregate = 1033 lbs

Weight of Coarse Aggregate = 1736 lbs

Weight of Air Entertainer + Admixture = 2.3+68.20 = 70.50 oz = 4.41 lbs

Total of Weight of Mix Materials = 3812.41 lbs Mix Volume = 1 CY = 27 CF











-> Mix Density = 3812.41 lb/CY = 141.2 lb/CF


Table 4-2 Fresh Concrete Properties
Air Mix Water to
No Mix Slump Content Temp. Air Temp. Cementitious Unit Weight
(in.) ( (F) Material Ratio (lb/CF)
(0/ (OF)
1 73A00P 2.75 4.25 73 72 0.37 141.2
2 73A20F 2.00 2.75 73 72 0.37 140.2
3 73A35F 3.25 2.25 72 72 0.37 137.4
4 73A50S 3.50 3.75 81 80 0.37 140.3
5 73A70S 1.75 3.25 74 72 0.37 140.2
6 73B00P 7.25 3.25 73 72 0.37 141.1
7 73B20F 6.50 3.50 73 75 0.37 140.1
8 73B35F 6.00 2.00 75 72 0.37 137.4
9 73B50S 3.50 3.25 73 73 0.37 140.3
10 73B70S 3.75 3.00 73 72 0.37 140.2
11 95A00P 3.25 3.25 93 72 0.37 141.2
12 95A20F 2.75 2.25 95 72 0.37 140.2
13 95A35F 4.00 1.75 94 68 0.37 137.4
14 95A50S 3.50 2.25 96 70 0.37 140.3
15 95A70S 1.75 2.75 93 72 0.37 140.2
16 95BOOP 4.25 5.50 99 73 0.37 141.1
17 95B20F 1.75 2.25 98 70 0.37 140.1
18 95B35F 0.50 2.00 101 70 0.37 137.4
19 95B50S 3.00 3.50 101 70 0.37 140.3
20 95B70S 2.75 2.50 101 72 0.37 140.2
Repeated Tests
21 73A00P-R 3.75 3.50 73 72 0.37 141.2
22 73A20F-R 3.75 2.00 74 73 0.37 140.2
23 73A35F-R 3.50 2.25 74 72 0.37 137.4
24 73A50S-R 3.75 2.75 68 68 0.37 140.3
25 73A70S-R 3.00 2.50 69 70 0.37 140.2
26 73B50S-R 3.00 3.50 73 73 0.37 140.3
27 73B70S-R 2.50 3.50 74 72 0.37 140.2
28 95A70S-R 3.25 2.50 97 72 0.37 140.2











Heat of Hydration

Heat of Hydration test results are shown in Tables 4-3 and 4-4 as reported by CTL.

Two samples of cement from Florida Rock Industries Newberry plant were submitted to

CTL. The heat of Hydration of the second sample was higher than the first sample. This

shows that heats of hydration of deferent batches of cements even from the same plant

varies.

Table 4-3 Heat of Hydration Test Results for Cement
No C t S e Heat of Hydration Heat of Hydration
No Cement Source @ 7 days (cal/g) @ 28 days (cal/g)

1 Florida Rock Ind. (Sample 1) 66.2 84.1
(Newberry)
2 Florida Rock Ind. (Sample 2) 76.7 91.3
(Newberry)
3 Rinker 77.6 88.2
(Miami)
4 Florida mining and materials 78.2 94.4
(Cemex in Brooksville)
5 Tarmac 80.0 95.1
(Miami)

Table 4-4 Heat of Hydration for Cement and Pozzolanic Material Blends
Heat of Hydration Heat of Hydration
No Cement Source @ 7 days (cal/g) @ 28 days (cal/g)

20% Fly ash
80 % Florida Rock Ind. Sample 1 56.8 68.9
50% Slag
50 % Florida Rock Ind. Sample 1 59.2 75.9
35% Fly ash
65 % Florida Rock Ind. Sample 2 61.4 65.4
70%0 Slag
4 Florida Rock d. Sample 247.5 58.6
30 % Florida Rock Ind. Sample 2









Adiabatic Temperature Rise

In this section test results for adiabatic temperature rise of different mixes are

presented. For each mix, temperature was monitored immediately after placing concrete

in Cure Chamber. To calculate temperature rise, initial temperature reading as recorded

by the computer was deducted from succeeding temperature readings. After calculating

the temperature rise for data from each Cure Chamber, numbers were averaged. Data was

recorded every six minutes for 14 days. In Tables 4-5 to 4-8 temperature rise data of the

different mixes are reported for every 12 hours. For the first five mixes, data was

recorded for 28 days. Tests were repeated for the following mixes: 73A00P, 73A20F,

73A35F, 73A50S, 73A70S, 73B50S, 73B70S and 95A705.

Laboratory Tests

Test results are divided into four groups based on cement source and placing

temperature. The results for each group are presented in a separate table.

Cement A with 73F Placing Temperature

Tests started with mixes 73A00P and 73A20F. The second group of mixes that

were tested consisted of mixes 73A35F and 73A50S. An Equipment malfunction

occurred during the second run of tests that halted the data recording for mix 73A35F In

the third group of tests, mixes 73A35F and 73A70S were tested. These mixes were

monitored for 28 days, while the temperature rise was recorded. Continuous temperature

rise with a relatively high rate was noticed which was unexpected. The manufacturer of

the Sure Cure system was contacted for advice. The manufacturer suggested adjusting

one of the control parameters of the Sure Cure system in a way that always 1.5 to 2.0

degrees of Fahrenheit temperature difference between heaters and core temperature is

kept. The logic behind this provision is that there is a good possibility that if the heaters









are set to reach the exact same temperature as that of the sample core, due to small size of

the sample, extra heat is transferred to sample core. This extra heat, which is not

generated by cement hydration, causes core temperature to rise. A rise in core

temperature is relayed to the controller software and software in turn orders the heaters to

warm up to keep sample's outer surface in a same temperature as the core. When heaters

start working again, extra heat is transferred to the core and the procedure repeats. These

events form a cycle of heating and thus a continuous temperature rise would be recorded.

The proceeding tests were run in accordance with this suggestion. To keep the

consistency in the results, it was decided to repeat the test for the first five mixes.

As it is shown in Figure 4-4, the second run of test for the mix 73A50S reached the

maximum temperature rise of 97.10 F, which is even higher than the maximum

temperature rise of the mix 73A00P without any pozzolanic material. The only

explanation for this unexpected result is the test equipment or controller software

malfunction. This set of data was not considered reliable.













Table 4-5 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete with Cement A and 73F
Placing Temperature
Concrete with Cement A (730F Placing Temperature)
Time Plain Cement 20% Fly Ash 35% Fly Ash 50% Slag 70% Slag
(Day) Temp Rise Temp Rise Temp Rise Temp Rise Temp Rise Temp Rise Temp Rise Temp Rse Temp Rise Temp Rise
(F) (F) (F) (F) (F) (F) (F) (F) (F) (F)
1 Test 2d Test I Test 2d Test I Test 2d Test I Test 2d Test I Test 2d Test
0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.5 9.40 34.50 5.60 21.60 4.00 6.80 4.50 19.90 13.45 10.70
1.0 36.80 60.80 19.30 49.10 24.20 34.00 22.90 40.50 31.50 23.15
1.5 60.00 70.25 35.90 61.20 42.30 48.40 47.00 61.40 56.20 42.40
2.0 80.00 75.45 55.20 66.90 52.55 56.00 69.10 75.80 68.10 57.50
2.5 87.00 79.05 66.70 71.50 58.95 61.00 80.00 83.10 73.53 64.10
3.0 93.40 81.60 75.70 75.50 64.95 66.00 83.70 86.70 76.20 67.05
3.5 95.90 83.50 82.00 78.80 69.63 70.40 85.50 88.90 77.65 69.20
4.0 97.50 85.05 84.70 80.80 72.35 73.40 86.50 90.40 78.75 70.60
4.5 98.60 86.55 86.10 82.00 73.80 75.50 87.40 91.80 79.78 71.10
5.0 99.50 87.65 87.00 82.60 74.90 77.10 87.90 93.00 80.53 71.10
5.5 100.20 88.60 87.60 83.20 75.83 78.30 88.30 93.80 81.15 71.10
6.0 100.70 89.55 88.10 83.80 76.48 79.30 88.30 94.70 81.60 71.10
6.5 101.30 90.30 88.70 83.80 77.30 80.00 88.40 95.20 81.63 71.10
7.0 101.10 91.05 88.60 84.10 77.83 80.80 88.20 95.80 82.18 71.10
7.5 101.50 91.60 88.80 84.10 78.38 81.40 88.30 96.20 81.95 71.10
8.0 101.30 92.05 88.70 84.00 79.08 81.50 88.50 96.50 82.15 71.10
8.5 102.00 92.10 89.00 84.20 79.23 81.80 88.50 96.90 82.50 71.10
9.0 102.30 92.15 89.30 84.20 79.65 81.60 88.60 97.00 82.73 71.10
9.5 102.60 92.15 89.70 84.30 79.95 81.70 88.70 97.10 82.98 71.10
10.0 103.00 92.15 90.00 84.30 80.30 81.80 88.70 97.10 83.25 71.10
10.5 103.30 92.20 90.40 84.30 80.75 81.90 88.70 97.10 83.15 71.10
11.0 103.60 92.25 90.70 84.30 81.05 81.90 88.80 97.10 83.35 71.10
11.5 103.90 92.25 91.00 84.40 81.33 82.00 89.00 97.10 83.65 71.10
12.0 104.30 92.30 91.30 84.40 81.65 82.10 88.90 97.10 83.75 71.10
12.5 104.50 92.40 91.60 84.40 81.65 82.10 88.90 97.10 83.75 71.10
13.0 104.80 92.45 91.90 84.40 81.65 82.30 88.90 97.10 83.75 71.10
13.5 104.90 92.60 92.10 84.40 81.65 82.20 88.90 97.10 83.75 71.10
14.0 105.00 92.60 92.20 84.40 81.65 82.10 88.90 97.10 83.75 71.10













Cement A
Adiabatic Temperature Rise (730F Placing Temperature)


--Plain Cement
--20% Fly Ash
-A-35% Fly Ash


0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Time (Day)



Figure 4-1 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different
Percentages of Fly Ash (First Run)


Cement A
Adiabatic Temperature Rise (730F Placing Temperature)


-- Plain Cement
--50% Slag
--70% Slag


0 2 4 6 8
Time (Day)


10 12 14


Figure 4-2 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different
Percentages of Slag (First Run)


100

L-
. 80
ah

60


E 40
I-


120


100


80


60

a
a.
E 40
I-












Cement A
Adiabatic Temperature Rise (730F Placing Temperature)


- Plain Cement
-*-20% Fly Ash
-A-35% Fly Ash


0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Time (Day)


Figure 4-3 Temperature Rise for Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages of
Fly Ash (Second Run)




Cement A
Adiabatic Temperature Rise (730F Placing Temperature)


---Plain Cement
--50% Slag
-A-70% Slag


0 2 4 6 8
Time (Day)


10 12 14


Figure 4-4 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different
Percentages of Slag (Second Run)











Cement B with 73F Placing Temperature


In Table 4-1 temperature rise data for mixes with cement B and 73F placing

temperature is presented. Test for mixes 73B50S and 73B70S were repeated because the

first set of collected temperature rise records was stopped after 7.5 days due to equipment

malfunction.

Table 4-1 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete With Cement B and 73F
Placing Temperature
Concrete with Cement B (730F Placing Temperature)
Time Plain Cement 20% 0Fly Ash 35% OFlyAsh 50% Slag 70% Slag
(Day) F) Temp se (F Temp se Temp Rise (OF) Temp Rise (OF) Temp Rise (F) Temp Rise (OF)
Temp RIse (F) Temp RIse (F Temp RIse (F
1 Test 2nd Test 1 Test 2nd Test
0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0.00 0.00
0.5 28.90 15.50 25.10 23.85 20.07 13.85 15.65
1.0 69.85 61.10 45.40 47.30 49.95 32.30 40.00
1.5 80.10 74.75 54.20 68.15 67.51 57.00 61.22
2.0 84.40 82.70 60.00 78.15 72.48 67.80 66.52
2.5 87.65 87.35 64.10 83.65 75.48 73.40 69.39
3.0 90.60 88.25 67.60 87.05 77.91 76.55 71.57
3.5 92.70 90.00 70.00 87.95 79.89 77.95 73.48
4.0 94.50 91.35 71.80 88.55 81.47 79.25 74.96
4.5 95.85 92.35 73.00 88.75 82.85 80.20 76.35
5.0 97.15 93.20 74.00 88.75 83.86 81.55 77.22
5.5 98.10 93.75 74.50 88.75 84.47 82.05 77.65
6.0 99.05 94.35 75.10 88.75 85.05 82.25 78.05
6.5 99.95 94.70 75.40 88.75 85.35 82.80 78.05
7.0 100.80 95.30 75.80 88.75 85.63 82.80 78.05
7.5 101.60 95.75 76.00 88.75 85.90 82.80 78.05
8.0 102.45 96.05 76.20 86.18 78.05
8.5 102.85 96.05 76.50 86.32 78.05
9.0 103.30 96.15 76.60 86.47 78.05
9.5 103.65 96.10 76.80 86.58 78.05
10.0 104.20 96.25 77.00 86.77 78.05
10.5 104.35 96.30 77.10 86.82 78.05
11.0 104.55 96.30 77.30 86.88 78.05
11.5 104.70 96.45 77.40 86.93 78.05
12.0 104.90 96.45 77.50 87.00 78.05
12.5 105.20 96.60 77.60 87.10 78.05
13.0 105.45 96.65 77.50 87.18 78.05
13.5 105.60 96.80 77.70 87.23 78.05
14.0 105.95 96.95 78.30 87.35 78.05








66




Cement B
(730F Placing Tem perature)
Adiabatic Temperature Rise


- Plain Cement
-*-20% Fly Ash
-*-35% Fly Ash


4 6 8 10 12 14
Time (Day)


Figure 4-5 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different
Percentages of Fly Ash



Cement B
(73F Placing Temperature)
Adiabatic Temperature Rise

120


100


80I- -I L

SI --Plain Cement
60 - I -*-50% Slag
-A-70% Slag


0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Time (Day)


Figure 4-6 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different
Percentages of Slag (First Run)








67




Cement B
(73F Placing Temperature)
Adiabatic Temperature Rise


- Plain Cement
-*-50% Slag
-&--70% Slag


0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Time (Day)


Figure 4-7 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different
Percentages of Slag (Second Run)



Cement A
(950F Placing Temperature)
Adiabatic Temperature Rise


--Plain Cement
--20% Fly Ash
-A-35% Fly Ash


0 2 4 6 8
Time (Day)


10 12 14


Figure 4-8 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different
Percentages of Fly Ash


120


100


80


| 60

E
- 40


20


0










Cement A with 95F Placing Temperature


Five mixes were made with cement A with placing temperature ranging from 93F

to 960F (See Table 4-2). The first run of the test for the mix 95A70S showed unexpected

results. Temperature rise in the first 24 hours was only about 6F which is much lower

than similar mixes. It was decided to run this test again. The results of both tests are

presented in Table 4-2,Figures 4-9 and 4-10.

Table 4-2 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete with Cement A and 95F
Placing Temperature
Concrete with Cement A (950F Placing Temperature)
Time Plain Cement 20% Fly Ash 35% Fly Ash 50% Slag 70% Slag
(Day) Temp Rise (F) Temp Rise (F) Temp Rise (F) Temp Rise (F) Temp Rise (F) Temp Rise (F)
1" Test 2n Test
0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.5 17.75 8.95 4.80 19.30 5.10 4.30
1.0 61.00 40.75 26.50 54.50 5.30 16.80
1.5 77.85 63.15 46.95 82.70 12.40 49.50
2.0 87.40 76.95 60.80 91.00 42.80 57.70
2.5 91.00 85.45 75.50 92.20 56.05 60.50
3.0 92.20 88.85 80.90 92.20 58.85 62.10
3.5 92.40 90.10 82.90 92.20 60.15 63.60
4.0 92.40 90.30 84.00 92.20 61.00 64.40
4.5 92.40 90.60 84.40 92.30 61.55 65.40
5.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 62.30 66.10
5.5 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 62.50 66.70
6.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 63.15 67.10
6.5 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 63.25 67.50
7.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 63.40 67.90
7.5 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 63.75 68.20
8.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 63.80 68.60
8.5 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 63.95 68.90
9.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.05 69.00
9.5 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 69.30
10.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 69.40
10.5 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 69.60
11.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 69.80
11.5 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 69.90
12.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 70.10
12.5 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 70.10
13.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 70.40
13.5 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 70.50
14.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 70.80








69




Cement A
(950F Placing Tem perature)
Adiabatic Temperature Rise


--Plain Cement
-*-50% Slag
----70% Slag


0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Time (Day)


Figure 4-9 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different
Percentages of Slag


Cement A
(95F Placing Temperature)
Adiabatic Temperature Rise


---Plain Cement
-A-70% Slag First Run
--70% Slag Second Run


0 2 4 6 8
Time (Day)


10 12 14


Figure 4-10 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different
Percentages of Slag (First & Second Run)


120


100 +


80 -


20 -1


7r -- I -
- ~ ^ l _ _ ^ _










Cement B with 95F Placing Temperature


In Table 4-3 temperature rise data for mixes with cement B and 95F placing

temperature is presented. A review of test results and Figures 4-11 and 4-12 shows that

temperature rise for the mix without pozzolanic material was very slow in the first 12

hours.

Table 4-3 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete with Cement B and 95F
Placing Temperature

Time Concrete with Cement B (950F Placing Temperature)
(Day) Plain Cement 20% Fly Ash 35% Fly Ash 50% Slag 70% Slag
Temp Rise (F) Temp Rise (F) Temp Rise (F) Temp Rise (F) Temp Rise (OF)
0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.5 2.60 56.80 50.35 58.60 45.00
1.0 72.15 72.90 61.90 76.70 69.40
1.5 84.20 77.40 67.85 80.70 73.90
2.0 85.60 77.60 68.90 81.80 76.30
2.5 85.65 77.60 69.20 82.00 77.90
3.0 85.95 77.60 69.30 82.00 78.90
3.5 85.95 77.60 69.60 82.00 79.50
4.0 85.95 77.60 69.90 82.00 79.90
4.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90
5.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90
5.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90
6.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90
6.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90
7.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90
7.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90
8.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90
8.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90
9.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90
9.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90
10.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90
10.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90
11.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90
11.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90
12.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90
12.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90
13.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90
13.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90
14.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90






71



Cement B
(950F Placing Temperature)
Adiabatic Temperature Rise


--Plain Cement
----20% Fly Ash
-*-35% Fly Ash


0 2 4 6 8
Time (Day)


10 12 14


Figure 4-11 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different
Percentages of Fly Ash



Cement B
(950F Placing Temperature)
Adiabatic Temperature Rise

120

100

80 _
S0 ---Plain Cement
60 --- -*-50% Slag
I I -A-70% Slag


40 -


Li


0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Time (Day)

Figure 4-12 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different
Percentages of Slag


100

80


A_ 1 1 1 A


20 +


L









Field Tests

In Table 4-6 the temperature rise readings for two series of tests run on samples

from a mass concrete pour are presented. The samples were taken from footings of Bella

Vista Bridge (a bridge over I-4 west of Memorial Blvd.) in Lakeland, Florida. Due to the

malfunction of computer system, it was not possible to monitor the temperature rise in

samples immediately after concrete placing. It was decided to bring back the samples

after placing in Cure Chambers to the FDOT laboratory in Gainesville. The samples were

moved while they were fresh and were not connected to the controller for about 2 hours.

These two factors may affect the heat generation, although it is not proven. However,

comparing the results from the first and the second tests do not show a significant

difference. For the first sample, temperature rise was 26.000F in the first 12 hours, while

the second sample gained 25.650F during the same period. Both samples continued to

generate heat with the same rate in the following days. The first sample was monitored

for 6 days. After six days, test equipment was needed for the second run of field tests,

therefore temperature rise monitoring was stopped.

Concrete for both samples was mixed according to FDOT approved mix design No.

01-0632 with 360 lb/yd3 of Type II cement from Florida Rock Newberry (Same source as

cement A used in laboratory tests) and 360 lb/yd3 slag (See Table 4-4). The sample

temperature was 700F for the first test and 720F for the second one.

Table 4-4 Mix Pro portions of Field Test Samples
Coarse Air
Mix Cement Fly Ash Slag Water Fine Aggregate a e rt Admixture
SDesignation (lb/CY) (lb/CY) (lb/CY) (lb/CY) (lb/CY) Ag(lb/C (oz/C) (oz/CY)
(lb/CY) (oz/CY)
1 Site50S-1 360.00 0.00 360.00 252.00 1168.00 1708.00 5.00 28.8
2 Site50S-2 360.00 0.00 360.00 260.00 1140.00 1696.00 5.00 28.8
















Table 4-5 Fresh Concrete Properties of Field Test Samples
Water to
No Mix Slump Air Content Mix Temp. Air Temp. cementitious Unit Weight
(in.) (%) (OF) (OF) Material Ratio (lb/CF)

1 Site50S-1 3.00 3.00 70 68 0.35 142.6
2 Site50S-2 3.25 3.00 72 71 0.38 141.4


Table 4-6 Adiabatic Temrerature Rise for Samples Taken from the Field
Time Temp Rise (F) Temp Rise (F)
(Day) 1" Test (Site50S-1) 2nd Test (Site50S-2)
0.0 0.00 0.00
0.5 26.00 24.65
1.0 43.80 41.95
1.5 62.60 59.50
2.0 74.03 69.75
2.5 79.66 75.20
3.0 82.54 78.60
3.5 84.32 81.10
4.0 85.58 83.00
4.5 86.65 84.55
5.0 87.56 85.95
5.5 88.29 87.25
6.0 88.92 88.26
6.5 89.15
7.0 89.94
7.5 90.75
8.0 91.23
8.5 91.65
9.0 91.98
9.5 92.10
10.0 92.15
10.5 92.17
11.0 92.18
11.5 92.18
12.0 92.18
12.5 92.18
13.0 92.18
13.5 92.18
14.0 92.18















U-
c i
S70











Time (Day)
Figure 4-13 Temperature Rise for Field Test Samples
2 0
50


20
10


Time (Day)


Figure 4-13 Temperature Rise for Field Test Samples




Thermal Diffusivity

In Table 4-7 thermal diffusivity values for different test mixes are shown. These

numbers were calculated based on method presented in Chapter 3.

In Figure 4-14 thermal diffusivity of cements A and B with different placing

temperatures and percentage of pozzolanic materials are drawn. As it is shown, three of

the curves follow the same pattern while one curve (Cement A 730F placing temperature)

has a very different pattern. All of the diffusivity tests were run with the same apparatus

and under the same condition except the first three tests (73AOOP, 73A20F and 73A50S;

shown in bold letters in Table 4-7). For the first three tests a smaller diffusing chamber

(Figure 4-15) was used compared to the diffusivity chamber used for other tests (Figure

4-16). The smaller body of water in the first diffusivity chamber has a lower capacity to

absorb heat from the concrete samples. It therefore takes longer for the samples to cool

down. A longer cool down time leads to a smaller diffusivity number. This fact explains

the different shape of curve for cement A with 730F placing temperature. As mentioned










earlier, three of the points in this curve were results of the test with a different apparatus

while other two points (35% and 70%) were calculated based on data collected from a

test with the larger diffusion chamber. Because of this flaw in the test procedure,

diffusivity numbers for mixes 73A00P, 73A20F and 73A50S are not comparable to the

other results and are lower than the actual diffusivity numbers. In Figure 4-14, it can be

seen that mixes with higher percentage of pozzolanic material have a lower diffusivity

number.


Table 4-7 Thermal Diffusivity of Concrete Samples


73A00P 0.72 0.030
73A20F 0.70 0.029
73A35F 0.79 0.033
73A50S 0.69 0.029
73A70S 0.77 0.032
73B00P 0.82 0.034
73B20F 0.82 0.034
73B35F 0.80 0.033
73B50S 0.73 0.030
73B70S 0.71 0.030
95A00P 0.82 0.034
95A20F 0.81 0.034
95A35F 0.77 0.032
95A50S 0.76 0.031
95A70S 0.76 0.032
95B00P 0.79 0.033
95B20F 0.79 0.033
95B35F 0.79 0.033
95B50S 0.75 0.031
95B70S 0.73 0.031


Mix
Designation


Diffusivity
(ft2/day)


Diffusivity
(ft2/hr)













0.825


0.800
*S )-


N 0.775
-

' 0.750


(5
-


E 0.725 -

I-

0.700


0.675
0%


60% 70%


- -..- Cement A 730F Placing Temperature Cement B 730F Pacing Temperature
- Cement A 950 F Placing Temperature e Cement B 950 F Pacing Temperature


Figure 4-14


Thermal Diffusivity of Concrete Samples with Different Percentage of
Pozzolanic Materials


Figure 4-15 Small Diffusion Chamber


10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
Percentage of Pozzolanic Material


Figure 4-16 Large Diffusion Chamber











Calculation Example for Concrete Thermal Diffusivity

In this section thermal diffusivity calculation method for mix 73BOOP is presented.

Based on the data in Table 4-8 the elapsed time between the moment that temperature


difference is 800F to the moment that it is 200F equals to 23.98 minutes. Thermal


diffusivity for the mix is calculated as follows:

Thermal Diffusivity = a = 0.812278/(ti t2) and (ti t2)=23.98 minutes


-> a= 0.812278/23.98 = 0.034 ft2/hr = 0.81 ft2/day 4


Table 4-8 History of Temperature Difference Between Concrete Specimen Core and
Water
Temperature Temperature
Time Difference Between Time Difference Between
(Minutes) Specimen and Water (Minutes) Specimen and Water
(F) (F)
1 84.0 14 40.3
2 79.8 15 38.0
3 75.4 16 35.7
4 71.3 17 33.7
5 67.4 18 31.7
6 63.7 19 30.0
7 60.4 20 28.3
8 57.0 21 26.8
9 53.9 22 25.4
10 51.1 23 23.8
11 48.0 24 22.3
12 45.6 25 21.0
13 42.9 26 19.7







78


Compressive Strength

Compressive strength tests were performed at different specimen ages and with

4"x8" or 6"x12" specimens. Compressive strength test results of 4"x8" specimens are

modified to be comparable to results from tests with 6"xl2" specimens.

In Table 4-9 test results for high temperature cured specimens are presented. For

each mix 3 specimens were broken and the average number is reported. In Table 4-10 test

results for room temperature cured specimens are shown. These numbers are also the

average of results from three tests.

Table 4-9 Compressive Strength of High Temperature Cured Concrete Specimens
Compressive Max. Compressive Max.
Mix Strength Age Temp Strength Age Temp
(Day) (Day)
(psi) (OF) (psi) (OF)
73A00P 7283 28 200.0 7417 28 190.0
73A20F 7930 28 180.0 7255 28 200.0
73A35F 7496 28 164.4 7428 28 154.1
73A50S 7846 28 170.0 7986 28 198.0
73A70S 8216 28 158.2 7055 28 150.8
73B00P 5679 15 181.9 5051 28 175.8
73B20F 6854 15 181.4 6508 28 171.5
73B35F 6702 15 151.9 6462 28 153.0
73B50S 7595 15 161.8 7433 28 164.4
73B70S 7431 15 155.8 7324 28 159.7
95A00P 7482 15 185.4 8623 28 190.2
95A20F 7671 15 185.6 7395 28 192.1
95A35F 6056 15 179.0 5182 28 189.8
95A50S 7334 15 186.2 6698 28 190.4
95A70S 8553 15 152.7 6378 28 161.8
95BOOP 7369 15 184.6 6868 28 185.3
95B20F 8052 15 167.5 7114 28 183.7
95B35F 7287 15 170.8 6711 28 171.1
95B50S 7251 15 177.8 6843 28 188.2
95B70S 8332 15 173.9 7541 28 187.9
73A00P-R 7080 15 163.7 7391 28 167.5
73A20F-R 8675 15 157.2 8055 28 159.6
73A35F-R 8150 15 152 7980 28 160.2
73A50S-R 7946 15 163.2 7311 28 167.0
73A70S-R 8369 15 136.5 8485 28 143.7
73B50S-R 8862 15 150.1 9145 28 159.3
73B70S-R 8332 15 154 8710 28 150.1
95A70S-R 8716 15 164.5 9635 28 171.1










Table 4-10 Compressive Strength of Room Temperature Cured Concrete Specimens
Compressive Max. Compressive Max.
Mix Strength Age Temp Strength Age Temp
(Day) (Day)
(psi) (OF) (psi) ((F)
73A00P 8985 28 80 8584 28 80
73A20F 8436 28 80 8854 28 80
73A35F 7441 28 80 -
73A50S 9308 28 75 -
73A70S 8036 28 75 -
73B00P 6705 15 75 6906 28 75
73B20F 7292 15 75 7372 28 75
73B35F 6174 15 74 7040 28 74
73B50S 7101 15 73 7960 28 73
73B70S 6997 15 75 7909 28 75
95A00P 8239 15 93 8394 28 93
95A20F 7065 15 95 8392 28 95
95A35F 4951 15 94 7565 28 94
95A50S 7252 15 96 8107 28 96
95A70S 7360 15 93 7213 28 93
95B00P 7306 15 99 9025 28 99
95B20F 7902 15 98 8172 28 98
95B35F 6754 15 101 8394 28 101
95B50S 8118 15 101 8392 28 101
95B70S 8028 15 101 7565 28 101
73A00P-R 7395 15 75 8180 28 75
73A20F-R 7108 15 75 8132 28 75
73A35F-R 6522 15 75 7654 28 75
73A50S-R 6435 15 75 7690 28 75
73A70S-R 7413 15 76 8181 28 76
73B50S-R 8107 15 75 9124 28 75
73B70S-R 7224 15 75 9131 28 75
95A70S-R 8871 15 97 7819 28 97


In Figures 4-17 through 4-24 changes in compressive strength for different mixes

with different curing temperatures are shown. First four figures show the data for

compressive strength at 15 days age, while the other figures show compressive strength


for specimens with 28 days age.










































Figure 4-17


9000

8500

8000

S7500 -
00 ----73A00P-R
S7000 -- 73A20F-R
i/ ----73A35F-R
S6500 -73A50S-R
-- -73A70S-R
6000
E
0
5500

5000

4500
60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Curing Temperature (*F)



Compressive Strength for Concrete Specimens with Cement A and 730F
Placing Temperature at 15 Days Age


Figure 4-18 Compressive Strength for Concrete Specimens with Cement B and 73 F
Placing Temperature at 15 Days Age


9500

9000

8500 -

Z 8000 1 ----73BOOP
0 -U- 73B20F
| 7500 ,
---a--73B35F
7000 '. x --73B50S
6500 -x- 73B50S-R
us 6500
E -----73B70S
E 6000 -D- 73B70S-R

5500

5000

4500
60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Curing Temperature (*F)










































Figure 4-19


9500

9000

8500 "

' 8000
S80 ----95A00P

S7500 --- 95A20F
0---0 95A35F
S7000
S / 0--> -95A50S
6500 ---95A70S
-- 95A70S-R
E 6000 X
o
0
5500

5000

4500
60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Curing Temperature (F)



Compressive Strength for Concrete Specimens with Cement A and 950F
Placing Temperature at 15 Days Age



9000

8500

8000

7500 -
_"_ c 9--- 5BOOP
S7000 -- 95B20F
3-- --95B35F
S6500 --- -95B50S
w -- --95B70S
6000
E
0
5500

5000

4500
60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Curing Temperature (F)


Figure 4-20 Compressive Strength for Concrete Specimens with Cement B and 950 F
Placing Temperature at 15 Days Age










































Figure 4-21 Compressive Strength for Concrete Specimens with Cement A and 730 F
Placing Temperature at 28 Days Age


Figure 4-22 Compressive Strength for Concrete Specimens with Cement B and 730 F
Placing Temperature at 28 Days Age


9500


9000 --
-73A00P
*- m-- 73A00P-R
S8500 ---73A20F
I -x. -73A20F-R
S- -- -- 73A35F
5 8000 --
S----73A35F-R
73A50S
| 7500 ----- 73A50S-R
O 73A70S
-- 73A70S-R
7000


6500
60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200


Curing Temperature (F)


9500

9000

8500

' 8000 ----.,73BOOP
5 ---73B20F
S7500 -
T -x- 73B35F
5 7000 -- 73B50S
. ---- 73B50S-R
, 6500
7N 73B70S
E 6000 ---73B70S-R
o
5500

5000

4500
60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Curing Temperature (oF)








































Figure 4-23 Compressive Strength for Concrete Specimens with Cement A and 950 F
Placing Temperature at 28 Days Age


Figure 4-24 Compressive Strength for Concrete Specimens with Cement B and 950 F
Placing Temperature at 28 Days Age


9500

9000

8500

' 8000
7500 -~---* 95A00P
7500
S- -- --95A20F
5 7000 -- -95A35F
. 6500 -- 95A50S
'& 6500 --------------
C.
E 6000

5500

5000

4500
60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Curing Temperature (F)


9500

9000

8500

' 8000
---*--95BOOP
S7500 -
-- A-- 95B20F
S 7000 -s -- -95B35F
.K -+ 95B50S
D 6500
0 95B70S
E 6000
o
5500

5000

4500
60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Curing Temperature (F)










These figures show that at 15 days age, mixes with pozzolanic materials have

higher compressive strength if they are cured in high temperatures while at 28 days age

they show a lower strength compared to room temperature cured specimens.

In Table 4-11 the compressive strength of test mixes for moisture room cured

samples are shown. Each number is the average of three compressive strength test results

for 6"x12" cylinder specimens that have been cured for 28 days.

Table 4-11 Compressive Strength at 28 Days for Moisture Room Cured Concrete
Specimens
Compressiv Compressiv
Mix e Strength Age Mix e Strength Ag
(Day) (Day)
(psi) (psi)
73A00P 8945 28 95A70S 8762 28
73A20F 7689 28 95BOOP 7989 28
73A35F 7389 28 95B20F 8175 28
73A50S 8691 28 95B35F 7229 28
73A70S 8580 28 95B50S 8720 28
73B00P 7025 28 95B70S 8117 28
73B20F 7987 28 73A00P-R 8073 28
73B35F 6767 28 73A20F-R 7556 28
73B50S 7657 28 73A35F-R 9462 28
73B70S 7921 28 73A50S-R 8117 28
95A00P 8885 28 73A70S-R 7573 28
95A20F 8313 28 73B50S-R 8361 28
95A35F 6556 28 73B70S-R 9112 28
95A50S 7799 28 95A70S-R 7784 28














CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

Introduction

In this chapter the results of the adiabatic temperature rise, the heat of hydration,

thermal diffusivity and compressive strength tests are summarized and compared for

different mixes. The effect of placing temperature and pozzolan content on properties of

concrete within the scope of this research project are studied. Also a group of equations

are introduced to calculate the modification factor for the replacement of pozzolans in

concrete mixes with different placing temperatures.

Adiabatic Temperature Rise Curves

In total, 20 adiabatic temperature rise tests were run. As explained in Chapter 4,

some of the tests were repeated. The main reason to repeat the tests was a change in the

test procedure to prevent the effect of heat from Hydration Chamber heaters on specimen

temperature rise. After reviewing the test results and taking into consideration the

suggestions made by Sure Cure system's manufacturer, it can be said that heat from

heaters can affect temperature rise when the rate of temperature rise in concrete is less

than 5F/day. This stage normally occurs when concrete was three days old. Therefore it

would be reasonable to average the temperature rise data that have been repeated when

the temperature rise rate is more than 5F/day and use the data from that point through

day 14 from the second run of the test for a specific mix. Using this method the final

numbers for temperature rise data for each mix was determined.




Full Text

PAGE 1

TEMPERATURE RISE OF MASS CONCRETE IN FLORIDA By ARASH PARHAM A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

PAGE 2

Copyright 2004 by Arash Parham

PAGE 3

iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First, I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. Abdol R. Chini for his guidance and assistance throughout this project. I also greatly appreciate the guidance of Dr. Larry C. Muszynski and Dr. R. Raymond Issa as members of my research committee. I would like to thank the Florida Departme nt of Transportation for providing the funding for this project. I am grateful to Charles Is hee, Structural Materials E ngineer, State Materials Office in Gainesville, Florida, for his guidance. I ow e a great deal of grat itude to Lucy Acquaye for her help in getting this project underway. In addition, I would like to thank Richard DeLorenzo for his guidance and help in sampli ng and testing concrete specimens. I also have to thank Jeffrey Cole for his a ssistance in the field experiments. Most importantly, I would lik e to thank my parents, Va hideh Eslami and Daryoush Parham. I cannot give enough credit for their lo ve and support. I also would like to thank my sister, Mandana, other family members a nd my friends for their continuous support.

PAGE 4

iv TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iii LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES............................................................................................................x ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................xi v CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................1 Objectives..................................................................................................................1 Background................................................................................................................1 Scope of Work...........................................................................................................3 Literature Review...................................................................................................3 Mix Design Selection.............................................................................................3 Survey of State Highway Agencies.......................................................................4 Concrete Testing....................................................................................................4 Data Analysis.........................................................................................................4 2 LITERATURE REVIEW..........................................................................................5 Introduction................................................................................................................5 Mass Concrete............................................................................................................5 Mass Concrete History...............................................................................................6 Portland Cement Types..............................................................................................7 Composition and Hydration of Portland Cement.......................................................8 Fly Ash and Blast Furnace Slag.................................................................................9 Thermal Properties of Concrete...............................................................................10 Factors Affecting Heat Generation of Concrete......................................................11 Methods to Predict Temperatur e Rise in Mass Concrete.........................................19 Experimental Methods to Measure the Heat of Hydration of Concrete..................25 3 METHODOLOGY..................................................................................................27 Introduction..............................................................................................................27 Mix Design Selection...............................................................................................27

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v Concrete Class.....................................................................................................28 Cement Type........................................................................................................28 Pozzolanic Materials Proportion..........................................................................29 Cement Source.....................................................................................................30 Fly Ash Source.....................................................................................................32 Blast Furnace Slag Source...................................................................................33 Coarse Aggregate Source.....................................................................................33 Fine Aggregate Source.........................................................................................34 Total Cementitious Materials...............................................................................34 Mix Temperature.................................................................................................34 Number of Mixes.................................................................................................34 Test Methods and Equipments.................................................................................35 Adiabatic Temperature Rise................................................................................35 Thermal Diffusivity of Concrete..........................................................................39 Scope................................................................................................................40 Apparatus.........................................................................................................40 Procedure.........................................................................................................42 Calculations......................................................................................................42 Compressive Strength..........................................................................................43 Heat of Hydration................................................................................................44 Test Procedures........................................................................................................44 Tests Performed For Each Mix............................................................................44 Size and Number of Specimens...........................................................................44 Adiabatic Temperature Rise................................................................................45 Test procedure..................................................................................................45 Laboratory tests................................................................................................46 Field tests.........................................................................................................48 Thermal Diffusivity.............................................................................................50 Test Procedure.....................................................................................................50 Sample preparation..........................................................................................51 Heating.............................................................................................................51 Cooling.............................................................................................................51 Compressive Strength..........................................................................................52 Heat of Hydration................................................................................................53 Test Series I......................................................................................................53 Test Series II....................................................................................................54 4 TEST RESULTS......................................................................................................55 Introduction..............................................................................................................55 Mixture Properties...................................................................................................55 Fresh Concrete Properties........................................................................................57 Heat of Hydration....................................................................................................59 Adiabatic Temperature Rise....................................................................................60 Laboratory Tests..................................................................................................60 Cement A with 73F Placing Temperature......................................................60

PAGE 6

vi Cement B with 73F Placing Temperature......................................................65 Cement A with 95F Placing Temperature......................................................68 Cement B with 95F Placing Temperature......................................................70 Field Tests............................................................................................................72 Thermal Diffusivity.................................................................................................74 Compressive Strength..............................................................................................78 5 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS..................................................................................85 Introduction..............................................................................................................85 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Curves........................................................................85 Comparison Between Temperature Rise Curves.................................................90 Effect of percentage of pozzolans....................................................................90 Effect of placing temperature...........................................................................99 Comparison Between Field and Laboratory Test Results..................................103 Comparison Between the Test Results and ACI Curves...................................106 Heat of Hydration..................................................................................................107 Thermal Diffusivity...............................................................................................108 Compressive Strength............................................................................................110 6 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS.........................112 Summary................................................................................................................112 Conclusion.............................................................................................................113 Recommendations..................................................................................................114 APPENDIX A SURVEY OF STATE HIGHWAY AGENCIES...................................................115 B SURE CURE MICRO COMPUTER SYSTEM....................................................118 C CALCULATION EXAMPLES.............................................................................134 LIST OF REFERENCES................................................................................................139 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH..........................................................................................142

PAGE 7

vii LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 AASHTO M 85 Standard Requi rements for Portland Cement..................................7 2-2 Specific Heat of Hydration of I ndividual Compounds of Portland Cement..............8 2-3 Class F Fly Ash Chemical Properties.........................................................................9 2-4 GGBFS Chemical Composition...............................................................................10 2-5 Minimum Level of Replacement Percentage...........................................................16 2-6 Compound Composition of Cement s Represented in Figure 2-7............................20 3-1 Cement Type Distributio n in FDOT Approved Mixes............................................28 3-2 Results of Chemical and Physical Analysis for the Cement Samples......................31 3-3 Results of Heat of Hydration Tests..........................................................................32 3-4 Percentage of Mixes With Fly Ash From Different Sources...................................32 3-5 Percentage of Mixes With Slag From Different Sources.........................................33 3-6 Percentages of Coarse Aggr egates From Different Sources....................................33 3-7 Total Cementitious Materials In FD OT Approved Class IV Concrete Mixes.........34 3-8 Number of Test Mixes..............................................................................................35 4-1 Concrete Mixture Properties....................................................................................56 4-2 Fresh Concrete Properties........................................................................................58 4-3 Heat of Hydration Test Results for Cement.............................................................59 4-4 Heat of Hydration for Cement and Pozzolanic Material Blends..............................59 4-5 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data fo r Concrete with Cement A and 73F Placing Temperature.............................................................................................................62

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viii 4-1 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete With Cement B and 73F Placing Temperature.............................................................................................................65 4-2 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data fo r Concrete with Cement A and 95F Placing Temperature.............................................................................................................68 4-3 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data fo r Concrete with Cement B and 95F Placing Temperature.............................................................................................................70 4-4 Mix Proportions of Field Test Samples....................................................................72 4-5 Fresh Concrete Properties of Field Test Samples....................................................73 4-6 Adiabatic Temperature Rise fo r Samples Taken from the Field..............................73 4-7 Thermal Diffusivity of Concrete Samples...............................................................75 4-8 History of Temperature Difference Be tween Concrete Specimen Core and Water.77 4-9 Compressive Strength of High Te mperature Cured Concrete Specimens..............78 4-10 Compressive Strength of Room Te mperature Cured Concrete Specimens............79 4-11 Compressive Strength at 28 Days for Moisture Room Cured Concrete Specimens84 5-1 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data fo r Concrete with Cement A and 73F Placing Temperature.............................................................................................................86 5-2 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data fo r Concrete with Cement B and 73F Placing Temperature.............................................................................................................87 5-3 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data fo r Concrete with Cement A and 95F Placing Temperature.............................................................................................................88 5-4 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data fo r Concrete with Cement B and 95F Placing Temperature.............................................................................................................89 5-5 Effect of Pozzolans on the Peak Temperature of Concrete......................................93 5-6 Constant Factors of Prp Equation..............................................................................96 5-7 Temperature Rise of the Core of the Bella Vista Bridge Footers..........................103 5-8 Adiabatic Temperature Rise fo r Samples Taken from the Field............................105 5-9 Comparison Between ACI Curves and Test Results..............................................106 5-10 Effect of Pozzolans on Heat of Hydration.............................................................107

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ix 5-11 Effect of Pozzolan Conten t on 28-day Compressive Strength...............................111

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x LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Adiabatic Temperature Rise in Different Types of Concrete ..................................13 2-2 Rate of Heat Generation as Affected by Fineness of Cement .................................13 2-3 Effect of Placing Temperature Adiaba tic Temperature Rise of Mass Concrete .....14 2-4 Variation In Maximum Temper ature as Reported by Bamforth .............................15 2-5 Adiabatic Temperature Ri se Curves Developed by Ati .........................................17 2-6 Effect of Admixtures on Heat Generation................................................................18 2-7 Typical Heat-Generation Curves .............................................................................21 3-1 Mix Design Breakdown By Concrete Class.............................................................28 3-2 Fly Ash Percentage In FDOT Approved Mixes With Fly Ash................................29 3-3 Slag Percentage In FDOT Approved Mixes With Slag...........................................30 3-4 Hydration Chamber..................................................................................................37 3-5 Cylinder Mold..........................................................................................................37 3-6 Sure Cure System.....................................................................................................38 3-7 Sure Cure System Setup...........................................................................................39 3-8 Heating Bath.............................................................................................................4 0 3-9 Diffusion Chamber...................................................................................................41 3-10 Temperature Recorder and Timer............................................................................41 3-11 Example Showing Calcul ation Of Thermal Diffusivity Of A Concrete Cylinder...43 3-12 Materials Prepared For The Next Day Test.............................................................46 3-13 Hydration Chamber..................................................................................................47

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xi 3-14 Cure Chambers and Metal Molds Connected to the Computer...............................47 3-15 Hydration Chambers, Controll er and Computer in Minivan....................................49 3-16 Cure Chambers in the Minivan................................................................................50 3-17 Specimens Transferred From H eating Bath to Diffusion Chamber.........................51 3-18 Specimens Connected To Temperat ure Recorder During Cooling Stage................52 4-1 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages of Fly Ash (First Run)..............................................................................................63 4-2 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages of Slag (First Run)....................................................................................................63 4-3 Temperature Rise for Mixtures of Ceme nt A With Different Pe rcentages of Fly Ash (Second Run)............................................................................................................64 4-4 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages of Slag (Second Run)...............................................................................................64 4-5 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different Percentages of Fly Ash.................................................................................................................66 4-6 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different Percentages of Slag (First Run)....................................................................................................66 4-7 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different Percentages of Slag (Second Run)...............................................................................................67 4-8 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages of Fly Ash.................................................................................................................67 4-9 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages of Slag......................................................................................................................69 4-10 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages of Slag (First & Second Run)...................................................................................69 4-11 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different Percentages of Fly Ash.................................................................................................................71 4-12 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different Percentages of Slag......................................................................................................................71 4-13 Temperature Rise fo r Field Test Samples................................................................74

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xii 4-14 Thermal Diffusivity of Concrete Sample s with Different Percentage of Pozzolanic Materials...................................................................................................................76 4-15 Small Diffusion Chamber.........................................................................................76 4-16 Large Diffusion Chamber.........................................................................................76 4-17 Compressive Strength for Concre te Specimens with Cement A and 73 F Placing Temperature at 15 Days Age....................................................................................80 4-18 Compressive Strength for Concre te Specimens with Cement B and 73 F Placing Temperature at 15 Days Age....................................................................................80 4-19 Compressive Strength for Concre te Specimens with Cement A and 95 F Placing Temperature at 15 Days Age....................................................................................81 4-20 Compressive Strength for Concre te Specimens with Cement B and 95 F Placing Temperature at 15 Days Age....................................................................................81 4-21 Compressive Strength for Concre te Specimens with Cement A and 73 F Placing Temperature at 28 Days Age....................................................................................82 4-22 Compressive Strength for Concrete Specimens with Cement B and 73 F Placing Temperature at 28 Days Age....................................................................................82 4-23 Compressive Strength fo r Concrete Specimens with Cement A and 95 F Placing Temperature at 28 Days Age....................................................................................83 4-24 Compressive Strength for Concrete Specimens with Cement B and 95 F Placing Temperature at 28 Days Age....................................................................................83 5-1 Effect of Replacing Cement With Fl y Ash on Adiabatic Temp erature Rise (73F Placing Temperature)...............................................................................................91 5-2 Effect of Replacing Cement With Fl y Ash on Adiabatic Temp erature Rise (95F Placing Temperature)...............................................................................................91 5-3 Effect of Replacing Cement With Sl ag on Adiabatic Temperature Rise (73F Placing Temperature)...............................................................................................92 5-4 Effect of Replacing Cement With Sl ag on Adiabatic Temperature Rise (95F Placing Temperature)...............................................................................................92 5-5 Pr for Mixes with 73F Placing Temperature...........................................................94 5-6 Pr for Mixes with 95F Placing Temperature...........................................................94 5-7 Average Pr for Mixes with 73F and 95 F Placing Temperatures............................95

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xiii 5-8 The Relationship Between Prp Rp, and Different Placing Temperatures................97 5-9 Relationship Between p and Rp...............................................................................99 5-10 Effect of Placing Temperature on Adiaba tic Temperature Rise for Mixes with Plain Cement...................................................................................................................100 5-11 Effect of Placing Temperature on Adia batic Temperature Rise for Mixes with 20% Fly Ash...................................................................................................................101 5-12 Effect of Placing Temperature on Adia batic Temperature Rise for Mixes with 35% Fly Ash...................................................................................................................101 5-13 Effect of Placing Temperature on Adia batic Temperature Rise for Mixes with 50% Slag.........................................................................................................................10 2 5-14 Effect of Placing Temperature on Adia batic Temperature Rise for Mixes with 70% Slag.........................................................................................................................10 2 5-15 Temperature Rise For Footers A, B and C.............................................................104 5-16 Comparison of Temperature Rise Between Field and Laboratory Tests...............105 5-17 Effect of Thermal Diffusiv ity on Maximum Temperature Rise.............................109 5-18 Effect of Thermal Diffusivity on Thermal Gradient..............................................110 5-19 Effect of Placing Temperature a nd Pozzolan Content on 28-day Compressive Strength..................................................................................................................111

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xiv Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Bu ilding Construction TEMPERATURE RISE OF MASS CONCRETE IN FLORIDA By Arash Parham December 2004 Chair: Abdol R. Chini Cochair: Larry Muszynski Major Department: Building Construction Mass concrete is used in many projects car ried out by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) such as bridge foundations, bridge pier s, and concrete abutments. Cement hydration is an exothermic reaction, so the temperature rise within a large concrete mass can be quite high. Significant te nsile stresses and strains may develop from the volume change associated with the increas e and decrease of temperature within the mass concrete. It is necessary to predict the te mperature rise and take measures to prevent cracking due to thermal behavior. Cracks cause d by thermal gradient may cause loss of structural integrity and monolithic action or shortening of the service life of the structures. The prediction of temperature rise is ve ry important to control the heat of hydration. The objective of this research is to develop the adiabatic temperature rise curves of different types of mass concrete us ed in FDOT projects. These curves will be used to predict the expected temperature rise in mass concrete structures used in FDOT

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xv projects. The following is a summary of step s undertaken to achiev e the goals of the project. A literature review was conducted to identify the factors affecting temperature rise in concrete and to study prev ious works in this field. A series of experiments to determine the temperature rise of mass concrete and the effects of high temperature cure on the properties of concrete was conducted. The first step in the experimental phase of the project was to determine concrete mix designs and materials which needed to be tested. A total of 20 mixes with cements from two different sources with two diffe rent placing temperatures and various percentages of pozzolanic ma terials contain were tested for adiabatic temperature rise, thermal diffusivity and compressive st rength. The heat of hydration of cement samples and blends of cement and pozzolan was also determined. The results of the tests were analyzed. Th e effect of placing temperature, curing temperature and pozzolan content on temper ature rise curves, thermal diffusivity, and compressive strength were studied. Analysis of the test results indicates the following: Fly ash is more effective in reducing th e peak temperature of the mass concrete. Replacement of less than 50% of cement w ith slag does not have a significant effect on the peak temperature. A higher placing temperature reduces the eff ectiveness of fly ash and slag in peak temperature reduction. Finally the Pozzolan Modification Factor ( p) was calculated for Florida mass concrete mixes. This factor can be used to modify ACI adiabatic temperature rise curves and develop new curves to be used in FDOT projects to predict the peak temperature.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Objectives Mass concrete is used in many projects related to the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) such as bridge foundations, bridge pier s, and concrete abutments. Since cement hydration is an exothermic reac tion, the temperature rise within a large concrete mass can be quite high. As a result, significant tensile st resses and strains may develop from the volume change associat ed with the increase and decrease of temperature within the mass concrete. It is, therefore, necessary to predict the temperature rise and take measures to prev ent cracking due to thermal behavior. Cracks caused by thermal gradient may cause loss of structural integrity and monolithic action or shortening of service life of the structures. The prediction of temperature rise is impor tant in controlling th e heat of hydration. The objective of this research is to develop the adiabatic temperature rise curves of different types of mass concrete used in FDOT projects. These curves will be used to predict the expected temperatur e rise in mass concrete structures used in FDOT projects. Background FDOT Structures Design Guid elines defines mass concre te as “any large volume of cast-in-place or precas t concrete with dimensions large enough to require that measures be taken to cope with generation of heat a nd attendant volume change so as to minimize

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2 cracking” (FDOT, 2002). Thermal action, durability and economy are the main factors in the design of mass concrete structures. Th e most important char acteristic of mass concrete is thermal behavior. Hydration of Portland cement is exothermic and a large amount of heat is generated during the hydr ation process of mass concrete elements. Since concrete has a low conductivity, a great po rtion of generated heat is trapped in the center of mass concrete element and escapes very slowly. This situation leads to a temperature difference between center and out er part of the mass concrete element. Temperature difference is a cause for tensile stresses, which forms thermal cracks in concrete structure. These cracks are called th ermal cracks. Thermal cracks may cause loss of structural integrity and shortening of the service life of the concrete element. Predicting the maximum temperature of ma ss concrete has always been the main concern of designers and builders of mass concre te structures. One of the earliest efforts to predict the maximum temperature of the ma ss concrete were carried in late 20’s and early 30’s during the design phase of Hoover Dam (Blanks, 1933). Later on various studies were performed to develop methods to predict the maximum temperature in mass concrete elements. One of the most popular methods to pred ict the mass concrete peak temperature rise is using adiabatic temperature rise cu rves. These curves have been developed for concrete with different cement types and placing temperature. American Concrete Institute (ACI) Committee 207 has published adia batic temperature rise curves that are widely used. Currently FDOT mandates contractors to provide temperature rise predictions for mass concrete pours using ACI adiabatic temp erature rise curves. These curves were

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3 developed a few decades ago by testing concre te mixes made with American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) approved cemen ts (ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996). However, FDOT specifies American Association of Stat e Highway Officials (AASHTO) approved cements, which have different chem ical composition and fineness. Research is needed to investigate if th e temperature rise predictions using ACI curves are accurate for mass concrete mixes used in Florida proj ects. The objective of this research is to study adiabatic temperatur e rise in mass concrete for concrete mixes which are used in Florida. Scope of Work Literature Review A comprehensive review of the previously performed research on adiabatic temperature rise of mass concrete was undertak en. In this review researches on thermal diffusivity of concrete were also studied. Mix Design Selection A comprehensive list of concrete mi x designs approved by the FDOT since 1990 was compiled. The list of mix designs was analyzed and different designs were categorized based on cement type, aggregate ty pe, type and ratio of pozzolanic materials, cement suppliers, and pozzolanic materials suppliers. More frequently used mixes were chosen as representative mixes in each category. Representative mixes were tested to de velop adiabatic temperature rise curves.

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4 Survey of State Highway Agencies A group of states were selected based on previous studies about mass concrete regulations. A questioner was send via e-mail to Material Engineers in selected states concerning each stateÂ’s regulation on temperatur e rise in mass concrete to see if they have ever undertaken any rese arch to develop adiabatic temperature raise curves for mass concrete. The results of this surv ey are presented in Appendix A. Concrete Testing In this phase, concrete mixes were prepar ed based on different mix designs selected earlier. Samples were tested for slump, ai r content, adiabatic temperature rise, compressive strength, and thermal diffusivity. Data Analysis After collecting data from the tests, ad iabatic temperature rise curves were developed for each mix and the new curves we re compared to ACI curves for similar concrete mixes. Also a correction factor was determined to predict the adiabatic temperature rise curves for the mixes with pozzolanic materials. Concrete thermal diffusivity test results led to a lower diffusivity number for concretes used in Florida compared to ACI suggested numbers.

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5 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Before focusing on the adiabatic temperatur e rise of mass concrete, it is necessary to review the definition and characteristics of mass concrete and its components. Also, methods to predict the temperature ri se of mass concrete are reviewed. Mass Concrete As mentioned before, mass concrete is de fined as “any volume of concrete with dimensions large enough to require that meas ures be taken to cope with generation of heat from hydration of the cement and atte ndant volume change to minimize cracking” (ACI 116R, 2000 ). In the design of mass concrete structures thermal action, durability and economy are the main factor s that are taken in to consideration, while strength is often a secondary concern. Since water cement reaction is an exothermic reaction and mass concrete structures have large dimensions the most important characteristic of mass concrete is thermal behavior. A large amount of heat is generated during the hydration process of cementitious material in mass concrete elements. A great portion of generated heat that is trapped in the center of mass concrete element escapes very slowly because concrete has a low conductivity. This situati on leads to a temperature difference between center and outer part of the mass concrete element. Temperature difference is a cause for tensile strains, which in turn is a source for tensile stress. Tensile stress forms cracks in concrete structure. These cracks are called th ermal cracks. Thermal cracks may cause loss of structural integrity and shortening of the service life of the concrete element.

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6 Thermal cracks were first observed in dam construction. Other thick section concrete structures including mat foundations, pile caps, bri dge piers, thick walls and tunnel linings also experienced temper ature related cracks (ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996). Mass Concrete History During years 1930 to 1970 mass concrete c onstruction developed rapidly. Some records are available from this period of us ing mass concrete in few dams. These records show wide internal temperature variati on due to cement hydration. The degree of cracking was associated with te mperature rise (ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996). Hoover Dam was in the early stages of planning by the beginning of 1930. Since there were no examples of such a large concrete structure before Hoover Dam, an elaborate investigation was undertaken to determine the effects of composition and fineness of cement, cement factor, temperatur e of curing and, maximum size of aggregate on heat of hydration of cement, comprehensive strength, and other pr operties of concrete. Blanks (1933) reported some of the findings of these investigations. The results of these investigations led to the us e of low heat cement and embedded pipe cooling system in Hoover dam. Low heat cement was used for th e first time in construction of Morris Dam, near Pasadena, California, a year before Hoover Dam (ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996). Chemical admixtures as materials that c ould benefit mass concrete were recognized in the 1950s. Wallace and Ore (1960) published their report on the benefit of these materials to lean mass concrete in 1960. Sin ce then, chemical admixtures have come to be used in most mass concrete (ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996). Use of purposely-entrained air for concrete became a standard practice in about 1945. Since then, air-entraining admixtures we re used in concrete dams and other structures such as concrete pavements (ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996).

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7 Placement of conventional mass concrete has not largely changed since the late 1940s. Roller-compacted concrete is the new major development in the field of mass concrete (ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996). Portland Cement Types AASHTO standard specifications for Po rtland cement (M85-93) cover different types of Portland cement. Table 2-1 shows AASHTO requirements for Type I, Type II, Type III, Type IV and Type V cements are shown. Table 2-1 AASHTO M 85 Standard Requirements for Portland Cement Type of Cement SiO2 min Al2O3 max Fe2O3 max SO3 C3A<8 SO3 C3A>8 C3S max C2S min C3A max Type I When Special properties speci fied for any other type are not required 3 3.5 Type II When moderate sulfate resistance or moderate hear of hydration is desired 20 6 6 3 58* 8 Type III When high early strength is desired 3.5 4.5 15 Type IV When low heat of hydration is desired 6.5 2.3 35 40 7 Type V When high sulfate resistance is desired 2.3 5 Not required for ASTM C 150 Type I Portland cement is commonly used in general construction. It is not recommended for use by itself in mass concrete without other measures that help to control temperature problems because of its substantially higher heat of hydration (ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996). Type II Portland cement is suitable for ma ss concrete construction because it has a moderate heat of hydration im portant to control cracking. Type IP Portland-pozzolan cement is a uniform blend of Portland cement or Portland blast-furnace slag cement and fine pozzolan.

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8 Composition and Hydration of Portland Cement Portland cement is a composition of several different chemicals: SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, SO3, C3A, C3S, C2S and C3AF are the main components of Portland cement. The proportions of these components change in different types of cements. The major compounds of Portland cement are C3S, C2S, C3A and C3AF. These constituents have different contributions in heat of hydration of cement. Table 2-2 shows heat of hydration of main components of Portland cement as reported by Cannon (1986). These numbers have been originally determ ined by heat of solution method by Lerch and Bogue (1934). Table 2-2 Specific Heat of Hydration of Individual Compounds of Portland Cement Compound Specific Heat of Hydration (cal/gr) C3S 120 C2S 62 C3A + gypsum 320 C3AF 100 Heat of hydration of Portland cement can be calculated as the sum of specific heat of each compound weighted by the mass pe rcentage of the individual compound (Swaddiwudhipong et al., 2002). C3A reaction with gypsum to form ettringi te releases about 150 cal/g. After the depletion of gypsum, C3A reacts with ettringite forming a more stable monosulphate and releases additional heat of hydration of 207 ca l/g. Therefore the total heat of hydration of C3A and gypsum is 357 cal/g (Swaddi wudhipong et al., 2002). However, Swaddiwudhipong (2002) suggests the total heat of hydration of C3A and gypsum be

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9 considered as 320 cal/g. This suggestion is ba sed on a series of least square analyses carried out by Detwiler (1996). Fly Ash and Blast Furnace Slag In most of the FDOT approved mix designs, fly ash or slag has been used. Fly ash is the flue dust from burning ground or pow dered coal. Suitable fly ash can be an excellent pozzolan if it has a low carbon content, a fineness about the same as that of Portland cement, and occurs in the form of very fine, glassy spheres. Because of its shape and texture, the water requirement is usually reduced when fly ash is used in concrete. Class F fly ash is designated in ASTM C 618 and originates from anthracite and bituminous coals. It consists mainly of alumina and silica and has a higher loss on ignition (LOI) than Class C fly ash. Class F fl y ash also has a lower calcium content than Class C fly ash. Additional chemical requirements are listed in Table 2-3. Table 2-3 Class F Fly As h Chemical Properties Property ASTM C618 Requirements, % SiO2 plus Al2O3 plus Fe2O3, min 70 SO3, max 5 Moisture content, max 3 Loss on Ignition, max 6 Finely ground granulated iron blast-furnace slag may also be used as a separate ingredient with Portland cement as cementitious material in mass concrete (ACI 207.1 R96, 1996). Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGB FS) is designated in ASTM C 989 and consists mainly of silicates and aluminosilicat es of calcium. GGBFS is divided into three classifications based on its ac tivity index. Grade 80 has a low activity index and is used primarily in mass structures because it gene rates less heat than Portland cement. Grade

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10 100 has a moderate activity index, is most si milar to Portland cement with respect to cementitious behavior, and is readily available. Grade 120 has a high activity index and is more cementitious than Portland cement. To be used in cement, GGBFS must have the chemical requirements listed in Table 2-4. Table 2 4 GGBFS Chemical Composition Chemical Maximum Requirements (ASTM 989), % Sulfide sulfur (S) 2.5 Sulfate ion reported as SO3 4 Thermal Properties of Concrete It is essential to know the thermal properties of concre te to deal with any problem caused by temperature rise. These propert ies are specific heat, conductivity and diffusivity. The main factor affecting th e thermal properties of concrete is the mineralogical composition of the aggregate (Rhodes, 1978). The specific heat is defined as the amount of thermal energy required to change the temperature per unit mass of material by one de gree. Values for various types of concrete are about the same and vary from 0.22 to 0.25 BtuÂ’s/pound/F. Lu (Lu et. al., 2001) reported that changes in aggregate types, mixture proportions, and concrete age did not have a great influence on the sp ecific heat of ordinary concre te at normal temperature, as concrete volume is mainly occupied by aggregates with thermal stability. The thermal conductivity of a ma terial is the rate at which it transmits heat and is defined as the ratio of the flux of heat to th e temperature gradient. Water content, density, and temperature significantly influence the thermal conductivity of a specific concrete. Typical values are 2.3, 1.7, and 1.2 British thermal units (Btu)/hour/foot/Fahrenheit

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11 degree (F) for concrete with quartzite, limestone, and basalt aggregates, respectively (USACE, 1995). Thermal Diffusivity is described as an i ndex of the ease or difficulty with which concrete undergoes temperature change a nd, numerically, is the thermal conductivity divided by the product of specific heat a nd density (USACE, 1995) Aggregate type largely affects concrete ther mal diffusivity. In ACI 207.1R-96 typical diffusivity values for concrete are from 0.77 ft2/day for basalt concrete to 1.39 ft2/day for quartzite concrete. Other sources report slightly differe nt numbers for concrete thermal diffusivity. Vodak and associates (1997) report therma l diffusivity numbers between 0.73 to 1.16 ft2/day for various siliceous concretes. Thermal diffusivity of cement paste and mortar (cement + sand) is lower than concrete. Xu and Cheng (2000) measured cem ent paste and mortar thermal diffusivity with laser flash method. In laser flash method, laser beam is flashed to one side of the specimen (a disc with 13mm diameter and 2m m in thickness). Temperature of the other side of the specimen is measured by a thermo couple and thermal diffusivity is calculated from the temperature vs. time curve. Thermal diffusivity of cement paste without silica fume and mortar without sili ca was determined to be 0.33 ft2/day and 0.41 ft2/day respectively (Xu and Cheng, 2000). Factors Affecting Heat Generation of Concrete The total amount of heat generated during hydr ation of concrete, as well as the rate of heat generation, is aff ected by different factors. The first factor affecting heat generation and the total amount of heat generated is the type of the used cement. As mentioned before, the ratio of chemical compounds is different in each cement type. Heat of hydrati on is also different for each of the cement

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12 chemical compounds. Therefore combination of these compounds with various portions results in different heats of hydration for each cement type (See Figure 2-1). Tricalcium Silicate (C3S) and Tricalcium Aluminate (C3A) generate more heat and at a faster rate than other cement compounds (Copland et al., 1960). Therefore concrete mixes containing cement types with higher percentage of C3S and C3A generate more heat. Cement content of concrete is the next f actor in heat generati on. As cement is the main source of heat generation during the hydr ation process, larger portion of cement leads to larger amount of heat generated. Another factor that affects the thermal beha vior of concrete is cement fineness. The cement fineness affects the rate of heat gene ration more than the total generated heat (Price, 1982). Greater fineness increases the surface available for hydration, causing more rapid generation of heat (the fineness of T ype III is higher than that of Type I cement) (U.S. Dept. Trans. 1990). This causes an increase in rate of heat libe ration at early ages, but may not influence the total amount of heat generated in several weeks. Figure 2-2 shows how cement fineness affect s rat of heat generation in cement paste. These curves were developed by Verbeck and Foster for cement paste specimen cured at 75 F (ACI 207.2R, 1996). Placing temperature of concrete is an other effective element on the maximum temperature of concrete. A higher initia l temperature results in higher maximum temperature. The inner part of a mass concrete element is in a semi-adiabatic condition, which means heat exchange with the outer en vironment is very difficult. Therefore the initial heat entraps and the heat of hydrati on adds to the initial temperature. Placing temperature also affects the rate of ad iabatic temperature rise of concrete.

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13 Figure 2-1 Adiabatic Temperature Rise in Different Types of C oncrete (ACI 207.1R-96, 1996) Figure 2-2 Rate of Heat Ge neration as Affected by Fine ness of Cement (ACI 207.2R-96, 1996)

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14 Figure 2-3 Effect of Placing Temperature a nd Time on Adiabatic Temperature Rise of Mass Concrete Containing 376 lb/yd3 of Type I Cement (ACI 207.2R-96, 1996) As it is shown in Figure 2-3 concrete mi xes with higher placing temperatures reach the maximum temperature faster than conc rete mixes with low placing temperature. However the maximum temperature is not signi ficantly different within the mixes with different placing temper atures (ACI 207.2R-96, 1996). Replacement of cement with pozzolanic materials in the concrete mix reduces maximum temperature. One of the earliest indication of effects of fly ash on heat generation was made by Davis et al. (1937). The first use of fly ash in mass concrete was reported by Philleo (1967). Bamforth (1980) performed an extensiv e study on effects of using fly ash or GGBFS (Slag) on the performance of mass c oncrete. He monitored temperature and

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15 strain in three pours of mass concrete each 14.75 ft deep, which formed part of foundation of a grinding mill in the United Kingdom. The total cementitious material in each pour was 675 lb/yd3 In one of the pours, 30% of cement was replaced by fly ash. In another pour, 75% of cement was repl aced bay GGBFS. OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) was used in the mixes. As reported, the cement contained 13.6% of C3A so it will be categorized as Type III cement in the AASHTO standard (See Table ). Figure 2-4 Variation In Maximum Temper ature as Reported by Bamforth (1980) Temperature rise of concrete was meas ured by Copper/Constantan thermocouples placed in foundations. Initial temperature of th e concrete was measured immediately after

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16 each thermocouple was covered by concrete. Te mperature rise was recorded for 40 days. The results are shown in Figure 2-4. In pour 1 (OPC only), 98.1 F rise in temperature was r ecorded. Temperature rise of 85.5 F and 82.8 F was recorded for Pour 2 (OPC/F ly Ash) and Pour 3 (OPC/GGBFS) respectively. Maximum temperature was reduced by 12.8% for Pour 2 and 15.5% for Pour 3. This shows that replacement of ceme nt with 30% fly ash has almost the same effect as replacing cement with 75% slag. Bamforth (1980) believes this reduction in maximum temperature was smaller than what was observed in smaller concrete pours with lower cement content. He also reports fr om a survey of data relating to the use of slag in concrete mixes that as the size of pour is increased, the effectiv eness of using slag to reduce the maximum concrete temperature reduces. However, he reports that in pours of up to 6.5 ft deep, reduction of 50% in maximum temperature has been achieved by a 70% replacement. Bamforth (1980) believes that in smaller pours the initial mix temperature is of greater significance. He re ports the same trend in mixes with fly ash replacement. Bamforth (1980) recommends the minimum replacement percentage for pozzolanic materials, as shown in Table 25, to achieve benefits in reduced thermal stress. He believes that, in pours deeper than 8.2 ft, the benefit of reduced temperature resulting from replacement of cement with pozzo lanic material is unlikely to be sufficient to offset the increased stiffness of concrete. Table 2-5 Minimum Level of Replacement Percentage Pour Thickness (ft) Fly Ash GGBFS (Slag) Up to 3.3 20 40 3.3-4.9 25 50 4.9-6.6 30 60 6.6-8.2 35 70

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17 A study (Ati 2002) on high-volume fly ash concrete showed that using of 50% fly ash causes a reduction of 23% in the peak te mperature. The same study showed 70% fly ash replacement leads to 45% reduction in the peak temperature (Figure 2-5). Ati (2002) believes that 20-30% of fly ash replacement may not cause significant reduction in the maximum temperature of concrete. Accord ing to him, with 20-30% of fly ash replacement a reduction of 10-15% in the ma ximum temperature is expected. He also reports that changes in W/C ratio influence the temperature rise in concrete. A study on concretes with 675 lb/yd3 OPC and W/C ratios of 0.35, 0.45, and 0.55 showed 104.4, 108.3 and 111.9 F of peak temperature in nona diabatic conditions with no insulation (Ati 2002). Figure 2-5 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Curves Developed by Ati (2002) (M0: Control Mix 675lb/yd3 Cement, M1: 70% Fly Ash with Superplasticizer, M2: 70% Fly Ash without Superpla sticizer, M3:50% Fly Ash with Superplasticizer, M4 : 50% Fly Ash without Superplasticizer) ACI 207.2R-96 recommends that the total quant ity of heat generation is directly proportional to an equivalent cement content (Ceq), which is the total quantity of cement plus a percent to total pozzolan content. The contribution of pozzolans to heat generation

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18 varies with age of concrete, type of pozzo lan, the fineness of pozzolan compared to the cement and pozzolans themselves. ACI 207.2R -96 suggests to test the cement and pozzolan mixes to determine the fineness and heat of hydration of the blend. A rule of thumb that has worked fairly well on preliminary computations has been to assume that pozzolan produces only about 50 percent as much heat as the cement that it replaces (ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996). Figure 2-6 Effect of Admi xtures on Heat Generation (Ati 2002)(M0: Control Mix 675lb/yd3 Cement, M1: 70% Fly Ash with Superplasticizer, M2 : 70% Fly Ash without Superplasticizer, M3:50% Fly Ash with Superplasticizer, M4: 50% Fl y Ash without Superplasticizer) Using chemical admixtures as water-re ducing, set-retarding agents affects the concrete mix in the first 12 to 16 hours af ter mixing. These chemicals do not alter the total heat generated in the concrete after the first 24 hours (ACI 207.2R-96, 1996). However, for studies involving a large amount of mass concrete the proposed mix should be tested for adiabatic temperature ri se (ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996). Results from study performed by Ati (2002) on using high-volume fly ash concretes with low water cement ratios and superplasticizers showed that c oncrete mixes with similar ingredients and different amounts of superplasticizers have the same peak temperature. Mixes with

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19 superplasticizers showed a de lay in reaching the maximum te mperature (Figure 2-6). This fact is caused by the retarding effect of superplas ticizers on cement hydration (Ati 2002). The size of the element and ambient temperat ure are factors that affect the concrete peak temperature in nonadia batic conditions. However Bamf orth (1980) showed that mixes with high percentage of pozzolan in large concrete members may be affected by cement replacement. As mentioned before, he believes pozzolan replacement in large members increases concrete stiffness. Methods to Predict Temperat ure Rise in Mass Concrete One of the main problems of mass concre te construction is the necessity for controlling the heat entrapped w ithin it as the cement hydrates. Both the rate and the total adiabatic temperature rise differ among the various types of cement (ACI 207.1 R-96, 1996). Predicting the maximum temperature of ma ss concrete has always been the main concern of designers and builders of mass c oncrete structures. As mentioned before, planning phase for the construc tion of Hoover Dam was a turn ing point in mass concrete studies. One of the earliest efforts to pr edict the maximum temperature of the mass concrete is reported by Blanks (1933). He describes a se ries of tests on adiabatic temperature rise of concretes with different cement types. Those test had been supported by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation. To deve lop the adiabatic temperature rise curves, cylinders of full mass concrete with 188lb/yd3 cement content were cast in place in accurately controlled adiabatic calorimeter rooms and immediately sealed by soldering a cover on the light sheet metal mold. The temp erature of the air in the room and the temperature of the specimen were meas ured by resistance thermometers. These

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20 thermometers were connected to control inst ruments. The control instruments operated to maintain the temperature of the air in the calorimeter room the same as that of the specimen. Blanks (1933) mentions that the special design of the room insured the uniformity of temperature and the controls pr ovide equality of temperature between the air and the specimen within 0.10 F. Figure 2-7 shows the results of tests repor ted by Blanks (1933). At that time the final objective of the tests was to find the most proper commercial cement for the construction of Hoover Dam. ASTM standard cements had not been defined therefore different cements were designate d by numbers (See Table 2-6). Table 2-6 Compound Composition of Ce ments Represented in Figure 2-7 Cement No. C3S C2S C3A C4AF MgO CaSO4 Free Lime I-1 49.1 21.9 13.6 10.3 0.7 2.8 0.9 R-2252 57.8 17.4 6.7 10 2.6 3.6 1.2 Y-9 52.9 26.5 8.8 5.9 1.6 2.3 U-2 23.2 50.1 12.9 6.2 3.5 2.9 0.3 S-310 Not a True Portland Cement R-2249 25.6 46.2 2.8 18.1 2.4 4.1 1.0 Figure 2-1 shows adiabatic temperature ri se curves for mass concrete containing 376lb/yd3 of various types of cement. These cu rves are published in ACI 207.1R and are widely used to predict the adiabatic temperat ure rise in mass concrete. ACI curves have been traced to early 1960s. As mentioned before, when a portion of the cement is replaced by pozzolan, the temperature rise curves are greatly modifie d, particularly in the early ages. Depending on the composition and fineness of the pozzolan and cement used in combination, the effect of pozzolans differs greatly.

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21 Figure 2-7 Typical Heat-Gener ation Curves (Blanks, 1933) Specifications for mass concrete often requi re particular cement types, minimum cement contents, and maximum supplementary ce mentitious material contents. Once this information is available, the process of pr edicting maximum concre te temperatures and temperature differences can begin. Several options are available to predict maximum concrete temperatures.

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22 Gajda (2002) reports a simplistic method, wh ich is briefly described in a Portland Cement Association document. This method is useful if the concrete contains between 500 and 1000 lbs of cement per cubic yard of concrete and the minimum dimension is greater than 6 ft. For this approximati on, every 100 lbs of cement increases the temperature of the concrete by 12.8 F. Us ing this method, the maximum concrete temperature of a concrete element that contai ns 900 lb of cement pe r cubic yard and is cast at 60 F is approximately 175 F. This PCA method does not, however, consider surface temperatures or supplementary cem entitious materials (Gajda et al., 2002). A more precise method is known as Sc hmidtÂ’s method. This method is most frequently used in connection with temperat ure studies for mass concrete structures in which the temperature distribu tion is to be estimated. Determining the approximate date for grouting a relatively thin arch dam afte r a winterÂ’s exposure, the depth of freezing, and temperature distributions after placement are typical applications of this step-by-step method. Different exposure temperatures on the two faces of a theore tical slab and heat of hydration of cement can be take n into consideration (Townsend, 1981). In its simpler form, SchmidtÂ’s Method assu mes no heat flow normal to the slab and is adapted to a slab of any thickness with any in itial temperature distribution. SchmidtÂ’s Method states that the temperature, t2 of an elemental volume at any subsequent time is dependent not only upon its own temperat ure but also upon the temperatures, t1 and t3 of the adjacent elemental volumes. At time t this can be expressed as: t2, t = [t1 + (M-2) t2 + t3] / M Where M = [C ( x)2]/[K t] = ( x)2/(h2 t), since the diffusivity of concrete, h2 (ft2/hr), is given as K/C

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23 K= Concrete Conductivity. Btu/ft.hr.F C= Specific Heat, Btu/lb.F = Density of Concrete, lb/ft3 If t = ( x)2/(2h2), then M=2. Therefore the temperature, t2 at time t, becomes t2, t = (t1+t3)/2. It means that the subsequent temperat ure of an elemental volume is simply the average of the two adjacent elemental temperatures. The principal objection to the Schmidt Me thod of temperature is the time required to complete the step-by-step computation. This has been overcome by the use of computer programs (Townsend, 1981). In recent years, there have been some efforts to develop models to simulate the hydration process. Construction Technology Laboratories (C TL) staff have developed a software based on SchmidtÂ’s method and have validated it by field calibrati ons since early 1990s (Gajda et al., 2002). Gadja (2002) describes this software as being capable of predicting maximum concrete temperature and temper ature differences for any concrete mix proportion under various placing conditions. He also indicates that CTLÂ’s software has the ability to thermally analyze a concre te element 1-, 2and 3-dimensionaly. Bentz and associates (1998) used a 3D microstructural model to predict the adiabatic temperature rise. Th ey tested a series of conventional and high performance concrete with and without silica fume. Befo re mixing, the materials were placed in a room having a regulated temperature equal to th at of the adiabatic calorimeter to ensure thermal equilibrium at the beginning of the test.

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24 Cement was imaged using scanning electron microscope/X-ray analysis to obtain a two-dimensional image. Each phase of the cement was uniquely identified in the image. This image and measured particle size di stribution for the cement were used to reconstruct a three-dimensional representa tion of the cement (Bentz et al., 1998). The cellular automatom-based 3-D cement hydration and microstructural model operates as a sequence of cycles, each cons isting of dissolution, diffusion, and reaction steps. Bentz and associates (1998) concluded that the 3-D microstructural model had successfully predicted the adiabatic temperat ure rise and there have been a reasonable relation between the developed model and expe rimental work. However, the accuracy of the modelÂ’s prediction is restricted to correct computation of kineti c constants, activation energies, and reaction pr oduct stoichiometries. Swaddiwudhipong and associates proposed a numerical model to simulate the exothermic hydration process of cement a nd temperature rise in mass concrete pours (Swaddiwudhipong et al. 2002). In their model the hydration reaction of each major mineral compound found in Portland cement, C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF, is considered. The hydration of each mineral compound is char acterized by its thermal activity and the reference rate of heat of hydration. Reference ra te of heat of hydration is the rate of heat of hydration per unit mass of mineral co mpound in cement under specified hydration conditions. In this model the influen ce of various factors on the exothermic hydration process is taken into consideration. The applicability of the proposed model is verified by a series of adiabatic temperature rise tests. Swaddi wudhipong and associates (2002) believe that

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25 with the establishment of this approach, it is possible to simulate the exothermic hydration process of Portland cement and the te mperature rise directly on the basis of intrinsic mechanism of hydration, chemical composition of cement, and mix proportion of concrete mixture. They concluded, “Compared with other empirical methods, the proposed model serves as a more reasonable and effective tool to predict the evolution of heat of hydration, the degree of hydrati on and the temperature rise in concrete mixtures” (Swaddiwudhipong et al.,2002). Ballim (2004) developed a finite differen ce heat model for predicting time-based temperature profiles in mass concrete elemen ts. In this study, a model representing a twodimensional solution to the Fourier heat fl ow equation was developed. This model runs on a commercially available spreadsheet packag e. The model uses the results of a heat rate determination using an adiabatic calorimeter together with Arrhenius maturity function to indicate the rate and extent of hydration at any time and position within the concrete element. Ballim (2004) reports that th is model is able to predict the temperature within 3.6F throughout temp erature monitoring period. Experimental Methods to Measure th e Heat of Hydration of Concrete There are normally four methods to meas ure the heat of hydration of concrete. (Gibbon et al., 1997). Heat of Solution Test : This method determines the total heat produced by the binder content of the concrete over a 28-day peri od, but does not indicate the rate of heat production at any point in time. Conduction Calorimetry: In this method heat remove d from a sample of hydrating cementitious paste is measured. Since th e rate of hydration is dependent on temperature, this method does not allow the sample to attain temperatures that it would in a concrete struct ure and therefore does not si mulate the true condition.

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26 Adiabatic Calorimetry: This method allows determinati on of both the total heat and the rate of heat generation. In this method, th ere is no heat transfer from or into the test sample. Isothermal Method: This method is similar to adiabatic calorimetry but uses a Dewar or thermos flask to prevent heat loss, instead of an adiabatic control system. The heat loss from the flask is difficult to determine and will affect the hydration process.

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27 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Introduction In this chapter, the materials and th e test methods to study the adiabatic temperature rise of mass concrete are pres ented. In the first section of the chapter procedures that were undertaken to choose sample concrete mixesÂ’ materials and their proportion are explained. Test methods and e quipment used to measure the temperature rise and other characteristics of concrete sa mples are presented in the second section. In the third section, test procedures to dete rmine adiabatic temperature rise, concrete thermal diffusivity, compressive strengt h, and heat of hydration are described. Mix Design Selection The first step to prepare a concrete sa mple is to design the mix proportions and choose the materials. There are many different mass concrete mix designs that have been approved and used in various FDOT projects in the past. The goal was to choose a mix design which is a representative of the ma jority of the mixes used in FDOT mass concrete projects. To achieve this goal a comprehensive list of 87 FDOT approved mix designs used for mass concrete elements in the time interval between 1990 and 2000 was compiled. Based on the information gathered about these mix designs, concrete class, cement type, proportion of pozzolanic material and coarse and fine aggregates were selected.

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28 Concrete Class The breakdown of concrete classes of the mixes used in mass concrete projects in Florida is shown in Figure 3-1. The majority of the mixes were FDOT Class IV (5500 psi) concrete. It was therefore deci ded to use a Class IV concrete mix. Class I 2% Class II 15% Class III 6% Class IV 74% Class V 3% Figure 3-1 Mix Design Brea kdown By Concrete Class Cement Type The next step was to choose the cement type. Table 3-1 shows the distribution of different types of cement used in 87 FDOT approved mass concrete mixes. Cements from two different sources that sa tisfy the AASHTO criteria for ty pe II cement were used. Table 3-1 Cement Type Distri bution in FDOT Approved Mixes Cement t yp e Numbe r Percenta g eCommen t T yp e IP 1011 T yp e I 56 T yp e II 7283 Selected Total 87100

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29 Pozzolanic Materials Proportion Pozzolanic materials (Fly Ash or Slag) are generally used in mass concrete mixes. The following approach was used to determine the percentage of pozzolanic materials to be used in this projectÂ’s mix designs. Figure 3-2 shows the percentage of mixes made with different ratios of fly ash in FDOT approved mass concrete mixes. As one ca n readily observe, the ratio of fly ash to total cementitious material varies from 18% to 40%. It was decided to make two mixes with two different percentages of fly ash to have good representatives of the mixes. Mixes were divided into two groups. First group included mixes with 18% to 22% of fly ash. Based on weighted average and frequency of fly ash percentage 20% was chosen for this group. The second group consisted of mi xes with 30% to 40% of fly ash. The proportion of fly ash in this group was determined to be 35%. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 18%19%20%21%22%30%35%39%40%Fly Ash/Cementitious MaterialPercent of Mixes With Fly Ash Figure 3-2 Fly Ash Percentage In FDOT Approved Mixes With Fly Ash

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30 As shown in Figure 3-3, within the FDOT approved mass concrete mixes with slag, slag to cementitious materials percentage was 50%, 60% or 70%. It was decided to test two different mix designs with slag. For this purpose, 50% and 70% of slag in the mix were chosen. These proportions are the most frequent ones. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 50%60%70%Slag/Cementitious MaterialPercent of Mixes With Slag Figure 3-3 Slag Percentage In FDOT Approved Mixes With Slag Cement Source Data from FDOT approved mass concrete mixes showed that cements used are generally produced by the follo wing cement manufacturers: 1. Rinker Materials (Miami) 2. Florida Rock Ind. (Newberry) 3. Florida Mining and Materials (Cemex in Brooksville) 4. Tarmac (Miami)

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31 Samples from all four cements were tested for chemical analysis, physical analysis and, heat of hydration. In Tabl e 3-2 results of chemical a nd physical analysis tests are presented. The final selection was based on the fa ctors that are believed to affect the heat generation in cement. As mentioned in Chapter 2, Tricalcium Silicate (C3S) and Tricalcium Aluminate (C3S) have the largest contribution to the heat of hydration. Study of the chemical analysis test results s howed that the cement from source 2 has the maximum C3S content. Chemical analysis test also showed that the cement from source 3 has the maximum C3A content while the other samples contain an equal percentage of C3S. Based on the chemical analysis tests, cem ents from sources 2 and 3 were selected preliminarily. Table 3-2 Results of Chemical and Phys ical Analysis for the Cement Samples Source Number 1 2 3 4 Cement Source Rinker Materials (Miami) Florida Rock Ind. (Newberry) Florida Mining and Materials (Cemex in Brooksville) Tarmac (Miami) Chemical Analysis Loss of Ignition 1.5% 1.7% 0.1% 1.5% Insoluble Residue 0.20% 0.21% 0.15% 0.16% Sulfur Trioxide 2.7% 2.9% 2.9% 2.8% Magnesium Oxide 0.9% 0.7% 0.9% 0.9% Tricalcium Aluminate (C3A) 6% 6% 7% 6% Total Alkali as Na2O 0.34% 0.36% 0.48% 0.44% Silicon Oxide 21.3% 20.1% 21.5% 21.2% Aluminum Oxide 4.6% 5.0% 5.1% 5.1% Ferric Oxide 3.8% 4.2% 3.8% 3.8% Tricalcium Silicate (CsS) 56% 58% 48% 50% Physical Analysis 3 3330 2740 2860 3050 Compressive strength (psi) 7 4360 3490 4110 4130 Fineness (m2/kg) 390 401 350 370 Initial 148 123 137 133 Setting time Gilmore (minutes) Final 208 183 235 216 Soundness Autoclave 0.00 -0.02 0.00 0.00 Normal Consistency Comments Selected A Selected B

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32 The results of heat of hydration test s howed cement 2 has the minimum heat of hydration at 7days and 28 days (see Table 3-3). Cement 3 di d not have the maximum heat of hydration but its heat of hydration at 7 an 28 days was only 2.3% and 0.7% smaller than the heat of hydration of the cement 4 with the maxi mum heat of hydration. Thus cements 2 (Florida Rock Ind.) and 3 (Flori da Mining and Material) were selected as cement A and cement B respectively. Table 3-3 Results of Heat of Hydration Tests No Cement Source Heat of Hydration @ 7 days (cal/g) Heat of Hydration @ 28 days (cal/g) 1 Rinker (Miami) 77.6 88.2 2 Florida Rock Ind. (Newberry) 66.2 84.1 3 Florida mining and materials (Cemex in Brooksville) 78.2 94.4 4 Tarmac (Miami) 80.0 95.1 Fly Ash Source Table 3-4 shows the percentage of mixes with fly ash from different sources. Monex/Boral fly has the highest frequency of use in FDOT approved mass concrete mixes and was selected to be used in this project. Table 3-4 Percentage of Mixes With Fly Ash From Different Sources Source Percent Monex/Boral 30% Ash Management (Carbo) 18% Florida Fly Ash 16% Ash Management 14% Florida Mining and Materials 10% Ash Management (St Johns Power) 6% Monier 2% JTM (Jacksonville) 2% Conversion System 2%

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33 Blast Furnace Slag Source Table 3-5 shows the percentage of mixes with blast furnace slag from different sources. Although Blue CircleÂ’s Newcem slag has the highest frequency of use, Lafarge slag was used in this project because of the difficulty in obtaining Newcem. Table 3-5 Percentage of Mixes W ith Slag From Different Sources Source Percent Blue Circle (Newcem) 70% Lafarge Florida inc 15% Pencem Pennsuco 15% Table 3-6 Percentages of Coarse A ggregates From Different Sources Coarse Aggregate Source S.G. Pit Number Number of Mixes Percentage Rinker Materials 2.451 87-090 18 39% Vulcan/Ica 2.455 08-005 8 17% Florida Rock Ind. 2.493 08-004 4 9% Vulcan/Ica 2.738 AL-149 4 9% S & S Materials 2.620 AL-288 3 7% Cabbage Grove 2.480 38-268 2 4% Harper Brothers 2.500 12-260 2 4% Florida Rock Ind. 2.370 TM-478 1 2% Rinker Materials 2.420 87-035 1 2% Tarmac 2.430 87-145 1 2% Florida Rock Ind. 2.450 08-012 1 2% White Construction 2.630 38-036 1 2% Type II Cement with Fly Ash Total 46 100% Rinker Materials 2.434 87-090 8 40% Tarmac 2.430 87-145 8 40% Florida Rock Ind. 2.375 87-049 2 10% Florida Rock Ind. 2.430 08-004 2 10% Type II Cement with Slag Total 20 100% Coarse Aggregate Source The other important component of a mix is coarse aggregate. Based on data collected from FDOT approved mass concrete mixes, the most frequently used coarse aggregate was produced by Rinker Materials (P it Number 87).Table 3-6 shows source,

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34 specific gravity, and pit number of coarse aggregates used in FDOT approved mass concrete mixes with fly ash or slag. Coarse aggregate produced by Ri nker Materials form Pit Number 87-090 was theref ore chosen for the test. Fine Aggregate Source Fine aggregate selected for this project was from the same source as the coarse aggregate (Rinker Materials). Total Cementitious Materials The amount of cementitious material is one of the important factors in generating heat of hydration in the concre te mix. Considering Table 3-7 and the fact that higher total cementitious material generates more heat of hydration, 760 lbs/yd3 total cementitious materials was used in this project. Table 3-7 Total Cementitious Materials In FDOT Approved Class IV Concrete Mixes Total Cementitious Materials (lbs) Number Percentage 650-709 27 47% 710-769 26 46% 770-869 4 7% Mix Temperature Concrete placing temperature also affect s the heat of hydration. To demonstrate how placing temperature affects maximum curi ng temperature, two placing temperatures, 73F and 95F, were used in this project. Number of Mixes The objective of this study was to develop adiabatic te mperature rise for typical mass concrete mixes made with Florida ma terials. To accomplish this objective 20 different mixes were made using two different cement sources, two placing temperatures,

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35 and different percentages of pozzolanic materi als. Table 3-8 exhibits the type and amount of pozzolanic materials, cement source, and placing temperature for these 20 mixes. Table 3-8 Number of Test Mixes Binder Placing Temp ( F) Cement Source Mix Designation 73 A 73A00P 73 B 73B00P 95 A 95A00P Type II Cement 0% Pozzolanic Material 95 B 95B00P 73 A 73A20F 73 B 73B20F 95 A 95A20F 80% Type II Cement + 20% Fly Ash 95 B 95B20F 73 A 73A35F 73 B 73B35F 95 A 95A35F 65% Type II Cement + 35% Fly Ash 95 B 95B35F 73 A 73A50S 73 B 73B50S 95 A 95A50S 50% Type II Cement + 50% Slag 95 B 95B50S 73 A 73A70S 73 B 73B70S 95 A 95A70S 30% Type II Cement + 70% Slag 95 B 95B70S Total Number of Mixes 20 Test Methods and Equipments This research project involved development of adiabatic temperature rise curves for FDOT approved concrete mixes, measuring concrete thermal diffusivity, and testing compressive strength at different ages. In addition, the heat of hydration for plain and blended cements used in diffe rent mixes was measured. Adiabatic Temperature Rise There is no standard method to measure the adiabatic temperature rise of mass concrete. Literature review showed that the basis of all previous tests to monitor and record the adiabatic temperature rise of mass c oncrete was to provide an adiabatic or semi adiabatic condition for the concrete sample a nd at the same time record the temperature

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36 rise by thermocouples placed in the core of the concrete samples. Different methods have been used to provide an ad iabatic condition for concrete samples. These methods range from building an isolated r oom with controlled temperat ure to small chambers or cylinders that are connected to heaters and thermocouples and are monitored by computers. Apparatus For this study Sure Cure system was use d. This system had been previously used by FDOT in similar research projects. The system consists of a Hydration Chamber, Cylinder Molds, I/O Controller Cabinet and Personal Computer. Hydration Chamber Hydration Chamber (Figure 3-4) is a caped cylinder that holds a fresh concrete sample approximately equal to a 6"x12" cylin der. It has an insulated wall and cap which prevents heat exchange between the c oncrete and the outside ambient. Two thermocouples are mounted in the Hydration Ch amber. The first one is called “Inner” and is placed inside a cone in the middle of th e cylinder (see Figure 3-6). This thermocouple records the temperature of the core of th e concrete sample placed in the Hydration Chamber. The second thermocouple, called “Outer ,” is placed in the wall of the cylinder and monitors the temperature of the surface of the sample. These thermocouples are connected to the I/O controller. Two heater s are placed in the wall and the cap of the Hydration Chamber. Each heater is connected to the I/O Controller separately. Whenever the temperature recorded by the Inner thermoc ouple is smaller than the one recorded by the Outer, heaters will start heating the sample to eliminate the temperature gap between the inside and the outside of the sample.

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37 Figure 3-4 Hydration Chamber Cylinder Molds A cylinder mold holds a 4" by 8" concrete sample. A thermocouple is placed in each mold and relays the temperature to the co ntroller. The controller sends the data to the computer and the control software comp ares the temperature of the mold to the temperature recorded from the Inner thermo couple of the Hydration Chamber. If the temperature of the cylinder mold is lower than the temperature of the Inner thermocouple, the software orders the controller to turn on the heater inside the cylinder mold. Each cylinder mold is insulated by flexible polyuret hane insulation to protect the mold from the environment (Figure 3-5). The specimens from the cylinder molds were used for compressive strength test. Figure 3-5 Cylinder Molds

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38 I/O Controller Cabinet and Personal Computer The I/O Controller can monitor and cont rol up to 15 thermocouple channels and 8 heater channels. The computer provides co mplete time vs. temperature information. The PC can control cylinder molds to follow the specimen in the Hydration Chamber or any pre-programmed time/temperature curve. Th e thermocouple and 120V power circuits from the Hydration Chambers and the cylinder molds can be plugged directly into the I/O cabinet of the PC controller. As specified by the Sure Cure System Manufacturer, the system controls the temperature of the cy linder molds within 2F of the “master” thermocouple. In these tests the Inner ther mocouple of the Hydration Chamber was the “master” thermocouple. Concrete I/O ControllerComputer Outer Thermocouple Heater Connection Hydration Chamber Inner Thermocouple Figure 3-6 Sure Cure System Concrete is placed in the Hydration Ch amber. Immediately after the concrete placement, the temperature data from Inner and Outer thermocouples is read every 6 seconds by I/O Controller. The software that monitors the I/O Cont roller compares the core temperature and the outer surface temper ature. As soon as the difference between

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39 the core temperature and the surface temperatur e is more than a user-defined amount, the software orders the I/O Controller to turn on the heaters connected to the chamber and heat the specimen surface to reduce the temp erature difference between the core and the surface of the specimen (Figure 3-6). The soft ware records temperature readings from thermocouples for a specific period of time ev ery minute. Recorded data is saved on the PC and is later used to develop the adiabatic temperature rise curves. For each mix two specimens in the Hydration Chamber and six in the Cylinder Molds were tested. The setup of th e system is shown in Figure 3-7. I/O Controller Cabinet Computer Hydration Chamber Hydration Chamber Cylinder Mold Cylinder Mold Cylinder Mold Cylinder Mold Cylinder Mold Cylinder Mold Heater Connections Thermocuople Connections Figure 3-7 Sure Cure System Setup Thermal Diffusivity of Concrete To measure concrete thermal diffusivity the CRD-C 36-73 Method (Method of Test for the Thermal Diffusivity of Concrete) developed by Army Corps of Engineers was used.

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40 Scope This test is used to determine the thermal diffusivity of concrete. The thermal diffusivity is equal to the thermal conduc tivity divided by the heat capacity per unit volume and may be used as an index of the f acility with which the material will undergo temperature change. Apparatus The apparatus consists of Bath, Diffusi on Chamber and Temperature Indicating and recording instrument and Timer. Bath. A heating bath (Figure 3-8) in which conc rete cylinders can be raised to uniform high temperature (212 F). Diffusion chamber A chamber containing running cold water (Figure 3-9). Temperature indicating and r ecording instrument and timer This device records time a nd temperature (Figure 3-10). Figure 3-8 Heating Bath

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41 Figure 3-9 Diffusion Chamber Figure 3-10 Temperature Recorder and Timer

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42 Procedure Preparation of specimen The test specimens were 6 by 12 in. cylinde r. Molded specimens were moist-cured for 28 days prior to testing. Heating Each specimen was heated to the same temperature by continuous immersion in boiling water until the temperat ure of the center reached 212 F (100 C). The specimen was then transferred to a bath of running cold water, and suspended in the bath so that the entire surface of the specimen is in contact with the water. The temperature of the cold water was determined by means of another thermocouple. Cooling The cooling history of the specimen was obt ained from readings of the temperature of the interior of the specimen at 1-min inte rvals from the time the temperature difference between the center and the water reached 120 F (67 C) until the temperature difference between the center and water reached 8 F (4 C). The data was recorded. Two such cooling histories were obtained for each test specimen, and the diffusivities were calculated within 0.002 f t2/ h. Calculations The temperature difference in F was plot ted against the time in minutes on a semi logarithmic scale. The best possible strai ght line was then drawn through the points so obtained. A typical graph is shown in Fi gure 3-11. The time elapsed between the temperature difference of 80 F and 20 F was read from the graph, and this value was inserted in equation below from which the thermal diffusivity was calculated:

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43 = 0.812278/(t1 t2) Equation 3.1 Where: = thermal diffusivity, ft2/ h r And, (t1 t2) = elapsed time between temperature differences of 80 F and 20 F in minutes, and 0.812278 = numerical factor applicab le to 6by 12-in cylinder. Figure 3-11 Example Showing Calculation Of Thermal Di ffusivity Of A Concrete Cylinder Compressive Strength The compressive strengths of the samples were determined at ages of 14 and 28 days. The compressive strengths were determined according to ASTM C39-93a,

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44 Standard Test Method for Compressive Streng th of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens using FDOT physical laboratory equipment. Heat of Hydration The heat of hydration for cementitious materials was determined at 7 and 28 days. The heat of hydration was determined according to ASTM C186, Standard Test Method for the Determination of Heat of Hydration of Hydraulic Cement by Construction Technology Laboratories (CTL) in Skokie, Illinois. Test Procedures In this section test procedures to dete rmine adiabatic temperature rise, thermal diffusivity, and compressive strength for concre te and the heat of hydration for plain and blended cement paste are described. Concrete tests were performed at the FDOT physical laboratory, while Construction Technology Laboratories perfor med the heat of hydration test for cement. Tests Performed For Each Mix The following tests were performed for each mix: 1-Fresh Concrete Properties 2-Adiabatic Temperature Rise 3-Compressive Strength at different ages 4Concrete Thermal Diffusivity 5Cementitious Materials Heat of Hydration Procedures for each test will be de scribed in the following sections. Size and Number of Specimens For each mix different sizes of specimen were prepared.

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45 Hydration Chamber : 2 Hydration Chambers were us ed to monitor the adiabatic temperature rise for each mix. Cylinder molds : These molds are 4"x8" cylinder shaped and are connected to the Sure Cure System I/O Controller. They are heated by electric heaters to follow temperature rise of concrete in Hydration Chambers. Six cylinder molds were used for each mix. Three of the specimens were tested for compressive strength at 14 days along with three specimens cured at room temperatur e. The other three specimens were kept in the moisture room for another 14 days. Three of the specimens cured at room temperature were also kept in the moisture room for anot her 14 days. These specimens were tested for compressive strength at 28 days. Plastic molds: 6"x12" Cylinder : Six samples were prepared. Th ree were used for compressive strength at 28 days and the other three were used for concre te diffusivity test. 4"x8" Cylinder : Six samples were prepared. All of them were kept in the molds in room temperature and were covered to prevent moisture loss. At the age of 14 days molds were stripped. Three specimens were broken for compressive strength test. The other three specimens were transferred to moisture room and kept for 14 days. As explained earlier, these specimens were tested for comp ressive strength at 28 days along with high temperature cured specimens. Adiabatic Temperature Rise Test procedure As explained earlier in this chapter, Su re Cure System was used to measure the adiabatic temperature rise.

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46 Laboratory tests Preparation of mix materials Concrete materials were prepared a day before the mix date with propitiations determined in mix design calculations (Figure 3-12). For 73 F placing temperature tests, materials were kept in th e laboratory area with a cont rolled temperature of 72-75 F. For the mixes with 95 F placing temperature, fine aggreg ates were placed in an oven with 200 F temperature for 24 hours. Figure 3-12 Materials Prepared For The Next Day Test Concrete mixing and placing stage For each test a 3 Cubic Feet mix was prepared. As suggested by Hydration Chamber manufacturer, there should not be a direct contact between concrete and the chamberÂ’s wall. Therefore concrete was placed in a plastic bag which was inside the chamber (Figure 3-13)

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47 Figure 3-13 Hydration Chamber Immediately after concrete placing, Hydration Chambers were connected to the controller and computer system and temperat ure recording started. At the same time concrete was also placed in metal cylinder molds (Figure 3-5) and they were also connected to the controller and computer. H ydration Chambers and cylinder molds were placed on a table for the period of temper ature rise monitoring (Figure 3-14). Figure 3-14 Cure Chambers and Metal Molds Connected to the Computer

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48 Temperature rise monitoring stage Temperature monitoring started immediatel y after placing conc rete in Hydration Chambers. For first five mixes (73A 00P, 73A20F, 73A35F, 73A50S and 73A70S) temperature rise were monitored for 28 days. It was realized that ther e is not a significant temperature gain after the s econd week, so for the following tests temperature rise was monitored for 14 days. At the end of the temperature rise monito ring stage, recorded temperature rise log was saved for later analysis. Samples from Hydration Chambers were transferred to moisture room and kept there for future us e in microcrack test. Samples from metal molds were used for compressive strength test. Field tests In addition to the laboratory tests, it was necessary to take samples from mass concrete projects and monitor th eir temperature rise with hydr ation Chambers to evaluate the correlation between the laboratory resu lts and the field temperature readings. The first step was to find FDOT mass c oncrete projects th roughout the State of Florida. Different regional o ffices of FDOT were contacted. Finally Interstate 4 project was chosen. Test equipments were mounted in a minivan and were ready to be dispatched to the project site at the notice from the project administrator (Figure 3-15).

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49 Figure 3-15 Hydration Chambers, Cont roller and Comput er in Minivan On April 2nd 2004, the first group of samples were taken from Bella Vista Bridge (a bridge over I-4 west of Memorial Blvd.) footing A in Lakeland. However because of equipment malfunction temperature monitoring could not be started immediately after sample placement so the results from this test was not considered reliable. On April 9th, footing C of the same project was poured, so samples were taken again at this date. Sample preparation It was decided to take samples from the center of the concrete pour. This decision was based on the fact that the middle core of a mass concrete element will most likely reach the maximum curing temperature, in addition, temperature sensors to monitor temperature rise of concrete are in stalled at the center of the pour. Concrete was poured directly from the tr uck mixer to a wheel borrow. Immediately concrete from the wheel borrow was placed in Hydration Chambers. Hydration Chambers were transferred to the minivan and connected to the controller a nd the computer. Power was supplied from minivan thr ough a converter (Figure 3-16)

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50 Figure 3-16 Cure Chambers in the Minivan The samples were not moved during the initi al set time of the concrete. After four hours (initial set time) sample s were moved to FDOT labor atory located about 140 miles from the project site. Upon arri val at the FDOT facility, H ydration Chambers, controller, and the computer were transferred to a stable location and temperature rise was monitored for 14 days. Thermal Diffusivity Test Procedure The method to measure concrete thermal di ffusivity was described in the previous section. Samples were tested for thermal di ffusivity at 90 days age. The method to measure thermal diffusivity was not identified before the first group of samples was about 90 days age. To keep the consistency, othe r samples were tested at this age as well. Also literature review did not show any indica tion of the effect of age of concrete on its thermal diffusivity.

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51 Sample preparation For each mix three 6"x12" cylinders we re cast. Within each cylinder a wire thermocouple was placed. Specimens were kept in moisture room before they were tested for thermal diffusivity. Heating Specimens were placed in a heating bath at the age of 90 days. Specimens remained in the heating bath until thei r core temperature reached 212 F. Figure 3-17 Specimens Transferred From Heating Bath to Diffusion Chamber Cooling Specimens were then transferred to a diffusion chamber. Diffusion chamber contained a relatively large body of water a nd was connected to running water. These factors kept water temperature cons tant during concrete cooling period.

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52 Figure 3-18 Specimens Connected To Temp erature Recorder During Cooling Stage Core temperature of the specimen was reco rded in one-minute intervals from the time specimen was placed in the diffusion chamber until the temperature difference between the specimen core and water was less than 8 F. Temperature drop history was later used to calculate the thermal diffusivity. Compressive Strength Compressive strength test wa s performed for the specimens with different ages and sizes as mentioned in previous sections according to ASTM C39. Test Procedure Sample preparation In total, 18 samples were cast for compre ssive strength tests. All specimens were placed in molds after placing concrete in Cure Chambers. Testing of samples Samples were tested at 2 different ages: 14 and 28 days.

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53 14-Day tests Two groups of specimens were tested at this age. Each group consisted of three 4 x8 cylinders. The first group was cured in high temperature. The second group was kept in molds in room temperature. Test re sults for two groups were compared to study the effect of high curing temper ature on compressive strength. 28-Day tests Two series of tests were performed at this age. The first series of tests included two groups of specimens. Each group consisted of three 4"x8" cylinders The first group was cured in high temperature for 14 days and wa s then cured in moisture room for another 14 days. The second group was kept in molds in room temperature and later was moved to the moisture room and was kept there for additional 14 days. Test results for two groups were compared to study the effect of high curing temperature on compressive strength. For the second series, three 6"x12" samples were cured in moisture room and were tested at 28 days age. Heat of Hydration Two series of Heat of Hydration tests were performed by CTL in August 2003 and April 2004. ASTM C186 method was used to de termine Heat of Hydration at 7 and 28 days. Test Series I In the first series four samples of plai n cement (from four different sources) and samples of fly ash and blast furnace slag were sent to CTL laboratory in Illinois to perform the test. The results of Heat of Hydration tests we re used to choose the two cement sources to use for mix preparation. Also to study the correlation of Heat of

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54 Hydration and maximum adiabatic temperatur e rise, blends of 80% cement A with 20% fly ash and 50% cement A with 50% slag were tested for Heat of Hydration. Test Series II The first supply of cement A was finish ed during the test period due to the repetition of some of the test mixes. It was necessary to measure Heat of Hydration for a new supply of cement A. Therefore, sample of this cement was sent to CTL to perform Heat of Hydration test. Along with the cement sample, fly ash and slag samples were also sent to CTL. In this series, Heat of Hydr ation of cement A, 65% cement A with 35% fly ash and 30% cement A with 70% slag was determined.

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55 CHAPTER 4 TEST RESULTS Introduction This chapter provides the results of the various tests performed to measure the properties of mass concrete mixes. Mixture pr operties can be found in the first section. The second section provides fresh concrete pr operties measured for each mix. The heat of hydration data, as reported by CTL is shown in the third section. In the forth section the temperature of concrete samples recorded by Sure Cure system as well as adiabatic temperature rise curves for different mixes ar e shown. In the fifth section results for the thermal diffusivity tests are presented. In this section a sample calculation to determine the thermal diffusivity of concrete is also shown. In the last s ection of the chapter, compressive strength tests results are presented. Mixture Properties In Table 4-1 mixture proper ties of different test mixes are shown. The proportions of cement, pozzolanic materials (fly ash or blast furnace slag), water, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, air entertainer and admixt ure for each mix can be found in this table. Darex air entertainer and WARDA 56 water reducer were used in all of the mixes.

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56 Table 4-1 Concrete Mixture Properties FDOT Class IV (5500 psi) (Mix proportions per cubic yard) No. Mix Designation Cement (lb) Fly Ash (lb) Slag (lb) Water (lb) Fine Aggregate (lb) Coarse Aggregate (lb) Air Entertainer (oz) Admixtu re (oz) 1 73A00P 760.00 0.00 0.00 279.001033.00 1736.00 2.30 68.20 2 73A20F 608.00 152.000.00 279.001033.00 1708.00 4.00 68.20 3 73A35F 494.00 266.000.00 279.00980.00 1687.00 4.00 68.20 4 73A50S 380.00 0.00 380.00279.001021.00 1724.00 2.30 68.20 5 73A70S 228.00 0.00 532.00279.001021.00 1724.00 2.30 68.20 6 73B00P 760.00 0.00 0.00 279.001033.00 1736.00 2.30 45.65 7 73B20F 608.00 152.000.00 279.001033.00 1708.00 4.00 45.65 8 73B35F 494.00 266.000.00 279.00980.00 1687.00 4.00 45.65 9 73B50S 380.00 0.00 380.00279.001021.00 1724.00 2.30 68.20 10 73B70S 228.00 0.00 532.00279.001021.00 1724.00 2.30 30.40 11 95A00P 760.00 0.00 0.00 279.001033.00 1736.00 2.30 60.86 12 95A20F 608.00 152.000.00 279.001033.00 1708.00 4.00 68.20 13 95A35F 494.00 266.000.00 279.00980.00 1687.00 4.00 60.86 14 95A50S 380.00 0.00 380.00279.001021.00 1724.00 2.30 25.87 15 95A70S 228.00 0.00 532.00279.001021.00 1724.00 2.30 68.20 16 95B00P 760.00 0.00 0.00 279.001033.00 1736.00 2.30 60.86 17 95B20F 608.00 152.000.00 279.001033.00 1708.00 4.00 30.40 18 95B35F 494.00 266.000.00 279.00980.00 1687.00 4.00 68.20 19 95B50S 380.00 0.00 380.00279.001021.00 1724.00 2.30 38.06 20 95B70S 228.00 0.00 532.00279.001021.00 1724.00 2.30 68.20

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57 Fresh Concrete Properties Table 4-2 shows the results of Slump and Air Content tests. The slump tests were performed in accordance with ASTM C143. Th e objective was to maintain the slump in 3 1 Air Content tests were run according to ASTM C231. Air temperature and mix temperature were measured at the time of placing concrete in hydration Chambers. Water to Cementitious Material Ratio was calculated using following equation: WCr= Ww / Wc Equation 4-1 Where: WCr= Water to Cementitious Material Ratio Ww= Weight of Water in lbs from Table 4-1 Wc= Weight of Total Cementitious Materials (Cement + Fly Ash or Slag) in lbs from Table 4-1 Weight of Total Cementitious Materials (C ement + Fly Ash or Slag) and water was constant, therefore WCr equal to 0.37 in all mixes. Unit weight was calculated by dividing th e summation of all materials weights from Table 4-1 by mix volume. For example unit weight of mix 73A00P was calculated as follows: Weight of Cement = 760 lbs Weight of Water = 279 lbs Weight of Fine Aggregate = 1033 lbs Weight of Coarse Aggregate = 1736 lbs Weight of Air Entertainer + Admi xture = 2.3+68.20 = 70.50 oz = 4.41 lbs Total of Weight of Mix Materials = 3812.41 lbs Mix Volume = 1 CY = 27 CF

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58 Mix Density = 3812.41 lb/CY = 141.2 lb/CF Table 4-2 Fresh Concrete Properties No Mix Slump (in.) Air Content (%) Mix Temp. (F) Air Temp. (F) Water to Cementitious Material Ratio Unit Weight (lb/CF) 1 73A00P 2.75 4.25 73 72 0.37 141.2 2 73A20F 2.00 2.75 73 72 0.37 140.2 3 73A35F 3.25 2.25 72 72 0.37 137.4 4 73A50S 3.50 3.75 81 80 0.37 140.3 5 73A70S 1.75 3.25 74 72 0.37 140.2 6 73B00P 7.25 3.25 73 72 0.37 141.1 7 73B20F 6.50 3.50 73 75 0.37 140.1 8 73B35F 6.00 2.00 75 72 0.37 137.4 9 73B50S 3.50 3.25 73 73 0.37 140.3 10 73B70S 3.75 3.00 73 72 0.37 140.2 11 95A00P 3.25 3.25 93 72 0.37 141.2 12 95A20F 2.75 2.25 95 72 0.37 140.2 13 95A35F 4.00 1.75 94 68 0.37 137.4 14 95A50S 3.50 2.25 96 70 0.37 140.3 15 95A70S 1.75 2.75 93 72 0.37 140.2 16 95B00P 4.25 5.50 99 73 0.37 141.1 17 95B20F 1.75 2.25 98 70 0.37 140.1 18 95B35F 0.50 2.00 101 70 0.37 137.4 19 95B50S 3.00 3.50 101 70 0.37 140.3 20 95B70S 2.75 2.50 101 72 0.37 140.2 Repeated Tests 21 73A00P-R 3.75 3.50 73 72 0.37 141.2 22 73A20F-R 3.75 2.00 74 73 0.37 140.2 23 73A35F-R 3.50 2.25 74 72 0.37 137.4 24 73A50S-R 3.75 2.75 68 68 0.37 140.3 25 73A70S-R 3.00 2.50 69 70 0.37 140.2 26 73B50S-R 3.00 3.50 73 73 0.37 140.3 27 73B70S-R 2.50 3.50 74 72 0.37 140.2 28 95A70S-R 3.25 2.50 97 72 0.37 140.2

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59 Heat of Hydration Heat of Hydration test results are shown in Tables 4-3 and 4-4 as reported by CTL. Two samples of cement from Florida Rock Industries Newberry plant were submitted to CTL. The heat of Hydration of the second sa mple was higher than the first sample. This shows that heats of hydration of deferent ba tches of cements even from the same plant varies. Table 4-3 Heat of Hydration Test Results for Cement No Cement Source Heat of Hydration @ 7 days (cal/g) Heat of Hydration @ 28 days (cal/g) 1 Florida Rock Ind. (Sample 1) (Newberry) 66.2 84.1 2 Florida Rock Ind. (Sample 2) (Newberry) 76.7 91.3 3 Rinker (Miami) 77.6 88.2 4 Florida mining and materials (Cemex in Brooksville) 78.2 94.4 5 Tarmac (Miami) 80.0 95.1 Table 4-4 Heat of Hydration for Ceme nt and Pozzolanic Material Blends No Cement Source Heat of Hydration @ 7 days (cal/g) Heat of Hydration @ 28 days (cal/g) 1 20% Fly ash + 80 % Florida Rock Ind. Sample 1 56.8 68.9 2 50% Slag + 50 % Florida Rock Ind. Sample 1 59.2 75.9 3 35% Fly ash + 65 % Florida Rock Ind. Sample 2 61.4 65.4 4 70% Slag + 30 % Florida Rock Ind. Sample 2 47.5 58.6

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60 Adiabatic Temperature Rise In this section test results for adiabatic temperature rise of different mixes are presented. For each mix, temperature was mon itored immediately after placing concrete in Cure Chamber. To calculate temperature ri se, initial temperature reading as recorded by the computer was deducted from succeedi ng temperature readi ngs. After calculating the temperature rise for data from each Cure Chamber, numbers were averaged. Data was recorded every six minutes for 14 days. In Tabl es 4-5 to 4-8 temperature rise data of the different mixes are reported for every 12 hour s. For the first five mixes, data was recorded for 28 days. Tests were repeated for the following mixes: 73A00P, 73A20F, 73A35F, 73A50S, 73A70S, 73B50S, 73B70S and 95A705. Laboratory Tests Test results are divided into four gr oups based on cement source and placing temperature. The results for each group are presented in a separate table. Cement A with 73F Placing Temperature Tests started with mixes 73A00P and 73A20F. The second group of mixes that were tested consisted of mixes 73A35 F and 73A50S. An Equipment malfunction occurred during the second run of tests that ha lted the data recording for mix 73A35F In the third group of tests, mixes 73A35F and 73A70S were tested. These mixes were monitored for 28 days, while the temperature rise was recorded. Continuous temperature rise with a relatively high rate was noti ced which was unexpected. The manufacturer of the Sure Cure system was contacted for a dvice. The manufacturer suggested adjusting one of the control parameters of the Sure Cu re system in a way that always 1.5 to 2.0 degrees of Fahrenheit temperature difference between heaters and core temperature is kept. The logic behind this provision is that there is a good possibility that if the heaters

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61 are set to reach the exact same temperature as th at of the sample core, due to small size of the sample, extra heat is transferred to sa mple core. This extra heat, which is not generated by cement hydration, causes core temperature to rise. A rise in core temperature is relayed to the c ontroller software and software in turn orders the heaters to warm up to keep sampleÂ’s outer surface in a same temperature as the core. When heaters start working again, extra heat is transferred to the core and the procedure repeats. These events form a cycle of heating and thus a c ontinuous temperature rise would be recorded. The proceeding tests were run in accordance with this suggestion. To keep the consistency in the results, it was decided to repeat the test for the first five mixes. As it is shown in Figure 4-4, the second run of test for the mix 73A50S reached the maximum temperature rise of 97.10 F, wh ich is even higher than the maximum temperature rise of the mix 73A00P w ithout any pozzolanic material. The only explanation for this unexpected result is th e test equipment or controller software malfunction. This set of data was not considered reliable.

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62 Table 4-5 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete with Cement A and 73F Placing Temperature Concrete with Cement A (73F Placing Temperature) Plain Cement 20% Fly Ash 35% Fly Ash 50% Slag 70% Slag Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Time (Day) 1st Test 2nd Test 1st Test 2nd Test 1st Test 2nd Test 1st Test 2nd Test 1st Test 2nd Test 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.5 9.40 34.50 5.60 21.60 4.00 6.80 4.50 19.90 13.45 10.70 1.0 36.80 60.80 19.30 49.10 24.20 34.00 22.90 40.50 31.50 23.15 1.5 60.00 70.25 35.90 61.20 42.30 48.40 47.00 61.40 56.20 42.40 2.0 80.00 75.45 55.20 66.90 52.55 56.00 69.10 75.80 68.10 57.50 2.5 87.00 79.05 66.70 71.50 58.95 61.00 80.00 83.10 73.53 64.10 3.0 93.40 81.60 75.70 75.50 64.95 66.00 83.70 86.70 76.20 67.05 3.5 95.90 83.50 82.00 78.80 69.63 70.40 85.50 88.90 77.65 69.20 4.0 97.50 85.05 84.70 80.80 72.35 73.40 86.50 90.40 78.75 70.60 4.5 98.60 86.55 86.10 82.00 73.80 75.50 87.40 91.80 79.78 71.10 5.0 99.50 87.65 87.00 82.60 74.90 77.10 87.90 93.00 80.53 71.10 5.5 100.20 88.60 87.60 83.20 75.83 78.30 88.30 93.80 81.15 71.10 6.0 100.70 89.55 88.10 83.80 76.48 79.30 88.30 94.70 81.60 71.10 6.5 101.30 90.30 88.70 83.80 77.30 80.00 88.40 95.20 81.63 71.10 7.0 101.10 91.05 88.60 84.10 77.83 80.80 88.20 95.80 82.18 71.10 7.5 101.50 91.60 88.80 84.10 78.38 81.40 88.30 96.20 81.95 71.10 8.0 101.30 92.05 88.70 84.00 79.08 81.50 88.50 96.50 82.15 71.10 8.5 102.00 92.10 89.00 84.20 79.23 81.80 88.50 96.90 82.50 71.10 9.0 102.30 92.15 89.30 84.20 79.65 81.60 88.60 97.00 82.73 71.10 9.5 102.60 92.15 89.70 84.30 79.95 81.70 88.70 97.10 82.98 71.10 10.0 103.00 92.15 90.00 84.30 80.30 81.80 88.70 97.10 83.25 71.10 10.5 103.30 92.20 90.40 84.30 80.75 81.90 88.70 97.10 83.15 71.10 11.0 103.60 92.25 90.70 84.30 81.05 81.90 88.80 97.10 83.35 71.10 11.5 103.90 92.25 91.00 84.40 81.33 82.00 89.00 97.10 83.65 71.10 12.0 104.30 92.30 91.30 84.40 81.65 82.10 88.90 97.10 83.75 71.10 12.5 104.50 92.40 91.60 84.40 81.65 82.10 88.90 97.10 83.75 71.10 13.0 104.80 92.45 91.90 84.40 81.65 82.30 88.90 97.10 83.75 71.10 13.5 104.90 92.60 92.10 84.40 81.65 82.20 88.90 97.10 83.75 71.10 14.0 105.00 92.60 92.20 84.40 81.65 82.10 88.90 97.10 83.75 71.10

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63 Cement AAdiabatic Temperature Rise (73F Placing Temperature)0 20 40 60 80 100 12002468101214Time (Day)Temperature Rise (F) Plain Cement 20% Fly Ash 35% Fly Ash Figure 4-1 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages of Fly Ash (First Run) Cement AAdiabatic Temperature Rise (73F Placing Temperature)0 20 40 60 80 100 12002468101214Time (Day)Temperature Rise (F) Plain Cement 50% Slag 70% Slag Figure 4-2 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages of Slag (First Run)

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64 Cement AAdiabatic Temperature Rise (73F Placing Temperature)0 20 40 60 80 100 12002468101214Time (Day)Temperature Rise (F) Plain Cement 20% Fly Ash 35% Fly Ash Figure 4-3 Temperature Rise for Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages of Fly Ash (Second Run) Cement AAdiabatic Temperature Rise (73F Placing Temperature)0 20 40 60 80 100 12002468101214Time (Day)Temperature Rise (F) Plain Cement 50% Slag 70% Slag Figure 4-4 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages of Slag (Second Run)

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65 Cement B with 73F Placing Temperature In Table 4-1 temperature rise data fo r mixes with cement B and 73F placing temperature is presented. Test for mixes 73B50S and 73B70S were repeated because the first set of collected temperature rise reco rds was stopped after 7.5 days due to equipment malfunction. Table 4-1 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete With Cement B and 73F Placing Temperature Concrete with Cement B (73F Placing Temperature) Plain Cement 20% Fly Ash35% Fly Ash50% Slag 70% Slag Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Time (Day) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Ri se (F Temp. Rise (F 1st Test 2nd Test 1st Test 2nd Test 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.5 28.90 15.50 25.10 23.85 20.07 13.85 15.65 1.0 69.85 61.10 45.40 47.30 49.95 32.30 40.00 1.5 80.10 74.75 54.20 68.15 67.51 57.00 61.22 2.0 84.40 82.70 60.00 78.15 72.48 67.80 66.52 2.5 87.65 87.35 64.10 83.65 75.48 73.40 69.39 3.0 90.60 88.25 67.60 87.05 77.91 76.55 71.57 3.5 92.70 90.00 70.00 87.95 79.89 77.95 73.48 4.0 94.50 91.35 71.80 88.55 81.47 79.25 74.96 4.5 95.85 92.35 73.00 88.75 82.85 80.20 76.35 5.0 97.15 93.20 74.00 88.75 83.86 81.55 77.22 5.5 98.10 93.75 74.50 88.75 84.47 82.05 77.65 6.0 99.05 94.35 75.10 88.75 85.05 82.25 78.05 6.5 99.95 94.70 75.40 88.75 85.35 82.80 78.05 7.0 100.80 95.30 75.80 88.75 85.63 82.80 78.05 7.5 101.60 95.75 76.00 88.75 85.90 82.80 78.05 8.0 102.45 96.05 76.20 86.18 78.05 8.5 102.85 96.05 76.50 86.32 78.05 9.0 103.30 96.15 76.60 86.47 78.05 9.5 103.65 96.10 76.80 86.58 78.05 10.0 104.20 96.25 77.00 86.77 78.05 10.5 104.35 96.30 77.10 86.82 78.05 11.0 104.55 96.30 77.30 86.88 78.05 11.5 104.70 96.45 77.40 86.93 78.05 12.0 104.90 96.45 77.50 87.00 78.05 12.5 105.20 96.60 77.60 87.10 78.05 13.0 105.45 96.65 77.50 87.18 78.05 13.5 105.60 96.80 77.70 87.23 78.05 14.0 105.95 96.95 78.30 87.35 78.05

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66 Cement B(73F Placing Temperature)Adiabatic Temperature Rise0 20 40 60 80 100 12002468101214Time (Day)Temperature Rise (F ) Plain Cement 20% Fly Ash 35% Fly Ash Figure 4-5 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different Percentages of Fly Ash Cement B(73F Placing Temperature)Adiabatic Temperature Rise0 20 40 60 80 100 12002468101214Time (Day)Temperature Rise (F) Plain Cement 50% Slag 70% Slag Figure 4-6 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different Percentages of Slag (First Run)

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67 Cement B(73F Placing Temperature)Adiabatic Temperature Rise0 20 40 60 80 100 12002468101214Time (Day)Temperature Rise (F) Plain Cement 50% Slag 70% Slag Figure 4-7 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different Percentages of Slag (Second Run) Cement A(95F Placing Temperature)Adiabatic Temperature Rise0 20 40 60 80 100 12002468101214Time (Day)Temperature Rise (F) Plain Cement 20% Fly Ash 35% Fly Ash Figure 4-8 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages of Fly Ash

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68 Cement A with 95F Placing Temperature Five mixes were made with cement A with placing temperature ranging from 93F to 96F (See Table 4-2). The first run of the test for the mix 95A70S showed unexpected results. Temperature rise in the first 24 hours was only about 6F which is much lower than similar mixes. It was decided to run th is test again. The resu lts of both tests are presented in Table 4-2,Figures 4-9 and 4-10. Table 4-2 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete with Cement A and 95F Placing Temperature Concrete with Cement A (95F Placing Temperature) Plain Cement 20% Fly Ash 35% Fly Ash 50% Slag 70% Slag Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Time (Day) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) 1st Test 2nd Test 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.5 17.75 8.95 4.80 19.30 5.10 4.30 1.0 61.00 40.75 26.50 54.50 5.30 16.80 1.5 77.85 63.15 46.95 82.70 12.40 49.50 2.0 87.40 76.95 60.80 91.00 42.80 57.70 2.5 91.00 85.45 75.50 92.20 56.05 60.50 3.0 92.20 88.85 80.90 92.20 58.85 62.10 3.5 92.40 90.10 82.90 92.20 60.15 63.60 4.0 92.40 90.30 84.00 92.20 61.00 64.40 4.5 92.40 90.60 84.40 92.30 61.55 65.40 5.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 62.30 66.10 5.5 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 62.50 66.70 6.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 63.15 67.10 6.5 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 63.25 67.50 7.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 63.40 67.90 7.5 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 63.75 68.20 8.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 63.80 68.60 8.5 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 63.95 68.90 9.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.05 69.00 9.5 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 69.30 10.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 69.40 10.5 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 69.60 11.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 69.80 11.5 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 69.90 12.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 70.10 12.5 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 70.10 13.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 70.40 13.5 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 70.50 14.0 92.40 90.60 85.00 92.30 64.25 70.80

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69 Cement A(95F Placing Temperature)Adiabatic Temperature Rise0 20 40 60 80 100 12002468101214Time (Day)Temperature Rise (F) Plain Cement 50% Slag 70% Slag Figure 4-9 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages of Slag Cement A(95F Placing Temperature)Adiabatic Temperature Rise0 20 40 60 80 100 12002468101214Time (Day)Temperature Rise (F) Plain Cement 70% Slag First Run 70% Slag Second Run Figure 4-10 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement A With Different Percentages of Slag (First & Second Run)

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70 Cement B with 95F Placing Temperature In Table 4-3 temperature rise data fo r mixes with cement B and 95F placing temperature is presented. A re view of test results and Figur es 4-11 and 4-12 shows that temperature rise for the mix without pozzolani c material was very slow in the first 12 hours. Table 4-3 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete with Cement B and 95F Placing Temperature Concrete with Cement B (95F Placing Temperature) Plain Cement 20% Fly Ash 35% Fly Ash 50% Slag 70% Slag Time (Day) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.5 2.60 56.80 50.35 58.60 45.00 1.0 72.15 72.90 61.90 76.70 69.40 1.5 84.20 77.40 67.85 80.70 73.90 2.0 85.60 77.60 68.90 81.80 76.30 2.5 85.65 77.60 69.20 82.00 77.90 3.0 85.95 77.60 69.30 82.00 78.90 3.5 85.95 77.60 69.60 82.00 79.50 4.0 85.95 77.60 69.90 82.00 79.90 4.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90 5.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90 5.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90 6.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90 6.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90 7.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90 7.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90 8.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90 8.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90 9.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90 9.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90 10.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90 10.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90 11.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90 11.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90 12.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90 12.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90 13.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90 13.5 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90 14.0 85.95 77.60 69.95 82.00 79.90

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71 Cement B(95F Placing Temperature)Adiabatic Temperature Rise0 20 40 60 80 100 12002468101214Time (Day)Temperature Rise (F) Plain Cement 20% Fly Ash 35% Fly Ash Figure 4-11 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different Percentages of Fly Ash Cement B(95F Placing Temperature)Adiabatic Temperature Rise0 20 40 60 80 100 12002468101214Time (Day)Temperature Rise (F) Plain Cement 50% Slag 70% Slag Figure 4-12 Temperature Rise for Concrete Mixtures of Cement B With Different Percentages of Slag

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72 Field Tests In Table 4-6 the temperature rise readings for two series of tests run on samples from a mass concrete pour are presented. The samples were taken from footings of Bella Vista Bridge (a bridge over I-4 west of Me morial Blvd.) in Lakeland, Florida. Due to the malfunction of computer system, it was not pos sible to monitor the temperature rise in samples immediately after concrete placing. It was decided to bring back the samples after placing in Cure Chambers to the FDOT laboratory in Gainesville. The samples were moved while they were fresh and were not c onnected to the controller for about 2 hours. These two factors may affect the heat gene ration, although it is not proven. However, comparing the results from the first and the second tests do not show a significant difference. For the first samp le, temperature rise was 26.00 F in the first 12 hours, while the second sample gained 25.65 F during the same period. Both samples continued to generate heat with the same rate in the following days. The first sample was monitored for 6 days. After six days, test equipment wa s needed for the second run of field tests, therefore temperature rise monitoring was stopped. Concrete for both samples was mixed according to FDOT approved mix design No. 01-0632 with 360 lb/yd3 of Type II cement from Florida Rock Newberry (Same source as cement A used in laboratory tests) and 360 lb/yd3 slag (See Table 4-4). The sample temperature was 70 F for the first test and 72 F for the second one. Table 4-4 Mix Proportions of Field Test Samples No. Mix Designation Cement (lb/CY) Fly Ash (lb/CY) Slag (lb/CY) Water (lb/CY) Fine Aggregate (lb/CY) Coarse Aggregate (lb/CY) Air Entertainer (oz/CY) Admixture (oz/CY) 1 Site50S-1 360.00 0.00 360.00252.001168.00 1708.00 5.00 28.8 2 Site50S-2 360.00 0.00 360.00260.001140.00 1696.00 5.00 28.8

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73 Table 4-5 Fresh Concrete Prope rties of Field Test Samples No Mix Slump (in.) Air Content (%) Mix Temp. (F) Air Temp. (F) Water to Cementitious Material Ratio Unit Weight (lb/CF) 1 Site50S-1 3.00 3.00 70 68 0.35 142.6 2 Site50S-2 3.25 3.00 72 71 0.38 141.4 Table 4-6 Adiabatic Temperature Rise for Samples Taken from the Field Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Time (Day) 1st Test (Site50S-1) 2nd Test (Site50S-2) 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.5 26.00 24.65 1.0 43.80 41.95 1.5 62.60 59.50 2.0 74.03 69.75 2.5 79.66 75.20 3.0 82.54 78.60 3.5 84.32 81.10 4.0 85.58 83.00 4.5 86.65 84.55 5.0 87.56 85.95 5.5 88.29 87.25 6.0 88.92 88.26 6.5 89.15 7.0 89.94 7.5 90.75 8.0 91.23 8.5 91.65 9.0 91.98 9.5 92.10 10.0 92.15 10.5 92.17 11.0 92.18 11.5 92.18 12.0 92.18 12.5 92.18 13.0 92.18 13.5 92.18 14.0 92.18

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74 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1000.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.Time (Day)Temperature Rise (F) Site50S-1 Site50S-2 Figure 4-13 Temperature Rise for Field Test Samples Thermal Diffusivity In Table 4-7 thermal diffusivity values fo r different test mixes are shown. These numbers were calculated based on method presented in Chapter 3. In Figure 4-14 thermal diffusivity of cements A and B with different placing temperatures and percentage of pozzolanic ma terials are drawn. As it is shown, three of the curves follow the same pattern while one curve (Cement A 73 F placing temperature) has a very different pattern. All of the diffusi vity tests were run with the same apparatus and under the same condition except the firs t three tests (73A00P, 73A20F and 73A50S; shown in bold letters in Table 4-7). For the first three tests a smaller diffusing chamber (Figure 4-15) was used compared to the diffu sivity chamber used for other tests (Figure 4-16). The smaller body of water in the first diffusivity chamber ha s a lower capacity to absorb heat from the concrete samples. It therefore takes longer for the samples to cool down. A longer cool down time leads to a smalle r diffusivity number. This fact explains the different shape of curve for cement A with 73 F placing temperature. As mentioned

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75 earlier, three of the points in this curve were results of the test with a different apparatus while other two points (35% and 70%) were ca lculated based on data collected from a test with the larger diffusion chamber. Because of this flaw in the test procedure, diffusivity numbers for mixes 73A00P, 73A20F and 73A50S are not comparable to the other results and are lower than the actual diffusivity numbers. In Figure 4-14, it can be seen that mixes with higher percentage of pozzolanic material have a lower diffusivity number. Table 4-7 Thermal Diffusivity of Concrete Samples Mix Designation Diffusivity (ft2/day) Diffusivity (ft2/hr) 73A00P 0.72 0.030 73A20F 0.70 0.029 73A35F 0.79 0.033 73A50S 0.69 0.029 73A70S 0.77 0.032 73B00P 0.82 0.034 73B20F 0.82 0.034 73B35F 0.80 0.033 73B50S 0.73 0.030 73B70S 0.71 0.030 95A00P 0.82 0.034 95A20F 0.81 0.034 95A35F 0.77 0.032 95A50S 0.76 0.031 95A70S 0.76 0.032 95B00P 0.79 0.033 95B20F 0.79 0.033 95B35F 0.79 0.033 95B50S 0.75 0.031 95B70S 0.73 0.031

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76 0.675 0.700 0.725 0.750 0.775 0.800 0.8250%10%20%30%40%50%60%70% Percentage of Pozzolanic MaterialThermal Diffusivity (ft2/day) Cement A 73F Placing Temperature Cement B 73F Placing Temperature Cement A 95F Placing Temperature Cement B 95F Placing Temperature Figure 4-14 Thermal Diffusivity of Concrete Samples with Different Percentage of Pozzolanic Materials Figure 4-15 Small Diffusion Chamber Figure 4-16 Large Diffusion Chamber

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77 Calculation Example for Concrete Thermal Diffusivity In this section thermal di ffusivity calculation method for mix 73B00P is presented. Based on the data in Table 4-8 the elapsed time between the moment that temperature difference is 80 F to the moment that it is 20 F equals to 23.98 minutes. Thermal diffusivity for the mix is calculated as follows: Thermal Diffusivity = = 0.812278/(t1 t2) and (t1 t2)=23.98 minutes = 0.812278/23.98 = 0.034 ft2/hr = 0.81 ft2/day Table 4-8 History of Temperature Differen ce Between Concrete Specimen Core and Water Time (Minutes) Temperature Difference Between Specimen and Water ( F) Time (Minutes) Temperature Difference Between Specimen and Water ( F) 1 84.0 14 40.3 2 79.8 15 38.0 3 75.4 16 35.7 4 71.3 17 33.7 5 67.4 18 31.7 6 63.7 19 30.0 7 60.4 20 28.3 8 57.0 21 26.8 9 53.9 22 25.4 10 51.1 23 23.8 11 48.0 24 22.3 12 45.6 25 21.0 13 42.9 26 19.7

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78 Compressive Strength Compressive strength tests were performe d at different specimen ages and with 4 x8 or 6 x12 specimens. Compressive stre ngth test results of 4 x8 specimens are modified to be comparable to results from tests with 6 x12 specimens. In Table 4-9 test results for high temper ature cured specimens are presented. For each mix 3 specimens were broken and the average number is reported. In Table 4-10 test results for room temperature cured specimens are shown. These numbers are also the average of results from three tests. Table 4-9 Compressive Stre ngth of High Temperature Cured Concrete Specimens Mix Compressive Strength (psi) Age (Day) Max. Temp (F) Compressive Strength (psi) Age (Day) Max. Temp (F) 73A00P 7283 28 200.0 7417 28 190.0 73A20F 7930 28 180.0 7255 28 200.0 73A35F 7496 28 164.4 7428 28 154.1 73A50S 7846 28 170.0 7986 28 198.0 73A70S 8216 28 158.2 7055 28 150.8 73B00P 5679 15 181.9 5051 28 175.8 73B20F 6854 15 181.4 6508 28 171.5 73B35F 6702 15 151.9 6462 28 153.0 73B50S 7595 15 161.8 7433 28 164.4 73B70S 7431 15 155.8 7324 28 159.7 95A00P 7482 15 185.4 8623 28 190.2 95A20F 7671 15 185.6 7395 28 192.1 95A35F 6056 15 179.0 5182 28 189.8 95A50S 7334 15 186.2 6698 28 190.4 95A70S 8553 15 152.7 6378 28 161.8 95B00P 7369 15 184.6 6868 28 185.3 95B20F 8052 15 167.5 7114 28 183.7 95B35F 7287 15 170.8 6711 28 171.1 95B50S 7251 15 177.8 6843 28 188.2 95B70S 8332 15 173.9 7541 28 187.9 73A00P-R 7080 15 163.7 7391 28 167.5 73A20F-R 8675 15 157.2 8055 28 159.6 73A35F-R 8150 15 152 7980 28 160.2 73A50S-R 7946 15 163.2 7311 28 167.0 73A70S-R 8369 15 136.5 8485 28 143.7 73B50S-R 8862 15 150.1 9145 28 159.3 73B70S-R 8332 15 154 8710 28 150.1 95A70S-R 8716 15 164.5 9635 28 171.1

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79 Table 4-10 Compressive Strength of Room Temperature Cured Concrete Specimens Mix Compressive Strength (psi) Age (Day) Max. Temp (F) Compressive Strength (psi) Age (Day) Max. Temp (F) 73A00P 8985 28 80 8584 28 80 73A20F 8436 28 80 8854 28 80 73A35F 7441 28 80 73A50S 9308 28 75 73A70S 8036 28 75 73B00P 6705 15 75 6906 28 75 73B20F 7292 15 75 7372 28 75 73B35F 6174 15 74 7040 28 74 73B50S 7101 15 73 7960 28 73 73B70S 6997 15 75 7909 28 75 95A00P 8239 15 93 8394 28 93 95A20F 7065 15 95 8392 28 95 95A35F 4951 15 94 7565 28 94 95A50S 7252 15 96 8107 28 96 95A70S 7360 15 93 7213 28 93 95B00P 7306 15 99 9025 28 99 95B20F 7902 15 98 8172 28 98 95B35F 6754 15 101 8394 28 101 95B50S 8118 15 101 8392 28 101 95B70S 8028 15 101 7565 28 101 73A00P-R 7395 15 75 8180 28 75 73A20F-R 7108 15 75 8132 28 75 73A35F-R 6522 15 75 7654 28 75 73A50S-R 6435 15 75 7690 28 75 73A70S-R 7413 15 76 8181 28 76 73B50S-R 8107 15 75 9124 28 75 73B70S-R 7224 15 75 9131 28 75 95A70S-R 8871 15 97 7819 28 97 In Figures 4-17 through 4-24 changes in co mpressive strength for different mixes with different curing temperat ures are shown. First four figures show the data for compressive strength at 15 days age, while the other figures show compressive strength for specimens with 28 days age.

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80 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 6080100120140160180200Curing Temperature (F)Compressive Strength (psi) 73A00P-R 73A20F-R 73A35F-R 73A50S-R 73A70S-R Figure 4-17 Compressive Strength for Conc rete Specimens with Cement A and 73 F Placing Temperature at 15 Days Age 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 6080100120140160180200Curing Temperature (F)Compressive Strength (psi) 73B00P 73B20F 73B35F 73B50S 73B50S-R 73B70S 73B70S-R Figure 4-18 Compressive Strength for Conc rete Specimens with Cement B and 73 F Placing Temperature at 15 Days Age

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81 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 6080100120140160180200Curing Temperature (F)Compressive Strength (psi) 95A00P 95A20F 95A35F 95A50S 95A70S 95A70S-R Figure 4-19 Compressive Strength for Conc rete Specimens with Cement A and 95 F Placing Temperature at 15 Days Age 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 6080100120140160180200Curing Temperature (F)Compressive Strength (psi) 95B00P 95B20F 95B35F 95B50S 95B70S Figure 4-20 Compressive Strength for Conc rete Specimens with Cement B and 95 F Placing Temperature at 15 Days Age

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82 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 6080100120140160180200Curing Temperature (F)Compressive Strength (psi) 73A00P 73A00P-R 73A20F 73A20F-R 73A35F 73A35F-R 73A50S 73A50S-R 73A70S 73A70S-R Figure 4-21 Compressive Strength for Conc rete Specimens with Cement A and 73 F Placing Temperature at 28 Days Age 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 6080100120140160180200Curing Temperature (F)Compressive Strength (psi) 73B00P 73B20F 73B35F 73B50S 73B50S-R 73B70S 73B70S-R Figure 4-22 Compressive Strength for Concre te Specimens with Cement B and 73 F Placing Temperature at 28 Days Age

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83 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 6080100120140160180200Curing Temperature (F)Compressive Strength (psi) 95A00P 95A20F 95A35F 95A50S 95A70S Figure 4-23 Compressive Strength for Concre te Specimens with Cement A and 95 F Placing Temperature at 28 Days Age 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 6080100120140160180200Curing Temperature (F)Compressive Strength (psi) 95B00P 95B20F 95B35F 95B50S 95B70S Figure 4-24 Compressive Strength for Concre te Specimens with Cement B and 95 F Placing Temperature at 28 Days Age

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84 These figures show that at 15 days age, mixes with pozzolanic materials have higher compressive strength if they are cure d in high temperatures while at 28 days age they show a lower strength compared to room temperature cured specimens. In Table 4-11 the compressive strength of test mixes for moisture room cured samples are shown. Each number is the average of three compressive strength test results for 6 x12 cylinder specimens that have been cured for 28 days. Table 4-11 Compressive Strength at 28 Days for Moisture Room Cured Concrete Specimens Mix Compressiv e Strength (psi) Age (Day) Mix Compressiv e Strength (psi) Age (Day) 73A00P 8945 28 95A70S 8762 28 73A20F 7689 28 95B00P 7989 28 73A35F 7389 28 95B20F 8175 28 73A50S 8691 28 95B35F 7229 28 73A70S 8580 28 95B50S 8720 28 73B00P 7025 28 95B70S 8117 28 73B20F 7987 28 73A00P-R 8073 28 73B35F 6767 28 73A20F-R 7556 28 73B50S 7657 28 73A35F-R 9462 28 73B70S 7921 28 73A50S-R 8117 28 95A00P 8885 28 73A70S-R 7573 28 95A20F 8313 28 73B50S-R 8361 28 95A35F 6556 28 73B70S-R 9112 28 95A50S 7799 28 95A70S-R 7784 28

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85 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Introduction In this chapter the results of the adiabatic temperature rise, the heat of hydration, thermal diffusivity and compressive strength tests are summarized and compared for different mixes. The effect of placing temp erature and pozzolan cont ent on properties of concrete within the scope of this research project are studied. Also a group of equations are introduced to calculate the modification factor for the replacement of pozzolans in concrete mixes with different placing temperatures. Adiabatic Temperature Rise Curves In total, 20 adiabatic temperature rise te sts were run. As explained in Chapter 4, some of the tests were repeated. The main r eason to repeat the tests was a change in the test procedure to prevent the effect of heat from Hydration Chamber heaters on specimen temperature rise. After reviewing the test results and taking into consideration the suggestions made by Sure Cure systemÂ’s manu facturer, it can be sa id that heat from heaters can affect temperature rise when the ra te of temperature rise in concrete is less than 5F/day. This stage normally occurs wh en concrete was three days old. Therefore it would be reasonable to average the temperature rise data that have been repeated when the temperature rise rate is more than 5F/ day and use the data fr om that point through day 14 from the second run of the test for a specific mix. Using this method the final numbers for temperature rise da ta for each mix was determined.

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86 In Tables 5-1 to 5-4, the adiabatic temperature rise data for test mixes are presented. The temperature rise for repeated mixes are the average of two tests. Table 5-1 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete with Cement A and 73F Placing Temperature Concrete with Cement A (73F Placing Temperature) Plain Cement 20% Fly Ash 35% Fly Ash 50% Slag 70% Slag Time (Day) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 22.0 13.6 5.4 12.2 12.1 1.0 48.8 34.2 29.1 31.7 27.3 1.5 65.1 48.6 45.4 54.2 49.3 2.0 77.7 61.1 54.3 72.5 62.8 2.5 83.0 69.1 60.0 81.6 68.8 3.0 87.5 75.6 65.5 85.2 71.6 3.5 89.4 80.4 70.0 87.0 73.4 4.0 91.0 82.4 72.9 88.0 74.7 4.5 92.5 83.6 75.0 88.9 75.4 5.0 93.6 84.2 76.6 89.4 75.8 5.5 94.5 84.8 77.8 89.8 76.1 6.0 95.5 85.4 78.8 89.8 76.4 6.5 96.2 85.4 79.5 89.9 76.4 7.0 97.0 85.7 80.3 89.7 76.5 7.5 97.5 85.7 80.9 89.8 76.6 8.0 98.0 85.6 81.0 90.0 76.7 8.5 98.0 85.8 81.3 90.0 76.9 9.0 98.1 85.8 81.1 90.1 77.0 9.5 98.1 85.9 81.2 90.2 77.1 10.0 98.1 85.9 81.3 90.2 77.3 10.5 98.1 85.9 81.4 90.2 77.4 11.0 98.2 85.9 81.4 90.3 77.5 11.5 98.2 86.0 81.5 90.5 77.6 12.0 98.2 86.0 81.6 90.4 77.6 12.5 98.3 86.0 81.6 90.4 77.6 13.0 98.4 86.0 81.8 90.4 77.6 13.5 98.5 86.0 81.7 90.4 77.6 14.0 98.5 86.0 81.6 90.4 77.6

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87 Table 5-2 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete with Cement B and 73F Placing Temperature Concrete with Cement B (73F Placing Temperature) Plain Cement 20% Fly Ash 35% Fly Ash 50% Slag 70% Slag Time (Day) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 28.9 15.5 25.1 22.0 14.8 1.0 69.9 61.1 45.4 48.6 36.2 1.5 80.1 74.8 54.2 67.8 59.1 2.0 84.4 82.7 60.0 75.3 67.2 2.5 87.7 87.4 64.1 79.6 71.4 3.0 90.6 88.3 67.6 82.0 74.1 3.5 92.9 90.0 70.0 84.0 75.7 4.0 94.7 91.4 71.8 85.6 77.1 4.5 96.1 92.4 73.0 86.9 78.3 5.0 97.4 93.2 74.0 87.9 79.4 5.5 98.6 93.8 74.5 88.6 79.9 6.0 99.7 94.4 75.1 89.1 80.2 6.5 100.7 94.7 75.4 89.4 80.4 7.0 101.5 95.3 75.8 89.7 80.4 7.5 102.3 95.8 76.0 90.0 80.4 8.0 103.0 96.1 76.2 90.3 80.4 8.5 103.5 96.3 76.5 90.4 80.4 9.0 104.0 96.4 76.6 90.6 80.4 9.5 104.3 96.5 76.8 90.7 80.4 10.0 104.6 96.6 77.0 90.8 80.4 10.5 104.8 96.6 77.1 90.8 80.4 11.0 105.1 96.6 77.3 90.9 80.4 11.5 105.3 96.8 77.4 90.9 80.4 12.0 105.5 96.8 77.5 91.0 80.4 12.5 105.7 96.9 77.6 91.0 80.4 13.0 105.8 97.0 77.5 91.0 80.4 13.5 105.9 97.0 77.7 91.0 80.4 14.0 106.0 97.0 78.3 91.0 80.4

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88 Table 5-3 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete with Cement A and 95F Placing Temperature Concrete with Cement A (95F Placing Temperature) Plain Cement 20% Fly Ash 35% Fly Ash 50% Slag 70% Slag Time (Day) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 17.8 9.0 4.8 19.3 4.3 1.0 61.0 40.8 26.5 54.5 16.8 1.5 77.9 63.2 47.0 82.7 49.5 2.0 87.4 77.0 60.8 91.0 57.7 2.5 91.0 85.5 75.5 92.2 60.5 3.0 92.2 88.9 80.9 92.2 62.1 3.5 92.4 90.1 82.9 92.2 63.6 4.0 92.4 90.3 84.0 92.2 64.4 4.5 92.4 90.6 84.4 92.3 65.4 5.0 92.4 90.6 85.0 92.3 66.1 5.5 92.4 90.6 85.0 92.3 66.7 6.0 92.4 90.6 85.0 92.3 67.1 6.5 92.4 90.6 85.0 92.3 67.5 7.0 92.4 90.6 85.0 92.3 67.9 7.5 92.4 90.6 85.0 92.3 68.2 8.0 92.4 90.6 85.0 92.3 68.6 8.5 92.4 90.6 85.0 92.3 68.9 9.0 92.4 90.6 85.0 92.3 69.0 9.5 92.4 90.6 85.0 92.3 69.3 10.0 92.4 90.6 85.0 92.3 69.4 10.5 92.4 90.6 85.0 92.3 69.6 11.0 92.4 90.6 85.0 92.3 69.8 11.5 92.4 90.6 85.0 92.3 69.9 12.0 92.4 90.6 85.0 92.3 70.1 12.5 92.4 90.6 85.0 92.3 70.1 13.0 92.4 90.6 85.0 92.3 70.4 13.5 92.4 90.6 85.0 92.3 70.5 14.0 92.4 90.6 85.0 92.3 70.8

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89 Table 5-4 Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data for Concrete with Cement B and 95F Placing Temperature Concrete Cement B (95F Placing Temperature) Plain Cement 20% Fly Ash 35% Fly Ash 50% Slag 70% Slag Time (Day) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 2.6 56.8 50.4 58.6 45.0 1.0 72.2 72.9 61.9 76.7 69.4 1.5 84.2 77.4 67.9 80.7 73.9 2.0 85.6 77.6 68.9 81.8 76.3 2.5 85.7 77.6 69.2 82.0 77.9 3.0 86.0 77.6 69.3 82.0 78.9 3.5 86.0 77.6 69.6 82.0 79.5 4.0 86.0 77.6 69.9 82.0 79.9 4.5 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9 5.0 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9 5.5 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9 6.0 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9 6.5 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9 7.0 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9 7.5 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9 8.0 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9 8.5 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9 9.0 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9 9.5 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9 10.0 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9 10.5 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9 11.0 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9 11.5 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9 12.0 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9 12.5 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9 13.0 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9 13.5 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9 14.0 86.0 77.6 70.0 82.0 79.9

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90 Comparison Between Temperature Rise Curves Effect of percentage of pozzolans It is generally believed that replacing cement with pozzolan has a reducing effect on the peak temperature of concrete. Howe ver, the amount of reduction has reported differently in various sources. In the first pa rt of this section, th e adiabatic temperature rise curves from this study are presented. In the second part, the pe rcentage of reduction in the temperature at 14 days is calculated and changes in the per centage of reduction in the temperature are shown. Adiabatic Temperature Rise Curves In figures 5-1 and 5-2, the effect of repl acing cement with fly ash is shown. As it can be seen, adding pozzolan to the mix redu ces the peak temperature. The amount of reduction, however, has been different for th e mixes with cements from the different sources and also different placing temper atures. A comparison be tween Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2 shows that in mixe s with lower placing temperat ure, the addition of pozzolan have had a larger reducing effect on the peak temperature. In one case (cement A with 95F placing temperature) repl acing cement with 20% fly ash did not have a significant effect on the peak temperature. The other obs ervation is that replac ing more fly ash did not result in the same amount of re duction in the peak temperature. In Figures 5-3 and 5-4, the effect of replac ing cement with slag is shown. The same trend as replacement of fly ash can be seen in these figures. In Figure 5-4 it can be seen that replacing 50% of cement with slag di d not have a reducing effect on the peak temperature, while using 70% slag reduced th e peak temperature significantly. For this cement and with 95F placing temperature, it co uld be said that replacing up to 50% of cement with slag does not lead to a reduction in the peak temperature. The replacement of

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91 cement with slag in the mixes with cement B did not show a significant reduction in the peak temperature either. From these observa tions it could be said that slag in high temperature placing conditions does not have a significant reducing effect on the peak temperature. Figure 5-1 Effect of Replacing Cement With Fly Ash on Adiabatic Temperature Rise (73F Placing Temperature) Figure 5-2 Effect of Replacing Cement With Fly Ash on Adiabatic Temperature Rise (95F Placing Temperature)

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92 Figure 5-3 Effect of Replacing Cement With Slag on Adiabatic Temperature Rise (73F Placing Temperature) Figure 5-4 Effect of Replacing Cement With Slag on Adiabatic Temperature Rise (95F Placing Temperature)

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93 Reduction in the peak temperature The percentage of reduction in the peak temperature (Prp) for each mix with pozzolan was calculated usi ng the following equation. Prp=(Tcm – Tpm)/ Tcm Equation 5-1 Where: Prp : Percentage of reduction in the peak temperature, Tcm : Peak temperature of the control mix (the mix with plain cement), Tpm : Peak temperature of the mix with po zzolan (20% fly ash, 35% fly ash, 50% slag, 70% slag) Using Prp eliminates the possible errors in th e peak temperatures recorded by the Sure Cure system because all the mixes were made and tested in the same condition. The ratio between peak temperatures should therefor e be correct even if an error exists in the peak temperature number. In 5-5, Prp for different mixes is shown. The numbers could be averaged because both cements A an d B are Type II AASHTO cement. Table 5-5 Effect of Pozzolans on th e Peak Temperature of Concrete % Reduction in Peak Temperature (at 14 days) Cement Source Placing Temperature 20% Fly Ash 35% Fly Ash 50% Slag 70% Slag A 73F 12.7 17.2 8.2 21.2 B 73F 8.5 26.1 14.1 24.1 Average for Cements A & B 10.6 21.7 11.2 22.7 A 95F 1.9 8.0 0.1 23.4 B 95F 9.7 18.6 4.6 7.0 Average for Cements A & B 5.8 13.3 2.4 15.2 In Figures 5-5 and 5-6, the effect of us ing pozzolans on temperature at different ages of concrete is shown. The pe rcent of reduction in temperature (Pr ) was calculated as: Pr=(Tc – Tp)/ Tc Equation 5-2

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94 Where: Pr : Percentage of reducti on in the temperature, Tc : Temperature of the control mix (the mix with plain cement), Tp : Temperature of the mix with pozzola n (20% fly ash, 35% fly ash, 50% slag, 70% slag) Figure 5-5 Pr for Mixes with 73F Placing Temperature Figure 5-6 Pr for Mixes with 95F Placing Temperature

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95 Figure 5-7 Average Pr for Mixes with 73F and 95 F Placing Temperatures Figure 5-7 shows the average Pr for mixes with different placing temperatures. The first conclusion from this figur e is that fly ash has a strong er effect on the temperature reduction. In other words, a smaller percentage of fly ash replacement has the same effect as that of a larger percentage of slag replacement. As it is shown, 20% fly ash replacement has almost the same effect as 50% slag replacement and, in a similar fashion, 35% fly ash replacement reduces the temperat ure the same as does 70% slag replacement. Also it can be said that placing temperature has an effect on the amount of reduction in the temperature. A higher placing temperatur e weakens the reducing effect of pozzolans on concrete temperature. The data in Table 5-5 can be divided to four groups: 1. Average of cements A and B with fly ash and 73F placing temperature, 2. Average of cements A and B with fly ash and 95F placing temperature, 3. Average of cements A and B with slag and 73F placing temperature, 4. Average of cements A and B with slag and 95F placing temperature,

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96 A second degree polynomial to calculate Prp for any given percentage of cement replacement by pozzolan for each group can be determined if three points of the equation are known. For each group, the data of the thr ee points are known: two points in Table 55 and the third point would be Prp= 0 in the mix with plain cement. The general format of the equation is: Prp = a (Rp)2 + b (Rp) + c Equation 5-3 Where: Prp : Percentage of reduction in the pick temperature, a b and c : Constants, Rp : Percentage of pozzolan in the mix. a b and c constants were determined by solv ing the equation for the known three points. The amount of contents for each data group are shown in Table 5-6 Constant Factors of Prp Equation Constants No. Data Group Description a b c 1 Cement + Fly Ash, 73F Placing Temperature 0.59 0.41 0.00 2 Cement + Fly Ash, 95F Placing Temperature 0.59 0.17 0.00 3 Cement + Slag, 73F Placing Temperature 0.50 -0.03 0.00 4 Cement + Slag, 95F Placing Temperature 0.85 -0.38 0.00 The relationship between Prp Rp, and Different Placing Temp eratures is shown in Figure 5-8. As it can be seen, higher placing temperature has a smaller reducing effect on the peak temperature. As suggested by ACI committee 207, the adiabatic temperature rise curves must be modified for mixes with pozzolans. One way is to calculate equivalent cement content

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97 (Ceq ) and use it to determine a modification factor ( kc) for the adiabatic temperature rise curves published in the ACI 207.1R and ACI 207.2R reports. Figure 5-8 The Relationship Between Prp Rp, and Different Placing Temperatures It is also possible to deve lop the adiabatic temperature rise curve for a mix with only plain cement (base mix) and then apply kc to generate the adiabatic temperature rise curve for any given mix with different pozzolan contents. Ceq is calculated as: Ceq = Cc + pCp Equation 5-4 Where: Ceq : Equivalent Cement Content Cc : Cement content of the mix (lb/yd3) p : Pozzolan modification factor Cp : Pozzolan content of the mix (lb/yd3) And kc = Ceq / Cb Equation 5-5 Where: kc : Adiabatic temperature rise curve modification factor

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98 Cb : Cement content of the base mix (lb/yd3) The relationship between p and Prp is determined as follows: Prp=(Tcm – Tpm)/ Tcm Prp= 1 Tpm/ Tbm Equation 5-6 According to ACI 207.1R-96, there is a linear relationship between the cementitious material content and the peak temperature so: Tpm/ Tcm = (Cc + pCp )/ Ct Equation 5-7 Where: Ct : Cement content of the control mix wh ich is equal to the summation of the amounts of Cc and Cp in lb/yd3 (Ct = Cc + Cp ) Therefore: Tpm/ Tcm = (Cc + pCp )/ (Cc + Cp ) Equation 5-8 Equations 5-7 and 5-8 Prp = 1 (Cc + pCp )/ (Cc + Cp ) Prp = Cp(1p)/( Cc + Cp ) (1p) = Prp( Cc + Cp )/ Cp (1p) = Prp( Cc /Cp ) + Prp Equation 5-9 Rp = Cp / (Cc + Cp) Cc/ Cp = 1/ Rp –1 Equation 5-10 Combining Equations 5-9 and 5-10 results: (1p) = Prp (1/ Rp –1) + Prp p = 1Prp/ Rp Equation 5-11 From Equations 5-3 and 511 it is concluded that: p = 1 a (Rp) b c/ Rp Equation 5-12 Using the constant factors from Ta ble 5-6 the equations to calculate p would be as follows: For mixes with fly ash and 73F placing temperature: p= 0.59 0.59Rp For mixes with fly ash and 95F placing temperature: p= 0.83 0.59Rp

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99 For mixes with Slag and 73 F placing temperature: p= 1.03 0.50Rp For mixes with Slag and 95 F placing temperature: p= 1.38 – 0.85Rp Figure 5-9 shows the graphic presentation of the above equations. It can be seen that lower placing temperatur e leads to a lower pozzolan modification factor. A lower pozzolan modification factor is more desira ble while pozzolans ar e added to concrete. Also it is shown that fly ash and slag do not have similar effect on the pozzolan modification factor. Figure 5-9 Relationship Between p and Rp Effect of placing temperature In the previous section, e ffects of placing temperature on the peak temperature in combination with the type of pozzolan are show n. As it is shown in Figures 5-10 to 5-14, all the mixes with high placing temperature (95 F) reached the peak temperature in a shorter time compared to the mixe s with low placing temperature (73 F). This observation is consistent with the curves in ACI 207.2R-96. It is believed that higher initial temperature accelerates the cement hydr ation as well as the pozzolan hydration.

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100 As it can be seen in Figures 5-10 to 5-14, it is not possible to conclude if a higher placing temperature results in a higher peak temperature. Some mixes (95A20F, 95A35F and 95A50S) showed a higher peak temperature compared to the similar mixes with low placement temperature. The test results show a stop in temperature rise in all the mixes; therefore the condition has not been fully ad iabatic. This fact may affect the peak temperature numbers and cause th e different peak temperature in the mixes with different placing temperature. Figure 5-10 Effect of Placi ng Temperature on Adiabatic Temperature Rise for Mixes with Plain Cement

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101 Figure 5-11 Effect of Placi ng Temperature on Adiabatic Temperature Rise for Mixes with 20% Fly Ash Figure 5-12 Effect of Placi ng Temperature on Adiabatic Temperature Rise for Mixes with 35% Fly Ash

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102 Figure 5-13 Effect of Placi ng Temperature on Adiabatic Temperature Rise for Mixes with 50% Slag Figure 5-14 Effect of Placi ng Temperature on Adiabatic Temperature Rise for Mixes with 70% Slag

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103 Comparison Between Field and Laboratory Test Results It is necessary to compare the laboratory test results to the field temperature recordings to determine how similar is the condition in the Hydration Chambers to the real conditions of the core of a mass conc rete element. Based on FDOT requirements, contractors are required to record the temperat ure rise in any mass concrete element from the time that the element is poured to the ti me it reaches the peak temperature. The data for the temperature records of the core of the footers A, B, and C of the Bella Vista Bridge was provided by the pr oject administrator and is presented in Table 5-7. All footers have a width and length of 17 feet and are 5 feet in depth. Table 5-7 Temperature Rise of the Core of the Bella Vista Bridge Footers Footer A Footer B Footer C Time (hour) Temperature Rise ( F) Time (hour) Temperature Rise ( F) Time (hour) Temperature Rise ( F) 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 13 34.2 9 26.1 8 27.1 19 45.1 15 35.1 14 36.9 25 50.1 21 39.4 20 51.4 31 64.3 27 54.0 26 66.0 37 75.4 33 58.2 32 80.1 43 76.7 39 65.7 38 85.1 49 78.6 45 71.6 44 86.8 55 79.6 51 74.9 50 83.0 61 80.3 57 76.1 56 80.1 67 80.2 63 77.3 62 85.1 73 79.1 69 75.1 68 86.8 79 76.2 75 70.5 74 84.3 85 78.5 81 73.1 80 86.4 91 77.3 87 75.2 86 85.6 The data from Table 5-7 is also presented graphically in Figure 5-15. As it is shown all three footings reached the peak temp erature approximately 64 hours after placing concrete. The peak temperature for three footings is also close (average 81.5 F).

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104 Figure 5-15 Temperature Rise For Footers A, B and C Footers A and B were placed on April 2nd, 2004, while footer C was placed on April 7th the same year. The same mix with the sa me materials was used for all the three footings. The mix contained 50% type II ceme nt and 50% slag. As it can be seen in Figure 5-15, some fluctuations have recorded in the temperature rise of footer C. This unexpected behavior may be caused by a syst emic error in the recording device. Samples were taken from the same concrete that was used to pour the footers and were tested by the Sure Cure system to dete rmine the temperature rise curves. In Table 58 the adiabatic temperature rise data for laboratory tests are s hown. After 64 hours the average sample temperature rise is 78.5 F, which is consistent with field recordings. However, the temperature rises after this time in the laboratory, while it drops in the field. The difference is due to the fact that in the field the condition is semi-adiabatic and therefore concrete looses heat. Whenever the rate of heat loss is larger than the rate of heat gain, the temperature drops. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 020406080100 Time (hour)Temperature Rise (F) Footer A Footer B Footer C

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105 Table 5-8 Adiabatic Temperature Rise for Samples Taken from the Field Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Temp. Rise (F) Time (hour) 1st Test (Site50S-1) 2nd Test (Site50S-2) Time (hour) 1st Test (Site50S-1) 2nd Test (Site50S-2) 0.0 0.00 0.00 168.0 89.94 12.0 26.00 24.65 180.0 90.75 24.0 43.80 41.95 192.0 91.23 36.0 62.60 59.50 204.0 91.65 48.0 74.03 69.75 216.0 91.98 60.0 79.66 75.20 228.0 92.10 64.0 80.62 76.33 240.0 92.15 72.0 82.54 78.60 252.0 92.17 84.0 84.32 81.10 264.0 92.18 96.0 85.58 83.00 276.0 92.18 108.0 86.65 84.55 288.0 92.18 120.0 87.56 85.95 300.0 92.18 132.0 88.29 87.25 312.0 92.18 144.0 88.92 88.26 324.0 92.18 156.0 89.15 336.0 92.18 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 020406080100 Time (hour)Temperature Rise (F) Footer A Footer C Lab A Lab C Figure 5-16 Comparison of Temperature Ri se Between Field and Laboratory Tests As mentioned before, the data from this test ma y not be accurate because of the initial equipment malfunction. However, the results of the first and the second test are not significantly different.

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106 The correlation between the field and the labo ratory data for the first 96 hours after placing concrete was 0.978 and 0.966 for f ooters A and C respectively. The high correlation between the filed and the laborator y results shows that the results from the Sure Cure system can be considered as an acc eptable simulation of a mass concrete pour. Comparison Between the Test Results and ACI Curves In ACI 207.1R-96 (Same as Figure 2-1) the adiabatic temperature rise curves of concrete for concrete samples with 376 lb/yd3 of cement from different types are shown. The second column in Table 5-9 shows the data from the ACI curve for low placing temperature. The third column presents the modified ACI data for the higher cement content of the test mixes. Table5-9 Comparison Between AC I Curves and Test Results Temperature Rise ( F) Cement A (73 F Placing Temperature) Cement B (73 F Placing Temperature) Time (day) ACI Type II 376 lb/yd3 ACI Type II 760 lb/yd3 Temperature Rise ( F) Difference Comparing to ACI Curve Temperature Rise ( F) Difference Comparing to ACI Curve 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 1 30.8 62.2 48.8 21.6% 69.9 -12.3% 2 40.2 81.3 77.7 4.4% 84.4 -3.8% 3 44.7 90.4 87.5 3.2% 90.6 -0.2% 4 47.1 95.2 91.0 4.4% 94.7 0.5% 5 49.5 100.0 93.6 6.4% 97.4 2.6% 6 50.3 101.6 95.5 6.0% 99.7 1.9% 7 51.6 104.3 97.0 7.0% 101.5 2.6% 8 52.6 106.4 98.0 7.9% 103.0 3.2% 9 53.2 107.5 98.1 8.7% 104.0 3.2% 10 53.7 108.5 98.1 9.6% 104.6 3.6% 11 54.2 109.6 98.2 10.4% 105.1 4.1% 12 55.0 111.2 98.2 11.7% 105.5 5.1% 13 55.3 111.7 98.4 11.9% 105.8 5.3% 14 55.8 112.8 98.5 12.7% 106.0 6.0% Correlation With ACI Curve 0.991 0.994

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107 Test results for concrete mixes containing plain cements A and B were compared to ACI curve. Cement A showed a lower temperat ure rise during the test compared to the ACI curve. Lower than average heat of hydra tion of the cement A may contribute to this fact. Cement B showed a higher temperature rise in the first three da ys of the test. After that, the temperature rise of cement B was lower than the ACI curve. The difference for both cements was ascending during the test. This is due to the fact that the condition in the Hydration Chambers is not completely ad iabatic when the temperature gain of the concrete is lower than 1.5 to 2.0 F per day. Ever ascending ACI curves shows that these curves were developed in a complete adiabatic condition. Heat of Hydration The results from the heat of hydration test are to a large extent consistent with the concrete temperature rise tests. As it is s hown in Table 5-10, fly as h has a stronger effect on the reduction of the heat of hydration. The test results showed that replacing cement with 20% fly ash reduces the heat of hydrat ion at 7 days by 14.2%, while the replacement of 50% reduces the heat of hydration by 10.2% at 7 days. However, 20% jump in the amount of slag replacement significantly redu ces the heat of hydration. (38.1% at 7 days and 35.8% at 28 days). Table 5-10 Effect of Pozzola ns on Heat of Hydration % Reduction in Heat of Hydration Cement Source Time 20% Fly Ash 35% Fly Ash 50% Slag 70% Slag A-1 7 Days 14.2 10.2 A-2 7 Days 19.9 38.1 A-1 28 Days 18.1 9.1 A-2 28 Days 28.4 35.8

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108 Thermal Diffusivity The average thermal diffusivity number for the mixes was determined to be 0.80 ft2/day which is about 35% less than th e amount suggested in ACI 207.1R-96 for concrete mixes with lime stone aggreg ate (ACI suggested number is 1.22 ft2/day). ACI 207.1R-96 does not specify the maximum aggregate size of the samples that were used to determine the concrete thermal diffusivity. Si nce the major application of mass concrete is in dams, the numbers reported by ACI 207.1R -96 may be originated from the samples with very large aggregate size. However, in FDOT approved mass concrete mix designs coarse aggregate occupies about 45% of the mi x volume. The rest is filled with cement, fine aggregate, and water. The mixture of cement and sand has a thermal diffusivity of about 0.40 ft2/day (Xu and Cheng, 2000). The thermal diffusivity of water is 0.13 ft2/day. The thermal diffusivity of limestone has been reported between 1.00 to 1.40 ft2/day in different sources with an average 1.20 ft2/day. Based on these diffusivity numbers it is reasonable for a concrete containing about 45% limestone and the rest containing materials with much lower thermal diffusivity to have a thermal diffusivity lower than that of the limestone. Another observation of theses tests (as it was shown in Chapter 4) was that concrete thermal diffusivity reduces with the replacement of higher percentage of pozzolans. The thermal diffusivity number affects the results of calculations to determine the maximum temperature and temperature differen ce (thermal gradient) in a mass concrete element. In Figure 5-17 the effect of thermal diffusivity on the maximum temperature rise for mass concrete elements with thickn ess of 5.5, 6.5 and 7.5 feet is shown. The maximum temperature rise was calculated us ing Schmidt method. Two different curing conditions were assumed. At fi rst it was assumed that no in sulation is used during the

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109 curing period. For the second time, the boundary conditions were modified to simulate the use of insulation. As it is shown, higher diffusivity numbers re sult in lower maximum temperature rise. Therefore, if the thermal di ffusivity number of the concrete is assumed higher than what it really is, the maximum te mperature will be predicted lower than the number that it will reach. In Figure 5-18 the effect of thermal diffusivity on thermal gradient is shown. The model showed that if insulation is not used, changes in the thermal diffusivity will affect the thermal gradient but if insulation is used, changes in the thermal diffusivity do not affect the thermal gradient. Figure 5-17 Effect of Th ermal Diffusivity on Maximum Temperature Rise

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110 Figure 5-18 Effect of Thermal Di ffusivity on Thermal Gradient Compressive Strength In Chapter 4 it was shown that using po zzolans effects short term (15 day) compressive strength of high temperature cured sampled positively. However, after 28 days, the compressive strength of high temper ature cured samples is lower compared to the room temperature cured samples. Table 5-11 and Figure 5-19 show the su mmary of 28-day compressive strength results for 6 x12 specimens cured in moisture ro om. The numbers are average of compressive strength tests for similar mixe s. For specimens with 73F a significant difference in 28-day compressive strength was not resulted. It can also be seen that replacing a portion of cement with slag helps the 28-day compressive strength of concrete. The results for high temperature pl aced concrete showed that replacing cement with pozzolans (slag or fly ash) reduces the 28-day compressive stre ngth 2 to 3% in the

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111 mixes with 20% fly ash, 50% and 70% slag. However, in the mixes with 35% fly ash a significant (18%) loss of 28-day compressive strength was observed. Table 5-11 Effect of Pozzolan Cont ent on 28-day Compressive Strength Placing Temperature Pozzolan Type Pozzolan (%) Compressive Strength (psi) Compressive Strength Ratio (As a ratio of 0% pozzolan mix) 0 8014 1.00 20 7744 0.97 Fly Ash 35 7873 0.98 50 8207 1.02 73F Slag 70 8297 1.04 0 8437 1.00 20 8244 0.98 Fly Ash 35 6893 0.82 50 8260 0.98 95F Slag 70 8221 0.97 Figure 5-19 Effect of Placi ng Temperature and Pozzolan C ontent on 28-day Compressive Strength 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 0%20%40%60%80% Percentage of PozzolanCompressive Strenght Ratio 73F Placing Temperature 95F Placing Temperature

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112 CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary The main objective of this study was to develop the adiabatic temperature rise curves for mass concrete made with Florida ma terials. In addition, the thermal diffusivity of Florida concrete and the effect of high placing and curing temperature on compressive strength of concrete were studied. The follo wing is a summary of steps undertaken to achieve the goals of the project. A literature review was conducted to identify the factors affecting temperature rise in concrete and to study previous works in th is field. The literature review showed that the temperature rise in concrete has been an issue of concern since early 1930Â’s when mass concrete was first used in dam projects Various methods have been developed to predict the temperature rise in mass concrete. One of the most practical methods is to use ACI curves in combination with the Schmidt method to predict the temperature rise in mass concrete elements. The literature review also showed that in recent years with the advances in computing devices some attemp ts have been made to develop numerical methods and computer softwares to predict the temperature rise in a mass concrete element. The first step in the experimental phase of the project was to determine the concrete mix designs and materials which needed to be tested. A total of 20 mixes with cements from two different sources, with two di fferent placing temper atures and various

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113 percentages of pozzolanic mate rials contain were tested fo r adiabatic temperature rise, thermal diffusivity and compressive strengt h. The Heat of hydration of cement samples and blends of cement and pozzolan were also determined. The results of the tests were analyzed. Th e effect of placing temperature, curing temperature and pozzolan content on temperat ure rise curves, thermal diffusivity and compressive strength were studied. Conclusion The following conclusions can be made after executing the aforementioned activities for this study a nd analysing the results: Using fly ash and slag as a replacement for AASHTO Type II cement reduces the peak temperature in mass concrete pours. Fly ash is more effective in reducing th e peak temperature of the mass concrete. Replacement of less than 50% of cement w ith slag does not have a significant effect on the peak temperature. Higher placing temperature reduces the eff ectiveness of fly ash and slag in peak temperature reduction. Higher placing temperature accelerates the hydration of cement; therefore the concrete reaches the peak temperature earlier. The calculated Pozzolan Modification Factor ( p) can be used to modify ACI curves for mixes with different cement and pozzolan contents. Thermal diffusivity of concrete reduc es by replacing larger percentage of pozzolanic materials. Thermal diffusivity of mass concrete mixe s used in Florida is approximately 33% lower than the number suggested by ACI. Concrete mixes with pozzolan have a highe r short term compressive strength if cured in higher temperature. However, after 28 days the mixes with lower curing temperature show larger compressive strength. Placing temperature does not have a si gnificant effect on 28-day compressive strength for mix with lower th an 20% fly ash content as well as for mixes with slag.

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114 For mixes with more than 20% fly ash content it is likely that high placing temperature affect the 28-day compressi ve strength significantly but further investigation is necessary. Recommendations The results of this study lead to the following recommendations: To develop new adiabatic temperature rise curves, ACI adiabatic temperature rise curves should be modified by the Pozzolan Modification Factor ( p) calculated in this study. The calculated thermal diffusivity number ought to be used in peak temperature predictions calculations. Additional studies need to be perfor med on concrete thermal diffusivity. Additional studies should be performed on the effect of fly ash replacement for mixes with high placing temperature on the long term compressive strength.

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115 APPENDIX A SURVEY OF STATE HIGHWAY AGENCIES A previous study1 on mass concrete showed that onl y nine states including Florida have mass concrete specifications. The purpose of this survey was to figure out the other states’ regulation on mass concrete pours a nd possible studies that have been done. Following questions were sent to state Materi al Engineers of Califor nia, Idaho, Illinois, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolin a, Texas and Virginia via e-mail 1. Do you require contractors to provid e you with calcula tions showing mass concrete temperature rise prediction? 2. If the answer to question number 1 is Ye s, what method is used to predict the temperature rise? Do you use ACI curves? 3. Have you ever developed adiabatic temper ature rise curves for concrete mixes that are usually used in mass concrete pr ojects? If yes, can you provide us with your own curves? 4. If you have not developed adiabatic temp erature rise curves, do you think it is necessary to develop curves for concrete mixes made of local materials or you think that ACI curves are accurate enough? 5. Do you have any suggestion regarding ACI cu rves or adiabatic temperature rise in mass concrete? Four responses were received. Follow ing is the description of responses. 1 Chini, Abdol R., Muszynski, Larry C., Acquaye, Lucy, Tarkhan, Sophia, 2003 “Determination of the Maximum Placement and Curing Temperatures in Mass Concrete to Avoid Durability Problems and DEF”, Final Report Submitted to The Florida Depart ment of Transportation, Gainesville, Florida

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116 California Caltrans (California Department of Tran sportation) does very few projects where mass concrete is involved. Of the ones th at mass concrete was involved, Caltrans typically leans to the side of performance sp ecifications and require s the contractor to deliver crack free concrete. Full responsibility of the mass pour is put on the contractor. If the contractor does have a heat removal plan, it must be approved by the engineer and the regional water quality control board (if they are in fact involved). CaltransÂ’s approval does not imply that the plan will wor k, it is rather to check if it is reasonable, follows "best management practices," and is workable. One thing Caltrans does to help the cont ractor is to make sure to give mix parameters that are conducive to low h eat. For instance on the new San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, California's "banner pr oject," currently in construction, Caltrans gives contractors a mix design which has 50% slag and/or 50% fly ash requirement. Illinois Illinois Department of Transportation doe s not require contractors to submit a mass concrete plan. Contractors are required to monitor the temper atures, report the results, and stay within the specification limitations for temperature difference. Kentucky Kentucky Department of Transportation does have a requirement for contractors to submit a mass concrete. They use ACI 207 curv es and do not think that they need to develop their own curves because ACI ar e believed to be fairly accurate. South Carolina South Carolina Department of Transporta tion requires contractors to submit a mass concrete plan. The requirements are as follows:

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117 702.16 Mass Concrete Placement. Mass concrete placement shall be defined as any pour in which the concrete being cast has di mensions of 5 feet or greater in three different directions. For pours with a ci rcular cross-secti on, a mass concrete placement shall be defined as any pour that has a diameter of 6 feet or greater and a length of 5 feet or greater. For all mass concrete pours, the mix temperature shall not exceed 80F as measured at discharge into the forms. Further, the Contractor shall be required to maintain a temperature differential of 35F or less between the interior and exterior of all mass pour elements during curing. Before placing mass concrete, the Contractor shall submit, to the Engineer for review and acceptance, a Mass Concrete Placement Plan containi ng, but not limited to, the following: 1. An analysis of the anticipated th ermal developments within mass pour placements using the proposed materials and casting methods. 2. A plan outlining specific measures to be taken to control the temperature differential within the limits noted above. 3. Details of the Contractor's proposed m onitoring system. If the Contractor is proposing a special concrete mix design as pa rt of the temperature control plan, this mix design should also be submitted for review. The Contractor shall provide temperature monitoring devices to record temperature development between the interior and exterior of the element at points approved by the Engineer and shall monitor the mass pours to measure temp erature differential. Temperature monitoring shall continue until the interior temperature is within 35F of the lowest ambient temperature or a maximum of tw o (2) weeks. The Engineer shall be provided with a copy of each set of readi ngs as they are taken and a temperature chart for each mass pour element showing temperature readings vs. time. If the monitoring indicates that the proposed m easures are not controlling the concrete temperature differential within the 35F specified, the Contract or shall make the necessary revisions to the plan and su bmit the revised plan for review. The Contractor shall assume all risks connect ed with placing a mass pour of concrete. Review of the Contractor's plan will in no way relieve the Contractor of the responsibility for obtaining satisfactory results. Should any mass concrete placed under this specification prove unsatisfactor y, the Contractor will be required to make the necessary repairs or remove and replace the material at the Contractor's expense. All costs associated with special temperature controls for mass concrete placement shall be included in the unit cost of the concrete cast, and will be without additional specific compensation. The contro l of temperatures in mass concrete pours shall be in addition to any other re quirements found on the plans and/or in the special provisions that may a pply to the work in question.

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118 APPENDIX B SURE CURE MICRO COMPUTER SYSTEM SURE CURE BY PRODUCTS ENGINEERING 3668 Heatherwood Way Evergreen, Colorado 80439 (303) 679-9635

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119 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 121 KEY WORDS AND CONCEPTS 122 INSTALLATION 125 APPLICATION LIST 127 RUNNING A SURE CURE PROGRAM 129 PROGRAMING A BED 130 PLOTTING TIME VS. TEMPERATURE 131 MAINTENANCE 132 TROUBLE SHOOTING 132

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120 SURE CURE MICRO COMPUTER CONTROL SYSTEM INTRODUCTION Congratulations on your purchas e of the SURE CURE Micro Temperature Controller (micro controller). The micro controller gives you some of the most important features of the SURE CURE Computer System. The micro contro ller is designed to be easy to use and install. The micro controller consists of th ree major parts. The first is a personal computer. The computer comes equipped with a floppy drive capable of holding 1.44 Mbytes of data and a hard drive capable of holding at least 2 Gbytes of data. Tr anslating this into real terms, the hard disk is capable of storing more than 100 years of timetemperature data as well as the SURE CURE software, and other files necessary to make the system work. The computer also comes with a par allel port. The port is used to send data to the printer. A monitor is connected to the back of the computer. The computer communicates to you by displayi ng information on the monitor (the computer assumes you can read, occasionally this assumption is incorrect). You communicate to the computer using a keyboard and a mouse. If possible, the computer asks you multiple choice questions, thus reducing the requirement on you to be able to spell. The computer likes a nice environ ment (little dust and temperatures between fifty and eighty degrees Fahrenhe it). If the computer is located in a nice environment it should have a long trouble free life. The second component, the printe r, is Windows compatible. The printer, as previously mentioned, connects to the computer through a parallel port. The printer produces permanent records of your curing activities. The third and final component is the I/O cabinet. The cabinet contains a multitude of connectors, cables, and plugs. The blue connectors are for thermocouples. The black connectors are for heating on-off devices such as cylinders, motorized valves, and

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121 electric heaters. The multi-wire cabl e is to connect the I/O cabinet to the computer. The 120 volt inlet is to bring power to the I/O cabinet. You should be able to connect the entir e system by simply plugging in devices (no hard wiring to terminal blocks). Inside the I/O cabinet is an analog to digital converter. The converter translates temper ature signals from your plant into numbers. The computer in turn translates these numbers into temperatures which you can understand. The micro controller is designed to operate twenty-four hours a day. The controller functions in conjunc tion with a program named “Plnt”. “Plnt” must be running for the controller to be working. Warning: always unplug the I/O cabinet when ”Plnt” is not running. The controller communicates with you through the keyboard and monitor. The controller communicates with the plant through the analog to digital converter and the I/O cabinet. The controller can only look at one channel at a time. Therefore it may take up to twenty seconds for the controller to sample the temp erature of a channel and determine whether to activate or deactivate it ’s output relay. Once every six minutes the controller writes each channel's temperature on the disk. The controller does not operate if y ou turn the computer off. The controller does not operate if you deactivate the “Plnt” program. In the event of a power failure, th e controller automatically resumes control when power is restored. KEY WORDS AND CONCEPTS It is important to understand the terminology and devices used with the system. The following is a list of items and terms which may not be familiar. CHANNEL : A path through which the computer measures a temperature of a point in the plant. CYLINDER : A way in which a SURE CURE progr ams a channel on a bed. A cylinder follows the reference channels temperature until six hours afte r control of the reference ceases. A channel controlled as a cylinder is the same as a channel controlled as a slave with a temperature difference of zero and a finish time six hours after the references. LEFT CLICK : Press the left butt on on the mouse. You select an item from a menu by left cli cking the mouse when the mouse

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122 cursor is on top of the menu item. MASTER : A way in which a channel is controlled. A channel programmed as a master is controlled to follow a timetemperature profile. MATURITY : The area under a time-t emperature curve. The units of maturity are degree hours. The maturity of a concrete mix is proportional to it's strengt h (the higher the maturity, the higher the strength). The longer a mix cures the stronger it becomes. Likewise, the longer a mix cures the higher the maturity becomes. The warmer a mix cures (generally speaking) the stronger it bec omes. Likewise the warmer a mix cures the higher the maturity becomes. The Micro controller uses zero degrees as a base temperature for calculating maturity. The Micro controller begins accumulating maturity for eac h channel after the channel's start time. MOUSE CURSOR : Most often an arrow which can be moved about the screen using the mous e. The mouse cursor may take on many other forms besi des the arrow (for example: an hour glass). The arrow is the most common form. You move the mouse cursor to locations on the screen to push buttons or enter time /temperature points. RE-BOOT : To reset the computer You can re-boot the computer by left clicking the mouse on the Start button in the lower left corner (seems strange to press st art in order to stop, but that is the way it works). Then left click on Shut down. Next left click on restart. Finally, press t he OK button. Do not turn the power on and off to RE-BOOT. REFERENCE : A channel, whose temper ature or output is used to control a cylinder, or slave. A reference channel provides the program temperature for eit her a cylinder or a slave. SELECTION BAR : A highlighted rectangular area indicating the present choice in a multiple choice area. The selection bar may be moved to another choice by using the arrow keys or the mouse. SLAVE : A way in which a channe l is controlled. A channel programmed as a slave follows the temperature of a reference channel.

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123 STATE : A variable which indicates whether a channel is be controlled by the Micro controlle r. The state can have one of three values. either ON, OFF, or SET. ON means the Micro controller is activating the channel's output relay to maintain a desired temperature. SET means you have programmed the channel to come ON but the start time has not been reached yet. Thus the Micro cont roller is not yet controlling the channel. Maturity and on ti me are zero when a channel is SET. OFF means the Micro controller is not controlling the channel's temperature. Howeve r, the Micro controller is accumulating maturi ty for the channel. THERMOCOUPLE : A device which produces a small voltage proportional to temperature. A thermocouple is produced by bring two dissimilar metals in contact. The Micro controller normally comes equipped to accept Type "T" thermocouples. The type "T" thermocouple consists of a copper wire encased in blue insulation and a constantan wire encased in red insulation. When the two wir es are brought in contact they form a thermocouple. To make a thermocouple, you strip the insulation off the two wires and twists them together. Be sure the wires are twisted tightly. If the thermocouple is to be used for more than a couple of days, the wires should be soldered together. Always electrically isolate the thermocouple from the world (wrap the exposed metal end with electrical tape or shrink tubing). This helps protect the Micro controller fr om lightning and stray voltages. A thermocouple only produces millionths of a volt. Thus thermocouples are very sensitive to electrical noise. Avoid running thermocouple wire in parallel with AC voltage wires. Often a thermocouple cable will come with a third wire and a metallic foil to shield the thermo couple from electrical fields. The shield wire is connected to the I/O cabinet through the thermocouple plug. The shield should be electrically isolated from the world on the thermoc ouple end of the cable. Do not twist the shield wire wi th the thermocouple wires. TEXT CURSOR : An vertical bar on the computer monitor which indicates where the next charac ter will appear. Often, but not always, the cursor blinks. TIME/TMEPRATURE POINT : A descr iption of the thermal state with respect to time A TIME/TEMPERATURE point describes the temperature at a given time. TIME-ON : The duratio n the Micro controller activated the a

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124 channel's output relay. Timeon is measured in hours and minutes. The Micro controller activates a channels output relay whenever the channel is cooler than it's program temperature. Thus, time-on is also the length of time the channel was too cool. INSTALLATION Carefully inspect the boxes the equipment was shipped in. Take exception with the shi pper if there appears to be any damage to the boxes. Next unpack the equipment fr om the boxes. Please call Products Engineering if t here appears to be any damage. Place the computer in a room with an office like environment. Excessive dust or temperature can cause the computer's life to be significantly shortened. We reco mmend the temperature of the room be between fifty-five and eighty degrees Fahrenheit. Place the computer on top of a desk. Be sure you have access to the side with the serial port. Place the monitor near the computer. Plug the power cord from the monitor into a 120 VAC outlet (preferably on a surge suppresser). Plug the video cable in to the monitor connector on the back of the computer. Place the ke yboard in front of the monitor. Plug the keyboard cable into the keyboard connector on the back of the computer. Mount the I/O cabinet on a wall. The I/O cabinet must be within ten feet of the of the comput er. Connect the serial cable from inside the I/O cabinet to the computer's seri al port (the serial cable is shipped connected inside the I/O cabinet, r un the serial cable though the chase nipple in the bottom of t he I/O cabinet to the computer. Connect 120 V.A.C. to the I/O c abinet. You can run approximately 12 amps of loads from a 15 amp break er and 16 amps of load from a 20 amp breaker. A SURE CURE mould has a load of one amp. Check with the manufacturer for loads of motorized valves. If there is a problem with large loads, drive an interposing relay with the microsystem. Let the relay drive the large load. Plug the thermocouples into the jacks on the side of the I/O cabinet. You should have at least two th ermocouples to test the system. Place the printer near the computer. Read the introductory chapters of the printer manual. C onnect the printer cable to the back of the printer. Connect the other end of the printer cable to the computer's parallel port. Load the paper into the printer. Plug the power cord from the printer into a 120 VAC outlet (preferably in a

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125 surge suppresser). Plug the computer into a 120 VAC outlet (preferably in a surge suppresser). Do not put a disk in the floppy drive (the system uses the hard drive). You are now ready to test the sys tem. Turn the computer on. Within a minute you should see a list of the channels and their temperatures. If you do not, turn the system off and check all connections. Turn the system back on. If you still do not, call Products Engineering. Check the numbers under the Reading column on the monitor. These should contain the temperat ures of the thermocouples you connected. Be sure thes e readings appear realistic. Next test the system’s outputs. Move the mo use cursor over the Start button (the start button is in t he monitor’s lower left corner) and left click the mouse. A menu pops up. Move the mouse cursor directly up to Programs A menu appears to t he right. Move the mouse cursor directly to the right onto the menu. Move the cursor up or down to SURE CURE micro A menu appears to the right. Move the cursor directly to the right ont o the menu. Left click the mouse on Relay Test A dialog box appears. Enter a number between one and eight Press the Test button ( Press means move the mouse cursor over the portion of the screen that says Test and press the left mouse button). The computer turns on the relay for the given channel. Look inside the I/O cabinet. There are two circuit boards which hold black rectangular boxes. Next to the boxes are red pilot lights. The light associated with the channel you entered should be illuminated. Repeat the process for each of the eight controllable channels. If any of the lights fail to illuminate, che ck for loose wires. If the problem persists call Products Engineering. Testing is now complete. The micro controller is ready for your use. Products Engineering highly reco mmends the computer obtain 120 VAC power though a surge suppresser. If you do not already have one, most local computer retailers sell them. You can configure your system to automatically resume after a power failure by creating a shortcut to the “Plnt.exe” application. Then move the shortcut to your comput er’s “Start Menu\Programs\Startup” folder. The SURE CURE system wil l then automatically launch

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126 whenever the computer is booted. Products Engineering highly reco mmends that you have at least two good backup copies of the floppy disk containing the SURE CURE software at all times. Blank flo ppy disk can be purchased from your local computer retailer and copies can be created using Windows Explorer. APPLICATION LIST The following is a list of applications which make up the SURE CURE Micro temperature controller system. CURE The CURE application is used to enter a time/temperature program. You can enter a program for either a bed or a channel. You can also review a program or store programs using CURE. PLANT The PLANT application m anages all the input and output with the world. This application sh ould be left running all the time. The application is automatically l oaded when the computer starts. PLNT displays a summary for each of the physical channels which make up the system. TimeVsTemp The TimeVsTemp application allows you to view the actual time/temperature profile for each channel. You can also superimpose a channels program ov er these profiles. You Use TimeVsTemp to evaluate the re sults of the curing process. REVIEW The REVIEW application allows you to view cure data for a bed or channel. REVIEW also displays the programmed curve. RELAY TEST The RELAY TEST application allows you to check one of the systemÂ’s outputs. The Mi cro controller turns on only the designated relay while turning all other relays off. This is a trouble shooting application.

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127 SET BED CONFIG The SET BED CONFIG application allows you to define the channels which make up abed. You also tell micro controller how each channel is controlled when the bed is programmed. SURE CURE CONFIG The SURE CURE CONFIG application allows you to define the channels whic h make up the micro control system. Using this application, you tell the micro controller a channel’s name, it’s physical channel, and it’s output. Note: You must restart “PLNT” after making changes to the channel configuration. LIMITS The LIMITS application allows you to set thermal alarm limits as well as temperature dependent safe guards. Use this application to designate one of the system’s output relays as an alarm relay. RELAY HISTORY The relay history application allows you to plot the history of when each rela y was energized. Results are displayed as percentages of possible time energized. This application also allows you to view the amount of time a relay was energized during a given period. DRIVR201 The drivr201 application allo ws you to configure the computer’s serial port to work wit h the micro control system. This application should only be run w hen you are installing the SURE CURE system on a new computer with a different serial port. This is a DOS based application. To run the application, open Window Explorer, display the SURE CURE folder, and select the drivr201 application. This is the only applic ation which has to be activated this way. You should call Products Engineering if it becomes necessary to run this application. CURE TimeVsTemp and Review all have help files for addition instructions on their use. Once any one of these applications is running, simply left click on the he lp menu for these instructions.

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128 RUNNING A SURE CURE APPLICATION These instructions are intended for users who are unfamiliar with the Windows operating system. If you are familiar with Windows, the SURE CURE applications are found in C:\Program Files\Products Engineering\SURE CURE Micro. Most of these applications can also be found under SURE CURE on the start menu. Using the keyboard: 1) Press the Ctrl and Esc ke ys simultaneously (or press the windows key). A menu will pop up. 2) Press the P key. Another menu will po p up to the right. 3) Using the arrow keys, move the highlight to the SURE CURE selection. The SURE CURE menu will pop up. 4) Using the arrow keys, move t he highlight to the application you wish to run. 5) Press the Enter key. Using the mouse: 1) Move the mouse cursor to the St art button in the lower left corner and press the left mouse button (left click the mouse). A menu will pop up. 2) Move the mouse cursor to the Program selection. Another menu will po p up to the right. 3) Move the mouse cursor straight to the right and then down to the SURE CURE selection. The SURE CURE menu will pop up. 4) Move the mouse cursor to the application you wish to run. 5) Left click the mouse. Programming a Bed 1) Start the “Cure” applic ation as described above.

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129 2) Select “Bed” as the type of thing you are programming. You can either program a bed or channel. Fr om the edit menu make sure Program a Bed is checked. If it is not, left click on Program a Channel. This changes the item you are programming from a channel to a bed. You can also left click on the button labeled Channel in the upper left corner (this button indicates the item being displayed). Left clicki ng the button toggles between programming a bed and programming a channel. 3) Select the bed you wish to progr am. Select “Select Which Bed” from the Edit menu. Cure allows you to select a bed. (Shortcut: left click on the second button from the upper left and select a bed.) 4) Select New Program. Select “New” from the File menu. Cure clears the old program from the computer's memory. Also, the program start time is reset to fi ve minutes in the future. This step is not necessary if you wish to reuse the old program. 5) Enter time and temperature coor dinates for your program. Left click on the “Start Temperature” button in the Time/Temperature Point Dialog Box located in the lower right corner. Enter time/temperature points as desired. 6) Start the Program. Select “Sta rt Program” from the File menu. Cure saves the program and tells the computer to load the program for use. There are many variations from the steps above which may be used to program a bed. These ar e given as a starting guide. PLOTTING TIME VS. TEMPERATURE The TimeVsTemp software is designed to enable the system operator to review the time-tem perature data recorded over the course of a bed’s cure cycle. By reviewing this cure history, the system operator can either veri fy that the bed followed the programmed time-temperature curve or identify potential problems by comparing what was programmed with what actually happened.

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130 1) Start the “TimeVsTemp” appl ication as described above. 2) To check a bed's cure history, select one or more channels on the bed. (Channels are assigned to beds using Bed Setup which is a separate SURE CURE program.) Click on the Edit menu and choose Plot Channels. This will bring up the Select Channels dialog box. 3) For a channel's time-temperatur e data to be plo tted, the channel must appear in the Plot List. Specify the appropriate channel designation (either by typing it or selecting it from the list); then, click on the Add button. After addi ng a channel to the Plot List, you can change the plot color by highlighting the channel and clicking on the Color button. Once all the desired channels have been added to the Plot List click the OK button. 4) After specifying the channels to be plotted, define the period of time over which the temperature data will be plotted. From the Edit menu, select Plot Times to bring up the Select Plot Times dialog box. This dialog box consis ts of two parts: Starting Time and Record Length. Under Starting Time, enter the appropriate hour, day, month, and year. For Record Length, enter the number of hours required to complete a cure cycle and click OK. 5) You should now see a time-tem perature curve for the selected channel(s) on your bed. The cu rves should begin at the specified starting time and continue for the specified number of hours (i.e., record length). The two arrow buttons on the tool bar can be used to shift the graph forward or backward in one-hour increments. 5) Finally, TimeVsTemp provides a quick way to compare actual time-temperature data with the data that was programmed using Cure To see the programmed time-temperature curve, click on the View menu and select Program .... The Select Program dialog box will come up. Enter a channel designation (generally the master channel for the bed in question) and assign it a color not already in use. Click OK, and the programmed curve will appear on the graph where it can be readily compared to the actual time-temperature data.

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131 MAINTENANCE 1) Blow the dust out of the computer every six months. Remove the computers cover. Using CLEAN, DRY compressed air, blow the dust off the com ponents inside the computer. 2) Clean the floppy disk drive once every six months. Purchase a floppy disk cleaning kit from a local computer retailer. Follow the instructions and clean the disk drive. 3) Clean or replace the thermocouple jacks and plugs. Steel wool can be used to clean the thermocouple plugs. Systems where the plugs are always left in should seldom if ever need cleaning. TROUBLESHOOTING The system should seldom have troubl e. However, everything ever created by man sooner or later br eaks. The following is a list of potential problems which can occur with your system. If you cannot solve the problem with these sugges tions, please try to gather as much data on the problem as po ssible and then call Products Engineering. Thermocouples. Thermocouples are by far the lar gest source of potential trouble. The most common sign of trouble with a thermocouple is an "OPEN" reading on the menu or review a cycle screens. Thermocouple problems are also indicated by erratic time-temperature curves. The cause of most thermocouple trouble is poor connections. The copper side of the type "T" thermoc ouple is subject to oxidization. Thus connections must be checked periodically. The amount of oxidization is a function of the environment where the connection is located. Loose screws in plugs, jacks, and terminal blocks are another source of thermocouple troubles Broken wires are yet another common problem. A thermocouple is cr eated by twisting the two wires

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132 in the thermocouple together. Ther efore, a thermocouple may be checked independent of the Micro c ontroller using an ohm meter. A good thermocouple should have a r eading of less than one thousand ohms. A bad thermocouple has a very high reading. A thermocouple which is not electr ically isolated from the outside world may give erratic readings. Ther efore, be sure all thermocouples are either wrapped in elec trical tape or shrink tubing. Isolating the thermocouple also provides protection against lightning. A thermocouple which is not shielded from electrical noise can give false readings. Remember, a thermoc ouple produces a signal which is in the millionths of a volt. Most th ermocouples should be routed to the I/O cabinet through shielded cable. In some cases the shield may even have to enclose the thermocouple. Occasionally a thermocouple will provide a good reading but not the reading you expect. This is caused by the two conductors in the thermocouple cable coming in contact in between the I/O cabinet and the thermocouple you made. The controller sees the closest thermocouple. Another thermocouple error is to terminate the wires backwards. This error causes the temperature on the controller to decrease when the real temperature in the field in creases. Be sure the copper wire is connected to the copper screw and t he constantan wire is connected to the constantan screw. Erratic thermocouple readings can be caused by poor electrical ground. The system must have a good electrical ground. Measure the resistance between the ground terminals in the relay cabinet and a water pipe. The reading should be less than one ohm. Trace the ground connection back to your build ingÂ’s electrical service. The ground should go to a grounding rod. Conduit does not provide a good path to ground. Run a wire from the outlet feeding your system to the grounding rod. The computer. The computer can have any one of a number of problems. Often the problems can be corrected by turni ng the computer off, waiting five seconds, and then turning the computer back on. One symptom which is not uncommon is a blank display. Most often this is caused by having the brightness turned to low. Always check the brightness and contrast buttons when you cannot get a

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133 picture on the display. Also don't fo rget about the screen off option. A loose cable between the monitor and the computer may cause a blank screen. The computer may not re-boot if the keyboard or mouse are not attached. Check to be sure bot h are correctly connected. The I/O cabinet. The most common symptom associated with the I/O cabinet is no 120 VAC comes from the output relays. This is generally caused by one or more of the breakers which feed power to the I/O cabinet have tripped. You should know where t hese breakers are and be able to check them. If you get bad readings for all tem peratures on all channels and you can not activate a red light with the Relay Test function, again the problem is the breakers feeding t he I/O cabinet. Also check the cables which connect the I/O cabinet to the computer.

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134 APPENDIX C CALCULATION EXAMPLES Developing Modified Adiabati c Temperature Rise Curves As it is shown in Chapter 5, to develop the adiabatic temperature rise curves for mass concrete mixes used in FDOT projects ACI curves can be modified for total cementitious materials, pozzolan content and placing temperature by using a modification factor ( kc). In this appendix, an example calculati on to develop adiabatic temperature rise curve for a given concrete mix is presented. Mix Properties: Cement Content = Cc = 560 lb/yd3 Fly Ash Content = Cp = 240 lb/yd3 Placing Temperature = 73F Concrete Mix With Portland Cement Type II The applicable formula to calculate p would be: p= 0.59 0.59Rp. Rp (percentage of pozzolan in th e mix) is calculated as: Rp = 240 / (560 + 240) = 0.30 Therefore p would be determined as follows: p = 0.59 – 0.59 (0.3) = 0.41 In Chapter 5 (Equation 5-4) Ceq was defined as: Ceq = Cc + pCp Therefore Ceq for the given mix equals to:

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135 Ceq = 560 + (0.41) (240) = 658 lb/yd3 The curve in ACI 207.1R can be used to develop the new adiabatic temperature rise curve for the given mix. In this curve the cement content (Cb) is 376 lb/yd3. Modification factor would be calculated as follows: kc = Ceq / Cb = 658 / 376 = 1.75 In Table C-1 the calculated modification factor ( kc = 1.75) is applied to the data for ACI curve to develop the new adiabatic temp erature rise curve for the given mix. Figure C-1 shows the ACI curved and modified adiabatic temperature rise curve for the given mix. Table C-12 Calculated Adiabatic Temper ature Rise Data for The Given Mix Time (Days) ACI Adiabatic Temperature Rise for Concrete With 376 lb/yd3 Type II Portland Cement ( F) Modified Adiabatic Temperature Rise for the Given Mix ( F) 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.5 20.00 35.00 1.0 31.00 54.25 1.5 37.00 64.75 2.0 40.40 70.70 2.5 42.80 74.90 3.0 44.50 77.88 3.5 46.00 80.50 4.0 47.00 82.25 4.5 47.90 83.83 5.0 48.70 85.23 5.5 49.50 86.63 6.0 50.20 87.85 6.5 50.90 89.08 7.0 51.60 90.30

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136 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 01234567 Time (day)Adiabatic Temperature Rise (F) ACI Curve Modified Curve Figure C-8 ACI and Modified Adia batic Temperature Rise Curves Schmidt Method to Calculate the Maximum Te mperature Rise in a Mass Concrete Pour Schmidt Method (Chapter 2) can be used to calculate the maximum temperature rise for a given mass concrete element. For Schmidt Method calculations adiabatic temperature rise curve of the concrete mix, placing temperature of concrete, air temperature and ground temperature need to be known. An example of the Schmidt Method calculations is presented here. For this example following assumptions have been made: Mass Concrete Element: A square concrete footing with 20 ft by 20 ft dimensions and 6 ft thickness, Concrete Mix: FDOT Class IV with Type II Portland Cement, Total Cementitious Material = 800 lb/yd3

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137 30% Fly Ash replacement, Concrete Placing Temperature = 75 F Ground Temperature = 75 F Concrete Thermal Diffusivity = 0.80 sf/day In Schmidt Method the concrete footing s hould be divided to layers. If simplified Schmidt Method is used, the layer thickness should be in a way that t = ( x)2/(2h2). However, in these calculations Schmidt Me thodÂ’s formula in its complete format was used. The footing was divided to five layers for calculations. Table C-13 Schmidt Method Calculations Time (Day) 0.000.501.001.502.002.50 3.00 Temperature Rise ( F) 0.0035.0019.2510.505.954.20 2.98 Temperature ( F) Air 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00 6.0 ft 75.00110.00119.53120.36118.35116.17 113.83 4.8 ft 75.00110.00129.25137.05138.74138.19 136.45 3.6 ft 75.00110.00129.25138.40142.03143.24 142.88 2.4 ft 75.00110.00124.39131.41134.57136.29 136.81 Footing 1.2 ft 75.0092.50106.99114.37118.19120.48 121.90 75.00 92.50 97.26 100.38 102.51 104.42 105.92 75.00 75.00 79.86 83.34 86.13 88.40 90.38 75.00 75.00 75.00 76.35 77.92 79.49 80.99 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.38 75.98 76.68 Layer Ground 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00 Time (Day) 3.504.004.505.005.506.00 6.50 Temperature Rise ( F) 2.631.751.581.401.401.23 1.22 Temperature ( F) Air 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00 6.0 ft 111.95109.72107.87106.22104.86103.52 102.40 4.8 ft 134.58132.11129.74127.49125.51123.59 121.87 3.6 ft 142.03140.31138.47136.58134.84133.06 131.43 2.4 ft 136.98136.23135.36134.34133.37132.25 131.20 Footing 1.2 ft 122.91123.37123.55123.55123.46123.25 122.97 107.35 108.31 109.21 109.93 110.58 111.04 111.44 92.09 93.64 94.95 96.12 97.15 98.06 98.84 82.40 83.71 84.91 86.01 86.99 87.88 88.68 77.41 78.13 78.81 79.45 80.03 80.57 81.05 Layer Ground 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00

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138 Schmidt Method calculations are shown in Table C-2. In this table, predicted temperature for the center of th e footing at each time interval is shown with bold letters. As it can be seen, the maximum temperature of 143.24 F will occur two and a half days after placing of the footing. Time-Temperature profile of the footi ng is shown in figure C-2. air 6.00 4.80 3.60 2.40 1.20 Ground Ground Ground Ground Ground 0.00.51.01.52.02.53.03.54.04.55.05.56.06.57.0 Temp. Layer Time (Day) 140.00-155.00 125.00-140.00 110.00-125.00 95.00-110.00 80.00-95.00 65.00-80.00 Figure C-9 Time-Temperature Profile of the Footing T em p erature ( F )

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139 LIST OF REFERENCES American Concrete Institute (ACI) Co mmittee 116, 2000, “Cement and Concrete Terminology,” (ACI 116R-00), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Mich., 73 pp. American Concrete Institute (ACI) Comm ittee 207, 1996, A, “Mass Concrete,” (ACI 207.1R-96), American Concrete Instit ute, Farmington Hills, Mich., 42 pp. American Concrete Institute (ACI) Co mmittee 207, 1996, B, “Cracking of Massive Concrete,” (ACI 207.2R-96), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Mich., American Society for Testing and Materi als (ASTM), ASTM C618-94a, 1994, "Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use as a Mineral Admixture in Portland Cement Concrete," Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02, Phila delphia, Pennsylvania. Ati Cengiz Duran, 2002, “Heat Evolution of Hi gh-Volume Fly Ash Concrete,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol.32, pp. 751-756. Ballim, Yunus, 2004, “A Numerical Model and Associated Calorimeter for Predicting Temperature Profiles in Mass Concrete,” Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol.26, pp. 695-703. Bamforth, P.B., 1980, “In Situ Measurement of the Effect of Partial Portland Cement Replacement Using Either Fly Ash or Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag on the Performance of Mass Concrete,” Proc Inst. Civil Engrs. Part 2, Sept., pp. 777800. Bentz, D. P., Waller, V., and de Larrard, F., 1998, “Prediction of Adiabatic Temperature Rise in Conventional And High-Performance Concrete Using A 3-D Microstructural Model,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 28, No.2, pp.285297 Blanks, Robert F., 1933,”Cpmparison of Sel ected Portland Cements in Mass Concrete Tests,” Journal of the American Concrete Institute Proceedings, Vol. 30, Sept-Oct., pp. 9-20, Detroit, Michigan Cannon, R. P., 1986, “Effects Of Changes In Ce ment Properties On The Temperature Of Concrete,” Concrete (L ondon), v. 20 n. 2, Feb. pp. 26-28

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140 Copland, L.E., Kantro, D.L., and Verbeck, George, 1966, Chemistry of Hydration of Portland Cement RX153, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois Davis, R.E., Carlson, R.W., Kelly, J.W., Da wis, H.E., 1937, “Properties of Cement and Concretes Containing Fly Ash”, ACI J.33, pp. 577-612. Detwiler R. J., 1996, Supplementary Cementing Material s for Use in Blended Cements Portland Cement Association, Chicago Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT), 2002, Structures Design Guidelines for Load and Resistance Factor Design Structures Design Office, Tallahassee, Florida, Jan., pp. 5-1 Gajda, John and VanGeem, Martha, 2002,”Contro ling Temperatures in Mass Concrete,” Concrete International, January, pp. 59-62 Gibbon, G. J., Ballim, Y., and Grieve, G. R. H., 1997 “A Low-Cost, ComputerControlled Adiabatic Calorimeter for De termining the Heat of Hydration of Concrete,” Journal of Testing & Evaluation v 25 n 2 Mar. pp. 261-266 Lerch W. and Bogue R. H. 1934, “Heat of Hydr ation of Portland Cement Pastes,” Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards, 12, No. 5, pp. 645-664 Lu, H.R., Swaddiwudhipong, S. and Wee, T.H ., 2001, “Evaluation of Thermal Crack by a Probabilistic Model Using The Tensile Stra in Capacity,” Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol. 53, No.1, pp. 25-30. Philleo, R.E., 1967, “Fly Ash in Mass Concrete,” Proceedings of 1st International Symposium on Fly Ash Utilization, Pittsbur gh, PA, Bureau of Mines, Washington DC, pp. 69-79. Price, W. H., 1982,“Control of Cracking in Mass Concrete Dams,” Concrete International, Vol. 4, No. 10, pp. 36-44 Rhodes, J. A., 1978,”Thermal Properties,” Si gnificance of Tests and Properties of Concrete and Concrete Making Materi als, STP-169B, ASTM, Philadelphia, pp. 242-266 Swaddiwudhipong, S., Chen, D., and Zhang, M. H., 2002, “Simulation of the Exothermic Hydration Process of Portland Cement,” Advances in Cement Research, Vol. 14, No.2, April, pp. 61-69 Townsend, C., L., 1981, Engineering Monograph No. 34, Co ntrol of Cracking in Mass Concrete Structures, Revised Reprint, United States Government Printing Office, Denver U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1996, Engineering and Desi gn-Gravity Dam Design Publication Number: EM 1110-2-2200, Washington, DC

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141 U.S. Department of Transportati on, Federal Highway Administration,1990, Portland Cement Concrete Materials Manual Report no.FHWA-Ed-89-006, August, Washington, FHWA. Vodak, F., Cerny, R., Drchalova, J., Hoskova S., Kapickova, O., Michalko, O., Semerak, P., Toman, J., 1997, “Thermophysical Proper ties of Concrete for Nuclear-Safety Related Structures,” Cement and Conc rete Research, Vol. 27, No.3, pp. 415-426 Wallace, George B., and Ore, Elwood L., 1960, “Structural and Lean Mass Concrete as Affected by Water-Reducing, Set-Retardi ng Agents,” Symposium on Effect of Water of Water-Reducing Admi xtures, American Society of Testing and Standards, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Xu, Yunsheng, Chung, D.D.L., 2000. “Effect Of Sand Addition On The Specific Heat And Thermal Conductivity Of Cement,” Ce ment and Concrete Research, Vol.30, No.1, pp. 59-61

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142 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Arash Parham was born and raised in Sh iraz, Iran, where he attended Shiraz University and obtained his Bachelor of Science in civil engineering in 2000. Arash entered the University of Florid aÂ’s M.E. Rinker Sr. School of Building Construction graduate program in 2003. He will receive a Master of Science in Building Construction in December 2004. He plans to obtain a job in the construction industry after his graduation..