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Study of the Effects of the Florida 4-H Residential Camping Program on Participants' Level of Environmental Sensitivity

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Study of the Effects of the Florida 4-H Residential Camping Program on Participants' Level of Environmental Sensitivity
Creator:
LOHRER, AMY ELIZABETH
Copyright Date:
2008

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Camping ( jstor )
Child psychology ( jstor )
Ecology ( jstor )
Educational research ( jstor )
Environmental education ( jstor )
Environmental surveys ( jstor )
Nature ( jstor )
Role models ( jstor )
School surveys ( jstor )
Student surveys ( jstor )
City of Ocala ( local )

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright Amy Elizabeth Lohrer. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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12/31/2006
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436098613 ( OCLC )

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STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF THE FL ORIDA 4-H RESIDENTIAL CAMPING PROGRAM ON PARTICIPANTS’ LEVEL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SENSITIVITY By AMY ELIZABETH LOHRER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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Copyright 2004 by Amy Elizabeth Lohrer

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This document is dedicated, with love , to my parents, Fred and Charlotte.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to extend my thanks first and foremost to my parents. This document is dedicated to them for all they have done in my life to mold and shape me to be the person I am today. I would not be the same individual I am today, without the strength, encouragement, and guidance they have shown me throughout my entire life. I want them to know I love them always. Big thanks are also extended to my friends, especially Sarah Maass, Sarah Corbett, Kate Mulkerrin, and Steve Atkinson, who supported me through the graduate school experience, encouraging me to follow through and achieve the degree, even when it seemed the goal was out of reach. I would also like to thank the members of my graduate committee, Dr. Gerald Culen, Dr. Rosemary Barnett, and Dr. Glenn Israel, for their guidance and expertise as I continued to complete my thesis. Last, but certainly not least, I extend my gratitude to the Lord. He, above all, is my Savior and has graciously allowed me to achieve this level of education. "Trust in the Lord with all your heart; lean not on your own understanding. In all your ways acknowledge him; For He will make thy paths straight" (Proverbs 3:5-6). iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.......................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES...............................................................................................ix ABSTRACT..........................................................................................................x CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................1 Purpose/Significance.....................................................................................1 Definition of Terms.........................................................................................3 Research Questions.......................................................................................4 Research Hypotheses....................................................................................5 Assumptions of Study....................................................................................5 Limitations of Study........................................................................................6 2 LITERATURE REVIEW..................................................................................7 Environmental Education...............................................................................7 Goals of Environmental Education.................................................................8 Environmental Sensitivity.............................................................................10 Theoretical Framework................................................................................13 Significant Life Experiences.........................................................................18 Florida 4-H Residential Camping.................................................................22 The 4-H Organization...................................................................................24 Florida 4-H Residential Camping Program...................................................25 Camp Timpoochee................................................................................31 Camp Ocala...........................................................................................31 Camp Cloverleaf....................................................................................32 3 METHODOLOGY.........................................................................................33 Research Design..........................................................................................33 Sample.........................................................................................................34 Survey Instruments......................................................................................36 v

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Components of the Survey Instruments.......................................................37 Data Collection.............................................................................................39 Data Analysis...............................................................................................40 4 RESULTS....................................................................................................42 Demographics..............................................................................................42 Participation in Environmental Activities................................................43 Attendance at Residential Camps.........................................................43 Data Analysis of Research Questions..........................................................44 Human Influences on Environmental Sensitivity....................................55 The Influence of Outdoor Experiences on Environmental Sensitivity....59 The Influence of Other Experiences......................................................62 The Influence of Books, Magazines, TV, and Other Media....................64 Summary......................................................................................................66 5 DISCUSSIONS............................................................................................68 Hypotheses Analysis....................................................................................69 Other Research Findings.............................................................................77 Human Influences on Environmental Sensitivity....................................79 Influence of Outdoor Experiences on Environmental Sensitivity............81 Influence of Other Experiences.............................................................82 Influence of Books, Magazines, TV, and Other Media...........................83 Implications for Practice...............................................................................84 Limitations....................................................................................................85 Implications for Future Research.................................................................85 Recommendations.......................................................................................87 Conclusions.................................................................................................88 APPENDIX A INTERNAL REVIEW BOARD APPROVAL LETTER....................................91 B PARENTAL CONSENT LETTER.................................................................93 C PARENTAL CONSENT FORM....................................................................95 D SURVEY OF ENVIRONMENTALLY CONCERNED STUDENTS................97 E MIDDLE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL LITERACY INSTRUMENT ECOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS SURVEY.................................................103 LIST OF REFERENCES..................................................................................107 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...............................................................................110 vi

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1 Demographic Characteristics of Study Participants...................................42 4-2 Survey Participants’ Environmental Activities............................................43 4-3 Participation in Residential Camping Programs.........................................44 4-4 Pre-Camp Environmental Sensitivity Levels of Participants.......................45 4-5 Post-Camp Environmental Sensitivity Levels of Participants.....................45 4-6 Percentage of Repeat Attendance Among Respondents and Mean Environmental Sensitivity (Pre-camp Data Only)......................46 4-7 Pre-camp Environmental Sensitivity Level Differences Between Groups..46 4-8 Environmental Sensitivity Level of Groups (Pre-camp with matched Post-camp Survey)......................................................................47 4-9 Number of Times Respondents Attended Camp Previously (Pre-camp and Post-camp Data)...............................................................48 4-10 Environmental Sensitivity Level Differences Between Groups Based On Attendance At Florida 4-H Residential Camping Program (Post-camp Data).......................................................................................48 4-11 General Influences on Participants Level of Environmental Sensitivity......49 4-12 Correlations between Variables with Influences on Environmental Sensitivity...................................................................................................50 4-13 Regression of Environmental Sensitivity Influence: Total Sample (n = 121)....................................................................................................52 4-14 Number of Times Respondents Attended Camp Previously (Pre-camp and Post-camp Data).................................................................................53 4-15 Pre-camp Ecological Knowledge Level Differences Between Groups.......................................................................................................54 vii

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4-16 Ecological Knowledge Level of Groups (Pre-camp with matched Post-camp Survey)....................................................................................54 4-17 Ecological Knowledge Differences Between Groups Based on Attendance At Florida 4-H Residential Camping Program (Pre-Camp and Post-Camp Data)................................................................................54 4-18 Human Influences on Participants’ Level of Environmental Sensitivity...................................................................................................55 4-19 Outdoor Experience Influence on Environmental Sensitivity......................59 4-20 The Influence of Other Experiences...........................................................62 4-21 The Influence of Books, Magazines, TV and Other Media.........................64 viii

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Knowledge-Attitudes-Behavior model........................................................14 2-2 The Hines Model of Responsible Environmental Behavior........................15 2-3 Model of Responsible Environmental Citizenship (Hungerford & Volk, 1990).........................................................................16 2-4 Theory of Planned Behavior Model (Ajzen, n.d.)........................................18 2-5 Impact Model for the Florida 4-H Residential Camping Program...............27 2-6 Process Model for Florida 4-H Residential Camping Program...................30 5-1 Major Reported Influences on the Environmental Sensitivity Levels of Study Participants.......................................................................78 ix

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF THE FLORIDA 4-H RESIDENTIAL CAMPING PROGRAM ON PARTICIPANTS’ LEVEL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SENSITIVITY By Amy Elizabeth Lohrer December 2004 Chair: Gerald Culen Major Department: Family, Youth and Community Sciences This study focuses on a residential camping program to determine the effectiveness of the camping experience in the development of participants’ levels of environmental sensitivity. Specifically, the study examined how repeat participation in the Florida 4-H Residential Camping Program affects the level of environmental sensitivity of its participants. Other selected variables (e.g., media, time spent outdoors, experience with camping, having wild animals as pets, and role models) were assessed to determine how these parameters might influence environmental sensitivity. Participants’ level of ecological knowledge was also measured on a preand post-test basis. One hundred twenty-five research participants between the ages of 12 and 18 were included in this study. A modified version of the Survey of Environmentally Concerned Students and the Ecological Foundations section of the Middle School Environmental Literacy Instrument (8th edition) were used for x

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the assessments. Demographic information was collected and data were analyzed using non-parametric statistics, correlations, and multiple regressions. The results of this study indicate that the influences of outdoor experiences and role models can have a large impact on the development of environmental sensitivity. Results regarding levels of environmental sensitivity and the impact of residential camping experiences and other variables under study are also discussed. The results of this study have implications for residential camps, program planners, environmental educators, and others. xi

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Environmental education exists in many forms including in-class programs, outdoor classes on school grounds, field trips to nature centers, activities in campus natural areas, and residential camping programs. It has become part of curriculum in many schools, after school clubs, community programs, organizations, and others. Since there are many different ways to present environmental education, it is important to determine the various ways that are among the most effective in order to increase participants’ knowledge and sensitivity toward the environment. Residential camping programs offer many benefits to participants. Extended periods of time in outdoor or natural settings, longer opportunities to be involved in environmental educational programs, and a flexible schedule are some of the benefits that are provided by a residential camping program. Many activities offered to campers during a residential camping program incorporate environmental education informally. These activities could include participation in a ropes course, rock climbing, astronomy, night hikes, hikes in the forest, and immersion in a variety of habitats. Purpose/Significance This study will focus on the effectiveness of a setting in which environmental education is present – a residential camping program. This study will determine the effectiveness of the Florida 4-H residential camping experience 1

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2 in developing the environmental sensitivity of participants ages 12-18. Specifically, the study will examine how repeated participation in the Florida 4-H residential camping program affects the level of environmental sensitivity. In addition, this study will also measure the effects of the Florida 4-H residential camping program on the level of ecological knowledge of the program’s participants. To date, no studies have been performed to determine the effects of residential camping programs on the environmental sensitivity of youth. Environmental sensitivity is considered a precursor to environmental literacy and environmental behavior (Hungerford, Peyton, & Wilke, 1980; Sia, Hungerford, & Tomera, 1985-1986; Marcinkowski, 1987; Sivek & Hungerford, 1989-1990). Although several studies have focused on environmental literacy and the steps required to produce an environmentally responsible citizen, few studies have addressed environmental sensitivity directly (Tanner, 1980; Peterson, 1982; Palmer, 1993; Chawla, 1998; and Palmer, et al., 1998). Although the number of studies addressing environmental sensitivity is increasing, the number of studies assessing environmental sensitivity of youth is lacking. According to findings by Peterson (1982), an adult’s level of environmental sensitivity is established during the teenage years. Therefore, the environmental sensitivity level of youths should be examined to learn more about the process of developing environmental sensitivity and environmental literacy and, ultimately, environmental behavior.

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3 The results of this study will help to lessen the gap in past research by focusing on the environmental sensitivity levels of youth. It will also provide documented research in the area of residential camping. In addition, this study will allow future comparisons of the various settings in which environmental education occurs in order to determine the most effective way to develop the level of environmental sensitivity of youth. The findings from this study will help future environmental educators plan more effective programs for children and help other stakeholders to see the impact of the Florida 4-H residential camping programs. Definition of Terms 4-H residential camping program. During this study, the 4-H residential camping program consists of a five-day camping program designed and staffed by a state 4-H organization during which the participants choose not to leave the camping experience until they have completed the camping program. Environmental attitudes. In this study, environmental attitudes refer to cognitive and affective components of the mental system related to the environment. These components are combined with behavior tendencies. Environmental attitudes can be directed toward people, objects, and ideas and usually imply a tendency to act. Environmental literacy. In this study, environmental literacy refers to having knowledge of ecological concepts, an awareness of environmental issues, knowledge and skill in environmental action, and an ability to evaluate environmental issues.

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4 Environmental sensitivity. In this study, environmental sensitivity is defined as having empathy (caring or understanding view) for or relating to the environment (Sivek, 2002). A person who has a high level of environmental sensitivity may be interested in learning about the environment, personally care about the environment, and take an active role in conserving the environment. Repeated participation. In this study, repeated participation refers to a participant who has been involved in a five-day 4-H residential camping program two or more times. Responsible environmental behavior. In this study, the term responsible environmental behavior refers to any action that is an attempt to prevent or solve environmental problems. Significant life experiences. In this study, significant life experiences refers to an action, event, and/or individual that influences future decisions in a person’s life. Research Questions The purpose of this study is to determine whether the Florida 4-H residential camping experience is effective in developing the environmental sensitivity of participants ages 12-18. Specifically, this study will examine the following: 1. To what extent is the level of environmental sensitivity influenced by repeated participation in the Florida 4-H residential camping program? 2. To what extent is the self-reported level of environmental sensitivity of Florida 4-H camping program participants correlated to the influences reported to be responsible for developing environmental sensitivity? 3. To what extent is the level of knowledge of ecological concepts influenced by repeated participation in the Florida 4-H residential camping program?

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5 Research Hypotheses The hypotheses include: Hypothesis 1. The participants of the Florida 4-H residential camping program will have a greater level of environmental sensitivity than those who have not previously participated in the Florida 4-H residential camping program. Hypothesis 2. Those who have participated in the Florida 4-H residential camping program on a repeated basis will have a higher level of environmental sensitivity. Hypothesis 3. The correlation between the self-reported level of environmental sensitivity of Florida 4-H camping program participants will be positively correlated to the influences reported to be responsible for developing environmental sensitivity. Hypothesis 4. The participants of the Florida 4-H residential camping program will have a greater knowledge of ecological concepts than those who have not previously participated in the Florida 4-H residential camping program. Assumptions of Study This study assumes that the groups identified within the parameters of this study may have been exposed to environmental education programs during school or other activities. The researcher, however, did not differentiate between the various levels of involvement or the type of environmental education programs the participants of the study may have participated in at or during other educational programs or non-formal activities. This study also assumes that ecological knowledge leads to environmental sensitivity, i.e. as we gain a better

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6 understanding of the environment, our environmental sensitivity tends to increase. Limitations of Study The sample used in this study was a sample of convenience. All participants were volunteers and, therefore, the chance of self-selection bias is increased. As a result, the sample used in this study may not be representative of all the participants of the Florida 4-H residential camping program. Although the data gathered in this study assesses the participants’ involvement in other environmental education programs throughout the time the participants are not involved in the Florida 4-H residential camp, it does not determine how participants’ attitudes and beliefs were affected by these other programs.

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This study seeks to determine the effectiveness of the Florida 4-H residential camping program in developing environmental sensitivity and ecological knowledge of its’ participants ages 12-18. The theoretical framework that underlies this study is presented in the next section. Environmental Education In the past, environmental education was referred to as environmental science, conservation education, nature studies, and other terms. Today, environmental education has established itself as it’s own independent field of study. More and more studies are being performed within the area of environmental education. In 1977, the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education, held in Tbilisi, Russia, established a set of goals for environmental education. Included in this document, referred to as the Tbilisi Declaration, were some objectives that addressed awareness and sensitivity toward the environment (Hungerford, Peyton, & Wilke, 1980; Chawla, 1998; Kim, 2003). These objectives, ranging from the awareness level to the participation level, indicate that environmental sensitivity is one of the necessary components of developing an environmentally responsible citizen. The following are the specific environmental education objectives set by the Tbilisi Declaration: 7

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8 Awareness: to help social groups and individuals acquire an awareness and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Knowledge: to help social groups and individuals gain a variety of experience in, and acquire a basic understanding of, the environment and its associated problems. Attitudes: to help social groups and individuals acquire a set of values and feelings of concern for the environment and motivation for actively participating in environmental improvement and protection. Skills: to help social groups and individuals acquire skills for identifying and solving environmental problems. Participation: to provide social groups and individuals with an opportunity to be actively involved at all levels in working toward resolution of environmental problems. (Hungerford, Peyton, & Wilke, 1980) Environmental sensitivity is directly addressed in the objective for awareness. However, in order for a person to progress through and achieve the other objectives, he/she would have to have some level of empathy, i.e., environmental sensitivity, toward the environment. Goals of Environmental Education Developing responsible environmental behavior or citizenship has been generally accepted as environmental education’s ultimate goal during the last twenty years (Kim, 2003). The goals for Curriculum Development in Environmental Education were established by Hungerford, Peyton, and Wilke (1980) in order to guide curriculum development within environmental education. These goals were established as a super-ordinate goal supported by four underlying goal levels: Super-ordinate Goal: . . . to aid citizens in becoming environmentally knowledgeable and, above all, skilled and dedicated citizens who are willing to work, individually and collectively, toward achieving and/or maintaining a

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9 dynamic equilibrium between quality of life and quality of the environment. (Kim, 2003) Goal Level 1. Ecological Foundations Level. When a person achieves the goal of this level, he/she should have a substantial amount of ecological foundation knowledge. The nine conceptual components included in defining the foundation of knowledge required include: (1) individuals and populations, (2) interactions and interdependence, (3) environmental influences and limiting factors, (4) energy flow and materials cycling, (5) community and ecosystems concepts, (6) homeostasis, (7) succession, (8) man as an ecosystem component, and (9) the ecological implications of man’s activities and his communities. This foundation of knowledge allows the person to make sound environmental decisions (Hungerford, Peyton, & Wilke, 1980). Goal Level 2. Conceptual Awareness Level – Issues and Values. Achievement at this goal level allows a person to become aware of how actions of their own or others may have an influence on the environment. This goal also focuses on the results of actions performed in an attempt to solve environmental issues (Hungerford, Peyton, & Wilke, 1980). Goal Level 3. Investigation and Evaluation Level. During this level, participants of an environmental education program following these goals should be able to investigate environmental issues and problems. In doing so, they should also be able to evaluate the alternative solutions to the environmental issue that they are addressing (Hungerford, Peyton, & Wilke, 1980).

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10 Goal Level 4. Environmental Action Skills Level – Training and Application. Participants at this level will be taught the skills needed to take the planned action effectively (Hungerford, Peyton, & Wilke, 1980). Although environmental sensitivity is not directly addressed in the environmental education goals, later studies suggest that environmental sensitivity is a precursor to behavior change. Environmental Sensitivity The concept of environmental sensitivity has been identified since the early 1970s. However, until the 1990’s, environmental sensitivity was not well defined or fully understood because of the lack of research. Before 1980, the term “environmental sensitivity” was used to refer to affective beliefs about the natural world. Early studies into environmental sensitivity (Tanner, 1980; Peterson, 1982) focused on identifying life experiences that occurred regularly to assist in the development of environmental sensitivity instead of the affective construct. Environmental sensitivity is now considered nature-centered as compared to environmental concern, which is problem-centered. In many of the early research studies, it is difficult to identify whether the described experiences related more to environmental sensitivity or environmental concern (Sward & Marcinkowski, 2001). Environmental sensitivity has been a part of environmental education goals or objectives for over twenty years (Sward & Marcinkowski, 2001). In 1975, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) held an International Environmental Education Workshop in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. The participants of this workshop included environmental sensitivity among the

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11 objectives set for environmental education (Kim, 2003). The Intergovernmental Conference of Environmental Education, held in Tbilisi, Russia in 1977, included the same objectives in their environmental education objectives. The objectives related directly to environmental sensitivity, established as part of the Tbilisi Declaration were as follows: Awareness: to help social groups and individuals acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Attitudes: to help social groups and individuals acquire a set of values and feelings of concern for the environment and motivation for actively participating in environmental improvement and protection. (UNESCO, 1978, p. 4) The First National Congress for Environmental Education, held in Vermont, and the International Congress of Environmental Education and Training, held in Moscow, also adopted these objectives addressing environmental sensitivity (Sward & Marcinkowski, 2001). A growing interest in environmental sensitivity had begun. Environmental sensitivity has been defined as “having empathy (concern) for or relating to other living things or ecosystems” (Sivek, 2002, p. 155). An individual who has a high level of environmental sensitivity may refuse to litter, want to conserve natural areas, respects hunting and fishing laws, etc. (Sivek, 2002; Hungerford et al., 1992). It has been suggested that environmental sensitivity is a precursor for environmental behavior (Hungerford et al., 1980; Sia et al., 1985-1986; Sivek & Hungerford, 1989-1990). Several studies have attempted to investigate the concept of environmental sensitivity (Peterson, 1982; Tanner, 1980; Palmer et al., 1998; Chawla, 1998; Palmer, 1993; Sward &

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12 Marcinkowski, 2001). Only a few of these studies focused on children in their studies. Sivek performed a two-part study in which the influences on the environmental sensitivity levels of Wisconsin high school students were assessed (2002). The first part was conducted in a focus group format. Participants of the focus groups were believed to be environmentally sensitive students by their teachers. All students were from areas with populations of 50,000 or less or rural areas. The focus group discussions resulted in three pronounced categories: (1) environmental influences, (2) role models, and (3) personality influences. Environmental influences included subcategories such as (a) accessibility or number of visits to a natural area, (b) opportunity for learning and/or involvement, (c) negative experiences, (d) electronic media, and (e) freedom of choice and/or thought. Major role models frequently identified by participants in this study included a (a) teacher or advisor, (b) parents, (c) other relatives, (d) friends, and (e) an actor/movie. Personality influences examined included (a) locus of control, (b) interpersonal communication style, (c) a display of future orientation, and (d) independence of thought. The second part of the study performed by Sivek was completed as a self-administered survey. The survey collected data including demographic information, students own perception of their level of environmental sensitivity, role models, personality traits, outdoor experiences, environmental issues, and media influences, Sixty-four students participated in this portion of the study. Results showed male teachers were the most influential role models, followed by

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13 fathers and mothers of participants. Ninety-five percent of participants expressed that spending time outdoors was an important influence on environmental sensitivity. Moderate influences on environmental sensitivity levels included volunteer time spent working with animals, having wild animals as pets, the influences of books and magazines, and seeing bad things occur in the environment. Personality traits such as an outgoing personality and the ability to think independently also played a part in the expression of environmental sensitivity level. Theoretical Framework Environmental behavior has been a topic of many research studies in the past and continues to be an actively studied topic today. Some studies have examined the impact of significant life experiences on environmental behavior (Tanner, 1980; Peterson, 1982; Palmer, 1993). Other studies have focused on various programs that contain an environmental education as part of the curriculum (Dettmann-Easler & Pease, 1999; Hungerford & Volk, 1990; Jordan, Hungerford, & Tomera, 1986; Shepard & Speelman, 1986). Although many of these studies showed significant results that have shaped the future of environmental education, it is not clear what variables are the most influential in the formation of individual’s responsible environmental behavior, attitudes, or beliefs (Hines, Hungerford, & Tomera, 1987). A variety of models have been researched regarding environmental education. Many of these models have focused on the generally accepted end goal of environmental education -responsible environmental behavior. Research has been conducted to link the amount of knowledge about the

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14 environment to the individual’s attitude toward the environment. This model, referred to as the Knowledge-Attitudes-Behavior model (Figure 2-1), was generally accepted in the area of environmental education. If the ecological knowledge level of an individual were increased, the individual’s attitude toward and awareness of the environment would also increase as a result. The increased awareness and changed attitude would lead to behavior changes (Ramsey & Rickson, 1977). Knowledge Attitude Action Figure 2-1. Knowledge-Attitudes-Behavior model Recent research has shown this model does not hold true (Hungerford & Volk, 1990). Burrus-Brammel (1978) performed a longitudinal study that showed no correlation between knowledge and attitude. The development of the ability to initiate environmental action is not solely based on instruction in environmental awareness (Hungerford & Volk, 1990). As researchers were working to understand the different variables affecting responsible environmental behavior, they discovered a variety of studies addressing the components of responsible environmental behavior had been performed in many other disciplines. In an attempt to combine all the research findings regarding environmentally responsible behavior, Hines, Hungerford, and Tomera (1987) collected data from 128 related studies performed across several disciplines within ten years and performed a meta-analysis. The intended purpose of the meta-analysis was to determine the most efficient predictors of

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15 responsible environmental behavior. The results were published as the Model of Responsible Environmental Behavior (Figure 2-2). Attitudes Locus of control Personal responsibility Action Skills Knowledge of action strategies Knowledge of issues Personality factors Intention to act Situational factors Responsible environmental behavior Figure 2-2. The Hines Model of Responsible Environmental Behavior Hines Model of Responsible Environmental Behavior was modified by Hungerford and Volk (1990). The new model, entitled the Model of Environmental Citizenship, presents an outline of predictors of environmental behavior (Figure 2-3). The predictors are divided by the authors into three categories – entry-level variables, ownership variables, and empowerment variables. Entry-level variables are considered prerequisites to an individual making an environmentally responsible decision. Ownership variables are the variables that make environmental problems personal. These variables are considered by Hungerford and Volk to be critical in developing environmental behavior.

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16 Empowerment variables allow an individual to feel they can make a change related to the environmental issue. These variables are presented in a complex linear fashion. Ownership variables Empowerment variables CitiZenshiP Behavior Major Variables In-depth knowledge about issues Personal investment in issues and the envi r onmentMajor Variables Knowledge of and skill in using environmental action strategies Locus of control (expectancy of reinforcement) Intention to act Entry-level variables Major Variables Environmental Sensitivity Minor Variables Knowledge of ecology Androgyny A ttitudes toward pollution, technology, and economics Minor Variables Knowledge of the consequences of behavior – both positive and negative A personal commitment to issue resolution Minor Variables In-depth knowledge about issues Figure 2-3. Model of Responsible Environmental Citizenship (Hungerford & Volk, 1990) Hungerford and Volk’s (1990) model of responsible environmental citizenship as described (Figure 2-3) identified environmental sensitivity as a first-level pre-requisite for individuals to make responsible decisions regarding the environment. (Kim, 2003, Chawla, 1998). Environmental sensitivity has been

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17 identified as a major stepping-stone in the linear sequence from entry to ownership to empowerment. An individual must be environmentally sensitive in order to progress through the model of responsible environmental citizenship set forth by Hungerford and Volk (1990). The theory of planned behavior also lends some support to the concept of environmental education (figure 2-4). An individual’s intention to act is a central factor of the theory of planned behavior. Intentions indicate how hard people will work to achieve something such as preventing or solving environmental problems. The theory of planned behavior suggests three determinants of intention – attitude toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Attitude toward the behavior is defined as how a person feels toward the behavior in question. Subjective norms refer to the perceived pressure from society to conform or not conform to the behavior. The degree of perceived behavioral control takes into account how easy or hard an individual believes the behavior will be to perform and the perceived resources, opportunities, and skills available. Perception is also affected by past experiences and knowledge of the subject. The amount of impact of attitude, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms can vary across populations and behaviors. In some situations, attitudes and perceived behavioral control may have a higher impact on intentions than subjective norms may. However, in other situations where the surrounding community is important to a person, subjective norms may influence a person’s intentions (Ajzen, n.d.).

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18 These perceptions of control are believed to be a critical aspect of the behavioral change process. Attitude toward the behavio r Subjective norm Perceived behavior control Intention Behavior Figure 2-4. Theory of Planned Behavior Model (Ajzen, n.d.) The theory of planned behavior implies behavioral achievement can be predicted by examining perceived behavior control combined with behavioral intention. For example, if an individual believes he or she has the action skills to change environmental problems and also has a strong desire or intention to affect the environmental issue, he or she is going to be more likely to persevere in impacting one or more aspects of the environmental issue (Ajzen, n.d.). Significant Life Experiences A study conducted by Palmberg and Kuru (2000) compared eleven and twelve year old children who had participated in a variety of environmental education programs. It was found that “strong and clearly defined empathetic relationship to nature,” i.e. environmental sensitivity, was displayed by students

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19 who were experienced in the outdoors more often than those who were not experienced in the outdoors. The results of this study indicate that children who are exposed more often to nature will have a higher level of environmental sensitivity. A study performed by Tanner in 1980 asked staff and officers of the National Wildlife Federation, The Nature Conservancy, the National Audubon Society, and the Sierra Club to identify the influences that encouraged them to choose a career dealing with conservation. Tanner also asked the individuals to indicate the length of time they were exposed to the experience that had an impact on their career choice and to submit a resume of accomplished conservation activities. Even though Tanner claimed a conservative analysis of the responses from the members of the organizations, the results still showed 78% of the individuals identified interactions within natural areas as an influence on their career choice. The individuals who identified natural areas as a major influence on their choices reported spending time in the outdoors with others or by themselves. The results of Tanner’s study would seem to support this researcher’s hypothesis regarding camping participants knowledge and environmental sensitivity levels increasing as a result of repeated participation in the residential camping experience due to the exposure to outdoor settings. Childhood experiences in the outdoors are suggested to be the "single most important factor in developing personal concern for the environment" (Palmer, 1993, p. 29) as described in studies by Tanner (1980) and Palmer (1993). Although Palmer’s 1993 study used the same methodology as Tanner’s

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20 1980 study, the sample size in Palmer’s study was much larger (n=232). All participants of Palmer’s study were members of the National Association of Environmental Education in the United Kingdom. Palmer asked the participants of her study to identify ways in which they showed their concern for the environment and experiences that led to the specific concern. They were also asked to specify the time at which they believed they developed a positive attitude toward the environment. In order to be sure that Palmer’s sample consisted of people who “know about and care for the environment in their adult lives” (Palmer, 1993, p. 27), the subjects were asked to select activities from a given list in which they regularly were engaged. This process allowed Palmer to confirm that of her sample, at least 90%, had knowledge about environmental problems and were environmentally responsible citizens. Ninety-one percent of respondents stated the outdoors had a major influence on the development of their concern for the environment. This category, the outdoors, included the subcategories childhood outdoors, outdoor activities, and wilderness/solitude. Respondents also attributed the development of their environmental concern to participation in organizations whose activities include a focus on the environment. Twenty-nine percent of participants in Palmer’s study believed the single most important influence on the development of their concern for the environment were activities in the outdoors during childhood. Palmer also concluded that detailed references to times spent outdoors "communing with nature" during childhood were made by study participants in all age groups, i.e.

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21 the mention of “communing with nature” was not specific to an age group (Palmer, 1993, p. 30). Negative problems were also found to be influential in Palmer’s 1993 study. Many participants identified negative environmental problems referenced to by the media as influences on their development of environmental concern. These negative problems covered by the media included “coverage of disasters and experiences of pollution and ill health” (Palmer, 1993, p. 30). In another study, Peterson (1982) asked environmental educators to identify factors or experiences they attributed to be a major influence on their environmental attitude. In this study, the participants were also asked about their perceived level of environmental sensitivity. A majority of the influences identified by participants in the studies by Tanner (1980) and by Peterson (1982) are related to each other. These influences included "the outdoors, family, study of natural systems, books, habitat alteration, and love for an area in which [the subject] was raised" (Chawla, 1998, p. 13). Sward expanded Peterson’s study by translating Peterson's questions into Spanish (1996). The questions were used to interview El Salvadorian environmental professionals by Sward (1996). The results of this questionnaire showed these professionals were influenced by time spent in a natural or rural setting. This study also reported the most cited influence was time spent outdoors interacting with family and friends during participants' youth. Witnessing environmental destruction was listed as the second most common influence. The results of Sward’s study of environmental professionals in El Salvador were

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22 closely related to the results shown in Tanner’s 1979-1980 study and Peterson’s 1981-1982 study. Many studies have shown that time spent in the outdoors has a positive effect on many aspects of children’s lives (Peterson, 1982; Tanner, 1980; Palmberg & Kuru, 2000; Palmer, 1993; Bixler, Floyd, & Hammitt, 2002). Bixler, Floyd, and Hammitt (2002) completed two studies in which middle and high school students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the “frequency of childhood play in different environments, environmental preference, recreation activity preference, fears concerning a wildland trip, and desires for modern comfort” (p. 800). The results of both studies indicated a relationship does exist between childhood play experiences and preferences later in life for activities in wildland environments. The results showed that interest in wildlands, environmental preferences, outdoor recreation activities and occupations in outdoor environments as an adult may be formed and shaped by memorable childhood play in wild environments. During childhood, frequency of play in wildland areas is reported to have a significant effect on environmental preferences, activities, and competencies (Bixler, Floyd, & Hammitt, 2002). Florida 4-H Residential Camping A study by Shepard and Speelman (1986) examined the effect of participation in several different types of outdoor education programs. These programs ranged in length from three to five days. The participants of this study were nineto fourteen-year-old children who were attending Ohio 4-H residential summer camp programs. The study participants were divided into two groups

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23 identified as those campers who were involved in the outdoor education program at each camp and those who were not. After examining the results, the researchers suggest "program length does appear to have an effect on developing positive environmental attitudes (p. 22)." The results indicate five-day residential camping programs have a positive impact on the environmental attitudes of the participants. It was also determined that individuals from urban areas may benefit from an initial acclimation period within the wild area. The authors of this research suggest further studies be performed to determine “the relationship between previous camp experience and attitude change” (Shepard & Speelman, 1986, p. 22). Six different residential programs were examined in a study by Dettmann-Easler and Pease (1999) to determine to what extent the programs fostered positive attitudes toward wildlife. In this study, the six residential programs, ranging in length from one to four nights, had three identical components: “students take part in a program with their class, classes spend at least one night at the facility, and environmental education programming takes place” (Dettmann-Easler & Pease, 1999, p. 34). Although these criteria exclude traditional summer camp programs, the results of the study still have implications for environmental education programs that may occur within a residential summer camp. The study focused on fifthand sixth-graders in Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Three weeks before attending the program, the participants completed a pre-test questionnaire. A post-test questionnaire was completed

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24 within one week after the conclusion of their experience. Ten percent of the children who participated in the program were also interviewed directly by the researchers. The preand post-test questionnaires were completed by a control group consisting of students who did not attend the residential program. In lieu of attending the residential program, the control group received an environmental education program in their traditional school classroom (Dettmann-Easler & Pease, 1999). Results indicated individuals who were involved in the residential outdoor education program had positive attitudes toward wildlife that were significantly higher than those involved only with in-class school activities. These attitude changes toward wildlife were also retained for a longer period of time (at least 2-3 months) for those completing a residential outdoor education program compared to the participants of the in-class activities (Dettmann-Easler & Pease, 1999). The 4-H Organization National 4-H began in the early 1900’s with an emphasis on young people. The 4-H program originally sought to improve the agricultural education programs across the nation by providing a hands-on approach to learning. Cooperating with the local school superintendents, 4-H began to sponsor and promote various learning activities and competitions such as plant identification and soil tests. In 1902, the first club was formed. By 1904, demonstrations were being given by young boys and girls to show what they were learning as part of their experiences in the organization. County Extension agents and parents

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25 noticed that these young people were learning, modeling, and teaching new scientific concepts through participation in 4-H. By 1909, young boys in Florida were participating in corn clubs and young girls in tomato clubs. These activities were provided by the surrounding communities and the state’s land-grant institutions. Leadership for Florida’s organization was found at three major academic institutions, the University of Florida, Florida State University (formerly the Florida State College for Women), and Florida A&M University. The local 4-H clubs usually met in their school buildings. Out-of-school events and activities also were held. Many youth took part in county and regional fairs by showing their projects or competing for awards. Across the nation, organized youth participated in 4-H camping programs as early as the 1920s. Organized Florida 4-H camping experiences began with the establishment of Camp Timpoochee in northwest Florida in 1926. Youth ages 5-18 were invited to participate in the 4-H youth programs. School clubs, community clubs, special interest groups, after school programs, camps and individual projects are some of the ways youth may become involved in the 4-H organization today. Florida 4-H Residential Camping Program According to Florida’s State Major Program website for environmental education, the major goal of any environmental education program developed by the Extension Service is focused “on the need to improve environmental literacy of Florida’s youth with science/research-based information” (University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, 2002). One of the major objectives of the

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26 Environmental Education State Major Program is to increase the awareness of environmental issues, problems, and changes that continuously occur within the state of Florida and the world (University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, 2002). As part of the extension program, the Florida 4-H residential camping program seeks to increase participants’ knowledge and skill levels and change attitudes and beliefs about the environment. The Florida 4-H residential camping program can and does have an impact on the participating campers and their families and friends. One of the impacts the program strives to have is an increase in ecological knowledge and action skills used to prevent or act upon environmental issues and problems. According to Rossi, Freeman, and Lipsey (1999), a logic model can be used to show the possible sequence of events and components used in the program. An illustration of some of the possible effects of the Florida 4-H residential camping program can be described by identifying three things: program outcomes, the processes in which campers may take part, and the organizational structure of the program (figure 2-5). When campers participate in a Florida 4-H residential camping program for a week of Ed-venture, Senior, or Marine Camp, they come away with more knowledge, interest, and sensitivity about the environment. The campers learn about the environment and action skills they may use in the future while being immersed in the natural environment. Campers are encouraged to use the knowledge and action skills they have gained to help maintain and improve the environment and prevent future environmental problems.

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27 Campers participate in camp program Campers learn action skills to protect the environment Reduce environmental problems/Raise environmental awareness Campers maintain environmentally friendly behavior Campers increase ecological knowledge Increases interest in environment (Sensitivity) Campers use knowledge to act on environmental problems Campers talk to and influence family/friends Adults gain knowledge of action skills Campers consciously decide to act with knowledge Other children attend camp Other children adopt environmentally sensitive beliefs/attitudes/behavio r Adults use knowledge to act on environmental problems Differential selection Confounding factors Campers develop and mature into environmentally sensitive adults Figure 2-5. Impact Model for the Florida 4-H Residential Camping Program The selection of campers who participate in the residential camping program is not random. The campers either opt to attend camp themselves or are encouraged to attend camp by their parents. This is a form of differential selection, i.e. campers do not always choose on their own to participate in camp. County 4-H agents distribute information to their 4-H’ers about the camping experience. Many factors may be included in a child or parent’s decision to attend camp. Some potential campers may not be able to attend camp due to prior commitments during the scheduled camp session. Other potential campers may not attend because they do not think they will fit in with the others who attend or they do not like the topics being addressed in camp. Some may choose

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28 not to attend due to fear. Despite the availability of scholarships to attend camp, some families may not be able to afford the cost of sending their child to camp. Several other confounding factors are addressed in this study by several survey questions. These factors include role model influences, other environmental education experiences, other camping experiences, and media influences. These influences may affect what participants learn and experience at camp. For example, if a role model has encouraged a child to learn the techniques of fishing, that child may be more apt to participate in the fishing activities rather than archery. Another example would be if a child has had a bad experience with residential camping, he/she might not be as willing to participate in activities as others who have had a wonderful experience at a residential camp. In both of these situations, the children will come away from the camping experience with different knowledge levels, attitudes, and/or beliefs regarding the environment. The experience will shape their future environmental sensitivity, behavior, and attitude. The process model (figure 2-6) is composed of two different parts – the organizational plan and the service utilization plan. The organizational plan describes how the Florida 4-H residential camping program attempts to meet the goals and objectives set forth. In this model, the administrators of the camp, the state personnel, and 4-H agents work together to plan, design, and implement the camp program. These groups of people plan activities and the curriculum to be implemented during the camping experience. They also work to recruit possible participants. Once planned, the camp programs are carried out

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29 according to the plan set forth by the administrators, state personnel, and the 4-H agents. After the camping experience, the administrators of t he camp, county 4-H agents, families of the campers, and t he campers themselves evaluate their experience at camp. This evaluation allo ws the planners of the camps to adapt and change the program in order to be more effective in achieving the goals and objectives set forth originally by the creators of t he camping program. The service utilization plan shows how par ticipants interact with the actual program. All potential cam pers receive information about possible camping experiences. The families, campers, and agents determine whether the children are going to attend camp. While taking par t in the camping program, the campers receive information about the environment as they are immersed within the environment itself. As the camping particip ants complete a week or more of the camping program, they will influence the beliefs, attitudes, and actions of those around them They may also encourage other children to attend camp and to learn and care about the environment. The Florida residential camping program s typically involve 3,800 children in any given year (Florida 4-H Youth Development Program, 2002). There are four Florida 4-H Environmental Education C enters in operation today. Three of the four centers were used in this study – Camp Timpoochee, Camp Ocala, and Camp Cloverleaf. State 4-H staff hired and trained to facilitate classes at the camps conduct most of the educational activi ties. County faculty, state staff, and volunteer leaders also provi de educational programming.

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30 Ev aluate program Adapt and change program Agents/Families/Campers evaluate program Plan ties/program activi Recr uit campers Ex ecute camp program Campers receive information and participate in activities Campers use information received at the program/seeks additional information Agent/Family/ Camper does not receive information about pro g ram Campers exit camp program Camper participation in camp program Agents/Families/ Campers receive information about p ro g ram Agent/Family/ Camper does not evaluate program Camper does not use information received Camper does not attend Agent/Family/ Camper does not report evaluation Provin ide additional formation Organizational Plan Service Utilization Plan Resources/ Administration of camp program County 4-H Agents State personnel Figure 2-6. Process Model for Florida 4-H Residential Camping Program.

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31 Camp Timpoochee District agent J. Lee Smith and James Pace, a friend and financier, worked together to establish the first Florida 4-H residential camping facility, Camp Timpoochee in 1926. It was located at Stake Point on the Choctawhatchee Bay in northwest Florida. This center is one of the nation’s first 4-H residential camps. Today, Camp Timpoochee is known for its location on the bay and its equestrian and the marine education programs. Camp Timpoochee holds two sessions of 4-H marine ecology camp in which campers have the opportunity to spend time fishing, snorkeling, and other marine related activities. Camp Ocala Camp Ocala is located on Sellers Lake in the Ocala National Forest. The facilities include modern cabins for sleeping, a dining hall, and meeting facilities. The facilities are open to the public and are used by a variety of groups including schools, churches, businesses, families, and athletic groups (University of Florida 4-H summer camp 2003, Open enrollment camps, 2003). Camp Ocala offers environmental education programs to a variety of groups and organizations, as mentioned above. The center allows for interaction with nature in an informal setting. There is curriculum available or an organization can design its own experience. Programs such as soil and water conservation, forest and wildlife ecology, and other environmental topics may also be offered at Camp Ocala (Ocala 4-H Center, 2003). Campers at Camp Ocala are presented with the opportunity to participate in nature hikes through the forest, nature-based activities, swimming, and canoeing among other environmental activities.

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32 Camp Cloverleaf Camp Cloverleaf is located on Lake Francis in central Florida. The camp land includes a hiking trail with boardwalks through a 25-acre wetland area (University of Florida 4-H summer camp 2003, Open enrollment camps, 2003). While participating in camp activities at Camp Cloverleaf, campers are exposed to the natural environment. Campers are encouraged to participate in swimming, canoeing, and other nature-based activities while at camp. These camps provide the setting for the current study which will expand what we know regarding environmental sensitivity, the influences of environmental sensitivity, and the impact the Florida 4-H residential camping program has on its participants’ levels of environmental sensitivity.

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Florida 4-H residential camping experience is effective in developing the environmental sensitivity of participants ages 12-18. In this study, the researcher measured environmental sensitivity levels in terms of the influence of role model(s), outdoor experiences, environmental issues, personality of the participant, media influences on the child’s perceptions, perceived influences on environmental sensitivity, and other related experiences of the participant. The researcher also assessed the effect of the Florida 4-H residential camping experience on the participants’ level of knowledge of ecological concepts. Specifically the objectives of this study were as follows: Determine the extent to which the level of environmental sensitivity is influenced by repeated participation in the Florida 4-H residential camping program. Determine the extent to which the self-reported level of environmental sensitivity of Florida 4-H camping program participants is correlated to the influences reported to be responsible for developing environmental sensitivity. Determine the extent to which the level of knowledge of ecological concepts is influenced by repeated participation in the Florida 4-H residential camping program. Research Design The study design used in this research was a modified cross-sectional design. According to deVaus (2001), three distinctive features define a cross33

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34 sectional design. The first is that a cross-sectional designs rely on existing differences between groups, not on change as a result of an intervention. The second and third distinctive features are participants in a cross-sectional design are not randomly assigned to the study groups and the groups established are based on existing differences. In this case, the participant groups were established based on the number of times the participant attended a five-day session of the Florida 4-H residential camping program (deVaus, 2001). The design used in this study is a modified cross-sectional because a typical cross-sectional research design takes a “one-shot picture” of the sample being assessed in the study. This study has defined a “one-shot picture” as the time span of five days in which the study participants are experiencing the Florida 4-H residential camping program. The researcher collects two sets of data in reality, but only treats the data as one set – the modified “one-shot picture.” Sample This study sought to determine the effects of the Florida 4-H residential camping experience on the level of environmental sensitivity of its’ participants. Campers age 12-18 were asked to voluntarily participate in this study. Participants in the study group were those individuals who participated in a Florida 4-H residential camp during the summer of 2003. All study participants must have previously attended or must currently be attending a minimum of one (1) five-day session of Florida 4-H residential camp. The study participants were divided into three groups. The first group consisted of participants who had never attended a five-day Florida 4-H residential camp program. The second group of participants consisted of campers who had attended one previous session of a

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35 five-day Florida 4-H residential camp. The third group consisted of campers who had attended a five-day session of Florida 4-H residential camping program two or more times in the past. All study participants were campers participating in the Florida 4-H residential camping program and, therefore, were samples of convenience. Individuals were asked to participate on a voluntary basis. Only participants ranging in age from 12-18 were considered in this study. Seven sessions of camp were chosen to participate in completing this research study. Two weeks of State 4-H Marine Camp were held at Camp Timpoochee. This program included snorkeling, marine exploration, fishing, canoeing, and swimming. Data collection at Camp Ocala consisted of two weeks of Environmental Ed-Venture camp. Campers experienced field trips to local springs and participated in on-site nature hikes, campfires, arts and crafts, canoeing, and swimming among other activities. Shooting Sports and Sport Fishing were the topics of a third week at Camp Ocala. During this session, campers participated in the use of shooting equipment and fishing. There were also activities in natural resources and hunting. A week of Environmental Ed-Venture camp and a week of Senior camp, which had similar programming, were held at Camp Cloverleaf. A total of 125 surveys out of a possible 478 were gathered from the three camp sites. The control group, the first-time Florida 4-H residential campers, consisted of 58 participants. The repeated camper group, made up of campers who had attended a five-day Florida 4-H residential camp previously, consisted of 58 campers. Nine of the completed surveys did not indicate whether they had

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36 attended a Florida 4-H residential camp in the past. These nine surveys were not included in the data analysis. Survey Instruments Two surveys were used to gather data from the study participants. The first survey, the pre-test, was composed of portions of two surveys used in previous environmental education studies (Appendix A). Each survey was adapted with permission for use in this study. The first portion of the pre-test included an adaptation of the Survey of Environmentally Concerned Students developed originally by Sivek in 2002 to “assess the various influences on environmental sensitivity in Wisconsin high school students” (Sivek, 2003, pg 155). The instrument allowed the researcher to gather information including demographic information as well as information regarding the child’s role model(s), outdoor experiences, environmental issues, personality of the child, media influences on the child’s perceptions, perceived influences on environmental sensitivity, and other related experiences of the participant. The adapted version of the Survey of Environmentally Concerned Students was tested for validity by a panel of three nationally recognized environmental educators and two university professors with concentrations in the area of youth development. A reading specialist also assessed the reading level of the survey to be appropriate for the age group being assessed in the current study. Revisions were made to the survey according to recommendations from the panel. The second component included in the pre-test was the Ecological portion of the Middle School Environmental Literacy Instrument (8th edition, 1996). This portion of the survey was used to assess the participants’ ecological knowledge.

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37 The Middle School Environmental Literacy Instrument (MSELI) was tested for validity by a panel of 19 environmental educators. Reliability of this section was measured by using test-retest scores (r = 0.88). The Flesch-Kincaid Reading Scale was used to measure the readability of the instrument. The reading level was measured to be corresponding to the 6th 7th grade level (Bluhm et al., 1995). The post-test used in this study consisted of only the Ecological Foundations portion of the Middle School Environmental Literacy Instrument (8th edition, 1996) and a question identical to the one asked in the pretest (Survey of Environmentally Concerned Students), asking participants to self-evaluate their level of environmental sensitivity. Components of the Survey Instruments The adapted version of the Survey of Environmentally Concerned Students (Appendix A) used in this study consisted of several portions, each addressing a group of purported influences on environmental sensitivity. The first section (Items 1-7), “Background About Yourself”, asked for demographic information. The format for this set of questions was multiple choice, checklist, and fill in the blank. The questions asked participants to report their age, gender, size of community, and level of involvement in environmentally-based activities, such as biology classes and environmental clubs. The participants were also asked to respond to questions about past participation in any residential camps such as a sports camp, adventure camp, Boy Scout/Girl Scout camp, and the activities in which they may have participated while at camp such as canoeing, hiking, swimming, sports, fishing, and others (Items 5-6). Participation could have been

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38 in another 4-H residential camp or a non-4-H residential camp. The responses to this set of questions allowed the researcher to compare the results of this study to previous studies or comparative groups of people. The second section presented the participants with a definition of environmental sensitivity. The participants were asked to rate themselves in terms of their own level of environmental sensitivity (Item 8). This question was recorded on a five point Likert-type scale. The validity of assessing a person’s level of environmental sensitivity in this way was established as a result of Peterson’s 1982 study in which this question was used to differentiate between the environmental sensitivity levels of preservice elementary school teachers and environmental education professionals (Sivek, 2002). The next five sections of the pre-test survey attempted to measure the various perceived influences on the participants’ level of environmental sensitivity. Each of these questions were recorded on a five point Likert-type scale. The first set of questions in this section was used to assess the participants’ perception of the level of influence in general terms (Items 9-15). These general topics were then expanded upon in subsequent sections to explore each area more specifically in depth. The second section assessed the influence of humans on the participants’ perception of their level of environmental sensitivity (Items 16-25). The influence of outdoor experiences such as camping, easy access to natural areas, and various activities were measured in the third section (Items 26-32). Within the fourth section, participants were asked to asses the influence of their own personalities and the personalities of the people

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39 surrounding them (Items 33-35). The last section of questions assessed the influence of various types of media such as television, school textbooks, and outdoor magazines (Items 36-41). The ecological portion of the Middle School Environmental Literacy Instrument 8th Edition (1996) (appendix B) consisted of 17 multiple choice questions used to address participants’ knowledge of ecological concepts (1996). Each correct answer in this section was given one point, with the possible scores ranging from 0 to 17. The scores were analyzed to determine the influence of participation in the Florida 4-H residential camping program on participants’ level of knowledge of ecological concepts. Data Collection All potential participants and their parents/guardians were contacted through camp informational packets mailed to the campers several weeks before camp began and/or during camp registration at the beginning of the camp session. Due to the ages of the potential participants (12-18), parents/guardians received an informational letter describing the study and requesting permission for their child to participate in the study as part of the registration for camp. As required by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Florida, a signed letter of permission must have been returned in order for the children to participate in the study. Campers who participated in the study were asked to complete a survey before (Survey of Environmentally Concerned Students) and after (Ecological Foundations Survey) completing the five-day camping experience. These surveys were completed during the registration time at the beginning of the week and during pick-up time at the end of the week at the

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40 camp. The surveys were administered in cafeteria-style rooms. The participants were asked to sit at a table by themselves to complete the surveys. They were encouraged to ask the researcher questions for clarification purposes. The pre-survey took approximately 30 minutes to complete and the post-survey about 15 minutes to complete. Data Analysis The data were entered into a database and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows Release 10.0 (SPSS, 2002). Frequencies were run for the analysis of the demographic section of the Environmentally Concerned Students survey. In addition, Mann-Whitney U tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and correlation tests were run to assist the researcher in answering the research questions and hypotheses that guided this research. The Mann-Whitney test is run to test if two independent samples represent two populations with different median values. The Kruskal-Wallis test is an extension of the Mann-Whitney test in that is tests that at least two of the samples represent populations with different median values. The effects of the variety of influences reported in other studies to be influential in the development of environmental sensitivity were assessed by running multiple regression tests. The assumptions of regression were considered when analyzing the data from this study. These assumptions included the assumptions of multi-collinearity between independent variables, the distribution of scores of the dependent variable, and the case to variable ratio. A correlation matrix suggested that multi-collinearity was not an issue (r=0.456,

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41 p<0.01). A case to variable ratio of 17:1 was yielded by including seven variables assessed by 121 respondents. The analysis regressed the variables that were reported to be influential in the development of environmental sensitivity by previous studies. Stepwise multiple regression was used for this analysis to find the best fit model that included the variables under study. The variables were entered into the model simultaneously. The computer program used for analysis (SPSS, 2002) selected and rejected variables based on each variable’s contribution to the model.

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Included in this chapter are the results of the current research study. Demographics are presented first, followed by a more specific description of the data collected addressing the research questions and hypotheses. Demographics Demographic information was collected from the participants of the study (Table 4-1). Although one hundred twenty-five completed surveys were collected, the n size of the analyses may vary due to participants’ choosing not to answer a particular question. Included in the sample were 61 males (48.8%) and 64 females (51.2%). Age of the campers ranged from 11 years old through 18 years old, with a mean age of 13. Nine of the participants reported living in a rural area or a farm; forty-one participants in a small town with a population of 10,000 or less; 37 participants lived in a big town with a population of 10,001 to 50,000; and 32 participants lived in a city or metropolitan area including suburbs (Table 4-1). Six participants did not to respond to this question. Table 4-1. Demographic Characteristics of Study Participants n f % Age 125 13.38 Gender 125 Male 61 48.8 Female 64 51.2 Area of Residence 119 Rural/Farm 9 7.6 < 10,000 41 34.5 10,001 < x < 50,000 37 31.1 City/Metropolitan area 32 26.9 42

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43 Participation in Environmental Activities Study participants identified the types of environmental activities in which they had participated in the past or were currently participating in (Table 4-2). Fifty-four percent of study participants reported being involved in mandatory environmental activities through their school including activities such as biology/environmental education classes. Fifty-eight percent were involved in voluntary environmental activities through the surrounding community or in school. Table 4-2. Survey Participants’ Environmental Activities n f % Activities within school 125 67 53.6 Activities within the community/school 125 72 57.6 Attendance at Residential Camps Fifty-eight participants (50%) were attending the Florida 4-H residential camping program for the first time (Table 4-3). Twenty-six campers (22%) had attended a Florida 4-H residential camp for one period of five days previously and 32 campers (28%) had attended two or more sessions of a Florida 4-H five day residential camp. Nine of the participants did not indicate whether they had attended camp previously. Sixty participants (42%) reported attending another type of five day residential camping program in the past. Fifty-five participants (48%) had never previously attended any non-4-H camp previously. Ten participants did not indicate whether or not they had previously attended any other type of residential camping program (Table 4-3).

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44 Table 4-3. Participation in Residential Camping Programs n f % Participation in 4-H camp 116 First time campers 58 50.0 Attended one time previously 26 22.4 Attended 2 or more times previously 32 27.6 Participated in other types of residential camps 115 Yes 60 42.2 No 55 47.8 Data Analysis of Research Questions The data collected were ordinal and not normally distributed, and therefore, the requirements for performing parametric analyses were not met. As a result, non-parametric analyses were completed on the collected data. Research Question 1. To what extent is the level of environmental sensitivity influenced by repeated participation in the Florida 4-H residential camping program? Hypothesis 1. Those who have participated in the Florida 4-H residential camping program will have a greater level of environmental sensitivity than those who have not previously participated in the Florida 4-H residential camping program. Hypothesis 2. Those who have participated in the Florida 4-H residential camping program n a repeated basis will have a higher level of environmental sensitivity. Participants were presented with a definition of environmental sensitivity in part one of the pre-camp survey and as part two of the post-camp survey. Respondents were then asked to evaluate their own level of environmental sensitivity on a five point Likert scale with the following options: “Very Low”,

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45 “Low”, “Moderate”, “High”, and “Very High.” In summary, the mean environmental sensitivity level of pre-camp respondents was 3.34 (SD=0.95). Forty-six percent of pre-camp respondents (n=118) self-reported an environmental sensitivity level of moderate. Thirty-one percent of pre-camp respondents self-reported an environmental sensitivity level of high (Table 4-4). Ten percent of respondents believed they had an environmental sensitivity level of very high. Table 4-4. Pre-Camp Environmental Sensitivity Levels of Participants n % Very Low 6 5.1 Low 9 7.6 Moderate 54 45.8 High 37 31.4 Very High 12 10.2 n=118 =3.34 Respondents who completed the post-camp survey (n=76) recorded a mean environmental sensitivity level of 3.47 (SD=0.95). Fifty-three percent of respondents felt they had a moderate level of environmental sensitivity. Over 25% of participants felt they had a high level of environmental sensitivity after participating in the Florida 4-H residential camping program (Table 4-5). Almost 16% of participants believed they had a very high level of environmental sensitivity after participating in the Florida 4-H residential camping program. Table 4-5. Post-Camp Environmental Sensitivity Levels of Participants N % Very Low 4 5.3 Low 0 0 Moderate 40 52.6 High 20 26.3 Very High 12 15.8 n=76 =3.47

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46 This research question was analyzed using two methods. The first method of analysis was performed only on the pre-camp survey response of participants rating their own level of environmental sensitivity. Three groups were established based on the number of times the participants had attended camp (table 4-6). All participants who completed the pre-camp survey were included in this analysis. Table 4-6. Percentage of Repeat Attendance Among Respondents and Mean Environmental Sensitivity (Pre-camp Data Only) n % First time campers (Group 0) 55 50.46 3.25 Attended camp one time previously (Group 1) 25 22.94 3.00 Attended camp two or more times previously (Group2) 29 26.61 3.72 Note: n=109 Fifty percent of study participants who completed the pre-camp survey were attending a Florida 4-H residential camping program for the first time (Group 0). Twenty-three percent of study participants who completed the pre-camp survey had attended a Florida 4-H residential camp one time previously (Group 1). Almost 27% of respondents had attended two or more sessions of Florida 4-H residential camp (Group 2). Three or more groups were being compared. Therefore, the Kruskal Wallis test was used to analyze this data in determining if the groups differed in any way. The results are shown in table 4-7. Table 4-7. Pre-camp Environmental Sensitivity Level Differences Between Groups n p-value Groups 0 & 1 80 0.84 Groups 1 & 2 54 0.06 Groups 0 & 2 84 0.03 Groups 0, 1, & 2 109 0.06 p<0.05

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47 A statistically significant difference was found between first time campers and campers who had attended two or more times previously. No difference was found between first time campers and campers who attended one time previously. However, campers who had attended camp one time previously scored lower than those who attended camp two or more times previously. The environmental sensitivity level of each group was analyzed and the results are displayed in table 4-8. The environmental sensitivity level did not change significantly from pre-camp assessment to post-camp assessment for any group of respondents. Table 4-8. Environmental Sensitivity Level of Groups (Pre-camp with matched Post-camp Survey) n SD Group 0 29 Pre-camp 3.45 0.83 Post-camp 3.41 0.83 Group 1 16 Pre-camp 3.38 0.96 Post-camp 3.63 1.09 Group 2 21 Pre-camp 3.76 0.83 Post-camp 3.62 1.02 Range = 1-5 The second method compared the participants’ pre-camp and post-camp survey responses to the question that asked them to rate their own level of environmental sensitivity and the number of years they have participated in the Florida 4-H residential camping program (table 4-9). Only those participants who completed both the pre-camp survey and the post-camp survey were included in this analysis.

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48 Table 4-9. Number of Times Respondents Attended Camp Previously (Pre-camp and Post-camp Data) n % First time campers (Group 0) 29 43.94 Attended camp one time previously (Group 1) 16 24.24 Attended camp two or more times previously (Group 2) 21 31.82 Note: n=66 Forty-four percent of these participants were attending the Florida 4-H residential camp for the first time (Group 0). Group 1, 25% of participants, consisted of those campers who had attended a Florida 4-H residential camping program one time previously. Thirty-two percent of these participants had attended two or more times in the past (Group 2). The environmental sensitivity differences were analyzed between each group. The Mann-Whitney independent sample test was performed to determine if the groups differed in any way (table 4-10). The results did not yield any statistical significant differences between the three groups. Table 4-10. Environmental Sensitivity Level Differences Between Groups Based On Attendance At Florida 4-H Residential Camping Program (Post-camp Data) n p-value Groups 0 & 1 45 0.18 Groups 1 & 2 37 0.16 Groups 0 & 2 50 0.64 Groups 0, 1, & 2 66 0.28 p< 0.05 Research Question 2. To what extent is the self-reported level of environmental sensitivity of Florida 4-H residential camping program participants correlated to the influences reported to be responsible for developing environmental sensitivity?

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49 Hypothesis 3. The correlation between the self-reported level of environmental sensitivity of Florida 4-H residential camping program participants will be positively correlated to the influences reported to be responsible for developing environmental sensitivity. In part two of the pre-camp survey, respondents were asked to rate various general influences on their environmental sensitivity using a 7-point Likert-type scale. The categories included the following: “Not at all”, “Slightly Important”, “Fairly Important”, “Very Important”, “Extremely Important”, “Don’t Know”, and “Did Not Experience”. Surveys in which the participant marked “Don’t Know” or “ Did Not Experience” were excluded from this analysis. The first section within part two of the pre-camp survey included general questions that were examined in more detail in later sections of the pre-camp survey. The results of this set of questions are recorded in table 4-11. Table 4-11. General Influences on Participants Level of Environmental Sensitivity. n SD Influence of: Overnight Camping 107 3.08 1.14 Media 116 3.20 1.25 Personality 89 3.54 1.20 Working with Animals 112 3.60 1.23 Negative Experiences 91 2.89 1.30 Time Spent Outdoors 107 3.57 1.19 Role Models 106 3.43 1.37 Min/Max = 1/5 A Spearman’s rho correlation analysis was run to compare the following variables: experience with camping; the influence of media; the influence of personality; experience with animals; negative experiences with the environment;

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50 the amount of time spent outdoors; the influence of role models; and participant’s level of environmental sensitivity. The results are shown in table 4-12. Table 4-12. Correlations between Variables with Influences on Environmental Sensitivity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1. Experience with Camp 1.000 2. Media Influence .220* 1.000 3. Influence of Personality .152 .456** 1.000 4. Experience with Animals .239* .166 .176 1.000 5. Influence of Negative Experiences .353** .246* .099 .408** 1.000 6. Influence of Time Spent Outdoors .327** .216* -.024 .276** .336** 1.000 7. Influence of Role Models .207* .234* .486** .124 .076 -.006 1.000 8. Environmental Sensitivity Level (pre-camp) .299** .295** .138 .250* .237* .437** .017 1.000 * p<0.05 ** p<0.01 Environmental sensitivity appears to be associated with five out of the seven variables tested. These six variables included: experience with camp, media influence, experience with wild animals, the influence of negative experiences, and the influence of time spent outdoors. The influence of media appears to have relationships with multiple other influences. Data showed media had significant correlations ranging from 0.216 to 0.456, with six out of the seven variables tested. These six variables included experience with camp (r=0.220, p<0.05), personality (r=0.456, p<0.01), negative

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51 experiences (r=0.246, p<0.05), time spent outdoors (r=0.216, p<0.05), role models (r=0.234, p<0.01), and pre-camp environmental sensitivity level (r=0.295, p<0.01). One could infer that the media has somewhat of an impact on the reported perceived influences on environmental sensitivity (i.e. experience with camp, personality, experience with animals, negative experiences, time spent outdoors, and role models). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the effects of the variety of influences reported in other studies to be influential in the development of environmental sensitivity. These variables included the influence of overnight camping, media, personality, working with or having wild animals as pets, negative experiences with the environment, time spent outdoors, role models and number of times respondents attended camp. Stepwise multiple regression analysis regressed the variables that were reported to be influential in the development of environmental sensitivity by previous studies. The variables were entered into the model simultaneously. The computer program used for analysis (SPSS, 2002) selected and rejected variables based on each variable’s contribution to the model. Table 4-13 presents the best fit model for the total sample. Media influence (R2=0.183) and the influence of time spent outdoors (R2=0.090) together explain 27% (R2 =0.273) of the variance in the differences in environmental sensitivity scores.

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52 Table 4-13. Regression of Environmental Sensitivity Influence: Total Sample (n = 121) Independent Variables Beta t p Step 1 Media Influence on Environmental Sensitivity 0.272 5.02 0.001 (Constant) 2.539 14.32 0.001 Step 2 Media Influence on Environmental Sensitivity 0.203 3.71 0.001 Influence of Time Spent Outdoors 0.188 3.70 0.001 (Constant) 2.146 10.81 0.001 Step 1: R = 0.183; F = 25.169; p < 0.001 Step 2: R = 0.273; F = 20.869; p < 0.001 The result of this series of tests indicates that media and time spent outdoors are very important in the development of environmental sensitivity. If a person spends a lot of time outdoors and has a positive exposure to the environment through the media, he or she will most likely feel they have a high level of environmental sensitivity. Conversely, if a person is not exposed to the outdoors very frequently and/or has a negative exposure to the environment through the media, he or she will probably have a low level of environmental sensitivity. This best fit regression model indicates that these two elements (time spent outdoors and the influence of media) have a strong influence on a person’s perceived level of environmental sensitivity. These elements should be included when planning any type of environmental education program in which children are involved, especially if increasing participants’ level of environmental sensitivity is a goal of the program. Research Question 3. To what extent is the level of knowledge of ecological concepts influenced by repeated participation in the Florida 4-H residential camping program?

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53 Hypothesis 4. The participants of the Florida 4-H residential camping program will have a greater knowledge of ecological concepts than those who have not previously participated in the Florida 4-H residential camping program. This research question was analyzed by comparing the participants’ pre-camp and post-camp survey responses to the ecological knowledge portion of the pre-camp and post-camp surveys and the number of years they have participated in the Florida 4-H residential camping program. Only those participants who completed both the pre-camp survey and the post-camp survey were included in this analysis. Table 4-14. Number of Times Respondents Attended Camp Previously (Pre-camp and Post-camp Data) n % First time campers 30 41.66 Attended camp one time previously 15 20.83 Attended camp two or more times previously 27 37.50 n=72 =3.50 Forty-two percent of these participants, group 0, were attending the Florida 4-H residential camp for the first time (table 4-14). Twenty-one percent of study participants had attended a Florida 4-H residential camping program one time previously (Group 1). Thirty-eight percent of these participants had attended two or more times in the past (Group 2). Three or more groups were being compared. Therefore, the Kruskal Wallis test was used to analyze this data in determining if the groups differed in any way. The results are shown in table 4-15.

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54 Table 4-15. Pre-camp Ecological Knowledge Level Differences Between Groups n p-value Groups 0 & 1 80 0.44 Groups 1 & 2 55 0.64 Groups 0 & 2 87 0.12 Groups 0, 1, & 2 111 0.30 p<0.05 The ecological knowledge level of each group was analyzed and the results are displayed in table 4-16. Table 4-16. Ecological Knowledge Level of Groups (Pre-camp with matched Post-camp Survey) n SD First time campers (Group 0) 30 Pre-camp 11.67 3.34 Post-camp 10.81 4.10 Attended camp one time previously (Group 1) 15 Pre-camp 12.20 3.12 Post-camp 13.25 2.89 Attended camp two or more times previously (Group 2) 27 Pre-camp 11.00 3.56 Post-camp 11.07 3.67 Range = 1-17 The ecological knowledge differences were then analyzed between each group. The Mann-Whitney test was performed to determine if the groups differed in any way (table 4-17). Table 4-17. Ecological Knowledge Differences Between Groups Based on Attendance At Florida 4-H Residential Camping Program (Pre-Camp and Post-Camp Data) n size p-value Groups 0 & 1 45 0.23 Groups 1 & 2 42 0.69 Groups 0 & 2 57 0.14 Groups 0, 1, & 2 66 0.28 p<0.05

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55 From the results of this test, it appears there are no significant differences between any groups in relation to ecological knowledge gained relative to repeat attendance. Human Influences on Environmental Sensitivity In this section of the pre-camp survey, participants were asked to rate the importance of human influences such as parents, stepparents, relatives, teachers, adult friends, and peers. They were asked to rate these factors on a Likert-type scale. The available categories were: “Not at all important”, “Slightly important”, “Fairly important”, “Very important”, “Extremely important”, “Don’t know”, and “Did not experience.” Table 4-18 displays the results of these questions in more detail. Table 4-18. Human Influences on Participants’ Level of Environmental Sensitivity n SD Mother or stepmother 113 3.59 1.41 Father or stepfather 110 3.39 1.43 Another female relative 104 3.07 1.38 Another male relative 104 3.06 1.41 One or more female teachers 105 3.17 1.42 One or more male teachers 103 2.64 1.25 An unrelated female adult 102 2.88 1.23 An unrelated male adult 95 2.65 1.24 Female friends 111 3.24 1.35 Male friends 106 2.97 1.34 Min/Max = 1/5 A total of 125 study participants responded to the question regarding a mother or stepmother’s influence on the individual’s level of environmental sensitivity. Ten percent of respondents (n=125) believed they either had not experienced the influence of a mother or stepmother or did not know.

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56 In summary, 19% of respondents believed his/her mother or stepmother was a “fairly important” influence on their level of environmental sensitivity. Twenty-three percent considered them to be a “very important” influence on their level of environmental sensitivity and 36% consider them to be “extremely important” (n=113, =3.59, SD=1.4). The next question assessed the influence of a father or stepfather on the development of environmental sensitivity. One hundred twenty-four study participants responded to this question. Eleven percent of total respondents reported not experiencing the influence of a father or stepfather or did not know if the influence was felt (n=124). Twenty-two percent of respondents believed his/her father or stepfather was a “fairly important” influence on their environmental sensitivity level. A father/stepfather was considered to be “very important” by 24% and “extremely important” by 29% (n=110, =3.39, SD=1.43). Relatives were the next human influence assessed in the survey. One hundred twenty-four study participants responded to the question assessing the influence of female relatives. Sixteen percent of respondents believed they either had not experienced the influence of a female relative or did not know if they had. Of the remaining 104 participants, 20% considered female relatives to be “fairly important.” Twenty-seven percent believed they were “slightly important.” However, almost 20% believed female relatives were “not at all important” (n=104, =3.07, SD=1.38). Male relatives were assessed by 125 study participants. Seventeen percent of respondents claimed no experience with male relatives or did not know if there was any influence. Of the remaining 104

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57 participants, 22% thought male relatives were “fairly important” and 25% believed other male relatives were “very important” in the development of their environmental sensitivity. Twenty-one percent believed male relatives were “not at all important” (n=104, =3.06, SD=1.41). The next set of questions asked about the influence of teachers. One hundred twenty-three study participants responded to the question assessing the influence of female teachers. Only 14% of respondents believed they either had not experienced the influence of female teachers or did not know the amount of influence. Of the remaining 105 participants, 24% believed female teachers to be “fairly important.” Twenty-two percent and 23% of respondents considered female teachers to be “slightly important” and “extremely important” respectively (n=105, =3.17, SD=1.42). One hundred twenty-three study participants responded to a question regarding the influence of a male teacher on their level of environmental sensitivity. Fourteen percent of all study participants either had not experienced a male teacher’s influence or did not know how to rate the influence (n=123). Thirty-one percent of respondents believed male teachers were a “fairly important” influence. However, 25% of respondents reported male teachers were not at all an influence on their level of environmental sensitivity (n=103, =2.64, SD=1.25). Female and male unrelated adults were the next influence assessed. One hundred twenty-two study participants responded to the question assessing unrelated female adults influence on their environmental sensitivity level. Sixteen percent of respondents believed they either did not experience or did not know if

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58 they were influenced by an unrelated female adult. Of the remaining 102 participants, 34% believed this variable was “fairly important.” Twenty-three percent of respondents considered an unrelated female adult to be “very important.” However, 20% of respondents believed unrelated female adults were “not at all important” in their development of environmental sensitivity (n=102, =2.88, SD=1.23). One hundred twenty study participants responded to the question assessing unrelated male adults influences. Twenty percent of participants believed they either were not influenced by an unrelated male adult or they did not know if they had been influenced. Of the remaining 95 participants, 33% believed the influence of an unrelated male adult was “fairly important.” Twenty percent considered the influence “very important.” However, 26% of participants believed the influence was “not at all important” (n=95, =2.65, SD=1.24). The next question asked participants about the influence of female friends. One hundred twenty-two participants responded to this question. Nine percent of total survey participants reported not knowing if their female friends were an influence or not experiencing the influence of female friends (n=122). The influence of female friends was rated as “fairly important” by 30% of respondents. Twenty-two percent of respondents believed female friends influence was “very important” and 23% believed it was “extremely important” (n=111, =3.24, SD=1.35). One hundred twenty-two study participants assessed the influence of male friends. Thirteen percent of participants believed they either had not experienced

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59 the influence of male friends or did not know how important the influence was. Of the remaining 106 participants, 26% considered the influence of male friends to be “fairly important” in the development of environmental sensitivity. Twenty percent of respondents believed the influence was “very important.” However, 19% of respondents felt the influence of male friends was “not at all important” and “slightly important” (n=106, =2.97, SD=1.36). The Influence of Outdoor Experiences on Environmental Sensitivity This section of questions focused on the outdoor experiences of the participants. Each participant was asked to rate the importance of the following influences on a Likert-type scale: overnight camping such as 4-H, overnight camping with friends/family, spending time outdoors while growing up individually or with an organized group, ready access to “natural” areas, hunting, and fishing. The results of this section are displayed in table 4-19. Table 4-19. Outdoor Experience Influence on Environmental Sensitivity n SD Overnight camping such as 4-H 96 3.39 1.07 Overnight camping with friends and family 95 3.62 1.04 Spending time outdoors individually 105 3.50 1.22 Spending time outdoors with an organized group 99 2.55 1.44 Ready or easy access to “natural” areas 100 3.36 1.12 Hunting 85 2.93 1.46 Fishing 103 3.26 1.34 Min/Max = 1/5 First, participants were asked how important they felt overnight camping with a group such as 4-H was as an influence on their level of environmental sensitivity. One hundred twenty-three study participants responded. Twenty-two percent of respondents claimed they had no experience or did not know if they

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60 had experience with overnight camping such as 4-H (n=123). Of the remaining 96 surveys, 44% of respondents reported it to be “fairly important. “ Twenty-two percent believed it was “very important” and 19% believed it was “extremely important” (n=96, =3.39, SD=1.07). Of the 120 study participants who responded to a question addressing the influence of overnight camping with friends or family on their level of environmental sensitivity, 20% reported not having experienced overnight camping with friends or family or did not know the effect the influence had. Thirty-six percent of respondents believe that camping with friends/family is “fairly important.” Thirty-one percent believe the experience is “very important” and 23% think it is “extremely important” (n=95, =3.62, SD=1.04). One hundred twenty-one participants responded to a question assessing the influence of time spent in the outdoors while growing up. Thirteen percent of the total survey respondents reported they had not experienced any influence from spending time outdoors or did not know if they had felt an influence as a result of spending time outdoors (n=121). Twenty-four percent of respondents said spending time outdoors was “fairly important.” Eighteen percent believed it was “very important” and 23% rated the experience as “extremely important” to their own development of environmental sensitivity (n=105, =3.5, SD=1.22). The next question asked study participants how important spending time outdoors with an organized group was in the development of their environmental sensitivity level. One hundred twenty-two participants responded. Twenty five percent of total respondents claimed they did not have any experience with or did

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61 not know if spending time outdoors with an organized group influenced their own environmental sensitivity (n=122). Twenty-eight percent of respondents believed spending time outdoors with an organized group was “fairly important.” Twenty-six percent believed it was “very important” (n=99, =2.55, SD=1.44). One hundred twenty-one study participants responded to a question assessing the influence of ready-access to “natural” areas. Seventeen percent of the total survey participants reported not having easy access to “natural” areas or not knowing if this variable influenced their environmental sensitivity level (n=121). Participants who reported having easy access to “natural” areas as “fairly important” measured 34%. Thirty-three percent reported this influence was “very important” and 15% said it was “extremely important” (n=100, =3.36, SD=1.12). The influence of hunting was assessed by 120 participants. Twenty-eight percent of total survey participants reported they either did not know if hunting had an affect on their environmental sensitivity or had not experienced hunting (n=120). The influence of hunting was considered to be “fairly important” by 28% of respondents. Fifteen percent reported hunting to be a “very important” influence by 15% of respondents. Twenty percent considered hunting to be an “extremely important” influence. Twenty-six percent of respondents, however, reported hunting to be not important at all in influencing their environmental sensitivity (n=85, =2.93, SD=1.45). The influence of fishing was the last influence assessed in this category. One hundred twenty-one study participants responded. Only 14% of total survey

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62 participants reported not having experienced fishing or not knowing if fishing had an influence at all (n=121). Fishing was considered to be “fairly important” by 30% of respondents. Eighteen percent reported fishing to be a “very important” influence and 24% considered it to be “extremely important” in the development of their environmental sensitivity (n=103, =3.26, SD=1.34). The Influence of Other Experiences Questions in this section required participants to reflect upon those who have influenced their lives and their own experiences with animals. Respondents were asked to rate, on a Likert-type scale, the importance of the following influences: working or volunteering at an animal rehabilitation center, veterinary clinic, or other wildlife facility, having wild animals as pets, and actually seeing bad things happen to the environment. The results are displayed in table 4-20. Table 4-20. The Influence of Other Experiences n SD Working or volunteering at an animal rehabilitation center, veterinary clinic, or other wildlife facility 79 3.10 1.35 Having wild animals as pets 87 3.24 1.31 Actually seeing bad things happen to the environment 94 3.64 1.23 Min/Max = 1/5 Of the total sample of 122 participants, almost 35% of survey participants reported not knowing if working or volunteering at an animal rehabilitation center, veterinary clinic, or other wildlife facility had an impact on their environmental sensitivity or had not experienced working or volunteering in such a setting. Thirty percent of respondents indicated working or volunteering at an animal rehabilitation center, veterinary clinic, or other wildlife facility was a “fairly

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63 important.” Twenty-three percent claimed it was “very important” and 18% believed it was an “extremely important” influence on their level of environmental sensitivity. However, 19% of respondents said it was “not at all important” (n= 79, =3.10, SD=1.35). The influence of having wild animals as pets was the next variable assessed. One hundred twenty-two study participants responded to this question. However, twenty-eight percent of the total study participants either had not experienced having wild animals as pets or did not know if it had any influence on their environmental sensitivity (n=122). The influence of having wild animals as pets was considered to be “fairly important” by thirty-one percent of respondents. Twenty-five percent considered this variable to be “very important” and twenty percent believed it to be “extremely important” (n=87, =3.24, SD=1.31). One hundred twenty-two study participants responded to a question assessing the influence of seeing bad things happen to the environment. Almost 16% of respondents had not ever seen a bad thing happen to the environment and 7% of respondents did not know whether seeing a bad thing happen to the environment affected their environmental sensitivity level (n=122). However, of the remaining 94 participants, 23% of respondents believe it is a “fairly important” influence on their level of environmental sensitivity. Twenty-eight percent consider seeing bad things happen to the environment “very important” and 21% consider it an “extremely important” influence in developing their environmental sensitivity (n=94, =3.64, SD=1.23).

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64 The Influence of Books, Magazines, TV, and Other Media The last part of the Survey of Environmentally Concerned Students addressed the influences media may have had on the participants’ level of environmental sensitivity. The participants were asked to rate how important they felt the following influences were to the development of their environmental sensitivity: negative environmental news in the media, nonfiction books about environmental problems, nature or outdoor magazines, nature field guides or identification guides, school textbooks, and TV shows such as Nature, Discovery, etcetera. These items were to be ranked on a Likert-type scale. The results are displayed in table 4-21. Table 4-21. The Influence of Books, Magazines, TV and Other Media n SD Negative environmental news in the media 95 3.39 1.21 Nonfiction books about environmental problems 98 3.03 1.22 Nature or outdoor magazines 101 2.98 1.27 Nature field guides or identification guides 94 2.95 1.19 School textbooks 104 3.30 1.28 TV shows such as Nature, Discovery, etcetera 107 3.50 1.36 Min/Max = 1/5 A total of 123 study participants responded to a question assessing the influence of negative environmental news in the media. Twenty-two percent of total survey participants did not experience or did not know if they had ever seen negative environmental news (n=123). Twenty-seven percent of respondents reported the influence of negative environmental news in the media as “fairly important.” Twenty-eight percent consider this influence to be “very important” and 21% rated it “extremely important” (n=95, =3.39, SD=1.21).

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65 Out of 122 study participants, 19% of the total study participants reported not experiencing the influence of non-fiction books about environmental problems or did not know if they had experienced it. However, out of the remaining 98 participants, 38% considered non-fiction books to be a “fairly important.” Twenty percent believed the influence of non-fiction books about environmental problems were “very important.” Fifteen percent of respondents considered this influence ”not at all important”(n=98, =3.03, SD=1.22). A question assessing the influence of nature or outdoor magazines on an individual’s level of environmental sensitivity was answered by 121 study participants. Almost 15% reported they had not experienced the influence of nature or outdoor magazines or did not know if it influenced them in any way (n=121). Of the remaining 101 participants, 29% of participants considered nature or outdoor magazines to be a “fairly important.” Twenty-two percent considered this influence to be ”very important” in their development of environmental sensitivity. This influence was also rated as being only “slightly important” by 20% (n=101, =2.98, SD=1.27). One hundred twenty-one study participants responded to a question assessing the influence of nature guides or identification guides. Twenty-two percent of the total study participants reported not having any experience with nature guides or identification guides or not knowing if it had any influence on the development of their environmental sensitivity level (n=121). Nature guides or identification guides were considered to be “fairly important” by 34% of participants. Nearly 20% of respondents considered this variable to be “very

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66 important.” However, 22% considered the same variable to be only “slightly important” (n=94, =2.95, SD=1.19). The influence of school textbooks was assessed next by 121 study participants. Almost 14% of the total study participants claimed no experience with school textbooks or did not know if there was any influence due to the textbooks (n=121). Thirty-five percent of respondents considered school textbooks a “fairly important.” Twenty-three percent believed school textbooks were “very important” and 21% believed they were an “extremely important” influence (n=104, =3.30, SD=1.28). Of 122 study participants, 12% claimed they did not experience the influence of television or they did not know if television had any effect on their environmental sensitivity level. Thirty percent of respondents felt that television was a “fairly important” influence on the development of their environmental sensitivity. Eighteen percent believed it was “very important” and 33% thought television shows were “extremely important” (n=107, =3.5, SD=1.36). Summary The results obtained by the analyses presented previously has provided the information needed to either support or refute the following research questions: 1. To what extent is the level of environmental sensitivity influenced by repeated participation in the Florida 4-H residential camping program? 2. To what extent is the self-reported level of environmental sensitivity of Florida 4-H camping program participants correlated to the influences reported to be responsible for developing environmental sensitivity?

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67 3. To what extent is the level of knowledge of ecological concepts influenced by repeated participation in the Florida 4-H residential camping program? From these results, it is evident that there are many influences such as role models and outdoor experiences on Florida 4-H residential camping program participants’ level of environmental sensitivity. These and other findings will be discussed further in Chapter 5.

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CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSIONS This chapter presents a discussion of the research results, conclusions, and recommendations for the Florida 4-H residential camping program and future research in the field of environmental education regarding the development of participants’ environmental sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Florida 4-H residential camping program in developing environmental sensitivity with participants ages 12-18. The researcher specifically sought to determine how repeated participation in the Florida 4-H residential camping program affects the participants’ level of environmental sensitivity. This study also sought to measure the effects of the Florida 4-H residential camping program on the level of ecological knowledge in the participants of the program. The specific research questions addressed were as follows: 1. To what extent is the self-reported level of environmental sensitivity influenced by repeated participation in the Florida 4-H residential camping program? 2. To what extent is the self-reported level of environmental sensitivity of Florida 4-H camping program participants correlated to the influences reported to be responsible for developing environmental sensitivity? 3. To what extent is the level of knowledge of ecological concepts influenced by repeated participation in the Florida 4-H residential camping program? Non-parametric analyses were used to analyze the data. The population assessed were participants in Florida 4-H residential camping programs who 68

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69 attended a week of camp at Camp Ocala, Camp Timpoochee, or Camp Cloverleaf during the summer of 2003. Hypotheses Analysis In this section, the research findings of this study and specifically each of the hypotheses are discussed. Hypothesis 1. The participants of the Florida 4-H residential camping program will have a greater level of environmental sensitivity than those who have not previously participated in the Florida 4-H residential camping program. Hypothesis 2. Those who have participated in the Florida 4-H residential camping program on a repeated basis will have a higher level of environmental sensitivity. As a whole, statistically, the results of this study do not support the researcher’s hypothesis with respect to environmental sensitivity. Although the tests of significance showed a significant difference between two of the three groups – first time campers and the campers who had attended camp two or more times in the past (p=0.029) – no significant differences were detected between the other groups. The data indicates the Florida 4-H residential camping program does have some influence on its participants’ level of environmental sensitivity as shown by an increase in the mean environmental sensitivity score of camp participants who previously attended one time in the past (pre-camp =3.38, post-camp =3.63), however, the n-size was relatively small for this group in terms of the preand post-. This influence may be through overnight camping, role models, media, time spent in the outdoors, and others.

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70 Environmental sensitivity may be influenced by things other than camp as well. Perhaps if the sample size was larger in both the pre-camp respondents and the post-camp respondents, the changes in environmental sensitivity due to participation in camp may have been determined to be statistically significant in all groups. One could infer from this data that participants of the Florida 4-H residential camping program benefit from the exposure to the environment and related topics that may be addressed at the camps. These results are also supported by Palmberg and Kuru’s 2000 study in which youth participants who were experienced in nature had a higher level of environmental sensitivity than those who were not experienced in nature. In addition, other studies (Tanner, 1980; Palmer, 1993; Shepard & Speelman, 1986) also indicate support for these findings. Children who attend the Florida 4-H residential camping program are exposed continuously to the natural environment as they participate in daily activities. Camp administration should inform stakeholders of the impact exposure to the environment has on the participants of the program. Camp administration should also strive to increase retention of current campers, in order to increase the amount of exposure to the outdoors for campers, and therefore, increase environmental sensitivity. Hypothesis 3. The correlation between the self-reported levels of environmental sensitivity of Florida 4-H camping program participants will be positively correlated to the influences reported to be responsible for developing environmental sensitivity.

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71 Measures of correlation were found between many variables assessed in this study. This tells us that there are many relationships between the following variables assessed in the current study: the influence of media; personality; experience with animals; negative experiences with the environment; the amount of time spent outdoors; the influence of role models; and participant’s level of environmental sensitivity. Environmental educators, parents and other adults should be aware of the possible impact variables such as experience of camping, media, experience with wild animals, negative experiences, and time spent outdoors, will have on an individual’s level of environmental sensitivity. If increasing a person’s environmental sensitivity is a goal for environmental educators and if these experiences do influence environmental sensitivity then it is critical that these types of experiences be positive, numerous, and in good quality. The person may also be affected by his/her experiences with having wild animals as pets. Time spent outdoors in both formal camping and family experiences also seems to be important for the development of environmental sensitivity (Shepard & Speelman, 1986; Dettmann-Easler & Pease, 1999). The influence of media appears to be related to multiple other influences. One could infer that the media has an impact on the reported perceived influences on environmental sensitivity (i.e. experience with camp, personality, experience with animals, negative experiences, time spent outdoors, and role models). This means that what children read or see on television influences how they feel about their experiences at camp, their view of spending time outdoors,

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72 and their experiences with animals. Educators should be aware of this and make use of the environmental media that exists. The environmental events within the news should not be ignored but should be used to educate and influence the attitudes and beliefs of the public. Camp curricula could focus on current news events to expand participants’ knowledge of the environmental concern of the surrounding community. Curricula could also include the use of identification guides, magazines, and videos. In addition, media could be used to expand the community’s knowledge regarding the benefits of camp and the variables that have an influence on a person’s environmental sensitivity. In Palmer’s 1999 multinational study on the environmental sensitivity influences of adults, media was shown to be an important influential category. In contrast to Palmer’s study, Sivek’s 2002 study examining the environmental sensitivity influences of Wisconsin high school students suggested that media might not be the most important influence on environmental sensitivity levels. In Sivek’s study, some students believed media was an influence but did not rank it as the most important. Another variable that was shown to have relationships with multiple variables was the influence of camping. Experience with camping was measured to have correlation values ranging from 0.207 to 0.353 with six out of the seven variables tested. These six variables included: media influence (r=0.220, p<0.05); experience with animals (r=0.239, p<0.05); influence of negative experiences (r=0.353, p<0.01); time spent outdoors (r=0.327, p<0.01); influence of role models (r=0.207, p<0.05); and pre-camp environmental sensitivity level (r=0.299,

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73 p<0.05). Camping experiences, therefore, could be considered an important part of the development of environmental sensitivity. While participating in a camping experience, children will spend time outdoors and may be exposed to media, a variety of wild animals, and role models. The results of this study have shown the relationships between these variables affects the development of environmental sensitivity. The correlation between experience with camping and the influence of negative experiences was moderate (r=0.353, p<0.01). Camp planners and administration should attempt to make every experience the participants have during a week of camp a positive one. Camping should allow for a positive experience in nature. Counselors and camp administration should help relieve any stresses a camper may have about spending time in the environment. If a camper leaves camp feeling good about his/her experiences outside within the environment, he/she will be more likely to attend camp again. The correlation between time spent outdoors and experience with camping had a moderate correlation (r=0.33, p<0.01). This implies that a person who spends a lot of time outdoors will be more likely to go to camp and return to camp again later. If parents and others within a community encourage children to spend more time outdoors, the children may be more likely to attend camp. Camp administrators may wish to advertise to more organizations or individuals who are focused on the outdoors to increase retention. Camp organizers should also evaluate their programs and work to improve activities and curricula each year to offer new and exciting activities to participants.

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74 Family camping and organized group camping has become a major leisure time activity for families and children. An estimated nine million children attend a summer day camp or residential camp each year (American Camping Association, 2001). Family camping trips have also seen considerable growth in recent years. From wilderness treks to river rafting and RV adventures, these types of outdoor experiences are popular and growing. The impact of the camping experience on a participant’s level of environmental sensitivity has been shown throughout this study. Advertising efforts should target parents and make them aware of the influences and impacts that camping and other outdoor experiences have on their children. The regression analyses that were performed provide evidence indicating media and time spent outdoors have a notable impact on the development of environmental sensitivity. The influence of media and the amount of time spent outdoors combined make up 27% of the variance in environmental sensitivity scores recorded by participants. In today’s society, children are exposed to a variety of media such as video games, television, computers, and the Internet. Environmental educators, camp administrators, and other adults should make use of the media available to them to engage children in environmental and nature oriented programs/activities. Media could be used in many fashions such as a video game with an environmental twist, a commercial on television, or a newspaper or Internet article to encourage environmental themes such as recycling, energy conservation, or other nature oriented topics. This in fact could

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75 be a critical factor in moving individuals from a “consumer” oriented society to a society focused on conservation of resources. The amount of time spent outdoors may be a key indication of a person’s environmental sensitivity. In a study performed by Shepard and Speelman (1986) it was found that the first time participants visiting an outdoor setting had to get adjusted to the environment before learning could occur. As the participants visited the outdoor site more, they were able to learn about things within the environment because they were not spending time worrying about foreign/unfamiliar things around them. Other studies have also indicated exposure to the outdoors or time spent outdoors had an impact on environmental sensitivity (Tanner, 1980; Peterson, 1982; Palmer, 1993; Sward, 1996; Sivek, 2002). Educators and parents should be aware of the acclimation period and attempt to expose their children to the outdoors as much as possible through activities such as a residential camping experience, nature hikes, bird watching, or other activities. The earlier these types of exposure occurs (i.e. the younger the child) may enhance and reinforce environmental sensitivity in the later years. Hypothesis 4. The participants of the Florida 4-H residential camping program will have a greater knowledge of ecological concepts than those who have not previously participated in the Florida 4-H residential camping program. The ecological knowledge portion of the survey used in this study was originally designed to assess environmental literacy as part of the Middle School Environmental Literacy Instrument (MSELI). The questions contained in the ecological portion of the MSELI survey were not specific to the 4-H camp

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76 sessions that participated in the study, i.e. the questions did not specifically reflect activities or what was taught during any of the individual camp sessions. These questions were designed to measure general ecological knowledge as if it were a standardized test. Analyses performed on the data collected for ecological knowledge did not show any statistically significant differences between cohort groups (Groups 0 & 1 p=0.22; Groups 1 & 2 p=0.69; Groups 0 & 2 p=0.14; Groups 0, 1, &2 p=0.27). However, the analysis did show that the largest difference in ecological knowledge, even though not significant, was between the first time campers and campers who had attended two or more times previously (p=0.14). Although no significant differences were found between the groups, the data shows the participants who had previously attended one session of camp (Group 1) and participants who attended two or more sessions of camp (Group 2) gained ecological knowledge during the week at camp. The decrease of ecological knowledge level of the first-time participants could possibly be attributed to the newness of the surroundings and environment, thus creating anxiety and reducing the learning that might take place during their week at camp. Perhaps camp procedures should be different for first-time campers and repeat campers. First-time campers could participate in activities that allowed them to get used to their surroundings as well as meet others at the camp. When finished with a brief introduction of the campgrounds and the possible activities in which they are invited to participate throughout the week, the first-time campers may feel more at ease at camp and be able to enjoy themselves more.

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77 Other Research Findings Although only one significant difference was found between first time campers and repeat campers related to environmental sensitivity, the data collected show several interesting trends. General influences on environmental sensitivity levels were assessed in the first portion of the survey. These self-reported influences included: overnight camping, media, personality, working with animals, negative experiences, time spent outdoors, and role models. Figure 5-1 is a display of the influences the study participants believed were the most important in the development of their environmental sensitivity levels. However, only two of the variables shown were found to be statistically significant the influence of outdoor experience and the influence of media. Working with wild animals was considered by participants to be the most important influence on their own level of environmental sensitivity (=3.60, SD=1.23). Negative experiences with the environment were considered the least important influence on environmental sensitivity by study participants (=2.89, SD=1.30). The remaining five categories assessed in the survey were ranked to be of an importance level in between working with animals and negative experiences. They are as follows: Overnight camping, =3.08, SD=1.14; Media, =3.20, SD=1.25; Role models, =3.43, SD=1.37; Personality, =3.54, SD=1.20; and Time spent outdoors, =3.57, SD=1.19.

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78 Figure 5-1. Major Reported Influences on the Environmental Sensitivity Levels of Study Participants Ass variables in his 2002 study of Wisconsin high schoolird Environmental Sensitivity Negative Experiences Other Experiences Personality Media Outdoor Experience Role Models/ Human Influences Mother/ Stepmother Overnight Camping w/ Organization Overnight Camping w/ Family Spending time outdoors alone Fishing Easy Access to Natural Areas Seeing bad things in the environment Working with/Having wild animals as pets School Textbooks Negative news Nonfiction books essing these same students, Sivek reported working with wild animals to be ranked the thmost important influence. In the current study, participants rated this influence asthe most important influence on their own level of environmental sensitivity. Time

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79 spent outdoors and personality were ranked as number one and two respectively in Sivek’s study (2002). However, in the current study, role models and time spent outdoors were considered to be number two and number three respectively. Negative experiences were ranked as the least importanton environmental sensitivity as a result of the current study and Sivek’s study (2002). In influence summary, it appears as though negative experiences within the environe on a s, spend utdoors with role models may also enhance enviroaders is nsitivity Another interesting set of findings of this study is the perceived influence of personality and role models on the development of environmental sensitivity. ment by themselves are not considered to be an important influencperson’s level of environmental sensitivity. However, time spent outdoors was ranked high in both studies, and therefore, seems to be an important factor in developing environmental sensitivity. Environmental educators, teachers, adultand others should be aware of the impact of any time spent outdoors. This time may be spent in class outings playing sports, taking a hike in the woods, swimming in a lake or other outdoor activity. If children are encouraged totime outdoors and given the chance to do so, their level of environmental sensitivity may increase. Time spent in the o nmental sensitivity. Teachers, family members, and other adult lemay play a larger role in the development of environmental sensitivity when these two variables (outdoor experiences and role models) are combined. Thconcept is discussed in the next section. Human Influences on Environmental Se

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80 Sivek (2002) found that personality plays a moderate part in the development of y. to be ity. Sivek ult of his s ttend camp, take nature hikes, make use of media environmental sensitivity. Participants in his study ranked the influence of personality as the third most important influence. About a quarter (26%) of the sample population in the current study considered personality to be a very important concept in the development of their own environmental sensitivitRole models were also considered an important influence by the population of this study. Over 54% of respondents considered a role model very or extremely influential in the development of their environmental sensitiv identified male teachers as the most influential role model as a resstudy that examined high school students in Wisconsin (2002). However, in the current study, the influence of a mother or stepmother was identified as the most influential on participants’ level of environmental sensitivity (=3.59, SD=1.41). Unrelated male adults (=3.47, SD=1.95) and male teachers (=2.64, SD=1.25) were considered the least important human influence on the environmental sensitivity level of the participants. As evidenced in this study and Sivek’s study in 2002, parents play a large role in influencing their children. Mothers/stepmothers and fathers/stepfathershould encourage their children to a that focuses on the environment, and thus encourage a higher level of environmental sensitivity. In examining the results of the current study, mothersand stepmothers should be especially aware of the impact they have on their children. Sharing experiences in nature with a parent seems to have a big influence on the way a child feels about the environment. Parents/step-parents

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81 need to share as many positive outdoor experiences as possible with their children. They should also communicate to their children the importance of for the environment. If a positive influence is coming from a person who is closeto a child, he/she will be more likely to also have a positive view of the environment. Influence of Outdoor Experiences on Environmental Sensitivity Overnight camping with organized groups (=3.39, SD=1.07), ovcamping with f caring ernight riends and family (=3.62, SD=1.04), spending time outdoors as a eas (=3.3 to be (Tanner, wed almost 50% of respono ts single individual (=3.50, SD=1.22), ready/easy access to “natural” ar 6, SD=1.12), and fishing (=3.26, SD=1.34) were considered important influences on environmental sensitivity. Hunting (=2.93, SD=1.45) and spending time outdoors with an organized group (=2.55, SD=1.44) were consideredthe least important outdoor experiences as influences on participants environmental sensitivity levels. In past studies, spending time in the outdoors with others or by oneself has been shown as a major influence on the degree to which people care about the environment, i.e. environmental sensitivity1980; Peterson, 1982; Palmer, 1993; Sward, 1996). In Sivek’s 2002 study of influences on environmental sensitivity, 95% of participants reported spending time outdoors was an important influence on environmental sensitivity. The current study data sho dents believed spending time outdoors was very or extremely important ttheir development of their own level of environmental sensitivity. These resul

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82 are also consistent with Palmer’s 1993 study, which showed outdoor experiences to be a major factor in the development of environmental sensitivity. Parents and educators should plan for time outdoors as much as possible. Educators within an elementary school setting could plan to hold class outside on a nices e see ing at an animal rehabilitation center, veterinary 0, SD=1.35) was considered the least gory nmental s 1996 e efs day. Science teachers could take a walk around school grounds incorporating subjects such as recycling, the water cycle, and the life cycle. Math teachers could use the outdoor environment as a teaching lab for varioulessons. Parents could take their children on a hike through the woods, go bike riding in the neighborhood, or send their children to camp. Unfortunately, wevidence of less time spent outdoors. Liability issues increase, dependency on computer technology, crime, and general lack of interest in the outdoors keeps us inside more and more. Influence of Other Experiences Working or volunteer clinic, or other wildlife facility (=3.1 important influence on participants’ environmental sensitivity level in the cateof other experiences. Participants felt seeing bad things happen to the environment was the most important influence in this category (=3.64, SD=1.23). Negative experiences within the environment, such as envirodestruction, were also considered to be an important influence in Sward’study. These findings are important for educators and parents to be aware of when natural disasters occur. Adults should be prepared to take advantage of thnatural disaster when it occurs to guide children’s thoughts, attitudes, and beli

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83 concerning the environment. For example, when a wild fire burns, adults could take the chance to explain the positive and negative consequences of the wildfire. The explanation of these consequences would allow the children to gainknowledge about scientific processes within nature and would encourage tchildren to care more about the environment, i.e. increase their environmental sensitivity. Influence of Books, Magazines, TV, and Other Media Natur he e field guides or identification guides (=2.95, SD=1.19) and nature least influential type of f . t organie urrent or outdoor magazines (=2.98, SD=1.27) seem to be the media according to the data in the current study. Perhaps this is because many of the children do not have access to these types of media very often. The cost othis item for a family may be prohibitive. Camp planners should incorporate the use of field guides or identification guides during camp. This could easily be incorporated on a nature hike by using the guides to identify any animals or plants seen on the walk. The use of field guides and identification guides mayalso increase the children’s knowledge of the flora and fauna being identifiedThis may also reinforce the value of these publications in the home environmenOn the other hand, television shows such as Nature and Discovery wererated as the most important influence (=3.50, SD=1.36). Schools and other zations could increase the use of educational media regarding the environment. Parents should also encourage their own children to watch moreducational shows on television versus cartoons, MTV, or video games. Ccable access has a number of quality “nature” oriented channels.

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84 Implications for Practice Hungerford and Volk’s model of responsible environmental citizenship (1990) has given environme predictors of envir in individuals ntal n al sensitivity level. Within the Fs. n ntal educators an outline of onmental behavior. Environmental sensitivity is considered to be includedthe entry-level variable category as a pre-requisite needed in order forto make responsible decisions regarding the environment. In the current study, environmental sensitivity was shown to be influenced by a variety of experiences such as negative experiences within nature, having a wild animal as a pet, media, time spent outdoors, and overnight camping. Administrators of camping programs, educators, interpreters, and others should be aware of the manyinfluences of environmental sensitivity and should use their knowledge and influence to develop appropriate programs to encourage others to become environmentally sensitive. If an individual develops some level of environmesensitivity, he/she will be more inclined make environmentally responsible decisions according to the Hungerford & Volk model. The experience of camping, time spent outdoors, and media have beeshown to have an influence on a person’s environment lorida 4-H residential camping program, children are exposed to each of these experiences. When children attend camp, they have the opportunity to learn more about the environment. They are able to take the information and skills learned at camp and pass them onto other children or adults in their liveAs a result, other children are encouraged to attend camp and adults may gaiknowledge about the environment. It is hoped that campers will retain the knowledge and skills they learned at camp throughout their lives, continue to use

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85 them into adulthood, and pass the learned knowledge and appreciation of onto their own children. The theory of planned behavior explains the three determinants of intention as attitude toward the be nature havior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral contrrd son mental esearcher recognizes there were several limitations of this study. Participants were all volunteers. Thhance of self-selection bias was e , h studies, both quantitative and qualitative, should be conducted to explore, in more detail, the area of environmental sensitivity. Suggestions for future studies include: assessing the age at which children begin ol (Ajzen, n.d.). If a person is exposed to a high amount of influence that positively affects their level of environmental sensitivity, his/her attitudes towathe environment and whether they believe they can affect the environmental decisions occurring out of their direct control may change. The resulting development and change in attitude toward the environment may give the permore perseverance regarding what he/she can do to assist in an environendeavor. Limitations The r erefore, the c increased and the sample used in this study may not be representative of participants of the Florida 4-H residential camping program. Participants were involved in other environmental education programs throughout the time thparticipants were not attending the Florida 4-H camping program. Therefore, environmental sensitivity may be influenced by participation in other programsactivities, or influences. Implications for Future Research Additional researc

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86 to develop environmentermined that a f the jects. Future studies should attempnd d d hat mental sensitivity develops accord ivity. tal sensitivity, the age at which it is de person’s level of environmental sensitivity is established, and specifically which events or educational programs are the most effective in the development oenvironmental sensitivity level of its participants. Past studies have asked adults and high school students to reflect on experiences they believe have influenced their own environmental sensitivity levels in their pasts. The current study has been the only study completed using elementary or middle school aged children as sub t to include younger children in the sample. Studies by Palmer (1993) aBixler, Floyd, and Hammitt (2002) have indicated outdoor play during childhooto be a large influence on how a person views the environment later in life. Peterson (1982) found an adult’s level of environmental sensitivity is establishein their teenage years. If this continues to be supported by research findings, educators, programmers, and others should be aware of the possible influence they may have on a child’s future level of environmental sensitivity and at wstages of development they have the most impact. Larger and more random samples should be surveyed to determine factors that influence environmental sensitivity. These samples should be analyzed for gender differences in the development of environmental sensitivity to see if there is a difference in when or how environ ing to gender. In addition, the study of urban versus rural populationscould also provide information on the development of environmental sensit

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87 Environmental sensitivity is a growing field of study that, if addressed in programs, may assist in the development of environmentally responsible citizensThe results of this study and past research have provided environeducators, parents, stakeholders, and others with information regarding only a . mental few as ir e to assess a child’s leveused was relatively in il d sed by a single question. One method of pects of environmental sensitivity. Future studies need to focus on expanding the knowledge base that has been established by these studies. Theinformation gathered would allow educational planners to more effectivelyestablish and use environmental curriculum to achieve the goal of environmental sensitivity. Residential camping programs will be able to demonstrate to thestakeholders the impact their particular camp has on the participants of their program for both environmental sensitivity and ecological knowledge. Recommendations for Future Studies A more child-oriented/friendly survey should be used in the futur l of environmental sensitivity. The survey long in length for children to complete both before and after camp. Perhaps future studies, the pre-camp survey should be mailed to the campers before the week of camp begins. Another suggestion regarding the survey would be to mathe post-camp survey to the children after camp ends. At the end of a week of camp, children seem to be exhausted and many hesitated when asked to take the post-camp survey. By mailing the post-camp survey to participants, the children would be allowed to complete the survey when they were not exhausteas a result of a week of camp. The accuracy of a self-reported level of environmental sensitivity is a concern, especially if only asses

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88 increasing accuracy of this measure would be to increase the number of questions used to assess an individual’s level of environmental sensitivity.battery of questions addressing how a respondent would feel if a particulahappened to the environment. This battery of questions would focus on environmental issues and would help tease out an individual’s reaction and feelings toward the environment. This would allow the researcher/analysbetter assess the individual’s level of environmental sensitivity due to the reliability of a set of questions rather than one self-reported item. When assessing participants’ level of ecological knowledge and environmental sensitivity as a result of a program such as the Flori A r thing t to da 4-H p survey e ost-f rms n, environmental sensitivity has been considered in the goals and objectives for environmental education, yet we know very little about when, how, and why environmental residential camping program, a longer span of time between the pre-camand the post-camp survey is suggested. Although the ecological knowledgassessment questions were rearranged, participants were likely to remember the answers they marked during the pre-camp survey when they completed the pcamp survey five days later and may have marked the same answer. If a longer period of time was allowed between the pre-camp assessment and the post-camp assessment, the individuals may not be able to remember what they marked on the first survey. In addition, a more comprehensive assessment oecological knowledge would allow a program to evaluate their program in teof what the children are learning about the environment. Conclusions From the very beginning of environmental educatio

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89 sensitivity develops. If environmen an important precursor to itical p nd ed ences on environmental sensiti h as ing their perceptions and beliefs about the environment. Campi tal sensitivity is future behavior as described by Hungerford and Volk, then it would seem crthat environmental education researchers engage in additional research to helanswer some of the questions about environmental sensitivity. We expect individuals to change appropriate environmental behavior but do not understathe variables that influence and direct that change. The results of this study suggest there are a variety of combinations of influences on an individual’s level of environmental sensitivity. It is suggestthat outdoor experiences as well as role models can have a large impact on the development of environmental sensitivity. Many influ vity still remain unexplored. Hungerford and Volk’s model of responsibleenvironmental citizenship (1990) identified environmental sensitivity as a first-level pre-requisite for making responsible decisions regarding the environment. Ifenvironmental sensitivity is explored in more detail, more entry-level variablesmay be discovered or environmental sensitivity may be found to be more influential than previously thought. Educators, both formal and informal, shouldbe aware of the potential influence they may have on the individuals with whom they teach and interact. With increased amounts of urbanization and societal influences sucincreasing dependency on technology (i.e. television, video games, and the Internet), the frequency and the quality of outdoor experiences are proving to be very important in influenc ng programs, such as the Florida 4-H residential camping program, are

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90 one of the many opportunities a child has in which he/she is exposed to the outdoor environment. The data from this study will allow camp administration to re-evaluate and modify the current programming to be more effective in raisingthe environmental sensitivity levels of participants.

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APPENDIX E MIDDLE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL LITERACY INSTRUMENT ECOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS SURVEY

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LIST OF REFERENCES Ajzen, I. (n.d.). Behavioral interventions based on the theory of planned behavior. Retrieved February 22, 2004, from the University of Florida website: http://aee6300.ifas.ufl.edu/Ajzen.pdf American Camping Association. (2001, October 29). Youth development outcomes of the camp experience: A 2001-2003 research and training project of the American Camping Association. Retrieved April 26, 2004, from http://4h.ifas.ufl.edu/FacultyStaffOnly/Evaluation2/Goal%20Focus%20Team%20Resources/Organizational%20Development/Outcomes%20of%20the%20Camp%20Experience.htm Bixler, R.D., Floyd, M.F., & Hammitt, W.E. (2002). Environmental socialization quantitative tests of the childhood play hypothesis. Environment and Behavior, November 2002, 795-818. Bluhm, W.J., Hungerford, R.H., McBeth, W.C. & Volk, T.L. (1995). The middle school report: A final report on the development and pilot test assessment of: The Middle School Environmental Literacy Instrument. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University. Burrus-Bammel, L.L. (1978). Information’s effect on attitude: A longitudinal study. Journal of Environmental Education, 9(4), 41-50. Chawla, L. (1998). Significant life experiences revisited: A review of research on sources of environmental sensitivity. Journal of Environmental Education, 29(3), 11-21. Dettmann-Easler, D. & Pease, J.L. (1999). Evaluating the effectiveness of residential environmental education programs in fostering positive attitudes toward wildlife. Journal of Environmental Education, 31(1), 33-39. DeVaus, D. A. (2001). Research design in social research. London: Sage Publications Ltd. Florida 4-H Youth Development Program. (2002). Retrieved January 12, 2004, from the University of Florida website: http://4h.ifas.ufl.edu/ FacultyStaffOnly/Review2002/ExternalReviewDescriptionofFlorida4-H.PDF 107

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108 Hines, J.M., Hungerford, H.R., & Tomera, A.N. (1987). Analysis and synthesis of research and responsible environmental behavior: A meta-analysis. Journal of Environmental Education, 18(2), 1-8. Hungerford, H., Peyton, R.B., & Wilke, R.J. (1980). Goals for curriculum development in environmental education. Journal of Environmental Education, 11(3), 42-47. Hungerford, H. & Volk, T.L. (1990). Changing learner behavior through environmental education. Journal of Environmental Education, 21(3), 8-21. Hungerford, H.R., Ramsey, J.M., Volk, T. L., & Bluhm, W. J. (1993). The middle school environmental literacy instrument. Carbondale, IL: Center for Instruction, Staff Development and Evaluation. Jordan, J.R., Hungerford, H.R., & Tomera, A.N. (1986). Effects of two residential environmental workshops on high school students. Journal of Environmental Education, 18(1), 15-22. Kim, K. (2003). An inventory for assessing environmental education curricula. Journal of Environmental Education, 34(2), 12-18. Marcinkowski, T. (1987). An analysis of correlates and predictors of responsible environmental behavior. Carbondale. IL: Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Ocala 4-H Center. (2003). Retrieved January 12, 2004, from the University of Florida website: http://4h.ifas.ufl.edu/camping/ocala.htm Palmberg, I.E. & Kuru, J. (2000). Outdoor activities as a basis for environmental responsibility. Journal of Environmental Education, 31(4), 32-36. Palmer, J.A. (1993). Development of concern for the environment and formative experiences of educators. Journal of Environmental Education, 24(3), 26-30. Palmer, J.A., Suggate, J., Bajd, B., & Tsalilu, E.(1998). An overview of significant influences and formative experiences on the development of adults’ environmental awareness in nine countries. Environmental Education Research, 4(4), 445-464. Peterson, N. (1982). Developmental variables affecting environmental sensitivity in professional environmental educators. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maine, Orono, ME. Ramsey, C.E. & Rickson, R. (1977). Environmental knowledge and attitudes. Journal of Environmental Education, 8(1), 10-19.

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109 Rossi, P.H., Freeman, H.E., & Lipsey, A.N. (1999). Evaluation: A systematic approach (6th ed.). Newberry Park, CA: Sage Publications. Shepard, C.L. & Speelman, L.R. (1986). Affecting environmental attitudes through outdoor education. Journal of Environmental Education, 17(2), 20-23. Sia, A. Hungerford, H. & Tomera, A. (1985-1986). Selected predictors of responsible environmental behavior: An analysis. Journal of Environmental Education, 17(2), 31-40. Sivek, D.J. (2002a). Environmental sensitivity among Wisconsin high school students. Environmental Education Research, 8(2), 155-170. Sivek D. J. & Hungerford, H. (1989-1990). Predictors of responsible behavior in members of three Wisconsin conservation organizations. Journal of Environmental Education, 21(2), 35-40. Sward, L.L. & Marcinkowski, T. (2001). Environmental sensitivity: A review of the research 1980-1998. Essential Readings in Environmental Education, 377-388. Tanner, T. (1980). Significant life experiences. Journal of Environmental Education, 11(4), 20-24. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (1978, January). Final Report: Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education, Tbilisi, USSR. Connect: UNESCO-UNEP Environmental Education Newsletter, 3. Paris: UNESCO/UNEP. University of Florida 4-H summer camp 2003, Open enrollment camps. (2003). Retrieved January 12, 2004, from the University of Florida website: http://4h.ifas.ufl.edu/camping/edventures2003.htm University of Florida, Cooperative Extension Service. (2002). Environmental Education SMP FL714. Retrieved January 12, 2004, from the University of Florida website: http://extensionsmp.ifas.ufl.edu/fl714.htm

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Amy Elizabeth Lohrer was born on February 03, 1978, in Bartow, Florida. While growing up in Lake Placid, Florida, Amy was involved in community youth activities such as Girl Scouts and recreational sport leagues. As a member of the First Presbyterian Church, Lake Placid, she participated in youth group, children's and youth choir, and youth camping experiences. During middle school and high school, Amy excelled in academics and band, taking part in marching and concert band activities, as well as solo and ensemble competitions every year. For her efforts, she was awarded three "Excellent" award medals and two "Superior" level awards at the regional level of solo competition. After achieving a Superior rating at regional competition, Amy went on to receive a rating of "Excellent" at the State level. At high school graduation, Amy received the honor of the Bailey Award, an award given to recognize an individual graduating high school senior selected by the teachers and administration of Lake Placid High School as an outstanding student academically and within the school and local community. Amy attended Florida Southern College (FSC) in Lakeland, where she completed her bachelor's degree in April 2000, in elementary education. Amy enrolled in the family, youth and community sciences graduate program at the University of Florida, where she completed her Master of Science degree in December 2004. Upon graduation, she also received a Certificate of 110

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111 Environmental Education and Communication and an International Studies Certificate. While at the University of Florida, Amy was also a charter member of the Family, Youth and Community Sciences Graduate Student Association. She served as the President of this organization for one year. Amy is currently fulfilling an internship with Walt Disney World in Orlando, Florida. She is working as the Conservation Education Intern at Disney's Animal Kingdom.