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Creative Execution: Content Analysis of Chinese Award-Winning Television Commercials in 1997-2003

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Creative Execution: Content Analysis of Chinese Award-Winning Television Commercials in 1997-2003
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DENG, QICHAO ( Author, Primary )
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2008

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Advertising industry ( jstor )
Advertising music ( jstor )
Advertising research ( jstor )
Audio frequencies ( jstor )
Beauty ( jstor )
Commercial art ( jstor )
Commercial music ( jstor )
Commercials ( jstor )
Television commercials ( jstor )
Television music ( jstor )

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright Qichao Deng. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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8/31/2007
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436098575 ( OCLC )

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CREATIVE EXECUTION: CONTENT ANALYSIS OF CHINESE AWARD-WINNING TELEVISION COMMERCIALS IN 1997-2003 By QICHAO DENG A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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Copyright 2004 by Qichao Deng

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To Yong-xiu and Ying-quan for bringing me into this world.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS A tentative manuscript of mine would not have become a substantial thesis without the sincere support of many people. I am indebted to my best friends, my awesome parents: dad Ying-quan, and mom Yong-xiu. Their unconditional love and infinite encouragement have always shed warmth and light in my world and makes me brave, confident and able to face the ups-and-downs of life. Special mention goes to two persons, my mom and my soul mate Bei. Mom collected those six Chinese award-winning advertising albums from advertisingman book clubs across the whole country, and Bei shipped them to me from Shanghai. Friendship is another significant part of my life. My lifelong friends, Eryu, Bei, Lin, Jing, Yun, Jun and Xi, have shared laughter and tears with each other since high school. Other friends are my high school classmates Meikuan and Yao who study and work in US now. I also made many new friends at UF: Yuichi, Lawrence, Xu, Xingyu, Penghua, Yun, Bin, Xiaochuan, Myoung, Ross, Wan-ping, Yang-xin, Ye, Hui and Ying. I thank them all for their sincere help and for making my life at the University of Florida enjoyable and colorful. Special thanks go to Xiao-jun, Zhe, Guo-lin, Yu, Gang, Min and Song whom consistently believe and support me to be the person I crave to become. Also I am very grateful to my committee members, Chair Dr. Marilyn Roberts, Dr. Joseph Pisani and Linda Conway Correll as well as Dr. Morton (who sat in my thesis defense for Professor Linda who was teaching abroad then). Their enthusiasm for iv

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Chinese advertising and detailed, thoughtful reviews were immensely helpful in making this thesis possible. Finally I will keep in mind of the following years: 1994, 1997, 1999, and 2002. These were magic years and served as the turning-points of my life which turned me into an advertisingman as my karma tells. v

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES...........................................................................................................viii ABSTRACT.........................................................................................................................x CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Purpose of the Study.....................................................................................................1 Significance of the Study..............................................................................................1 Research Overview.......................................................................................................2 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................4 Overview of Advertising Industry in China.................................................................4 Overview of the China Advertising Festival................................................................7 Advertising Creative Executional Factors....................................................................8 Early Study............................................................................................................8 Stewart and Furse’s Study...................................................................................10 Award-Winning Advertising...............................................................................12 3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................15 Variable-Analysis Framework....................................................................................15 Variables..............................................................................................................15 Coding Categories and Operational Definitions..................................................15 Visual devices..............................................................................................15 Auditory devices..........................................................................................16 Commercial appeals or selling proposition..................................................17 Commercial structure...................................................................................18 Commercial format......................................................................................18 Commercial approach..................................................................................21 Commercial setting......................................................................................21 Music element..............................................................................................22 Research Questions.....................................................................................................22 Content Analysis Design............................................................................................23 vi

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Unit of Analysis..........................................................................................................24 Sampling Design.........................................................................................................25 Intercoder Reliability..................................................................................................26 Data Analysis..............................................................................................................27 4 FINDINGS..................................................................................................................28 Description of the Sample..........................................................................................28 Peripheral Elements.............................................................................................28 Characteristics of Chinese Award-Winning TV Commercials...........................32 Visual devices..............................................................................................32 Auditory devices..........................................................................................37 Commercial appeal or selling proposition...................................................39 Commercial structure...................................................................................40 Commercial format......................................................................................42 Commercial approach..................................................................................45 Commercial setting......................................................................................47 Music element..............................................................................................48 Inferential Result of the Sample.................................................................................50 Year as Peripheral Element.................................................................................50 Winning Ad Agency Origin as Peripheral Element............................................55 5 DISCUSSION.............................................................................................................63 Profile of the Typical Chinese Winning Commercials...............................................63 Comparison with Stewart and Furse Study................................................................64 Implications................................................................................................................67 Limitations..................................................................................................................67 Suggestions for Further Research...............................................................................68 APPENDIX CODING SHEET FOR CHINESE AWARD-WINNING ADVERTISING (TV COMMERCIALS) BETWEEN 1997 AND 2003............................................................................................................70 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................75 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................77 vii

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 Frequency of the Chinese TV Commercials Winners per Year...............................29 2 Frequency of Product Category................................................................................30 3 Frequency of Brand Origin......................................................................................30 4 Frequency of Winning AD Agency Origin..............................................................31 5 Frequency of Judges’ Background...........................................................................32 6 Frequency of Scenic Beauty.....................................................................................33 7 Frequency of Beautiful Characters...........................................................................33 8 Frequency of Ugly Characters..................................................................................33 9 Frequency of Graphic Display.................................................................................34 10 Frequency of Surrealistic Visuals............................................................................34 11 Frequency of Substantive Supers.............................................................................35 12 Frequency Language Usage.....................................................................................36 13 Frequency of Visual Tagline....................................................................................36 14 Frequency of Visual Memory Device......................................................................37 15 Frequency of Memorable Rhymes, Slogans or Mnemonic......................................37 16 Frequency of Unusual Sound Effects.......................................................................38 17 Frequency of Spoken Tagline..................................................................................39 18 Frequency of Appeal or Selling Proposition............................................................40 19 Frequency of Dominant Commercial Structure.......................................................42 20 Frequency of Dominant Commercial Format..........................................................44 viii

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21 Frequency of Dominant Commercial Approach (1)................................................46 22 Frequency of Dominant Commercial Approach (2)................................................46 23 Frequency of Brand-differentiating Message...........................................................46 24 Frequency of Dominant Commercial Set.................................................................48 25 Frequency of Where the Commercial Set................................................................48 26 Frequency of Music in Commercials.......................................................................49 27 Frequency of Music Style........................................................................................49 28 Frequency of Music as a Major Element.................................................................50 29 Scenic Beauty by Year.............................................................................................50 30 Surrealistic Visuals by Year.....................................................................................51 31 Commercial Structure by Year.................................................................................52 32 Commercial Approach (2) by Year..........................................................................53 33 Music Element by Year............................................................................................53 34 Music Style by Year..................................................................................................54 35 Music as Major Element by Year.............................................................................55 36 Scenic Beauty by Winning Ad Agency Origin........................................................56 37 Surrealistic Visuals by Winning Ad Agency Origin................................................56 38 Spoken Tagline by Winning Ad Agency Origin......................................................56 39 Commercial Appeals by Winning Ad Agency Origin.............................................58 40 Commercial Format by Winning Ad Agency Origin...............................................60 41 Music Element by Winning Ad Agency Origin.......................................................61 42 Music Style by Winning Ad Agency Origin............................................................61 43 Music as a Major Element by Winning Ad Agency Origin.....................................62 ix

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication CREATIVE EXECUTION: CONTENT ANALYSIS OF CHINESE AWARD-WINNING TELEVISION COMMERCIALS IN 1997-2003 By Qichao Deng August, 2004 Chair: Dr. Marilyn Sue Roberts Major Department: Mass Communication China’s advertising industry embraced her fast development during the past decades. Now China plays a substantive role in the advertising industry, not only in Asia, but also around whole world due to its billion plus population base and subsequent amazing, potential purchasing power. Advertising, especially TV commercials, has come to be part of people’s daily life. Through content analysis of Chinese award-winning TV commercials from the 5 th to 10 th China Advertising Festival (1997 to 2003), this thesis research explored the frequent occurrence of certain creative and executional variables in the context of award-winning Chinese commercials. This was accomplished by adopting a variables analysis framework of television commercials developed by western scholars Stewart and Fuse. The quantitative content analysis was applied to achieve the results by coding those TV commercials on 28 variables embodying several major groups (visual devices, auditory devices, commercial appeal or selling proposition, commercial structure, x

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commercial format, commercial approach, commercial setting and music element) plus other peripheral ones including year, product category, brand origin, winning agency origin and judges’ background. Results showed the characteristics that a typical Chinese award-winning television commercial would possess are as follows: Beautiful characters Substantive supers Visual memory device and auditory mnemonic devices Product performance or benefit as main message or excitement, sensation, variety as commercial appeal Blind lead-in or humorous closing as commercial structure Demonstration of product in use or by analogy as commercial format Emotional and positive approach plus brand-differentiating message Modern Chinese indoor setting or Chinese local/landmark Contemporary Chinese music element Results also showed that relationships existed between peripheral variables (year and winning agency origin) and characteristic variables. xi

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Purpose of the Study Through content analysis of Chinese award-winning TV commercials from the 5 th to 10 th China Advertising Festival (1997 to 2003), the purpose of this study is to examine the typical characteristics composed in the award-winning Chinese commercials. The study well examines the occurrence of various creative and executional variables appearing in those commercial, which stand for the annual highest creativity and production standard in China advertising industry. In order to meet the goal for a cross-cultural perspective, this research is accomplished by adopting a variables-analysis framework of television commercials developed by Stewart and Furse (1986) in their most comprehensive research on Effective Television Advertising: A Study of 1000 Commercials. Significance of the Study China is one of the most vigorous advertising markets in Asia with an incredible growth rate in the past decades since it employed the national economic reform and open policy to the rest of the world in 1979. The economic reform implemented in China during the last two decades has significantly improved the living standards of the Chinese Mainland, as well as consumers’ buying potentials and consciousness of advertising in the daily life (Lai Man So, 2002, p.32). For instance, China’s advertising revenue increased to $14.5 billion by the end of 2003 according to Nielsen Media Research 2004. Among the $14.5 billion advertising revenue, TV commercials dominantly accounted for 1

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2 76%. TV commercials have become the most pervasive advertising type in Chinese people’s daily life. Meanwhile, the research interests on Chinese advertising are activated from the industry reality among the scholars. According to Leo and his colleagues (2000), over the 1979-1998 periods, research on Chinese advertising can be characterized into four major aspects: advertising environment, advertising content, advertising practices and effectiveness, and attitudes towards advertising. However, though examination of the advertising content has been a key area of research interest, the focus is limited to the cultural values, information content, and type of appeals manifested in advertisements. So far as the author knows, there has been little research on the creative tactics applied in Chinese advertisements, which author hopes to give due attention. Furthermore, there are few studies focusing on award-winning Chinese advertising, which deems to stand for the contemporary highest creativity and production standards in China advertising industry. Besides, most of previous studies are anchored in the context of China alone. There is really a demand of comparative focus as Leo et al (2000) suggested for future research: “the comparative focus can aim at cross-cultural application and validation of the western-based theories and models” (p.67). By adopting a variable-analysis framework of television commercials developed by American scholars Stewart and Furse (1986), this cross-culture study can shed light on how to make creative, as well as, effective advertising for contemporary Chinese consumers. Research Overview The chapters of this thesis are outlined as follows. Chapter 2 provides the literature review and consists of three parts. The first two parts discuss the advertising industry in

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3 China, especially in the past decade, and the China Advertising Festival (where the Chinese award winning advertising compete), respectively. Next a review of the literature on advertising creative executional factors including its early study, Stewart and Furse’s study, and research on award-winning advertising is presented. Chapter 3 proposes the variable-analysis framework, clarifies the operationalization of coding variables. Research questions are formulated and the content analysis design is laid out. Chapter 4 reports the findings of previous research questions. Interpretative results show the characteristics of Chinese awarding-winning TV commercials. Inferential results show the relationships existed between peripheral variables (year and winning agency origin) and characteristic variables. Chapter 5 discusses the findings, as well as the limitations of the study, and makes suggestions for future research.

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Overview of Advertising Industry in China China is located in East Asia. It holds the largest population in the world with 1.3 billion plus in an area of 9.6 million square kilometers. It borders with 14 countries such as Russia, India, Laos and Vietnam. Eastern China is densely inhabited by Chinese speaking people, who belong to the Han nationality and western China is scattered with other 55 ethnic minorities (Hook &Twitchett, 1991). The Chinese language, is also known as hanyu, usually refers to the standard language and its various dialects used by the majority nationality. Most of the minority nationalities have their own languages. The northern dialect is the most widely spoken dialect in China and forms the basis of Mandarin. It is the official language of the People’s Republic of China and Han nationality. Although the Chinese dialects are diversified, the written language is usually understood among the literate people (Xu, 1991, p.22). Advertising in China is both old and young. It is old because it has a very long history which can be tracked back to ancient China like Spring and Autumn period (770-476 B.C.) The advertising forms like shop banners and shop signboards started to appear then (Sun, 1991). Modern advertising in China dates back to the early of the twentieth century. The 1930s are regarded as the “old golden age” of Chinese advertising when the Kuomintang was in power of China. At that time, the list of advertising vehicles included newspaper, magazines, broadcasting, billboards, posters, neon signs, streetcars, booklets and calendars (Xu, 1991). 4

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5 Before the People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949, around 100 advertising agencies were in operation in Shanghai, with a few others in Beijing and Guangzhou. All these agencies added luster to the golden age of advertising in China. But this age was short-lived, truncated by World War II and the civil war of the 1940s (Xu, 1991). Advertising in China is young because the contemporary advertising industry in China did not begin to reconstruct until the year 1979, when China reopened its door to the rest of the world. During the Cultural Revolution (year 1966 to 1976), advertising was labeled as a capital evil reflective of the practices of capitalist businesses, and was officially banned in China. The limited advertisements in those days were mainly used for the purpose of political propaganda. Starting from 1979 when the national reforms and open policy began, advertising, again, has been called an accelerator for the economic development in China (Wang, 1991). Since then the Chinese advertising industry has experienced three phases of development as defined by Lai Man So (2002): Starting phase (1979-1991) During this period the advertising market was largely dominated by limited state-owned advertising. Foreign participation in the advertising industry was very limited. Most of the local advertisers had to follow the government’s instructions and use only appointed advertising agencies. Fast growth and development phase (1992-1993) Dramatic increase in advertising turnover, number of advertising agencies and number of professionals. The central government implemented a very liberal policy on the advertising industry which allowed foreign advertising agencies to set up joint ventures in China.

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6 Control and Implementation Phase (1994-present) Although most of the largest international advertising agencies have joint ventures or representative offices in China, the approval of advertising agencies has higher requirements as under the control of the central government. The central government has tight control on the creative of advertising. (p.33) During the starting period, the annual advertising business volumes rose at an average rate of over 40 percent between 1981 and 1992 (Cheng, 1996). In 1992, the Chinese government declared that “China’s advertising industry is witnessing its fastest growth ever” (Parsons, 1993). One year later, due to the astonishing growing speed of the advertising industry in the country, 1993 was named the “Advertising Year of China” (Fan, 1994), which highlighted the fast growth period. In terms of total advertising expenditure, China ranked 36 th in 1990 in the world and climbed to the 15 th in 1993 (Zhongguo Daobao, 1994), and jumped to 9 th in 1997, with ad spending of $5.6 billion (Song & Wong, 1998). Today, advertising in China is ubiquitous. Advertising is one of the fastest growing industries in China for the past decades. The rapid growth of the China advertising industry is expected to continue. The Chinese mainland’s advertising market grew to be Asia’s largest in 2000, outranking even Hong Kong and Taiwan in both volume and growth rate. According to the statistics from Asian Advertising and Marketing, the advertising expenditure in Mainland China 2000 was $9.692 billion, which represented the highest growth rate (208%), and the highest ad spending in the region (2000). After the millennium, industry statistics from China’s advertising industry annual report indicates that the number of advertising agencies increased by 14.31% to 89,552 by the end of 2002 , participants increased by 6.68% to 756,414. The advertising revenue hit 90,314,644,300 ( equal to about $ 10.909 billions) with a growth of 13.62%,

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7 accounted for 0.89% of gross national product(GNP) of the country. There were also five main trends in 2002: First, advertising agencies kept developing fast. Second, mass media operation totally increased. Third, the real estate industry led in advertising spending. Fourth, regional gap was still obvious while some regions had great growth. Fifth, advertising market order became better (China Advertising Association, 2002). The latest industry statistics from the Nielsen Media Research 2004 indicates that advertising revenue increased by more than 30% to $14.5 billion by the end of 2003. Among the $14.5 billion advertising revenue, 76% goes to TV commercials, 22% goes to newspaper ads, and rest 2% goes to Radio, Internet and others. In 2003, 8 out of top 10 advertisers in China were local ones. They continue to be the major drive of China domestic advertising market. ZenithOptimedia from Public Group estimated the rate of increase in the Chinese advertising industry exceeded many other major markets in the world in 2003 (e.g. U.S. advertising revenue increased by about 3% in 2003). China advertising expenditure currently ranked 5th in world, and expected to be the No.2 in 10 years only after U.S. market (China Advertising Report, 2004). Overview of the China Advertising Festival Ratified by SAIC (State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs in the P.R. of China) and sponsored by China Advertising Association, the China Advertising Festival is the largest and most authoritative national advertising exhibition in China. Founded in 1986 in Beijing, it was first named the National Excellent Advertisement Show and held every three years in elected cities.

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8 From 1997, in demand of the fast growth rate in the industry, the show was held every other year. In 2000 it was renamed the China Advertising Festival and held annually. The festival incorporates the nation’s most professional and influential advertising competition, media enterprises exhibitions, supplier equipment exhibitions, business communications, academic forum and international advertising shows and lectures. The festival has witnessed the development of China’s advertising industry and also builds up communications and cooperation between the domestic industry and multinationals. The highlight each year is the China Advertising Awards. The awards goes to the annual best print, TV commercial, radio and outdoor advertisings selected from sixteen product categories, as well as the non-profit. All the advertising entries are sent for competition by the corresponding advertising agencies (both locally-owned 4As and international 4As affiliations) across whole nation from majority of provinces, municipalities and cities with approval of their clients and required to be published in the mass media before the entry. The finalists are selected by a judging committee made of prestigious experts from advertising academy and industry. For each product category, Gold, Silver, and Bronze Awards are selected among the finalists. And also one exclusive Grand Prix Award is awarded across categories. The China Advertising Awards stand for the highest annual creativity and production standards in China advertising industry (China Advertising Association, 2002). Advertising Creative Executional Factors Early Study The advertising message consists of two major elements: creative strategy and execution. Creative strategy focuses on the “what to say in advertising” as Frazer (1983)

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9 defined: “Creative strategy is a policy or guiding principle which specifies the general nature and character of messages.” Execution relies on the art of “how to say the message”. For the researchers who initiated the study on advertising content in the early stage, it is difficult to classify these two elements are absolutely separated. Ogilvy criticized the criteria for a good advertisement in his well known book Confession of an Advertising Man. A good ad “sells the product without drawing attention to itself”. He suggests not purposely writing the sort of commercial that would win awards because those that do win always seem to be draw attention to themselves, while advertisements that really sell don’t. He also advises usage of supers to repeat promises in the commercial and avoiding blind lead-ins. In addition, he confesses the power of mood-inducing and emotion-provoking commercials (Ogilvy 1963).Those comments are really sagacious, yet not in systematic status. Simon (1971, p.174-183) introduced a classification system of creative strategies, which consists ten categories as followed as Information, Argument, Command, Imitation, Obligation, Habit-starting, Repeated Assertion, Brand Familiarization, Symbolic Association, and Motivation with Psychological Appeals. This classification provide a useful instruction for choosing the most effective types of advertisements across various market and product/brand characteristics. However, his categories are not just classified by strategy alone; they also inevitably apply some executional criteria. Shimp (1976) developed a more mature typology of the multiple methods of commercial structure and attempted to uncover a pattern (the methods of message presentation) among national television commercials considered to be highly creative.

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10 This typology was constructed by collapsing the eleven structural types into the four general categories of commercial presentation and is shown as followed (p.32): Individual-Oriented: 1. Celebrity Endorser(s) 2. Typical Person Endorser(s) 3. Spokesman (en) 4. Personality (ies) Story-Oriented: 5. Video Drama (Off-Camera Sales Massage) 6. Video Drama (Sales Message by Performers) 7. Narration Product-Oriented: 8. Demonstration 9. Product Display and/or Performance Technique-Oriented: 10. Fantasy 11. Analogy The typology was tested on a sample of 243 script-form commercials. The findings indicated that individualand story-oriented structures dominated more than 75 percent of the sampled commercials. Shimp’s primary contribution is not only the finding, but also the creation of an operational typology of TV commercial message structure. This offered promising applications for future advertising researchers. Stewart and Furse’s Study Stewart and Furse (1986) summarized an extensive research result regarding the content analysis of 1000 television commercials in their book, Effective Television Advertising. In the study they expected to find what is meant by an executional device of advertising, and how to measure the “effectiveness” of a television commercial’s performance based on consumers’ related recall, comprehension, and persuasion. They developed a very comprehensive executional coding system which initiated a preliminary

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11 pool of 193 unique executional items. About 155 of them were modified and refined based on a pretest. This set of 155 items represented the following categories of executional items, forms, and devices: (Stewart & Furse, p.20.) Information content, Brand/product identification, Setting, Visual and auditory devices, Promises/appeals/propositions, Tone/atmosphere, Comparisons, Music and dancing, Structure and format, Characters, Timing and counting measures Findings indicate that variables such as substantive supers, attributes or ingredients as main message, and direct comparison with competitors were negatively related to recall. Whereas, variables associated with obtaining attention, repetition, length of exposure, memory and vividness of information were positively related to recall. As for the persuasion effect, male principle character, background cast, outdoor setting and others were negatively related to it. On the other hand, items like demonstration format (product use, and results), family-branded products, and no principle character showed positive relationships with the effect. Ultimately, brand differentiating message was found to be the most important executional factor for explaining both recall and persuasion of a product in the commercial (Stewart & Furse, 1986). Stewart and Koslow (1989) replicated this study with highly internal validity results related to the original robust findings. Authors argued that although the use of brand-differentiating message and a strong product focus were consistently found to show a positive impact on measures of recall, comprehension, and persuasion, “it is also true that no one executional

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12 factor accounts for much of the total variance of any of the measures of advertising effectiveness” (Stewart & Koslow, 1989, p30). Award-Winning Advertising The topic of the award-winning advertising originated from the research of the world known Clio advertising festival winning TV commercials several decades ago. There was a trend in the field to study the form of a TV commercial separated from its content. That is to say, the form of a TV commercial itself structures the message in ways that are independent from the content. Ernst (1980) analyzed the specific features of Clio-Winning commercials from U.S and international categories between 1976 and 1977, involving in structuring the visual image and the change in visual image. He planned to count the occurrence of such basic transition techniques as cuts and other use of special effect production techniques such as zooms, fades and others. The researcher’s findings led to several conclusions that both U.S and international TV commercials used “cuts” as a predominate transition technique. Also U.S. commercials were more likely to use special effects, while international commercials use more basic transitions. Another study by Reid et al. (1985) analyzed the methods of presentation used in Clio-winning television commercials based on the typology developed by Shimp (1976). They expected to see the similarities and differences between the U.S. and international commercials. They found international commercials were more likely to use a “fantasy” method of presence. This structure means that commercials tend to employ imaginative and un-natural plot and /or characterization such as animated characters, talking animals, and dreams in which the product is the object of the dream, etc. (Shimp, 1976). As for the similarities, they argued that commercials both from U.S. and international deemed to be

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13 highly creative were more likely to use “fantasy,” “analogy” (the structure applies to those commercials in which the advertised product is compared, by analogy, to an unrelated item), and “video drama off-camera sales message”(the structure applies to those commercials in which a drama is performed on video, but the primary sales message delivered by an off-camera announcer) (Shimp, 1976). Gagnard and Morris (1988) compared the Stewart and Furse (1986) findings with the Clio advertising trends through an extensive content analysis of Clio-winning commercials from 1975-1985 on 151 executional variables. Their study revealed that a relative scarcity of brand-differentiating claims in Clios, which were shown to have very positive relationship with recall and persuasion in Stewart and Furse study. They concluded that the characteristic of Cilo award-winning commercial would not test well using accepted industry procedures. In another study Gagnard (1989) employed the findings of Stewart and Furse (1986) to compare those commercials and the Clio winning ones with a focus only on the elements of timing and repetition. Her findings suggested that certain creative approaches such as the blind lead-in and postponed product identification, which are inclined to low the effectiveness of commercials in industry test, yet were generally considered to be “creative”. She noted there were differences in elements of repetition and timing possessed by those “successful” commercials and award-winning commercials (Gagnard, 1989). On the other hand, there has been little research on Chinese award-winning advertising. McIntyre and Wei (1998) conducted a longitudinal study on the value changes in Chinese advertisements over 17 year period (1979 to 1995). Their sample, as

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14 far as author knows, was one of few selected from Chinese award-winning advertising. In their study, among more than 29 operational definitions of Western and Eastern cultural values, “Information” that was found to be dominant cultural value when China initially allowed advertising practice. Decreasing significantly in frequency recently in other utilitarian advertising were the values of “convenience,” “economy,” “quality,”or “effectiveness.” On the other hand, Western values like “competition,” “individualism,” “modernity” and “sex” were frequently manifested in advertisements. They conclude that there was an increasing diversity of cultural values embodied in Chinese ads over time. The Eastern values modestly decreased, while the Western values revealed a large increase. “The shifting cultural values in Chinese ads suggest that Chinese advertising is moving closer to the Western model in selling not just products, but also lifestyle” (p.38). However, they also mentioned that the results should be interpreted with caution as only those award-winning ads (mainly created by larger agencies in the China coastal regions and to be more likely westernized then) were selected as samples. As far as author knows, this longitudinal study was the only previous study which focused on Chinese award-winning TV commercials. However, its sampling frame was limited to the 1 st to 4 th (1986-1995) Chinese Advertising Festival, which named the National Excellent Advertisement Show. Since 1997 (5 th China Advertising Festival), the quantity of entries, as well as the whole competition system, has improved significantly. Furthermore, it studied nothing more than culture values reflected in those advertisements. Creative tactics were not examined. The purpose of author’s study will focus on the characteristics of Chinese award-winning creative elements.

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Variable-Analysis Framework Variables There will be 28 variables coded for Chinese award-wining TV commercials in this study. Numerous variables will be classified into nine categories: visual devices, auditory devices, commercial appeal or selling proposition, commercial structure, commercial format, commercial approach, commercial setting and music element plus other peripheral ones including year, product category, brand origin, winning agency origin and the judge’s backgrounds. The following coding scheme is a more comprehensive list of the operational definitions of each variable from the categories respectively. The coding framework is adapted from codebook in the study of Stewart and Furse (1986, pp. 131-143). One point worthy of mention is that if certain commercial fits into more than one operational definition in a particular coding category, the commercial will be coded for the most predominated one. Coding Categories and Operational Definitions Visual devices Scenic beauty: Does the commercial present striking scenes of natural beauty (mountains, flowing streams) at some point? Beauty of characters: Does the commercials present one or more strikingly beautiful people? 15

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16 Ugliness of characters: Does the commercial present one or more striking ugly characters? Graphic display: Does the commercials use graphic displays or charts as part of its presentation? Such graphic may be computer generated. Surrealistic visuals: Does the commercial present unreal visuals, distorted visuals, fantastic scenes like a watch floating through outer space? Substantive supers: A superscript (words on the screen) used to reinforce some characteristic of the product or a part of the commercial message –for example, 50% stronger,” out of 4 doctors recommend.” Visual tagline: A visually presented statement of new information at the end of the commercial; for example, the screen shows the name of participating dealers or another product that was not the focus of the commercial shown. Corporate logos or slogans do not qualify. Use of visual memory device: Any devices shown that reinforces product benefit, the product name, or the message delivered by the commercial –for example, time release capsules bouncing in the air, the word Jello spelled out with Jello Gelatin. Auditory devices Memorable rhymes, slogans, or mnemonic devices: Nonmusical rhymes or other mnemonics may be incorporated in lyrics of a song, but must also stand alone, apart from music. Unusual sound effects: Out of place, unusual, or bizarre use of sound – for example, the sound of a jackhammer as someone eats a pretzel.

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17 Spoken tagline: A statement at the end of the commercial that presents new information usually unrelated to the principal focus of the commercial – for example, “And try new lime flavor too.” Commercial appeals or selling proposition Attribute or ingredients as main message: A major focus of the commercial is to communicate something about how the product is made (for example, car in manufacturing) or ingredients (for example, the only toothpaste with stannous fluoride). Product performance or benefits as main message: A major focus of the commercial is to communicate what the product does (for example, shinier tub, fresher breath, whiter teeth) or how to use it. Psychological or subjective benefits of product ownership: A major focus of the commercial is to communicate hidden or nonprovable benefits of having/using the product (for example, “you’ll be more popular, sexier, or more confident”). Product reminder as main message: The product or package is the primary message rather than any specific attribute or benefit of use. Sexual appeal: Main focus of commercial is on sexual cues. Comfort appeals: Main focus of commercial is on cues appealing to creature comforts (soft chairs, cool climate). Safety appeals: Main focus of commercial is on cues appealing to being free from fear or physical danger. Enjoyment appeals: Main focus of commercial is on cues about enjoying life to the fullest, having good food and drink, and so on. Welfare appeals: Main focus is on caring or providing for others (for example, gift giving).

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18 Social approval: Main focus of commercial is on belonging, winning friends, obtaining approval of others. Self-esteem or self-image: Main focus of commercial is on feeling better about oneself, improving oneself, being a better person. Achievement: Main focus of commercial is on obtaining superiority over others, getting ahead, winning. Excitement, sensation, variety: Main focus of commercial is on adding excitement, thrills, variety to life, avoiding boredom. Commercial structure Front-end impact: The first 10 seconds of the commercial creates suspense, questions, surprise, drama, or something that otherwise gains attention. Surprise or suspense in middle of commercial: Something surprising, dramatic, or suspenseful occurs in the middle of the commercial. Surprise or suspense at closing: Commercial ends with a surprise, an unexpected event, suspense, or drama. Unusual setting or situation: Product is in setting not normally associated with product purchase or use-for example, a car on top of a mountain, a contemporary wine in ancient Greece. Humorous closing: Commercial ends with a joke, pun, witticism, or slapstick. Blind lead-in: No identification of product until the end of the commercial. Commercial format Vignettes: a series of two or more stories that could stand alone; no continuing storyline but several independent stories (which may convey the same message). Multiple interviews would be an example. Has no continuity of action.

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19 Continuity of action: Commercial has a single storyline throughout with an obvious beginning, middle, and end; a common theme, character, or issue ties the whole commercial together from beginning to end. This may be an interview with a single individual, slice or life, or any other format that involves continuity of action. Slice of life: An interplay between two or more people that portrays a conceivable real-life situation. There is continuity of action. Testimonial by product user: One or more individuals recounts his or her satisfaction with the product advertised or the results of using the product advertised – for example, Bill Cosby for Jello Pudding. Endorsement by celebrity or authority: One or more individuals (or organizations) advocates or recommends the product but does not claim personal use of satisfaction. Announcement: Commercial’s format is that of a newscast or sportscast, sales announcement. Demonstration of product in use or by analogy: A demonstration of the product in use-for example, a man shaving in a commercial for shaving lather, women applying makeup. A demonstration of the use of the product, benefit, or product characteristic by an analogy or device rather than actual demonstration. Demonstration of results of using product: Demonstration of the outcome of using the product – for example, shining floors, bouncing hair. Comedy or satire: The commercial is written as a comedy, parody, or satire. Not only is humor an element of the commercial, but also the commercial is written to be funny.

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20 Animation/cartoon/rotoscope: The entire commercial or some substantial part of the commercial is animated. A rotoscope is a combination of real life and animation on the screen at the same time – for example, the Trix Rabbit. Photographic stills: The use of photographic stills in part of the commercial. These may be product shots, settings, or models. Creation of mood or image as dominant element: An attempt to create a desire for the product, without offering a specific product claim by appealing to the viewer’s emotional/sensory involvement. The primary thrust of the commercial is the creation of a feeling or mood. Commercial written as serious drama: The commercial is written as a stage play, melodrama, or tragedy. Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element: The use of animation or other visual device instead of a realistic treatment to suspend disbelief or preclude literal translation on the part of the viewer. Problem and solution (before/after presentation): An attempt to define or show a problem, then indicate how the product eliminates or reduces the problem. Interview (person on the street or elsewhere): An interview (Q&A) is a primary vehicle in the commercial. Camera involves audience in situation: Use of camera as eyes of viewer. Camera creates participation in commercial. New wave (product graphics): Use of poster-like visuals, fast cuts, high symbolism as in Diet Pepsi.

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21 Commercial approach Rational approach: A fairly straightforward presentation of the product’s attributes and claims. Emotional approach: An emotional appeal does not appeal to reason but to feelings. Balance of rational and emotional: An appeal counterpoising of rational and emotional. Positive approach: The appeal to buy or use the product is based on what it will do for the consumer, the benefit offered, how the user will be better off. Negative approach: The appeal is based on what happen to the consumer if he or she does not buy the product or what will not happen if the product is used ( for example, wax floors won’t yellow). Balance of positive and negative: An appeal counterpoising of positive and negative. Brand-differentiating message: Is the principle message of the commercial unique to the product being advertised, or could any product make this claim? The commercial must make it clear that the message is unique; that is, the commercial must explicitly indicate the uniqueness or difference of the product. Commercial setting Indoor: Is the commercial setting, or a significant part of it, indoors or in other human made structures (for example, a kitchen, garage, office, stadium, airplane)? Outdoors: Is the commercial setting, or a significant part of it, outdoors (mountain, rivers, backyard, garden, or other natural setting)? Do not include unnatural environments such as stadium or home driveway.

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22 No setting: There is no particular setting for the commercial; the setting is neutral, neither indoor nor outdoors. Music Music: Is music present in the commercial in any form? Music as a major element: Do the lyrics of the music used in the commercial carry a product message? Research Questions Based on the previous literature review and established variable-analysis framework, the current study will establish the following Research Questions (RQ) 1 to 10 to explore the characteristics of a typical Chinese award-winning TV commercial and the specific frequency of occurrence of certain variables according to the respective categories. Furthermore, RQ11 and 12 will take a further step to test any possible relationship between two peripheral variables (year and winning ad agency type) and the other 25 executional variables. RQ1: What are the dominant characteristics of Chinese award-winning television commercials in terms of the 9 categories and 28 variables identified in the coding framework? RQ2: How does the specific occurrence of various peripheral elements appear in these commercials in terms of year, product category, brand origin, winning agency origin and judge backgrounds? RQ3: How does the specific occurrence of creative/executional elements appear in these commercials in terms of their visual devices? RQ4: How does the specific occurrence of creative/executional elements appear in these commercials in terms of their auditory devices?

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23 RQ5: How does the specific occurrence of creative/executional elements appear in these commercials in terms of their appeal or selling proposition? RQ6: How does the specific occurrence of creative/executional elements appear in these commercials in terms of their structure? RQ7: How does the specific occurrence of creative/executional elements appear in these commercials in terms of their format? RQ8: How does the specific occurrence of creative/executional elements appear in these commercials in terms of their approach? RQ9: How does the specific occurrence of creative/executional elements appear in these commercials in terms of their setting? RQ10: How does the specific occurrence of creative/executional elements appear in these commercials in terms of their music element? RQ11: Which creative/executional element(s) is/are significantly influenced across the six-year period (1997-2003)? RQ12: Which creative/executional element(s) is/are significantly influenced by the winning ad agency origin (local or multinational affiliation)? Content Analysis Design The purpose of the current study is to explore the typical characteristics of award-winning Chinese commercials and to determine the occurrence of various creative, executional variables appearing in those commercial based on the comparison with commercials tested in the Stewart and Furse (1986) study. This empirical study will supposedly infer whether those commercials judged with high creativity also emerged to contain notable techniques and common characteristics verified to be high in

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24 effectiveness based on industry testing. In order to answer the proposed research questions, the research method of content analysis will be applied. Quantitative content analysis is the “systematic and replicable examination of symbols of communication, which have been assigned numeric values according to valid measurement rules, and the analysis of relationship involving those values using statistical methods, in order to describe the communication, draw inferences about its meaning, or infer from the communication to its context, both of production and consumption” (Riffe et al., 1998, p. 20). Since the purpose of this study is to look into certain advertising messages as communication content, content analysis serves as an appropriate manner to build the quantitative observation of the given body (award-winning television commercials) at continuous points in time (1997-2003) to be analyzed systematically and objectively (Wimmer and Dominick, 2003). Unit of Analysis The unit of this study is the single award-winning TV commercial in the 5 th to 10 th China Advertising Festival (1997-2003), which summed up to a sample of three hundred and sixty three commercials. The total number was split by 13 product categories such as savory food, beverage, household appliance, and personal care and so on, as well as the non-profit. As the current study mainly focuses on commercial advertising, the non-profit winning ones, which totally 59, were excluded prior to analysis. This left 304 commercials. Furthermore, due to some technical problems in viewing the video materials, ten of them were unable to be coded. The final usable sample consisted of 294

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25 commercials that either won a Gold, Silver, or Bronze Awards. Thus, the sample composes the entire universe of winners from 1997-2003. The sample also excluded those from 1 st to 4 th China National Excellent Advertisement Show. The rationale to not include the first four shows and begin with 1997 (the 5 th China Advertising Festival) is that it was the watershed for this Chinese domestic advertising competition. Before that time, the festival was held every three years in elected cities. From 1997 forward, in demand of the fast growth rate in the domestic advertising industry, the show began being held every other year, and later in 2000 it was renamed the annual China Advertising Festival. Sampling Design This study is specified to those commercials that won awards in their corresponding categories in China Advertising Festival. The population of the sample is a given body of collections. The sample accounted for 80.9% of the whole population of award-winning TV commercials from 1997-2003. The remaining were 16.3% of non-profit winning ones, and 2.8% had technical problems in viewing. Those two parts were deleted from the sample before the content analysis. Each year, the China Advertising Festival organizational committee published the annual China Advertising Festival award-winning works albums right after the festival. The annual collection book contains the following three parts. It begins with the preface and the greeting from the head of China Advertising Association, followed by the introduction of the judges’ names and backgrounds. The body of the book lists hundreds of winners and finalists from total sixteen product/service categories respectively in the order of four major advertising vehicles (print, TV commercial, radio and outdoor).

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26 Basically, all the winners and finalists were listed in a profile including the ad itself, its awards class, its ID number, name of ad, name of advertiser, name of advertising agency and names of the creative teams. All the winning and finalist print ads are displayed. All the photos taken for the outdoor advertising winners are illustrated. As for the radio winning ones, the transcripts are shown. As for the winning TV commercials, the major slides of each commercial were selected to be displayed. The last part of the annual collection book encloses VCDs (a Chinese modified DVD format) featuring the video part of the TV commercials winners and auditory part of winning radio advertisings as the supplemental materials. The researcher has attained those VCDs featuring the award-winning TV commercials part from 5 th to 10 th China Advertising Festival (1997-2003). The final sample of 294 winning commercials (which won Gold, Silver, or Bronze Awards) were collected from their corresponding year of VCDs and coded into database one by one after excluding the finalist ones. Intercoder Reliability Two coders were used for the content analysis design. The researcher served as the primary coder. The second coder was also a Chinese and a bilingual student. Before the initial coding procedure, the secondary coder was trained in both coding category system and procedure sessions to achieve the satisfied reliability. The level of acceptance (i.e. intercoder reliability) used Scott’s Pi formula amongst coders: Pi = (% observed agreement % expected agreement) / (1% expected agreement) To obtain the intercoder reliability, two coders practiced coding for a sample of 10 percent of the commercials (about 30 single commercial units) in this study. The two

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27 coders compared their coding results for the 10 percent sample on 28 variables. Reliabilities figures in the .80 to .90 are considered acceptable (Wimmer & Dominick, 2003). Intercoder reliability of the pre-coding procedure was finally found to be 95%. Data Analysis Data was entered and calculated using the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS release 11.0). Chi-squares were run to determine if statistically significant relationships existed in 28 variables of the 294 commercials. (Brunig & Kintz, 1996). Chi-square was also be used to test the significance of difference between two peripheral variables (year and winning ad agency type) and other 25 executional variables. A z-score that was found to be greater than or equal to 1.96 or less than or equal to -1.96 would be considered as significant at the 0.05 level.

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CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS Description of the Sample Based on the findings of the current study, a profile of the typical Chinese winning advertising can be offered. This can answer the general question of what the dominant characteristics of Chinese award-winning television commercials are in terms of their 9 categories and 28 variables. Specifically, the qualities will be described in following details as the characteristics of the Chinese advertising industry’s recognition of creative distinction. The study content analyzed 28 variables into several major groups including visual devices, auditory devices, commercial appeal or selling proposition, commercial structure, commercial format, commercial approach, commercial setting and music element besides other peripheral ones. The total sample included 294 award-winning Chinese TV commercials among which the unit of analysis was the each commercial. Peripheral Elements RQ2: How does the specific occurrence of various peripheral elements appear in these commercials in terms of year, product category, brand origin, winning agency origin and judge backgrounds? The first five variables examined were peripheral elements regarding to the Chinese award-winning TV commercials which included year, product category, brand origin, winning agency origin and judges’ background as follows. Table 1 shows the number of TV commercial winners in China Advertising Festival for a six-year period. In 1997, there were only 21 received awards. This number 28

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29 increased to 33 by 1999. Between 2000 and 2002, the numbers of winners were 43, 46 and 45, respectively. Due to the fact that the number of entries was significantly increased by about 21% than the previous year, the year 2003 dramatically hold 106 winners, which made up 36.1% of the whole 294 winning samples. This number also was increased by about 22% than year 2002. Table 1 Frequency of the Chinese TV Commercials Winners per Year Year Frequency of Winners Percent of Awards Winning Ratio out of Finalists 1997 21 7.1 27.3 1999 33 11.2 21.7 2000 43 14.6 28.9 2001 46 15.6 28.8 2002 45 15.3 28.6 2003 106 36.1 67.9 Total 294 100.0 100.0 The winning ratio out of the finalists was another index examined. As the exclusive Chinese domestic advertising award, which stands for the highest annual creativity and production standard in China advertising industry, the criteria of those finalists are very comprehensive. As shown in Table 1 above, between 1997 and 2002, the winning ratio out of the finalists consistently kept around 20 percents. The year 2003 was a significant year in which about 70% of finalists received a particular award. However, the winning ratio in that year still kept extraordinarily low as 4% out of the total entries. There were a total 13 product categories from which the finalists competed. Table 2 summarizes the proportions of each. The leading three categories across those 6 years were 47 beverage commercials (16.0%), 41 business equipment & services commercials (13.9%), and 31 savory food category winners (10.5%). The remaining 10 categories were each less than 10% and the least category was tourism & recreation winners of 6 (2%).

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30 Table 2 Frequency of Product Category Product Category Frequency Percent Corporate Image 23 7.8 Electronic Equipment 17 5.8 Savory Food 31 10.5 Beverage 47 16.0 Household Appliance/Furnishings 19 6.5 Personal Care 27 9.2 Business Equipment & Services 41 13.9 Pharmaceuticals 23 7.8 Financial Service 12 4.1 Real Estate 19 6.5 Automotive Product & Services 16 5.4 Tourism & Recreation 6 2.0 Others 13 4.4 Total 294 100.0 Table 3 indicates the frequency of the brand origin among 294 samples. Domestic commercials dominated with 187 winners (63.6 %) and covered those brands from Greater China, which included Mainland, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. The next highest percentage of winners was for American brands (e.g. Coca-Cola, Motorola, Nike, GM and P&G), which were 69 winners (23.5%). The remaining winners were European and Asia & Pacific brands (from Korean, Japan, Singapore, etc.) that were far less than 10%, of the total sample respectively, 7.1% and 5.8%. Table 3 Frequency of Brand Origin Brand Origin Frequency Percent Domestic 187 63.6 Asia and Pacific 17 5.8 American 69 23.5 European 21 7.1 Total 294 100.0 In terms of the origin of winning advertising agencies (Table 4), nearly 60% of the winning TV commercials were from international 4As advertising agencies like Ogilvy

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31 and Mather, Leo Burnett, Bates, McCann-Erickson, TBWA, and Grey China affiliations, which are located in the three biggest cities in China: Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. The remaining 40.5% were from China domestic advertising agencies. Specifically, Table 4 also demonstrates the transition from domestic winners to multinational-dominated winners in the six-year period. In 1997 and 1999, domestic agencies still took the majority of award-winners. For instance, 17 (out of 21) local winners dominated in 1997. The year 2000 was important. For the first time, international 4As agencies won more awards than domestic finalists, though the competition was very tight with 23 to 20 in terms of quantity of winners. Since then international 4A agencies have continued this trend. By 2003, the number of international winners almost doubled the domestic ones. Table 4 Frequency of Winning AD Agency Origin Winning AD Agency Origin Year Domestic International Total 1997 17 4 21 1999 20 13 33 2000 20 23 43 2001 15 31 46 2002 11 34 45 2003 36 70 106 Total 119 175 294 Percent 40.5 59.5 100 The last peripheral variable that researcher coded was the judges’ background (Table 5). As the exclusive domestic advertising awards standing for the highest annual creativity and production standard in China advertising industry, it is very logical that the majority of judges pool were domestic, either prestigious academic scholars or industry professionals. Even though judges with international backgrounds were minor, an increasing number can be seen across the 6 years of the sample. By 2003, 10 of 27 judges were from international 4As background, nearly 40%. One thing worthy of mention was

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32 that due to the language and culture barrier, rarely foreign judges from other cultures were invited. All judges with international background in the festival were mostly from Greater China, such as Hong Kong, Taiwan or Singapore. One exception was that of Mr.Chares, as the only European invited as a judge in 9 th China Advertising Festival (2002). However, he was the general manager then of Saatchi &Saatchi Beijing with a solid understanding of Chinese culture and language. Table 5 Frequency of Judges’ Background Judges’ Background Year Domestic 4As background International 4As background 1997 11 3 1999 10 3 2000 10 5 2001 16 5 2002 13 8 2003 17 10 Total 77 34 Characteristics of Chinese Award-Winning TV Commercials Twenty three variables examined the major characteristic elements of the Chinese award-winning TV commercials which covered several major groups including visual devices, auditory devices, commercial appeal or selling proposition, commercial structure, commercial format, commercial approach, commercial setting and music element. Visual devices RQ3: How does the specific occurrence of creative/executional elements appearing in these commercials in terms of their visual devices? Nine variables were content analyzed in the following visual device category. Scenes of natural beauty were present in less than one-third (26.2%) of winning commercials (Table 6). Frequent scenic elements included sky, mountains and sea. etc.

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33 However, greater than two-thirds of the winners lacked natural beauty; instead many were set in indoor environments, which will be discussed later. Table 6 Frequency of Scenic Beauty Scenic Beauty Frequency Percent Presence 77 26.2 Absence 217 73.8 Total 294 100.0 Table 7 and Table 8 show presence of the beautiful and ugly characters, respectively. Commercials which covered one or more strikingly beautiful people (either male/female or both) were present in two-thirds of the winners. Good-looking models (men, women and children) were highly involved in many commercials. Celebrities were frequently seen in commercials as beautiful characters to promote products or services. Ugly characters were mostly absent from the 294 sample of commercials. Only 12.6% of winning commercials contained some strikingly ugly characters. One commercial from 1999 invited a famous TV comic clown to promote a indigestion-free medicine. Another had a well-known skit actor played in a comedy to advertise the home entertainment center. Table 7 Frequency of Beautiful Characters Beautiful Objects/Characters Frequency Percent Presence 193 65.6 Absence 101 34.4 Total 294 100.0 Table 8 Frequency of Ugly Characters Ugly Objects/Characters Frequency Percent Presence 37 12.6 Absence 257 87.4 Total 294 100.0

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34 Graphic displays were only present in 34.4% of total TV commercials (Table 9). They were included in commercials as displays or charts as part of presentation. With the high involvement of computer technology in the advertising production, more and more were partly computer generated. A series of commercials for Trium cellphone showed the trace left by a plane in the sky, a ski board in the snow, and a sail boat on the lake to make the analogy of the beautiful curve of the cellphone body design. It ended with the same slogan as “The simple, the best”. Some commercials used computer graphics to achieve the surrealistic effect. Table 9 Frequency of Graphic Display Graphic Display Frequency Percent Presence 101 34.4 Absence 193 65.6 Total 294 100.0 Table 10 Frequency of Surrealistic Visuals Surrealistic Visuals Frequency Percent Presence 73 24.8 Absence 221 75.2 Total 294 100.0 Surrealistic visuals were largely absent in 294 coded commercials (Table 10). About three-fourths were absent, while 73 (24.8%) were present. Surrealistic visuals could be unreal visuals, distorted visuals or fantastic visuals. One winning commercial from 1997, for a chicken flavored cookie, computerized the cookie packaging into a live chicken outline. The mom and son kept trying to catch it before they tasted it. Another example from 2000 for the Hainan Airline transformed the clouds seen from the window of airplane into a clock (which symbolized the on-time service), a telephone (which

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35 symbolized the convenient ticket booking system), and a drink cup (which symbolized the comfortable boarding service). Substantive supers were largely found in 70.4% of the winning commercials (Table 11). Many of them were in the form of superscript (words on the screen) used to reinforce some characteristic of the product/service or as an element of the commercial message. One good example was the Golden Award winner from 1997 for a local purified water brand. The commercial opened with a shot of a drop of water falling in the air. The supers appeared in twenty seven lines which moved quickly with the drop of falling water. Each super line indicated a step to filtrate a certain different impure item in water. A voiceover followed, “We are always trying hard to bring impurity out of every drop of your drinking water, totally 27 steps”. The final shot showed the product with the super again, “Real purity, quality guarantee”. Table 11 Frequency of Substantive Supers Substantive Supers Frequency Percent Presence 207 70.4 Absence 87 29.6 Total 294 100.0 Table 12 summarizes the language usage in the sample of winning commercials. Among the Chinese national advertising award winners, Chinese Mandarin was significantly employed in 269 (91.5%) of 294 commercials. It was followed by those employed in Mandarin and English (12 as 4.1%), Cantonese (9 as 3.1%) and English (4 as 1.4%). The English-only tactic was the latest strategy targeting specific Chinese audiences. One local real estate commercial invited an Austrian architect as authority to promote a high end community to targeted social elite. Another Silver Award winner from 2003 for Passat car depicted the scene of a successful Chinese businessman and his

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36 unique driving experiences in one European country. A voiceover announced, “With achievement, comes happiness”, “In the happiness, comes peace”. “At that moment, all you hear is the sound of wind”. Backgrounded by a famous English Jazz song, the commercial ended with the super “On the road is more meaningful than the destination”. Obviously this ad targeted those affluent Chinese elite who received higher education with a bilingual background. Table 12 Frequency Language Usage Language Usage Frequency Percent Chinese Mandarin 269 91.5 Cantonese 9 3.1 English 4 1.4 Both Chinese and English 12 4.1 Total 294 100.0 Visual taglines were mostly absent, and found in about a quarter of the award-winning commercials (Table 13). Visual taglines in this analysis only referred to those visually presented statements of new information at the end of the commercials. Thus, corporate logos or slogans do not qualify. The commercials that applied visual taglines mainly were from the food and beverage category. One Golden Award winner from 2003, for McDonalds, ended with introduction of five different colored cups for soft drinks in a promotion period. Another beverage commercial in 1999 ended with a new oolong flavor product icon besides the green tea flavor one advertised in the commercial. Table 13 Frequency of Visual Tagline Visual Tagline Frequency Percent Presence 82 27.9 Absence 212 72.1 Total 294 100.0

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37 The entire 294 sample commercials each applied some kind of visual memory device to reinforce product benefits, the product name, or the message delivered by the commercials (Table 14). Most of the commercials ended with a product icon, a corporate logo, or a slogan as the final shot. Table 14 Frequency of Visual Memory Device Visual Memory Device Frequency Percent Presence 294 100.0 Total 294 100.0 Auditory devices RQ4: How does the specific occurrence of creative/executional elements appear in these commercials in terms of their auditory devices? Three variables were examined in this category. Table 15 shows that memorable rhyme, slogan or mnemonic devices were mostly incorporated in 284 (96.6%) award-winning commercials. These devices are either nonmusical rhymes or other mnemonics always standing alone, or in lyric of a song yet apart from music. One interesting example was for the brand Motorola (Moto product line). The commercial repeatedly captured dozens of moments of the logo “Moto” yelled by people from diverse lifestyles around every corner of the city. It ended with an adorable boy saying it again in a cute tone. One commercial for CNC long distance call service had a waiter shout aloud “Serve the wine!” in a Szechuan style cafe. Actually the phrase of “Serve the wine” in Szechuan dialect was very homophonic as ”, which was the connection number of this service. Table 15 Frequency of Memorable Rhymes, Slogans or Mnemonic Memorable Rhymes, Slogans or Mnemonic Frequency Percent Presence 284 96.6 Absence 10 3.4 Total 294 100.0

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38 Even out of place, unusual, or bizarre sounds were only found in 17% of the commercials (Table 16), many examples were extraordinary. One commercial for headache-free pills had the sound of a beating drum to symbolize the headache symptom. Another one pictured a crazy guy took many risks in daily life to record various sounds which could be upgraded into his Motorola C289 model. Another Bronze Award winner for the Audi car differentiated itself from competitors by the unique sound made by slamming the car door. It ended with such a voiceover, “Just this sound makes all the difference!” A Golden Award commercial from 2002 made use of sound effects in a humorous way for a brand of women’s underwear. It involved a well-dressed foreign woman walking across a public plaza. All the male passersbys were shot down once they took even a glance at this lady. The real gun-shooting sound was accompanied with those actions. Finally the voiceover added, “The killing charm from Embryform underwear!” Table 16 Frequency of Unusual Sound Effects Unusual Sound Effects Frequency Percent Presence 50 17.0 Absence 244 83.0 Total 294 100.0 Spoken taglines were overwhelmingly absent with only in 8.2% of coded ads (Table 17). Spoken taglines in this analysis only refer to any statement at the end of the commercial that presents new information, usually unrelated to the principal focus of the commercial. One example of this is the commercial of local children’s calcium supply brand, where new information was given at the end when a voiceover informed about the four fruit flavors (“Four fruit flavors”, “ One tablet per day”, “ Taste good, supply well”).

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39 Table 17 Frequency of Spoken Tagline Spoken Tagline Frequency Percent Presence 24 8.2 Absence 270 91.8 Total 294 100.0 Commercial appeal or selling proposition RQ5: How does the specific occurrence of creative/executional elements appear in these commercials in terms of their appeal or selling proposition? Table 18 demonstrates the proportion of appeal or selling proposition in those award-winning commercials. Product performance or benefit as main message (25.5%) and Excitement, sensation, variety (24.5%) were the two most prevalent, followed by Enjoyment appeals (7.1%), Product reminder as main message (6.8%) and Achievement (6.1%). These five preferences accounted for above two-thirds of 294 coded ads. The remaining one-third shared each less than 6% each. About half of the commercials selling product performance or a benefit as the main message were predominately from three categories: Pharmaceuticals, Personal Care, Business Equipment & Services. One commercial for Johnson & Johnson demonstrated the instant effectiveness of itch-free lotion for children between a mother and her son. One Golden Award for the Crest toothpaste demonstrated the super whitening effect on teeth in an exaggerated and humorous way. In a public museum where taking pictures was not allowed, the guard was walking around and kept everything under surveillance. Suddenly, he felt some flash among the visitors. After checking several suspicious visitors, he still failed to identify the one who took pictures. Finally the commercial ended with a beautiful lady who grinned in appreciation on a famous painting. A series of China Telecom commercials borrowed a Chinese widely-known legend story to advertise

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40 four benefits of using its service. As the Chinese legend has four major characters, each commercial used one character to introduce one benefit of using the China Telecom service. Excitement, sensation, and variety appeals were largely found in other three categories: Food, Beverage and Others. One Bronze Award ad for Lay’s potato chips had a departure scene of a young couple at the train station. When the train was moving, instead of saying goodbye to his girlfriend who set aside the window, the boy grabbed the Lays from her hands and gloated over his “booty”. Another Silver Award in year 2002 for a local dairy brand involved a primary school student punting a football which was never coming down to the ground. It ended with slogan as “Drink Guangming milk, be powerful”. Table 18 Frequency of Appeal or Selling Proposition Appeal or Selling Proposition Frequency Percent Attribute or ingredients as main message 10 3.4 Product performance or benefit as main message 75 25.5 Psychological or subjective benefits of product ownership 6 2.0 Product reminder as main message 20 6.8 Sexual appeal 16 5.4 Comfort appeals 13 4.4 Safety appeals 5 1.7 Enjoyment appeals 21 7.1 Welfare appeals 16 5.4 Social approval 5 1.7 Self-esteem or self-image 17 5.8 Achievement 18 6.1 Excitement, sensation, variety 72 24.5 Total 294 100.0 Commercial structure RQ6: How does the specific occurrence of creative/executional elements appear in these commercials in terms of their structure?

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41 Table 19 lists the frequency of dominant commercial structures. More than a quarter of award-winning ads adopted a blind lead-in technique, which means no identification of product until the end of the commercial. It was closely followed by 22.4% of ads ending with a humorous closing like a joke, pun, witticism or slapstick. Also 17% were coded into the front-end impact technique, while 16% were with surprise or suspense in the middle, followed by surprise or suspense at closing (9.2%). The least presence was the unusual setting or situation which represented 8.5% of the sample. The blind lead-in technique was seen in more than a quarter of the award-winning commercials. One example was the Grand Prix Award winner in 2003. It began with a group of housewives playing soccer in their residential community at lunch time. More and more housewives came out of their houses and joined this fun game. Finally came the product icon and super: “Midea electronic rice cooker, 24 hours advance time-setting function”. One background to understand this commercial is that the Chinese women’s soccer team won the runner-up in the 3 rd FIFA Women’s World Cup that year. One from 2000, which also won a golden US Mobius award that year, depicted glamorous scenes of children hands in hands from all continents around the world with the ending slogan “Communicate from hearts, China Telecom”. Humorous closing techniques were increasingly found in coded ads. One famous commercial showed the feud between two neighbors across two generations was finally dispelled by a bottle of Tongyi green tea. Another one showed a man that was kicked out of window by his girlfriend when he would not share the last can of Coca-Cola. His intention was to drink it alone. One commercial for Olay skin moisture lotion showed a massage therapist slipping down easily when she stepped on her client’s back before

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42 doing the massage by feet. The Crest toothpaste and Lay’s potato chips commercials discussed previously were also good examples of humorous closings. Many award-winning commercials also created surprise or suspense in the first ten seconds, in the middle or end of the commercials. These three types were present in nearly half (42.2%) of the coded ads. Even the unusual setting or situation presence was minor, some examples still stood out. One commercial showed the Passat car moving slowly within a foreign museum in front of many famous western paintings. It created a noble image which symbolized the high status of the target car owners. Table 19 Frequency of Dominant Commercial Structure Dominant Commercial Structure Frequency Percent Front-end impact 50 17.0 Surprise or suspense in the middle 47 16.0 Surprise or suspense at closing 27 9.2 Unusual setting or situation 25 8.5 Humorous closing 66 22.4 Blind lead-in 79 26.9 Total 294 100.0 Commercial format RQ7: How does the specific occurrence of creative/executional elements appear in these commercials in terms of their format? Table 20 depicts the incidence of the commercial format in the sampled ads. Continuity of action, as the only format not found in analysis, was excluded. None of the other 17 formats dominated in the results. The presence of formats was very scattered. Demonstration of product in use or by analogy (12.6%) was the leading format, followed by Slice of life (10.5%) and equally Animation/cartoon/rotoscope (10.2%) and Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism (10.2%) The remainder of formats were each below 10%, with

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43 a range of maximum Creation of mood or image (9.2%) to minimum Camera involves audience in situation (0.3%). A series of Silver Award commercials for the TCL television was formatted in the demonstration of product in use or by analogy. Its advertised product line was named VI (vivid image) generation. One spot showed a fashion girl bathing in the hot tub while watching TCL in the scene of swimming dolphins. Her voiceover added in the end was, “This moment, I want to swim with them together”. Another showed an obese man walking on an exercise machine at home while watching TCL scene of walking penguins. His voiceover added in the end stated “This moment, I want to compete jogging with them”. The slice of life format was seen in many food commercials. One for a local chicken flavor soup was shot in the kitchen where families had dinner. The commercial mentioned above for Lay’s potato chips had a departure scene of a young couple in the train station. Another one for KFC showed a dating scene of a young couple in the restaurant. Several coded ads applying the animation/cartoon format also stood out. One for a local soymilk brand created a marriage between Miss. Cow and Mr. Peanut which demonstrated their special mixing flavor of milk and peanut. Another series for Kitkat snack used a cartoon to show how a female employee played some tricks to say indirect “No” to a tough boss. One female employee showed the boss her fake broken leg with plaster cast when she was asked to work for extra hours. The slogan followed as “Wanna really take a break? Try Kitkat”. Its yuppie style of the cartoon harmonized well with the lighthearted tone in the commercial. The series of China Telecom commercials

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44 mentioned previously also cartooned a Chinese widely-known legend story to advertise four benefits of using its service. Table 20 Frequency of Dominant Commercial Format Dominant Commercial Format Frequency Percent Vignette 21 7.1 Slice of life 31 10.5 Testimonial by product user 9 3.1 Endorsement by celebrity or authority 25 8.5 Announcement 7 2.4 Demonstration of product in use or by analogy 37 12.6 Demonstration of results of using product 9 3.1 Comedy or satire 20 6.8 Animation/cartoon/rotoscope 30 10.2 Photographic stills 3 1.0 Creation of mood or image as dominant element 27 9.2 Commercial written as serious drama 13 4.4 Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element 30 10.2 Problem and solution ( before/after presentation) 24 8.2 Interview( person on the street or elsewhere) 4 1.4 Camera involves audience in situation 1 .3 New wave(product graphics) 3 1.0 Total 294 100.0 Fantasy and exaggeration was another format presented equally as often as cartoons. One Silver Award commercial from 2002 for Head&Shoulder shampoo was a good example. It displayed a window backgrounded by the evening sky full of shinning stars on a summer night. Then a bottle of Head&Shoulder was placed on the window ledge. Suddenly, all the shinning stars in the sky turned into be shooting stars and fell from the sky. The slogan stated, “Instant dandruff free”. Another commercial showed all the members of a three-generation family each easily finished the one hand push-up more than one hundred times. The secret is that they all drank Yili milk powder which is full of calcium. The Embryform underwear commercial, mentioned previously, was also an

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45 excellent sample using fantasy/exaggeration. It began with a well-dressed foreign beautiful woman walking across a public plaza. All the male passersbys around her were shot down immediately when they glanced at this charming lady. The real gun-shot sound effect accompanied each glance. Until the end of the commercial when the voiceover added, “The killing charm from Embryform underwear!” Commercial approach RQ8: How does the specific occurrence of creative/executional elements appear in these commercials in terms of their approach? Three variables were coded in this category. As shown in Table 21, more than half of commercials (52%) used an emotional appeal to the audience. The rest were broken up almost equally between the Rational appeal (24.5%) and a Balance of rational and emotional (23.5%). Food and beverage category coded ads most often utilized an emotional approach. Many commercials from these two categories discussed previously were good examples. Others such as one commercial for Success Real Estate applied a typical emotional appeal to promote the high-end community which targeted Chinese millionaires. It delineated an exclusively noble image with the following emotional voiceover: “Wealth can not bring the joy, friends can [bring]”, “Wealth can not substitute for happiness, a wife can [bring] ”, “Wealth can not bring the future, children can [bring] ” and “Wealth can not nourish a family, Success Real Estate can [bring] ”. Pharmaceutical commercials largely used a rational approach, while the categories of Household Appliance and Business Equipment & Services award-winning ads often presented the balancing of rational and emotional. One commercial for Meiling refrigerator showed a housewife using Chinese Kongfu to cut the frozen meat, but she

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46 failed. Then with the help of the time-setting defrost function of the refrigerator, she easily finished to cut defrosting meat into slices finally. Table 21 Frequency of Dominant Commercial Approach (1) Dominant Commercial Approach (1) Frequency Percent Rational 72 24.5 Emotional 153 52.0 Balance of rational and emotional 69 23.5 Total 294 100.0 Table 22 shows that three-fourths of coded ads (77.6%) applied a positive appeal which is based on what the product will do for the consumer, the benefit offered, how the user will be better off. Approximately 20% of them depicted a balance of positive and negative. While the negative appeal, which is based on what will happen to the consumer if he or she does not buy the product, was rarely present (3.7%). Table 22 Frequency of Dominant Commercial Approach (2) Dominant Commercial Approach (2) Frequency Percent Positive 228 77.6 Negative 11 3.7 Balance of positive and negative 55 18.7 Total 294 100.0 Table 23 Frequency of Brand-differentiating Message Brand-differentiating Message Frequency Percent Presence 159 54.1 Absence 135 45.9 Total 294 100.0 Brand-differentiating messages were found in 54.1% of the sampled commercials (Table 23). More than half of the coded award-winning commercials made it clear that the principal message was unique to the product being advertised. These commercials explicitly indicated the uniqueness or difference of the product.

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47 Commercial setting RQ9: How does the specific occurrence of creative/executional elements appear in these commercials in terms of their setting? This category covers two variables: what and where the dominant commercial setting is depicted. Table 24 and Table 25 show that most of commercials were shot indoors (66.3%), or at popular Chinese locations or landmarks (29.3%) or in a modern Chinese apartment/housing (16.7%). One commercial for China Pingan (which means “safety”) Insurance Company shot many China local scenes (street, county, village, and town) which also named “Pingan”. It communicated with the consumers that their insurance service was everywhere across China. Another ad for Tongyi instant noodles depicted many Northern China scenes to promote its new flavor which targeted northern consumers. One commercial for Reeb beer was shot in many famous landmarks in Shanghai to connect this old local brand with the past 20-year changes that have happened in every corner of this city. In order to display the real-life situation, many commercials for Food, Electronic Equipment and Household Appliance/Furnishings were frequently set in certain modern Chinese apartment/housing. The commercial, for Midea electronic rice cooker mentioned previously, was filmed in a typical modern Chinese apartment setting. The commercial for a chicken flavored cookie, discussed previously, was also set in such a surrounding. Other previous examples were commercials for Meiling refrigerators and TCL televisions.

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48 Table 24 Frequency of Dominant Commercial Set Dominant Commercial Set Frequency Percent Indoors 195 66.3 Outdoors 81 27.6 Other 13 4.4 No setting 5 1.7 Total 294 100.0 Table 25 Frequency of Where the Commercial Set Where the Commercial Set Frequency Percent Traditional Chinese apartment/housing 18 6.1 Modern Chinese apartment/housing 49 16.7 Generic office/business setting 28 9.5 Generic restaurant setting 17 5.8 Palatial Chinese setting 17 5.8 Foreign locale/landmark 17 5.8 Chinese locale/landmark 86 29.3 Green pasture 8 2.7 Mountainous area 24 8.2 Not applicable 9 3.1 Other 21 7.1 Total 294 100.0 Music element RQ10: How does the specific occurrence of creative/executional elements appear in these commercials in terms of their music element? The music category contains three variables. Music was largely found (87.8%) in most award-winning Chinese TV commercials (Table 26). Contemporary Chinese music (41.8%) and Western Type music (25.9%) were found to be the most two popular styles (Table 27). While Traditional Chinese music was played by Chinese exclusive musical instruments like lute, guqin and guzheng, Contemporary Chinese music was more similar to modern music which contained diverse elements. It was present frequently in a variety

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49 of ad categories ranging from corporate image to personal care ads, and from financial service to food ads. Western style music, especially Classical and Jazz, were preferable for many winners. The commercial for Success Real Estate discussed previously selected a famous English jazz song to set off the noble image of this high-end community which was targeted to Chinese millionaires. Another ad for Ericsson cellphone had a popular English song to tell the “love-at-first-sight” moment of a young couple at a party. One interesting example for Suzhou TV station image involved showing a combination of Chinese traditional music and Western classical music. It began with three Chinese ladies playing Chinese traditional instruments. Then with editing technique of cut-in, the instruments in their hands were subtly changed into Western ones like violin and violoncello. Accordingly, the background music changed from Chinese traditional to Western classical ones. It ended with the slogan “Where historical rhyme meets today’s tune, Suzhou TV station”. Table 26 Frequency of Music in Commercials Music in Commercials Frequency Percent Presence 258 87.8 Absence 36 12.2 Total 294 100.0 Table 27 Frequency of Music Style Music Style Frequency Percent Traditional Chinese 20 6.8 Contemporary Chinese 123 41.8 Western Type 76 25.9 Not applicable 36 12.2 Others 39 13.3 Total 294 100.0

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50 In these award-winning ads, music as a major element was not common (Table 28). Rarely were music lyrics used in the commercials to carry a product message (6.1%). One ad for a local Maxam toothpaste brand in 1997 had a whole family (father, mother and daughter) sing a song to advertise the main benefits of the toothpaste. Another example in 2000 adapted a popular song into a new version which advertised the Yearsun anti-acne cream among teenagers. Another ad mentioned previously for Reeb beer also had song’s lyrics communicate the twenty years of subtle changes that happened in the city of Shanghai. Table 28 Frequency of Music as a Major Element Music as a Major Element Frequency Percent Presence 18 6.1 Absence 240 81.6 Can not code 36 12.2 Total 294 100.0 Inferential Result of the Sample Year as Peripheral Element RQ11: Which creative/executional element(s) is/are significantly influenced across the six-year period (1997-2003)? Table 29 shows that a significant association between the presence of scenic beauty and the six-year time period. Across the period, scenic beauty was continually absent in the Chinese winning TV commercials. In 2002, 93.3% samples of winning commercials were absent in scenic beauty, which was the most significant year. Table 29 Scenic Beauty by Year Scenic Beauty Presence Absence Total 8 13 21 1997 Count % Within Year 38.1% 61.9% 100.0% 6 27 33 Year 1999 Count % Within Year 18.2% 81.8% 100.0%

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51 Table 29 Continued Scenic Beauty Presence Absence Total 11 32 43 2000 Count % Within Year 25.6% 74.4% 100.0% 17 29 46 2001 Count % Within Year 37.0% 63.0% 100.0% 3 42 45 2002 Count % Within Year 6.7% 93.3% 100.0% 32 74 106 Year 2003 Count % Within Year 30.2% 69.8% 100.0% 77 217 294 Total Count % Within Year 26.2% 73.8% 100.0% 2 = 15.15 df = 5 p<.05 As Table 30 shows, surrealistic visuals were continually absent in the Chinese winning TV commercials across time. Generally speaking, about 75.2% of sample of winning commercials did not contain surrealistic visuals. In 2001, 93.5% of the sample of winning commercials were absent of surrealistic visuals, which was the year with the least among of use. Table 30 Surrealistic Visuals by Year Surrealistic Visuals Presence Absence Total 5 16 21 1997 Count % Within Year 23.8% 76.2% 100.0% 8 25 33 1999 Count % Within Year 24.2% 75.8% 100.0% 15 28 43 2000 Count % Within Year 34.9% 65.1% 100.0% 3 43 46 2001 Count % Within Year 6.5% 93.5% 100.0% 12 33 45 2002 Count % Within Year 26.7% 73.3% 100.0% 30 76 106 Year 2003 Count % Within Year 28.3% 71.7% 100.0% 73 221 294 Total Count % Within Year 24.8% 75.2% 100.0% 2 = 11.37 df = 5 p<.05

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52 Table 31 shows that a significant association exists between the commercial structure and the six-year period. In 1997, front-end impact as the commercial structure was shown in 61.9% of winning commercials. Since 1999, either blind lead-ins (for year 2000, 2001 and 2002) or humorous closings (for year 1999 and 2003) have become the most present commercial structures to appear in the sample of winning TV commercials. Table 31 Commercial Structure by Year Commercial Structure * 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total 13 3 0 0 2 3 21 1997 Count % Within Year 61.9% 14.3% .0% .0% 9.5% 14.3% 100.0% 6 5 2 1 12 7 33 1999 Count % Within Year 18.2% 15.2% 6.1% 3.0% 36.4% 21.2% 100.0% 1 9 6 6 7 14 43 2000 Count % Within Year 2.3% 20.9% 14.0% 14.0% 16.3% 32.6% 100.0% 9 0 8 4 9 16 46 2001 Count % Within Year 19.6% .0% 17.4% 8.7% 19.6% 34.8% 100.0% 8 14 0 6 3 14 45 2002 Count % Within Year 17.8% 31.1% .0% 13.3% 6.7% 31.1% 100.0% 13 16 11 8 33 25 106 Year 2003 Count % Within Year 12.3% 15.1% 10.4% 7.5% 31.1% 23.6% 100.0% 50 47 27 25 66 79 294 Total Count % Within Year 17.0% 16.0% 9.2% 8.5% 22.4% 26.9% 100.0% * See appendix for Variable 19 2= 81.14 df = 25 p<.05 The findings also reveal a significant association between commercial approach and year. As Table 32 shows, the positive appeal approach was constantly present in the Chinese winning TV commercials across the six-year period with a range from maximum of 95.2% in 1997 to minimum of 65.2% in 2001. Music as an element was continually present in the Chinese winning TV commercials across the six-year period (Table 33). Generally above 80% of the winning TV commercials contained a music element. In 2002, about three-quarter of the sample’s

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53 winning commercials had certain music element, but more than a quarter of the ads did not, making it a significant year for that reason. Table 32 Commercial Approach (2) by Year Commercial Approach(2) Positive Negative Balance Total 20 0 1 21 1997 Count % Within Year 95.2% .0% 4.8% 100.0% 22 3 8 33 1999 Count % Within Year 66.7% 9.1% 24.2% 100.0% 38 0 5 43 2000 Count % Within Year 88.4% .0% 11.6% 100.0% 30 1 15 46 2001 Count % Within Year 65.2% 2.2% 32.6% 100.0% 32 0 13 45 2002 Count % Within Year 71.1% .0% 28.9% 100.0% 86 7 13 106 Year 2003 Count % Within Year 81.1% 6.6% 12.3% 100.0% 228 11 55 294 Total Count % Within Year 77.6% 3.7% 18.7% 100.0% 2 = 26.02 df =10 p<.05 Table 33 Music Element by Year Music Element Presence Absence Total 20 1 21 1997 Count % Within Year 95.2% 4.8% 100.0% 32 1 33 1999 Count % Within Year 97.0% 3.0% 100.0% 42 1 43 2000 Count % Within Year 97.7% 2.3% 100.0% 42 4 46 2001 Count % Within Year 91.3% 8.7% 100.0% 33 12 45 2002 Count % Within Year 73.3% 26.7% 100.0% 89 17 106 Year 2003 Count % Within Year 84.0% 16.0% 100.0% 258 36 294 Total Count % Within Year 87.8% 12.2% 100.0% 2 = 18.31 df = 5 p<.05

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54 Table 34 below reveals a significant association between music style and year. Contemporary Chinese music was continually the leading music style in those winning TV commercials. While Traditional Chinese music significantly decreased by 7.4% since 2000, Western type music significantly increased to 30.3% since 1999 fr om previous year of 4.8%. Table 34 Music Style by Year Music Style * 1 2 3 4 5 Total 4 14 1 1 1 21 1997 Count % Within Year 19.0% 66.7% 4.8% 4.8% 4.8% 100.0% 4 10 10 1 8 33 1999 Count % Within Year 12.1% 30.3% 30.3% 3.0% 24.2% 100.0% 2 16 15 1 9 43 2000 Count % Within Year 4.7% 37.2% 34.9% 2.3% 20.9% 100.0% 2 30 7 4 3 46 2001 Count % Within Year 4.3% 65.2% 15.2% 8.7% 6.5% 100.0% 1 23 9 12 0 45 2002 Count % Within Year 2.2% 51.1% 20.0% 26.7% .0% 100.0% 7 30 34 17 18 106 Year 2003 Count % Within Year 6.6% 28.3% 32.1% 16.0% 17.0% 100.0% 20 123 76 36 39 294 Total Count % Within Year 6.8% 41.8% 25.9% 12.2% 13.3% 100.0% * See appendix for Variable 27 2= 64.22 df =20 p<.05 As Table 35 shows, there was a significant difference between music as a major element and year. In 1997, 28.6% of sample of the winning commercials had music as major element. However, this number was significantly decreased into 6.1% in 1999. Since then music as a major element had been mainly absent in the Chinese winning TV commercials across time.

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55 Table 35 Music as Major Element by Year Music as a Major Element Present Absent Can not code Total 6 14 1 21 1997 Count % Within Year 28.6% 66.7% 4.8% 100.0% 2 30 1 33 1999 Count % Within Year 6.1% 90.9% 3.0% 100.0% 3 39 1 43 2000 Count % Within Year 7.0% 90.7% 2.3% 100.0% 2 40 4 46 2001 Count % Within Year 4.3% 87.0% 8.7% 100.0% 0 33 12 45 2002 Count % Within Year .0% 73.3% 26.7% 100.0% 5 84 17 106 Year 2003 Count % Within Year 4.7% 79.2% 16.0% 100.0% 18 240 36 294 Total Count % Within Year 6.1% 81.6% 12.2% 100.0% = 38.71 df =10 p<.05 2 Winning Ad Agency Origin as Peripheral Element RQ12: Which creative/executional element(s) is/are significantly influenced by the winning ad agency origin (local or multinational affiliation)? Table 36 suggests that a significant association existed between winning ad agency type and scenic beauty present in ads. Both types of agencies preferred not to include scenic beauty in about three-fourths (73.8%) of the winning ads. However, in terms of scenic-presence commercials, China domestic ad agencies were more likely to include this element in ads than were multinational affiliated Chinese agencies. The findings reveal a significant association exists between winning ad agency type and the presence of surrealistic visuals in ads (Table 37). Both types of agencies preferred not to include surrealistic visuals in about three-fourths (75.2%) of whole winning ads. However, in terms of presence, multinational affiliated advertising agencies contained

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56 approximately twice the number of winning commercials with surrealistic visuals than did the domestic agencies. Table 36 Scenic Beauty by Winning Ad Agency Origin Scenic Beauty Presence Absence Total 41 78 119 Domestic Count % within Agency Origin 34.5% 65.5% 100.0% 36 139 175 Winning AD Agency Origin International Count % within Agency Origin 20.6% 79.4% 100.0% 77 217 294 Total Count % within Agency Origin 26.2% 73.8% 100.0% 2=7.06 df =1 p<.05 Table 37 Surrealistic Visuals by Winning Ad Agency Origin Surrealistic Visuals Presence Absence Total 20 99 119 Domestic Count % within Agency Origin 16.8% 83.2% 100.0% 53 122 175 Winning AD Agency Origin International Count % within Agency Origin 30.3% 69.7% 100.0% 73 221 294 Total Count % within Agency Origin 24.8% 75.2% 100.0% 2= 6.90 df =1 p<.05 As Table 38 shows, 2.5% of domestic winning ads had spoken tagline, compared to 12.0% ones from multinational affiliated ad agencies. It suggested that multinational affiliated ad agencies were more likely to use a spoken tagline than were domestic agencies. Table 38 Spoken Tagline by Winning Ad Agency Origin Spoken Tagline Presence Absence Total 3 116 119 Domestic Count % within Agency Origin 2.5% 97.5% 100.0% 21 154 175 Winning AD Agency Origin International Count % within Agency Origin 12.0% 88.0% 100.0% 24 270 294 Total Count % within Agency Origin 8.2% 91.8% 100.0% 2= 8.49 df =1 p<.05

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57 The findings show a significant difference between winning ad agency type and commercial appeals used in ads regarding certain appeals (Table 39). As for Product performance or benefit as main message, domestic agencies applied approximately as same emphasis as multinational affiliated ad agencies did (25.2% and 25.7%, respectively). As for the appeal of Excitement, sensation, variety, multinational affiliated advertising agencies contained more than double the number of winning commercials with such appeals than did the domestic agencies.

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58 Table 39 Commercial Appeals by Winning Ad Agency Origin Commercial Appeals * 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Total 5 30 4 7 5 4 1 9 16 3 12 6 17 119 Domestic Count% within Agency Origin 4.2% 25.2% 3.4% 5.9% 4.2% 3.4% .8% 7.6% 13.4% 2.5% 10.1% 5.0% 14.3% 100.0% 5 45 2 13 11 9 4 12 0 2 5 12 55 175 Winning AD Agency Origin International Count% within Agency Origin 2.9% 25.7% 1.1% 7.4% 6.3% 5.1% 2.3% 6.9% .0% 1.1% 2.9% 6.9% 31.4% 100.0% 10 75 6 20 16 13 5 21 16 5 17 18 72 294 Total Count% within Agency Origin 3.4% 25.5% 2.0% 6.8% 5.4% 4.4% 1.7% 7.1% 5.4% 1.7% 5.8% 6.1% 24.5% 100.0% * See appendix for Variable 18 2= 43.93 df =12 p<.05

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59 As Table 40 shows, 9.2% of domestic winning ads contained a Slice of life format, compared to 11.4% ones from international ad agencies. Approximately 4% of domestic winning ads had Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism, compared to 14.3% of the winners from multinational affiliated ad agencies. Thus, multinational ad agencies appear more likely to apply these two formats in commercials than were domestic agencies. In contrast, domestic advertising agencies preferred more often to use the formats of Demonstration of product in use/by analogy (14.3%) and Animation/cartoon/rotoscope (12.6%) in winning commercials than were the domestic agencies (11.4% and 8.6%, respectively).

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60Table 40 Commercial Format by Winning Ad Agency Origin * See appendix for Variable 20 2= 38.55 df =16 p<.05 Commercial Format * Total 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 8 11 4 12 3 17 3 8 15 3 13 12 5 4 0 0 1 119 Domestic Count% within Agency Origin 6.7 % 9.2 % 3.4 % 10.1 % 2.5 % 14.3% 2.5% 6.7% 12.6% 2.5% 10.9% 10.1% 4.2 % 3.4 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.8 % 100.0 % 13 20 5 13 4 20 6 12 15 0 14 1 25 20 4 1 2 175 Winning AD Agency Origin International Count% within Agency Origin 7.4 % 11.4 % 2.9 % 7.4 % 2.3 % 11.4% 3.4% 6.9% 8.6 % 0.0% 8.0 % 0.6 % 14.3% 11.4% 2.3% 0.6 % 1.1 % 100.0 % 21 31 9 25 7 37 9 20 30 3 27 13 30 24 4 1 3 294 Total Count% within Agency Origin 7.1 % 10.5 % 3.1 % 8.5 % 2.4 % 12.6% 3.1% 6.8% 10.2% 1.0% 9.2 % 4.4 % 10.2% 8.2 % 1.4% 0.3 % 1.0 % 100.0 %

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61 As Table 41 shows, compared to its counterpart, domestic ad agencies more likely had music present in the sample of winning TV commercials. Table 41 Music Element by Winning Ad Agency Origin Music Presence Absence Total 111 8 119 Domestic Count % within Agency Origin 93.3% 6.7% 100.0% 147 28 175 Winning AD Agency Origin International Count % within Agency Origin 84.0% 16.0% 100.0% 258 36 294 Total Count % within Agency Origin 87.8% 12.2% 100.0% 2= 5.67 df =1 p<.05 Table 42 shows a significant association between the music style applied in commercials and the winning ad agency type. Domestic ad agencies had more contemporary Chinese music present in their winning TV commercials than did the multinational affiliated ad agencies, while multinational ad agencies contained slightly more Western type music than its counterpart. Table 42 Music Style by Winning Ad Agency Origin Music Style * 1 2 3 4 5 Total 14 59 24 8 14 119 Domestic Count % within Agency Origin 11.8% 49.6% 20.2% 6.7% 11.8% 100.0% 6 64 52 28 25 175 Winning AD Agency Origin International Count % within Agency Origin 3.4% 36.6% 29.7% 16.0% 14.3% 100.0% 20 123 76 36 39 294 Total Count % within Agency Origin 6.8% 41.8% 25.9% 12.2% 13.3% 100.0% * See appendix for Variable 27 2= 17.92 df =4 p<.05 As Table 43 shows, both domestic and multinational affiliated ad agencies tended not to set music as a major element in these winning commercials. However, in terms of the presence, domestic ad agencies were more likely to have music as major element than were multinational affiliated ad agencies .

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62 Table 43 Music as a Major Element by Winning Ad Agency Origin Music as a Major element Presence Absence Can not code Total 13 98 8 119 Domestic Count % within Agency Origin 10.9% 82.4% 6.7% 100.0% 5 142 28 175 Winning AD Agency Origin International Count % within Agency Origin 2.9% 81.1% 16.0% 100.0% 18 240 36 294 Total Count % within Agency Origin 6.1% 81.6% 12.2% 100.0% 2 = 12.52 df =2 p<.05

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CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Profile of the Typical Chinese Winning Commercials The current research content analyzed Chinese award-winning TV commercials from the 5 th to 10 th China Advertising Festival (1997 to 2003). It explored the frequent occurrence of certain creative and executional variables in the context of award-winning Chinese commercials. This was accomplished by adopting a variables-analysis framework of television commercials developed by Western scholars Stewart and Furse (1986). A quantitative content analysis was applied to achieve the results by coding those TV commercials on 28 variables embodying several major groups (visual devices, auditory devices, commercial appeal or selling proposition, commercial structure, commercial format, commercial approach, commercial setting and music element), plus other peripheral variables included coding for product category, brand origin, winning agency origin (domestic or multinational affiliation) and competition judges’ backgrounds. Based on the findings of the current research, a profile of the typical Chinese award-winning advertising can be offered. The following qualities may be regarded as the characteristics of the Chinese award-winning TV commercials which stand for the highest China’s advertising industry’s recognition of creative distinction. The typical Chinese award-winning television commercial would possess strikingly beautify people as characters. 63

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64 Thecommercial would apply substantive supers (words on screen) to reinforce some characteristic of the product or a part of the commercial message. The commercial would use certain visual memory device and auditory mnemonic device to reinforce the product benefit, the product name, or the message delivered by the commercials. The commercial would probably advertise the product performance or benefit as the main message by using excitement, sensation, or variety as a commercial appeal. The commercial would use either/both a blind lead-in (No identification of product until the end of the commercial) or a humorous closing as the commercial structure. The commercial would apply a demonstration of product in use or by analogy as commercial format. The commercial would more likely use an emotional and positive approach plus a brand-differentiating message. The commercial would likely be set indoors in a modern Chinese apartment/housing setting or show a Chinese highly recognizable local/national landmark. The commercial would include a contemporary Chinese music element. Comparison with Stewart and Furse Study Stewart and Furse (1986) measured the “effectiveness” of 155 executional variables from commercials on consumers’ related recall (R), comprehension (C), and persuasion (P). The current research examined five major categories of executional items, forms, and devices (namely, visual and auditory devices, structure and format, promises/appeals/propositions, setting, and music) out of the eleven categories which consisted of the 155 executional variables. Since the current research on Chinese advertising was accomplished by adopting a variables analysis framework of television commercials developed by Stewart and Furse (1986), it is necessary to make comparison between the typical characteristics of Chinese

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65 award-winning TV commercials and the Stewart and Furse’s findings, which will reveal certain interesting results. The use of substantive supers, for example, the element negatively related to recall (R-), comprehension (C-), yet present in the majority of Stewart and Furse ads was found in about three-fourths (70.4%) of Chinese award-winning commercials. Mnemonic devices, the variable positively related to recall (R+) were also present extensively in Chinese ad winners (96.6%), which was much higher than the usage in Stewart and Furse ads (7.5%). The selling proposition of that product performance or a benefit as main message was positively related to consumers’ comprehension. It was found present both in Chinese ad winners (25.5%) and Stewart and Furse ads (67.7%), although the latter was much high than the former in percentage. The blind lead-in technique and the humorous closing were the leading two commercial structures (26.9%, 22.4%, respectively) present in Chinese winning commercials. However, since creativity rather than effectiveness is the criteria in judging Chinese advertising awards, it is hard to determine whether those winners would also winners in the market. Gagnard (1989) suggested that certain creative approaches such as the blind lead-in, which are inclined to lower the effectiveness of commercials in industry test, yet were generally considered to be “creative”. This interesting comparison revealed that there were differences in certain executional variables possessed by those “successful” commercials in the marketplace, and those that are “successful” at winning commercials awards.

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66 In terms of commercial format, the findings of Chinese award-winning commercials were solidly supported by Stewart and Furse’s results, although the Continuity of action (R+, P+) was absent from the Chinese ad samples. Demonstration of product in use or by analogy (R+, C+, P+) was found as the leading format in Chinese ad winners (12.6%). Other commercial formats found present in Stewart and Furse’s study that suggest positive association with effectiveness and also were found in the Chinese award-winning commercials include: Animation/cartoon/rotoscope (10.2%), Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism (10.2%), Creation of mood or image (9.2%), Problem and solution (8.2%) and Demonstration of results of using product (3.1%). These formats were widely used in over half of total Chinese winning commercials (53.5%). Two-thirds (66.3%) of the Chinese award-winning commercials were shot indoors. However, this variable was found to have positive relationship only with the effectiveness of consumers’ comprehension in the Stewart and Furse study. Nearly ninety percent of commercials in the China Advertising Festival winners used some form of music in ads (87.8%). Stewart and Furse (1986) concluded music as a major element to be positively related to effectiveness. This variable, however, was only found in less than 10% of all the Chinese ad winners. Ultimately, brand differentiating message was found to be the most important executional factor for explaining both recall and persuasion of a product in Stewart and Furse commercial. More than half (54.1%) of the coded Chinese award-winning commercials made it clear that the principal message is unique to the product being advertised, that is, the commercial explicitly indicated the uniqueness or difference of the product. However, authors also argued that although the use of brand differentiating

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67 message was consistently found to show a positive impact on measures of recall, comprehension, and persuasion, “it is also true that no one executional factor accounts for much of the total variance of any of the measures of advertising effectiveness” (Stewart & Koslow, 1989). Implications There are substantive implications from the findings in terms of typical characteristics of Chinese award-winning advertising for both domestic and multinational marketers. Since these winning commercials were aired in mass media before the entry of the competitions, the current findings may reflect the real creative standards in advertising industry. The comparison of these winners’ characteristics and Stewart and Furse’s study (1986) would help to estimate to what extent these creative winners are also winners in the market amongst consumers. Furthermore, the results of this study may shed light on similarities as well as differences in preference of creative strategies between domestic and multinational affiliated agencies when implementing successful integrated marketing communication campaigns. Limitations One limitation of the current study comes from the content analysis methodology itself. Content analysis can not solely make claims about the effectiveness of particular content on audiences due to the relatively descriptive findings. Also, the findings of a particular content analysis are limited to the framework of the categories and the operational definitions used in that analysis (Wimmer & Dominick, 2003). Different researchers may apply varying category systems and definitions to test the same concept. To the best knowledge of author, the variables-analysis framework of television commercials developed by Stewart and Furse (1986) is so far the most

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68 comprehensive one regarding to this research field. Yet, there still might be more updated framework from other researchers which the researcher did not incorporate into the current study. Another limitation of this study is the number of content magnitude examined. Out of 155 executional variables only 28 were investigated. While the study provides an ample amount of variables, many more need to be examined to expand the scope of the study. Finally, there is also the sample limitation. The sample contained only those commercials that won national awards, thus it does not represent all advertisements in contemporary China. Consequently the samples do not completely represent the whole state of advertising in China. On the other hand, sampling only award-winning advertising is justifiable. If there are changes in creative strategies across time, they are likely to be first notable in the best works initially. Suggestions for Further Research In responding to the initial limitation of the study stated above, it is necessary for future researchers to examine the effectiveness of Chinese award-winning TV commercials with Chinese consumer input. It is exciting to note that the China Advertising Festival also started to set up the China Effie Awards (which is judged on the basis of the effectiveness of advertising on consumers in market competition) since the 10 th China Advertising Festival, 2003. This action definitely will provide a more insightful answer of how these award-winning commercials actually performed in the marketplace.

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69 In terms of the second limitation of this study, attention should be given in the future to a comparison on the results of different content analysis studies regarding to the Chinese award-winning commercials. Furthermore, besides year and winning ad agency origin, future research may attempt to test the possible relationships between other peripheral variables in this study (such as product category, brand origin) and those 25 major executional variables. This will help to better understand the impact of certain peripheral elements on the variance of executional factors in terms of Chinese award-winning TV commercials. Finally, it is useful for future research to probe other types of advertising, such as print or radio ads within the appropriate framework. Examination of other Chinese (Greater region including Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore. etc.) award-winning advertisements in the international advertising festivals, such as Clio, New York, Mobius, Gannes, or One Show, also would be useful to compare the current study findings with other Chinese award-winning commercials.

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APPENDIX CODING SHEET FOR CHINESE AWARD-WINNING ADVERTISING (TV COMMERCIALS) BETWEEN 1997 AND 2003 TV Commercial ID # _______ Variable 1: Year 1>1997 2>1999 3>2000 4>2001 5>2002 6>2003 Variable 2: Category 1> Corporate Image 2> Electric Equipment 3> Savory Food 4> Beverages 5> Household Appliances/Furnishings 6> Personal Care 7> Business Equipment & Services 8> Pharmaceuticals 9> Financial Services 10>Real Estate 11>Automotive Product & Services 12>Tourism & Recreation 13>Others Variable 3: Brand Origin 1> Domestic ( Greater China including Mainland, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) 2> Asia and Pacific ( such as Korean, Japan, Singapore and so on) 3> American 4> European 5> Others Variable 4: Winning AD Agency Origin 1> Domestic 2> International 4A 70

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71 Variable 5: Judge Background 1> Domestic 2> International 4A Visual Devices Variable 6: Presence or absence of scenic beauty 1> Presence 2> Absence 3> Can not code Variable 7: Presence or absence of beautiful characters 1> Presence 2> Absence 3> Can not code Variable 8: Presence or absence of ugly characters 1> Presence 2> Absence 3> Can not code Variable 9: Presence or absence of graphic display 1> Presence 2> Absence 3> Can not code Variable 10: Presence or absence of surrealistic visuals: 1> Presence 2> Absence 3> Can not code Variable 11: Presence or absence of substantive supers 1> Presence 2> Absence 3> Can not code Variable 12: Language usage in commercials 1> Chinese mandarin 2> Cantonese 3> English 4> Both Chinese and English 5> Not applicable Variable 13: Presence or absence of a visual tagline 1> Presence 2> Absence

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72 3> Can not code Variable 14: Presence or absence of a visual memory device 1> Presence 2> Absence 3> Can not code Auditory Devices Variable 15: Presence or absence of memorable rhymes, slogans or mnemonic devices: 1> Presence 2> Absence 3> Can not code Variable 16: Presence or absence of unusual sound effects 1> Presence 2> Absence 3> Can not code Variable 17: Presence or absence of a spoken tagline 1> Present 2> Absence 3> Can not code Commercial Appeals or Selling Propositions Variable 18: What is the dominant commercial appeal or selling proposition? 1> Attribute or ingredients as main message 2> Product performance or benefit as main message 3> Psychological or subjective benefits of product ownership 4> Product reminder as main message 5> Sexual appeal 6> Comfort appeals 7> Safety appeals 8> Enjoyment appeals 9> Welfare appeals 10>Social approval 11> Self-esteem or self-image 12>Achievement 13> Excitement, sensation, variety Commercial Structures Variable 19: What is the dominant commercial structure? 1> Front-end impact

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73 2> Surprise or suspense in the middle 3> Surprise or suspense at closing 4> Unusual setting or situation 5> Humorous closing 6> Blind lead-in Commercial Format Variable 20: What is the dominant commercial format of the commercial? 1> Vignette 2> Continuity of action 3> Slice of life 4> Testimonial by product user 5> Endorsement by celebrity or authority 6> Announcement 7> Demonstration of product in use or by analogy 8> Demonstration of results of using product 9> Comedy or satire 10>Animation/cartoon/rotoscope 11>Photographic stills 12> Creation of mood or image as dominant element 13> Commercial written as serious drama 14> Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element 15> Problem and solution ( before/after presentation) 16> Interview( person on the street or elsewhere) 17> Camera involves audience in situation 18> New wave(product graphics) Commercial Approach Variable 21: What is the dominant commercial approach? 1> Rational 2> Emotional 3> Balance of rational and emotional Variable 22: What is the dominant commercial approach? 1> Positive 2> Negative 3> Balance of positive and negative Variable 23: Presence or absence of Brand-differentiating message 1> Presence 2> Absence

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74 Commercial Setting Variable 24: Where is the dominant commercial setting? 1> Indoors 2> Outdoors 3> Other 4> No setting Variable 25: Where is the commercial setting? 1> Traditional Chinese apartment/housing 2> Modern Chinese apartment/housing 3> Generic office/business setting 4> Generic restaurant setting 5> Palatial Chinese setting 6> Foreign locale/landmark 7> Chinese locale/landmark 8> Green pasture 9> Mountainous area 10>Not applicable 11>Other Music Element Variable 26: Presence or absence of music in commercials 1> Presence 2> Absence 3> Can not code Variable 27: Music style in commercials 1> Traditional Chinese 2> Contemporary Chinese 3> Western Type 4> Not applicable 5> Others Variable 28: Presence or absence of music as a major element 1> Presence 2> Absence 3> Can not code

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75 LIST OF REFERENCES Asian advertising and marketing. (2000). Nielsen Media International Report. Bruning,J.L., & Kintz, B.L. (1996). Computational handbook of statistics . Glenview, IL:Scott, Foresman and Company. Cheng, H. (1996). Advertising in China: A so cialist experiment. In K.T. Frith, (Ed.), Advertising in Asia: Communication, cultural and consumption . Ames: Iowa State University Press. China advertising association annual report. (2002). Retrieved on Jan. 6, 2004, at http://www.china-aa.org . China advertising report. (2004). Nielsen Media Research. Retrieved on Mar 02, 2004, at http://www.a.com.cn/cn/hygl/ggnj/hyph/2004/040302zgkw.htm Chinese advertising industry: A vigorous dragon crossing the river. (1994, June 2) Zhongguo Daobao ( China Guide ). Los Angeles, p.2. Ernst, S. B. (1998). A feature analysis of Clio-winning ads. Journalism Quarterly , 57 , 321-324. Fan, L.B. (1994). 1993—The advertising year of China. Baokan Guanggao Wenzai ( Advertising Digest for the Press ), 5 , 56. Frazer, C.F. (1983). Creative strategy: A management perspective. Journal of Advertising,12 (1), 36-41 Gagnard, A. (1989). Elements of timing and repetition in award-wining TV commericials. Journalism Quarterly , 66 (4), 965-969 Gagnard, A., & Morris,J.R. (1988).Clio commercials from 1975-1985: Analysis of 151 executional variables. Journalism Quarterly , 65 (4), 859-865. Hook, B., & G.Twitchett, D. (1991). The Cambridge encyclopedia of China . 2nd. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lai Man So, S. (2002). Advertising in China. In I. KLoss (Ed.), More advertising worldwide. New.York: Springer.

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76 Leo, Y.M.S, Ho, S.K., & Lai Man So, S. (2000) An assessment of theoretical and methodological development in advertising research on mainland China: A twenty-year review. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 22(2), 53-69. MeIntyre, B.T., & Wei, R. (1998). Value changes in Chinese advertisements from 1979 to 1995: A longitudinal study. Asian Journal of Communication, 8, 18-40. Ogilivy, D. (1963). Confessions of an advertising man. Atheneum, NY: McClelland & Stewart Ltd. Parsons, P. (1993, July 19). Marketing revolution hits staid giants. Advertising Age, p. 18. Reid ,L.N, Lane,W.R., Wenthe, L.S., & Smith, O.W (1985). Methods of presentation used in Clio-winning television commercials. Journalism Quarterly, 62, 553-559. Riffe, D, Lacy, S., & Fico, F, (1998). Analyzing media messages: Using quantitative content analysis in research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Shimp,T.A. (1976). Methods of commericial presentation employed by national television advertisers. Journal of Advertising, 19 (5), 30-36. Simon, J. L. (1971). The management of advertising. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Song, T.B., & Wong, L. (1998). Getting the word out. China Business Review, 25, 22-25. Stewart, D.W., & Furse, D.H. (1986). Effective television advertising: A study of 1000 commercials. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Stewart, D.W., & Koslow, S. (1989). Executional factors and advertising effectiveness: A replication. Journal of Adverting, 18(3), 21-32. Sun, Y.W. (1991). Guanggao xue (Advertising). Beijing: World Affair Press. Wang, Y.H. (1991, September 8). Advertising: An accelerator for the economic development in China. Economic Information Daily. Beijing, p.2. Wimmer,R.R., & Dominick, J.R. (2003). Mass media research: An introduction. Wadsworth, CA: Belmont. Xu, B. Y. (1991). Marketing to China: One billion new customers. Lincolnwood, IL:NTC Business Books.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Qichao grew up in Chengdu, the largest city in the southwest of China, as well as the capital of the Szechuan province, which is famous for three icons, the world popular spicy and hot food, the lovely giant panda, and the largest number of World Natural and Cultural Heritage Sites in China recognized by UN. He decided to give up following his mother’s career as a lawyer when he was a freshman and switched from international law to his interest in the mass communication field in Wuhan University, where he received his B.A in advertising in summer 2002. Qichao is scheduled to earn his master degree in mass communication (specializing in international advertising) in 2004 and subsequently to intern in the exciting advertising related industry in the States before he flies back to his homeland to be a practitioner in the booming advertising industry there. He is looking forward to those exciting events such as the 2008 Olympic in Beijing, 2010 World Fair in Shanghai and 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou. 77