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Victorian and musician: Charles Villiers Stanford's symphonies in context

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Title:
Victorian and musician: Charles Villiers Stanford's symphonies in context
Creator:
Keebaugh, Aaron C. ( Dissertant )
Kushner, David Z. ( Thesis advisor )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
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University of Florida
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2004
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vi, 71 p.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Composers ( jstor )
Irish music ( jstor )
Motivic development ( jstor )
Music composition ( jstor )
Music criticism ( jstor )
Music teachers ( jstor )
Musical motives ( jstor )
Orchestral music ( jstor )
Symphonies ( jstor )
Victorians ( jstor )
Music thesis, M.M
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Music
Stanford, Charles Villiers -- Sir -- Criticism and interpretation -- 1852-1924
Stanford, Charles Villiers -- Sir -- Symphonies -- 1852-1924
Symphony -- England ( lcsh )

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Abstract:
Charles Villiers Stanford (1852-1924), Irish-born English composer, stood along with Hubert Parry, Alexander Mackenzie, and Edward Elgar as the first generation of the new English musical renaissance. These composers sought to elevate the standards of English music and served to pave the way for a distinctly English musical style after nearly two centuries of neglect. As a teacher, Stanford is best remembered as professor of composition at the Royal College of Music; his pupils included such notable composers as Gustav Holst, Ralph Vaughan Williams, and Frank Bridge. He was also an eminent conductor who was instrumental in securing English premieres of several of Brahms's compositions. An active composer himself with a prodigious upbringing, Stanford's best known works included church and choral music. His symphonies, however, are little known and rarely, if ever, performed today. This thesis, therefore, offers a theoretical exploration of each of Stanford's seven symphonies within historical context. Several of these works, while stylistically derivative of the contemporary German symphonic tradition, employ unique aspects in terms of subject matter, the very essence of a distinctly Victorian art music. Since Stanford is too often neglected in many historical accounts of the symphony, this study also serves to portray the composer as an important figure in the development of the English symphony.
Subject:
19th, England, Stanford, symphony
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Title from title page of source document.
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Document formatted into pages; contains 77 pages.
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Includes vita.
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Thesis (M.M.)--University of Florida, 2004.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.

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VICTORIAN AND MUSICIAN: CHARLES VILLIERS STANFORD'S
SYMPHONIES INT CONTEXT












By

AARON C. KEEBAUGH


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF MUSIC

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004


















"From everything, a little remained."
-- R. E. K.


In loving memory of
John E. "Jack" Shaffer, 1928-2003.
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I would first like to thank individually each of the members of my committee for

their wisdom, not only in this proj ect, but throughout my degree program. I thank Dr.

Larry Crook--for his knowledge, wisdom, and ability to help me see the other side of the

proverbial coin. I thank Dr. Joyce Davis--for our talks, lessons, and lunches. Her advice

is valuable to me both personally and professionally. I thank Dr. David Kushner-for

taking a chance and being a true role model and mentor through his encyclopedic musical

knowledge and professional experience. I thoroughly enjoy our eclectic conversations

over lunch and coffee and I look forward to working with you in the future. I would like

to extend personal "thank yous" to Professor Jeremy Dibble, Chair in Music at the

University of Durham, UK, for answering my questions regarding my research; and to Dr.

Jesse Hopkins, Professor Steve Watson, and Dr. Gary Adams of Bridgewater College and

Mr. James Schoenfelder of Altoona, PA for their encouragement in my decision to pursue

graduate work. I would also like to thank my family, Mom, Dad, and Ryan, for their

encouragement and support in my education, and my fiancee, Cari, for her constant

patience and solace when I was frustrated. Most important, I express my deepest

gratitude to Jack Shaffer, a dear pedagogue, mentor, and friend, who suddenly passed

away in January 2003. I will cherish our friendship in my heart for the rest of my days.





















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S............... ........... iii


AB STRACT ................. ..............v.. ......... ....


CHAPTER


1 INTTRODUC TION ................. ..............1.. ...._ ....


2 BIOGRAPHICAL OVERVIEW............... ...............4


3 THE SY MPHONIE S............ ..... ._ .............. 15...


Symphony No. 1 in B flat major............... ................. 15
Symphony No. 2 in D minor, "Elegiac "..................... .................................17
Symphony No. 3 in F minor, "Irish, op. 28............... ...................18
Symphony No. 4 in F maj or, op. 3 1................ ......... .. .. ............31
Symphony No. 5 in D maj or, "L 'Allegro ed il Pensieroso, op. 56. ................... ..43
Symphony No. 6 in E flat major, op. 94............... .................. 54
Symphony No. 7 in D minor, op. 124............... ...............56..


4 CONCLUSION. ............ ...... ._ ..............65...


SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY. ............ ...... .__ ...............67....


B IO GRAPHIC AL SKET CH ........._._ .......... ..............71..
















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Music

VICTORIAN AND MUSICIAN:
CHARLES VILLIERS STANFORD'S SYMPHONIES IN CONTEXT

By

Aaron C. Keebaugh

August 2004

Chairman: David Z. Kushner
Major Department: Music

Charles Villiers Stanford (1852-1924), Irish-born English composer, stood along

with Hubert Parry, Alexander Mackenzie, and Edward Elgar as the first generation of the

new English musical renaissance. These composers sought to elevate the standards of

English music and served to pave the way for a distinctly English musical style after

nearly two centuries of neglect. As a teacher, Stanford is best remembered as professor of

composition at the Royal College of Music; his pupils included such notable composers

as Gustav Holst, Ralph Vaughan Williams, and Frank Bridge. He was also an eminent

conductor who was instrumental in securing English premieres of several ofBrahms's

compositions. An active composer himself with a prodigious upbringing, Stanford' s best

known works included church and choral music. His symphonies, however, are little

known and rarely, if ever, performed today.

This thesis, therefore, offers a theoretical exploration of each of Stanford's seven

symphonies within historical context. Several of these works, while stylistically









derivative of the contemporary German symphonic tradition, employ unique aspects in

terms of subj ect matter, the very essence of a distinctly Victorian art music. Since

Stanford is too often neglected in many historical accounts of the symphony, this study

also serves to portray the composer as an important figure in the development of the

English symphony.
















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Sir Charles Villiers Stanford (1852-1924), Irish-born English composer,

represents a mere strata of English musical history. After his death and even to the

present day, his name is synonymous with English church music. He composed

numerous anthems for voices and organ, five Masses, six complete settings of the

Anglican church service, and many hymns and carols. However, this seemingly vast array

of sacred music comprises only a fraction of his total output. He also composed vast

amounts of chamber music, solo piano and organ works, three piano concertos, two violin

concertos, six Irish Rhapsodies, and seven virtually unknown symphonies.

In early twentieth-century scholarship, Stanford receives mention among his

immediate contemporaries Hubert Parry, Alexander Mackenzie, and Edward Elgar, the

first shot fired in the English musical Renaissance. In his own lifetime, Elgar earned

increasing international praise as the leading English composer while Stanford, by then

associated with Mackenzie and Parry as the "Parry group," was written off as a dry

academic. Indeed, his (Stanford's) own students at the Royal College of Music, who

include such figures as Frank Bridge, Gustav Holst, Ivor Gurney, and Ralph Vaughan

Williams, are best known for shedding the Teutonic shackles of English Victorian music.

After his death, Stanford's accomplishments as a composer were forgotten, or at the least

swept under the proverbial rug.

One of the most oversimplified statements concerning nineteenth-century English

music is that the English symphony echoed the German symphonic traditions of the more

conservative Romantics--i.e. Mendelssohn, Schumann, and Brahms-for its adherence to









classical forms, balanced str-uctures, and emotional self-control. Yet, in the postmodern

world, the century-old view of the Victorian culture as a collection of prudish, shallow,

and reticent individuals can no longer hold ground. Matthew Sweet's Inventing the

Victorians (2001) states that "suppose that everything we think we know about the

Victorians is wrong. That, in the century which has elapsed since 1901, we have misread

their culture, their history, their lives-perhaps deliberately, in order to satisfy our sense

of ourselves as liberated Moderns."' The musicologist Ruth Solie, in light of her

discipline's focus on the historic professionals of music (composers, performers, and

critics), offers a paradigm shift in that "a culture's musical practices, its attitudes toward

music .. are revealed more by the ubiquitous and everyday conversations of music' s

users than by the rulings of the experts and professionals, often to the chagrin of the

latter."2 In following the newly-paved highway of Victorian musical studies, this thesis

will focus on the symphonies of Charles Villiers Stanford within the context of his life

and surrounding culture, as well as his own belief system as teacher, political thinker, and

musician.

Only a few sources since Stanford's death have dealt with his works in a purely

objective light. Most important is Jeremy Dibble's definitive biography Charles Villiers

Stanford: Man and2~usician (2001); although, analytical discussion of the music itself

takes a back seat to the plethora of biographical detail. Several primary sources were

consulted in the preparation of this study: the composer' s own texts-Studies and

M~emories(1908), M~usical Composition: A .1/# #l t Treatise for Students (1911), Pages f~on

an theritten Dialy (1914), A History of2~usic (1930)- his obituary notices in The Times,

and several critical accounts of first performances of each of the symphonies. Chapter

one comprises a brief survey of Stanford' s career, political views, his teaching, and the

Matthew Sweet, La.. ,,ns;, the Victorians (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2001): ix.

SRuth A. Solie, Ahtsic in Other Words: Victorian Conversations (Berkelev: University of California
Press, 2004): 2.









people in his immediate circles with whom he worked. The second chapter, which is the

meat of the study, comprises historical and analytical surveys of each of the seven

symphonies. The conclusion provides the author' s own view of Stanford the Victorian

and Stanford the composer within the broad contexts of English music historiography.

















CHAPTER 2
BIOGRAPHICAL OVERVIEW

Born in Dublin on 30 September 1852, Charles Villiers Stanford had a childhood

wrought with musical and intellectual enlightenment. His father, John Stanford, was an

eminent lawyer and keen amateur bass singer.3 On various occasions, the Stanford

household frequented performances from amateur and professional musicians; the violin

virtuoso Joseph Joachim even paid occasional visits. The young Charles's early

education was rooted in classics and he received his early musical training from three of

Dublin's leading musicians: Robert Stewart, Joseph Robinson, and Michael Quarry. The

latter instructed Stanford on piano, as he himself was a former pupil of the pianist Ignaz

Moscheles.4 Stewart also instructed the young Irishman on the piano and, presumably,

the oragn. He had a reputation as a recitalist through his post as organist at Saint

Patrick' s Cathedral, a position he held for 50 years, and for his overtly French style of

playing.5 Robinson conducted the Antient Concert Society for 29 years (1834-1863)o

and the Cambridge University Choral Society, to which he had been appointed in 1837.

In 1848, the conductor, along with Stanford's father, founded the Irish Academy of


SFrom this account and several modern sources, John Stanford sang at a professional level. His son
stipulated that the elder Stanford could sing "from high F to low C [and] was one of the finest in quality
in style that I have ever heard anywhere" (27). John Stanford did not pursue a profession career as a singer
because of practical reasons. Charles Villiers Stanford, Pages from an Unwritten Diary (London: Edward
Amold, 1914): 27-29.

SLitte is known of Michael Quarry. There are records that he studied in Leipzig and returned to Dublin
and took up temporary employment at the Royal Irish Academy of Music, resigning in 1882. Jeremy
Dibble, ( IR, /. V illiers Stanford: Alan and Musician (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 26.

5 Stewart studied in Paris with Lefebure-Wdly, the organist at the Madeleine. Ibid., 22-23.

6 Robinson founded this organization when he was merely 18 years old. Ibid., 21-22.









Music. Robinson is also noteworthy for bringing Mendelssohn's music to the Emerald

Isle, and for his dedication to the musical growth of Ireland.' After his teacher' s death in

1898, Charles Stanford provided the following encomium:

To Ireland he was devoted, and no inducements to desert it for a more
lucrative and fame-bringing centre of activity ever found favor in his eyes.
Such personalities are rare, and their claim to recognition at the hands of
prosterity is irrefragable. The fact that a career is by choice and
conviction circumscribed in extent impels the chronicler all the more to do
justice to its merits when the work is closed and the worker silent;
especially when those merits are the sort which would have compelled the
widest admiration if their professor had so willed it.8

Despite his glowing admiration for the Irish conductor, Stanford felt that he had exhausted

his musical resources in Dublin by the time he was a teenager.g While his native city

contained a wealth of traditional folk song and dance, it lacked "the wealth of chamber and

orchestral music which was to be found across the seas."'o So, in the summer of 1862,

the young Irishman journeyed to London to further his musical prospects.

In England, Stanford absorbed the artistic culture that surrounded him. He

experienced for the first time the art works of the Pre-Raphaelites, notably Leighton,

Millias, and Watts" In music, he studied composition with Arthur O' Leary and piano

with Ernst Pauer. Stanford records that the latter instructed him "principally in Mozart"

and that he (Pauer) boasted to be a pupil of Mozart' s second son, Wolfgang."2 The

stimulus of his visit and lessons conj oined with his father' s connection and interest in all



SRobinson may have sown the seeds of Hibernian folklore into Stanford's young mind, for the soon-to-be
composer mentions that his (Robinson's) most valuable work in music lied in his arrangements of Irish
folk songs (126). Charles Villiers Stanford, Studies and Memories (London: Archibald Constable and
Company, 1908): 117-127.

Ilbid., 117-118.

SHe also studied violin with R. M. Levy (1811-1899). Dibble, op. cit., 26.

'O Stanford, Unwritten Diary, 21.

''Ibid., 70.

'2 bid., 71.









things musical provided ample room for Stanford's compositional abilities to flower. In

the following eight years, he composed church music, several songs, and two orchestral

works, a Rondo for cello and orchestra (1869) and a Concert Overture in A minor (1870).

When he was 18 years old, he won his father' s consent to pursue music as a career

rather than giving into the elder Stanford's "hankering for the Bar."l3 His father' s only

condition was that his son receive a general university education first, and then to pursue

musical studies abroad. Charles Stanford matriculated to Queen's College, Cambridge on

an organ scholarship in 1870.14 While at Cambridge, Stanford maintained an active musical

life. He composed his first Piano Concerto in B flat major (1874), the 2 Novellettes for

piano (1874), 2 Magnificat and Nunc dimittis in F (1872) and E flat (1873) a handful of

songs and part songs, and incidental music to Longfellow's play The Spanish Student

(1871). He was also active as a conductor, assisting the then director of the Cambridge

University Music Society, John Larkin Hopkins in 1871, and, subsequently, becoming

full conductor of the same institution two years later. In 1873, Stanford moved to Trinity

College to fulfill his newly-appointed duties as conductor; concurrently, he was also

appointed as organist. As part of the agreement of his position, Stanford was able to

study in Germany after his graduation.'

For six months in 1874 and 1875, Stanford studied in Leipzig on a

recommendation by Sterndale Bennett,16 learning piano from Robert Papperitz and

composition from Karl Reinecke, a renowned pianist, composer, conductor, and

pedagogue. In the young composer' s own words, "Leipzig was the best centre for [a

student of composition]," for it had the best orchestra in Germany. "Weimar," states
13 Ibid., 103.

14 He won a classical scholarship the following June.

SIlbid., 120.

16 While Stanford considered Bennett to be England's leading composer, he was uneasy about studying
solely with him due to his lack of sympathy for any contemporary music. There was also little
opportunity for composition students to hear their works performed due to poor conductor's and orchestras.
Ibid., 156; Dibble, op. cit., 53.









Stanford, "was a much smaller centre, dominated by Liszt and his adherents, with no

school save for the pianoforte .. ." Dresden, at the time, "was mainly devoted to opera,

and there was no outstanding figure, except Julius Reitz who was getting

old. .."" Stanford's studies with Reinecke, however, were not to his liking:

Of all the dry musicians I have ever known he (Reinecke) was the most
desiccated. He had not a good word for any contemporary composer,
even for those of his own kidney. He loathed Wagner, once
described Elsa to me as a young woman without brains enough to make out
the list of clothes for the wash, sneered at Brahms, and had no enthusiasm
of any sort. But he enjoyed himself hugely when he was expounding and
writing canons, and had a fairly good idea of teaching them. His
composition training had no method about it whatever. He occasionally
made an astute criticism and that was all. He never gave a pupil a chance
of hearing his own work, the only really valuable means of training, and the
better the music, the less he inclined to encourage it. He was in
fact the embodiment of the typical "Philister."'

His dissatisfaction came to an end one year later when Joachim came to Leipzig and

offered to refer the young Irishman to Friedrich Kiel, a composition teacher in Berlin.

Under Kiel's tutelage, Stanford realized that he, in fact, had learned little to nothing from

Reinecke. Canon and organic development were key features in Kiel's teaching, '

elements that are primary features in Stanford's symphonic works. Although he busied

himself with his lessons, Stanford managed to compose prolifically. A Violin Concerto in

D major (1875); the part song To Chloris (1873); the set of six Heine songs, op. 4 (1874);

and two choral works, The Golden Legend (1874-1875) and The Resurrection (1875) are

but a few compositions from this period.

Stanford returned to Cambridge in 1877, after his "Wander-j ahren," to return to

his position as director of the Cambridge University Musical Society and part-time


17Stanford, Unwritten Diary, 143.

"Ilbid., 156-157.

"9 According to Stanford, Kiel founded his teaching of counterpoint not upon traditional cantus firmus,
but Lutheran chorale tunes. Ibid., 164-165.









"organ-blow[er]"20 He had, by this point, readily established himself as a solid voice in

British music. His Piano Suite, op. 2 and Toccata, op. 3 for piano were published two

years prior, his First Symphony in B-flat maj or won second prize at the Alexandra

Palace competition of 1876. Indeed, Stanford desired to establish himself as a composer,

conductor, and performer. At Cambridge, he conducted several new and unfamiliar

masterworks, including Schumann's Paradise and the Peri and Brahms's Ein Deutsches

Requiem.21 He was also instrumental in securing the English premiere of Brahms's First

Symphony in C minor, under Joachim's beat.22 Furthermore, Stanford enabled numerous

performing artists such as Joachim, Edward Dannreuther, and Hans Richter to come to

Cambridge. As a pianist, he performed in the Cambridge University Musical Society's

"Popular Concerts," which featured chamber music.

As an active force in the development of British music, Stanford became

acquainted with the artistic elite of London. In 1879, he met the Victorian poet and

fellow Cambridge alumnus Alfred, Lord Tennyson. The composer became aware of

Tennyson' s work when he was selected by the poet himself to write incidental music for

his play Queen Mary in 1875.23 Stanford subsequently set a number of Tennyson' s

poems to song, including, Is it the Wind ofDaw/n (1898), Jack Ta~r (1900), and Claribel.

The poet, apparently, had a keen ear for how his work should be set to music, for

Stanford states the following with humility:

As he expressed it himself, he disliked music which went up when it ought
to go down, and went down when it ought to go up. I never knew him
wrong in his suggestions on this point. The most vivid instance I can recall

20Ibid., 165.

21 Ibid., 166.

22 The concert took place on 8 March 1877 and besides the symphony included Sterndale Bennett's
overture The Wood Nymphs, op. 20; Beethoven's Violin Concerto, op. 61 (with Joachim as soloist);
Brahms's A Song ofDestiny, op. 54; two violin solos by J. S. Bach, and Joachim's own Elegiac
Overture. Ibid., 173-174.

23 The music was, to Stanford's misfortune, never performed, even after the poet pressed the administration
of the Lyceum Theatre to reconsider. Ibid., 228-229; Stanford, Studies and Memories, 90.





























































2 Ibid., 93.

"5 Stanford, Unwritten Diary, 317.


was about a line in the "Revenge"- "Was he devil or man? He was devil
for aught they knew." When I played him my setting, the word "devil"
was set to a higher note in the question than it was in the answer; and the
penultimate word "they" was unaccented. He at once corrected me, saying
that the second word "devil" must be higher and stronger than the first,
and the "they" must be marked. He was perfectly right, and I altered it
accordingly. It was apparently a small point, but it was this insisting on
perfection of detail which made him the most valuable teacher of accurate
declamation that it was possible for a composer to learn from.2

Lord Tennyson' s poem In M~emoriamn is the programmatic basis for Stanford's Second

Symphony in D minor (1879).

The 1880's were stable and productive years for Stanford. In 1883, he joined the

faculty of the newly-formed Royal College of Music as professor of composition and

conductor of the orchestra. One of his crowning achievements at the institution was the

initiation of an opera class. Stanford was particularly enthusiastic about opera, even if, to

London audiences, it was nothing more than an exotic affair.25 His own works in the

medium stand as testaments to his own lifelong endeavor to install National Opera in

England: The Veiled Prophet ofKhora~ssan (1881), Savonarola (1884), his popular

Maumsl~n O 'Brien (1896), M~uch Ado about Nothing (1901), The Critic (1916), and The

Traveling Companion (1919). The composer was also appointed professor of music at

Cambridge in 1887; he held both teaching positions until his death. During the latter part

of the decade, two of Stanford's works, the Third Symphony in F minor (1887),

aptly-named the "Irish" for its use of folk songs, and his Fourth Symphony in F maj or

(1888), gained international appeal. Both works received premieres in London and Berlin.

Stanford' s political views during his Cambridge years lead to an ever-increasing

awareness of his Irish heritage, an aspect of his persona that crystalized in his

manipulation of folk elements in his works. His fear of a maj or political change,









particularly the fruition of women's suffrage,26 fueled his anxiety over the Irish question,

the question of home rule.27 Stanford gave his allegiance to Sir Edward Carson and James

Craig of Ulster, who threatened to use armed resistance if necessary. He also signed the

Covenant, which was made available for British sympathizers. In light of a heated debate

between himself, a protestant and conservative unionist, and Erskine Childers, a hardcore

republican, Stanford stuck to his argument that "Ireland does not want Home Rule. The

place-hunters want it, but not the people."28 Stanford's musical response to this and

subsequent political issues concerning Irish nationalism29 is found in his Irish Rhapsod'y

No. 4 (1913), also known as The Fisherman ofLough Neagh and' What He Saw; the

Ulster March (1913), and his song settings of the Ulster poet John Stevenson' s Pat

MaCalrty His Rhymes (1910). However, his unionist leanings and career as a leading

British musician tainted his nationalistic portraits with an English hue.30

As a teacher, he adhered to the traditional methods. In his 1911 treatise for

students, M~usical Composition, Stanford referred to the string quartet as a decathlon of

technical wizardry:

In chamber music it is still less possible to rely on colour as superior to
design. It bears the same relation to orchestral treatment that
water-colours do to oils. The texture and the mediums are thinner, and
flaws of workmanship are all the more obvious. But in music the mastery
of the one is essential as the mastery of the other.31

26 Dibble, op. cit., 403.

27 The Home Rule Bill was squashed by Parliament in the 1880's; however, the issue did not die then and
there. The Third Home Rule Bill was passed in the House of Commons, and despite the fact the it was
repeatedly sent back by the Lords, it rose to royal decision in 1914. Ibid., 403.

28 The UNimS (9 April 1914); also quoted inlbid., 404.

29 Particularly the threat of civil war and "gunrunning" in Howth, Kilcoole, and Ulster.

30 Murphy concludes that Stanford used the Irish elements as entertainment in his nationalistic works, a
view commonly held by the contemporary English population, and that he may never be considered a great
Irish composer since Irish audiences of the day also viewed his works through the same lens (55). Michael
Murphy, "Race, Nation, and Empire in the Irish Music of Sir Charles Villiers Stanford," Music in Ireland,
1848-1998 (2000): 46-55.

31 Charles Villiers Stanford, Musical Composition: A Short Treatise for Students (New York: The
Macmillan Co., 1911), 111.






























































32Ibid., 111-112.


For Stanford, writing a string quartet or trio is the best training to learn the treatment of

strings in an orchestral setting. Students who wish to understand the principles of the

string orchestra will, in Stanford' s opinion, undoubtedly benefit from exercises for a more

intimate instrumental setting. He advocates six points for the student composer of a trio

or quartet to follow: 1) the richness of a four-note chord in a string quartet, dependent on

the quality and quantity of the overtone series, is desirable to the same chord on the

piano; 2) there is little to be gained by unnecessary doubling, 3) it is important to secure

contrast with limited material; 4) students should strive for a pure style and avoid placing

any ill-fated note into the texture; 5) it is important to strive for complete freedom in the

relation of the four instruments to each other, 6) it is important to strive for the equality

of parts among all four voices.32 Indeed, these rules could be stretched to fit the larger

symphonic form, of which he also held specific views:

Music may be divided into two classes--absolute music, when the art
speaks for itself by sound alone, and descriptive music, when it illustrates
words or drama. There has always been a tendency, which in recent times
has grown into a cult, to allow the second class to trespass upon the first.
This type is necessarily a hybrid, but it has grown to such proportions
that it requires the fullest consideration in any treatise dealing with
composition. There can be no question that music which speaks for itself
is not only the purest, but also the most all-embracing form of the art.
Being intangible and indefinable, it suggests to different trains of thought,
and any defined programme of a movement given by one listener may be
miles apart from one given by another .. Programme-music, then, is the
incursion of music proper into the realms of the drama. How far can it
carry its invasion without being itself destroyed? Only so far as it is
intelligible to the ear, without help from any other organ. There are no
words or scenic adjuncts to assist it. It must not rely on a title (which
may be torn off) or an analysis ina book of words (which may go out of
print) for an explanation of the drift of the drama. It must tell a clear story
to any musical listener who does not happen to have seen the name, or to
have a shilling to buy a programme. If it succeeds under such conditions, it
is a work of art; if it does not, it is a work of artifieiality. In a word, it
must appeal, after all, as absolute music.33


" Ibid., 155, 158.









While it is abundantly clear, as we shall see in the following chapter, that

Stanford the symphonist matched sentiment with Stanford the teacher, it is

remarkable that two of his students, Gustav Holst and Ralph Vaughan Williams,

developed their own musical voice in spite of their master' s advice. The latter

provided the following statement:

[Stanford] has written some of the most beautiful music that has come
from these islands. He realized that all art which is worth while must
spring from its own soil. He made an exhaustive study of his own Irish
folk music; some of his arrangements, notably those known to British
hearers as "The Arbutus Tree" and "Father O' Flynn", are household
words .. Of course in Stanford's enormous output there is bound to be
a certain amount of dull music; but, after all, so there is in Beethoven and
Bach. At times his very facility led him astray. he could, at will, use the
technique of any other composer and often use it better than the
original, as in "The Middle Witch", where he beats Delius at his own game.
Sometimes he could not resist adding a clever touch which marred the
purity of his inspiration, as in the sophisticated repetition of the words
"lead the line" at the end of the otherwise beautiful song "Sailing at
Dawn." The bright young things of the younger generation do not seem to
know much about Stanford, and not having had the advantage of his
teaching are inclined to ignore what he did and what he taught. But I
believe he will return again. With the next generation the inevitable reaction
will set in and Stanford will come into his own.34

Stanford's personal friend and premiere biographer H. Plunket Greene waxed equally

optimistic, if not hyperbolical:

[Stanford] loved his pupils. Some of them no doubt turned into ugly
ducklings when he thought they were chickens. But the greatest tribute
they could pay to him was, that they went away and worked out their
own salvation for themselves. That is what a true teacher does. If he had
not been a great composer, he would have been the greatest teacher the
country has ever known. The whole of our modern school, which
probably stands higher than that of any other country at the present
moment, is absolutely founded on Stanford.35


"4 Ralph Vaughan Williams, "Charles Villiers Stanford," in National htsic and Other Essays (London:
Oxford University Press, 1963), 195-196.

"5 Quoted in T. F. Dunhill, "C. V. Stanford: Some Aspects of His Life and Works," Proceedings of the
Royal Ahtsical association 53 (1927-1928): 42-65.









Yet, what Plunket Greene neglected to mention here and in his biography of the composer

in 193530 WaS that, despite Stanford's excessive duties as conductor in the late-nineteenth

and early-twentieth centuries Edward Elgar succeeded Stanford and his contemporary

and fellow Royal College faculty member Hubert Parry as the most popular English

composer. A memorandum in Parry's diary in 1911 states:

C. V. S. (Stanford) wrote to Mackenzie on feeble grounds (!) against
Elgar's 2nd. Symphony being given-as it allowed him such a
disproportionate amount of time to other composers. He was furious
because he did not get an invitation to the Coronation.38

Despite the lack of public attention his music was receiving at this time,

Stanford continued to compose until the end of his life. He turned a great deal of

his productivity to gebrauchmusik for educational purposes as well as various

songs, piano pieces, and organ works for sheer economic reasons. He held fast to

his pro-Teutonic Victorian and Edwardian heritage, even when postwar society

negated such influence. He composed a few instr-umental pieces; however, not one

interested a single publisher.30 His Seventh Symphony and last two string

quartets were among this last repertoire. In a letter to his friend McEwen on

Christmas Day 1923, Stanford discussed his unpopularity in the public eye:

I suppose I am more or less out of date. I see all the youngsters going
ahead with stuff which I would not soil my pen and paper with, but my
pen and paper appear to be unacceptable to those who publish and has to
remain pen and paper.""

"6 H. Plunket Greene, C is,, /.. Villiers Stanford (London, 1935).

37 Stanford conducted the Bach choir from 1886-1902, the Leeds Philharmonic Society from 1897-1909,
and the Leeds Triennial Festival from 1901-1910.

"8 Quoted in Jeremy Dibble, "Parry and Elgar: A New Perspective," The Musical Times 125 (November
1984): 639-643.

"9 Dibble, C u 1,,. I, F illiers Stanford, 449.

10 Letter from Stanford to McEwen, 25 December 1923. Quoted in Ibid., 449.


































































41 B. E. Lamble, "A Stanford Society?" The Musical Times 93/1317 (November 1952), 509.


In the decades following Stanford's death, his music, save that for the church, fell into

oblivion. Except for a brief call for a Stanford Society in 1952,41 the postwar world found

no room for his pro-Teutonic, Victorian elegance and classical style.

















CHAPTER 3
THE SYMPHONIES


Symphony No. 1 in B flat

In 1875, the Alexandra Palace reopened after it burned down to years prior. In

order to attract attention and to regain its former status as a leading concert venue in

London, the Palace administration created a contest for a new symphony. The venture

failed, but the competition attracted 46 submissions from various aspiring composers.

All submissions were judged by Mcfarren and Joachim. One of the aspiring composers

was the 23-year-old Charles Stanford. Until this time he had merely dabbled in large

orchestral forms.42 Moreover, the young composer sought to test his compositional skill

in the larger international arena of symphonic form. The contest proved to be a valuable

opportunity for Stanford, for his work, the Symphony No. 1 in B flat, took the second

prize. The first prize was, coincidentally, to Macfarren's pupil and son-in-law Francis

Davenport for his Symphony in D minor. The Irishman dedicated the work to the tenor

Arthur Duke Coleridge, a friend of the composer' s at Cambridge.

Stanford's Symphony in B flat is a mature work and, by far, the most substantial

work of his youth. The tempo markings for each of the work' s four movements appear

as follows: I) Larghetto Allegro vivace; II) Scherzo in Landler tempo Trio 1) Presto-

Trio 2) Poco piu lento; III) Andante tranquillo; IV) Finale Allegro molto.

12 He composed two large-scale choral works: The Golden Legend for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra in
1874 and The Resurrection for chorus, orchestra, and organ in 1975. The Golden Legend never received a
premiere nor publication. Stanford also composed music for the stage: The Spanish Student, incidental
music to H. W. Longfellow's play in 1871 and Queen Mary, incidental music to a play by Alfred Lord
Tennyson in 1876. Stanford's score to Queen Mary received a premiere and publication. The composer
also wrote a rondo for cello and orchestra in 1869, a concert overture in 1870, a piano concerto in B flat in
1874, and a violin concerto in D in 1875. All of these works, however, remain unpublished.









The first movement opens with an extended introduction whose opening motive is later

transformed into the movement' s second theme. Soli and solo instrumental writing

abound in this movement. For example, the clarinets present the first theme, which is

later taken over by the trombones after a series of episodes. In the movement' s

recapitulation, a solo cello presents the second theme. The triumphant coda features the

trumpet section fanfaring the primary theme, though augmented in rhythm. While these

features are not unique to the symphonic repertoire, they demonstrate the young

Stanford' s command of orchestral timbres, an element that is indeed a feature of the

composer' s later mature symphonies.

The second movement comprises a scherzo and two contrasting trios. While the

placement of this form in the second movement is unusual in itself, the scherzo involves a

landler rhythm, an element commonly found in the symphonies of Franz Schubert. The

first trio section is cast in duple meter, owing to the scherzo-and-trio movements of the

symphonies of Robert Schumann. The second trio section, in triple meter, involves the

woodwinds and strings presenting a descending scalar pattern in canon.

Stanford's personal musical fingerprints are found in the third movement. Muted

violins and violas provide a hushed quality throughout the piece. The second subject, a

haunting melody with strains of sweet melancholy, is presented by the French horns,

evoking the style of Irish folk music. A solo violin appears towards the end of the

movement in a rubato style, complete with rhapsodic arpeggios and trills akin to an Irish

lament. The high-spirited Finale further corroborates Stanford's mastery of the

orchestral pallet. Driving repeated notes are key features of the primary subject, which

Stanford treats in a canon between strings and brass. The development section includes a

fugato based on the main theme, another characteristic of his mature style.

In general, this work "owes much to the strength and optimism of Schumann's

"Rhenish Symphony. "43 It is clear, however, that Stanford's First Symphony does not
4 Ibid., 79.









owe its clear, masterful orchestration to that of Schumann's oeuvre. The work remains

unpublished to this day.4

Symphony No. 2 in D minor, "Elegaic"

Stanford began work on his Second Symphony in July 1879 in the wake of his

success with the First Piano Quartet in F maj or, op. 15 and completion of his first opera

The Veiled Prophet ofKhora~ssan. The composer was, by this time, also moved by the

increasing enthusiasm for orchestral music in London.

Stanford finished the work in October of 1879, but made subsequent revisions of

the first movement.46 The unexpected death of his father on 17 July 1880 is a possible

reason for his choice of the subtitle Elegaic. In addition, he prefaced the work with

stanza 70 from Tennyson's In M~emoriamn:

I cannot see the features right
When on the gloom I strive to paint
The face I know; the hues are faint
And mix with hollow masks of night

Cloud-towers by ghostly masons wrought
A gulf that ever shuts and gapes,
A hand that points, and palled shapes
In shadowy thoroughfares of thought;

And crowds that stream from yawning doors,
And shoals of pucker' d faces drive;
Dark bulks that trumble half alive,
And lazy lengths on boundless shores;

Till all at once beyond the will
I hear a wizard music roll,
And thro' a lattice on the soul
Looks thy fair face and makes it still.

Much like the melancholic metaphors that comprise the strict eight-syllable format of
14 The manuscript is currently located in the Music Library at Northwestern University.

15 The Veiled Propher earned its premiere in Hanover in February 1881. Lewis Foreman, liner notes to
( is,,1 i.. Villiers Stanford: The Complete Symphonies (Chandos 1994).

"6 The author states that the manuscript for the first movement bears the date 21 December 1880. Dibble,
op. cit., 106.









Tennyson's verse, Stanford's "Elegaic Symphony assumes a solemn air. The work is

cast in the standard four-movement layout; the first three movements bear romantic

character markings: I) Allegro appassionato; II) Lento espressivo; III) Scherzo: Allegro

con fuoco; IV) Adagio moderato Allegro moderato Allegro molto ma non presto.

Stanford revised the work in 1882 and submitted it to Henry Cummings, director

of the Philharmonic Society, upon completion in hopes for a premiere. Cummings,

however, hid not accept it. The symphony finally earned a premiere on 7 March 1882 in

Cambridge at a concert given in honor of Joachim. A critic for The M~usical Times

(1 April 1882) stated that the piece was "by far the most important orchestral work by

Mr. Stanford that has hitherto been heard.""' The anonymous critic concluded that it

contained "an immense advance, both in power of conception and mastery over the

technicalities of orchestral treatment."48 The symphony was not performed again until

September of the following year at a Glouchester Three Choirs Festival concert.

Stanford' s work commenced the Thursday morning' s festivities, which included

Gonoud's The Redemption, an audience favorite. Charles Hartford Lloyd conducted the

work in Stanford's absence. Amidst numerous latecomers to the morning concert,"" the

critic for The M~usical Times states that "we like the Lento espressivo, Scherzo, and

Adagio better than either the opening Allegro appassionata or the final Allegro" and that

"the reminiscence of Beethoven, however, in the Scherzo [was] too obvious to escape

notice."'"

Symphony No. 3 in F minor, "Irish", op. 28



47Quoted in Ibid., 123.

18 Quoted in Ibid., 123.

"9 The critic records that the late comers probably did not have "the slightest wish to hear Dr. Stanford's
new work." The main attraction for the majority of the audience members was the subsequent performance
of Gonoud's work. "The Glouchester Music Festival," The Musical Times 24 (October 1883): 543.

" Ibid., 543.









In September of 1886, Stanford and his wife went to Switzerland and northern

Italy for a holiday after the Birmingham festival.5 After a three-week stay, they

detoured to Vienna to visit Hans Richter before returning to England. The conductor,

who recently received a doctorate from Oxford, was planning to perform Stanford's

Elegiac Ode in Vienna. Stanford also paid a visit to Brahms, apparently without making

an appointment. The composer recalls the following from his visit:

When I next visited Vienna I went to see him .. thinking that I should
surely find him at home at eleven o' clock. But his housekeeper told me
that he had just gone to dinner. I was so astonished that I said to her, "In
Heaven's name, what time does Brahms eat his breakfast?" "At five," said
the dame; "he does all of his work before eleven, and is out the rest of the
day." However, I fell in with him later, and sat with him through the
rehearsal of Gluck' s Alceste at the Opera House, over which he waxed
enthusiastic.52


English audiences were no stranger to Brahms's music; his C minor Symphony "attracted

almost every musician of importance in England"53 and his later symphonies met with

enthusiasm in London during the 1880s.54 Brahms's Fourth Symphony earned its

premiere in Meiningen on 25 October 1885. News of the work's monumental power and

musical poetry no doubt fell on English ears. When Richter conducted the English

premiere of the work on 10 May 1886, an enthusiastic Stanford began sketching a new

symphony, the so-called "Irish" in F minor. Richter took interest in this new project

from the composer' s pen and commissioned the work for his 1887 concert season.5

Stanford completed the work in 1887 and it was quickly published as op. 28, the

first of the composer' s symphonies to earn a number. The use of Irish folk songs, which

is central to this work, was not uncommon in Stanford's oeuvre.

5Dibble, op. cit., 171.

52 Stanford, Studies and Memories, 113.

53 Ibid., 111.

54 Dibble, op. cit., 182.

" Ibid., 171.







20

With the "Irish" Symphony, Stanford earned an international reputation. It

received performances all over England. In Germany, Builow conducted the work in

Hamburg at the Stadttheater on 26 January 1888, and in Berlin a few weeks later.56 The

success of Stanford's work earned his Fourth Symphony a place on the Berlin programme

the following year. The "Irish" Symphony was chosen for the opening concert of the

new Concertgebouw Orchestra in Amsterdam on 3 November 1888, conducted by Willem

Kes.57 In North America, the work was performed by Walter Damrosch and the New

York Symphony Orchestra at Camegie Hall in November 1907. Richard Aldrich of The

New York Times provided the following sentiment:

Of this music Stanford' s is the most interesting and a welcome addition to
program lists that are apt to become stereotyped. It still retains its
freshness and spirit--not that it is very old in years, but music is the least
immortal of artistic productions, and some modem symphonies have
wrinkled with age in fifteen years. It is not great music nor wholly original
in style, but it is charming, of sustained interest and made with such
dexterity and skill in the manipulation of its material.5

The "lrish Symphony reached the zenith of its North American success with Mahler' s

interpretation of the work with the New York Philharmonic in 1910.

In England, Alexander Mackenzie59 revived the work for a Philharmonic concert in

June 1893, which ignited interest throughout the country. One particular voice, though

not especially enthusiastic about Stanford's work,oo was that of George Bemard Shaw,

who points out an internal struggle between Stanford the Celt and Stanford the professor.
56 Stanford, Unwritten Diary, 262.

57Dibble, op. cit., 184.

"8Richard Aldrich, Neil\ York Symphony Orchestra, Walter Damrosch, Edward German, Rudolph Ganz,
The New York Times (18 November 1907). Also printed in Richard Aldrich, Concert Life in New York
1902-1923, ed. by Harold Johnson (Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press, 1941), 193-194.

5 Mackenzie succeeded Colven as conductor of of the Philharmonic Society.

"0 In a note in Pall Magazine (18 May 1888), the critic claims that "as for Mr. Villiers Stanford's Irish
Symphony, it is only an additional proof that the symphony, as a musical form, is stone dead." Shaw
also extended this sentiment to symphonies of Brahms and Dvor~k. Dan Lawrence, Bernard' Shaw:
Shaw 's Ahtsic: The Complete Ahtsical Criticism in 3 Volumes, I (New York: Dodd, Mead, and Co., 1981),
514-515.









In the words of "corno di basseto," "when Professor Stanford is genteel, cultured, classic,

pious, and experimentally mixolydian, he is dull beyond belief."61 In addition, "although

in it ("Irish Symphony) you see the Irish professor trifling in a world of ideas, in a

marked contrast to the English professor conscientiously wrestling in a vacuum, yet over

and above this national difference, .. you find certain traces of a talent for composition,

which is precisely what the ordinary professor, with all his grammatical and historical

accomplishments, utterly lacks."o2 Yet, while Shaw' s musical xenophobia pervaded the

newspaper columns each week, it is instructive to note that the "Irish Symphony is

Stanford's first attempt at blending Irish national elements within the context of German

symphonic form.

The "Irish Symphony is cast in the following four-movement layout: I) Allegro

moderato; II) Allegro molto vivace; III) Andante con motor; IV) Finale. Allegro moderato

con fuoco.

At the head of the score, Stanford inscribes the following motto in Latin:

IPSE FAVE CLEMENS PATRIZE PATRIAMQUE CANENTI, PHOEBE,
CORONATA QUI CANIS IPSE LYRA

In the English, the motto reads, "Look with favour and mercy on the country and on the

country's bard, Phoebus, who yourself sing with crowned lyre."o3 The first movement,

which is cast in sonata form, opens with all strings, except the double bass, in chant-like

umison.

Example 1. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, I.






61George Bernard Shaw, "Going Fantee," The World (10 May 1893). Also printed in Lawrence, Bernard
Shaw II, 876.

6 Ibid., 877.

63 In Greek mythology, Phoebus means, literary, "radiant one" because of the connection with the sun.
The name was used as an epithet of Apollo by the Romans, who hailed him as Phoebus Apollo.
















Wh ie th phyga yerig sals n"acet n etcsunsbl hrsi h
woodwinds and brass~ pun trruate r'~ th etre, esalsigtecaaceitcdvlp et
of German~ sym hoifomThtrniincmrssteoeigCDfa-mtven
boh eldc ndhamni etepises theC musi grw ou fthsmtvi em

Seerl colrshaenoedthtStnfr lerne tis techniqu rmBamtog ti
possible~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ tha Kilitoue h dat i seal s17.Frti rtrti








Wi The secogind themeemergestas in the cello i an diatoic cauntail theme inrd A n fat

maor, indicatng thats pucuthe Iri hma is te shiingaga in. h hrceitcdvlpet

o Exma smpleni 2. m Sym hon No. 3 itn F minrse I. pnn fa- oie






Aostesecond themKel irdraws toe a loea develom enarly closing sethion emerge, iThe

seondou themoe is fragmented and presen tedu in canonr in the middle stringsd at tesam time




the fluesand clariet pmerformi the frgento in meldianc inversion. Them hons prvd the

ma rhythmicatn iptus wthe asries of tipes that outgine h udmnnt oiat n









tonic chords.

Example 3. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, I.






Thdveopenscto exlit alos enirl th opein moiv invriu
meoic aroic n ryhmctrnfomton.Inte oloigexmle hemtiei
present ith basons clli an dobl basse whil th fues clrntsanupe
stins resn ti neso.Sanodoc gi mly teBamintcnqeo




















Stanfod aloelipes n sequetial epaottrs tlos peentil the oie oeing various hamn aic






24

guises throughout the development. The Irish element is, arguably, most reticent in this

section of the movement. It is pulled apart, rearranged, and reshaped under the Teutonic

knife. Before the development draws to a close, Stanford harkens back to the Irish

melody by presenting portions of the restored second theme in the cello in A maj or. A

solo clarinet, oboe and tutti upper strings answer the call.

At the helm of the recapitulation, Stanford rescores the opening folk-like theme

for oboes, clarinets, bassoons, and violas. Subsequently, the second theme is presented

by a solo clarinet, indicating that Stanford was conscious about spreading the thematic

wealth throughout the orchestra; in this case, he provides a timbral balance between the

strings at the opening of the movement, and the woodwinds in the concluding section.

The opening motive returns in a brief developmental passage at the close of the second

theme and, economically, in the bass line throughout the coda. The movement concludes

with soft F maj or chords.

The second movement comprises a Scherzo and Trio in D minor. The opening

theme, in 9/8 meter, is reminiscent of an Irish jig. Stanford adds to the ethnic sound by

assigning the melody to the violins while the remaining strings provide support with

pizzicato chords, providing the melody with a a flavor of Irish fiddling.

Example 5. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, II.


The scherzo climaxes with the full orchestra exploiting the jig melody, either in whole or







25

in fragments. The trio section in D major, features a pastoral-style melody in 3/2 meter.

Here, the sparse instrumentation of clarinets, bassoons, and third and fourth horns offers

a calm moment of departure. The lower strings provide a steady bass line comprising a

descending major third, F sharp-D, interchangeably between violas and celli. The lack

of prominent middle voices at this juncture adds to the pastoral quality of the music, akin

to such treatment in Beethoven's Sixth Symphony.

Example 6. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, II.






















The scherzo reurns "in io nisoiia us.T ocuetemvmnSafr









includes a brief, quasi-fanfare in D major.

In his 1921 catalogue of the composer' s works, John F. Porte claims that the third

movement is "one of the most poignantly expressive things Stanford ever composed."64

The movement commences with a solo harp outlining a B flat seventh chord, which,

according to Fuller-Maitland, is rooted in Irish national music called "Try if it' s in

tune."65 The New York Times critic Richard Aldrich refers to this passage as "the harp of

Erin."oo

Example 7. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, III.








The~b thm mresi h lrint and suseunty in the ftsmldcalnetd












Ase them har cotines i tse carpneggis n, sbeunl the thm i ramntdito a passdingl seunce of


rsectively. Stnfr briefly abndons tis sighingr moieoinrdueante


6 oh F PreSi (I, ..* ilirsStnfr (oson Lnwod res 178- 4
6 uler-Mitan. heMuicofParyan Sanor: 4n -- Evsa inCmprtveCitc
(Cambridge:~I W.- Hefrad os 93) 0

6 Haold ohnon, d., p. it.,193







27

fragment, which comprises a triplet rhythm. These two motivic cells are presented in

sequence, often overlapping, in the strings and woodwinds. The music suddenly shifts to

D maj or, whereupon Stanford includes a quotation of the folk song "Lament of the Sons

of Usnacht" in the viola.

Example 9. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, III.







Stanford claims to have borrowed the tune from the folk song manuscripts of Petrie,

which the composer edited; however, the tune also bears resemblance to the opening

theme to the second movement of Brahms's Fourth Symphony.

Example 10. Brahms: Symphony No. 4 in E minor, II.











Though he was well aware of this, Stanford claimed that the likeness was merely an

accident and that the two symphonies were composed at the same time.o' Recent

scholarship has shown, however, that Stanford's slow movement bears the completion

date 4 April 1887.os Furthermore, Brahms's Fourth Symphony made its English

premiere almost one year prior. For this writer, it is possible that Stanford transformed

the folk song, either consciously or subconsciously, into its Brahmsian dopelganger. For

example, Stanford' s initial use of the fragment is not a complete statement of Brahms's

theme in that it encompasses a maj or third, A-B-C sharp. Brahms' s version consists of a

67 Stanford, Pages from an Unwritten Diary, 262.

68 Dibble, op. cit., 185.






28

phrygian minor third, E-F-G. However, the not-so-subtle Irishman quotes the fragment

again, this time with a solo French horn in F using the phrygian minor third, transposed as

F-G flat-A flat, too similar to Brahms's theme to be a mere coincidence.

Example 11. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, III.








Stanford also develops this motive melodically with the French horns, though not in the

same fashion as Brahms did previously.

Example 12. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, III.









Likewise, the climax of the movement involves the "Usnacht"/ Brahms motive proj ected

by the full orchestra.

Example 13. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, III.





















































































69Ibid.


iC r
-~----~'

11L~irli-~
:;
i
r~
111
a, r .~
I ,--
I I sr~


29


In these cases, the motive is intervalically parallel to Brahms's theme; however, Stanford


employs it much more literally, placing it in the fore of the surrounding musical


development. As the movement draws to a close, the harp returns as in the beginning.


In the F-minor finale, Stanford also quotes literal folk melodies. The first, which


serves as the principal theme of the movement' s sonata form, is "Molly McAlpin" or


"Remember the Glories of Brian the Brave", presented by the violas in a low tessitura.


Example 14. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, IV.


This modal theme is repeated three times with increasingly generous orchestration. As


Dibble points out, the opening sonorities of this movement seem to foreshadow the


native English sounds of Holst and Vaughan Williams.69 The upper strings, bassoons, and


first French horn interj ect the second theme in A flat into the texture which also serves as


a catalyst for Stanford's developmental transitions.


Example 15. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, IV.



























The third theme, in A major, comprises the folk song "Let Erin Remember the

Days of Old," and is presented in the French horns. The composer interpolates this

theme in the center of the development section.

Example 16. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, IV.


Ie








It is instructive;ul to r illusrat that hsmvmntsdvlpen eto vovsfo h

meode themelve asasrn fdfnd e ra.Safr alw h oglk





Itrasnsformation from il aeigth ntst t triplt.Olywth movement'ssdvlpetseto v e p rimar them




does Stanford utilize sequence patterns and the idea of traditional harmonic instability for

development. The full orchestra initiates the recapitulation with a statement of the

primary theme. The second and third themes are subsequently restated and the









movement draws to a formal close, complete with hemiola patterns, tutti string tremolos,

and cadential repeated chords a la Beethoven.

Stanford undoubtedly won recognition for his "Irish Symphony because of its

ability to effectively combine both formal and exotic elements. The work also provided a

stimulus for Irish composers who sought to formulate a national musical voice of their

own by using folk melodies. The composers Esposito and Harty produced prize winning

"Irish symphonies in 1902 and 1904 respectively for the Feis Ceoil in Dublin.'" For

Stanford the Professor, the music is essentially well crafted and incorporates all elements

of Classical-Romantic symphonic tradition. For Stanford the Irishman, the folk melodies

offer a unique point of departure and, in several instances, serves to create the symphonic

content of the work. But for Stanford the Victorian, it is the blending of these two

elements that gives the work its unique character.

Symphony No. 4 in F major, op. 31

In the summer months following the premiere of the "Irish" Symphony, opera

occupied the composer' s mind. His one-act opera The M~iner ofFalun was completed by

1888, though it never received a performance or publication. His incidental music for

Sophocles's play Oedipus tyrannus received its premiere in Cambridge at the Theatre

Royal on 1 December 1887. Most of the work on Stanford's Fourth Symphony in F

major was completed in Cambridge in June and July of 1888.7 The manuscript of the

finale bears the date 31 July; Stanford, thus, completed the work during a family visit in

Dublin.72 The composer intended for the work to be premiered in Berlin in January 1889,


"0 The Feis Ceoil was founded in 1897 by Anne Patterson, in part, to encourage native Irish composers to
write works based on Irish folk music. With the success of his "Irish" Symphony, Stanford inevitably
became the organization's "poster boy." Ibid., 185.

"1 Dibble states that work on the symphony may have begun as early as summer of 1887, interrupting his
work on The Miner ofFalun. Ibid., 198.

72 The 1880s in Ireland were perilous times. In the early decade, the Phoenix Park murders took place, in
which the Chief Secretary, Lord Frederick Cavendish, and his compatriot T. H Burke were killed. The
crime left many established social authorities, including several members of Stanford's family, feeling
uneasy about security. Ibid., 201.









as Biilow had promised. Along with the symphony, Stanford planned to include his song

La Belle Dame sans merci (1877) to the text of Keats, which he recently orchestrated for

a concert at the Royal College of Music. Furthermore, the composer intended for some of

his folk song orchestrations and his highly nationalistic work, Festival Overture "The

Queen of the Seas" in C maj or to be performed at the concert as well. Although there is

no prevailing theory as to why Stanford choose to flood the Berlin concert with overtly

Irish works, it is possible to make a conj ecture. In light of his previous success with his

"Irish Symphony, it is likely that Stanford wanted to continue to feed the

German' sappetite for the exotic elements of Irish folk music.

The concert took place in the Grasser Saal der Philharmonic in Berlin on 14

January 1889. The reviews were favorable. The German periodical, BIt \1on Courier,

declared the following:

The principal feature of last night's concert was an unpublishedsymphony, the
latest work of the composer. The subjects, which are well defined, have been
worked out with extraordinary skill, and the whole effect of this very remarkable
piece of writing is clear and sonorous .. 7

The Kreuz Zeitung was even more ecstatic:

The compositions of Dr. Villiers Stanford have taken us altogether by
surprise. We did not expect such mature work from a man who has not
yet left his youth behind him, and there is real ground for astonishment in
his powerful handling of larger forms and masses .. He never loses the
thread, he never helps himself out with mere patchwork, as is the way
with so many of "The Modern School" when their inspiration fails
them: he never for an instant indulges in commonplace.7

The Berliner Reichsbote was equally enthusiastic:

It is seldom indeed that an Englishman is energetic enough to free
himself-as Mr. Stanford has happily succeeded in doing--from national
idiosyncrasies and the love of peculiarity, for the sake of a more refined
7 Professor Stanford in Berlin," The Ahtsical Times 30 (March 1889), 153. In Dibble, ( IR, /. V illiers
Stanford, 203, the author also quotes from this review; however, there is a misprint in footnotes 43 and
44, which date the review as March 1888.

74The Ahtsical Times 30, 153.









ideal and the wider development of his artistic personality. We already
had proof of this when the composer made his debut in the Hall of the
Philharmonic Society a year ago with the "Irish Symphony. but last
night' s programme sets him in the front rank of the composers of our
day. .. The principal work performed was Mr. Stanford's new
symphony in F major. All four parts compel the attention of the hearer to
the development of the themes and the gracefulness of the melody, bu the
first and fourth are especially remarkable for these qualities. Few
composers attain such delicacy and transparency of instrumentation.5


Obviously for Stanford, these favorable reviews catapulted the composer into an

international arena, a position that few English composers attained prior to Stanford's

lifetime. o Britain's musical powers were "about to come of age"7 and the Irish-born

Stanford stood at the helm of progress.

Stanford' s original score contained the following inscription: "Thro' Youth to

Strife, Thro' Death to Life," followed by a quotation of lines from Part II of Goethe' s

Faust written on the first page of the score:

Nur der verdient sich Freiheit wie das Leben,
Der taglich sie erobern muss.
Und so verbringt, umrungen von Gefahr,
Hier Kindheit, Mann und Greis sein ttichtig Jahr.

In English, the text reads:
Liberty only earns itself like life
That daily it must conquer
And so passes, surrounded by danger,
Here childhood, man, and old man their efficient year.'


The composer evidently intended the work to fit a programmatic scheme; although, he

later crossed out the inscriptions because they may "constrain the work's musical

7 Ibid., 153-154.

76 Of these, William Sterndale Bennett (1816-1875) and Henry Hugo Pierson (Pearson) (1815-1873)
achieved notoriety in Leipzig. Stanford's contemporaries, H. Hubert Parry and Edward Elgar, both
achieved international status as composers.

77Dibble, op. cit., 203.

78This quotation comprises lines 11575-11578. Quoted in Ibid., 204; my translation.






34

rationale." 79 The movement titles of the symphony appear as follows: I) Allegro vivace

e gioioso; II) Intermezzo Allegretto agitate (ma moderato in tempo) Tranquilo ma

l'istesso tempo; III) Andante molto moderato; IV) Finale Allegro non troppo.

The first movement, in sonata form, begins with a jolly theme in the first violins,

which is subsequently subj ected to motivic development.

Example 17. Symphony No. 4 in F major, I.




















Example 18~r. SypoyN.4in aoI


19 Ibid 204.






























This song-like theme is accompanied by a rhythmic antecedent, which the composer uses

later as a developmental melodic cell. The clarinets present the following example:

Example 19. Symphony No. 4 in F major, I.







It has been suggested that Stanford borrowed this theme from Brahms' s Liebeslieder

Walzer, op. 52."0 Although they are not exactly similar in melody, the first piece of the

Brahms work, Rede, Mtidchen, allzu liebes, and Stanford' s theme are alike in rhythm and

texture. The antecedent motive appears at the helm of the development section in a

dovetail fashion, with solo flute, oboe, clarinet, and first horn in each succeeding measure.

As in the "lrish Symphony, Stanford incorporates numerous developmental techniques,

such as stacking motives (the ascending quarter-note motive of the primary theme),

sequential patterns, and canonic episodes based on thematic material.

Example 20. Symphony No. 4 in F major, I.


" Ibid.





























The composer further displays his prowess in exploring foreign keys by exuding the more

foreign tonal terrain of D maj or, E maj or, and D flat major in the development section. It

is likely, then, that Stanford's initial transition foreshadowed the events in the

development section. At the height of the musical drama, the full orchestra states the

primary theme, initiating the recapitulation.

Example 21. Symphony No. 4 in F major, I.


Stanford subsequently includes a surprise by placing the first statement of the second



























































I-=~


Stanford's initial sparse scoring for the theme eventually gives way to series of



developing variations and hemiola techniques. The texture is thickest in the upper register



of the orchestral pallet; flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons (in tenor clef), and upper strings



form a dense cloud of phrygian-flavored melody over a pizzicato bass line. As Dibble


C

-r: t-- --

EC~LI-
--i--. I ,=- -- I ~-~ c~-r--


IL



.I




~. ..

''

r I ~u




i'i

-eil


37



theme in A maj or. An additional surprise is featured in the coda as the second theme



gradually accelerates to a one-beat-per-bar tempo in the style of a Viennese waltz. The


movement concludes in this manner.



The title of the second movement, in itself, has Brahmsian overtones. Stanford



utilizes material from the Entr' acte of his incidental music to Oedipus tyramzus. The main



theme, according to Dibble, is identical to its counterpart. The clarinet presents the theme



in the following example:



Example 22. Symphony No. 4 in F major, II.



lbrs~rrz o

J'pr~ i~b CnTE~~RMEZZO.y~


VLrlY Li-


IOb~d.


.nrlll LTIA


Fi



IsU j, ~


IIIc C~ lo I


fnn~.












LL 1'II


r~:lr



ruu


I




---
s---
c-J
I
Le







38

points out, this technique is not particularly Brahmsian as it is a specifically English

sound.81

Example 23. Symphony No. 4 in F major, II.


The second theme of the Intermezzo falls in a distinctly English style; in this instance, the

strings perform a hymn-like theme in which the first violin and cello move,

predominantly, in contrary thirds. Furthermore, this theme bears no resemblance to

Stanford's Oedipus score. The primary theme returns to close the movement.

In a letter to Joachim, Stanford stated the following:


" Ibid., 205.

























































I -~


I dare say you will be amused at the new symphony. I have written a
recitative for the whole band in the slow movement which is an amusing

experiment."


As the most extended movement in the work, the composer with a theme, which


he treats fugally.


Example 24. Symphony No. 4 in F major, III.


I I C
I "~'
--
"""~
-aar~i


---~--
B~~n
I



------I r ---- c
~lj~FF~-~.

FP
I r -1.-


.II,
LI
--~I-

--r



ril


I
I--


~-~-~----




tkf~ ;

~T~T~L

~II ~..-lu-
I-; ~1

P~G:I~ IICr~SF Jbfil;i ~2ri~
---


" ~ G~+-


82 Letter from Stanford to Joachim, 20 July 1888. Quoted in Ibid.


Timpgrli in E.D,.A.







40


*.








Folwn th nrdcini uea ac nDmnrsae oeyi h is iln










agloitated e acopnimenut in isa ue march syewie th wioodwintd so hihigh the harmtvolnic





scheme with soft chords.

Example 25. Symphony No. 4 in F major, III.






41

The ebb and flow of operatic rhetoric and contrasts of key between the tonic (D minor)

and its parallel maj or fill the remainder of the movement. Near the end, the lower horns

and trumpet, both in D, sound an augmented version of the primary theme of the finale.

Example 26. Symphony No. 4 in F major, III.













The finale, in sonata-rondo form, is a formidable apotheosis to the symphony in

which virtue triumphs. Stanford's careful attention to contrasting keys is displayed once

and for all as he pits the tonic F maj or against sudden shifts to D-flat maj or, A-flat maj or,

and G-flat maj or throughout the movement. However, the main theme,a j ocular diatonic

theme in the tonic key, acts as a ritornello and serves to bring the combatant tonicizations

back to common ground. This example demonstrates the movement' s main theme in the

strmngs.

Example 27. Symphony No. 4 in F major, IV.










Th seodtee nCmjr, copie sedn nddsedn rego






42

which, in turn, are fragmented and transformed into driving eighth-note rhythms.

The full orchestra provides punctuated chords to accompany the thematic

transformation. The development section treats the primary theme to

fragmentation, inversion, and canon between strings, woodwinds, and brass.

Stanford interrupts the motivic interplay with a string of orchestral fanfares in

foreign keys. The primary theme/ ritornello returns in the tonic, though it is

slightly altered in rhythm from eighth notes to quarter-note triplets.

Example 28. Symphony No. 4 in F major, IV.


























The second theme returns in D flat and, upon completion, a Beethovenian coda

enters, in which Stanford's use of contrapuntal textures are juxtaposed to a

fragment of the primary theme. It is never stated again in its entirety. An

orchestral fanfare brings the movement, and the symphony, to a close in F maj or.

The work received praise for its first and fourth movements, clear examples of

Stanford's ability to manipulate high-German symphonic virtues. The symphony did

not, however, receive as much international attention as did the "Irish. The innovative









features of this work, though not revolutionary, showcase specific "Stanfordian" features

within a symphony that otherwise possesses the melodic character and clarity of

Mendelssohn's oeuvre. It is also worth noting that, despite his last minute editing, the

literary inscriptions provide the music with a narrative element. The four words, "Youth,

Strife, Death, Life", and Goethe's excerpt fit well with the dramatic and developmental

aspects of the music.

Symphony No. 5 in D major, op. 56, "L'Allegro ed il Pensieroso"

In the years following the Fourth Symphony, Stanford filled his creative time with

various large and small-scale works. He penned an oratorio, Eden, in 1891 for solo

voices, chorus, and orchestra; a~a~ss in G for similar forces in 1893; and an ode for

chorus and orchestra, Ea~st to West, the same year. For the stage, the composer provided

incidental music for Alfred, Lord Tennyson's play Becket and a lyric drama Lorenza in

1893; the latter never received performance or publication. Stanford was also busy

writing chamber music. His first two string quartets, in G maj or and A minor

respectively, were completed in 1891. The 6 Irish Fantasies,~~FFF~~~FF~~~FF op. 54 for violin and piano

appeared two years later, indicating the composer's continued interest in the Celtic

milieu.

Stanford was, by this time, reaping the fame of his "Irish Symphony.

Encouraged by his success and the increasing stimulation of orchestral music in London,83

Stanford returned to the symphonic genre once again to compose his Fifth Symphony in

D major. The work was composed in late May and June of 1894, along with other

creations. The composer was working on two smaller works simultaneously, the

unpublished Concert Pieces for piano and the Fantasia and Toccata for organ. John

Milton' s 1645 poem L 'Allegro edll Penseroso was Stanford' s ultimate point of

departure in writing the symphony. Stanford, clearly intending for the work to illustrate

83 TchaikoVslw's Ii-in.rl~s. "lll-) Symphony was performed at the Philharmonic Society. Ibid., 260.









Milton's poem,84 appended select quotations to the beginning of each movement in the

score and subtitled the symphony the same as Milton's opus.85

The tempo indications for each movement appears as follows: I) Allegro

moderato; II) Allegro grazioso; III) Andante molto tranquillo; IV) Allegro molto.

The first movement' s literary incipit comprises two excerpts from the first part of

Milton's poem, L 'Allegro:

Hence, loathed Melancholy,
Of Cerberus and blackest midnight born
In Stygian cave forlorn
'Mongst horrid shapes, and shrieks and sighs unholy
Find out some uncouth cell.
When brooding Darkness spreads his j ealous wings,
And the night-raven sings;
There under ebon shades and low-browed rocks,
As ragged as thy locks
In dark Cimmerian desert even dwell.
But come thou Goddess fair and free,
In heaven yclept Euphrosyne,
And by man, heart easing Mirth;86

Haste thee, Nymph, and bring with thee
Jest, and youthful jollity,
Quips and cranks and wanton wiles,
Nods and Becks and wreathed smiles,
Such as hang on Hebe's cheek,
And love to live in dimple sleek;
Sport that wrinkled care derides,
And Laughter holding both his sides,
Come and trip it as you go,
On the light fantastic toe;
And in thy right hand lead with thee
The mountain-nymph, sweet liberty;
And if I give thee honour due,
Mirth, admit me of thy crew."'
84 In the programme at the first performance, Stanford inscribed that the symphony was indeed "intended to
illustrate the poem of John Milton." See Ibid.

"5 Stanford spells the subtitle L 'Allegro ed il Pensieroso in the score.

86 Lines 1-13.


"7 Lines 25-38.











The first lines of the poem ring in tune with the symphony's introduction, a stately


fanfare in D minor which eventually resolves to the tonic major. Although it is food for


subsequent development, the introductory motive returns frequently throughout the


movement' s sonata form to provide congenial unity.


Example 29. Symphony No. 5 in D major, I.


~llc~rl~ ~3FAlcr(lfR~ I.
r
fl
_~---1
rii "I


b~ ,- --.
$


n~
rrr P -~ ~ ~--~C_~F-~f' ~Tr ~2----~
~-~- ~-i

a._f- .d --
d
--ah
a -~-~-
---


r


a




t .~g
I

~ ---

+ +r~




i~llFrrrrr ak~Csa


blr+rl~

Dbcu~

L~lr carl~l is ~

rcll~cri.

da a
6~9P4~


trremLR L O.


7baR~~.


7iUPlribDQ;J,




Yl~liir,
C,


Vlplr,

Ic~JII,


BMI,


The first theme is presented in the clarinet in A and first bassoon; four measures later, it


is answered by oboes and third and lower horns a fifth higher. The theme, in turn, is


passed around the ensemble in fragments and in dovetail fashion.


Example 30. Symphony No. 5 in D major, I.







46





II



Similar in character and melodic contour is the second theme, presented in the dominant

key.

Example 31. Symphony No. 5 in D major, I.
















Theacomaningmsct ohtee ad lpat unngcaatr hc em
tob n prprae i o ltrlfttoteopnn lnsofteseodexep o h

poe. Te mvemntas whlepiti Mito's wod,"elnhl" gis
"Mith" howver itC istelatro tetovite ha egs speeinteed
The ~ ~ ~ I- seodmvmn chroadTi sa atrl fsrt htehe h












Thracoupnigh h huigh wo odh tehin adshrill." at unn hratr hc e






" Lloines 53-56. frmL Aleg









While the ploughmen, near at hand,
Whistles o'er the furrow'd land,
And the milkmaid singeth blithe,
And the mower whets his scythe,
And every shepherd tells his tale
Under the hawthorn in the dale.89

Sometimes with secure delight
The upland hamlets will invite,
When the merry bells ring round,
And the joeund rebecks sound
To many a youth and marry a maid,
Dancing in the chequer'd shade;
And young and old come forth to play
On a sun-shine holy-day,
Till the live-long day-light fail:
Then to the spicy nut-brown ale,
With stories told of many a feat,
How faery Mab the junkets eat;90

These delights if thou canst give,
Mirth, with thee I mean to live.91

The opening combination of G and D in the bassoons and cellos creates a rustic

atmosphere upon which the French horns, in thirds, sound a hunting call. Clarinets,

flutes, and strings in turn answer the horns.

Example 32. Symphony No. 5 in D major, II.















89 Lines 63-68.

90 Lines 91-102.


91 Lines 151-152.






48

The occasional scotch-snap rhythm in the bass line, in 6/8 meter, eventually gives way to

the duple-meter Trio, where the violins drive the music with a continuous stream of

sixteenth notes. In following Milton's text, the Trio is indicative of the peasant' s

merrymaking. The Trio theme, in E-flat major, is an irregular, five-bar-phrase that is

subsequently presented in canons at the unison and fifth.

Example 33. Symphony No. 5 in D major, II.

























Exapl 3 t-Fr c Symphon No 5 inl~ D ~ rl maor II.









Milton's IlPerseroso appends the remaining movements. Pensive and full of

melancholy, the third movement, in B-flat maj or, is the heart and soul of the work; in

fact, it is the most lyrical movement in any of Stanford's symphonies for its song-like

melodies, expressive use of instrumental ranges, and dramatic pauses. Stanford uses the

following excerpts as a backdrop for the movement's tone-poem euphoria:

But hail, thou goddess sage and holy,
Hail, divinest Melancholy!i
Whose saintly visage is too bright
To hit the sense of human sight,
And therefore to our weaker view
O'erlaid with black, staid Wisdom's hue;"

Come, pensive nun, devout and pure,
Sober, steadfast, and demure,
All in a robe of darkest grain
Flowing with maj estic train,
And sable stole of cypress lawn
Over thy decent shoulders drawn:
Come, but keep thy wonted state,
With even step, and musing gait,
And looks commercing with the skies,
Thy rapt soul sitting in thine eyes:03

But first, and chiefest, with thee bring
Him that yon soars on golden wing
Guiding the fiery-wheeled throne,
The cherub Contemplati6n;
And the mute Silence hist along,
'Less Philomel will deign a song
In her sweetest saddest plight,""

-Sweet bird, that shunn'st the noise of folly,
Most musical, most melancholy!
Thee, chautress, oft the woods among
I woo, to hear thy even-song;
And missing thee, I walk unseen
On the dry smooth shaven green,

92 Lines 11-16.

93 Lines 31-40.


"4 Lines 51-57.









To behold the wandering Moon
Riding near her highest noon,95

The hymn-like opening theme is the catalyst for the composer' s subtle variations,

namely augmentation, which pervade the movement.

Example 35. Symphony No. 5 in D major, III.


Stanford also bases variations on the second theme, a mere fragment of a melody

presented by soli violas.

Example 36. Symphony No. 5 in D major, III.






To evoke further pastorale images, solo clarinet and flute provide the flippant, chirping

birdsong of the nightingale (Philomel).

95 Lines 61-68.









Example 37. Symphony No. 5 in D major, III.










The true genius of the work, however, is the ebb and flow of these elements within the

orchestral timbre; the constant shift between thick and thin orchestration provides, above

all, the emotional denuement of the movement.

The final movement, an aptly named "big-boned sonata rondo," 9o portrays the

remaining lines of Milton' s poem. The following excerpts resonate throughout the music,

providing a haunting apotheosis to both the symphony and poetic imagery:

Oft, on a plat of rising ground
I hear the far-off curfew sound
Over some wide-water' d shore,
Swinging slow with sullen roar:"

Sometime let gorgeous Tragedy
In scepter'd pall come sweeping by
Presenting Thebes, or Pelops' line,
Or the tale of Troy divine;""
And, as I wake, sweet music breathe
Above, about, or underneath,
Sent by some spirit to mortals good,
Or the unseen Genius of the wood.
But let my due feet never fail
To walk the studious cloister's pale,
And love the high-enbowed roof,
With antique pillars massy proof,
And storied windows richly dight
Casting a dim religious light:
There let the pealing organ blow
To the full-voiced quire below
In service high and anthem clear,
"6 Dibble, op. cit., 261.

97 Lines 73-76.


"8 Lines 97-100







































































99 Lines 151-166.


52


As may with sweetness, through mine ear,
Dissolve me into ecstasies,
And bring all Heaven before mine eyes.99


Following the opening horn calls, the first violins and viola present the D-minor rondo

theme over pesante chords in lower winds and strings.

Example 38. Symphony No. 5 in D major, IV.
























A cantabile second theme in the relative maj or invokes Milton' s reference to the

all-encompassing sweet music; the violas initially state the theme before it is carried

above, around, and underneath the texture by flutes and tutti first violins.

Example 39. Symphony No. 5 in D major, IV.


/i
t



..
~C ,11 1~311


413 BkMP"I Un prrcwl urassu









The development encapsulates Stanford's usual schooled techniques; however, the crux of

its purpose is to illustrate the poem's third stanza. With the second theme as the

primary tool, the development section comprises the ebb and flow of thick and thin

orchestral textures to, once again, symbolize the divine sweet music. The recapitulation

begins with a restatement of the second theme in the tonic major. Before the return of the

main theme, Stanford inserts a transitional passage for the organ which, along with the

horns and flutes, evoke the poetic anthem of Milton' s verse. The third movement' s

somber theme returns in an ethereal adagio to conclude the work.

Example 40. Symphony No. 5 in D major, IV.









The Philhrmoni Soit rmee h it Smhn n2 ac 85a
Que' al.Safr hmefcndce h or n ate lokpefre h
intgra ora atfo eiwoeal eefvrbe lhuhfrkoldeo h












inded tihey wnish to passas miered reorer oift impressi os. But warhile5


reevngdfntegrlognpr." opvinios, ovraegrdigte sympbl, lhony s whor ole, we may th

wr sa emntha a large patof it appealedito n'eseo aifctob h


chasirm an prority of ther themes, and sthdeir skllu pas erall as pictrsqu



'oo Dibble, op. cit., 262.









treatment .. Our feeling is that the symphony will largely improve
upon acquaintance and take its place among Mr. Stanford's best works.'"


The composer dedicated the work to the Philharmonic Society and its then

conductor, Sir Alexander Mackenzie, and it earned further performances in

Manchester and Berlin in December of the same year. However, due to a lack of

public interest, the symphony was not published until 1923 by Carnegie Trust;

thus, the score was revised and Stanford' s original dedication was removed.'"

The Fifth Symphony stands as Stanford's most expressive symphonic works,

reaching a Mahleresque level of pageantry. Yet, it should not be dismissed as cheap

romanticism. Stanford' s use of the John Milton poem ought to satisfy, in part, the

nationalist urges of contemporary criticism; however, it is abundantly clear that, through

selection, the chosen excerpts bend towards a distinctly romantic persona. It is this

writer' s opinion that the work, more so than the prior symphonies, places Stanford as a

master of dramatic musical form, where themes and orchestration meld perfectly with the

programmatic oeuvre. The work, as the critic states, deserves to be heard again; however,

since the composer's death, only silence resounds from a library shelf.

Symphony No. 6 in E flat major, op. 94

Stanford's next symphony came ten years after his mild success with the Fifth

Symphony. He was, however, no stranger to orchestral writing at the time, completing

two of the six Irish Rhapsodies, piano, violin, and clarinet concertos, and a set of

variations on an English theme "Down among the dead men." Like his 1896-1897

Requiem in memory of the artist Lord Leighton, the Sixth Symphony was written as a

memorial to artist and sculptor George Frederick Watts (1817-1904). The composer was

a great admirer of Watt' s works for his "ability to capture timelessness and and

1o' "Philharmonic Society," Musical Times 36 (April 1895), 233.

'02 Dibble, op. cit., 262.









transcendent actuality"103 in a time when political change and new scientific discoveries

were all the rage. Stanford composed the work in May and June of 1905. The movement

titles consist of the following: I) Allegro con brio; II) Adagio e molto espressivo; III)

Scherzo and Trio (Presto); IV) Moderato e Maestoso.

The newly formed London Symphony Orchestra, under Stanford's baton,

gave the work's premiere on 18 January 1906 to favorable reviews:

.. So clear is the form of the various movements, so straightforward the
developments of the thematic material, that the work may be fully
appreciated quite apart from the source or sources whence the composer
sought inspiration. There are many modern works in which the form is so
absolutely determined by what is known as the "poetic basis," the
knowledge more or less of the latter is indispensable. In the case of the
symphony under notice such knowledge, however, is decidedly
interesting. 'oa

The work received a second performance one year later at Bournemouth,o'0 but then

quickly fell into oblivion. In February 1923, however, the work was brought back for a

concert in Guilford by the Guilford Symphony Orchestra under direction of Claude

Powell. The composer' s fourth Irish Rhapsody (1913) and Sea Songs (1904) made the

program as well.'oo The Sixth Symphony suffered an even greater fate than the Fifth;

although it received positive reviews, it failed to gain subsequent performances at home

and abroad. It seems that as Stanford's symphonic persona sought further artistic depths

within a traditional style, the less it appealed to audiences who craved the revolutionary

sounds of post-Wagner Europe. The same fate struck Stanford's Serenade (Nonet) of

190510- and his fourth string quartet of 1906. As of this writing, these works and the
'03 Dibble, op. cit., 362.

'04 "London Symphony Orchestra: Sir Charles Villiers Stanford's New Symphony," The Musical Times 47
(February 1906), 121.

1o' Lewis Foreman, op. cit., 12.

1o' Dibble, op. cit., 456.

1o' The Serenade was premiered at Aeolian Hall on 25 January 1906 and, though it earned the critic's
favor, it failed to attract a publisher's attention; even the virtuoso Joachim intervened to obtain attention in
Germany to no avail. See Ibid., 364.









Sixth Symphony remain unpublished.

Symphony No. 7 in D minor, op. 124

After his Sixth Symphony, Stanford's compositional output for orchestra waned

considerably. Between the years 1906 and 1912, he produced only two works for

military band, the Installation March in E flat (1908) and Three M~ilitary Marches (1908),

which remain unpublished, and two orchestral works, his Second Piano Concerto in C

minor (1911) and his Seventh Symphony in D minor (1911). The composer, however,

filled this lacuna with a plethora of new songs, chamber works, and sacred works as well

as incidental music to Lord Binyon' s Attila the Hun (1907).

Written in response to a commission for the centenary celebration of the

Philharmonic Society in 1912,'os Stanford's Seventh Symphony stands as an essay in

brevity, a monument to succinct, concentrated symphonic form at a time when the

large-scale orchestral monuments of Mahler and Elgar were all the rage. However,

Stanford's newfound symphonic concision was not intended as a personal statement; the

request of the commissioners asserted that the work was to last merely 20 minutes.109

The Seventh Symphony unites the four movements of traditional symphonic form into a

compressed time span without reverting to oversimplified compositional procedures.

The tempo markings of each movement, which are also indicative of a simpler style,

appear as follows: I) Allegro; II) Tempo di Minuetto; III) Variations and Finale:

Andante-Allegro giusto-Poco piu lento-Allegro maestoso (alla breve).

The first movement, cast into a conventional sonata form, comprises two simple

and equally-phrased themes. Tutti first violins initiate the first over soft tremolo strings

that do no more than outline the D minor harmony. As a simple two-measure theme, it is

1os Works by other native composers received premieres: Ronald, Hervey, Mackenzie, Davies, Dunhill,
Macpherson, and Parry. Ibid., 397; Cyril Erlich, First Philharmonic: A History of the Royal
Philharmonic Society (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), 186.

109 The same held true for Parry's Symphonic Fantasia "l912",which was his contribution to the festival.
Dibble, op. cit., 397.









subsequently answered in the woodwinds in a series of developing variations soon after

its presentation. It is already apparent that the composer wastes no time with the work' s

basic features.

Example 41. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, I.











The second theme, a folk-like melody, originates in D flat, the flat submediant of F maj or.

By continuing with his technique, the composer brings the theme home to the tonic in six

measures.

Example 42. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, I.













Clear, concise melodies and phrasing are the key features of this theme, elements Stanford

exploits in the ensuing development section. A variation of the first theme, stated by the

bassoon, initiates the recapitulation in D major. Only the second theme reappears in its

original guise, moving swiftly from B flat major to D minor. A substantial coda, complete

with further motivic development and brief fluctuations between D maj or and its parallel

minor, brings the movement to conclusion. Stanford' s control of thematic material and

their seemingly continuous variation provides the movement with a steady flow; all

elements, including the sections of the form itself, blend together, leaving their unique

attributes behind.






58

The second movement blends minuet and trio, scherzo, and theme and variation

forms into a single unit. The principal theme, a stately minuet in B flat major, is initially

performed by the strings. Woodwind figures provide color to the waxing and waning of

the melodic line.

Example 43. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, II.


The first variation, in D flat maj or, comprises a rigid, staccato ostinato pattern in triple

meter accompanying a series of sweeping eighth notes in the upper strings. What evolves

is a continues hemiola pattern between the two elements.

Example 44. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, II.









The minuet theme returns in the third variation as a quick, scherzo-like entity in 6/8

meter. The next two variations allude to a formidable trio section, yet, stand alone for

their unique content. The first comprises the interchangeable use of both slow, cantabile

variation featuring clarinet and bassoon and a fast, sweeping, high-tessitura variation for

the strings.

Example 45. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, II.


The second involves a sprightly, yet delicate affair in duple meter comprised of running

sixteenth notes in both upper woodwinds and strings.

Example 46. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, II.






60

Rounding out the minuet's allusion is the fifth variation, which is simply a restatement of

the second, scherzo-like variation. Stanford appends a succinct coda, the final testament

of the closing measures of the original minuet theme, to close the movement.

The final movement is actually a combination of two smaller movements, akin to

Tchaikovsky's Third Orchestral Suite and Piano Trio in A minor. The first half of the

movement is a set of open-ended variations in F maj or, in which an andante theme, stated

at the movement' s onset serves as the material for the mold.

Example 47. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, III.














The first variation comprises a contraction of the theme into a steady stream of eighth

notes in the violins. Subsequently, clarinets, cellos, and basses follow with the new

melody in turn. The second variation derives its make up from the theme's stepwise,

descending maj or third, A-G-F, which is transposed as F-E flat-D flat. Sheer sonority

of harmony is the crux of this variation as the motive is sounded and held fast. The only

rhythm present derives from the occasional upward arpeggios in the cellos and bassoons,

an inverted cascade over the stationary winds and brass.

Example 48. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, III.









The third and fourth variations, together, form an appropriate slow movement to the

work. Indeed, this section consists of the composer's most emotional music in the entire

symphony. A solo clarinet, marked dolce, begins the tranquil set over swaying triplet

accompaniment in the viola and cello. A flute also shares the theme before the fourth

variation emerges in G--flat major. Much of the variation features the brass section. At

the onset, chords in the trombones offer a backdrop for the string and woodwind

arpeggios. The full brass section culminates with a rising motivic sequence, which

crescendos into a powerful, yet simply orchestrated climax, marking the denudment of the

movement' s opening.

Example 49. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, III.


















The fifth variation is the most extended of the entire set, which comprises a rising motive

that develops organically into subsequent melodic material. A solo oboe states the first

incarnation of the motive in F-sharp minor.

Example 50. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, III.









The latter part of the variation serves as a transition from the neapolitan minor to the

finale's D major. The remainder of the movement falls into a loose sonata form. The

primary theme, which is derived from the opening theme of the movement, assumes a

martial air and is boldly stated by the woodwinds and brass.

Example 51. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, III.

















An extended transition gives way to the second theme in A major, which shares its

likeness with the melody of the movement' s third variation.

Example 52. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, III.


The development section features the primary theme from the first movement, stated in

full as if the composer were trying to rekindle an old memory.

Example 53. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, III.





















This idea is then suppressed by the finale's primary theme, presented in dovetail

sequence by each instrument. The apparent lack of actual "development" in the

development section may seem puzzling at the first hearing; however, this writer

conj ectures that, in light of Stanford' s dominion over continuous development as a

technique, he simply did not need to repeat his methods at this point. The development

section, therefore, serves as an unambiguous reminder of where the music has been, and

where it shall inevitably return. It is no surprise, then, that the recapitulation only

harbors the full return of the second theme, in D maj or, and an extended developmental

coda, complete with frequent shifts of mode (C flat, D flat, G flat, A) and obsessive

attention to the motive of the finale' s primary theme. The work concludes with a simple

perfect-authentic cadence, a formidable apotheosis to the economy, fluidity, and

dexterity of the entire work.

The composer conducted the premiere at Queen's Hall on 22 February 1912. As

usual, the review was positive and Stanford was recalled numerous times during the

applause.no An anonymous critic for The M~usical Times proclaimed that:

In some respects the character of the Symphony was a surprise because so
simple and straightforward a composition was hardly expected in these
times, when a new orchestral work is so often a melancholy psychological
problem. Whilst listening to Sir Charles Stanford's music one could
imagine Mozart benignly approving. as the Symphony is practicable
for ordinary resources it will no doubt often be heard. ."'

"o "Philharmonic Society," The Musical Times 53 (1 April 1912), 257.

Ibid., 257.









The critic was right, for Elgar conducted the work in a London Symphony Orchestra

concert at Cambridge. The Beecham Symphony Orchestra, under direction of Thomas

Beecham, performed the work at Queen' s Hall in June of the following year. Dan

Godfrey admired the work and had it performed at Bournemouth in May 1914. The

Seventh Symphony was published in 1912 by Stainer and Bell, which made it readily

accessible both at home and abroad." Indeed, an American premiere of the symphony

almost took place. Horatio Parker of Yale University took interest in the work and

suggested it to Carl Muck, then conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. A

concert was staged for the summer of 1915. Stanford planned to come to the United

States to conduct his symphony and receive an honorary doctorate from Yale University,

a degree voted to him in 1903. However, the composer' s travel plans were dashed due to

the developments of World War I and he never went through with an alternate plan.113

The Seventh Symphony marked Stanford's biggest commercial success with the

symphonic form since his "Irish Symphony, although it is relatively forgotten today.

Like no other symphony, this work displays Stanford's skill as a masterful craftsman, a

musical architect of the first order. There is nothing pedantic or commonplace about its

elements or methods. In light of his contemporaries' compositions, notably the

impressionist hues of Debussy and Ravel, the primitive Stravinsky, and the intricate

tone-poet Strauss, Stanford appears to be of a different time, a Victorian musician caught

within the proverbial lost world of modernism. While his contemporaries stood before

the dawn of Neoclassicism, Stanford stood firmly in conventional classicism, rooted in the

traditional values of balance, clarity, and formal unity.





112 Dibble, op. cit., 398.

113 Stanford and his wife bought tickets aboard the Lusitania for 15 May; however, a German Uboat sunk
the ship eight days before its departure. Ibid., 423-424.















CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSION

The symphonies of Charles Villiers Stanford, when viewed chronologically, do not

exhibit any sort of stylistic evolution. In following the German symphonic tradition, he

exploits the inner essence of each theme in terms of development and orchestration, and

achieves formal clarity in each of the symphonies. Any programmatic or emotional

content is intimately tied to the dramatic ebb and flow of the themes in his symphonic

mold. In light of his success, or lack there of, with these works, Stanford was obviously

conscious of the artistic demands as well as the tastes of the concert-going audiences in

his day.

The first two symphonies, the longest of his symphonic oeuvre, achieved little

success outside of England. With his "Irish Symphony, however, Stanford struck gold

by not only hitting the political vein of Home Rule, an important topic in 1880's Britain,

but also by appealing to the Germanic and general Victorian love for exoticism. His

subsequent Irish Rhapsodies as well as the chamber music and songs that incorporate

Irish elements are testaments of this sociopolitical pressure. The next three symphonies

(nos. 4-6) mark the decline in his popularity as a symphonist, even though, out of all the

works for the symphonic medium, these stand as his most programmatic. They are,

without doubt, the most progressive symphonies of Stanford's output and serve to

destroy the notion that Stanford's symphonies are little more than Brahms and water.

Although the Seventh Symphony is by no means his greatest success, it captured enough

attention to attract a publisher for its concise and symmetrical form of Mozartian

classicism.









Overall, Stanford' s symphonies are monuments to his own vision of what a

symphony is and should be, the vision of Victorian art music. He is to Victorian music

what Tennyson is to Victorian poetry and what Watts is to Victorian painting, artists

that successfully combine both emotional content and formal and intellectual design.

Although past criticism has placed Stanford on a back burner along with Parry as modest

forebearers of the new English renaissance, recent research has begun to shed new light onto

the dark corners of his past. Whether or not he will take his place on the pantheon of

great symphonists of the nineteenth century has yet to be determined; however, he has,

is, and will be exalted as one of the greatest British symphonists of the pre-modern era.















SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aldrich, Richard. "C. V. Stanford," in Concert Life in New York 1902-1923. New York:
1941: 193-4.

Althoz, Josef L., ed. The 2ind andArt of Y7ctorian England. Minneapolis: The
University of Minnesota Press, 1976.

Banfield, Stephen. "British Chamber Music at the Turn of the Century: Parry, Stanford,
Mackenzie," in The Musical Times 155 (March 1974): 211-213.

Barrington, Mrs. Russell. G. F. Watts: Reminiscences. New York: The Macmillan
Company, 1905.

Bartels, Bruce. "The English Symphony in the 19th Century." Master's thesis:
University of Nebraska, 1967.

Bayliss, Wyke. Five Great Painters of the Yictorian2 Era: Leighton, M~illias, Burne-Jones,
Watts, Holman Hunt. New York: AMS Press, 1902.

Brooks, Chris. Signs for the Times: Symbolic Realism in the M~id-yictorian2 World.
London: George Allen and Unwin, 1984.

Bryant, Michael. Liner notes to On the Winds of English M~elody. Clarinet Classics:
CC0025, 1999.

Caldwell, John. The Oxford History of~nglish M~usic Vol. 3: From c. 1 715 to the Present
Day. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

"Crystal Palace," in The M~usical Times 30 (March 1889): 151-152.

Dibble, Jeremy. Charles y711iers Stanford: Man and Musician. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2002.

~. "Edward Dannreuther and the Orme Square Phenomenon," in M~usic and
British Culture, 1 785-1914: Essaysss~~~~ssss in Honour of Cyril Ehrlich. Ed. by Christina
Bashford and Leanne Langley. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000: 275-298.

~. "Parry and Elgar: A New Perspective," in The M~usical Times 125
(November 1984): 639-643.









~. "Parry, Stanford, and Vaughan Williams: The Creation of Tradition," in
Vaughan2 Williamns in Perspective. Ed. by Lewis Foreman. London: 1997: 25-47.

~~. ~ Liner notes to The Romantic Piano Concerto 12: C Hubert H PartyP~~~~PPPPP~~~~PPPP and
Charles Villiers Stanford. Hyperion Records: CDA66820, 1995.

Dunhill, T. F. "C. V. Stanford: Some Aspects of His Life and Works," in Proceedings of
the Royal M\~'sical Association 53 (1927-1928): 42-65.

Dyson, George. The Progress of2~usic. Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press,
1932.

Erlich, Cyril. First Philharmonic: A History of the Royal Philharmonic Society. Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1995.

Foreman, Lewis. Liner notes to Charles Villiers Stanford: The Complete Symphonies.
Chandos: 9279-82, 1994.

~. "Holes Held Together by String: Stanford, Parry, and the Rise of British
Chamber Music in the Victorian Age," in British M~usic Society News 94 (2002):
272-278.

~~.~ From PartyP~~~~PPPPP~~~~PPPP to Britten: British M~usic in Letters 1900-1945. Portland, OR:
Amadeus Press, 1987.

Fox-Strangways, A. H. Music Observed. Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press,
Inc., 1936.

Fuller-Maitland, J. A. The Mtusic ofParty and Stanford: An Essaysss~~~~~ssss in Comparative
Criticism. Cambridge: W. Heffer and Sons, 1934.

Gillen, Gerard and Harry White, eds.1Irish M~usical Studies 3: Mtusic andlrish Cultural
History. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 1995.

"The Glouchester Musical Festival," in The Mtusical Times 24 (October 1883): 541-544.

Hamilton, Walter. The Aesthetic M~ovement in Englan2d. Reprinted of the 1882 ed. London:
Reeves and Turner, 1971.

Hare, W. Loftus. Watts (181 7-1904). London: T. C. and E. C. Jack, no date.

Howes, Frank. The English 2r'sicalRenaissa~nce. New York: Stein and Day, 1966.

Hudson, Frederick. "C. V. Stanford: Nova Bibliographica," in Mtsical Times 104
(October 1963): 728-729.









Karolyi, Otto. Modern British M~usic: The Second British M~usical Renaissance f~on
Elgar to P. M~acaell-Davies. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press,
1994.

Lawrence, Dan H., ed. Bernard .\how I: ,\1haw I 's Music: The Complete M~usical Criticism in
3 Vohintes. New York: Dodd, Mead, and Co., 1981.

Layton, Robert, ed. A Guide to the Symphony. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

"London Symphony Orchestra: Sir Charles Villiers Stanford's New Symphony," in The
Musical Times 47 (February 1906): 121.

McVeigh, Simon. "The Society for British Musicians (1834-1864) and the Campaign for
Native Talent," in M~usic and British Culture, 1 785-1914: Esssssssssssssay in Honour of
Cyril Ehrlich. Ed. by Christina Bashford and Leanne Langley. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2000: 145-168.

Murphy, Michael. "Race, Nation, and Empire in the Irish Music of Sir Charles Villiers
Stanford," in M~usic in Irel~and 1848-1~998 (2000): 46-55.

Musgrave, Michael. The M~usical Life of the CrystalPalace. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1995.

Norris, Gerald. Stanford, the Camnbridge Jubilee, anzd Tchaikovsk~y. London: David and
Charles, 1980.

"Philharmonic Society," in The M~usical Times 36 (April 1895): 232-233.

"Philharmonic Society," in The M~usical Times 53 (April 1912): 257.

Porte, John F. Sir Charles y. Stanford. Boston: Longwood Press, 1978.

"Professor Stanford in Berlin," The M~usical Times 30 (March 1889): 153-154.

Sadie, Stanley, ed. The New Grove Dictionazy of2~usic and Musicians. Second edition.
London: Macmillan, 2001.

"Sir C. V. Stanford: A Composer of Genius," in The Times (31 March 1924): 17, columns
2-3.

Stanford, Charles Villiers. "Music of the 19th Century," in Times Literal Supplement 4
(1905): 458.

~~. Musical Composition: A .\ho~lt /Treatise for Students. New York: The
Macmillan Co., 1911.









~~. Pages f~om an thnwritten Dialy. London: Edward Amold, 1914.

~. "Some Thoughts Concerning Folk-Song and Nationality," The Mtusical
Quarterly 1 (1915): 232-245.

~~. Studies and2~emories. London: Archibald Constable and Co. LTD, 1908.

~~. Symphony in D major, "L 'Allegro ed ilPensieroso ", op. 55. London: Stainer
and Bell, 1923.

~~. Symphony in F minor, "The Irish ", op. 28. Boca Raton, FL: Edwin F.
Kalmus, no date.

~~. Symphony No. 4 in F Major, op. 31. New York: Edwin F. Kalmus, no date.

~~. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, op. 124. Boca Raton, FL: Edwin F Kalmus, no
date.

~~ and Cecil Forsyth. A History of2~usic. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1930.

Slonimsky, Nicolas and Laura Kuhn, eds. Baker 's Biographical Dictionaly of2~usician2s.
Ninth edition. New York: Schirmer Books, 2001.

Solie, Ruth A. Music in Other Words: Y7ctorian Conversations. Los Angeles:
University of Califomnia Press, 2004.

Sweet, Matthew. hzventing the yictorians. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2001.

"Three Great Victorian Musicians," in The Times (31 March 1924): 13, column 4.

Vaughan Williams, Ralph. "Charles Villiers Stanford," in National2~usic and Other
Essays. London: Oxford University Press, 1963: 195-198.

Walker, Emest. A History of2~usic in England. 3rd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952.















BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Aaron Keebaugh, originally from Martinsburg, Pennsylvania, attended

Bridgewater College, Bridgewater, Virginia from 1996 until 2000. While there, he was

active as a trumpeter in the college' s symphonic and j azz bands, a bass singer with the

concert and oratorio choirs, the assistant director and, later, director of the Screamin'

Eagles Pep Band, student conductor for the Symphonic Band and Concert Choir, and

music arranger for various ensembles. After earning a B.A. in music education, Mr.

Keebaugh moved to Altoona, Pennsylvania, to teach band and chorus at Bishop Guilfoyle

High School. Aside from his teaching duties, he worked as a freelance trumpet player,

private trumpet teacher, and music arranger for various high school bands in the Central

Pennsylvania and Shenandoah Valley areas. In 2002, Mr. Keebaugh entered to the

University of Florida to pursue master's and Ph.D. degrees in musicology. As a graduate

student, he has presented papers at the Society for Ethnomusicology national conference

in Miami, Florida, and the College Music Society Southern Chapter conference in

Hattiesburg, Mississippi. His article "Idiomatic Tendencies in Selected Keyboard Works

by Thomas Tallis" was published in the sixth volume of British Postgraduate M~usicology

(2004). In the spring of 2004, Mr. Keebaugh was awarded the University of Florida' s J.

Wayne Reitz Presidential Fellowship to pursue the Ph.D. in musicology.




Full Text

PAGE 1

VICTORIAN AND MUSICIAN: CHARLES VILLIERS STANFORDS SYMPHONIES IN CONTEXT By AARON C. KEEBAUGH A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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From everything, a little remained. -R. E. K. In loving memory of John E. Jack Shaffer, 1928.

PAGE 3

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would first like to thank individually each of the members of my committee for their wisdom, not only in this project, but throughout my degree program. I thank Dr. Larry Crookfor his knowledge, wisdom, and ability to help me see the other side of the proverbial coin. I thank Dr. Joyce Davisfor our talks, lessons, and lunches. Her advice is valuable to me both personally and professionally. I thank Dr. David Kushnerfor taking a chance and being a true role model and mentor through his encyclopedic musical knowledge and professional experience. I thoroughly enjoy our eclectic conversations over lunch and coffee and I look forward to working with you in the future. I would like to extend personal thank yous to Professor Jeremy Dibble, Chair in Music at the University of Durham, UK, for answering my questions regarding my research; and to Dr. Jesse Hopkins, Professor Steve Watson, and Dr. Gary Adams of Bridgewater College and Mr. James Schoenfelder of Altoona, PA for their encouragement in my decision to pursue graduate work. I would also like to thank my family, Mom, Dad, and Ryan, for their encouragement and support in my education, and my fiancee, Cari, for her constant patience and solace when I was frustrated. Most important, I express my deepest gratitude to Jack Shaffer, a dear pedagogue, mentor, and friend, who suddenly passed away in January 2003. I will cherish our friendship in my heart for the rest of my days. iii

PAGE 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS............................................................................................... iii ABSTRACT........................................................................................................................ v CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................ 1 2 BIOGRAPHICAL OVERVIEW................................................................................... 4 3 THE SYMPHONIES.................................................................................................. 15 Symphony No. 1 in B flat major............................................................................ 15 Symphony No. 2 in D minor, Elegiac................................................................ 17 Symphony No. 3 in F minor, Irish, op. 28........................................................ 18 Symphony No. 4 in F major, op. 31....................................................................... 31 Symphony No. 5 in D major, LAllegro ed il Pensieroso, op. 56...................... 43 Symphony No. 6 in E flat major, op. 94................................................................ 54 Symphony No. 7 in D minor, op. 124....................................................................56 4 CONCLUSION........................................................................................................... 65 SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................................................................. 67 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH............................................................................................ 71 iv

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Music VICTORIAN AND MUSICIAN: CHARLES VILLIERS STANFORDS SYMPHONIES IN CONTEXT By Aaron C. Keebaugh August 2004 Chairman: David Z. Kushner Major Department: Music Charles Villiers Stanford (1852), Irishborn English composer, stood along with Hubert Parry, Alexander Mackenzie, and Edward Elgar as the first generation of the new English musical renaissance. These composers sought to elevate the standards of English music and served to pave the way for a distinctly English musical style after nearly two centuries of neglect. As a teacher, Stanford is best remembered as professor of composition at the Royal College of Music; his pupils included such notable composers as Gustav Holst, Ralph Vaughan Williams, and Frank Bridge. He was also an eminent conductor who was instrumental in securing English premieres of several of Brahmss compositions. An active composer himself with a prodigious upbringing, Stanfords best known works included church and choral music. His symphonies, however, are little known and rarely, if ever, performed today. This thesis, therefore, offers a theoretical exploration of each of Stanfords seven symphonies within historical context. Several of these works, while stylistically v

PAGE 6

derivative of the contemporary German symphonic tradition, employ unique aspects in terms of subject matter, the very essence of a distinctly Victorian art music. Since Stanford is too often neglected in many historical accounts of the symphony, this study also serves to portray the composer as an important figure in the development of the English symphony. vi

PAGE 7

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Sir Charles Villiers Stanford (1852), Irishborn English composer, represents a mere strata of English musical history. After his death and even to the present day, his name is synonymous with English church music. He composed numerous anthems for voices and organ, five Masses, six complete settings of the Anglican church service, and many hymns and carols. However, this seemingly vast array of sacred music comprises only a fraction of his total output. He also composed vast amounts of chamber music, solo piano and organ works, three piano concertos, two violin concertos, six Irish Rhapsodies, and seven virtually unknown symphonies. In early twentiethcentury scholarship, Stanford receives mention among his immediate contemporaries Hubert Parry, Alexander Mackenzie, and Edward Elgar, the first shot fired in the English musical Renaissance. In his own lifetime, Elgar earned increasing international praise as the leading English composer while Stanford, by then associated with Mackenzie and Parry as the Parry group, was written off as a dry academic. Indeed, his (Stanfords) own students at the Royal College of Music, who include such figures as Frank Bridge, Gustav Holst, Ivor Gurney, and Ralph Vaughan Williams, are best known for shedding the Teutonic shackles of English Victorian music. After his death, Stanfords accomplishments as a composer were forgotten, or at the least swept under the proverbial rug. One of the most oversimplified statements concerning nineteenthcentury English music is that the English symphony echoed the German symphonic traditions of the more conservative Romanticsi.e. Mendelssohn, Schumann, and Brahmsfor its adherence to 1

PAGE 8

2 classical forms, balanced structures, and emotional selfcontrol. Yet, in the postmodern world, the centuryold view of the Victorian culture as a collection of prudish, shallow, and reticent individuals can no longer hold ground. Matthew Sweets Inventing the Victorians (2001) states that suppose that everything we think we know about the Victorians is wrong. That, in the century which has elapsed since 1901, we have misread their culture, their history, their livesperhaps deliberately, in order to satisfy our sense of ourselves as liberated Moderns. 1 The musicologist Ruth Solie, in light of her disciplines focus on the historic professionals of music (composers, performers, and critics), offers a paradigm shift in that a cultures musical practices, its attitudes toward music . are revealed more by the ubiquitous and everyday conversations of musics users than by the rulings of the experts and professionals, often to the chagrin of the latter. 2 In following the newlypaved highway of Victorian musical studies, this thesis will focus on the symphonies of Charles Villiers Stanford within the context of his life and surrounding culture, as well as his own belief system as teacher, political thinker, and musician. Only a few sources since Stanfords death have dealt with his works in a purely objective light. Most important is Jeremy Dibbles definitive biography Charles Villiers Stanford: Man and Musician (2001); although, analytical discussion of the music itself takes a back seat to the plethora of biographical detail. Several primary sources were consulted in the preparation of this study: the composers own texts Studies and Memories (1908), Musical Composition: A Short Treatise for Students (1911), Pages from an Unwritten Diary (1914), A History of Music (1930) his obituary notices in The Times, and several critical accounts of first performances of each of the symphonies. Chapter one comprises a brief survey of Stanfords career, political views, his teaching, and the 1 Matthew Sweet, Inventing the Victorians (New York: St. Martins Press, 2001): ix. 2 Ruth A. Solie, Music in Other Words: Victorian Conversations (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004): 2.

PAGE 9

3 people in his immediate circles with whom he worked. The second chapter, which is the meat of the study, comprises historical and analytical surveys of each of the seven symphonies. The conclusion provides the authors own view of Stanford the Victorian and Stanford the composer within the broad contexts of English music historiography.

PAGE 10

CHAPTER 2 BIOGRAPHICAL OVERVIEW Born in Dublin on 30 September 1852, Charles Villiers Stanford had a childhood wrought with musical and intellectual enlightenment. His father, John Stanford, was an eminent lawyer and keen amateur bass singer. 3 On various occasions, the Stanford household frequented performances from amateur and professional musicians; the violin virtuoso Joseph Joachim even paid occasional visits. The young Charless early education was rooted in classics and he received his early musical training from three of Dublins leading musicians: Robert Stewart, Joseph Robinson, and Michael Quarry. The latter instructed Stanford on piano, as he himself was a former pupil of the pianist Ignaz Moscheles. 4 Stewart also instructed the young Irishman on the piano and, presumably, the oragn. He had a reputation as a recitalist through his post as organist at Saint Patricks Cathedral, a position he held for 50 years, and for his overtly French style of playing. 5 Robinson conducted the Antient Concert Society for 29 years (1834) 6 and the Cambridge University Choral Society, to which he had been appointed in 1837. In 1848, the conductor, along with Stanfords father, founded the Irish Academy of 3 From this account and several modern sources, John Stanford sang at a professional level. His son stipulated that the elder Stanford could sing from high F to low C [and] was one of the finest in quality in style that I have ever heard anywhere (27). John Stanford did not pursue a profession career as a singer because of practical reasons. Charles Villiers Stanford, Pages from an Unwritten Diary (London: Edward Arnold, 1914): 27. 4 Litte is known of Michael Quarry. There are records that he studied in Leipzig and returned to Dublin and took up temporary employment at the Royal Irish Academy of Music, resigning in 1882. Jeremy Dibble, Charles Villiers Stanford: Man and Musician (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 26. 5 Stewart studied in Paris with LefebureWly, the organist at the Madeleine. Ibid., 22. 6 Robinson founded this organization when he was merely 18 years old. Ibid., 21. 4

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5 Music. Robinson is also noteworthy for bringing Mendelssohns music to the Emerald Isle, and for his dedication to the musical growth of Ireland. 7 After his teachers death in 1898, Charles Stanford provided the following encomium: To Ireland he was devoted, and no inducements to desert it for a more lucrative and famebringing centre of activity ever found favor in his eyes. Such personalities are rare, and their claim to recognition at the hands of prosterity is irrefragable. The fact that a career is by choice and conviction circumscribed in extent impels the chronicler all the more to do justice to its merits when the work is closed and the worker silent; especially when those merits are the sort which would have compelled the widest admiration if their professor had so willed it. 8 Despite his glowing admiration for the Irish conductor, Stanford felt that he had exhausted his musical resources in Dublin by the time he was a teenager. 9 While his native city contained a wealth of traditional folk song and dance, it lacked the wealth of chamber and orchestral music which was to be found across the seas. 10 So, in the summer of 1862, the young Irishman journeyed to London to further his musical prospects. In England, Stanford absorbed the artistic culture that surrounded him. He experienced for the first time the art works of the PreRaphaelites, notably Leighton, Millias, and Watts 11 In music, he studied composition with Arthur O Leary and piano with Ernst Pauer. Stanford records that the latter instructed him principally in Mozart and that he (Pauer) boasted to be a pupil of Mozarts second son, Wolfgang. 12 The stimulus of his visit and lessons conjoined with his fathers connection and interest in all 7 Robinson may have sown the seeds of Hibernian folklore into Stanfords young mind, for the soontobe composer mentions that his (Robinsons) most valuable work in music lied in his arrangements of Irish folk songs (126). Charles Villiers Stanford, Studies and Memories (London: Archibald Constable and Company, 1908): 117. 8 Ibid., 117. 9 He also studied violin with R. M. Levy (1811). Dibble, op. cit., 26. 10 Stanford, Unwritten Diary, 21. 11 Ibid., 70. 12 Ibid., 71.

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6 things musical provided ample room for Stanfords compositional abilities to flower. In the following eight years, he composed church music, several songs, and two orchestral works, a Rondo for cello and orchestra (1869) and a Concert Overture in A minor (1870). When he was 18 years old, he won his fathers consent to pursue music as a career rather than giving into the elder Stanfords hankering for the Bar. 13 His fathers only condition was that his son receive a general university education first, and then to pursue musical studies abroad. Charles Stanford matriculated to Queens College, Cambridge on an organ scholarship in 1870. 14 While at Cambridge, Stanford maintained an active musical life. He composed his first Piano Concerto in B flat major (1874), the 2 Novellettes for piano (1874), 2 Magnificat and Nunc dimittis in F (1872) and E flat (1873) a handful of songs and part songs, and incidental music to Longfellows play The Spanish Student (1871). He was also active as a conductor, assisting the then director of the Cambridge University Music Society, John Larkin Hopkins in 1871, and, subsequently, becoming full conductor of the same institution two years later. In 1873, Stanford moved to Trinity College to fulfill his newlyappointed duties as conductor; concurrently, he was also appointed as organist. As part of the agreement of his position, Stanford was able to study in Germany after his graduation. 15 For six months in 1874 and 1875, Stanford studied in Leipzig on a recommendation by Sterndale Bennett, 16 learning piano from Robert Papperitz and composition from Karl Reinecke, a renowned pianist, composer, conductor, and pedagogue. In the young composers own words, Leipzig was the best centre for [a student of composition], for it had the best orchestra in Germany. Weimar, states 13 Ibid., 103. 14 He won a classical scholarship the following June. 15 Ibid., 120. 16 While Stanford considered Bennett to be Englands leading composer, he was uneasy about studying solely with him due to his lack of sympathy for any contemporary music. There was also little opportunity for composition students to hear their works performed due to poor conductors and orchestras. Ibid., 156; Dibble, op. cit., 53.

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7 Stanford, was a much smaller centre, dominated by Liszt and his adherents, with no school save for the pianoforte . . Dresden, at the time, was mainly devoted to opera, and there was no outstanding figure, except Julius Reitz who was getting old. . . 17 Stanfords studies with Reinecke, however, were not to his liking: Of all the dry musicians I have ever known he (Reinecke) was the most desiccated. He had not a good word for any contemporary composer, even for those of his own kidney. He loathed Wagner, once described Elsa to me as a young woman without brains enough to make out the list of clothes for the wash, sneered at Brahms, and had no enthusiasm of any sort. But he enjoyed himself hugely when he was expounding and writing canons, and had a fairly good idea of teaching them. His composition training had no method about it whatever. He occasionally made an astute criticism and that was all. He never gave a pupil a chance of hearing his own work, the only really valuable means of training, and the better the music, the less he inclined to encourage it. He was in fact the embodiment of the typical Philister. 18 His dissatisfaction came to an end one year later when Joachim came to Leipzig and offered to refer the young Irishman to Friedrich Kiel, a composition teacher in Berlin. Under Kiels tutelage, Stanford realized that he, in fact, had learned little to nothing from Reinecke. Canon and organic development were key features in Kiels teaching, 19 elements that are primary features in Stanfords symphonic works. Although he busied himself with his lessons, Stanford managed to compose prolifically. A Violin Concerto in D major (1875); the part song To Chloris (1873); the set of six Heine songs, op. 4 (1874); and two choral works, The Golden Legend (1874) and The Resurrection (1875) are but a few compositions from this period. Stanford returned to Cambridge in 1877, after his Wanderjahren, to return to his position as director of the Cambridge University Musical Society and parttime 17 Stanford, Unwritten Diary, 143. 18 Ibid., 156. 19 According to Stanford, Kiel founded his teaching of counterpoint not upon traditional cantus firmus, but Lutheran chorale tunes. Ibid., 164.

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8 organblow[er] 20 He had, by this point, readily established himself as a solid voice in British music. His Piano Suite, op. 2 and Toccata, op. 3 for piano were published two years prior, his First Symphony in Bflat major won second prize at the Alexandra Palace competition of 1876. Indeed, Stanford desired to establish himself as a composer, conductor, and performer. At Cambridge, he conducted several new and unfamiliar masterworks, including Schumanns Paradise and the Peri and Brahmss Ein Deutsches Requiem. 21 He was also instrumental in securing the English premiere of Brahmss First Symphony in C minor, under Joachims beat. 22 Furthermore, Stanford enabled numerous performing artists such as Joachim, Edward Dannreuther, and Hans Richter to come to Cambridge. As a pianist, he performed in the Cambridge University Musical Societys Popular Concerts, which featured chamber music. As an active force in the development of British music, Stanford became acquainted with the artistic elite of London. In 1879, he met the Victorian poet and fellow Cambridge alumnus Alfred, Lord Tennyson. The composer became aware of Tennysons work when he was selected by the poet himself to write incidental music for his play Queen Mary in 1875. 23 Stanford subsequently set a number of Tennysons poems to song, including, Is it the Wind of Dawn (1898), Jack Tar (1900), and Claribel. The poet, apparently, had a keen ear for how his work should be set to music, for Stanford states the following with humility: As he expressed it himself, he disliked music which went up when it ought to go down, and went down when it ought to go up. I never knew him wrong in his suggestions on this point. The most vivid instance I can recall 20 Ibid., 165. 21 Ibid., 166. 22 The concert took place on 8 March 1877 and besides the symphony included Sterndale Bennetts overture The Wood Nymphs, op. 20; Beethovens Violin Concerto, op. 61 (with Joachim as soloist); Brahmss A Song of Destiny, op. 54; two violin solos by J. S. Bach, and Joachims own Elegiac Overture. Ibid., 173. 23 The music was, to Stanfords misfortune, never performed, even after the poet pressed the administration of the Lyceum Theatre to reconsider. Ibid., 228; Stanford, Studies and Memories, 90.

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9 was about a line in the Revenge Was he devil or man? He was devil for aught they knew. When I played him my setting, the word devil was set to a higher note in the question than it was in the answer; and the penultimate word they was unaccented. He at once corrected me, saying that the second word devil must be higher and stronger than the first, and the they must be marked. He was perfectly right, and I altered it accordingly. It was apparently a small point, but it was this insisting on perfection of detail which made him the most valuable teacher of accurate declamation that it was possible for a composer to learn from. 24 Lord Tennysons poem In Memoriam is the programmatic basis for Stanfords Second Symphony in D minor (1879). The 1880s were stable and productive years for Stanford. In 1883, he joined the faculty of the newlyformed Royal College of Music as professor of composition and conductor of the orchestra. One of his crowning achievements at the institution was the initiation of an opera class. Stanford was particularly enthusiastic about opera, even if, to London audiences, it was nothing more than an exotic affair. 25 His own works in the medium stand as testaments to his own lifelong endeavor to install National Opera in England: The Veiled Prophet of Khorassan (1881), Savonarola (1884), his popular Shamus OBrien (1896), Much Ado about Nothing (1901), The Critic (1916), and The Traveling Companion (1919). The composer was also appointed professor of music at Cambridge in 1887; he held both teaching positions until his death. During the latter part of the decade, two of Stanfords works, the Third Symphony in F minor (1887), aptlynamed the Irish for its use of folk songs, and his Fourth Symphony in F major (1888), gained international appeal. Both works received premieres in London and Berlin. Stanfords political views during his Cambridge years lead to an everincreasing awareness of his Irish heritage, an aspect of his persona that crystalized in his manipulation of folk elements in his works. His fear of a major political change, 24 Ibid., 93. 25 Stanford, Unwritten Diary, 317.

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10 particularly the fruition of womens suffrage, 26 fueled his anxiety over the Irish question, the question of home rule. 27 Stanford gave his allegiance to Sir Edward Carson and James Craig of Ulster, who threatened to use armed resistance if necessary. He also signed the Covenant, which was made available for British sympathizers. In light of a heated debate between himself, a protestant and conservative unionist, and Erskine Childers, a hardcore republican, Stanford stuck to his argument that Ireland does not want Home Rule. The placehunters want it, but not the people. 28 Stanfords musical response to this and subsequent political issues concerning Irish nationalism 29 is found in his Irish Rhapsody No. 4 (1913), also known as The Fisherman of Lough Neagh and What He Saw ; the Ulster March (1913), and his song settings of the Ulster poet John Stevensons Pat MaCarty, His Rhymes (1910). However, his unionist leanings and career as a leading British musician tainted his nationalistic portraits with an English hue. 30 As a teacher, he adhered to the traditional methods. In his 1911 treatise for students, Musical Composition Stanford referred to the string quartet as a decathlon of technical wizardry: In chamber music it is still less possible to rely on colour as superior to design. It bears the same relation to orchestral treatment that watercolours do to oils. The texture and the mediums are thinner, and flaws of workmanship are all the more obvious. But in music the mastery of the one is essential as the mastery of the other. 31 26 Dibble, op. cit., 403. 27 The Home Rule Bill was squashed by Parliament in the 1880s; however, the issue did not die then and there. The Third Home Rule Bill was passed in the House of Commons, and despite the fact the it was repeatedly sent back by the Lords, it rose to royal decision in 1914. Ibid., 403. 28 The Times (9 April 1914); also quoted in Ibid., 404. 29 Particularly the threat of civil war and gunrunning in Howth, Kilcoole, and Ulster. 30 Murphy concludes that Stanford used the Irish elements as entertainment in his nationalistic works, a view commonly held by the contemporary English population, and that he may never be considered a great Irish composer since Irish audiences of the day also viewed his works through the same lens (55). Michael Murphy, Race, Nation, and Empire in the Irish Music of Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, Music in Ireland, 1848 (2000): 46. 31 Charles Villiers Stanford, Musical Composition: A Short Treatise for Students (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1911), 111.

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11 For Stanford, writing a string quartet or trio is the best training to learn the treatment of strings in an orchestral setting. Students who wish to understand the principles of the string orchestra will, in Stanfords opinion, undoubtedly benefit from exercises for a more intimate instrumental setting. He advocates six points for the student composer of a trio or quartet to follow: 1) the richness of a fournote chord in a string quartet, dependent on the quality and quantity of the overtone series, is desirable to the same chord on the piano; 2) there is little to be gained by unnecessary doubling, 3) it is important to secure contrast with limited material; 4) students should strive for a pure style and avoid placing any ill-fated note into the texture; 5) it is important to strive for complete freedom in the relation of the four instruments to each other, 6) it is important to strive for the equality of parts among all four voices. 32 Indeed, these rules could be stretched to fit the larger symphonic form, of which he also held specific views: Music may be divided into two classesabsolute music, when the art speaks for itself by sound alone, and descriptive music, when it illustrates words or drama. There has always been a tendency, which in recent times has grown into a cult, to allow the second class to trespass upon the first. This type is necessarily a hybrid, but it has grown to such proportions that it requires the fullest consideration in any treatise dealing with composition. There can be no question that music which speaks for itself is not only the purest, but also the most allembracing form of the art. Being intangible and indefinable, it suggests to different trains of thought, and any defined programme of a movement given by one listener may be miles apart from one given by another . . Programmemusic, then, is the incursion of music proper into the realms of the drama. How far can it carry its invasion without being itself destroyed? Only so far as it is intelligible to the ear, without help from any other organ. There are no words or scenic adjuncts to assist it. It must not rely on a title (which may be torn off) or an analysis ina book of words (which may go out of print) for an explanation of the drift of the drama. It must tell a clear story to any musical listener who does not happen to have seen the name, or to have a shilling to buy a programme. If it succeeds under such conditions, it is a work of art; if it does not, it is a work of artificiality. In a word, it must appeal, after all, as absolute music. 33 32 Ibid., 111. 33 Ibid., 155, 158.

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12 While it is abundantly clear, as we shall see in the following chapter, that Stanford the symphonist matched sentiment with Stanford the teacher, it is remarkable that two of his students, Gustav Holst and Ralph Vaughan Williams, developed their own musical voice in spite of their masters advice. The latter provided the following statement: [Stanford] has written some of the most beautiful music that has come from these islands. He realized that all art which is worth while must spring from its own soil. He made an exhaustive study of his own Irish folk music; some of his arrangements, notably those known to British hearers as The Arbutus Tree and Father O Flynn, are household words . . Of course in Stanfords enormous output there is bound to be a certain amount of dull music; but, after all, so there is in Beethoven and Bach. At times his very facility led him astray. he could, at will, use the technique of any other composer and often use it better than the original, as in The Middle Witch, where he beats Delius at his own game. Sometimes he could not resist adding a clever touch which marred the purity of his inspiration, as in the sophisticated repetition of the words lead the line at the end of the otherwise beautiful song Sailing at Dawn. The bright young things of the younger generation do not seem to know much about Stanford, and not having had the advantage of his teaching are inclined to ignore what he did and what he taught. But I believe he will return again. With the next generation the inevitable reaction will set in and Stanford will come into his own. 34 Stanfords personal friend and premiere biographer H. Plunket Greene waxed equally optimistic, if not hyperbolical: [Stanford] loved his pupils. Some of them no doubt turned into ugly ducklings when he thought they were chickens. But the greatest tribute they could pay to him was, that they went away and worked out their own salvation for themselves. That is what a true teacher does. If he had not been a great composer, he would have been the greatest teacher the country has ever known. The whole of our modern school, which probably stands higher than that of any other country at the present moment, is absolutely founded on Stanford. 35 34 Ralph Vaughan Williams, Charles Villiers Stanford, in National Music and Other Essays (London: Oxford University Press, 1963), 195. 35 Quoted in T. F. Dunhill, C. V. Stanford: Some Aspects of His Life and Works, Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 53 (1927): 42.

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13 Yet, what Plunket Greene neglected to mention here and in his biography of the composer in 1935 36 was that, despite Stanfords excessive duties as conductor in the latenineteenth and earlytwentieth centuries 37 Edward Elgar succeeded Stanford and his contemporary and fellow Royal College faculty member Hubert Parry as the most popular English composer. A memorandum in Parrys diary in 1911 states: C. V. S. (Stanford) wrote to Mackenzie on feeble grounds (!) against Elgars 2nd. Symphony being givenas it allowed him such a disproportionate amount of time to other composers. He was furious because he did not get an invitation to the Coronation. 38 Despite the lack of public attention his music was receiving at this time, Stanford continued to compose until the end of his life. He turned a great deal of his productivity to gebrauchmusik for educational purposes as well as various songs, piano pieces, and organ works for sheer economic reasons. He held fast to his proTeutonic Victorian and Edwardian heritage, even when postwar society negated such influence. He composed a few instrumental pieces; however, not one interested a single publisher. 39 His Seventh Symphony and last two string quartets were among this last repertoire. In a letter to his friend McEwen on Christmas Day 1923, Stanford discussed his unpopularity in the public eye: I suppose I am more or less out of date. I see all the youngsters going ahead with stuff which I would not soil my pen and paper with, but my pen and paper appear to be unacceptable to those who publish and has to remain pen and paper. 40 36 H. Plunket Greene, Charles Villiers Stanford (London, 1935). 37 Stanford conducted the Bach choir from 1886, the Leeds Philharmonic Society from 1897, and the Leeds Triennial Festival from 1901. 38 Quoted in Jeremy Dibble, Parry and Elgar: A New Perspective, The Musical Times 125 (November 1984): 639. 39 Dibble, Charles Villiers Stanford, 449. 40 Letter from Stanford to McEwen, 25 December 1923. Quoted in Ibid., 449.

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14 In the decades following Stanfords death, his music, save that for the church, fell into oblivion. Except for a brief call for a Stanford Society in 1952, 41 the postwar world found no room for his proTeutonic, Victorian elegance and classical style. 41 B. E. Lamble, A Stanford Society? The Musical Times 93/1317 (November 1952), 509.

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CHAPTER 3 THE SYMPHONIES Symphony No. 1 in B flat In 1875, the Alexandra Palace reopened after it burned down to years prior. In order to attract attention and to regain its former status as a leading concert venue in London, the Palace administration created a contest for a new symphony. The venture failed, but the competition attracted 46 submissions from various aspiring composers. All submissions were judged by Mcfarren and Joachim. One of the aspiring composers was the 23yearold Charles Stanford. Until this time he had merely dabbled in large orchestral forms. 42 Moreover, the young composer sought to test his compositional skill in the larger international arena of symphonic form. The contest proved to be a valuable opportunity for Stanford, for his work, the Symphony No. 1 in B flat, took the second prize. The first prize was, coincidentally, to Macfarrens pupil and soninlaw Francis Davenport for his Symphony in D minor. The Irishman dedicated the work to the tenor Arthur Duke Coleridge, a friend of the composers at Cambridge. Stanfords Symphony in B flat is a mature work and, by far, the most substantial work of his youth. The tempo markings for each of the works four movements appear as follows: I) Larghetto Allegro vivace; II) Scherzo in Lndler tempo Trio 1) Presto Trio 2) Poco pi lento; III) Andante tranquillo; IV) Finale Allegro molto. 42 He composed two largescale choral works: The Golden Legend for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra in 1874 and The Resurrection for chorus, orchestra, and organ in 1975. The Golden Legend never received a premiere nor publication. Stanford also composed music for the stage: The Spanish Student, incidental music to H. W. Longfellows play in 1871 and Queen Mary, incidental music to a play by Alfred Lord Tennyson in 1876. Stanfords score to Queen Mary received a premiere and publication. The composer also wrote a rondo for cello and orchestra in 1869, a concert overture in 1870, a piano concerto in B flat in 1874, and a violin concerto in D in 1875. All of these works, however, remain unpublished. 15

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16 The first movement opens with an extended introduction whose opening motive is later transformed into the movements second theme. Soli and solo instrumental writing abound in this movement. For example, the clarinets present the first theme, which is later taken over by the trombones after a series of episodes. In the movements recapitulation, a solo cello presents the second theme. The triumphant coda features the trumpet section fanfaring the primary theme, though augmented in rhythm. While these features are not unique to the symphonic repertoire, they demonstrate the young Stanfords command of orchestral timbres, an element that is indeed a feature of the composers later mature symphonies. The second movement comprises a scherzo and two contrasting trios. While the placement of this form in the second movement is unusual in itself, the scherzo involves a lndler rhythm, an element commonly found in the symphonies of Franz Schubert. The first trio section is cast in duple meter, owing to the scherzoandtrio movements of the symphonies of Robert Schumann. The second trio section, in triple meter, involves the woodwinds and strings presenting a descending scalar pattern in canon. Stanfords personal musical fingerprints are found in the third movement. Muted violins and violas provide a hushed quality throughout the piece. The second subject, a haunting melody with strains of sweet melancholy, is presented by the French horns, evoking the style of Irish folk music. A solo violin appears towards the end of the movement in a rubato style, complete with rhapsodic arpeggios and trills akin to an Irish lament. The highspirited Finale further corroborates Stanfords mastery of the orchestral pallet. Driving repeated notes are key features of the primary subject, which Stanford treats in a canon between strings and brass. The development section includes a fugato based on the main theme, another characteristic of his mature style. In general, this work owes much to the strength and optimism of Schumanns Rhenish Symphony . 43 It is clear, however, that Stanfords First Symphony does not 43 Ibid., 79.

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17 owe its clear, masterful orchestration to that of Schumanns oeuvre. The work remains unpublished to this day. 44 Symphony No. 2 in D minor, Elegaic Stanford began work on his Second Symphony in July 1879 in the wake of his success with the First Piano Quartet in F major, op. 15 and completion of his first opera The Veiled Prophet of Khorassan. 45 The composer was, by this time, also moved by the increasing enthusiasm for orchestral music in London. Stanford finished the work in October of 1879, but made subsequent revisions of the first movement. 46 The unexpected death of his father on 17 July 1880 is a possible reason for his choice of the subtitle Elegaic. In addition, he prefaced the work with stanza 70 from Tennysons In Memoriam : I cannot see the features right When on the gloom I strive to paint The face I know; the hues are faint And mix with hollow masks of night Cloudtowers by ghostly masons wrought A gulf that ever shuts and gapes, A hand that points, and palled shapes In shadowy thoroughfares of thought; And crowds that stream from yawning doors, And shoals of puckerd faces drive; Dark bulks that trumble half alive, And lazy lengths on boundless shores; Till all at once beyond the will I hear a wizard music roll, And thro a lattice on the soul Looks thy fair face and makes it still. Much like the melancholic metaphors that comprise the strict eightsyllable format of 44 The manuscript is currently located in the Music Library at Northwestern University. 45 The Veiled Prophet earned its premiere in Hanover in February 1881. Lewis Foreman, liner notes to Charles Villiers Stanford: The Complete Symphonies (Chandos 1994). 46 The author states that the manuscript for the first movement bears the date 21 December 1880. Dibble, op. cit., 106.

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18 Tennysons verse, Stanfords Elegaic Symphony assumes a solemn air. The work is cast in the standard fourmovement layout; the first three movements bear romantic character markings: I) Allegro appassionato; II) Lento espressivo; III) Scherzo: Allegro con fuoco; IV) Adagio moderato Allegro moderato Allegro molto ma non presto. Stanford revised the work in 1882 and submitted it to Henry Cummings, director of the Philharmonic Society, upon completion in hopes for a premiere. Cummings, however, hid not accept it. The symphony finally earned a premiere on 7 March 1882 in Cambridge at a concert given in honor of Joachim. A critic for The Musical Times (1 April 1882) stated that the piece was by far the most important orchestral work by Mr. Stanford that has hitherto been heard. 47 The anonymous critic concluded that it contained an immense advance, both in power of conception and mastery over the technicalities of orchestral treatment. 48 The symphony was not performed again until September of the following year at a Glouchester Three Choirs Festival concert. Stanfords work commenced the Thursday mornings festivities, which included Gonouds The Redemption, an audience favorite. Charles Hartford Lloyd conducted the work in Stanfords absence. Amidst numerous latecomers to the morning concert, 49 the critic for The Musical Times states that we like the Lento espressivo, Scherzo, and Adagio better than either the opening Allegro appassionata or the final Allegro and that the reminiscence of Beethoven, however, in the Scherzo [was] too obvious to escape notice. 50 Symphony No. 3 in F minor, Irish op. 28 47 Quoted in Ibid., 123. 48 Quoted in Ibid., 123. 49 The critic records that the late comers probably did not have the slightest wish to hear Dr. Stanfords new work. The main attraction for the majority of the audience members was the subsequent performance of Gonouds work. The Glouchester Music Festival, The Musical Times 24 (October 1883): 543. 50 Ibid. 543.

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19 In September of 1886, Stanford and his wife went to Switzerland and northern Italy for a holiday after the Birmingham festival. 51 After a threeweek stay, they detoured to Vienna to visit Hans Richter before returning to England. The conductor, who recently received a doctorate from Oxford, was planning to perform Stanfords Elegiac Ode in Vienna. Stanford also paid a visit to Brahms, apparently without making an appointment. The composer recalls the following from his visit: When I next visited Vienna I went to see him . thinking that I should surely find him at home at eleven o clock. But his housekeeper told me that he had just gone to dinner. I was so astonished that I said to her, In Heavens name, what time does Brahms eat his breakfast? At five, said the dame; he does all of his work before eleven, and is out the rest of the day. However, I fell in with him later, and sat with him through the rehearsal of Glucks Alceste at the Opera House, over which he waxed enthusiastic. 52 English audiences were no stranger to Brahmss music; his C minor Symphony attracted almost every musician of importance in England 53 and his later symphonies met with enthusiasm in London during the 1880s. 54 Brahmss Fourth Symphony earned its premiere in Meiningen on 25 October 1885. News of the works monumental power and musical poetry no doubt fell on English ears. When Richter conducted the English premiere of the work on 10 May 1886, an enthusiastic Stanford began sketching a new symphony, the socalled Irish in F minor. Richter took interest in this new project from the composers pen and commissioned the work for his 1887 concert season. 55 Stanford completed the work in 1887 and it was quickly published as op. 28, the first of the composers symphonies to earn a number. The use of Irish folk songs, which is central to this work, was not uncommon in Stanfords oeuvre. 51 Dibble, op. cit., 171. 52 Stanford, Studies and Memories, 113. 53 Ibid., 111. 54 Dibble op. cit., 182. 55 Ibid., 171.

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20 With the Irish Symphony, Stanford earned an international reputation. It received performances all over England. In Germany, Blow conducted the work in Hamburg at the Stadttheater on 26 January 1888, and in Berlin a few weeks later. 56 The success of Stanfords work earned his Fourth Symphony a place on the Berlin programme the following year. The Irish Symphony was chosen for the opening concert of the new Concertgebouw Orchestra in Amsterdam on 3 November 1888, conducted by Willem Kes. 57 In North America, the work was performed by Walter Damrosch and the New York Symphony Orchestra at Carnegie Hall in November 1907. Richard Aldrich of The New York Times provided the following sentiment: Of this music Stanfords is the most interesting and a welcome addition to program lists that are apt to become stereotyped. It still retains its freshness and spiritnot that it is very old in years, but music is the least immortal of artistic productions, and some modern symphonies have wrinkled with age in fifteen years. It is not great music nor wholly original in style, but it is charming, of sustained interest and made with such dexterity and skill in the manipulation of its material. 58 The Irish Symphony reached the zenith of its North American success with Mahlers interpretation of the work with the New York Philharmonic in 1910. In England, Alexander Mackenzie 59 revived the work for a Philharmonic concert in June 1893, which ignited interest throughout the country. One particular voice, though not especially enthusiastic about Stanfords work, 60 was that of George Bernard Shaw, who points out an internal struggle between Stanford the Celt and Stanford the professor. 56 Stanford, Unwritten Diary 262. 57 Dibble, op. cit., 184. 58 Richard Aldrich, New York Symphony Orchestra, Walter Damrosch, Edward German, Rudolph Ganz, The New York Times (18 November 1907). Also printed in Richard Aldrich, Concert Life in New York 1902, ed. by Harold Johnson (Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press, 1941), 193. 59 Mackenzie succeeded Cowen as conductor of of the Philharmonic Society. 60 In a note in Pall Magazine (18 May 1888), the critic claims that as for Mr. Villiers Stanfords Irish Symphony, it is only an additional proof that the symphony, as a musical form, is stone dead. Shaw also extended this sentiment to symphonies of Brahms and Dvork. Dan Lawrence, Bernard Shaw: Shaws Music: The Complete Musical Criticism in 3 Volumes, I (New York: Dodd, Mead, and Co., 1981), 514.

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21 In the words of corno di basseto, when Professor Stanford is genteel, cultured, classic, pious, and experimentally mixolydian, he is dull beyond belief. 61 In addition, although in it ( Irish Symphony) you see the Irish professor trifling in a world of ideas, in a marked contrast to the English professor conscientiously wrestling in a vacuum, yet over and above this national difference, . you find certain traces of a talent for composition, which is precisely what the ordinary professor, with all his grammatical and historical accomplishments, utterly lacks. 62 Yet, while Shaws musical xenophobia pervaded the newspaper columns each week, it is instructive to note that the Irish Symphony is Stanfords first attempt at blending Irish national elements within the context of German symphonic form. The Irish Symphony is cast in the following fourmovement layout: I) Allegro moderato; II) Allegro molto vivace; III) Andante con moto; IV) Finale. Allegro moderato con fuoco. At the head of the score, Stanford inscribes the following motto in Latin: IPSE FAVE CLEMENS PATRI PATRIAMQUE CANENTI, PHOEBE, CORONATA QUI CANIS IPSE LYRA In the English, the motto reads, Look with favour and mercy on the country and on the countrys bard, Phoebus, who yourself sing with crowned lyre. 63 The first movement, which is cast in sonata form, opens with all strings, except the double bass, in chantlike unison. Example 1. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, I. 61 George Bernard Shaw, Going Fantee, The World (10 May 1893). Also printed in Lawrence, Bernard Shaw II, 876. 62 Ibid., 877. 63 In Greek mythology, Phoebus means, literary, radiant one because of the connection with the sun. The name was used as an epithet of Apollo by the Romans, who hailed him as Phoebus Apollo.

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22 While the phrygian yearnings establish an ancient and Celtic sound, subtle chords in the woodwinds and brass punctuate the texture, establishing the characteristic developments of German symphonic form. The transition comprises the opening CD flatF motive in both melodic and harmonic enterprises; the music grows out of this motivic germ. Several scholars have noted that Stanford learned this technique from Brahms, though it is possible that Kiel introduced the idea to him as early as 1876. For this writer, it is obvious to note that at this point, even though it is early in the work, Stanford loses the Irishness that he so richly established in the opening bars. The musics swaying character between the Irish folklike melodies and Teutonicstyle developmental procedures is undoubtedly what Shaw calls the inevitable conflict between the Celt and Professor. The second theme emerges in the cello in a diatonic cantabile theme in A flat major, indicating that the Irishman is shining again. Example 2. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, I. As the second theme draws to a close, a developmental closing section emerges, The second theme is fragmented and presented in canon in the middle strings; at the same time, the flutes and clarinets perform the fragment in melodic inversion. The horns provide the rhythmic impetus with a series of triplets that outline the subdominant, dominant, and

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23 tonic chords. Example 3. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, I. The development section exploits almost entirely the opening motive in various melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic transformations. In the following example, the motive is presented in the bassoons, celli, and double basses while the flutes, clarinets, and upper strings present it in inversion. Stanford once again employs the Brahmsian technique of organic growth, deriving subsequent melodic material from the motivic cell. Example 4. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, I Stanford also relies on sequential patterns to present the motive in various harmonic

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24 guises throughout the development. The Irish element is, arguably, most reticent in this section of the movement. It is pulled apart, rearranged, and reshaped under the Teutonic knife. Before the development draws to a close, Stanford harkens back to the Irish melody by presenting portions of the restored second theme in the cello in A major. A solo clarinet, oboe and tutti upper strings answer the call. At the helm of the recapitulation, Stanford rescores the opening folklike theme for oboes, clarinets, bassoons, and violas. Subsequently, the second theme is presented by a solo clarinet, indicating that Stanford was conscious about spreading the thematic wealth throughout the orchestra; in this case, he provides a timbral balance between the strings at the opening of the movement, and the woodwinds in the concluding section. The opening motive returns in a brief developmental passage at the close of the second theme and, economically, in the bass line throughout the coda. The movement concludes with soft F major chords. The second movement comprises a Scherzo and Trio in D minor. The opening theme, in 9/8 meter, is reminiscent of an Irish jig. Stanford adds to the ethnic sound by assigning the melody to the violins while the remaining strings provide support with pizzicato chords, providing the melody with a a flavor of Irish fiddling. Example 5. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, II. The scherzo climaxes with the full orchestra exploiting the jig melody, either in whole or

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25 in fragments. The trio section in D major, features a pastoralstyle melody in 3/2 meter. Here, the sparse instrumentation of clarinets, bassoons, and third and fourth horns offers a calm moment of departure. The lower strings provide a steady bass line comprising a descending major third, F sharpD, interchangeably between violas and celli. The lack of prominent middle voices at this juncture adds to the pastoral quality of the music, akin to such treatment in Beethovens Sixth Symphony. Example 6. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, II. The scherzo returns in D minor in its original guise. To conclude the movement, Stanford

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26 includes a brief, quasifanfare in D major. In his 1921 catalogue of the composers works, John F. Porte claims that the third movement is one of the most poignantly expressive things Stanford ever composed. 64 The movement commences with a solo harp outlining a B flat seventh chord, which, according to FullerMaitland, is rooted in Irish national music called Try if its in tune. 65 The New York Times critic Richard Aldrich refers to this passage as the harp of Erin. 66 Example 7. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, III. The theme emerges in the clarinets and, subsequently, in the flutes melodically inverted. Example 8. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, III. As the harp continues its arpeggios, the theme is fragmented into a passing sequence of dottedrhythm figures in the bassoons, French horns, oboes and upper strings respectively. Stanford briefly abandons this sighing motive to introduce another 64 John F. Porte, Sir Charles Villiers Stanford (Boston: Longwood Press, 1978), 34. 65 J. A. FullerMaitland, The Music of Parry and Stanford: An Essay in Comparative Criticism (Cambridge: W. Heffer and Sons, 1934), 40. 66 Harold Johnson, ed., op. cit., 193.

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27 fragment, which comprises a triplet rhythm. These two motivic cells are presented in sequence, often overlapping, in the strings and woodwinds. The music suddenly shifts to D major, whereupon Stanford includes a quotation of the folk song Lament of the Sons of Usnacht in the viola. Example 9. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, III. Stanford claims to have borrowed the tune from the folk song manuscripts of Petrie, which the composer edited; however, the tune also bears resemblance to the opening theme to the second movement of Brahmss Fourth Symphony Example 10. Brahms: Symphony No. 4 in E minor, II. Though he was well aware of this, Stanford claimed that the likeness was merely an accident and that the two symphonies were composed at the same time. 67 Recent scholarship has shown, however, that Stanfords slow movement bears the completion date 4 April 1887. 68 Furthermore, Brahmss Fourth Symphony made its English premiere almost one year prior. For this writer, it is possible that Stanford transformed the folk song, either consciously or subconsciously, into its Brahmsian dopelganger. For example, Stanfords initial use of the fragment is not a complete statement of Brahmss theme in that it encompasses a major third, ABC sharp. Brahmss version consists of a 67 Stanford, Pages from an Unwritten Diary, 262. 68 Dibble, op. cit., 185.

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28 phrygian minor third, EFG. However, the notsosubtle Irishman quotes the fragment again, this time with a solo French horn in F using the phrygian minor third, transposed as FG flatA flat, too similar to Brahmss theme to be a mere coincidence. Example 11. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, III. Stanford also develops this motive melodically with the French horns, though not in the same fashion as Brahms did previously. Example 12. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, III. Likewise, the climax of the movement involves the Usnacht/ Brahms motive projected by the full orchestra. Example 13. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, III.

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29 In these cases, the motive is intervalically parallel to Brahmss theme; however, Stanford employs it much more literally, placing it in the fore of the surrounding musical development. As the movement draws to a close, the harp returns as in the beginning. In the Fminor finale, Stanford also quotes literal folk melodies. The first, which serves as the principal theme of the movements sonata form, is Molly McAlpin or Remember the Glories of Brian the Brave, presented by the violas in a low tessitura. Example 14. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, IV. This modal theme is repeated three times with increasingly generous orchestration. As Dibble points out, the opening sonorities of this movement seem to foreshadow the native English sounds of Holst and Vaughan Williams. 69 The upper strings, bassoons, and first French horn interject the second theme in A flat into the texture which also serves as a catalyst for Stanfords developmental transitions. Example 15. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, IV. 69 Ibid

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30 The third theme, in A major, comprises the folk song Let Erin Remember the Days of Old, and is presented in the French horns. The composer interpolates this theme in the center of the development section. Example 16. Symphony No. 3 in F minor, IV. It is instructive to illustrate that this movements development section evolves from the melodies themselves as a string of defined key areas. Stanford allows the songlike element of the second theme to shine like Phoebus through a subtle rhythmic transformation from eighth notes to triplets. Only with the movements primary theme does Stanford utilize sequence patterns and the idea of traditional harmonic instability for development. The full orchestra initiates the recapitulation with a statement of the primary theme. The second and third themes are subsequently restated and the

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31 movement draws to a formal close, complete with hemiola patterns, tutti string tremolos, and cadential repeated chords a la Beethoven. Stanford undoubtedly won recognition for his Irish Symphony because of its ability to effectively combine both formal and exotic elements. The work also provided a stimulus for Irish composers who sought to formulate a national musical voice of their own by using folk melodies. The composers Esposito and Harty produced prize winning Irish symphonies in 1902 and 1904 respectively for the Feis Ceoil in Dublin. 70 For Stanford the Professor, the music is essentially well crafted and incorporates all elements of ClassicalRomantic symphonic tradition. For Stanford the Irishman, the folk melodies offer a unique point of departure and, in several instances, serves to create the symphonic content of the work. But for Stanford the Victorian, it is the blending of these two elements that gives the work its unique character. Symphony No. 4 in F major, op. 31 In the summer months following the premiere of the Irish Symphony, opera occupied the composers mind. His oneact opera The Miner of Falun was completed by 1888, though it never received a performance or publication. His incidental music for Sophocless play Oedipus tyrannus received its premiere in Cambridge at the Theatre Royal on 1 December 1887. Most of the work on Stanfords Fourth Symphony in F major was completed in Cambridge in June and July of 1888. 71 The manuscript of the finale bears the date 31 July; Stanford, thus, completed the work during a family visit in Dublin. 72 The composer intended for the work to be premiered in Berlin in January 1889, 70 The Feis Ceoil was founded in 1897 by Anne Patterson, in part, to encourage native Irish composers to write works based on Irish folk music. With the success of his Irish Symphony, Stanford inevitably became the organizations poster boy. Ibid., 185. 71 Dibble states that work on the symphony may have begun as early as summer of 1887, interrupting his work on The Miner of Falun. Ibid., 198. 72 The 1880s in Ireland were perilous times. In the early decade, the Phoenix Park murders took place, in which the Chief Secretary, Lord Frederick Cavendish, and his compatriot T. H Burke were killed. The crime left many established social authorities, including several members of Stanfords family, feeling uneasy about security. Ibid., 201.

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32 as Blow had promised. Along with the symphony, Stanford planned to include his song La Belle Dame sans merci (1877) to the text of Keats, which he recently orchestrated for a concert at the Royal College of Music. Furthermore, the composer intended for some of his folk song orchestrations and his highly nationalistic work, Festival Overture The Queen of the Seas in C major to be performed at the concert as well. Although there is no prevailing theory as to why Stanford choose to flood the Berlin concert with overtly Irish works, it is possible to make a conjecture. In light of his previous success with his Irish Symphony, it is likely that Stanford wanted to continue to feed the Germansappetite for the exotic elements of Irish folk music. The concert took place in the Grasser Saal der Philharmonic in Berlin on 14 January 1889. The reviews were favorable. The German periodical, Brsen Courier declared the following: The principal feature of last nights concert was an unpublishedsymphony, the latest work of the composer. The subjects, which are well defined, have been worked out with extraordinary skill, and the whole effect of this very remarkable piece of writing is clear and sonorous . . 73 The Kreuz Zeitung was even more ecstatic: The compositions of Dr. Villiers Stanford have taken us altogether by surprise. We did not expect such mature work from a man who has not yet left his youth behind him, and there is real ground for astonishment in his powerful handling of larger forms and masses . . He never loses the thread, he never helps himself out with mere patchwork, as is the way with so many of The Modern School when their inspiration fails them: he never for an instant indulges in commonplace. 74 The Berliner Reichsbote was equally enthusiastic: It is seldom indeed that an Englishman is energetic enough to free himselfas Mr. Stanford has happily succeeded in doingfrom national idiosyncrasies and the love of peculiarity, for the sake of a more refined 73 Professor Stanford in Berlin, The Musical Times 30 (March 1889), 153. In Dibble, Charles Villiers Stanford, 203, the author also quotes from this review; however, there is a misprint in footnotes 43 and 44, which date the review as March 1888. 74 The Musical Times 30, 153.

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33 ideal and the wider development of his artistic personality. We already had proof of this when the composer made his debut in the Hall of the Philharmonic Society a year ago with the Irish Symphony. . but last nights programme sets him in the front rank of the composers of our day . . The principal work performed was Mr. Stanfords new symphony in F major. All four parts compel the attention of the hearer to the development of the themes and the gracefulness of the melody, bu the first and fourth are especially remarkable for these qualities. Few composers attain such delicacy and transparency of instrumentation. 75 Obviously for Stanford, these favorable reviews catapulted the composer into an international arena, a position that few English composers attained prior to Stanfords lifetime. 76 Britains musical powers were about to come of age 77 and the Irishborn Stanford stood at the helm of progress. Stanfords original score contained the following inscription: Thro Youth to Strife, Thro Death to Life, followed by a quotation of lines from Part II of Goethes Faust written on the first page of the score: Nur der verdient sich Freiheit wie das Leben, Der tglich sie erobern muss. Und so verbringt, umrungen von Gefahr, Hier Kindheit, Mann und Greis sein tchtig Jahr. In English, the text reads: Liberty only earns itself like life That daily it must conquer And so passes, surrounded by danger, Here childhood, man, and old man their efficient year. 78 The composer evidently intended the work to fit a programmatic scheme; although, he later crossed out the inscriptions because they may constrain the works musical 75 Ibid. 153. 76 Of these, William Sterndale Bennett (1816) and Henry Hugo Pierson (Pearson) (1815) achieved notoriety in Leipzig. Stanfords contemporaries, H. Hubert Parry and Edward Elgar, both achieved international status as composers. 77 Dibble, op. cit., 203. 78 This quotation comprises lines 11575. Quoted in Ibid., 204; my translation.

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34 rationale. 79 The movement titles of the symphony appear as follows: I) Allegro vivace e gioioso; II) Intermezzo Allegretto agitato (ma moderato in tempo) Tranquilo ma listesso tempo; III) Andante molto moderato; IV) Finale Allegro non troppo. The first movement, in sonata form, begins with a jolly theme in the first violins, which is subsequently subjected to motivic development. Example 17. Symphony No. 4 in F major, I. Stanford continues to exercise his practice of dependent transitions for modulation. In this instance, he drives the music through various foreign keys, including brief stops in Eflat major, Dflat major, and B minor. The second theme arrives in the violas and clarinets as the transition slows to a calm C major. Example 18. Symphony No. 4 in F major, I. 79 Ibid., 204.

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35 This songlike theme is accompanied by a rhythmic antecedent, which the composer uses later as a developmental melodic cell. The clarinets present the following example: Example 19. Symphony No. 4 in F major, I. It has been suggested that Stanford borrowed this theme from Brahmss Liebeslieder Walzer, op. 52. 80 Although they are not exactly similar in melody, the first piece of the Brahms work, Rede, Mdchen, allzu liebes, and Stanfords theme are alike in rhythm and texture. The antecedent motive appears at the helm of the development section in a dovetail fashion, with solo flute, oboe, clarinet, and first horn in each succeeding measure. As in the Irish Symphony, Stanford incorporates numerous developmental techniques, such as stacking motives (the ascending quarternote motive of the primary theme), sequential patterns, and canonic episodes based on thematic material. Example 20. Symphony No. 4 in F major, I. 80 Ibid

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36 The composer further displays his prowess in exploring foreign keys by exuding the more foreign tonal terrain of D major, E major, and D flat major in the development section. It is likely, then, that Stanfords initial transition foreshadowed the events in the development section. At the height of the musical drama, the full orchestra states the primary theme, initiating the recapitulation. Example 21. Symphony No. 4 in F major, I. Stanford subsequently includes a surprise by placing the first statement of the second

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37 theme in A major. An additional surprise is featured in the coda as the second theme gradually accelerates to a onebeatperbar tempo in the style of a Viennese waltz. The movement concludes in this manner. The title of the second movement, in itself, has Brahmsian overtones. Stanford utilizes material from the Entracte of his incidental music to Oedipus tyrannus. The main theme, according to Dibble, is identical to its counterpart. The clarinet presents the theme in the following example: Example 22. Symphony No. 4 in F major, II. Stanfords initial sparse scoring for the theme eventually gives way to series of developing variations and hemiola techniques. The texture is thickest in the upper register of the orchestral pallet; flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons (in tenor clef), and upper strings form a dense cloud of phrygianflavored melody over a pizzicato bass line. As Dibble

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38 points out, this technique is not particularly Brahmsian as it is a specifically English sound. 81 Example 23. Symphony No. 4 in F major, II. The second theme of the Intermezzo falls in a distinctly English style; in this instance, the strings perform a hymnlike theme in which the first violin and cello move, predominantly, in contrary thirds. Furthermore, this theme bears no resemblance to Stanfords Oedipus score. The primary theme returns to close the movement. In a letter to Joachim, Stanford stated the following: 81 Ibid., 205.

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39 I dare say you will be amused at the new symphony. I have written a recitative for the whole band in the slow movement which is an amusing experiment. 82 As the most extended movement in the work, the composer with a theme, which he treats fugally. Example 24. Symphony No. 4 in F major, III. 82 Letter from Stanford to Joachim, 20 July 1888. Quoted in Ibid

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40 Following the introduction is a funeral march in D minor stated solely in the first violin. The melody is full of operatic nuancei.e. the gradual rise and fall of melodic range and accented passing tones and appoggiaturas on strong beats. The lower strings formulate an agitated accompaniment in a march style while the woodwinds highlight the harmonic scheme with soft chords. Example 25. Symphony No. 4 in F major, III.

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41 The ebb and flow of operatic rhetoric and contrasts of key between the tonic (D minor) and its parallel major fill the remainder of the movement. Near the end, the lower horns and trumpet, both in D, sound an augmented version of the primary theme of the finale. Example 26. Symphony No. 4 in F major, III. The finale, in sonatarondo form, is a formidable apotheosis to the symphony in which virtue triumphs. Stanfords careful attention to contrasting keys is displayed once and for all as he pits the tonic F major against sudden shifts to Dflat major, Aflat major, and Gflat major throughout the movement. However, the main theme,a jocular diatonic theme in the tonic key, acts as a ritornello and serves to bring the combatant tonicizations back to common ground. This example demonstrates the movements main theme in the strings. Example 27. Symphony No. 4 in F major, IV. The second theme, in C major, comprises ascending and descending arpeggios

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42 which, in turn, are fragmented and transformed into driving eighthnote rhythms. The full orchestra provides punctuated chords to accompany the thematic transformation. The development section treats the primary theme to fragmentation, inversion, and canon between strings, woodwinds, and brass. Stanford interrupts the motivic interplay with a string of orchestral fanfares in foreign keys. The primary theme/ ritornello returns in the tonic, though it is slightly altered in rhythm from eighth notes to quarternote triplets. Example 28. Symphony No. 4 in F major, IV. The second theme returns in D flat and, upon completion, a Beethovenian coda enters, in which Stanfords use of contrapuntal textures are juxtaposed to a fragment of the primary theme. It is never stated again in its entirety. An orchestral fanfare brings the movement, and the symphony, to a close in F major. The work received praise for its first and fourth movements, clear examples of Stanfords ability to manipulate highGerman symphonic virtues. The symphony did not, however, receive as much international attention as did the Irish. The innovative

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43features of this work, though not revolutionary, showcase specific Stanfordian features within a symphony that otherwise possesses the melodic character and clarity of Mendelssohns oeuvre. It is also worth noting that, despite his last minute editing, the literary inscriptions provide the music with a narrative element. The four words, Youth, Strife, Death, Life, and Goethes excerpt fit well with the dramatic and developmental aspects of the music. Symphony No. 5 in D major, op. 56, LAllegro ed il PensierosoIn the years following the Fourth Symphony, Stanford filled his creative time with various large and smallscale works. He penned an oratorio, Eden, in 1891 for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra; a Mass in G for similar forces in 1893; and an ode for chorus and orchestra, East to West, the same year. For the stage, the composer provided incidental music for Alfred, Lord Tennysons play Becket and a lyric drama Lorenza in 1893; the latter never received performance or publication. Stanford was also busy writing chamber music. His first two string quartets, in G major and A minor respectively, were completed in 1891. The 6 Irish Fantasies, op. 54 for violin and piano appeared two years later, indicating the composers continued interest in the Celtic milieu. Stanford was, by this time, reaping the fame of his Irish Symphony. Encouraged by his success and the increasing stimulation of orchestral music in London,83 Stanford returned to the symphonic genre once again to compose his Fifth Symphony in D major. The work was composed in late May and June of 1894, along with other creations. The composer was working on two smaller works simultaneously, the unpublished Concert Pieces for piano and the Fantasia and Toccata for organ. John Miltons 1645 poem LAllegro ed Il Penseroso was Stanfords ultimate point of departure in writing the symphony. Stanford, clearly intending for the work to illustrate 83 Tchaikovskys Pathetique Symphony was performed at the Philharmonic Society. Ibid., 260.

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44 Miltons poem, 84 appended select quotations to the beginning of each movement in the score and subtitled the symphony the same as Miltons opus. 85 The tempo indications for each movement appears as follows: I) Allegro moderato; II) Allegro grazioso; III) Andante molto tranquillo; IV) Allegro molto. The first movements literary incipit comprises two excerpts from the first part of Miltons poem, LAllegro: Hence, loathed Melancholy, Of Cerberus and blackest midnight born In Stygian cave forlorn Mongst horrid shapes, and shrieks and sighs unholy Find out some uncouth cell. When brooding Darkness spreads his jealous wings, And the nightraven sings; There under ebon shades and lowbrowed rocks, As ragged as thy locks In dark Cimmerian desert even dwell. But come thou Goddess fair and free, In heaven yclept Euphrosyne, And by man, heart easing Mirth; 86 Haste thee, Nymph, and bring with thee Jest, and youthful jollity, Quips and cranks and wanton wiles, Nods and Becks and wreathed smiles, Such as hang on Hebes cheek, And love to live in dimple sleek; Sport that wrinkled care derides, And Laughter holding both his sides, Come and trip it as you go, On the light fantastic toe; And in thy right hand lead with thee The mountainnymph, sweet liberty; And if I give thee honour due, Mirth, admit me of thy crew. 87 84 In the programme at the first performance, Stanford inscribed that the symphony was indeed intended to illustrate the poem of John Milton. See Ibid 85 Stanford spells the subtitle LAllegro ed il Pensieroso in the score. 86 Lines 1. 87 Lines 25.

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45 The first lines of the poem ring in tune with the symphonys introduction, a stately fanfare in D minor which eventually resolves to the tonic major. Although it is food for subsequent development, the introductory motive returns frequently throughout the movements sonata form to provide congenial unity. Example 29. Symphony No. 5 in D major, I. The first theme is presented in the clarinet in A and first bassoon; four measures later, it is answered by oboes and third and lower horns a fifth higher. The theme, in turn, is passed around the ensemble in fragments and in dovetail fashion. Example 30. Symphony No. 5 in D major, I.

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46 Similar in character and melodic contour is the second theme, presented in the dominant key. Example 31. Symphony No. 5 in D major, I. The accompanying music to both themes adds a flippant, running character, which seems to be an appropriate, if not literal, fit to the opening lines of the second excerpt of the poem. The movement as a whole, pits, in Miltons words, Melancholy against Mirth; however, it is the latter of the two virtues that reigns supreme in the end. The secondmovement Scherzo and Trio is a pastorale of sorts that echoes the following passages from LAllegro : Oft listening how the hounds and horn Cheerly rouse the slumbering morn, From the side of some hoar hill, Through the high wood echoing shrill. 88 88 Lines 53.

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47 While the ploughmen, near at hand, Whistles oer the furrowd land, And the milkmaid singeth blithe, And the mower whets his scythe, And every shepherd tells his tale Under the hawthorn in the dale. 89 Sometimes with secure delight The upland hamlets will invite, When the merry bells ring round, And the joeund rebecks sound To many a youth and marry a maid, Dancing in the chequerd shade; And young and old come forth to play On a sunshine holyday, Till the livelong daylight fail: Then to the spicy nutbrown ale, With stories told of many a feat, How faery Mab the junkets eat; 90 These delights if thou canst give, Mirth, with thee I mean to live. 91 The opening combination of G and D in the bassoons and cellos creates a rustic atmosphere upon which the French horns, in thirds, sound a hunting call. Clarinets, flutes, and strings in turn answer the horns. Example 32. Symphony No. 5 in D major, II. 89 Lines 63. 90 Lines 91. 91 Lines 151.

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48 The occasional scotchsnap rhythm in the bass line, in 6/8 meter, eventually gives way to the duplemeter Trio, where the violins drive the music with a continuous stream of sixteenth notes. In following Miltons text, the Trio is indicative of the peasants merrymaking. The Trio theme, in Eflat major, is an irregular, fivebarphrase that is subsequently presented in canons at the unison and fifth. Example 33. Symphony No. 5 in D major, II. To round out the pastoral scheme, the Scherzo returns and reaches its dynamic potential through full ensemble orchestration. Stanford appends a brief coda which is reminiscent of the celebratory Trio; however, this time, the festivities are viewed from a distance as the orchestration wanes considerably and the movement comes to a soft close. Example 34. Symphony No. 5 in D major, II.

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49 Miltons Il Perseroso appends the remaining movements. Pensive and full of melancholy, the third movement, in Bflat major, is the heart and soul of the work; in fact, it is the most lyrical movement in any of Stanfords symphonies for its songlike melodies, expressive use of instrumental ranges, and dramatic pauses. Stanford uses the following excerpts as a backdrop for the movements tonepoem euphoria: But hail, thou goddess sage and holy, Hail, divinest Melancholy! Whose saintly visage is too bright To hit the sense of human sight, And therefore to our weaker view Oerlaid with black, staid Wisdoms hue; 92 Come, pensive nun, devout and pure, Sober, steadfast, and demure, All in a robe of darkest grain Flowing with majestic train, And sable stole of cypress lawn Over thy decent shoulders drawn: Come, but keep thy wonted state, With even step, and musing gait, And looks commercing with the skies, Thy rapt soul sitting in thine eyes: 93 But first, and chiefest, with thee bring Him that yon soars on golden wing Guiding the fierywheeld throne, The cherub Contemplatin; And the mute Silence hist along, Less Philomel will deign a song In her sweetest saddest plight, 94 Sweet bird, that shunnst the noise of folly, Most musical, most melancholy! Thee, chautress, oft the woods among I woo, to hear thy evensong; And missing thee, I walk unseen On the dry smooth shaven green, 92 Lines 11. 93 Lines 31. 94 Lines 51.

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50 To behold the wandering Moon Riding near her highest noon, 95 The hymnlike opening theme is the catalyst for the composers subtle variations, namely augmentation, which pervade the movement. Example 35. Symphony No. 5 in D major, III. Stanford also bases variations on the second theme, a mere fragment of a melody presented by soli violas. Example 36. Symphony No. 5 in D major, III. To evoke further pastorale images, solo clarinet and flute provide the flippant, chirping birdsong of the nightingale (Philomel). 95 Lines 61.

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51 Example 37. Symphony No. 5 in D major, III. The true genius of the work, however, is the ebb and flow of these elements within the orchestral timbre; the constant shift between thick and thin orchestration provides, above all, the emotional denument of the movement. The final movement, an aptly named bigboned sonata rondo, 96 portrays the remaining lines of Miltons poem. The following excerpts resonate throughout the music, providing a haunting apotheosis to both the symphony and poetic imagery: Oft, on a plat of rising ground I hear the faroff curfew sound Over some widewaterd shore, Swinging slow with sullen roar: 97 Sometime let gorgeous Tragedy In scepterd pall come sweeping by Presenting Thebes, or Pelops line, Or the tale of Troy divine; 98 And, as I wake, sweet music breathe Above, about, or underneath, Sent by some spirit to mortals good, Or the unseen Genius of the wood. But let my due feet never fail To walk the studious cloisters pale, And love the highenbowd roof, With antique pillars massy proof, And storied windows richly dight Casting a dim religious light: There let the pealing organ blow To the fullvoiced quire below In service high and anthem clear, 96 Dibble, op. cit., 261. 97 Lines 73. 98 Lines 97

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52 As may with sweetness, through mine ear, Dissolve me into ecstasies, And bring all Heaven before mine eyes. 99 Following the opening horn calls, the first violins and viola present the Dminor rondo theme over pesante chords in lower winds and strings. Example 38. Symphony No. 5 in D major, IV. A cantabile second theme in the relative major invokes Miltons reference to the allencompassing sweet music; the violas initially state the theme before it is carried above, around, and underneath the texture by flutes and tutti first violins. Example 39. Symphony No. 5 in D major, IV. 99 Lines 151.

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53 The development encapsulates Stanfords usual schooled techniques; however, the crux of its purpose is to illustrate the poems third stanza. With the second theme as the primary tool, the development section comprises the ebb and flow of thick and thin orchestral textures to, once again, symbolize the divine sweet music. The recapitulation begins with a restatement of the second theme in the tonic major. Before the return of the main theme, Stanford inserts a transitional passage for the organ which, along with the horns and flutes, evoke the poetic anthem of Miltons verse. The third movements somber theme returns in an ethereal adagio to conclude the work. Example 40. Symphony No. 5 in D major, IV. The Philharmonic Society premiered the Fifth Symphony on 20 March 1895 at Queens Hall. Stanford himself conducted the work and Walter Alcock performed the integral organ part. 100 Reviews, overall, were favorable, although foreknowledge of the works elements appeared to be a necessity: Professor Stanfords new symphony is not a thing to be judged offhand, and while, so to speak, it is flying past the observer . . Lallegro ed il Pensieroso must be heard again, and studied on paper, if haply that is possible, before such an attitude can safely be assumed by critics, unless, indeed, they wish to pass as mere recorders of impressions. But, while reserving definite opinions regarding the symphony as a whole, we may say that a large part of it appealed to ones sense of satisfaction, by the charm and propriety of the themes, and their skillful as well as picturesque 100 Dibble, op. cit., 262.

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54 treatment . . Our feeling is that the symphony will largely improve upon acquaintance and take its place among Mr. Stanfords best works. 101 The composer dedicated the work to the Philharmonic Society and its then conductor, Sir Alexander Mackenzie, and it earned further performances in Manchester and Berlin in December of the same year. However, due to a lack of public interest, the symphony was not published until 1923 by Carnegie Trust; thus, the score was revised and Stanfords original dedication was removed. 102 The Fifth Symphony stands as Stanfords most expressive symphonic works, reaching a Mahleresque level of pageantry. Yet, it should not be dismissed as cheap romanticism. Stanfords use of the John Milton poem ought to satisfy, in part, the nationalist urges of contemporary criticism; however, it is abundantly clear that, through selection, the chosen excerpts bend towards a distinctly romantic persona. It is this writers opinion that the work, more so than the prior symphonies, places Stanford as a master of dramatic musical form, where themes and orchestration meld perfectly with the programmatic oeuvre. The work, as the critic states, deserves to be heard again; however, since the composers death, only silence resounds from a library shelf. Symphony No. 6 in E flat major, op. 94 Stanfords next symphony came ten years after his mild success with the Fifth Symphony. He was, however, no stranger to orchestral writing at the time, completing two of the six Irish Rhapsodies, piano, violin, and clarinet concertos, and a set of variations on an English theme Down among the dead men. Like his 1896 Requiem in memory of the artist Lord Leighton, the Sixth Symphony was written as a memorial to artist and sculptor George Frederick Watts (1817). The composer was a great admirer of Watts works for his ability to capture timelessness and and 101 Philharmonic Society, Musical Times 36 (April 1895), 233. 102 Dibble, op. cit., 262.

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55 transcendent actuality 103 in a time when political change and new scientific discoveries were all the rage. Stanford composed the work in May and June of 1905. The movement titles consist of the following: I) Allegro con brio; II) Adagio e molto espressivo; III) Scherzo and Trio (Presto); IV) Moderato e Maestoso. The newly formed London Symphony Orchestra, under Stanfords baton, gave the works premiere on 18 January 1906 to favorable reviews: . So clear is the form of the various movements, so straightforward the developments of the thematic material, that the work may be fully appreciated quite apart from the source or sources whence the composer sought inspiration. There are many modern works in which the form is so absolutely determined by what is known as the poetic basis, the knowledge more or less of the latter is indispensable. In the case of the symphony under notice such knowledge, however, is decidedly interesting. 104 The work received a second performance one year later at Bournemouth, 105 but then quickly fell into oblivion. In February 1923, however, the work was brought back for a concert in Guilford by the Guilford Symphony Orchestra under direction of Claude Powell. The composers fourth Irish Rhapsody (1913) and Sea Songs (1904) made the program as well. 106 The Sixth Symphony suffered an even greater fate than the Fifth; although it received positive reviews, it failed to gain subsequent performances at home and abroad. It seems that as Stanfords symphonic persona sought further artistic depths within a traditional style, the less it appealed to audiences who craved the revolutionary sounds of postWagner Europe. The same fate struck Stanfords Serenade (Nonet) of 1905 107 and his fourth string quartet of 1906. As of this writing, these works and the 103 Dibble, op. cit., 362. 104 London Symphony Orchestra: Sir Charles Villiers Stanfords New Symphony, The Musical Times 47 (February 1906), 121. 105 Lewis Foreman, op. cit., 12. 106 Dibble, op. cit., 456. 107 The Serenade was premiered at Aeolian Hall on 25 January 1906 and, though it earned the critics favor, it failed to attract a publishers attention; even the virtuoso Joachim intervened to obtain attention in Germany to no avail. See Ibid., 364.

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56 Sixth Symphony remain unpublished. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, op. 124 After his Sixth Symphony, Stanfords compositional output for orchestra waned considerably. Between the years 1906 and 1912, he produced only two works for military band, the Installation March in E flat (1908) and Three Military Marches (1908), which remain unpublished, and two orchestral works, his Second Piano Concerto in C minor (1911) and his Seventh Symphony in D minor (1911). The composer, however, filled this lacuna with a plethora of new songs, chamber works, and sacred works as well as incidental music to Lord Binyons Attila the Hun (1907). Written in response to a commission for the centenary celebration of the Philharmonic Society in 1912, 108 Stanfords Seventh Symphony stands as an essay in brevity, a monument to succinct, concentrated symphonic form at a time when the largescale orchestral monuments of Mahler and Elgar were all the rage. However, Stanfords newfound symphonic concision was not intended as a personal statement; the request of the commissioners asserted that the work was to last merely 20 minutes. 109 The Seventh Symphony unites the four movements of traditional symphonic form into a compressed time span without reverting to oversimplified compositional procedures. The tempo markings of each movement, which are also indicative of a simpler style, appear as follows: I) Allegro; II) Tempo di Minuetto; III) Variations and Finale: AndanteAllegro giustoPoco pi lentoAllegro maestoso (alla breve). The first movement, cast into a conventional sonata form, comprises two simple and equallyphrased themes. Tutti first violins initiate the first over soft tremolo strings that do no more than outline the D minor harmony. As a simple twomeasure theme, it is 108 Works by other native composers received premieres: Ronald, Hervey, Mackenzie, Davies, Dunhill, Macpherson, and Parry. Ibid., 397; Cyril Erlich, First Philharmonic: A History of the Royal Philharmonic Society (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), 186. 109 The same held true for Parrys Symphonic Fantasia , which was his contribution to the festival Dibble, op. cit., 397.

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57 subsequently answered in the woodwinds in a series of developing variations soon after its presentation. It is already apparent that the composer wastes no time with the works basic features. Example 41. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, I. The second theme, a folklike melody, originates in D flat, the flat submediant of F major. By continuing with his technique, the composer brings the theme home to the tonic in six measures. Example 42. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, I. Clear, concise melodies and phrasing are the key features of this theme, elements Stanford exploits in the ensuing development section. A variation of the first theme, stated by the bassoon, initiates the recapitulation in D major. Only the second theme reappears in its original guise, moving swiftly from B flat major to D minor. A substantial coda, complete with further motivic development and brief fluctuations between D major and its parallel minor, brings the movement to conclusion. Stanfords control of thematic material and their seemingly continuous variation provides the movement with a steady flow; all elements, including the sections of the form itself, blend together, leaving their unique attributes behind.

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58 The second movement blends minuet and trio, scherzo, and theme and variation forms into a single unit. The principal theme, a stately minuet in B flat major, is initially performed by the strings. Woodwind figures provide color to the waxing and waning of the melodic line. Example 43. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, II. The first variation, in D flat major, comprises a rigid, staccato ostinato pattern in triple meter accompanying a series of sweeping eighth notes in the upper strings. What evolves is a continuos hemiola pattern between the two elements. Example 44. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, II.

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59 The minuet theme returns in the third variation as a quick, scherzolike entity in 6/8 meter. The next two variations allude to a formidable trio section, yet, stand alone for their unique content. The first comprises the interchangeable use of both slow, cantabile variation featuring clarinet and bassoon and a fast, sweeping, hightessitura variation for the strings. Example 45. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, II. The second involves a sprightly, yet delicate affair in duple meter comprised of running sixteenth notes in both upper woodwinds and strings. Example 46. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, II.

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60 Rounding out the minuets allusion is the fifth variation, which is simply a restatement of the second, scherzolike variation. Stanford appends a succinct coda, the final testament of the closing measures of the original minuet theme, to close the movement. The final movement is actually a combination of two smaller movements, akin to Tchaikovskys Third Orchestral Suite and Piano Trio in A minor. The first half of the movement is a set of openended variations in F major, in which an andante theme, stated at the movements onset serves as the material for the mold. Example 47. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, III. The first variation comprises a contraction of the theme into a steady stream of eighth notes in the violins. Subsequently, clarinets, cellos, and basses follow with the new melody in turn. The second variation derives its make up from the themes stepwise, descending major third, AGF, which is transposed as FE flatD flat. Sheer sonority of harmony is the crux of this variation as the motive is sounded and held fast. The only rhythm present derives from the occasional upward arpeggios in the cellos and bassoons, an inverted cascade over the stationary winds and brass. Example 48. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, III.

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61 The third and fourth variations, together, form an appropriate slow movement to the work. Indeed, this section consists of the composers most emotional music in the entire symphony. A solo clarinet, marked dolce begins the tranquil set over swaying triplet accompaniment in the viola and cello. A flute also shares the theme before the fourth variation emerges in Gflat major. Much of the variation features the brass section. At the onset, chords in the trombones offer a backdrop for the string and woodwind arpeggios. The full brass section culminates with a rising motivic sequence, which crescendos into a powerful, yet simply orchestrated climax, marking the denument of the movements opening. Example 49. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, III. The fifth variation is the most extended of the entire set, which comprises a rising motive that develops organically into subsequent melodic material. A solo oboe states the first incarnation of the motive in Fsharp minor. Example 50. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, III.

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62 The latter part of the variation serves as a transition from the neapolitan minor to the finales D major. The remainder of the movement falls into a loose sonata form. The primary theme, which is derived from the opening theme of the movement, assumes a martial air and is boldly stated by the woodwinds and brass. Example 51. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, III. An extended transition gives way to the second theme in A major, which shares its likeness with the melody of the movements third variation. Example 52. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, III. The development section features the primary theme from the first movement, stated in full as if the composer were trying to rekindle an old memory. Example 53. Symphony No. 7 in D minor, III.

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63 This idea is then suppressed by the finales primary theme, presented in dovetail sequence by each instrument. The apparent lack of actual development in the development section may seem puzzling at the first hearing; however, this writer conjectures that, in light of Stanfords dominion over continuous development as a technique, he simply did not need to repeat his methods at this point. The development section, therefore, serves as an unambiguous reminder of where the music has been, and where it shall inevitably return. It is no surprise, then, that the recapitulation only harbors the full return of the second theme, in D major, and an extended developmental coda, complete with frequent shifts of mode (C flat, D flat, G flat, A) and obsessive attention to the motive of the finales primary theme. The work concludes with a simple perfectauthentic cadence, a formidable apotheosis to the economy, fluidity, and dexterity of the entire work. The composer conducted the premiere at Queens Hall on 22 February 1912. As usual, the review was positive and Stanford was recalled numerous times during the applause. 110 An anonymous critic for The Musical Times proclaimed that: In some respects the character of the Symphony was a surprise because so simple and straightforward a composition was hardly expected in these times, when a new orchestral work is so often a melancholy psychological problem. Whilst listening to Sir Charles Stanfords music one could imagine Mozart benignly approving. . as the Symphony is practicable for ordinary resources it will no doubt often be heard. . 111 110 Philharmonic Society, The Musical Times 53 (1 April 1912), 257. 111 Ibid. 257.

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64 The critic was right, for Elgar conducted the work in a London Symphony Orchestra concert at Cambridge. The Beecham Symphony Orchestra, under direction of Thomas Beecham, performed the work at Queens Hall in June of the following year. Dan Godfrey admired the work and had it performed at Bournemouth in May 1914. The Seventh Symphony was published in 1912 by Stainer and Bell, which made it readily accessible both at home and abroad. 112 Indeed, an American premiere of the symphony almost took place. Horatio Parker of Yale University took interest in the work and suggested it to Carl Muck, then conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. A concert was staged for the summer of 1915. Stanford planned to come to the United States to conduct his symphony and receive an honorary doctorate from Yale University, a degree voted to him in 1903. However, the composers travel plans were dashed due to the developments of World War I and he never went through with an alternate plan. 113 The Seventh Symphony marked Stanfords biggest commercial success with the symphonic form since his Irish Symphony, although it is relatively forgotten today. Like no other symphony, this work displays Stanfords skill as a masterful craftsman, a musical architect of the first order. There is nothing pedantic or commonplace about its elements or methods. In light of his contemporaries compositions, notably the impressionist hues of Debussy and Ravel, the primitive Stravinsky, and the intricate tonepoet Strauss, Stanford appears to be of a different time, a Victorian musician caught within the proverbial lost world of modernism. While his contemporaries stood before the dawn of Neoclassicism, Stanford stood firmly in conventional classicism, rooted in the traditional values of balance, clarity, and formal unity. 112 Dibble, op. cit., 398. 113 Stanford and his wife bought tickets aboard the Lusitania for 15 May; however, a German Uboat sunk the ship eight days before its departure. Ibid., 423.

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CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION The symphonies of Charles Villiers Stanford, when viewed chronologically, do not exhibit any sort of stylistic evolution. In following the German symphonic tradition, he exploits the inner essence of each theme in terms of development and orchestration, and achieves formal clarity in each of the symphonies. Any programmatic or emotional content is intimately tied to the dramatic ebb and flow of the themes in his symphonic mold. In light of his success, or lack there of, with these works, Stanford was obviously conscious of the artistic demands as well as the tastes of the concertgoing audiences in his day. The first two symphonies, the longest of his symphonic oeuvre, achieved little success outside of England. With his Irish Symphony, however, Stanford struck gold by not only hitting the political vein of Home Rule, an important topic in 1880s Britain, but also by appealing to the Germanic and general Victorian love for exoticism. His subsequent Irish Rhapsodies as well as the chamber music and songs that incorporate Irish elements are testaments of this sociopolitical pressure. The next three symphonies (nos. 4) mark the decline in his popularity as a symphonist, even though, out of all the works for the symphonic medium, these stand as his most programmatic. They are, without doubt, the most progressive symphonies of Stanfords output and serve to destroy the notion that Stanfords symphonies are little more than Brahms and water. Although the Seventh Symphony is by no means his greatest success, it captured enough attention to attract a publisher for its concise and symmetrical form of Mozartian classicism. 65

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66Overall, Stanfords symphonies are monuments to his own vision of what a symphony is and should be, the vision of Victorian art music. He is to Victorian music what Tennyson is to Victorian poetry and what Watts is to Victorian painting, artists that successfully combine both emotional content and formal and intellectual design. Although past criticism has placed Stanford on a back burner along with Parry as modest forebearers of the new English renaissance, recent research has begun to shed new light onto the dark corners of his past. Whether or not he will take his place on the pantheon of great symphonists of the nineteenth century has yet to be determined; however, he has, is, and will be exalted as one of the greatest British symphonists of the premodern era.

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SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY Aldrich, Richard. C. V. Stanford, in Concert Life in New York 1902. New York: 1941: 193. Althoz, Josef L., ed. The Mind and Art of Victorian England. Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press, 1976. Banfield, Stephen. British Chamber Music at the Turn of the Century: Parry, Stanford, Mackenzie, in The Musical Times 155 (March 1974): 211. Barrington, Mrs. Russell. G. F. Watts: Reminiscences. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1905. Bartels, Bruce. The English Symphony in the 19th Century. Masters thesis: University of Nebraska, 1967. Bayliss, Wyke. Five Great Painters of the Victorian Era: Leighton, Millias, BurneJones, Watts, Holman Hunt. New York: AMS Press, 1902. Brooks, Chris. Signs for the Times: Symbolic Realism in the MidVictorian World. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1984. Bryant, Michael. Liner notes to On the Winds of English Melody. Clarinet Classics: CC0025, 1999. Caldwell, John. The Oxford History of English Music Vol. 3: From c. 1715 to the Present Day. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. Crystal Palace, in The Musical Times 30 (March 1889): 151. Dibble, Jeremy. Charles Villiers Stanford: Man and Musician. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. . Edward Dannreuther and the Orme Square Phenomenon, in Music and British Culture, 1785: Essays in Honour of Cyril Ehrlich. Ed. by Christina Bashford and Leanne Langley. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000: 275. . Parry and Elgar: A New Perspective, in The Musical Times 125 (November 1984): 639. 67

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68 . Parry, Stanford, and Vaughan Williams: The Creation of Tradition, in Vaughan Williams in Perspective. Ed. by Lewis Foreman. London: 1997: 25. . Liner notes to The Romantic Piano Concerto 12: C Hubert H Parry and Charles Villiers Stanford. Hyperion Records: CDA66820, 1995. Dunhill, T. F. C. V. Stanford: Some Aspects of His Life and Works, in Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 53 (1927): 42. Dyson, George. The Progress of Music. Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press, 1932. Erlich, Cyril. First Philharmonic: A History of the Royal Philharmonic Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. Foreman, Lewis. Liner notes to Charles Villiers Stanford: The Complete Symphonies. Chandos: 9279, 1994. . Holes Held Together by String: Stanford, Parry, and the Rise of British Chamber Music in the Victorian Age, in British Music Society News 94 (2002): 272. . From Parry to Britten: British Music in Letters 1900. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1987. FoxStrangways, A. H. Music Observed. Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press, Inc., 1936. FullerMaitland, J. A. The Music of Parry and Stanford: An Essay in Comparative Criticism. Cambridge: W. Heffer and Sons, 1934. Gillen, Gerard and Harry White, eds. Irish Musical Studies 3: Music and Irish Cultural History. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 1995. The Glouchester Musical Festival, in The Musical Times 24 (October 1883): 541. Hamilton, Walter. The Aesthetic Movement in England. Reprinted of the 1882 ed. London: Reeves and Turner, 1971. Hare, W. Loftus. Watts (1817). London: T. C. and E. C. Jack, no date. Howes, Frank. The English Musical Renaissance. New York: Stein and Day, 1966. Hudson, Frederick. C. V. Stanford: Nova Bibliographica, in Musical Times 104 (October 1963): 728.

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69 Karolyi, Otto. Modern British Music: The Second British Musical Renaissance from Elgar to P. MaxwellDavies. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1994. Lawrence, Dan H., ed. Bernard Shaw: Shaws Music: The Complete Musical Criticism in 3 Volumes. New York: Dodd, Mead, and Co., 1981. Layton, Robert, ed. A Guide to the Symphony. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. London Symphony Orchestra: Sir Charles Villiers Stanfords New Symphony, in The Musical Times 47 (February 1906): 121. McVeigh, Simon. The Society for British Musicians (1834) and the Campaign for Native Talent, in Music and British Culture, 1785: Essays in Honour of Cyril Ehrlich. Ed. by Christina Bashford and Leanne Langley. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000: 145. Murphy, Michael. Race, Nation, and Empire in the Irish Music of Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, in Music in Ireland, 1848 (2000): 46. Musgrave, Michael. The Musical Life of the Crystal Palace. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Norris, Gerald. Stanford, the Cambridge Jubilee, and Tchaikovsky. London: David and Charles, 1980. Philharmonic Society, in The Musical Times 36 (April 1895): 232. Philharmonic Society, in The Musical Times 53 (April 1912): 257. Porte, John F. Sir Charles V. Stanford. Boston: Longwood Press, 1978. Professor Stanford in Berlin, The Musical Times 30 (March 1889): 153. Sadie, Stanley, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Second edition. London: Macmillan, 2001. Sir C. V. Stanford: A Composer of Genius, in The Times (31 March 1924): 17, columns 2. Stanford, Charles Villiers. Music of the 19th Century, in Times Literary Supplement 4 (1905): 458. . Musical Composition: A Short Treatise for Students. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1911.

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70 . Pages from an Unwritten Diary. London: Edward Arnold, 1914. . Some Thoughts Concerning FolkSong and Nationality, The Musical Quarterly 1 (1915): 232. . Studies and Memories. London: Archibald Constable and Co. LTD, 1908. . Symphony in D major, LAllegro ed il Pensieroso, op. 55 London: Stainer and Bell, 1923. . Symphony in F minor The Irish, op. 28 Boca Raton, FL: Edwin F. Kalmus, no date. . Symphony No. 4 in F Major, op. 31 New York: Edwin F. Kalmus, no date. . Symphony No. 7 in D minor, op. 124 Boca Raton, FL: Edwin F Kalmus, no date. and Cecil Forsyth. A History of Music. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1930. Slonimsky, Nicolas and Laura Kuhn, eds. Bakers Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. Ninth edition. New York: Schirmer Books, 2001. Solie, Ruth A. Music in Other Words: Victorian Conversations. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004. Sweet, Matthew. Inventing the Victorians. New York: St. Martins Press, 2001. Three Great Victorian Musicians, in The Times (31 March 1924): 13, column 4. Vaughan Williams, Ralph. Charles Villiers Stanford, in National Music and Other Essays. London: Oxford University Press, 1963: 195. Walker, Ernest. A History of Music in England. 3rd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Aaron Keebaugh, originally from Martinsburg, Pennsylvania, attended Bridgewater College, Bridgewater, Virginia from 1996 until 2000. While there, he was active as a trumpeter in the colleges symphonic and jazz bands, a bass singer with the concert and oratorio choirs, the assistant director and, later, director of the Screamin Eagles Pep Band, student conductor for the Symphonic Band and Concert Choir, and music arranger for various ensembles. After earning a B.A. in music education, Mr. Keebaugh moved to Altoona, Pennsylvania, to teach band and chorus at Bishop Guilfoyle High School. Aside from his teaching duties, he worked as a freelance trumpet player, private trumpet teacher, and music arranger for various high school bands in the Central Pennsylvania and Shenandoah Valley areas. In 2002, Mr. Keebaugh entered to the University of Florida to pursue masters and Ph.D. degrees in musicology. As a graduate student, he has presented papers at the Society for Ethnomusicology national conference in Miami, Florida, and the College Music Society Southern Chapter conference in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. His article Idiomatic Tendencies in Selected Keyboard Works by Thomas Tallis was published in the sixth volume of British Postgraduate Musicology (2004). In the spring of 2004, Mr. Keebaugh was awarded the University of Floridas J. Wayne Reitz Presidential Fellowship to pursue the Ph.D. in musicology. 71