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Biology and Management of Allokermes kingii on Oak Trees

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Title:
Biology and Management of Allokermes kingii on Oak Trees
Creator:
TURNER, JAY CEE L.
Copyright Date:
2008

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Subjects / Keywords:
Adult insects ( jstor )
Branches ( jstor )
Eggs ( jstor )
Female animals ( jstor )
Hydrocarbons ( jstor )
Insects ( jstor )
Instars ( jstor )
Natural enemies ( jstor )
Scale insects ( jstor )
Species ( jstor )
City of Clearwater ( local )

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright Jay Cee L. Turner. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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8/7/2004
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56799452 ( OCLC )

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BIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF
ALLOKERM~ESKINGHI (HEMIPTERA: KERMESIDAE)
ON OAK TREES
















By

JAY CEE L. TURNER


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004
































Copyright 2004

by

Jay Cee L. Turner


































I dedicate this thesis to my wonderful family who has continuously told me how proud
they are of me. I want to give a special thank you to my husband, Neal; without his
support and encouragement I would never have made it this far. I want to thank my
children, Crystal and Nickolus, for all of their patience with me and never giving up on
their mom. I also want to thank my brothers, James and Christopher, for the support that
they have given me and for always being there.





















SCALES

By Albert A. Grigarick


Scales are soft and scales are hard.

They are in the orchard and in the yard.

The soft ones are attached to their outer skin,

While the hard ones live fr~ee 0I irlhin

Soft scales produce honeydew,

But hard scales find it impossible to do.

It's just as well it works that way-

Legless, the hard ones can 't move away.
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I acknowledge and thank Dr. Eileen Buss for giving me the opportunity to obtain a

master' s degree in entomology. Dr. Buss has taught me how to think and write

scientifically. She has given me numerous chances to expand my horizons and for that I

am forever grateful. I also would like to acknowledge my committee members, Dr.

Norm Leppla and Dr. Greg Hodges, for all of their help and guidance. I would like to

thank Kathryn Barbara for her support and assistance, her friendship has made my

graduate studies easier. I want to thank all of my lab partners for helping me with my

research. Special thanks go to the City of Clearwater Urban Forestry Division and Mr.

and Mrs. Steinmetz for funding my graduate studies and research. I want to thank the

people at the Entomology and Nematology Department and Division of Plant Industries

for helping me identify the insects found during my research. Finally, I would like to

acknowledge the whole Entomology and Nematology Department for their kindness and

good-natured attitude; I could not have picked a better school to attend.





















TABLE OF CONTENTS


page


ACKNOWLEDGMENT S .............. ...............v.....


LI ST OF T ABLE S ................. ................. viii.._._ ....


LIST OF FIGURES .............. .................... ix


AB S TRAC T ......_ ................. ............_........x


1 GENERAL LITERATURE REVIEW .............. ...............1.....


2 BIOLOGY OF ALLOKERM~ES KINGHI IN FLORIDA ............__ .........___.......13


Materials and Methods .............. ...............15....

Study Site............... ...............15..
Scale Life Cycle .............. ...............16....
Re sults........._.__....... .__ ...............17....

Study Site............... ...............17..
Scale Life Cycle .............. ...............17....
Natural Enemies .............. ...............21....
Discussion ........._.__....... .__ ...............24....


3 INSECTICIDAL MANAGEMENT OF ALLOKERMESSKINGII ON SHADE
TREES .............. ...............29....


Materials and Methods .............. ...............30....

Study Site............... ...............30..
F iel d T est ............. ...... ._ ............... 0...
Statistical Analysis. ............. ...............3 1....
Re sults............. ...... ._ ...............32...
Discussion ............. ...... ._ ...............34...


4 HYDROCARBON AND FATTY ACID METHYL ESTERS ANALYSIS OF
ALLOKERMESS KINGII ............. ...... .__ ...............39...


Materials and Methods .............. ...............40....

Study Site............... ...............40..
Hydrocarbons. ............. ...............40.....
Esters of Fatty Acids. ............. ...............41.....












Results and Discussion .............. ...............41....

Hydrocarbons. ............. ...............41.....
Esters of Fatty Acids. ............. ...............41.....


LIST OF REFERENCES ................. ...............48........... ....


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. ...............55....

















LIST OF TABLES


Table pg

2-1 Arthropods found in association with A. kingii. ..........._..._ ................ .....__.22

3-1 Mean (ASEM) number of healthy first and second instar A. kingii per
four-branch sample............... ...............33.

3-2 Mean (ASEM) percentage of dead first and second instar A. kingii per
four-branch sample............... ...............35.

4-1 Composition of hydrocarbons from male A. kingii tests. ................ ........._... .....44

4-2 Composition of methyl ester of the fatty acids from male A. kingii tests. ...............44

















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure pg

1-1 Kermes scales are distributed in the states labeled on the U.S. map (Scalenet). .......6

1-2 General morphology of adult Kermesidae female, tergum (Bullington and
Kosztarab 1985). ............. ...............10.....

2-1 Seasonal history of Allokermes kingii on Quercus geminate and Q virginiana in
Clearwater, FL ................. ...............19.................

2-2 Flow chart of life stages for A. kingii. A. First instar. B. Second instar female.
C. Third instar female. D. Adult female with eggs. E. Male test. F. Male
prepupa. G. Male pupa. H. Adult male. ............. ...............20.....

2-3 Potential natural enemies of A. kingii. A. Lepidopteran larvae inside adult
female. B. Tuckerella pavoniformi. C. Exit holes on adult female.
D. Lacewing egg on second instar. E. Diperan larvae inside adult female...........24

4-1 Temperature programmed gas chromatographic traces for hydrogen. ................... ..42

4-2 Linear retention time graph of hydrocarbons on male A. kingii tests. .................. ...43

4-3 Temperature programmed gas chromatographic traces for fatty acids with
methyl esters ................. ...............45.................

4-4 Linear retention time graph of hydrocarbons on male A. kingii tests. ................... ..46
















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

BIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF ALLOKER~ES KINGII ON OAK TREES

By

Jay Cee L. Turner

August 2004

Chair: Dr. Eileen E. Buss

Major Department: Entomology and Nematology

Kermesid scales (Allokermes spp.), which resemble galls or buds, typically infest

oak trees, Quercus spp. Their feeding causes branch dieback, flagging, reduced growth

rates, and occasionally tree death. We sought to determine their life history and

management in Florida, which was thought to differ from northern states. Shoot samples

were collected biweekly, and the number and life stages of scales, and presence of natural

enemies were recorded. We also conducted an insecticide trial in May 2003,

corresponding to the presence of first and second instar A. kingii. Shoot samples were

collected biweekly, and nymphal survival was determined. Hydrocarbons extracted from

male tests were collected and analyzed with the use of a gas chromatography. The

chemical composition of the fatty acids and methyl esters from the male test were also

analyzed.















CHAPTER 1
GENERAL LITERATURE REVIEW

Scale insects are best known as plant pests, but historically they have proven more

useful than has any other insect group of comparable physical size (Morrison 1926,

Kosztarab 1987). Since 1200 BC humans have been using products produced by scale

insects. It has been suggested that in biblical times the manna which sustained the

Israelites' migration was the product of Trabutina mannipara (Hemerich & Ehrenburg)

and Trabutina serpentina (Green) (Morrison 1926, Kosztarab 1987). The cochineal

scale, which means scarlet-colored, is famous as a dye in both textile and food industries

(Olson 2002). The Aztecs were the first to cultivate the cochineal scale insects

Datylopius coccus Costa in 1500 (Morrison 1926). Ancient writers used kermesid scales

for their royal purple ink. Red dye from Kermesidae, Kerriidae, Margarodidae and

Dactylopiidae were used in Michelangelo's paintings, the British redcoats, the Canadian

Mounted Police coats, Hungarian Hussars pants, Turks' Fez (the brimless hat they wore)

and the caps of the Greeks (Morrison 1926, Kosztarab 1987, Olson 2002).

The wax produced by lac scales is used to make resin, the precursor of shellac, in

India (Varshney 1970, Qin 1997), and candles in China (Boratynski 1970, Qin 1997).

Natives of Mexico and Central America used the "fat" from adult female "nig"

(Margarodidae) bodies to make lacquer for waterproofing wood and gourds and also as a

base for medicines and cosmetics (Jenkins 1970, Qin 1997). Ground pearls have been

strung as beads for necklaces in the Mediterranean region (Kosztarab 1987).









In addition to product usefulness, coccoids provided the first historical

breakthrough in biological control (1988) with the use of the Vedalia beetle, Rodolia

cardinalis Mulsant (Coccinellidae) (Kosztarab 1987). The Vedalia beetle was used to

control cottonycushion scale Icerya purcha~si Maskell (Margarodidae). The success of

this biological control proj ect paved the way for integrated control and pest management

(Kosztarab 1987).

Integrated control and pest management was much needed in 1880 when the San

Jose scale, Quadra;spidiotusperniciosus Comstock, made history by becoming the first

insect to become resistant to the pesticide lime sulfur (Marlatt 1953, McKenzie 1956,

Kosztarab 1987). Because of this resistance, Dr. Comstock established an Advisory

Board of Horticulture in 188 1 that was later changed (1883) to the State Horticulture

Commission. This commission was able to pass the Federal Plant Quarantine Bill of

1912, which is still enforced today (Marlatt 1953, McKenzie 1956).

Boitard in 1828 proposed the genus Kermes for some insects resembling galls

(Bullington and Kosztarab 1985). Riley in 1881 described the first species of Kermes, K.

galliformis from North America. In 1898 Cockerell named and described K. kingii after

his good friend Dr. King. In 1890, King presented the first morphological synopsis for

15 species of Kermes and Cockerell prepared a key to 13 species by studying the external

morphology of post-reproductive females (Bullington and Kosztarab 1985). Ferris began

to use slide-mounted specimens in 1920 to illustrate K. cockerelli Ehrhorn, and by 1955

illustrated two new species ofKermes from southwestern United States (McConnell and

Davidson 1959).









Kermesites by Signaret 1875 was the first family group name since the original

designation of genus Kernzes, it was placed in many different families including:

Coccidae, Kermidae, Leconidae, Dactylopiidae, Kermococcidae and Eriococcidae.

Lobdell (1929) designated the name Kermesidae in place of the Eriococcidae based on

the Law of Priority citation with the type-genera (Bullington and Kosztarab 1985).

However, this was never accepted and in 1969 Williams stated that the family name

should be Kermesidae based on the type-genus Kernzes (Boitard). McConnell and

Davidson (1959) described the slide-mounted adult male, newly-molted adult female, and

several preliminary stages of Kerzes pubescens Bogue (McConnell and Davidson 1959).

Based on microscopic characters of slide-mounted first instars several Kernzes species

were revised (Bullington and Kosztarab 1985). Bullington and Kosztarab separated the

genus Allokernzes from Kernzes in 1985 based on the slide-mounted pre-reproductive

females.

The Kermesidae are one of the least-studied families among the scale insects

(Kosztarab 1996). Kermesid scales are gall-like insects that infest oak trees (Quercus

spp.) throughout the world. These scales are often mistaken for small galls or buds,

which allows populations to increase to damaging levels (Solomon et al. 1980). Their

feeding causes branch dieback, flagging, reduced growth rates and occasionally tree

death (Hamon 1977, Vranjic 1997, Futch et al. 2001). All species appear to be univoltine

(McConnell and Davidson 1959, Hamon et al. 1976). Scales may be found in bark

crevices, forks between twigs and buds, on branches, or in tree wounds (Ben-Dov 1997).

The size, shape, and color pattern of post-reproductive females vary considerably within

the same species (Baer and Kosztarb 1985, Kosztarab 1987). However, the adult female










is globular and heavily sclerotized, which may protect it from the adverse conditions.

Weather can change the color pattern on the cuticle of the adult female scale (Hodgson

1997). Because of the scale' s color and globular form, it is often mistaken for a gall on

oak trees. Oaks are commonly planted street trees in the United States (Harms 1990),

and uncontrolled scale infestations may decrease the tree's economic and aesthetic value.

In North America there are 32 species of Kermesidae in five genera, but in

northeastern North America there are nine species in four genera (Eriokermes,

Nanokermes, Allokermes, and Kermes) (Kosztarab 1996). Kermesid scales are located in

32 states (Fig. 1-1). All records of infestation are reported from Quercus spp. except for

one record on Castanopsis in California (Ferris 1955) and Eriokermes gillettei on

Junipercus sp. The Allokermes spp. that are of economic importance in Florida are A.

cueroensis (Cockerell), A. galliformis (Riley), and A. kingii (Cockerell) (Kosztarab

1996).

A. cueroensis is often called the live-oak kermes. It specifically attacks Q.

virginiana (Miller) and possibly also Q. alba (L). Post-reproductive females are

approximately 8 mm wide, convex, with no median constriction. The A. cueroensis adult

female is brownish-white, slightly marbled with very pale gray and somewhat wavy

brown bands. The surface of the female is speckled with brown spots. Allokermes

cueroensis can be distinguished from the other two species in Florida by two

characteristics: 1) pre-anal row of multilocular disc pores extending dorsally to anal ring

only, median lobe of false venter without disc pores, and 2) the spinescent 8-shaped pores

are broader than long and with well-developed pits (Baer and Kosztarab 1985, Kosztarab

1996).










The common name for A. galliformis is gall-like kermes scale. This scale infests at

least 40 Quercus spp. (Kosztarab 1996). Allokermes galliformis has one generation per

year. Post-reproductive females are about 5 mm in diameter. The body is usually


































MS ALGA




'a~~ YIFL










Figure 1-1. Kermes scales are distributed in the states labeled on the U.S. map (Scalenet).









somewhat broader than long and smooth. The outer covering of A. galliformis is pale

yellow with brown specks, more or less mottled with gray or brown. The body has about

seven rows of black dots running across it, often connected by an irregular black line.

Allokermes galliformis can be distinguished from the other species by: 1) pre-anal row of

multilocular disc pores with a few pores extending medially onto median lobe of false

venter, and also with pores extending dorsally to the area adj acent to anal lobes but not

above them; 2) lateral multilocular disc pores lightly in wide row; 3) spinescent 8-shaped

pores are longer than broad, with teeth and pits; and 4) anal lobe setae 54Clm to 91Clm

long (Baer and Kosztarab 1985, Kosztarab 1996).

Allokermes kingii, which is one of the most damaging species in Florida (D. Miller,

pers. comm.), is also known as the northern red-oak kermes. Allokermes kingii has been

recorded on eight oak species, but primarily infests Q. borealis (Michx.) and Q. velutina

(Lamarck). All records of infestation are reported from Quercus spp. except for one

record on Castanopsis in California (Ferris 1955). Allokermes kingii is recorded from

five counties (Alachua, Gilchrist, Hendry, Pinellas and Polk), but likely has a broader

distribution (Greg Hodges, pers. comm.). This scale is very convex with the sides barely

bulging. Adult females measure 5 mm long, 4.3 mm wide, and about 3.5 mm high. The

color is pale brownish-yellow with small black spots covering the entire surface. This

species can be distinguished from other species by: 1) pre-anal row of quinquelocular

disc pores not extending medially onto median lobe of false venter, also with pores

extending dorsally to above anal lobes, encircling them; 2) lateral row of quinquelocular

disc pores present, extending dorsally into sparsely distributed quinquelocular disc pores









on mid-dorsum; and 3) spinescent 8-shaped pores with small teeth that are subequal to

length of pits (Baer and Kosztarab 1985, Kosztarab 1996).

Female A.kingii develop with a simple (paurometabolous) metamorphosis; males

develop with complete holometabolouss) metamorphosis (Hamon et al. 1976, Kosztarab

1987, Ben-Dov 1997, Marotta 1997, Daly et al. 1998). The terms prereproductive or

general females (individuals soon after final molt) and postreproductive females

(individuals after eggs are produced) are used to describe scale insects (Kosztarab 1987).

Adult females are neotenic, which is a prolonged larval form in a sexually mature

organism. Females reach the adult stage after two to three molts. The female life cycle

consists of three nymphal instars and then an adult stage. General morphology of adult

female tergum is shown in Fig. 1-2. The tergum normally applies in insects to the dorsal

or upper surface of any body segment (Kosztarab 1996). Male Kermesids are

holometabolous endopterygotes that delay the development of external wings until the

prepupal and pupal stage (Daly et al. 1998). The male life cycle includes two nymphal

instars, sessile prepupal and pupal stages, and then a winged adult (see Ch. 2). To

properly identify kermes scales, prereproductive general females must be slide mounted

(Baer 1980, Kosztarab 1987).

After hatching an Allokermes spp. first instar or crawler remains beneath the

parental brood chamber until environmental conditions favor its dispersal, possibly up to

several days (Baer 1980). The most important factors affecting these population

redistributions are light, gravity, temperature, humidity or a combination of these

(Greathead 1997, Marotta and Tranfaglia 1997). Crawlers generally settle within a meter









from the mother, insert their stylets into the host plant, and consume phloem sap (Raven

1983, Baer and Kosztarab 1985, Vranjic 1997).

Allokermes spp. crawlers are the most active, dispersal stage (Marotta 1997,

Williams 1997). The body of the first instar A. kingii is salmon-colored, oblong, widest

at the mesothorax, and tapers posteriorly. Antennae are six-segmented with slender

setae. The legs are well developed with a single curved claw at the base of each. The

anal lobes are partially or entirely sclerotized with numerous setae. Tubular ducts are

always absent on both dorsal and ventral derm (Baer and Kosztarab 1985). There are no

sexual differences at this stage (Williams 1997). Sexual dimorphism becomes apparent

in second instar females and males, although very similar morphologically, the female

lacks the tubular ducts which are present dorsally in the male (Baer and Kosztarab 1985,

Gullan and Kosztarab 1997, Williams 1997). When preparing to molt to the second

instar, two phases are visible: (i) an initial change in body color, particularly around the

body margins, followed by (ii) contractible motions and the gradual extrusion of the

exuviae (Annecke 1966). Because crawlers lack a waxy exterior, this stage is most

vulnerable to adverse conditions and insecticides (Marotta 1997).

Second instar males often congregate on branches, twigs or in bark crevices on the

tree trunk. Dorsal tubular ducts are present at this stage (Williams 1997, Hamon et al.

1976). Once a male settles it secretes a "test", a thin glossy wax over its body. The male

test represents an adaptation not only to dry conditions but also to wet conditions by

protecting the insects against bacteria and fungi (Boratynski et al. 1982). At the end of

the pupal stage the male's body is elongated, has wing pads, eye pigmentation, short legs,

and seven-segmented antennae. The male lacks functional mouthparts so feeding stops
















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Figure 1-2. General morphology of adult Kermesidae female, tergum (Bullington and Kosztarab 1985).










(Gullan and Kosztarab 1997). After emerging the adult male will live from a few hours

to a week (Marotta 1997).

Second and third instar female bodies are oblong to oval, antennae are six-

segmented, and the dorsal tubular ducts are usually absent. First or early second instar

females will migrate and settle to the new growth on the branch of the tree and become

stationary. The second instar will molt into a short third instar and later become an adult

female. The female secretes a wax coat and increases in size (Gullan and Kosztarab

1997). Occurrence of a third instar is debatable; the life cycle has only been studied in a

few species (Williams 1997). The third instar differs from second instar and adult by the

number of dermal structures, having more than the second instar and less than the adult

(Williams 1997). If present, the third instar maybe very short (2 to 4 days) and its

occurrence may have been overlooked in some species (Ben-Dov and Hodgson 1997).

In most species, after the female's last molt and before oviposition, the scale's body

will increase its size, mainly length. The dorsum becomes sclerotized and the female

body color darkens. The dorsum becomes convex, and the female develops ovaries,

ovarian eggs, and the brood chamber. The brood chamber is located beneath the female's

venter where she will lay eggs. The female's abdomen shrinks after the eggs are laid.

Dead females may remain on the host for a year or more after first instar emergence

(Baer 1980).

The waxy test provides a shield for the eggs and first instars (Kosztarab 1987,

Gullan and Kosztarab 1997, Marotta 1997). The eggs are uniformly covered with wax

fi1aments secreted from the ventral tubular ducts and multilocular disc-pores (Tamaki et

al. 1969, Hamon et al. 1975). The wax filaments prevent the eggs from drying and









sticking together (Gullan and Kosztarab 1997). The number of eggs per female varies

within each species. Allokermes kingii has been reported to have an average of 3,000

eggs per female (Hamon et al. 1975). The size of the female, the position on the host

plant, the health of the host plant, and weather are all factors that affect fecundity

(Hodgson 1997, Marotta 1997).















CHAPTER 2
BIOLOGY OF ALLOKER~ES KINGIIIN\ FLORIDA

Trees are an important part of everyday life. They improve environmental quality,

provide shade, windbreaks, regulate temperature, and are aesthetically pleasing (Dwyer et

al. 2000). Trees afford wildlife refuge in both urban and rural areas. People benefit from

trees through an increase in property value and wood products that are produced (Dwyer

et al. 2000). In urban areas within the 48 continental states, approximately 3.8 billion

trees cover 27.1% of the land, with a tree canopy cover of 2.8%. In Florida alone the

estimated portion of the state covered by trees is 10.8%, which amounts to about

169,587,000 trees (Dwyer et al. 2000). Oaks (Quercus spp.) are commonly used street

trees in the United States, and live oaks (Q. virginiana Mill.) have been frequently

planted throughout Florida. Live oaks are fast growing, easily transplanted when young,

and can provide abundant shade (Harms 1990).

Scale insects are frequent pests of trees, and at least 81 species are known to infest

oaks in North America (Scalenet 2001). Although soft (Coccidae) and armored

(Diaspididae) scales are typically the most abundant and damaging, ornate pit scales

(Lecanodiaspididae), pit scales (Asterolecaniidae), and gall-like scales (Kermesidae)

scales have also periodically reached outbreak levels (Solomon et al. 1980). Gall-like

scales (Allokermes spp.) in particular are difficult to detect because they have a mottled

appearance and often resemble the buds of their host tree or galls of cynipid wasps on

oaks (Gullan and Kosztarab 1997). These native scales are known to occur on Q.

borealis (L.), Q. coccinea (Muenchhausen), Q. ilicifolia (Wangenheimd), Q. imbricaria










(Michaux), Q. laurifolia (Michaux), Q. phellos (L.), Q. rubra (L.), and Q. velutina

(Lamarck) (Kosztarab 1996). Kermesids directly affect plant growth by their feeding,

which involves the penetration of their stylets into the phloem and the uptake of sap as

food (Raven 1983, Vranjic 1997). The feeding results in branch dieback, reduced tree

growth rates, and sooty mold, which grow on the honeydew secreted by the scales

(Vranjic 1997). There are twelve Allokermes spp. in the world, and eleven are distributed

throughout North America (Baer and Kosztarab 1985). The North American species are

A. branigan2i (King), A. cueroensis (Cockerell), A. dubius (Bullington and Kosztarab), A.

essigi (King), A. ferrisi (Bullington and Kosztarab), A. galliformis (Riley), A. gillettei

(Cockerell), A. grandis (Cockerell), A. kingii (Cockerell), A. nivalis (King and Cockerell),

and A. rattani (Ehrhorn) (Baer and Kosztarab 1985). However, the most damaging to

live oak is A. kingii (D. Miller, pers. comm.).

Hamon described the taxonomy and biology of A. kingii in 1976 at Virginia

Polytechnic Institute in Blacksburg, Virginia (Hamon et al. 1976, Baer and Kosztarab

1985). Adult female A. kingii are convex in shape, measure 5 mm long, 4.3 mm wide,

and about 3.5 mm high. The color is pale brownish-yellow with small black spots

covering the entire surface. Each adult female may lay on average 2,820 eggs during her

lifetime (Hamon et al. 1975). Adult males are minute with fragile wings, lack functional

mouthparts, and live only for a few hours to a week. Allokermes kingii has been reported

to have one generation per year in Virginia (Hamon et al. 1976).

The geographic and climatic conditions in Virginia, where Hamon et al. (1976)

conducted his study, and those in central Florida are different, which may account for

variances in A. kingii' s life cycle. The research site used by Hamon et al. was located









within the Appalachian Mountain chain, approximately 304 miles from the Atlantic coast

(Rand McNally 1998). Virginia has a cold-winter climate with hardy zones of 6 and 7,

average minimum temperatures of -23 to -18o and -18 to -12o C, respectively (Dolezal

2000). The average yearly precipitation in Virginia is 109 cm (Tunnell and Woodward

2003). Blacksburg, Virginia, is located within hardy zone 6 and the annual precipitation

in 1976, when Hamon et al. did their research, was <102 cm. In contrast, Florida has

subtropical and tropical climates (Almanac 2004), with hardy zones of 9 and 10, average

minimum temperatures of -1 to 4o and 4 to 10o C, respectively (Kramer and Paukowits

2003). The average yearly precipitation for Florida in 2003 was 155 cm. We conducted

our study in Clearwater, FL, which is subtropical with a hardy zone of 10 and an average

yearly precipitation of 132 to 142 cm (Muller and Solomon 2003). Clearwater is located

on the western coast of Florida, next to the Gulf of Mexico, and is subj ected to tropical

storms and hurricanes from June to November. During the storm season high winds,

increased rainfall, and warm temperatures make conditions conducive to increased scale

survival. We sought to determine if more than one generation ofA. kingii existed in

Florida.

Materials and Methods

Study Site

Eight oak trees (two sand live oaks, Q. geminate Small, and six live oaks, Q.

virginiana) with moderate infestations ofA. kingii in Clearwater, FL (Pinellas Co.), were

selected for this study. The infested area in Clearwater was approximately 300 m from

the Gulf Coast. Tree height and diameter (diameter at breast height, DBH) were

measured on 10 May 2002 and again on 29 August 2003. Tree height was measured with

a clinometer and the DBH was measured with a centimeter cloth measuring tape.









Scale Life Cycle

To determine the life cycle ofA. kingii, five branches (20 26 cm long) were cut

from each tree, every 2-3 wk, approximately 1.8 3.7 m off the ground from 6 June 2002

to 29 August 2003. Branches were transported to the laboratory in a cooler, frozen, and

examined with a dissecting binocular microscope (10-20X). The number of healthy first

and second instars, healthy female adults, and dead female adults, on each branch was

counted and totals for each five-branch tree sample were recorded. The total number of

A. kingii per main branch and lateral branches, the total length (cm) of each main branch

(five per tree), total number of lateral branches per main branch, and their lengths (cm)

were recorded. Any arthropods or potential natural enemies found within or in

association with adult female A. kingii were preserved in 80% EtOH, and identified by

taxonomists at the Department of Agricultural and Consumer Services, Division of Plant

Industry and/or University of Florida. Voucher specimens will be placed at The Museum

of Entomology FSCA, Gainesville, FL.

To examine male A. kingii, five bark samples (1.3 cm2) with male tests were taken

from each of the eight trees at three heights (0.61, 1.22, 1.83 m from the ground) every 2-

3 wk from 23 May to 10 October 2002, and transported to the laboratory in scintillation

vials in a cooler. Tests were first observed with a dissecting binocular microscope (10-

20X), and then removed from the male scales with a minute pin, male scales were slide-

mounted, and examined with a compound microscope (10-40X) to determine the life

stages (e.g., prepupa, pupa, or adult). However, density and distribution of tests on stems

were not determined.









Results

Study Site

This study was conducted on Q. geminata and Q. virginiana trees, which represent

new host records for A. kingii. The mean height of the eight oak trees at the beginning of

the study on 10 May 2002 was 5.9 f 0.7 m, mean DBH of 51.7 f 14.3 cm, and mean

canopy radius of 9.4 f 1.3 m. The mean height of the eight oak trees at the end of the

study on 29 August 2003 was 6.4 f 1.0 m, mean DBH of 52.4 f 14.8 cm, and mean

canopy radius of 10.3 f 2.2 cm.

Scale Life Cycle

Allokermes kingii appears to complete a full generation and a partial second

generation each year in Clearwater, FL (Fig.2-1). Salmon-colored crawlers (Fig.2-2A)

emerged from late May to the first week of August in 2002 and females migrated to the

larger branches while males went onto the tree stem. Crawlers began to molt into second

instars by mid-July. At this time, second instar females (Fig.2-2B) migrated to tree

wounds or new growth, often near new leaf petioles, became sessile, and secreted a hard,

waxy covering over themselves. Second instar males migrated further down on the tree

stems, became sessile, and covered themselves with a white, felt-like waxy pupal case

(test). Second instar females go through a short third instar (Fig.2-2C), which lasts

approximately 2-4 d (Marotta 1997), but this was not observed during the study. Second

instar females molted into adults from late August to mid-December. Gravid females

occurred in early September to mid-December and laid eggs (Fig.2-2D) under their

venter, in the brood chamber. Average length of all branches collected from 6 June 2002

to 29 August 2003 was 198.4 & 66.9 cm. We found 728.6 & 399. 1 (range 166-1,755) A.










kingii, all life stages combined, on 1,120 main branches (22.9 & 2.3 cm) and 781.6 &

309.2 (range 371-1,586) on lateral shoots (4.2 & 1.0 cm).

Male tests (Fig.2-2E) were found in crevices or wounds on tree stems. Male

prepupae (Fig.2-2F) were present on the bark from early June to mid-July, and again in

mid-September to mid-October. Pupae (Fig.2-2G) occurred throughout the 6-month

collection period, with higher numbers at the beginning of June to mid-July and in

October. Adult males (Fig.2-2H) were present in late May to early June, early July to

mid-August, and throughout October.

Second generation crawlers began emerging in mid-September and molted into

second instars by mid-October. The nymphs overwintered as first and second instars.

Scale development appeared to slow or stop until the first molt in mid-February 2003.

By late April-early May, second instar female A. kingii molted into mature adults.

Second-generation adult female A. kingii produced eggs until mid-June.





1st
INST AR5


INSTARS ks


PREPUPAL




P UP A



ADULT ,



ADULTS I 'i


Al 1JUN JUL AUG SEP OSCT N DEC' JAN FEB MAXR [ .PR MIAY JI.JN
2002 2003
First generation
Second generation


Figure 2-1. Seasonal history of Allokermes kingii on Quercus geminata and Q. virginiana in Clearwater, FL.




















































Figure 2-2. Flow chart of life stages for A. kingii. A. First instar. B. Second instar
female. C. Third instar female. D. Adult female with eggs. E. Male test. F. Male
prepupa. G. Male pupa. H. Adult male.









Natural Enemies

Several insects were found either feeding directly on or in association with A. kingii

in this study (Table 2-1), but none appeared abundant enough to regulate A. kingii

populations. Several different lepidopteran larvae were found inside adult female A.

kingii (Fig. 2-3A). These larvae may have been feeding on the eggs, because only a few

of the adult females had both eggs and lepidopteran larvae in their brood chambers, but

thi s behavior was not ob served. There were several mites (Tuckerella pavoniformi

(Ewing)), found in association with A. kingii throughout the collection period (Fig. 2-3B).

These mites are plant-parasites that feed on the cambium. Several hymenopteran eggs

were laid on a leaf near A. kingii scales from which one ichneumonid wasp (Trachaner

pr. n. sp.) emerged. A total of 717 adult female A. kingii appeared to be parasitized, with

exit holes on their bodies (Fig. 2-3C). Formicid ants, Pheidole dentat (Mayr), were

tending A. kingii throughout the collection period. These ants collect and feed on the

honeydew that is secreted by A. kingii. With decreasing temperatures the activity of the

ants decreased. This could indicate that A. kingii ceased honeydew production and

became dormant. Two different ladybird beetle species were found in association with A.

kingii. Several lacewings (Chrysoperla sp.) eggs were found on leaves and one was on

top of an adult female A. kingii (Fig. 2-3D). Other insects in the orders Psocoptera and

Thysanoptera were also found in association with A. kingii (Table 2-1). Dipteran larvae

were found inside adult females (Fig. 2-3E), but were easily damaged and could not be

identified.





22


Table 2-1. Arthropods found in association with A. kingii.


Order Family Species

Acariforme Tuckerellidae Tuckerella
pavoniformi (Ewing)


Coleoptera Attelabidae Homoelabus analis
(Illiger)

Coleoptera Coccinellidae Chilocorus cacti (L)


Coleoptera Coccinellidae Harmonia axyridis
(Pallas)


Hemiptera Diaspididae Pseudaulacaspis
pentagona
(Targ.-Tozz.)

Hymenoptera Encyrtidae M~etaphycus sp.
(Howard)

Hymenoptera Formicidae Pheidole dentata
(Mayr)


Hymenoptera Ichneumonidae Trachaner pr. n. sp.
(Townes)


Lepidoptera Blactobasidae Holcocera
coccivorella
(Chambers)

Lepidoptera Cosmopterigidae Euclemensia
ba~ssettella (Clemens)


Number
found

1



1


1


1



6



1


50



1



1
2
1

2
1


Date


6 June 2002



7 July 2002


6 June 2002


6 June 2002



29 August 2003



6 June 2002


16 July 2003



23 May 2002



5 June 2003
19 June 2003
19 July 2003

20 June 2002
5 June 2003











Table 2-1. Continued.


Number
found


Order


Family


Species


Date


Lepidoptera



Lepidoptera



Lepidoptera


Cosmopterigidae


Pyroderces sp.
(Herrich-Schaffer)

Laetilia coccidivora
(Comstock)


Laetilia sp. (Ragonot)


6 June 2002


Pyralidae



Pyralidae


22 May 2003



5 June 2003
19 June 2003


20 June 2002


Chrysopidae


Chrysoperla sp.


Neuroptera


Neuroptera



Psocoptera



Thysanoptera


Chrysopidae


5 May 2002
23 May 2002
20 June 2002
2 Aug 2002
2 Aug 2002


Psocidae


Phlaeothripidae


6 June 2002


Thysanoptera


20 June 2002


not determined





















































Figure 2-3. Potential natural enemies of A. kingii. A. Lepidopteran larva inside adult
female. B. Tuckerella pavoniformi. C. Exit holes on adult female. D.
Lacewing egg on second instar. E. Diperan larva inside adult female.

Discussion

Allokermes kingii has a full generation and a partial generation, which overwinters

as first and second instars in Clearwater, Florida. This seasonal phenology is different









from previously published life history data, which states that there is only one generation

per year in Virginia (Hamon et. al. 1976). Several factors including insect phenology,

tree species, location, or weather may contribute to the variance.

Allokermes kingii adult females are neotenous and are able to mate with a male

scale at a young age (Gullan and Kosztarab 1997). The adult male sperm is unique

among insects. The lumen of the adult male A. kingii contains numerous sperm bundles

in a liquid, each sperm bundle containing 8-12 spermatozoa surrounded by a sheath

(Foldi 1997, Gullan and Kosztarab 1997). After mating with females, sperm bundles are

stored within the female oviduct. If males mate with general females, then fertilization

may need to be delayed for weeks or months until eggs are mature (Gullan and Kosztarab

1997). The longevity of sperm within the female scale suggests that fertilization of eggs

may occur over a protracted oviposition period or a long time after copulation (Gullan

and Kosztarab 1997). It is thought that neoteny shortens female development time,

which caused the male dormant stages to evolved to synchronize reproductive maturity of

the sexes (Danzig 1980).

After the adult female's last molt her size changes dramatically (McConnell and

Davidson 1959, Matile-Ferrero 1997). The adult female A. kingii dorsum becomes

heavily sclerotized at maturity, and a cavity under the moribund body acts as a secure

brood chamber for the developing eggs (Bullington and Kosztarab 1985, Matile-Ferrero

1997). The brood chamber is formed by the development of a cavity beneath the

abdomen (see Chap.1). By the time oviposition has been completed, the abdomen has

become so shrunken through the loss of eggs that the venter may touch the dorsum, with

the entire cavity beneath filled with eggs (Marotta 1997). Allokermes kingii secrete a










waxy cover that protects their eggs and hatching nymphs, which increase the survival of

progeny (Kosztarab 1987, Gullan and Kosztarab 1997). Even after death A. kingii shelter

their progeny with their body, protecting them against the environment, pesticides, and

natural enemies (Kosztarab 1987, Gullan and Kosztarab 1997).

Allokermes kingii reportedly infests eight different oak species, Q. borealis, Q.

coccinea, Q. ilicifolia, Q. imbricaria, Q. laurifolia, Q. phellos, Q. rubra, and Q. velutina

(Kosztarab 1996), in addition to our new host records of Q. geminata and Q. virginiana.

The geographic range of A. kingii in the United States overlaps with the distribution of

these oaks (Bullington and Kosztarab 1985). All of the oaks infested by A. kingii are

northern species, exception Q. phellos and Q. velutina, which extend from the northern

United States into the western tip of Florida (Stein et al. 2003).

Hamon studied the biology of A. kingii on northern red oak (Q. rubra) and black

oak (Q. velutina) in Virginia. The northern red oak's native range is in the northeastern

part of the United States down to southern Alabama, Georgia and North Carolina (Sander

1990). Northern red oaks produce their first flush in April or May. Black oak is

distributed from Maine west to Minnesota, and south to Texas northwestern Florida

(Stein et al. 2003). Like the northern red oak it also flushes in April or May. The two

oaks used in this study, sand live oak (Q. geminata) and live oak (Q. virginiana) are

found along the lower Coastal Plains and throughout Florida (Stein 2003). The sand live

oak trees in Clearwater, Florida, began to flush around mid-April and the live oak flushed

in mid-March, with several additional flushes throughout the growing season.

By taking advantage of the plant/insect relationship, we can use plant cues (flush,

flowering, petal fall, etc.) as indicators of insect development (Ascerno 1991). The










prolonged flush in Clearwater, one month longer than in Virginia, may enable A. kingii to

increase its population by providing a food source that is available for a longer period of

time. Weather may also indirectly influence plant feeding insects by causing stress in the

host plant or causing excessive growth in the plant (Shetlar 1997).

Florida has a tropical storm and hurricane season that lasts for six months out of the

year. On 1 September 2002, Hurricane Edouard was slightly north of Clearwater, FL.

This hurricane lasted for 5 days with maximum winds of 65 mph. From 1 September to

14 September it rained a total 14.22 cm (FAWN 2004). The growth of scale insects

depends upon the quality and quantity of the plant's sap. The plant sap contains a limited

amount of nitrogen upon which the insect depends for growth, and quite small changes in

the nitrogen content of the sap can have dramatic effects on population growth rates

(Kunkel 1997). Water pushes nitrogen up from the soil into the plant, which will then be

available to A. kingii in the sap. During September and October 2002 there was an

increase in the number of first instars. The excessive amount of water caused by

hurricane Edouard may have contributed to the outbreak of A. kingii.

It has been shown that parasitoid-host interactions become more frequent as the

host matures (Blumberg 1997). Most of the mortality in this study can be attributed to

parasitism or predation of adult females and second instars. Many females that are

parasitized are able to oviposit, but the number of eggs they produce may be greatly

reduced (Gordon and Potter 1988). During this study most of A. kingii with emergence

holes were adult females, only a few were second instars.

The most abundant insect species associated with A. kingii was Pheidole dentat

(Mayr). Ants commonly tend and defend scale insects. In return they feed off the










honeydew that A. kingii excretes (Gullan 1997). Scale insects are often attacked by

caterpillars (Scoble 1995). All but one lepidopteran family collected during this study

was found inside adult females. Euclemensia ba~ssettella (Clemens) are known predators

ofA. kingii (Stehr 1987, Scoble 1995, and Scalenet 2001) and Laetilia coccidivora

(Comstock) are known to prey on scale insects (Stehr 1987). Different coleopteran

families are also common scale predators (Stehr 1987, Borror et al. 1989). A few

thysanopteran species in the family Phlaeothripidae are known as predators of scale

insects (Stehr 1987). Several pscopterans in the family Psocidae were also collected. A

few psocid species are omnivorous feeding on insect eggs and possibly scale insects.

Acariformes in the family Tuckerellidae: Tuckerella pavoniformi (Ewing) were found in

abundance along with the scales. Tuckerella pavoniformi are obligant plant feeders and

are not common in Florida.

The fecundity of an insect is affected by temperature, scale density, adult female

size, and the species and edaphic conditions of the host plant (Salvatore 1997). The

subtropical climate of Clearwater, Florida, and annual precipitation of 132-142 cm may

make it conducive for adult female A. kingii to produce more eggs than are produced in

Blacksburg, Virginia. With this increase in production of eggs the scale density on the

trees is able to increase to a population that could be detrimental to the tree, causing

branch die-back and even death of the tree.















CHAPTER 3
INSECTICIDAL MANAGEMENT OF ALLOKER~ES KINGII ON SHADE TREES

Allokermes kingii Cockerell (Hemiptera: Kermesidae), is a native gall-like scale

found on oak trees (Quercus spp.) throughout the eastern United States, west to Indiana

and Tennessee. Damage from this scale results in flagging, branch dieback, reduced

growth, and during heavy infestations, tree death (Hamon 1977). In addition, the

honeydew that the kermes scale creates results in sooty mold problems, which may

reduce a tree' s ability to photosynthesize, and an increase in ant activity.

Populations of A. kingii have the potential to increase in numbers faster in Florida' s

subtropical climate than in more northern states. Previous research suggests that A. kingii

is univoltine throughout most of its North American range (Hamon et al. 1976).

However, A. kingii can produce one full generation and a partial second generation each

year in Florida (see Chapter 2). First generation crawlers emerge in late May, become

second instars by mid-July and reach the adult stage by late August. Second generation

crawlers emerge in mid-September and become second instars by mid-October. Both the

first and second instars overwinter and become adults in late April or early May of the

following year. Control of this insect is difficult because of the extended egg hatch and

crawler activity and unawareness of the partial second generation.

Several species of oak, especially live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.), are

frequently planted and maintained as street trees in Florida. Live oak trees are fast-

growing and easily transported when young, which enables them to be widely used as

ornamental trees (Harms 1990). The annual cost of tree installation and maintenance in









the City of Clearwater was $234,000 in 2003 (A. Mayberry, pers. comm.). Because the

Clearwater city arborist was concerned that hundreds of trees might die from kermes

scale infestations, we conducted an insecticide trial to determine the efficacy of several

insecticides against A. kingii nymphs.

Materials and Methods

Study Site

Thirty oak trees (Q. geminate Small and Q. virginiana) with moderate infestations

ofA. kingii in Clearwater, FL (Pinellas Co.), were selected for this study. The infested

trees were located in a parking lot 300 m from the Gulf Coast. The mean height of the

thirty trees was 5.9 f 0.7 with a mean DBH of 14.3 f 3.7 in May 2003. The height was

measured with a clinometer and the DBH was measured with a centimeter cloth

measuring tape. Trees were separated by at least 4.3 m and branches were not

interconnected.

Field Test

Insecticide applications were timed to coincide with the emergence of first and

early second instars of the first A. kingii generation. A certified arborist applied the

insecticides on 1 and 2 May 2003. Treatments were assigned to trees using a randomized

complete block design, with five replicates and six treatments. Treatments included label

rates of acephate (Orthene TT&O Valent USA Corp., Walnut Creek, CA), bifenthrin

(Talstar Flowable FMC, Philadelphia, PA), imidacloprid (Merit 75 WP Bayer

Environmental Science, Montvale, NJ), horticultural oil (Sunspray Ultra-Fine ,

Philadelphia, PA), horticultural oil plus acephate, and an untreated control. Adjuvant was

not mixed with the insecticides. Acephate, bifenthrin, horticultural oil, and horticultural

oil + acephate were applied as foliar sprays using a hydraulic sprayer (pressure: 25









ml/m2) with a 756 L tank. Trees were sprayed until run-off. The tank had an agitator

with a single nozzle hand-held sprayer. Imidacloprid was applied under the tree canopy

as a soil drench using an 18.9 L Solo backpack sprayer. Equipment was triple-rinsed

between treatments to prevent contamination. Air temperature, soil temperature

measured at 20.3 cm deep, relative humidity, wind speed, and cloud conditions were

noted at application.

To determine product efficacy, the number of healthy and dead first and second

instars ofA. kingii were counted on four branches collected from each tree. One branch

(20 26 cm long) was randomly cut from each of the four cardinal points of each tree,

approximately 1.8 to 3.7 m up from the ground on 24 April (pretreatment), 9 May (1

week after treatment, WAT), 22 May (3 WAT), 5 June (5 WAT) and 19 June (7 WAT),

2003. The four branches per tree were put into a plastic bag, placed in a cooler,

transported to the laboratory, frozen, and examined with a dissecting binocular

microscope. First and early second instars that survived the treatments were salmon-

colored. However, insecticide-killed nymphs were slightly brown and shriveled. A waxy

secretion normally coats healthy second instars, but those affected by insecticides had

black spots on the wax layer. Male A. kingii located on tree stems were not examined in

this test.

Statistical Analysis.

The mean number of healthy first and second instar A. kingii per four-branch

sample was calculated using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (P<0.05) and

treatments were compared to the control using a Dunnett' s Test on each date (Jmp@,

SAS Institute Inc. 2001). The proportion of scale mortality was calculated by dividing









the total number of dead nymphs by the total number of live and dead nymphs for each

branch on each date. Proportions were arc-sine square root-transformed, analyzed using

an ANOVA, and if statistically significant, treatments were compared to the control using

a Dunnett' s Test on each date (Jmp@, SAS Institute Inc. 2001).

Results

From the beginning to the end of the applications on 1 and 2 May 2003, the air

temperature ranged from 260 to 34.20 C, soil temperature 20.3 cm deep had a range of

21.10 to 23.30 C, relative humidity ranged from 76 to 100%, and wind speed ranged from

1.2 to 4.3 kph. Cloud conditions ranged from partly cloudy to overcast. About 1.3 cm of

rain fell lightly for 15 min after the horticultural oil, acephate, and oil plus acephate

applications on 1 May 2003. Imidacloprid was applied as a soil drench after the rain.

Bifenthrin was applied as a foliar spray the following day because the wind increased to

>4 kph on 1 May. Trees measured from the trunk were 4.3 to 5.5 m apart with a mean

DBH of 22.8 to 17.8 cm DBH and mean height of 5.5 + 1.0 m. Trees were not irrigated.

Insecticidal treatments ofA. kingii reduced nymphal survival by almost half 1

WAT, compared to the pretreatment sample (Table 3-1), but none of the treatments killed

all of the nymphs. However, the number of healthy nymphs on control trees also

declined over time. Significantly fewer nymphs survived 3 WAT on trees treated with

mixed horticultural oil and acephate, compared to the control. The number of healthy

nymphs markedly increased on trees treated with acephate or bifenthrin 5 WAT and

significantly so on bifenthrin 7 WAT compared to the control. The population increase

on 19 June in the bifenthrin treatment was largely from the crawler emergence from two














































Means within a column followed by an asterisk are significantly different from the control (Dunnett' s test) at P<0.05.


Table 3-1. Mean (ASEM) number of healthy first and second instar A. kingii per four-branch sample.


24-April
pretreatt.)

69.0 & 32.1


117.8 & 49.6



100.0 & 54.8


Rate
(prod./water)


9-May
(1 WAT)

66.6 & 24.0


71.6 & 22.5



26.2 & 8.3


22-May
(3 WAT)

41.2 & 8.4


56.0 & 14.2



13.4 & 2.4


5-June
(5 WAT)

43.2 & 13.3


52.4 & 37.1



40.6 & 17.3


19-June
(7 WAT)

33.2 & 10.9


57.6 & 27.3



41.2 & 21.4


Treatment


Control


Imidacloprid


5.65g/7.56L



2.3 7L/3 78L



7.5 6L/3 78L


7.56L oil +
226.8g
acephate/3 78L


2.3 7L/3 78L


Acephate


Horticultural oil


94.0 & 25.9


12.6 & 4.3


13.0 & 4.9


25.6 & 8.5


23.6 & 6.1


Oil + acephate


7.8 & 3.0*


49.0 & 27.5


5.2 & 2.8


2.6 & 1.5


14.2 & 12.7


Bifenthrin


85.0 & 24.0

F= 0.41
df = 5,24
P = 0.834


44.4 & 22.2

F= 2.77
df = 5,24
P = 0.041


16.8 & 7.7

F= 6.03
df = 5,24
P = 0.001


70.8 & 40.9

F= 0.91
df = 5,24
P = 0.494


308.2 & 118.7*


F= 4.90
df = 5,24
P = 0.003










female A. kingii. No other crawler emergence was noted from any other treatments or

dates.

The percentage of nymphal mortality was statistically greater on trees treated with

acephate or horticultural oil 3 WAT (Table 3-2). The percentage of mortality 5 WAT

was greatest on A. kingii treated with horticultural oil and acephate, statistically differing

from the control.

Discussion

Scale insects on trees and shrubs can be difficult to control. To control scale

insects effectively, their identification must be accurate and the crawler activity period

should be known (Muegge and Merchant 2000). The first and early second instars ofA.

kingii are the stage that is controlled most effectively with insecticides (Muegge and

Merchant 2000). Under most conditions, predators and parasites suppress scale

populations to a level where chemical intervention is not needed (Futch et al. 2001).

When scale populations are not controlled by biological or chemical means, high

populations may damage leaves, fruit, twigs, branches, or tree trunks (Futch et al. 2001).

Best practices for insecticides against scales would include proper timing of application

and correctly labeled insecticides targeted against crawlers (Gilrein 2001).

Acephate is one of the more recent additions to systemic insecticides (Ware 1996).

Acephate provides better long-term control through nymphal suffocation, systemic, or

contact mortality. Acephate has a moderate persistence with 10 to 15 days of residual

activity (Ware 1996, Syslo and Davy 1999). It is possible that the mixture of oil with

acephate increases the adherence and dispersion on trees. Because of the short residual

of acephate and lack of residual for the oil (Syslo and Davy 1999), as well as extended















































Means within a column followed by an asterisk are significantly different from the control (Dunnett' s test) at P<0.05.


Table 3-2. Mean (ASEM) percentage of dead first and second instar A. kingii per four-branch sample.


Treatment


9-May (1 WAT)


5.7 & 3.8


22-May (3 WAT)


5-June (5 WAT)


19-June (7 WAT)


Control


12.3 & 5.7


24.2 & 3.6



18.3 & 6.6


Imidacloprid


17.3 & 5.8



31.7 & 4.1


11.3 & 5.7



32.7 & 5.2*



26.7 & 9.0*


20.1 & 6.5



11. 0 &3.2


Acephate


Horticultural oil


37.7 & 11.1


15.8 & 3.0


21.7 & 9.2


Oil + acephate


41.7 & 19.3*



12.0 & 5.1

F= 2.62
df = 5,24
P = 0.050


23.6 & 10.7


13.2 & 8.9



16.0 & 6.7

F= 3.89
df = 5,24
P = 0.010


15.5 A12.5



9.7 & 2.7

F= 0.70
df = 5,24
P = 0.628


Bifenthrin


24.7 & 2.6

F= 2.33
df = 5,24
P = 0.074









crawler emergence period (see Chapter 2), additional applications of an acephate-oil

mixture or other insecticide may be needed.

Bifenthrin is a contact and stomach poison. Its mode of action is by paralyzing the

nervous system of the insect. Degradation of bifenthrin can occur between 7 days to 8

months, depending on the oxidative microbial activity. Bifenthrin is a broad-spectrum

insecticide (Dent 2000), and can kill natural enemies. It is possible that a bifenthrin

application could cause A. kingii population to eventually rebound because of natural

enemy mortality or increased plant growth (McClure 1977). However, natural enemies

were never abundant during this study.

Soil drenches are useful in an urban environment because they reduce spray drift,

thereby reducing nontarget impacts (Rebek and Sadof 2003). Imidacloprid is a

frequently used soil drench used against scales. Imidacloprid is a systemic and contact

insecticide, which has the potential for managing insects that have become insecticide

resistant (Pedigo 1996). Systemic insecticides are taken up by the roots or leaves and

translocated within the plant. Insects feeding on the plant digest the insecticide and are

killed. Imidacloprid is in the new class of chloronicotinyls, which are synthetics of the

natural product nicotine. Imidacloprid changes the behavior and mobility of an insect by

affecting the insect's nervous system. It may, however, also negatively impact the

behavior of natural enemies, such as diminish searching behavior and prey consumption

of ladybird beetles (Smith and Krischik 1999). As a contact insecticide on the plant

imidacloprid was shown to decrease parasitism of Encarsia citrina (Craw) on the

Euonymus scale, thrapis euonymi (Comstock), and resulted in an increase of that scale' s

population (Rebek and Sadof 2003).









Numerous researchers have recorded scale insect population outbreaks following

pesticide applications. The brown soft scale, Coccus hesperidum L. (Bartlett and Ewart

1951), frosted scale, Parthenolecanium priunosum (Coq.) (Bartlett and Ortega 1952),

Hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris (McClure 1977), California red scale Aonidiella

aurantii (Maskell). (Stansly, et al 1999) all increased in population after the insecticide

treatment. McClure (1977) stated several reasons for the resurgence of scale populations:

1) reduced numbers of natural enemies, 2) reduced competition among individuals, and

3) increased plant growth, which improved the nutritive quality of the host. The

resurgence of healthy A. kingii nymphs may have been due to additional egg hatch,

favorable weather conditions, or breakdown of insecticidal residues (Syslo and Davy

1999).

Lack of irrigation may have reduced the effectiveness of the application of

imidacloprid. Grafton-Cardwell and Reagan (1999) indicated that there was a trend in

greater efficacy of California red scale control when an imidacloprid treatment was

preceded by 2 h of irrigation on fruit, leaves and soil. Thus pre-wetting of the soil

appears to be important for the uptake of imidacloprid. There was no irrigation at the

study site. Even though it rained about 1.3 cm, the lack of water and the amount of leaf

debris under the trees' canopies may have reduced root uptake of imidacloprid, thus

delaying the translocation of imidacloprid into the trees' phloem, which is where A. kingii

feeds (Salvatore 1997).

In conclusion, this study has shown that horticultural oil and acephate mixed gave

the fastest and longest lasting control ofA. kingii. However, none of the products were

highly efficacious against A. kingii nymphs at anytime in this test. Some other products










labeled for scale control in urban landscapes include Fish oil, Insecticidal soap, malathion

(Malathion, Gowan, Yuma, AZ), pyriproxyfen (Distance, Valent USA Corp., Walnut

Creek, CA), or thiamethoxam (Flagship, Syngenta USA, Greensboro, NC). Other control

measures would include proper pruning and removal of scales by hand.















CHAPTER 4
HYDROCARBON AND FATTY ACID IVETHYL ESTERS ANALYSIS OF
ALLOKERM~ES KINGII

Allokermes kingii lives primarily on oak trees (Quercus spp.). The damage caused

by A. kingii can be seen in branch die-back, reduced tree growth rates, and sooty mold,

which grows on the honeydew that the kermes scales secrete (Hamon 1977, Vranjic

1997). Oak trees frequently planted along streets and in city parks. In order to protect

the tree, one must first understand the insect that is affecting it. Knowledge of the

composition of the wax secreted by insects is of interest, apart from the point of view of

comparative biochemistry, because it may provide a clue to the best method of managing

the insect (Hackman 1951).

Hydrocarbons and waxes serve many functions in insects. They prevent

desiccation and are important in chemical communication (Nelson 1978, Howard 1982).

The test or cover that is secreted by scale insects is believed to protect the scales from

effects of weather, natural enemies, and possibly insecticidal sprays (Hackman 195 1,

Castner and Nation 1986, Stanley-Samuelson and Nelson 1993, Tamaki 1997). Sulc

(1932) was the first to utilize characteristics of male tests as an aid for identifying species

of soft scales (Miller and Williams 1990). This study was conducted to determine if a

unique gas chromatography profile could be obtained from the male A. kingii's test.









Materials and Methods

Study Site.

A. kingii tests were collected from eight oak trees (two sand live oaks, Q. geminata

Small, and six live oaks, Q. virginiana) every 2-3 wk from 23 May to 10 October 2002,

in Clearwater, FL (Pinellas Co). Tests were removed from each tree at three heights

(0.61, 1.22, 1.83 m from the ground), and transported to the laboratory in scintillation

vials in a cooler. Each bark sample measured approximately 2.54 cm. Five tests were

collected from each tree and placed into a vial. The male tests were removed from the

tree bark with a minute pin in the laboratory and placed into a vial. The male scale was

slide mounted and used to determine the male A. kingii biology (chapter 2).

Hydrocarbons.

Hydrocarbons and other lipids were extracted by immersing 231 tests in 5 ml of

benzene, gently agitating, and saponifying over night. The solvent was gently evaporated

with a stream of nitrogen. From 1-2 Cll of the concentrated extract was inj ected into a

AT1 Heliflex Col from ALLTECH, cat. #932525, non-polar column. Data were

collected and processed directly from the chromatograph by a Hewlett Packard 3390A

integrator. Hydrocarbons were separated by a coiled glass column with an interior

diameter of 25 mm by 25 m, with 0.2 Clm thickness. The carrier gas was helium at a flow

of 21.8 cm per second. The inj ector port was set at 2700 C with the out take valve set at

3200 C. The glass column was at 2000 C upon inj section, and was immediately

temperature programmed at 4o C per minute to 3000 C and held for 20 minutes.

A standard was prepared from commercially available synthetic hydrocarbons

(Sigma Chemical Company). The standards contained even and odd straight chain

hydrocarbons from C20 to C30, plus C32 and C34.









Esters of Fatty Acids.

Esters of higher fatty acids were extracted from the same 23 1 tests. Tests were in a

vial with a solution of 0.5 ml KOH and 0.5 ml Methyl alcohol (CH30H) and gently

agitated for one minute. The solvent was evaporated with nitrogen and inj ected into the

AT1 Heliflex Col from ALLTECH, cat. #932525. The methods from the hydrocarbon

test were repeated for the esters of fatty acids test.

Results and Discussion

Hydrocarbons.

Chromatogram profiles and relative quantities are proving to be characteristics for a

wide variety of individual insect species. Temperature programmed gas chromatographic

traces for hydrogen are shown in Fig. 4-1 with a corresponding linear retention graph in

Fig. 4-2. Kovat Indices (KI) and hydrogen composition are shown in Table 4-1.

The main components of hydrocarbons in the test of A. kingii have calculated KI

values 2000, 2200, 2300, 2400, 2500, 2600, 2700, 2800, 2900, 3000, 3200, 3400 were

chromatographically identical to C20, C22, C23, C24, C25, C26, C27, C28, C29, C30,

C32 and C34, respectively. Major peaks were recorded at 13.62, 20.40, 10.19, and 16.98

with a percentage of area covered 28.075, 15.651, 14.508, and 13.960 respectively.

Esters of Fatty Acids.

Temperature programmed gas chromatographic traces for fatty acids with methyl

esters are shown in Fig. 4-3 with a corresponding linear retention graph in Fig. 4-4.

Kovat Indices (KI) and fatty esters are shown in Table 4-2. The major constituents of

fatty esters in the male test have calculated KI values of 1400, 1600, 1610, 1800, 18:1

and were chromatographically identical to C14, C16, C16:1, C18 and C18:1,











respectively. Major peaks were recorded at 24.02, 29.14, and 16.13 with percent area

coverage of 54.993, 18.891, and 1 1.3 58, respectively.





f'!l


5.98

9.55
1Clr
11.71

o 11.62
E 1 II. 12
a
16.98
1-c~195~

"61.~
~ 21.9~


Retention Time (min.)


Figure 4-1. Temperature programmed gas chromatographic traces for hydrogen.




















28.74





21.92
D I *20.4
18.57
16.98

5 i r1512
13.62
+ 11.71


+ 8.55

5.92








Carbon Number


+ Retention
time


Figure 4-2. Linear retention time graph of hydrocarbons on male A. kingii tests.





Table 4-1. Composition of hydrocarbons from male A. kingii tests.


Carbon
number
C20
C22
C23
C24
C25
C26
C27
C28
C29
C30
C32
C34


Retention
time
05.92
08.55
10.19
11.71
13.62
15.12
16.98
18.57
20.40
21.92
25.08
28.74


Calculated index
value
2000
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000
3200
3400


Hydrocarbon
Eicosane
Docosane
Tricosane
Tetracosane
Pentacosane
Hexacosane

Heptacosane
Octacosane
Nonacosane
Triacontane
Dotriacontane
Tethatriacontane


Area %

01.906
01.671
14.508
02.600
28.075
02.521
13.960
03.763
15.651
04.089
03.955
05.417


Table 4-2. Composition of methyl ester of the fatty acids from male A. kingii tests.
Carbon Retention Calculated index
Hydrocarbon Area %
number time value
Tetradecane C14 06.63 00.369 1400


Hexadecane


Octadecane


C16
C16:1
C18
C18:1


12.61
16.13
24.02
29.14


04.631
11.358
54.993
18.891


1600
1610
1800
1810





























Retenton Tim (min.



Figure~ ~ R 4-.Tmeaue Lprorm e ascrmtgrpi rce o atyaiswt
mehleses































Fatty
esters


10









14 16 16:01

Carbon Number



Figure 4-4. Linear retention time graph of hydrocarbons on male A. kingii tests.


18:01









Taxonomic descriptions of many scales are based primarily upon adult females,

while the study of adult males and immature males has been largely neglected. The test,

or pupal cover, that the second instar male secretes can also provide a means of

identification (Miller and Williams 1990). The analysis of lipids by gas chromatography

is one way of determining which hydrocarbons (or classes of lipids) and waxes it contains

(Castner and Nation 1986). Hydrocarbons are the long-chain alkanes and alkenes, and

the methyl-branched alkanes and alkenes (Nelson 1993). Fatty acids constitute parts of

many parts of lipids. In simple lipids, esters form from fatty acids and alcohols. If the

alcohol is a long-chain compound they are called waxes (Stenesh 1998).

Hydrocarbons are not maj or components of the cover of scale insects (Tamaki

1997). Allokermes kingii test is made up of mostly wax with almost 60% saturated fatty

acid, and almost 30% as unsaturated fatty acid. Although a large but varying fraction of

scale wax is composed of standard long-chain ester (C43-46), most waxes also seem to

include a small amount of straight-chain hydrocarbons, containing from 15 to 33 or more

carbon atoms (Brown 1975). Methyl-branched alkanes comprise a significant portion of

hydrocarbon mixtures and serve as both pheromones and kairomones in many insects

(Howard 1982). The chemical composition of the test differs between species, in the case

of soft scales, waxy materials are an important component of the cover (Tamaki 1997).
















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Vranjic, J.A. 1997. Effects on Host Plant, pp. 323-336. In Y. Ben-Dov and C.J.
Hodgson (eds.), Soft scale insects: Their biology, natural enemies and control, vol.
7A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Ware, G.W. 1996. Complete guide to pest control, 3rd ed. Thomson Publications,
Fresno, CA.

Williams, M.L. 1997. The immature stages, pp. 31-46. In Y. Ben-Dov and C.J.
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Jay Cee Lynn Turner was born on 5 February 1963, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Upon graduation from high school, she entered Santa Fe Community College in

Gainesville, Florida, where she obtained an Associate of Arts degree. Jay Cee owned and

operated an upholstery business for 12 years. In 1999, while self-employed and raising

two children, she enrolled in the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Jay Cee

closed her business and worked for Dr. Eileen Buss in the Department of Entomology

and Nematology while completing her bachelors degree. In the summer of 2002, she

began working on her master' s degree under the guidance of Dr. Buss.




Full Text

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BIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF ALLOKERMES KINGII (HEMIPTERA: KERMESIDAE) ON OAK TREES By JAY CEE L. TURNER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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Copyright 2004 by Jay Cee L. Turner

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I dedicate this thesis to my wonderful fa mily who has continuously told me how proud they are of me. I want to give a specia l thank you to my husband, Neal; without his support and encouragement I would never have made it this far. I want to thank my children, Crystal and Nickolus, for all of their patience w ith me and never giving up on their mom. I also want to thank my brothe rs, James and Christopher, for the support that they have given me and for always being there.

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SCALES By Albert A. Grigarick Scales are soft and scales are hard. They are in the orchard and in the yard. The soft ones are attached to their outer skin, While the hard ones live free within. Soft scales produce honeydew, But hard scales find it impossible to do. It's just as well it works that wayLegless, the hard ones can't move away.

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v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I acknowledge and thank Dr. Eileen Buss fo r giving me the opportunity to obtain a masterÂ’s degree in entomology. Dr. Buss has taught me how to think and write scientifically. She has given me numerous ch ances to expand my horizons and for that I am forever grateful. I also would like to acknowledge my committee members, Dr. Norm Leppla and Dr. Greg Hodges, for all of their help and guidance. I would like to thank Kathryn Barbara for her support and assistance, her friendship has made my graduate studies easier. I want to thank all of my lab part ners for helping me with my research. Special thanks go to the City of Clearwater Urban Fore stry Division and Mr. and Mrs. Steinmetz for funding my graduate st udies and research. I want to thank the people at the Entomology and Nematology De partment and Division of Plant Industries for helping me identify the insects found duri ng my research. Finally, I would like to acknowledge the whole Entomology and Nema tology Department for their kindness and good-natured attitude; I could not have picked a better sc hool to attend.

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vi TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...................................................................................................v LIST OF TABLES...........................................................................................................viii LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................................................ix ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ..x 1 GENERAL LITERATURE REVIEW.........................................................................1 2 BIOLOGY OF ALLOKERMES KINGII IN FLORIDA.............................................13 Materials and Methods...............................................................................................15 Study Site.............................................................................................................15 Scale Life Cycle..................................................................................................16 Results........................................................................................................................ .17 Study Site.............................................................................................................17 Scale Life Cycle..................................................................................................17 Natural Enemies..................................................................................................21 Discussion...................................................................................................................24 3 INSECTICIDAL MANAGEMENT OF ALLOKERMES KINGII ON SHADE TREES........................................................................................................................29 Materials and Methods...............................................................................................30 Study Site.............................................................................................................30 Field Test.............................................................................................................30 Statistical Analysis..............................................................................................31 Results........................................................................................................................ .32 Discussion...................................................................................................................34 4 HYDROCARBON AND FATTY ACID METHYL ESTERS ANALYSIS OF ALLOKERMES KINGII ..............................................................................................39 Materials and Methods...............................................................................................40 Study Site.............................................................................................................40 Hydrocarbons......................................................................................................40 Esters of Fatty Acids...........................................................................................41

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vii Results and Discussion...............................................................................................41 Hydrocarbons......................................................................................................41 Esters of Fatty Acids...........................................................................................41 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................48 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................55

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viii LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Arthropods found in association with A. kingii ........................................................22 3-1 Mean (SEM) number of healthy first and second instar A. kingii per four-branch sample...................................................................................................33 3-2 Mean (SEM) percentage of dead first and second instar A. kingii per four-branch sample...................................................................................................35 4-1 Composition of hydrocarbons from male A. kingii tests..........................................44 4-2 Composition of methyl ester of the fatty acids from male A. kingii tests................44

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ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Kermes scales are distributed in the states labeled on the U.S. map (Scalenet)........6 1-2 General morphology of adult Kermes idae female, tergum (Bullington and Kosztarab 1985).......................................................................................................10 2-1 Seasonal history of Allokermes kingii on Quercus geminata and Q virginiana in Clearwater, FL..........................................................................................................19 2-2 Flow chart of life stages for A. kingii A. First instar. B. Second instar female. C. Third instar female. D. Adult female with eggs. E. Male test. F. Male prepupa. G. Male pupa. H. Adult male................................................................20 2-3 Potential natural enemies of A. kingii A. Lepidopteran la rvae inside adult female. B. Tuckerella pavoniformi C. Exit holes on adult female. D. Lacewing egg on second instar. E. Diperan larvae inside adult female...........24 4-1 Temperature programmed gas chromatographic traces for hydrogen......................42 4-2 Linear retention time graph of hydrocarbons on male A. kingii tests......................43 4-3 Temperature programmed gas chromat ographic traces for fatty acids with methyl esters.............................................................................................................45 4-4 Linear retention time graph of hydrocarbons on male A. kingii tests......................46

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x Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science BIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF ALLOKERMES KINGII ON OAK TREES By Jay Cee L. Turner August 2004 Chair: Dr. Eileen E. Buss Major Department: Entomology and Nematology Kermesid scales ( Allokermes spp.), which resemble galls or buds, typically infest oak trees, Quercus spp. Their feeding causes branch dieback, flagging, reduced growth rates, and occasionally tree death. We s ought to determine their life history and management in Florida, which was thought to differ from northern st ates. Shoot samples were collected biweekly, and the number and lif e stages of scales, a nd presence of natural enemies were recorded. We also con ducted an insecticid e trial in May 2003, corresponding to the presence of first and second instar A. kingii Shoot samples were collected biweekly, and nymphal survival wa s determined. Hydrocarbons extracted from male tests were collected and analyzed with the use of a gas chromatography. The chemical composition of the fatty acids and met hyl esters from the male test were also analyzed.

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1 CHAPTER 1 GENERAL LITERAT URE REVIEW Scale insects are best known as plant pests, but historically they have proven more useful than has any other insect group of comparable physical size (Morrison 1926, Kosztarab 1987). Since 1200 BC humans have been using products produced by scale insects. It has been suggested that in biblical times the manna which sustained the Israelites’ migration was the product of Trabutina mannipara (Hemerich & Ehrenburg) and Trabutina serpentina (Green) (Morrison 1926, Kosz tarab 1987). The cochineal scale, which means scarlet-colored, is famous as a dye in both textile and food industries (Olson 2002). The Aztecs were the first to cultivate the cochineal scale insects Datylopius coccus Costa in 1500 (Morrison 1926). Ancient writers used kermesid scales for their royal purple ink. Red dye from Kermesidae, Kerriidae, Margarodidae and Dactylopiidae were used in Michelangelo’s paintings, the British redcoats, the Canadian Mounted Police coats, Hungarian Hussars pants, Turks’ Fez (the brimless hat they wore) and the caps of the Greeks (Morri son 1926, Kosztarab 1987, Olson 2002). The wax produced by lac scales is used to make resin, the precursor of shellac, in India (Varshney 1970, Qin 1997), and candles in China (Boratynski 1970, Qin 1997). Natives of Mexico and Central America us ed the “fat” from adult female “nig” (Margarodidae) bodies to make lacquer for waterproofing wood and gourds and also as a base for medicines and cosmetics (Jenkins 1970, Qin 1997). Ground pearls have been strung as beads for necklaces in the Mediterranean region (Kosztarab 1987).

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2 In addition to product usefulness, cocco ids provided the first historical breakthrough in biological control (1988) with the us e of the Vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis Mulsant (Coccinellidae) (Kosztarab 1987) The Vedalia beetle was used to control cottonycushion scale Icerya purchasi Maskell (Margarodidae). The success of this biological control project paved the way for integrated control and pest management (Kosztarab 1987). Integrated control and pest management was much needed in 1880 when the San Jose scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comstock, made history by becoming the first insect to become resistant to the pestic ide lime sulfur (Marlatt 1953, McKenzie 1956, Kosztarab 1987). Because of this resistan ce, Dr. Comstock established an Advisory Board of Horticulture in 1881 that was late r changed (1883) to th e State Horticulture Commission. This commission was able to pass the Federal Plant Quarantine Bill of 1912, which is still enforced t oday (Marlatt 1953, McKenzie 1956). Boitard in 1828 proposed the genus Kermes for some insects resembling galls (Bullington and Kosztarab 1985). Riley in 1881 described the first species of Kermes K. galliformis from North America. In 1898 Cockerell named and described K. kingii after his good friend Dr. King. In 1890, King presen ted the first morphological synopsis for 15 species of Kermes and Cockerell prepared a key to 13 species by studying the external morphology of post-reproductive females (Bulli ngton and Kosztarab 1985). Ferris began to use slide-mounted specim ens in 1920 to illustrate K. cockerelli Ehrhorn, and by 1955 illustrated two new species of Kermes from southwestern United States (McConnell and Davidson 1959).

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3 Kermesites by Signaret 1875 was the first fa mily group name since the original designation of genus Kermes it was placed in many diffe rent families including: Coccidae, Kermidae, Leconidae, Dactylopiidae, Kermococcidae and Eriococcidae. Lobdell (1929) designated the name Kermesid ae in place of the Eriococcidae based on the Law of Priority citati on with the type-genera (Bullington and Kosztarab 1985). However, this was never accepted and in 1969 Williams stated that the family name should be Kermesidae based on the type-genus Kermes (Boitard). McConnell and Davidson (1959) described the slide-mounted adult male, newly-molted adult female, and several preliminary stages of Kermes pubescens Bogue (McConnell and Davidson 1959). Based on microscopic characters of slide-mounted first instars several Kermes species were revised (Bullington and Kosztarab 1985). Bullington and Kosztarab separated the genus Allokermes from Kermes in 1985 based on the slid e-mounted pre -reproductive females. The Kermesidae are one of the least-studied families among the scale insects (Kosztarab 1996). Kermesid scales are ga ll-like insects that infest oak trees ( Quercus spp.) throughout the world. These scales ar e often mistaken for small galls or buds, which allows populations to increase to da maging levels (Solomon et al. 1980). Their feeding causes branch dieback, flagging, re duced growth rates and occasionally tree death (Hamon 1977, Vranjic 1997, Futch et al. 2001). All species appear to be univoltine (McConnell and Davidson 1959, Hamon et al. 1976). Scales may be found in bark crevices, forks between twigs and buds, on branches, or in tree wounds (Ben-Dov 1997). The size, shape, and color pattern of post-re productive females vary considerably within the same species (Baer and Kosztarb 1985, Ko sztarab 1987). However, the adult female

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4 is globular and heavily sclero tized, which may protect it fr om the adverse conditions. Weather can change the color pattern on the cuticle of the adult female scale (Hodgson 1997). Because of the scaleÂ’s color and globular form, it is often mistaken for a gall on oak trees. Oaks are commonly planted stre et trees in the United States (Harms 1990), and uncontrolled scale infestations may decreas e the treeÂ’s economic and aesthetic value. In North America there are 32 species of Kermesidae in five genera, but in northeastern North America there are nine species in four genera ( Eriokermes, Nanokermes, Allokermes, and Kermes ) (Kosztarab 1996). Kermesid scales are located in 32 states (Fig. 1-1). All records of infestation ar e reported from Quercus spp. except for one record on Castanopsis in California (Ferris 1955) and Eriokermes gillettei on Junipercus sp. The Allokermes spp. that are of economic importance in Florida are A. cueroensis (Cockerell), A. galliformis (Riley), and A. kingii (Cockerell) (Kosztarab 1996). A. cueroensis is often called the live-oak ke rmes. It specifically attacks Q. virginiana (Miller) and possibly also Q. alba (L). Post-reproductive females are approximately 8 mm wide, convex, with no median constriction. The A. cueroensis adult female is brownish-white, slightly marble d with very pale gray and somewhat wavy brown bands. The surface of the female is speckled with brown spots. Allokermes cueroensis can be distinguished from the ot her two species in Florida by two characteristics: 1) pre-anal row of multilocu lar disc pores extending dorsally to anal ring only, median lobe of false venter without disc pores, and 2) the spinescent 8-shaped pores are broader than long and with well-develope d pits (Baer and Kosztarab 1985, Kosztarab 1996).

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5 The common name for A. galliformis is gall-like kermes scale. This scale infests at least 40 Quercus spp. (Kosztarab 1996). Allokermes galliformis has one generation per year. Post-reproductive females are about 5 mm in diameter. The body is usually

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6 Figure 1-1. Kermes scales are distributed in the states labeled on the U.S. map (Scalenet).

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7 somewhat broader than long and smooth. The outer covering of A. galliformis is pale yellow with brown specks, more or less mottle d with gray or brown. The body has about seven rows of black dots running across it, ofte n connected by an ir regular black line. Allokermes galliformis can be distinguished from the othe r species by: 1) pre-anal row of multilocular disc pores with a few pores exte nding medially onto median lobe of false venter, and also with pores extending dorsall y to the area adjacent to anal lobes but not above them; 2) lateral multilocular disc pores lightly in wide row; 3) spinescent 8-shaped pores are longer than broad, with teeth and pi ts; and 4) anal lobe setae 54m to 91m long (Baer and Kosztarab 1985, Kosztarab 1996). Allokermes kingii which is one of the most damagi ng species in Flor ida (D. Miller, pers. comm.), is also known as the northern red-oak kermes. Allokermes kingii has been recorded on eight oak speci es, but primarily infests Q. borealis (Michx.) and Q. velutina (Lamarck). All records of infestation are reported from Quercus spp. except for one record on Castanopsis in California (Ferris 1955). Allokermes kingii is recorded from five counties (Alachua, Gilchrist, Hendry, Pi nellas and Polk), but likely has a broader distribution (Greg Hodges, pers. comm.). This scale is very convex with the sides barely bulging. Adult females measure 5 mm long, 4.3 mm wide, and about 3.5 mm high. The color is pale brownish-yellow with small black spots covering the entire surface. This species can be distinguished from other spec ies by: 1) pre-anal row of quinquelocular disc pores not extending medially onto medi an lobe of false venter, also with pores extending dorsally to above anal lobes, enci rcling them; 2) lateral row of quinquelocular disc pores present, extending dorsally into sparsely distributed qui nquelocular disc pores

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8 on mid-dorsum; and 3) spinescent 8-shaped por es with small teeth that are subequal to length of pits (Baer and Kosz tarab 1985, Kosztarab 1996). Female A.kingii develop with a simple (paurometabolous) metamorphosis; males develop with complete (holometabolous) metamorphosis (Hamon et al. 1976, Kosztarab 1987, Ben-Dov 1997, Marotta 1997, Daly et al. 1998). The terms prereproductive or teneral females (individuals soon after final molt) and postreproductive females (individuals after eggs are produ ced) are used to describe scal e insects (Kosztarab 1987). Adult females are neotenic, which is a pr olonged larval form in a sexually mature organism. Females reach the adult stage afte r two to three molts. The female life cycle consists of three nymphal instars and then an adult stage. General morphology of adult female tergum is shown in Fig. 1-2. The ter gum normally applies in insects to the dorsal or upper surface of any body segment (Kosztarab 1996). Male Kermesids are holometabolous endopterygotes that delay the development of external wings until the prepupal and pupal stage (Daly et al. 1998). The male life cycle includes two nymphal instars, sessile prepupal and pupal stages, and then a winged adult (see Ch. 2). To properly identify kermes scales, prereproducti ve teneral females must be slide mounted (Baer 1980, Kosztarab 1987). After hatching an Allokermes spp. first instar or craw ler remains beneath the parental brood chamber until environmental conditions favor its dispersal, possibly up to several days (Baer 1980). The most impor tant factors affecting these population redistributions are light, grav ity, temperature, humidity or a combination of these (Greathead 1997, Marotta and Tranfaglia 1997). Crawlers generally settle within a meter

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9 from the mother, insert their stylets into the host plant, and consume phloem sap (Raven 1983, Baer and Kosztarab 1985, Vranjic 1997). Allokermes spp. crawlers are the most active, dispersal stag e (Marotta 1997, Williams 1997). The body of the first instar A. kingii is salmon-colored, oblong, widest at the mesothorax, and tapers posteriorly. Antennae are six-segmented with slender setae. The legs are well developed with a si ngle curved claw at the base of each. The anal lobes are partially or entirely scleroti zed with numerous setae. Tubular ducts are always absent on both dorsal and ventral de rm (Baer and Kosztarab 1985). There are no sexual differences at this stage (Williams 1997). Sexual dimorphism becomes apparent in second instar females and males, alt hough very similar morphologically, the female lacks the tubular ducts which are present dor sally in the male (Baer and Kosztarab 1985, Gullan and Kosztarab 1997, Williams 1997). Wh en preparing to molt to the second instar, two phases are visible: (i) an initi al change in body color, particularly around the body margins, followed by (ii) contractible motions and th e gradual extrusion of the exuviae (Annecke 1966). Because crawlers lack a waxy exterior, this stage is most vulnerable to adverse conditions an d insecticides (Marotta 1997). Second instar males often congregate on bran ches, twigs or in bark crevices on the tree trunk. Dorsal tubular ducts are presen t at this stage (Williams 1997, Hamon et al. 1976). Once a male settles it secretes a “test” a thin glossy wax over its body. The male test represents an adaptati on not only to dry conditions but also to wet conditions by protecting the insects against ba cteria and fungi (Boratynski et al. 1982). At the end of the pupal stage the male’s body is elongated, has wing pads, eye pigmentation, short legs, and seven-segmented antennae. The male l acks functional mouthparts so feeding stops

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10 Figure 1-2. General morphology of adult Kermesidae female, tergum (Bullington and Kosztarab 1985). A. Body shape B. Legs C. Eyes D. Tubular duct E. Tubular duct F. Disc pore G. Disc pore H. Pre-anal enlargement I. Mid-dorsal enlargement J. Spinescent 8-shaped pores K. Amorphous pores L. Marginal setae M. Pre-anal setae N Anal lobes O. Anal ring

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11 (Gullan and Kosztarab 1997). After emerging the adult male will live from a few hours to a week (Marotta 1997). Second and third instar female bodies are oblong to oval, antennae are sixsegmented, and the dorsal tubular ducts are usua lly absent. First or early second instar females will migrate and settle to the new growth on the br anch of the tree and become stationary. The second instar will molt into a short third instar and later become an adult female. The female secretes a wax coat a nd increases in size (Gullan and Kosztarab 1997). Occurrence of a third instar is debatabl e; the life cycle has only been studied in a few species (Williams 1997). The third instar differs from second instar and adult by the number of dermal structures, having more th an the second instar a nd less than the adult (Williams 1997). If present, the third instar maybe very short (2 to 4 days) and its occurrence may have been overlooked in some species (Ben-Dov and Hodgson 1997). In most species, after the femaleÂ’s last molt and before oviposition, the scaleÂ’s body will increase its size, mainly length. The dorsum becomes sclerotized and the female body color darkens. The dorsum becomes convex, and the female develops ovaries, ovarian eggs, and the brood chamber. The br ood chamber is located beneath the femaleÂ’s venter where she will lay eggs. The femaleÂ’s abdomen shrinks after the eggs are laid. Dead females may remain on the host for a year or more after first instar emergence (Baer 1980). The waxy test provides a shield for the eggs and first instars (Kosztarab 1987, Gullan and Kosztarab 1997, Marotta 1997). Th e eggs are uniformly covered with wax filaments secreted from the ventral tubular ducts and multilo cular disc-pores (Tamaki et al. 1969, Hamon et al. 1975). The wax fila ments prevent the eggs from drying and

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12 sticking together (Gullan and Kosztarab 1997). The number of eggs per female varies within each species. Allokermes kingii has been reported to have an average of 3,000 eggs per female (Hamon et al. 1975). The size of the female, the position on the host plant, the health of the host plant, and weather are all factors that affect fecundity (Hodgson 1997, Marotta 1997).

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13 CHAPTER 2 BIOLOGY OF ALLOKERMES KINGII IN FLORIDA Trees are an important part of everyday life. They improve environmental quality, provide shade, windbreaks, regul ate temperature, and are aest hetically pleasing (Dwyer et al. 2000). Trees afford wildlife refuge in both urban and rural areas. People benefit from trees through an increase in property value and wood products that are produced (Dwyer et al. 2000). In urban areas within the 48 continental states, ap proximately 3.8 billion trees cover 27.1% of the la nd, with a tree canopy cover of 2.8%. In Florida alone the estimated portion of the state covered by trees is 10.8%, which amounts to about 169,587,000 trees (Dwyer et al. 2000). Oaks ( Quercus spp.) are commonly used street trees in the United States, and live oaks ( Q. virginiana Mill.) have been frequently planted throughout Florida. Live oaks are fast growing, easily transplanted when young, and can provide abundant shade (Harms 1990). Scale insects are frequent pests of trees, and at least 81 species are known to infest oaks in North America (Scalenet 2001). Although soft (Coccidae) and armored (Diaspididae) scales are typi cally the most abundant and damaging, ornate pit scales (Lecanodiaspididae), pit scales (Asterolecaniidae), and gall -like scales (Kermesidae) scales have also periodically reached outbreak levels (Solomon et al. 1980). Gall-like scales ( Allokermes spp.) in particular are difficult to detect because they have a mottled appearance and often resemble the buds of their host tree or galls of cynipid wasps on oaks (Gullan and Kosztarab 1997). These native scales are known to occur on Q. borealis (L.), Q. coccinea (Muenchhausen), Q. ilicifolia (Wangenheimd), Q. imbricaria

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14 (Michaux), Q. laurifolia (Michaux), Q. phellos (L.), Q rubra (L.), and Q. velutina (Lamarck) (Kosztarab 1996). Kermesids direct ly affect plant grow th by their feeding, which involves the penetration of their stylet s into the phloem and the uptake of sap as food (Raven 1983, Vranjic 1997). The feeding re sults in branch dieback, reduced tree growth rates, and sooty mold, which gr ow on the honeydew secreted by the scales (Vranjic 1997). There are twelve Allokermes spp. in the world, and eleven are distributed throughout North America (Baer and Kosztara b 1985). The North American species are A. branigani (King), A. cueroensis (Cockerell), A. dubius (Bullington and Kosztarab), A. essigi (King), A. ferrisi (Bullington and Kosztarab), A. galliformis (Riley), A. gillettei (Cockerell), A. grandis (Cockerell), A. kingii (Cockerell), A. nivalis (King and Cockerell), and A. rattani (Ehrhorn) (Baer and Kosztarab 1985) However, the most damaging to live oak is A. kingii (D. Miller, pers. comm.). Hamon described the taxonomy and biology of A. kingii in 1976 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute in Blacksburg, Virgin ia (Hamon et al. 1976, Baer and Kosztarab 1985). Adult female A. kingii are convex in shape, m easure 5 mm long, 4.3 mm wide, and about 3.5 mm high. The color is pale brownish-yellow with small black spots covering the entire surface. Each adult female may lay on average 2,820 eggs during her lifetime (Hamon et al. 1975). Adult males are minute with fragile wings, lack functional mouthparts, and live only for a few hours to a week. Allokermes kingii has been reported to have one generation per year in Virginia (Hamon et al. 1976). The geographic and climatic conditions in Virginia, where Hamon et al. (1976) conducted his study, and those in central Fl orida are different, which may account for variances in A. kingii Â’s life cycle. The research site used by Hamon et al. was located

PAGE 25

15 within the Appalachia n Mountain chain, approximately 304 miles from the Atlantic coast (Rand McNally 1998). Virginia has a cold-w inter climate with ha rdy zones of 6 and 7, average minimum temperatures of -23 to -18 and -18 to -12 C, respectively (Dolezal 2000). The average yearly precipitation in Virginia is 109 cm (Tunnell and Woodward 2003). Blacksburg, Virginia, is located within hardy zone 6 and th e annual precipitation in 1976, when Hamon et al. did their researc h, was <102 cm. In contrast, Florida has subtropical and tropical climates (Almanac 2004), with hardy zones of 9 and 10, average minimum temperatures of -1 to 4 and 4 to 10 C, respectively (Kramer and Paukowits 2003). The average yearly precipitation fo r Florida in 2003 was 155 cm. We conducted our study in Clearwater, FL, whic h is subtropical with a hardy zone of 10 and an average yearly precipitation of 132 to 142 cm (Muller and Solomon 2003). Clearwater is located on the western coast of Florida, next to the Gu lf of Mexico, and is subjected to tropical storms and hurricanes from June to Nove mber. During the storm season high winds, increased rainfall, and warm temperatures make conditions conducive to increased scale survival. We sought to determine if more than one generation of A. kingii existed in Florida. Materials and Methods Study Site Eight oak trees (two sand live oaks, Q. geminata Small, and six live oaks, Q. virginiana ) with moderate infestations of A. kingii in Clearwater, FL (Pinellas Co.), were selected for this study. The infested area in Clearwater was approximately 300 m from the Gulf Coast. Tree height and diamet er (diameter at breast height, DBH) were measured on 10 May 2002 and again on 29 August 2003. Tree height was measured with a clinometer and the DBH was measured w ith a centimeter cloth measuring tape.

PAGE 26

16 Scale Life Cycle To determine the life cycle of A. kingii five branches (20 26 cm long) were cut from each tree, every 2-3 wk, approximately 1.8 3.7 m off the ground from 6 June 2002 to 29 August 2003. Branches were transported to the laboratory in a cooler, frozen, and examined with a dissecting binocular microsc ope (10-20X). The number of healthy first and second instars, healthy female adults, a nd dead female adults, on each branch was counted and totals for each five-branch tree sample were recorded. The total number of A. kingii per main branch and lateral branches, the total length (cm) of each main branch (five per tree), total number of lateral branch es per main branch, and their lengths (cm) were recorded. Any arthropods or potent ial natural enemies found within or in association with adult female A. kingii were preserved in 80% EtOH, and identified by taxonomists at the Department of Agricultura l and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry and/or University of Florida. Vouc her specimens will be placed at The Museum of Entomology FSCA, Gainesville, FL. To examine male A. kingii five bark samples (1.3 cm2) with male tests were taken from each of the eight trees at three he ights (0.61, 1.22, 1.83 m from the ground) every 23 wk from 23 May to 10 October 2002, and tran sported to the laborat ory in scintillation vials in a cooler. Tests were first observed with a dissec ting binocular microscope (1020X), and then removed from the male scales with a minuten pin, male scales were slidemounted, and examined with a compound micr oscope (10-40X) to determine the life stages (e.g., prepupa, pupa, or a dult). However, density and distribution of tests on stems were not determined.

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17 Results Study Site This study was conducted on Q. geminata and Q. virginiana trees, which represent new host records for A. kingii The mean height of the eight oak trees at th e beginning of the study on 10 May 2002 was 5.9 0.7 m, mean DBH of 51.7 14.3 cm, and mean canopy radius of 9.4 1.3 m. The mean height of the eight oak trees at the end of the study on 29 August 2003 was 6.4 1.0 m, mean DBH of 52.4 14.8 cm, and mean canopy radius of 10.3 2.2 cm. Scale Life Cycle Allokermes kingii appears to complete a full generation and a partial second generation each year in Clear water, FL (Fig.2-1). Salmoncolored crawlers (Fig.2-2A) emerged from late May to the first week of August in 2002 and females migrated to the larger branches while males went onto the tr ee stem. Crawlers began to molt into second instars by mid-July. At this time, second instar females (Fig.2-2B) migrated to tree wounds or new growth, often near new leaf pe tioles, became sessile, and secreted a hard, waxy covering over themselves. Second instar males migrated further down on the tree stems, became sessile, and covered themselv es with a white, felt-like waxy pupal case (test). Second instar females go through a s hort third instar (Fig.2-2C), which lasts approximately 2-4 d (Marotta 1997), but this was not observed dur ing the study. Second instar females molted into adults from late August to mid-December. Gravid females occurred in early September to mid-Decem ber and laid eggs (Fig.2-2D) under their venter, in the brood chamber. Average length of all branches collected from 6 June 2002 to 29 August 2003 was 198.4 66.9 cm. We found 728.6 399.1 (range 166-1,755) A.

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18 kingii all life stages combined, on 1,120 ma in branches (22.9 2.3 cm) and 781.6 309.2 (range 371-1,586) on lateral shoots (4.2 1.0 cm). Male tests (Fig.2-2E) were found in crev ices or wounds on tree stems. Male prepupae (Fig.2-2F) were present on the bark fr om early June to mid-July, and again in mid-September to mid-October. Pupae (Fig.2-2G) occurred throughout the 6-month collection period, with higher numbers at th e beginning of June to mid-July and in October. Adult males (Fig.2-2H) were present in late May to early June, early July to mid-August, and throughout October. Second generation crawlers began emergi ng in mid-September and molted into second instars by mid-October. The nymphs overwintered as first and second instars. Scale development appeared to slow or st op until the first molt in mid-February 2003. By late April-early May, second instar female A. kingii molted into mature adults. Second-generation adult female A. kingii produced eggs until mid-June.

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19 Figure 2-1. Seasonal history of Allokermes kingii on Quercus geminata and Q. virginiana in Clearwater, FL.

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20 B C D G F E A H L. Buss L. Buss L. Buss J. Butler J. Butler J. Butler Figure 2-2. Flow chart of life stages for A. kingii A. First instar. B. Second instar female. C. Third instar female. D. Adult fe male with eggs. E. Male test. F. Male prepupa. G. Male pupa. H. Adult male.

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21 Natural Enemies Several insects were found either feedi ng directly on or in association with A. kingii in this study (Table 2-1), but none ap peared abundant enough to regulate A. kingii populations. Several different lepidopteran larvae were found inside adult female A. kingii (Fig. 2-3A). These larvae may have been feeding on the eggs, because only a few of the adult females had both eggs and lepi dopteran larvae in their brood chambers, but this behavior was not observed. There were several mites ( Tuckerella pavoniformi (Ewing)), found in association with A. kingii throughout the collection period (Fig. 2-3B). These mites are plant-parasites that feed on the cambium. Several hymenopteran eggs were laid on a leaf near A. kingii scales from which one ichneumonid wasp ( Trachaner pr. n. sp.) emerged. A total of 717 adult female A. kingii appeared to be parasitized, with exit holes on their bodies (Fig. 2-3C). Formicid ants, Pheidole dentata (Mayr), were tending A. kingii throughout the collection period. These ants collect and feed on the honeydew that is secreted by A. kingii With decreasing temperatures the activity of the ants decreased. This could indicate that A. kingii ceased honeydew production and became dormant. Two different ladybird bee tle species were found in association with A. kingii Several lacewings ( Chrysoperla sp.) eggs were found on leaves and one was on top of an adult female A. kingii (Fig. 2-3D) Other insects in the orders Psocoptera and Thysanoptera were also f ound in association with A. kingii (Table 2-1). Dipteran larvae were found inside adult females (Fig. 2-3E), but were easily dama ged and could not be identified.

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22 Table 2-1. Arthropods f ound in association with A. kingii Order Family Species Date Number found Acariforme Tuckerellidae Tuckerella pavoniformi (Ewing) 6 June 2002 1 Coleoptera Attelabidae Homoelabus analis (Illiger) 7 July 2002 1 Coleoptera Coccinellidae Chilocorus cacti (L) 6 June 2002 1 Coleoptera Coccinellidae Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) 6 June 2002 1 Hemiptera Diaspididae Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targ.-Tozz.) 29 August 2003 6 Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Metaphycus sp (Howard) 6 June 2002 1 Hymenoptera Formicidae Pheidole dentata (Mayr) 16 July 2003 50 Hymenoptera Ichneumonidae Trachaner pr. n. sp. (Townes) 23 May 2002 1 Lepidoptera Blactobasidae Holcocera coccivorella (Chambers) 5 June 2003 19 June 2003 19 July 2003 1 2 1 Lepidoptera Cosmopterigidae Euclemensia bassettella (Clemens) 20 June 2002 5 June 2003 2 1

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23 Table 2-1. Continued. Order Family Species Date Number found Lepidoptera Cosmopterigidae Pyroderces sp. (Herrich-Schffer) 6 June 2002 2 Lepidoptera Pyralidae Laetilia coccidivora (Comstock) 22 May 2003 1 Lepidoptera Pyralidae Laetilia sp. (Ragonot) 5 June 2003 19 June 2003 1 2 Neuroptera Chrysopidae Chrysoperla sp. 20 June 2002 1 Neuroptera Chrysopidae 5 May 2002 23 May 2002 20 June 2002 2 Aug 2002 1 2 1 2 Psocoptera Psocidae 2 Aug 2002 1 Thysanoptera Phlaeothripidae 6 June 2002 2 Thysanoptera 20 June 2002 1 = not determined

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24 A D B C E J. Butler L. Buss L. Buss L. Buss Figure 2-3. Potential natural enemies of A. kingii A. Lepidopteran larva inside adult female. B. Tuckerella pavoniformi C. Exit holes on adult female. D. Lacewing egg on second instar. E. Diperan larva inside adult female. Discussion Allokermes kingii has a full generation and a par tial generation, which overwinters as first and second instars in Clearwater, Florida. This s easonal phenology is different

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25 from previously published life history data, wh ich states that there is only one generation per year in Virginia (Hamon et. al. 1976). Several factors incl uding insect phenology, tree species, location, or weather ma y contribute to the variance. Allokermes kingii adult females are neotenous and are able to mate with a male scale at a young age (Gullan and Kosztara b 1997). The adult male sperm is unique among insects. The lumen of the adult male A. kingii contains numerous sperm bundles in a liquid, each sperm bundle containing 8-12 spermatozoa surrounded by a sheath (Foldi 1997, Gullan and Kosztarab 1997). Af ter mating with females, sperm bundles are stored within the female oviduct. If males ma te with teneral females, then fertilization may need to be delayed for weeks or months until eggs are mature (Gullan and Kosztarab 1997). The longevity of sperm within the female scale suggests that fertilization of eggs may occur over a protracted oviposition peri od or a long time after copulation (Gullan and Kosztarab 1997). It is thought that ne oteny shortens female development time, which caused the male dormant stages to evol ved to synchronize reproductive maturity of the sexes (Danzig 1980). After the adult femaleÂ’s last molt her size changes dramatically (McConnell and Davidson 1959, Matile-Ferrero 1997). The adult female A. kingii dorsum becomes heavily sclerotized at maturity, and a cav ity under the moribund body acts as a secure brood chamber for the developing eggs (Bulli ngton and Kosztarab 1985, Matile-Ferrero 1997). The brood chamber is formed by th e development of a cavity beneath the abdomen (see Chap.1). By the time oviposition has been completed, the abdomen has become so shrunken through the loss of eggs that the venter may touch the dorsum, with the entire cavity beneath fille d with eggs (Marotta 1997). Allokermes kingii secrete a

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26 waxy cover that protects thei r eggs and hatching nymphs, wh ich increase the survival of progeny (Kosztarab 1987, Gullan and Kosztarab 1997). Even after death A. kingii shelter their progeny with their body, pr otecting them against the en vironment, pesticides, and natural enemies (Kosztarab 1987, Gullan and Kosztarab 1997). Allokermes kingii reportedly infests eight different oak species, Q. borealis Q. coccinea Q. ilicifolia Q. imbricaria Q. laurifolia Q. phellos Q rubra and Q. velutina (Kosztarab 1996), in addition to our new host records of Q. geminata and Q. virginiana The geographic range of A. kingii in the United States overlap s with the distribution of these oaks (Bullington and Kosztarab 1985). All of the oaks infested by A. kingii are northern species, exception Q. phellos and Q. velutina which extend from the northern United States into the western tip of Florida (Stein et al. 2003). Hamon studied the biology of A. kingii on northern red oak ( Q. rubra ) and black oak ( Q. velutina ) in Virginia. The northe rn red oakÂ’s native range is in the northeastern part of the United States down to southern Alabama, Georgia and North Carolina (Sander 1990). Northern red oaks produce their firs t flush in April or May. Black oak is distributed from Maine west to Minnesota, and south to Texas northwestern Florida (Stein et al. 2003). Like the northern red oak it also flushes in April or May. The two oaks used in this study, sand live oak ( Q. geminata ) and live oak ( Q. virginiana ) are found along the lower Coastal Plains and thr oughout Florida (Stein 2003). The sand live oak trees in Clearwater, Flor ida, began to flush around midApril and the live oak flushed in mid-March, with several additional flushes throughout the growing season. By taking advantage of the plant/insect re lationship, we can use plant cues (flush, flowering, petal fall, etc.) as indicators of insect development (Ascerno 1991). The

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27 prolonged flush in Clearwat er, one month longer than in Virginia, may enable A. kingii to increase its population by provi ding a food source that is avai lable for a longer period of time. Weather may also indirectly influence plant feeding insects by causing stress in the host plant or causing excessive grow th in the plant (Shetlar 1997). Florida has a tropical storm and hurricane seas on that lasts for six months out of the year. On 1 September 2002, Hurricane Edouard was slightly north of Clearwater, FL. This hurricane lasted for 5 days with maxi mum winds of 65 mph. From 1 September to 14 September it rained a total 14.22 cm (F AWN 2004). The growth of scale insects depends upon the quality and quantity of the pl antÂ’s sap. The plant sap contains a limited amount of nitrogen upon which the insect depends for growth, and quite small changes in the nitrogen content of the sap can have dramatic effects on population growth rates (Kunkel 1997). Water pushes nitrogen up from th e soil into the plant, which will then be available to A. kingii in the sap. During September and October 2002 there was an increase in the number of first instars. The excessive amount of water caused by hurricane Edouard may have contributed to the outbreak of A. kingii It has been shown that parasitoid-host in teractions become more frequent as the host matures (Blumberg 1997). Most of the mort ality in this study can be attributed to parasitism or predation of adult females and second instars. Many females that are parasitized are able to ovi posit, but the number of eggs they produce may be greatly reduced (Gordon and Potter 1988). During this study most of A. kingii with emergence holes were adult females, only a few were second instars. The most abundant insect species associated with A. kingii was Pheidole dentata (Mayr). Ants commonly tend and defend scale insects. In return they feed off the

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28 honeydew that A. kingii excretes (Gullan 1997). Scale insects are ofte n attacked by caterpillars (Scoble 1995). All but one lepi dopteran family collected during this study was found inside adult females. Euclemensia bassettella (Clemens) are known predators of A. kingii (Stehr 1987, Scoble 1995, and Scalenet 2001) and Laetilia coccidivora (Comstock) are known to prey on scale insects (S tehr 1987). Different coleopteran families are also common scale predator s (Stehr 1987, Borror et al. 1989). A few thysanopteran species in the family Phlaeo thripidae are known as predators of scale insects (Stehr 1987). Several pscopterans in the family Psocidae were also collected. A few psocid species are omnivorous feeding on insect eggs and possi bly scale insects. Acariformes in the family Tuckerellidae: Tuckerella pavoniformi (Ewing) were found in abundance along with the scales. Tuckerella pavoniformi are obligant plant feeders and are not common in Florida. The fecundity of an insect is affected by temperature, scale density, adult female size, and the species and edaphic conditions of the host plant (Sal vatore 1997). The subtropical climate of Clearwater, Florid a, and annual precipita tion of 132-142 cm may make it conducive for adult female A. kingii to produce more eggs than are produced in Blacksburg, Virginia. With this increase in production of eggs the scale density on the trees is able to increase to a population that could be detrimental to the tree, causing branch die-back and even death of the tree.

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29 CHAPTER 3 INSECTICIDAL MANAGEMENT OF ALLOKERMES KINGII ON SHADE TREES Allokermes kingii Cockerell (Hemiptera: Kermesid ae), is a native gall-like scale found on oak trees ( Quercus spp.) throughout the eastern Unit ed States, west to Indiana and Tennessee. Damage from this scale re sults in flagging, branch dieback, reduced growth, and during heavy infestations, tr ee death (Hamon 1977). In addition, the honeydew that the kermes scale creates resu lts in sooty mold problems, which may reduce a treeÂ’s ability to photosynthesize, and an incr ease in ant activity. Populations of A. kingii have the potential to increase in numbers faster in FloridaÂ’s subtropical climate than in more northern st ates. Previous research suggests that A. kingii is univoltine throughout most of its Nort h American range (Hamon et al. 1976). However, A. kingii can produce one full generation and a partial second generation each year in Florida (see Chapter 2). First gene ration crawlers emerge in late May, become second instars by mid-July and reach the adul t stage by late August. Second generation crawlers emerge in mid-September and become second instars by mid-October. Both the first and second instars overwinter and become adults in late April or early May of the following year. Control of this insect is difficult because of the extended egg hatch and crawler activity and unawareness of the partial second generation. Several species of oak, especially live oak ( Quercus virginiana Mill.), are frequently planted and maintained as street trees in Florida. Li ve oak trees are fastgrowing and easily transported when young, whic h enables them to be widely used as ornamental trees (Harms 1990). The annual co st of tree installation and maintenance in

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30 the City of Clearwater was $234,000 in 2003 (A Mayberry, pers. comm.). Because the Clearwater city arborist was concerned that hundreds of trees might die from kermes scale infestations, we conducted an insecticid e trial to determine th e efficacy of several insecticides against A. kingii nymphs. Materials and Methods Study Site Thirty oak trees ( Q. geminata Small and Q. virginiana ) with moderate infestations of A. kingii in Clearwater, FL (Pinellas Co.), were selected for this study. The infested trees were located in a parki ng lot 300 m from the Gulf Coas t. The mean height of the thirty trees was 5.9 0.7 with a mean DBH of 14.3 3.7 in May 2003. The height was measured with a clinometer and the DB H was measured with a centimeter cloth measuring tape. Trees were separated by at least 4.3 m and branches were not interconnected. Field Test Insecticide applications were timed to co incide with the emergence of first and early second instars of the first A. kingii generation. A certifie d arborist applied the insecticides on 1 and 2 May 2003. Treatments we re assigned to trees using a randomized complete block design, with five replicates and six treatments. Treatments included label rates of acephate (Orthene TT&O, Valent USA Corp., Walnut Creek, CA), bifenthrin (Talstar Flowable, FMC, Philadelphia, PA), imidacloprid (Merit 75 WP, Bayer Environmental Science, Montvale, NJ), horticultural oil (S unspray Ultra-Fine, Philadelphia, PA), horticultural oil plus acephate, and an untreat ed control. Adjuvant was not mixed with the insecticides. Acephate, bifenthrin, horticultural oil, and horticultural oil + acephate were applied as foliar sp rays using a hydraulic sprayer (pressure: 25

PAGE 41

31 ml/m2) with a 756 L tank. Trees were sprayed until run-off. The tank had an agitator with a single nozzle hand-hel d sprayer. Imidacloprid was applied under the tree canopy as a soil drench using an 18.9 L Solo backpack sprayer. Equipment was triple-rinsed between treatments to prevent contamina tion. Air temperature, soil temperature measured at 20.3 cm deep, relative humid ity, wind speed, and cloud conditions were noted at application. To determine product efficacy, the number of healthy and dead first and second instars of A. kingii were counted on four branches collected from each tree. One branch (20 26 cm long) was randomly cut from each of the four cardinal points of each tree, approximately 1.8 to 3.7 m up from the ground on 24 April (pretreatment), 9 May (1 week after treatment, WAT), 22 May (3 WAT) 5 June (5 WAT) and 19 June (7 WAT), 2003. The four branches per tree were put into a plastic bag, placed in a cooler, transported to the laboratory, frozen, a nd examined with a dissecting binocular microscope. First and early second instars that survived the treatments were salmoncolored. However, insecticide-killed nymphs were slightly brown and shriveled. A waxy secretion normally coats healthy second instar s, but those affected by insecticides had black spots on the wax layer. Male A. kingii located on tree stems were not examined in this test. Statistical Analysis. The mean number of healthy first and second instar A. kingii per four-branch sample was calculated using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) ( P <0.05) and treatments were compared to the contro l using a DunnettÂ’s Test on each date (Jmp SAS Institute Inc. 2001). The proportion of scale mortality was calculated by dividing

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32 the total number of dead nymphs by the total number of live and dead nymphs for each branch on each date. Proportions were arc-si ne square root-transfo rmed, analyzed using an ANOVA, and if statistically significant, trea tments were compared to the control using a DunnettÂ’s Test on each date (Jmp SAS Institute Inc. 2001). Results From the beginning to the end of the applications on 1 and 2 May 2003, the air temperature ranged from 26 to 34.2 C, so il temperature 20.3 cm deep had a range of 21.1 to 23.3 C, relative humidity ranged from 76 to 100%, and wind speed ranged from 1.2 to 4.3 kph. Cloud conditions ranged from pa rtly cloudy to overcast. About 1.3 cm of rain fell lightly for 15 min after the horticultural oil, acephate, and oil plus acephate applications on 1 May 2003. Imidacloprid was ap plied as a soil drench after the rain. Bifenthrin was applied as a foliar spray the following day because the wind increased to >4 kph on 1 May. Trees measured from the trunk were 4.3 to 5.5 m apart with a mean DBH of 22.8 to 17.8 cm DBH and mean height of 5.5 1.0 m. Trees were not irrigated. Insecticidal treatments of A. kingii reduced nymphal survival by almost half 1 WAT, compared to the pretreat ment sample (Table 3-1), but none of the treatments killed all of the nymphs. Howeve r, the number of healthy nymphs on control trees also declined over time. Significantly fewer nym phs survived 3 WAT on trees treated with mixed horticultural oil and acephate, compared to the control. The number of healthy nymphs markedly increased on trees treate d with acephate or bi fenthrin 5 WAT and significantly so on bifenthrin 7 WAT compared to the control. The population increase on 19 June in the bifenthrin treatment was la rgely from the crawler emergence from two

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33Table 3-1. Mean (SEM) number of healthy first and second instar A. kingii per four-branch sample. Treatment Rate (prod./water) 24-April (pretreat.) 9-May (1 WAT) 22-May (3 WAT) 5-June (5 WAT) 19-June (7 WAT) Control 69.0 32.1 66.6 24.0 41.2 8.4 43.2 13.3 33.2 10.9 Imidacloprid 5.65g/7.56L 117.8 49.6 71.6 22.5 56.0 14.2 52.4 37.1 57.6 27.3 Acephate 2.37L/378L 100.0 54.8 26.2 8.3 13.4 2.4 40.6 17.3 41.2 21.4 Horticultural oil 7.56L/378L 94.0 25.9 12.6 4.3 13.0 4.9 25.6 8.5 23.6 6.1 Oil + acephate 7.56L oil + 226.8g acephate/378L 49.0 27.5 5.2 2.8 7.8 3.0* 2.6 1.5 14.2 12.7 Bifenthrin 2.37L/378L 85.0 24.0 44.4 22.2 16.8 7.7 70.8 40.9 308.2 118.7* F = 0.41 F = 2.77 F = 6.03 F = 0.91 F = 4.90 df = 5,24 df = 5,24 df = 5,24 df = 5,24 df = 5,24 P = 0.834 P = 0.041 P = 0.001 P = 0.494 P = 0.003 Means within a column followed by an asterisk are signif icantly different from the control (DunnettÂ’s test) at P <0.05.

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34 female A. kingii No other crawler emergence was not ed from any other treatments or dates. The percentage of nymphal mortality was st atistically greater on trees treated with acephate or horticultural oil 3 WAT (Table 32). The percentage of mortality 5 WAT was greatest on A. kingii treated with horticultural oil a nd acephate, statistically differing from the control. Discussion Scale insects on trees and shrubs can be difficult to control. To control scale insects effectively, their identification must be accurate and the crawler activity period should be known (Muegge and Merchant 2000). The first and early second instars of A. kingii are the stage that is controlled most e ffectively with insecticides (Muegge and Merchant 2000). Under most conditions, predators and parasites suppress scale populations to a level where chemical interven tion is not needed (Futch et al. 2001). When scale populations are not controlled by biological or chemical means, high populations may damage leaves, fruit, twigs, br anches, or tree trunks (Futch et al. 2001). Best practices for insecticides against scal es would include proper timing of application and correctly labeled insecticides target ed against crawlers (Gilrein 2001). Acephate is one of the more recent additi ons to systemic insecticides (Ware 1996). Acephate provides better longterm control through nymphal suffocation, systemic, or contact mortality. Acephate has a moderate persistence with 10 to 15 days of residual activity (Ware 1996, Syslo and Davy 1999). It is possible that the mixture of oil with acephate increases the adherence and dispersi on on trees. Because of the short residual of acephate and lack of residual for the oil (Syslo and Davy 1999), as well as extended

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35Table 3-2. Mean (SEM) percentage of dead first and second instar A. kingii per four-branch sample. Treatment 9-May (1 WAT) 22-May (3 WAT) 5-June (5 WAT) 19-June (7 WAT) Control 5.7 3.8 0 0 12.3 5.7 Imidacloprid 17.3 5.8 11.3 5.7 20.1 6.5 24.2 3.6 Acephate 31.7 4.1 32.7 5.2* 11.0 3.2 18.3 6.6 Horticultural oil 37.7 11.1 26.7 9.0* 15.8 3.0 21.7 9.2 Oil + acephate 23.6 10.7 13.2 8.9 41.7 19.3* 15.5 12.5 Bifenthrin 24.7 2.6 16.0 6.7 12.0 5.1 9.7 2.7 F = 2.33 F = 3.89 F = 2.62 F = 0.70 df = 5,24 df = 5,24 df = 5,24 df = 5,24 P = 0.074 P = 0.010 P = 0.050 P = 0.628 Means within a column followed by an asterisk are signif icantly different from the control (DunnettÂ’s test) at P <0.05.

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36 crawler emergence period (see Chapter 2), ad ditional applications of an acephate-oil mixture or other insecticide may be needed. Bifenthrin is a contact and stomach poison. Its mode of action is by paralyzing the nervous system of the insect. Degradation of bifenthrin can occur between 7 days to 8 months, depending on the oxidative microbial activity. Bifent hrin is a broad-spectrum insecticide (Dent 2000), and can kill natural enemies. It is possible that a bifenthrin application could cause A. kingii population to eventually rebound because of natural enemy mortality or increased plant growth (McClure 1977). However, natural enemies were never abundant during this study. Soil drenches are useful in an urban envi ronment because they reduce spray drift, thereby reducing nontarget impacts (Rebek and Sadof 2003). Imidacloprid is a frequently used soil drench used against scal es. Imidacloprid is a systemic and contact insecticide, which has the potential for mana ging insects that have become insecticide resistant (Pedigo 1996). Systemic insecticides are taken up by the roots or leaves and translocated within the plant. Insects feeding on the plant digest the insecticide and are killed. Imidacloprid is in the new class of chloronicotinyls, which are synthetics of the natural product nicotine. Imidacloprid change s the behavior and mobility of an insect by affecting the insectÂ’s nervous system. It may, however, also negatively impact the behavior of natural enemies, such as dimini sh searching behavior and prey consumption of ladybird beetles (Smith and Krischik 1999) As a contact inse cticide on the plant imidacloprid was shown to decrease parasitism of Encarsia citrina (Craw) on the Euonymus scale, Unaspis euonymi (Comstock), and resulted in an increase of that scaleÂ’s population (Rebek and Sadof 2003).

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37 Numerous researchers have recorded scale insect population outbreaks following pesticide applications. The brown soft scale, Coccus hesperidum L. (Bartlett and Ewart 1951), frosted scale, Parthenolecanium priunosum (Coq.) (Bartlett and Ortega 1952), Hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris (McClure 1977), California red scale Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell). (Stansly, et al 1999) al l increased in population after the insecticide treatment. McClure (1977) stated several re asons for the resurgen ce of scale populations: 1) reduced numbers of natural enemies, 2) reduced competition among individuals, and 3) increased plant growth, which improved the nutritive quality of the host. The resurgence of healthy A. kingii nymphs may have been due to additional egg hatch, favorable weather conditions, or breakdown of insecticidal residues (Syslo and Davy 1999). Lack of irrigation may have reduced th e effectiveness of the application of imidacloprid. Grafton-Cardwell and Reagan (1999) indicated that there was a trend in greater efficacy of California red scale c ontrol when an imidacloprid treatment was preceded by 2 h of irrigation on fruit, leaves and soil. Thus pre-wetting of the soil appears to be important for the uptake of imidacloprid. There was no irrigation at the study site. Even though it rained about 1.3 cm, the lack of water a nd the amount of leaf debris under the treesÂ’ canopies may have re duced root uptake of imidacloprid, thus delaying the translocation of imidacloprid into the treesÂ’ phloem, which is where A. kingii feeds (Salvatore 1997). In conclusion, this study has shown that horticultural oil and acephate mixed gave the fastest and longest lasting control of A. kingii However, none of the products were highly efficacious against A. kingii nymphs at anytime in this test. Some other products

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38 labeled for scale control in urban landscapes in clude Fish oil, Insect icidal soap, malathion (Malathion, Gowan, Yuma, AZ), pyriproxyfen (Distance, Valent USA Corp., Walnut Creek, CA), or thiamethoxam (Flagship, Synge nta USA, Greensboro, NC). Other control measures would include proper pruning and removal of scales by hand.

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39 CHAPTER 4 HYDROCARBON AND FATTY ACID METHYL ESTERS ANALYSIS OF ALLOKERMES KINGII Allokermes kingii lives primarily on oak trees ( Quercus spp.). The damage caused by A. kingii can be seen in branch die-back, redu ced tree growth rates, and sooty mold, which grows on the honeydew that the kerm es scales secrete (Hamon 1977, Vranjic 1997). Oak trees frequently planted along streets and in city parks. In order to protect the tree, one must first unders tand the insect that is aff ecting it. Knowledge of the composition of the wax secreted by insects is of interest, apart from the point of view of comparative biochemistry, because it may provi de a clue to the best method of managing the insect (Hackman 1951). Hydrocarbons and waxes serve many functions in insects. They prevent desiccation and are important in chemi cal communication (Nelson 1978, Howard 1982). The test or cover that is secreted by scale in sects is believed to protect the scales from effects of weather, natural enemies, and possibly insecticidal sprays (Hackman 1951, Castner and Nation 1986, Stanley-Samuels on and Nelson 1993, Tamaki 1997). Sulc (1932) was the first to utilize ch aracteristics of male tests as an aid for identifying species of soft scales (Miller and Williams 1990). This study was conducted to determine if a unique gas chromatography profile could be obtained from the male A. kingii Â’s test.

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40 Materials and Methods Study Site. A. kingii tests were collected from eight oak trees (two sand live oaks, Q. geminata Small, and six live oaks, Q. virginiana ) every 2-3 wk from 23 May to 10 October 2002, in Clearwater, FL (Pinellas Co). Tests we re removed from each tree at three heights (0.61, 1.22, 1.83 m from the ground), and transporte d to the laboratory in scintillation vials in a cooler. Each bark sample meas ured approximately 2.54 cm. Five tests were collected from each tree and placed into a vial The male tests were removed from the tree bark with a minuten pin in the laboratory and placed into a vial. The male scale was slide mounted and used to determine the male A. kingii biology (chapter 2). Hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons and other lipids were extrac ted by immersing 231 tests in 5 ml of benzene, gently agitating, and saponifying over night. The solv ent was gently evaporated with a stream of nitrogen. From 1-2 l of the concentrated extract was injected into a AT1 Heliflex Col from ALLTECH, cat. #932525, non-polar column. Data were collected and processed dire ctly from the chromatograph by a Hewlett Packard 3390A integrator. Hydrocarbons we re separated by a coiled glass column with an interior diameter of 25 mm by 25 m, with 0.2 m thic kness. The carrier gas was helium at a flow of 21.8 cm per second. The injector port was se t at 270 C with the ou t take valve set at 320 C. The glass column was at 200 C upon injection, and was immediately temperature programmed at 4 C per mi nute to 300 C and held for 20 minutes. A standard was prepared from commerci ally available synthetic hydrocarbons (Sigma Chemical Company). The standard s contained even and odd straight chain hydrocarbons from C20 to C30, plus C32 and C34.

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41 Esters of Fatty Acids. Esters of higher fatty acids were extracted from the same 231 tests. Tests were in a vial with a solution of 0.5 ml KOH and 0.5 ml Methyl alcohol (CH3OH) and gently agitated for one minute. The solvent was eva porated with nitrogen and injected into the AT1 Heliflex Col from ALLTECH, cat. #93252 5. The methods from the hydrocarbon test were repeated for the esters of fatty acids test. Results and Discussion Hydrocarbons. Chromatogram profiles and re lative quantities are proving to be characteristics for a wide variety of individual insect species. Temperature programmed gas chromatographic traces for hydrogen are shown in Fig. 4-1 w ith a corresponding linea r retention graph in Fig. 4-2. Kovat Indices (KI) and hydrogen composition are shown in Table 4-1. The main components of hydro carbons in the test of A. kingii have calculated KI values 2000, 2200, 2300, 2400, 2500, 2600, 2700, 2800, 2900, 3000, 3200, 3400 were chromatographically identical to C20, C22, C23, C24, C25, C26, C27, C28, C29, C30, C32 and C34, respectively. Major peak s were recorded at 13.62, 20.40, 10.19, and 16.98 with a percentage of area covered 28.075, 15.651, 14.508, and 13.960 respectively. Esters of Fatty Acids. Temperature programmed gas chromatographi c traces for fatty acids with methyl esters are shown in Fig. 4-3 with a corres ponding linear re tention graph in Fig. 4-4. Kovat Indices (KI) and fatty esters are shown in Table 4-2. The major constituents of fatty esters in the male test have calculated KI values of 1400, 1600, 1610, 1800, 18:1 and were chromatographically identi cal to C14, C16, C16:1, C18 and C18:1,

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42 respectively. Major peaks were recorded at 24.02, 29.14, and 16.13 with percent area coverage of 54.993, 18.891, and 11.358, respectively. Retention Time (min.) Detector Response Figure 4-1. Temperature programmed ga s chromatographic traces for hydrogen.

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43 5.92 8.55 10.19 11.71 13.62 15.12 16.98 18.57 20.4 21.92 25.08 28.740 5 10 15 20 25 30 35C 2 0 C 2 2 C 2 3 C 2 4 C 2 5 C 2 6 C 2 7 C 2 8 C 2 9 C 3 0 C 3 2 C 3 4Carbon NumberRetention Time Retention time Figure 4-2. Linear re tention time graph of hydrocarbons on male A. kingii tests.

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44 Table 4-1. Composition of hydrocarbons from male A. kingii tests. Hydrocarbon Carbon number Retention time Area % Calculated index value Eicosane C20 05.92 01.906 2000 Docosane C22 08.55 01.671 2200 Tricosane C23 10.19 14.508 2300 Tetracosane C24 11.71 02.600 2400 Pentacosane C25 13.62 28.075 2500 Hexacosane C26 15.12 02.521 2600 Heptacosane C27 16.98 13.960 2700 Octacosane C28 18.57 03.763 2800 Nonacosane C29 20.40 15.651 2900 Triacontane C30 21.92 04.089 3000 Dotriacontane C32 25.08 03.955 3200 Tethatriacontane C34 28.74 05.417 3400 Table 4-2. Composition of methyl ester of the fatty acids from male A. kingii tests. Hydrocarbon Carbon number Retention time Area % Calculated index value Tetradecane C14 06.63 00.369 1400 Hexadecane C16 12.61 04.631 1600 C16:1 16.13 11.358 1610 Octadecane C18 24.02 54.993 1800 C18:1 29.14 18.891 1810

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45 Figure 4-3. Temperature programmed gas chro matographic traces for fatty acids with methyl esters. Detector Response Retention Time (min.)

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46 6.63 12.61 16.13 24.02 29.14 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35141616:011818:01 Carbon NumberRetention Time fatty esters Figure 4-4. Linear re tention time graph of hydrocarbons on male A. kingii tests.

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47 Taxonomic descriptions of many scales ar e based primarily upon adult females, while the study of adult males and immature males has been largely neglected. The test, or pupal cover, that the second instar male secretes can also provide a means of identification (Miller and Williams 1990). The analysis of lipids by gas chromatography is one way of determining which hydrocarbons (o r classes of lipids) and waxes it contains (Castner and Nation 1986). Hydrocarbons ar e the long-chain alkane s and alkenes, and the methyl-branched alkanes and alkenes (Nel son 1993). Fatty acids constitute parts of many parts of lipids. In simple lipids, esters form from fatty acids and alcohols. If the alcohol is a long-chain compound they are called waxes (Stenesh 1998). Hydrocarbons are not major components of the cover of scale insects (Tamaki 1997). Allokermes kingii test is made up of mostly wax with almost 60% saturated fatty acid, and almost 30% as unsaturated fatty aci d. Although a large but varying fraction of scale wax is composed of standard long-chai n ester (C43-46), most waxes also seem to include a small amount of straight-chain hydr ocarbons, containing from 15 to 33 or more carbon atoms (Brown 1975). Methyl-branched al kanes comprise a significant portion of hydrocarbon mixtures and serve as both pheromones and kairomones in many insects (Howard 1982). The chemical composition of the test differs between species, in the case of soft scales, waxy materials are an impor tant component of the cover (Tamaki 1997).

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48 LIST OF REFERENCES Annecke, D.P. 1966. Biological studies on the immature stages of soft brown scale, Coccus hesperidum (L.) (Hemiptera: Coccidae). S. African J. Agric. Sci. 9: 205227. Ascerno M. 1991. Insect phenology and integrated pe st management. J. Arboric. 17(1): 13-15. Baer, R.G. 1980. A new species of gall-like coccid from southeastern United States. J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 15(1): 20-25. Baer, R.G. and M. Kosztarab. 1985. A morphological and systematic study of the first and second instars of the family Kermesidae in the Nearctic Region (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), pp. 119-237. In R.G. Baer, S.W. Bullington and M. Kosztarab (eds.), Morphology and systematics of scale insects, vol. 2. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. Ben-Dov, Y. 1997. Morphology, systematics and phylogeny, pp. 3-4. In Y. Ben-Dov and C.J. Hodgson (eds.), Soft scale insects: Their biology, natural enemies and control, vol. 7A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Boratynski, K. 1970. Advances in our knowledge of Coccoidae with reference to studies of the males and the applicat ion of some numerical methods of classification, pp. 585-595. In M. Kosztarab, 1987. Everything unique or unusual about scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoid ae). Bulletin of the ESA, winter, pp. 215220. Boratynski K., E. Pancer-Koteja and J. Koteja. 1982. The life history of Lecanopsis formicarum Newstead (Hemiptera: Coccinea) Ann. Zool. (Warszawa) 36: 51737. Bullington, S.W. and M. Kosztarab. 1985. Revision of the family Kermisidae (Hemiptera) in the Nearctic region base d on adult and third instar females. In R.G. Baer, S.W. Bullington and M. Kosztarab (eds.), Morphology and systematics of scale insects, vol. 2. Virginia Polyte chnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. Blumberg, D. 1997. Encapsulation of parasitoids, pp. 375-387. In Y. Ben-Dov and C.J. Hodgson (eds.), Soft scale insects: Their bi ology, natural enemies and control, vol. 7A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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49 Brown, K.S. 1975. The chemistry of aphids and scale insects. Chemical Society Reviews, London, 4: 263-288. Castner, J.L. and J.L. Nation. 1986. Cuticular lipids for species recognition of mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gr ylloptalpidae): II. Scapteriscus abbreviatus S. acletus, S. vicinus S. sp ., and Neocurtilla hexadactyla Arch. Insect Biochem. and Physiol. 3: 127-134. Daly, H.V., J.T. Doyen, and A.H. Purcell III. 1998. Continuity of the generations: development and reproduction, pp. 66-68. In H.V. Daly, J.T. Doyen, and A.H. Purcell III (eds.), In troduction to insect biology and diversity, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, New York, NY. Danzig, E.M. 1980. Coccids of the far eastern USSR (Hemiptera, Coccinea) with phylogenetic analysis of coccids in the world fauna. In Gullan, P.J. and M. Kosztarab (eds.), Adaptations in scal e insects, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 42:23-50. Dent, D. 2000. Insect pest management, 2nd ed. CABI Publishing, New York, NY. Dolezal, R.J. 2000. Vegetable gardening. Creative Publishing International, Inc, Minnetonka, MN. Dwyer, J.F., D.J. Nowak, M.H. Noble, and S.M. Sisinni. 2000. Connecting people with ecosystems in the 21st century: an assessment of our nationÂ’s urban forests. U.S. Dept. of Agric., Forest Service, N. Central Research Station, Evanston, IL. FAWN Weather Station. 2004. http://fawn.ifas.ufl.edu/tour/tour/stations.html (accessed June 2004) Ferris, G.F. 1955. Atlas of the scale insects of North America, vol 7. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. Foldi, Imre. 1997. Internal anatomy of the adult female, pp. 73-90. In Y. Ben-Dov and C.J. Hodgson (eds.), Soft scale insects: Their biology, natural en emies and control, vol. 7A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Futch, S.H., C.W. McCoy and C.C. Childers. 2001. A guide to scale insect identification. University of Florida, Ed is Publication No. HS-817, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Gainesville. Gilrein, D. 2001. Tipping the scales. Grounds maintenance, Primedia Business Magazines & Media Inc. Gordon, F.C. and D.A. Potter. 1988. Seasonal biology of the walnut scale, Quadraspidiotus juglansregiae (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), and associated parasites on red maple in Kentucky. J. Econ. Entomol. 81: 1181-1185.

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50 Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. and C. A. Reagan. 2001. Effects of irrigation on efficacy of imidacloprid for control of California re d scale on Valencia oranges, 1999. Arthropod Management Tests vol. 26. Greathead, D.J. 1997. Crawler behavior and dispersal, pp. 339-342. In Y. Ben-Dov and C.J. Hodgson (eds.), Soft scale insects: Their biology, natural enemies and control, vol. 7A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Gullan, P.J. 1997. Relationship with ants, pp. 351-373. In Y. Ben-Dov and C.J. Hodgson (eds.), Soft scale insects: Their bi ology, natural enemies and control, vol. 7A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Gullan, P.J. and M. Kosztarab. 1997. Adaptations in scale insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 42:23-50. Hackman, R.H. 1951. The chemical composition of the wax of the white wax scale, Ceroplastes destructor (Newstead). Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 33: 150-154. Hamon, A. B. 1977. Gall-like scale insects ( Kermes spp.) (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Kermesidae). Entomology Circular No. 178: 1-2. Hamon, A. B., P. L. Lambdin, and M. Kosztarab. 1975. Eggs and wax secretion of Kermes kingii Annals of the Entomological Society of America 68: 1077-1078. Hamon, A. B., P. L. Lambdin, and M. Kosztarab. 1976. Life history and morphology of Kermes kingii in Virginia (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Kermesidae). VA. Polytech. Inst. & State Uni v. Res. Div. Bull. 111:1-31. Harms, W.R. 1990. Live oak, pp. 751-754. In R.M. Burns and B.H. Honkala (eds.), Silvics of North America, vol. 2. Agri c. Handbook 654. U.S. Dept. of Agric., Forest Service, Washington DC. Hodgson, C.J. 1997. Taxonomic characters – Adult female, pp. 111-137. In Y. BenDov and C.J. Hodgson (eds.), Soft scale in sects: Their biology, natural enemies and control, vol. 7A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Howard, R.W. 1982. Chemical ecology and biochemistry of insect hydrocarbons. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 27: 149-72. Huberman, M.A. 1941. Why phenology? J. For. 39: 1007-1013. Jenkins, K.S. 1970. The fat-yielding coccid, Llaveia a monophlebine of the Margarodidae. In M. Kosztarab, 1987. Everything unique or unusual about scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidae). Bu lletin of the ESA, winter, pp. 215-220. Kramer, M.L. and C.A. Paukowits. 2003. USDA plant hardiness zone. American Horticultural Society, U.S. De pt. of Agric., Washington, DC.

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51 Kosztarab, M. 1987. Everything unique or unusual a bout scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidae). Bulletin of the ESA, winter, pp. 215-220. Kosztarab, M. 1996. Scale insects of northeastern North America. Identification, biology, and distribution. Virginia Muse um of Natural History, Martinsburg, Virginia. 650 pp. Kunkel, H. 1997. Scale insect honeydew as forage for honey production, pp. 291-302. In Y. Ben-Dov and C.J. Hodgson (eds.), Soft scale insects: Th eir biology, natural enemies and control, vol. 7A. Else vier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Marlatt, C.L. 1953. An entomologistÂ’s quest: the story of the San Jose scale; the diary of a trip around the world, 1901-1902. The Monumental Printing Company, Baltimore, MD. Marotta S. 1997. General life history, pp. 251-256. In Y. Ben-Dov and C.J. Hodgson (eds.), Soft scale insects: Their biology, natural enem ies and control, vol. 7A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Marotta, S. and A. Tranfaglia. 1997. Seasonal history; diapause, pp. 343-350. In Y. Ben-Dov and C.J. Hodgson (eds.), Soft scale insects: Their biology, natural enemies and control, vol. 7A. Else vier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Martinat, P.J. 1987. The role of climatic variation and weather in forest insect outbreaks, pp. 241-268. In P. Barbosa, and J.C. Schultz (eds.), Insect outbreaks. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA. Matile-Ferrero, D. 1997. External morphology of the adult female, pp. 5-21. In Y. Ben-Dov and C.J. Hodgson (eds.), Soft scale insects: Their biology, natural enemies and control, vol. 7A. Else vier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. McClure, M. S. 1977. Resurgence of the scale, Fiorinia externa (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on hemlock following insecticide app lication. Environ. Entomol. 6: 480-484. McConnell, H.S. and J.A. Davidson. 1959. Observations on the life history and morphology of Kermes pubescens Bogue (Hemiptera: Cocco idea: Dactylophiidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 52: 463-468. McKenzie, H.L. 1956. The armored scale insects of California, pp. 81-83. In Bulletin of the California insect survey, Vol. 5. Univ ersity of California Press, Berkeley, CA. Miller, G. L. and M. L. Williams. 1990. Tests of male soft scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) from America north of Mexico, including a key to the species. Syst. Entomol. 15: 339-358. Morrison, H. 1926. Scales insects. Sci. Monthly. 22(3): 243-246.

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52 Muegge, M.A. and M. Merchant. 2000. Scale insects on ornamental plants. Texas Agricultural Extension Service. No. B-6097 8-00, pp. 1-8. Muller, P.O. and I.D. Solomon. 2003. Florida, pp. 242-457. In World book Encyclopedia, vol. 7. World Book, Inc., Chicago, IL. Mussey, G.J. and D.A. Potter. 1997. Phenological correlat ions between flowering plants and activity of urban landscape pest s in Kentucky. Hort. Entomol. 90: 1616-1627. Nelson, D.R. 1978. Long-chain methyl-branched hydro carbons, pp. 1-33. Biosciences Research Laboratory, Fargo, ND. Olson, C. 2002. Cochineal. http://ag.arizona.edu/urbani pm/insects/cochineal.html (accessed June 2004). Pedigo, L.P. 1996. Entomology and pest management, 2nd edition, Pren tice Hall Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. Qin, T.K. 1997. The pela wax scale and commer cial wax production, pp. 303-321. In Y. Ben-Dov and C.J. Hodgson (eds.), Soft scale insects: Their biology, natural enemies and control, vol. 7A. Else vier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Rand McNally. 1998. TripMaker users guide, vers ion 1998 ed. Rand McNally, New Media, Skokie, IL. Raven, J.A. 1983. Phytophages of xylem and phloem: a comparison of animal and plant sap-feeders. Advances in Ecological Research 13: 135-234. Rebek, E. J. and C. S. Sadof. 2003. Effects of pesticide a pplications on the euonymus scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and its parasitoid, Encarsia citrina (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 96(2): 446-452. Salvatore, M. 1997. General life history, pp 251-256. In Y. Ben-Dov and C.J. Hodgson (eds.), Soft Scale Insects: their biology, natural enem ies and control, vol. 7A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Sander, I.L. 1990. Northern red oak, pp. 727-733. In R.M. Burns and B.H. Honkala (eds.), Silvics of North America, vol. 2. Agric. Handbook 654. U.S. Dept. of Agric., Forest service Washington DC. SAS Institute Inc. 2001. JMP start statistics, 2nd ed. Duxbury, Pacific Grove, CA. 491 pp. Scalenet. 2004. Scales on Fagaceae Quercus http://www.sel.barc.usda .gov/scalenet/distrib.htm (accessed June 2004).

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53 Scoble, M.J. 1995. The Lepidoptera: form, function, a nd diversity. Oxford University Press, Cary, NC. Shetlar, D.J. 1997. How weather influences insect and mite populations. Continuing Education Unit, Ohio State University, Columbus. Smith, S. F. and V. A. Krischik. 1999. Effects of systemic imidacloprid on Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Environ. Entomol. 28(6): 1189-1195. Solomon, J.D., F.I. McCracken, R.L. Anderson, R. Lewis, Jr., F.L. Oliveria, T.H. Filer, and P.J. Barry. 1980. Oak pests: A guide to major insects, diseases, air pollution and chemical injury. General Report SA-GR11. U.S. Dept. of Agric., Washington, DC Stanley-Samuelson, D.W. and D.R. Nelson. 1993. Insect lipids: Chemistry, biochemistry and biology. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE. Stein, J., D. Binion and R. Acciavatti. 2003. Field guide to native oak species of eastern North America. U.S. De pt. of Agric., Morgantown, WV. Stenesh, J. 1998. Foundation of biochemisty, vol. 2. Plenum Press, New York, NY. Stehr, F.W. 1987. Immature insects. Kendall/Hunt Publication Company, Dubuque, Iowa. Syslo, S. and M. Davy. 1999. EFED Response to comments submitted to the Acephate Docket during the 60-day comment period on the EFED Acephate RED chapter. http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/ op/acephate/efedresponse.pdf (accessed June 2004). Tamaki, Y. 1997. Chemistry of the test cover, pp. 55-72. In Y. Ben-Dov and C.J. Hodgson (eds.), Soft Scale Insects: their bi ology, natural enemies and control, vol. 7A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Tamaki, Y., T. Yushima and S. Kawai. 1969. Wax secretion in a scale insect, Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus Green (Hemiptera: Coccid ae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 4: 126-134. Tamaki, Y., T. Yushima and S. Kawai. 1997. General life history, pp. 251-256. In Y. Ben-Dov and C.J. Hodgson (eds.), Soft scale insects: Their biology, natural enemies and control, vol. 7A. Else vier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Tunnell, T. and S.L. Woodward. 2003. Virginia, pp. 398-413. In World Book Encyclopedia, vol. 20. World book, Inc., Chicago, IL.

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54 Varshney, R.K. 1970. Lac literature. A bi bliography of lac insects and shellac. In M. Kosztarab, 1987. Everything unique or unusual about scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidae). Bulletin of the ESA, winter, pp. 215-220. Vranjic, J.A. 1997. Effects on Host Plant, pp. 323-336. In Y. Ben-Dov and C.J. Hodgson (eds.), Soft scale insects: Their bi ology, natural enemies and control, vol. 7A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Ware, G.W. 1996. Complete guide to pest control, 3rd ed. Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA. Williams, M.L. 1997. The immature stages, pp. 31-46. In Y. Ben-Dov and C.J. Hodgson (eds.), Soft scale insects: Their bi ology, natural enemies and control, vol. 7A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. World Almanac. 2004. The world almanac and book of facts 2004. World Almanac Education Group, Inc., New York, NY.

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55 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jay Cee Lynn Turner was born on 5 Februa ry 1963, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Upon graduation from high school, she entered Santa Fe Community College in Gainesville, Florida, where she obtained an A ssociate of Arts degree. Jay Cee owned and operated an upholstery business for 12 years. In 1999, while self-employed and raising two children, she enrolled in the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Jay Cee closed her business and worked for Dr. Eil een Buss in the Department of Entomology and Nematology while completing her bachel ors degree. In the summer of 2002, she began working on her masterÂ’s degr ee under the guidance of Dr. Buss.