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SmartWave: An Intelligent Microwave to Help Elderly People Cook Independently

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Title:
SmartWave: An Intelligent Microwave to Help Elderly People Cook Independently
Creator:
SUKOJO, ANDIPUTRANTO ( Author, Primary )
Copyright Date:
2008

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Subjects / Keywords:
Bytes ( jstor )
Cooking ( jstor )
Cooking instruction ( jstor )
Databases ( jstor )
Food ( jstor )
Kitchens ( jstor )
Microwaves ( jstor )
Older adults ( jstor )
Radio frequency identification ( jstor )
Usability ( jstor )

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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Copyright Andiputranto Sukojo. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Embargo Date:
8/31/2007
Resource Identifier:
436098105 ( OCLC )

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SMARTWAVE: AN INTELLIGENT MICROWAVE TO HELP ELDERLY PEOPLE COOK INDEPENDENTLY By ANDIPUTRANTO SUKOJO A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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Copyright 2004 By Andiputranto Sukojo

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TO ALL WONDERFUL PARENTS AROUND THE WORLD

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I express my gratitude to Dr. Abdelsalam (Sumi) Helal for his trust, encouragement, support, and funding (without which this work could not have been completed). I would also like to thank Dr. Su and Dr. Sanders for agreeing to serve on my committee. Special thanks go to my friend and colleague James Russo for his great contribution to SmartWave. He designed and implemented the microwave controller board, and integrated it with the rest of the system. He was also patient with me, and contributed great ideas, and actually implemented some of the SmartWave applications. Without his contributions and support, this thesis would not have been completed. Third, I would like to thank to my parents, who have been working very hard in their careers to enable me to study overseas. They have always given their loving support for my studies. I would like to thank my lovely wife who provided me with endless love and support while I was writing this thesis. Fourth, I would like to thank Dr. William Mann, Catherine Locklear, and Rick Davenport who made the usability study feasible. Rick Davenport designed the questionnaire and wrote the summary of usability study, presented in this thesis. Fifth, I would like to thank all my friends in the Pervasive Computing Laboratory (Dr. Chonhwaa Lee, Hicham, Carlos, Steve, Erwin, Satish, and Youssef) for their suggestions, feedback, and support. iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................viii ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 DESIGN........................................................................................................................3 2.1 System Design for Alzheimer.................................................................................3 2.2 Smart Kitchen.........................................................................................................5 2.3 Smart House............................................................................................................6 2.4 Generic Services.....................................................................................................8 2.5 Features...................................................................................................................9 3 OVERVIEW OF SMARTWAVE COMPONENTS..................................................11 3.1 SmartWave Architecture......................................................................................11 3.2 Microwave............................................................................................................12 3.3 RFID.....................................................................................................................12 3.4 TINI......................................................................................................................15 3.4 PIC 16F628...........................................................................................................16 3.5 MAX 395..............................................................................................................16 3.6 OSGi.....................................................................................................................19 4 IMPLEMENTATION.................................................................................................22 4.1 Hardware...............................................................................................................22 4.2 Software................................................................................................................26 4.2.1 Database Service........................................................................................26 4.2.2 Location Service.........................................................................................27 4.2.3 Multimedia Service....................................................................................27 4.2.4 Microwave Service.....................................................................................28 4.2.5 SmartWave.................................................................................................28 v

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5 USABILITY STUDY.................................................................................................31 5.1 Background Questionnaire...................................................................................32 5.2 Usability and Acceptability of SmartWave..........................................................33 6 SUMMARY AND FUTURE WORK........................................................................35 6.1 Summary...............................................................................................................35 6.2 Future Work..........................................................................................................35 APPENDIX A ELECTRONIC SCHEMATIC OF MICROWAVE CONTROLLER........................36 B SMARTWAVE MICROWAVE PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION V1.0...................38 C BUNDLE SERVICES................................................................................................43 C.1 Database Service..................................................................................................43 C.2 Location Service..................................................................................................43 C.3 Multimedia Service..............................................................................................44 C.4 Microwave Service..............................................................................................44 D E-R DIAGRAM OF SMARTWAVE DATABASE...................................................45 E RESULT OF USABILITY STUDY...........................................................................47 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................53 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................56 vi

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1. Truth table of MAX 395 switch...............................................................................18 4-1. Keypad matrix of GE’s microwave buttons.............................................................23 5-1. Summary of health impairments of the study participants.......................................32 5-2. Summary of the background questionnaire..............................................................32 5-3. Usability result after elders experienced the SmartWave........................................33 vii

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1. Smart house location sensing......................................................................................7 2-2. Experimental smart house..........................................................................................8 3-1. SmartWave architecture...........................................................................................11 3-4. Request and response packet....................................................................................14 3-5. The Tiny InterNet Interface board............................................................................15 3-7. Pin configuration of MAX395 switch......................................................................16 3-8. Three wire interface timing......................................................................................17 3-9. Daisy-Chained Connection.......................................................................................18 4-1. Microwave controller board.....................................................................................23 4-2. Radio frequency identification tag inlay embedded inside food package................25 4-3. The placement of the food package..........................................................................25 4.4. OSGi service interaction flow diagram in SmartWave.............................................26 4-6. Workflow of SmartWave components.....................................................................29 D-1. An Entity Relation Diagram of SmartWave Database............................................46 viii

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science SMARTWAVE: AN INTELLIGENT MICROWAVE TO HELP ELDERLY PEOPLE COOK INDEPENDENTLY By Andiputranto Sukojo August 2004 Chair: Abdelsalam (Sumi) Helal Department: Computer and Information Science and Engineering As people get older, natural declines in vision, motor and cognitive skills accumulated with chronic diseases make everyday tasks difficult to perform. Simply operating a simple everyday appliance like a microwave oven, to enjoy a hot, nutritious meal, may become overwhelming because of complex cooking instructions and the numerous steps required in preparing a meal. We designed and implemented of SmartWave, an intelligent microwave oven that helps elderly people enjoy a hot meal, without the need to read cooking instructions or to push microwave buttons. SmartWave also provides coordination to help elderly with minor cognitive impairment. We integrated of the SmartWave with an experimental Smart House. Finally, we did a usability study to explore the elderly’s views on the usability of the SmartWave. ix

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Everyone wishes to be healthy and happy in her lives. Nutritious food makes our bodies healthy and delicious food can make us happy. But as time goes by, we grow older, and may experience difficulties in our daily lives. Small letters become harder to read, we are no longer as vigorous as when we were younger, and we become more forgetful. Our bodies become more vulnerable to chronic diseases such as heart disease, arthritis, glaucoma or Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Today, 17% of the total elderly population in the US has arthritis, and 10% of this population suffers from AD. In the later stages of life, these chronic diseases make food preparation difficult and we may start to need help in our daily lives. Today, elderly in need of help have three main options: staying with their families, living with a caregiver, or moving into a nursing home. Nowadays, their children may live far away (they may be caring for their own families, and be busy with their own work). Younger families might value their independence, and not want parents to move in with them. Having a caregiver or living in a nursing home is very expensive, costing an average of $2000 per month. In 1995, there were 1.56 million residents in nursing homes, accounting for 71% of the $90.9 billion spent for long-term health care [1]. Today, the total elder population over age 60 in the US is 44 million, and it will only be increasing as the first baby boomers approach the age of 60, in 2008 [2]. As this segment of the population increases, their disease and their disabilities impact their quality of life, and the health care and caregiver systems. Therefore, there is a significant 1

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2 demand to develop creative, innovative and cost-effective technologies to help elderly persons maintain their quality of life and independence while minimizing health care needs and caregiver burden. Our quality of life depends on the ability to enjoy nutritious food. The elderly suffering from chronic diseases could have great difficulty preparing a hot meal. Motor impairments present a challenge to preparing complicated meals. Vision impairment can complicate a simple task (such as cooking microwaveable food) because of small print instructions, and cognition impairment can make cooking microwaveable food overwhelming because of multi-step cooking instructions. To remain independent, people must be able to perform this activity without assistance. In the Pervasive Computing Laboratory, we are working on a solution to enable elderly people to remain independent for a longer period of time, and to reduce the demand for caregiver assistance. SmartWave is an intelligent cooking appliance designed to help elderly people cook with ease. An elder simply puts the food package on the kitchen counter next to the microwave, and the smart microwave then sets the power level, and minutes cycle and guides the person in preparing the food. This thesis is organized as follows. Chapter 2 presents the design of SmartWave. Chapter 3 is an overview of SmartWave components. Hardware and software implementation is presented in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 focuses on a usability study. Finally, Chapter 6 presents the summary and future work of this thesis.

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CHAPTER 2 DESIGN Consider our robot elder model, Matilda, the fictitious 85-year-old woman for whom our Smart House is designed. She has been living alone since her husband passed away a few years ago, and recently has been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease (in addition to common old age ailments such as impaired vision and motor skill degradation). Her diminished vision makes it difficult for her to read the small cooking instructions printed on the food packages; her motor skill problems and her decreasing cognitive ability prevent her from preparing and cooking a complicated meal. As do the other elders, Matilda cherishes her independence in her own home, avoiding assisted living care as long as possible. To be independent, she must be able to perform basic Activities for Daily Living (ADLs), including cooking and preparing meals independently. 2.1 System Design for Alzheimer’s Disease To help elderly people with Alzheimer’s disease to achieve their independence, we needed to understand the characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease [3,4] and the basic constraints to consider when designing engineering systems for the elderly with these impairments. This information was derived from studies conducted in health research laboratories [5] and from other research [6-9] Alzheimer’s is a disease that progressively destroys brain cells, and mostly attacks people 60 years of age and above. This disease progressively decreases awareness and the 3

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4 ability to think, reason, plan, recognize, learn, remember, orient, coordinate, and make decisions. At Intel Health Research Laboratory [6], a study enumerated key needs and barriers to successful aging. In their study, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and motion detection were used to provide prompts if the elderly lost track of tea-preparation steps. The kitchen tracks their activities, and prompts them as and when necessary. Kirsch [7] used Computerized Task Guidance (CTG) and a set of written instructions when people with Alzheimer’s disease prepare their meals. The CTG monitors the cooking time, and prompts with instructions when the user needs to take the food out of the oven. This method increases the person’s performance significantly. Mihailidis [8] studied the most effective verbal cues for people with dementia. He found that A person’s name must be included The cue can be given by anybody The cue should describe the object (such as its color, shape, location, etc.) Every cue guides the elder, doing one task at a time. This verbal cue increased performance of the elderly with dementia. Mihailidis concluded that using a computerized device that provides prompts as the person tries to complete an activity might restore their independences. Stanford [9] stated that pervasive sensors should assist residents in maintaining their independence, offering assistance when necessary. The elders wear badges and the elite care environment uses an infrared and radio frequency sensor to find the elder’s location. The elders can use badges to locate a service or ask for help.

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5 2.2 Smart Kitchen SmartWave is part of the smart kitchen and contained within our experimental Smart House at the Pervasive Computing Laboratory. The smart kitchen and smart house concept are described briefly here to show their influence in SmartWave design and their integration in the smart house environment. Smart kitchen concepts have been researched by many industries (such as consumer electronics and appliances). Some of the pioneers who started the research include Counter Intelligence Laboratory [10], Samsung [11], IBM Kitchen [12] and SIEMENS Smart House [13]. The Counter Intelligence Laboratory envisioned that future kitchens should proactively assist the person with cooking. In the future, kitchen technologies will consist of many smart utensils and smart appliances that are able to sense, infer, and react to their environment. The Mr. Java project of Counter Intelligence Laboratory introduced a simple concept where the machine recognizes items, and associates information once items are recognized. For example, the microwave recognizes a food package and cooks it for the appropriate time. Samsung unveiled home networking over power lines [11]. This breakthrough enables kitchen appliances to connect to each other and access the internet through power lines. Researchers at SIEMENS are working on a universal plug-in device that enables kitchen appliances from different brands to work together through power lines, to gather important information from the internet (for instance, a cooking recipe). Researcher at IBM developed central coordination of various kitchen appliances to help a person prepare a recipe. For example, the stove automatically sets the time and

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6 temperature when a person is going to cook food, based on the cooking instructions in the recipe. After the food is ready, the stove automatically turns off and calls the person to pick up the food. IBM also developed voice command to kitchen appliances. For example, the coffee maker is able to listen to your command and prepare the drink accordingly. Today, some of these concepts are available in the market. TMIO created a special microwave that can immediately refrigerate your food, once it is cooked [14]. 2.3 Smart House The Smart House concept was indirectly inspired by Mark Weiser’s vision [15] in the early 1990’s. He envisioned the ubiquitous computing concept where computation and interaction is seamlessly and invisibly integrated into physical artifacts within the environment and is always ready to help us without distracting us from our daily practices. The ubiquitous vision puts strong emphasis on interaction and cooperation among computational devices because the limited capability of a single device to sense and control environments needs to be complemented and enhanced through cooperation and coordination. Inspired by his vision, we designed a smart house environment to promote successful aging [16-18]. Beyond the typical home automation applications, a Smart House for elderly people must assist in the completion of daily activities, thus creating an assistive environment. Smart house uses monitored context and interpretation of events to assist the occupant in daily activities, one of which is meal preparation. One of the basic services required to maximize the intelligence of a smart environment is an indoor precision tracking system. This location-sensing service enables the smart house to make proactive decisions to better serve its occupants by enabling

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7 context awareness [19]. Presently, the smart house is using the Ultrasonic Low Cost Positioning System that allows the receivers and the transmitters to communicate, thus allowing location determination. Ideally, these tags would be seamlessly embedded into the elder person’s clothes. By wearing two transmitting tags on the left and right shoulder of the elders, the smart house is able to determine both their location and orientation by identifying two unique tag identifiers on their clothes, assuming that they always wear their own clothes (Figure2-1). Figure 2-1. Smart house location sensing This location sensing service is as important as the multimedia service for the SmartWave. The multimedia service could be displayed on many LCD monitors throughout the house, depending on the elders’ location and orientation. Currently, the smart house has two LCD monitors that mounted on the walls. These two monitors are located in the living room and the bedroom (Figure 2-2). The smart kitchen also has one LCD monitor located on the top of the microwave.

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8 Figure 2-2. Experimental smart house 2.4 Generic Services The smart house provides various services. By combining existing services, we can make a new service. To support rapid application development and facilitate service composition, our middleware provides a set of generic services such as Ultrasonic location service. Multimedia service delivers video and audio service to 3 LCD screens and speakers located in different rooms of the smart house. Database service. To support event capability, Sree Charan Kuchibhotla has created an Event Broker Service [28]. When a certain condition specified in terms of context information happens, the Event Broker Service delivers an application specific event to subscribed clients. This

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9 enables other services to get an event and provide services based on that event. Today, a 1-wire net in Open Service Gateway Interface (OSGI) 3 specification provides the same service. 2.5 Features Based on the smart kitchen concept, the smart house concept and our existing smart house environment, I designed an intelligent microwave that assists elderly people in daily cooking by: Monitoring. Monitoring helps Alzheimer’s short-term memory loss. The smart kitchen monitors important daily activities such as drinking and eating. The SmartWave stores the food information the elderly people cook and analyzes their daily cooking patterns. Doctors can then analyze this information and take precautions in the future. Eating Reminder. People with Alzheimer’s could lose sense of time and forget to have their breakfast, lunch, or dinner. Smart house needs to orchestrate some objects in the home to remind them that it’s time to eat. Easy Cooking. Normal decline in vision, accumulated with vision impairment, makes reading the small cooking instructions difficult. The SmartWave needs to read the cooking instructions transparently and as easily as possible. Each food package has a RFID tag that contains cooking instructions. The microwave reads the cooking instructions through the RFID reader, then sets the appropriate time and power to cook it. Protection. People with Alzheimer’s can lose their sense of time. Along with impaired vision, this makes reading the out-of-date information on the food package and understanding that it is expired difficult. If the food is expired, the SmartWave advises them to throw away the food and suggests another food. Prompting. Alzheimer’s disease makes elderly persons lose their sense of context. This makes it difficult for them to remember a sequence of steps/procedures. Even to cook a frozen food package can be a struggle because a large number of simple steps are involved. The SmartWave guides the elder persons by describing the food information, how to open the food package, how to open the microwave door, how to put the food in the microwave and how to close the door step-by-step via a video clip which is being played on a LCD monitor located on top of the microwave.

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10 Notification. After an elder puts the food in the microwave, she can continue enjoying her previous activities. The Smart House will send her a notification if the food needs to be stirred or if the food is now ready via a video clip based on her location and orientation. Reassuring. Adult children who work and live far away may get a notification to be reassured that their mother cooks regularly from their mobile phones. They also can see what their mother has cooked today from smart house web site.

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CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW OF SMARTWAVE COMPONENTS Before hardware and software implementations in Chapter 4 are explained, I would like to show the SmartWave Architecture and overview and some SmartWave components in this chapter. 3.1 SmartWave Architecture Figure 3-1 shows the SmartWave Architecture where one arrow represents a single communication (command) and the double arrows show two-way communication between the components. The Tiny InterNet Interface (TINI) connects to OSGi Smart House environment using Local Area Network. The TINI also connects to the RFID Reader and the PIC16F628 via serial communications. Modified Microwave TINI RFID Reader PIC16F628 MAX395 Keypad RFID Tag Speaker LCD screen Smart House (OSGi environment) Figure 3-1. SmartWave architecture 11

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12 A reader who likes to get more detailed information about the hardware components can read the subtitles about Microwave, PIC16F628, MAX395 and TINI in this chapter. Otherwise a reader can skip the hardware details and read only the software components (RFID and OSGi) before going to Chapter 4. The readers can go back to this chapter if they need more detailed information about the SmartWave components. 3.2 Microwave Microwave ovens combine electrical circuits and mechanical devices to produce and control an output of microwave energy. Basically, the system can be divided into two fundamental sections: the control section and the high voltage section [20]. The control section has a microcontroller and a switch matrix (keypad). The microcontroller reads the switch matrix to know which button is being pressed. 3.3 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) The main usage of many RFID systems is to carry data in suitable transponders (tags), and to retrieve data at a suitable time and place to satisfy particular application needs. A RFID system consists of three components: An antenna or coil. A transceiver with decoder. A transponder electronically programmed with unique information. The antenna emits radio signals to activate the tag and read and write data to it. Antennas are the conduits between the tag and the transceiver which control the system’s data acquisition and communication. The Texas Instrument Tag It Inlay [21] is an ultra thin and read/write transponder (Figure 3-2). Its operating frequency is 13.56 MHz. The data is read and stored in a 256-bit non-volatile memory that is organized in eight blocks. Its operating temperature, from

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13 minus 25 degree celcius to 70 degree celcius, makes these tags suitable to be embedded inside frozen food packages. There are three different sizes available: square, rectangular large and rectangular miniature. Figure 3-2. Texas instrument’s tag it inlay. Courtesy Texas Instruments The Texas Instrument’s S6350 Mid-Range Reader [22] has a transceiver and an antenna integrated in one module (Figure 3-3). It can read a single tag or multiple tags of ISO 15693 simultaneously. It can also write and lock a single tag. Figure 3-3. Texas instrument’s S6350 midrange reader kit The reader accepts and sends data through serial communication (RS-232) with a baud rate up to 57600. The data packet from the host to the reader is called request and the reply packet from the reader to the host is called response. The host always initiates

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14 all communication sequences. After the host sends a request, it waits for a response before it sends another request. The request and response packets (Figure 3-4) start with a unique Start Of Frame (SOF) and end with Block Check Character (BCC). The BCC is used for error detection. SOF Length Node Address Command Flags Command Data BCC Figure 3-4. Request and response packet In the request packet, a command block describes the function or operation being requested, such as: a. Read single non-addressed & addressed block. b. Write single non-addressed & addressed block. c. Read transponder details to get unique tag identifier. d. Special read block command to read multiple blocks simultaneously. After the reader accepts this request packet and does the requested operation, the reader replies back with a response packet. The data block of the response packet contains parameters and information being requested. Generally, the reading characteristics of a RFID system are influenced by: a. b. Power and antenna design of reader/interrogator used to communicate with tags. Bigger power and larger antenna size gives wider reading range Tag size, tag type (active or passive) and frequency. The active tag has a small battery that could strengthen communication power to the reader. Because of that, the active tag has a longer reading range but shorter and limited life. The passive tag has no battery and gets powered up by

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15 the RFID Reader. This limits the reading range but has a lifetime lifecycle. The larger the size and higher the frequency, the larger the reading range. c. The environmental condition and structures. RFID is sensitive to metal environment. The reader cannot read tags that are blocked by a metal plate (located between the reader and the tags). 3.4 Tiny InterNet Interface (TINI) The TINI platform [23] combines a small but powerful chipset and a Java TM -programmable runtime environment. TINI’s chipset has processing, control, device-level communication, and networking capabilities. These features can be explored by the software developer through a set of Java application programming interfaces (API). The main goal of the TINI platform (Figure 3-5) is to give everything from small sensors and actuators to home automation equipment a voice on the network. The TINI platform allows the devices to be controlled, monitored and managed remotely. Figure 3-5. The Tiny InterNet Interface board The combination of broad-based I/O capabilities, four serial communications, a web server, a TCP/IP network and a object oriented programming environment allows application developers to quickly create applications both locally and remotely.

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16 3.4 Microcontroller PIC 16F628 According to PIC 16F628 documentation [24], the PIC 16F628 is an 8-bit microcontroller that packs Microchip's PIC architecture into an 18-pin package (Figure 3-6). It features 4MHz internal oscillator, 128 bytes of EEPROM data memory,16 I/O pins with individual direction control and Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter USART. 3.5 Serially Controlled Switch (MAX 395) According to MAX 395 documentation [25], the MAX395 8-channel, serially controlled, a single-pole/single-throw (SPST) analog switch has eight separately controlled switches (Figure 3-7). Figure 3-7. Pin configuration of MAX395 switch. Copyright Maxim Integrated Products ( http://www.maxim-ic.com ). Used by permission.

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17 MAX395’s interface is similar with shift register function controlled by the CS . While the CS is low, 8 bits data (at DIN) can be clocked in synchronously with the rising edge of the clock (SCLK) (Figure 3-8). Figure 3-8. Three wire interface timing. Copyright Maxim Integrated Products ( http://www.maxim-ic.com ). Used by permission. Each bit data controls one of eight switches. While shifting data, the switches keep their previous configuration. After the eight bits of data have been shifted in, the CS is driven high. This updates the new switch configuration and blocks more data from entering the shift register. If more or less than eight clock cycles are shifted while CS is low, the shift register will only contain the last eight serial data bits, regardless of when they were entered. The timing diagram is shown in Figure 3-8. The data at shift register's output (DOUT) appears synchronously with SCLK’s falling edge. This data is simply the input data delayed by eight clock cycles. The DOUT makes several MAX395s that can be daisy chained. The CS pins of all devices are connected together and a stream of data is shifted through the MAX 395s in series. When

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18 CS becomes high, all switches are updated simultaneously. Extra shift registers can be inserted anywhere in the series with the MAX 395 data chain (Figure 3-9). Figure 3-9. Daisy-Chained Connection. Copyright Maxim Integrated Products ( http://www.maxim-ic.com ). Used by permission. All of MAX395’s switches are initially open. When a RESET value is high (1), all switches are set based on their corresponding values in the data bits. To set a switch to the closed condition, you need to shift a high value (1) into its corresponding position, otherwise shift a low value (0) to set a switch to the open condition (Table 3-1). Finally, you can reset the RESET value to low condition (0) to initialize all eight switches. Table 3-1. Truth table of MAX 395 switch Copyright Maxim Integrated Products ( http://www.maxim-ic.com ). Used by permission.

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19 3.6 Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) According to OSGi specification [26], Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) is an open architecture designed to deliver services on the Internet to residential networks. It facilitates the interaction of services from various sources in an organized and coordinated fashion as well. OSGi gives a robust framework that supports dynamic context-aware service composition using core services. To provide an execution environment for services from diverse devices at a residential area, platform independence is achieved by using Java. In the OSGi framework [27], a service is packaged as a JAR (Java Archive) file and called a bundle. A bundle contains zero or more services specified as Java interfaces. Services are registered with a service registry so that they can be discovered and used by other bundles. The OSGi framework provides this execution environment for individual services and interaction among services. The interaction environment is needed because bundles may not be entirely self-sufficient. A service might use some packages that are provided by other bundles. To get other bundle services, the bundle needs to inform the framework of the list of all packages it wants to import. Similarly, a bundle might choose to export some of its packages so that other bundles might import them (Figure 3-10). Some services might also need to react to certain events such as turning on the heater if the room temperature drops below 60 degree Fahrenheit. The simplest definition of an event is a change of state.

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20 Figure 3.10. Importing and Exporting Packages using OSGI Framework. A) Bundle 1 export package A to framework. B) Bundle 2 import package A from framework. To support event capability, Sree Charan Kuchibholta designed an Event Broker service [28]. When an application is interested in a particular event, it must register with the event broker by providing the event name and a listener function. This registration process is called subscribing. If an application is no longer interested in a particular event, it can un-register its listener function from the event broker. This process is called un-subscribing. Whenever a service generates an event, it informs the event broker by passing an event object. This process is called signaling. When an event broker receives this event, it invokes the listener functions of all applications that subscribed to that particular event. This process is called dispatching. The event object is passed to all listener objects while dispatching. Every event object contains the event name, event source, event properties

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21 and any other event-specific information. The service that generates events can pass relevant information through event properties. When a service starts, it must inform the event broker about all events that it might generate during its execution. This process is called publishing the events. When all services publish their events, the event broker provides APIs that would list all the events that are currently available for subscription. The event broker maintains all the information in a hash table. Every entry in the table has two fields: the event name and the list of listeners that subscribed to that event. When a service publishes its event, an entry with the event name and a new listeners list is created. When an application subscribes to an event, its listener is added to the listener list maintained for that event in the table. When an event is signaled, the event broker gets this list and invokes every listener.

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CHAPTER 4 IMPLEMENTATION 4.1 Hardware James Russo designed and implemented the microwave controller board, the microwave interface, the RFID reader interface, and integrated them with the TINI microcontroller. The hardware of SmartWave combines many off-the-shelf parts, including a GE microwave (model JES1036PWF001). First, we analyzed the electronic diagram located inside a commercially available microwave [20]. From the electronic diagram, we realized that the best way to control the microwave was to embed a microcontroller which would simulate the key presses of the microwave oven’s front panel. This method of interface was chosen to simplify the engineering process and make the microwave retain all the included safety features. The microcontroller would also need the ability to sense itself, such as the status of the oven door, so that the microwave could start cooking once the door had been closed. Our approach was to parallel the mechanical switches by corresponding software-controllable switches. The simplest way was using an array of transistors, but this creates a complicated wiring in the controller board. The second approach that we followed was to use MAX 395 [25]. Among microcontrollers, the PIC16F628 [24] was chosen as the microprocessor used for the microwave control. This microcontroller was connected to three MAX395 serially controlled switch chips. Each MAX395 has 8 SPST switches allowing up to 8 22

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23 buttons to be simulated. The three MAX395s daisy chained together yield 24 separate SPST switches that were used to simulate the 24 front panel buttons (Table 4-1) on the microwave. Table 4-1. Keypad matrix of GE’s microwave buttons (model JES1036PWF001). COLUM/ROW 9 10 11 12 13 1 1 6 REHEAT CLOCK TIME DEFROST 2 2 7 DELAY CLEAR/OFF 3 3 8 TIMER AUTO DEFROST 4 4 9 POWER LEVEL BEVERAGE POP CORN 5 5 0 TIME COOK ADD 30 SEC 6 COOK START/PAUSE The keypad interface in the microwave is a common row/column configuration, where each button on the membrane keypad provides an electrical connection between a row and column (Table 4.1). From a programming point of view, each button has a specific value (24 bits) that maps into this keypad matrix. The microcontroller shifts this value into MAX395s, and then sets a new switch configuration that presses the corresponding button. After half second, the microcontroller initializes all the switches back to the open condition (no button is being pressed). The microwave controller board is shown on figure 4-1 and the complete electronic schematic is available in Appendix A. Figure 4-1. Microwave controller board.

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24 Internal microcontroller and serially controlled switch just simulated the membrane keypad by electronically connecting a row and column. The input to the microcontroller is via a standard RS232 serial port, giving flexibility in the device that actually controls the microwave. Using the same concept of the RFID reader protocol, the request packet has a function block that describes the operation being requested, such as push button or get door status. After the microcontroller finishes this operation, it sends a response packet back to the sender. The response packet contains data being requested (such as door open/close) or status of the operation (success/failure). The complete serial communication protocol with the microcontroller can be seen in Appendix B. The TINI processor from Dallas Semiconductor [23] was chosen to control the microcontroller embedded in the microwave oven because of its network connectivity, serial RS-232 ports and Java API. These capabilities allow the TINI board to easily interact and seamlessly integrate with the existing technology in the OSGI driven smart house. The TINI connects to the microwave and the RFID reader via two onboard serial ports. A Texas Instrument’s RFID reader (part number: RI-K10-001A) is used to determine which food packet is being scanned and to obtain the cooking instructions from a RFID tag that is embedded inside the food package (Figure 4-2) [21]. To obtain this information, the TINI continuously invokes a read command to the RFID reader until it gets the food identifier and the cooking instructions. Then the TINI sends a signal/event to the smart house via the home network for a video/audio cueing and also to the microwave via serial interface for the cooking information.

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25 The database might be used because of the small and limited storage space within the RFID tag itself. The RFID data would be a unique identifier indicating a specific food packet, functioning as a key for other important information such as food nutrition. Figure 4-2. Radio frequency identification tag inlay embedded inside food package. The ability to read through a non-metal barrier (no line of sight requirement), fast reading speed, and large reading range of RIFD technology means that the RFID reader could be installed under the wood counter on the right side of the microwave. Elderly people put the food package on the kitchen counter and the RFID reader reads the cooking information (Figure 4-3). Figure 4-3. The placement of the food package.

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26 4.2 Software In the OSGi driven Smart House, the generic services are grouped and organized as bundles. The microwave appliance is organized as a bundle and provides some services (Appendix C.4). The SmartWave is a service that relies on generic services, microwave service and an event broker service (Appendix C). Figure 4-4 shows service interaction flow: Microwave Location sensing Smartwave Multimedia Database Figure 4.4. OSGi service interaction flow diagram in SmartWave Two dotted pointers to the SmartWave describe an event trigger by location sensing and microwave service to the SmartWave service. Four straight pointers represent the service request by the SmartWave bundle to other services. There is no event generation from database and multimedia service to the SmartWave. 4.2.1 Database Service The database service, using Oracle 9i, stores information about people, food nutrition, cooked foods and videos (Appendix D). The food nutrition can be downloaded from ESHA (Elizabeth Stuart Hands and Associates) nutrition [29]. The RFID tag contains information about food identification, cook by date, food type, and cooking instructions. The food identification is a key to access food information in database service.

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27 The database service provides some services to store the cooked food and to get the food information such as food name and other advertising data. It also provides a service to upload video clip that guides the elderly people in preparing, stirring and taking out the food from the microwave. The video clip can be played on an LCD screen on top of the microwave at the specific context. 4.2.2 Location Service The location service always keeps track of the person’s position and orientation. With information about the smart house, the location service converts this low level information to higher-level information (Appendix C.2) such as “in the kitchen,” “facing microwave,” and “leaving kitchen.” The location service categorizes higher-level events, then the SmartWave service subscribes only to related and important events. 4.2.3 Multimedia Service The smart house has two flat LCD screens mounted on the walls. Each LCD has a speaker associated with it. These LCD screens are located in the living room and bedroom. The SmartWave has one LCD screen on top of the microwave (Figure 4-5). Figure 4-5. SmartWave with LCD screen and speaker.

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28 These LCD screens are connected to the home computer through a controllable analog switch which controls the video output to a certain location. The multimedia service provides play (video, location) service (Appendix C.3). These services play video clip on a specified location. To send an elder a reminder, the SmartWave requests her location and orientation from the location service and uploads appropriate video clip from the database service. Then the SmartWave plays video clip on the LCD nearest to her and which she faces. 4.2.4 Microwave Service The microwave service represents the modified GE microwave in the kitchen. When the microwave bundle starts, it attempts to establish a physical connection to the microwave. If the microwave responds, the microwave bundle will register the microwave service. Otherwise the microwave bundle will hold its service registration and wait until the microwave contacts it and clarifies with “ready” status. The microwave service also provides all panel functions (Appendix C.4) such as TimeCook(time, power) and the states of microwave such as getDoorState(), getMicrowaveState(), getFoodInside(), and getCookingInstruction(). If the microwave loses its network connection for any reason, or if the power is lost, the microwave service will unregister its service and wait until the microwave creates a new connection and sends “ready” state. 4.2.5 SmartWave The microwave could send an event message to the microwave service. The microwave service then posts this event to OSGi’s eventing framework and the SmartWave which subscribed to this event captures the event, analyzes the present context, and performs certain actions.

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29 There are five events sent by the microwave: Get food ID event. When an elder puts a food package on the counter, the microwave gets the food ID and sends this information to the microwave service. The microwave service posts this event to the OSGi eventing framework and the SmartWave service then captures this event. The SmartWave service asks the database service to upload the pertinent video clip that guides her in preparing the food. The video clip contains demonstrations on how to open the packet, add water if necessary, and open and close microwave door. The SmartWave service requests play (video, kitchen) from multimedia service. Figure 4-6 shows the workflow of the SmartWave components. RFID Tag Sending Food Data through Radio Frequency ESHA DB Internet Delivering appropriate video message of the food b eing cooked Delivering appropriate audio message of food b eing cooked Setting microwave to appropriate time Sending cooking Setting as integer Sending Food ID as Integer Sending Food Data as bytes Monitor RFID Reade r Sound Microwave Home Com p ute r PIC16F628 TINI Processo r Figure 4-6. Workflow of SmartWave components Out of date event. If the food is expired, the microwave will send “Out of Date Event” to the microwave service. The SmartWave service asks the database service to upload the appropriate video clip to cue the elderly person that the food is no longer good and needs to be thrown away in the garbage can. unMicrowaveable event. If the food type is not microwaveable such as a soft drink or ice cream, the microwave will send “unMicrowaveable event” to the microwave service. The SmartWave service requests the database service to upload an appropriate video clip that warns the elderly person that the food is not microwaveable and asks her to put it back and suggests a microwaveable food.

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30 Stir event. In multi step cooking meals, after the microwave finishes the first cooking instruction, if the food needs to be stirred, the microwave sends “stir event” to the microwave service. The SmartWave service captures this event and uploads the video clip that guides the elderly person in opening the microwave door, adding sauce and closing the microwave door. Then the SmartWave requests the play (video, kitchen) service from the multimedia service. Food ready event. After the food is cooked, the microwave sends “food ready event” to the microwave service. The SmartWave captures this event and uploads an appropriate video clip that reminds the elderly person that food is now ready and asks that the food be taken from the microwave carefully. If the food is removed, the SmartWave records this information and can send a notification to the family members via their mobile phones.

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CHAPTER 5 USABILITY STUDY After we implemented the SmartWave system in our laboratory, we wondered whether the SmartWave really helps the elders in preparing their own meals independently. In collaboration with the occupational therapy department, we invited eight elders (from the RERC-Tech-Aging consumer advisory board [30]) to participate in the interactive demonstration of the SmartWave system. Rick Davenport wrote the questions and summarized the results of our focus group on Appendix E. The goal of this usability study was to explore elders’ view on the current usability of their microwave ovens and to test the usability and acceptability of the SmartWave system. First, they filled out a background questionnaire (Part I). The goal of this questionnaire is to explore their backgrounds and their views about their current microwaves in their homes. Then we gave a general overview of the SmartWave, followed by a group demonstration of the SmartWave cooking a frozen entre, and concluded with all study participants individually preparing their own frozen dinner entre (Nancy’s Personal Quiche Florentine) with the SmartWave. While they were enjoying their Nancy’s Quiche Florentine, they filled out the follow-up questionnaire assessing the usability of the SmartWave system. 31

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32 5.1 Background Questionnaire Some elders have impairments of vision, hearing, motor and cognitive ability (Table 5-1). The number represents the elders and makes them anonymous. The result of the background questionnaire is summarized in Table 5-2 and the detailed result of the background questionnaire can be seen in Appendix E. Table 5-1. Summary of health impairments of the study participants Disability 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Results Low Vision X X X 3/8 =38% have low vision Poor Hearing X X X 3/8=38% have poor hearing Difficulty with hand tasks X X X X 4/8=50% have difficulty with hand tasks Memory difficulties /learning disability X X X X 4/8=50% have learning or memory difficulties Table 5-2. Summary of the background questionnaire Question Result 1 Age 74.8 2 Gender 50% Male 3 Race 100% White 4 Education 88% attending college 5 Living Arrangement 63% lives with spouse/family 6 Meals per day 75% have 3 meals/day 7 Comfortable in using Technologies in kitchen 75% 8 Willing to try new tech devices 88% 9 Ever use microwave 100% 10 Have a microwave at home 100% 11 Number of times in a week use microwave 75% used micro 6-10 or greater 12 Level of satisfaction with the microwave 100% satisfied 13 Who taught you how to use the microwave? 88% self taught 14 How difficult is the microwave to use? 88% NOT difficult at all 15 Able to program Microwave to cook at 50% power 75% 16 In a week, how often prepare frozen food items in micro? 57% prepare micro meal in 2-5/week 17 Microwave instruction is too small to read 38% 18 Do you find it difficult follow microwave instruction? 100% NOT difficult at all 19 Always follow microwave instruction 57% always follow 43% guess if too difficult to follow

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33 5.2 Usability and Acceptability of SmartWave After the elders experienced the SmartWave by themselves, they filled out the second questionnaire. The main goal of this questioner is to get feedback on the usability and the acceptability of the SmartWave System. The results are summarized on Table 5-3 and the detailed results can be seen in Appendix E. Table 5-3. Usability result after elders experienced the SmartWave Question Result 1 Is SmartWave (SW) difficult to use? 88% NOT at all difficult to use 2 Is SmartWave difficult to use after learned? 100% NOT at all difficult to use 3 SmartWave compared to Regular Microwave 71% rate SW as easy to use 4 If you had SW, would you use it more often? 50% 5 How willing would you be to have SW installed at home? 63% Willing to install 6 Would you buy food that was compatible with SW? 75% would buy SmartWave food 7 Rating of Video display instruction of SW 100% satisfied 8 Rating of Audio instruction of SW 100% satisfied 9 Difficulty level of SmartWave Instruction 75% said just right Besides the general feedback, some elders wrote some important comments that needs to be pointed out: One participant wrote that the instruction level ‘needs to have more steps while the second participant wrote that ‘there were too many simple steps.’ Another participant suggested that the SmartWave should have a pause button because he had dropped his entre and the video/audio instructions ‘got ahead of him.’ There are three participants that were ‘not willing’ to adopt the SmartWave right now because their home microwaves worked fine for their present needs. However they liked the idea of using a SmartWave and willing to adopt the SmartWave in the future if the need arose. There was one participant who would change her purchasing habits if the food product was ‘new and appealing’ and another participant had a concern regarding the possible ‘comparative cost’ of the SmartWave labeled food products. From elders’ feedback, it was found that they place a high value on their microwave ovens at their homes. Although they are very satisfied with their present microwave ovens and less than fifty percent reported having problems reading and/or

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34 following the microwave food package instructions, after the elders experienced the SmartWave, they realized the potential benefit of the SmartWave and would like to have this smart technology in their homes. Their acceptance of the SmartWave can be seen in the high number of elders willing to change their habits and their home environments to accommodate the SmartWave system. They are also willing to retrofit their present microwave and to buy the SmartWave labeled foods.

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CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY AND FUTURE WORK 6.1 Summary The main motivation of this thesis is to assist elders living independently by creating an intelligent cooking system that helps them prepare a meal despite age-related impairments and ailing health conditions. This thesis has presented the design and development of a smart microwave cooking system which turns meal preparation into a proactive process. Through RFID tags embedded on the food packets, the SmartWave is able to attain the cooking instructions seamlessly and through video and audio cueing and a step by step process, the SmartWave tries to help elders prepare their meals. Finally, we have tested our SmartWave prototype by inviting elders to have a real experience with SmartWave system in a usability study. The elders gave positive feedback with respect to acceptability, usability and convenience. 6.2 Future Work There are some possible applications for the Smartwave: By adding a voice recognition service, the Smartwave can provide “repeat,” “wait,” and “next” voice commands to help elderly people with motor impairment prepare control the play of instruction video. The Smartwave also can answer their questions and provide help. Smartwave can be used to enforce diet restriction compliance. By analyzing meal ingredients, the Smartwave may provide warnings and report to care giver in case of any dietary violation. 35

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APPENDIX A ELECTRONIC SCHEMATIC OF MICROWAVE CONTROLLER This electronic schematic is design and implemented by James Russo, a student in the CISE Department, UF. 36

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SCLK 1 VDD 2 DIN 3 GND 4 NO0 5 COM0 6 NO1 7 COM1 8 COM6 17 NO6 18 COM7 19 NO7 20 VEE 21 DOUT 22 VL 23 CS 24 NO2 9 NO5 16 COM2 10 COM5 15 NO3 11 COM3 12 COM4 13 NO4 14 MAX335CNG U1 SCLK 1 VDD 2 DIN 3 GND 4 NO0 5 COM0 6 NO1 7 COM1 8 COM6 17 NO6 18 COM7 19 NO7 20 VEE 21 DOUT 22 VL 23 CS 24 NO2 9 NO5 16 COM2 10 COM5 15 NO3 11 COM3 12 COM4 13 NO4 14 MAX335CNG U2 SCLK 1 VDD 2 DIN 3 GND 4 NO0 5 COM0 6 NO1 7 COM1 8 COM6 17 NO6 18 COM7 19 NO7 20 VEE 21 DOUT 22 VL 23 CS 24 NO2 9 NO5 16 COM2 10 COM5 15 NO3 11 COM3 12 COM4 13 NO4 14 MAX335CNG U3 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6C[1..6] C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C1 C4 C5 C6 C1 C2 C3 C4 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6R[9..13] R9 R9 R9 R9 R9 R10 R10 R10 R10 R10 R11 R11 R11 R11 R12 R12 R12 R12 R13 R13 R13 R13 R13 R13 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 To Microcontroller RA2/AN2/Vref 1 RA3/AN3/CMP1 2 RA4/TOCKI/CMP2 3 RA5/MCLR/Vpp 4 Vss 5 RB0/INT 6 RB1/RX/DT 7 RB2/TX/CK 8 RB3/CCP1 9 RB4/PGM 10 RB5 11 RB6/T1OSO/T1CKI/PGC 12 TB7/T1OSI/PGD 13 Vdd 14 RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT 15 RA7/OSC1/CLKIN 16 RA0/AN0 17 RA1/AN1 18 PIC16F62x U4 C1+ 1 VDD 2 C13 C2+ 4 C25 VEE 6 T2OUT 7 R2IN 8 R2OUT 9 T2IN 10 T1IN 11 R1OUT 12 R1IN 13 T1OUT 14 GND 15 VCC 16 MAX232CPE U5 1 2 3 4 5 ICSP JP2 +5V 1 2 3RS232 JP4 PJump W1 1 2POWER JP3 +5V CS SCLK DOUT CS 1uF Cap Pol1 C3 1uF Cap Pol1 C4Microcontroller Serial Driver Switch Interface VL R[9..13] R[9..13] C[1..6] C[1..6] C[1..6] R[9..13]VL /CS SCLK DINDIN2DIN3 SCLK VL DOUT RA4 RB0 RA6 RA7 RB5 RB4 RA4 RA7 RA6 RB5 RB4 +5V +5V +5V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Header 7X2 JP1 GND DOOR_SWITCH GND 1k Res Semi R2 47k Res Semi R1 +5V MCLR/Vpp MCLR/Vpp PGC PGC Vdd Vdd PGD PGD GND RB3 1uF Cap Pol1 C6 100pF Cap C2 C1C1+ 1uF Cap Pol1 C5 +5V TX RX 1uF Cap Pol1 C7 DOOR_SWITCH 1 2 3 4 5 6 IO JP5 RB0 RX TX ucTX ucRX

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38 APPENDIX B SMARTWAVE MICROWAVE PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION V1.0 This microwave protocol is designed and implemented by James Russo, a student in the CISE Department, UF.

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39 Overview This document describes the serial protocol which is used to communicate with the SmartWave. The SmartWave is a serially controlled microwave used within the smart kitchen at the University of Florida’s Center on Technology for Successful Aging. The low-level protocol is described and examples of requests and responses are provided. Communication Details Communications with the microwave take place on a standard RS232 port using 9600 N-8-1. There is no flow control used since each and every request must generate a response and there is no large amount of data being transferred. Each packet which is sent to and from the microwave starts with a special SOF header. This header allows you to easily detect the start of a packet. Each packet to and from the microwave also contain checksums to ensure reliable operation. Packet Details This section describes the details of both the request and response packet. The format of both packets is very similar. Request Packet SOF Checksum !Checksum Field: SOF Field Size:1 byte Purpose: indicating that this is the start of a packet. Field: Packet Length Field Size: 1 byte Purpose: To indicate the length of the packet being received. This includes the SOF header. The minimum value would be 5: SOF, Function,Checksum1, Checksum2 Field: Function Field Size: 1 byte Purpose: To indicate the function which the controller is to perform. Field: Data Field Size: 0.X bytes Purpose: The data which is to be provided to the function. The formatting, meaning and length of this field are function dependent. Field: Checksum Field Size: 1 byte Purpose: The LRC Checksum of all fields previous fields. This is calculated by doing a XOR on all bytes in the packet leading up to but not including this checksum byte.

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40 Field: Checksum2 Field Size: 1 byte Purpose: The ones complement (negate) of the Checksum field. Response Packet SOF Checksum !Checksum Field: SOF Field Size: 1 byte Purpose: indicating that this is the start of a packet. Values: Always ‘!’ 0x21 Field: Packet Length Field Size: 1 byte Purpose: To indicate the length of the packet being received. This includes the SOF header. The minimum value would be 5: SOF, Function, Data, Checksum1, Checksum2 Field: Function Field Size:1 byte Purpose: To indicate the function which the controller is to perform. Field: Data Field Size: 1...X Bytes. Purpose: The data which is to be provided to the function. The formatting and meaning of this data if function dependent. Field: Checksum Field Size: 1 byte Purpose: The LRC Checksum of all fields previous fields. This is calculated by doing a XOR on all bytes in the packet leading up to this Checksum byte. Field: Checksum2 Field Size: 1 byte Purpose: The ones complement (negate) of the Checksum field. notes on data field: The data field on the response packet will always be there. The data field on the request packet may or may not be there depending on the requirements of the function.

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41 Functions Push Button (0x01) Function code: 0x01 Data: The button value you would like to be pressed. The data contains the button identifier, and is one byte. 0x00 – 0xFF Example: Send a request to push button 0. Request: 0x21,0x06,0x01,0x00,0x21,0xDE Response: 0x21,0x06,0x01,0x01 ,0x27,0xD8 Get Door Status (0x02) Function code: 0x02 Data: None. Example: Send a request to determine if the door is opened or closed. Request: 0x21,0x05,0x02,0x26,0xD9 Response: 0x21,0x06,0x02,0x01,0x??,0x?? The data portion of the response indicates the door status. 0x01 indicates that the door is opened, 0x02 indicates that the door is closed. Get Version (0x03) Function code: 0x03 Data: None. Example: Send a request for the firmware revision. Request: 0x21,0x05,0x03,0x??,0x?? Response: 0x21,0x06,0x02,0x01,0x??,0x?? The data portion of the response packet indicates the revision number of the firmware. The valid revisions are 0x00 – 0xFF. Exceptions: There may be cases when the request packet was not successfully received by the microwave. This condition needs to be indicated back to the client making the request.

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42 The function field of the response back can be used to indicate two conditions. The first condition is that the packet was not successfully received by the microwave. The second condition is that the requested function is not valid. Error Function Codes: 0xFE Unknown Function. (The data portion of this response packet will indicated the function being requested) 0xFF Invalid Checksum (The data portion of this response packet will be 0x00 always)

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APPENDIX C BUNDLE SERVICES C.1 Database Service /** Get the food information. * @param foodID Food identifier. * @param colum Food information wants to be retrieved such as name, advertising, type. * @return Food information as a string. */ public String getFoodInfo(int foodID, String colum); /** Store the food information cooked by a person. * @param personID Person identifier. * @param foodID Food identifier. */ public void storeCookedFood(int personID, int foodID); /** Load a video (prepare, stir, take out) and save as a file at specified location. * @param foodID Food identifier. * @param multimediaName Video wants to be retrieved such as preparation, stir. * @param fileLocation Save the video at a specified location. */ public void getVideo (String foodID, String multimediaName, String fileLocation); C.2 Location Service /** Get the person’s location in the house. * @param personID Person’s Identifier. * @return person’s location such as kitchen, bedroom. */ public String getLocation(String personID); /** Get the person’s orientation. * @param personID Person’s identifier. * @return person’s orientation such as microwave, fridge and TV. */ public String getOrientation(String personID); 43

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44 C.3 Multimedia Service /** Play the video file at a specified LCD screen. * @param videoFile Location of video file. * @param ScreenLocation Location of LCD screen in the house such as bedroom, kitchen, living room. */ public void play(String videoFile, String ScreenLocation); C.4 Microwave Service /** Get microwave door status. * return open or close. */ public String getDoorState(); /** Get food inside the microwave. * return food ID if there’s food being cooked, otherwise return null. */ public String getFoodInside(); /** Get the microwave state. * return ready, broken, or cooking. */ public String getMicrowaveState(); /** Time Cook for specified seconds and at certain power level. * @param time Cooking duration in seconds from 1 to 9999. * @param powerLevel Cooking power level from 1 to 9. */ public void TimeCook(int time, int powerLevel); /** Get cooking method being executed by the microwave. * @return Cooking method being executed such as time cook (120, 5), otherwise return null. */ public String getCookingInstruction(); /** Press the start/pause button on the microwave oven. * / public void StartPause(); /** Press the clear button on the microwave oven. * / public void Clear();

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APPENDIX D ENTITY RELATION DIAGRAM OF SMARTWAVE DATABASE The SmartWave’s database stores information about the food packages and uses the food identifier and the company identifier as a primary key. Every food package has Food nutrition information that can be obtained from the ESHA database [29]. Video clips that guide elderly people in preparing, stirring and removing the food from the microwave. I assume the availability of a national database. My intention is that perhaps one day such a database will be extended to what I’m proposing in this thesis. The SmartWave’s database also stores information about the people who live in the smart house. Finally, the SmartWave’s database stores information about the food a person cooked. 45

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46 People Food Cook Food Company (0,N)(0,N) Food_ID People_ID Company_ID Manufacture (1,1) (1,N) Name Gender Age Date Time Name Adverstiment Type Ingridients Calories Total Fat Cholestro l Sugar Name Preparation Stir Take Food Video Nutrition Facts General Caution

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APPENDIX E RESULTS OF USABILITY STUDY The usability study was performed by Rick Davenport from the Occupational Therapy Department. This appendix documents the detailed results on the basis of which the usability study was performed. 47

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Table E-1. Results of usability study (part 1) 48 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Results 1. Age 72 66 82 71 79 82 70 76 x=74.8 + 5.9 2. Gender M M M M F F F F M=50% 3. Race W W W W W W W W W=100% 4. Education SomeCollege Some College Graduate Degree Graduate Degree Graduate Degree HS Diplo Bach Degree Bach Degree 7/8=88% attending college 5/8=63% rcd a college degree 5. Living Arrangement Live with Family Lives Alone Lives with Spouse Lives with Spouse Lives Alone Lives with Spouse Lives with Spouse Lives Alone 5/8=63% lives with spouse/family 6. typical –Self Meal Preparation per day none (eats out) Brfst, Dinner none (spouse does) Snacks Brfst Brfst, Lunch,Dinner Brfst, Lunch, Dinner, Snacks Brfst, Lunch, Dinner, Snacks F=3/4=75%=3meals/day M=1/4=25%=2meals/day 7. Comfort in using tech in kitchen Very comfortable Very comfortable Very comfortable Somewhat comfortable Very comfortable Very comfortable Very comfortable Very comfortable 7/8=88%V.Comfortable tech in kitchen 8. Comfort in using tech in home-office Very comfortable Very comfortable Very comfortable Very comfortable Not at all comfortable Neutral Verycomfortable Very comfortable 6/8=75%V.Comfortable tech in home office 9. Willing to try new tech devices? Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 7/8=88% willing to try new tech device 10. # of Conditions (Self Report) 13 7 7 0 7 4 0 0 a. not affect activity 2 2 2 0 0 3 0 0 b. Mildly affect activity 4 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 c. Moderately affect activity 7 1 4 0 6 0 0 0 d. Severely affect activity 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 11. # of difficult/impossible activities 10 9 1 0 1 0 1 0 MICROWAVE 12. ever used Microwave Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 8/8=100% used micro

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Table E-1. Continued 49 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Results 13. have a Microwave in home Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 8/8=100% has microinhome 14. # times microwave used in a week 6-10 6-10 <1 2-5 6-10 6-10 >10 >10 6/8=75% used micro 6-10 x or greater a week 15. Level of Satisfaction with the microwave V. Satisfied V. Satisfied V. Satisfied V. Satisfied V. Satisfied V. Satisfied V. Satisfied V. Satisfied 8/8=100% V. Satisfied with micro 16. Level of Importance of the microwave V. Import V. Import V. Import V. Import Somewhat Important V. Import V. Import V. Import 7/8=88% Micro V. Import 17. Who taught you how to use the microwave Self Taught Self Taught Self Taught Self Taught Self Taught Self Taught Self Taught Sales Person 7/8=88% Self Taught 18. How difficult is the microwave to use Not at all difficult Somewhat difficult Not at all difficult Not at all difficult Not at all difficult Not at all difficult Not at all difficult Not at all difficult 7/8=88%Not at All difficult to use micro 19. Can program Microwave to cook at 50% power Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 6/8=75% know how to program micro at 50% 20. In a week how often prepare frozen food item in micro 2-5 blank 2-5 <1 2-5 <1 <1 2-5 4/7=57% =prepare micromeal =2-5xweek 3/7=43%=prepare micro meal=<1xweek *(missing data 1person) 21. Microwave instructions too small to read Somewhat difficult to read Somewhat difficult to read not at all difficult to read not at all difficult to read Somewhat difficult to read not at all difficult to read not at all difficult to read not at all difficult to read 3/8=38% felt frozen food print somewhat small and difficult to read 5/8=63% not too small 22. Microwave instruction on frozen food pkg not at all difficult not at all difficult not at all difficult not at all difficult not at all difficult not at all difficult not at all difficult not at all difficult 8/8=100%=did not have problem following instruction on F. Pkg 23. find difficult microwave instructions sometimes does not follow instructions I always follow the micro instructions blank –states wife prepares meals sometimes does not follow instructions I always follow the micro instructions I always follow the micro instructions I always follow the micro instructions sometimes does not follow instructions 3/7=43%=when micro instruct too difficult they guess power/time 4/7=57%=always able to follow the instructions *missing data = 1 person stated to ‘ask my wife’

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Table E-2. Results of usability study (part 2) 50 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Results 1. Difficulty SW to learn to use not at all difficult to use not at all difficult to use somewhat difficult to use (“I dropped the package while opening and the instructions got ahead of me. Suggest someway to delay or repeat the instructions”) not at all difficult to use not at all difficult to use (“The button (open + close) could be easier to open”) not at all difficult to use not at all difficult to use not at all difficult to use 7/8=88% report “not at all difficult to use” 1 study participant dropped their food item + the video instructions went ahead –rated SW as “Somewhat difficult to use” 2. Difficulty SW to use (after learned) not at all difficult to use not at all difficult to use not at all difficult to use not at all difficult to use not at all difficult to use (“very easy”) not at all difficult to use (‘The package did not have a sensor in it to activate the SmartWave’) not at all difficult to use not at all difficult to use 8/8=100% “not at all difficult to use” once learned 3. SW compared to Reg Microwave SW very easy to use when compared to old microwave SW very easy to use when compared to old microwave SW is somewhat easier to use when compared to old micro (“with your micro I didn’t have to read the instructions”) SW very easy to use when compared to old microwave blank SW very easy to use when compared to old microwave SW very easy to use when compared to old microwave My own microwave is very easy to use when compared to the SW (“The door on my microwave is easier to use”) 5/7=71% rated the SW as very easy to use when compared to their own microwave at home 1 study participant reported the SW was somewhat easier to use when compared to their own microwave *(missing data – 1 blank) 4. If had SW-would you find yourself using it more than you currently use your own microwave Would use SW more often than own micro at home Would use SW the same amt of times Would use SW more often than own micro at home (“It is fun to use”) Would use SW more often than own micro at home Would use SW more often than own micro at home Would use SW the same amt of times Would use SW the same amt of times I would use the SW less often than my microwave at home 4/8=50%=would use the SW more often than they currently use their own microwave 3/8=38%=use the SW the same amount of time as their own microwave

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Table E-2. Continued 51 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Results 5. How willing would you be to have SW installed on own Microwave. Somewhat willing Very Willing Very Willing (“Depending on usable products & comparative cost of food & micro”) Very Willing Not Willing (“probably wouldn’t bother as mine is easy”) Very Willing Not Willing (“At the present time we do not need however when the time comes we need it the SmartWave would be wonderful”) Very Willing (“It’s nice to hear a voice”) 5/8=63% very willing to install/retrofit the SW components on their own microwave at home 2/8=25% not willing to install on their own microwave at home b/c their microwave at home works fine for their needsbut are open to the idea of future use if needed 6. Would you buy food that was compatible with SW Yes No I would buy what normally buy Yes (Can’t see any point in having Smart micro without compatible food products”) Yes Yes Yes Yes No I would buy what normally buy (“not unless it was new + appealing”) 6/8=75% would buy food specifically labeled compatible for the SW 7. Rating of Video display instructions of SW Very Satisfied Very Satisfied Very Satisfied (see comment for answer 1) Very Satisfied blank Very Satisfied VerySatisfied Very Satisfied 7/7=100% very satisfied with video displayed instruction *(missing data – 1 blank) 8. Rating of Audio instructions of SW Very Satisfied Very Satisfied Very Satisfied (see comment for answer 1) Very Satisfied blank Very Satisfied VerySatisfied Very Satisfied 7/7=100% very satisfied with audio displayed instruction *(missing data – 1 blank) 9. Difficulty level of SW instructions just right just right somewhat difficult –needed to have some more steps (see comment for answer 1) just right just right just right somewhat too easy –too many simple steps not needed. just right 6/8=75% rate the instructional level of the SW as “just right” 1 study participant reported needing more steps while another study participant reported steps where too easy

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Table E-2. Continued 52 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Results 10. Open ended question: Please provide your overall feelings re: the SW oven? blank “Very usefuland desireable” “A very good idea!!” “very easy to use – has been developed very well. could you repeat the instructions” “It is simple, compact, +easy to use” “I think the SmartWave oven will be a great new item. Provided the cost will not be prohibitive.”) blank “I like the idea of the prompting”

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LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Leon J, Moyer D. Potential Cost Savings in Residential Care for Alzheimer’s Disease Patients. Gerentologist 1999; 39(4): 440-449. 2. Baby Boomer HeadQuarters. The Boomer Stats. Statistic, January 2004; http://www.bbhq.com/bomrstat.htm. Site last visited on April, 2004 3. Alzheimer Organization. http://www.alz.org . Site last visited on April, 2004 4. Alzheimer Disease Education and Referral Center. Alzheimer’s Disease: Unraveling the Mystery. Report, December 2003; http://www.alzheimers.org/unraveling/index.htm. Site last visited on April, 2004 5. Intel Proactive Health. http://www.intel.com/research/prohealth/cs-aging_in_place.htm . Site last visited on April, 2004 6. Morris M, Lundell J, Dishman E, and Needham B. New Perspectives on Ubiquitous Computing from ethnographic Study of Elders with Cognitive decline. In Proceeding of UbiComp 2003; pp. 227-242. 7. Kirsch NL, Levine SP, Lajiness R, O’Neil and Schnyder M. Computer-assisted interactive task guidance; Facilitating the performance of a simulated vocational task. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 1992; 7(3): 13-25. 8. Mihailidis AF, Cleghorn G. The development of a computerized cueing device to help people with dementia to be more independent. Technology & Disability 2000; 13: 23-40. 9. Stanford V. Using Pervasive Computing to Deliver Elder Care. In Pervasive Computing January-March 2002. 10. MIT Media Laboratory. Counter Intelligence. http://www.media.mit.edu/ci. Site last visited on April, 2004 11. Samsung. Unveils Home Networking Through Power Lines. News, August 2001; http://www.samsung.com/Products/MicrowaveOven/news/MicrowaveOven_20010817_0000000848.htm . Site last visited on April, 2004 12. IBM. Smart Kitchen. Demo, December 2003; http://www.ngi.ibm.com/demos/kitchen.html . Site last visited on April, 2004 53

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54 13. SIEMENS. Internet House. Video, January 2002; http://www.siemens.com/index.jsp?sdc_pt4csuo1050417d1053184pCHNn1050417flm&sdc_sid=15177225492& . Site last visited on April, 2004 14. TMIO. Microwave Oven. News, April 2003; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/2921413.stm . Site last visited on April, 2004 15. Weiser M. The Computer for the 21 st Century. Scientific American 1991; 256(3): 94-104 16. Giraldo C, Helal A, and Mann WC. mPCA – A Mobile Patient Care-Giving Assistant for Alzheimer Patients. In Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Ubiquitous Computing for Cognitive Aids, September 2002. 17. Helal A, Giraldo A, Kaddoura Y, Lee C, Zabadani HE and Mann WC. Smart Phone Based Cognitive Assistant. Submitted to Fifth International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, September 2003. 18. Helal A, Mann WC, and Lee C. Smart Environments for Individuals with Special Needs. In Smart Environments: Technologies, Protocols and Applications. John Wiley & Sons: New York, 2004; in press. 19. Helal A, Winkler B, Lee C, Kaddoura Y, Ran L, Giraldo C, Kuchibhotla S, and Mann WC. Enabling Location-Aware Pervasive Computing Applications for the Elderly. In Proceedings of the first IEEE International Conference Pervasive Computing and Communications 2003; pp. 531-538. 20. Gallawa. Microwave Oven Operation, Troubleshooting and Repair Advice for Appliance and Electronic Technicians. Microtech. http://www.gallawa.com/microtech/ . Site last visited on April, 2004 21. Texas Instrument RFID. Tag It Inlays. http://www.ti.com/tiris/docs/products/transponders/RI-I01-110A.shtml. Site last visited on April, 2004 22. Texas Instrument RFID. Series 6000HF-I RFID Evaluation Kit. http://www.ti.com/tiris/docs/products/evalKits/RI-K10-001A-00.shtml. Site last visited on April, 2004 23. Systronix. http://systronix.com. Site last visited on April, 2004 24. Microchip. PIC16F628. Documentation, November 2003; http://www.microchip.com/1010/pline/picmicro/category/embctrl/8kbytes/devices/16c628/ . Site last visited on April, 2004 25. Maxim. MAX395, Documentation, November 1995; http://www.maxim-ic.com/quick_view2.cfm/qv_pk/1278.Site last visited on April, 2004

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55 26. OSGi Alliance. http://www.osgi.org. Site last visited on April, 2004 27. Sun Microsystems. Java Embedded Server. http://www.sun.com/software/embeddedserver/ . Site last visited on April, 2004 28. Kuchibhotla SC. An OSGI Based Software Infrastucture for smart homes of the future. Master’s Thesis, University of Florida, 2002. 29. ESHA Research. http://www.esha.com . Site last visited on April, 2004 30. Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center. http://www.rerc.ufl.edu/. Site last visited on April, 2004.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH I received my bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from Trisakti University, Indonesia. To fulfill my curiosity since I was a kid, I made my first robot as my thesis. After that, I worked 1 year on a project for the Network Integrator Company at Bank Mandiri (the biggest bank in Indonesia) then moved on to SIEMENS Information and Communication Mobile (ICM) for TELKOMSEL (largest mobile operator in Indonesia) project. Before coming to the University of Florida, I had to make a difficult decision: whether to improve my career at SIEMENS, take a scholarship from SIEMENS in communication and business at Technische Universitt Hamburg (TUHH), Hamburg Germany, or studying Computer Science in the United States (UF or Texas A&M). Finally I decided to pursue my interest in the mobile world, with Dr. Helal, at the University of Florida. I made the right decision. Dr. Helal is a great professor, technically and personally. He always trusted me and supported my work on this very interesting project (SmartWave). I also received a great deal of help from all of my friends. Without their help, this project could not have been completed. I feel that I am always blessed by my parents, my wife and my friends. They have always been very supportive and helpful. I hope that this SmartWave project will help parents all around the world, enabling them to enjoy their favorite meals with ease. Amen! 56