|UFDC Home||myUFDC Home | Help|
This item has the following downloads:
PRESIDENT LINCOLN' S COMMUTE ROUTE:
A HERITAGE TOURISM OPPORTUNITY?
ANGELA SUSANNE BROWN
A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE INT ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Angela Susanne Brown
I am very grateful to my thesis committee (Peter Prugh, Dr. Kristin Larsen and
Sophia Lynn) for their guidance and enthusiasm. I particularly want to express my
appreciation for Peter Prugh' s infinite knowledge and kindness, which made my
educational experience at the University of Florida outstanding. I thank Sophia Lynn for
introducing me to the President Lincoln and Soldiers' Home National Monument, and
encouraging me to stay involved with the project after my internship. I also appreciate
the support of William Dupont, Graham Gund Architect; and James Vaughan, Vice
President for the Stewardship of Historic Sites at the National Trust for Historic
Preservation. Their flexibility allowed me to finish this proj ect on time.
I thank my parents for instilling in me an appreciation for historic architecture,
and for giving me the confidence to achieve my goals. Finally, I owe my husband a
lifetime of gratitude. His encouragement and support allowed me to make this dream a
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENT S ................. ................. iii........ ....
LIST OF FIGURES .............. ....................vii
AB STRAC T ................ .............. ix
1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............1.......... ......
2 HERITAGE TOURISM DEFINED AND EVALUATED .............. .....................
Tourism Vocabulary ................. .... ...............
Heritage Tourism vs. Cultural Tourism............... ...............6.
Heritage Trail.................... ...............
National Park Service Vocabulary............... ...............
National Scenic Trail ............ ..... ._ ...............8....
National Historic Trail ............ ..... ._ ...............9....
National Recreation Trail .............. ...............9.....
National Heritage Area........ ......... ..._ ... ... ... ... .........___......... 1
National Park Service Designation of President Lincoln' s Commute Route............. 10
Evaluating the Impact of Heritage Tourism ............_...... ._ .........._.......1
3 EVALUATING HERITAGE TOURISM .............. .....................15
Evaluative System .............. ...............16....
Resource Protection ................. ...............16.................
Visitor Experience ................. ...............17.......... .....
Community Benefit ................. ...............19.......... .....
Prioritization of Values ................. ...............21......._.. ....
4 CASE STUDIES............... ...............23
Cultural Tourism DC .............. ........ ... .... .........2
Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail .............. ....................2
City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail .............. .....................2
African American Heritage Trail .................. .. ....._ ......._ ........2
Evaluation of Cultural Tourism DC's Heritage Trails............... ..................1
Resource protection............... ...............3
Visitor experience .............. ...............32....
Community benefit............... .... ..... ..... .........3
Establishment Procedure Common to All Three Trails .............. ...................34
Financial Investment .............. ...............35....
The Freedom Trail Foundation............... ...............3
Boston' s Freedom Trail .................. ..._ ...............37..
Evaluation of Boston's Freedom Trail .............. ...............40....
Resource protection............... ...............4
Visitor experience .............. ...............41....
Community benefit............... ...............43
5 PRESIDENT LINTCOLN' S CO1V1VUTE ROUTE ........................... ...............45
Wartime Washington ................. ...............48.................
Background ................. ...............48.................
Infusion of Soldiers .............. ...............50....
Ongoing Construction .............. ...............51....
H hospital s ................. ...............52.......... .....
Freedmen and Slaves ................. ...............53........... ....
G uards.................. ......... ..........5
Riding with the President .............. ...............57....
What Did President Lincoln See? ................. ...............57........... ...
Conclusion ................ ...............59.................
6 CONCLU SION................ ..............6
Evaluating the Feasibility of President Lincoln's Commute Route .................. .........63
Resource Protection............... ...............6
Visitor Experience ................ ...............65.................
Community Benefit .............. ...............66....
Recommendations............... .... .........6
Opportunities for Future Research............... ...............68
A NATIONAL TRAIL SY STEM ACT .............. ...............69....
B NATIONAL SCENIC AND HISTORIC TRAILS .............. ....................10
C NATIONAL HERITAGE AREAS ................. ...............103...............
D CURRENT ROUTE .............. ...............105....
E LIST OF INTERVIEWS ................. ...............110......... .....
LIST OF REFERENCES ................. ...............111................
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................. ...............114......... ......
LIST OF FIGURES
4-1. Map of Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail ................ ...............25
4-2. Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail Guidebook ...........................25
4-3. City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail Street Marker ................... .......27
4-4. City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail Map .................... ...............2
4-5. African American Heritage Trail Guidebook............... ...............3
4-6. African American Heritage Trail Map ................ ...............30...............
4-7. The Freedom Trail Guidebook ................. ...............39........... ...
4-8. The Freedom Trail Marker ................. ...............42........... ...
4-9. The Freedom Trail Map .............. ...............43....
5-1. President Lincoln's Commute Route .............. ...............47....
5-2. Campbell Hospital, near President Lincoln' s commute route .........._.... ...............52
5-3. Contraband camp............... ...............54..
6-1. Vermont Avenue at K Street ................. ......... ...............64. ..
6-2. The corner where Walt Whitman lived at Vermont and L Street ............................64
6-3. The trail would pass through many blocks of boarded commercial buildings, like
these on Georgia Avenue (formerly Seventh Street)............... ................6
D-1. Vermont Avenue. ............. ...............105....
D-2. Logan Circle (formerly lowa Circle) .............. ...............107....
D-3. Rhode Island Avenue at Georgia Avenue (formerly Seventh Street) ................... .107
D-4. Georgia Avenue (formerly Seventh Street) ................. ............... ......... ...108
D-5. These homes are representative of the neighborhood immediately surrounding the
Soldiers' Home today ................. ...............109................
Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Architectural Studies
PRESIDENT LINCOLN' S COMMUTE ROUTE:
A HERITAGE TOURISM OPPORTUNITY?
Angela S. Brown
Chair: Peter Prugh
Major Department: Architecture
During the summers of 1862, 1863, and 1864, President Lincoln lived in a cottage at
the Soldiers' Home, a retirement community for enlisted soldiers 3 miles north of the
White House. President Lincoln commuted to the White House every morning by
horseback or carriage. The principle focus of our study was to explore whether it is
feasible to establish a heritage trail along President Lincoln' s commute route through
Many heritage tourism destinations in the country are called "heritage trails," but
there is no standard definition. The federal government has passed legislation defining
several heritage tourism categories, but heritage trails are not included. This is a
weakness in the heritage tourism industry that could be strengthened by establishment of
criteria and standards for federal designation of heritage trails.
Heritage tourism is an important segment of the tourism industry. Heritage tourism
can benefit historic cities by providing money that can be used for maintenance and
promotion. Tourism also increases public awareness and interest, which can be
particularly valuable if a resource is ever threatened. Heritage tourism destinations can
provide an educational and entertaining travel opportunity for individuals, couples, and
families. Tourism can also greatly benefit an area's economy. If managed properly,
heritage tourism can be a strong preservation, educational, and economic tool.
A system for evaluating heritage tourism destinations is presented in our study.
Heritage trails are difficult to evaluate by traditional measures, such as visitation and
income potential. Instead, their impact can be measured based on their ability to protect
available resources, create a meaningful visitor experience, and provide benefit to the
local community. This evaluative system is very flexible. The three measures can be
weighed differently for each case, depending on the unique needs of the particular
Boston's Freedom Trail and three heritage trails in Washington, D.C. served as case
studies. These trails were chosen because of their similarities to the possible President
Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail. They are located in densely populated, urban
locations, and are less than 5 miles long. The aforementioned evaluative system was
used to measure these trails' effectiveness.
We also began research to determine whether enough historic fabric exists today to
make a successful heritage trail. A heritage trail could entice visitors off of the
Washington, D.C. Mall and into the community, where they would get a more intimate
view of the city, and learn about one of its unique neighborhoods. The trail would lead
them to the President Lincoln and Soldiers' Home National Monument, which should be
open to the public by 2006.
Between June and November of 1862, 1863, and 1864, Abraham Lincoln and his
family lived in a cottage on the grounds of the Soldiers' Home, a residence for disabled
military veterans 3 miles north of the White House. He spent almost every night at the
cottage, and commuted to work at the White House every day. The cottage was a refuge
from the pressures of the White House, and a quiet location to grieve the loss of their 12-
year-old son, Willie. President Lincoln lived at the Soldiers' Home for a quarter of his
presidency, but most Americans, and even some Lincoln scholars, are unaware of its
Though the Soldiers' Home also served as a seasonal retreat for Presidents
Buchanan, Hayes and Arthur, its association with President Lincoln and the possibility
that he drafted the Emancipation Proclamation there prompted President Clinton to
designate the cottage and the surrounding 2.3 acres as the President Lincoln and Soldiers'
Home National Monument in 2000. The Armed Forces Retirement Home, an
independent federal agency, owns the property. In cooperation with the Armed Forces
Retirement Home, the National Trust for Historic Preservation agreed to steward the
restoration of the cottage and open it to the public as the preeminent site for learning
about Lincoln's presidency.
To evaluate the potential for President Lincoln's commute route to become a
heritage tourism destination in Washington, D.C., one must learn more about heritage
tourism as a whole. Our study provided the following:
* A working definition of "heritage tourism"
* Information on the impact of heritage tourism nationwide
* A system to evaluate the effectiveness of heritage tourism attractions
* Details about President Lincoln's commute route, and whether enough historic
fabric remains to propose a heritage trail along the route.
First, what is heritage tourism? An examination of current literature suggests that
different tourism and preservation organizations use very different definitions, though
they tend to stress the importance of experiential education. "Heritage tourism" is often
used interchangeably with "cultural tourism" or even combined, in terms like "cultural
heritage tourism" or "historic and cultural travelers." In addition, the federal government
has defined several categories of heritage tourism through the National Trail System Act
of 1968. The Act defines National Scenic Trails, National Historic Trails, and National
Recreation Trails. The National Park Service has also defined National Heritage Areas.
It is interesting that "heritage trail," probably the most commonly-used heritage tourism
term, is not defined by the federal government. The establishment of criteria for federal
designation of heritage trails could increase their use for education and entertainment.
Chapter 2 discusses cultural and heritage terms, and evaluates heritage tourism's national
Heritage tourism has only recently become a recognized niche in the tourism
industry, but heritage tourism is not new. People have been traveling to visit heritage
resources for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. Addressing a tourism conference, Gail
Dexter Lord, co-founder of Lord Cultural Resources Planning and Management, said,
"since ancient times it has been a motivation for travel, although only among a tiny
minority of the general public. The 'Grand Tour' was once considered an essential part
of a 'gentleman's' education" (Lord, 1999: 1).
In addition, tourism has been an important part of historic preservation since the
inception of the field. All preservationists are familiar with Ann Pamela Cunningham's
desire to save Mount Vernon so Americans could visit George Washington's home, learn
about their greatest leader, and be inspired to become better citizens. She knew, as many
more are beginning to realize, that heritage resources can be great tourist draws.
Americans are now becoming more sophisticated in their choices for leisure time
activities. They travel for education and enrichment. A recent Travel Industry
Association of America study (TIA, 2003) found that most historic/cultural travelers
believe that trips where they can learn something new are more memorable to them. In
addition, 3 8% of those surveyed said they prefer to visit destinations with some historic
Since heritage tourism has become so popular, a mechanism is needed to evaluate
its impact and potential for success. A thorough review of articles and books pertaining
to heritage tourism and its nationwide impact yielded information about what makes
certain heritage tourism attractions more effective than others and served as the
foundation of an evaluative system presented in Chapter 3. This system is a framework
by which a community can determine the feasibility or effectiveness of its heritage
tourism attractions. The system allows evaluation of a heritage tourism attraction's
effectiveness in three categories: resource protection, visitor experience, and community
benefit. It should be recognized that this is a value-laden system, which makes it
remarkably flexible but also very subj ective. Any of the three components can be
weighed more or less heavily, depending on the particular needs of an attraction and on
the evaluator' s point of view.
Lastly, the question of the feasibility of President Lincoln' s commute route as a
heritage trail remains. A literature review yielded contextual information about
Washington, D.C. during the Civil War. A study of contemporary sources, particularly
city directories and maps, provided rich detail about the particular route that President
Lincoln took to and from the Soldiers' Home every day between June and November of
1862, 1863, and 1864. This trail could teach visitors more about Abraham Lincoln, the
Civil War, slavery, and emancipation. It might encourage them to venture into the
neighborhoods now surrounding President Lincoln's retreat. This would give visitors a
more accurate impression of the city than the museums and monuments of the Mall can
afford. It might also provide a much-needed economic benefit to the community. It
could foster a sense of pride in the community, and an incentive to protect the resources
they have now.
Preliminary research reveals serious concerns regarding President Lincoln's
Commute Route Heritage Trail's potential for success. Almost no historic fabric remains
today. This effectively negates all three of the evaluative criteria: protection of historic
resources, visitor experience, and community benefit. First, there are no resources to
protect. Second, visitors are attracted to authenticity of place, not merely the site of
interesting history. This trail does not allow appreciation of original material. Third, the
community will not benefit from a heritage trail that does not attract and interest visitors.
A lack of historic fabric makes the success of a heritage trail along President Lincoln's
commute route improbable. Alternate uses of President Lincoln's commute route are
discussed in Chapter 6.
Under certain circumstances, heritage tourism can be a great opportunity. The
following chapters provide background information about the field, a method for
evaluating this form of tourism effectively, and details regarding wartime Washington
and President Lincoln' s commute route.
HERITAGE TOURISM DEFINED AND EVALUATED
Tourism is a maj or industry in the United States. A growing segment of this
industry includes people who like to travel for educational reasons and to experience
history. This activity is often called heritage or cultural tourism. It is important to define
this segment of the tourism industry, particularly for use in our study. It is also helpful to
understand the economic impact of heritage tourism. Heritage travelers spend millions of
dollars every year. Preservationists who understand the power of heritage tourism can
use it to benefit the historic sites they hope to protect.
Heritage Tourism vs. Cultural Tourism
Most people use the terms "heritage tourism" and "cultural tourism" to describe the
activities of people who are interested in travel for its educational value. These two terms
are used interchangeably so often that the National Trust for Historic Preservation, which
promotes preservation and the tourism that can result as an economic tool, does not make
a distinction. The National Trust chooses to use the term "cultural heritage tourism," an
umbrella term, which it defines as "traveling to experience the places, artifacts and
activities that authentically represent the stories and people of the past and present. It
includes cultural, historic and natural resources" (NTHP, 2001: 2). The TIA also uses a
combined term in its studies: "historic/cultural tourism."
While "cultural tourism" and "heritage tourism" are very similar, they do not
always mean exactly the same thing. Heritage tourism stresses the importance of
experiencing a particular place. The tourism potential is based in the uniqueness or some
particular quality of a specific building, neighborhood, battlefield, or other place.
Cultural tourism is usually less dependent on the particular location. The education or
experience to be gained from a location is more important in cultural tourism. An
example given by Katherine Tandy Brown in "Cultural or Heritage this Tourism is
Hot" is "seeing the work of a great artist in his home and studio is a heritage event, while
viewing those same works in a traveling exhibit is a cultural one. Same content, different
context" (Brown, 2003: 1).
Given these two definitions, it is clear that President Lincoln' s Commute Route is a
heritage tourism opportunity more than a cultural tourism one. The route is absolutely
tied to its location. It would be impossible to propose the trail in any location other than
that where President Lincoln traveled every day. Because the trail is so place-based,
"heritage tourism" is used throughout our study.
A commute route lends itself to the establishment of a tourism "trail." It has all the
characteristics of a trail. It is linear, with a start point, a destination, and sights along the
way. The term "heritage trail" is used rather loosely in the tourism industry, and can
refer to many types of attractions. Some heritage trails are nothing more than the
sequence in which a tourist is recommended to see the sights. It might only be printed in
a brochure, with no other way-finding devices or interpretation of a larger story. Some
heritage trails are very structured and present a more coherent, logical experience. They
are sometimes designated by a local or state agency. A heritage trail can not, however,
be designated by the federal government. Only National Historic Trails, National
Recreation Trails, National Scenic Trails, and National Heritage Areas are designated by
the federal government.
It is interesting to note that the National Park Service does not attempt to define
"heritage trails." Given that this is a commonly-used term when discussing organized
trails, it is odd that an effort has not been made to do so. This seems to indicate a
weakness in the tourism industry. Federal designation of heritage trails could help define
and set national criteria for this type of tourism.
National Park Service Vocabulary
The National Trail Systems Act, approved in 1968 (Appendix A), provided for the
establishment of National Recreation Trails and National Scenic Trails. The Act was
amended in 1978 to include National Historic Trails. National Scenic Trails and National
Historic Trails must be designated by an Act of Congress. The criteria for designation
are fairly stringent. National Recreation Trails can be designated by the Secretaries of
the Interior or Agriculture and can be designated without meeting the highest level of
National Scenic Trail
Designation as a National Scenic Trail is a prestigious honor. It opens the door to
federal funding and may attract private donors, as well. It also allows access to the
National Park Service's technical expertise.
The National Trail Systems Act explains the criteria and process for designation.
National Scenic Trails must, "provide for maximum outdoor recreation potential and for
the conservation and enjoyment of the nationally significant scenic, historic, natural or
cultural qualities of the areas through which such trails may pass" (NPS, 1968: Sec.3.a.2).
These trails should be longer than 100 miles, continuously or as segments added together.
National Scenic Trails must be designated by an Act of Congress. Only eight trails have
been designated as National Scenic Trails in the history of the program (Appendix B).
National Historic Trail
According to the National Trail System Act, National Historic Trails "shall have as
their purpose the identification and protection of the historic route and its historic
remnants and artifacts for public use and enj oyment" (NPS, 1968: Sec. 3.a.3). The
designated trail must follow the original, historic trail as closely as possible. To be
designated, it should be more than 100 miles long. Exceptions are considered if the trail
is particularly significant.
To qualify as a National Historic Trail, a trail must meet three criteria. First, it
must be significant because of its use as a specific route. Second, it must be nationally
significant and have had a "far-reaching effect on broad patterns of American culture"
(NPS, 1968: Sec. 5.b.11.B). These areas of significance include trade and commerce,
exploration, migration, and settlement and military campaigns. Lastly, it must have great
potential for use by the public for recreation or historic interpretation. Fifteen trails have
been designated as National Historic Trails (Appendix B).
National Recreation Trail
The criteria for designation as a National Recreation Trail are much less strenuous
than that of a National Scenic or National Historic Trail. As previously mentioned,
National Recreation Trails can be designated by the Secretary of the Interior or the
Secretary of Agriculture instead of by an Act of Congress. They are also not restricted to
trails longer than 100 miles. These trails must be open to travel by foot, wheelchairs,
motorcycles, or other recreational forms but can not be open to passenger vehicles. As a
result of this program's relatively simple requirements, almost 900 National Recreation
Trails have been designated since the program's inception in 1968.
Another form of heritage tourism is also designated by the federal government -
National Heritage Areas. They are similar to the trails in that they must meet strict
criteria and be designated by Congress. They differ, though, in that they usually cover
large, very diverse areas and are not necessarily linear.
National Heritage Area
National Heritage Areas are defined by the National Park Service as
places designated by the United States Congress, where natural, cultural, historic
and recreational resources combine to form a cohesive, nationally distinctive
landscape arising from patterns of human activity shaped by geography. These
patterns make National Heritage Areas representative of the national experience
through the physical features that remain and the traditions that have evolved in the
areas. Continued use of the National Heritage Areas by people whose traditions
helped to shape the landscapes enhances their significance (www.nps.gov, 2004).
These areas are large, encompassing many miles. Congress has established 24 National
Heritage Areas throughout the country (Appendix C). A representative example of a
National Heritage Area is the Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area. It
encompasses 7,063 square miles and the homes of 3,010,805 people. It contains 878
National Register properties, 66 National Historic Landmarks, and 8 National Natural
Landmarks (www.nps.gov, 2004). As this example demonstrates, National Heritage
Areas include substantial amounts of land and resources.
National Park Service Designation of President Lincoln's Commute Route
President Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail probably does not meet the
criteria to become federally designated. First, very little historic fabric remains, so
President Lincoln' s commute route would not provide conservation or enj oyment of the
historic qualities through which the trail might pass, as is a criterion for becoming a
National Scenic Trail.
It comes closer to meeting the criteria for a National Historic Trail, but still seems
to fall short. The trail does follow a path actually used by an historic figure almost 150
years ago. In addition, the people and events that President Lincoln likely witnessed on
his commute route might have influenced his thinking. While it is clear that President
Lincoln was making key decisions regarding freedom for slaves and other important
issues at the time of his daily commute, there is not sufficient evidence to prove that his
travels along the route actually influenced his decisions. It is unlikely that the United
States Congress would designate this trail as a National Historic Trail without more
concrete evidence indicating that the path altered American culture. In addition, the route
is only 3 miles long. It is significantly shorter than the National Park Service's 100-mile
The route does not offer great recreational enj oyment, so is also unlikely to become
a National Recreation Trail. The area is not conducive to bike riding, skating, or other
athletic uses. Walking and driving are the most likely activities on this trail, which leads
to another reason it can not be a National Recreation Trail. Motorized vehicles are not
allowed on Recreation Trails and this trail is based solely upon city streets.
President Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail does not meet the criteria to
become a federally-designated National Scenic Trail, National Heritage Trail, National
Recreation Trail, or National Heritage Area. It also does not qualify to become a
National Heritage Area. As the previous example illustrates, National Heritage Areas are
much more wide-reaching than this trail. It is much too short and focused. This trail
does not fit into any of the federally-designated categories.
With a clear understanding of heritage tourism terminology, it is now possible to
consider its impact. If managed properly, this important industry can help
preservationists protect historic resources.
Evaluating the Impact of Heritage Tourism
Heritage tourism is one of the fastest growing segments of the tourism industry.
According to a study from the TIA and Smithsonian Magazine, 81% of American adults
who traveled in 2003 can be classified as historic or cultural travelers.l This is a stunning
1 18 million people and more than half of all adults in the United States. There are 13%
more historic or cultural travelers than there were in 1996. The study cites visiting an
historic building, battlefield or community as the most popular activity for cultural
tourists (TIA, 2003).
Why is heritage tourism becoming so popular? In a presentation to the Wisconsin
Heritage Tourism Conference, Gail Dexter Lord, co-founder of Lord Cultural Resources
Planning and Management, said it is due to three factors: rising education levels, an aging
population and women's increasing economic role (Lord, 1999).
First, a more educated population is likely to demand more intelligent content from
their vacation destinations. In fact, the TIA study shows that 60% of historic/cultural
trips are generated by households with a college degree. Second, the baby-boomer
SThe Travel Industry Association defines historic/cultural travelers as those who have traveled 50 miles or
more away from home in the last year to see a live theatre performance; dance performance; classical music
concert or opera: other music concert; art museum, gallery, exhibit or auction; antique shop, show or
auction; heritage, ethnic or folk festival or fair: other fair or festival such as a county fair or arts and crafts
fair; ethnic area or community; ethnic culture exhibit or center; designated historic site such as a building,
landmark, home or monument; designated historic community or town; history museum; historic military
site: or historic memorial or cemetery .
generation, the largest age group in the country, is approaching 60 years old. These
people have more time and disposable income than many others in the United States.
The TIA study also shows that about 40% of historic/cultural trips are taken by baby
boomer households (TIA, 2003). Lastly, the increasing economic role of women is
critical. Women tend to be more interested in cultural or historic activities than men.
When women are in control of family finances and leadership, as is the case in many
households, families are more likely to choose cultural destinations for their vacations.
Cities with historic resources can use their assets to benefit from these trends.
According to the 2003 TIA study, one third of historic or cultural trips are taken by
families with household incomes of $75,000 or more. Tourists who travel to historic or
other cultural destinations also tend to spend more money per trip than the average
traveler. These tourists spend, on average, $166 more per trip, excluding transportation
costs. This is 36% more money per trip. The study goes further to say that,
Compared to the average trip in the U.S., historic/cultural trips are more likely to be
seven nights or longer and include air travel, a rental car, and a hotel stay.
Historic/cultural travelers are also more likely to extend their stay to experience
history and culture at their destination. In fact, four in ten added extra time to their
trip specifically because of a historic/cultural activity (TIA, 2003: 3).
Of the people who added time to their trip because of an historic or cultural activity, 44%
added part of one day, 25% added an extra night, 15% added 2 more nights and 16%
added three or more extra nights (TIA, 2003).
Washington, D.C. is visited by historic/cultural travelers more often than any other
city in the country (Keefe, 2004). Millions of people travel to Washington, D.C. from
other parts of the United States and the world every year. It is one of the most cultural
cities in the United States. It is likely that every adult in America could list several
cultural attractions in Washington, D.C.
Other heritage attractions in D.C. would compete with the potential President
Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail. Alternatively, the trail would have a vast pool
from which to attract visitors, particularly those with an interest in Lincoln, the Civil
War, slavery, and other related issues. From a tourism perspective, President Lincoln' s
Commute Route is probably a feasible heritage tourism opportunity.
EVALUATING HERITAGE TOURISM
Heritage trails are difficult to evaluate by traditional criteria, such as visitation and
income potential. Heritage trails are usually located in public rights-of-way, so it is
difficult to know who is walking down a city street specifically because it features a
heritage trail. Guide books are usually free and can not be easily tracked. If the books
are sold, there is no way to know whether the person who bought the book actually used
it to walk the trail. On the other hand, they may have loaned it to their friends, in which
case the impact would be far greater than book sales could measure.
A review of current literature indicates that there are many stakeholders in heritage
tourism, each of which must be considered when planning a heritage tourism destination.
It is possible to evaluate the effectiveness of a heritage trail by considering its ability to
satisfy the needs of three key constituencies: the historic resource, the visitor and the
community.l It should be noted that this is a value-laden system, which makes it
remarkably flexible, but also very subjective. Any of the three components can be
weighed more or less heavily, depending on the particular needs of an attraction and on
the evaluator' s point of view.
SArticles by William T. Alderson, Peter H. Brink, John Chaney, Cheryl Hargrove, Gail Dexter Lord,
Richard J. Roddewig, Scott W. Standish, Vanessa Turner Maybank and Amy Jordan Webb were
particularly useful in the creation of this evaluative system. Books by Priscilla Boniface and Elizabeth B.
Waters were also helpful.
A preservationist' s primary goal is the protection of an area' s historic resources.
The resources, be it buildings, landscapes or sculptures, are the primary reasons people
are drawn to a heritage location in the first place. Establishing a tourism program that
destroys or damages the resources may yield high short-term rewards but is not
sustainable. Protection of the resource is of the utmost importance to most
pre servati omists.
If managed well, tourism can assist in that protection. Tourists provide money that
can be used for maintenance and care of the resource. Resources that pay for themselves
or make a profit are usually well protected. In addition, public interest can protect a
resource. Legislators who might propose insensitive development, highway projects, or
other measures that are detrimental to the site are much more likely to work around it if
they know that the public would be outraged at its destruction. Lastly, resources that are
Einancially stable and enjoy public support are more likely to win grant requests and other
J. Brendan Meyer, Proj ect Manager of Trails and Tours for Cultural Tourism DC,
says a heritage trail's most significant positive impact upon historic resources is in its
ability to proj ect the community's values. Heritage trails help unify a community behind
its unique history. It educates the members of the neighborhood about their important
resources and how those resources can be used as economic tools. If the city later
decides to designate an area as an historic district, it is likely to face less opposition than
it might otherwise because the idea has already been planted. Recognition through
placement on a heritage trail can also help when buildings are threatened with demolition.
The trail gives the community a sense of pride in its resources and the ammunition to
fight their removal.
Those wishing to use heritage resources to attract tourists must plan well in
advance of the first busload to ensure that this added pressure will not damage the
resource. Most negative impacts stem from overuse of historic resources. The good
news is that heritage trails, by design, do not actually "use" the resources. People walk in
public rights of way, not on the actual resources. They do not touch them, breathe inside
them or make other physical contact. This is one reason that trails are an attractive form
of heritage tourism.
Unfortunately, heritage trails can create other negative impacts on historic
resources. Overdevelopment is a possible consequence that can be very threatening to
historic resources. When used in cooperation with other economic and tourism tools,
heritage trails can spur interest in a particular area and the development that comes with
increased popularity. When an area becomes popular to visitors, businesses will follow.
Local residents and those considering relocating to the city become more interested in
purchasing property in that area because of the increased level of amenities. This could
lead to a teardownn trend," or the replacement of historic buildings with newer, larger
ones. Excessively-increased property values can also result. Increased property values
are good for people who want to sell but can be devastating to families who can no longer
afford to pay their property taxes.
While resource protection is a significant concern, the needs of the visitor are just
as essential. Tourists, and particularly those tourists in the baby-boomer generation, want
to be educated on their vacations. Katherine Tandy Brown, author of "Cultural or
Heritage: This Tourism is Hot," quotes Bruce Beckham, former National Tourism
Association president: "Baby boomers want to come home from vacation with more than
a tan. They're more into life-seeing than sight-seeing. That' s where cultural and heritage
tourism fits in" (Beckham in Brown, 2003: 2).
Visitors must be convinced that it is worth their time and money to travel to a
heritage resource. Word of mouth is the most effective tool, but advertising and
marketing are useful, too. Once visitors arrive, they need to feel that their effort was
worth it. When they leave, they should take something away that will be valuable to their
People are searching for meaning in their experiences. Nationally-franchised
businesses are making every city in America look exactly like every other city. We long
for a purposeful way to use our free time in a genuine, unique place. Many Americans
turn to historic, cultural or natural resources to fulfill that desire. As Richard Roddewig
said in "Selling America' s Heritage Without Selling Out," "Americans are attracted to
historic sites because they are genuine. Their interest in such genuine history stems from
a reaction to the plasticized history in so much of our culture" (Roddewig, 1988: 2).
Authenticity is an extremely important factor in the visitor' s experience. Visitors
want to see the actual building or real historic artifact. They do not want reproductions
or, worse yet, a sign that says that something important happened on this site. If they
travel to a heritage tourism destination and learn that what they are seeing is not "real,"
they will leave very disappointed.
In addition to authenticity, tourists are very interested in compelling stories. A
heritage tourism destination that uses the real stories of actual historic figures will be
more interesting that one that only describes architecture or artifacts. It is important to tie
authentic historic material to people who actually lived in a house and those who really
used the tools.
On the other hand, the public's expectations have been heightened by Disney
World and other mass-produced entertainment. They are unwilling to give up the
conveniences that style of entertainment provides. Tourists want easy access from
transportation hubs. They want plenty of conveniently-located restrooms on site. They
want safety, cleanliness, and even predictability. They want food when they are hungry
and a nice place to sleep when they are tired. Heritage tourism destinations must be
ready to compete with shopping malls, movie theatres, and theme parks if they are to be
successful (Lord, 1999).
The third criterion for success is a tourist destination's ability to adequately address
its community's needs. Each community is different, but most would be delighted to
benefit Einancially from a tourist attraction. Much-needed economic development can
stem from the establishment of an historic trail. Small businesses may recognize an
increase in customers as visitors find unique places to eat and purchase souvenirs.
Increased interest can attract homeowners who want to rehabilitate the older housing
stock. It can also attract developers who see the economic opportunity in adding new
businesses to the area. These new property owners bring more taxes and j obs to the
The taxes that result from tourists visiting an area can also be a great financial
benefit to the area, too. Visitors pay taxes on shopping, hotel rooms, and meals. In
Washington D.C., the sales tax is 5.75%. The hotel tax, including sales tax, is 14.5%.
Food and beverage tax is 10%. This can add up to a substantial amount of money. The
average heritage tourist pays $623 on a trip (TIA, 2003, 3). If a tourist stays three nights
at $150 per night, spends $50 per day on meals, and buys one souvenir worth $23, that
person will have contributed approximately $81 in taxes. If a tourist destination can
attract 50,000 people to visit the area, that is more than $4 million added, just in taxes, to
the local economy.
If balanced well, development can benefit the community without damaging the
historic resources. Retailers and restaurateurs can benefit from the increased traffic to
their area. The design of the trail should be considered early to ensure community
benefit. For example, an attraction that shuttles visitors through a neighborhood on a bus,
pausing only long enough to allow pictures taken out the windows, does not financially
benefit the community. It adds pollution, traffic, and noise without any monetary
infusion to mitigate the adverse effects. Alternatively, a bus tour that stops along the
route, drops visitors off, and encourages them to experience the local shops and
restaurants can add valuable commerce to a neighborhood.
Not all community benefits are financial. The community pride resulting from
being known as the home of a heritage resource can also be very valuable. Desiring to
proj ect a positive image to the visitors can encourage the local community to keep its
streets clean, its storefronts attractive, and its yards tidy. A heritage attraction can
become the heart of a community and a reason to celebrate its uniqueness. It can create a
sense of unity within the neighborhood.
Heritage tourism can also cause problems in the local area. Overuse of public
rights of way and amenities can be problematic and can result in increased frustration for
local residents. If bus tours along a particular route become too popular, the exhaust,
noise and vibration from those buses can be hazardous to both people and historic
resources. It is also frustrating to business owners who can not realize added profit from
tourists who never leave the bus.
Increased popularity can lead to excessive crowds and a loss of the area' s original
sense of place. In his description of Venice in Portraits of Places, Henry James said,
The sentimental tourist's sole quarrel with his Venice is that he has too many
competitors there. He likes to be alone; to be original, to have (to himself, at least)
the air of making discoveries. The Venice of today is a vast museum with a little
wicket that admits you and is perpetually turning and creaking, and you march
through the institution with a herd of fellow gazers. There is nothing left to
discover or describe, an originality of attitude is completely impossible (James in
Roddewig, 1988: 4).
We must be careful not to allow tourism to dominate so fully that the authentic
character of the area is lost. This will eventually lead to the loss of all three factors of
success. The resources will be damaged by loss of context, if not from overuse, visitors
will be frustrated with the crowds and loss of authenticity, and the community will have
lost its sense of place.
Prioritization of Values
It should be noted that this evaluative system is not an obj ective means of assessing
the success of a heritage tourism attraction. This system is values-based. This makes it
subj ective but also allows it to be very flexible. Evaluation is also dependent on the
resource's level of significance. Protection of the resource might be a very important
value when evaluating the success of a heritage tourism program involving a nationally
significant resource. In evaluating a resource that has only local significance, one might
assign less importance to resource protection and more to community benefit. This
system can be adopted hierarchically depending on the evaluator' s point of view or the
particular needs of the tourism attraction.
From a preservationist' s standpoint, resource protection usually outweighs the
other two categories. To many preservationists, tourism is purely a means of protection.
Tourism brings the money that is necessary to keep resources maintained well. It would
be irresponsible and inexcusable to allow tourism to destroy the very source of the
From a tourism professional's point of view, the criteria would probably be
weighed in exactly the opposite order. The primary concern is that the associated
businesses make a profit. If the community is not getting a financial benefit, a tourism
professional would probably consider the program a failure, even if the resource was
In each instance, the visitors' experience might be valued, but not necessarily for
the visitors' sake. It can sometimes be valued only for its ability to enhance the primary
goal, be it preservation- or tourism-focused. Visitor experience, in itself, is an integral
component of successful heritage tourism. If the visitor' s satisfaction is neglected, it
seems unlikely that either of the other two evaluative criteria will be successful.
Preservation might suffer due to lack of visitor interest. The attraction will also probably
not make a profit if visitors become disinterested.
As a practical application of the previously-defined evaluative system, and to learn
more about how heritage trails are established, trails were studied in Washington, D.C.
and Boston, Massachusetts. These studies include one trail that celebrated its kickoff
only three months ago, and one that is the oldest heritage trail in the United States.
The case studies were chosen for their similarity to the potential President
Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail. They are less than five miles long and located
in densely-populated, urban areas. The trails are evaluated based on their ability to
satisfy the three criteria for success: resource protection, visitor experience and
Cultural Tourism DC
Cultural Tourism DC was founded in 1996 and became a non profit corporation in
1999. It is a membership organization that includes the following:
* Almost every museum and cultural organization in the city
* Neighborhood groups
* Community development corporations
* Religious organizations
* The city's public transit organization, Metro
* The National Capital Region of the National Park Service
* Professional tour guides
* The city's official marketing entities
Cultural Tourism DC is funded by many public and private organizations and is in
partnership with the D.C. Chamber of Commerce, the National Capital Region of the
National Park Service, Washington Metropolitan Area Transportation Authority,
Washington Convention Center Authority and the Washington, D.C. Convention and
Tourism Corporation. Cultural Tourism DC's mission is to, "involve visitors to the
District of Columbia in the rich heritage and culture of the entire city of Washington"
(www.culturaltouri smdc.org, 2004).
Cultural Tourism DC invites visitors to see areas of the city beyond the National
Mall by providing information about other parts of D.C. In addition to its heritage trails,
Cultural Tourism DC has developed several bus tours and guided walking tours. The
organization has also published Capital Assets, an inventory of heritage attractions in
Washington, D.C. This guide catalogues attractions by neighborhood, theme, and
readiness to attract and educate visitors.
Cultural Tourism DC's three heritage trails are examined here. They are: the Civil
War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail, the City within a City: Greater U Street
Heritage Trail, and the African American Heritage Trail. Cultural Tourism DC is just
now attempting to formally study these trails' effectiveness and success. Due to this lack
of concrete evaluation, informal assessment has been made through personal observation.
Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail
The Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail is actually three related
trail loops in downtown Washington, D.C.: the West Loop, the Center Loop, and the East
Loop. These trails focus on Washington during the Civil War and the continuing
challenge of ensuring equality for its citizens. They include many Lincoln-related sites,
* The site of the first public telegraph: constructed in 1845, this telegraph line was
valuable to President Lincoln because it allowed communication with his generals.
* New York Avenue Presbyterian church: site of an earlier, similar church where
President Lincoln and his family worshiped.
*The Willard Inter-Continental Hotel: where President-elect Lincoln stayed for ten
days before his inauguration in 1861.
The three loops can be walked in one hour each and are conveniently located near
Metro stations (Figure 4-1). Markers are located along the route to educate visitors. A
guide book (Figure 4-2) is sold for $4.95 at various local bookstores.
r r The Doratown Heritage Trail
Map of Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail (Reprinted with
permission from Cultural Tourism DC. Busch, Richard T. Civil War to Civil
Rights: Washington's Downtown Heritage Trail. Charlottesville, VA: Howell
Press, 2001: inside front cover.)
Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail Guidebook (Reprinted
with permission from Cultural Tourism DC. Busch, Richard T. Civil War to
Civil Rights: Washington's Downtown Heritage Trail. Charlottesville, VA:
Howell Press, 2001: front cover.)
The Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail was established with
funding from the Downtown Business Improvement District. The Business Improvement
District' s mission is to, "help raise Downtown to world-class standards as a commercial,
cultural and residential destination" and they saw this trail as a natural extension of their
other work (www.downtowndc. org, 2004). The District of Columbia Department of
Transportation (DC-DOT) also provided Transportation Enhancement funding. The DC-
DOT has also taken on responsibility for maintenance and supervision of the trail. All
signs are located on DC-DOT land which greatly streamlined the permitting process.
Cultural Tourism DC believes that the trail is very successful, though concrete
evaluation has proven difficult. Cultural Tourism DC is developing tools to measure the
trail's effectiveness, but with the public nature of the trail, it is almost impossible to count
the number of visitors that follow the signs as a system. In addition, most of the
businesses along the route are not of the type that would notice an increase in visitors.
Because this trail is in the downtown area, the businesses surrounding it are maj or
corporations and others not reliant upon casual visitors. These businesses might realize
indirect benefits of being located on a heritage trail. The area, and therefore the
businesses in the area, could become more prestigious because its historic value is
recognized through markers and the guide book. This indirect benefit would be difficult
to evaluate as having been caused by the trail, though.
City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail
In cooperation with the Historical Society of Washington, D.C., Cultural Tourism
DC has established the City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail. According to
Cultural Tourism DC's web site,
For half a century, during the years of segregation, U Street was the nation's Black
Broadway and the heart of African American business and culture in Washington,
D.C... Located near Howard University, the U Street neighborhood was home to
Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington. Its theaters and clubs hosted some of the
brightest lights in American j azz Cab Calloway, Pearl Bailey, Sarah Vaughn,
and Jelly Roll Morton, to name a few (www. culturaltourismdc. org, 2004).
This heritage trail takes visitors to the homes and businesses where many famous
African Americans spent their time. The trail is marked by permanent signage (Figure 4-
3) that includes a map (Figure 4-4). The trail can be walked in about an hour and a half
and is easily accessible by Metro. The trail includes sites such as:
* True Reformer Building: Designed in 1902 by the first registered African American
architect in the District of Columbia.
* Whitelaw Hotel: First first-class hotel in Washington that specifically catered to
* Founders Library at Howard University: Howard University was founded in 1867.
The guide book for this trail is free and available from businesses along the route, at the
African American Civil War Memorial or by contacting Cultural Tourism DC.
Figure 4-3. City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail Street Marker (Source:
photo by author, 2004)
Though this trail is also quite new, the evaluation of its success might prove more
achievable because this trail is located in an area populated by small businesses. These
sole-proprietorships rely on casual visitors for their daily business and are more likely to
notice an increase in visitors. They are also more likely to actively participate in
measuring that increase, unlike the corporations along the Civil War to Civil Rights trail
downtown. Cultural Tourism DC is working to develop tools that will allow it to
measure the trail's success in promoting the area to heritage tourists and locals.
Figure 4-4. City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail Map (Source: photo by
In addition to the marked heritage trail, Cultural Tourism DC conducts regular
walking tours of the U Street area. This two-hour tour is offered the first and third
Saturday of each month between April and November and costs $12 per person. This
tour is part of the process of introducing a neighborhood to its new visitors. Introduction
is necessary because neighbors often feel threatened and invaded by outsiders coming to
look at their historic resources. They might feel protective of their neighborhood and
worry about the influx of new people on the streets. A slow process of introduction helps
overcome these concerns.
The trail and walking tour are two small components of the city's ongoing
economic revitalization efforts in the U Street Corridor. These tools may prove vital in
enhancing the area' s image enough to encourage new business development and
African American Heritage Trail
Cultural Tourism DC's most recently-established heritage trail is the African
American Heritage Trail. The proj ect started as a survey of African American historic
resources in cooperation with the D.C. Historic Preservation Office.
Of more than 200 historic sites that were researched, approximately 100 were
chosen for the trail, including the following:
* The Howard Theatre: This theatre, opened in 1910, has hosted Duke Ellington,
Mary Jefferson, Ella Fitzgerald and some of Motown' s greatest artists.
* Mary Jane Patterson Residence: Home of the first black, female college graduate.
* Frederick Douglass National Historic Site: Home of Frederick Douglass, a formerly
enslaved abolitionist and statesman.
* Ashbury United Methodist Church: Organized in 1836 by Caucasians who wanted
to create a place of worship free from racism or segregation.
The African American Heritage Trail differs from Cultural Tourism DC's other two
trails because it does not include signage or any other physical markers along the route.
It exists solely within a four-color guidebook, distributed for free throughout the city
(Figure 4-5). According to Meyer, the guidebook is the only feasible product at this time,
but the city is considering the addition of markers along the route.
This proj ect is actually made up of 15 different trails throughout the city (Figure 4-
6). Each trail includes an average of seven sites related to Washington, D.C.'s African
American history and can be easily walked or driven. This trail includes many of the
same sites that Cultural Tourism DC's other two trails encompass. In fact, both of the
organization's other trails, the Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail and
the City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail are listed as individual "sites" in
the African American Heritage Trail guidebook.
African American Heritage Trail Guidebook (Reprinted with permission of
Cultural Tourism DC. McQuirter, Marya Annette. African American
Heritage Trail: Washinnton, D.C... Washington, D.C.: Cultural Tourism DC,
2003: front cover.)
h WA S H I N.~ T O N.
ii C, I~PS
,, I'0 aa
; i.au~ Ir.lll L~"
,. 0; L
rrV~ ~IE ::
M~nrrll ~vrlr.. l
African American Heritage Trail Map (Reprinted with permission from
Cultural Tourism DC. McQuirter, Marya Annette. African American
Heritage Trail: Washington, D.C... Washington, D.C.: Cultural Tourism DC,
2003: center foldout.)
Evaluation of Cultural Tourism DC's Heritage Trails
Cultural Tourism DC's heritage trails have the potential to become very successful.
The trails do not adversely affect the resources. In fact, they might even positively
impact the resources through increased public exposure. The visitor experience is also
very positive. The trails are well-researched and interesting. The potential for
community benefit is also very high on some of these trails.
This potential is not being maximized because no one realizes that this wonderful
resource is available. If the trails were marketed more aggressively and the businesses
kept better informed and stocked with brochures, the trails would probably become more
popular. Cultural Tourism DC's heritage trails are a wonderful attraction in this city. It
is unfortunate that they seem to be unknown and underutilized.
These three trails have helped protect the resources along each route primarily
through increased visibility. Placing a marker in front of a building and telling its story
in a guidebook gives these structures more importance. The buildings that are chosen for
the markers and guidebooks draw a comprehensive picture of the community's values,
emphasizing the stories that the community members are most proud of. These stories
help tourists and those from the D.C. area understand what each particular community
holds dear. This designation will give the community a platform from which to protect
the resources if ever they are threatened.
The heritage trails will also make it easier for the District of Columbia to designate
areas as historic districts, as is likely in the near future. Once the local community has
embraced its unique heritage, it is less likely to oppose the designation. The same will
probably be true for individual landmark designation.
It does not appear that these trails are damaging the historic resources in any
measurable way. Because people walk in the public right of way and not within the
structures themselves, there is essentially no increase in regular wear-and-tear. So far,
the visitors have been respectful of the buildings and markers and have not vandalized or
otherwise damaged them.
One possible negative impact to the historic resources might be in their becoming a
victim of their own success. If the neighborhood surrounding these trails becomes a hot
real estate area, developers will probably follow. These developers might attempt to tear
down the neighborhood's historic buildings to replace them with larger, more expensive
ones. The community must continue to be vigilant in its long-term protection of the
resources. This is an extremely complex issue involving multiple economic and
It is unfortunate that many visitors and locals in the D.C. area are not familiar with
these heritage trails because they provide a very interesting and educational experience.
The two marked trails, Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail and City
Within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail are marked with attractive, standardized
signs. These signs are informative and easy to follow and the guidebooks are very
professional. The stories they illuminate are engaging. The text is easy to read and the
photographs are interesting.
These trails are best-experienced as a pedestrian. They are not conveniently
followed in a car. Many streets are one-way, making navigation difficult. In addition,
once one reaches a particular site, there is often not a good place to pull off the road and
take a good look.
As with the other factors of success, it is difficult to assess whether Cultural
Tourism DC's three heritage trails provide a significant community benefit. The Civil
War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail is located downtown, where the maj or
corporations do not notice or particularly care about a modest increase in foot traffic that
the trail might provide.
One exception is Artifactory, a small, sole-proprietorship immediately adj acent to
the second marker on the center loop of the trail. The building is featured on the marker
and in the guidebook as one of the oldest surviving commercial buildings in the city.
Artifactory, a shop full of antique and new products from all over the world, has been in
existence for more than 20 years. Unfortunately, the owner said that business has never
been slower than it is now, and that this has been the case for about the last two years.
This corresponds closely to the length of time the trail has existed just outside his door.
He has not studied the trail's effect upon his business, but said that none of his customers
has ever mentioned the trail to him. This leads one to believe that the trail has not been
effective in bringing tourist dollars to the area. It will be interesting to learn what
Cultural Tourism DC's evaluation reveals.
The City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail seems the mostly likely to
create a financial community benefit. Though possible that it has had a positive effect,
the effect is difficult to single out due to the city's other economic revitalization efforts in
the area. The businesses along the U Street trail are primarily sole-proprietorships. They
are dependant upon the number of people who walk past their storefronts. Cultural
Tourism DC asks the owners of these businesses to distribute the guidebook for free and
claims that they do so enthusiastically.
Given these facts, it is interesting that the businesses along the trail do not actually
give the impression of enthusiastic support. It is difficult to find a business that actually
has the guidebooks available. In a random sampling of six retail stores and restaurants,
not one had the guidebook. The owner of a furniture store said they used to give them
away but haven't had them in stock in quite a while. Another merchant was not even
sure what guidebook was being requested. It is possible to follow the trail using only the
markers on the street, but it would be must easier to do with a map in-hand.
Informal observation indicates that the signs along the two marked trails are not
particularly effective in attracting attention. The author chose one sign in a very
prominent location on both the Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail and
the City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail.l In 10 minutes of observation, not
one pedestrian stopped to read either of the signs. A few glanced at them but hardly even
broke stride to do so. In addition, none of the observed pedestrians was carrying Cultural
Tourism DC's guidebooks.
The African American Heritage Trail is so new that little observation is possible,
but it seems unlikely that neighborhoods have seen a significant positive benefit. The
trail exists only in a guidebook so it is even more difficult for people to realize it is there.
Establishment Procedure Common to All Three Trails
Because Cultural Tourism DC's trails are so new, they are possibly more useful as
illustration of the process of development. In each of these projects, Cultural Tourism
DC has worked to establish a heritage trail only where the neighborhood has initiated the
action. All of the initial research must be completed by members of the community
SThe day of observation was a Saturday in February at approximately 2:00 PM. It was sunny,
approximately 60 degrees, and there were many pedestrians in the area.
before Cultural Tourism DC becomes involved. They must demonstrate that they have
broad public support for the project. Once the preliminary research is complete and a
significant number of community members have shown enthusiasm for a trail, the area
must become ready for tourism.
Cultural Tourism DC helps neighborhoods ready for tourism by slowly working up
to a heritage trail. They begin by initiating bus tours of the neighborhood. This gets the
merchants, businesses and residents comfortable with the idea of having tourists in the
area. It also keeps the tourists comfortable and safe during the tour.
After the area has hosted bus tours for a certain amount of time dependantt on the
needs of the particular community), then guided tours are initiated. Guided tours help the
community get used to having individuals in the neighborhood, but they are comforted by
knowing that the tourists are in a well-controlled group. The guided tours show area
merchants and other business people that tourism can be a financial benefit.
Once guided tours become successful, the neighbors are comfortable and the
merchants begin marketing to tourists, the guided tours are suspended and a heritage trail
is established. Signage is posted and a guide book is printed to assist individual tourists
in finding their way through the neighborhood. Hopefully, after the trail is established,
visitors will feel comfortable exploring the area on their own, off of the regular,
established trail. This is the final goal of this type of heritage tourism.
Meyer estimates that the establishment of a heritage trail in Washington, D.C. costs
about $175,000. This includes all costs from inception through installation. The staff
time involved in managing the proj ect is one of the highest costs. Representatives from
the neighborhood supply much of the research, but a professional researcher is necessary
to ensure accuracy and a certain level of detail that amateur researchers are unable to
attain. Paying for that historic research is also included in this cost. It includes
manufacturing and installing approximately 15 trail markers.2
Regular inspection and maintenance is a separate cost, which, according to Meyer,
could be approximately $15,000 per year. Ongoing management of the trail is also a
separate cost. This number is difficult to estimate because each trail is very different and
each city's needs vary widely.
The Freedom Trail Foundation
The Freedom Trail Foundation is responsible for promoting Boston's Freedom
Trail. The organization was founded in 1958, incorporated in 1964 and hired its first full
time staff in 1992. The Foundation's stakeholders include the:
* Sixteen historic sites along the trail
* National Park Service
* City of Boston and the local Visitors and Convention Bureau
* Commonwealth of Massachusetts and its Department of Tourism
* Millions of visitors that visit the area every year
The Foundation is "dedicated to preserving and promoting Boston's distinct historic
character and its important role in the American Revolution." The Foundation
accomplishes this mission by conducting tours, promoting and helping preserve the
historic sites on the trail, offering educational programs for school children from all over
the country and Boston, and organizing special events to showcase the area's unique
history. They also market the trail worldwide. The Freedom Foundation is concerned
with only one trail: Boston's Freedom Trail (www.thefreedomtrail .org, 2004).
2 MT. Meyer OStimated the cost based on 15 markers because Cultural Tourism DC's trails have used
approximately 15 markers each.
Boston' s Freedom Trail was conceived in 1951 by Boston j ournalist William
Schofield. He realized that visitors were getting frustrated by an inability to easily locate
the city's Revolutionary War historic sites. "Tourists were going berserk, bumbling
around and frothing at the mouth because they couldn't find what they were looking for,"
he wrote (Schofield in Zannieri, 2003: 45). He thought a way finding system should be
created to lead visitors where they wanted to go. He told Bob Winn, who worked at the
North Church, and together they approached John Hynes, Boston's mayor. Hynes
thought it was a wonderful idea. The city erected plywood signs at each of 16 historic
sites. Seven years later, the city painted the now-famous red line that links the sites. The
trail was named "The Freedom Trail" and The Freedom Trail Foundation was created.
Local businesses donated money and services to create the first visitor maps and signs.
In 1964 The Freedom Trail Foundation was incorporated as a 501(c) 3 and ten
years later, the Boston National Historic Park, a unit of the National Park Service, was
created. The Boston National Historic Park opened many funding opportunities, and the
Park Service invested a large amount of money in the sites included in the park. In 1996-
1997, the National Park Service commissioned a Vision Study, The Freedom Trail: A
Framework for the Future, to consider the state of the trail, its organizational structure,
and how these factors could be improved. The study concluded that the trail is vital to
Boston's heritage tourism industry, but that the experience could be improved by better
cooperation and organization among the sites. A lack of funding has kept the Foundation
from implementing many of the study's recommendations.
Boston's Freedom Trail
Boston' s Freedom Trail is 2.5 miles long and links some of the country's most
significant Revolutionary War sites. It connects the following:
* Boston Common: America's oldest park
* Massachusetts State House: Built in 1795
* Park Street Church: Where William Lloyd Garrison gave his first public anti-
* Granary Burying Ground: John Hancock, Samuel Adams, the Boston Massacre
victims, Paul Revere, Peter Faneuil and other great patriots are buried here.
* King's Chapel, King's Chapel Burying Ground: Built in 1688 by a chaplain sent to
Boston by King James II, who wanted Anglican religious services performed in the
* Boston Latin: First public school in America, opened on April 13, 1635. Ben
Franklin, John Hancock and Samuel Adams learned to read here.
* Old Corner Bookstore Building: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Harriet Beecher
Stowe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Oliver Wendell Holmes,
Henry David Thoreau and other great American writers gathered here between
1833 and 1864.
* Old South Meeting House: Built in 1729, this is where 5,000 colonists gathered to
protest a British tax on tea just before the famous Boston Tea Party.
* Old State House: On July 18, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was read for
the first time to the public from its balcony.
* Boston Massacre Site: Where an argument turned into a mob scene and British
soldiers shot five colonists.
* Faneuil Hall: Built in 1742 as a market, this building has been used as a debate hall
for colonists, abolitionists, women's rights activists and others.
* Paul Revere House: Home where Paul Revere lived during the time of his famous
ride through Boston.
* North Church: This church is where lanterns were hung in the steeple to alert the
patriots that the British were on the way.
* Copp's Hill Burying Ground: Many important colonists are buried here, including
more than 1,000 African American.
* USS Constitution: The oldest commissioned warship in the world and a veteran of
the War of 1812.
*Bunker Hill Monument: Site of one of the bloodiest battles of the Revolutionary
The Freedom Trail Foundation does not own, operate or maintain any of the sites along
the trail. They are all independently owned and managed. The Freedom Trail
Foundation is primarily responsible for the way finding system of the trail. To this end,
the Foundation has created a full-color guidebook to assist visitors in finding and learning
more about these sites (Figure 4-7).
Figure 4-7. The Freedom Trail Guidebook (Reprinted with permission from The
Freedom Trail Foundation. The Freedom Trail Guide: Walk into History on
the Freedom Trail. Boston: Recycled Paper Printing, Inc., 2000: front cover.)
The trail is easy for tourists and locals to find. Public transportation is the best
option in a major metropolis like Boston. Boston's subway system, the "T", has four
stations conveniently located along the trail. If visitors are more comfortable using a car,
they will probably find more parking then they expect. The 1997 Vision Study reveals
that there are approximately 30,000 parking spaces in the area.
Evaluation of Boston's Freedom Trail3
Boston's Freedom Trail is undeniably one of the most successful heritage trails in
the United States. The trail's long history allows evaluation based upon the three factors
of success: resource protection, visitor experience, and community benefit.
Boston's Freedom Trail has helped protect the sites' resources by raising their
visibility to the public. This gives the public a personal connection with their history,
which can sometimes turn them into advocates and donors. If the city decides to enact
legislation that could be detrimental to the site, it is much easier to defeat that legislation
when there is an outcry from these public advocates. The same is true if private industry
proposes a change that could damage the site. A site with a strong, grassroots network of
advocates will be protected by their support. The sites along The Freedom Trail enjoy
this kind of support.
The heightened visibility that comes with association with the Trail can also create
a great fundraising potential. For example, between 1976 and 1998, more than $50
million was spent to restore and maintain the sites along Boston's Freedom Trail
(McConchie, 2/13/04). The trail has elevated the sites to a profile envied by the staffs of
many other historic sites around the country. This position opens many funding
opportunities that might not otherwise be available.
People can only give money to sites that they know about. On the other hand,
being part of the trail means sharing that visibility. It is more difficult to raise money for
one particular site when, in the public's understanding, the sites are inextricably linked to
3 Articles by Martin Blatt, Mark Herlihy, Alfred F. Young and Nina Zannieri in The Public Historian were
particularly helpful in gauging the success of Boston' s Freedom Trail.
one another. A donor might believe that if he has already given money to one site, he has
done his part and may see no need to donate to each of the other individual sites. In
addition, The Freedom Trail Foundation conducts it own fundraising campaign. The sites
along the trail must compete with The Freedom Trail foundation for scarce resources.
They sometimes resent their association with the trail because some donations go to The
Freedom Trail Foundation and not directly to the site.
Linda McConchie, Executive Director of The Freedom Trail Foundation, believes
that a third benefit to the historic resource is the public' s expectation of high standards of
maintenance along this trail. Because the sites are so famous, visitors expect them to be
very clean and well cared for. They would be extremely disappointed to find shabby,
deteriorating structures on the route, creating an incentive for the organizations that own
and operate the sites along this trail to keep them well maintained. The sites along the
trail seem to be in excellent condition.
The trail does have the potential to negatively impact certain resources because,
unlike on Cultural Tourism DC's trails, the public is encouraged to enter the buildings.
The number of people who follow the trail and take tours of the museums in the peak
tourism season could cause seriously impact the sites. Each site is responsible for
assessing this impact and taking the necessary precautions.
Visitors to Boston's Freedom Trail have a very satisfying experience. The trail is
easy to follow because it is well-marked with a red brick or painted line connecting each
site. The signs are consistent and easy to read from a distance (Figure 4-8). There are
certain places where the trail appears to lead in more than one direction and a map is
necessary to determine which is correct, but this is only a minor irritation.
Figure 4-8. The Freedom Trail Marker (Source: photo by author, 2004)
It is particularly valuable that the sites along the trail are authentic. There are no
reconstructions and only one plaque to declare that "on this site" something spectacular
occurred. Every site is special and each tells a fascinating story. The museums are
highly professional. Many of the sites do not charge for admission and those that do only
request a minimal fee.
There are also many visitor amenities along the route. The map (Figure 4-9)
indicates information centers and public restrooms. These are located at multiple places
along the trail. The route also passes many restaurants and shops.
The only deficiency in the visitor experience is created by a lack of coordination
among the sites in presenting a common story. Due to their physical locations and the
simplicity of Schofield' s original plan, the visitor does not experience the sites in a
chronological order. It is easy to get confused because there is not one, unified story, but
several stories related only tangentially. The Freedom Trail Foundation has attempted to
overcome this challenge by creating an Antenna Audio Tour. These 2-hour-long audio
players are available to rent for $15 (and $12 for each additional rental.) This audio tour
addresses the sites along the trail in a clear, chronological story. Visitors who come to
Boston without a good understanding of the city's role in the Revolutionary War will find
the trail much more understandable when using the audio tour.
Figue 4-. Te FredomTral Mp(erLLinte with 1 pemsin fTeFeeo ri
Foundat~ion Th reo TalGie:Wl no itr n h reo
Trail.~~i Boston:Recce ae rniIc. 00 etrflot
Bostonc ha eeie ral rmteexsec fteFedmTal
Appuroiael 2-9 milo epewlhe Freedom Trail ev Rprne wt ery year. This repd resent
about $1.8 million added to the area's economy every year (Dixon and Clancy, 1997).
The businesses along the route particularly benefit from the many visitors who walk the
trail. In fact, many of those businesses would likely not exist if not for the tourism
industry in the area.
There could be no greater educational opportunity for Boston' s school children and
families than the Freedom Trail. Unlike most other children in the country, they have
authentic historic resources right in their back yard. School groups from every other state
also come see the sites along the trail, adding even more financial and educational
Boston has gained recognition as a cultural city due in large part to the nationwide
marketing of the Freedom Trail. The city takes pride in its affiliation with America's
struggle for independence. Together with the other great amenities available in the city,
the Freedom Trail helps make Boston a very cultural, pedestrian-friendly city.
PRESIDENT LINCOLN' S CO1V1VUTE ROUTE
I see the President almost every day, as I happen to live where he passes to or from
his lodgings out of town. He never sleeps at the White House during the hot
season, but has quarters at a healthy location some three miles north of the city, the
Soldiers' Home, a United States military establishment.... He always has a
company of twenty-five or thirty cavalry, with sabres drawn and held upright over
their shoulders. They say this guard was against his personal wish, but he let his
counselors have their way. The party makes no great show in uniform or horses.
Mr. Lincoln on the saddle generally rides a good-sized, easy-going gray horse, is
dress'd in plain black, somewhat rusty and dusty, wears a black stiff hat, and looks
about as ordinary in attire, etc. as the commonest man. A lieutenant with yellow
straps, rides at his left, and following behind, two by two, come the cavalry men, in
their yellow-striped jackets. They are generally going at a slow trot, as that is the
pace set them by the one they wait upon. The sabres and accoutrements clank, and
the entirely unornamental cortege as it trots towards Lafayette square arouses no
sensation, only some curious stranger stops and gazes (Whitman in Kimmel, 1957:
During the Civil War, Walt Whitman lived in a tenement at Vermont and L Street.
His apartment was close to the White House and faced the route that President Lincoln
used to travel to and from his summer residence at the Soldiers' Home every day. He
wrote about his sightings of the president, leaving us with portraits like this one.
Between June and November of 1862, 1863, and 1864, Abraham Lincoln and his
family lived in a cottage at the Soldiers' Home, a home for a few hundred enlisted men
and women who had been injured in war or who had served in the military for more than
20 years. Every day, President Lincoln traveled three miles between the cottage and the
White House by horseback or carriage. Lincoln first rode out to the Soldiers' Home a
few days before his inauguration and his last commute was the day before his
It is important to note that the exact route examined here was determined by
Matthew Pinsker in Lincoln's Sanctuary: President Lincoln and the Soldiers' Home.
Pinsker carefully researched all available documentation and concluded that President
Lincoln most likely traveled the following path (Figure 5-1):
* Started at the White House
* Traveled north on Vermont Avenue
* Took a right onto Rhode Island Avenue
* Took a left onto Seventh Street, which, as it crossed Boundary Avenue, became the
Seventh Street Turnpike
* Took a right onto Rock Creek Church Road, which led directly to the Soldiers'
President Lincoln probably varied his route occasionally, just as we do in our
commutes today. There are many possible routes he could have chosen, but from
mentions of particular stops he made or sightings of him, it is likely that this was the
preferred route. It is also the most efficient route from start to finish, and the Seventh
Street Turnpike was one of the most commonly-traveled roads in or out of Washington.
*~ IIilrs HoluPII
1- : osla
'. .' .S ..:c- felrb f
.2 *~ 1~- -1't~ thridil
:p '" ...;= .Cin g n *
.~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~- raet* A. iMN*6
I .~"t'Elligan HI i itil
S 'Iran ageI hil Mr
WAHDSTN D..(. 1862-4 .~
Abraham Lincoln and th Soldears' ome Newlll York: Oxfoerd nieriyres
Washington, D.C. 142 years ago was very different than the Washington, D.C. of
today. Understanding this background is essential to a study of one route through it.
What was the city like between 1861 and 1864, the years of President Lincoln' s
occupancy at the Soldiers' Home? What was the weather like, and how did this
contribute to daily experiences? How many people lived in Washington at the time?
How did the Civil War influence the landscape of the city? These and similar questions
must be answered to understand the context of President Lincoln' s daily commute.
Washington, D.C. was a very new city in the 1860s. It had been settled only about
sixty years before and still felt like a temporary outpost. Henry Adams wrote that "as in
1800 and 1850, so in 1860, the same rude colony was camped in the same forest, with the
same unfinished Greek temples for workrooms, and sloughs for roads" (Adams in Leech,
1941: 5). The Capitol was not yet complete and the Washington Monument, today such
an icon of the nation' s strength, was only 1/3 of its current height. The city was planned
by Pierre L'Enfant as a grid of streets overlaid by diagonal avenues with large public
parks scattered throughout. L'Enfant knew that eventually this plan would make a great,
European-style city. But 60 years was not enough time to fulfill this vision and, in the
meantime, the city became known as "a city of magnificent distances" for the vast
lengths of road that had to be traveled between the relatively few monumental
government buildings (Forman, 19).
The roads were not paved, making navigation through the city even more difficult.
Even Pennsylvania Avenue, the most traveled road in town, was made only of dirt. One
letter to the editor exclaimed,
What most is needed to contribute to the comfort and pleasure of citizens and
strangers? The removal of mud and dust! This nuisance is the curse of
Washington. It is as annoying as the flies of Egypt. It penetrates everywhere. It
fills our carriages; it enters our houses; it spoils our clothes; it blinds our eyes; it
injures our lungs; it frets our temper; it drives away strangers, in fine, it is the great
plague of our lives.... That the plan of our city is a most unfortunate one I think
every resident will be ready to admit and deeply regret. The street are almost
universally too wide, affording unnecessary space for the accumulation of dust, but
when we add to these our immense avenues, from one hundred and sixty to two
hundred feet wide a great Sahara of dirt the blunder of the plan is seen to be
prodigious. If the space thus worse than wasted had been laid out in numerous
small squares, which could be planted with trees and kept in grass, it would have
been a great improvement. Let our City Council, then, awake to their duty in this
respect. Let arrangements be promptly made to pave at least the more dense
portions of our city. If the streets north of Pennsylvania Avenue, from the Capitol
to the War Department, and as far north on M Street, were paved it would embrace
those portions most traveled, and would do very well for a beginning (Kimmel,
A common joke was that, "real estate was high in dry weather, as it was for the
most part all in the air" (Brooks and Mitgang, 1958: 20). President Lincoln traveled
between the White House and the Soldiers' Home between June and November each
year. The summer months were very dry, though the fall could bring a good amount of
rain. When it rained, that dust turned to mud. Noah Brooks, a young j ournalist with
whom President Lincoln was friends, said that,
Washington is probably the dirtiest and most ill-kept borough in the United States.
It is impossible to describe the truly fearful conditions of the streets; they are seas
or canals of liquid mud, varying in depth from one to three feet and possessing, as
geographical features, conglomerations of garbage, refuse and trash, the odors
whereof rival those of Cologne, which Coleridge declared to be 'seventy separate
and distinct stinks...' Everybody has heard of the great corruption of the city of
Washington, but I will venture to say that its moral corruption is far exceeded by
the physical rottenness of its streets" (Brooks and Mitgang, 1958: 294).
The location of the city was chosen through political negotiation with Maryland
and Virginia, each of which gave up acreage for its inception. It was organized on a
swampy plot of land facing the Potomac River. These wet, marshy conditions were
particularly bad around the President' s Mansion, as the White House was then called. In
Reveille in Washinoton, Leech writes that, "At the foot of the President' s Park, as the
unkempt tract south of the mansion was called, there was an unsavory marsh which had
formerly been an outlet for sewage" (Leech, 1941: 7).
The mosquitoes were unbearable and the malaria they transmitted was deadly.
Washington' s heat and humidity drove many people out of the city during the steamy
summer months, including members of Congress, which did not meet during the summer.
President Lincoln and his family were not alone in their desire to leave Washington in the
In the midst of this swamp, only a small section of town was developed north of
Pennsylvania Avenue and between the Capitol and the President' s Mansion. The
buildings were not well-built, and contrasted sharply with the grand federal buildings.
According to Leech,
the city's business in contrast to that of Federal Government, which required a
setting of porticoed immensity seemed all to be done in a small way. Ugly blocks
of offices had been hastily run up as a speculation. Shabby boardinghouses, little
grocery shops, petty attorney's offices and mean restaurants and saloons served the
fifteen hundred clerks who were employed in the departments (Leech, 1941: 9).
Pennsylvania Avenue was the central thoroughfare through the city. The north side of
the street held the respectable businesses. The south side, however, was a place not
suitable for ladies or respected gentlemen. It is estimated that there were more than 450
houses of prostitution keeping about 5,000 "fallen angels" in the city during this time,
many of them on the South side of Pennsylvania Avenue (Leech, 1941: 261).
Infusion of Soldiers
As war broke out, soldiers filled the city. When the soldiers first arrived, the
residents of the city were excited by the entertainment they provided. Military bands
played on the lawn of the White House. Women dressed in their finest clothes to be
serenaded by these talented young soldiers. The many concerts, dress parades and flag
raising were exciting and new.
Unfortunately, the novelty wore off soon enough and the soldiers' antics began to
wear on the locals. There was no place to go for peace and quiet. There was bugling and
drilling in every quadrant of town. Target practice made it dangerous to walk in certain
parks. The Evening Star, one of Washington's leading newspapers, complained, "Of
soldiers the country is full. Give us organizers and commanders. We have men, let us
have leaders. We have confusion, let us have order" (Leech, 1941: 85). The citizens of
Washington began to resent their new neighbors.
The resentment was mutual as the soldiers quickly grew bored in this undeveloped,
slow Southern town. They created their own excitement through the city's saloons and
whorehouses. The city's population had exploded from 61,000 before the war started in
1860 to more than one hundred thousand in just a few months. By the end of the war, the
population had more than tripled to about 200,000 (Pinsker, 2003: 8). Those hoping to
profit from the influx of soldiers filled the city to its limits. Leech described these new
Washington was packed with the varied concourse of people attracted by the great
army. Contractors, inventors and cranks infested the bureaus.... Correspondents
were there to scribble, and artists to sketch. Soldiers' relatives mingled with sight-
seeing tourists.... Counterfeiters and confidence men assembled from all sections
of the country.... Dancers and singers and comedians, prize fighters and gamblers,
vendors of obscene literature and proprietors of 'rum-jug shops.' Apparent on
every street was the secret invasion of the women of the town; gay light-o-loves
who swished into the music halls on the officers' arms, whores who beckoned the
drunken teamsters to shanties in the alleys (Leech, 1941: 121).
The money brought into the city with these many new residents caused a great tide
of building and other signs of prosperity. The number of people moving to Washington
created a great demand for housing and shopping. Construction continued on the grand
public buildings, even in the midst of a war, because President Lincoln believed it was
good for morale. "If people see the Capitol going on," President Lincoln said, "it is a
sign we intend the Union shall go on" (Lincoln in Leech, 1941: 279).
At the height of the war there were about twenty hospitals in and around
Washington (Brooks and Mitgang, 1958: 17). Many of these were in crudely-built,
wooden structures or even tents. Former mansions were transformed into hospitals.
Buildings built as barracks were now being used as hospitals. One of these was located
near the Seventh Street Road, where President Lincoln would have passed every day
(Figure 5-2). As the war became more intense and the casualty lists began to grow,
hotels, warehouses, private homes, schools, churches and other private buildings were
opened as hospitals. The Patent Office, Georgetown College, and even the Capitol,
where two thousand cots were placed in the Rotunda and the halls of the House and
Senate, were turned into hospitals (Leech, 1941: 206).
Figure 5-2. Campbell Hospital, near President Lincoln's commute route (Source:
http:.//1cweb2.loc.gov, Jan 2004)
President Lincoln would have come into contact with carriages carrying wounded
or dead soldiers along his commute route almost every day. Hospitals surrounded the
Soldiers' Home. President Lincoln occasionally stopped the passing ambulances to
inquire about fighting on the front lines. On July 8, 1862, the New York Tribune ran an
article titled, "The President and the Wounded." It said,
The President on the Fourth, while on his way to the Summer Residence at
Soldiers' Home, meeting a train of ambulances conveying wounded men from the
late battles to the hospitals, just beyond the city limits, rode beside them for a
considerable distance, conversing freely with the men, and seeming anxious to
secure all the information possible with regard to the real condition of affairs on the
Peninsula and the feeling among the troops from those who had borne the brunt of
the fight (Pinsker, 2003: 37).
President Lincoln must have felt that this was the best method of learning the truth
about the war. The soldiers' morale was also probably lifted by the interest and care he
Freedmen and Slaves
In addition to seeing soldiers on his commute every day, President Lincoln also
passed the homes of free black men and women. Free blacks owned several of the
properties outside the city limits along the Seventh Street Turnpike. Logan circle, or
lowa Circle as it was called when Lincoln was passing through, was, "an area of unkempt
fields on the edge of the city where contraband and freedmen crowded into hastily
erected wooden shacks" (Fitzpatrick and Goodwin, 2001: 149). Anna Harrison, a former
fugitive slave, said, "I used to see Mr. Lincoln almost every day riding out to the
Soldiers' Home that summer [in 1862]" (Harrison in Pinsker, 2003: 66).
There are reports, though unproven, that President Lincoln visited the contraband
camps near his route.l Mary Dines, an escaped slave from Maryland, claimed that
President Lincoln had stopped at her camp many times. She kept a photograph of a
contraband camp taken on a day the she claimed President Lincoln had visited, though
Lincoln is not in the photo (Figure 5-3).
Figure 5-3. Contraband camp. Photo saved by Mary Dines, who claimed it was taken on
the day of President Lincoln' s visit (Reprinted with permission from the
National Trust for Historic Preservation. Pinsker, Matthew. Lincoln's
Sanctuary: Abraham Lincoln and the Soldiers' Home. New York: Oxford
University Press, 2003: 67.)
She said that they had been warned to keep their performance short because the
President was busy and needed to leave soon, but that he insisted they continue to sing
and pray. She said he even came back later, without his entourage, and continued to sing
and pray with them. She was amazed that he "stood and sang and prayed just like all the
rest of the people" (Pinsker, 2003: 68).
"Contraband" was a term used to describe slaves who had been taken from their masters during the war.
These camps were temporary homes for the former slaves who were unable to earn a living.
Assassination plots were continuously floating around the city, but President
Lincoln paid them no attention. Lincoln's close advisors were alarmed by Lincoln's
habit of riding alone, frequently after dark, along the 3 miles between the White House
and the Soldiers' Home. He refused to be guarded on his commute. He thought that if a
person was determined to take his life, there was nothing anyone could do about it and he
did not want to be guarded every moment of every day. Brooks remembered a
conversation he had with President Lincoln regarding his safety. He recalled Lincoln
saying, "I long ago made up my mind that if anybody wants to kill me, he will do it. If I
wore a shirt of mail, and kept myself surrounded by a body-guard, it would be all the
same. There are a thousand ways of getting at a man if it is desired that he should be
killed" (Brooks and Mitgang, 1958: 44).
Eventually, Mary Lincoln's protestations persuaded the president that guards were
necessary. He never liked it, though, saying that he and Mrs. Lincoln "'couldn't hear
themselves talk' for the clatter of their sabers and spurs; and that, as many of them
appeared new hands and very awkward, he was more afraid of being shot by the
accidental discharge of one of their carbines or revolvers, than of any attempt upon his
life" (Pinsker, 2003: 60). He often sent the guards away or left earlier than they expected
to outrun them and enj oy a more peaceful ride.
Even with a cavalry escort, some thought it was still too dangerous for the
President to be traveling through the countryside while a war raged nearby and threats on
his life were reported almost daily. Brooks wrote that,
Mr. Lincoln comes in early in the morning and returns about sunset, unless he has a
press of business which is often when he sleeps at the White House and has
'prog' sent up from Willards. He goes and comes attended by an escort of a
cavalry company, which was raised in this city for the purpose, and the escort also
stands on guards at the premises during the night; but to my unsophisticated
judgment nothing seems easier than a sudden cavalry raid from the Maryland side
of the fortifications, past the few small forts, to seize the President of the United
States, lug him from his 'chased couch,' and carry him off as a hostage worth
having (Brooks and Burlingame, 1998: 57).
In addition, unruly civilians sometimes made the Seventh Street Tumnpike a
dangerous place. Pinsker reports that there was a racetrack, several saloons, and houses
of prostitution in the area. John Hay was concerned for the safety of this road when he
wrote that he "rode home in the dark amid a party of drunken gamblers and harlots" on
the Seventh Street Tumnpike (Pinsker, 2003: 12).
The Soldiers' Home was very close to the front lines of the war. On July 10, 1864,
just days after the family had settled into their summer residence for the season,
Confederate General Jubal Early and his men attacked the area immediately north of the
Soldiers' Home. Secretary Stanton sent a carriage and guard out to the Soldiers' Home in
the middle of the night to take President Lincoln and his family back to the White House.
The president was not happy about it. Brooks wrote about that night. He said that, "The
news of the approach of Early was brought to the city... by the panic-stricken people
from Rockville, Silver Spring, Tennallytown, and other Maryland villages. These people
came flocking into Washington by the Seventh Street Road, flying in wild disorder, and
bringing their household goods with them" (Brooks and Mitgang, 1958: 159). President
Lincoln must have seen these panic-stricken people as he, too, was being driven into
town down the Seventh Street Road. It must have affected him to know that these people
were running for their lives, and that their homes might not be there upon their return.
Riding with the President
Riding with President Lincoln to and from the Soldiers' Home was an excellent
way to get some time alone with him. John Hay, a White House aide, realized the
political advantage of riding with the president. Riding with the President, "had quietly
become one of Hay's more useful daily chores. He found that on the dusty thirty-minute
journey, the president could sometimes prove quite expansive and candid." (Pinsker,
2003: 14) They, and others who occasionally rode with him, talked about the war and
other important decisions the President was considering. Not all of the trips were full of
work discussions, though. Brooks recalls riding with the President on his commute on
November day and hearing the President recite Oliver Wendell Holmes's "The Last
Leaf' from memory (Brooks and Mitgang, 1958: 78).
What Did President Lincoln See?2
The commute route changed somewhat during Lincoln's presidency. At the
beginning of the Civil War, only a small section of Washington, D.C. was developed.
The war brought thousands of soldiers and business owners to town, and this heightened
demand spurred an increase in commercial and residential building. During the years that
President Lincoln was commuting through the northern section of Washington, the
development moved in that direction. At the start of the war, he would only have seen a
couple of developed blocks before entering a largely rural landscape for the remainder of
the ride. By 1864 the developed area was larger, but only by a few blocks. The majority
of the trip was still undeveloped land.
2 Boyd's Washington and Georgetown Directories of 1861 1865, Boshke's 1861 Map of Washington,
D.C., and Passonneau's Evolution of the Center were used to reconstruct the historic context in this section.
When President Lincoln left the White House on Vermont Avenue, he would have
seen prosperous businesses and private homes. There were offices for lawyers, shops for
shoemakers and carpenters and apartment buildings like the one where he sometimes
nodded cordially to Walt Whitman. He passed King & Burchell's Fine Teas and Choice
Family Groceries and the Dickson & King Wood and Coal Dealers. A few foreign
offices were in the area, like Buruaga Asta, Charge de Affaires of Chile. He passed
Secretary of War Stanton' s house and sometimes stopped to discuss business with him
As he arrived near lowa Circle (what is Logan Circle today) he had left the heavy
development behind. He saw small, wood-frame buildings, many of which had been
built by freedmen. On his right, he passed within one block of a contraband camp. The
businesses he passed in this area were less prestigious than the ones closer to the White
House but were still owned by white men. After he turned right on to Rhode Island, he
passed Maurice Hurley's boarding house. At the same corner, he would have seen the
A&M Grocery and Sutler's Supply Store and William Robinson's Grocery Store. In a
home facing the alley behind these stores, Betty Taylor was working as a washer woman,
a common business for black women during the Civil War. There were many black
washer women in the area.
After passing several empty blocks on Rhode Island Avenue, President Lincoln
turned left on Seventh Street (which is Georgia Avenue today), the principal road in and
out of the city. In 1862 there were only a few buildings in this area. He would have
passed a blacksmith shop, a shoemaker, a few small grocery stores, and Gately Malachi's
Restaurant. By 1864, several more businesses had settled in the area, primarily on the
west side of the street. He would have seen a tailor' s shop, a confectioner' s, and a few
more restaurants. Seventh Street became the Seventh Street Tumnpike at Boundary Street,
where there was a small tollgate. President Lincoln passed the tollgate without being
asked to pay (Pinsker, 2003: 7). After the tollgate, he passed a few small residences on
the east side of the road. Some of the residences outside of the city limits might have
been owned by freedmen. He would also have seen the tents and other temporary
encampments of thousands of military men.
President Lincoln rode north on the Seventh Street Turnpike for about a mile before
he turned right on to Rock Creek Church Road. This area was almost completely rural.
There were a couple of residences south of the road, but he probably would not have been
able to see them, as they were about a half mile off the road and probably obscured by
vegetation. Within half a mile of turning right on to Rock Creek Church Road, he would
have seen the few buildings of the Soldiers' Home, one of them his own summer
residence. He turned right and approached the home from the west.
Lincoln's daily commute from the city to his country retreat gave him a better
understanding of the true conditions in the country. He had candid conversations with
those riding with him about the war and important decisions he had to make. He stopped
ambulances and talked with soldiers about their experiences during the war. He rode
among contraband camps and shacks built by freedmen and spoke with them, learning
about their lives. This commute through the city taught him, firsthand, what ordinary
people were going through and would certainly have formed a foundation from which he
could lead the country.
The commute also served as a community outreach effort. Soldiers who
encountered the president in the streets must have felt comforted to know that he could
see and understand their conditions. The same is true for slaves and freedmen. They had
a direct connection with the President of the United States in a way that is almost
The significance of this site was officially recognized when President William
Clinton designated the cottage and the surrounding 2.3 acres as the President Lincoln and
Soldiers' Home National Monument in 2000. It will be open to the public by 2006 and
when it is, this commute might help connect today's busy professionals to President
Lincoln. Almost everyone commutes to and from an office every day. We all share the
experience of hurrying out the door to get a head start on the traffic and the day's work.
This connection can help future visitors to the President Lincoln and Soldiers' Home
National Monument relate to the president in a more personal way and better understand
President Lincoln as an ordinary man.
Our study provides valuable information about heritage tourism and the viability of
President Lincoln' s Commute Route Heritage Trail. Definitions of key terms allow a
better understanding about heritage tourism as a field. While there are many terms used
to describe similar activities, the focus of "place-based" learning in heritage education
makes it the best description of the type of tourism that would be established through
President Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail. In addition, a study of National Park
Service criteria for federal designation as a National Scenic Trail, National Historic Trail,
National Recreational Trail and National Heritage Area makes it clear that President
Lincolns' Commute Route Heritage Trail is probably not eligible for federal designation.
An evaluation of heritage tourism's nationwide impact indicates that it is an
important and growing segment of the tourism industry. Heritage tourists spend millions
of dollars every year. An increasing interest in history and educational experiences can
be capitalized upon by areas that have historic resources to offer. If managed properly,
the results of heritage tourism can help protect historic resources.
In Chapter 3, our study proposes an evaluative system by which the effectiveness
of heritage tourism attractions can be assessed. This system includes criteria to judge an
attraction's ability to protect historic resources, provide a meaningful visitor experience
and ensure a substantial community benefit. Those wishing to evaluate heritage tourism
attractions, or consider the viability of a future attraction, will find this hierarchical
system useful. The system is completely values-based, which can provide great
flexibility, but is also very subjective. The results of any study using this system are
going to be influenced by the reviewer' s point of view and the circumstances of the
particular site, including its level of significance.
Several case studies presented here allow the reader to learn about trails that are
similar to the possible President Lincoln' s Commute Route Heritage Trail. They include
the Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail, City within a City: Greater U
Street Heritage Trail, African American Heritage Trail and Boston's Freedom Trail.
Each case study trail is less than 5 miles long and located in densely populated, urban
areas. They are assessed by the aforementioned evaluative system.
Chapter 5 focuses on the context of the commute route and what President Lincoln
would have seen as he traveled the 3 miles between the White House and the Soldiers'
Home every day. Washington, D.C. was a difficult place to live during the Civil War.
The summer weather was exceedingly uncomfortable, the area was marshy, and the
resulting mosquitoes were unbearable. For these reasons, many people left Washington
every summer, including the President and his family. The Soldiers' Home was a refuge
in many ways. Its breezy, hilltop location provided respite from the unhealthy conditions
of the city. It was also a quiet place to get away from the constant pressures of the White
House. Lastly, it provided a sanctuary where the family could grieve the loss of 12-year-
A survey of the current route reveals that almost no historic fabric remains from
President Lincolns' time (Appendix D). The entire route is now densely-developed. The
first few blocks from the White House are lined with late 20th century commercial
buildings (Figures 6-1 and 6-2). The next couple of blocks had historically seen
contraband camps and small shacks that houses freedmen. They are now filled with late
19th century buildings, built about 20 or 30 years after President Lincoln's daily
commutes. The remaining length of the route is lined with early- and mid 20th century
More research is necessary to definitively determine whether any historic fabric
remains. There appears to be only 1 block of buildings that could be from the Civil War
era (Figure 6-3). It is located at what was the intersection of the Seventh Street Turnpike
and Boundary Road. These buildings are currently in a state of disrepair, and many of
them are boarded up.
Evaluating the Feasibility of President Lincoln's Commute Route
Learning about the terminology and impact of heritage tourism, establishing a
flexible evaluative system, studying similar trails and researching the context of the
commute route have made it possible to evaluate the feasibility of President Lincolns'
Commute Route Heritage Trail. The evaluative system discussed in our study was used
to determine whether the new trail could satisfy the criteria of resource protection, visitor
experience, and community benefit.
Very few buildings along the route during President Lincoln's time still exist. This
route was primarily rural during President Lincoln's residency, which means that there
were not many buildings that could have survived in the first place. Now the entire route
is densely developed with late 19th century and 20th century buildings. As there are
almost no historic materials available, resource protection is impossible.
Figure 6-1. Vermont at K Street the most developed section of President Lincoln' s
commute route. No historic structures remain. (Source: photo by author,
Figure 6-2. The corner where Walt Whitman lived at Vermont and L Street. A) The
northwest corner. B) The southwest corner. C) The northeast corner. D) The
southeast corner. (Source: photos by author, 2004)
It would probably prove extremely difficult to sustain an entire heritage trail based
solely on the commute route without museums or other attractions along the way.
President Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail must be rated very poorly in this
category of the evaluative system. A lack of historic resources makes the success of this
trail extremely improbable.
If enough historic fabric remained and compelling stories were discovered,
President Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail could entice visitors from the
National Mall. Most visitors to Washington, D.C. only see the monuments and
Smithsonian museums. They leave without really getting to know the city and all that it
has to offer. This trail might provide an entertaining and educational experience that
would bring tourists in contact with the local community.
This trail would also offer an opportunity for greater understanding of Washington
during the Civil War and of President Lincoln as a regular person. Lincoln has probably
been studied more than any other American President. This trail could provide a window
into President Lincoln's more personal side, as he commuted from the strains of his
professional life to the solitude of his quiet country retreat every day.
President Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail must be rated poorly in this
category, too, as it would face major obstacles regarding visitor experience. First, extant
historic structures are key to a heritage trail's success, as visitors do not particularly want
to look at signs that tell them that something interesting happened "on this site." They
want to see the actual, authentic structures and this route simply does not have the
historic resources to display. Second, the route traverses a neighborhood that is
economically depressed. Visitors may be unhappy about the lack of amenities such as
restrooms and restaurants. In addition, the trail is linear. If visitors walked the entire 3-
mile-long route, they would need some form of transportation to take them back to where
they started. At this time, public transportation is severely lacking around the Soldiers'
Home. The closest Metro station is approximately 2 miles away and the bus routes are
not user friendly. Heritage Tourism DC's development process (bus tours that become
guided tours that eventually become an unguided heritage trail) could be used to
overcome some of these challenges but it would take several years and, again, the lack of
historic resources makes the probability of success very low.
Figure 6-3. The trail would pass through many blocks of boarded commercial buildings,
like these on Georgia Avenue (formerly Seventh Street). More research is
necessary, but these might be from the Civil War era. (Source: photo by
Of the three evaluative measures, this trail holds the most promise for its ability to
provide a positive community benefit. Tourist money could help boost this area' s
economic condition. The amenities that the city or an organization like Cultural Tourism
DC might add to the area because of its new visibility to tourists would help the area
tremendously. This might include public information booths, restrooms, landscaping,
pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and crosswalks, benches, and other tools to make the area
If the trail were to bring tourists to the area, members of the community might be
wary of the new visitors. A busing system, like that used by Cultural Tourism DC, would
be the first step in overcoming these concerns. This would be followed by a guided
walking tour and, eventually, visitors following signage independently. If the initial
uneasiness can be overcome, this trail could be a catalyst for more economic
revitalization. Residents might consider opening restaurants or other business that are
currently lacking in the area.
The potential President Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail faces challenges
that could be insurmountable. It is improbable that it would become a successful heritage
trail, particularly given the almost complete lack of historic resources. It would not
protect historic resources or provide a very interesting or educational visitor experience.
It is not recommended that this commute route be established as a heritage trail.
The commute route is very interesting, though, and should not be discounted
because it is not a viable heritage trail. The route could be successfully used as an
introduction to the President Lincoln and Soldiers' Home National Monument. Due to
the lack of public transportation to the Soldiers' Home and shortage of parking spaces
onsite, it seems probable that a bus system will be initiated to transport visitors to the site
from the Mall. The commute route offers an opportunity to educate those visitors while
they ride out to the site. By the time the bus reaches the site, the visitors will be oriented
to Washington during the Civil War and the daily challenges that President Lincoln
Opportunities for Future Research
President Lincoln's commute route provides an interesting topic for future research.
It is possible that further investigation would reveal that there is more historic fabric
remaining, though it will definitely not be enough to sustain a heritage trail. This
research should be conducted because if the resources are still standing, we should
identify them and find ways to protect them before they, too, are lost.
In addition, further research into Walt Whitman' s papers could reveal very
meaningful information. It is possible that more details exist about the section of
President Lincoln's commute route that Whitman observed every day. His writing is also
likely to provide insightful details about other parts of Washington, D.C. during this time
period, particularly information about Civil War hospitals and the soldiers who were
injured. Whitman was a devoted volunteer at these hospitals.
The Civil War hospitals of Washington, D.C. are another topic of possible future
research. There were approximately 20 hospitals in Washington, D.C. during the Civil
War. Matthew Brady, a respected Civil War photographer, took many pictures of the
hospitals and soldiers. It is possible that the Capitol's records would include information
about its time as a Civil War hospital, as might other federal buildings of the time.
NATIONAL TRAIL SYSTEM ACT
To establish a national trails system, and for other purposes.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America
in Congress assembled
This Act may be cited as the "National Trails System Act."
Statement of Policy
Section 2. [16USC1241]
(a) In order to provide for the ever-increasing outdoor recreation needs of an expanding
population and in order to promote the preservation of, public access to, travel within,
and enj oyment and appreciation of the open-air, outdoor areas and historic resources of
the Nation, trails should be established (i) primarily, near the urban areas of the Nation,
and (ii) secondarily, within scenic areas and along historic travel routes of the Nation
which are often more remotely located.
(b) The purpose of this Act is to provide the means for attaining these objectives by
instituting a national system of recreation, scenic and historic trails, by designating the
Appalachian Trail and the Pacific Crest Trail as the initial components of that system,
and by prescribing the methods by which, and standards according to which, additional
components may be added to the system.
(c) The Congress recognizes the valuable contributions that volunteers and private,
nonprofit trail groups have made to the development and maintenance of the Nation's
trails. In recognition of these contributions, it is further the purpose of this Act to
encourage and assist volunteer citizen involvement in the planning, development,
maintenance, and management, where appropriate, of trails.
P.L. 90-543, as amended through P.L. 107-325, December 4, 2002. This document can be found at
hopl1 w\ il \ .nps.gov/nts/legislation.html. It is also in United States Code, Volume 16, Sections 1241-1251.
National Trails System
Section 3. [16USC1242]
(a) The national system of trails shall be composed of the following:
(1) National recreation trails, established as provided in section 4 of this Act, which will
provide a variety of outdoor recreation uses in or reasonably accessible to urban areas.
(2) National scenic trails, established as provided in section 5 of this Act, which will be
extended trails so located as to provide for maximum outdoor recreation potential and for
the conservation and enjoyment of the nationally significant scenic, historic, natural, or
cultural qualities of the areas through which such trails may pass. National scenic trails
may be located so as to represent desert, marsh, grassland, mountain, canyon, river,
forest, and other areas, as well as landforms which exhibit significant characteristics of
the physiographic regions of the Nation.
(3) National historic trails, established as provided in section 5 of this Act, which will be
extended trails which follow as closely as possible and practicable the original trails or
routes of travel of national historic significance. Designation of such trails or routes shall
be continuous, but the established or developed trail, and the acquisition thereof, need not
be continuous onsite. National historic trails shall have as their purpose the identification
and protection of the historic route and its historic remnants and artifacts for public use
and enj oyment. Only those selected land and water based components of a historic trail
which are on federally owned lands and which meet the national historic trail criteria
established in this Act are included as Federal protection components of a national
historic trail. The appropriate Secretary may certify other lands as protected segments of
an historic trail upon application from State or local governmental agencies or private
interests involved if such segments meet the national historic trail criteria established in
this Act and such criteria supplementary thereto as the appropriate Secretary may
prescribe, and are administered by such agencies or interests without expense to the
(4) Connecting or side trails, established as provided in section 6 of this Act, which will
provide additional points of public access to national recreation, national scenic or
national historic trails or which will provide connections between such trails.
The Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with
appropriate governmental agencies and public and private organizations, shall establish a
uniform marker for the national trails system.
(b) For purposes of this section, the term 'extended trails' means trails or trail segments
which total at least one hundred miles in length, except that historic trails of less than one
hundred miles may be designated as extended trails. While it is desirable that extended
trails be continuous, studies of such trails may conclude that it is feasible to propose one
or more trail segments which, in the aggregate, constitute at least one hundred miles in
National Recreation Trails
Section 4. [16USC1243]
(a) The Secretary of the Interior, or the Secretary of Agriculture where lands administered
by him are involved, may establish and designate national recreation trails, with the
consent of the Federal agency, State, or political subdivision having jurisdiction over the
lands involved, upon finding that--
(i) such trails are reasonably accessible to urban areas, and, or
(ii) such trails meet the criteria established in this Act and such supplementary criteria as
he may prescribe.
(b) As provided in this section, trails within park, forest, and other recreation areas
administered by the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture or in other
federally administered areas may be established and designated as "National Recreation
Trails" by the appropriate Secretary and, when no Federal land acquisition is involved --
(i) trails in or reasonably accessible to urban areas may be designated as "National
Recreation Trails" by the appropriate Secretary with the consent of the States, their
political subdivisions, or other appropriate administering agencies;
(ii) trails within park, forest, and other recreation areas owned or administered by States
may be designated as "National Recreation Trails" by the appropriate Secretary with the
consent of the State; and
(iii) trails on privately owned lands may be designated 'National Recreation Trails' by the
appropriate Secretary with the written consent of the owner of the property involved.
National Scenic and National Historic Trails
Section 5. [16USC1244]
(a) National scenic and national historic trails shall be authorized and designated only by
Act of Congress. There are hereby established the following National Scenic and
National Historic Trails:
(1) The Appalachian National Scenic Trail, a trail of approximately two thousand miles
extending generally along the Appalachian Mountains from Mount Katahdin, Maine, to
Springer Mountain, Georgia. Insofar as practicable, the right-of-way for such trail shall
comprise the trail depicted on the maps identified as "Nationwide System of Trails,
Proposed Appalachian Trail, NST-AT-101-May 1967", which shall be on file and
available for public inspection in the office of the Director of the National Park Service.
Where practicable, such rights-of-way shall include lands protected for it under
agreements in effect as of the date of enactment of this Act, to which Federal agencies
and States were parties. The Appalachian Trail shall be administered primarily as a
footpath by the Secretary of the Interior, in consultation with the Secretary of
(2) The Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail, a trail of approximately two thousand three
hundred fifty miles, extending from the Mexican-California border northward generally
along the mountain ranges of the west coast States to the Canadian-Washington border
near Lake Ross, following the route as generally depicted on the map, identified as
"Nationwide System of Trails, Proposed Pacific Crest Trail, NST-PC-103-May 1967"
which shall be on Eile and available for public inspection in the office of the Chief of the
Forest Service. The Pacific Crest Trail shall be administered by the Secretary of
Agriculture, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior.
(3) The Oregon National Historic Trail, a route of approximately two thousand miles
extending from near Independence, Missouri, to the vicinity of Portland, Oregon,
following a route as depicted on maps identified as 'Primary Route of the Oregon Trail
1841-1848', in the Department of the Interior's Oregon Trail study report dated April
1977, and which shall be on Eile and available for public inspection in the office of the
Director of the National Park Service. The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of
(4) The Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail, a route of approximately one thousand
three hundred miles extending from Nauvoo, Illinois, to Salt Lake City, Utah, following
the primary historical route of the Mormon Trail as generally depicted on a map,
identified as, 'Mormon Trail Vicinity Map, figure 2' in the Department of the Interior
Mormon Trail study report dated March 1977, and which shall be on file and available
for public inspection in the office of the Director, National Park Service, Washington,
D.C. The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior.
(5) The Continental Divide National Scenic Trail, a trail of approximately thirty-one
hundred miles, extending from the Montana-Canada border to the New Mexico-Mexico
border, following the approximate route depicted on the map, identified as 'Proposed
Continental Divide National Scenic Trail' in the Department of the Interior Continental
Divide Trail study report dated March 1977 and which shall be on file and available for
public inspection in the office of the Chief, Forest Service, Washington, D.C. The
Continental Divide National Scenic Trail shall be administered by the Secretary of
Agriculture in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior. Notwithstanding the
provisions of section 7(c), the use of motorized vehicles on roads which will be
designated segments of the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail shall be permitted in
accordance with regulations prescribed by the appropriate Secretary.
(6) The Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, a trail of approximately three thousand
seven hundred miles, extending from Wood River, Illinois, to the mouth of the Columbia
River in Oregon, following the outbound and inbound routes of the Lewis and Clark
Expedition depicted on maps identified as, 'Vicinity Map, Lewis and Clark Trail' study
report dated April 1977. The map shall be on file and available for public inspection in the
office of the Director, National Park Service, Washington, D.C. The trail shall be
administered by the Secretary of the Interior.
(7) The Iditarod National Historic Trail, a route of approximately two thousand miles
extending from Seward, Alaska, to Nome, Alaska, following the routes as depicted on
maps identified as 'Seward-Nome Trail', in the Department of the Interior's study report
entitled 'The Iditarod Trail (Seward-Nome Route) and other Alaskan Gold Rush Trails'
dated September 1977. The map shall be on file and available for public inspection in the
office of the Director, National Park Service, Washington, D.C. The trail shall be
administered by the Secretary of the Interior.
(8) The North Country National Scenic Trail, a trail of approximately thirty-two hundred
miles, extending from eastern New York State to the vicinity of Lake Sakakawea in
North Dakota, following the approximate route depicted on the map identified as
'Proposed North Country Trail-Vicinity Map' in the Department of the Interior 'North
Country Trail Report', dated June 1975. The map shall be on file and available for public
inspection in the office of the Director, National Park Service, Washington, District of
Columbia. The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior.
(9) The Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail, a system totaling approximately
two hundred seventy-two miles of trail with routes from the mustering point near
Abingdon, Virginia, to Sycamore Shoals (near Elizabethton, Tennessee); from Sycamore
Shoals to Quaker Meadows (near Morganton, North Carolina); from the mustering point
in Surry County, North Carolina, to Quaker Meadows; and from Quaker Meadows to
Kings Mountain, South Carolina, as depicted on the map identified as Map 3--Historic
Features--1780 in the draft study report entitled 'Overmountain Victory Trail' dated
December 1979. The map shall be on file and available for public inspection in the Office
of the Director, National Park Service, Washington, District of Columbia. The trail shall
be administered by the Secretary of the Interior.
(10) The Ice Age National Scenic Trail, a trail of approximately one thousand miles,
extending from Door County, Wisconsin, to Interstate Park in Saint Croix County,
Wisconsin, generally following the route described in "On the Trail of the Ice Age--A
Hiker's and Biker's Guide to Wisconsin's Ice Age National Scientific Reserve and Trail",
by Henry S. Reuss, Member of Congress, dated 1980. The guide and maps shall be on file
and available for public inspection in the Office of the Director, National Park Service,
Washington, District of Columbia. Overall administration of the trail shall be the
responsibility of the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to section 5(d) of this Act. The
State of Wisconsin, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior, may, subj ect to the
approval of the Secretary, prepare a plan for the management of the trail which shall be
deemed to meet the requirements of section 5(e) of this Act. Notwithstanding the
provisions of section 7(c), snowmobile use may be permitted on segments of the Ice Age
National Scenic Trail where deemed appropriate by the Secretary and the managing
authority responsible for the segment.
(ll) The Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail, a corridor of approximately seven
hundred and four miles following the route as generally depicted on the map identified as
'National Trails System, Proposed Potomac Heritage Trail' in 'The Potomac Heritage
Trail', a report prepared by the Department of the Interior and dated December 1974,
except that no designation of the trail shall be made in the State of West Virginia. The
map shall be on file and available for public inspection in the office of the Director of the
National Park Service, Washington, District of Columbia. The trail shall initially consist
of only those segments of the corridor located within the exterior boundaries of federally
administered areas. No lands or interests therein outside the exterior boundaries of any
federally administered area may be acquired by the Federal Government for the Potomac
Heritage Trail. The Secretary of the Interior may designate lands outside of federally
administered areas as segments of the trail, only upon application from the States or local
governmental agencies involved, if such segments meet the criteria established in this Act
and are administered by such agencies without expense to the United States. The trail
shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior.
(12) The Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail, a trail system of approximately six
hundred and ninety-four miles extending from Nashville, Tennessee, to Natchez,
Mississippi, as depicted on the map entitled 'Concept Plan, Natchez Trace Trails Study' in
'The Natchez Trace', a report prepared by the Department of the Interior and dated
August 1979. The map shall be on file and available for public inspection in the office of
the Director of the National Park Service, Department of the Interior, Washington,
District of Columbia. The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior.
(13) The Florida National Scenic Trail, a route of approximately thirteen hundred miles
extending through the State of Florida as generally depicted in 'The Florida Trail', a
national scenic trail study draft report prepared by the Department of the Interior and
dated February 1980. The report shall be on file and available for public inspection in the
office of the Chief of the Forest Service, Washington, District of Columbia. No lands or
interests therein outside the exterior boundaries of any federally administered area may
be acquired by the Federal Government for the Florida Trail except with the consent of
the owner thereof. The Secretary of Agriculture may designate lands outside of federally
administered areas as segments of the trail, only upon application from the States or local
governmental agencies involved, if such segments meet the criteria established in this Act
and are administered by such agencies without expense to the United States. The trail
shall be administered by the Secretary of Agriculture.
(14) The Nez Perce National Historic Trail, a route of approximately eleven hundred and
seventy miles extending from the vicinity of Wallowa Lake, Oregon, to Bear Paw
Mountain, Montana, as generally depicted in 'Nez Perce (Nee-Me-Poo) Trail Study
Report' prepared by the Department of Agriculture and dated March 1982. The report
shall be on file and available for public inspection in the Office of the Chief of the Forest
Service, Washington, District of Columbia. The trail shall be administered by the
Secretary of Agriculture. No lands or interests therein outside the exterior boundaries of
any federally administered area may be acquired by the Federal Government for the Nez
Perce National Historic Trail. The Secretary of Agriculture may designate lands outside
of federally administered areas as segments of the trail upon application from the States
or local governmental agencies involved if such segments meet the criteria established in
this Act and are administered by such agencies without expense to the United States. So
that significant route segments and sites recognized as associated with the Nez Perce
Trail may be distinguished by suitable markers, the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized
to accept the donation of suitable markers for placement at appropriate locations. Any
such markers associated with the Nez Perce Trail which are to be located on lands
administered by any other department or agency of the United States may be placed on
such lands only with the concurrence of the head of such department or agency.
(15) The Santa Fe National Historic Trail, a trail of approximately 950 miles from a point
near Old Franklin, Missouri, through Kansas, Oklahoma, and Colorado to Santa Fe, New
Mexico, as generally depicted on a map entitled "The Santa Fe Trail" contained in the
Final Report of the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to subsection (b) of this section,
dated July 1976. The map shall be on file and available for public inspection in the office
of the Director of the National Park Service, Washington, District of Columbia. The trail
shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior. No lands or interests therein outside
the exterior boundaries of any federally administered area may be acquired by the Federal
Government for the Santa Fe Trail except with the consent of the owner thereof. Before
acquiring any easement or entering into any cooperative agreement with a private
landowner with respect to the trail, the Secretary shall notify the landowner of the
potential liability, if any, for injury to the public resulting from physical conditions which
may be on the landowner's land. The United States shall not be held liable by reason of
such notice or failure to provide such notice to the landowner. So that significant route
segments and sites recognized as associated with the Santa Fe Trail may be distinguished
by suitable markers, the Secretary of the Interior is authorized to accept the donation of
suitable markers for placement at appropriate locations.
(16) (A) The Trail of Tears National Historic Trail, a trail consisting of water routes and
overland routes traveled by the Cherokee Nation during its removal from ancestral lands
in the East to Oklahoma during 1838 and 1839, generally located within the corridor
described through portions of Georgia, North Carolina, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky,
Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma in the final report of the Secretary of the
Interior prepared pursuant to subsection (b) of this section entitled "Trail of Tears" and
dated June 1986. Maps depicting the corridor shall be on file and available for public
inspection in the Office of the National Park Service, Department of the Interior. The trail
shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior. No lands or interests therein outside
the exterior boundaries of any federally administered area may be acquired by the Federal
Government for the Trail of Tears except with the consent of the owner thereof.
(B) In carrying out his responsibilities pursuant to subsections 5(f) and 7(c) of this Act,
the Secretary of the Interior shall give careful consideration to the establishment of
appropriate interpretive sites for the Trail of Tears in the vicinity of Hopkinsville,
Kentucky, Fort Smith, Arkansas, Trail of Tears State Park, Missouri, and Tahlequah,
(17) The Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail, a trail comprising the overland
route traveled by Captain Juan Bautista de Anza of Spain during the years 1775 and 1776
from Sonora, Mexico, to the vicinity of San Francisco, California, as generally described
in the report of the Department of Interior prepared pursuant to the subsection (b) entitled
'Juan Bautista de Anza National Trail Study, Feasibility Study and Environmental
Assessment' and dated August, 1986. A map generally depicting the trail shall be on Eile
and available for public inspection in the Office of the Director of the National Park
Service, Washington, District of Columbia. The trail shall be administered by the
Secretary of Interior. No lands or interest therein outside the exterior boundaries of any
federally administered area may be acquired by the Federal Govemnment for the Juan
Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail without the consent of the owner thereof. In
implementing this paragraph, the Secretary shall encourage volunteer trail groups to
participate in the development and maintenance of the trail.
(18) The California National Historic Trail, a route of approximately Hyve thousand seven
hundred miles, including all routes and cutoffs, extending from Independence and Saint
Joseph, Missouri, and Council Bluffs, Iowa, to various points in Califomnia and Oregon,
as generally described in the report of the Department of the Interior prepared pursuant to
subsection (b) of this section entitled "California and Pony Express Trails,
Eligibility/Feasibility Study/Environmental Assessment" and dated September 1987. A
map generally depicting the route shall be on Eile and available for public inspection in
the Office of the National Park Service, Department of the Interior. The trail shall be
administered by the Secretary of the Interior. No lands or interests therein outside the
exterior boundaries of any federally administered area may be acquired by the United
States for the California National Historic Trail except with the consent of the owner
(19) The Pony Express National Historic Trail, a route of approximately one thousand
nine hundred miles, including the original route and subsequent route changes, extending
from Saint Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California, as generally described in the
report of the Department of the Interior prepared pursuant to subsection (b) of this section
entitled "California and Pony Express Trails, Eligibility/Feasibility Study/Environmental
Assessment" and dated September 1987. A map generally depicting the route shall be on
Eile and available for public inspection in the Office of the National Park Service,
Department of the Interior. The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior.
No lands or interests therein outside the exterior boundaries of any federally administered
area may be acquired by the United States for the Pony Express National Historic Trail
except with the consent of the owner thereof.
[Related language from section 2, P.L. 102-328: The Secretary of the Interior (hereinafter
referred to as the Secretary) shall undertake a study of the land and water route used to
carry mail from Sacramento to San Francisco, Califomnia, to determine the feasibility and
suitability of designation of such route as a component of the Pony Express National
Historic Trail designated by section 1 of this Act. Upon completion of the study, if the
Secretary determines such a route is a feasible and suitable addition to the Pony Express
National Historic Trail, the Secretary shall designate the route as a component of the
Pony Express National Historic Trail. The Secretary shall publish notice of such
designation in the Federal Register and shall submit the study along with his findings to
the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the United States House of
Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the United
(20) The Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail, consisting of 54 miles of city
streets and United States Highway 80 from Brown Chapel A.M.E. Church in Selma to the
State Capitol Building in Montgomery, Alabama, traveled by voting rights advocates
during March 1965 to dramatize the need for voting rights legislation, as generally
described in the report to the Secretary of the Interior prepared pursuant to subsection (b)
of this section entitled Selma to Montgomery" and dated April, 1993. Maps depicting
the route shall be on file and available for public inspection in the Office of the National
Park Service, Department of the Interior. The trail shall be administered in accordance
with this Act, including section 7(h). The Secretary of the Interior, acting through the
National Park Service, which shall be the lead Federal agency, shall cooperate with other
Federal, State and local authorities to preserve historic sites along the route, including
(but not limited to) the Edmund Pettus Bridge and the Brown Chapel A.M.E. Church.
(21) El Camino Real de tierra adentro --
(A) El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro (the Royal Road of the Interior) National Historic
Trail, a 404 mile long trail from Rio Grande near El Paso, Texas to San Juan Pueblo,
New Mexico, as generally depicted on the maps entitled 'United States Route: El Camino
Real de Tierra Adentro,' contained in the report prepared pursuant to subsection (b)
entitled 'National Historic Trail Feasibility Study and Environmental Assessment: El
Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, Texas-New Mexico,' dated March 1997.
(B) Map A map generally depicting the trail shall be on file and available for public
inspection in the Office of the National Park Service, Department of the Interior.
(C) Administration The Trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior.
(D) Land Acquisition No lands or interests therein outside the exterior boundaries of
any federally administered area may be acquired by the Federal Goverment for El
Camino Real de Tierra Adentro except with the consent of the owner thereof.
(E) Volunteer Groups; Consultation The Secretary of the Interior shall --
(i) encourage volunteer groups to participate in the development and maintenance of the
(ii) consult with other affected Federal, State, local governmental, and tribal agencies in
the administration of the trail.
(F) Coordination of Activities -The Secretary of the Interior may coordinate with United
States and Mexican public and non-governmental organizations, academic institutions,
and in sonsultation with the Secretray of State, the government of Mexico and its political
subdivisions, for the purpose of exchanging trail information and research, fostering trail
preservation and education programs, providing technical assistance, and working to
establish an international historic trail with complementary preservation and education
programs in each nation.
(22) Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail --
(A) In General The Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail (the Trail by the Sea), a 175
mile long trail extending from 'Upola Point on the north tip of Hawaii Island down the
west coast of the Island around Ka Lae to the east boundary of Hawaii Volcanoes National
Park at the ancient shoreline temple known as 'Waha'ula,' as generally depicted on the
map entitled 'Ala Kahakai Trail,' contained in the report prepared pursuant to subsection
(b) entitled 'Ala Kahakai National Trail Study and Environmental Impact Statement,'
dated January, 1998.
(B) Map A map generally depicting the trail shall be on file and available for public
inspection in the Office of the National Park Service, Department of the Interior.
(C) Administration The trail shall be administered by the Secretray of the Interior.
(D) Land Acquisition No land or interest in land outside the exterior boundaries of any
federally administered area may be acquired by the United States for the trail except with
the consent of the owner of the land or interest in land.
(E) Public Participation; Consultation The Secretary of the Interior shall
(i) encourage communities and owners of land along the trail, native Hawaiians, and
volunteer trail groups to participate in the planning, development, and maintennace of the
(ii) consult with affected Federal, State, and local agencies, native Hawaiian groups, and
landowners in the administration of the trail.
(23) Old Spanish National Historic Trail --
(A) In General The Old Spanish National Historic Trail, an approximately 2,700 mile
long trail extending from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to Los Angeles, California, that served
as a maj or trade route between 1829 and 1848, as generally depicted on the maps
numbered 1 through 9, as contained in the report entitled 'Old Spanish Trail National
Historic Trail Feasibility Study,' dated July 2001, including the Armij o Route, Northern
Route, North Branch, and Moj ave Road.
(B) Map A map generally depicting the trail shall be on file and available for public
inspection in the appropriate offices of the Department of the Interior.
(C ) Administration The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior
(referred to in this paragraph as the Secretary').
(D) Land Acquisition The United States shall not acquire for the trail any land or
interest in land outside the exterior boundary of any federally-managed area without the
consent of the owner of the land or interest in land.
(E) Consultation The Secretary shall consult with other Federal State, local, and tribal
agencies in the administration of the trail.
(F) Additional Routes The Secretary may designate additional routes to the trail if
(i) the additional routes were included in the Old Spanish Trail National Historic Trail
Feasibility Study, but were not recommended for designation as a national historic trail;
(ii) the Secretary determines that the additional routes were used for trade and commerce
between 1829 and 1848.
(b) The Secretary of the Interior, through the agency most likely to administer such trail,
and the Secretary of Agriculture where lands administered by him are involved, shall
make such additional studies as are herein or may hereafter be authorized by the
Congress for the purpose of determining the feasibility and desirability of designating
other trails as national scenic or national historic trails. Such studies shall be made in
consultation with the heads of other Federal agencies administering lands through which
such additional proposed trails would pass and in cooperation with interested interstate,
State, and local governmental agencies, public and private organizations, and landowners
and land users concerned. The feasibility of designating a trail shall be determined on the
basis of an evaluation of whether or not it is physically possible to develop a trail along a
route being studied, and whether the development of a trail would be financially feasible.
The studies listed in subsection (c) of this section shall be completed and submitted to the
Congress, with recommendations as to the suitability of trail designation, not later than
three complete fiscal years from the date of enactment of their addition to this subsection,
or from the date of enactment of this sentence, whichever is later. Such studies, when
submitted, shall be printed as a House or Senate document, and shall include, but not be
(1) the proposed route of such trail (including maps and illustrations);
(2) the areas adj acent to such trails, to be utilized for scenic, historic, natural, cultural, or
(3) the characteristics which, in the judgment of the appropriate Secretary, make the
proposed trail worthy of designation as a national scenic or national historic trail; and in
the case of national historic trails the report shall include the recommendation of the
Secretary of the Interior's National Park System Advisory Board as to the national
historic significance based on the criteria developed under the Historic Sites Act of 1935
(40 Stat. 666; 16 U.S.C. 461);
(4) the current status of land ownership and current and potential use along the designated
(5) the estimated cost of acquisition of lands or interest in lands, if any;
(6) the plans for developing and maintaining the trail and the cost thereof;
(7) the proposed Federal administering agency (which, in the case of a national scenic
trail wholly or substantially within a national forest, shall be the Department of
(8) the extent to which a State or its political subdivisions and public and private
organizations might reasonably be expected to participate in acquiring the necessary
lands and in the administration thereof;
(9) the relative uses of the lands involved, including: the number of anticipated visitor-
days for the entire length of, as well as for segments of, such trail; the number of months
which such trail, or segments thereof, will be open for recreation purposes; the economic
and social benefits which might accrue from alternate land uses; and the estimated man-
years of civilian employment and expenditures expected for the purposes of maintenance,
supervision, and regulation of such trail;
(10) the anticipated impact of public outdoor recreation use on the preservation of a
proposed national historic trail and its related historic and archeological features and
settings, including the measures proposed to ensure evaluation and preservation of the
values that contribute to their national historic significance; and
(1 1) To qualify for designation as a national historic trail, a trail must meet all three of the
(A) It must be a trail or route established by historic use and must be historically
significant as a result of that use. The route need not currently exist as a discernible trail
to qualify, but its location must be sufficiently known to permit evaluation of public
recreation and historical interest potential. A designated trail should generally accurately
follow the historic route, but may deviate somewhat on occasion of necessity to avoid
difficult routing through subsequent development, or to provide some route variations
offering a more pleasurable recreational experience. Such deviations shall be so noted on
site. Trail segments no longer possible to travel by trail due to subsequent development as
motorized transportation routes may be designated and marked onsite as segments which
link to the historic trail.
(B) It must be of national significance with respect to any of several broad facets of
American history, such as trade and commerce, exploration, migration and settlement, or
military campaigns. To qualify as nationally significant, historic use of the trail must
have had a far reaching effect on broad patterns of American culture. Trails significant in
the history of native Americans may be included.
(C) It must have significant potential for public recreational use or historical interest
based on historic interpretation and appreciation. The potential for such use is generally
greater along roadless segments developed as historic trails and at historic sites associated
with the trail. The presence of recreation potential not related to historic appreciation is
not sufficient justification for designation under this category.
(c) The following routes shall be studied in accordance with the obj ectives outlined in
subsection (b) of this section.
(1) Continental Divide Trail, a three-thousand-one-hundred-mile trail extending from
near the Mexican border in southwestern New Mexico northward generally along the
Continental Divide to the Canadian border in Glacier National Park.
(2) Potomac Heritage Trail, an eight-hundred-and-twenty-five-mile trail extending
generally from the mouth of the Potomac River to its sources in Pennsylvania and West
Virginia including the one-hundred- and- seventy-mile Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
(3) Old Cattle Trails of the Southwest from the vicinity of San Antonio, Texas,
approximately eight hundred miles through Oklahoma via Baxter Springs and Chetopa,
Kansas, to Fort Scott, Kansas, including the Chisholm Trail, from the vicinity of San
Antonio or Cuero, Texas, approximately eight hundred miles north through Oklahoma to
(4) Lewis and Clark Trail, from Wood River, Illinois, to the Pacific Ocean in Oregon,
following both the outbound and inbound routes of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
(5) Natchez Trace, from Nashville, Tennessee, approximately six hundred miles to
(6) North Country Trail, from the Appalachian Trail in Vermont, approximately three
thousand two hundred miles through the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio,
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, to the Lewis and Clark Trail in North Dakota.
(7) Kittanning Trail from Shirleysburg in Huntingdon County to Kittanning, Armstrong
(8) Oregon Trail, from Independence, Missouri, approximately two thousand miles to
near Fort Vancouver, Washington.
(9) Santa Fe Trail, from Independence, Missouri, approximately eight hundred miles to
Santa Fe, New Mexico.
(10) Long Trail extending two hundred and fifty-five miles from the Massachusetts border
northward through Vermont to the Canadian border.
(ll) Mormon Trail, extending from Nauvoo, Illinois, to Salt Lake City, Utah, through the
States of Iowa, Nebraska, and Wyoming.
(12) Gold Rush Trails in Alaska.
(13) Mormon Battalion Trail, extending two thousand miles from Mount Pisgah, Iowa,
through Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona to Los Angeles, California.
(14) El Camino Real from St. Augustine to San Mateo, Florida, approximately 20 miles
along the southern boundary of the St. Johns River from Fort Caroline National Memorial
to the St. August National Park Monument.
(15) Bartram Trail, extending through the States of Georgia, North Carolina, South
Carolina, Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee.
(16) Daniel Boone Trail, extending from the vicinity of Statesville, North Carolina, to
Fort Boonesborough State Park, Kentucky.
(17) Desert Trail, extending from the Canadian border through parts of Idaho,
Washington, Oregon, Nevada, California, and Arizona, to the Mexican border.
(18) Dominguez-Escalante Trail, extending approximately two thousand miles along the
route of the 1776 expedition led by Father Francisco Atanasio Dominguez and Father
Silvestre Velez de Escalante, originating in Santa Fe, New Mexico; proceeding northwest
along the San Juan, Dolores, Gunnison, and White Rivers in Colorado, thence westerly to
Utah Lake; thence southward to Arizona and returning to Santa Fe.
(19) Florida Trail, extending north from Everglade National Park, including the Big
Cypress Swamp, the Kissimmee Prairie, the Withlacoochee State Forest, Ocala National
Forest, Osceola National Forest, and Black Water River State Forest, said completed trail
to be approximately one thousand three hundred miles along, of which over four hundred
miles of trail have already been built.
(20) Indian Nations Trail, extending from the Red River in Oklahoma approximately two
hundred miles northward through the former Indian nations to the Oklahoma-Kansas
(21) Nez Perce Trail extending from the vicinity of Wallowa Lake, Oregon, to Bear Paw
(22) Pacific Northwest Trail, extending approximately one thousand miles from the
Continental Divide in Glacier National Park, Montana, to the Pacific Ocean beach of
Olympic National Park, Washington, by way of --
(A) Flathead National Forest and Kootenai National Forest in the State of Montana;
(B) Kaniksu National Forest in the State of Idaho; and
(C) Colville National Forest, Okanogan National Forest, Pasayten Wilderness Area, Ross
Lake National Recreation Area, North Cascades National Park, Mount Baker, the Skagit
River, Deception Pass, Whidbey Island, Olympic National Forest, and Olympic National
Park in the State of Washington.
(23) Overmountain Victory Trail, extending from the vicinity of Elizabethton, Tennessee,
to Kings Mountain National Military Park, South Carolina.
(24) Juan Bautista de Anza Trail, following the overland route taken by Juan Bautista de
Anza in connection with his travels from the United Mexican States to San Francisco,
(25) Trail of Tears, including the associated forts and specifically, Fort Mitchell,
Alabama, and historic properties, extending from the vicinity of Murphy, North Carolina,
through Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas, to the
vicinity of Tahlequah, Oklahoma.
(26) Illinois Trail, extending from the Lewis and Clark Trail at Wood River, Illinois to
the Chicago Portage National Historic Site, generally following the Illinois River and the
Illinois and Michigan Canal.
(27) Jedediah Smith Trail, to include the routes of the explorations led by Jedediah Smith
(A) during the period 1826-1827, extending from the Idaho-Wyoming border, through
the Great Salt Lake, Sevier, Virgin, and Colorado River Valleys, and the Moj ave Desert,
to the San Gabriel Mission, California; thence through the Tehachapi Mountains, San
Joaquin and Stanislaus River Valleys, Ebbetts Pass, Walker River Valley, Bald Mount,
Mount Grafton, and Great Salt Lake to Bear Lake, Utah; and
(B) during 1828, extending from the Sacramento and Trinity River valleys along the
Pacific coastline, through the Smith and Willamette River Valleys to the Fort Vancouver
National Historic Site, Washington, on the Columbia River.
(28) General Crook Trail, extending from Prescott, Arizona, across the Mogollon Rim to
(29) Beale Wagon Road, within the Kaibab and Cononino National Forests in Arizona;
Provided, such study may be prepared in conjunction with ongoing planning processes
for these National Forests to be completed before 1990.
(30) Pony Express Trail, extending from Saint Joseph, Missouri, through Kansas,
Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, to Sacramento, California, as indicated on
a map labeled "Potential Pony Express Trail", dated October 1983 and the California
Trail extending from the vicinity of Omaha, Nebraska, and Saint Joseph, Missouri, to
various points in California, as indicated on a map labeled "Potential California Trail"
and dated August 1, 1983. Notwithstanding subsection (b) of this section, the study under
this paragraph shall be completed and submitted to the Congress no later than the end of
two complete fiscal years beginning after the date of the enactment of this paragraph.
Such study shall be separated into two portions, one relating to the Pony Express Trail
and one relating to the California Trail.
(31) De Soto Trail, the approximate route taken by the expedition of the Spanish explorer
Hernado de Soto in 1539, extending through portions of the States of Florida, Georgia,
South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, to the area of Little
Rock, Arkansas, on to Texas and Louisiana, and any other States which may have been
crossed by the expedition. The study under this paragraph shall be prepared in accordance
with subsection (b) of this section, except that it shall be completed and submitted to the
Congress with recommendations as to the trail's suitability for designation not later than
one calendar year after the date of enactment of this paragraph.
(32) Coronado Trail, the approximate route taken by the expedition of the Spanish
explorer Francisco Vasquez de Coronado between 1540 and 1542, extending through
portions of the States of Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. The study
under this paragraph shall be prepared in accordance with subsection (b) of this section.
In conducting the study under this paragraph, the Secretary shall provide for (A) the
review of all original Spanish documentation on the Coronado Trail, (B) the continuing
search for new primary documentation on the trail, and (C) the examination of all
information on the archeological sites along the trail.
(33) The route from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama traveled by people in a march
dramatizing the need for voting rights legislation, in March 1965, includes Sylvan South
Street, Water Avenue, the Edmund Pettus Bridge, and Highway 80. The study under this
paragraph shall be prepared in accordance with subsection (b) of this section, except that
it shall be completed and submitted to the Congress with recommendations as to the
trail's suitability for designation not later than 1 year after the enactment of this
(34) American Discovery Trail, extending from Pt. Reyes, California, across the United
States through Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Indiana,
Illinois, Ohio, West Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia, to Cape Henlopen
State Park, Delaware; to include in the central United States a northern route through
Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana and a southern route through Colorado,
Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana.
(3 5) Ala Kahakai Trail in the State of Hawaii, an ancient Hawaiian trail on the island of
Hawaii extending from the northern tip of the Island of Hawaii approximately 175 miles
along the western and southern coasts to the northern boundary of Hawaii Volcanoes
(36) (A) El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, the approximately 1,800 mile route
extending from Mexico City, Mexico, across the international border at El Paso, Texas,
to Santa Fe, New Mexico.
(B) The study shall
(i) examine changing routes within the general corridor;
(ii) examine maj or connecting branch routes; and
(iii) give due consideration to alternative name designations.
(C) The Secretary of the Interior is authorized to work in cooperation with the
Government of Mexico (including, but not limited to providing technical assistance) to
determine the suitability and feasibility of establishing an international historic route
along the El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro.
(37) (A) El Camino Real Para Los Texas, the approximate series of routes from Saltillo,
Monclova, and Guerrero, Mexico across Texas through San Antonio and Nacogdoches,
to the vicinity of Los Adaes, Louisiana, together with the evolving routes later known as
the San Antonio Road.
(B) The study shall
(i) examine the changing roads within the historic corridor;
(ii) examine the maj or connecting branch routes;
(iii) determine the individual or combined suitability and feasibility of routes for potential
national historic trail designation;
(iv) consider the preservation heritage plan developed by the Texas Department of
Transportation entitled "A Texas Legacy: The Old San Antonio Road and the Caminos
Reales", dated January, 1991; and
(v) make recommendations concerning the suitability and feasibility of establishing an
international historical park where the trail crosses the United States-Mexico border at
Maverick County, Texas, and Guerrero, Mexico.
(C) The Secretary of the Interior is authorized to work in cooperation with the
government of Mexico (including, but not limited to providing technical assistance) to
determine the suitability and feasibility of establishing an international historic trail along
the El Camino Real Para Los Texas.
(D) The study shall be undertaken in consultation with the Louisiana Department of
Transportation and Development and the Texas Department of Transportation.
(E) The study shall consider alternative name designations for the trail.
(F) The study shall be completed no later than two years after the date funds are made
available for the study.
(3 8) The Old Spanish Trail, beginning in Santa Fe, New Mexico, proceeding through
Colorado and Utah, and ending in Los Angeles, Califomnia, and the Northemn Branch of
the Old Spanish Trail, beginning near Espanola, New Mexico, proceeding through
Colorado, and ending near Crescent Junction, Utah.
(39) The Great Westemn Scenic Trail, a system of trails to accommodate a variety of
travel users in a corridor of approximately 3,100 miles in length extending from the
Arizona-Mexico border to the Idaho-Montana-Canada border, following the approximate
route depicted on the map identified as 'Great Westemn Trail Corridor, 1988,' which shall
be on file and available for public inspection in the Office of the Chief of the Forest
Service, United States Department of Agriculture. The trail study shall be conducted by
the Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior, in
accordance with subsection (b) and shall include --
(A) the current status of land ownership and current and potential use along the
(B) the estimated cost of acquisition of lands or interests in lands, if any; and
(C) an examination of the appropriateness of motorized trail use along the trail.
(40) Star Spangled Banner National Historic Trail -
(A) In General The Star Spangled Banner National Historic Trail,tracing the War of
1812 route from the arrival of the British fleet in the Patuxent River in Calvert County
and St. Mary's County, Maryland, the landing of the British forces at Benedict, the
sinking of the Chesapeake Flotilla at Pig Point, the American defeat at the Battle of
Bladensburg, the siege of the Nation' s Capital, Washington, District of Columbia
(including the burning of the United States Capitol and the White House), the British
naval dispersions in the upper Chesapeake Bay leading to the Battle of Caulk' s Field in
Kent County, Maryland, the route of the American troops from Washington through
Georgetown, the Maryland counties of Montgomery, Howard, and Baltimore, and the
City of Baltimore Maryland, to the Battle of North Point, and the ultimate victory of the
Americans at Fort McHenry on September 14, 1814.
(B) Affected Areas The trail crosses eight counties within the boundaries of the State of
Maryland, the City of Baltimore, Maryland, and Washington, District of Columbia.
(C ) Coordination with other Congressionally Mandated Activities The study under this
paragraph shall be undertaken in coordination with the study authorized under section
603 of the Omnibus Parks and Public Lands Management Act of 1996 (16 U. S.C. l a-5
note; 110 Stat. 4172) and the Chesapeake Bay Gateways and Watertrails Network
authorized under the Chesapeake Bay Initiative Act of 1998 (16 U.S.C. 461 note; 112
Stat. 2961). Such coordination shall extend to any research needed to complete the
studies and any findings and implementation actions that result from the studies and shall
use available resources to the greatest extent possible to avoid unnecessary duplication of
(D) Deadline for Study Not later than 2 years after funds are made available fore the
study under this paragraph, the study shall be completed and transmitted with final
recommendations to the Committee on Resources in the House of Representatives and
the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources in the Senate.
(41) The Long Walk, a series of routes which the Navaj o and Mescalero Apache Indian
tribes were forced to walk beginning in the fall of 1863 as a result of their removal by the
United States Government from their ancestral lands, generally located within a corridor
extending through portions of Canyon de Chelley, Arizona, and Albuquerque, Canyon
Blanco, Anton Chico, Canyon Piedra Pintado, and Fort Sumner, New Mexico.
(42) Metacomet-Monadnock- Mattab e sett Trail The Metac omet-Monadnock-
Mattabesett Trail, a system of trails and potential trails extending southward
approximately 180 miles through Massachusetts on the Metacomet-Monadnock Trail,
across central Connecticut on the Metacomet Trail, and ending at Long Island Sound.
(d) The Secretary charged with the administration of each respective trail shall, within
one year of the date of the addition of any national scenic or national historic trail to the
system, and within sixty days of the enactment of this sentence for the Appalachian and
Pacific Crest National Scenic Trails, establish an advisory council for each such trail,
each of which councils shall expire ten years from the date of its establishment, except
that the Advisory Council established for the Iditarod Historic Trail shall expire twenty
years from the date of its establishment. If the appropriate Secretary is unable to establish
such an advisory council because of the lack of adequate public interest, the Secretary
shall so advise the appropriate committees of the Congress. The appropriate Secretary
shall consult with such council from time to time with respect to matters relating to the
trail, including the selection of rights-of-way, standards for the erection and maintenance
of markers along the trail, and the administration of the trail. The members of each
advisory council, which shall not exceed thirty-five in number, shall serve for a term of
two years and without compensation as such, but the Secretary may pay, upon vouchers
signed by the chairman of the council, the expenses reasonably incurred by the council
and its members in carrying out their responsibilities under this section. Members of each
council shall be appointed by the appropriate Secretary as follows:
(1) the head of each Federal department or independent agency administering lands
through which the trail route passes, or his designee;
(2) a member appointed to represent each State through which the trail passes, and such
appointments shall be made from recommendations of the Governors of such States;
(3) one or more members appointed to represent private organizations, including
corporate and individual landowners and land users, which in the opinion of the
Secretary, have an established and recognized interest in the trail, and such appointments
shall be made from recommendations of the heads of such organizations: Provided, That
the Appalachian Trail Conference shall be represented by a sufficient number of persons
to represent the various sections of the country through which the Appalachian Trail
(4) the Secretary shall designate one member to be chairman and shall fill vacancies in
the same manner as the original appointment.
(e) Within two complete fiscal years of the date of enactment of legislation designating a
national scenic trail, except for the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail and the
North Country National Scenic Trail, as part of the system, and within two complete
fiscal years of the date of enactment of this subsection for the Pacific Crest and
Appalachian Trails, the responsible Secretary shall, after full consultation with affected
Federal land managing agencies, the Governors of the affected States, the relevant
advisory council established pursuant to section 5(d), and the Appalachian Trail
Conference in the case of the Appalachian Trail, submit to the Committee on Interior and
Insular Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and
Natural Resources of the Senate, a comprehensive plan for the acquisition, management,
development, and use of the trail, including but not limited to, the following items:
(1) specific obj ectives and practices to be observed in the management of the trail,
including the identification of all significant natural, historical, and cultural resources to
be preserved (along with high potential historic sites and high potential route segments in
the case of national historic trails), details of any anticipated cooperative agreements to
be consummated with other entities, and an identified carrying capacity of the trail and a
plan for its implementation;
(2) an acquisition or protection plan, by fiscal year for all lands to be acquired by fee title
or lesser interest, along with detailed explanation of anticipated necessary cooperative
agreements for any lands not to be acquired; and
(3) general and site-specific development plans including anticipated costs.
(f) Within two complete fiscal years of the date of enactment of legislation designating a
national historic trail or the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail or the North
Country National Scenic Trail as part of the system, the responsible Secretary shall, after
full consultation with affected Federal land managing agencies, the Governors of the
affected States, and the relevant Advisory Council established pursuant to section 5(d) of
this Act, submit to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the House of
Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate, a
comprehensive plan for the management, and use of the trail, including but not limited to,
the following items:
(1) specific obj ectives and practices to be observed in the management of the trail,
including the identification of all significant natural, historical, and cultural resources to
be preserved, details of any anticipated cooperative agreements to be consummated with
State and local government agencies or private interests, and for national scenic or
national historic trails an identified carrying capacity of the trail and a plan for its
(2) the process to be followed by the appropriate Secretary to implement the marking
requirements established in section 7(c) of this Act;
(3) a protection plan for any high potential historic sites or high potential route segments;
(4) general and site-specific development plans, including anticipated costs.
Connecting and Side Trails
Section 6. [16USC1245]
Connecting or side trails within park, forest, and other recreation areas administered by
the Secretary of the Interior or Secretary of Agriculture may be established, designated,
and marked by the appropriate Secretary as components of a national recreation, national
scenic or national historic trail. When no Federal land acquisition is involved, connecting
or side trails may be located across lands administered by interstate, State, or local
governmental agencies with their consent, or, where the appropriate Secretary deems
necessary or desirable, on privately owned lands with the consent of the landowners.
Applications for approval and designation of connecting and side trails on non-Federal
lands shall be submitted to the appropriate Secretary.
Administration and Development
Section 6 [16USC1246]
(a) (1) (A) The Secretary charged with the overall administration of a trail pursuant to
section 5(a) shall, in administering and managing the trail, consult with the heads of all
other affected State and Federal agencies. Nothing contained in this Act shall be deemed
to transfer among Federal agencies any management responsibilities established under
any other law for federally administered lands which are components of the National
Trails System. Any transfer of management responsibilities may be carried out between
the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture only as provided under
(B) The Secretary charged with the overall administration of any trail pursuant to section
5(a) may transfer management of any specified trail segment of such trail to the other
appropriate Secretary pursuant to a joint memorandum of agreement containing such
terms and conditions as the Secretaries consider most appropriate to accomplish the
purposes of this Act. During any period in which management responsibilities for any
trail segment are transferred under such an agreement, the management of any such
segment shall be subj ect to the laws, rules, and regulations of the Secretary provided with
the management authority under the agreement except to such extent as the agreement
may otherwise expressly provide.
(2) Pursuant to section 5(a), the appropriate Secretary shall select the rights-of-way for
national scenic and national historic trails and shall publish notice thereof of the
availability of appropriate maps or descriptions in the Federal Register; Provided, That in
selecting the rights-of-way full consideration shall be given to minimizing the adverse
effects upon the adj acent landowner or user and his operation. Development and
management of each segment of the National Trails System shall be designed to
harmonize with and complement any established multiple-use plans for the specific area
in order to insure continued maximum benefits from the land. The location and width of
such rights-of-way across Federal lands under the jurisdiction of another Federal agency
shall be by agreement between the head of that agency and the appropriate Secretary. In
selecting rights-of-way for trail purposes, the Secretary shall obtain the advice and
assistance of the States, local governments, private organizations, and landowners and
land users concerned.
(b) After publication of notice of the availability of appropriate maps or descriptions in
the Federal Register, the Secretary charged with the administration of a national scenic or
national historic trail may relocate segments of a national scenic or national historic trail
right-of-way with the concurrence of the head of the Federal agency having jurisdiction
over the lands involved, upon a determination that: (I) Such a relocation is necessary to
preserve the purposes for which the trail was established, or (ii) the relocation is
necessary to promote a sound land management program in accordance with established
multiple-use principles: Provided, That a substantial relocation of the rights-of-way for
such trail shall be by Act of Congress.
(c) National scenic or national historic trails may contain campsites, shelters, and related-
public-use facilities. Other uses along the trail, which will not substantially interfere with
the nature and purposes of the trail, may be permitted by the Secretary charged with the
administration of the trail. Reasonable efforts shall be made to provide sufficient access
opportunities to such trails and, to the extent practicable, efforts be made to avoid
activities incompatible with the purposes for which such trails were established. The use
of motorized vehicles by the general public along any national scenic trail shall be