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A Study of Plant Mesofossils from the Dakota Formation in Kansas, USA

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A Study of Plant Mesofossils from the Dakota Formation in Kansas, USA
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WANG, WIN
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2008

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Angiosperms ( jstor )
Bracts ( jstor )
Conifers ( jstor )
Cytoplasm ( jstor )
Ferns ( jstor )
Flora ( jstor )
Fossils ( jstor )
Lightning ( jstor )
Ovules ( jstor )
Pollen ( jstor )
Florida Museum of Natural History ( local )

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University of Florida
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Copyright Win Wang. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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8/31/2006
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436097577 ( OCLC )

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A STUDY OF PLANT MESOFOSSILS FROM THE DAKOTA FORMATION IN KANSAS, USA By XIN WANG A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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Copyright 2004 by Xin Wang

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To my wife, my son and my parents

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my graduate committee members, Dr . David Dilcher, Dr . Dana Griffin, Dr. Joachim Hammer, Dr. Walter Judd, Dr. Steven Manchester, Dr. Ellen Martin, Dr. Neil Opdyke, and Dr. Ronald Wolff, for their guidan ce and efforts that made this dissertation possible. I thank Dr. Mark Brenner for his va luable help during the defense. I thank my family who supported me throughout the years. I would like to extend my thanks to Dr. Henry Aldrich, Mr. Fred Bennett, Dr. Jason Curtis, Dr. Gregory Erdos, Dr. Sandra Fradd, Dr. Kendall Fountain, Dr. William F. Hamilton, Ms. Elizabeth Hamilton, Dr. Patr ick Henredeen, Mr. Shusheng Hu, Dr. Kainian Huang, Dr. John Jaeger, Dr. Davi d Jarzen, Dr. Hongzhi Kong, Dr. Terry Lucansky, Mr. Terry Lott, Dr. Yibo Luo, Mr. Russ McCarty, Dr. Guerry McClellan, Ms. Lisa Mertz, Mr. Michael Nowak, Dr. Michae l Perfit, Dr. Martin Uman, Mrs. Jeanne Weismantel, Dr. William Stern, Mrs. Donna Williams, Dr. Shuhai Xiao, and many friends unnamed here, for their valuable support and encouragement during this dissertation work. I appreciate the support from the B ecker/Dilcher Paleobotany Fund, Dilcher Research Fund, Sigma Xi Society, Graduate Student Council, Deeptime RCN, Botanical Society of America, and Geol ogical Society of America.

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v FOREWORD This dissertation focuses on the study of mesofossils from the Dakota Formation in Kansas, USA. The contents of this dissert ation include four ma jor sections: study of mesofossil floras, study of individual meso fossils, cytoplasm fossilization, and fossil visualization. The general information and methodological information are included in chapters 1 and 2. Study of Mesofossil Floras This section includes the de scriptions and more than 1300 figures of 267 different mesofossil morphotypes found in the Dakota Formation ( Appendices A and B ), floristic composition and comparison with contemporary floras in other regions ( Chapter 3 ), and the different morphotypes (d escribed in Appendix A). Study of Individual Mesofossils This section ( Chapter 4 ) includes detailed studies of a few well-preserved mesofossils acquired from the sediments of the Dakota Formation. The studies include one reproductive organ related to Podocarpac eae, one angiosperm root, one angiosperm shoot apex, several carpella te flowers of Platanaceae, a possible floral cup of Monimiaceae, and conifer cones. Fossil Visualization This section ( Chapter 5 ) describes one of the few efforts in paleobotany to reconstruct the fossil morphology in three di mensions based on two-dimensional images. A program coded on the platform of OpenGL provides much more flexibility in viewing

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vi the fossil in different perspectives. The applica tion of this technique is also expected to bridge the gap between professional paleobotanists and the general public. Cytoplasm Fossilization This section ( Chapter 6 ) introduces a new hypothesis of fossilization. Because fossils with cytoplasm are rare in the fossil record, the mechanism of their fossilization is not well understood. A hypothesis is proposed that posits ligh tning as a major fossilizing agent in paleobotany. This hypothesis, if proven true, will provide a guide for future research on fossil cytoplasm.

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vii TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv FOREWORD....................................................................................................................... v LIST OF TABLES...............................................................................................................x LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................................................xi ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................xi ii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 General Background.....................................................................................................1 History of the Dakota Formation..................................................................................2 Paleobotany of the Dakota Formation..........................................................................3 Age of the Dakota Formation.......................................................................................4 History of Mesofossil Research....................................................................................5 Research and Study Areas in This Dissertation............................................................6 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS...............................................................................10 Sample Collecting.......................................................................................................10 Sample Processing......................................................................................................10 Digesting..............................................................................................................10 Cleaning...............................................................................................................11 Sorting.................................................................................................................13 Statistics..................................................................................................................... .13 SEM............................................................................................................................ 14 TEM............................................................................................................................ 14 Paraffin Sectioning.....................................................................................................15 Photographs................................................................................................................17 3 MESOFOSSIL FLORAS AND FLORISTIC COMPOSITION................................18 Composition of Individual Floras...............................................................................19 Analysis of the Floristic Components.........................................................................26

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viii Comparison among Floras..........................................................................................32 4STUDY ON INDIVIDUAL MESOFOSSILS............................................................36 Parapodocarpus .........................................................................................................36 Introduction.........................................................................................................36 Results.................................................................................................................38 General Discussion..............................................................................................44 Angiosperm Root........................................................................................................59 Results.................................................................................................................60 Discussion............................................................................................................62 Yiruia gen. nov . ...........................................................................................................64 General Discussion..............................................................................................68 Platanaceous Flowers..................................................................................................70 General Discussion..............................................................................................74 Floral Cup of Monimiaceae........................................................................................75 General Discussion..............................................................................................75 Female Cone...............................................................................................................80 Discussion............................................................................................................80 Pollen Cone.................................................................................................................81 5FOSSIL VISUALIZATION.......................................................................................84 Introduction.................................................................................................................84 Procedure....................................................................................................................85 Bezier Spline...............................................................................................................86 Program Outline..........................................................................................................88 Results and Discussion...............................................................................................90 Function Interface.......................................................................................................96 Input and Output.........................................................................................................98 Limits and Other Considerations................................................................................98 6CYTOPLASM FOSSILIZATION AND IT S POTENTIAL RELATIONSHIP TO LIGHTNING AND HI GH TEMPERATURE..........................................................100 Observations and Interpretations of Fossils..............................................................100 How Does Lightning Facilitate Fossilization?.........................................................103 High Temperature as a Mechanism for Fossilization...............................................109 Future Research........................................................................................................111 7CONCLUSIONS......................................................................................................114 APPENDIX AMORPHOTYPE DESCRIPTION............................................................................116

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ix B PLATE EXPLANATION.........................................................................................164 C PLATES....................................................................................................................212 D THE DISTRIBUTION OF SPE CIMENS AND MORPHOTAXA..........................281 E DATA OF THE ANGIOSPERM TAXA WITH MORE OR LESS RAYLESS XYLEM....................................................................................................................297 F INTERFACE OF VISUALIZATION SOFTWARE................................................303 G INFORMATION ABOUT SPECIME N LABELLING AND DEPOSITION.........306 H PROGRAM CODED FOR FOSSIL VISUALIZATION.........................................309 I DATA FOR BRACT A ND OVULATE SCALE.....................................................332 J SEM STUB LOGGING............................................................................................351 LITERATURE CITED....................................................................................................354 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................374

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x LIST OF TABLES Table page D-1 Distribution of types in different layers in Acme...................................................281 D-2 Distribution of types in diffe rent layers in Black Wolf..........................................283 D-3 Distribution of types in diffe rent layers in Braun Valley.......................................287 D-4 Distribution of types in diffe rent layers in Smokey River.....................................289 D-5 Distribution of types in different localities............................................................290 F-1 Graphical and keyboard interface of the program..................................................303 G-1 Layers and their labels............................................................................................306 G-2 SEM stub logging...................................................................................................307

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xi LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Map showing the localities of outcrops in Kansas.....................................................7 1-2 Two column sections for the outcrops in Kansas.......................................................8 3-1 Pie chart showing the com position of the Acme flora.............................................20 3-2 Pie chart showing the compos ition of the Black Wolf flora....................................22 3-3 Pie chart showing the compos ition of the Braun Valley flora.................................24 3-4 Pie chart showing the compositi on of the Smokey River flora................................25 3-5 Pie chart showing the composition of the floras......................................................27 3-6 Plot of the all morphotypes agai nst the first two major factors...............................31 4-1 Sketches of isolated ovu late scale-bract complexes.................................................41 4-2 Comparison of ovulate scalebract complex in conifers..........................................50 4-3 Diversity of spatial relationship betw een ovulate scale and bract in conifers..........54 4-4 Diagram of the structure of bud, a nd its relation with axis and leaf. .......................68 4-5 Diagram showing evolution trend in Tambourissa ..................................................77 5-1 The relationship between control points and their Bezier curve..............................87 5-2 One example of Bezier surface................................................................................88 5-3 The flowchart of the program...................................................................................89 5-4 3D reconstruction of a fossil....................................................................................89 5-5 The difference between the fl at and smooth shade models......................................90 5-6 Images showing the objects drawn in flat shade model...........................................91 5-7 View of the same object with different resolution...................................................92

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xii 5-8 More freedom of viewing the object........................................................................93 5-9 The implementation of zooming and soft-cutting functions....................................94 5-10 Objects with differe nt textures applied....................................................................95 5-11 Different view of the object cut in halves................................................................96 5-12 Different functions providing mo re information about the object...........................97 5-13 Picture showing the object displayed in different mode, in whole or in parts.........97

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xii Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy A STUDY OF PLANT MESOFOSSILS FROM THE DAKOTA FORMATION IN KANSAS, USA By Xin Wang August, 2004 Chair: David Dilcher Major Department: Geological Sciences The Dakota Formation consists of sediment s deposited on the coastal plains and in the Western Interior Seaway during th e mid-Cretaceous. To complement the understanding of the plants liv ing there at that time, mesofossils were collected and studied. Plant mesofossils are plant fossils the sizes of which fall between the sizes of megafossils and microfossils. Mesofossils generally range from one-half millimeter to ten millimeters. Mesofossil floras from four different lo calities were studie d. In this study, I counted and recorded 4899 pieces of specime ns belonging to 267 different morphotypes, including 57 angiosperm morphotypes, 37 gymnosperm morphotypes, 98 seed morphotypes, 17 fern morphotypes, 32 lower plant morphotypes, and 36 morphotypes of unknown affinities. The specimens were not evenly distributed among and within all localities. Most of the specimens are from th e Acme Clay Pit and Black Wolf in central Kansas. The composition and preservation of the mesofossils suggests that gymnosperms be dominant in the flora, that angios perms, even though less abundant, be quite

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xiv be dominant in the flora, that angios perms, even though less abundant, be quite diversified, and that the habita ts of early angiosperms be pr obably close to or in aquatic environments. Analysis for this investigation was carried out using a dissecting light microscope, paraffin sections for light microscopy, SEM, TEM, and computer graphics. The study on a fossil of Podocarpaceae interpreted the repr oductive structure in a new perspective and put the family in a position closer to other fa milies of conifers than had been previously thought. A fossil flower of Monimiaceae documents the oldest record of this family, and suggests that the origin of the family can be dated back much farther than previously thought. Cytoplasm and cytoplasmic membranes were discovered in tissues of some of the mesofossils. Based on detailed studies of two angiosperm fossils, a new hypothesis on cytoplasm fossilization was proposed. The hypot hesis introduced lightning as a direct means of fossilization. The identification of fossilized cytoplasm opened the door to further research, including study of organell es and macromolecules in cytoplasm that may lead to a new and greater understanding of ancient life. Computer graphics technology was applie d to visualize the fossil plant organ. This application, based on OpenGL, converted 2-D section images into a 3-D image. This application provided much more flexibility, su ch as rotation, soft-c utting, and zooming in viewing fossil material that used to be vi ewable only in limited perspectives. This visualization helps to make paleobotani cal research more understandable for nonprofessional people, and helps professional people generate improved and more useful images.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter provides background knowle dge about the study area. The chapter includes the following sections : general background, history of the Dakota Formation, paleobotany of the Dakota Formation, age of the Dakota Formation, history of mesofossil research, and research and study area s relevant to this dissertation. General Background The study area for this dissertation is locat ed on the eastern margin of the Western Interior Seaway, which was on the stable North America Craton during the Cretaceous (Farley and Dilcher, 1986; Shurr, Ha mmond and Bretz, 1994), although, epeirogenic tectonism is frequently seen to influen ce the sedimentation and geologic structures (Shurr, Hammond, and Bretz, 1994). Cretaceous rocks deposited on the eastern margin of the Western Interior Seaway form a large eastward-thinning wedge (Shurr, Ludvigson, and Hammond, 1994). The weathered particles from the eastern and northern regions were transported by rivers a nd deposited in this region. Th e Dakota Formation contains important information about the paleogeograp hy, paleoenvironment, and paleovegetation. It has been under intensive i nvestigation from the perspec tive of palynolog y (Farley and Dilcher, 1986), megafossil plant systematic s (Upchurch and Dilcher, 1990; Huang and Dilcher, 1994), and stratigraphy (Hamilton, 1994; Ravn and Witzke, 1994; Witzke and Ludvigson, 1994; Brenner et al., 2000).

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2 History of the Dakota Formation The Dakota Formation was, establishe d in 1859 by Meek and Hayden, with two members, the Nishnabotna and the Woodbury. The Nishnabotna Member was established in 1870; its type section is located in Dakota County, Nebraska. The Woodbury Member was also established in 1870; its type s ection is located in Woodbury County, Iowa. The Nishnabotna Member is sandstone-dom inated, while the Woodbury Member is mudstone-dominated (Hamilton, 1994; Witz ke and Ludvigson, 1994; Brenner et al., 2000). In Kansas, the Dakota Formation spans a shorter time period than in the type section location (Brenner et al., 2000). The Dakota Formation in Kansas includes two members, the lower sandstone-dominated th e Terra Cotta Clay Member, and the upper mudstone-dominated the Janssen Clay Me mber. The Terra Cotta Clay Member is composed of sandstone, siltstone, and claystone with red mottle, and siderite is frequently seen in it. The Terra Cotta Clay Member was deposited along the eastern coast of the Western Interior Seaway, the pr ovenance for the sediment are either the Canadian Shield or the Appalachian mountains. This member accounts for two thirds of the sediments of the Dakota Formation in Kansas. It is distribu ted in central to north central Kansas, is eroded and thinned out to the north, and o ccurs in the subsurface in southwest and western Kansas (Hamilton, 1994). The depositiona l environment inferred for this member is fluvialmarginal marine. Lignite and root traces are frequently seen in the sediment. Animal fossils, including nanofossils and fora minifera, are relatively rare. Scott et al. (1998) did a detailed study on the cyclothems in this sediment, based on the nannofossils, foraminifera, lithology, root trace diameter, and other characters. They recognized 13 cyclothems in the member. Cyclothems 110 are coarsening up sequences, indicating

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3 regression; cyclothems 11-13 are fining up sequences, indica ting progression. West et al. (1998) focused on a very short time period and determined that there are records for one cyclothem of a third order cycle and six cyclot hems of a fourth orde r cycle. A number of researchers (Elder, 1991, Dean and Arthur , 1998, Sageman et al., 1998, Scott et al., 1998, West et al., 1998) attempted to correlate these cy cles with Milankovitch orbital forcing, but encountered problems, since the frequencie s they discovered were at odds with the Milankovitch frequency. This im plies either the dating of the Milankovitch forcing was not correct or the Milankovitc h forcing during the Cretaceous had different frequencies from what is generally accepted. The second member of the Dakota Formation in Kansas is the Janssen Clay Member, which was deposited in a similar t ectonic setting and has similar geographic distribution, geometry, and climate. The ma jor difference is that this member is mudstone-dominated. Compared with the member below, it represents a transgression of The Western Interior Seaway. Lignite is fre quently seen deposited in this marine and marginal marine environment. Scott et al. (1998) studied the fossils and lithology of the member and identified seven cyclothems. According to the correlation done by Br enner et al. (2000), my samples were collected from sediments belonging to the Nishnabotna Member of the Dakota Formation. Paleobotany of the Dakota Formation The Dakota Formation yielded a huge amount of plant fossils. These fossils have been investigated intensively, especially by Dr. David Dilcher and his students and colleagues (Dilcher et al., 1976; Retallack and Dilcher, 1981 a & b; Crane and Dilcher, 1984; Dilcher and Crane, 1984; Kovach and Dilcher, 1985; Dilcher and Kovach, 1986;

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4 Farley and Dilcher, 1986; Ma rtin and Dilcher, 1986; Dilc her and Farley, 1988; Kovach, 1988; Huang and Dilcher, 1994; Kvacek and Dilcher, 2000). Among them, HuangÂ’s work focused on the dispersed cuticles from the sediment; FarleyÂ’s work focused on the miospores from the Formation; Kovach fo cused on the megaspores; and Kvacek, Crepet, Retallack, Upchurch, Basinger, and Crane fo cused on the megafossils of the Formation. Several new taxa of angiosperm infruc tescences have been recognized among the megafossils from this formation, including Archaeanthus linnenbergeri, Lesqueria elocata, and Caloda delevoryana . In addition, the Dakota Fo rmation contains numerous mesofossils, which include fern leaves, croz iers, megaspores and indusia, conifer leafy shoots, leaves, cones, and cone parts, and angiosperm flowers and their parts, inflorescence, roots, shoots, fruits, and seed s. Mesofossils, with sizes ranging from onehalf millimeter to ten millimeters, are the focus of this study. Age of the Dakota Formation The age of the Dakota Formation was reported as Albian to Cenomanian (Hamilton, 1994; Ravn and Witzke, 1994; Bren ner et al., 2000), although the details about the exact corre lation sometimes are controvers ial. The Dakota Formation is sediments accumulated during the late Albian and the early Cenomanian of the MidCretaceous along the Western Interior Seaway in North America (Brenner et al., 2000). The latest stratigraphic work, done by Brenne r et al. (2000), correlated the conglomerate at the bottom of the Nishnabotna Member w ith the Kiowa Formation in Kansas, based on palynomorphic data. The Albian is dated from 99 to 112 m.a. ago. The specimens studied here, from the sediments close to the top of th e Albian, are estimated to be more than 100 million years old. Based on fossil plants, Kv acek and Dilcher (2000) correlated the Dakota Formation with the Peruc-Korycany Formation in central Europe.

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5 History of Mesofossil Research Mesofossils fall in the size range between megafossils (such as twigs, leaves and stems) and microfossils (such as pollen grains and spores). Because of their intermediate size and the deficiencies of suitable analyzi ng techniques, they had been largely ignored by paleobotanists until the ear ly 1980s. Consequently, angi osperm mesofossils have a relatively short research hist ory. Dr. Else M. Friis did pi oneering work on angiosperm mesofossils retrieved by screen-washing sa ndy sediments (Friis and Skarby, 1982). She published a number of papers about mesofossils from Europe and North American (Friis et al., 1988; Crane et al., 1993; Schoenenberger and Friis, 200 1). Other early workers in this field include Kaj R. Pedersen (Friis et al., 1988; Crane et al., 1993), Andrew N. Drinnan (Crane et al., 1993), Peter Crane (Fr iis et al., 1988; Crane et al., 1993; Sims et al., 1999; Takahashi et al., 1999; Lupia et al ., 2000), James Doyle, Juerg Schoenenberger (Schoenenberger and Friis, 2001), Patrick Herendeen (Herendeen, 1991; Herendeen, Crepet and Nixon, 1993; Herendeen, Crepet, and Nixon, 1994; Sims et al., 1999), and William Crepet (Herendeen et al., 1993; Herendeen et al., 1994;). Their efforts have brought mesofossils to the forefront of recent studies in paleobotany. Large numbers of exquisitely preserved flower s, fruits, and other parts of plants are either lignified or charcoalified. The magnifi cent preservation and the application of new technologies to mesofossils generated a wea lth of information about ancient plants. Studies in this field continue to clarif y the systematic relationships among early angiosperms and provide valuable informa tion about the reproductive biology of early angiosperms (Crane and Herendeen, 1996). Thes e studies shed new light on the anatomy and systematics of early angiosperms.

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6 Most mesofossil studies have been done in eastern North America and Europe. Only a limited amount of research has been ca rried out in the Midw est and western North America. This study is one of the few done on the mesofossils of the Midwest. Research and Study Areas in This Dissertation The study of this dissertation was inte grated with the existing studies on megafossils and microfossils and other ge ological works on the Dakota Formation. The fossil material was collected from four outcr ops in the state of Kansas. Maceration and sieving was performed to extract plant meso fossils, following the procedure established by Friis. The good preservation of mesofossils permits both macroscopic and microscopic studies of the fossil plants. The study in this dissertation includes floristic composition analysis ( Chapter 3 & Appendix A ), study of individual we ll-preserved fossils ( Chapter 4 ), computer 3-D visualization ( Chapter 5 ), study of fossil cytoplasm, and the fossilization mechanism ( Chapter 6 ). The Dakota Formation in central Kansas and adjacent Nebraska appears as outcrops in a southwest-northeas tern belt that is about 350 km long, 15-100 km wide, and 60-90 m thick (Farley and Dilcher, 1986). Th e Dakota Formation in Kansas dips about 1.2m/km to the northwest in a shallow northwest-plunging geosyncline (Farley and Dilcher, 1986). The Dakota Formation in th e study area rests unconformably over the Permian with a high relief; it was deposited during a regression (F arley and Dilcher, 1986). The Acme Clay Pit is located east of Kanapolis in Ellsworth County, Kansas (UF locality 18730, 38 42” N, 98 5”W; see Figure 1-1). The clay pit belongs to the

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7 Figure 1-1. Map showing the locali ties of outcrops in Kansas. Acme Brick Company. The major use of this clay is for making brick. The excavation of clay exposed a large area of fresh outcrop in the Dakota Formation suitable for collecting samples. The lower part of the outcrop is composed of claystone to sandy claystone. The sediments transition into clayey sandstone a nd fine sandstone in the upper portion of the section (see Figure 1-2 and Plate I, fig.1). The lower por tion of the section yielded many megafossils, including many angiosperm leav es, but it was barren of mesofossils. The middle portion of the section is composed of clayey sandstone and fine sandstone. The sediments from this portion of the section pr oduced most of the meso fossils studied here. The top portion of the section includes we ll-indurated red sandstone. No mesofossils were found in it. Black Wolf is located west of Kanapolis in Ellsworth County, Kansas (UF locality 15719, 38 43” N, 98 22”W; see Figure 1-1 ). The outcrop is on the roadside, located in the confines of a private farm. Th e sediments are mainly fine sandstone, some of which are organic rich (see Figure 1-2 and Plate I, fig.2). Mesofossils are abundant at this location.

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8 Figure 1-2. Two column charts for the outcrops in Kansas. The left one is for Black Wolf, the right for the Acme Clay Pit. The positions of the sampled layers and the year collected (1999 or 2000) are nu mbered on the left of the section. Braun Valley is located within Mr. Br aun’s ranch in Cloud County, Kansas (UF locality 18738, 39 18’39” N, 97 33’55”W; see Figure 1-1). Th ere are two outcrops, one close to the road, the other in the valley. The outcrops close to the road yielded many angiosperm and gymnosperm megafossils, but no useful mesofossils were found. The outcrop in the valley (UF local ity 18738) has clay and sandsto ne rich in organic matter. The thin-laminated clay layers may represen t marshy sedimentation along the margin of a lake on an alluvial floodplain (Farley and Dilcher, 1986). Sands tones represent, in part, beach sedimentation and, in part, “deposits of small streams debouching into the lake” (Farley and Dilcher, 1986). Abundant meso fossils are found in the clay layers. Smokey River (UF locality 18740, 38 33’54” N, 97 57’42”W) is south of Kanapolis in Ellsworth County, Kansas, along the Smoke Hill River (see Figure 1-1). The outcrop is very difficult to access. The eros ion of the bluff along the river exposed a larger area of the sediments of the Dakota Formation. Most of the sediments are fine

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9 sandstone. One of the layers is especially organic rich, and one sample was collected here.

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10 CHAPTER 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS This chapter describes the techniques us ed during the analysis of specimens reported in this research. These techniques include sample collect ing, sample processing, statistical analysis, SEM, TEM, paraffin s ectioning, photography, and grain-size analysis. Sample Collecting Samples for this dissertation were collected in the summers of 1999 and 2000. The study focuses on the areas of Black Wolf, Acme Brick Company, Braun Valley (all in Kansas), and Rose Creek, Nebraska. Four s ections were measured, one each at Black Wolf, Acme Brick Company, Braun Valley, a nd Rose Creek. Samples collected in 1999 were for a preliminary survey, trying to dete rmine the potential of di fferent lithologies. Based on the results obtained from processi ng 1999 samples, in the year 2000 I focused more on organic rich claystone and clayey sandstone. Sample Processing Digesting Digesting (deconsolidating and/ or liquefying the sediment so that it can be washed through screens) is the first step in processing samples; it is very important and influences subsequent steps. Because I experimented with different lithologies and gained experience in 1999, digesting was much improved in 2000. The major improvement was drying the sample first. Normally the samples collected are deposited in the Paleobotany Range of the Florida Museum of Natural History, where people try to maintain consta nt temperature and prevent the samples from

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11 experiencing too much environmental variat ion. Under this situation, the samples are usually not very dry. If one put s these sorts of samples directly into water to digest, the water only penetrates the peripheral part of the bulk sample. Thus the in terior part will be very difficult to digest with water so cannot be easily screen-washed, and this part of the sample may have to be discarded. To improve the efficiency and yield of processing, I needed to dry the samples first, either in open air or in an oven. Practice proves either technique is effective; I can digest almost all samples and leave very little residue. The use of detergent during digesting is anothe r way to help desegregate the bulk sample. when a sample is resistant to digestion, m echanical agitation is necessary. Caution should be exercised because too much agitation may destroy some of the mesofossils. Afterwards, the digested sample can be wa shed and sieved. Two kinds of sieves are used: USA Standard Testing Sieve No. 35 ( 32 mesh, with a mesh size of 0.5 mm) and No. 120 (115 mesh, with a mesh size of 0.125 mm). Fine clay minerals are winnowed away, while grains of a size bigger than 0.5 mm are retaine d. The grains of a size less than 0.5 mm usually are of little significance, but keeping them is recommended if space permits. Samples can be dried on a warming plate using low heat. Cleaning Cleaning is a necessary and important st ep in processing. This must be done BEFORE rather than after sor ting to save time and steps. After sorting, each morphotype of mesofossil would need to be cleaned sepa rately, and the number of morphotypes in a sample usually is tens or hundreds. This c ould mean that the number of cleaning jobs would be tens or hundreds more than necessary. Cleaning usually includes two steps, 20% hydrochloric acid (HCl) cleaning and 49% hydrofluoric acid (HF) cleaning. HC l dissolves carbonate, which cannot be

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12 dissolved by the second reagen t (HF). HCl cleaning may last a few hours to a few days, depending on the character of the sample. Afte r cleaning with HCl, the sample should be washed three times with distilled water, then the samples should be drained of any excess water. HF cleaning is the next step. Extreme cau tion should be exercised because HF is poisonous. Protective equipment such as mask, gloves, apron, sleeves, protective glasses and a good fume hood are important for safe ope ration. All operations should be done in a fume hood while wearing protective equipmen t. The samples should be kept in closed plastic acid-resistant containers rather than glass containers, because HF attacks glass. One matter of note is the con centration of HF and the char acter of the sample. If the sample is rich in clay minerals, the HF c oncentration should be lower to avoid a rapid reaction that may produce too mu ch heat. In this case, rep eated cleaning may be needed. Depending on the character of the sample, a few days to one to two weeks may be needed before removing the sample from the HF. Again, this should be done in a fume hood. Used HF should be drained into a special c ontainer for special pro cessing. After HF is drained as much as possible, add water to th e container, decant the mixture into an oneliter beaker, agitate the mixture, and let it s it for a few minutes. Drai n the water; add more water into the beaker, and repeat this procedure 3-4 times, then fill and let the smaple sit overnight. Change the water again on the second day; then the sample should be safe to handle (if there is any doubt about the presence of HF, chan ge the water more times and let the sample sit longer). After cleaning, the sample can be dried on a warming plate. Dry samples can be deposited in a jar of suitable size for further processing.

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13 Sorting Sorting is the most time-consuming part of processing. Sorting should be done by hierarchy of categories. For example, seeds might be first separated from shoot, flower, and other mesofossils, then different seeds can be categorized according to their forms and shapes. Usually it is hard to complete th e sorting in one pass, because of the diversity of mesofossils present. People need time to become familiar with the mesofossils and differentiate them. Based on my experience, the sorting should include at least preliminary and refined sorting. During the preliminary sorting, identifiable mesofossils are separated from mineral residues and other unwanted fossils. Depending on the yield of the sample, there may be many or few mesofossils. Chosen mesofossils can be saved in a container for later sorting. During refined sorting, different morphotypes of mesofossils, such as shoot, leaf, cuticle, seed, fruit, and flower, are separate d from each other. Refined sorting may be repeated several times, depending on the di versity of the mesofossils; for example, sometimes seeds may be divided into flat seed s and spherical seeds before further sorting. Sorted mesofossils can be deposited in a box that is divided into 8 x 12 wells, with each morphotype occupying one or more wells. The box should be marked with necessary information, such as th e layer yielding these mesofossils. Statistics Principal Component Analysis (PCA) wa s done using SYSTAT 9. The data were used to extract the principal components inhere nt to the different fl oras. The analysis was done on two sets of data; one was raw data of the number of specimens, and the other

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14 was the same set of data, but normalized to th e total number of specimens of each flora. Results of the two analyses were similar. SEM Most of the SEM was done in the Micr obiology Electron Microscope Lab using a Hitachi S-570 SEM or Hitachi S-4000 FE-SEM, with pictures taken using Tmax 100 film in a Nikon camera or in digital mode. Co ating is difficult for three dimensionally preserved mesofossil sample because they are charcoal, which is an insulator rather than a conductor. To get better results, the samples were coated multiple times with goldpalladium to make sure each side of the sample was well coated. TEM Before processing, the samples for TEM s hould be cleaned and dried according to the following procedure: The sample is put into acetone for 10 minutes to eliminate surface tension force. A mixture of 10 ml resin + 0.15 ml DMP-30 should be mixed well for later use. Soak the sample in increasingly concentr ated solutions of resin in acetone in concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75%, each fo r one hour, and finally in 100% resin for overnight. Use your hand to warm the frosted resi n. Mix the resin and DMP-30 in the proportion above. Orient the sample in the bottom of a cont ainer. Cover it up with resin. Remove any bubbles. Then put into an oven set at 67 C for 24 hours. Glue the sample onto one end of a stub using super glue gel, and mark the identification on the other end. Push firmly to make the connection strong and stable. Put into an oven set at 65 C for one hour.

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15 Trim the surrounding resin, leaving only a small podium for the sample. Try to make the sample foundation as strong as possible, to minimize vibration during sectioning. Sectioning is done with a ultr athin microtome by a technici an, at intervals of 90 nm (85-120 nm is acceptable). A good knife is impor tant for the quality of the section. Extra thick sections can be cut for light microscopy. Stain with uranyl acetate for 10 minutes, rinse with DI water for about 20 seconds, stain with PbC (lead citrate) for 5 minutes, rinse with DI water fo r about 20 seconds, dry, and store in case. The sample is now rea dy for TEM observation. Pay attention to which side should face the staining fluid. The staini ng fluid is radioactive, so care should exercised. Details about embedding and s ectioning can be found in the paper by Igersheim and Cichocki (1996). Paraffin Sectioning Paraffin sectioning is a tradit ional technique used in pl ant anatomy and can provide much information about a plan tÂ’s inner structure. Fossils are usually sectioned with a saw, which usually can yield at most one se ction per millimeter, and looses, rather than keeps, more valuable material. Nowadays two methods with higher resolution are available to paleobotanists: plastics em bedding and coal-ball peeling. The embedding method can yield a section as thin as a 4 m interval. A section this thin is not always necessary for anatomical study. The coal-peeling method applie s only to permineralized fossils and is not applicable to charcoalified mesofossils. Paraffin sectioning is a good way to manage anatomical information. Applying this technique also enables compar ison with modern botanical works. Theoretically interval

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16 of the section can be adjusted to be as fine as plastic sectioning to allow more detailed study. The major challenge is to soften the brittle charcoal. Pure nitric acid is applied to soften the tissues. Different specimens ha ve different qualities and need different durations for processing. Generally, 5-10 mi nutes is enough for most specimens. Some very fragile specimens need careful observation, since even five minutes is too much for them. If a yellowish halo can be seen oozi ng out, this is a sign of enough processing. If this happens too quickly, it should be stopped immediately. After nitric acid processing, the sample should be rinsed multiple times before preparing for paraffin section. The goal is to remove any residual acid. The next step is to dehydrate the sample . This is done by putting the sample into sequence of concentrations of teritary butyl alcohol (TBA) in water, namely, 50%, 50%, 70%, 85%, 95%, and 100% (mixture), then 3 soaks in 100% pure TBA. The sample should stay in each reagent at least 20 minutes at room temperature. After this, a paraffin block is put in the bo ttom of a small container. The sample is put over the block. Put the contai ners into an oven set at 57 C for 2-3 days; replace the paraffin with pure paraffin at least twice before embedding the sample in paraffin. Embedding requires plunging the paraffin in which the sample rests into icy water in a paper carton prepared beforehand. A qui ck, drastic drop in temperature can ensure small crystal size, which is important for obt aining better sections of extant material. Fossil material is more insensitive to this , but following the procedure as closely as possible is important to elim inate possible side effects.

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17 Paraffin sections were done on a rotary microtome manufactured by the American Optical Company. The interval can be adjusted according to the need. Intervals of 4 – 32 m have been tried. All have had good results. Haupt gel is used to glue the section onto the slide. After positioning the section in the correct position on the slide, the slide should be put on a warming plate to dry. The slide can be collected the next day and ke pt in a box. Staining is not a necessary procedure for fossil material, because either the fossil is already charcoal (dark enough) or the fossil material may not react to the stain as extant materials do, or both. Before applying the coverslip to make a permanent slide, the paraffin should be removed, using xylene. Canada Balsam can be applied to the slide and the cover glass placed gently to avoid air bubbles. Photographs Light microscopy pictures were taken eith er on a Zeiss Axiophot through Axiocam, using software Zeiss KS400 3.0 digitally, or on Kodak slide film Ektachrome 160T on a Nikon Eclipse E600 using a Nikon FX-35DX camera. The slides were later scanned into a computer, using a PhotoSmart S20 scanner.

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18 CHAPTER 3 MESOFOSSIL FLORAS AND FLORISTIC COMPOSITION The plant fossils for this study are pieces or fragments of plants with recognizable or definable characters. It is believed that wildfire produced most of the large amounts of charcoalified plant part s (Scott, 2000). These charcoalified parts can be transported by air or water to distant deposition basins (Spicer, 1989). The concentration of the charcoal in the sediments may range from less than 1% to more than 11% by weight. The major organic material in the samples collected for this study is ch arcoalified wood. The material studied here accounts for less than 10% by weight of all the organic material in the sediments. Due to the focus of this dissertation, wood fossils were intentionally excluded. Plant fragments sharing similar combinations of characters, size, and configuration are grouped toge ther as morphotypes. This gr ouping may be at different levels in terms of the taxonomic hierarchy, de pending on the characters used as criteria. This is an expedient solution for this study since it is impo ssible to have a whole plant preserved as a mesofossil. It is possible th at different morphotypes are various parts of the same plant. The specimens were collected mainly from the following locations: Acme Brick Company clay pit (called Acme hereafter, 2555 specimens, 85 morphotypes), Black Wolf (1246 specimens, 173 mor photypes), Smokey (829 specimens, 11 morphotypes), and Braun Valley River (269 specimens, 59 morphotypes). These locations are all in Kansas. The total numb er of specimens is 4899 pieces, belonging to 267 morphotypes. These specimens and mor photypes are distributed among “Lower Plants” (vegetative parts and spore organs), Ferns (megaspores, megasporangium floats,

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19 indusia, croziers, and pinules), Gymnosperms (conifer short shoot, conifer twigs, conifer needle leaves, conifer scaly leaves, conifer female/male cones, cone scales, and seeds), and Angiosperms (shoot apex, root, isolated carpels, isolated perianths, flowers, young fruits, isolated anthers, and seeds). Fungi, wh ich are microfossils, are not included in the statistics here. The data incl ude an intrinsically artificial sampling bias, which requires extra care to infer information about the composition of the floras. The bias was introduced in an effort to pursue greater yiel ds of mesofossils. The initial goal of this dissertation was to follow the major trend in plant mesofossil research: morphological and anatomic studies of fossil plants. If one layer were more productive, more samples were collected from that layer and, ther efore, the mesofossil abundance difference between that layer and less productive laye rs is exaggerated artificially. Future quantitative analysis should be done according to the accepted protocols of palynology to give a more accurate description of the floristic composition. This chapter includes following sections: composition of individual floras, analysis of the floristic components, and comparison among floras. Composition of Individual Floras The flora at Acme included more than ha lf of the specimens recorded. The Acme flora had 2555 specimens ( Figure 3-1 ). These specimens belong to 85 different morphotypes, including 3 angiosperm mor photypes, 7 conifer morphotypes, 4 fern morphotypes, 1 fruit morphotype, 11 lower pl ant morphotypes, 53 seed morphotypes, and 6 unknown morphotypes. The specimens are not evenly distributed in different sedimentary layers, but range from 7 to 1524 sp ecimens from different layers (for more details, refer to Table 1 in Appendix D). This great differe nce in the yield of specimens is a result of both the original features of th e sediments and the arti ficial sampling bias.

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20 Figure 3-1. Pie charts showing the com position of the Acme flora by number of specimens (upper chart) and by morp hotypes of fossils (lower chart).

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21 There is no one morphotype present in all 7 layers, but Morphotype 055 (conifer twig), Morphotype 052 (conifer twig), a nd Morphotype 176 (angiosperm[?] seed) are present in at least 5 different layers out of the total 7 layers. The first 5 morphotypes, which include the preceding 3 morphotypes, plus Morphotypes 159 (seed) and 227 (seed), account for more than 83% of the Acme flora in terms of the number of specimens. Judging by the morphotypes, the Acme flora is dominated by seeds, although ferns and lower plants have a quite high dive rsity. If seeds are ignored, angiosperms and gymnosperms have only limited importance in the ecological system. The Black Wolf flora was the second most productive mesofossil location in my study. I recorded 1246 specimens from Black Wolf ( Figure 3-2 ). This flora had the highest diversity in this study. The specimens can be assigned to 173 different morphotypes, including 34 angiosperm morphotypes, 29 conifer morphotypes, possibly 1 cycad morphotype, 11 fern morphotypes, 8 fruit mo rphotype, 18 lower plant morphotypes, 47 seed morphotypes, and 25 unknown morphotypes. The specimens are not evenly distributed through different sedimentary layers, but ra nge from 1 to 495 specimens recovered per layer (for more details, refer to Table 2 in Appendix D). This great difference in productivity is a re sult of both the original feat ures of the sediments and the artificial sampling bias. Ba sed on current data, there is one morphotype, Morphotype 075 (conifer cone scale), present in all 8 laye rs, but Morphotype 049 (c onifer short shoot), Morphotype 052 (conifer twig) and Morphotype 262 (unknown) are present in at least 5 different layers out of the total 8 layers . The first 5 morphotypes, which include the proceeding 4 morphotypes, plus Morphotype 072 (conifer cone), account for about 64% of the flora in terms of the number of specimens. Judging by the morphotypes,

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22 Figure 3-2. Pie charts showing the compositi on of the Black Wolf flora by number of specimens (upper chart) and by morp hotypes of fossils (lower chart).

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23 Black Wolf flora is dominated by angios perms and gymnosperms that have a high diversity, although ferns and lower plants have a moderate diversity. Again, seeds account for a high portion of th e diversity for the flora. From the Braun Valley flora, I recorded 269 specimens ( Figure 3-3 ). The specimens belong to 59 different morphotype s, including 13 angiosperm morphotypes, 15 conifer morphotypes, 5 fern morphotypes, 6 lower plant morphotypes, 8 seed morphotypes, and 12 unknown morphotypes. The sp ecimens are not even ly distributed in the different sedimentary layers, but range from 11 to 133 specimens recovered from each of the layers sampled (for more details, refer to Table 3 in Appendix D). This great difference in the productivity is a result of bot h the original features of the sediments and the artificial sampling bias. There is one morphotype, Morp hotype 052 (conifer twig), present in all 4 layers sampled. This mor photype, plus Morphotype 055 (conifer twig), Morphotype 057, Morphotype 075 (conifer c one scale), and Morphotype 164, accounts for about 68% of the flora in terms of the number of specimens. Judging by the morphotypes, the flora in Braun Valley is dominated by angiosperms and gymnosperms, although ferns and lower plants have a quite high diversity. Seeds acc ount for a relatively lower portion of the diversity of the flora. The sediments of Smokey River were fairly productive. Only one sample from one layer was collected, but it yielded 829 specimens ( Figure 3-4 ). The specimens belong to 11 different morphotypes, incl uding 7 conifer morphotypes and 4 seed morphotypes (for more details, refer to Table 4 in Appendix D). Based on current data, the first two morphotypes, Morphotype 052 (conifer twig ) and Morphotype 055 (conifer twig),

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24 Figure 3-3. Pie charts showing the compositi on of the Braun Valley flora by number of specimens (upper chart) and by morp hotypes of fossils (lower chart).

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25 Figure 3-4. Pie charts showing the compositi on of the Smokey River flora by number of specimens (upper chart) and by morp hotypes of fossils (lower chart).

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26 account for more than 96% of the flora in te rms of the number of specimens. Hence, the mesoflora in Smokey River is dominated by gym nosperms, while angiosperms, ferns, and lower plants have a much lower diversity. Ag ain, seeds account for a high portion of the diversity for the flora. Analysis of the Floristic Components When all these mesofossil floras are vi ewed together, the first 5 morphotypes, including Morphotype 052 (conifer twig), Morphotype 055 (conifer twig), Morphotype 176 (angiosperm(?) seed), Morphotype 075 (con ifer cone scale), and Morphotype 159 (seed), account for about 70.35% of the total 4899 specimens. Based on the number of specimens, it is evident from these cumulative data and plots shown in Figure 3-5 that gymnosperms are the major contributors to the mesofossil floras. They not only contributed the most mesofossil specimens in this study, but also the most biomass. Angiosperms, ferns and lower plants only pr oduced a limited number of specimens. They are almost invisible in the pie chart ( Figure 3-5 upper chart). However, if judged by the numbers of morphotypes in each of the diffe rent groups, gymnosperms are found to play a less important role than if judged by the number of specimens. Angiosperms and ferns play much more important roles in the dive rsity of the floras. Not all seeds can be definitely categorized as angiosperm or gymnos perm. In my judgment, more than half the seeds (total 1403 specimens belonging to 98 seed morphotypes) belong to the angiosperms. It seems as if the megaflora a nd mesoflora are two different, filtered views of the same flora. It app ears that whenever there are many good megafossils, mesofossils are rare, as in Rose Creek. The reason for th is may be that the sorting process works

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27 Figure 3-5. Pie charts showing the compositi on of the floras by number of specimens (upper chart) and by morphotypes of fossils (lower chart).

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28 differently. All of these morphotypes in differe nt localities and laye rs are presented as tables in Appendix D. The above observation is in agreemen t with the conclusion drawn from the miospore data (Farley and Dilcher, 1986): “Bisaccate (gymnospermous) pollen is most diverse and abundant in the lakeside envir onment; angiospermous pollen is most diverse in the lakeside and distributary margin.” The abundance-based difference between zones at different locations in nonmarine environmen ts is in part environmental rather than stratigraphical (Farley and Dilcher, 1986). The above obs ervation also complements these data of palynology and megafossils. The pal ynoflora contains ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms “in descending order of abunda nce” (Farley and Dilcher, 1986), while angiosperms take leading roles in the megafl ora (Farley and Dilche r, 1986; Dilcher and Farley, 1988). The basic reasons for the different contribu tions of different groups in biomass and diversity may include the following: 1) gymnos perms have relatively thick cuticles and are more resistant to abrasion and other mechanical/biological damage, while earlier angiosperms and ferns do not have such resi stant parts; 2) gymnosperms may have a dominant role in the regional ecological syst em because angiosperms were still in their earlier radiation stage and restricted to local wet environments (Ret allack and Dilcher, 1981b) and at that time angiosperms may not have gained the widespread and dominant ecological positions they hold today, even though they may have been quite diverse; 3) locally, gymnosperms were dominant and angios perms and ferns were transported here from remote regions. This last possibility is unlikely because of the following observations. An interesting thi ng about angiosperms is that mo st of the mesofossils they

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29 generated are fragile parts of the plant, such as flowers, fruits, and shoot apices with meristem or primordia, and these would not have withstood long distan ce transport. Friis et al. (1999) wrote that this im plies that the mesofossils were deposited in the vicinity of their parent plants. I think that the Friis et al. (1999) statement may also apply to the interpretation of the Dakota Formation sites that I investigated. Principal component analysis was run on the floristic composition information. The original raw data were the absolute abunda nce (number of specimens) of each of the morphotypes in each flora. These data were standardized by dividing the abundance of each morphotype by the total abundance of the flor a. This helped to eliminate some of the artificial bias introduced by sampling, and made the data more comparable between different floras. The standardized data were i nput into Systat 9, with 4 floras as cases and relative abundance of 267 morphot ypes as characters. PCA indicated that the differences among different floras can be accounted for by 4 principal components. Each component explains 154.494, 70.637, 36.655, and 5.214 of the total variance 267, equivalent to 57.863, 26.456, 13.728, and 1.953% of the total va riance. The first 3 principal components account for 98.047% of the total variance. The first 20 most abundant morphotypes in clude 4309 specimens out of the total 4899 specimens, accounting for 87.9% of the floras. The remaining 247 morphotypes only include 590 specimens, about 12.1% of the flora in terms of the number of specimens. Therefore, the following disc ussion focuses only the 20 most abundant morphotypes. Among the first 20 most abundant morphotypes in all floras, the major contributors to the first principal component are, in order of decreasing amount of contributions,

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30 Morphotype 075 (conifer cone scale), Morphot ype 049 (conifer short shoot), Morphotype 262 (unknown), Morphotype 072 (conifer c one), Morphotype 264 (unknown), and Morphotype 152 (seed). Among the first 20 most abundant morphotypes in all floras, the major contributors to the second principal comp onent are, in order of decreasing amount of contributions, Morphotype 176 (angiosp erm[?] seed), Morphotype 159 (seed), Morphotype 227 (seed), Morphotype 175 (angios perm[?] seed), Morphotype 258 (seed), Morphotype 233 (seed), Morphotype 032 (fern megaspore), and Morphotype 207 (seed). Among the first 20 most abundant morphotypes in all floras, the major contributors to the third principal component are, in the orde r of decreasing amount of contributions, Morphotype 055 (conifer twig) and Morphot ype 164 (seed). Among the first 20 most abundant morphotypes in all floras, the majo r contributors to the fourth principal component are, in the order of decrea sing amount of contributions, Morphotype 052 (conifer twig) and Morphot ype 054 (conifer twig). These four components account for all th e variance among the floras. It appears that the first component is composed of gr oups related to conifers, and the changes in their abundance distinguish the floras. It is difficult to tell what each component stands for. The four components are weakly inte rrelated or completely independent. The possible reason for this is that elements of different components may adopt different strategies for survival , therefore the existen ce of elements of one component would not influence the existence of elem ents of the other components. It is interesting to see how some of the morphotypes are related. The morphotypes belonging to each of the above 4 component s are positively correlated with each other ( Figure 3-6 ). The increase/decrease of one morpho type almost invariably is correlated

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31 Figure 3-6. Plot of all morphotypes against the first two major factors. Note the there are many morphotypes having high loading on the positive direction of Factor 1, and very few on the negative direction of Factor 1. with increases/decreas es of other morphotypes associated with the same component. For example, Morphotype 052 (conifer twig) a nd Morphotype 054 (conifer twig) have a loading of 0.839 and 0.873 on Component 4. This means that they are positively correlated. A higher occurrence of one morphotype in a certain flora usually means the other one also has a higher occurrence in the same flora. In contrast, Morphotype 138 (angiosperm shoot apex) has a loading of –0.808 on Component 4 (not figured). This

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32 morphotype is predicted to have a lo wer occurrence when the preceding two morphotypes have higher occurrences. Comparison among Floras The mesoflora in the Dakota Formation is ve ry diverse. This is not surprising for Cretaceous mesoflora. Judged by the number of species, some of the early Cretaceous flora is comparable to a rich Tertiary flora, as pointed out by Friis et al. (1999). Part of the reason may be that palynology, a traditiona l method for studying the Cretaceous flora, tends to underestimate the diversity of the fl ora because some plants are insect pollinated (Friis, et al., 1999). Specimens recovered from floral organs and pollen are distinct, and more than 105 taxa have been recovered from a single locality (Friis et al., 1999). The flora of the Dakota Formation is quite heterogeneous. Floras from different localities in the Dakota Formation have quite different compositions, both in terms of the number of specimens and the abundance of each morphotype (refer to Figure 3-1 to 3-4 and to Appendix D for details). The view on th e floras is also affected by the methods I applied to study them. Megafossils tend to ove restimate angiosperms (87 leaf taxa from the Dakota Formation, Wang and Dilcher, in preparation), while miospores tend to overestimate ferns (Dilcher and Farley, 1988) . Thus different sampling methods may yield quite different compositions. The differential potential for transportation and fossilization of mega-, meso-, and micro-fossils is a major reason for the different floras reflected in different fossil analyses. The r eason for this difference may include the fact that environments, which varied much along th e margin of the Western Interior Seaway, had a major influence on the composition of th e flora, and that different environments have different mixes of fossil plants. This es timation is in agreement with the conclusion of other mesofossil research done in the Cret aceous in Portugal by Friis et al. (1999).

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33 They found that “There is marked local variation in diversity and abundance of angiosperms among the five floras examine d. Even for assemblages collected only a short distance form each other at the same locality, and in the same sedimentary horizon, there is great variation in the abundance and diversity of angiosperms.” Determining the reason for this heterogeneity is a difficult though useful exercise. One possible reason is the heterogeneity of the terrestrial/margina l environments, as mentioned above. Another is the depositional aggregation of floras be longing to different time periods and source areas. The final reason may be that the flora was, indeed, truly heterogeneous. It is interesting to see that there are quite a few aquatic elements in the Dakota mesofossil floras. This includes aquatic ferns and megaspores, which is also in agreement with megafossil research. Recently, Wang and D ilcher (in press) reported on the leaves of aquatic angiosperms in the Dakota Formation. It appears that the early radiation of angiosperms may be related to aquatic or tr ansitional environments. This provides partial support for the theory of angiosperm origin and early dispersal by Retallack and Dilcher (1981b). Recent research (Field et al., 2003; Field et al., 2004) on extant basal angiosperms also suggest that ancestral angiosperms may have occupied shady, disturbed, and wet habitats. The Cretaceous sediments on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Po tomac Group (middle Aptian) of Maryland and Virginia, have yi elded large amounts of plant mesofossils (Pedersen et al., 1989; Pedersen et al., 1991; Crane et al., 1993; Herendeen et al., 1994; Pedersen et al., 1994; Crane and Herendeen, 1996; Friis et al., 1997a&b; Herendeen et al., 1999; Sims et al., 1999). In eastern North America, early and middle Albian flora is only found in the Potomac Group (Crane a nd Herendeen, 1996). Angiosperms, with

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34 affinities to Magnoliidae, Laur ales, and platanoids, are present in the macroflora and mesoflora (Crane and Herendeen, 1996). Plat anoids are common (Crane and Herendeen, 1996), including leaves of Sapindopsis and reproductive organs of Platananthus potomacensis and Platanocarpus marylandensis (both comparable or related to Morphotypes 087, 088, 089 090 and 091, see Chapter 4 for details). The late Albian-early Cenomanian flora in eastern North America is composed of platanoids leaves and flowers, Magnoliidae, Lauraceae, Chloranthaceae, lower hamamelid groups, and other eudicots (Crane and Herendeen, 1996). Floras from the Turonian-Campanian of eastern North America are different from the older ones. These floras have sparse magnoliids, the majority being eudicots, including rosiids, higher hamamelids, and a dilleniid complex (Crane and Herendeen, 1996). In short, angi osperms were low in diversity during the early to middle Aptian; duri ng the Albian there was a the rapid increase in their abundance and diversity, including several lineages of magnoliids, lower hamamelids, and possible early rosiids. There is unequivoc al evidence that the rosiid-dillenid-asterid clade occurred by the end of the late-Albian to early Cenomanian, and eudicots were highly diversified by the end of the Turonian -Campanian (Crane and Herendeen, 1996). The flora of the Dakota Formation appears to be comparable with the floras from the eastern North America coastal plain a nd Portugal. There are two major groups of plants shared among these floras. One is platanoids, the other is Anacostia . The reproductive organs of platanoids found in this formation are very similar to those found in the Patapsco Formation, Potomac Group, on the eastern North America coastal plain. Wang and Dilcher (in press), and Huang a nd Dilcher (1994) also found megafossils related to Platanaceae in the Dakota Formation. Anacostia is very abundant, with more

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35 than one hundred specimens in the Dakota Formation, accounting for a good portion of the flora. There are several species of Anacostia reported in the flor as in eastern North America and Portugal, and Friis et al. ( 1997) have compared and correlated them stratigraphically. If the high abundance of Anacostia is not an accident, it seems acceptable to correlate the Dakota Form ation with those strata yielding Anacostia . Prisca described by Retallack and Dilc her (1981a) is very similar to Mauldinia from the Potomac Group (Dilcher, personal communica tion). The high heterogeneity of the Cretaceous flora implies that floras usually ar e different, so if two floras, especially two floras in remote regions, share the same elemen ts, then it is more likely that they belong to a similar time period. Kvacek and Dilcher (2000) compared the Dakota Formation with the Peru-Korycany Formation in central Europe. If this correlation is valid, then it will not be surprising if Anacostia is also found in the Peru-Korycany Formation.

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36 CHAPTER 4 STUDY ON INDIVIDUAL MESOFOSSILS This chapter includes detailed studies on a few well-preserved mesofossils from the sediments of the Dakota Formation, including Parapodocarpus (female reproductive organ of Podocarpaceae), one angiosperm root, Yiruia (an angiosperm shoot apex), perianth, carpels and inflorescence of Platan aceae, possible floral cup of Monimiaceae, and conifers cones. Parapodocarpus Introduction Podocarpaceae currently is mainly a Sout hern Hemisphere family (Kelch, 1997; Hill and Brodribb, 1999). It includes 19 (Hill and Brodribb, 1999) or 18 (Kelch, 1997) genera, with the majority of species in Podocarpus (Hill and Brodribb, 1999). Plants in the family demonstrate great diversity in their morphology, even though they are limited ecologically, being mainly rest ricted to rainforest or wet montane environments where they compete efficiently with angios perms (Hill and Brodribb, 1999). While the phylogenic position of Podocarpaceae has not been clear (Chase et al., 1993; Kelch, 1997; Setoguchi et al., 1998), re cent research on molecular sy stematics suggests that the family are most likely related to Arau cariaceae (Kelch, 1997; Stefanovic et al., 1998; Magallon and Sanderson, 2002). The history of P odocarpaceae can be traced back at least to the Triassic (Yao et al., 1997; Hill and Brodribb, 1999). Most of the fossil records are from the Southern Hemisphere (Townr ow, 1967a&b; Anderson, 1978; Wells and Hill, 1989; Meyer-Berthaud and Taylor, 1991; Ya o et al., 1993; Jordan, 1995), while this

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37 might suggest a “Gondwanan” distribution (K elch, 1997), that conc lusion is challenged by the Northern Hemisphere fossil record (Dilcher, 1969; Krassilov, 1974; Zhou, 1983). Their Cenozoic records are extensive, es pecially in the Southern Hemisphere, demonstrating their extreme diversity and wide distribution in the past (Hill and Brodribb, 1999), although most of the fossil record is limite d to vegetative organs (Hill and Carpenter, 1991; Jordan, 1995; Axsmith et al., 1998a), such as leaves, with reproductive organs rarely reported (Axs mith et al., 1998a; Hill and Brodribb, 1999). Here one more Northern Hemis phere fossil record from the Cretaceous is described. It is the relatively well-preserved fossil remains of an immature ovulate cone from the Dakota Formation that demonstrates characters e volutionarily bridging the morphological gap between earlier fossil tax on and extant Podocarpaceae. The Dakota Formation consists of sedime nts formed during the late Albian and early Cenomanian of the Mid-Cretaceous al ong the eastern bank of the Western Interior Seaway in North America (Brenner et al., 2000 ). These sediments are widely distributed from New Mexico and Arizona all the wa y northeast to Iowa and Minnesota. Recent stratigraphic work indicates that the sample collected for this paper belongs to the late Albian (Brenner et al., 2000). Much paleobotanical work (Dil cher et al., 1976; Dilcher and Crane, 1984; Kovach and Dilcher, 1985; Dilcher and Kovach, 1986; Martin and Dilcher, 1986) has been conducted on this formation, resulting in the recognition of several new taxa of megafossils, including Archaeanthus linnenbergeri, Lesqueria elocata, and Caloda delevoryana . In addition, the Dakota Fo rmation contains numerous mesofossils, including fern leaves, croziers, megaspores, indusia, conifer leafy shoots,

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38 leaves, cones, and their parts, and angiospe rm flowers and their parts, inflorescence, roots, shoots, fruits, and seeds. Results Class Gymnospermae Order Coniferales Family Podocarpaceae (?) Parapodocarpus gen. nov . Type : Parapodocarpus acuminatum gen. & sp. nov . Diagnosis : Immature ovulate scale-bract comple x, spatulate, arranged helically on a cone axis. Ovulate scale mostly enclosed by a bract, exposed adaxially only in the depression close to the tip of the bract, w ith the tip of the ovulat e scale more or less pointing to the tip of the bract. Derivation: “ Para -” similar to, “podocarpus ” extant genus in Podocarpaceae. This genus is very similar to the young ovulate co ne of extant Acmopyle pancheri (Podocarpaceae). Locality : Black Wolf, Ellsworth, Kansas. Age : The late Albian, the early Cretaceous. Stratigraphic position : the Nishnabotna Member, the Dakota Formation. Repository : Paleobotanical and Palynological Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Fl orida, Gainesville, Florida. Discussion: Parapodocarpus may be a part of an im mature ovulate reproductive organ, since it has no seeds and demonstrates strong similarity to an ovulate scale and bract complex ( Acmopyle pancheri , Mill et al., 2001) in its early ontogeny.

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39 Anatomically there is no definite border between the bract and the ovulate scale in the lower portion of the ovulate scale-bract complex. At the t op of the ovulate scale-bract complex, the border is clear. Currently the se paration is based on th e different types of tissue in the basal portion of the complex. Possi ble error in this separation does not affect the interpretation of their spatial relati onship and its evolutionary implications. Anatomical data are derived from a specimen of Parapodocarpus rotundum . Parapodocarpus acuminatum gen. & sp. nov . (Morphotype 077) Diagnosis : Ovulate scale enclosed in the brac t, and exposed only in an elliptical depression on the adaxial surface close to th e tip of the bract. Bract with sturdy basal portion, pointed and slightly hooded at the tip. Otherwis e the same as the genus. Number of specimens examined : 4. Figures : Plate XVII , figs. 1-6; Figures 4-1 and 4-2 (d). Derivation : The specific epithet “ acuminatum ” signifies the acut e tip of the bract in this species. Holotype : UF15719-44002 Locality : Black Wolf, Ellsworth, Kansas. Age : The late Albian, the Early Cretaceous. Stratigraphic position : the Nishnabotna Member, the Dakota Formation. Repository : Paleobotanical and Palynological Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Fl orida, Gainesville, Florida. Specimen Number : UF15719-44002, UF15719-44003, UF15719-44004, UF15719-44005.

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40 Description: Incomplete ovulate cone (Plate XVII, fig.1). Length unknown, > 1 mm, width estimated >4.3 mm (Plate XVII, fig.1). Ovulate scale-bract complexes (?) spirally arranged along cone axis (Plate XVII, fig.1). Interval between neighboring ovulate scale-bract complexes greater than 1 mm (Plate XVII, fig.1). Cone axis width about 0.26 mm (Plate XVII, fig.1). Ovulate scal e-bract complex more or less spatulate (Plate XVII, figs. 2 and 3), 2.3-3.6 mm long, about 0.5 mm thick, about 0.3 mm wide at the base and up to 0.8-1 mm wide to the tip (Plate XVII, figs.1, 3-5). The tip of bract slightly hooded, arching over the ovulate scale inserted on the adaxial surface of the bract (Plate XVII, figs.1, 3-5). Ovulate scale mostly enclosed in the bract, exposed in a semielliptical depression formed by bract close to the tip, with the tip of the ovulate scale more or less erect or pointing slightly towa rd the tip of bract (Plate XVII, figs. 1-6). Opening on the ovulate scale tip with diameter 40-60 m (Plate XVII, figs. 2,6). Fine striations on the surface of the cone axis and the ovulate scale-bract complexes (Plate XVII, figs. 1,5). Discussion: This species is different from P. rotundum , another new species described below, in its bract with its sturdy base, semi-e lliptical rather than roundedtriangular depression for the ovul ate scale, and more pointed tip (for more, see discussion of P. rotundum ). Only a portion of the female reproductiv e structure is preserved. Based on the configuration of the cone ax is and ovulate scale-bract co mplex, and comparing it to the most comparable fossil cone structure of Stachyotaxus , it is assumed that what seen here is a portion of a whole cone-l ike structure. This assumpti on needs to be confirmed by further fossil evidence.

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41 The orientation of the opening on the tip of the ovulate scale is suggested by the asymmetrical configuration. The morphological data support the assump tion that this species and the following new species, Parapodocarpus rotundum , are congeneric, thus have similar anatomy. There is one small branch (Plate XVII, figs. 3, arrow) on one specimen of Parapodocarpus acuminatum . It is not clear whether it is an aborted ovulate scale-bract complex, a tip of the cone axis, or someth ing else. Interpreting this is much more challenging and needs more fossil evidence. Figure 4-1. Sketches of isolated ovulate scal e-bract complexes shown in Plate XVII, figs. 5, 8 and 4, from left to right. br, brac t; dp, depression formed by bract; mp, tip of ovulate scale; os, ovulate scale. Parapodocarpus rotundum sp. nov. (Morphotype 078)

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42 Diagnosis : Ovulate scale enclosed in the br act, and exposed only in a rounded triangular depression formed by a bract close to its tip. Bract with slender basal portion, round tip, and hood arching over the ovule at th e tip. Otherwise the same as the genus. Number of specimens examined : 1. Figures : Plate XVII , figs. 7-13. Derivation : The specific epithet “ rotundum ” signifies the round tip of the bract in this species. Locality : Black Wolf, Ellsworth, Kansas. Age : The late Albian, the Early Cretaceous. Stratigraphic position : the Nishnabotna Member, the Dakota Formation. Repository : Paleobotanical and Palynological Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Fl orida, Gainesville, Florida. Holotype : UF15719-44006. Description: Isolated ov ulate scale-bract complexe s (Plate XVII, figs. 8,9). Ovulate scale-bract complex more or less sp atulate (Plate XVII, figs. 7,8), about 2.4 mm long, about 0.6 mm thick (Plate XVII, fig. 12), 0.22 mm wide at the base and up to 1 mm wide at the tip (Plate XVII, figs. 7,8). The tip of bract hooded, arch ing over the ovulate scale inserted on the adaxial surface of the bract (Plate XV II, figs. 7,8). Ovulate scale composed of parenchyma tissue (Plate XVII, fig.11), enclosed in the bract in the lower half of the complex (Plate XVII, fig. 11 a nd fig. 13, sections 9 and 10), exposed in a rounded triangular depression formed by the brac t close to its tip, with an opening nearly erect or slightly pointing toward the tip of the bract (Plate XVII, fig. 7). The opening diameter about 70 m, thickened at the tip (Plate XVII, fig. 9). Ovule deeply sunken

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43 inside the ovulate scale (Figure 2(e)), compos ed of thin-walled tissue with dense cellular content (Plate XVII, fig. 10 and fig.13, section 8). Fine striations on the surface of the bract (Plate XVII, figs. 7,8). Discussion: This species differs from P. acuminatum in its slender and slightly sinuous basal portion of the bract, the bract with its rounded triangular depression for the ovulate scale, and its more hooded and rounded tip. Cones of Stachyotaxus septentrionalis , the species most similar to these sp ecimens, demonstrate that the ovulate scale-bract complexes are distantly arranged along the axis and that there is little difference between distal and proximal of scale-bract complexes (Arndt, 2002). The preceding new species also shows that ther e is a distance between neighboring scalebracts. Even though specimen s from this species and P. acuminatum may be ovulate scale-bract complexes from different parts of cones belonging to the same species, considering the relatively constant morphol ogy of the specimens of the preceding species in contrast to the differences just mentione d above, they should be separated into two species for the time being. Serial paraffin sectioning was done on the single specimen of Parapodocarpus rotundum to provide a detailed anatomy of th e complex. The ovule of the specimen is deeply sunken in the ovulate scale. The ovule is distinct from other tissues because its cells have thin walls and dens e cellular contents. Such cells never occur in other portions of the specimen (Plate XVII, fig. 10 and fi g. 13, section 8). Below the position of the ovule, the tissue of the ovulate scale is composed of parenchy ma, and this type of tissue extends all the way to the base of the ovul ate scale-bract complex (Plate XVII, fig. 10, and fig. 13, section 8). It is assumed that th e parenchyma tissue is connected directly to

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44 the tissue in the axis of the cone, which is not preserved in this specimen. The orientation of the opening on the tip of the ovulate sc ale is suggested by its asymmetrical configuration. During the processing of the paraffin section with nitric acid, the fragile tip of the ovulate scale was detached, so was sectioned sepa rately. Thus this part is not seen in the serial section (Plate XVII, fi g. 13); instead, one longitudinal s ection of this part is shown in Plate XVII, fig. 9. General Discussion It is desirable to define a few terms us ed here. By “bract,” I mean the abaxial appendage of the ovulate scale-bract comple x. By “ovulate scale” and “cone scale,” I mean the adaxial portion of the ovulate scale-bract complex upon which an ovule is attached. This term can be used interc hangeably with “Samenanlage” (Florin, 1944), “ovuliferous scale” (Sinnott, 1913; Jai n, 1977), “megasporophyll” (Florin, 1954), “Samenschuppenkomplex” or “fertile Kurztr iebe” (Florin , 1944; Schweitzer, 1963), “Megasporangiophor” (Arndt, 2002), and “epim atium” (Jain, 1977; Tomlinson, 1992; Tomlinson et al., 1997; Mill et al., 2001). I also use “ovule-scale”, “cone scale,” and “seed-scale” interchangeably in this paper. By “ovulat e scale-bract complex” or “appendage” I mean the aggregate of ovule, ovul ate scale, plus bract. When I talk about the orientation of ovule/seed, I assume the bract is horizont al, no matter what its real physical orientation is. By “erect,” I mean the ovule/seed is oriented perpendicular to the adaxial surface of the bract; by “inverted,” I mean the ovule/s eed is oriented parallel to the adaxial surface of the bract with its mi cropyle pointing to the axis of the cone. There are a number of descriptions of ovulate cones related to Podocarpaceae in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, including Stalagma (Zhou, 1983) , Telemachus (Anderson, 1978;

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45 Yao et al., 1993; Axsmith et al., 1998a) , Rissikia (Townrow, 1967a) , Nothodacrium (Townrow, 1967b), and Mataia (Townrow, 1967a). Most of the cones are hard to recognize for various reasons, including st range character combinations and poor preservation. Because all these genera share numerous characters with taxa other than Podocarpaceae (such as Cupressaceae, Pinacea e, Araucariaceae), they could have been easily put into other groups th an Podocarpaceae had it not been for the associated foliage. Reconstruction without physic al association or based on only co-occurrence should be exercised with care. Information on these gene ra cannot satisfactorily explain the origin of the epimatium, which is a unique charac ter of Podocarpaceae (Townrow, 1967a). The arrangement of bract and cone scale was ignor ed, and this arrangement is important for understanding the systematic positi on of Podocarpaceae in conifers. It is possible that these diverse fossils are representative s of Podocarpaceae, because Podocarpaceae is thought to have an earlier appearance in the fossil record (Axsmith et al., 1998a). If this is true, it may ha ve been a larger family with more diverse morphology in the past than extant Podo carpaceae, although this is not yet well understood (Axsmith and Taylor, 1997; Hill et al., 1999). If the Mesozoic fossil records are examined in order of age, it is not diffi cult to see that the ep imatium-like structure present in Stalagma samara (from the Triassic) was lost in other contemporaneous or later fossil taxa. Nothodacrium and Mataia are both Jurassic taxa and are thought to be derived from Rissikia (Townrow, 1967a&b). If the evol utionary series suggested by Townrow (1967a & b) is correct, Mataia demonstrates a more rapid reduction in the number of lobes per cone scale, while Nothodacrium demonstrates a more rapid reduction in the number of seeds per cone sc ale, these mosaic character gains/losses

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46 imply that there may be multiple evolutionary lineages and repeated evolutions of characters in Podocarpaceae during the Mesozo ic, with each of them showing different modifications. Some of them survived by natu ral selection, while others may have died out. This possible evolution has been discu ssed by other scholars (Townrow, 1967a &b; Zhou, 1983; Hill and Carpenter, 1991; Axsmith et al., 1998a). One possible evolutionary path suggested by Florin (1944) a nd Schweitzer (1963), that from Palissya , through Stachyotaxus to Podocarpaceae, appears to have been ignored. Here this possibility is explored based on new fossil evidence. The female reproductive organs of extant conifers are morphologically connected with their Paleozoic and Mesozoic ancestors (Florin, 1944,1954). Coniferous reproductive organs from several genera were presented in the Mesozoic (Arndt, 2002). Two of them, Palissya and Stachyotaxus (from the early Jurassi c) were thought to be related to Podocarpaceae and/or Cephal otaxaceae (Florin, 1944; Schweitzer, 1963; Stewart and Rothwell, 1993; Arndt, 2002). Palissya has an evident bract, which subtends a group of ovules/seeds on its axil. It is almost completely fertile with 10-12 ovules/seeds nearly paired on a flattened short shoot (Florin, 1944, 1951; Schweitzer, 1963; Schweitzer and Kirchner, 1996). The bract and the flattened short shoot in its axil are separated (Florin, 1944, 1951; Schweitzer, 1963; Schweitzer and Kirchner, 1996). In the genus Stachyotaxus , the ovulate scale and bract are more or less fused (Florin, 1944; Schweitzer, 1963; Arndt, 2002). In this genus, the reduced ovulate scale (short shoot) supports only two terminal erect ovules/s eeds (Florin, 1951; Schw eitzer, 1963). It is possible that the cone scale in this genus is enclosed by a bract, as in Parapodocarpus , according to HirmerÂ’s interpretation (F lorin, 1944). Judging by the morphology, the

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47 recent reconstruction of the scale-bract complex of Stachyotaxus septentrionalis (Arndt, 2002) appears to support HirmerÂ’s interpreta tion. It is suggested that there is an evolutionary path starting with Ernestiodendron , through Palissya and Stachyotaxus to Podocarpaceae (Florin, 1944; Schweitzer, 1963; Stewart and Rothwell, 1993; Arndt, 2002), even though this path is somewhat su spected (Arndt, 2002). Nonetheless, this evolutionary series makes good sense, a nd it is in agreement with the general evolutionary trends in conife rs: progressively reduced numbers of subunits, of ovules and seeds in the ovulate scale, and of scales per cone (Florin, 1939,1944; Schweitzer, 1963; Bierhorst, 1971; Wang et al., 1997). Stachyotaxus septentrionalis, reported by Arndt (2002), bridged the gap to Cephalotaxaceae. Howe ver, there is still a large morphological gap between Stachyotaxus and Podocarpaceae. Looking at the reproductive morphologies of Podocarpus and Stachyotaxus , there are the following dissimilarities: 1) Podocarpus has one terminal or subterminal inverted ovule (Tomlinson et al., 1991, 1997; Tomlinson, 1992), while Stachyotaxus has two erect ovules (Flori n, 1944-45; Schweitzer, 1963; Stewart and Rothwell, 1993; Arndt, 2002); 2) Podocarpus normally does not have a cone-like configuration since it usually has only one fertile scale (Tomlinson et al., 1991, 1997; Tomlinson, 1992), while Stachyotaxus has a cone-like structure that includes multiple ovulate scale-bract complexes arranged spirally along the cone axis (Florin, 1944; Schweitzer, 1963; Stewart and Rothwell, 1993; Arndt, 2002); 3) Bract and ovulate scale are fused completely in Podocarpus , while bract and ovulat e scale are thought to be separated in Stachyotaxus elegans , as in other coniferous cones. To validate the evolutionary path proposed by Florin (1944), foss il evidence bridging the gaps is critical.

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48 To understand the significance of such fo ssils, knowledge of the diversity and ontogeny of ovulate cones in extant Podocarpace ae is of fundamental importance. Most Podocarpaceae, especially Podocarpus , have a single terminal or subterminal ovule/seed, and have no cone-like structure (Tomlinson et al., 1991; Tomlinson, 1992; Tomlinson et al., 1997). While this is the ty pical situation for the famil y, there is a wide range of variation in cone morphology in the famil y, even in extant taxa (Wu and Raven, 1999). According to Sinnott (1913), Florin ( 1944,1958), Bierhorst (1971), Tomlinson (1992), Tomlinson et al. (1991, 1997) , and Mill et al. (2001), Acmopyle pancheri , Dacrydium araucariodes, D . dacrydioides, Halocarpus kirkii, Lagarostrobus colensoi, L . franklinii, Microcachrys tetragona, Mi crostrobos nipophyllus, Phyllocaldus glaucus, P. trichomanoides, Podocarpus nivalis, P. elatus, Prumnopitys andina, P. taxifolia, and Saxegothaea conspicua display a spectrum of ovulate cone morphology, showing progressive reduction in the num ber of ovulate scales per cone from 20 in more cone-like reproductive structures, as in Microcachrys tetragona, to just 1 or 2 in non-cone-like reproductive structures, as in Dacrycarpus dacrydioides . Also the orientation of ovules/seeds in Podocarpaceae is not always inve rted (Florin, 1944; Mill et al., 2001), as is generally believed. But the simplified t ypical image of Podocarpaceae reproductive organs is misleading and underestimates the di versity of cone-structures in the family. Mill et al. (2001) pointed out that cones in Podocarpaceae are vestigial and potentially multi-ovulate. That there is a positive correlation between er ected ovule and multiovulate status is favored by the analyses of Sinclair et al. (2002) and Tomlinson et al. (1991), in which the basal group ( Phyllocladus ) in Podocarpaceae has an erect ovule and multi-ovulate cone.

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49 Attention should also be paid to the f act that the orientat ion of some ovules throughout the ontogeny remain erect in some taxa ( Microstrobos and Phyllocladus , Tomlinson, 1992; Acmopyle pancheri, Mill et al., 2001), while it changes from the original erect orientation into the fina l inverted orientation in other taxa ( Podocarpus, Tomlinson, 1992). Evidence from extant Podoc arpaceae alone cannot solve the problem of its evolution, but it strengt hens the evidence when combined with the fossil record. While it is believed that the ontogeny of one organism may recapitulate the evolutionary path its ancestors have undergone, the ontogeny of the ovule alone cannot tell the evolution of the family since “investigations on living material alone would hardly solve the problem definitely” (Florin, 1951), but, ag ain, it will be much more telling when integrated with the fossil record. Palissya and Stachyotaxus both have cones composed of multiple ovulate scalebract complexes. They both have erect ovules /seeds with ring-shaped swollen structures (“Auswuchs,” “epimatialen Cupula”) (Flo rin, 1944; Schweitzer, 1963; Stewart and Rothwell, 1993). From Palissya to Stachyotaxus , there is a reduction in the number of the ovules per ovule-scale complex and more fusi on of ovulate scale to bract. But extension of this trend further to Podocarpus is not yet validated, cons idering the single, usually inverted ovule in the ovulate organs with a fleshy non-cone-like configuration in Podocarpus . The discovery of Parapodocarpus helps support this evolutionary hypothesis in several ways. First, Parapodocarpus has only one ovule on the adaxial surface of the bract, and, for the most part the bract encloses the ovulate scale. This configuration is very similar to that in some Podocarpaceae ( Acmopyle pancheri, Mill, 2001, fig. 2G&H; Figure 4-2(f); Dacridium araucarioides , Bierhorst, 1971, fig. 25-13A),

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50 Figure 4-2. Comparison of ovul ate scale-bract complex of Palissya (a), Stachyotaxus elegans (b), S. septentrionalis (c), Parapodocarpus acuminatum (d), P. rotundum (e), Acmopyle pancheri (f), and most Podocarpaceae (g). Note the following changes from left to righ t: decreasing number of ovules per complex, orientation of ovule from pointi ng to the tip to poi nting to the base of bract, the spatial relationship be tween bract and ovulate scale from separated to partially fused to finally completely fused, and the emergence of the epimatium in extant Podocarpaceae in Acmopyle pancheri and most Podocarpus . From a to b, there is reducti on in number of ovules per cone scale and fusion of bract and cone scale; from b to c, there is more fusion between bract and cone scale; from c to d, the number of ovules/seeds per cone scale is reduced from two to one; from d and e to f and g, there is more fusion between bract and cone scale, a ch ange in orientati on of the ovule, and the emergence of epimatium. The inner pos ition of the cone scale, except for the case of P. rotundum (e), is an estimation based on the anatomy of P. rotundum (e) and needs further confirmation. For Stachyotaxus septentrionalis (c), the fusion may not be as complete as depicted here, but data on the degree of fusion are not available for the time be ing and it is tentatively depicted this way. (Diagrams of Palissya and Stachyotaxus elegans modified after Schweitzer, 1963; Stachyotaxus septentrionalis modified from Florin, 1944, and Arndt, 2002; Acmopyle pancheri after picture from Mill et al., 2001; most Podocarpaceae after Tomlinson et al., 1991). except that the extant ovulate scale-bract co mplex has a protrusion on the adaxial surface of the cone scale and an epimatium. Second, Parapodocarpus acuminatum has an ovulate scale-bract complex configuration similar to Stachyotaxus septentrionalis , such as a more pointed bract tip, fused ovulat e scale and bract, and the ovul e/seed is in a depression

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51 formed by bract, while the arrangement and c onfiguration of the ovulate scale and bract in Parapodocarpus rotundum is surprisingly similar to that shown in the ontogeny of ovules in extant podocarpaceous taxa, as reported by Tomlinson et al. (1991, 1997), Tomlinson (1992), and Mill et al. (2001), in that the bract hoods over the ovule in its terminal depression and encloses most of that portion of the ovulate scale. Third, Parapodocarpus may have a cone-like configurati on, which is similar not only to Stachyotaxus but also to some of the podocarpaceous taxa, such as Microcachrys tetragona . Fourth, Parapodocarpus is different from Stachyotaxus septentrionalis only in the number of ovules per cone scale (one ra ther than two; for comparison, refer to Figure 4-2 ). Considering the above mentioned mosaic similarities Parapodocarpus shares with Stachyotaxus and Podocarpus , it is not hard to fit them in the evolutionary series proposed by Florin (1944). As shown in the new fossil evidence (Pla te XVII, fig.13, sections 4 and 5), the ovulate scale is embedded in or enclosed by the bract. This spatia l relationship between cone scale and bract has neve r been reported in fossil and extant conifers, and it sheds new light on the evolution of Podocarpaceae. Fl orin (1944) suggested that the cone scale in Podocarpaceae is derived from a short shoot, a nd its fusion with the bract gave rise to the unique configuration of the ovulate scal e-bract complex in Podocarpaceae, although how this happened is never elaborated. Recent work on Stachyotaxus (Arndt, 2002) indicates that there is a differenc e in the degree of fusion between Stachyotaxus elegans and S. septentrionalis . This difference is the source of controversy about the composition of the cone unit in Stachyotaxus . Nathorst wrote that the cone unit of Stachyotaxus has single component, while Hirmer and Florin disagree d, reporting that it had two

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52 components (Arndt, 2002). Arndt (2002) disc overed that there was a strong fusion between the ovulate scale and bract in S. septentrionalis . Any of these interpretations may be right because the degree of fusion be tween the ovulate scale and bract varies in species of Stachyotaxus . For instance, Stachyotaxus septentrionalis demonstrates a strong fusion of ovulate scale a nd bract, and thus makes seeds appear to be seated on the surface of the bract; the cone unit appears to be composed of an integrated single component (Arndt, 2002). But the spatial relationship of these two components, bract and cone scale, is not clear. Based on my eviden ce, I suggest that duri ng the fusion of cone scale and bract, the bract enclosed the cone sc ale in its axil and fused with it. In early geological times, the fusion is not complete, so the distinction between cone scale and bract is still discernible, as seen in Pl ate XVII, fig. 13 sections 4 and 5. In extant Podocarpaceae, the fusion is so complete th at the distinction between cone scale and bract is not visible, and this condition causes confusion in the interpretations of the nature, morphology, and anatomy of cone scal e and bract in extant Podocarpaceae. The situation gets worse if only the mature cone/f ruit, rather than the ontogenetic process, of Podocarpaceae is known. Exce ssive transformation in mature organs obscures the information useful for systematic study. Comparing Parapodocarpus , which is probably an immature ovulate scale-bract complex, with the ontogeny of extant ovulate scale/bract provides information unavailable in the past. My interpretation is in agreement with and partially supported by relativ ely new data (Arndt, 2002). Stachyotaxus septentrionalis demonstrates similarities to Parapodocarpus in the following ways: 1) ovulate scale and bract are more or less fused, 2) there is no visible trace of the ovulate scale except ovules/seeds, and 3) ovules/seeds are seated in depression form ed by the bract. It also has

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53 a size similar to that of Parapodocarpus . Only one major difference is left between Stachyotaxus septentrionalis and Parapodocarpus : the former has two ovules/seeds per cone scale, the latter has only one per cone scale. I suspect that the bract also encloses ovulate scale in Stachyotaxus septentrionalis, as in Podocarpus, probably with a different degree of fusion, but this guess needs further confirmation. Stachyotaxus septentrionalis described by Arndt (2002) is also very similar to extant Cephalotaxus . Up to now it has not been determined whether Stachyotaxus gave rise to either Podocarpaceae or Cephalotaxaceae or both. With this in mind, let’s turn to the twin ovules on the single epimatium and the ontogeny of inverted ovules in extant Podocarpaceae. Mill et al. (2001) reported a relatively rare phenomenon in Acmopyle : twin ovules on a single epimatium. This phenomenon appears unusual in the family, es pecially in the extant taxa, but it makes sense if we consider Stachyotaxus the ancestral group. In Stachyotaxus , there are two ovules on the adaxial surface of bract, as me ntioned above. The twin ovules observed in Acmopyle could be interpreted as teratology reminiscent of the ancestral status of Podocarpaceae, while most “normal” extant Podocarpaceae simply lost their ancestral form and evolved their modern configuration. I am unaware of the presence of this kind of teratology in other taxa of extant Podocarpaceae. If mo re surveys on this teratology confirm that it is present only in Acmopyle , it may imply that Acmopyle may represent the primitive status in the family, at least as far as the number of ovules per scale is concerned although this is not supported by mo lecular analysis (Kel ch, 1997; Setoguchi et al., 1998). If the tera tology is found also in other taxa of Podocarpaceae, then it implies that Stachyotaxus may be the ancestral group of Podocarpaceae.

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54 Figure 4-3. Diversity of spatia l relationships between ovulate scale and bract in conifers, in term of fusion, relative size, a nd spatial arrangement, and possible evolutionary path for Podocarpaceae. Note Podocarpaceae occupies a special position with high fusion and special spatial arrangement. Palissya, Stachyotaxus, and Parapodocarpus do not occupy the same position as other Podocarpaceae, instead they are more or less similar to other conifer taxa in terms of bract-ovulate scale fusion an d spatial arrangement. The upper-left status is not found in extant and fossil taxa yet, but judging by the degree of fusion of Stachyotaxus elegans and S. septentrionalis , if the depiction is correct in Figure 4-2(c), this cond ition should be found in the genus Stachyotaxus . The question mark beside Cupressaceae signifies the uncertainty of the relative size of brac t and scale. (Information about other taxa is from Florin, 1944; Scagel et al., 1965; Bierhorst, 1971; Miller, 1988; Vidakovic, 1991; Ying et al., 1993; Stewart and Rothwell, 1993). Tomlinson et al. (1991, 1997), Tomlin son (1992) and Mill et al. (2001) documented, and Tomlinson (1992) depicted in a diagram the ontogeny of the inverted ovule/seed in Podocarpaceae. One can see the process of the development of the ovule from the initial erect orient ation to the final inverted orientation through the unequal growth of the epimatium. No matter what the final orientation of th e ovule/seed in each genus is, the ontogeny of ovule sooner or la ter has to pass a phase in which the

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55 configuration of ovulate scale-bract complex looks like what seen in Parapodocarpus . Interpreting the ontogeny of the ovule in light of this recapitulation, the primitive status of ovule orientation in Podocar paceae, which should be close to perpendicular to the adaxial surface of the bract, can be estimated with more confidence. Fortunately, all these interpretations are in agreement w ith and supported by the discovery of Parapodocarpus . The epimatium is a fleshy tissue “derived fr om the fusion of sterile elements of the fertile dwarf-shoot around the base of a termin al fertile element” (M iller, 1988) in extant Podocarpaceae. It may cover the whole or a port ion of the ovule or se ed (Miller, 1988). It is a unique feature of Podocarpa ceae, even though its presence and the extent to which it develops are not uniform in the family (Sinnott, 1913; Flor in, 1944; Miller, 1988; Tomlinson, 1992). “From Podocarpus dacrydioides and Dacrydium to Microcachrys, Pherosphaera, Saxegotheae and Phyllocladus ,” there is a spectrum from fully developed to smaller, or even absence of epimatium (Sinnott, 1913). The epimatium is so unique that some botanists call it a comple tely novel structure (Tomlinson, 1992). The histological study of Jain (1977) shows that the epimatium is homologous with the ovulate scale and represents part of an axil lary branch. Based on the acropetal ontogeny of the ovule in the ovulate s cale-bract complex, Tomlinson (1992) also interpreted the epimatium as part of the ovulate scale. Mill et al. (2001) provided further evidence, twin ovules that developed on a singl e epimatium, for this interp retation. Attention should also be paid to the series mentioned by Sinnott ( 1913), where it appears that the decreasing number of units per cone, and the inverted orientation of ovules/seed s are correlated with the evolution of the epimatium. That the epimatium is not seen in fossils of Stachyotaxus and Parapodocarpus (probably because they are still in the earlier ontogenetic stage) and

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56 that the epimatium appears in the ontogeny la ter in extant Podocarpaceae imply that the epimatium is a novel structure in Podocarpac eae, as Tomlinson (1992) suggested, but it is simply a novel modification of the portion of long-existing ovulat e scale (Florin, 1944). If the spatial relationship of cone scale and bract in conifers is plotted, it is easy to see that the ovulate scale-bract complex is a diagnostic character in conifers. This essential character of conifers manifests itself differently in different groups. This is demonstrated clearly in Figure 4-3 . Podocarpaceae is special in that the cone scale is so reduced and the bract is so developed that th e bract encloses most of the cone scale. Podocarpaceae is at one end of the conifer spectrum in terms of fusion and spatial relationship between ovulate s cale and bract. This informa tion and interpretation would not be possible withou t the discovery of Parapodocarpus , since in extant taxa the cone scale and bract are completely fused and thus it is very hard to differentiate them. But morphology and anatomy provide indirect support for this interpretation: in figure 2513E of Bierhorst (1971), a longitudinal secti on of cone scale and bract shows that the vascular bundle of the cone s cale is deeply embedded in the bract, and in pictures of scale-bract complexes (Bierhorst, 1971; Tomlinson, 1992; Fu, 1992; Tomlinson et al., 1991, 1997; Mill et al., 2001) the ovulate scale is seen seated on the top of a very fleshy cylindrical-shaped bract. The fusion between co ne scale and bract ma y have started some time before the age of Parapodocarpus reported here. As for other families, in Cupressaceae the bract is fused with the ovulate scale (Scagel et al., 1965; Vidakovic, 1991; Judd et al., 2002; Wu and Raven 1999); in Pinaceae the bract is smaller than and separated from or partially fused with ovul ate scale (Scagel et al., 1965; Miller, 1988; Vidakovic, 1991; Judd et al., 2002; Wu a nd Raven 1999); in Ar aucariaceae, like

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57 Podocarpaceae, the bract is bigger than and pa rtially or completely fused with the ovulate scale (Scagel et al., 1965; Mi ller, 1988; Vidakovic, 1991); an d in Cephalotaxaceae the bract is bigger than and fu sed with ovulate scale sitting in its axil (Miller, 1988) (See Figure 4-3 ). The relatively close proximity of Po docarpaceae and Araucariaceae in Figure 4-3 implies their close relationship and this im plication is in agreement of the result of molecular systematics (Stefanovic et al ., 1998; Kelch, 1998; Maga llon and Sanderson, 2002; Quinn et al., 2002). Although the molecu lar analyses alone cannot solve all the problems of evolution (Axsmith et al., 1998b) and these analyses may conflict with each other (Magallon and Sanderson, 2002), but the agreement between fossil record and molecular analysis strengthens the argu ment for the close relationship between Podocarpaceae and Araucariaceae. As for the position of the fertile ovulate scale-bract complex in the cone of Podocarpaceae, it is generally agreed that it is subtermina l (Florin, 1951; Bierhorst, 1971; Mill et al., 2001). This position is in agreement with the configuration of Parapodocarpus acuminatum . The ovulate scale-bract complex is attached to a cone axis (Plate XVII, fig. 1) that has at least one portion (fertile or sterile) attached apically. At least for the time being, the Palissya-Stachyotaxus-ParapodocarpusPodocarpaceae path is favored, because this path better explains the origin of the epimatium and the bract-cone scale spatia l relationship, both of which are unique to Podocarpaceae. Attention should be paid to the immature status of Parapodocarpus , which probably means that what is seen in th e fossil records may not be what the mature cone unit looked like. The ontogeny of cone scales in extant P odocarpaceae (Tomlinson, 1992) suggest that the development of ovules and s cales is very similar to what is seen in

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58 Parapodocarpus . On one hand, this implies Parapodocarpus may be an ancestor of extant Podocarpaceae; on the other hand, all th e Triassic and Jurass ic fossil taxa cannot be excluded from the list of possible podocar paceous ancestors since information about their earlier ontoge ny is still unknown. The fossils described here should be c onsidered to be related to extant Podocarpaceae, rather than the direct ancestor of extant ones . While they may represent a sister group of, and share similarities with, the di rect ancestor, they also may be the actual direct ancestor. In either case, they help to clarify the phylogeny of Podocarpaceae. Based on the above discussion, there ar e some evolutionary tendencies in Podocarpaceae that I summarize as follows: 1. The number of cone units in a single cone tends to be reduced in more evolved taxa in Podocarpaceae. This is in agreement with the tendency in other conifer families (such as Pinaceae) (Florin, 1939&1944; Schweitzer, 1963; Bierhorst, 1971; Wang et al., 1997). There may be correlation among the evolution of cone unit number, cone configuration, and ovule or ientation in Podocarpaceae. 2. The cone tends to lose its cone-like c onfiguration to become more fleshy in the more evolved taxa in Podocarpaceae. Convers ely, more primitive taxa tend to have more cone-like configuration. 3. From primitive taxa to more evolved one s, the orientation of the ovule changes gradually from erect to more inverted, as mentioned by Tomlinson et al. (1991). 4. Podocarpaceae is at one end of the spectrum in terms of fusion and spatial relationship between ovula te scale and bract.

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59 5. Through the evolution to Podocarpaceae, there is a tendency for the ovulate scale and bract to fuse. This is dem onstrated by their separation in Palissya and partial/complete fusion in Stachyotaxus . The bract encloses the ovulate scale in Parapodocarpus with only a trace of separation, wh ile it is completely fused with the cone scale in extant Podocarpus (See Figure 4-2 &4-3). 6. During the Mesozoic there may have been repeated efforts and multiple lineages for the evolution leading to Podocarpaceae. 7. This fossil, if accepted as Podocarpaceae, pl us other Northern Hemisphere records, would challenge the strict Gondwanan distribution claimed for the family. To confirm the interpretati on proposed in this dissertation, anatomy, histology, and ontogeny of extant Podocarpaceae are of crucial importance. The gap between Parapodocarpus and Stachyotaxus will remain until a fossil of similar morphology but with one bigger and one smaller seeds/ovules on the adaxial surface of the ovulate scalebract complex is found. Angiosperm Root Angiosperms apparently arose in the Cr etaceous. Such parts of angiosperms as flower, leaf, fruit, seed, and stem, have fr equently been found in the fossil record, but roots are relatively rare and not often studied. Here a we ll-preserved specimen of angiosperm root from the Dakota Formation that demonstrates a unique combination of anatomical characters is reported. For the firs t time, the good preservation of cytoplasm is reported and a new hypothesis on cyt oplasm fossilization is proposed.

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60 Results Mesoradix gen. nov . Type : Mesoradix raria gen. & sp. nov . Diagnosis : Root incomplete with rootlets attached. Cortex composed of collenchyma. Cambium producing xylem in wards and phloem outwards. Secondary xylem composed of vessel elements and tracheids; rayless. Vessel element with scalariform perforations on the end walls. Tracheids with heli cal, bordered, or scalariform pitting on the side and end walls. Locality : Black Wolf, Ellsworth, Kansas. Age : The late Albian, the Early Cretaceous. Derivation : “ Meso -” stands for this root is a mesofossil, “ -radix ” stands for the fact that the fossil is a root. Stratigraphical position : the Nishnabotna Member, the Dakota Formation. Repository : Paleobotanical and Palynological Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Fl orida, Gainesville, Florida. Superclass Seed Plants Class Angiospermae Mesoradix raria gen. & sp. nov. (Morphotype 086) Diagnosis : the same as the genus. Number of specimens examined : 1. Figures : Plates XXVI , XXVII , XXVIII Derivation : Specific epithet “ raria ” means the root has a rare combination of characters.

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61 Holotype : UF15719-44001. Locality : Black Wolf, Ellsworth County, Kansas, U.S.A. Age : The late Albian, the Early Cretaceous. Stratigraphical position : the Nishnabotna Member, the Dakota Formation. Repository : Paleobotanical and Palynological Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Fl orida, Gainesville, Florida. Description : Incomplete root, 4.4 mm long, 1.7 mm wide (Plate XXVI, figs. 1-2). No growth ring. Secondary xylem cylinde r about 1.3 mm in diameter, surrounded by cortex about 0.21 mm thick (Plate XXVI, fig. 2) . Multiple rootlets at tached (Plate XXVI, fig. 1). Representative rootlet 0.32 mm in diam eter, with cortex about 0.13 mm thick, secondary xylem is not yet developed in r ootlet (Plate XXVI, figs. 3,5). Vessel elements solitary or rarely paired, 20-100 m wide, maximal length >1100 m, no radial file, with scalariform perforation plate with more than ten bars, end wall transverse to oblique, lateral wall pitting not clear, polygonal or elliptical in ob lique cross section, wall 5-7 m thick (Plate XXVIII, figs. 4, 12-15). Two t ypes of tracheids, 40 to more than 400 m long, helical, bordered, or scalariform pitti ng on the lateral walls, wall about 4 m thick (Plate XXVIII, figs. 7-9). Wide tracheids 15-33 m in diameter, with alternate/ scalariform pitting on lateral wall and scal ariform perforation plate, no difference between lateral wall pitting and end wa ll perforation; narrow tracheid 9 x 30 m in cross section, with irregular scalariform pitting on lateral walls (Plate XXVIII, figs. 7-9). Fibers 40 m wide, length unknown, wall up to 10 m thick. No pith, ray, or axial parenchyma observed in secondary xylem. Cambium not storied, yielding vessel elements, tracheids, and fibers toward the inside, and collenc hyma phloem towards the outside; initials 30-

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62 117 m long, 11-28 m wide, tapering or transverse end wall (Plate XXVI, figs. 5,6,10,11). Lacunar collenchyma in cortex, cell size 20-47 m X 40-74 m, 60-200 m long in longitudinal direction; cel l wall thickness increasing from 2 m at the epidermis to about 15 m close to the cambium (Plate XXVI, figs. 5,6). Cytoplasm preserved in cortical cells close to epidermis and cambium is especially well-preserved, decayed or not (Plate XXVI, figs. 5,6,10-15; Plate XXVII, figs. 1-15; Plate XXVIII, figs., 1-3,5). Remarks: The specimen is unique in its lack of rays in secondary xylem. The pitting on the lateral walls of tracheids is helical and bordered in the primary xylem, becoming scalariform in the secondary xylem. Ve ssel elements have a very wide range of widths. Vessel elements are distinct from tracheids in size and wall structure. Discussion This fossil is a part of an angiosperm root because the anatomy of the fossil resembles the structure of a lateral root (Sporne, 1975) and vessel elements are usually restricted in angiosperms. The fossil is uni que with such characters as rayless xylem, collenchyma cortex, and possi ble intraxylar phloem. Pertinent to a rayless xylem, Carlquist (1988) wrote “In formal terms, raylessness is a delay in occurrence of transver se division in ray initials, or even an entire absence of such divisions.” There are 107 genera in 37 families of angiosperms reported to have more or less rayless xylem (see Appendix E ). Even though this character occurs in limited families (IAWA committee, 1989; Lev-Yadun and Aloni, 1995), this woody character may be of a limited value at the levels above genus (Carlquist, 1992). Compared with raylessness, there may be more regularity in the evolution of the perforation plates of vessel elements in angi osperms. The following taxa have raylessness

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63 and scalariform perforation plates: Viola (Violaceae) (Carlquist, 1988), Axyris amarantoides (Chenopodiaceae) (Metcalfe et al., 1950), Abelia, Diervilla, Dipelta, Leycesteria, Leycesteria, and Symphoricarpus (Caprifoliaceae) (Met calfe et al., 1950), Viburnum (Adoxaceae) ) (Metcalfe et al., 1950), Alseuosmia macrophylla, A . pisilla, Wittsteinia vacciniaceae (Alseuosmiaceae) (Barghoorn, 1941; Metcalfe et al., 1950; Paliwal and Srivastava, 1969; Iqba l and Ghouse, 1990, Carlquist, 1992), Pentaphragma (Pentaphragmataceae) (Carlquist, 1992), Galium (Rubiaceae) (Carlquist, 1992), Loasa picta, Mentzellia humilis (Loasaceae) (Carlquist , 1984b; Carlquist, 1992), and Begonia peruviana (Carlquist, 1985b). Based on the above comparison, this fo ssil root appears most similar to Alseuosmia (Dickison, 1986; Carlquist, 1992) and Wittsteinia vacciniaceae (both in Alseuosmiaceae) (Dickison, 1986). In Alseuosmia , “perforations are scalarifor m in almost vertical end walls, with a mean bar number between 20 and 43. Bars are narrow, indistinctly bordered or non-bordered, and closely spaced. Interve ssel pitting is predominantly circular bordered and opposite and transi tional to alternate in ar rangement. Some scalariform pitting occurs in Wittsteinia balansae and Alseuosmia ” (Dickison, 1986). This fossil root has a scalariform perforation plate with more than ten bars indistinctly bordered (Plate XXVIII, fig.6), end wall transverse to oblique (Plate XXVIII, figs .12-15), lateral wall pitting not clear, and tracheids with helical, bordered, or scalariform pitting on the lateral walls. Another possible similarity between Alseuosmiaceae and this fossil is the presence of interxylary phloem. Phloem is not seen in the cortex of this fossil, but something similar to phloem (Plate XXVIII, figs.4 and 11) is seen in the secondary xylem. For the time being, this similarity cannot be confir med without additional fossil evidence. While

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64 Alseuosmiaceae, Stylidium (Stylidiaceae) (Carlquist, 1981 and 1988), Achyranthes aspen, Alternanthera polygamous, A . pungens, A . sessilis and A . triandra (Amaranthaceae) (Rajput and Rao, 2000) also are reported to have rayless wood, but these taxa have a simple perforation plate (Carlquist, 1981; Rajput and Rao, 2000), so they cannot be considered similar to this fossil root. The anatomical characters of this fo ssil may suggest ecologically indexing. For instance, the character of a scalariform perfor ation plate may imply mesic habitat. Baas et al. (1987) used temperature to correlate th e increased presence of the scalariform perforation plate in the flora with the clim ate change from boreal to Mediterranean. Carlquist and Hoekman (1985) and Carlquist (1988) also related the presence of scalariform perforation plate to nonseasonal mesic habitats. In the terms of evolution, the coexistence of perf orate tracheids and vessel elements, with bordered perforation plate in the vessel elements, supports the hypothesis about the origin of vessel elements in angiosperms proposed by Carlquist (1988): “Tracheid with scalariform lateral wall pitt ing and scalariform end wall pitting” is hypothesized to be “ancestral to angiosperm vessels. . . Tracheids in vessel-bearing angiosperms tend to show little or no differen ce between end walls and lateral walls.” If these statements are correct, this fossil ro ot should be very similar to a primitive angiosperm. Another interesting feature of this fossil is th e preservation of cytoplasm. For details of the preservation, please refer to Chapter 6 . Superclass Seed Plants Class Angiospermae Yiruia gen. nov .

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65 Type : Yiruia membranacea gen. & sp. nov. Diagnosis : shoot apex with lateral buds spira lly arranged along ax is, tapering to the apex; lateral bud covered in axil of leaf; bud scales enclosing primordium; primordium with stalk and two bubble-like st ructures attached terminally. Derivation : named after Yirui Wang, the son of the first author, who was born about the time the cytoplasmic membra nes in this fossil were discovered. Locality : Black Wolf, Ellsworth County, Kansas, U.S.A. Age : The late Albian, the Early Cretaceous. Stratigraphical position : the Nishnabotna Member, the Dakota Formation. Repository : Paleobotanical and Palynological Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Fl orida, Gainesville, Florida. Yiruia membranacea gen. & sp. nov . (Morphotype 085) Diagnosis : the same as the genus. Number of specimens examined : 1. Figures : Plate XXIV ; Plate XXV , figs.1-14 Derivation : The specific epithet “ membranacea,” membranous, for the presence of cytoplasmic membranes. Locality : Black Wolf, Ellsworth County, Kansas, U.S.A. Age : The late Albian, the Early Cretaceous. Stratigraphical position : the Nishnabotna Member, the Dakota Formation. Repository : Paleobotanical and Palynological Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Fl orida, Gainesville, Florida.

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66 Holotype : UF15719-44149. Description : The axis is about 4.4 mm long, 1.7 mm wide, with more than 5 lateral buds spirally arranged along the axis (Plate XXIV, fig. 1); buds growing smaller apically, some of the buds well-preserved, while others may be broken (Plate XXIV, figs. 3 and 4). The bud situates in the axil of a leaf, also covered and prot ected by the leaf (Plate XXIV, figs. 3, 4, 11-13), leaf scar can be seen if th e leaf breaks off (Plate XXIV, fig. 4). Bud is 0.36 mm wide, 0.25 mm thick, and >0.40 mm l ong (Plate XXIV, figs. 3, 4, 11-13). Each bud consists of the enclosing bud scales and enclosed primordium (Figure 4-4; Plate XXIV, figs. 10-13). The primordium is com posed of a stalk and 2 bubble-like structures on its terminal (Figure 4-4; Plate XXI V, figs. 10-13). Stalk may be up to 20 m thick in radial direction and up to 15 m wide at the base, tapering to 7.5 m in tangential direction at the base of the bulb-like struct ures. Bulb-like structures elliptical, with size varying depending on bud position along the axis with the s hort axis up to 75 m and the long axis is about 150% longer than the short axis, with it s long axis pointing upward and laterally. Leaf is 0.27 mm thick and 0.42 mm long, awl-formed, covering the bud in its axil (Figure 4-4; Plate XXIV, figs. 3, 4, 11-13). The axis includes protoderm and ground meri stem (Plate XXIV, figs. 1, 2 and 5). The epidermis is glabrous; o ccasionally the outline of epid ermal cells may be visible, quasirectangular, up to 13~15 x 17~21 m (Plate XXIV, fig. 7). Ground meristem differentiates into flank meristem and rib meristem with procambium between them. Cells in flank meristem polygonal, arranged not as neatly as in rib meristem, with wider range in size, up to 22~33 x 36~44 m (Plate XXIV, figs. 5 and 6). Procambial activity is very limited in this specimen (Plate XXI V, fig. 5), seen only at the basal part of

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67 specimen, and very limited phloem fiber and xyl em are visible (Plate XXIV, figs. 8-9). Rib meristem consists of parenchyma tissue wi th cells arranged more or less in vertical tiers, more or less uniform in size, 27~33 x 36~42 m, growing smaller apically. Almost all the cells in the flank and rib merist ems have cytoplasmic membrane remains preserved (Plate XXIV, figs. 5-6). The cy toplasmic membranes usually withdraw from cell wall except where they adhere at certain points to pits in cell walls (Plate XXIV, figs. 5 and 6, Plate XXV, 1-7 and 13). Cytoplasmic membranes shrink into angular globose forms (Plate XXV, figs. 2-6, 8, 11 and 13). Primary xylem consists of vessel elements with scalariform thickening on the lateral wa lls (Plate XXIV, fig. 8) and scalariform perforation plates on oblique end walls (Plate XXIV, fig. 15) . Ray is uniseriate, 3 cells high (Plate XXIV, fig. 14). Phloem fibers (?) are clustered together (Plate XXIV, fig. 9). Cytoplasmic membranes appear angularly globose under light microscope and SEM (Plate XXV, fig. 1-7). Under TEM it a ppears as connected segments (Plate XXV, fig. 11, black arrow, and fig. 13, double arrow) or patches (Plate XXV, fig. 8, white arrow; fig. 11, white arrow). Double-layer st ructure is evident (Plate XXV, figs. 9, 10, 12) with thickness of 9.2 nm. Discussion: The present genus is different fr om all existing genera in its bud structure: one stalk with two bulb-like structures at its terminus enclosed in the bract scales. At this time, cytoplasmic membranes ar e considered to be sp ecies’ unique feature. This species may have some other unique features compared with future new species in the genus, which will be considered wh en additional new species are published.

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68 Figure 4-4. Diagram of the structure of bud, and its relation w ith axis and leaf. a ) Longitudinal tangential section show ing leaf (L) subtending bud. Bud is composed of enclosing bract scales (BS) and primordium. Primordium is composed of a stalk and two bulb-like structures at its terminal. Line B-B’ marks the position of section sketched in b in this diagram. b ) Longitudinal median section showing leaf (L) branch ing off from axis (A) and bud in the axil of leaf. Leaf covers bud, bract scale (BS) encloses primordium. Primordium only appears as a stal k and contact between two bulb-like structures in this section. Line A-A’ marks the position of section sketched in a in this diagram. General Discussion As described above, the fossil has charact ers such as (i) vessel elements with scalariform thickening on lateral walls and pe rforation plates on end walls in primary xylem, (ii) spiral arrangement of lateral buds along the axis, (iii) buds within axil of the leaf. In addition, the fossil shows no evidence of the folding leaves or croziers of ferns, thus it does not look like a fern. All these t ogether suggest that it is an angiosperm. To confirm this, clustering analys is is run using the data a nd definitions presented by Nixon et al. (1994). Nixon et al. reev aluated the phylogeny of seed plants and published a matrix of characters (p. 486, 487). The characters (character No.1, 4, 10, 12, 13, 17, 19, 20, and 22, Nixon et al., 1994) of the current specimen were coded following their definitions, , then a clustering analysis was run using a simplified the matrix. Angiosperms may have two sets of characters 10, 17, and 22; both sets were used in the analysis. Considering that the specimen appears too young to have developed mature characters, characters 10

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69 and 17 may not be sufficiently mature to iden tify easily, so the anal ysis was run without these two characters. There are minor ch anges in the dendrograms of phylogeny, the similarity index may vary, but one thing is stable: Yiruia and angiosperms always go together. This confirms that the grouping of this fossil in angiosperms is correct. The fossil itself is just the apical part of a young shoot, so even primary growth is not yet well developed. Only a minute part of the initiati ng procambium was observable, but a few rays were seen, although the descri ption of the rays ma y be inaccurate. The deployment of cells in the rib meristem suggest an emerging pith. Procambium was observed situated between the rib and flank meristems. This arrangement excludes the possibility of the specimen being a Monoc ot and suggests Magnol iids and Eudicots. Based the interpretation of figs. 11-13, the bud is composed of several bract scales surrounding a central structure th at includes a stalk and two bulb-like structures. This configuration looks like a vegetative bud with branch primordium in it. If this interpretation is correct, this points to a ve getative bud in Eudicots. Another possibility is based on single bract scale s hown in Plate XXIV, fig. 4, whic h might be a carpel. If so, the structure in it would contain ovules, whic h would lead to a basal magnoliids, such as Piperaceae or Chloranthaceae. Study on the deve lopment pattern of meristems shows that reproductive meristems follow a basipetal patter n, while vegetative meristems follow an acropetal pattern (Grbic, 2002). In this fossil, at least three structures of similar configuration in the short shoot apical me ristem were seen, so it appears like the development is basipetal. If this is true , then the structures seen here may be reproductive. Since fig. 4 in Plate XXIV showi ng only a bract scale, this must be an immature part of shoot, SEM picture usually ignores the inner struct ure. Further, Plate

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70 XXIV, figs. 11-13 all show different degrees of multiple layers of bract scales, so the first interpretation is favored, namely, the bud is vegetative. Its position in the leaf axil and proximity to the shoot apex suggest some ki nd of branch primordium. If so, the plant should have an alternate phyllotaxus. Superclass Seed Plants Class Angiospermae Order Proteales Family Platanaceae Platanaceous Flowers Platanocarpus sp. 1 (Morphotype 087) Description: Isolated pentamerous carpels, 1.7 mm long and 1.3 mm wide, without style but a triangular surface of the tip w ith tricolpate pollen grains similar to Platananthus potomacensis (Friis et al., 1988) attached. Possible group : Angiosperm, Proteales, Platanaceae. Figures : Plate XXIX, figs. 1-5. Number of specimens examined : 1. Locality : ACME, Ellsworth, Kansas. Age : The late Albian, the Early Cretaceous. Stratigraphical position : the Nishnabotna Member, the Dakota Formation. Repository : Paleobotanical and Palynological Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Fl orida, Gainesville, Florida. Holotype : UF18730-44007. Discussion: This morphotype is very similar to Platanocarpus marylandensis (Panapsco Formation, Potomac Group, Marylan d, Friis et al., 1988); the only difference

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71 is that this morphotype is not a ttached to a perianth and is is olated from the inflorescence. This morphotype is also similar to Platanocarpus elkneckensis (Patapsco Formation, Potomac Group, Maryland, latest Albian) in its pentamerous configuration and has almost identical pollen grains, but the latter differs in its absence of an evident groove on the triangular surface on th e tip of the carpel. Platanocarpus sp. 2 (Morphotype 088) Description: Isolated pentamerous carpe ls, 1.4 mm long and 0.8 mm wide. Possible group : Angiosperm, Proteales, Platanaceae. Figures : Plate XXIX , figs. 6-7. Number of specimens examined : 1. Locality : ACME, Ellsworth, Kansas. Age : The late Albian, the Early Cretaceous.. Stratigraphical position : the Nishnabotna Member, the Dakota Formation. Repository : Paleobotanical and Palynological Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Fl orida, Gainesville, Florida. Holotype : UF18730-44008. Discussion: This morphotype is very similar to Morphotype 087 and Platanocarpus marylandensis (Patapsco Formation, Potomac Group, Maryland, Friis et al., 1988). The major differences are that this morphotype is relatively smaller, has no evident triangular surface at the tip of carpe ls, and no pollen grains are seen on the tip of this type. It is possible that it is an immature form of Morphotype 087. Platanocarpus sp. 3 (Morphotype 089)

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72 Description: Isolated broken pentamerous carpe ls, 1.4 mm long and 0.9 mm wide, without style and no evident triangular surf ace of the tip, with many tricolpate pollen grains similar to Platananthus scanicus (Patapsco Formation, Potomac Group, Maryland, Friis et al., 1988) on the tips of carpels. Possible group : Angiosperm, Proteales, Platanaceae. Figures : Plate XXIX , figs. 8-13. Number of specimens examined : 1. Locality : Braun Valley, Cloud County, Kansas. Age : The late Albian, the Early Cretaceous. Stratigraphical position : the Nishnabotna Member, the Dakota Formation. Repository : Paleobotanical and Palynological Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Fl orida, Gainesville, Florida. Holotype : UF18738-44009. Discussion: This morphotype is different from Morphotype 087 and 088 in its converging carpel tips and many pollen grains present on the tips of carpels. The pollen grains are very similar to Aquia brookensis (figs. 33-36, Potomac Group, Crane et al., 1993). Platanocarpus sp. 4 (Morphotype 090) Description: Two clustered perianths, 1.1 mm long, 1.4 mm wide. Each perianth 1.1 mm long and 0.8 mm wide, composed of about 20 imbricate tepals. Tepals 0.4-0.5 mm long, 0.25-0.4 mm wide, with round points, with many tricolpate pollen grains similar to those of Platananthus potomacensis . Possible group : Angiosperm, Proteales, Platanaceae.

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73 Figures : Plate XXX , figs. 1-5. Number of specimens examined : 1. Locality : Braun Valley, Cloud County, Kansas. Age : The late Albian, the Early Cretaceous. Stratigraphical position : the Nishnabotna Member, the Dakota Formation. Repository : Paleobotanical and Palynological Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Fl orida, Gainesville, Florida. Holotype : UF18738-44010. Discussion: This morphotype is very similar to Platanocarpus marylandensis (Patapsco Formation, Potomac Group, Marylan d, Plate 9, fig. 6, Friis et al., 1988) and the perianths of Platanocarpus brookensis (figs. 12, 14, 17, Potomac Group, Crane et al., 1993). The only difference is that this morphot ype is not attached to carpels and is isolated from inflorescence. It seems unusual to see so many pollen grains attached to the surface of the perianth. Unidentified flower (Morphotype 091) Description: A cluster of florets, globos e, about 1.7 mm in diameter. Possible group : Angiosperm, Proteales, Platanaceae. Figures : Plate XXX , figs. 6-7. Number of specimens examined : 1. Locality : Braun Valley, Cloud County, Kansas. Age : the late Albian, the Early Cretaceous. Stratigraphical position : the Nishnabotna Member, the Dakota Formation.

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74 Repository : Paleobotanical and Palynological Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Fl orida, Gainesville, Florida. Holotype: UF18738-44011. Discussion: This inflorescence may be in its very early development because it is hard to discern the sex of the flower. It is ve ry similar to a pistillate inflorescence (fig. 7, Potomac Group, Crane et al., 1993) with well de veloped perianth around the floret. While it has some similarity to Platanocarpus marylandensis (Patapsco Formation, Potomac Group, Maryland, Plate 9, fig. 2, Frii s et al., 1988), but the preser vation of this fossil does not permit detailed comparison. General Discussion The presence of platanoid flowers in the Dakota Formation is consistent with their abundance in the megafossil record. Wang a nd Dilcher (in preparation) have done research on the megaflora of the Dakota Formation, in which the leaves of the Platanaceae are frequently seen. The discove ry of these minute fragile flowers of Platanaceae with character istic pollen grains identical to previous research confirmed the important role of Platanaceae in the flora. Platanaceae has been reported in the Midw est of North America, the eastern North American coastal plain, and Europe (Dilcher and Eriksen, 1983; Frii s et al., 1988; Crane et al., 1993). The ubiquitous presence of Pl atanaceae in the early and middle Cretaceous floras implies that this family has a very long history and holds a relatively primitive position in the systematics of angi osperms, especially eudicots. Superclass Seed Plants Class Angiospermae Order Laurales

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75 Family Monimiaceae Floral Cup of Monimiaceae (Morphotype 145) Description: One half of a female floral c up, cupuliform, 1.2 mm high, 1.7 mm in diameter, with a short stalk at the base, 7 tepals along the rim of the cup, and numerous clusters of carpels lining the inside of the floral cup (floral receptacle). Portion of the tepals shiny; tepal about 0.6 mm long and 0.3 mm wide. Possible group : Angiosperm, Monimiaceae. Figures : Plate XLV , figs. 3-4. Number of specimen examined : 1. Locality : Braun Valley, Cloud County, Kansas. Age : The late Albian, the Early Cretaceous. Stratigraphical position : the Nishnabotna Member, the Dakota Formation. Repository : SEM Stub 54b, Paleobotanical and Palynological Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Holotype : UF18738-44324. Discussion: This morphotype is very si milar to female flowers of Tambourissa ficus (Monimiaceae, Lorence, 1985) and Tambourissa sieberi (Monimiaceae, Friis and Endress, 1990). General Discussion Monimiaceae s.l. (including Atherospermaceae and Siparunaceae) is thought to be polyphyletic (Renner, 1999). The Angiospe rm Phylogeny Group (APG) separated the Atherospermaceae and Siparunaceae from the Monimiaceae s.l ., leaving Monimiaceae s.s . alone (APG, 2003). Monimiaceae s.l. and Lauraceae are characterized by mostly

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76 small flowers, carpels with a single median ovule floral cu ps (Friis and Endress, 1990) and are a sister groups (Renne r, 1999). Floral construction is constant in Lauraceae: mostly trimerous whorls and a single carpel; it is more pl astic in phyllotaxus and number of floral organs in Monimiaceae s.l. (Friis and Endress, 1990). Monimiaceae s.l. may have whorled, spiral, or irre gular phyllotaxus (Friis and E ndress, 1990). The flowers of Monimiaceae mostly have a diameter of less th an 1 cm and contain fewer than 50 organs, even though they may be up to 8 cm in diam eter and have up to 2000 organs (Friis and Endress, 1990). The most unusual evolutionary trend in Monimiaceae is “the elaboration of the floral cup into an urceo late structure that completely encloses the carpels in the female flowers at anthesis with concomitant perianth reduction” (Friis and Endress, 1990). Pollination in the family does not take pl ace on the stigma of the carpels but rather at a “hyperstigma” formed at the rim of the floral cup (Friis and Endress, 1990). Pollen grains germinate on the mucilaginous exudate at the entrance of the floral cup, with pollen tube growing through the fl oral pore to reach the carpels inside the floral cup (Friis and Endress, 1990). As of this date, floral fossils of the Monimiaceae are not reported from the Cretaceous (Friis and Endress, 1990; Friis et al., 1997a). This fossil shares a strong similarity with Monimiaceae, including a floral cup of urceolate form, tepals along the margin of the floral cup, carpels clusteri ng on the inside of floral cup, and small size. The shiny portion of the tepals suggests th at there may have been some mucilaginous exudate before its fossilization. If this interp retation is correct, then the history of the hyperstigma feature may be extended all the wa y back to the mid-Cretaceous because this report would be the first Cretaceous reproductiv e record for this family. This provides support for the early divergent position of the family in angiosperm systematics.

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77 Figure 4-5. Diagram showing evolutionary trend in Tambourissa . Based on extant evidence, the cupuliform is thought to be primitive, the other two forms are thought derivative. (Diagrams are modified from Lorence, 1985) Monimiaceae are an important floristic component in the wet and cloud formations in Madagascar islands. Since they belong to the Magnoliid clade, Monimiaceae play an important role in interpreting “the morphologi cal and evolutionary patterns of primitive angiosperms.” (Lorence, 1985). The evoluti on of floral morphology in Monimiaceae is expressed by reductions of size and number of the parts, cl osure of the female floral receptacle, change from “free stalked carpe ls into an inferior syncarpous gynoecium” immersed in the receptacle wall, and from “floral bisexuality to monoecy and finally dioecy” (Lorence, 1985). In Monimiaceae, the fl oral cup functions as “a perianth and ovary wall” (Lorence, 1985). “Closure of th e receptacle causes the receptacle to enclose the inner tepals and carpels (ovaries )” (Lorence, 1985). Among the Monimiaceae

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78 Tambourissa has the most specialized flowers (Lorence, 1985). The receptacle of Tambourissa varies from flat and di scoid to closed and spheri cal, but both are a derived from cupuliform (Lorence, 1985). Tambourissa may have 35 to 2000 carpels in a receptacle and pollen tube transmission shifts fr om stylar tissue to “the exterior of the style” (Lorence, 1985; Friis and Endress, 1990). Mucilaginous exudate, functioning as compitum (transmitting tissue for pollination, and nectar), is common in Tambourissa (Lorence, 1985). It either lines the inner si de of the receptacle or fills up the cup and forms hyperstigma (Lorence, 1985). The combination of characteristics of this fossil suggests that the cupuliform floral cup is the most primitive, and which appears to support the conclusion by Lorence on the evolution of flowers in Monimiaceae. Tambourissa purpurea “displays angiocarpy wh ich is superimposed upon angiospermy . . . In a comparative morphological sense, the step from mere angiospermy to angiocarpy (or more precisely from a ngiovuly to angiocarpelly) is of a similar morphological dimension as the step from gy mnosperm to angiosperm” (Lorence, 1985). This modification is not found in other a dvanced groups of angiosperms (Friis and Endress, 1990). This modification appears to lead to an evolutionary dead end and does not give the group too much adva ntage over others (Friis and Endress, 1990). “One of the most general trends in the family Monimi aceae is from open to more closed flowers” (Endress and Lorence, 1983). Based on the anatomy of extant Monimiaceae and the evidence from this fossil, it appears the phylogeny to angiocarpy separated from the mainstream of angiosperms as early as the mid-Cretaceous (see Figure 4-5). The Monimiaceae has a poor fossil record (F riis et al., 1997a). There are seven reports of possibly valid fossils belonging to Monimiaceae before this report. 1) Possible

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79 pollen record Inaperturopollenites crisopolensis from the lower Cretaceous (?Aptian) of central Africa. (Muller, 1981). If confirmed, this would be the oldest record of the family. 2) Fossil wood Hedycaryoxylon spp. , related to Monimiaceae s.s., with strikingly broad rays, was reported from the lower Senonian of central Germany (Renner, 1998). This is the oldest wood fossil for the family. 3) The Monimiaceous wood Hedycaryoxylon was also report from the Campanian of the Antarc tic (Renner, 2004). 4) A leaf of subfamily Mollinedioideae, Monimiophyllum, was reported from the Paleocene/Eocene of the Antarctic Seymour Island (Renner, 1998; Renner, 2004; Friis et al., 1997). 5) Hedycaryoxylon was reported from the upper Eocene of Germany. 6) Fossil wood of Hedycaryoxylon spp. was also reported from the lower Oligocene of the eastern Cape Province (Renner, 1998). 7) One accepted polle n record of Monimiaceae is the Oligocene occurrence of Laurelia -type pollen in the New Zealand (M uller, 1981; Friis et al., 1997a). Besides these seven reports, there are a few questionable reports. One fossil leaf, assigned to Monimiaceae by Rueffle (1965) from the Sant onian in Germany (Friis et al., 1997a; Renner, 1998), was later transferred to Athe rospermataceae (Renner, 1998). Another leaf Protohedycarya pseudoquercifolia (Kraeusel) Rueffle and Knappe from the Netherlands was rejected from the Monimiaceae by Renner (1998) based on deeply dissected leaf lobes. One fragmental leaf with possible Monimiaceae affinity is Landonia (Upchurch and Dilcher, 1990). Upchurch and Dilcher (1990 ) thought that the leaf shared similarity with both Monimiaceae s.l. and Gomortegaceae. As for the relationship between Landonia and Monimiaceae s.s., it is hard to tell for th e time being. These two records should not be counted as valid fossil record s for Monimiaceae. This fossil record is the first female reproductive organ of the family.

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80 Superclass Seed Plants Class Gymnospermae Order Coniferales Female Cone (Morphotype 079) Description: Female cone, 4.5 mm long, 2.4 mm wide, short cylindrical (Plate XVIII, fig. 1). Cone scale spirally arranged (P late XVIII, figs. 2-4), 0.7 mm wide (Plate XVIII, fig. 5), with nearly vertical striations on surfaces (Plate XVIII, fig. 3) and 2 or 3 ovules on its adaxial surface (Plate XVIII, figs . 6-10, 13, 14). No separated bract visible. Possible group: gymnosperm, conifers. Figures : Plate XVIII , figs. 1-14. Number of specimens examined : 1. Locality : Black Wolf, Ellsworth County, Kansas, U.S.A. Age : The late Albian, the Early Cretaceous. Stratigraphical position : the Nishnabotna Member, the Dakota Formation. Repository : Paleobotanical and Palynological Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Holotype : UF15719-44012. Remark: This morphotype is distinct from othe r cones in its form, scales, and scale arrangement. Discussion Judging by its size, this cone appears immature, so it is su rprising to see that there are ovules developed in the cone. The systema tic position is hard to determine, because the relationship between bract and scale is not definitely clear. Beca use the cone is well

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81 preserved, supposedly there should be no prob lem seeing a bract in the cone if one were there. One factor influencing my judgement a bout the presence of the bracts is that this cone may still be immature and any bract, if one were present, had not yet differentiated. Judging by the profile of the cone, it pr obably bears no similarity to Taxaceae, Podocarpaceae, or Cephalotaxaceae. Among the remaining conifer families, namely Araucariaceae, Pinaceae, and C upressaceae, the cone shows a similarity to the cone of Pinaceae, especially Abies . Nonetheless, the absence of a bract rules out that possibility becuase bract and scale are separated in Pi naceae; the cone does not have sufficient characters to group it definitely with Araucariaceae or Cupressaceae, Superclass Seed Plants Class Gymnospermae Pollen Cone (Morphotype 080) Description: Male cone, 6.6 mm long, 1.6 mm wide , long cylindrical (Plate XIX, fig. 1). Cone scale spirally arranged, 0.7 mm long, 0.5 mm wide, flame-like (Plate XIX, figs. 2,3,5,7; Plate XX, figs. 1,3), with nearly vertical striations on surfaces (Plate XIX, fig. 3), with 2 pollen sacs on its abaxial su rface (Plate XIX, fig. 5; Plate XX, fig. 2). Suspected pollen grain appears uni layered (Plate XIX, fig. 10). Possible group: gymnosperm. Figures : Plate XIX , figs. 1-16; Plate XX , figs.1-3. Number of specimens examined : 1. Locality : Black Wolf, Ellsworth County, Kansas, U.S.A. Age : The late Albian, the Early Cretaceous. Stratigraphical position : the Nishnabotna Member, the Dakota Formation.

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82 Repository : Paleobotanical and Palynological Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Fl orida, Gainesville, Florida. Holotype : UF15719-44014 Discussion: This morphotype is distinct from ot her cones in its form and its scales with pollen sacs. The structure of this cone resembles those of conifers, while the pollen grains may point to other direction. Accordi ng to discussion with Dr. David Jarzen, the pollen grains appear single-layered, which is supposed to be characteristic of fungi. Yet the pollen is in situ , and it is not possible the cone is part of a fungus . Whether it is a cone of some cycad is a question de serving further investigation. Superclass Seed Plants Class Gymnospermae Order Coniferales Family Pinaceae Pinus Leaves (Morphotype 064) Description: Needle leaves, 2.0-4.5 mm long, 0.7 mm wide, 0.5 mm thick, semicircular-shaped in cross section (Plate XIII, figs. 23-25,27; Plate XIV, figs., 1,3,5), with 2 rows of stomata on ventral surfaces (Pla te XIII, figs. 24-25; Plate XIV, fig. 3), 3 rows on lateral and dorsal surf aces (Plate XIII, fig. 23), with cytoplasm preserved (Plate XIV, fig. 6). Stomata 28-50 m long, 30-35 m wide (Plate XIII, fig. 26; Plate XIV, fig. 4). Possible group: Conifers, Pinaceae, Pinus. Figures : Plate XIII , 23-27; Plate XIV , figs. 1-6.

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83 Number of specimens examined : 3. Localities : Braun Valley, Black Wolf, Kansas. Age : The late Albian, the Early Cretaceous. Stratigraphical position : the Nishnabotna Member, the Dakota Formation. Repository : Paleobotanical and Palynological Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Fl orida, Gainesville, Florida. Types : UF18738-44203, UF15719-44204, UF15719-44205. Discussion: This morphotype is different from other morphotypes in its semicircular-shape in cross section and 5 rows of stomata. This cross section is very characteristic of Pinus (Vidakovic, 1991) .

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84 CHAPTER 5 FOSSIL VISUALIZATION This chapter describes how a three-dimens ional image of a fossil is constructed from two-dimensional images. The chapter includes the following sections: introduction, procedure, Bezier spline, program outline, results and discussion, function interface, input and output, and limits and other considerations. Introduction Computer graphics is a topic of special interest in comput er science. Paleobotanists rarely apply this technology, even though other computer technologies may have been adopted. Fossil material often is unique, it ma y be difficult or impossible to get a second copy showing exactly the same characters. Information from a fossil similar to the original fossil can be the origin of cont roversy and challenge. How to get as much information as possible from the same specimen, how to communicate with nonprofessional people, and how to share inform ation in an easy-to-understand way are the challenges all paleobotanists face. To meet these challenges, I have developed a technique to reconstruct a fossil in three dimension based on two-dimensional section images. In the past, efforts were made to reconstruct fossils from coal ball specimens. These earlier works usually were limited by th e availability of good graphic technology. Now, with advances in computer graphics, it is worthwhile trying to adopt this new technology and improve the representation of information. OpenGL is free software available to everyone. This visualiza tion of a fossil is based on OpenGL.

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85 Procedure The 3-D reconstruction of fossil plants is based on the raw fossil information. Usually the fossil information available for proc essing is in the form of 2-D images, as is the case here. Theoretically the steps for this work should incl ude sectioning fossil material, taking images of the sections of th e fossil, outlining the obj ects, and integrating the outlines that are aligned and piled up. This procedure has been followed by earlier workers. I also tried this method, but I found the results somewhat disappointing. The tr ue outline of the section of the fossil object usually is irregular and influenced by such factors as preservation. Following the actual outline of the section precisely is diffi cult; irregularity of the outline also requires extra care in programming. Anothe r problem with this procedur e is that, even though it is possible to follow the outline exactly with high resolution, the vertical resolution is restricted by the resoluti on provided by the sectioning technology. This makes the reconstruction appear rough. To avoid all these problems, a modified procedure is adopted here. This procedure starts with outlines of the object in sections (o riginal code is in Appendix H ). These outlines are analyzed and only the ones with more similarities to what the fossil is supposed to be are kept. Th ey are aligned and digitized. The subsequent reconstruction is based on these data. The digitizing processing is also a challenge. Because a fossil is rarely a straight object, and splines used in computer graphics need to have the control points aligned, it is often tr ue that a set of data for a single outline is collected from sections of different horiz ons. This requires techniques to align the sections in the correct pos ition and orientation. There was no existing solution to this problem. What I did was to load different sections into Photoshop, align them in

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86 Photoshop, then digitize the outlines of the s ections by selecting c ontrol points in the software I had previously coded and saving the data in a .txt file. This .txt file is the input for later processing. The data included 3 deci mals, for X, Y, and Z coordinates of the points on the outline. I selected 16 control po ints for each outline. When there was not much irregularity, fewer outlines were selected; when there were many more irregularities, more outlines were digitized. Information on 29 outlines (including several repeated outlines) were collected and saved. The final data files for the reconstruction were very small, only 34 KB (Ori ginal data are in Appendix I). The artistic part of the r econstruction involves adjusti ng the data. There are always irregularities in the data, and these data must be interactively fixed before one has a good reconstruction. Whether it is good enough or not depends on my understanding of the original fossil. If th e reconstruction based on the data is close enough to what the fossil should be in my mind based on the original images, then the adju sting will stop. These data of the control points of the section ou tlines provide a framework for the surface. The surface is generated as a Bezier surface by the evaluator in OpenGL. Bezier Spline There are many methods for generating a su rface in computer graphics. Here the Bezier surface is introduced because it is used by the evaluator in OpenGL. Bezier surface is a surface defined by math ematical formulae in computer graphics. A surface S(u,v), where u and v vary orthogonall y from 0 to 1 from one edge of the surface to the other edge of the surface, is defined by a set of (n+1) x (m+1) control points [x(i,j), y(i,j), z(i,j)], where i varies from 0 to n and j from 0 to m (Woo et al., 1999).

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87 Figure 5-1. The relationship betw een control points and their Bezier curve. Note that most of the time the curve does notpass the control points. The exception to this rule is when two or more contro l points overlap each other, as in the rightmost situation. The formulae are as follows: n m S(u,v) = Bi n(u) Bj m(v) Pij, i=0 j= 0 Bi n(u) = (i n)ui (1-u)n-I, Pij are the set of controlling points. A Bezier surface is an extension of Bezier curve. Figure 5-1 shows the relationship between the control points and their smooth Bezier curve. Figure 5-2 shows the control net and its Bezier surface. While Bezier surf aces/curves currently are the focus of much interest in computer graphics and mathematic s, a full description of it is beyond the scope of this dissertation. More information can be found in related papers and monographs (e.g., Woo et al., 1999).

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88 Figure 5-2. One example of a Bezier surface. No te that the Bezier surface and its control net composed by connecting the control points. The fine grid shows the knots are used for evaluating the surface. Program Outline This program is coded according to the flowchart in Figure 5-3 . It starts by loading icons for the interface and data for the rende ring. The default values for most of the variables are set at initiation. Rotate to te xture steps are done in the object rendering. For better performance, this process is done only once, and it genera tes an object for later use. After this, depending on what is needed fo r displaying the object, the same object is projected in a different vi ewing system, as shown in Figure 5-4 . If there is a need to view details of the object, you can zoom in is applied to show only a portion of the view. Zoom in/out in a vertical direction is also availabl e by adjusting the depth of the view, this cuts off the portion of the object in front and behi nd the certain plane. Because the thickness of the depth of view is also adjustable, the program can perform such functions as CT sectioning discussed below. After displaying the object, an exit question will be asked. If no is the answer, the program decides what to do according to the answer to the next

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89 Figure 5-3. The flowchart of the program. question, reset. If yes is the answer, the progr am is ended. If reset is needed, initiation will be executed; otherwise, the program goes directly to rotation and other steps. Figure 5-4. 3-D reconstruction of a fossil. This picture also shows the interface (toolbox) of the program, providing the user with different functions for manipulating the object.

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90 Results and Discussion The basic functions of the program include generating the 3-D im age of the fossil, providing such basic manipulations as rotation, zoom in/out, texture, soft cutting, and inpart display. Figure 5-5. The difference between the flat shade model (left) and the smooth shade model (right). Note that the normals in the flat shade model are constant all over the surface patch, while the normals in the smooth shade model vary according to the position of each point in the surface patch. The image is rendered by applying the evalua tor in OpenGL, which uses the data of the control points of the section outline. The color of the object is controlled by assigning the material colors, including emission, specula r, and diffuse colors. The final color of the object is decided by the original colors of the object and the lig hting setting of the environment. The resolution of the image is decided by a variable called “fineness,” which is also adjustable by holding “f” or “F,” as seen in Figure 5-7 . The fineness of the images increases from the left to the right in Figure 5-7. If the shade model is assigned as flat, then it is easy to see that the surface is composed of many rectangular patches, as in Figure 5-6 . The default shade model in this prog ram is set as smooth, which means the

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91 Figure 5-6. Images showing the objects drawn in a flat shade model. Note each surface patch has constant color, a nd there is no transition in color from one patch to its neighbors (see also Figure 5-7 for comparison). Left image is drawn with lower resolution, the right one with higher resolution. normals of the surface at different points on th e same path vary smoothly; therefore, the color change caused by lighting is gradual. This can be seen in the middle image in Figure 5-7 . The color in the same surface patch va ries, the outlines for each surface patch are defined by the straight edges in the prof ile. This difference of flat and smooth shade models is shown in Figure 5-5 . When the fineness is too low, it is evident that the surface is composed of distinct patches, as in the case for the leftmost image in Figure 5-7. Only basic lighting is applied in this application.

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92 Figure 5-7. View of the same object with diffe rent resolution. The leftmost one provides a very coarse image of the object; the rightmost one provides an image with very fine resolution; the middle one provides an image with medium quality. The resolution is related to the perfor mance of the software. The finer the resolution, the slower the program runs . In comparison with Figure 5-6, there is smooth transition in color from one patch of surface to its neighbors. Rotation is an important computer graphi c ability that this application has ( Figure 5-8 ). OpenGL provides a call glRotate(), which sp ecifies an angle and an axis to rotate around. This is a convenient way to accomp lish a rotation operation. The rotation is implemented twice in this application, once when the object is rendered, and once when the object is projected onto the screen. The fi rst one affects the appearance, especially the lighting, of the object; the s econd one simply puts the exis ting object in different positions. The rotation function is interfaced as icons with rotation, X, Y, and Z signs.

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93 Figure 5-8. More freedom for viewing the obj ect. This picture shows the same object viewed from 16 different points of view in three dimensions. The zoom in/out functions are implemen ted by changing the scope of the view ( Figure 5-9 ). Orthogonal projection is used in this application, because it is more efficient to implement than a perspective view. In orthogonal projection, an object is put in a rectangular block. If any part of the object is outside this rectangular block, it is not visible. Zoom in/out is implemented by adjust ing the left, right, bottom and top limits of this block. Another function, CT viewing, is also implemented in a similar way. In the CT viewing case the front and back limits of the block are adjusted, so different parts of the object can be seen or ignored (Figure 5-9) . This part of the function I call soft cutting.

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94 Figure 5-9. Diagram showing the implementati on of zooming and soft-cutting functions. Only the portion of the object inside the red box can be displayed on the screen. Adjusting X and Y ranges change the view range on the object in X and Y dimensions, thus the zooming f unction is implemented. Adjusting the Z range changes the depth of the viewab le portion of the object. When the Z range is very small, only a thin sli ce of the object can be displayed on the screen. Without texture, the object looks shin y and smooth. The object will look more lifelike if texture is applied (see Figure 5-10 ). This function is turned on and off by a set of commands for texturing. Enabling the textur e function before the surface is rendered gives the texture to the image of the surface of the object. This function can be turned on and off by clicking on one of the two bottommos t icons, the right one for on, the left on for off. Multiple clicks on the right bottom one will switch one texture to another texture.

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95 Figure 5-10. Images showing different applied textures. Soft cutting is a term coined for this applic ation to contrast with hard cutting, which is physically cutting the fossil specimens. Ha rd cutting can be done only in one direction. After that, the specimen is consumed and is not available fo r viewing in other perspectives. Computer graphics can provide a virtual view of the fossil if certain data of the fossil are available. One way to do soft cutting is by adjusting the front and back limits of the viewable block, as discussed above in the section about zoom in/out. Another way to do it is to take advantage of the evaluator in OpenGL, which permits rendering just a portion of the object. One-, twoor three-quarters can be rendered separately; thus, the inner si de of the object can be ma de visible, as seen in Figures 5-11

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96 Figure 5-11. Different views of the object cut in halves. Leftmost one is an front view of the rear half; the middle one is a view fr om the back towards the front half of the object; the right one is the view of th e right half of the object from the left side. Note the cutting surface is not al ways an even surface, as in physical cutting; it may be a curved surface. and 5-12. An important feature of this soft cut ting is that the cutt ing surface does not have to be a plane, as is true in physical cutting. The software provides much more flexib ility for displaying and manipulation. One of the function implied in this program is displaying the objects in parts. This is seen in Figure 5-13 . Function Interface The functions of this program are implemen ted as a graphic and keyboard interface. The interface includes 18 icons, which implem ent most of the functions. One can simply click on any of them to manipulate the object at will. Some of these functions and a few uncommon functions are implemented as keyboa rd input. All the functions are explained in Table F-1 in Appendix F .

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97 Figure 5-12. Different functi ons providing more information about the object. The leftmost one shows one-quarter of the object; the second from the left shows the remaining three-quarters of the same object; the right tw o show that the section of the object is cut by a plane parallel to the surface of the paper. Figure 5-13. Picture showing the object displaye d in different modes, whole or in parts.

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98 Input and Output The input for this program includes two data files of control points and 19 images for icons and texture. Of the two data files, one is for scale, the othe r is for the bract of the fossil. Each data file of control points includes 29 outlines, 17 control points for each outline, and 3 float numbers for each control point. There are 18 images for the icons in the interface. Each icon is an image of 32 x 32 pixels, saved in color bitmap format. The nineteenth image, also 32 x 32 pixels, is used only for the texture ap plication. It is also saved in color bitmap format. There is no specific routine coded for output . Currently the resu lt is only displayed on the screen. A convenient way to save the output is printing the screen into the clipboard, then pasting the image into a ne w file opened in Photoshop, where the image can be further processed into any format wanted. Limits and Other Considerations The reconstruction of the fossil in this application has certain limits. First, the configuration is not quite identi cal to the original fossil, be cause the object is smooth and regular in the reconstruction. The major goal of the applica tion is to demonstrate the spatial relationship between cone scale and bract in Parapodocarpus . This spatial relationship is an important discovery in terms of the cone scale relationship and systematics of conifers. Second, 3-D texture is not applied in this ap plication, so only the surface of the object is shown here and th e inside is left empty, as seen in Figure 5-12 . Third, the size of the object is different from the original object, since there is always difference between the control net and the surf ace patch. Fourth, the application for other fossils is not yet done, but I assume the most difficult part of reconstructing other fossils is digitizing them. After digitizing, everything else is straightforward.

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99 This procedure has potentia l application for graphi c database management. Nowadays database technology has permeated many areas, from business to academia. One challenge for database application is im age retrieval, because of the big size of image files. If the size of the images can be greatly reduced, the performance of the database management system may be marked ly enhanced. My program may be further extended and formulated to retrieve images qui ckly, considering the or iginal input data is less than 30 KB and the image reconstructed is in three dimensions with adjustable resolution. Further work may include standard izing a few frequently used input data formats and modifying my program to utilize these formats. After this, the compiled code can be run with related input data. This can be done cheaply and remotely, since the data transferred is of very limited size. There is one last observation. The co mmand in OpenGL for evaluator is glMap2f(GLenum target , TYPE u1, TYPE u2, GLint ustride , GLint uorder , TYPE v1, TYPE v2, GLint vstride , GLint vorder , TYPE points ). According to the monograph by Woo et al. (1999), the fifth and ninth parameters, uorder and vorder , should be the orders of the surface in u and v dire ctions. Actually this is not the case. According to my implementation, these two parameters should be the width and length of the surface. This is the only acceptable way to render the whole object.

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100 CHAPTER 6 CYTOPLASM FOSSILIZATION AND IT S POTENTIAL RELATIONSHIP TO LIGHTNING AND HIGH TEMPERATURE Nature exceeds on all sides the limits we so gratuitously impose on her. ---Jean Baptiste Lamarck The nature of the fossilization of plant parts is important for the understanding and interpretation of fossil plants. In the pa st most studies of fossilization focused upon preservation of the cell wall. The charcoalific ation of plant parts was well studied. This research is an extension of this work, but it focuses on a different part of the plant cell, cytoplasm, and introduces a new mechanism, lightning, into the study of fossilization. This chapter starts with a description and interpretation of some phenomena of fossils, then proposes hypotheses to explain cyt oplasm fossilization by lightning and high temperature, then ends with a brief disc ussion of the future for this research. Observations and Interpretations of Fossils Observation 1: In the cortex of a fossil root (P late XXVI, fig.6), the cells close to the epidermis and the cambium are relatively well preserved, while the cells between them are poorly preserved. The total thickness of the cortex ranges from less than 0.1 mm to 0.32 mm. Interpretation: Normally, the intensity of an environmental factor, such as temperature or light, would be expected to be uniform or distri buted radially around a center. Therefore, there should be no preservational gradie nt or gradient in only one direction. But the situation seen in this fossil is incompatib le with the above model. It

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101 looks as if the intensity of the factor has two peaks, one at the epidermis and the other one at the cambium of the plan t. This can be explained by tw o possible scenarios: 1) two processes worked on different regions of the plant, and resulted in differential preservation; 2) lightning current flowed through both the surface and the cambium of the fossil. The first scenario is hard to imagin e since it requires two radially symmetrical factors, one with its center in the center of the specimen, the other converging or focusing from the periphery to the center of the sp ecimen. I cannot think of any environmental factor(s) (other than lightning current, as me ntioned below) with such a great gradient within such a tiny range and in such a grad ational pattern. The second scenario is better supported by current studies of lightning and pl ants: lightning current prefers to take the surface of the object as its path and, in the case of plants, the current may also follow cambium, which has more moisture and is le ss resistant, as its path (Minko, 1966; Uman, 1971; Craig, 1986; Rakov and Uman, 2003). The pe ripheral tissue close to the epidermis in this fossil is not as well preserved as the cambial tissue and it shows nanoballs (Plate XXVII, fig.6), similar to those reported in the recent literature (H of and Briggs, 1997; Schieber and Arnott, 2003), implying bacter ial or enzyme-driven decay, which is not seen in this cambial tissue. Observation 2: As seen in Plate XXVIII, Fig.5, the neighboring cells in the cortex, just separated by a cell wall of thickness less than 3 m, show different preservation: a few of cells are well-preserved, while cells on both the right and le ft sides are decayed. Interpretation: This sharp contrast in preservation cannot ea sily be explained by other factors, such as physical pressure or chemical composition, but it may depend on whether the cells were on th e electric current path of li ghtning. Research (Uman, 1969a,

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102 1987; Rakov and Uman, 2003) indicates that light ning current may take the surface of the plant or other less resistant portions of plants as its path. It is possible that, in this case of this fossil, the electric current preferred thes e few of cells as its path, and preserved them. While the other cells were not affected by the electric current and underwent natural decay. Observation 3: Cytoplasm preserved in the cortex of the root is porous (Plate XXVII, fig.3-5). Interpretation: The cytoplasm in living plant cells has vacuoles and other organelles. They are especia lly evident in mature cells (Raven et al., 1981). This observation of fossil cytoplasm ma y reflect the structure of li ving cytoplasm. This is in agreement with what Taylor and Millay (figs. 3 and 4, 1977) described as fossil cytoplasm. Microwave-irradiated specimens immersed in distilled water showed vacuolated, swollen organelles (Login and Dvorak, 1988). The situation seen here may also be an artifact caused by lightning. Observation 4: In contrast to the absence of cytoplasmic membranes, the cellular contents, including possible organelles, are well preserved (Plate XVI, figs.14-15). Some of the fossil cells appear well preserved (P late XVI, fig.10), while others may show a porous surface (Plate XVI, fig.14). Interpretation: As Barnes (1986), Miller ( 1986), and WHO (1993) showed, cytoplasmic membrane is the location where electric current impacts cells first. If the current is too strong, as in the case of the lightning, it may destroy the membrane, because electronic current can obliterate cellular membranes (T edeschi, 1977). As seen in Plate LXVIII, figs. 3-5, when preserved by hi gh temperature, the cell contents appear

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103 spiny. The disappearance of this spiny app earance implies something has destroyed the cytoplasmic membranes. In this case, the destru ction is speculated to be from an electric current of lightning. The stripping of cytopl asmic membranes by lightning may have left the vacuoles of the cell expos ed, and thus make the cell appear porous. The differential preservation of cellular components and thei r corresponding spatial positions suggest that electric current, most likely from lightning, ma y play some role in destroying the double layer structure along the margin of cells. Observation 5: Judging from the SEM image in Plate XXVIII, fig.1, all the cells in the cortex look similar. However, under a li ght microscope, they look quite different, each in a varying state of decay. The decay st arts internally from the nucleus (Plate XXVII, fig.4) and progresses to the pe ripheral portion (Pla te XXVII, fig.13). Cytoplasmic membranes, still holding the granul es of cytoplasm residues, are the last part of the cell to decay (Plate XXVII, fig.12). This observation is also s een in another fossil with cytoplasmic membranes pr eserved (Plate XXV, figs.1-5). Interpretation: The decay process occurring in this order is similar to what Guilliermond (1941) described for extant plan t cells. The granules seen in Plate XXVII, fig.12, are very similar to what Niklas et al . (1981a) reported in fossil plant cells. How Does Lightning Facilitate Fossilization? There are records of well-preserved fossils , such as the flesh of mammoths from permafrost (Yang et al., 1996; Yang, 1997), mu scle, and blood vessels of a dinosaur (Kellner, 1996; Martill, 2001), 3–D preserved animal embryos (Xiao et al., 1998; Dong et al., 2004), pollen nuclei (Millay and Eggert, 197 4), cellular contents (Taylor and Millay, 1977; Kizilshtein et al., 2003; Edwards and Axe, 2004), chlor oplast and mitochondria in plant cells (Niklas et al., 1981a), sperm (Nis hida et al., 2003), and cytoplasmic membrane

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104 (Wang and Dilcher, 2003). Each of these ex amples is preserved under unique conditions. To form a good fossil, the following conditions must be met: 1) ra pid killing, fixing, and fossilization by the natural environment; 2) re sistance to degradation and diagenesis; 3) resistance to bioerosion; 4) frequent occurrence. When a plant dies, degradation soon star ts. After death, cellu lar tissues undergo autolysis mediated by hydrolytic enzymes (C ollins and Gernaey-Child, 2001). Fire can stop this process, charcoa lify plant tissue, and produce good plant fossils (Sander and Gee, 1990; Jones et al., 1991; Scott et al., 1991; Jones and Lim, 2000; Scott, 2000; Scott et al., 2000a; Scott et al., 2000b; Scott, 2001). Charring occurs when there is heat and a lack of oxygen (Scott, 2001). Charring conve rts the cell wall to n early pure carbon, which makes it inert and more resistant to decay (Scott, 2001). The chemical composition of charcoal includes 77-94% carbon and 2-3% hydrogen (Spicer, 1991). This high carbon content makes charcoal biol ogically inert, because it is chemically stable and no organisms feed on it (Spicer, 1991). Charcoalif ied fossils hundreds of millions of years old can be found. To preserve plant tissue, espe cially cellular detail, wildfire must char living parts of plants. Some natural process has to function as a fixative to preserve cellular contents in fossils. After collecting information about the microwave fixation technique and lightning, I hypothe size that lightning may be one important process that can help to fix plant tissu es. My hypothesis is based on the following observations: 1) The process has to be fast enough so that degradation can be stopped almost immediately. Lightning is a process las ting for a split second (Uman, 1969a; Uman, 1971; Miki et al., 2002; Uman et al., 2002). Even though plants can react to environmental stresses, such as heat, in as quick a time as a few seconds (Alexandrov and

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105 Bernstam, 1977), the lightning process is fa ster, fast enough to avoid this kind of physiological change. Secondary and tertiary structures of some macromolecules can change in nanoseconds (Mayor et al., 2000; Kazmirski et al., 2001; Day et al., 2002) or microseconds (Qiu et al., 2002 and 2003), so it is reasonable to say that lightning cannot preserve intact the structur e of macromolecules even though it works extremely quickly. Fortunately, at the level of cytoplasm and primary structur e of macromolecules lightning is not destructive. 2) The process must stop degradation or ot her physiological changes in plant cells effectively. During degradation after death, lysozymes are released to hydrolyze the cellular content internally (Guilliermond, 1941) and microbial activity also biodegrades soft tissues (Jones et al., 2000), which is the reason why soft tissue in fossil plants is rarely seen. One thing that should be kept in mind is that all degradation is impossible without functioning enzymes, and enzymes can only function in a limited environmental range (Hall et al., 1976 ). Bioelectromagnetic research s hows that microwave irradiation can affect the stabilization of proteins, th e activity of enzymes, the permeability of membranes, or even cause death to animal or plant cells (Presm an, 1970; Davis et al., 1971; Davis et al., 1973; Tolgskaya and Go rdon, 1973; Wayland et al., 1973; WHO, 1973; Levitt, 1980; Bernardi, 1989). This all implies that microwave irradiation can effectively stop the physiology of plant cells. Microwaves from a few hundreds MHz to a few GHz have been used for cellular fixa tion (Login and Dvorak, 1994). Even though the exact mechanism is not yet well understood, phy siological experiments show that it is related to the conformational flexibility of proteins and thermal effect produced by irradiation (Presman, 1970; Tolgskaya and Gordon, 1973; Alexandrov and Bernstam,

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106 1977). Biophysical study (Gill, 1995) shows that the instantaneous killing temperature for plants is less than 100 C. Geophysical research show s that lightning can produce temperatures of 50,000-60,000 F (28,000 to 35,000 K, Uman, 1969b). Electromagnetic fields, from a few Hz to the frequency of x-ray (Malan, 1963; Brook, 1964; Takagi and Ishikawa, 1966; Takagi, 1969a&b; Oetzel a nd Pierce, 1969; Uman, 1969b; Dwyer et al., 2003), are quite strong in the vinicity of th e lightning discharge channel (Uman et al., 2002), and VHF (very high frequency) and UHF (Ultrahigh frequency) are important components of the electromagnetic fields. The electric current can be up to 270 KA (Narita et al., 1989), the elec tric field up to 2.5 MV/m (Miki et al., 2002), irradiation power density > 7.8 x 108 W/m (Krider and Dawson, 1968; Krider et al., 1968), and energy density > 2.3 x 105J/m (Krider and Dawson, 1968; Kr ider et al., 1968). Their intensity may be so overwhelming that killi ng is virtually guaran teed, as raising the temperature more than 10 C for more than 10-6 sec is enough to produce significant biological changes (Barnes, 1986a) and it is not rare that lightni ng produces enough heat to blow the bark off a tree. As mentione d above, lightning can cause group killing and damage peripheral trees without visible eff ects. This phenomenon may be the result of irradiation and heat from lightning that kills and fixes the tissue of trees without any outward trace. One thing that came to peopleÂ’ s attention is that li ghtning-struck trees are vulnerable to bark beetles, probably b ecause of the tissuesÂ’ dysfunction. This vulnerability may also be the re sult of irradiation that eliminates the natural resistance of these trees (Rakov and Uman, 2003). Conse quently, lightning should have enough heat and irradiation in the VHF and UHF ranges to fix plant tissue.

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107 3) Lightning is often followed by a w ildfire event, and this can produce a permanent fossil record of plant mesofossils. Mo re than half of all lightning causes forest fires (Uman, 1969a; Fuquay et al., 1972), and Sc ott (2001) suggested th at most fires are started by lightning strikes. Hence lightning app ears to be the ideal agent to form perfect plant fossils: irradiation in lightning fixes the tissues of plant, and an ensuing wildfire converts them further into inert charcoal. 4) The process should be frequent enough to explain the abundance of such fossils in sediments. Otherwise, rarely seen even ts, such as bolide or comet impact, will compromise its applicability for paleontol ogical study. Lightning is a frequently seen phenomenon (Uman, 1971). There are more than 8 million lightning strikes hitting the earth’s surface in a single day. Among these st rikes, more than 6% hit forests and more than half of these strikes may ignite a wild fire (Uman, 1971). This is the major reason that there are more than 10,000 wildfires in the USA every year. Wildfires can produce many plant fossils (Sander and Gee, 1990; J ones and Chaloner, 1991; Scott and Jones, 1991; Jones and Lim, 2000; Scott, 2000; Sco tt et al., 2000a; Scott et al., 2000b; Scott, 2001). Lightning also has a history of at leas t 250 m.a. (Uman, 1971). With such a high frequency and long history, lightning has the potential to be important for the preservation of plant fossils. 5) Multiple strokes in a single flash of lightning with strong power density have strong effects on plants. “Reactions to pulse d and CW [continuous wave] emissions at equal time-averaged intensities in many cas es were substantially different” (Pakhomov and Murphy, 2000). “The biologic effects of a single pulse of high energy deposition can be very drastic” ( Lu and de Lorge, 2000; Persson, 2000). A lightning strike may have up

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108 to 42 strokes (Uman, 1969a; Hunter, 1978). “ 10,000 or more VHF pulses occur during a lightning flash” (Nanevicz et al., 1990), and the power density and energy density are overwhelmingly high (Krider and Dawson, 1968; Krider et al., 1968; Krider and Guo, 1983). The high power and repeated effect make lightning a good killer and fixer. 6) Geophysical study shows th at the irradiation energy of lightning attenuates unexpectedly rapidly on the land (Takagi and Ishikawa, 1966; Sehran et al., 1980; Weidman and Krider, 1986; Gardner, 1990; Willett et al., 1990), much more than on water (Cooray and Ming, 1994). The major di fference between land and water is the existence of vegetation, so it is highly possi ble that vegetation absorbs huge amounts of energy, especially in the vici nity of the strike site. Th is may be the reason for group killing, in which up to 160 trees can be kill ed by a single lightning strike, while only the central couple of trees have obviously visible damages (Uman, 1971; Rakov and Uman, 2003). 7) One advantage of charcoalified plant fossils is that they are made of the original plant materials and thus their fidelity of preservation is not limited by the grain size of permineralizing mineral, as was true in th e animal case reported by Martill (2001). This unlimited resolution permits people to study th e cellular details, at least down to the macromolecule level. 8) Lightning may influence plants thr ough modification of the magnetic field. A strong magnetic field (MF) can also cause the disorder or death of cells and organisms. The effects of artificial MF include wilting and death (Levit t, 1980). The derivative of the electric current of li ghtning may be up to 290 KA/ s (Uman, 2002). A strong change in

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109 electric current generates a strong magnetic fiel d. It appears that li ghtning can have an effect on plants through the MF it generates. 9) The application of microwave fixation suggests that lightning may fix plants, considering its strong electric field, magnetic field, and el ectromagnetic field. Microwave fixation does a superior job in as shor t a time as 26 ms (Login and Dvorak, 1988, 1992, 1994). This also supports li ghtning as a good preserver. 10) Fresh organs of plants are more vul nerable to the effects of the EMF of lightning. Plant parts, such as leaves, twigs, and fruits, that have more water content are much more vulnerable than seeds, which ha ve less water content (Davis et al., 1971; Davis et al., 1973; Wayland et al., 1973; Bernhardt and Vogel, 2000). This may explain why so many fragile parts of plants are present in my collec tion of mesofossils. High Temperature as a Mechanism for Fossilization Observation : There are at least three fragment s of specimens in my collection showing lumen contents with a spiny confi guration (Plate XXV, fig.14; Plate LX, fig.13). In both cases, there are multiple spines conne cting the main cell body with its neighbors by plasmodesmata between the cells through the cell walls. These spines may be hollow, as in Plate XXV, fig.14 or solid, as in Plate LX, fig.13. Interpretation : After plants die, their tissues begin to decay. This decay process may take some time to complete (Hof a nd Briggs, 1997; Schieber and Arnott, 2003). If something happens before the process is complete, it is possible for this decay process to be stopped. This decay process is an organic r eaction that requires enzymes to involve in (Schieber and Arnott, 2003). One way to stop physiological change is by cooking something at high temperature. High temp erature slows or stops the physiological reaction even more efficiently than low temp erature. High temperature, especially rapid

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110 heating as in microwave fixation, which was introduced into biotechnology relatively late, introduces another potential mechanism for fossilization. As mentioned above, wildfire was quite common in geological history (Scott, 2000). One effect of fire is that it can ba ke plant material. This mechanism has been studied for the fossilization of wood and cel l walls, but for cytoplasm little has been done. Edwards and Axe (2004) experimented w ith extant plant material and found that cytoplasm can be preserved in charcoal form. Mechanisms for cytoplasm fossilization will be the focus of the following paragraphs. Plasmolysis is a common phenomenon in pl ants. It happens when plant tissue loses water (Berg, 1997). In plasmolysis, the plant cytoplasm will shrink because of the loss of water, leaving gaps between cytoplasmi c membranes and cell walls (Oldroyd, 1969; Berg, 1997). At the same time, plasmolyzed ce lls still remain connected with neighboring cells through plasmodesmata, and cell memb ranes become spiny in appearance (Oldroyd, 1969; Berg, 1997). This configurat ion of cells is documented in extant plants, but was not previously recognized in fossils. As described in Chapter 4 , to explore the potential of high temperature for cytoplasm fossilization, I experimented with mo dern plant materials, taking fresh twigs of Ligustrum japonicum and heating them at 425 F (218 C) for various lengths of time. After baking for 30 minutes, the material a ppeared charcoalified. This material was processed for paraffin section and mounted onto a slide, followi ng the procedure for extant plant material (Johanson, 1940; Jensen, 1962). The only differen ce is that I did not use any fixatives or dyes. After almost two years, the cells and th eir contents are still well-preserved in section, and cells still assume a spiny configuration (Plate LXVIII, figs.

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111 3, 5), similar to those documented by Oldroyd (1969) and Berg (1997). This experiment showed that it is possible to fossilize cells by using high temperature, if the preservation process occurs using the right combination of elements. Future Research “A hypothesis will be accepted by a scientific community if it explains better (more of) what is known about other parts of our universe and makes verifiable, preferably risky, predictions . . . The best theories are pr oductive, in that they stimulate experiment.” (Hoffmann, 2003). Most theories, including the theory that th e earth orbits the sun, the DNA double helix model, and the quark model, cannot be tested or verified with the naked eye, but they all can explain many obs ervations. “The purpose of theory… is ‘to bring order, clarity, and pred ictability’” to the world (H offmann, 2003). According to the knowledge above, lightning plays an important in cytoplasm fossi lization, fixing tissue through electromagnetic field or electric currents, and char coalifying plant tissue into permanent record in stratum by high temper ature in wildfire. The hypothesis proposed here has support from studies on both fossil a nd extant material. This hypothesis predicts the common presence of cytoplasm fossils, a prediction that is risky and has gained supports from the works by Kizilshtein et al . (2003) and Edwards and Axe (2004). It is expected that more supports will be ga ined after the hypothesi s is accepted. This hypothesis also raises new questions, as e numerated below. The answers to these questions will help to improve or mo dify the hypothesis proposed here. Contribution of lightning and wildfire. To better understand cytoplasm fossilization, careful study on the effects of lightning and wildfire on extant trees should be carried out. How much the EMF generated by lightning contributes to fossilization is still unknown. But additional studies on extant material hit by lightning are needed to

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112 confirm the role of lightning’s EMF. This st udy will also contribute to the understanding of the effects of pulsed, multifrequency, highpower irradiation on plants. Even though there is primary report s about electric current path in trees, the physiological effects of the electric current is never well studied. Th e roles of electric current and EMF should also be clearly addressed and tested by futu re research. Experiments indicate that flame or high temperature alone can char plant cells, resulting in distortion and shrinkage, unlike what is seen in fossils. Detailed micr oscopic and molecular le vel studies still need to be done. All these works ar e fundamental for future re search on fossil cytoplasm. Structural study of macromolecules in the cell. Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) technology permits people to study the 3D structure of macromolecules, such as DNA and RNA. Driscoll et al. (1990) descri be atomic–resolution imaging of duplex DNA. Topographic STM images of uncoated du plex DNA on a graphite substrate show double helical structure, base pairs, and an atomic-scale substructure. Further investigation of this technology may prove us eful in sequencing DNA. With substantial technological advance, sequencing fossil DNA or RNA by STM may be possible. Recent advances in TEM technology al so allow three-dimensional imaging of whole cells, cell organelles, and protein complexes. For exam ple, the Tecnai G2 Polara from FEI can perform structural biology tomography and si ngle particle analysis (Chapman, 2003), and LVEM5 (claimed to be the smallest TEM in the world) can provide images of such particles as enzymes, ribosomes, proteins and DNA even without staining of heavy metals (Chapman, 2003). Integrating these tech nologies into fossil cytoplasm research will accelerate the progress in understanding ancient life.

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113 Reaction of cells under high temperature. It is known that plants may produce small heat shock proteins (sHsp) when th ey are under heat stress (Knight and Ackerly, 2003). But generally say, the reaction of plant cells under high temperature is relatively poorly understood. The reaction (Qiu et al ., 2002 and 2003) of some proteins and physiology of cells (Barnes, 1986a ) are better underst ood. It looks like that we can expect small heat shock protein in most of our fo ssil cytoplasm. But fu rther study in this direction is indispensable to infer re liable information from fossil cells. Pulsed irradiation and its effects on plants. Most research on pulsed irradiation is based on the experiments with animals, and the conclusions are equivocal. Detailed study on its effects on plant mate rial should be done to help test the lightning-producedfossil hypothesis. Absorption/attenuation of irradiation of lightning by plants . Attenuation of the EMF field is reported, but the mechanism is unknown. How important vegetation is in this attenuation is a key que stion to answer to unders tand the lightning-made-fossil hypothesis. Other processes for cytoplasm fossilization. Cytoplasm fossilization was not well known before this research. In this chapter, I proposed two mechanisms for cytoplasm fossilization, lightni ng and high temperature. But these are not exhaustive, even considering the proposal of Niklas et al. (1978 and 1981b). There may be other unknown processes involved in cytoplasm foss ilization that also should be explored.

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114 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSIONS The Dakota Formation yielded abundant mesofossils. The favorable preservation of these mesofossils permits extracting information about floristic composition, morphology, anatomy, systematics, e volution, taphonomy, fossilization, 3-D visualization, and paleoenvironment of th e plants. Based on the research in this dissertation, the following c onclusions may be drawn: 1. Cytoplasm can be fossilized by lightning, high temperatures from a wildfire, or a combination of both. This hypothesis of a fossilization mechanism will make cytoplasm fossil a universal phenomenon. The discovery of cytoplasm preserved in original organic material opens a door to more new research, which includes study of organelles, m acromolecules in cell, and the physiology of fossils. 2. The study of Parapodocarpus gave a new interpretation of the reproductive structure using FlorinÂ’s bract-scale complex concept, thus unified the interpretation of reproductive organs in conifers and brought the systematic position of the Podocarpaceae closer to other families of conifers than previously thought. 3. The Monimiaceae may have had representatives as early as the late Albian, which indicates that the evolution of th is branch of angiosperms occurred quite earlier than previously believed.

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115 4. The three-dimensional reconstruction of fossil plant part based on serial twodimensional images can be done usin g modern computer technology. This provides a convenient way to present info rmation on fossil in three dimensions. The soft-cutting technique gives people more freedom to make formerly impossible observations on fossils. This a pplication will help to bridge the gap between professional and non-professional people, and help the professional people exchange information. 5. Based on the mesoflora data, the fl oras of the Dakota Formation were dominated by gymnosperms, even though the angiosperms appeared to have very high diversity. 6. The fact that most of the angiosperm me sofossils are intact despite being fragile parts of plants implies that the early a ngiosperms were living in habitats that were close to or in aquatic environments. 7. The image of the floras generated on the basis of mesofossil data tends to overestimate the gymnosperms, which are more resistant to abrasion, while it preserves the high diversity of angiospe rms. In comparison, the image of the floras based on megafossil data tends to overestimate angiosperms, while that based on miospore data tends to overestimate ferns and gymnosperms.

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116 APPENDIX A. MORPHOTYPE DESCRIPTION. In this investigation, I re cognized 267 different kinds of morphological entities. For purposes of documenting diversity and making comparisons among and between mesofloras, I provide the following enum eration and description of morphotypes, accompanied by the indicated photomicrographs. . Morphotype 001Plate II, figs. 1-4. Description: Oval or sub-oval thin sheets of organic material, seems to have an attachment to other part, 0.9-1.4 x 1.2-1.4 mm. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: It is difficult to determine the group of this fossil. It may be part of a lower plant. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 002Plate II, figs. 5-6. Description: Oval, relatively thick sheet of organic material, with characteristic fine wrinkles on the surface, 1.0 x 1.2 mm. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: It is difficult to determine the group of this fossil. It may be part of a lower plant. It is different from Morphotype 001 by its thickness a nd characteristic fine wrinkles. Occurrence: Acme. . Morphotype 003Plate II, figs. 7-8. Description: Triangular, relatively thick bloc k of organic material, striations converging on one of the corners, seems to have an attachment at that corner with characteristic fine wrinkles on the surface, 0.9 x 1.0 mm. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: It is difficult to determine the group of this fossil. It may be part of a lower plant. It is different from Mor photype 001 and 002 by its thickness and triangular shape. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 004Plate II, figs. 9-11. Description: Fragment of a raised margin and multiple protrusions in side; the protrusion appearing smooth, some of them broken, inside view showing compartmentalization, 1.3 x 2.0 mm, margin 0.25 mm wide. Possible group: Lower plant.

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117 Remarks: It may be part of a lower plant. It appears similar to the fruit of Nymphaea , but the smooth appearance eliminates this possibility because a residue of style is expected for Nymphaea . It shares some similarity to the cleistothecium of Ascomycetes (Bold et al., 1980) . It may be some reproductive organ of a lower plant. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 005 Plate II, fig. 12. Description: Fragment of a structure with a spherical appearance, appearing compartmentalized, 0.6 x 1.0 mm. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: It may be part of a lower plant. It has some similarity with Morphotype 004, but is different from it by absence of the raised margin and form of the fragment. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 006 Plate II, fig. 13. Description: Cuticular (?) surface of a part, with holes on it, 2.0 x 2.7 mm. Holes 0.1-0.4 mm in diameter. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: This fossil appears to be a more resistant surface of a more fragile part of an organ. It bears some similarity to Morphotype 015. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 007 Plate II, figs. 14-15. Description: Fan-like thin sheet of organic material, seems to have surface texture converging on the bottom of the fossil, width 0.7 mm, height 0.5 mm. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: This fossil is distinguished from others by its configuration. It is difficult to tell which group it belongs to. It may be some part of a lower plant. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 008 Plate III, figs. 1-2. Description: Fragment of part of a plant, wi th multiple holes on its surface, 0.7 x 0.9 mm. Each unit 0.2 mm in diameter; Opening 70 m. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: This fossil is distinguished from others by the holes on its surface, which may be asci or antheridia (Bold et al., 1980). It may be some part of a lower plant. Occurrence: Acme. . Morphotype 009 Plate III, fig. 3. Description: Fragment with multiple attachments, 1.1 x 1.4 mm. Each unit 0.4 mm in diameter, with a opening about 140 m in diameter. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: This fossil is distinguished from ot hers by its configuration. It may be some part of a lower plant. Occurrence: Braun Valley. .

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118 Morphotype 010 Plate III, figs. 4-5. Description: Nearly triangular sheet of or ganic material, 2.0 x 2.2 mm, with multiple protrusions on the surface, 50 m in diameter, opening 7 x 30 m. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: The uncertainty of the fossil lies in the nature of the protrusion on the surface of this fossil. If it is a cluster of stomata, this fo ssil may be a petal of a flower. However, if it is a spore orga n, it could be a lower plant. Occurrence: Acme. . Morphotype 011 Plate III, fig. 6. Description: A thin sheet of organic material, with multiple protrusions on it surface, 1.0 x 1.1 mm, 30 m thick. Each protrusion 70-100 m in diameter. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: It is difficult to group this fossil, b ecause of shortage of features. It is more likely to be a lower plant. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 012 Plate III, fig. 7. Description: A thick sheet of organic material , with multiple holes on its surface. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: It is difficult to group this fossil, becau se of a shortage of features. It is more likely to be lower plant. This foss il is different from Morphotype 011 in its thickness. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 013 Plate III, figs. 8-9. Description: A leaf-like structure, 0.7 x 0.8 mm, with protrusions, 110 x 150 m, on its surface. Spores about 33 m in the protrusions. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: This fossil is more likely to be lower plant, since there is not sporangium-like structure present. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 014 Plate III, figs. 10-12. Description: A thick leaf-like structure, 1.1-2.5 x 1.2-2.8 mm, with protrusions, about 0.2 mm in diameter, on its surface. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: It is difficult to group this fossil. This fossil is similar to Morphotype 013, but no spore is seen in this fossil. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 015 Plate III, figs. 13-14. Description: A thick, flattened structure, 2.5 x 4.3 mm, with budlike structures, 0.4 x 0.6 mm, on its surface. Possible group: Lower plant.

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119 Remarks: It is difficult to group this fossil. The nature of th e bud-like structure may decide the grouping of this fossil. It is put in lower plants for the time being. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 016 Plate III, figs. 15-18. Description: A leaf-like structure, 2.3 x 2.3 mm, about 140 m thick, with clear cellular details, cells 10-20 x 15-30 m. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: It is difficult to group this fossil. It looks like a leaf, but no venation or stomata are seen. It is more likely to be a leaf-like structure of a lower plant. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 017 Plate IV, figs. 1-3. Description: A round, leaf-like structure, 1.2-1.4 x 0.7-1.1 mm, with irregular texture on it surface. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: It may be a lower plant. Occurrence: Acme. . Morphotype 018 Plate IV, figs. 4-9. Description: A leaf-like structure, 1.2-4.0 x 0.8 x 2.6 mm, with irregular texture on its surface. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: This type is similar to Mor photype 017, but is different from Morphotype 017 in its general profile. Occurrence: Acme. . Morphotype 019 Plate IV, figs. 10-11. Description: A leaf-like structure, 1.1 x 2.1 mm , without irregular texture on its surface. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: This type is similar to Morphotype s 017 and 018, but is different in its lack of an irregular texture on its surface. Occurrence: Acme. . Morphotype 020 Plate IV, figs. 12-13. Description: A thick, leaf-like structure, 1.4 x 1.5 mm, with an irregular texture on its surface. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: This type is similar to Morphot ypes 017, 018, 019, but is different in its relatively regular texture. Occurrence: Acme. . Morphotype 021 Plate IV, figs. 14-16. Description: A semi-triangular, leaf-like stru cture, 1.3-1.4 x 1.8-2.1 mm, with an irregular texture on its surface.

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120 Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: This type is similar to Morphotypes 017, 018 in irregular texture, but is different in its general form. Occurrence: Acme. . Morphotype 022 Plate V, figs. 1-3. Description: A thin, leaf-like structure, 0.8-1.4 x 0.9-1.4 mm, with regular protrusions, about 0.2 mm in diameter, on its surface. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: This type is distinct from othe rs in its regular protrusions on its surface. Occurrence: Black Wolf, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 023 Plate V, fig. 4. Description: A thin, leaf-like structure, 1.1 x 1.3 mm, with a notch at its tip. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: This type is distinct from others in the notch on its tip. It may be similar to a petal of a flower. For the time being it is put in lower plants. Occurrence: Acme. . Morphotype 024 Plate V, figs. 5-7. Description: A thins leaf-like structure, 1.0-1.6 x 0.5-0.8 mm, with dense hairlike structure on one surface. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: This type is distinct from others in its dense hair-like structure, which is similar to some lichen rhizine. This is the major reason for putting it in lower plants. Another possibility is that the fo ssil may be a aqua tic floating leaf. Occurrence: Black Wolf, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 025 Plate V, fig. 8. Description: A thick, leaf-like structure, 1.8 x 1.9 mm, with a round profile. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: This type is distinct from others in its general profile. It may be a petal of a flower or a cone scale. For the time being it is put in lower plants. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 026 Plate V, figs. 9-10. Description: A thin leaf-like structure, 1.2-2.2 x 1.1-1.4 mm. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: This type is distinct from others in the narrow fan shape of profile. It is different from Morphotype 025 in its form. It may be similar to a petal of a flower. For the time being it is put in lower plant. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 027 Plate V, figs. 11-18.

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121 Description: A thin leaf-like structure, 0.4-2.1 x 0.3-1.8 mm, with an evident margin and sparse, hair-like structures on one side of the fossil. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: This type is similar to Morphotype 024 in its hair-like structure, but much sparser. These hair-like structures show some similarity to rhizine of lichens, which is reason for putting it in lower plants. Another possibility is that the fossil may be a aquatic floating leaf. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf. . Morphotype 028 Plate V, figs. 19-20. Description: A leaf-like structure, 1.0 x 2.0 mm, with a point at its tip and multiple holes (possible glands, 30 m in diameter) on its surface. Stomata 16 x 22 m. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: The function of these holes is not yet known. If they are glands openings, then the fossil may belong to a highe r plant; otherwise it may belong to a lower plant. For the time being it is put in lower plants. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 029 Plate V, figs. 21-22. Description: A thin, leaf-like structure, more than 1.3 x 3.2 mm, with tiny holes on its surface. Stomata 30x18 m; cell 25 x 8 m. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: This type is distinct from others in its relatively smooth surface and tiny holes on its surface. One of them (Plate XLII, fig. 33-35) is similar to Taxon 10, conifer pollen coneÂ’s dispersed scale (Herendeen et al., 1999). Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 030 Plate V, figs. 23-24. Description: A flattened structure, 0.9 x 1.0 mm , with a regular arrangement of elongate cells, 9 x 22 m. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: This type is distinct from others in its relatively smooth surface and its non-leaf-like form. It does not f it in higher plant groups, so it is put in lower plants for the time being. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 031 Plate V, figs. 25-27. Description: A thin, leaf-like structure with an attachment parallel to the leaf-like structure, 0.8 x 1.2 mm, with sparse, hair-like structures. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: It is different from other types of lower plants by its more threedimensional form, composition of the structure, and hair-like structure. It is put in lower plants for the time being. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 032 Plate VI, figs. 1-4.

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122 Description: Slightly flattened, round stru ctures, 1.0-1.1 x 1.2-1.4 mm, appearing to have a ridge. Possible group : Ferns. Remarks: This type shows some similarity to Regnellidium (Lupia et al., 2000), but the details do not match well. There is al so the possibility of it being some kind of seed. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf. . Morphotype 033 Plate VI, figs. 5-7. Description: Fusiform structures with a depression on its surface, 1.8-2.2 x 2.04.0 mm. Possible group : Ferns. Remarks: This type is similar to the me gasporangia of some aquatic ferns (? Azolla , Marsileaceae). Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 034 Plate VI, fig. 8. Description: A crozier of a fern, about 2.2 mm in diameter. Possible group : Ferns. Remarks: This type is similar to “circinate fe rn rachis” (Fig. 1C, Takahashi et al., 1999). Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf. . Morphotype 035 Plate VI, figs. 9-10. Description: An oval structure with por es on its surface, 0.6 x 1.0 mm. Possible group: Leptosporangiate ferns. Remarks: This type is similar to megasporangium of aquatic fern Azolla . It is similar to part of Azolla prisca (Mai and Walther, 1978), but this type and Morphotype 036 together make a whole megasporangium. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 036 Plate VI, figs. 11-12. Description: A conical structure with a smooth surface, and truncate at one end, 2.6 mm long, 1.9 mm , 1.8 mm thick. Possible group: Leptosporangiate ferns. Remarks: This type is similar to the float of the megasporangium of the aquatic fern Azolla . It is similar to part of Azolla prisca (Mai and Walther, 1978), but this type and Morphotype 035 together make a whole megasporangium. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 037 Plate VI, figs. 13-15. Description: Rotund triangular trilete megaspor e, about 0.6 mm in diameter, with spine-like appendages about 34 m in diameter. Possible group : Ferns. Remarks: This type is similar to Paxillitriletes vittatus (Plate 1, fig.1, Kovach and Dilcher, 1985; Fig. 4c, Kovach, 1988). Because the triangular shape is only slightly

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123 different from what Kovach and Dilcher describe d, it is safe to put this type in the genus Paxillitriletes . Paxillitriletes is thought to have been isoe talean and live in semi-aquatic to aquatic habitats (Kovach, 1988). Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 038 Plate VI, figs. 16-18. Description: Thin layer, shield-like structur e, about 2.0 mm in diameter, 0.5 mm high, and 70 m thick. Possible group : Ferns. Remarks: This type looks like an indusium of a fern. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf. . Morphotype 039 Plate VII, figs. 1-10. Description: Round megaspores, 0.8-1.0 mm in diam eter, with a triradiate mark and tuberculate on the margin between the prox imal and distal surfaces. Triradiate marks 40-80 m wide, 200-300 m long. Possible group : Ferns. Remarks: Similar megaspore, Tuberculatisporites, has been reported from Sigilariostrobus from the Upper Carboniferous by Hemsley and Scott (1991, Plate III, fig. 1). The major difference is the relative ly smaller size and r ound tubercles of this specimen. Occurrence: Acme. . Morphotype 040 Plate VII, figs. 11-12. Description: Curved shoot apex, 1.5 mm l ong and 1.0 mm wide, with multiple glands-like structure on it surface. Possible group : Ferns. Remarks: This may be a tip of a fern shoot. The cuticlar blisters on the surface of the specimen is similar to what Edwards and Axe (2004) documented. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 041 Plate VII, figs. 13-15. Description: Curved shoot apices, 1.03.0 mm long and 0.4-1.0 mm wide. Possible group : Ferns. Remarks: This may be a tip of a fern shoot. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 042 Plate VII, figs. 16-17. Description: Lingual leaf, with a revolute marg in and 4 radial attachments on its surface, 1.4 mm long and 0.9 mm wide. Possible group : Ferns. Remarks: This type appears to be a fe rn leaf with residue of sori. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 043 Plate VII, figs. 18-19; Plate VIII, figs. 1-2.

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124 Description: Fragmental flat leaves, 0.91.3 mm long, 0.7-1.3 mm wide, with venation visible. Possible group : Ferns. Remarks: This type appears to be a pinule. It is similar to the pinule (fig. 27a) depicted by Scott (2000). Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 044 Plate VIII, figs. 3-4. Description: Rachis with two pinules attach ed, 1.6 mm long, 1.4 mm wide. Each pinule 0.7 mm long and 0.6 mm wide. Possible group : Ferns. Remarks: This type appears to be a fern leaf. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 045 Plate VIII, fig. 5. Description: Leaf-like structure with a rib (venation) on its surface, 1.2 mm long and 0.8 mm wide. Possible group : Ferns. Remarks: This type may be a fern leaf. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 046 Plate VIII, fig. 6. Description: Revolute leaf, 2.0 mm long and 1.5 mm wide. Possible group : Ferns. Remarks: This type appears to be a fern leaf. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 047 Plate VIII, figs. 7-8. Description: Fragmental leaf with dense stomata, 1.1 mm long. Stomata shallow, round, randomly oriented, with a narrow slit, without special ornamentation, 26 x 30 m. Possible group : Ferns. Remarks: This type appears to be a leaf be longing to a fern or angiosperm. Its small size implies greater possibility it is a fe rn. The shallow simple stomata suggest an aquatic environment. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 048 Plate VIII, figs. 9-11. Description: Rachis with two opposite thick pinules attached, 0.5 mm long and 1.0 mm wide. Each pinule 0.4 mm long and 0.4 mm wide, with stomata on the abaxial side. Stomata shallow, round, uniformly orient ed, with a relatively wide slit, without special ornamentation, 28x 28 m. Possible group : Ferns. Remarks: This type appears to be a leaf be longing to a fern or angiosperm. Its small size implies greater possibility it is a fern. The shallow simple stomata suggest aquatic environment. Occurrence: Black Wolf.

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125 . Morphotype 049Plate VIII, figs. 12-17; Plate IX, figs. 1-9, 15-18; Plate XLI, figs. 20-21; Plate XLV, figs. 12-18. Description : Conifer twigs, 0.8-4.4 mm long, 1.0-1.2 x 1.6-1.7 mm in cross section, with spirally arranged scales. Scales long and en closing tightly the core of the part, with a smooth surface. Possible group : Conifer, Pinaceae? Remarks: This type includes a conifer shoot of quite wide variation range. Shoots (Plate IX, figs. 2-4) are especially similar to Pinus robustifolia (Taf. 13, figs. 2224, Mai and Walther, 1978). One of the specimens (Plate VIII, figs.15-17) may have cytoplasm residue preserved. Occurrence: Black Wolf, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 050Plate IX, figs. 10-12. Description : Conifer twig, 1.1 mm long, 0.9-1.2 mm wide, with spirally arranged scales. Scales short and thin, no sharp tip (?), appearing fragile, with a conspicuous outline of the epidermis cells. Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type is different from the Morphotype 049 in its short scale and from Morphotype 052 in its thin scale. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 051Plate IX, fig. 13. Description : Conifer shoot apex, 5.1 mm long, 2.1 mm wide, scales vary in their length from long to short from the periphery to the central, arra nged around and arching over the tip of the shoot. Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type may be a shoot apex wi th a meristem. This shoot apex is different from other conifer shoot apices in th e rapid change in the length of the scales. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 052Plate X, figs. 1-22; Plate XI, figs. 1-6. Description : Conifer twigs, 1.3-3.4 mm long, 0.5-1.5 mm wide, with short and fat scales closely attached to the axis. Scales 1.0-1.5 mm long, 0.5-0.8 mm wide, decussately or spirally arranged along the axis, with a relatively sharp tip. Epidermal cells 20-23 m long, 11-13 m wide. Possible group : Conifer, Cupressaceae. Remarks: This type is very similar to Taxon 9, conifer type 4 (Fig. 7A-B, Herendeen et al., 1999) and “conifer leaf type 1” (Figs. 2A-C, Takahashi et al, 1999), but with a wider variation in its morphology. So me of scales are especially similar to Cupressospermum saxonicum (Taf. 2, figs. 13-16, Mai, 1997). Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf, Braun Valley, Smokey River. . Morphotype 053Plate XI, figs. 7-12; Plate XLI, figs. 18-19.

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126 Description : Conifer twigs, 1.8-5.0 mm long, 0. 8-2.2 mm wide, with spirally arranged scales. Scales, 0.8–4.0 mm long, 0.2-0.8 mm wide, encl osing tightly the core of the part, robust or not, with or without ev ident epidermal cellular outlines, with round tips. Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type is different from Mo rphotypes 054 and 055 in its round tip, and from Morphotype 052 in its long scales. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf. . Morphotype 054 Plate XI, figs. 13-14. Description : Conifer twig, 5.4 mm long, 1.2 mm wide, with spirally arranged scales. Scales, 2.0 mm long, 0.8 mm wide, rigid and enclosing tight ly the core of the part, with characteristic pits on the su rface, with relatively sharp tips. Possible group : Conifer, Cupressaceae? Remarks: This type is different from Mo rphotype 053 in its rigid form and relatively sharp tip, and from Morphot ype 055 in its short and wide scales. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf, Braun Valley, Smokey River. . Morphotype 055 Plate XI, figs. 15-22; Plate XII, figs. 1-10. Description : Conifer twigs, 1.8-3.8 mm long, 0. 5-1.1 mm wide, with spirally arranged scales. Scales, 0.92.4 mm long, 0.2-0.6 mm wide, en closing tightly the axis, with a smooth surface or with weak striations, with sharp tips. Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its sharp tips, long scales. This type is very similar to Taxon 8, coni fer type 3 (Fig. 6A-F, Herendeen et al., 1999), but with a wider vari ation in its morphology. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf, Braun Valley, Smokey River. . Morphotype 056 Plate XII, figs. 11-20. Description : Conifer needle leaves, 1.5 mm l ong, 0.4 mm wide, with an omegashaped cross section, with eviden t stomata or resinous glands 26-30 m long and 22-30 m wide, with two lateral grooves. Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type is different from other leaf types in its omega-shaped cross section, two lateral grooves, and ev ident stomata or resinous glands. Occurrence: Braun Valley, Smokey River. . Morphotype 057 Plate XII, figs. 21-24; Plate XIII, figs. 1-2. Description : Conifer needle leaves, 1.1-2.0 mm long, 0.5-0.6 mm wide, with a triangular-shaped cross section. Possible group : Conifer, Pinaceae. Remarks: This type is different from othe r leaf types in its triangular-shaped cross section. This type may be a Pinus leaf with 3 needles in the same group. Occurrence: Acme, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 058 Plate XIII, figs. 3-7.

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127 Description : Conifer scale leaves, 1.7-4.1 mm long, 1.1 mm wide, curved, with a mid-ridge on their ventral surface, with round tips. Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type is different from other twigs or leaves in its large size, curved form, and mid-ridge. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 059 Plate XIII, fig. 8. Description : Conifer scale leaves, 5.3 mm long, >1.4 mm wide, curved, without mid-ridge on their ventral surface, with round tips. Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type is different from Mo rphotype 058 in its absence of a midridge, and different from other twigs or l eaves in its large size and curved form. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 060 Plate XIII, figs. 9-11. Description : Conifer scale leaves, 4.0 mm l ong, 1.7 mm wide, straight, without evident mid-ridge on their ventral surface but triangular in cross s ection, with round tips. Stomata 70 m long, 50 m wide. Epidermal cells 90 m long and 12 m wide. With cytoplasm preserved. Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type is different from Mo rphotypes 058 and 059 in its absence of evident mid-ridge, and different from other t ypes in its triangular sh ape cross section and round tips. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 061 Plate XIII, figs. 12-14. Description : Conifer scale leaves, 5.4 mm long, 1.0 mm wide, probably semicircular in cross section, with a round tip, with cytoplasm preserved. Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its form and preservation of cytoplasm. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 062 Plate XIII, figs. 15-17, 21-22. Description: Leaves, 2.7-3.5 mm long, 0.6 mm wide, 0.2 mm thick, rounded rectangular cross section, with cytoplasm preserved. Stomata 30 m long, 20 m wide. Possible group : Conifer? cycads? Remarks: This type is different from other types in its rounded rectangular shape in cross section. Occurrence: Smokey River. . Morphotype 063 Plate XIII, figs. 18-20. Description: Leaf, 1.5 mm long, 0.6 mm wide, 0.2 mm thick, rounded rectangular in cross section, with possi ble cytoplasm preserved. Stomata opening 50 m long, 17 m wide.

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128 Possible group : Conifer? Cycads? Remarks: This type is different from other types in its rectangular-shaped cross section. Occurrence: Smokey River. . Morphotype 064 Plate XIII, 2327; Plate XIV, figs. 1-6. Description: see “ Pinus leaf” in Chapter 4. Possible group : Conifer, Pinaceae, Pinus. Remarks: see “ Pinus leaf” in Chapter 4. Occurrence: Black Wolf, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 065 Plate XIV, figs. 7-9. Description: Needle leaf, 3.4 mm long, 0.7 mm wide, 0.5 mm thick, square in cross section, with stomata. Stomata 96 m long, 60 m wide. Epidermal cells 30-70 m long, 10-36 m wide. Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its square-shape in cross section and 5 rows of stomata. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 066 Plate XIV, figs. 10-13. Description: Scale leaf, 1.6 mm long , 0.8 mm wide, with a sharp tip and possible stomata, with cytoplasm and fungi preserved. Epidermal cells 45-50 m long, 13-25 m wide. Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type is different from other t ypes in its being an isolated scale. The surface of the preserved cytoplasm is covered with material looking like a urediospore germ tube (Figs. 35, P95, Littlefield and Heath, 1979). Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 067 Plate XIV, figs. 14-17. Description: Scale leaves, 3.2-4.3 mm long, 0.6 mm wide, 0.8 mm thick, curved, round, or sharp triangular in cross section, with a smooth surface, sharp or round tipped. Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type is different from Mor photype 058 in its smooth surface, from Morphotype 059 in its presence of mid-ridge, from Morphotype 060 and other types in its curved form. It is possible that one of the specimens (Plate XIV, figs. 14-15) is from a fern. Occurrence: Black Wolf, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 068 Plate XIV, figs. 18-21. Description: Scale leaves, 2.0-2.8 mm long, 0.7-1.0 mm wide, slightly curved, triangular in form, with a smooth surface, sharp tipped. Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type is different from Morphotypes 058, 059, and 060 in its triangular form with a sharp tip.

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129 Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 069 Plate XIV, figs . 22-24; Plate XV, figs. 1-5. Description: Cone axes, 2.0-3.3 mm long, 0.5-1.2 mm wide, with cone scales or their marks spirally arranged. Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type includes various kinds of cone axis. Occurrence: Black Wolf, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 070 Plate XV, figs. 6-8. Description: Cone, 1.6 mm long, 1.0 mm wide, with a sharp tip, with cone scales spirally arranged. Cone scal e appearing with seeds at tached on their shields. Possible group: Cycad? Remarks: This type is unique in its cone form with a sh arp tip and possible seeds attached to the shield s of the cone scale. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 071 Plate XV, figs. 9-11. Description: Cone, 1.7 mm long, 1.1 mm wide, cylindrical, with cone units spirally arranged. Possible group : Gymnosperm? angiosperm? Remarks: This type is unique in its cone form and cone units. It is difficult to tell which group it belongs to before further detail ed work is done. It has the possibility of being a fruiting unit of magnoliids. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 072 Plate XIV, figs . 25-27; Plate XV, figs. 12-13. Description: Cone and its axis, 4.6 mm long, 0. 9 mm wide, with cone scales spirally arranged, with striatio ns on the surface of cone axis. No seeds or sporangia seen. Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type is unique in its elongate cone axis a nd striations on the axis surface. Occurrence: Black Wolf, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 073 Plate XV, 14-16. Description: Half of a cone, 2.3 mm long, 1.7 mm wide, cylindrical with a round tip, with cone scales spirally and tightly arrange d. Cone scale 0.7 mm long, 0.7 mm wide, thick, with a round tip. Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type is unique in its cone form with a sh arp tip and possible seeds attached to the shield s of the cone scale. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 074 Plate XV, figs. 17-18. Description: Cone, 3.3 mm long, 1.8 mm wide, el ongate elliptical form with a round tip, with cone scales spirally and tight ly arranged. Cone scale thick, with ovules.

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130 Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type is unique in its cone form and cone scale with ovules. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 075 Plate XV, figs. 19-23; Plate XLII, figs. 28-37. Description: Various cone scales, 1.0-4.6 mm long, 0.5-4.0 mm wide. Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type includes various ki nds of isolated cone scales. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf, Braun Valley, Smokey River. . Morphotype 076 Plate XVI, figs. 1-4. Description: Cone scale, 7.0 mm long, 4.1 mm wide, 0.9 mm thick, with two possible ovules or seeds, with a round tip. Br act separated from the scale, with multiple resinous canals. Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type is unique in its large si ze, separated bract, and cone scale. The bract may have multiple resinous canals, the scale has two possible ovules/seeds. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 077 Plate XVII, figs. 1-6. Figs. 1-6 SEM pictures. os = ovulate scale, br = bract, ca = cone axis. Description: see Parapodocarpus acuminatum in Chapter 4. Possible group: Podocarpaceae, Parapodocarpus acuminatum. Remarks: see Parapodocarpus acuminatum . Occurrence: Black Wolf, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 078 Plate XVII, figs. 7-13. Figs. 7, 8, 12 SEM pictures. Description: see Parapodocarpus rotundum in Chapter 4. Possible group: Podocarpaceae, Parapodocarpus rotundum. Remarks: see Parapodocarpus acuminatum . Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 079 Plate XVIII, figs. 1-14. Description: female cone, see Chapter 4. Possible group : Conifer . Remarks: see Chapter 4. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 080 Plate XIX, figs . 1-16; Plate XX, figs. 1-3. Description: male cone, see Chapter 4. Possible group : Conifer . Remarks: see Chapter 4. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 081 Plate XX, figs. 4-11.

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131 Description: Fragile part of plant, 3.8 mm long, 2.1 mm wide, with branch of 130 m diameter, with decayed cytoplasm and fungi. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is distinct from ot her types by its characteristic configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 082 Plate XXI, figs. 1-17. Description: Female cones 2.1-2.2 mm long, 1. 0-1.2 mm in diameter, conical. Cone scale spirally arranged, converging at the tip of the cone, with nearly vertical striations on surfaces, with 2 ovules on its ad axial surface. No separated bract visible. Possible group : Gymnosperm, conifers. Remarks: This type is distinct from other co nes in its form, its scales with ovules, and their arrangement. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 083 Plate XXII, figs. 1-7. Description : Conifer twig, 4.0 mm long, 1.0 mm in diameter, long cylindrical, with scales spirally arranged. Scale rhomboida l, with a sharp point, with a rough surface, with a large resin body. Possible group : Gymnosperm, conifers. Remarks: This type is distinct from other tw ig by its large resin body in the scale. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 084 Plate XXIII, figs. 1-11. Description: Cone, 3.1 mm, long 2.2 mm wide, short cylindrical, with a stalk about 0.3 mm in diameter. Cone scale spirally arranged, flame-like, smooth on surface. 3 ovules/seeds on a single scale, one central in upper posit ion, two lateral in basal positions. Cone axis with a scalariform pitted tracheids. Possible group : Gymnosperm. Remarks: This type is very similar to Pityostrobus (Falder et al., 1998). Further detailed comparison is needed for before final decision. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 085 Plate XXIV, figs . 1-15; Plate XXV, figs. 1-16. Description: see Yiruia membranacea in Chapter 4. Possible group : Angiosperm . Remarks: see Yiruia membranacea . Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 086 Plate XXVI, fi gs. 1-15; Plate XXVII, fi gs. 1-15; Plate XXVIII, figs. 1-15. Description: see Mesoradix raria in Chapter 4. Possible group : Angiosperm . Remarks: see Mesoradix raria . Occurrence: Black Wolf.

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132 . Morphotype 087 Plate XXIX, figs. 1-5. Description: see Platanocarpus sp . 1 in Chapter 4. Possible group : Angiosperm, Platanaceae . Remarks: see Platanocarpus sp. 1. Occurrence: ACME. . Morphotype 088 Plate XXIX, figs. 6-7. Description: see Platanocarpus sp. 2 in Chapter 4. Possible group : Angiosperm, Platanaceae . Remarks: see Platanocarpus sp. 2. Occurrence: ACME. . Morphotype 089 Plate XXIX, figs. 8-13. Description: see Platanocarpus sp. 3 in Chapter 4. Possible group : Angiosperm, Platanaceae . Remarks: see Platanocarpus sp. 3. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 090 Plate XXX, figs. 1-5. Description: see Platanocarpus sp. 4 in Chapter 4. Possible group : Angiosperm, Platanaceae . Remarks: see Platanocarpus sp. 4. Occurrence: Braun Valley . . . Morphotype 091 Plate XXX, figs. 6-7. Description: see “Unidentified flower” in Chapter 4. Possible group : Angiosperm, Platanaceae . Remarks: see “Unidentified flower”. Occurrence: Braun Valley . . . Morphotype 092 Plate XXXI, figs. 1-11. Description: Female flower, 4.3 mm long, 1.1 in di ameter, 2 or 3 carpels fused at the base and separated above pe rianth, perianth fallen off with only residue at the base of the flower, with bracts below the periant h. Bracts smooth, with sharp tips, spirally arranged around the pedicel. Carpels with uniform dimension above their fused portion, with ovule (?) both in the style-like portion and in fused portion. Placentation parietal in non-fused portion of carpel, central axial in the fused portion of carpels. One of the three carpels aborted. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is unique in that it ha s very long carpels which have ovules scattered either on its inner surface or aggregated into central placentation. Occurrence: Black Wolf . .

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133 Morphotype 093 Plate XXXII, figs. 1-6. Description: Flower, 2.2 mm long, 1.0 wide, sepals fallen off, 3 petals (tepals), 6 stamens opposite the petals. Petals (tepals) 1.6 mm long and 1.1 mm wide. Anther with 2 pollen sacs. Probably 2 carpels. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is unique in its trimerous flower. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 094 Plate XXXIII, figs. 1-8. Description: Young fruit, 1.6 mm long, 1.2 mm wi de, pentamerous with about 5 perianth parts spirally arra nged, with trichomes on the surface of the perianth part. Stamens missing, one stamenoid visible. Carpel developed into a frui t; style missing, but with a mark with a diameter of 0.3 mm left on the tip of the ovary. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is a young fruit neve r seen in other specimens. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 095 Plate XXXIV, figs. 1-8. Description: Broken flower, 3.6 mm long, 1.5 wide, only one rigid tepal preserved, stamen opposite to the tepal. Tepa l thick, with smooth su rface. Anther big, 1.0 mm long, 0.4 mm wide, with two pollen sacs. Carpels broken. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is unique in its tepal and big opposite pollen sacs. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 096 Plate XXXV, figs. 1-6. Description: Young fruit, 2.1 mm long, 1.5 mm wi de, probably trimerous with several perianth parts, with trichomes on the surface of the ovary. Stamens missing, one stamenoid-like structure visible. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is a young fruit ne ver seen in other collection. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 097 Plate XXXVI, figs. 1-3. Description: Fragment of perianth part, 2.4 mm long, 1.3 mm wide, with adnated stamen. Anther 0.3 mm long, 0.2 mm wide, with hexagonal epidermal cells. Filament >1.1 mm long, 0.3 mm wide. No pollen visible. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is only a fragment, di fficult to correlat with other types. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 098 Plate XXXVI, figs. 4-7. Description: Fragment of a flower, 3.0 mm long, 1.1 mm wide, part of the perianth parts missing, petal (tepal) 2.0 mm long, 0.9 mm wi de, with paracytic stomata and oil glands, nectar present at the base of the carpel (ova ry). Oil glands 45-58 m long, 34 m wide. Stomata 19 x 33 m.

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134 Possible group : Angiosperm, probably Laurales. Remarks: This type is unique in its paracytic stomata, presence of nectar, and oil glands. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 099 Plate XXXVI, figs. 8-14. Description: Flower with oil glands, bilatera l(?), with rigid pedicels, 0.7-1.0 mm long, 0.6-1.0 mm wide. Glands 35-40 m long and 20-33 m wide. Stomata 9 x 5 m. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is unique in its bilateral symmetry and oil glands. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 100 Plate XXXVI, figs. 15-24. Description: Flowers, pentamerous, 1.1-1.5 mm long, 0.7-0.8 mm wide, 3 tepals enclosing the flower, with characteristic trichome and oil glands. Tepal 1.1-1.5 mm long, 0.5 mm wide. Anther with hexagonal epidermal cells. Stomata 8-40 x 6-20 m. Trichome 6-16 m long and 0.6 –1.0 m wide. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is unique in its trimer ous flower, trichome, and oil glands. The anther looks very similar to that of Morphotype 097. Whether they are the same flower cannot be determined for the time being. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 101 Plate XXXVII, figs. 1-5. Description: Flowers, trimerous, 1.0 mm long, 0.8-0.9 mm wide, 3 tepals enclosing the flower, wit hout trichome, but with oil glands. Stomata 18 x 27 m. Glands 30-33 x 23 m. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is unique in its trimer ous flower, oil glands and lack of trichomes. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 102 Plate XXXVII, figs. 6-8. Description: Flower probably hexamerous, 1.5 mm high, 1.7 mm wide, tepals fused at the base. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is unique in its hexame rous flower and tepals fused at the base. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 103 Plate XXXVII, figs. 9-17. Description: Probable inflorescences, 1.0-3.0 mm high, 1.4-2.4 mm wide, with three subunits, smooth surface, epidermal cells 20-30 x 10-20 m, trichome 70 m long and 7 m wide, glands 13 x 14 m. Possible group : Angiosperm? Remarks: This type is unique in its composition of three subunits.

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135 Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 104 Plate XXXVII, figs. 18-22. Description: Broken flower, 3.1 mm high, 1.8 mm wide, smooth surface, glands 30-45 x 20-28 m. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is different from other types by its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 105 Plate XXXVII, figs. 23-26. Description: Broken floral base, 2.2 mm long, 2.3 mm wide, pedicel about 1.0 mm in diameter. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is different from others in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 106 Plate XXXVIII, P1-5. Description: Broken floral bases, 0.6 mm high, 1.3-1.5 mm in diameter, with a mark left by part fallen off. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is different from Mo rphotype 105 in its absence of other parts. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 107 Plate XXXVIII, figs. 6-7. Description: Stamen, 1.5 mm long, 0.5 mm wide ; anther 1.1 mm long, 0.5 mm wide, short filament, 0.4 mm long, 0.1 mm wide. No recognizable pollen grains. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is based on a single isolated stamen. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 108 Plate XXXVIII, figs. 8-12. Description: Possible reproductive organ with spirally arranged subunits, 1.4 mm high, 1.4 mm wide; subunit flame-shaped with ve rtical striations, pos sible fungal spores on the surface. Possible group : Angiosperm? Remarks: This type may be gymnosperm or angiosperm shoot apex or reproductive organ. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 109 Plate XXXVIII, figs. 13-15. Description: Fragile flower(?), 1.2 mm l ong, 0.6 mm wide, part not differentiated, with oil glands 11-20 x 10 m. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is different from Mor photype 110 in that it has no trichome. Occurrence: Black Wolf .

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136 . Morphotype 110 Plate XXXVIII, figs. 16-21. Description: Young flower, 1.3 mm long, 0.9 mm wi de, part not differentiated, with trichome 80-150 m long and 6-10 m wide. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is different from Mo rphotype 109 that it has a trichome. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 111 Plate XXXVIII, figs. 22-24; Plate XXXI X, figs. 1-3. Description: Floral parts, with oil glands, 1.1-1.2 mm long, 0.5 mm wide, glands 30-45 m long and 30-35 m wide. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its oil glands. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 112 Plate XXXIX, figs. 4-5. Description: Floral part with oil glands, 2.0 mm long, 0.9 mm wide, with a stalk, glands 20-30 m long, 15-20 m wide. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is similar to Morphotype 111 in its oil glands, but different from Morphotype 111 in that it is more complete. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 113 Plate XXXIX, figs. 6-9. Description: Broken part of flower, with a pedicel about 2.5 mm long and 2.5 mm wide, with a pollen grain 27 m in diameter. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is different from others in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 114 Plate XXXIX, figs. 10-25; Plat e XL, figs. 1-24; Plate XLV, figs. 12. Description: Bilateral flowers, 1.4-2.3 mm long, 0.9-2.3 mm wide, with trichome, enclosed by two tepals, flattened. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its bilateral symmetry. The inner structure is not clear. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 115 Plate XLI, figs. 1-2. Description: Receptacles, with a mark left by missing part, 2.0 mm long, 1.4-2.7 mm wide. Possible group : Conifer. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . .

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137 Morphotype 116 Plate XLI, fig. 3. Description: Broken floral part, 0.8 mm long, 0.7 mm wide. Possible group : Angiosperm? Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 117 Plate XLI, figs. 4-5. Description: Plant part, 1.2 mm long, 0.9 mm wide, a ppearing distorted. Possible group : Angiosperm? Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 118 Plate XLI, figs. 6-7. Description: Broken floral part, 1.1 mm long, 0. 8 mm wide, with a tricolpate pollen grain attached. Pollen grain 12 m in diameter. Possible group : Angiosperm, eudicots. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 119 Plate XLI, fig. 8. Description: Plant part, 1.8 mm long, 2.0 mm wide. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 120 Plate XLI, figs. 9-11. Description: Broken flower, 1.2 mm long, 1.2 mm wi de, with a trilobate style. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 121 Plate XLI, figs. 12-15. Description: Broken flower, 1.4 mm long, 1.3 mm wide, ovary with a trilobate style, with trichome and oil glands on the inside of perianth. Trichome more than 60 m long, 4-5 m wide. Glands opening 10 x 12 m. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is different from Morphotype 120 in the presence of the trichome, different from other types by its c onfiguration. According to the presentation on IOPC VII by Millan, Crepet, and Nixon (2004), this flower is very similar to their specimen 4, belonging to Theaceae (Ericale s) or Clusiaceae (Malpighiales). Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 122 Plate XLI, figs. 16-17. Description: Flower or fruit, with residue of styles, 0.7 mm long , 0.8 mm wide, triangular in top view. Possible group : Angiosperm?

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138 Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 123 Plate XLI, figs. 22-23. Description: Shoot apex, 1.1-1.2 mm long, 0.8 mm wide, with spirally arranged leaves converging over the top of the apex. Possible group : Angiosperm? Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 124 Plate XLII, figs. 1-6. Description: Shoot apices, 1.7-1.8 mm long, 0. 5-0.8 mm wide, composed of enclosing leaves, with oil glands. Glands 20-29 x 16-23 m. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is different from other t ypes in its configuration. It looks like a type of stipule. Occurrence: Black Wolf, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 125 Plate XLII, fig. 7. Description: Shoot with branches diverting at different angles, 3.5 mm long, 1.6 mm wide. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 126 Plate XLII, fig. 8. Description: Diachisal shoot apex, about 1.0 mm long, 1.1 mm wide. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 127 Plate XLII, figs. 9-10. Description: Slender shoot, more than 4.0 mm long, 0.3 mm wide, with stipule. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 128 Plate XLII, figs. 11-12. Description: Plant roots or shoot fragment s, 2.6-4.4 mm long, 1.0-1.5 mm wide. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 129 Plate XLII, figs. 13-14. Description: Sheath of plant part, 2.4 mm long, 0.3 mm wide, with possible cytoplasm preserved.

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139 Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 130 Plate XLII, figs. 15-18, 21. Description: Shoot fragments, 1.8-5.3 mm l ong, 0.4-0.6 mm wide, with a smooth surface. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf . . Morphotype 131 Plate XLII, figs. 19-20. Description: Branch with a smooth surface and evident cortex, 5.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 132 Plate XLII, figs. 22-24. Description: Shoot with decussate or pair ed branch, 2.5 mm long, 2.9 mm wide, with a smooth surface. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration and paired branching. Occurrence: Acme, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 133 Plate XLII, figs. 25-26. Description : Fruit (?), 1.7 mm long, 0.5 mm wi de, with a possible pollen grain attached. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 134 Plate XLII, fig. 27. Description : Fruit/seed/shoot apex, 1.5 mm long , 1.3 mm wide, with two scales covering the tip. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 135 Plate XLIII, figs. 1-3. Description: Broken flowers, 2.4-2. 9 mm, 1.9-2.0 mm wide, with standing styles, with slender trichome. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf .

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140 . Morphotype 136 Plate XLIII, figs. 4-7. Description: Flowers, 1.6-1.8 mm long, 0.8 mm wide, with a short pedicel, elongate elliptic in outline , tepals enclosing tightly. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. It appears that this flower is partially preserved, considering the general form and that the flower is attached to the pedicel. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 137 Plate XLIII, figs. 8-11. Description: Male flower, 1.5 mm long, 0.4 mm wide, five stamens converging over the top of the flower , filaments strong, about 240 m wide, anther introse, with in situ tricolpate pollen grains. Pollen grain about 8 m in diameter. Possible group : Angiosperm, eudicot. Remarks: This type is very similar to Androdecidua endressii (Magallon et al., 2001). The differences are that this type does not have a co nspicuous connective tissue on the tip of the anther, that there is no diffe rentiation between inner and outer whorls of anthers, that this type is more fragmented, a nd that this type has smaller pollen grains (8 m, rather than 13.5 m, in diameter). The similarities are that the anthers converge over the center of the flower and the pollen grains are tricolpate with coarsely reticulation. . Morphotype 138 Plate XLIII, figs . 12-20; Plate XLIV, figs. 13-16. Description: Shoot with spirally arranged buds, with primordia, 2.7-4.4 mm long, 1.4-2.8 mm wide, with possibl e cytoplasm preserved. Possible group : Angiosperm? Remarks: This type is very similar to Taxon 48, Axis type 1 (Fig. 44C, Herendeen et al., 1999), but with a wider variation in its morphology. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 139 Plate XLIII, figs. 21-23. Description: Shoot apex with leaf pairs spirally arranged along the axis, 4.0 mm long, 1.7 mm wide. With possi ble cytoplasm preserved. Possible group : Conifer? Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 140 Plate XLIV, figs. 1-5. Description: Shoot with laterally attached brac t-like structure, more than 1.8 mm long, 1.2 mm wide, bract-like structure subt ending bud-like structure in its axil. Possible group : Angiosperm? Remarks: This type is different from Mo rphotype 141 in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 141 Plate XLIV, figs. 6-12.

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141 Description: Shoot with a laterally attached bract-like structure, 2.7 mm long, 1.4 mm wide, bract-like structure subtending bud-like structure in its axil. Bract-like structure, 0.5 mm long, 0.4-0.7 mm wide, with resin canal-like structure. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from the preceding type, Morphotype 141, in its bract-like structure with a resi n canal like structure. This type may be a conifer cone. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 142 Plate XLIV, figs. 17-23. Description: Flowers or young fruits, 1.5-3.3 mm long, 0.6-1.0 mm wide, with residue of perianth, appearing trimerous. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 143 Plate XLIV, figs. 24-27. Description: Young fruits, with residue of perianth, 0.9 –1.7 mm, 0.5 –1.0 mm, the fruit body with various form. Possible group : Angiosperm? Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 144 Plate XLIV, figs. 28-30. Description: Plant part, 1.8-1.9 mm, 0.6-1.2 mm wide, rhomboidal in cross section, the tip looking like a recept acle for some missing structure. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its rhomboidal outline in cross section. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 145 Plate XLV, figs. 3-4. Description: see “Floral Cup of Monimiaceae” in Chapter 4. Possible group : Angiosperm, Monimiaceae . Remarks: see “Floral Cup of Monimiaceae”. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 146 Plate XLV, figs. 5-7. Description: Cluster of four subunits, 1.9 mm long, 1.8 mm wide. Each subunit 0.3 mm wide and 0.4 mm thick, round-triangular in cross section, with a truncate tip, the center of the tip with th e mark of a missing part. Possible group : Angiosperm? Remarks: This type is different from other t ypes in its configuration. This type is similar to some monocot flowers after the perianth falls off. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 147 Plate XLV, figs. 8-10.

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142 Description: Bud-like structures, 1.2-3.1 mm long, 0.7-2.1 mm wide, with several fragile subunits attached. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 148 Plate XLV, figs. 11. Description : Fruit or seed, 1.3 mm long, 0.7 mm wide, folded. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 149 Plate XLV, figs. 19-21. Description : Fruit or bud, 1.4 mm long, 2.1 mm wi de, composed of several units enclosing each other, with isodiametric epidermal cells. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 150 Plate XLV, figs. 22-27. Description: Flower or floral part, 2.6 mm long, 1.3 mm wide, arrowhead-like, with possible pollen grains att ached. Possible pollen grain 50-60 m in diameter. Possible group : Angiosperm? Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme. . Morphotype 151 Plate XLVI, figs. 1-12. Description: Fragment of bark, 170 m long, 100 m wide, with crushed tissue, tracheid with helical thickening and big pits , with decayed cytoplasm and fungal hyphae. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 152 Plate XLVII, figs. 1-6; Plate XLVIII, figs. 1-6. Description : Seeds, elliptic in outline , 1.7-3.2 mm long, 0.9-2.2 mm wide, and 1.6 mm high, with extension at one end, round-triangular in cross section, with a papillary surface ornamentation, seed co at 02.-0.4 mm thick, epidermal cell 24-50 m long, 15-28 m wide. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration and surface ornamentation. This type of seed is found in abundance. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 153 Plate XLVIII, figs. 7-12. Description: Cupule-like structure laterally attached to a stalk, 1.1 mm long, 1.7 mm wide; cupule 0.5-1.0 in diam eter; stalk 0.25 in diameter.

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143 Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. The nature of this structure is mysterious, it may be a reproductive part of some lower plant. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 154 Plate XLIX, figs. 1-7. Description : Seed, 1.6 mm long, 1.3 mm wide, 0.7 mm thick, slightly flattened, one side relatively flat, the other side c onvex, with a characteristic cancer-shaped ornamentation, with seed conten t preserved, seed coat 63-100 m thick. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from ot her types in its configuration and characteristic ornamentation. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 155 Plate L, figs. 1-6. Description : Seed, 2.7 mm long, 1.4 mm wide, 0.9 mm thick, slightly curved but otherwise bilateral symmetric, rhomboidal or triangular in cross section, with an unique surface structure, with seed content preserved. Possible group : Gymnosperm, Conifer. Remarks: This type is a seed, which has similarity with Thuja (fig. 31, McIver and Basinger, 1987) in having unequal and irregularly shaped wings. The possible difference is that this seed appears to have a very thin mechanical layer. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 156 Plate LI, figs. 1-4; Plate LXV, figs. 10-12. Description : Seed, 2.6 mm long, 2.0 mm wide, 0.6 mm thick, slightly flattened, with a fine surface structure. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from ot her types in its configuration and characteristic ornamentation. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 157 Plate LI, figs. 5-6. Description: Plant part, 1.7 mm long, 1.5 mm wide. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. This type may be a juvenal part of plant. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 158 Plate LI, figs. 7-8. Description: Flat seed, 2.7 mm long , 2.6 mm wide, with warts over the surface. Warts 24-44 x 15-26 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from ot her types in its configuration and characteristic ornamentation. Occurrence: Acme.

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144 . Morphotype 159 Plate LI, figs. 9-18; Plate LIII, figs. 14-27. Description : Seeds, 1.4-3.9 mm long, 0.6-2.9 mm wide, 0.5-1.3 mm thick, from flattened to global, ridges inconspicuous to conspicuous, with a fine polygonal surface structure. Epidermal cells 11-24 x 5-19 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 160 Plate LI, figs. 19-20. Description : Seed, 2.6 mm long, more than 1.2 mm wide, with two evident ridges, with soft tissue on its surface. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from ot her types in its configuration and characteristic ornamentation. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 161 Plate LI, figs. 21-26. Description : Seeds, 1.3-1.9 mm long, 1.0-1.3 mm wide, with conspicuous depressions on its surface. Depressions 130-200 x 40-165 m. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type includes seeds with ch aracteristic depressions/holes on the surface of the seed coat. They ar e very similar to the seeds of Saurauia (Mai, 1970) in their small size (<3 mm), many depressions ove r the seed coat surface, and depressions arranged around the hilum. Saurauia is a genus in Actinidiaceae (Ericales). It is a tropicsubtropic element distributed in southeast Asia-America. Fossil Saurauia was reported in the Tertiary of Europe by Mai (1970). The presence of this type in Kansas adds some information about the palaeoclimate. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 162 Plate LII, figs. 1-7. Description : Seed, 1.3 mm long, 0.8 mm wide, 0.4 mm thick, flattened, raphe straight and thin, other margin convex with a thickened margin, with residue of seed contents and cytoplasm preserved; seed coats 46-130 m thick, epidermal cells 60-120 x 40-60 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from ot her types in its configuration and characteristic ornamentation. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 163 Plate LIII, figs. 1-3. Description : Seed, 1.2 mm long, 0.7 mm wide, 0.3 mm thick, with evident ridges, with a smooth surface. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from ot her types in its configuration and characteristic ornamentation.

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145 Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 164 Plate LIII, figs. 4-7. Description : Seeds, round, 1.3-1.7 mm long, 0.6-1.7 mm wide, with wings on both sides, epidermal cells 25-30 x 9-17 m, with possible remains of cytoplasmic membrane. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type has an oval shape and missi ng central part, thus it is similar to the configuration of the winged seed ( Liriodendroidea alata, Magnoliaceae) described by Frumin and Friis (1996); the difference is th at this type appears more fleshy and thick than what Frumin and Friis reported. It is difficult to tell whether their specimens are the result of compression. For the time be ing, this seed rema ins unidentified. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 165 Plate LIII, figs. 8-10. Description : Seed, 1.5 mm long, 0.9 mm wide, 0.8 mm thick, not pressed, raphe straight, other margin convex, w ith a rigid surface structure. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from ot her types in its configuration and characteristic ornamentation. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 166 Plate LIII, figs. 11-13. Description : Seed 1.6 mm long, 1.0 mm wide, appearing twisted, thickness varying from one end to the other end, su rface with round depressions, epidermal cells 30-34 x 18-22 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from ot her types in its configuration and characteristic ornamentation. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 167 Plate LIV, figs. 1-4. Description: Banana-shaped seeds, 2.2-2.9 mm long, 1.0-1.3 mm wide. Cells on surface 13-23 x 22-40 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is similar to Epipremnum (Araceae) (Collinson, 1983). They share similar form and similar size of seed. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 168 Plate LIV, figs. 5-6. Description: Net-like structure, 3.6 mm long, 3.5 mm wide, mesh size 80 x 64 m. Possible group: Seed plants? Remarks: This type is unique in its net-like structure. Occurrence: Acme . .

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146 Morphotype 169 Plate LIV, figs. 7-10. Description: Hemiglobal structures, 1.3-1.6 mm long, 0.8-1.5 mm wide, with a smooth surface. Possible group: Seed plants? Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. The nature of this type is still a question. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf . . Morphotype 170 Plate LIV, fig. 11. Description: Flattened elongate oval structur e, 1.0 mm long, 0.6 mm wide, with ridges on its surface. Possible group: Seed plants? Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. The nature of this type is still a question. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 171 Plate LIV, figs. 12-15. Description: Flattened elongate oval stru ctures, 1.3-1.8 mm long, 0.5-0.8 mm wide, without ridges on its surface, curve-shaped. Possible group: Seed plants? Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. The nature of this type is still a question. The curvedness may be the result of preservation. Occurrence: Acme, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 172 Plate LIV, figs. 16-18. Description: Fusiform seed, 1.0 mm long, 0.3 mm wide, 67 m thick. Cells on the surface 34-42 x 74 m. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: This type is similar to Scirpus ragosinii (Mai, 1967). The difference is the smaller size of this type. Occurrence: Smokey River. . Morphotype 173 Plate LIV, figs. 19-27. Description: Bark, 560 m long, 160 m wide, of collenchyma, with cytoplasm preserved. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 174 Plate LV, fig. 1. Description : Seed with a conspicuous angul ar surface ornamentation, 1.3 mm long, 1.2 mm wide. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is very similar to Hosiea marchiaca (Icacinaceae, Mai, 1987) and Liquidambar europaea (Altingiaceae) (Mai and Walther, 1978) in its surface structure.

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147 Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 175 Plate LV, figs. 2-6. Description : Fruits, evident warts on its surface, 1.3-1.7 mm long, 1.0-1.5 mm wide, 1.2 mm thick; with resin bodies. Possible group : Angiosperm, fruit & seed. Remarks: This type is charac teristic by the resin bodi es. It bears a certain similarity to another fruit w ith resin bodies reported by Fr iis et al.(1999, fig. 10), but it is different from that fruit, whic h is described as follows: “The fruit wall contains scattered resin bodies, thought to represen t the remains of ethereal oi l cells. . . This feature is characteristic for many extant magnoliid s, and among the monocotyledons is only reported from the genus Acorus L.” (Friis et al., 1999). Fig. 2 also is very similar to Couperites mauldinensis (Plate I, fig. 8, late Albian and early Cenomanian, Mauldin, Crane and He rendeen, 1996; Fig. 6a, early to middle Albian, Virginia, Friis et al., 1997a), except the resin bodies are not so conspicuous. In the other two specimens shown here , there are fewer resin bodies. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf . . Morphotype 176 Plate LV, figs. 7-25; Plate LVI, figs. 1-11. Latin name : Anacostia. Description: Unilocular fruiting unit with a single seed, semicircular or elliptical on outline, laterally flattened, with a strai ght or slightly convex margin and a convex dorsal margin. Fruit with a thin wall, circular or triangular in outline, without mechanical layer, with characteristic rugose striations. Seed surfaces smooth and shiny. 1.0-1.5 mm long, 0.6-1.3 mm wide. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: Seed (Plate LV, fig. 13) is similar to Ficus lutetianoides Mai (Moraceae, Taf. V, figs.8-9, Mai, 1987) in th e narrow extension and thin, shiny seed coat. Further evidence is needed before formal identification. Plate LV, figs. 13-16 demonstrate similar form to Liriodendroidea latirapha and L . carolinensis (Frumin and Friis, 1996), such as “bro adly ovate or subcircular in outline with round base and short acuminate apex,” but I do not have any information about the seed coat structure, therefore no confirmation. Plate LV, figs. 7-12 show strong similarity to Couperites mauldinenesis (c.f. Chloranthaceae, Pedersen et al., 1991). The sim ilarities include “elliptical to semicircular in outline and slightly compressed laterally. Micropylar end slightly pointed, chalazal end rounded. . . Seed wall is black, with a shi ny and smooth outer surface” (Pedersen et al., 1991). Some of the pictures of this type, Pl ate LV, figs. 21-25, have similarities with “thin-walled seed in unilocular fruit” (figs. 27-29, Friis, et al., 1999), such as outline of fruit and components of the fruit. Plate LV, figs. 21-25 and Plate LVI, figs. 1-11 are very similar to Anacostia (Friis et al., 1997b). These pictures span the variations of seve ral species of the genera, therefore they need more careful study in th e future. This group of seed/fruit appears to be related to magnoliids, although there is a si milarity to monocotyledons. It most likely would take a relatively basal position in fl owering plants (Friis et al., 1997b). My

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148 specimens are more similar to A . marylandensis and A . virginiensis, closest to A . marylandensis (Patapsco Formation, Potomac Group, early to middle Albian) . This type may be too lumping. It appear s that Plate LV, figs. 7-12 and Plate LV, figs. 13-18 represent two types different from the remaini ng specimens, although Friis et al. (1997) admitted that ther e are similarities between Anacostia and Couperites (fruiting units are unilocular and seeds are single a nd anatropous), so this lumping is not too surprising. One way Friis et al. differentiate these two is by using associated pollen grains, an option that is not available for my specimens. However, no matter which Liriodendroidea , Anacostia or Couperite, this type of fossil belongs to a basal group of angiosperms, either magnoliids or monocotyledons. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf, Braun Valley, Smokey River. . Morphotype 177 Plate LVI, figs. 12-13. Description : Seed coat, 3.4 mm long, 2.0 mm wide, coat thickness about 115 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 178 Plate LVI, figs. 14-19. Description : Seed coats, 0.8-1.0 mm long, 1.0-1.1 mm wide, 0.3-0.4 mm thick, coat thickness about 75-84 m, without columnar sclereids. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration and coat structure. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 179 Plate LVI, figs. 20-21. Description : Seed coat, 1.2 mm long, 1.0 mm wide, coat thickness about 85-135 m, with columnar sclereids. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is similar to Gironniera carinata Mai (Ulmaceae, Taf. I, figs. 1-4, Mai, 1970b) in round form, hard endoc arp and radial sclereids. The systematic position of this genus is Ulmaceae, as termed by Mai (1970), but is placed in Celtidaceae by Judd et al. (2002) and Cannabaceae by APG II (2003). Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 180 Plate LVI, figs. 22-24. Description : Seed coat, 1.3 mm l ong, 15 mm wide, coat thickness about 95-105 m, without columnar sclereids and severa l layers of cell inside, epidermal cell polygonal, 18-25 x 11-15 m. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type includes one seed, which is similar to Illicium verum (Illiciaceae, Himalaya to Fujian, Taf. LIX, figs. 17,18, Mai, 1970c) in general form, thick testa, shiny surface a nd radial sclereids. Occurrence: Acme . .

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149 Morphotype 181 Plate LVI, figs. 25-26. Description: Cuticular objects, elongate oval or fusiform, 0.6 x 1.1-1.3 mm. Spine 10-18 x 50-70 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is similar “spiny ‘fru it’” (Plate 6, figs. 2-4, Kovach and Dilcher, 1988) in size and spinyness. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 182 Plate LVII, figs. 1-9. Description : Fruits, 0.7-3.0 mm long, 0.8-1.7 mm wide, composed of several parts, with a knob at one end. Possible group: Seed plants? Remarks: This type is similar to Lagerstroemia europaea (Mai, 1967) in general form, the difference is that this type is mu ch smaller than what Mai showed. Because Mai did not provide a description, it is difficu lt to give a definite identification here. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 183 Plate LVII, fig. 10. Description : Fruit, 1.7 mm long, 1.2 mm wide , composed of several parts, without a knob. Possible group : Angiosperm (?). Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 184 Plate LVII, figs. 11-13. Description : Seed coats, 1.3-4.3 mm long, 0.92.8 mm wide, coat 0.15 mm thick, with a characteristic ornamentation on the outer surface and smooth inner surface, epidermal cells 19-40 x 6-25 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from ot her types in its configuration and characteristic surface. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 185 Plate LVII, figs. 14-16; Plate LIX, figs. 23-24. Description: Plant fragments, 1.5-3.0 mm long, 2.1-2.9 mm wide, 0.7 mm thick, composed of one piece of tissue holding anot her piece, with cytoplasm preserved. Cells 56-90 x 36-54 m. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 186 Plate LVII, fig. 17. Description: Plant tissue, 2.6 mm long, 2.9 mm wi de, composed of a triangular piece of tissue with a fragment of globular tissue attached. Possible group: Seed plants?

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150 Remarks: This type looks like a structure wi th a seed attached. It does not look like a conifer; it is possibly part of a part of Cycad strobilus. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 187 Plate LVII, figs. 18-19; Plate LIX, fig. 25. Description: Plant fragments, 2.0-3.3 mm l ong, 1.2-1.9 mm wide, composed of a multipart piece of tissue. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other t ypes in its configuration. It is similar to Morphotype 185, but differs in detail. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf . . Morphotype 188 Plate LVII, fig. 20. Description: Plant tissue in spatulate form , 0.8 mm long, 0.9 mm wide, with another piece tissue attached within the depression. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from othe r types in its configuration. It may represent a fossil transition between Stachyotaxus and Parapodocarpus , but the ambiguous configuration of the structure in th e depression prevents from giving a definite call. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 189 Plate LVII, fig. 21. Description: A thick piece of plant tissue, 3.5 mm long, 2.2 mm wide, with another piece of flattened c onical tissue on its surface. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 190 Plate LVII, figs. 22-24. Description: Conical sheet of plant tissu e, 2.7 mm long, 2.4 mm wide, with smooth inner and outer surface, epidermal cells 32-70 x 10-20 m. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 191 Plate LVII, fig. 25. Description: Trident plant tissue, 5.3 mm long, 3.5 mm wide. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 192 Plate LVII, fig. 26. Description: Sheet-like piece of plant tissu e, 1.9 mm long, 1.0 mm wide. Possible group : Angiosperm?

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151 Remarks: This type is different from other t ypes in its configuration. It may be a perianth part. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 193 Plate LVII, figs. 27-28. Description: Receptacle-like structure, 3.9 mm long, 3.3 mm wide, with a rigid stalk. Possible group : Angiosperm? Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 194 Plate LVIII, figs. 1-6. Description: Shell-like structures, 1. 3-1.9 mm long, 1.3-1.7 mm wide, 0.7-1.0 mm thick, with an irregular opening. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 195 Plate LVIII, figs. 7-9. Description : Fruits/seeds, 3.0-3.5 mm long, 2.0-4.4 mm wide, with a split along one margin. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 196 Plate LVIII, fig. 10. Description: Horn-like fruit, 2.2 mm long, 0.9 mm wide, sharp-tipped at one end. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 197 Plate LVIII, figs. 11-20. Description : Fruits/seeds, 1.0-2.9 mm long, 0.4-1.9 mm wide, cylindrical, with a extended tip at one end, fractures on its surface. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf . . Morphotype 198 Plate LVIII, fi gs. 21-25; Plate LIX, fig. 22. Description : Seeds, 1.3-4.8 mm long, 1.0-2.4 mm wi de, seed coat separable from seed content. Cell 9-15 x 8-12 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other t ypes in its distinct seed coat and its seed content and configuration. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf . .

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152 Morphotype 199 Plate LIX, figs. 1-3. Description : Seed coat 3.0 mm long, 2.2 mm wide, 1.7 mm thick, with a flat hilum region. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its distinct configuration. Cytoplasm may be preserved in this fossil. The cytoplasm looks similar to what Edwards and Axe (2004) documented. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 200 Plate LIX, figs. 4-7. Description: Broken seed coats, 2.4-2.6 mm long, 1.7-2.9 mm wide, with a rough surface, coat 120-150 m thick. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other t ypes in its configuration. It is similar to Morphotype 190, but differs in surface ornamentation. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 201 Plate LIX, figs. 8-9; Plate LXIV, figs. 9-10. Description : Seed, 1.1 mm long, 0.8 mm wide, oval in outline, epidermal cells 15-26 x 9-19 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 202 Plate LIX, figs. 10-15. Description: Broken seed coats, 1.6-2.0 mm long, 0.9-1.6 mm wide, coats 95-110 m thick, epidermal cells 30-88 x 19-22 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 203 Plate LIX, figs. 16-17. Description: Conical seed, 1.8 mm long, 0.6 mm wi de, with a smooth surface. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from ot her types in its smooth coat and configuration. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 204 Plate LIX, figs. 18-21. Description : Seed, 1.8-3.0 mm, 0.9-2.1 mm wide , thick, triangular in form. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf . . Morphotype 205 Plate LX, fig. 1. Description: Comma-shape fragment of plan t tissue, 3.7 mm long, 1.3 mm wide.

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153 Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 206 Plate LX, figs. 2-3. Description: Broken seed, 2.0 mm long, 1.4 mm wi de, with a thin sheet cover. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 207 Plate LX, figs. 4-5. Description: Broken seed, 2.2 mm long, 1.3 mm wide, with a sharp tip, raphe straight, other margin convex, epidermal cells 12-26 x 10-18 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its distinct configuration. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 208 Plate LX, figs. 6-7. Description: Seed, 1.3 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, 0.7 mm thick, locket-like. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its distinct configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 209 Plate LX, fig. 8. Description: Fruit, 1.5 mm long, 1.2 mm wide, with a smooth, thin shell. Possible group : Angiosperm (?t). Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 210 Plate LX, figs. 9-10. Description: Seed, 1.2 mm long, 1.2 mm wide, r ound, thick at center, with a smooth surface, epidermal cells 30-50 x 21-38 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration and surface structure. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 211 Plate LX, figs. 11-13. Description: Seed/fruit, 2.5 mm long, 1.6 mm wide, elongately round, thick at center, with cytoplasm preserved. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration and surface structure. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 212 Plate LX, figs. 14-17.

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154 Description: Seeds, 1.3-1.9 mm long, 1.2-1.8 mm wide, round in outline, with tiny spines/warts all over th e body, spines/warts 16-25 x 18-30 m. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is similar to “exotesta l seed with fine spines and short palisade cells” (figs. 18-20, Friis et al., 1999) . “The fruit wall contains scattered resin bodies, thought to represent the remains of ethereal oil cells. . . This feature is characteristic for many extant magnoliid s, and among the monocotyledons is only reported from the genus Acorus L.” (Friis et al., 1999). This type is very similar to Morphotype 213 in texture, appears different in form. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 213 Plate LX, figs. 18-19. Description: Fruit, 2.0 mm long, 1.7 mm wide, round in outline, with a cap at one end. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is similar to “seed t ype 5” (Fig. 9F, Takahashi et al., 1999) in general form and having a cap, otherwise differs. This type is very similar to Morphotype 212, but they appear different in form and surface detail. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 214 Plate LX, fig. 20; Plate LXI, figs. 1-6. Description: Fruits, 1.1-2.4 mm long, 0.9-2.0 mm wide, very smooth surface. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is unique in its very smooth surface. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf . . Morphotype 215 Plate LX, figs. 21-23. Description: Fruits, 1.3-2.0 mm long, 1.0 mm wide, 1.3 mm thick, very smooth surface, with evident ridges and grooves. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is unique in its very smooth surface, ridges, and grooves. It is similar to Morphotype 214, but diffe rs in its ridges and grooves. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 216 Plate LXI, figs. 7,14. Description: Fruit, 2.2-3.2 mm long, 1.1-1.2 mm wi de, with an irregular form. Possible group : Angiosperm. Remarks: This type is unique in its very smooth but irregular surface. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 217 Plate LXI, figs. 8-11. Description: Fruit, 3.2 mm long, 2.3 mm wide, flattened, with slightly irregular form, with cytoplasm preserved. Possible group : Angiosperm (?). Remarks: This type is diffe rent from other types in its configuration.

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155 Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 218 Plate LXI, figs. 12-13. Description: Fruits, 2.3-3.8 mm long , 0.9-1.5 mm wide, with an irregular form and residue of perianth part. Possible group : Angiosperm (?). Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 219 Plate LXI, figs. 15-16. Description: Seed, 2.4 mm long, 2.7 mm wide, round-triangular in outline, with a characteristic groove on its surface. Possible group : Angiosperm (?). Remarks: This type is different from ot her types in its configuration and characteristic groove on its surface. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 220 Plate LXI, figs. 17-18. Description: Seed, 1.5 mm long, 1.8 mm wide , conical in form, with a characteristic groove on its surface, epidermal cells 17-22 x 18-21 m. Possible group : Angiosperm (?). Remarks: This type is different from ot her types in its configuration and characteristic groove on its surface. It is si milar to Morphotype 219, but differs in general form. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 221 Plate LXI, figs. 19-20. Description: Seed, 3.8 mm long, 1.0 mm wide, lingular in form, with a midridge, epidermal cells 15-30 x 14-20 m. Possible group : Angiosperm (?). Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 222 Plate LXI, figs. 21-22. Description: Seed, 1.4 mm long, 0.8 mm wide, round-triangular in outline, with a sharp tip. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 223 Plate LXI, figs. 23-24. Description: Seed, 0.8 mm long, 0.7 mm wide, 0.2 mm thick, pie-like in form, with hilum at an eccentric position. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf .

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156 . Morphotype 224 Plate LXI, figs. 25-28; Plate LXII, figs. 1-4. Description: Seeds, 1.2-1.8 mm long, 0.7-1.0 mm wide, round-triangular in outline, blunt tip, with an evident mark probably left by missing ridge, epidermal cells 14-26 x 10-19 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme, Smokey River. . Morphotype 225 Plate LXII, figs. 5-19. Description: Seeds, 1.0-2.4 mm long, 0.9-1.9 mm wide, bilaterally symmetric, with two wings around the seed, thickne ss varying, epidermal cells 13-40 x 8-29 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type includes many seeds. Some of the seeds (Figs. 7, 16-19) shown similarity to the seed of Mesocyparis borealis (fig. 37, McIver a nd Basinger, 1987) and Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (fig. 32, McIver and Basinger, 1987) in bearing “equal, broad, semicircular wings with a regular margin,” but anatomy and details are needed before formal identification is given. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf . . Morphotype 226 Plate LXII, figs. 20-21. Description: Seed, 2.7 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, elongately round, flattened, with smooth surface. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 227 Plate LXII, figs. 22-23. Description: Seed, 3.4 mm long, 1.6 mm wide, long triangu lar, very thin. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 228 Plate LXII, figs. 24-25. Description: Seed, 1.9 mm long, 1.3 mm wide, one end wider than the other, uniform thickness, with rough surface. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 229 Plate LXII, figs. 26-27; Plate LXIII, figs. 1-8. Description: Seeds, 1.8-3.3 mm long, 1.0-1.8 mm wi de, flattened, raphe straight, other margin convex, epidermal cells 17-70 x 13-40 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. The surface ornament may be not evident wh en soft tissue is attached.

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157 Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf . . Morphotype 230 Plate LXIII, figs. 9-20. Description: Seeds, 0.9-2.4 mm long, 0.9-1.5 mm wide, round in outline, embryo appearing folded, epidermal cells 12-27 x 6-19 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration and folded form. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf, Smokey River. . Morphotype 231 Plate LXIII, figs. 21-22. Description: Seed, 2.2 mm long, 1.1 mm wide, round-triangular in outline, sharp tip, with smooth surface. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme. . Morphotype 232 Plate LXIII, fig. 23. Description: Seed, 3.8 mm long, 2.3 mm wide , thickness uniform all over. Possible group : Gymnosperm, conifer. Remarks: This type is similar to Pinus grossana (most similar to P . wallichiana, Taf. LXI, figs. 1-3, Mai, 1986) in general flattened form and residue of embryo (not figured here) in opened seed, but differs by its small seed size. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 233 Plate LXIII, figs. 24-25. Description: Fragmental fruit/seed, 8.9 mm l ong, 4.7 mm wide, with sharp tip, smooth surface. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 234 Plate LXIII, figs. 26-27. Description: Seeds, 1.8-1.9 mm long, 0.9-1.2 mm wi de, flattened, with warts all over. Possible group : Gymnosperm, conifer. Remarks: This type is similar to Ceratophyllum lusaticum (Taf. 25, figs. 5,6, Mai and Walther, 1978) in general flattened form, small size (<3 mm), and warts on the surface. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 235 Plate LXIII, figs. 28-30. Description: Seeds, 1.8-2.9 mm long, 0.8-1.9 mm wide, round in outline, thin piece. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration.

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158 Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 236 Plate LXIV, figs. 1-4, 22-23. Description: Fruits/seeds, 0.8-2.5 mm long, 0.51.5 mm wide, round in outline, surface with depression because of shrinkage of cytoplasm, some cytoplasm preserved. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from ot her types in its configuration and indistinct surface ornamentation. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf . . Morphotype 237 Plate LXIV, figs. 5-8. Description: Seeds, 1.2-1.5 mm long, 0.8-1.5 mm wide, round in outline, many cracks on surface of seed, epidermal cells 16-28 x 8-16 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 238 Plate LXIV, figs. 11-12. Description: Seeds, 0.9-1.5 mm long, 1.11.3 mm wide, round in outline, thickness uniform all over. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 239 Plate LXIV, figs. 13-14. Description: Seed, 14 mm long, 0.9 mm wide, distor tedly round in outline, with fine surface ornamentation, thin, thic kness uniform all over the seed body. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 240 Plate LXIV, figs. 15-21. Description: Seeds, 0.9-1.2 mm long, 0.7-1.1 mm wide, round in outline, thin, with evident attaching point, epidermal cells 12-48 x 6-19 m, with sinuous wall. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration and sinuous cell wall. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 241 Plate LXIV, figs. 24-25; Plate LXV, figs. 1-3. Description: Seeds, 1.2-1.3 mm long, 1.1-1.2 mm wide, round in outline, pie-like form, with weak surface ornamentation. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme . .

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159 Morphotype 242 Plate LXV, figs. 4-5. Description: Seed, 2.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, elongately round, with a smooth surface. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 243 Plate LXV, fig. 6. Description: Seed, 6.5 mm long, 4.0 mm wide, round-triangular in outline, blunt tip. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other t ypes in its configuration. This is the largest of all seeds found. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 244 Plate LXV, figs. 7-9. Description: Seed, 1.5 mm long, 0.9 mm wide , 0.5 mm thick, elongately round, with a smooth surface. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 245 Plate LXV, fig. 13. Description: Seed, >1.3 mm long, 1. 5 mm wide, round-tria ngular in outline. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 246 Plate LXV, figs. 14-16. Description: Seed/fruit 1.2 mm long, 0.9 mm wide, round triangular in outline, raphe straight, other side convex with additional distorted ridge. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf . . Morphotype 247 Plate LXV, figs. 17-18. Description: Seed/fruit, 1.1 mm long, 0.8 mm wide, semicircular in outline, raphe straight, other side convex with wide ridge. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other t ypes in its configuration. This type is similar to Morphotype 249 and 250 in genera l form, with different ornamentation on surface. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 248 Plate LXV, fig. 19.

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160 Description: Seed, >1.6 mm long, 1. 0 mm wide, curved in outline, embryo curved. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 249 Plate LXV, figs. 20-21. Description: Seed, 0.9 mm long, 0.5 mm wide, 0.2 mm thic k, semicircular in outline, raphe straight, other margin curved with wide margin. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other t ypes in its configuration. This type is similar to Morphotype 247 and 250 in genera l form, with different ornamentation on surface. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 250 Plate LXV, figs. 22-23. Description: Seed, 1.7 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, semicircular in outline, raphe straight, other margin curved with wide ma rgin, with characteristic ornamentation with crystal impression on seed surface. Possible group: seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other t ypes in its configuration. This type is similar to Morphotype 247 and 249 in genera l form, with different ornamentation on surface. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 251 Plate LXV, figs. 24-26. Description: Fruit/seed, 2.1 mm long, wide 1.2 mm, elongate-round in outline, with a tip, with trichome 100 m long, 6 m wide. Possible group : Angiosperm (?). Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 252 Plate LXVI, fig. 1. Description: Fruit, 3.5 mm long, 1.8 mm thick, globose, with smooth surface, partially broken. Possible group : Angiosperm (?). Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 253 Plate LXVI, figs. 2-3. Description: Plant tissue, 1.6 mm long, 1.4 mm wide, 0.3 mm thick, spatulate, bilaterally symmetric, round in gene ral outline, with a pointed tip. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. This fossil may be a cone scale, petal, fruit or seed. Occurrence: Acme .

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161 . Morphotype 254 Plate LXVI, figs. 4-5. Description: Seed, 3.1 mm long, 2.5 mm wide, cordate in outline, with smooth surface. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 255 Plate LXVI, fig. 6. Description: Seed, 3.7 mm long, 3.1 mm wide, thickness uniform all over the seed body. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 256 Plate LXVI, figs. 7-12. Description: Seeds, 0.8-1.2 mm long, 0.8-0.9 mm wide, round-triangular in outline, with extended tip, w ith cusp on the body of seed, epidermal cells 9-21 x 9-15 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration and cusp on the seed. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 257 Plate LXVI, figs. 13-15. Description: Seed, 1.6 mm long, 0.8 mm wide, semicircular in outline, raphe straight, other margin convex, with characteristic surface ornamentation. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from othe r types in its configuration and its ornamentation. The reason for this ornamenta tion may be multiple crystal impressions in a single cell. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 258 Plate LXVI, figs. 16-23. Description: Seeds, 1.0-1.2 mm long, 0.7-0.9 mm wide, with ridges radiating from the point of attachment. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is similar to “seed type 9” (Fig. 9J, Takahashi et al., 1999) in itsequal size and with seed su rface cells arranged in rows radi ating from one point at the end of the seed. This type is very abunda nt (up to 700 pieces) in the upper Cretaceous (lower Coniacian) in Northeast Japan. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 259 Plate LXVI, figs. 24-26. Description: Seed, 2.0 mm long, 2.1 mm wide, 1.3 mm thick, globose in form, with insect-drilled holes, epidermal cells 24-39 x 18-31 m.

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162 Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. This seed may be germinating. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 260 Plate LXVI, figs. 27-29. Description: Seed, 1.9 mm long, 1.1 mm wide, 0.7 mm thick, globose in form, with a pointed tip, epidermal cells 15-26 x 12-16 m. Possible group: Seed plants. Remarks: This type is different from other t ypes in its configuration. This type is similar to Morphotype 252, but differs in it s relatively elongate form and pointed tip. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 261 Plate LXVII, figs. 1-2. Description: Plant part, 3.3 mm long, 2.4 mm wide, thin sheet, in form of a scale or leaf, bilateral, with smooth surface co mposed of rectangular epidermal cells. Epidermal cells 12-42 x 17-42 m. Possible group: U nknown. Remarks: This type is different from othe r types in its configuration. It is possible that this fossil is so me kind of gymnosperm scale. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 262 Plate LXVII, figs. 3-5, 7-12. Description: Plant parts, 1.5-3.5 mm long, 1.3-2.7 mm wide, thick sheet, in form of a shell or cupule, bilateral, with smooth surface in the area of attachment. Possible group: U nknown. Remarks: This type is different from othe r types in its configuration. It is possible for this fossil to be some kind of gymnosperm scale or seed coat. This type differs from Morphotype 261 in its thickness. Occurrence: Black Wolf, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 263 Plate LXVII, fig. 6. Description: Plant part, 2.2 mm long, 1.3 mm wide, tubular in form. Possible group: U nknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Morphotype 264 Plate LXVII, figs. 13-17. Description: Plant parts, 1.9-4.3 mm long, 1.2-2.7 mm wide, thick sheet, in form of scale, bilateral, with smooth surface. Possible group: U nknown. Remarks: This type is different from othe r types in its configuration. It is possible for this fossil to be some kind of gymnosperm scale. Occurrence: Acme, Black Wolf, Braun Valley. . Morphotype 265 Plate LXVII, figs. 18-20.

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163 Description: Plant part, 2.7 mm long, 1.3 mm wide, 0.9 mm thick, thick tissue with two grooves beside the central protrusion. Possible group: U nknown. Remarks: This type is different from othe r types in its configuration. It is possible that this fossil is so me kind of gymnosperm scale. It is distinct from Morphotype 262 and 264 in its two grooves beside the protrusion. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 266 Plate LXVII, fig. 21. Description: Plant part, 1.3 mm long, 0.8 mm wide, with a ridge. Possible group: U nknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. This fossil appears young and immature. Occurrence: Black Wolf . . Morphotype 267 Plate LXVII, figs. 22-23. Description: Insect part, 1.7 mm long, 2.7 mm wide, with sensor holes. Possible group: Insect. Remarks: This type is the only insect fo ssil found up to now in this study. Occurrence: Braun Valley. . Morphotype 268 Plate LXVII, fig. 24. Description: Network of thin strands, 1.5 x 1.8 mm, the strands 1-6 m in diameter. Possible group: Lower plant. Remarks: It shows similarities to capill itium of a myxomycete (Bold, 1980, P625, fig. 28-16A) or leech net ( Dictyothylakos sp., Kovach and Dilcher, 1988, P106). For the time being it is put in “lower plant”. Occurrence: Acme . . Morphotype 269 Plate LXVII, fig. 25. Description: Dung of insect, about 1.0 mm in diameter. Possible group: Unknown. Remarks: This type is different from other types in its configuration. Occurrence: Black Wolf. . Ligustrum japonicum Plate LXVIII, figs. 1-5. Fresh material processed in baki ng oven. After 30 minute baking at 425 F (218 C), the parenchyma cells in the cortex appe ar spiny (Plate LXVIII, figs. 3 and 5). Cells 31-56 x 21-28 m.

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211 Fig. 7Morphotype 262, Layer #003, SEM Stub 29b, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44300. Fig. 8 Morphotype 262, Layer #003, SEM Stub 12h, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44338. Fig. 9 Side view. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 10 Morphotype 262, Layer #003, SEM Stub 16d, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44339. Fig. 11 Morphotype 262, Layer #003, SEM Stub 13 i, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44340. Fig. 12Morphotype 262, Layer #003, SEM Stub 16b, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44341. Fig. 13 Morphotype 264, Layer #001, SEM Stub 19g, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44342. Fig. 14Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 15Morphotype 264, Layer #003, SEM Stub 14c, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44343. Fig. 16Morphotype 264, Layer #003, SEM Stub 11b, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44344. Fig. 17Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 18 Morphotype 265, Layer #001, SEM Stub 19b, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44345. Fig. 19 Different side view. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 20 Morphotype 265, Layer #003, SEM Stub 15e, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44346. Fig. 21 Morphotype 266, Layer #018, SEM Stub 80b, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44347. Fig. 22Morphotype 267, Layer #013, SEM Stub 54a, Braun Valley. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44348. Fig. 23Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 24Morphotype 268. Layer #006, SEM Stub 24n, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44349. Fig. 25Morphotype 269, Layer #002, SEM Stub 60a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44350 Plate LXVIII Ligustrum japonicum Fig. 1 A tree in Diamond Village, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. Fig. 2 View of a fresh twig of the tree in fig. 1. Fig. 3Shrunken cytoplasm with spiny form in the cortex of the s hoot after being heated at 425 F (218 C) for 30 minutes. Light microscope. Bar = 40 m. Fig. 4 Shrunken cytoplasm of leaf of the same tree after burned in flame. TEM. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 5 Multiple cortical cells showing shrunken cytoplasm with spiny forms. Note that the cytoplasm remains connected, therefore the strings of cytoplasm are paired between two neighboring cells. Bar = 80 m.

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165 Fig. 5 Detail view of the pr otrusion on the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 6 Morphotype 011. Layer #021, SEM Stub 85k, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44074. Fig. 7 Morphotype 012. Layer #018, SEM Stub 81g, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44075. Fig. 8 Morphotype 013. Layer #014, SEM Stub 55e, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44076. Fig. 9 Detailed view. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 10 Morphotype 014. Layer #014, SEM St ub 56a, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44077. Fig. 11 Morphotype 014. Layer #003, SEM Stub 63b, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44078. Fig. 12 Detailed view. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 13 Morphotype 015. Layer #003, SEM Stub 63c, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44079. Fig. 14 Detailed view. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 15 Morphotype 016. Layer #003, SEM Stub 63g, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44080. Fig. 16 Morphotype 016. Layer #003, SEM Stub 64a, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44081. Fig. 17 Detailed view. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 18 Detailed view. Bar = 0.1 mm. Plate IV Fig. 1 Morphotype 017. Layer #004, SEM Stub 49b, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44083. Fig. 2 Morphotype 017. Layer #004, SEM St ub 47c, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44084. Fig. 3 Detailed view. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 4 Morphotype 018. Layer #004, SEM St ub 47e, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44085. Fig. 5 Detailed view. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 6 Morphotype 018. Layer #004, SEM St ub 47f, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44086. Fig. 7 Detailed view. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 8 Morphotype 018. Layer #006, SEM Stub 43a, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44087. Fig. 9 Detailed view. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 10 Morphotype 019. Layer #004, SEM St ub 47d, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44088. Fig. 11 Detailed view. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 12 Morphotype 020. Layer #008, SEM St ub 45d, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44089. Fig. 13 Detailed view. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 14 Morphotype 021. Layer #006, SEM Stub 44f, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44090.

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166 Fig. 15 Detailed view. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 16 Morphotype 021. Layer #006, SEM St ub 44e, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44091 Plate V Fig. 1 Morphotype 022. Layer #001, SEM Stub 71a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44092. Fig. 2 Morphotype 022. Layer #018, SEM Stub 81f, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44093. Fig. 3 Morphotype 022. Layer #014, SEM Stub 56b, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44094. Fig. 4 Morphotype 023. Layer #006, SEM Stub 44g, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44095. Fig. 5 Morphotype 024. Layer #001, SEM Stub 70h, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44096. Fig. 6 Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 7 Morphotype 024. Layer #003, SEM Stub 62h, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44097. Fig. 8 Morphotype 025. Layer #003, SEM Stub 66a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44098. Fig. 9 Morphotype 026. Layer #003, SEM Stub 66f, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44099. Fig. 10 Morphotype 026. Layer #003, SEM Stub 64b, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44100. Fig. 11 Morphotype 027. Layer #017, SEM Stub 78d, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44101. Fig. 12 Morphotype 027. Layer #003, SEM Stub 66e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44102. Fig. 13 Morphotype 027. Layer #003, SEM Stub 66b, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44103. Fig. 14 Detailed view. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 15 Morphotype 027. Layer #003, SEM Stub 66d, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44104. Fig. 16 Morphotype 027. Layer #003, SEM Stub 61f, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.2 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44105. Fig. 17 General view. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 18 Detailed view. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 19 Morphotype 028. Layer #003, SEM Stub 61e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44106. Fig. 20 Detailed view. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 21 Morphotype 029. Layer #020, SEM Stub 83a, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44107. Fig. 22 Detailed view. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 23 Morphotype 030. Layer #020, SEM Stub 83b, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44108. Fig. 24 Detailed view. Bar = 0.1 mm.

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167 Fig. 25 Morphotype 031. Layer #003, SEM Stub 62a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44109. Fig. 26 General view. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 27 Detailed view. Bar = 30 m Plate VI Fig. 1 Morphotype 032. Layer #002, SEM Stub 18d, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44110. Fig. 2 Morphotype 032. Layer #003, SEM Stub 13l, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44111. Fig. 3 Morphotype 032. Side view. Laye r #004, SEM Stub 23k, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44112. Fig. 4 Top view. Bar = 0.25 mm. Fig. 5 Morphotype 033, Layer #001, SEM Stub 20c, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44113. Fig. 6 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 7 Morphotype 033, Layer #003, SEM Stub 16e, Black Wolf. Bar = 1mm. Specimen number UF15719-44114. Fig. 8 Morphotype 034, Layer #003, MISSING, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-xxxxx. Fig. 9 Morphotype 035, Layer #003, SEM Stub 13c, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44116. Fig. 10 Top view. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 11 Morphotype 036, Layer #003, SEM Stub 15d, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44117. Fig. 12 Side view. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 13 Morphotype 037, Layer #014, SEM Stub 56g, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44118. Fig. 14 Details of the su rface sculpture. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 15 Details of trichomes. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 16 Morphotype 038, Layer #003, SEM Stub 11f, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44119. Fig. 17 Side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 18 Details of the margin. Bar = 0.1 mm. Plate VII Fig. 1 Morphotype 039, Layer #007, SEM St ub 21l, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44120. Fig. 2 Detailed view. Bar = 20 m. Fig. 3 Morphotype 039, Layer #007, SEM Stub 21m, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44121. Fig. 4 Detailed view. Bar = 20 m. Fig. 5 Morphotype 039, Layer #007, SEM Stub 21n, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44122. Fig. 6 Detailed view. Bar = 20 m.

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168 Fig. 7 Morphotype 039, Layer #006, SEM St ub 91i, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44123. Fig. 8 Detailed view. Bar = 20 m. Fig. 9 Morphotype 039, Layer #006, SEM St ub 92c, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44124. Fig. 10 General view, Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 11 Morphotype 040, Layer #002, SEM Stub 26a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44125. Fig. 12 Detailed view of the cuticlar blisters. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 13 Morphotype 041, Layer #003, SEM Stub 13k, Black Wolf. Bar = 1mm. Specimen number UF15719-44126. Fig. 14 Morphotype 041, Layer #003, SEM Stub 13j , Black Wolf. Bar = 1mm. Specimen number UF15719-44127. Fig. 15 Morphotype 041, Layer #001, SEM Stub 70e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44128. Fig. 16 Morphotype 042, Layer #014, SEM Stub 55b, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44129. Fig. 17 Details of sori. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 18 Morphotype 043, Layer #014, SEM Stub 55f, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44130. Fig. 19 Detail of pinule surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Plate VIII Fig. 1 Morphotype 043, Layer #014, SEM Stub 55d Braun Valley. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44131. Fig. 2 Morphotype 043, Layer #014, SEM Stub 55c, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44132. Fig. 3 Morphotype 044, Layer #014, SEM St ub 58e, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44133. Fig. 4 Details of the pinule surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 5 Morphotype 045, Layer #004, SEM Stub 22d, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44134. Fig. 6 Morphotype 046, Layer #021, SEM Stub 84e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44135. Fig. 7 Morphotype 047, Layer #018, SEM Stub 81e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44136. Fig. 8 Stomata. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 9 Morphotype 048, Layer #021, SEM Stub 85j, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44137. Fig. 10 Details of pinul e surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 11 Stomata. Bar = 20 m. Fig. 12 Morphotype 049, Layer #001, fall-off, cap sule ‘20’, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44138. Fig. 13 Top view. For magnification, see fig. 1. Fig. 14 Details of anatomy. Bar = 0.1 mm.

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169 Fig. 15 Morphotype 049, Layer #001, SEM Stub 20o, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5mm. Specimen number UF15719-44139. Fig. 16 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 17 Possible cytoplasm preserved. Bar = 0.1 mm. Plate IX Fig. 1 Morphotype 049, Layer #003, SEM Stub 08a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44140. Fig. 2 Morphotype 049, Layer #001, SEM Stub 20b, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44141. Fig. 3 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 4 Morphotype 049, Layer #014, SEM Stub 53, Braun Valley. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44142. Fig. 5 Morphotype 049, Layer #003, MISSING, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-xxxxx. Fig. 6 Details of a bract. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 7 Morphotype 049, Layer #003, MISSING, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719xxxxx. Fig. 8 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 9 Morphotype 049, Layer #017, SEM Stub 78a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44145. Fig. 10 Morphotype 050, Layer #003, SE M Stub 08g, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44146. Fig. 11 Morphotype 050, Layer #020, SEM Stub 82a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44147. Fig. 12 Morphotype 050, Layer #020, SEM Stub 82a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44148. Fig. 13 Morphotype 051, Layer #003, SEM Stub 07c, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44150. Fig. 14 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 15 Morphotype 049, Layer #003, SEM Stub 05a Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44151. Fig. 16 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 17 Morphotype 049, Layer #001, SEM Stub 82c, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44152. Fig. 18 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Plate X Fig. 1 Morphotype 052, Layer #004, SEM St ub 28j, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44153. Fig. 2 Details of the surface. Bar = 20 m. Fig. 3 Morphotype 052, Layer #002, SEM Stub 26e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44154. Fig. 4 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 5 Morphotype 052, Layer #002, SEM Stub 26f, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44155.

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170 Fig. 6 Morphotype 052, Layer #017, SEM Stub 77d, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44156. Fig. 7 Morphotype 052, Layer #002, SEM Stub 26h, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44157. Fig. 8 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 9 Morphotype 052, Layer #005, SEM Stub 17b, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44158. Fig. 10 Abaxial view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 11 Morphotype 052, SEM Stub 21f, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44159. Fig. 12 Adaxial view. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 13 Morphotype 052, Layer #004, SEM Stub 28b, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44160. Fig. 14 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 15 Adaxial view of scale. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 16 Morphotype 052, Layer #004, SEM St ub 28a, ACME. Bar = 0.2 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44161. Fig. 17 General view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 18 Morphotype 052, Layer #004, SEM Stub 28d, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44162. Fig. 19 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 20 Morphotype 052, Layer #004, SEM St ub 28e, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44163. Fig. 21 Morphotype 052, Layer #004, SEM Stub 28i, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44164. Fig. 22 Morphotype 052, Layer #005, SEM Stub 27b, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44165 Plate XI Fig. 1 Morphotype 052, Layer #005, SEM Stub 27d, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44166. Fig. 2 Morphotype 052, Layer #005, SEM St ub 27F, Braun Valley. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44167. Fig. 3 Morphotype 052, Layer #005, SEM St ub 27e, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44168. Fig. 4 Morphotype 052, Layer #004, SEM St ub 28f, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44169. Fig. 5 Morphotype 052, Layer #004, SEM Stub 28k, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44170. Fig. 6 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 7 Morphotype 053, Layer #003, SEM Stub 07d, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44171. Fig. 8 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 9 Morphotype 053, Layer #002, MISSING, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719xxxxx.

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171 Fig. 10 Morphotype 053, Layer #007, SEM Stub 21k, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44173. Fig. 11 Top view. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 12 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 13 Morphotype 054, Layer #003, SE M Stub 10d, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44174. Fig. 14 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 15 Morphotype 055, Layer #004, SEM Stub 28l, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44175. Fig. 16 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 17 Morphotype 055, Layer #004, SEM Stub 28c, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44176 . Fig. 18 Morphotype 055, Layer #005, SEM Stub 27g, Braun Valley. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44177. Fig. 19 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 20 Morphotype 055, Layer #005, SEM Stub 27l, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44178. Fig. 21 Morphotype 055, Layer #005, SEM Stub 27i, Braun Valley. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44179. Fig. 22 Morphotype 055, Layer #005, SEM Stub 27j, Braun Valley. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44180 Plate XII Fig. 1 Morphotype 055, Layer #005, SEM St ub 27m, Braun Valley. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44181. Fig. 2 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 3 Morphotype 055, Layer #005, SEM Stub 27k, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44182. Fig. 4 Morphotype 055, Layer #005, SEM Stub 27a, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44183. Fig. 5 Morphotype 055, Layer #004, SEM Stub 28h, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44184. Fig. 6 Morphotype 055, Layer #004, SEM Stub 28g, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44185. Fig. 7 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 8 Morphotype 055, Layer #005, SEM Stub 27h, Braun Valley. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44186. Fig. 9 Details of apex. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 10 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 11 Morphotype 056, Layer #015, SEM Stub 59h, Smokey River. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18740-44187. Fig. 12 Cross section. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 13 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 14 Morphotype 056, Layer #014, SEM Stub 57d, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.2 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44188.

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172 Fig. 15 Morphotype 056, Layer #014, SEM St ub 57c, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.2 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44189. Fig. 16 Morphotype 056, Layer #014, SEM St ub 57f, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44190. Fig. 17 Details of the surface. Bar = 20 m. Fig. 18 Morphotype 056, Layer #014, SE M Stub 56h, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44191. Fig. 19 Cross section. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 20 Details of the surface. Bar = 20 m. Fig. 21 Morphotype 057, Layer #011, SEM Stub 51d, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44192. Fig. 22 Cross section. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 23 Morphotype 057, Layer #014, SEM Stub 57h, Braun Valley. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44193. Fig. 24 Cross section. Bar = 0.2 mm. Plate XIII Fig. 1 Morphotype 057, Layer #005, SEM Stub 52d, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44194. Fig. 2 Cross section. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 3 Morphotype 058, Layer #003, SEM Stub 63f , Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44195. Fig. 4 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 5 Morphotype 058, Layer #003, SEM Stub 63e, Black Wolf. For magnification, see fig. 6. Specimen number UF15719-44196. Fig. 6 Side view. Bar = 0.6 mm. Fig. 7 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 8 Morphotype 059, Layer #001, SEM Stub 70f, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44197. Fig. 9 Morphotype 060, Layer #001, SEM Stub 70c, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44198. Fig. 10 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 11 Details of the surface. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 12 Morphotype 061, Layer #003, SEM Stub 63h, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44199. Fig. 13 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 14 Details of the surface. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 15 Morphotype 062, Layer #015, SEM St ub 59f, Smokey River. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18740-44200. Fig. 16 Cross section. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 17 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 18 Morphotype 063, Layer #015, SEM Stub 59d, Smokey River. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18740-44201. Fig. 19 Cross section. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 20 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m.

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173 Fig. 21 Morphotype 062, Layer #015, SEM Stub 59g, Smokey River. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18740-44202. Fig. 22 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 23 Morphotype 064, Layer #014, SEM Stub 57a, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44203. Fig. 24 Adaxial view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 25 Cross section. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 26 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 27 Morphotype 064, Layer #003, SE M Stub 63d, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44204 Plate XIV Fig. 1 Morphotype 064, Layer #003, SEM Stub 63d, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44204. Fig. 2 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 3 Morphotype 064, Layer #017, SEM Stub 72e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44205. Fig. 4 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 5 Cross section. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 6 Details of cross section. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 7 Morphotype 065, Layer #014, SEM Stub 58d, Braun Valley. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44206. Fig. 8 Cross section. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 9 Details of the surface. Bar = 60 m. Fig. 10 Morphotype 066, Layer #003, SE M Stub 61g, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44207. Fig. 11 Cellular details. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 12 Morphotype 066, Layer #003, SEM Stub 61h, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44209. Fig. 13 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 14 Morphotype 067, Layer #003, SEM Stub 09a, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44210. Fig. 15 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 16 Morphotype 067, Layer #003, SEM Stub 09b, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44211. Fig. 17 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 18 Morphotype 068, Layer #003, SEM Stub 08f, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44212. Fig. 19 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 20 Morphotype 068, Layer #003, SEM Stub 09c, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44213. Fig. 21 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 22 Morphotype 069, Layer #003, SEM Stub 01b, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44214. Fig. 23 Morphotype 069, Layer #003, SEM Stub 07f, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44215.

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174 Fig. 24 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 25 Morphotype 072, Layer #003, SEM Stub 07e, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44216. Fig. 26 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 27 Cross section. Bar = 0.2 mm. Plate XV Fig. 1 Morphotype 069, Layer #002, SEM Stub 18c, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44217. Fig. 2 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 3 Morphotype 069, Layer #003, SEM Stub 08i, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44219. Fig. 4 Morphotype 069, Layer #001, SEM Stub 19f , Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44220. Fig. 5 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 6 Morphotype 070, Layer #003, SEM Stub 62d, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44221. Fig. 7 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 8 Morphotype 070, Layer #003, SEM Stub 62l, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.2 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44070. Fig. 9 Morphotype 071, Layer #009, SEM St ub 46c, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44222. Fig. 10 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 11 Fragment of cone. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 12 Morphotype 072, Layer #014, SEM St ub 57i, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44223. Fig. 13 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 14 Morphotype 073, Layer #003, SEM Stub 04a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44224. Fig. 15 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 16 Bottom vieww. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 17 Morphotype 074, Layer #014, SEM St ub 56c, Braun Valley. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44225. Fig. 18 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 19 Morphotype 075, Layer #001, SE M Stub 20k, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44226. Fig. 20 Abaxial view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 21 Morphotype 075, Layer #001, SE M Stub 20h, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44227. Fig. 22 Side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 23 Morphotype 075, Layer #001, SEM Stub 19e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44228 Plate XVI Figs.1-4 Morphotype 076, Layer #003, Slid e, SEM Stub 15i, Black Wolf, Specimen number UF15719-44045.

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175 Fig. 1 Lateral view of the c one scale. SEM. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 2 Abaxial view of the cone scale. SEM. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 3 Vascular bundles in the cross section of the cone scale. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 4 Serial cross sections of the cone scale. Bar = 0.5 mm. Plate XVII Figs.1-8 and 12 are all SEM pictures. os = ovulate scale, br = bract, ca = cone axis. Morphotype 077, Parapodocarpus acuminatum (Figs.1-6). Fig. 1 Ovule-scale-bract complex attached to cone axis. Note the sturdy basal portion of the complex. The rectangular region is ma gnified in fig. 2. Holotype. Specimen number UF15719-44002. SEM Stub 84a. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 2 Detailed view of opening on the ovulate scale in fig. 1. Note the asymmetrical configuration of the opening, the upper margin of the opening is much narrower than the lateral and lower margins. Holotype. Specimen number UF15719-44002. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 3 Oblique view of an isolated ovul e-scale-bract complex. Unknown structure (arrow) is seen in this specime n. Specimen number UF15719-44003. SEM Stub 61b. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 4 Lateral view of a compressed ovulescale-bract complex. Note the hood formed by the bract at the tip and the relative ly slender basal portion. Specimen number UF15719-44004. SEM Stub 58c.Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 5 Adaxial view of an ovule-scale-bract complex. Note pointed the apex and sturdy basal portion (also see Figure 4-1). Also not e that ovulate scale in the elliptical depression formed by the bract. The rect angular region is magnified in fig. 6. Paratype. Specimen number UF 15719-44005. SEM Stub 61a. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 6 Detailed view of opening on the ovulate scale in fig. 5. Note the asymmetrical configuration of the opening, the upper margin of the opening is much narrower than the lateral and lower margins. Also note that ovulate scale in the elliptical depression formed by the bract. Paratype. Specimen number UF15719-44005. Bar = 0.1 mm. Morphotype 078, Parapodocarpus rotundum (Figs.7-13). Fig. 7 Detailed view of opening on the ovulate scale in fig. 8. Note the asymmetrical configuration of the opening, the upper margin of the opening is much narrower than the lateral and lower margins. Also note that the ovulate scale is situated in the round triangular hood formed by the bract (also see Figure 4-1). Holotype. Specimen number UF15719-44006. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 8 Adaxial view of an isolated ovulescale-bract complex. Note the slender and twisting basal portion of the complex (a lso see Figure 4-1). The top portion is magnified in fig. 7. Bars on the left margin mark the positions of sections shown in fig. 13. Holotype. Specimen number UF15719-44006. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 9 Longitudinal section across the tip of the ovulate scale opening of the specimen shown in fig. 8. Note the thickening ar ound the tip of the ovul ate scale. This

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176 portion of the ovulate scale fell off during the HNO3 processing, so it is shown here alone, rather than in connection w ith the other portion of the ovulate scale. Specimen number UF15719-44006. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 10 Transverse section across the position of the ovule in the sp ecimen shown in fig. 8. Note the dense cellular content and thin walls of the cells, compared with the specimen shown in fig. 11. This is a deta iled view of section 8 of fig. 13. Specimen number UF15719-44006. For magnifica tion, refer to the bar in fig. 11. Fig. 11 Transverse section across the positi on below that of the ovule in the specimen shown in fig. 8. Note the thin wall ti ssue and less dense cellular content, compared with the specimen shown in fig. 10. This is a detailed view of section 9 of fig. 13. Specimen number UF15719-44006. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 12 Top view of the ovule-scale-bract co mplex in fig. 8. Note the hood eclipses the ovulate scale completely. Holotype. Specimen number UF15719-44006. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 13 Serial transverse sections of speci men shown in fig. 8. Note the thick-walled tissue of the bract en closing the thin-walled tissue of the ovulate scale in the lower half all the way to the base of the ovule-scale-bract co mplex. Section 8 cuts across the position of the ovule in the complex. Also keep in mind that the tip portion of the ovulate scale, which fell off during the HNO3 processing, is missing in these sections. They are Nos. 36, 55, 63, 74, 77, 79, 80, 82, 84, 110, and 165 sections of total 187 sections, and their positions are marked in fig. 8. The sections are from Slide a (58 sections), Slide b (59 sections ), Slide c (35 sections), and Slide d (35 sections). Specimen number UF15719-44006. Bar = 0.4 mm. Plate XVIII Figs.1-14 Morphotype 079, Layer #003, Slide, Black Wolf, Specimen number UF1571944012. Fig. 1 General view of the cone. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 2 Detailed view showing the arra ngement of the scales. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 3 Detailed view showing almost vertic al striations on the abaxial surface of the scales. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 4 Tangential view close to the axis, sh owing the traces of th e spirally arranged scales. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 5 Radial section showing the ovules em bedded in the thick scales. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 6 Tangential section of the cone, show ing up to two ovules on the same scale. For magnification, see fig. 7. Fig. 7 Tangential section of the cone, show ing up to two ovules on the same scale. The image is taken from the exactly same orient ation as in fig. 6, th e only difference is that this section is closer to the axis of the cone. Note the ovules are bigger in this image than in fig. 6. Bar = 0.5 mm. Figs. 8-10 Serial sections of one of the s cales showing the arrangement of three ovules on the same scale. From figs. 8 to fig. 10, the section retreats from the cone axis. For magnification, see fig. 10. Bar = 0.25 mm. Fig. 11 Cross section cutting through the vertic al portion of the scale. For magnification, see fig. 13.

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177 Fig. 12 Cross section of the cone showing att achment to the cone axis. For magnification, see fig. 13. Fig. 13 Cross section showing the spatial relationship among three ovules on the same scale; arrow points to th e middle ovule. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 14 Section showing two ovules on the same scale. Bar = 0.25 mm. Plate XIX Figs.1-16 Morphotype 080, Layer #003, Slide, Black Wolf, Specimen number UF1571944014. Fig. 1 General view of the pollen cone. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 2 Detailed view showing the arra ngement of the scales. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 3 Detailed view showing the vertical st riations on the abaxial surface of the scales. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 4 Abaxial pollen sacs with pollen grains. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 5 Adaxial view of one the scales. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 6 Detailed view of the pollen grain. Bar = 15 m. Fig. 7 Another scale of the cone. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 8 Detailed view of the pollen sac of the scale in fig. 7. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 9 Detailed view of pollen grain in the rectangular region in fig. 8. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 10 Detailed view of pollen wall structure. Bar = 0.5 m. Fig. 11 Cross section of the cone axis, show ing a few traces of scales. Bar = 0.25 mm. Fig. 12 View of pollen sac under light microscope. Bar = 0.25 mm. Fig. 13 In situ pollen grains in th e pollen sac. Bar = 128 m. Fig. 14 In situ pollen grains in th e pollen sac. Bar = 32 m. Fig. 15 In situ pollen grains isolated fr om the pollen sac. Bar = 32 m. Fig. 16 Detailed view showing the orna mentation on the pollen wall. Bar = 10 m. Plate XX Figs.1-3 Morphotype 080, Layer #014, SEM Stub 56i, Braun Valley, Specimen number UF18738-44015. Fig. 1 Isolated scale of the pollen cone. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 2 Detailed view of the pollen sac. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 3 Top oblique view of the scale. Bar = 0.3 mm. Figs.4-11 Morphotype 081, Layer #003, Slid e, SEM Stub 39, Black Wolf, Specimen number UF15719-44016. Fig. 4 General view. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 5 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 6 Fragment. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 7 Cellular details. Bar = 20 m. Fig. 8 Residue of cell content. Bar = 5 m. Fig. 9 Fragment. Bar = 0.15 mm. Fig. 10 Details of fragment. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 11 Residue of cell content. Bar = 5 m Plate XXI

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178 Figs.1-15 Morphotype 082, Layer #002, Slide, Black Wolf, Specimen number UF1571944017. Fig. 1 General view of the cone. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 2 Top view of the cone. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 3 Detailed view of the surface of the cone scale. Bar = 0.1 mm. Figs. 4-11 Serial sections showing th e structure of the cone. Bar = 0.4 mm. Fig. 12 Ovules in the cone, enlarged from the rectangle in fig. 15. For magnification, see fig. 13. Fig. 13 Ovules in the cone. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 14 Two ovules in the same cone scale, for magnification, see fig. 13. Fig. 15 Detail view of the sectio n shown in fig. 9. Bar = 0.2 mm. Figs16-17 Morphotype 082, Layer #002, SEM Stub 18j, Black Wolf, Specimen number UF15719-44018. Fig. 16 Another cone of probably the same type. Bar = 0.75m. Fig. 17 Detailed view of the stria tions on the cone scale. Bar = 0.1m Plate XXII Figs.1-7 Morphotype 083, Layer #002, Slid e, Black Wolf, Specimen number UF1571944046. Fig. 1 General view of the twig. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 2 Detailed view of the scale leaf. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 3 Cross section showing th e close to decussate arrangement of the scaly leaves. Bar = 0.4 mm. Fig. 4 Tangential section of the twig showi ng the resin body (empty) in the leaves. Bar = 0.4 mm. Fig. 5 Axial section showing the top part of the twig. Bar = 0.4 mm. Fig. 6 Apical meristem of the twig. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 7 Possible mother cell of the twig. Bar = 25 m Plate XXIII Figs.1-11 Morphotype 084, Layer #003, Slide, Black Wolf, Specimen number UF1571944082. Fig. 1 General view of the cone. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 2 Lateral view of the cone. For magnification, see fig. 1. Fig. 3 Details on the surface of the scale. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 4 Serial sections from the tip to the bottom of the cone scale, showing the arrangement of three ovules in the same cone scale. Bar = 0.4 mm. Fig. 5 Tangential view of the cone scale showing the ovule, enlarged from figure 9. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 6 Tracheids in the cone axis. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 7 Radial section showing the ovule (arrow) and up-turned tip part of the cone scale. Bar = 0.4 mm. Fig. 8 Tangential view of the cone showi ng the arrangement of the three ovules on the same cone scale. Bar = 0.4 mm. Fig. 9 Tangential view showing multiple ovules. The one to which the arrow points is shown in detail in fig. 5. Bar = 0.4 mm.

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179 Fig. 10The arrangement of the three ovule s on the same cone scale. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 11Tangential view showing two ovules on the same cone scale. Bar = 0.4 mm. Plate XXIV Morphotype 085, Yiruia membranacea Wang, gen. & sp. nov. Specimen number UF15719-44149. Fig. 1 General view of shoot tip. Two buds are marked by a single arrow and a double arrow. SEM. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 2 Median section of shoot tip, s howing anatomical preserved details. For magnification, refer to the bar of fig. 1. Light microscope. Fig. 3. Magnified picture of the bud marked by single arrow in fig. 1, showing leaf scar (LS) and bract scale (BS). Tip part of the bud is broken. SEM. Bar = 200 m. Fig. 4 Top view of the bud shown in fig. 3, showing broken bract scale (BS), primordium within it, and leaf scar (LS). Arrow points to the boundary between the two bulb-like structures. SEM. Bar = 200 m. Fig. 5 Section showing cells in flank merist em (C), procambium (PC), and rib meristem (P). Cytoplasmic membranes appear as nonspecific material in the lumens. Light microscope. Bar = 100 m. Fig. 6 Cells in flank meristem with cytopl asmic membrane residues in the lumens. Light microscope. Bar = 100 m. Fig. 7 Epidermis of the shoot tip, showing the quasirectangular pr ofile of cells. SEM. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 8 The scalariform thickening on vessel element just differentiated from procambium. Light microscope. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 9. Primary phloem (?) differentiated from procambium. Light microscope. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 10 Longitudinal and tangential section of the bud single-arrowed in fig. 1, showing stalk (arrow) and two bulb-like structures on its terminal, embraced by bract scale (BS). Light microscope. Bar = 100 m. Figs. 11-13 Three continuous se ctions at in tervals of 16 m of the bud double-arrowed in fig. 1, showing arrangement of leaf (L), bract scale (BS), and primordium within bract scale. fig. 12 is the median section, showing stalk and contact region between bulb-like structures, figs. 11 a nd 13 show cross sections of bulb-like structures. Light microscope. Bar = 100 m. Fig. 14 Uniseriate ray in primary xylem. Th e ray is 3 cells high and beside the ray is primary xylem with pits. Light microscope. Bar = 20 m. Fig. 15 Scalariform perforation plate of vessel element. Light microscope. Bar = 20 m. Plate XXV Morphotype 085, Yiruia membranacea Wang, gen. & sp. nov. Specimen number UF15719-44149. Black Wolf.

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180 Fig. 1 Section showing cytoplasmic memb ranes and content. Two arrows show cytoplasmic membranes connecting to pits in cell wall (CW). Light microscope. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 2 Several cells with their cytoplasmi c membranes preserved and some of the cell content still visible. Arro ws show where cytoplasmic membranes connect to pits in cell wall (CW). Light microscope. Bar = 20 m. Fig. 3 Cell with cytoplasmic membranes conne cting to pits (arrow) in cell wall (CW). Light microscope. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 4 Cell with cytoplasmic membranes connec ting to pits (black a rrow) in cell wall (CW). Some cell content is still visible (white arrow). Light microscope. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 5 SEM image of cytoplasmic membranes and cell wall (CW). Arrows mark the connections between cytoplasmic membranes and cell wall. SEM. Bar = 7.5 m. Fig. 6 Section showing broken cytoplasmic membranes and connection (arrow) with cell wall (CW). SEM. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 7 Section showing broken cytoplasmic membranes and connection (arrow) with cell wall (CW). SEM. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 8 TEM image of cytoplasmic membrane s and cell wall (CW). Two rectangles show regions to be seen in fig. 9 and 10. Note the appearance of cytoplasmic membranes in the section. Because cytoplasmic membranes are irregularly angular, the appearances of different parts depend on th eir orientation relative to the sectioning plane. When it is vertical to the sectioning plane, it appears as a linear segment; when it is almost parallel to the sectioning plane, it appears as a patch (arrow). TEM. Bar = 5 m. Fig. 9 Enlargement of the upper rectangl e in fig. 8, TEM image showing double layer structure of cytoplasmic membranes. Along the upper margin, the right part shows more protein grains, while the le ft part looks more like a double layer structure, because the sectioning plane is tilting away from electron-dense SEM coating, which is only present on the surface, to the left end, so protein grains in between the double-layers become invisi ble at the left end. Along the lower margin, the double layer structure can bare ly be seen, the black arrow points to the position of the inner la yer of the membrane. The thickness of membranes at the white arrow is 10.2 nm, at the black arrow 9.2 nm. TEM. Bar = 200 nm. Fig. 10 Enlargement of the lower rectangle in fig. 8, showing double-layer structure of cytoplasmic membranes. Note double layers (arrow) and greater distance between them, compared with those in figs. 9 and 12. TEM. Bar = 100 nm. Fig. 11 The appearance of cytoplasmic membra nes as segments (black arrow) and patch (white arrow) under TEM. Cy toplasmic membranes appear as either connected linear segments or patches, depending on th e orientation relative to the sectioning plane. TEM. Bar = 5 m. Fig. 12 TEM image of two-layer structure (b lack arrows) of cytoplasmic membranes. The thickness of cytoplasmic membranes at black arrow is about 12.8 nm. The darker region in the lowe r left region is due to the SEM coating. TEM. Bar = 100 nm. Fig. 13 Cytoplasmic membranes (double ar row) and connection (single arrow) to plasmodesmata in cell wall (CW) . Light microscope. Bar = 5 m.

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181 Fig. 14 Oblique section of a protrusion of cy toplasmic membrane to pit in cell wall (at the bottom of the picture), the circular shape implying that the protrusion is tubular. TEM. Bar = 500 nm. Ligustrum japonicum . Fig. 15 Parenchyma tissue after baking for 30 minutes at 425°F, showing cytoplasmic membranes connecting in pairs (arrows) to neighboring cell through pits in cell wall. Light microscope. Bar = 20 m. Fig. 16 Parenchyma tissue after baking for 30 minutes at 425°F, showing cytoplasmic membranes of baked cell (C) connecting (a rrow) to pit in cell wall (CW), SEM. Bar = 25 m. Plate XXVI Morphotype 086, Mesoradix raria , Specimen number UF15719-44001, Slide, SEM Stub 32. Black Wolf. Fig. 1 General view of root. SEM. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 2 Longitudinal section of root, s howing one rootlet branching out. Light microscope. For magnification, see fig. 1. Fig. 3 Magnified picture of one rootlet scar. SEM. Bar = 150 m. Fig. 4 A rootlet with root cap and r oot hair (black arrow). SEM. Bar = 100 m. Fig. 5 Cross section of one of the rootle ts, showing well-preserved cytoplasm. Light microscope. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 6 Cross section of cortex of the r oot, showing differentia ted preservation of cytoplasm in regions close to epidermis and cambium. Light microscope. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 7 Picture of cambium and its neighboring cortex. SEM. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 8 Cross section of one of the ro otlets. Light microscope. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 9 Enlargement of portion in fig. 8, showing scalariform peroration plate. Light microscope. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 10 Picture of cambium and secondary xylem derived from it. Note the wellpreserved initials. SEM. Bar = 60 m. Fig. 11 Possible counterpart of cambium shown in fig. 10; note the non-storied cambium. SEM. Bar = 60 m. Fig. 12 Decayed cytoplasm. Light mi croscope. For magnification, see fig. 13. Fig. 13 Half-decayed cytoplasm. TEM. Bar = 4 m. Fig. 14 One of the well-preserved cytoplasm in cortex. SEM. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 15 Two well-preserved cytoplasm. Light microscope. For magnification, see fig. 14. Plate XXVII Morphotype 086, Mesoradix raria , Specimen number UF15719-44001, Slide, SEM Stub 32, Black Wolf Fig. 1 Picture of a piece of epidermi s, cortex, and cambium. SEM. Bar = 300 m. Fig. 2 Different view of the sample in fig. 1, showing cells pr eserved and protruding. Also shows the rootlet branching out. SEM. Bar = 100 m. Fig. 3 Picture showing a detailed view of a preserved cell, the empty space (V) may be where the vacuoles or other organelles existed. SEM. Bar = 5 m.

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182 Fig. 4 Picture of a cell close to the cambiu m showing numerous possible organelles and missing nucleus. TEM. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 5 One of the cells shown in fig. 2 s howing vesicular cytoplasm. SEM. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 6 One of the cells close to the epidermis, showing the decaying granules. SEM. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 7 Enlargement of the rectangular re gion in fig. 5 showing ultrastructure of cytoplasm. SEM. Bar = 0.5 m. Fig. 8 Enlargement of one of the organelles showing stalked gra nules dispersed on the inner membranes of the organelle. TEM. Bar = 40 nm. Fig. 9 Ultrastructural detail of cyt oplasm showing possible ribosomes and RNA connecting them. Bar = 30 nm. Fig. 10 Picture showing possible mitochondri on preserved in cytoplasm. TEM. Bar = 80 nm. Fig. 11 Picture showing possible mitochondr ion preserved in cytoplasm. TEM. Bar = 240 nm. Fig. 12 Details of the walls of possible mitochondrion shown in fig. 11. TEM. Bar = 50 nm. Fig. 13 Ultrastructural view of cytoplasm. TEM. Bar = 100 nm. Fig. 14 Ultrastructural view of possibl e ribosomes and RNA running through them. TEM. Bar = 50 nm. Fig. 15 Ultrastructural view of cytoplas m, showing possible vacuole and possible endoplastic reticulum (arrow) surr ounding it. TEM. Bar = 500 nm. Fig. 16 Series of ribosome-like grains from the single original pi cture shown in fig. 13, showing them merging. The rightmost one is from a different original picture. TEM. Bar = 20 nm. Plate XXVIII Morphotype 086, Mesoradix raria , Specimen number UF15719-44001, Slide, SEM Stub 32. Black Wolf Fig. 1 Broken cortex showing at least superf icially well-preserved cytoplasm. SEM. Bar = 300 m. Fig. 2 Possible organelle. TEM. Bar = 500 nm. Fig. 3 Details of the possible organelle in fig, 2, showing numerous particles on the inner membranes. One of the particles, enlarged in the upper right corner, shows stalked particle. TEM. Bar = 100 nm. Fig. 4 Secondary xylem showing tracheids, possible vessel element, and phloem. SEM. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 5 Part of the cortex showing a sharp contrast of preservation of cytoplasm in adjacent cells. SEM. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 6 Perforation plate of a vessel element. Light microscope. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 7 Xylem element close to the protoxylem. Light microscope. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 8 Xylem elements showing bordered pits. Light microscope. Bar = 10 nm. Fig. 9 Xylem elements showing scalariform pitting. Light microscope. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 10 Possible parenchyma tissue or incl uded phloem in xylem. Light microscope. Bar = 0.1 mm.

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183 Fig. 11 Detailed view of the possible cytopl asm in secondary xylem shown in fig. 10. Light microscope. Bar = 25 m. Fig. 12 Vessel element with oblique end wall. Light microscope Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 13 Vessel element with possible transver se end wall. Light microscope. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 14 Perforation plate between vessel elements. Light microscope. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 15 Vessel element with transverse end wall. Light micr oscope. Bar = 0.1 mm. Plate XXIX Figs.1-13 are all SEM pictures. Morphotype 087, figs.1-5 Isolated pent amerous carpels. Layer #008, SEM Stub 45b, ACME, Specimen number UF18730-44007. Holotype. Fig. 1 Side view of a cluster of five carpe ls detached from their perianth. Note the number of carpels and the absence of a style on the top of carpels. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 2 Top view of the same carpels. Note the arrangement and number of carpels and that two of them are broken. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 3 Detail of one of the carpel tips in fi g. 2. Note the groove on the top of the carpel and pollen grains perching there. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 4 Detail of the pollen grains in the re ctangular region in figs. 3 & 5. Note the sculpture of the pollen grains. Bar = 5 m. Fig. 5 Detail of top of the carpel shown in fig. 3, showing group of pollen grains. Not the sculpture and tricolpate natu re of the pollen grains. Bar = 15 m. Morphotype 088, figs.6, 7 Isolated pent amerous carpels. Layer #008, SEM Stub 45c, ACME, Specimen number UF18730-44008. Fig. 6 Another cluster of carpels detached from perianth. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 7 Detail of the carpels shown in fig. 6. No te the number of carpels and the absence of a style on the top of carpels. Bar = 0.1 mm. Morphotype 089, figs.8-13 Isol ated broken pentamerous carpels. Layer #005, SEM Stub 17e, Braun Valley, Specimen number UF18738-44009. Holotype. Fig. 8 Top part of cluster of carpels. Note the rough surface on the top of the carpels and the way the carpels cluster together. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 9 Detailed view of the surface of the carpel top. Note the border between carpels and the rough surface full of pollen grains. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 10 Detailed view of a few pollen grains . Note the tricolpate nature. Bar = 10 m.. Fig. 11 Detailed view of a car pel top showing the rough surf ace and pollen grains on it. Bar = 0.1 mm. . Fig. 12 Polar view of a pollen grain, enlarged from the rectangular region in fig. 11. Note the sculpture and tricolpate nature of the pollen. Bar = 5 m. Fig. 13 A group of pollen grains on the top of a carpel. Note the tricolpate nature of the pollen grains. Bar = 15 m. Plate XXX Figs.1-7 are all SEM pictures.

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184 Morphotype 090, figs.1-5 Two perianths de void of carpels. Layer #005, SEM Stub 17f, Braun Valley, Specimen number UF18738-44010. ? Holotype. Fig. 1 Top view of perianths of two flowers. Note the spatial relationship of the tepals. For magnification, refer to the bar in fig. 2. Fig. 2 Side view of perianths of two flowers. Note the spiral arrangement of the tepals. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 3 Side view of the same perianths, from another side. For magnification, refer to the bar in fig. 2. Fig. 4 Detailed view of the top of one tepa l showing pollen grains perching all over it. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 5 Detail view of the top of one carpel showing its tricolpa te nature and the presence of pollen grains. Bar = 30 m. Morphotype 091, figs.6, 7, inflorescence. Layer #005, SEM Stub 17d, Braun Valley, Specimen number UF18738-44011. Fig. 6 A male(?) inflorescence. Note the he ad composed of florets. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 7 Detailed top view of a few florets. Bar = 0.1 mm. Plate XXXI Figs.1-11 Morphotype 092, Layer #003, Slid e, Black Wolf, Specimen number UF15719-44013. Fig. 1 General view of the flower. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 2 Top view of one of the carpels. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 3 Detail of the mark left by the falle n perianth, arrow poin ting to the possible preserved cytoplasm. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 4 Details of the bracts at th e base of the flower. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 5 Serial sections showing the structure of the flower. Bar = 0.4 mm. Fig. 6 Cross section of the ovary showing axial placentation. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 7 The distribution of parenchyma tissue in the tube formed by the carpel above the position of the ovary. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 8 Possible pollen grain in the tube formed by the carpel. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 9 Another part of the same pollen grain shown in fig. 8. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 10 Cross section showing the th ird, aborted carpel. Bar = 0.4 mm. Fig. 11 Asymmetrical configuration of the ov ules in the axial placentation. Bar = 0.1 mm. Plate XXXII Figs.1-6 Morphotype 093, Layer #002, Slid e, Black Wolf, Specimen number UF1571944019. Fig. 1 General view of the flower. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 2 General view of the flower from a different side. For magnification, see fig. 1. Fig. 3 Detail of the tepal of the flower. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 4 Stamnen and tepal. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 5 Cross section showing that two st amens correspond to a tepal. Bar = 0.4 mm. Fig. 6 Serial cross sections of the flower from the top to the bottom. Bar = 0.5 mm.

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185 Plate XXXIII Figs.1-8 Morphotype 094, Layer #003, Slid e, Black Wolf, Specimen number UF1571944043. Fig. 1 General view of a young fruit. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 2 General view of the young fruit from a different side. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 3 Top view of the young fruit. Note the mark left by the fallen style. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 4 Detail from portion of fig. 2 showi ng the arrow-head like stamen. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 5 Trichome on the surface of the perianth. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 6 Details of the mark left by the falle n style, enlarged from fig. 3. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 7 Cross section of the young fruit, showi ng an almost homogeneous structure. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 8 Possible cellular content in the young fruit. Bar = 32 m. Plate XXXIV Figs.1-8 Morphotype 095, Layer #003, SEM Stub 02e, Black Wolf, Specimen number UF15719-44044. Fig. 1 General view of a broken flower. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 2 General view of a broken flower from a different side. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 3 Oblique top view of a broken flower. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 4 An anther opposite to the tepal. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 5 The same anther as in fi g. 4, but broken here. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 6 Possible fragments of pollen grains. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 7 Surface details of possible stamenoid part. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 8 Surface details of the tepal. Bar = 30 m. Plate XXXV Figs.1-6 Morphotype 096, Layer #003, Slid e, Black Wolf, Specimen number UF1571944047. Fig. 1 General view of a young fruit. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 2 General view of a young fruit from a different side. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 3 Top view of the fruit. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 4 Trichomes on the surface of the ovary. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 5 Details of a possible stamenoid. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 6 Serial cross sections, from the top to the bottom, showing the internal structure of the fruit. Bar = 1 mm. Plate XXXVI Fig. 1 Morphotype 097, Layer #003, SEM Stub 08d, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44263. Fig. 2 Details of possibl e anther. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 3 Details of possible anther, fr om different angle. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 4 Morphotype 098, Layer #003, SEM Stub 04, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44264. Fig. 5 Details of possible oil glands. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 6 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 7 Possible nectar. Bar = 0.1 mm.

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186 Fig. 8 Morphotype 099, Layer #021, SEM Stub 85l, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44265. Fig. 9 Top view. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 10 Possible oil gland. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 11 Morphotype 099, Layer #003, SEM Stub 64e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44266. Fig. 12 Side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 13 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 14 Details of the surface. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 15 Morphotype 100, Layer #001, SEM Stub 69a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44267. Fig. 16 Details of the surface. Bar = 20 m. Fig. 17 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 18 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 19 Morphotype 100, Layer #003, SE M Stub 62b, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44268. Fig. 20 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 21 A fallen tepal. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 22 Details of the surface of the tepal. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 23 Morphotype 100, Layer #003, SEM Stub 67e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44269. Fig. 24 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Plate XXXVII Fig. 1 Morphotype 101, Layer #001, SEM Stub 71d, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44270. Fig. 2 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 3 Details of the surface. Bar = 15 m. Fig. 4 Morphotype 101, Layer #003, SEM Stub 67f, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44271. Fig. 5 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 6 Morphotype 102, Layer #005, SEM Stub 17h, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44272. Fig. 7 Back view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 8 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 9 Morphotype 103, Layer #003, SEM Stub 12b, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44273. Fig. 10 Top ivew. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 11 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 12 Morphotype 103, Layer #003, SEM Stub 03c, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44274. Fig. 13 Top view. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 14 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 15 Details of trichomes. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 16 Morphotype 103, Layer #003, SEM Stub 09e, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44275.

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187 Fig. 17Details of the surface. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 18 Morphotype 104, Layer #003, SEM Stub 04e, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44276. Fig. 19 Details of the tip. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 20 A fallen tepal. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 21 Details of tepal surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 22Details of tepal surface with oil glands. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 23 Morphotype 105, Layer #003, SEM Stub 12l, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44278. Fig. 24Details of the surface. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 25 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 26Details in top view. Bar = 0.3 mm. Plate XXXVIII Fig. 1 Morphotype 106, Layer #020, SEM Stub 83g, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44279. Fig. 2 Side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 3Oblique view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 4 Morphotype 106, Layer #020, SEM Stub 82b, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44280. Fig. 5 Side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 6 Morphotype 107, Layer #003, SEM Stub 88a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44281. Fig. 7Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 8 Morphotype 108, Layer #005, Caps ule-17, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44282. Fig. 9 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 10 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 11 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 12Possible pollen grain. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 13 Morphotype 109, Layer #003, SEM Stub 61c, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44283. Fig. 14Side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 15Details of the surface. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 16Morphotype 110, Layer #020, SEM Stub 83d, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44284. Fig. 17Top view. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 18 Details in top view. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 19 Details of the surface with trichomes. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 20 Details of trichome. Bar = 20 m. Fig. 21 Details of trichome. Bar = 7.5 m. Fig. 22Morphotype 111, Layer #017, SEM Stub 73d, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44285. Fig. 23 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 24Top view. Bar = 0.3 mm.

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188 Plate XXXIX Fig. 1 Morphotype 111, Layer #017, SEM Stub 73e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44286. Fig. 2 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 3 Top view. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 4 Morphotype 112, Layer #003, SEM Stub 64d, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44287. Fig. 5 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 6 Morphotype 113, Layer #017, SEM Stub 78c, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44288. Fig. 7 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 8 Possible pollen grain. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 9 Possible stoma. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 10 Morphotype 114, Layer #017, SE M Stub 78g, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44289. Fig. 11 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 12 Details of the surface with trichome. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 13 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 14 Morphotype 114, Layer #001, SEM Stub 69f, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44290. Fig. 15 Details of possible style. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 16 Morphotype 114, Layer #001, SEM Stub 71c, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44291. Fig. 17 Details of the surface with trichomes. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 18 Morphotype 114, Layer #003, SEM Stub 67c, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44292. Fig. 19 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 20 Details of the surface with trichomes. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 21 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 22 Morphotype 114, Layer #003, SEM Stub 68c, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44293. Fig. 23 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 24 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 25 Details of the surface w ith trichome. Bar = 0.1 mm. Plate XL Fig. 1 Morphotype 114, Layer #017, SEM Stub 78f, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44294. Fig. 2 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 3 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 4 Morphotype 114, Layer #003, MISSING, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719xxxxx. Fig. 5 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 6 Morphotype 114, Layer #003, SEM Stub 65a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44296.

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189 Fig. 7 Different side view. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 8 Details of the surface with trichomes. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 9 Morphotype 114, Layer #003, SEM Stub 67a, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44297. Fig. 10 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 11 Morphotype 114, Layer #003, SEM Stub 05f, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44298. Fig. 12 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 13 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 14 Morphotype 114, Layer #003, SEM Stub 08c, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44299. Fig. 15 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 16 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 17 Details of the surface. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 18 Possible pollen grain attached. Bar = 20 m. Fig. 19 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 20 Different side viewBar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 21 Details of the surf ace with trichome. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 22 Details of the surface. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 23 Morphotype 114, Layer #018, SE M Stub 81b, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44301. Fig. 24 Different side view. Bar = 0.3 mm. Plate XLI Fig. 1 Morphotype 115, Layer #003, SEM Stub 15f , Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44403. Fig. 2 Morphotype 115, Layer #001, SEM Stub 20g, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44404. Fig. 3 Morphotype 116, Layer #005, SEM St ub 52a, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44405. Fig. 4 Morphotype 117, Layer #014, SEM Stub 56f, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44406. Fig. 5 Top view. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 6 Morphotype 118, Layer #005, SEM Stub 17c, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44407. Fig. 7 Pollen grain attahced. Bar = 5 m. Fig. 8 Morphotype 119, Layer #001, SEM Stub 69b, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44408. Fig. 9 Morphotype 120, Layer #001, SEM Stub 71b, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44409. Fig. 10 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 11 Details of possible style. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 12 Morphotype 121, Layer #003, SEM Stub 67d, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44410. Fig. 13 Details fo the possible st yle, with trichomes on the inne r surface of the tepal. Bar = 0.1 mm.

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190 Fig. 14 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 15 Details of the surface with trichome and oil gland. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 16 Morphotype 122, Layer #014, SEM St ub 58a, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44411. Fig. 17 Oblique side view. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 18 Morphotype 053, Layer #003, MISSING, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719xxxxx. Fig. 19 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 20 Morphotype 049, Layer #003, MISSING, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719xxxxx. Fig. 21 Morphotype 049, Layer #011, SEM Stub 51e, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44414. Fig. 22 Morphotype 123, Layer #014, SEM St ub 55j, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44415. Fig. 23 Morphotype 123, Layer #014, SEM Stub 55i, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44416 Plate XLII Fig. 1 Morphotype 124, Layer #003, SEM Stub 65c, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44240. Fig. 2 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 3 Morphotype 124, Layer #014, SEM Stub 56d, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44241. Fig. 4 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 5 Morphotype 124, Layer #014, SEM Stub 55a, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44242. Fig. 6 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 7 Morphotype 125, Layer #014, SEM Stub 57b, Braun Valley. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44243. Fig. 8 Morphotype 126, Layer #014, SEM Stub 56e, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44244. Fig. 9 Morphotype 127, Layer #005, SEM Stub 52c, Braun Valley. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44245. Fig. 10 Details of a possible bud. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 11 Morphotype 128, Layer #001, SE M Stub 69g, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44246. Fig. 12 Morphotype 128, Layer #002, SEM Stub 26c, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44247. Fig. 13 Morphotype 129, Layer #012, SE M Stub 53b, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44248. Fig. 14 Cross section. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 15 Morphotype 130, Layer #004, SEM Stub 47a, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44249. Fig. 16 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 17 Morphotype 130, Layer #002, SEM Stub 26b, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44250.

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191 Fig. 18 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 19 Morphotype 131, Layer #003, SEM Stub 29a, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44251. Fig. 20 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 21 Morphotype 130, Layer #004, SEM Stub 47b, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44252. Fig. 22Morphotype 132, Layer #007, SEM Stub 21a, ACME, Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44253. Fig. 23 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 24Top view. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 25 Morphotype 133, Layer #005, MISSING, Braun Valley, Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-xxxxx. Fig. 26Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 27 Morphotype 134, Layer #014, SEM Stub 55h, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44255. Fig. 28 Morphotype 075, Layer #002, MISSING, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719xxxxx. Fig. 29 Morphotype 075, Layer #003, SEM Stub 15h, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44257. Fig. 30Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 31 Morphotype 075, Layer #003, SEM Stub 16c, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44258. Fig. 32 Morphotype 075, Layer #003, MISSING, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719xxxxx. Fig. 33 Morphotype 075, Layer #006, SEM Stub 25l, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44260. Fig. 34Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 35 Details of possible pollen sac. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 36 Morphotype 075, Layer #017, SEM Stub 76d, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44261. Fig. 37 Morphotype 075, Layer #004, SEM Stub 28m, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44262 Plate XLIII Fig. 1 Morphotype 135, Layer #017, SEM Stub 77a, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44302. Fig. 2 Details of the surface with trichomes. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 3Morphotype 135, Layer #017, SEM St ub 77f, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44303. Fig. 4 Morphotype 136, Layer #020, SEM Stub 82g, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44304. Fig. 5 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 6 Morphotype 136, Layer #020, SEM Stub 82h, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44305. Fig. 7Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm.

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192 Fig. 8 Morphotype 137, Layer #016, SEM Stub 86a, Linnenberg. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF15703-44306. Fig. 9 Side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 10 Details of anthers from the bottom view. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 11 In situ pollen grains. Bar = 5 m. Fig. 12 Morphotype 138, Layer #021, SEM Stub 84c , Black Wolf. Bar = 1mm. Specimen number UF15719-44307. Fig. 13 Details of possible primordia. Bar = 0.3mm. Fig. 14 Details of possible flor al primordia. Bar = 0.2mm. Fig. 15 Morphotype 138, Layer #021, SEM Stub 84d, Black Wolf. Bar = 1mm. Specimen number UF15719-44308. Fig. 16 Details of a bud. Bar = 0.3mm. Fig. 17 Cellular detail. Bar = 0.1mm. Fig. 18 Possible cytoplasm. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 19 Morphotype 138, Layer #017, SEM Stub 77c, Black Wolf. Bar = 1mm. Specimen number UF15719-44309. Fig. 20 Top view. Bar = 1mm. Fig. 21 Morphotype 139, Layer #003, SEM Stub 01c, Black Wolf. Bar = 1mm. Specimen number UF15719-44310. Fig. 22 Details of needle leaf cross section. Bar = 0.1mm. Fig. 23 Cellular details. Bar = 0.1mm. Plate XLIV Fig. 1 Morphotype 140, Layer #001, SEM Stub 19c, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44311. Fig. 2 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 3 Details of a bud. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 4 Details of a bud. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 5 Details of a bud. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 6 Morphotype 141, Layer #003, SEM Stub 01a, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44312. Fig. 7 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 8 Cellular details. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 9 Details of a branch (cone unit). Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 10 Oblique view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 11 Details of a branch (cone unit). Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 12 Details of a branch (cone unit). Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 13 Morphotype 138, Layer #017, SE M Stub 77b, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44313. Fig. 14 Different view. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 15 Cellular details. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 16 Morphotype 138, Layer #018, SEM Stub 81a, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44314. Fig. 17 Morphotype 142, Layer #005, SEM Stub 17n, Braun Valley. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44315. Fig. 18 Top view. Bar = 0.3 mm.

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193 Fig. 19 Details at the tip. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 20 Details of the tip from top view. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 21 Morphotype 142, Layer #005, SEM St ub 17a, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44316. Fig. 22Top view. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 23 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 24Morphotype 143, Layer #013, SEM Stub 54d, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44317. Fig. 25 Morphotype 143, Layer #005, SEM Stub 52b, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44318. Fig. 26Morphotype 143, Layer #003, SEM Stub 68g, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44319. Fig. 27 Morphotype 143, Layer #017, SEM Stub 72a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44320. Fig. 28 Morphotype 144, Layer #001, SEM Stub 70a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44321. Fig. 29 Side view. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 30 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Plate XLV Fig. 1 Morphotype 114, Layer #017, SEM Stub 78e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44323. Fig. 2 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 3Morphotype 145, Layer #013, SEM Stub 54b, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44324. Fig. 4 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 5 Morphotype 146, Layer #018, SEM Stub 79b, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44325. Fig. 6 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 7Details of a subunit. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 8 Morphotype 147, Layer #021, SEM Stub 85b, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44326. Fig. 9 Top view. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 10 Morphotype 147, Layer #021, SEM Stub 85c, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44327. Fig. 11 Morphotype 148, Layer #004, SEM Stub 49e, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44328. Fig. 12Morphotype 049, Layer #003, SEM Stub 12k, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44329. Fig. 13 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 14Morphotype 049, Layer #003, MISSING, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719xxxxx. Fig. 15Different side view. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 16Details of the surface. Bar = 0.3 mm.

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194 Fig. 17 Morphotype 049, Layer #003, SEM Stub 03b, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44331. Fig. 18 Oblique top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 19 Morphotype 149, Layer #002, SEM Stub 18f, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44332. Fig. 20 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 21 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 22 Morphotype 150, Layer #006, SEM St ub 24o, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44333. Fig. 23 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 24 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 25 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 26 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 27 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Plate XLVI. Fig. 1-12 Morphotype 151, Layer #017, SEM Stub 31, Black Wolf, Box(2) C8. Specimen number UF15719-44172 Fig. 1 A piece of bark. Bar = 75 m. Fig. 2 Details of the bark. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 3 Details of possible cytoplasmic residue. Bar = 6 m. Fig. 4 Cross section of the bark. Bar = 60 m. Fig. 5 Details of tracheids wi th fungal hyphae inside. Bar = 12 m. Fig. 6 Details of one of the fungal hyphae. Bar = 0.75 m. Fig. 7 Tracheids attached to the bark. Bar = 75 m. Fig. 8 Pitting on the tracheid walls. Bar = 20 m. Fig. 9 Details of tr acheid pitting. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 10 TEM view of the cambium a nd its xylem derivatives. Bar = 2 m. Fig. 11 Granules of possible cytoplasm in region close to cambium. Bar = 0.5 m. Fig. 12 Granules of possible cytoplasm in region close to cambium. Bar = 0.2 m. Plate XLVII Figs.1-6 Morphotype 152, Layer #003, Slid e, Black Wolf, Specimen number UF1571944020. Fig. 1 General view of a seed. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 2 Side view of the same seed. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 3 Details of the seed coat. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 4 Surface details of the seed coat. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 5 Cross section of the s eed. For magnification, see fig. 6. Fig. 6 Another cross section of the seed. Bar = 0.5 mm. Plate XLVIII Figs.1-3 Morphotype 152, Layer #003, SEM Stub 13g, Black Wolf, Specimen number UF15719-44021.

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195 Fig. 1 Side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 2 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 3 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 4 Morphotype 152, Layer #001, SEM Stub 20n, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44022. Fig. 5 Morphotype 152, Layer #001, SEM Stub 20l, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44023. Fig. 6 Morphotype 152, Layer #003, SEM Stub 15g, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44024 Figs.7-8 Morphotype 153, Layer #014, SEM Stub 56m, Braun Valley, Specimen number UF18738-44025. Fig. 7 General view. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 8 Detailed view. Bar = 75 m. Fig. 9 Morphotype 153, Layer #014, SEM St ub 56j, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44026. Fig. 10 Morphotype 153, Layer #014, SEM Stub 56l, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.15 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44027. Fig. 11 Details of the surface. Bar = 20 m. Fig. 12 Morphotype 153, Layer #014, SE M Stub 56k, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.2 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44028 Plate XLIX Figs.1-3 Morphotype 154, Layer #002, Slid e, Black Wolf, Specimen number UF1571944029. Fig. 1 General view of the see d. For magnification, see fig. 2. Fig. 2 General view of the same seed from a different side. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 3 Surface details of the seed coat. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 4 Cross section of the seed, showing seed content. For magnification, see fig. 5. Fig. 5 Another cross section of the seed. Bar = 0.25 mm. Fig. 6 Details of the seed cross secti on in fig. 5, showing possible embryo. Bar = 60 m. Fig. 7 Serial sections of the seed. Bar = 0.5 mm. Plate L Figs.1-3 Morphotype 155, Layer #003, Slid e, Black Wolf, Specimen number UF1571944030. Fig. 1 General view of a seed. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 2 General view of the same seed from a different side. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 3 Possible hilum of the seed. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 4 Top view of the same seed. For magnification, see fig. 1. Fig. 5 Surface details of the seed. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 6 Serial cross sections of the seed. Bar = 0.4 mm. Plate LI. Figs. 1-4 Morphotype 156, Layer #003, SEM Stub 12e, Black Wolf, Specimen number UF15719-44031. Fig. 1 Side view. Bar = 0.5 mm.

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196 Fig. 2 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 3 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 4 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 5 Morphotype 157, Layer #003, SEM Stub 10c, Black Wolf. For magnification, see fig. 9. Specimen number UF15719-44032. Fig. 6 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 7 Morphotype 158, Layer #006, SEM Stub 24m, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44033. Fig. 8 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 9 Morphotype 159, Layer #004, MISSI NG, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730xxxxx. Fig. 10 Different side view. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 11 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 12 Morphotype 159, Layer #017, SEM Stub 72b, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44035. Fig. 13 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 14 Morphotype 159, Layer #017, SEM Stub 72i, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44036. Fig. 15 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 16 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 17 Morphotype 159, Layer #014, SEM Stub 55k, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44037. Fig. 18 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 19 Morphotype 160, Layer #006, SEM St ub 06f, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44038. Fig. 20 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 21 Morphotype 161, Layer #004, SEM Stub 23g, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44039. Fig. 22 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 23 Morphotype 161, Layer #004, SEM Stub 23f, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44040. Fig. 24 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 25 Morphotype 161, Layer #006, MI SSING, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730xxxxx. Fig. 26 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Plate LII Figs.1-7 Morphotype 162, Layer #001, Slid e, Black Wolf, Specimen number UF1571944042. Fig. 1 General view of a seed, showing possible hilum. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 2 General view from a different side. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 3 General view from still another different side. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 4 Cross section of the seed. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 5 Another cross section of the sa me seed. For magnification, see fig. 4. Fig. 6 Details of fig. 5, showing possible cytoplasm. Bar = 32 m. Fig. 7 Serial cross sections of the seed. Bar = 0.2 mm.

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197 Plate LIII Fig. 1 Morphotype 163, Layer #004, SEM St ub 22j, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44048. Fig. 2 Top view. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 3 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 4 Morphotype 164, Layer #004, SEM Stub 23o, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44049. Fig. 5 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 6 Morphotype 164, Layer #004, SEM St ub 23s, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44050. Fig. 7 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 8 Morphotype 165, Layer #006, SEM St ub 24j, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44051. Fig. 9 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 10 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 11 Morphotype 166, Layer #006, SEM Stub 24f, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44052. Fig. 12 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 13 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 14 Morphotype 159, Layer #004, SEM St ub 22g, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44053. Fig. 15 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 16 Morphotype 159, Layer #006, SEM Stub 06c, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44054. Fig. 17 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 18 Morphotype 159, Layer #004, SEM Stub 22o, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44055. Fig. 19 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 20 Morphotype 159, Layer #006, SEM Stub 25h, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44056. Fig. 21 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 22 Morphotype 159, Layer #006, MISSING, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730xxxxx. Fig. 23 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 24 Morphotype 159, Layer #004, SEM St ub 22k, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44058. Fig. 25 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 26 Morphotype 159, Layer #009, SEM Stub 46d, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44059. Fig. 27 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Plate LIV Fig. 1 Morphotype 167, Layer #003, SEM Stub 29d, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44229. Fig. 2 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm.

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198 Fig. 3 Morphotype 167, Layer #021, SEM Stub 85d, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44230. Fig. 4 Morphotype 167, Layer #021, SEM Stub 85e, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44231. Fig. 5 Morphotype 168, Layer #006, SEM Stub 24i, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44232. Fig. 6 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 7 Morphotype 169, Layer #003, SEM Stub 09g, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44233. Fig. 8 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Global form . Fig. 9 Morphotype 169, Layer #007, SEM Stub 21h, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44234. Fig. 10 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 11 Morphotype 170, Layer #005, SE M Stub 17o, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44235. Fig. 12 Morphotype 171, Layer #005, SEM St ub 17i, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44236. Fig. 13 Different side view. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 14 Morphotype 171, Layer #004, SEM Stub 23r, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44237. Fig. 15 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 16 Morphotype 172, Layer #015, SEM St ub 59e, Smokey River. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18740-44238. Fig. 17 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 18 Top view. Bar = 0.1 mm. Figs.19-27 Morphotype 173, Layer #017, SE M Stub 30, Black Wolf, Box(2) C9. Specimen number UF15719-44239. Fig. 19 Cross section of bark of fossil plant under SEM. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 20 Cross thin section of the same materi al in fig. 19 under light microscope. Note the lacunar collenchyma tissue in the cortex (upper part) and crushed cells in the phloem (lower part, black arrow). Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 21 Detailed view of the same material in fig. 20 under light microscope. Note the thick wall of collenchyma tissue in cortex and crushed tissue in the lower portion of image. Cytoplasm in some of the cells is still visible (white arrows). Bar = 50 m. Fig. 22 Cross section of the cortex under SEM, showing cytoplasm (black arrows) in lumen or sticking out in the collen chyma tissue in the cortex. Bar = 20 m. Fig. 23 Detailed view of cytoplasm shown in fig. 22. Note the cytoplasm (black arrow) takes up most of the lumen and has intern al structure. Also note the lacuna between walls (white arrows). Bar = 10 m. Fig. 24 Cytoplasm under TEM. Note the cytoplas m is full of bubbles (black arrow). Bar = 2 m. Fig. 25 Longitudinal view of broken cortex, showing some cytoplasm (black arrows) sticking out where the tissue breaks. Bar = 0.1 mm.

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199 Fig. 26 Detailed view of the region in th e rectangle in fig. 25, showing cytoplasm of broken cells. Bar = 12 m. Fig. 27Detailed view of rectangular region in fig. 26. Note the 3-D view of cytoplasm, with possible organelles (globose objects, black arrow) preserved in situ and the depression left (white arrow) if they ha ve been removed. This compares well with the image of cells of extant pl ant material under SEM. Bar = 6 m. Plate LV Fig. 1 Morphotype 174, Layer #006, SEM Stub 43d, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44351. Fig. 2 Morphotype 175, Layer #004, SEM Stub 22e, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44352. Fig. 3Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 4 Morphotype 175, Layer #004, SEM Stub 22c, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44353. Fig. 5 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 6 Morphotype 175, Layer #006, SEM Stub 06d, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44354. Fig. 7Morphotype 176, Layer #007, SEM Stub 21o, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44355. Fig. 8 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 9 Morphotype 176, Layer #006, SEM Stub 24c, ACME. Bar = 0.2 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44356. Fig. 10 Different side view. Bar = 0.4 mm. Fig. 11 Different side view. Bar = 0.4 mm. Fig. 12Morphotype 176, Layer #004, SEM Stub 23h, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44359. Fig. 13 Morphotype 176, Layer #006, SEM Stub 25b, ACME. Bar = 0.4 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44360. Fig. 14Morphotype 176, Layer #006, SEM Stub 25a, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44361. Fig. 15Morphotype 176, Layer #006, SEM Stub 06b, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44362. Fig. 16Morphotype 176, Layer #004, SEM Stub 22h, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44363. Fig. 17Morphotype 176, Layer #004, SEM Stub 23j, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44364. Fig. 18 Morphotype 176, Layer #007, SEM Stub 21c, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44365. Fig. 19 Morphotype 176, Layer #004, SEM Stub 23i, ACME. Bar = 0.4 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44366. Fig. 20 Morphotype 176, Details of the surface. Layer #004, SEM Stub 23d, ACME. Bar = 0.1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44367. Fig. 21 General view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 22Morphotype 176, Layer #007, SEM Stub 21e, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44368.

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200 Fig. 23 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 24 Morphotype 176, Layer #005, SEM Stub 17g, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44369. Fig. 25 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Plate LVI Fig. 1 Morphotype 176, Layer #004, SEM Stub 22b, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44370. Fig. 2 Morphotype 176, Layer #004, SEM Stub 23k, ACME. Bar = 0.4 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44371. Fig. 3 Morphotype 176, Layer #006, SEM St ub 24d, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44371. Fig. 4 Morphotype 176, Layer #004, SEM St ub 23e, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44372. Fig. 5 Morphotype 176, Layer #007, SEM Stub 21b, ACME. Bar = 0.4 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44373. Fig. 6 Morphotype 176, Layer #004, SEM St ub 22a, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44374. Fig. 7 Morphotype 176, Layer #004, SEM St ub 23c, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44375. Fig. 8 Morphotype 176, Layer #005, SEM Stub 17k, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44376. Fig. 9 Morphotype 176, Layer #007, SEM Stub 21g, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44377. Fig. 10 Morphotype 176, Layer #006, MI SSING, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730xxxxx. Fig. 11 Morphotype 176, Layer #006, SEM Stub 25g, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44379. Fig. 12 Morphotype 177, Layer #003, MISSING, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719xxxxx. Fig. 13 Details of the seed coat (?). Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 14 Morphotype 178, Layer #003, SEM Stub 13b, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.4 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44381. Fig. 15 Side view. Bar = 0.4 mm. Fig. 16 Details of the seed coat. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 17 Morphotype 178, Layer #003, SEM St ub 13m, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.4 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44382. Fig. 18 Side view. Bar = 0.4 mm. Fig. 19 Details of the seed coat. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 20 Morphotype 179, Layer #003, SEM Stub 15a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44383. Fig. 21 Sclereids in th e seed coat. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 22 Morphotype 180, Layer #011, SEM St ub 51b, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44384. Fig. 23 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 24 Details of the seed coat. Bar = 50 m.

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201 Fig. 25 Morphotype 181, Layer #011, SEM Stub 51a, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44385. Fig. 26 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m Plate LVII Fig. 1 Morphotype 182, Layer #003, MISSING, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719xxxxx. Fig. 2 Morphotype 182, Layer #005, MISSING, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18738xxxxx. Fig. 3 Side view. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 4 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 5 Morphotype 182, Layer #006, SEM Stub 87b, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44388. Fig. 6 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 7 Details of the tip. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 8 Morphotype 182, Layer #006, SEM Stub 87a, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44389. Fig. 9 Different side view. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 10 Morphotype 183, Layer #007, SEM Stub 21i, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44390. Fig. 11 Morphotype 184, Layer #003, SEM Stub 07a, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44391. Fig. 12 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 13 Morphotype 184, Layer #003, SE M Stub 07b, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44392. Fig. 14 Morphotype 185, top view. Layer #003, SEM Stub 66g, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44393. Fig. 15 Side view. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 16 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 17 Morphotype 186, Layer #018, SEM Stub 79a, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44394. Fig. 18 Morphotype 187, Layer #017, SE M Stub 73b, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44395. Fig. 19 Morphotype 187, Layer #017, SE M Stub 74d, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44396. Fig. 20 Morphotype 188, Layer #003, SEM Stub 64f, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44397. Fig. 21 Morphotype 189, Layer #021, SE M Stub 84g, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44398. Fig. 22 Morphotype 190, Layer #017, SEM Stub 72c, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44399. Fig. 23 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 24 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 25 Morphotype 191, Layer #003, MISSING, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719xxxxx.

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202 Fig. 26 Morphotype 192, Layer #020, SEM Stub 82e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44401. Fig. 27 Morphotype 193, Layer #003, SE M Stub 03d, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44402. Fig. 28 Different side view. Bar = 1 mm. Plate LVIII Fig. 1 Morphotype 194, Layer #012, SEM Stub 53a, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44417. Fig. 2 Morphotype 194, Layer #001, SEM Stub 20d, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44418. Fig. 3 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 4 Morphotype 194, Layer #001, SEM Stub 20e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44419. Fig. 5 Morphotype 194, Layer #003, SEM Stub 13h, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44420. Fig. 6 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 7 Morphotype 195, Layer #017, SEM Stub 74a, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44421. Fig. 8 Side view. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 9 Morphotype 195, Layer #003, SEM Stub 13f, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44422. Fig. 10 Morphotype 196, Layer #001, SEM Stub 19j, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44423. Fig. 11 Morphotype 197, Layer #003, SE M Stub 67g, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44424. Fig. 12 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 13 Morphotype 197, Layer #018, MISSING, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF15719xxxxx. Fig. 14 Morphotype 197, Layer #001, SEM Stub 19k, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.6 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44426. Fig. 15 Morphotype 197, Layer #001, SEM Stub 20a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44427. Fig. 16 Morphotype 197, Layer #001, SEM Stub 19d, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44428. Fig. 17 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 18 Morphotype 197, Layer #004, SEM Stub 49a, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44429. Fig. 19 Morphotype 197, Layer #004, SEM Stub 23p, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44430. Fig. 20 Morphotype 197, Layer #001, MISSING, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719xxxxx. Fig. 21 Morphotype 198, Layer #017, SE M Stub 75b, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44432. Fig. 22 Morphotype 198, Layer #003, SEM Stub 11d, Black Wolf. Bar = 1.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44433.

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203 Fig. 23 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 24 Morphotype 198, Layer #004, SEM St ub 48n, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44434. Fig. 25 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Plate LIX Fig. 1 Morphotype 199, Layer #017, SEM Stub 75d, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44435. Fig. 2 Details of the hilum (?). Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 3 Details of cells with cytoplasm preserved. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 4 Morphotype 200, Layer #017, SEM Stub 75e, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44436. Fig. 5 Morphotype 200, Layer #017, SEM Stub 76b, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44437. Fig. 6 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 7 Morphotype 200, Layer #003, SEM Stub 03a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44438. Fig. 8 Morphotype 201, Layer #003, MISSING, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719xxxxx. Fig. 9 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 10 Morphotype 202, Layer #020, SEM Stub 82f, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44440. Fig. 11 Morphotype 202, Layer #020, SE M Stub 83h, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44441. Fig. 12 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 13 Morphotype 202, Layer #014, SE M Stub 58b, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44442. Fig. 14 Details of the seed coat. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 15 Details of the inne r surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 16 Morphotype 203, Layer #011, SEM St ub 51c, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44443. Fig. 17 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 18 Morphotype 204, Layer #017, SEM Stub 74e, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44444. Fig. 19 Morphotype 204, Layer #006, SEM Stub 25d, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44445. Fig. 20 Morphotype 204, Layer #003, SE M Stub 15b, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44446. Fig. 21 Morphotype 204, Layer #003, SEM Stub 15c, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44447. Fig. 22 Morphotype 198, Layer #017, SEM Stub 76a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44448. Fig. 23 Morphotype 185, Layer #003, SEM Stub 29c, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44449. Fig. 24 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm.

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204 Fig. 25 Morphotype 187, Layer #003, SEM Stub 29e, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44450 Plate LX Fig. 1 Morphotype 205, Layer #001, SEM Stub 19h, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44451. Fig. 2 Morphotype 206, Layer #002, SEM Stub 18a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44452. Fig. 3 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 4 Morphotype 207, Layer #006, SEM Stub 24g, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44453. Fig. 5 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 6 Morphotype 208, Layer #003, SEM Stub 13e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44454. Fig. 7 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 8 Morphotype 209, Layer #001, SEM Stub 20f, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44455. Fig. 9 Morphotype 210, Layer #017, SEM Stub 73c, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44456. Fig. 10 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 11 Morphotype 211, Layer #017, SEM Stub 74c, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44457. Fig. 12 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 13 Plasmolyzed cell. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 14 Morphotype 212, Layer #017, SEM Stub 72g, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44458. Fig. 15 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 16 Morphotype 212, Layer #003, SEM Stub 68d, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44459. Fig. 17 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 18 Morphotype 213, Layer #018, SEM Stub 79e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44460. Fig. 19 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 20 Morphotype 214, Layer #020, SE M Stub 82d, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44461. Fig. 21 Morphotype 215, Layer #001, SEM Stub 69c, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44462. Fig. 22 Top view. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 23 Morphotype 215, Layer #017, SE M Stub 72h, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44463 Plate LXI Fig. 1 Morphotype 214, Layer #001, SEM Stub 20m, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44464.

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205 Fig. 2 Morphotype 214, Layer #002, SEM Stub 26d, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44465. Fig. 3Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 4 Morphotype 214, Layer #003, SEM Stub 29f, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44466. Fig. 5 Morphotype 214, Layer #002, SEM Stub 18e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44467. Fig. 6 Different view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 7Morphotype 216, Layer #003, SEM Stub 61d, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44468. Fig. 8 Morphotype 217, Layer #017, SEM Stub 75c, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44469. Fig. 9 Top view. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 10 Cellular details. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 11 Possible cytoplasmic membranes. Bar = 15 m. Fig. 12Morphotype 218, Layer #003, MISSING, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719xxxxx. Fig. 13 Morphotype 218, Layer #003, SEM Stub 63a, Black Wolf. Bar = 1mm. Specimen number UF15719-44471. Fig. 14Morphotype 216, Layer #002, SEM Stub 18h, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44472. Fig. 15Morphotype 219, Layer #003, SEM Stub 12g, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44473. Fig. 16Different side view. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 17Morphotype 220, Layer #006, SEM Stub 24a, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44474. Fig. 18 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 19 Morphotype 221, Layer #003, SEM Stub 12 j, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44475. Fig. 20 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 21 Morphotype 222, Layer #004, SEM Stub 48m, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44476. Fig. 22Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 23 Morphotype 223, Layer #003, SEM Stub 68f, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44477. Fig. 24Different side view. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 25 Morphotype 224, Layer #015, SEM St ub 59c, Smokey River. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18740-44478. Fig. 26Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 27 Morphotype 224, Layer #004, SEM Stub 48h, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44479. Fig. 28 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Plate LXII Fig. 1 Morphotype 224, Layer #004, SEM Stub 48g, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44480.

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206 Fig. 2 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 3 Morphotype 224, Layer #006, SEM St ub 43c, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44481. Fig. 4 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 5 Morphotype 225, Layer #017, SEM Stub 73a, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44482. Fig. 6 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 7 Morphotype 225, Layer #003, SEM Stub 12i, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44483. Fig. 8 Morphotype 225, Layer #004, SEM Stub 49d, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44484. Fig. 9 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 10 Morphotype 225, Layer #004, SEM Stub 48d, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44485. Fig. 11 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 12 Morphotype 225, Layer #004, SEM St ub 48b, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44486. Fig. 13 Morphotype 225, Layer #004, SEM Stub 50b, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44487. Fig. 14 Morphotype 225, Layer #003, SEM Stub 12d, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44488. Fig. 15 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 16 Morphotype 225, Layer #003, SEM Stub 12f, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44489. Fig. 17 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 18 Morphotype 225, Layer #006, SEM Stub 24b, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44490. Fig. 19 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 20 Morphotype 226, Layer #004, SEM Stub 48a, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44491. Fig. 21 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 22 Morphotype 227, Layer #006, SEM Stub 25k, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44492. Fig. 23 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 24 Morphotype 228, Layer #003, SEM Stub 14a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44493. Fig. 25 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 26 Morphotype 229, Layer #003, SEM Stub 68e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44494. Fig. 27 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Plate LXIII Fig. 1 Morphotype 229, Layer #017, SEM Stub 73f , Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44495. Fig. 2 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm.

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207 Fig. 3 Morphotype 229, Layer #001, SEM Stub 19l , Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44496. Fig. 4 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 5 Morphotype 229, Layer #001, SEM Stub 19a, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44497. Fig. 6 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 7 Morphotype 229, Layer #006, SEM Stub 06g, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44498. Fig. 8 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 9 Morphotype 230, Layer #015, SEM St ub 59a, Smokey River. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18740-44499. Fig. 10 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 11 Morphotype 230, Layer #004, SEM Stub 48c, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44500. Fig. 12 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 13 Morphotype 230, Layer #004, SEM Stub 48o, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44501. Fig. 14 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 15 Morphotype 230, Layer #003, SEM Stub 12c, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44502. Fig. 16 Morphotype 230, Layer #004, SEM St ub 22q, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44503. Fig. 17 Morphotype 230, Layer #006, SEM Stub 24h, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44504. Fig. 18 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 19 Morphotype 230, Layer #004, SEM Stub 22r, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44505. Fig. 20 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 21 Morphotype 231, Layer #004, SEM St ub 48f, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44506. Fig. 22 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 23 Morphotype 232, Layer #006, SEM Stub 43b, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44507. Fig. 24 Morphotype 233, Layer #006, SEM Stub 25c, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44508. Fig. 25 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 26 Morphotype 234, Layer #004, SEM St ub 48k, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44509. Fig. 27 Morphotype 234, Layer #004, SEM Stub 48l, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44510. Fig. 28 Morphotype 235, Layer #006, SEM Stub 43e, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44511. Fig. 29 Morphotype 235, Layer #006, SEM Stub 43f, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44512. Fig. 30 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m

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208 Plate LXIV Fig. 1 Morphotype 236, Layer #006, SEM Stub 44c, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44513. Fig. 2 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 3Morphotype 236, Layer #017, SEM Stub 73g, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44514. Fig. 4 Cellular details of the surface. ar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 5 Morphotype 237, Layer #006, SEM Stub 44a, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44515. Fig. 6 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 7Morphotype 237, Layer #004, SEM Stub 48i, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44516. Fig. 8 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 9 Morphotype 201, Layer #004, SEM Stub 48j, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44517. Fig. 10 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 11 Morphotype 238, Layer #004, SEM Stub 49j, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44518. Fig. 12Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 13 Morphotype 239, Layer #006, SEM Stub 44b, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44519. Fig. 14Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 15Morphotype 240, Layer #006, SEM Stub 44d, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44358. Fig. 16Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 17Morphotype 240, Layer #004, SEM Stub 22n, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44322. Fig. 18 Different side view. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 19 Details of the surface. Bar = 30 m. Fig. 20 Morphotype 240, Layer #004, SEM Stub 22p, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44254. Fig. 21 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 22Morphotype 236, Layer #004, SEM Stub 49i, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44277. Fig. 23 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 24Morphotype 241, Layer #006, SEM Stub 06a, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44208. Fig. 25 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Plate LXV Fig. 1 Morphotype 241, Layer #006, SEM Stub 06e, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44218. Fig. 2 Morphotype 241, Layer #006, SEM Stub 91j, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44470. Fig. 3Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m.

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209 Fig. 4 Morphotype 242, Layer #001, SEM Stub 69e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44115. Fig. 5 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 6 Morphotype 243, Layer #017, SEM Stub 77e, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44143. Fig. 7 Morphotype 244, Layer #003, SEM Stub 11g, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44144. Fig. 8 Top view. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 9 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 10 Morphotype 156, Layer #003, SEM Stub 12e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44031. Fig. 11 Different side view. Bar = 1mm. Fig. 12 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 13 Morphotype 245, Layer #003, SEM Stub 11a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44295. Fig. 14 Morphotype 246, Layer #001, SEM Stub 19i, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44412. Fig. 15 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 16 Top view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 17 Morphotype 247, Layer #006, SEM St ub 92d, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44413. Fig. 18 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 19 Morphotype 248, Layer #021, SEM Stub 85m, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44256. Fig. 20 Morphotype 249, Layer #005, MISSING, Braun Valley. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18738xxxxx. Fig. 21 Different side view. Bar = 0.2 mm. Fig. 22 Morphotype 250, Layer #004, SEM Stub 22l, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44259. Fig. 23 Details of the surface with crystal imprints. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 24 Morphotype 251, Layer #001, MISSING, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719xxxxx. Fig. 25 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 26 Details of the surface with trichomes. Bar = 0.1 mm. Plate LXVI Fig. 1 Morphotype 252, Layer #003, SEM Stub 09f , Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44330. Fig. 2 Morphotype 253, Layer #004, SEM Stub 23q, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44034. Fig. 3 Side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 4 Morphotype 254, Layer #006, SEM Stub 25j, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44041. Fig. 5 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 6 Morphotype 255, Layer #006, SEM Stub 24p, ACME. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44057.

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210 Fig. 7 Morphotype 256, Layer #004, SEM St ub 48e, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44378. Fig. 8 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 9 Morphotype 256, Layer #004, SEM St ub 23m, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44380. Fig. 10 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 11 Morphotype 256, Layer #004, SEM Stub 23n, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44386. Fig. 12 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 13 Morphotype 257, Layer #004, SEM St ub 22m, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44387. Fig. 14 Details of the hilum. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 15 Crystal imprints. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 16 Morphotype 258, Layer #006, SEM St ub 91b, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44400. Fig. 17 Morphotype 258, Layer #006, SEM Stub 24l, ACME. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44425. Fig. 18 Different side view. Bar = 0.3 mm. Fig. 19 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 20 Morphotype 258, Layer #006, SEM Stub 24k, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44431. Fig. 21 Crystal imprints. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 22 Morphotype 258, Layer #006, SEM St ub 91a, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44439. Fig. 23 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 24 Morphotype 259, Layer #006, SEM St ub 24e, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44357. Fig. 25 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 26 A hole possibly drilled by an insect. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 27 Morphotype 260, Layer #006, SEM Stub 25i, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44258. Fig. 28 Different side view. Bar = 0.5 mm. Fig. 29 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m Plate LXVII Fig. 1 Morphotype 261, Layer #003, SEM Stub 16g, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44334. Fig. 2 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 3 Morphotype 262, Layer #002, SEM Stub 18b, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44335. Fig. 4 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 5 Morphotype 262, Layer #003, SEM Stub 14e, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44336. Fig. 6 Morphotype 263, Layer #001, SEM Stub 20j, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44337.

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211 Fig. 7 Morphotype 262, Layer #003, SEM Stub 29b, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44300. Fig. 8 Morphotype 262, Layer #003, SEM Stub 12h, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44338. Fig. 9 Side view. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 10 Morphotype 262, Layer #003, SE M Stub 16d, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44339. Fig. 11 Morphotype 262, Layer #003, SEM Stub 13i, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44340. Fig. 12 Morphotype 262, Layer #003, SEM Stub 16b, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44341. Fig. 13 Morphotype 264, Layer #001, SE M Stub 19g, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44342. Fig. 14 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 15 Morphotype 264, Layer #003, SEM Stub 14c, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44343. Fig. 16 Morphotype 264, Layer #003, SEM Stub 11b, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44344. Fig. 17 Details of the surface. Bar = 0.1 mm. Fig. 18 Morphotype 265, Layer #001, SE M Stub 19b, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44345. Fig. 19 Different side view. Bar = 1 mm. Fig. 20 Morphotype 265, Layer #003, SEM Stub 15e, Black Wolf. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44346. Fig. 21 Morphotype 266, Layer #018, SE M Stub 80b, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.3 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44347. Fig. 22 Morphotype 267, Layer #013, SEM St ub 54a, Braun Valley. Bar = 1 mm. Specimen number UF18738-44348. Fig. 23 Details of the surface. Bar = 50 m. Fig. 24 Morphotype 268. Layer #006, SEM St ub 24n, ACME. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF18730-44349. Fig. 25 Morphotype 269, Layer #002, SEM Stub 60a, Black Wolf. Bar = 0.5 mm. Specimen number UF15719-44350 Plate LXVIII Ligustrum japonicum Fig. 1 A tree in Diamond Village, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. Fig. 2 View of a fresh twig of the tree in fig. 1. Fig. 3 Shrunken cytoplasm with spiny form in the cortex of the shoot after being heated at 425 F (218 C) for 30 minutes. Light microscope. Bar = 40 m. Fig. 4 Shrunken cytoplasm of leaf of the sa me tree after burned in flame. TEM. Bar = 10 m. Fig. 5 Multiple cortical cells showing shrunken cytoplasm with spiny forms. Note that the cytoplasm remains connected, therefor e the strings of cytoplasm are paired between two neighboring cells. Bar = 80 m.

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APPENDIX C PLATES

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213 Plate I

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214 Plate II

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215 Plate III

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216 Plate IV

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217 Plate V

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218 Plate VI

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219 Plate VII

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220 Plate VIII

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221 Plate IX

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222 Plate X

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223 Plate XI

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224 Plate XII

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225 Plate XIII

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226 Plate XIV

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227 Plate XV

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228 Plate XVI

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229 Plate XVII

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230 Plate XVIII

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231 Plate XIX

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232 Plate XX

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233 Plate XXI

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234 Plate XXII

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235 Plate XXIII

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236 Plate XXIV

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237 Plate XXV

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238 Plate XXVI

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239 Plate XXVII

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240 Plate XXVIII

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241 Plate XXIX

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242 Plate XXX

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243 Plate XXXI

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244 Plate XXXII

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245 Plate XXXIII

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246 Plate XXXIV

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247 Plate XXXV

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248 Plate XXXVI

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249 Plate XXXVII

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250 Plate XXXVIII

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251 Plate XXXIX

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252 Plate XL

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253 Plate XLI

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254 Plate XLII

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255 Plate XLIII

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256 Plate XLIV

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257 Plate XLV

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258 Plate XLVI

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259 Plate XLVII

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260 Plate XLVIII

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261 Plate XLIX

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262 Plate L

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263 Plate LI

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264 Plate LII

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265 Plate LIII

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266 Plate LIV

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267 Plate LV

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268 Plate LVI

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269 Plate LVII

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270 Plate LVIII

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271 Plate LIX

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272 Plate LX

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273 Plate LXI

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274 Plate LXII

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275 Plate LXIII

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276 Plate LXIV

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277 Plate LXV

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278 Plate LXVI

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279 Plate LXVII

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280 Plate LXVIII

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281 APPENDIX D THE DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIMENS AND MORPHOTAXA Table D-1. Distribution of t ypes in different layers in Acme. 2555 pieces. 85 types. Type Group Layer 4 Layer 6 Layer 7 L ayer 8 Layer 9 Layer 10 Layer 11 Sum T055 CON 626 71 2 8 4 2 713 T052 CON 312 47 11 67 33 470 T176 SEED 339 98 9 2 3 451 T159 SEED 96 287 2 2 387 T227 SEED 3 81 1 17 102 T175 SEED 27 10 1 38 T258 SEED 7 30 1 38 T233 SEED 37 37 T075 CON 12 17 2 31 T032 FERN 24 4 3 31 T241 SEED 5 26 31 T207 SEED 28 28 T161 SEED 8 11 19 T164 SEED 5 10 15 T054 CON 13 13 T039 FERN 3 5 1 4 13 T256 SEED 6 4 10 T053 CON 7 1 8 T230 SEED 5 2 7 T225 SEED 4 2 6 T264 UNK 5 1 6 T171 SEED 1 2 2 5 T250 SEED 5 5 T027 LOW 4 4 T240 SEED 2 2 4 T018 LOW 2 1 3 T204 SEED 1 2 3 T224 SEED 2 1 3 T229 SEED 3 3 T237 SEED 2 1 3 T246 SEED 3 3 T247 SEED 2 1 3 T017 LOW 2 2 T021 LOW 2 2 T181 SEED 2 2 T182 SEED 2 2 T197 SEED 2 2 T234 SEED 2 2 T235 SEED 2 2 T236 SEED 1 1 2 T130 UNK 2 2 T087 ANG 1 1 T088 ANG 1 1 T150 ANG 1 1 T057 CON 1 1

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282 Type Group Layer 4 Layer 6 Layer 7 L ayer 8 Layer 9 Layer 10 Layer 11 Sum T071 CON 1 1 T034 FERN 1 1 T038 FERN 1 1 T214 FRUIT 1 1 T002 LOW 1 1 T008 LOW 1 1 T010 LOW 1 1 T019 LOW 1 1 T020 LOW 1 1 T023 LOW 1 1 T268 LOW 1 1 T158 SEED 1 1 T160 SEED 1 1 T163 SEED 1 1 T165 SEED 1 1 T166 SEED 1 1 T168 SEED 1 1 T169 SEED 1 1 T174 SEED 1 1 T180 SEED 1 1 T183 SEED 1 1 T198 SEED 1 1 T203 SEED 1 1 T220 SEED 1 1 T222 SEED 1 1 T226 SEED 1 1 T231 SEED 1 1 T232 SEED 1 1 T238 SEED 1 1 T239 SEED 1 1 T242 SEED 1 1 T254 SEED 1 1 T255 SEED 1 1 T257 SEED 1 1 T259 SEED 1 1 T260 SEED 1 1 T132 UNK 1 1 T148 UNK 1 1 T187 UNK 1 1 T253 UNK 1 1

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283 Table D-2. Distribution of type s in different layers in Bl ack Wolf. 1246 pieces. 173 types. Type Group Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 17 La y er 18 Layer 19 Layer 20 Layer 21 Sum T075 CON 22 2 71 241 18 1 6 15 376 T049 CON 17 29 107 4 3 160 T262 UNK 18 2 28 62 2 1 33 146 T052 CON 2 9 37 8 4 6 66 T072 CON 1 34 9 1 2 47 T264 UNK 27 7 2 3 39 T152 SEED 12 1 5 5 1 24 T069 CON 2 6 8 16 T114 ANG 2 10 3 15 T209 FRUIT 9 4 13 T214 FRUIT 1 5 2 3 2 13 T164 SEED 8 3 1 1 13 T004 LOW 5 3 3 11 T225 SEED 1 5 2 1 2 11 T041 FERN 3 3 2 2 10 T067 CON 1 4 3 1 9 T197 SEED 5 1 2 1 9 T265 UNK 1 1 6 8 T034 FERN 6 1 7 T053 CON 1 2 3 6 T194 UNK 3 2 1 6 T082 CON 4 1 5 T216 FRUIT 2 3 5 T229 SEED 2 1 2 5 T138 ANG 1 1 2 4 T140 ANG 1 2 1 4 T038 FERN 1 1 2 4 T244 SEED 1 3 4 T100 ANG 1 2 3 T103 ANG 3 3 T068 CON 3 3 T077 CON 2 1 3 T032 FERN 2 1 3 T001 LOW 2 1 3 T159 SEED 2 1 3 T167 SEED 1 2 3 T177 SEED 1 2 3 T198 SEED 1 2 3 T204 SEED 2 1 3 T208 SEED 1 1 1 3 T185 UNK 3 3 T187 UNK 1 2 3 T099 ANG 1 1 2 T101 ANG 1 1 2 T104 ANG 1 1 2 T105 ANG 2 2 T106 ANG 2 2 T111 ANG 2 2 T135 ANG 2 2 T143 ANG 1 1 2 T050 CON 2 2 T058 CON 2 2 T064 CON 1 1 2

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284 Type Group Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 17 La y er 18 Layer 19 Layer 20 Layer 21 Sum T066 CON 2 2 T078 CON 2 2 T083 CON 2 2 T115 CON 1 1 2 T070 CYC 2 2 T033 FERN 1 1 2 T040 FERN 2 2 T215 FRUIT 1 1 2 T218 FRUIT 2 2 T003 LOW 2 2 T016 LOW 2 2 T022 LOW 1 1 2 T026 LOW 2 2 T154 SEED 2 2 T178 SEED 2 2 T195 SEED 1 1 2 T200 SEED 1 1 2 T202 SEED 2 2 T206 SEED 2 2 T212 SEED 1 1 2 T230 SEED 1 1 2 T128 UNK 1 1 2 T144 UNK 2 2 T147 UNK 2 2 T149 UNK 2 2 T261 UNK 1 1 2 T085 ANG 1 1 T086 ANG 1 1 T092 ANG 1 1 T093 ANG 1 1 T094 ANG 1 1 T095 ANG 1 1 T096 ANG 1 1 T097 ANG 1 1 T098 ANG 1 1 T107 ANG 1 1 T109 ANG 1 1 T110 ANG 1 1 T112 ANG 1 1 T113 ANG 1 1 T120 ANG 1 1 T121 ANG 1 1 T124 ANG 1 1 T136 ANG 1 1 T146 ANG 1 1 T192 ANG 1 1 T193 ANG 1 1 T173 BARK 1 1 T051 CON 1 1 T054 CON 1 1 T055 CON 1 1 T059 CON 1 1 T060 CON 1 1 T061 CON 1 1

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285 Type Group Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 17 La y er 18 Layer 19 Layer 20 Layer 21 Sum T073 CON 1 1 T076 CON 1 1 T079 CON 1 1 T080 CON 1 1 T084 CON 1 1 T139 CON 1 1 T035 FERN 1 1 T036 FERN 1 1 T046 FERN 1 1 T047 FERN 1 1 T048 FERN 1 1 T217 FRUIT 1 1 T251 FRUIT 1 1 T252 FRUIT 1 1 T005 LOW 1 1 T006 LOW 1 1 T011 LOW 1 1 T012 LOW 1 1 T015 LOW 1 1 T024 LOW 1 1 T025 LOW 1 1 T027 LOW 1 1 T028 LOW 1 1 T029 LOW 1 1 T030 LOW 1 1 T031 LOW 1 1 T155 SEED 1 1 T156 SEED 1 1 T162 SEED 1 1 T169 SEED 1 1 T175 SEED 1 1 T176 SEED 1 1 T179 SEED 1 1 T182 SEED 1 1 T184 SEED 1 1 T186 SEED 1 1 T196 SEED 1 1 T199 SEED 1 1 T201 SEED 1 1 T205 SEED 1 1 T210 SEED 1 1 T211 SEED 1 1 T213 SEED 1 1 T219 SEED 1 1 T221 SEED 1 1 T223 SEED 1 1 T228 SEED 1 1 T236 SEED 1 1 T243 SEED 1 1 T245 SEED 1 1 T246 SEED 1 1 T247 SEED 1 1 T248 SEED 1 1 T081 UNK 1 1

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286 T119 UNK 1 1 T130 UNK 1 1 T131 UNK 1 1 T141 UNK 1 1 T151 UNK 1 1 T157 UNK 1 1 T188 UNK 1 1 T189 UNK 1 1 T190 UNK 1 1 T191 UNK 1 1 T263 UNK 1 1 T266 UNK 1 1

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287 Table D-3. Distribution of type s in different layers in Br aun Valley. 270 pieces. 59 types. Type Group Layer 5 Layer 12 Layer 13Layer 14 Sum T055 CON 84 1 85 T067 CON 32 32 T075 CON 25 25 T052 CON 6 1 5 9 21 T164 SEED 13 7 20 T262 UNK 7 7 T176 SEED 2 4 6 T072 CON 5 5 T056 CON 4 4 T069 CON 4 4 T153 UNK 4 4 T043 FERN 3 3 T123 ANG 2 2 T124 ANG 2 2 T142 ANG 2 2 T143 ANG 1 1 2 T057 CON 1 1 2 T264 UNK 1 1 2 T089 ANG 1 1 T090 ANG 1 1 T091 ANG 1 1 T102 ANG 1 1 T108 ANG 1 1 T116 ANG 1 1 T117 ANG 1 1 T118 ANG 1 1 T122 ANG 1 1 T049 CON 1 1 T054 CON 1 1 T064 CON 1 1 T065 CON 1 1 T074 CON 1 1 T077 CON 1 1 T080 CON 1 1 T037 FERN 1 1 T042 FERN 1 1 T044 FERN 1 1 T045 FERN 1 1 T007 LOW 1 1 T009 LOW 1 1 T013 LOW 1 1 T014 LOW 1 1 T022 LOW 1 1 T024 LOW 1 1 T159 SEED 1 1 T170 SEED 1 1 T171 SEED 1 1 T182 SEED 1 1 T202 SEED 1 1

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288 Type Group Layer 5 Layer 12 Layer 13Layer 14 Sum T249 SEED 1 1 T125 UNK 1 1 T126 UNK 1 1 T127 UNK 1 1 T129 UNK 1 1 T132 UNK 1 1 T133 UNK 1 1 T134 UNK 1 1 T145 UNK 1 1 T194 UNK 1 1

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289 Table D-4. Distribution of t ypes in different layers in Smokey River. 829 pieces. 11 types. Type Group Layer 15 T052 CON 725 T054 CON 12 T055 CON 76 T056 CON 1 T062 CON 2 T063 CON 1 T075 CON 6 T172 SEED 1 T176 SEED 3 T224 SEED 1 T230 SEED 1

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290 Table D-5. Distribution of type s in different localities. Th ere are total 267 morphotypes, including 57 angiosperm morphotypes (8 fruit morphotypes), 37 gymnosperm morhpotypes (36 conifers, 1 cycad), 98 seed morphotypes, 17 fern morphotypes, 32 lower plant morphot ypes, and 36 morphotypes of unknown affiliation. GROUP TYPE AcmeBlack WolfBraun ValleySmokey River Subtotal Angiosperms T085 0 1 0 0 1 Angiosperms T086 0 1 0 0 1 Angiosperms T087 1 0 0 0 1 Angiosperms T088 1 0 0 0 1 Angiosperms T089 0 0 1 0 1 Angiosperms T090 0 0 1 0 1 Angiosperms T091 0 0 1 0 1 Angiosperms T092 0 1 0 0 1 Angiosperms T093 0 1 0 0 1 Angiosperms T094 0 1 0 0 1 Angiosperms T095 0 1 0 0 1 Angiosperms T096 0 1 0 0 1 Angiosperms T097 0 1 0 0 1 Angiosperms T098 0 1 0 0 1 Angiosperms T099 0 2 0 0 2 Angiosperms T100 0 3 0 0 3 Angiosperms T101 0 2 0 0 2 Angiosperms T102 0 0 1 0 1 Angiosperms T103 0 3 0 0 3 Angiosperms T104 0 2 0 0 2 Angiosperms T105 0 2 0 0 2 Angiosperms T106 0 2 0 0 2 Angiosperms T107 0 1 0 0 1 Angiosperms T108 0 0 1 0 1 Angiosperms T109 0 1 0 0 1 Angiosperms T110 0 1 0 0 1 Angiosperms T111 0 2 0 0 2 Angiosperms T112 0 1 0 0 1 Angiosperms T113 0 1 0 0 1 Angiosperms T114 0 15 0 0 15 Angiosperms T116 0 0 1 0 1 Angiosperms T117 0 0 1 0 1 Angiosperms T118 0 0 1 0 1 Angiosperms T120 0 1 0 0 1 Angiosperms T121 0 1 0 0 1 Angiosperms T122 0 0 1 0 1 Angiosperms T123 0 0 2 0 2 Angiosperms T124 0 1 2 0 3 Angiosperms T135 0 2 0 0 2 Angiosperms T136 0 1 0 0 1

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291 GROUP TYPE AcmeBlack WolfBraun ValleySmokey River Subtotal Angiosperms T137 0 0 0 0 1 Angiosperms T138 0 4 0 0 5 Angiosperms T140 0 4 0 0 4 Angiosperms T142 0 0 2 0 2 Angiosperms T143 0 2 2 0 4 Angiosperms T146 0 1 0 0 1 Angiosperms T150 1 0 0 0 1 Angiosperms T192 0 1 0 0 1 Angiosperms T193 0 1 0 0 1 Conifers T049 0 160 1 0 161 Conifers T050 0 2 0 0 2 Conifers T051 0 1 0 0 1 Conifers T052 470 66 21 725 1282 Conifers T053 8 6 0 0 14 Conifers T054 13 1 1 12 27 Conifers T055 713 1 85 76 875 Conifers T056 0 0 4 1 5 Conifers T057 1 0 2 0 3 Conifers T058 0 2 0 0 2 Conifers T059 0 1 0 0 1 Conifers T060 0 1 0 0 1 Conifers T061 0 1 0 0 1 Conifers T062 0 0 0 2 2 Conifers T063 0 0 0 1 1 Conifers T064 0 2 1 0 3 Conifers T065 0 0 1 0 1 Conifers T066 0 2 0 0 2 Conifers T067 0 9 32 0 41 Conifers T068 0 3 0 0 3 Conifers T069 0 16 4 0 20 Conifers T071 1 0 0 0 1 Conifers T072 0 47 5 0 52 Conifers T073 0 1 0 0 1 Conifers T074 0 0 1 0 1 Conifers T075 31 376 25 6 438 Conifers T076 0 1 0 0 1 Conifers T077 0 3 1 0 4 Conifers T078 0 2 0 0 2 Conifers T079 0 1 0 0 1 Conifers T080 0 1 1 0 2 Conifers T082 0 5 0 0 5 Conifers T083 0 2 0 0 2 Conifers T084 0 1 0 0 1 Conifers T115 0 2 0 0 2 Conifers T139 0 1 0 0 1

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292 GROUP TYPE AcmeBlack WolfBraun ValleySmokey River Subtotal Cycads T070 0 2 0 0 2 Fruit T209 0 13 0 0 13 Fruit T214 1 13 0 0 14 Fruit T215 0 2 0 0 2 Fruit T216 0 5 0 0 5 Fruit T217 0 1 0 0 1 Fruit T218 0 2 0 0 2 Fruit T251 0 1 0 0 1 Fruit T252 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T152 0 24 0 0 24 Seed T154 0 2 0 0 2 Seed T155 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T156 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T158 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T159 387 3 1 0 391 Seed T160 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T161 19 0 0 0 19 Seed T162 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T163 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T164 15 13 20 0 48 Seed T165 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T166 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T167 0 3 0 0 3 Seed T168 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T169 1 1 0 0 2 Seed T170 0 0 1 0 1 Seed T171 5 0 1 0 6 Seed T172 0 0 0 1 1 Seed T174 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T175 38 1 0 0 39 Seed T176 451 1 6 3 461 Seed T177 0 3 0 0 3 Seed T178 0 2 0 0 2 Seed T179 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T180 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T181 2 0 0 0 2 Seed T182 2 1 1 0 4 Seed T183 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T184 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T186 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T195 0 2 0 0 2 Seed T196 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T197 2 9 0 0 11 Seed T198 1 3 0 0 4 Seed T199 0 1 0 0 1

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293 GROUP TYPE AcmeBlack WolfBraun ValleySmokey River Subtotal Seed T200 0 2 0 0 2 Seed T201 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T202 0 2 1 0 3 Seed T203 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T204 3 3 0 0 6 Seed T205 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T206 0 2 0 0 2 Seed T207 28 0 0 0 28 Seed T208 0 3 0 0 3 Seed T210 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T211 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T212 0 2 0 0 2 Seed T213 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T219 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T220 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T221 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T222 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T223 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T224 3 0 0 1 4 Seed T225 6 11 0 0 17 Seed T226 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T227 102 0 0 0 102 Seed T228 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T229 3 5 0 0 8 Seed T230 7 2 0 1 10 Seed T231 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T232 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T233 37 0 0 0 37 Seed T234 2 0 0 0 2 Seed T235 2 0 0 0 2 Seed T236 2 1 0 0 3 Seed T237 3 0 0 0 3 Seed T238 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T239 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T240 4 0 0 0 4 Seed T241 31 0 0 0 31 Seed T242 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T243 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T244 0 4 0 0 4 Seed T245 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T246 3 1 0 0 4 Seed T247 3 1 0 0 4 Seed T248 0 1 0 0 1 Seed T249 0 0 1 0 1 Seed T250 5 0 0 0 5

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294 GROUP TYPE AcmeBlack WolfBraun ValleySmokey River Subtotal Seed T254 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T255 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T256 10 0 0 0 10 Seed T257 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T258 38 0 0 0 38 Seed T259 1 0 0 0 1 Seed T260 1 0 0 0 1 Ferns T032 31 3 0 0 34 Ferns T033 0 2 0 0 2 Ferns T034 1 7 0 0 8 Ferns T035 0 1 0 0 1 Ferns T036 0 1 0 0 1 Ferns T037 0 0 1 0 1 Ferns T038 1 4 0 0 5 Ferns T039 13 0 0 0 13 Ferns T040 0 2 0 0 2 Ferns T041 0 10 0 0 10 Ferns T042 0 0 1 0 1 Ferns T043 0 0 3 0 3 Ferns T044 0 0 1 0 1 Ferns T045 0 0 1 0 1 Ferns T046 0 1 0 0 1 Ferns T047 0 1 0 0 1 Ferns T048 0 1 0 0 1 Lower Plants T001 0 3 0 0 3 Lower Plants T002 1 0 0 0 1 Lower Plants T003 0 2 0 0 2 Lower Plants T004 0 11 0 0 11 Lower Plants T005 0 1 0 0 1 Lower Plants T006 0 1 0 0 1 Lower Plants T007 0 0 1 0 1 Lower Plants T008 1 0 0 0 1 Lower Plants T009 0 0 1 0 1 Lower Plants T010 1 0 0 0 1 Lower Plants T011 0 1 0 0 1 Lower Plants T012 0 1 0 0 1 Lower Plants T013 0 0 1 0 1 Lower Plants T014 0 0 1 0 1 Lower Plants T015 0 1 0 0 1 Lower Plants T016 0 2 0 0 2 Lower Plants T017 2 0 0 0 2 Lower Plants T018 3 0 0 0 3 Lower Plants T019 1 0 0 0 1 Lower Plants T020 1 0 0 0 1 Lower Plants T021 2 0 0 0 2

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295 GROUP TYPE AcmeBlack WolfBraun ValleySmokey River Subtotal Lower Plants T022 0 2 1 0 3 Lower Plants T023 1 0 0 0 1 Lower Plants T024 0 1 1 0 2 Lower Plants T025 0 1 0 0 1 Lower Plants T026 0 2 0 0 2 Lower Plants T027 4 1 0 0 5 Lower Plants T028 0 1 0 0 1 Lower Plants T029 0 1 0 0 1 Lower Plants T030 0 1 0 0 1 Lower Plants T031 0 1 0 0 1 Lower Plants T268 1 0 0 0 1 Unknown T173 0 1 0 0 1 Unknown T119 0 1 0 0 1 Unknown T081 0 1 0 0 1 Unknown T125 0 0 1 0 1 Unknown T126 0 0 1 0 1 Unknown T127 0 0 1 0 1 Unknown T128 0 2 0 0 2 Unknown T129 0 0 1 0 1 Unknown T130 2 1 0 0 3 Unknown T131 0 1 0 0 1 Unknown T132 1 0 1 0 2 Unknown T133 0 0 1 0 1 Unknown T134 0 0 1 0 1 Unknown T141 0 1 0 0 1 Unknown T144 0 2 0 0 2 Unknown T145 0 0 1 0 1 Unknown T147 0 2 0 0 2 Unknown T148 1 0 0 0 1 Unknown T149 0 2 0 0 2 Unknown T151 0 1 0 0 1 Unknown T153 0 0 4 0 4 Unknown T157 0 1 0 0 1 Unknown T185 0 3 0 0 3 Unknown T187 1 3 0 0 4 Unknown T188 0 1 0 0 1 Unknown T189 0 1 0 0 1 Unknown T190 0 1 0 0 1 Unknown T191 0 1 0 0 1 Unknown T194 0 6 1 0 7 Unknown T253 1 0 0 0 1 Unknown T261 0 2 0 0 2 Unknown T262 0 146 7 0 153 Unknown T263 0 1 0 0 1 Unknown T264 6 39 2 0 47

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296 GROUP TYPE AcmeBlack WolfBraun ValleySmokey River Subtotal Unknown T265 0 8 0 0 8 Unknown T266 0 1 0 0 1

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297 APPENDIX E DATA OF THE ANGIOSPERM TAXA WITH MORE OR LESS RAYLESS XYLEM Taxa Family Perforation plate Ray Jacobinia6,8,9,24 carnea9,24 Acanthaceae ?Simple24 Absent6,8,9,24 Justicia24 magnifica 24 Acanthaceae ?Simple24 Absent24 Thunbergia6,8,24laurifolia24 Acanthaceae ?Simple24 Absent6,8,24 Beloperone6 Acanthaceae ?Simple24 Absent6 Diapedium6,8 Acanthaceae ?Simple24 Absent6,8 Sedum praealtum9 ??? ??? Absent9 Russchia6 Aizoaceae Nonscalariform6 Absent6 Trianthema monogyna Aizoaceae Simple47 Absent47 Trianthema triquetra Aizoaceae Simple49 Absent49 Corbiconia decumbens Aizoaceae Simple49 Absent49 Sesuvium portulacastrum Aizoaceae Simple49 Absent49 Sesuvium sesuvioides Aizoaceae Simple49 Absent49 Zaleya govindia Aizoaceae Simple49 Absent49 Zaleya decandra Aizoaceae Simple49 Absent49 Alseuosmia5,6,30,43 macrophylla3,43 Alseuosmiaceae mainly scalariform1,6,30 Absent3,6,30,43 Alseuosmia5,6,30 pisilla3 Alseuosmiaceae Mainly scalariform1,6,30 Absent3,6,30 All (except Crispiloba)8 Alseuosmiaceae Scalariform8 Absent8 Bosea1,6 Amaranthaceae Simple1 Absent1,6, with raylike parenchyma1 Nototrichium1,6 Amaranthaceae Simple1 Absent1,6, with raylike parenchyma1 Pfaffia1,6 Amaranthaceae Simple1 Absent1,6, with raylike parenchyma1 Achyranthes aspen12 Amaranthaceae simple12 absent12 Alternanthera polygamous12 Amaranthaceae Simple12 absent12 Alternanthera pungens12 Amaranthaceae Simple12 Absent12 Taxa Family Perforation plate Ray Alternanthera sessilis12 Amaranthaceae Simple12 absent12

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298 Taxa Family Perforation plate Ray Alternanthera triandra12 Amaranthaceae Simple12 absent12 Amaranthus spinosus Amaranthaceae Simple13 absent13 Amaranthus paniculatus Amaranthaceae Simple13 Absent13 Amaranthus viridis Amaranthaceae Simple13 absent13 Amaranthus polygamus Amaranthaceae Simple13 absent13 Amaranthus lividus Amaranthaceae Simple13 absent13 Amaranthus tenuifolius Amaranthaceae Simple13 absent13 Aerva lanata Amaranthaceae Simple13 absent13 Aerva sanguinolenta Amaranthaceae Simple48 Absent48 Celosia argentea Amaranthaceae Simple48 Absent48 Celosia cristata Amaranthaceae Simple13 absent13 Celosia polygonides Amaranthaceae Simple13 absent13 Celosia pulchella Amaranthaceae Simple13 absent13 Digera arvensis Amaranthaceae Simple13 absent13 Gomphrena globosa Amaranthaceae Simple13 absent13 Gomphrena celosiodes Amaranthaceae Simple13 absent13 Nothosaeua brachiata Amaranthaceae Simple13 absent13 Pupalia lappacea Amaranthaceae Simple50 Absent50 Telanthera ficoidae Amaranthaceae Simple13 absent13 Pupalia atropurpurea Amaranthaceae Simple13 absent13 Cyathula prostrata Amaranthaceae Simple13 absent13 Pimpinella dendrotragium6 Apiaceae Simple8 Absent6 Asteraceae Simple8 Absent8 Santolina chamaecyparissus1 Asteraceae Simple1,8 Absent1, present8,17 Artemisia abrotanum6 Asteraceae Simple8 Absent6 1st yr Artemisia rothrockii6 Asteraceae Simple8 Absent6 1st yr Lasthenia macrantha6,8 Asteraceae Simple8 Absent6,8 Stoebe6,8 Asteraceae Simple8 Absent6,8 Chrysactinia8 Asteraceae Simple8 Absent8 Dyssodia8,10 cooperi10 Asteraceae Simple8 Absent8,10 Porophyllum8 gracile10 Asteraceae Simple8 Absent8,10 Santolina8 Asteraceae Simple8 Absent8 Helenieae9,10 Asteraceae Simple8 Absent9,10 Baeria macrantha10 Asteraceae Simple8 Absent10 Chrysactinia mexicana10 Asteraceae Simple8 Nearly Absent10 Artemisia oycnocephala17 Asteraceae simple8,17 Nearly rayless17 Begonia peruviana6,44 Begoniaceae Simple + scalariform44 Absent6,44

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299 Taxa Family Perforation plate Ray Symphoricarpus31 Caprifoliaceae occasionally scalariform1,6,31 Absent3, present6,31 Alsinidendron trinerve19 Caryophyllaceae simple1,19 Absent19 Schiedea19 Caryophyllaceae simple1,19 Absent19 Silene hawaiiensis19 Caryophyllaceae simple1,19 Absent19 All (?) Caryophyllaceae Simple1 Absent1 Arthrocenemum macrostachym2,4 Chenopodiaceae Simple6 Absent, with radial parenchyma sheet1 Chenopodium album Chenopodiaceae Simple49 Absent49 Chenopodium murale Chenopodiaceae Simple49 Absent49 Salsola baryosma Chenopodiaceae Simple49 Absent49 Axyris amarantoides1 Chenopodiaceae scalariform1 Absent with radial parenchyma sheet1 ALL (except Camphorosma et Echinopsilon)6 Chenopodiaceae Simple1 Absent6 Suaeda monoica34,35 Chenopodiaceae Simple1 Absent34,35 at first Lechea1,6 Cistaceae Simple1 multiperforate46 Absent1,6 Hudsonia (except H. montana)1 Cistaceae Simple1 multiperforate46 Absent1 Sempervivum arboreum43 Crassulaceae ? Nearly absent43 Sedoideae29 Crassulaceae Simple29 Absent29 Aeonium2,6arborum33 Crassulaceae Simple Absent2,6,33(rare1) Kalanchoe beharensis6 Crassulaceae ? Absent6 Frankenia6 grandiflora43 Frankeniaceae ? Absent6,43 Blackstonia1 Gentianaceae Simple1,8 Absent1 Centaurium1 Gentianaceae Simple1,8 Absent1 Exacum1 Gentianaceae Simple1,8 Absent1 Gentiana1 Gentianaceae Simple1,8 Absent1 Ixanthus2,6,28 Gentianaceae Simple1,8,28 Absent6,28 in young, present in old Balbisia1,6 Geraniaceae Simple1 Absent1,6 Monsonia1,6 Geraniaceae Simple1 Absent1,6 Wendtia1,6 Geraniaceae Simple1 Absent1,6

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300 Taxa Family Perforation plate Ray Geranium1,6 tridens1,34,43 Geraniaceae Simple1 Absent1,6,34,43 Viviana1,6,18 Geraniaceae Simple1 Absent1,6,18 Viviana crenata18 Geraniaceae Simple18 Absent18 Viviana spinescens18 Geraniaceae Simple18 Absent18 Viviania laxa2,18 Geraniaceae Simple1,18 Absent1,18 Besleria1,6,8,23,43 Gesneriaceae Simple1,23 Absent1,6,8,23,43 Cyrtandra6,8,23 lysiosepala23 Gesneriaceae Simple1,23 (delayed6)Absent6,8, 23 Chirita6,23 Gesneriaceae Simple1,23 Absent6,23 Kohleria elegans23 Gesneriaceae Scalariform23 Present?23 Halophytum6,41 Halophytaceae Simple41 Absent6,41 Halophytum ameghinoi34,41 Halophytaceae Simple41 Absent34 at first41 Hydrophyllaceae Simple8 Absent8 Phacelia6 Hydrophyllaceae Simple25 Absent6,8 Phacelia heterophylla subsp. virgata25 Hydrophyllaceae Simple25 Absent25 Phacelia oreopola subsp. simulans25 Hydrophyllaceae Simple25 Absent25 Phacelia pedicellata25 Hydrophyllaceae Simple25 Absent25 Phacelia phyllomanica25 Hydrophyllaceae Simple25 Absent25 Phacelia ramosissima25 Hydrophyllaceae Simple25 Absent25 Lactoris16,36 Lactoridaceae Simple1,16,36 Absent2 in young stem36 Loasaceae Occasional scalariform8 some Absent8 Loasa6 picta27 Loasaceae Scalariform 27 Present27 Mentzelia6humilis27 Loasaceae Scalariform 27 Present27 Petalonyx6,34 Loasaceae Simple27 Absent6,27,34 Petalonyx crenatus27 Loasaceae Simple27 Absent27 Petalonyx nitidus27 Loasaceae Simple27 Absent at first27 Petalonyx linearis27 Loasaceae Simple27 Few at first27 Misodendron6,40 Misodendraceae Simple40 Absent6,40 Misodendron gayanum6 Misodendraceae Simple40 Absent6 Misodendron recurvum6 Misodendraceae Simple40 Absent6 Ardisia brackenridgei43 Myrsinaceae Simple8 Absent43

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301 Taxa Family Perforation plate Ray Boerhaavia diffusa51 Nyctaginaceae Simple51 Absent51 Boerhaavia verticillata51 Nyctaginaceae Simple51 Absent51 Boerhaavia rependa51 Nyctaginaceae Simple51 Absent51 Bougainvillaea1?,3,4 Nyctaginaceae Simple, (rarely reticulate) Absent1,13 Calpidia nishimurae1 Nyctaginaceae Simple Absent1 Heimerliodendron brunonianum2 Nyctaginaceae Simple Absent1 Pisonia umbelliflora14 Nyctaginaceae Multiperforate14 Appear rayless14 Pisonia grandis14 Nyctaginaceae Multiperforate14 Appear rayless14 Bocconia20,21,22 Papaveraceae Simple1,21,22 present1, 20,21,22 Pentaphragma8 Pentaphragmatace ae Scalariform8 Absent8 Plantago6,9princeps33,34,42 Plantaginaceae Simple8,42 Absent6,8,9,33,34at first42 Plantago42 aborescens42 Plantaginaceae Simple42 Absent at first42 Plantago42 maderensis42 Plantaginaceae Simple42 Rare42 Plantago42 webii42 Plantaginaceae Simple42 Absent at first42 Plantago42 fernandeziana42 Plantaginaceae Simple42 Absent42 Cobaea6,8 scandens26 Polemoniaceae Simple8,26 Absent6,8,26 Huthia6 Polemoniaceae Simple8,26 Absent6 at first26 Huthia longiflora26 Polemoniaceae Simple8,26 Absent26 Eriastrum6 densifolium26 Polemoniaceae Simple8,26 Nearly absent26 Leptodactylon6,8,26,34 californicum9,33 Polemoniaceae Simple8,26 Absent6,8,9,26,33,34 Chorizanthe6 paniculata1 Polygonaceae Simple1 Absent1,6 Polygonum6 lapathifolium38 Polygonaceae Simple1 Absent6 at first38 Polygonum glabrum Polygonaceae Simple49 Absent49 Polygonum phagopyrum Polygonaceae Simple49 Absent49 Polygonum barbatum Polygonaceae Simple49 Absent49 Polygonum plebeium Polygonaceae Simple49 Absent49 Lysimachia8 all sp. Primulaceae Simple1,8 Absent8 Lysimachia6,8 kalalauensis31 Primulaceae Simple1,8 Absent6,8,31 Galium8 Rubiaceae ?Scalariform8 Absent8

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302 Taxa Family Perforation plate Ray Alonsoa1,6 Scrophulariaceae ?Simple1 Absent1,6,8 Calceolaria1,6,8 Scrophulariaceae ?Simple1 Absent1,6 Castilleja1,6 Scrophulariaceae ?Simple1 Absent1,6 Aragoa11 Scrophulariaceae ?Simple11 Absent11 Pentstemon1,6 Scrophulariaceae ?Simple1 Absent1,6 Hebe6,8 salicifolia2,4,7 Scrophulariaceae ?Simple1 Absent6,8 Veronica(Hebe)1,4,11 Scrophulariaceae ?Simple1 Absent1,11 Digitalis11 Scrophulariaceae Simple1 Absent1,11 Mimulus bifidus15 Scrophulariaceae Scalariform(Pae domorphosis)6 Locally absent15 Selago8 thunbergii8 Selaginaceae Simple8 Absent8 Walafrida8 nitida8 Selaginaceae Simple8 Absent8 Simmondsia6 chinensis37 Simmondsiaceae Simple37 Absent6,37 Woody Veronica1 Stackhousiaceae Simple1 Absent1, present52 Stylidium6,8,39(all woody sp.) Stylidiaceae Simple8,39 Absent6,8,39 Viola1,6 Violaceae Simple1(Scalari form6) Absent1,6 Viola tracheliifolia32,33 Violaceae ? Absent32,33 Metcalfe & Chalk, 19501; Nair, 19982;Iqbal and Ghouse, 19903; IAWA, 19894; Paliwal et al., 19695; Carlquist, 19886; Fahn, 19907; Carlquist, 19928; Carlquist, 19629; Carlquist, 195910; Mennega, 197511; Rajput and Rao, 200012; Rajput, 200213; Ilic, 199114; Michener, 198315; Carlquist, 196416; Carlquist, 196617; Carlquist, 1985a18; Carlquist, 199419; Carlquist et al., 198820; Cumbie, 197821; Cumbie, 198322; Carlquist et Hoekman, 198623; Carlquist et Zona, 198824; Carlquist and Eckhart,198425; Carlquist, Eckhart and Michener,198426; Carlquist, 1984b27; Carlquist, 1984a28; Hart and Hoek_Noorman, 198929; Paliwal and Srivastava, 196930; Gasson, 197931; Carlquist, 197432; Carlquist, 197533; Lev-Yadun and Aloni, 199534; Lev-Yadun and Aloni, 199135; Carlquist, 199036; Bailey, 198037; Cumbie, 196938; Carlquist, 198139; Carlquist, 1985c40; Gibson, 197841; Carlquist, 197042; Barghoorn, 194143; Carlquist, 1985b44; Vestal, 193746; Rao and Rajput, 199847; Rajput, 2001b48; Rajput, 2001a49; Rajput and Rao, 199950; Rajput and Rao, 199851; Carlquist, 198752

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303 APPENDIX F INTERFACE OF VISUALIZATION SOFTWARE Table F-1. Graphic and keyboard interface of the program. Icon/key Function Initiate or reset CT view or soft cutting Zoom out Zoom in Show by part Rotate around vertical axis Rotate around horizontal axis Rotate around vertical axis normal to screen Show half of the object, multiple clicks show different halves Show 3 quarters of the object, multiple clicks show different 3 quarters Show quarter of the object, multiple clicks show different quarter Rotate object around X axis

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304 Icon/key Function Rotate object around Y axis Rotate object around Z axis Move object under in reset environment Move object up in reset environment Show with texture Show without texture A/a Drawing object B Loading outline of sections, step to upper level b Loading outline of sections, step to lower level C/c Digitize outline D/d Loading data from .txt file F Adjust fineness, change step length, etc to finer direction f Adjust fineness, change step length, etc to coarser direction L/l Move left R/r Move right S/s Change shade model T/t Change texture displaying M Zoom in m Zoom out N Reduce view port number

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305 Icon/key Function n Increase view port number X Increase rotate angle around X axis x Decrease rotate angle around X axis Y Increase rotate angle around Y axis y Decrease rotate angle around Y axis Z Increase rotate angle around Z axis z Decrease rotate angle around Z axis Reverse the change direction Esc Exit the program

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306 APPENDIX G INFORMATION ABOUT SPECIMEN LABELLING AND DEPOSITION Table G-1. Layers and their labels. #008 Acme #3' 00 #006 Acme #4' 99 / Acme Sample#6 '00 #007 Acme 2' 99 #004 Acme Brick Co. #5' 99 #011 Acme Sample #1 '00 #009 Acme Sample #4'00 #010 Acme Sample #5' 00 #002 BalckWolf #2' 99 #001 Black Wolf(1) 8/11/99 #020 BlackWolf 1 8/9/1999 #021 BlackWolf 1/2 by Terry 6/17/2000 #003 BlackWolf I' 99 #017 BlackWolf Layer 1 6/17/2000 #018 BlackWolf Layer 2 6/17/2000 #019 BlackWolf Layer 3 6/17/2000 #014 Braun Valley #1' 00 / BraunValley #1'99 6/19/2000 #012 Braun Valley #3' 00 6/19/2000 #005 Braun Valley #3' 99 #013 Braun Valley #7' 00 6/19/2000 #016 Linnenberger Ranch I 1974/1978 #015 Smokey River Bluff 6/16/2000

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307 307 Table G-2. SEM stub logging SEM Stub 1 Black Wolf I'99 SEM Stub 2 Black Wolf I'99 SEM Stub 3 Black Wolf I'99 SEM Stub 4 Black Wolf I'99 SEM Stub 5 Black Wolf I'99 SEM Stub 6 ACME #4 '99 SEM Stub 7 Black Wolf I'99 SEM Stub 8 Black Wolf I'99 SEM Stub 9 Black Wolf I'99 SEM Stub 10 Black Wolf I'99 SEM Stub 11 Black Wolf I'99 SEM Stub 12 Black Wolf I'99 SEM Stub 13 Black Wolf I'99 SEM Stub 14 Black Wolf I'100 SEM Stub 15 Black Wolf I'101 SEM Stub 16 Black Wolf I'102 SEM Stub 17 Braun Valley #3 '99 SEM Stub 18 Black Wolf #2'99 SEM Stub 19 Black Wolf (1) 8/11/99 SEM Stub 20 Black Wolf (1) 8/11/99 SEM Stub 21 ACME 2' 99 SEM Stub 22 ACME Brick Co. #5' 99 SEM Stub 23 ACME Brick Co. #5' 99 SEM Stub 24 ACME #4 '99 SEM Stub 25 ACME #4 '99 SEM Stub 26 Black Wolf #2, 99 SEM Stub 27 Braun Valley #3 '99 SEM Stub 28 ACME Brick Co. #5' 99 SEM Stub 29 Black Wolf I'99 SEM Stub 30 Cortex, BlackWolf layer#1, 6/17/00 Box(2) C9 SEM Stub 31 Cortex, BlackWolf layer#1, 6/17/00 Box(2) C8 SEM Stub 32 Shootape14, BlackWolf I,99 SEM Stub 33 Shootape13, BlackWolf I,99 SEM Stub 34 Ligustrum japanicum baked 30 mins SEM Stub 35 Ligustrum japanicum burned 29 secs SEM Stub 36 Ligustrum japanicum baked 30 mins, sectioned SEM Stub 37 Shootape14, BlackWolf I,99 sectioned SEM Stub 38 Shootape14, BlackWolf I,99 sectioned SEM Stub 39 Shootape13, BlackWolf I,99 sectioned SEM Stub 40 Shootape13, BlackWolf I,99 sectioned SEM Stub 41 Ligustrum japanicum burned 29 secs, sectioned SEM Stub 42 Ligustrum japanicum burned 29 secs, sectioned SEM Stub 43 ACME #4 '99(1) SEM Stub 44 ACME #4 '99(2)/ACME #6'00 ACME #6 '00 in center SEM Stub 45 ACME #3 '00

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308 308 SEM Stub 46 ACME #4 '00 SEM Stub 47 ACME Brick Co. #5' 99(1) SEM Stub 48 ACME Brick Co. #5' 99(2) SEM Stub 49 ACME Brick Co. #5' 99(3) SEM Stub 50 PhotosACME Brick Co. #5' 99 SEM Stub 51 ACME 2 '99 SEM Stub 52 Braun Valley #3 '99 SEM Stub 53 Braun Valley #3 '00 SEM Stub 54 Braun Valley #7 '00 SEM Stub 55 Braun Valley #1 '00 SEM Stub 56 Braun Valley #1 '00 SEM Stub 57 Braun Valley #1 '00 SEM Stub 58 Braun Valley #1 '00 SEM Stub 59 Smokey River Bluff SEM Stub 60 Black Wolf #2 '99 SEM Stub 61 Black Wolf I' 99(1) SEM Stub 62 Black Wolf I' 99(1) SEM Stub 63 Black Wolf I' 99(1) SEM Stub 64 Black Wolf I' 99(1) SEM Stub 65 Black Wolf I' 99(2) SEM Stub 66 Black Wolf I' 99(3) SEM Stub 67 Photos Black Wolf I' 99(1) SEM Stub 68 Photos Black Wolf I' 99(1) SEM Stub 69 Black Wolf (1) 8/11/99(b) SEM Stub 70 Black Wolf (1) 8/11/99(b) SEM Stub 71 Black Wolf (1) 8/11/99 SEM Stub 72 Black Wolf Layer 1 6/17/00(2) SEM Stub 73 Black Wolf Layer 1 6/17/00(2) SEM Stub 74 Black Wolf Layer 1 6/17/00(2) SEM Stub 75 Black Wolf Layer 1 6/17/00(2) SEM Stub 76 Black Wolf Layer 1 6/17/00(2) SEM Stub 77 Black Wolf Layer 1 6/17/00(1) SEM Stub 78 Black Wolf Layer 1 6/17/00(1) SEM Stub 79 Black Wolf Layer 2 6/17/00(1) SEM Stub 80 Black Wolf Layer 2 6/17/00(1) SEM Stub 81 Black Wolf Layer 2 6/17/00(2) SEM Stub 82 Black Wolf 1 8/9/99 SEM Stub 83 Black Wolf 1 8/9/99 SEM Stub 84 Black Wolf 1 or 2, by Terry SEM Stub 85 Black Wolf 1 or 2, by Terry SEM Stub 86 Linnenberger Ranch I SEM Stub 87 ACME SEM Stub 88 Black Wolf

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309 APPENDIX H PROGRAM CODED FOR FOSSIL VISUALIZATION 1. The program is based on the platform of OpenGL, which can be downloaded free on internet. 2. To run OpenGL, glut32.h and glut32.dll (also free on internet) should be copied to /lib folder of the C language. /* ----Includes and defines ----*/ #include "windows.h" #include #include #include #include #include #include /* Image type contains height, width, and data */ struct Image { unsigned long sizeX; unsigned long sizeY; char *data; }; typedef struct Image Image; typedef GLfloat point3[3]; /* 'point 3' is a type for 3-D vertices */ typedef GLfloat point2[2]; //pai red points of two different /* ----Function prototypes ----*/ int main(int, char**); void init(); void reset(); void mouse(int, int, int, int); void initSurf(void); void mouseMotion(int, int); void BWloadProfile(char *); void loadProfile(char *); void display(); void reshape(int, int);

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310 310 void keyboard(unsigned char, int, int); float power(float, int); static unsigned int getint(FILE *); static unsigned int getshort(FILE *); int BWImageLoad(char *, Image *); int ImageLoad(char *, char *); void setIcon(void); #define ICON_NUM 19 #define NUM_PLANE 29 #define NUM_CTRL_PNT 16 #define Z_COEF 5.0 #define NO_POINT -1 /* value for no point currently selected */ #define ESC_KEY 27 #define SOLID_LINE_STIPPLE 0xFFFF #define DASHED_LINE_STIPPLE 0x00FF #define DOTTED_LINE_STIPPLE 0xAAAA #define ROTATE 5 #define DRAWING 4 #define DIGITIZING 2 #define IMAGE_READING 1 /* ----Global variables ----*/ int pointPicked = NO_POINT; /* specifies i if P^i is picked, otherwise NO_POINT */ GLsizei winHeight = 512, winWidth = 572; /* keep track of current window height/width; start at 512 */ static char* pl[NUM_PL ANE] = {"s007.BMP", "s009.BMP", "s015.BMP", "s020.BMP", "s025.BMP", "s029.BMP", "s036.BMP", "s046.BMP", "s050.BMP", "s055.BMP", "s060.BMP", "s063.BMP", "s069.BMP", "s074.BMP", "s077.BMP", "s078.BMP", "s079.BMP", "s080.BMP", "s082.BMP", "s083.BMP", "s095.BMP", "s100.BMP", "s104.BMP", "s110.BMP", "s115.BMP", "s155.BMP", "s161.BMP", "s165.BMP", "s170.BMP"}; static GLfloat altitude[] = {7.0, 9.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0, 29.0, 36.0, 46.0, 50.0, 55.0, 60.0, 63.0, 69.0, 74.0, 77.0, 78.0, 79.0, 80.0, 82.0, 83.0, 95.0, 100.0, 104.0, 110.0, 115.0, 155.0, 161.0, 165.0, 170.0}; static int func; static int pnt_cnt = 0; static point2 data_pnt[NUM_CTRL_PNT]; static int level_no; static int first_time = 1;

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311 311 static int fineness, n, bractOn, scaleOn, sha d, te, selected, nChanged;//see reset method for default vaule and meaning static GLfloat angle, Xangle, Yangle, Zangl e, xangle, yangle, za ngle; //for rotation in 3-D along X-, Yand Zaxis static GLfloat scope, xFocus, yFocus, zFoc us, unit, xAdj, yAdj, zAdj, zmin, zmax, sectionThick; static int start, qr ts, in_part, texOn; static int shade[2] = {GL_SMOOTH, GL_FLAT}; static int tex[2] = {G L_BLEND, GL_DECAL }; static int discoOn = 0; static GLuint listIndex; //icons for interface static GLubyte icon[ICON_NUM][32][32][3]; static char *iconFile[ICON_NUM] = {"icon1.BMP","icon2.BMP","icon3.BMP","ic on4.BMP","icon5.BMP","icon6.BMP","ic on7.BMP","icon8.BMP","icon9.BMP","icon10. BMP","icon11.BMP","icon12.BMP","ico n13.BMP","icon14.BMP","icon15.BMP","ic on16.BMP","icon17.BMP","icon18.BMP", "Texture.BMP"}; static int iconOn[ICON_NUM]; static int iconLoad = 0; static int texNo = 0; static GLfloat obj[NUM_PLANE ][NUM_CTRL_PNT + 1][3]; static GLfloat obj1[NUM_PL ANE][NUM_CTRL_PNT + 1][3]; static GLfloat obj2[NUM_PL ANE][NUM_CTRL_PNT + 1][3]; /* ----Main program ----*/ int main(int argc, char** argv) { /* GLUT init. */ glutInit(&argc,argv); glutInitDisplayMode (GLUT_SINGLE | GLUT _RGB); /* default, not needed */ glutInitWindowSize(572,512); /* 512 x 512 pixel window */ glutInitWindowPosition(0,0); /* pla ce window on top left of display */ glutCreateWindow("FosVis "); /* window title */ glutMouseFunc(mouse); glutMotionFunc(mouseMotion); glutDisplayFunc(display); glutReshapeFunc(reshape); glutKeyboardFunc(keyboard); init(); /* set attributes */ glutMainLoop(); /* enter event loop */

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312 312 } //End of main void init(void) { int i; /* Attributes. */ glClearColor(0.0,0.0,0.0,1.0); /* black background */ glShadeModel(GL_SMOOTH); /* Set up viewing window, 512 x 512 with or igin in lower-left corner. */ glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); glLoadIdentity(); glOrtho(0.0, 572.0, 0.0, 512.0, 1000.0, -1000.0); /* origin in lower-left corner */ glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW); glLoadIdentity(); glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BI T); /* clear window */ reset(); for ( i = 0; i < NUM_PLANE; i++) altitude[i] = 170.0 altitude[i]; } //End of method void reset(void) { FILE *stream; int i, j; if (first_time == 1) { fineness = 32; //No of strips in drawing n = 0; //number of images is 2^n scope = 1.5; //view in xand y-direction selected = -1; //for selection from multiple images nChanged = 0; //help to select image from multiple images xFocus = 0.0; //focus position of the view yFocus = 0.0; //focus position of the view zFocus = 0.0; //default focus on z axis unit = 10.0; //default vaule of change xAdj = 0.0; //adjust position before rotation yAdj = 0.0; zAdj = 0.0; sectionThick = 0.05;//depth of the view shad = 0; //shade model selection

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313 313 te = 0; //texture mode selection , decal or blend Xangle = 270.0; //rotate be fore rendering around x axis Yangle = 0.0; //rotate be fore rendering around y axis Zangle = 90.0; //rotate be fore rendering around z axis xangle = 0.0; //rotation after rendering around x axis yangle = 0.0; //rotation after rendering around y axis zangle = 0.0; //rotation after rendering around z axis angle = 0.0; //rotation afte r rendering around vector (1,1,1) zmin = 1.0; //default depth limit zmax = -1.0; texOn = 0; //with texture or not start = 0; //starting point of drawing qrts = 4; //No. of qrts to draw bractOn = 1; //drawing bract or not scaleOn = 1; //drawing ovule or not for (i = 0; i < ICON_NUM 1; i++) iconOn[i] = 0; //turn off all icons stream = fopen( "BractData .txt", "r" ); //open da ta file and load data to array for (i = 0; i < NUM_PLANE; i++) for (j = 0; j < (NUM_CTRL_PNT + 1); j++) fscanf (stream, "%f%f%f", &obj1[i][j][0], &obj1[i][j][1],& obj1[i][j][2]); fclose( stream ); stream = fopen( "ScaleDatacopy2.txt", "r" ); //open data file and load data to array for (i = 0; i < NUM_PLANE; i++) for (j = 0; j < (NUM_CTRL_PNT + 1); j++) fscanf (stream, "%f%f%f", &obj2[i] [j][0], &obj2[i][j][1],& obj2[i][j][2]); fclose( stream ); for (i = 16; i < 26; i++) for (j = 0; j < (NUM_CTRL_PNT + 1); j++) { if (j <16 && j > 8) { obj2[i][j][0] -= 10.0; obj2[i][j][1] -= 50.0; } } } first_time = 0;

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314 314 } void mouse(int button, int state, int x, int y) { FILE *stream; int a, i, j; for (i = 0; i < ICON_NUM 1; i++) iconOn[i] = 0; //turn off all icons if (x > 529 && x < 561 && y < 49 0 && y > 345) //select the icon iconOn[(y 344) / 8 + (x 528) / 15 1] = 1; if (iconOn[0]) //resetting everything { first_time = 1; reset(); } if (iconOn[1]) //for CT function, NOT DONE { zFocus += sectionThick; if (zFocus > 1.0 || zFocus < -1.0) sectionThick = (-1) * sectionThick; zmin = zFocus + sectionThick / 2.0; zmax = zFocus sectionThick / 2.0; } if (iconOn[2]) //zoom in scope /= 0.8; if (iconOn[3]) //zoom out scope *= 0.8; if (iconOn[4]) { } //in parts, implemented in initSurf if (iconOn[5]) //Y rotation yangle += unit; if (iconOn[6]) //X rotation xangle += unit; if (iconOn[7]) //Z rotation zangle += unit;

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315 315 if (iconOn[10]) //quarter qrts = 1; if (iconOn[8]) //half qrts = 2; if (iconOn[9]) //3 quarter qrts = 3; if (iconOn[11]) //X xAdj -= (unit * 2.0 * scope); if (iconOn[12]) //Y xAdj -= (unit * 2.0 * scope); if (iconOn[13]) { } //Z if (iconOn[14]) //down arrow zAdj -= unit; if (iconOn[15]) //upper arrow zAdj += unit; if (iconOn[16]) //texture texOn = 1; if (iconOn[17]) //no texture texOn = 0; level_no = (level_no + NUM_PLANE) % NUM_PLANE; if((button == GLUT_LEFT_BUTTON) && (state == GLUT_DOWN)) /* left mouse button pressed */ { switch (func) { case IMAGE_READING: { glClearColor(0.0,0.0,0.0,1.0); glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT); /* clear window */ BWloadProfile(pl[level_no]); //from black-white bitmap printf("Profile at le vel %i: %4.1f \n", level_no, altitude[level_no]); }

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316 316 break; case DIGITIZING: { glClearColor(0.0,0.0,0.0,1.0); glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_ BIT); /* clear window */ BWloadProfile(pl[level_no]); printf("Profile at le vel %i: %4.1f \n", level_no, altitude[level_no]); a = pnt_cnt % NUM_CTRL_PNT; data_pnt[a][0] = (GLfloat) x; data_pnt[a][1] = (GLfloat) 511 y; glColor3f(1.0,0.0,0.0); //red points glPointSize(5.0); // points are drawn with 3 x 3pixel blocks glBegin(GL_POINTS); for (i = 0; i < a + 1; i++) glVertex3f(data_pnt[i ][0], data_pnt[i][1], altitude[level_no]); glEnd(); if (a == NUM_CTRL_PNT 1) { stream = fopen( "tempData.txt", "a+" ); for (i = 0; i < NUM_CTRL_PNT + 1; i++) { j = (i + NUM_CTRL_PNT) % NUM_CTRL_PNT; fprintf (stream, "%f\t%f\t%f\n", data_pnt[j][0], data_pnt[j][1], altitude[level_no]); } fclose( stream ); level_no++; } pnt_cnt++; } break; case DRAWING: case ROTATE: { glClearColor(0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.0);

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317 317 glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT|GL_DEPTH_BUFFE R_BIT); /* clear window */ glDeleteLists(1,1); //avoid unnecessary memory waste listIndex = glGenLists(1); //create generate list if (listIndex != 0) //call initSurf to render the object initSurf(); if (x < 512 && n > 0 && nChanged) //when multiple images and n not changed { selected = (1< >n)) + x / (512 >>n); nChanged++; } display(); } }//end of switch }//end of if glFlush(); } //End of method /* Initialize material pr operty and depth buffer. */ void initSurf(void) { int i, j; GLfloat ambient[] = {1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.3}; GLfloat position[] = {1.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0}; GLfloat mat_diffuse[] = { 0.5, 1.0, 0.5, 1.0 }; GLfloat mat_specular[] = { 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0 }; GLfloat mat_shininess[] = { 20.0 }; int imageWidth = 32; int imageHeight = 32; GLubyte img2D[32 * 32 * 3]; GLfloat texpts[2][2][2 ] = {0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 45.0, 8.0, 0.0, 8.0, 45.0}; if ((texNo++ % 2) == 0) { for (i = 0; i < imageHeight; i++) if (i < imageWidth >> 1) for (j = 0; j < imageWidth; j++)

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318 318 { img2D[3 * (imageWidth * i + j)] = (GLubyte) j >> 3;//(j > imageWidth >> 1)? 255:0; img2D[3 * (imageWidth * i + j) + 1] = (GLubyte)(31j) << 3; img2D[3 * (imageWidth * i + j) + 2] = (GLubyte) j >> 3; } } else { for (i = 0; i < imageHeight; i++) for (j = 0; j < imageWidth; j++) { img2D[3 * (imageWidth * i + j)] = (GLubyte) icon[18][i][j][0]; img2D[3 * (imageWidth * i + j) + 1] = (GLubyte) icon[18][i][j][1]; img2D[3 * (imageWidth * i + j) + 2] = (GLubyte) icon[18][i][j][2]; } } if (iconOn[8] || ic onOn[9] || iconOn[10]) { start = (start + 1) % 4; iconOn[8] = 0; iconOn[9] = 0; iconOn[10] = 0; } glNewList(listIndex, GL_COMPILE); glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); glEnable(GL_AUTO_NORMAL); glEnable(GL_LIGHTING); glEnable(GL_LIGHT0); glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0, GL_AMBIENT, ambient); glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0, GL_POSITION, position); glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT, GL_DIFFUSE, mat_diffuse); glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT, GL_SPECULAR, mat_specular); glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT, GL_SHININESS, mat_shininess); glPushMatrix();

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319 319 glRotatef(Xangle, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0); glRotatef(Yangle, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0); glRotatef(Zangle, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0); glTranslatef(-250.0 + xAdj, -280.0 + yAdj, -350.0 + zAdj); if (discoOn) for (i = 0; i < NUM_PLANE; i++) { obj[i][0][0] = obj1[i][0][0]; obj[i][0][1] = obj1[i][0][1]; obj[i][0][2] = obj1[i][0][2]; obj[i][NUM_CTRL_PNT][0] = obj1[i][NUM_CTRL_PNT][0]; obj[i][NUM_CTRL_PNT][1] = obj1[i][NUM_CTRL_PNT][1]; obj[i][NUM_CTRL_PNT][2] = obj1[i][NUM_CTRL_PNT][2]; for (j = 1; j < NUM_CTRL_PNT; j++) { obj[i][j][0] = (obj1[ i][j][0] 250.0) * (1.0 + (rand()%16) * 0.1) + 250.0; obj[i][j][1] = (obj1[ i][j][1] 280.0) * (1.0 + (rand()%16) * 0.1) + 280.0; obj[i][j][2] = (obj1[ i][j][2] 350.0) * (1.0 + (rand()%16) * 0.1) + 350.0; } } else for (i = 0; i < NUM_PLANE; i++) { for (j = 0; j < NUM_CTRL_PNT + 1; j++) { obj[i][j][0] = obj1[i][j][0]; obj[i][j][1] = obj1[i][j][1]; obj[i][j][2] = obj1[i][j][2]; } } glMap2f(GL_MAP2_VERTEX_3, 0, 1, 51, 29, 0, 1, 3, 17, &obj[0][0][0]); glMap2f(GL_MAP2_TEXTURE_COORD_2, 0, 1, 2, 2, 0, 1, 4, 2, &texpts[0][0][0]); glEnable(GL_MAP2_TEXTURE_COORD_2); glEnable(GL_MAP2_VERTEX_3); glMapGrid2f(fineness, 0.0, 1.0, fineness, 0.0, 1.0);

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320 320 glTexEnvf(GL_TEXTURE_ENV, GL_TEX TURE_ENV_MODE, tex[te % 2]); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE _2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_REPEAT); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_REPEAT); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_NEAREST); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE _2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_NEAREST); glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, 3, imageWidth, imageHeight, 0, GL_RGB, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, img2D); if (texOn) glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D); else glDisable(GL_TEXTURE_2D); if (iconOn[4]) bractOn = 1 bractOn; if (bractOn) if (start + qrts < 5) glEvalMesh2(GL_FILL, 0, fineness, start * (finene ss >> 2), (start + qrts) * (fineness >> 2)); else { glEvalMesh2(GL_FILL, 0, fi neness, start * (fineness >> 2), fineness); glEvalMesh2(GL_FILL, 0, fineness, 0, (start + qrts 4) * (fineness >> 2)); } ambient[2] = 1.0; glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0, GL_AMBIENT, ambient); if (discoOn) for (i = 0; i < NUM_PLANE; i++) { obj[i][0][0] = obj2[i][0][0]; obj[i][0][1] = obj2[i][0][1]; obj[i][0][2] = obj2[i][0][2]; obj[i][NUM_CTRL_PNT][0] = obj2[i][NUM_CTRL_PNT][0]; obj[i][NUM_CTRL_PNT][1] = obj2[i][NUM_CTRL_PNT][1]; obj[i][NUM_CTRL_PNT][2] = obj2[i][NUM_CTRL_PNT][2]; for (j = 1; j < NUM_CTRL_PNT; j++)

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321 321 { obj[i][j][0] = (obj2[ i][j][0] 250.0) * (1.0 + (rand()%16) * 0.1) + 250.0; obj[i][j][1] = (obj2[ i][j][1] 280.0) * (1.0 + (rand()%16) * 0.1) + 280.0; obj[i][j][2] = (obj2[ i][j][2] 350.0) * (1.0 + (rand()%16) * 0.1) + 350.0; } } else for (i = 0; i < NUM_PLANE; i++) { for (j = 0; j < NUM_CTRL_PNT + 1; j++) { obj[i][j][0] = obj2[i][j][0]; obj[i][j][1] = obj2[i][j][1]; obj[i][j][2] = obj2[i][j][2]; } } glMap2f(GL_MAP2_VERTEX_3, 0, 1, 51, 29, 0, 1, 3, 17, &obj[0][0][0]); glEnable(GL_MAP2_VERTEX_3); glMapGrid2f(fineness, 0.0, 1.0, fineness, 0.0, 1.0); if (iconOn[4]) scal eOn = 1 bractOn; if (scaleOn) if (start + qrts < 5) glEvalMesh2(GL_FILL, 0, fineness, start * (finene ss >> 2), (start + qrts) * (fineness >> 2)); else { glEvalMesh2(GL_FILL, 0, fi neness, start * (fineness >> 2), fineness); glEvalMesh2(GL_FILL, 0, fineness, 0, (start + qrts 4) * (fineness >> 2)); } glTexEnvf(GL_TEXTURE_ENV, GL_TEXTURE_ENV_MODE, GL_BLEND); //make sure no effect on icon displaying glDisable(GL_MAP2_VERTEX_3); glDisable(GL_AUTO_NORMAL); glDisable(GL_LIGHTING); glDisable(GL_LIGHT0); glDisable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); glPopMatrix();

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322 322 glEndList(); } void mouseMotion(int x, int y) //not implemented { } //End of method /* Black-white bitmap profile loader , modified from the preceding one*/ void BWloadProfile(char *text) { int i, j, ti, byt; Image * image; image = (Image *) malloc(sizeof(Image)); if (image == NULL) { printf("No space for the te xture image \n"); exit(1); } if (BWImageLoad(text, image)) printf("I get the image \n"); else { printf ("Something is wrong with BWImageloader"); exit(1); } glColor3f(0.0,1.0,1.0); /* orange for points */ glPointSize(3.0); /* points are drawn with 3 x 3 pixel blocks */ glBegin(GL_POINTS); for (i = 0; i < winWidth; i++) //for all pixels for (j = 0; j < winHeight; j++) { byt = (i << 6) + (j >> 3); //find th ebyte with info ti = 1 << (7 j % 8); //reverse the order in the byte if ((image->data[byt] & ti) == ti) //if this bit is on glVertex3f(j, i, 0); } glEnd(); free(image->data); //release the data free(image); } void display(void) { int i, j, k; GLfloat xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax; glPushMatrix(); glViewport(380, 0, 300, 300);

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323 323 setIcon(); glPopMatrix(); if (func == DRAWING) { glPushMatrix(); if (selected != -1 && nChanged) { angle = (GLfloat) select ed * 360.0 / (GLfloat)(1 << (2*n)); glViewport ((GLsizei)0, (GLsizei)0, (GLsizei) 512,(GLsizei) 512); xmin = xFocus scope; xmax = xFocus + scope; ymin = yFocus scope; ymax = yFocus + scope; glOrtho(xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax, zmin, zmax); glRotatef(xangle, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0); glRotatef(yangle, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0); glRotatef(zangle, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0); glRotatef(angle, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0); glCallList(listIndex); selected = -1; nChanged = 0; } else for (i = 0; i < 1 << n; i++) for (j = 0; j < 1 << n; j++) { glPushMatrix(); k = i * (1 << n) + j; if (func != ROTATE) angle = (GLfloat) k * 360.0 / (GLfloat)(1 << (2*n)); //establish separated viewport for one/multiple images glViewport ((GLsizei)(512 >> n) * j, (GLsizei)(512 >> n) * i, (GLsizei) (512 >> n) 5, (GLsizei)(512 >> n) 5); xmin = xFocus scope; xmax = xFocus + scope; ymin = yFocus scope; ymax = yFocus + scope; glOrtho(xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax, zmin, zmax);

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324 324 glRotatef(xangle, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0); glRotatef(yangle, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0); glRotatef(zangle, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0); glRotatef(angle, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0); glCallList(listIndex); glPopMatrix(); nChanged++; } glPopMatrix(); } } //End of the method void reshape(int w, int h) { glViewport(0, 0, (GLsizei) w, (GLsizei) h); glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); glLoadIdentity(); glOrtho(-300.0, 300.0, -300.0, 300.0, 1000.0, -1000.0); /* ATTENTION TO Z VALUE*/ glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW); glLoadIdentity(); glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT); /* prevents redraw garbage */ /* Update global window height/width. */ winWidth = w; winHeight = h; glFlush(); /* clear buffers */ } //End of the method void keyboard(unsigned char key, int x, int y) { switch (key) { case 'A': case 'a': func = DRAWING; break; case 'B': func = IMAGE_READING; level_no--; level_no = (level_no + 29) % 29; break; case 'b': func = IMAGE_READING; level_no++;

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325 325 break; case 'C': case 'c': func = DIGITIZING; break; case 'D': case 'd': discoOn = 1 discoOn; break; case 'F': fineness /= 2; unit *= 2.0; sectionThick *= 2.0; break; case 'f': fineness *= 2; unit /= 2.0; sectionThick *= 2.0; break; case 'L': case 'l': xAdj -= (unit * 2.0 * scope); break; case 'R': case 'r': xAdj += (unit * 2.0 * scope); break; case 'S': case 's': shad++; glShadeModel(shade[shad % 2]); break; case 'T': case 't': te++; break; case '-':

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326 326 unit *= (-1.0); break; case 'M': scope *= 0.8; break; case 'm': scope /= 0.8; break; case 'N': n--; n = (n < 0)? 0 : n; nChanged = 0; break; case 'n': n++; n = (n > 3)? 3 : n; nChanged = 0; break; case 'X': func = ROTATE; angle += unit; Xangle += unit; break; case 'x': func = ROTATE; angle -= unit; Xangle -= unit; break; case 'Y': func = ROTATE; angle += unit; Yangle += unit; break; case 'y': func = ROTATE; angle -= unit; Yangle -= unit; break;

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327 327 case 'Z': func = ROTATE; angle += unit; break; case 'z': func = ROTATE; angle -= unit; break; case ESC_KEY: /* user wants to quit */ exit(0); break; default: display(); /* update screen */ break; } } //End of the method //power function, return floa t, exponent can only be int float power(float base, int exponent) { int i, coef; float value; if (exponent == 0) retu rn 1.0; //special case if (exponent < 0) //if negative exponent { exponent = exponent * (-1); //make it positive coef = -1; //remember it } value = 1.0; for(i = 0; i < expone nt; i++) //do powering value = value * base; if (coef == -1) //d eal with negative exponent value = 1.0 / value; return value; //done }

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328 328 /* getint and getshort are help functio ns to load the bitmap byte by byte */ static unsigned int getint(FILE *fp) //fp = file pointer; { int c, c1, c2, c3; /* get 4 bytes */ c = getc(fp); c1 = getc(fp); c2 = getc(fp); c3 = getc(fp); return ((unsigned int) c) + (((unsigned int) c1) << 8) + (((unsigned int) c2) << 16) + (((unsigned int) c3) << 24); } static unsigned int getshort(FILE *fp) //fp = file pointer; { int c, c1; /* get 2 bytes*/ c = getc(fp); c1 = getc(fp); return ((unsigned int) c) + (((unsigned int) c1) << 8); } /* Black-White bitmap loader, modfiied from the one for color bitmap */ int BWImageLoad(char *filename, Image *image) { FILE *file; unsigned long size; /* size of the image in bytes. */ unsigned long i; /* standard counter. */ unsigned short int planes; /* number of planes in image (must be 1) */ unsigned short int bpp; /* number of bits pe r pixel (must be 1) */ /* make sure the file is there. */ if ((file = fopen( filename, "rb"))==NULL) { printf("File Not Found : %s\n",filename); return 0; } /* seek through the bmp h eader, up to the width height: */ fseek(file, 18, SEEK_CUR);

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329 329 /* No 100% errorchecking anymore!!! */ /* read the width */ image->sizeX = getint (file); /* read the height */ image->sizeY = getint (file); /* calculate the size (assuming 1 bit per pixel). */ size = 64 * image->sizeY; /* read the planes */ planes = getshort(file); if (planes != 1) { printf("Planes from %s is not 1: %u\n", filename, planes); return 0; } /* read the bpp */ bpp = getshort(file); if (bpp != 1) { printf("Bpp from %s is not 1: %u\n", filename, bpp); return 0; } /* seek past the rest of the bitmap header. */ fseek(file, 32, SEEK_CUR); /* read the data. */ image->data = (char *) malloc(size); if (image->data == NULL) { printf("Error allocating memory for color-corrected image data"); return 0; } if ((i = fread(image->data, size, 1, file)) != 1) { printf("Error reading image da ta from %s.\n", filename); return 0; } fclose(file); /* Close the file and release the filedes */ /* we're done. */ return 1; }

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330 330 /* loader of RGB BMP file ATTENTION: the color is in order BGR, reversed from the normal order */ int ImageLoad(char *filename, char *iconData) { FILE *file; unsigned long size = 3072; /* size of the image in bytes. */ unsigned long i; /* standard counter. */ /* make sure the file is there. */ if ((file = fopen( filename, "rb"))==NULL) { printf("File Not Found : %s\n",filename); return 0; } /* No checking, jump to data address directly */ fseek(file, 54, SEEK_CUR); /* read the data. */ if ((i = fread(iconData, size, 1, file)) != 1) { printf("Error reading image da ta from %s.\n", filename); return 0; } //NO REVERSING OF RGB, SINCE IT IS RENDERED IN REVERSED ORDER fclose(file); /* Close the file and release the filedes */ return 1; /* we're done. */ } /* initiate icons */ void setIcon(void) { int i, j, k; Image * image; image = (Image *) malloc(sizeof(Image)); if (!iconLoad) //if not loaded yet { for (i = 0; i < ICON_NUM; i++) //load image for each icon { //NOTE THE LAST ONE IS USED FOR TEXTURE

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331 331 image->data = &icon[i][0][0][0]; if (ImageLoad(iconFile[i], &icon[i][0][0][0])) //load icon[i] ;// printf("I get the image \n"); else { printf ("Something is wrong with Imageloader"); exit(1); } } iconLoad = 1; //mark the record for icon loading } glPointSize(1.0); for (i = 0; i < ICON_NUM 1; i++) //the la st one is not set since it is for texture { glTranslatef((GLfloat)((i % 2) * (32) ),(GLfloat)((i / 2) * (-32)), 0.0); //get the position glBegin(GL_POINTS); for (j = 0; j < 32; j ++) //draw the icon { for (k = 0; k < 32; k++) { //attention to the order of RGB colors, is reversed from normal order if (iconOn[i]) glColor3ub(255 icon[i][j][k][2],255 icon[i][j][k][1],255 icon[i][j][k][0]); else glColor3ub(icon[i][j][k][2],icon[ i][j][k][1],icon[ i][j][k][0]); glVertex3i(k, j, 0); } } glEnd(); glTranslatef((GLfloat)((i % 2) * (-32 )),(GLfloat)((i / 2) * 32), 0.0); //return to origin } }

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332 APPENDIX I DATA FOR BRACT AND OVULATE SCALE Data for Bract 298.000000 274.000000 0.000000 298.666656 290.000000 0.000000 297.333344 303.333344 0.000000 286.000000 339.333344 0.000000 273.333344 334.666656 0.000000 263.333344 306.000000 0.000000 261.333344 288.666656 0.000000 246.000000 269.333344 0.000000 257.333344 252.000000 0.000000 264.666656 228.000000 0.000000 272.000000 202.666672 0.000000 284.000000 198.000000 0.000000 293.333344 209.333328 0.000000 297.333344 230.666672 0.000000 298.000000 246.000000 0.000000 298.000000 259.333344 0.000000 298.000000 274.000000 0.000000 298.000000 274.000000 100.000000 298.666656 290.000000 100.000000 297.333344 303.333344 100.000000 286.000000 339.333344 100.000000 273.333344 334.666656 100.000000 263.333344 306.000000 100.000000 261.333344 288.666656 100.000000 246.000000 269.333344 100.000000 257.333344 252.000000 100.000000 264.666656 228.000000 100.000000 272.000000 202.666672 100.000000 284.000000 198.000000 100.000000 293.333344 209.333328 100.000000 297.333344 230.666672 100.000000 298.000000 246.000000 100.000000 298.000000 259.333344 100.000000 298.000000 274.000000 100.000000 298.000000 274.000000 200.000000 298.666656 290.000000 200.000000 297.333344 303.333344 200.000000 286.000000 339.333344 200.000000 273.333344 334.666656 200.000000 263.333344 306.000000 200.000000 261.333344 288.666656 200.000000 246.000000 269.333344 200.000000 257.333344 252.000000 200.000000 264.666656 228.000000 200.000000 272.000000 202.666672 200.000000

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333 333 284.000000 198.000000 200.000000 293.333344 209.333328 200.000000 297.333344 230.666672 200.000000 298.000000 246.000000 200.000000 298.000000 259.333344 200.000000 298.000000 274.000000 200.000000 298.000000 274.000000 300.000000 298.666656 290.000000 300.000000 297.333344 303.333344 300.000000 286.000000 339.333344 300.000000 273.333344 334.666656 300.000000 263.333344 306.000000 300.000000 261.333344 288.666656 300.000000 246.000000 269.333344 300.000000 257.333344 252.000000 300.000000 264.666656 228.000000 300.000000 272.000000 202.666672 300.000000 284.000000 198.000000 300.000000 293.333344 209.333328 300.000000 297.333344 230.666672 300.000000 298.000000 246.000000 300.000000 298.000000 259.333344 300.000000 298.000000 274.000000 300.000000 299.333344 272.000000 350.000000 298.666656 298.666656 350.000000 299.333344 327.333344 350.000000 283.333344 353.333344 350.000000 262.000000 341.333344 350.000000 255.333328 318.000000 350.000000 246.000000 298.000000 350.000000 225.333328 272.666656 350.000000 240.000000 248.000000 350.000000 257.333344 216.000000 350.000000 265.333344 178.666672 350.000000 280.666656 168.000000 350.000000 300.666656 194.000000 350.000000 301.333344 218.666672 350.000000 299.333344 240.666672 350.000000 300.000000 254.000000 350.000000 299.333344 272.000000 350.000000 327.000000 309.000000 465.000000 334.500000 364.500000 465.000000 339.000000 454.500000 465.000000 288.000000 502.500000 465.000000 243.899994 483.000000 465.000000 150.399994 442.500000 465.000000 121.599998 387.000000 465.000000 56.799999 319.500000 465.000000 98.199997 231.000000 465.000000 152.199997 174.000000 465.000000 199.000000 90.000000 465.000000 262.000000 -7.500000 465.000000 308.049988 39.000000 465.000000 328.500000 105.000000 465.000000 340.500000 151.500000 465.000000 330.000000 238.500000 465.000000 327.000000 309.000000 465.000000

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334 334 339.000000 232.500000 480.000000 343.500000 385.500000 480.000000 357.000000 469.500000 480.000000 303.000000 514.500000 485.000000 257.549988 529.500000 490.000000 148.600006 475.500000 495.000000 92.800003 414.000000 495.000000 44.200001 319.500000 500.000000 91.000000 241.500000 505.000000 112.599998 168.000000 500.000000 166.600006 90.000000 495.000000 262.000000 -36.000000 495.000000 309.700012 36.000000 490.000000 336.000000 112.500000 485.000000 342.000000 181.500000 480.000000 339.000000 232.500000 480.000000 339.000000 232.500000 480.000000 388.500000 259.500000 480.000000 339.000000 322.500000 480.000000 340.500000 382.500000 490.000000 351.000000 459.000000 500.000000 342.000000 532.500000 510.000000 235.000000 529.500000 520.000000 145.000000 487.500000 530.000000 91.000000 423.000000 540.000000 24.400000 315.000000 550.000000 80.199997 226.500000 550.000000 130.600006 151.500000 540.000000 191.800003 48.000000 530.000000 266.799988 -33.000000 520.000000 346.500000 81.000000 510.000000 345.000000 177.000000 500.000000 343.500000 253.500000 490.000000 388.500000 259.500000 480.000000 342.000000 265.500000 480.000000 339.000000 316.500000 480.000000 342.000000 388.500000 500.000000 360.000000 513.000000 525.000000 333.000000 565.500000 550.000000 245.800003 565.500000 575.000000 157.600006 531.000000 600.000000 64.000000 400.500000 625.000000 17.200001 298.500000 650.000000 82.000000 172.500000 650.000000 145.000000 79.500000 625.000000 208.000000 18.000000 600.000000 308.049988 -61.500000 575.000000 342.000000 4.500000 550.000000 355.500000 127.500000 525.000000 339.000000 210.000000 500.000000 342.000000 265.500000 480.000000 346.500000 259.500000 480.000000 340.500000 318.000000 480.000000 346.500000 441.000000 535.000000 361.500000 552.000000 575.000000 324.000000 591.000000 620.000000 218.800003 570.000000 670.000000

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335 335 112.599998 513.000000 725.000000 11.800000 345.000000 775.000000 51.400002 268.500000 815.000000 13.600000 190.500000 775.000000 94.599998 106.500000 725.000000 161.199997 13.500000 670.000000 294.850006 -97.500000 620.000000 361.500000 -21.000000 575.000000 357.000000 75.000000 535.000000 336.000000 208.500000 505.000000 346.500000 259.500000 480.000000 346.500000 259.500000 480.000000 340.500000 318.000000 480.000000 346.500000 441.000000 535.000000 361.500000 552.000000 575.000000 324.000000 591.000000 620.000000 218.800003 570.000000 670.000000 112.599998 513.000000 725.000000 11.800000 345.000000 775.000000 51.400002 268.500000 815.000000 13.600000 190.500000 775.000000 94.599998 106.500000 725.000000 161.199997 13.500000 670.000000 294.850006 -97.500000 620.000000 361.500000 -21.000000 575.000000 357.000000 75.000000 535.000000 336.000000 208.500000 505.000000 346.500000 259.500000 480.000000 345.000000 271.500000 480.000000 348.000000 321.000000 480.000000 351.000000 373.500000 535.000000 354.000000 432.000000 575.000000 357.000000 474.000000 620.000000 346.000000 496.500000 670.000000 349.299988 508.500000 725.000000 349.299988 460.500000 775.000000 349.299988 324.000000 815.000000 349.299988 214.500000 815.000000 349.299988 49.500000 775.000000 346.000000 -13.500000 725.000000 342.700012 -15.000000 670.000000 354.000000 10.500000 620.000000 351.000000 142.500000 575.000000 348.000000 157.500000 535.000000 345.000000 271.500000 480.000000 345.000000 271.500000 480.000000 348.000000 321.000000 480.000000 351.000000 373.500000 535.000000 354.000000 432.000000 575.000000 357.000000 474.000000 620.000000 346.000000 496.500000 670.000000 349.299988 508.500000 725.000000 349.299988 460.500000 775.000000 349.299988 324.000000 815.000000 349.299988 214.500000 815.000000 349.299988 49.500000 775.000000 346.000000 -13.500000 725.000000

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348 348 236.300003 441.450012 630.325012 63.500000 318.600006 655.500000 63.500000 220.050003 655.500000 220.100006 71.550003 630.325012 274.100006 14.850000 597.075012 247.100006 13.500000 563.825012 252.500000 36.450001 532.000000 222.800003 155.250000 500.175018 182.800003 168.750000 475.000000 196.300003 271.350006 456.000000 314.600006 286.200012 593.750000 357.799988 294.299988 598.500000 357.799988 302.399994 605.625000 336.200012 311.850006 612.750000 247.100006 310.500000 622.250000 300.200012 305.100006 629.375000 247.100006 301.049988 636.500000 247.100006 292.950012 641.250000 247.100006 288.899994 641.250000 247.100006 286.200012 636.500000 247.100006 280.799988 629.375000 300.200012 278.100006 622.250000 300.200012 271.350006 612.750000 357.799988 274.049988 605.625000 357.799988 276.750000 551.000000 357.799988 280.799988 593.750000 314.600006 286.200012 593.750000 314.600006 286.200012 593.750000 357.799988 294.299988 598.500000 357.799988 302.399994 605.625000 336.200012 311.850006 612.750000 247.100006 310.500000 622.250000 300.200012 305.100006 629.375000 247.100006 301.049988 636.500000 247.100006 292.950012 641.250000 247.100006 288.899994 641.250000 247.100006 286.200012 636.500000 247.100006 280.799988 629.375000 300.200012 278.100006 622.250000 300.200012 271.350006 612.750000 357.799988 274.049988 605.625000 357.799988 276.750000 551.000000 357.799988 280.799988 593.750000 314.600006 286.200012 593.750000 268.000000 278.000000 380.000000 261.000000 283.000000 380.000000 255.000000 287.000000 380.000000 245.000000 290.000000 380.000000 235.000000 289.000000 380.000000 235.000000 285.000000 380.000000 235.000000 281.000000 380.000000 235.000000 277.000000 380.000000 245.000000 271.000000 380.000000 255.000000 264.000000 380.000000

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349 349 261.000000 261.000000 380.000000 271.000000 256.000000 380.000000 271.000000 265.000000 380.000000 269.000000 269.000000 380.000000 269.000000 271.000000 380.000000 267.000000 273.000000 380.000000 268.000000 278.000000 380.000000 268.000000 278.000000 380.000000 261.000000 283.000000 380.000000 255.000000 287.000000 380.000000 245.000000 290.000000 380.000000 235.000000 289.000000 380.000000 235.000000 285.000000 380.000000 235.000000 281.000000 380.000000 235.000000 277.000000 380.000000 245.000000 271.000000 380.000000 255.000000 264.000000 380.000000 261.000000 261.000000 380.000000 271.000000 256.000000 380.000000 271.000000 265.000000 380.000000 269.000000 269.000000 380.000000 269.000000 271.000000 380.000000 267.000000 273.000000 380.000000 268.000000 278.000000 380.000000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000 260.000000 275.000000 408.500000

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APPENDIX J SEM STUB LOGGING

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354 LITERATURE CITED Alexandrov, V.Y., and Bernstam, V., 1977, Cells, Molecules and temperature, conformational flexibility of macromolecules and ecological adaptation, SpringerVerlag, Berlin, pp330. Anderson, H.M., 1978, Podozamites and associat ed cones and scales from the upper Triassic Molteno Formation, Karoo Basin, South Africa, Palae ontologia Africana, 21:57-77. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, 2003, An update of the angiosperm phylogeny group classification for the orders and families of lowering plants: APG II, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 141:399-436. Arndt, S., 2002, Morphologie und Systematik ausgewählter Mesozois cher Koniferen, Palaeontographica B, 262:1-23. Axsmith, B.J., and Taylor, T.N., 1997, The Triassic conifer seed cone Glyptolepis , Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 96:71-79. Axsmith, B.J., Taylor, T.N., and Taylor, E.L ., 1998a, Anatomically preserved leaves of the conifer Notophytum krauselii (Podocarpaceae) from the Triassic of Antarctica, Am. J. Bot., 85(5):704-713. Axsmith, B.J., Taylor, T.N., and Taylor, E.L., 1998b, The limitation of molecular systematics: a palaeobotanica l perspective, Taxon, 47:105-108. Baas, P., and Schweingruber, F.H., 1987, Ecological trends in the wood anatomy of trees, shrubs and climbers from Europe, IAWA Bull. (NS) 8, 245-274. Bailey, D.C., 1980, Anomalous growth and vegeta tive anatomy of Simmondsia chinensis, Am. J. Bot., 67:147-161. Barghoorn, E. S. J., 1941, The ontogenetic de velopment and phylogenetic specialization of rays in the xylem of Dicotyledons, III, the elimination of rays, Bul. Torrey Bot. Club, 68:317-325. Bernardi, P., and D’Inzeo, G., 1989, Interacti on mechanisms at microscopic level, p2757, in “Electromagnetic bioi nteraction, mechanisms, safe ty standards, protection guides”, eds. Franceschetti, G., Gandhi, O.P., and Grandolfo, M., Plenum Press, New York.

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374 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Xin Wang was born in Shaanxi Province, China, in 1967. He spent his childhood and early youth at his hometown until he left for Peking University in 1986. He got his bachelor degree in geology in the university in 1990; then he joined the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, for his master degree in botany. He received his master’s degree in 1993, and worked in the Inst itute for another two years. He entered his Ph.D. program in the University of Florid a in 1998. He completed his Ph.D. program in August, 2004. He is proud of his research in th e University of Florida, especially his original thought and wo rk on cytoplasm fossil. Between god and truth, I prefer truth.