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Relationship between Personality, Exercise Behavior, and Exercise Preferences

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Relationship between Personality, Exercise Behavior, and Exercise Preferences
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HAGAN, AMY L. ( Author, Primary )
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2008

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Agreeableness ( jstor )
Conscientiousness ( jstor )
Exercise ( jstor )
Extroversion ( jstor )
Music appreciation ( jstor )
Musical aesthetics ( jstor )
Personality ( jstor )
Personality psychology ( jstor )
Questionnaires ( jstor )
Strength training ( jstor )

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright Amy L. Hagan. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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4/30/2007
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436097544 ( OCLC )

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY, EXERCISE BEHAVIOR, AND EXERCISE PREFERENCES By AMY L. HAGAN A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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Copyright 2004 by AMY L. HAGAN

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This dissertation is dedicated to all those individuals who have struggled through school because it was not easy for them, who have been told they are not smart enough and will never be able to succeed, and for those who do not score well on sta ndardized tests such as the SAT, ACT, and GRE. Keep trying and do not give up. Be lieve in yourself. Anything is possible. It is not brains that get you everywhere; a large part of it is determination and persistence!

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This dissertation would not have been possible without the help, guidance, and support of many people. First, I would like to thank my advisor and mentor, Heather Hausenblas, for all her guidance, support, and encouragement. Along with guiding me in all aspects of research, Dr. H, as she is known to her students, has tremendously helped with my scientific writing. Second, I would like to thank my committee members Dan Connaughton, Pete Giacobbi, and Sam Sears for their participation on my committee, time for reading my conceptual and research papers, my dissertation, and their input regarding my study. Third, I would like to thank the people around me who supported me throughout the last three years such as my officemate Beth Fallon, and friends Nini DeBraganza, Jessica Doughty, and Jesse Germain. An extra special thank you is needed for Beth and Jesse who were a tremendous help in the last edits of my dissertation. Additionally, I would also like to thank other significant people in my life who have supported me such as my mom and dad, Sue Craven, and Brad Hoyt. My mom and dad have always been supportive in whatever capacity was needed. Their encouragement has been irreplaceable. Sue Craven has continuously provided me with a different perspective and always a few laughs. And finally, Brad Hoyt, the love of my life who has listened to me for countless hours over the phone. I cannot wait to spend eternity with him. These individuals encouraged me when I needed it and were always there for me. iv

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Fourth, I would like to thank the practicum students who helped with my dissertation data and performed data entry for countless hours, checked the data for errors, and made class extra credit lists for the instructors. This dissertation would have taken twice as long to completed if it were not for the help of Christine Minnix and Megan Armstrong. v

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................ix ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................1 Five Factor Model.........................................................................................................2 Personality and Exercise...............................................................................................5 Directions for Future Research.....................................................................................9 Conclusion..................................................................................................................10 Dissertation Studies....................................................................................................11 2 STUDY 1: AN EXPLORATION OF PERSONALITY AND EXERCISE PREFERENCES.........................................................................................................12 Method........................................................................................................................16 Participants..........................................................................................................16 Measures..............................................................................................................16 Procedure.............................................................................................................17 Results.........................................................................................................................18 Discussion...................................................................................................................19 3 STUDY 2: PERSONALITY AND EXERCISE PREFERENCES..............................26 Introduction.................................................................................................................26 Purposes......................................................................................................................29 Hypotheses..................................................................................................................29 Purpose 1: Development of an Exercise Preference Questionnaire....................29 Purpose 2: Exercise Behavior and Personality....................................................29 Purpose 3: Exercise Preferences and Personality................................................30 Purpose 4: Exercise Behavior and Exercise Preferences....................................31 vi

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First Purpose...............................................................................................................31 Focus Group 1.....................................................................................................31 Focus Group 2.....................................................................................................32 Focus Group 3.....................................................................................................33 Second, Third, and Fourth Purposes...........................................................................36 Method.................................................................................................................36 Participants...................................................................................................36 Measures.......................................................................................................36 Procedure.............................................................................................................38 Response Rate.....................................................................................................39 Examination of Group Differences.....................................................................39 Data Analysis..............................................................................................................40 Preliminary Analyses...........................................................................................40 Purpose 2: Personality and Exercise....................................................................40 Purpose 3: Personality and Exercise Preferences................................................40 Purpose 4: Exercise Behavior and Exercise Preferences....................................41 Results.........................................................................................................................41 Preliminary Analysis...........................................................................................41 Purpose 2: Personality and Exercise....................................................................42 Purpose 3: Personality and Exercise Preferences................................................45 Purpose 4: Exercise Behavior and Exercise Preferences....................................50 Discussion...................................................................................................................52 Purpose 1: Creation and Validation of the Exercise Preferences Questionnaire.52 Purpose 2: Personality and Exercise Behavior....................................................53 Purpose 3: Personality and Exercise Preferences................................................55 Purpose 4: Exercise Behavior and Exercise Preferences....................................60 Limitations..................................................................................................................61 Conclusion..................................................................................................................62 4 GENERAL DISCUSSION..........................................................................................65 Study 1........................................................................................................................65 Study 2........................................................................................................................66 Purpose 1: Development and Preliminary Psychometric Assessment of an Exercise Preferences Questionnaire (EPQ).....................................................66 Purpose 2: Exercise Behavior and Personality....................................................67 Purpose 3: Exercise Preferences and Personality................................................67 Purpose 4: Exercise Behavior and Exercise Preferences....................................70 Limitations and Future Directions..............................................................................71 Study Strengths...........................................................................................................72 Conclusion..................................................................................................................72 APPENDIX A NEO-PI-R PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE......................................................74 vii

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B LEISURE-TIME EXERCISE QUETSIONNAIRE....................................................81 C INFORMED CONSENT – STUDY 1........................................................................82 D FOCUS GROUP EXECISE PREFERENCES QUESTIONNAIRE..........................84 E RESPONSES TO EXERCISE PREFERENCES QUESTIONNAIRE FOCUS GROUP 1....................................................................................................................88 F REVISED PREFERENCES TO EXERCISE QUESTIONNAIRE............................91 G RESPONSES TO EXERCISE PREFERENCES QUESTIONNAIRE – FOCUS GROUP 2....................................................................................................................94 H REVISED EXERCISE PREFENCES QUESTIONNAIRE 2....................................95 I RESPONSES TO EXERCISE PREFERENCES QUESTIONNAIRE – FOCUS GROUP 3....................................................................................................................97 J FINAL EXERCISE PREFERENCES QUESTIONNAIRE.......................................100 K DEMOGRAPHICS QUESTIONNAIRE..................................................................103 L INFORMED CONSENT – STUDY 2......................................................................104 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................106 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................112 viii

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 1.1. NEO-PI R Domains and Facets and their Definitions..................................................3 2.1. Mean (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) Scores for the Facets, Pearson Correlations for the Facets with the Leisure-Time Exercise Total Score, and NEO Alpha Values24 2.2. Multiple Regressions for Exercise and the NEO Facets.............................................25 3.1. Test-Retest Reliability for the Exercise Preferences Questionnaire...........................35 3.2. Mean (M), Standard Deviation (SD) Scores, Alpha Levels, Skewness, and Kurtosis for the Domains and Facets, and NEO Alpha Values..............................................63 3.3. Rule of Thumb for Reliability of Measurement Interpretation...................................42 3.4. Mean (M), Standard Deviation (SD) Scores, Skewness, and Kurtosis for the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ) and the Exercise Preferences......................43 3.5. Pearson Correlations Between the NEO-PI-R Domains and the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ)...............................................................................43 3.6. Multiple Regression for Personality Domains and Exercise Behavior.......................44 3.7. Follow-up Multiple Regression for the Extraversion Facets and Exercise Behavior.44 3.8. Pearson Correlations for the Personality Domains and Exercise Preferences............64 3.9. Frequency Chart for the Preferences of Location, Music, and Instruction.................47 3.10. Pearson Correlations between Personality Domains and the Exercise Preferences of Location, Music, and Instruction..............................................................................49 3.11. Frequency Chart for the Dichotomous Preference of Location................................49 3.12. Frequency Chart for the Dichotomous Preference of Exercise Company................49 3.13. Frequency Chart for the Dichotomous Preference of Exercise Duration.................50 3.14. Pearson Correlations Between Exercise Behavior and Exercise Preferences..........51 ix

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3.15. Pearson Correlations between Exercise Total and the Preferences of Location, Music, and Instruction..............................................................................................51 3.16. One-way ANOVA for the Dichotomous Preference of Exercise Duration and Exercise....................................................................................................................52 3.17. One-way ANOVA for the Dichotomous Preference of Exercise Location and Exercise....................................................................................................................52 3.18. One-way ANOVA for the Dichotomous Preference of Exercise Company and Exercise....................................................................................................................52 x

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY, EXERCISE BEHAVIOR, AND EXERCISE PREFERENCES By Amy L. Hagan May 2004 Chair: Heather A. Hausenblas Major Department: Exercise and Sport Sciences Despite the various positive psychological and physical benefits of exercise, only a small number of United States adults engage in the proper amount of exercise every week to reap these benefits. Because of the problems associated with a sedentary lifestyle, researchers have began examining the determinants of behavior. One determinant that is receiving increasing concentration is the role of personality in exercise behavior and exercise preferences. However, limited research has been done in this area, especially using standardized measures of exercise behavior, personality, and exercise preferences. Thus, the purposes of this dissertation were completed with two studies. The first study and purpose examined the relationship between exercise behavior and personality using the NEO-PI-R domains and facets. The second study had the following purposes: Develop and validate the Exercise Preferences Questionnaire xi

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Examine the relationship between exercise behavior and personality domains and facets using the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire and the NEO-PI-R. Examine the correlation between exercise preferences and personality domains and facets using the NEO-PI-R Examine the relationship between exercise behavior and exercise preferences Results from Study 1 revealed that exercise behavior is positively related to extraversion and conscientiousness, and negatively related to neuroticism. Furthermore, facets of the domains were also significant which warranted further examination of the facets. For Study 2, a valid Exercise Preferences Questionnaire was developed. Also, results revealed extraversion to be positively related to exercise behavior, and various exercise preferences were related to the personality domains and facets. Finally, exercise behavior was positively associated with preferences of high intensity exercise, number of days per week preferred to exercise, engaging in cardiovascular exercise outdoors, listening to music while engaging in cardiovascular exercise and performing more than 40 minutes of cardiovascular exercise in a single session. On the converse, the only negative relationship between exercise behavior and exercise preferences was having a very structured exercise program. Future directions are discussed, including using personality profiles to prescribe exercise programs. Limitations and strengths of the studies are also discussed. xii

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Personality is defined as “the underlying, relatively stable, psychological structures and processes that organize human experience and shape a person’s actions and reactions to the environment” (Lazarus & Monat, 1979, p. 1). It is the sum total of all the behavioral and mental characteristics that make an individual unique (WordReference.com, 2003). Thus, personality includes social (e.g., extraversion and impulsiveness), perceptual (e.g., openness), and cognitive (e.g., neuroticism) characteristics (Gill, 2000). Recently, researchers have stated that there may be a healthy personality (Marshall, Wortman, Vickers, Kusulas, & Hervig, 1994), and thus personality may play a role in health maintenance and promotion. Marshall and colleagues suggested that the broad personality domains of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness can “provide an adequate and valuable initial organizing framework for research aimed at understanding linkages between personality and health” (p. 282). In other words, do people who engage in healthy behaviors share common personality characteristics that unhealthy people do not display? In particular, exercise is one of the healthy behaviors that is being investigated to determine if individuals with specific personality characteristics are more likely to exercise than others (Courneya, Bobick, & Schinke, 1999). My dissertation will focus on this relationship between personality and exercise using the five factor model (FFM) to assess personality. Before I briefly review the personality and exercise literature, a brief description of the FFM is provided. 1

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2 Five Factor Model The current dominant framework for studying personality is the Five Factor Model (FFM; Costa & McCrae, 1992), which contains the following five domains that explain personality the most: neuroticism, openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness (McAdams, 1994; Marshall et al.,1994; Paunonen & Ashton, 2001; Wiggins & Trapnell, 1997). These five broad domains provide a parsimonious yet reasonably comprehensive representation of personality (Costa & McCrae). Neuroticism is the tendency to experience negative affect and emotional distress. Extraversion is the disposition towards positive emotions, sociability, and excitement. Openness to experience is characterized by a willingness to entertain new ideas and unconventional values. Agreeableness is the inclination to be agreeable and altruistic. Finally, conscientiousness is the temperament of a strong-willed, determined, and organized individual. Currently, the dominant measure used to assess personality is the 240-item NEO-PI-R, which is based on the FFM, and it assesses the five personality domains (neuroticism, openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness). Additionally, the NEO-PI-R assesses six facets within each of the five domains (Costa & McCrae, 1992). These facets explain and provide insight into the composition of each domain (Costa & McCrae). That is, the neuroticism domain contains the following six facets: anxiety, angry hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, and vulnerability; while the extraversion facets are warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement-seeking, and positive emotions. The openness to experience facets are fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas, and values. The agreeableness domain facets are trust, straightforwardness, altruism, compliance, modesty, and tender

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3 mindedness. Finally, the conscientiousness domain facets are competence, order, dutifulness, achievement striving, self-discipline, and deliberation (see Table 1.1 for a brief description of each of the FFM facets). Table 1.1. NEO-PI R Domains and Facets and their Definitions NEO Facets Definitions Neuroticism Facets Anxiety Rapid tempo, vigorous movement, and sense of energy Angry Hostility Tendency to experience anger and related states such as frustration and bitterness Depression Tendency to experience depressive affect Self-Consciousness Amount of shyness and social anxiety Impulsiveness Inability to control cravings and urges Vulnerability Vulnerability to stress; coping with stress and difficult situations Extraversion Facets Warmth Interpersonal intimacy; cordiality and heartiness Gregariousness Preference for other people’s company Assertiveness Positive or confident in a persistent way Activity Tempo/pace of life and activities Excitement-Seeking Level of sensation seeking Positive Emotions Tendency to experience positive emotions such as joy, happiness, and love Openness Facets Fantasy Imaginative and fantasizing Aesthetics Appreciation for art and beauty Feelings Receptivity to inner feelings and emotions

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4 Table 1.1--Continued NEO Facets Definitions Actions Willingness to try new activities and go new places Ideas Intellectual curiosity and an openness to entertain new ideas Values Readiness to reexamine social, political, and religious values Agreeableness Facets Trust The disposition to believe that others are either honest and well-intentioned or cynical and skeptical Straightforwardness The tendency to be frank and sincere versus using flattery and deception Altruism Active concern for others’ welfare Compliance Characteristic reactions to interpersonal conflict Modesty Humble and self-effacing versus believing one is superior to others Tender-Mindedness Attitudes of sympathy and concern for others Conscientiousness Facets Competence Capable, sensible, prudent, and effective Order Neat and tidy versus unmethodical and disorganized Dutifulness Governed by conscience Achievement Striving High aspirations versus lackadaisical Self-Discipline The ability to begin tasks and carry them through to completion Deliberation The tendency to think carefully before acting To reduce participant burden, a 60-item version of the NEO-PI-R called the NEO-FFI was developed (Costa & McCrae, 1992). The NEO-FFI assesses the five broad personality domains by using one question from each facet from the NEO-PI-R. As with many questionnaires with a short and long form, the long form allows for greater insight

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5 into each personality domain, and it is more reliable and valid than the short form (Costa & McCrae). Personality and Exercise In a recent review of the exercise and personality literature (N = 44 studies), Hagan (2003) found that personality was rarely defined in studies, and there were a variety of assessment instruments used to measure both personality and exercise. The variety of questionnaires used demonstrates an inconsistency in the definition and conceptualization of personality. For example, eight different personality assessments were used (i.e., Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, NEO, Adjective Checklist, Symptom Checklist, Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist, Cattell’s 16 PF, Type A Personality, and the MMPI), with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire being the most common measure used. The questionnaires developed to assess personality, however, differ in length and type of assessment. For example, some measures have 60 items while other have 500 items (Costa & McCrae, 1992; Hathaway & McKinley, 1943). Additionally, the array of scales/dimension assessed ranges from 3 (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1964) to 25 (Adjective Checklist; Gough, 1952). The wide array of personality questionnaires makes it difficult to compare results across studies. In terms of the exercise measures, six physical activity measurements appeared equally in the literature. Additionally, most of these measures were author developed. One problem that was found was a lack of a uniform definition of regular exercise. That is, regular exercise has been defined by governing bodies of physical activity and medicine, but these definitions are rarely used in the personality and exercise research. For example, a few studies have used the number of bouts an individual exercises during

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6 the week without reference to a time interval or the number of sessions in a month while some studies did not define regular exercise (Brunner, 1969; Francis & Carter, 1982; Iannos & Tiggemann, 1997). Also, a standardized measure of exercise has not consistently been employed. That is, measures of exercise have often been author-developed (Arai & Hisamichi, 1998; Bamber, Cockerill, & Carroll, 2000; Chapman & DeCastro, 1990; Goldberg & Sheppard, 1982; Iannos & Tiggemann; Schnurr, Vaillant, & Vaillant, 1990; Yates, Shisslak, Allender, Crago, & Leehey, 1992). This creates a problem because the instruments may not be reliable and valid and it makes comparisons across studies difficult. Due to the different measures used to assess personality and exercise, it is difficult to compare studies. Half of the studies reviewed by Hagan (2003) examined if differences in personality occurred between active and nonactive individuals which was based mostly on author-developed questionnaires. She discovered that most (83%) of the studies found that active people reported higher levels of extraversion than inactive people, and that inactive people reported higher levels of neuroticism than active people. Some of this literature will be reviewed in more detail below. For example, Arai and Hisamichi (1998) examined the relationship between exercise and personality. Participants (N = 22,448) completed the Japanese short form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Eysenck, Eysenck, & Barret, 1985) and a self-report author-developed exercise questionnaire assessing frequency of exercise per week. They found that high levels of extraversion were positively related to exercise, and high levels of neuroticism was positively correlated to not exercising. A limitation of this study, however, was a lack of a standardized exercise measure.

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7 In a study using all standardized measures, Mathers and Walker (1999) examined the relationship between extraversion and exercise behavior among 36 university students. The students completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1964), the Commitment to Physical Exercise Scale (Corbin, Nielsen, Bordsdorf, & Laurie, 1987) and the Negative Addiction Scale (Hailey & Bailey, 1982). Based on the students responses to the physical activity measures, they divided the sample into exercisers and nonexercisers. They found that the exercise group scored higher on extraversion than the nonexercise group. Limitations of this study, however, are a small sample size which limits the generalizability of the results. Additionally, a measure of exercise behavior was not used, but rather an attitude about exercise. Using a standardized measure of exercise behavior, Courneya, Bobick, and Schinke (1999) conducted two studies assessing personality and exercise. In study one, female undergraduate students (N = 300) completed the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (Godin, Jobin, & Bouillon, 1986) and the NEO-FFI (60 items; Costa & McCrae, 1992). Positive correlations emerged for extraversion and conscientiousness, and a negative correlation for neuroticism, with exercise. In study two (N = 67), women participated in an 11-week exercise program, and their attendance was monitored. Based on their responses to the NEO and their class attendance, a significant positive association between exercise and extraversion and conscientiousness was found. In another study with similar measures, Courneya and Hellesten (1998) examined exercise behavior and personality using the FFM with 264 undergraduate students. The NEO-FFI, Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, and author-developed exercise preference questionnaire were used to assess personality, exercise, and exercise

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8 preferences, respectively. A negative correlation was found for exercise and neuroticism, and positive correlations were found for extraversion and conscientiousness with exercise. However, regression analysis revealed that none of the five domains were significant predictors of exercise behavior. For exercise preferences, they found that all the NEO domains were related to some aspect of preferences. More specifically, individuals who scored high on extraversion preferred to exercise in a group rather than alone, and they also enjoyed supervised sessions more than self-directed sessions preferred by individuals who scored lower on extraversion. Additionally, individuals scoring high on openness preferred to exercise outdoors more than indoors compared to those scoring low on openness, while those scoring high on agreeableness favored aerobics more than weight-training compared to those who scored low on agreeableness. Those who preferred high-intensity exercise scored lower on neuroticism and higher on conscientiousness than those who preferred moderate intensity, and individuals who preferred scheduled exercise scored lower on openness and higher on conscientiousness than those who preferred spontaneous exercise. A limitation of this study was using the short version of the NEO versus the long version and an author-developed measure of exercise preferences with no reliability and validity conducted on the questionnaire. In a similar study, Hagan and Hausenblas (in review), expanded on the design of Courneya and Hellsten (1998) by using the NEO-PI-R. That is, 515 undergraduates completed the NEO-PI-R (240 items), the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, and an exercise preference questionnaire to assess personality, exercise behavior, and exercise preferences. Results revealed that extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness

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9 were significantly related to exercise behavior, and conscientiousness and agreeableness were significant predictors of exercise behavior. In terms of exercise preferences we found that the personality domains were related to exercise intensity, exercise company, and gym preference. For exercise intensity, we found that individuals who scored high on extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness preferred to exercise at a high vs. a low exercise intensity. In comparison, those who scored high on neuroticism preferred low, compared to high, intensity exercise. For exercise company, those who scored high on neuroticism and low on extraversion preferred to exercise alone rather than in a group. For gym preference, we found that those who scored high on extroversion and conscientiousness preferred to exercise in a coed gym rather than at home. In comparison, those who scored high on neuroticism preferred to exercise at home rather than at a coed gym. Overall, this study showed there is a relationship between personality and exercise preferences. Directions for Future Research In summary, the exercise and personality research has mostly examined the personality factors of extraversion and neuroticism, despite the fact that researchers have acknowledged the utility of the FFM, as operationalized by the NEO, for explaining and predicting health behaviors (Digman, 1994; McAdams, 1994). Thus, research is needed applying the NEO, in particular the 240-item NEO-PI-R, because of its strong psychometric properties and the assessment of the facets within each domain, to examine the relationship between personality and exercise. Finally, most of the research has used unstandarized exercise measures when examining the relationship between personality and exercise (e.g., Arai, & Hisamichi, 1998; Autney, 1999; Bamber et al., 2000), despite

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10 the need to use standardized measure of exercise (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). Future research examining exercise and personality should design studies with standardized measures of exercise and personality. Additionally, studies should also examine whether relationships exist between personality domains and facets for exercise behavior and preferences. This research could lead to future interventions designing exercise programs based on personality composition, which could lead to greater exercise adherence and enjoyment. Additionally, scale development and construct validity need to be done on an exercise preferences questionnaire because both Courneya and Hellsten (1998) and Hagan (2003) used unstandardized measures with no psychometrics. Conclusion Research examining personality and exercise is continuing to grow. Research has shown the FFM to be the dominant framework to explain personality. Additionally, the NEO is the most popular FFM personality assessment (Saucier & Goldberg, 1998). The limited research examining the relationship between exercise and personality has shown that some personality characteristics, specifically extraversion, are positively related to exercise. Conversely, neuroticism is negatively correlated to exercise. More research is needed to examine the relationship between personality and exercise while avoiding previous methodological shortcomings. That is, standardized measures need to be used to assess exercise behavior and the FFM ought to be used to evaluate personality, specifically the NEO-PI-R. When standard measures are used, comparing results across studies is possible. Additionally, standard measures have undergone psychometric testing to ensure the test is properly constructed which allows for more reliable results.

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11 Dissertation Studies The general objective of this dissertation was to examine the relationship between personality with exercise behavior and exercise preferences. The following section provides a brief overview of each chapter. Chapter 2 (Study 1) is a study examining the relationship of the NEO personality domains and facets with exercise. Participants were 515 undergraduate students who completed the NEO-PI-R and the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. I found that the facets provided additional information into exercise behavior over the domains. Chapter 3 (Study 2) has four purposes. The first purpose was to develop and conduct content validity and test-retest reliability for an Exercise Preferences Questionnaire. The second purpose was to examine the relationship between exercise behavior and the personality domains and facets of the NEO-PI-R. The third purpose was to examine the relationship between exercise preferences with the personality domains and facets. Finally, the fourth purpose was to explore the relationship between exercise behavior and exercise preferences. Chapter 4, the general discussion, discusses the findings from Studies 1 and 2. A general overview of the strengths and limitations of these studies was also presented. Finally, practical implications for research examining personality, exercise behavior, and exercise preferences were advanced.

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CHAPTER 2 STUDY 1: AN EXPLORATION OF PERSONALITY AND EXERCISE PREFERENCES Despite the positive psychological and physical benefits of exercise, only a small portion of United States (U.S.) adults are regularly active (United States Department of Health and Human Services; [USDHHS], 1996, 2000). That is, 68% of U.S. adults fail to engage in the recommended level of exercise (i.e., moderate or strenuous intensity exercise 5 days a week for a minimum of 30 minutes per day) to achieve its health related benefits (Centers for Disease Control, 2002). Additionally, for those adults who start an exercise program, 60% will dropout by the first 6 months (Morgan & Dishman, 2001). Thus, sedentary behavior is a major health problem in the U.S. As a result, researchers have examined the determinants of adults’ exercise behavior in an attempt to understand how to increase people’s physical activity levels (Dishman, Sallis, & Orenstein, 1985; Oman & King, 1998). In fact, there are over 300 studies examining exercise determinants (Sallis & Owen, 1999; Trost, Owen, Bauman, Sallis, & Brown, 2002). One potential determinant of exercise is personality. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between personality and exercise behavior (Hagan, 2003). This is unfortunate because people’s personality provides insight into their health behaviors (Marshall, Wortman, Vickers, Kusulas, & Hervig, 1994). For example, personality predicts a variety of behavioral health problems such as smoking and seat belt use (Shifren, Furnham, & Bauserman, 2003). That is, people higher in neuroticism are more likely to smoke and not wear seat belts than those with lower levels of neuroticism and 12

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13 are also more likely to suffer from chronic health problems (Jang, Haley, Mortimer, & Small, 2003; Shifren, et al.). Of the research that has examined personality and exercise behavior, there are inconsistencies in the operationalization and measurement of personality (Arai & Hisamichi, 1998; Hersh, 1971; Mathers & Walker, 1999; Schnurr, Vaillant, & Vaillant, 1990; Tillman, 1965; Welsh, Labbe, & Delaney, 1991) making comparisons across studies difficult. In regard to the operationalization of personality, most studies have examined only the personality dimensions of extraversion and neuroticism, and the general finding is that extraversion is positively related, and neuroticism is negatively related, to exercise (Arai & Hisamichi; Courneya, Bobick, & Schinke, 1999; Davis, Fox, Brewer, & Ratusny, 1995; Mathers & Walker; Schnurr et al.). Over the past 20 years, there has been an emergence of five broad categories of personality traits. Although the consensus to use these categories is not unanimous, the five factors do show promise for personality research (McAdams, 1994). In recent years, the FFM has become the dominant framework in personality research (Marshall et al., 1994; Paunonen & Ashton, 2001; Wiggins & Trapnell, 1997). The FFM is a measurement of personality traits, and it was developed using a lexical approach with adjectives. The FFM contains the following five factors that have appeared in the literature which explain personality the most: neuroticism, openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness (McAdams; 1994; Marshall et al.; 1994; Paunonen & Ashton; 2001; Wiggins & Trapnell, 1997). Neuroticism is the tendency to experience negative affect and emotional distress. Extraversion is the disposition towards positive emotions, sociability, and excitement. Openness to

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14 experience is characterized by willingness to entertain new ideas and unconventional values. Agreeableness is the inclination to be agreeable and altruistic. Finally, conscientiousness is the temperament of a strong-willed, determined, and organized individual. Within each domain are six facets. The facets explain the dimensions and allow for insight into the composition of each domain (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Additionally, the five factors are shown to have convergent and discriminant validity across instruments (McCrae & Costa, 1990). The NEO is the primary assessment used to measure personality using the FFM. Recently, researchers have used the FFM as a framework for examining the relationship between personality and exercise behavior (Courneya, Bobick, & Schinke, 1999; Courneya & Hellsten, 1998; Hagan & Hausenblas, in review). These researchers have found that extraversion and conscientiousness are positively related, and neuroticism is negatively related to exercise behavior and intentions. Of interest to this current study, Courneya and Hellsten (1998) examined the relationship between personality and exercise using the NEO-FFI (60-items) and the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (Godin, Jobin, & Bouillon, 1986) with female and male undergraduate students. Results revealed that openness, extraversion, and conscientiousness were positively related, and neuroticism was negatively related to exercise. Personality and exercise behavior were again examined by Rhodes, Courneya, and Jones (2002), focusing specifically on extraversion and the facet of activity. Costa and McCrae (1992) explain that a rapid tempo, vigorous movement, and a sense of energy characterize the activity facet. Using 301 female undergraduate students, they found a direct effect of extraversion on exercise. However, the activity facet of extraversion was

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15 also examined and the results concluded that a better fit was achieved with using only the activity facet. It is the authors’ suggestion that the direct effect of extraversion on exercise may be explained entirely by the activity facet of extraversion. In summary, the exercise and personality research has mostly examined the personality factors of extraversion and neuroticism using outdated measures of personality as mentioned in Chapter 1 (Arai & Hisamichi, 1998; Goldberg & Sheppard, 1982; Mathers & Walker, 1999; Schnurr, Vaillant, & Vaillant, 1990; Szabo, 1992). Researchers have acknowledged the utility of the FFM, as operationalized by the NEO, for explaining and predicting health behaviors (Digman, 1994; McAdams, 1994). Thus, further research is needed applying the NEO, in particular the 240-item NEO-PI-R, because of its strong psychometric properties and the assessment of the facets within each domain, to examine the relationship between personality and exercise. The facets will allow greater insight into the composition of each domain. By examining the facets in regards to personality, we are more thoroughly investigating what personality characteristics influence exercise behavior. Thus, further research examining the exercise and personality using the facets of the NEO-PI-R is warranted. This may aid health professionals in determining if there is a personality that is related to exercise behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the personality domains and facets of the FFM and exercise behavior. Personality was assessed with the 240-item version of the NEO (Costa & McCrae, 1992), and exercise was assessed with a standardized self-report measure (i.e., Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire). Based on previous research, I hypothesized that extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness would be positively related, and neuroticism would be negatively related, to exercise;

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16 while openness would not be correlated with exercise (Courneya & Hellsten, 1998; Hagan & Hausenblas, in review). Due to the exploratory nature of examining the facets, no specific a priori hypotheses were advanced. Method Participants Participants were 507 male and female university students (M age = 21.27, SD = 9.76; 52.3% male). Most of the participants were Caucasian (70.5%), followed by Hispanic (10.9%), African-American (8.8%), Asian (4.3%), and other (2.9%). For academic standing, 35.9% were seniors, followed by juniors (25.2%), sophomores (22.3%), freshman (11.5%), and graduate students (3.3%). Measures NEO-PI-R. The NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992) contains 240 statements representing the following five personality domains: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness (see Appendix A). Each of these five domains has six facets. The facets for each of the domains are neuroticism (anxiety, angry hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, and vulnerability), extraversion (warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement-seeking, and positive emotions), openness to experience (fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas, and values), agreeableness (trust, straightforwardness, altruism, compliance, modesty, and tender-mindedness), and conscientiousness (competence, order, dutifulness, achievement striving, self-discipline, and deliberation). The participants respond to each item on a 5-point scale anchored with strongly disagree (0) and strongly agree (4). The 48 items for each domain are added together to provide a total score for that personality domain. Higher scores represent more characteristics of that domain. The NEO has

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17 adequate reliability and validity (Costa & McCrae), and in this study the internal consistency reliabilities for the domains were neuroticism (alpha = .83), extraversion (alpha = .80), openness (alpha = .74), agreeableness (alpha = .80), and conscientiousness (alpha = .82). The facets had alpha ranges consistent with those in the NEO manual which varied from .45 to .80 (see Table 2.1 on page 24 for alpha levels for each facet). Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ). The LTEQ (Godin, Jobin, & Bouillon, 1986) is a self-report measure that assesses the frequency of strenuous, moderate, and mild leisure-time exercise done for at least 20 minutes during a typical week (see Appendix B). To determine the metabolic equivalents (METS) also known as total exercise, the frequency of exercise is multiplied by the activity intensity. Each intensity level is appointed a number that is then multiplied by the frequency ((mild*3) + (moderate*5) + (strenuous*9)). The values for mild, moderate, and strenuous exercise are added to determine the total exercise index. A high score represents a greater level of activity. The LTEQ is a reliable and valid measure of exercise behavior (Godin et al.; Jacobs, Ainsworth, Hartman, & Leon, 1993). Procedure Participants were 515 volunteers from undergraduate classes at a large southeastern university in the U.S. Permission was obtained from class instructors to administer the questionnaire to their students. The questionnaire took about 45 min to complete. Participants either completed the questionnaires during class or at home. Informed consent was obtained before the questionnaire was completed and extra credit was given to those who completed the questionnaire (see Appendix C). Eight of the questionnaires were returned with missing data. The missing data were due to participants skipping an entire page of the NEO items. This resulted in more than 41

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18 items being omitted on the NEO. Costa and McCrae (1992) recommended that participants who are missing 41 or more items on the NEO-PI-R be omitted from further analyses. Thus, based on their recommendations, the eight questionnaires with partial information were not used for the data analysis. Thus, a return rate of 100% (515/515) was obtained, and a response rate of 98.84% (507/515) was obtained. These data are part of a larger study examining personality, exercise behavior, exercise preferences, and intentions to exercise. Results Pearson correlations were conducted for the NEO domains and facets and total exercise from the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Correlations revealed positive relationships between extraversion and conscientiousness with exercise, and a negative relationship between agreeableness and exercise (see Table 2.1 on page 24). Openness and neuroticism were not significantly related to exercise behavior. Examining the facets for neuroticism, it was found that the facet of impulsiveness (r = -.11, p = .02) had a significant negative correlation with exercise. For extraversion, significant positive correlations were found for assertiveness (r = .12, p = .02), activity (r = .17, p < .01), and excitement seeking (r = .11, p = .02). For agreeableness, compliance (r = -.13, p = .01) revealed a significant negative correlation with exercise. For the conscientiousness facets, significant positive correlations were found for achievement striving (r = .19, p < .01) and self-discipline (r = .17, p < .01). Finally, there were no significant correlations for the facets of openness (see Table 2.1 for mean, standard deviations, and correlations for all the facets). Five multiple regressions, one for each of the five domains, were performed to determine if exercise behavior could be predicted by the personality facets. For these

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19 regressions, exercise behavior (dependent variable) was regressed on the personality facets of each of the domains (independent variable). For extraversion, 5.4% of the variance in exercise behavior [F(6, 464) = 4.46, p < .01] was explained by the facets, with activity (= .20, p < .01) and positive emotions (= -.17, p < .01) being the only significant predictors of exercise behavior. For conscientiousness, 3.9% of the variance in behavior was explained by the facets [F(6, 469) = 4.25, p < .01] with achievement striving (= .17, p < .01), self-discipline (= .16, p = .02), and order (= -.12, p = .03) being the only significant predictors of exercise behavior. In comparison, none of the facets for openness [F(6, 466) = .76, p = .60], agreeableness [F(6, 465) = 1.89, p = .08], and neuroticism [F(6, 466) = 1.87, p = .09] were significant predictors of exercise behavior (see Table 2.2 on page 25). Discussion The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between personality and exercise behavior using the NEO-PI-R domains and facets. In support for the hypotheses concerning the domains, I found that extraversion and conscientiousness were positively correlated to exercise behavior. Costa and McCrae (1992) described conscientiousness as the active process of self-control, and they stated that individuals who score high on conscientiousness are purposeful, strong-willed, and determined. Thus, individuals who are conscientious are likely to exercise because they are cognizant of their health and physical attributes. Because extraverted people tend to be active and enjoy excitement and stimulation, it is not surprising that a positive relationship emerged between extraversion and exercise behavior.

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20 In contrast to the hypothesis, neuroticism was not related to exercise behavior. Neuroticism was hypothesized to inhibit exercise because individuals high on neuroticism possess poorer coping skills and greater emotional reactivity during stress appraisal than those low on neuroticism (Gunthert, Cohen, & Armeli, 1999). However, albeit nonsignificant, a negative relationship was found between neuroticism and exercise. The nonsignificant findings may be partially related to the elevated neuroticism scores evidenced in my sample compared to neuroticism scores traditionally reported for college-aged individuals (Costa & McCrae, 1992). In contrast to the prediction and the findings of Courneya and Hellsten (1998), agreeableness was negatively, as opposed to positively, related to exercise behavior. Agreeableness assesses the inclination toward interpersonal trust and consideration of others. Individuals who score low on agreeableness are often egocentric (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Egocentrism could be displayed by giving a priority to exercise and believing that exercise is done for the self (versus others). Further inquiry is needed to examine this possibility. Finally, consistent with the hypotheses, openness was not related to exercise behavior. For the neuroticism facets, impulsiveness was significantly negatively correlated with exercise. Costa and McCrae (1992) define impulsiveness as the inability to control cravings and urges. It is plausible those individuals high in impulsiveness may forfeit plans to exercise to engage in other activities. Those individuals who are low in impulsiveness may tend to adhere to their exercise plans. Further research is needed to examine the role that impulsiveness plays for exercise behavior.

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21 For the extraversion facets, assertiveness, activity, and excitement seeking were positively related to exercise behavior. Individuals who score high on assertiveness are dominant and forceful (Costa & McCrae, 1992), potentially allowing them to maintain their desire and plan to exercise. A high score on the activity facet is representative of a rapid tempo, vigorous movement, and a need to keep busy (Costa & McCrae). Thus, it is not surprising that those individuals who feel a need to keep moving and busy are more likely to exercise (Rhodes et al., 2002). Excitement seeking is the craving of excitement and stimulation (Costa & McCrae). Researchers (Li, 1999) have found that stimulation is an exercise motive. Thus, individuals who score high on excitement seeking may use exercise as their source of stimulation. For the agreeableness facets, compliance was significantly negatively correlated with exercise behavior. Individuals who score high on compliance feel well-prepared to deal with life. An individual who scores low on compliance is aggressive and enjoys competing (Costa & McCrae, 1992). This relationship between exercise and compliance may be due to individuals competing against themselves (e.g., beating previous run/bike time) and releasing aggression while exercising. For the conscientiousness facets, achievement striving and self-discipline were positively related to exercise behavior. Individuals who score high on achievement striving are diligent, purposeful, and work hard to achieve their goals (Costa & McCrae, 1992). In accordance with the definition, researchers have found that an individual who is determined to meet goals, specifically exercise goals, will exercise more (Wang, Chatzisarantis, Spray, & Biddle, 2002). Self-discipline is the ability to begin tasks and carry them through to completion (Costa & McCrae). Individuals who score high on this

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22 scale have the ability to motivate themselves to complete tasks and goals such as exercising. In regard to the multiple regressions analysis for the domains and facets, I found that the neuroticism facet of angry hostility was a significant predictor of exercise. Angry hostility is tendency to experience anger (Costa & McCrae, 1992). The higher individuals score on this scale, the more disagreeable they tend to be. An explanation for the relationship between angry hostility and exercise is that individuals may express their anger in the form of exercise. For the extraversion facets, the activity and positive emotions facets were significant predictors of exercise. The positive emotions facet is the tendency to experience positive emotions such as joy and excitement (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Acute exercise has been shown to increase positive mood after exercise (Focht & Hausenblas, 2001; Hagan & Hausenblas, in preparation). It may be that individuals who score high on positive emotions enjoy the feelings they experience during and after exercise, and therefore engage in more exercise. As in the correlation analysis for the agreeableness domain, I found that compliance was a significant predictor of exercise. Similarly, for conscientiousness, achievement striving and self-discipline were positive predictors of exercise which were also significant positive correlations with exercise. The facet of order was also a predictor of exercise. Individuals who score low on this scale are unmethodical and disorganized (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Thus, people who tend to be disorganized may also be unable to plan and schedule exercise into their daily routines. I found no significant predictors of exercise for the openness facets. This may because openness to experience includes the

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23 facets of fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas, and values which have more to do with opinions and ideas than exercise and facets that may effect exercise. Future research should focus on replicating this study using other population (Jones, Livson, & Peskin, 2003). This was the first study to examine the facets and more studies need to be done especially using objective measures of exercise. Additionally, the information gained from this study may help in interventions. For example, knowing that someone scores high on a particular facet may make someone more likely to exercise. It would also be helpful to know which individuals may need extra encouragement to engage in exercise (i.e., those who do not score high on any facet which predicts exercise). Results of this study reveal that the facets provide further information in regard to exercise beyond examining just the domains. This study found that some of the facets of the NEO to be significant correlations and predictors with exercise behavior. Examining the facets rather than only the domains may provide insight into the specific make-up of why people exercise. Future research should continue to examine the facets and how they relate to exercise.

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24 Table 2.1. Mean (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) Scores for the Facets, Pearson Correlations for the Facets with the Leisure-Time Exercise Total Score, and NEO Alpha Values Facets M (SD) r Alpha Neuroticism 81.02 (21.94) -.04 N1: Anxiety 15.75 (5.22) -.07 .75 N2: Angry Hostility 13.45 (5.21) .06 .73 N3: Depression 13.17 (5.42) -.04 .77 N4: Self-Consciousness 13.37 (4.88) .01 .68 N5: Impulsiveness 14.37 (3.71) .11* .70 N6: Vulnerability 11.02 (4.55) -.05 .71 Extraversion 124.71 (20.69) .09* E1: Warmth 23.35 (4.88) .00 .79 E2: Gregariousness 20.08 (5.45) .08 .75 E3: Assertiveness 17.44 (4.72) .12* .73 E4: Activity 18.61 (3.99) .17** .59 E5: Excitement-Seeking 22.73 (4.76) .11* .64 E6: Positive Emotions 22.43 (5.11) -.04 .76 Openness 116.67 (19.92) .05 O1: Fantasy 20.18 (4.92) .05 .74 O2: Aesthetics 17.89 (6.14) .06 .78 O3: Feelings 22.75 (4.67) .03 .74 O4: Actions 15.58 (3.74) .01 .45 O5: Ideas 19.76 (5.62) .06 .80 O6: Values 20.51 (4.61) -.05 .70 Agreeableness 116.85 (19.85) -.10* A1: Trust 18.91 (4.91) .00 .77 A2: Straightforwardness 19.44 (4.94) -.08 .72 A3: Altruism 23.96 (4.51) -.06 .79 A4: Compliance 15.86 (5.03) -.13** .70 A5: Modesty 18.78 (4.88) -.09 .74 A6: Tender-Mindedness 19.71 (3.89) -.04 .55 Conscientiousness 114.08 (19.57) .13** C1: Competence 21.35 (3.93) .05 .64 C2: Order 17.08 (4.97) .03 .72 C3: Dutifulness 20.94 (4.21) .08 .59 C4: Achievement Striving 19.29 (4.61) .19** .72 C5: Self-Discipline 18.56 (5.14) .17** .78 C6: Deliberation 16.63 (4.22) .07 .65 Note. * p < .05; ** p < .01

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25 Table 2.2. Multiple Regressions for Exercise and the NEO Facets Variable B SE B N1: Anxiety -.35 .29 -.08 N2: Angry Hostility .58 .25 .17* N3: Depression -.16 .32 -.03 N4: Self-Consciousness .41 .33 .08 N5: Impulsiveness -.70 .35 -.11 N6: Vulnerability -.16 .36 -.03 E1: Warmth .00 .35 .00 E2: Gregariousness .13 .29 .03 E3: Assertiveness .00 .28 .01 E4: Activity 1.21 .34 .20** E5: Excitement-Seeking .51 .29 .10 E6: Positive Emotions -.82 .31 -.17* O1: Fantasy .10 .27 .02 O2: Aesthetics .22 .24 .06 O3: Feelings .00 .31 .00 O4: Actions .00 .33 .00 O5: Ideas .20 .24 .05 O6: Values -.38 .27 -.07 A1: Trust .43 .28 .09 A2: Straightforwardness .00 .31 -.01 A3: Altruism -.32 .34 -.06 A4: Compliance -.70 .28 -.14* A5: Modesty -.17 .29 -.03 A6: Tender-Mindedness .20 .36 .03 C1: Competence -.47 .35 -.08 C2: Order -.58 .27 -.12* C3: Dutifulness -.18 .34 -.03 C4: Achievement Striving .90 .34 .17** C5: Self-Discipline .75 .33 .16* C6: Deliberation .22 .29 .04 Note. Neuroticism R2 = .023; Extraversion R2 = .054; Openness R2 = -.033; Agreeableness R2 = .024; Conscientiousness R2 = .039. * p < .05.; ** p < .01.

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CHAPTER 3 STUDY 2: PERSONALITY AND EXERCISE PREFERENCES Introduction As mentioned in Chapter 1, the exercise and personality research has mostly examined the personality factors of extraversion and neuroticism with outdated measures of personality (Arai & Hisamichi, 1998; Goldberg & Sheppard, 1982; Mathers & Walker, 1999; Schnurr, Vaillant, & Vaillant, 1990; Szabo, 1992). Researchers have acknowledged the utility of the Five Factor Model (FFM), as operationalized by the NEO, for explaining and predicting health behaviors such as exercise (Digman, 1994; McAdams, 1994). Thus, further research is needed applying the NEO to examine the relationship between personality and exercise. In particular, researchers are encouraged to use the 240-item NEO-PI-R because of its strong psychometric properties and because it assesses the facets which allow greater insight into the composition of each domain. As seen in Chapter 2, the facets of impulsiveness (neuroticism) and compliance (agreeableness) were negatively correlated. Conversely, the extraversion facets of assertiveness, activity, and excitement seeking, and conscientiousness facets of achievement striving and self-discipline were positively correlated with exercise behavior. To further understand the relationship between personality and exercise, researchers have recently examined the relationship between exercise behavior and personality with exercise preferences. For example, Courneya and Hellsten (1998) examined the relationship between personality, exercise behavior, and exercise preferences using the NEO-FFI (60-items), the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire 26

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27 (Godin, Jobin, & Bouillon, 1986), and an author-developed exercise preferences measure with female and male undergraduate students (N = 264). They found that openness, extraversion, and conscientiousness were positively related to exercise, and neuroticism was negatively related to exercise. For exercise preferences, they found that all the NEO domains were related to some aspect of exercise preferences. More specifically, individuals who scored high on extraversion preferred to exercise in a group rather than alone, and they also enjoyed supervised sessions rather than self-directed sessions. Additionally, individuals scoring high on openness preferred to exercise outdoors compared to indoors, while those scoring high on agreeableness favored aerobics versus weight-training. Those who preferred high-intensity exercise scored lower on neuroticism and higher on conscientiousness than those who preferred moderate intensity exercise, and individuals who preferred scheduled exercise scored lower on openness and higher on conscientiousness than those who preferred spontaneous exercise. Limitations of this study include assessing personality with the short form of the NEO and assessing preferences with an unvalidated author-developed measure. Improving upon Courneya and Hellsten’s study, Hagan and Hausenblas (in review) assessed exercise behavior, personality, and exercise preferences by gender using the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the NEO-PI-R (240-items), and an author-developed preferences questionnaire with undergraduate men and women (N = 515). They found that neuroticism was negatively correlated with exercise behavior and extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were positively correlated with exercise behavior. For exercise intensity they found that individuals who scored high on extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness preferred to exercise at a high versus a low

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28 exercise intensity. In comparison, those who scored high on neuroticism preferred low, compared to high, intensity exercise. For exercise company, those who scored high on neuroticism and low on extraversion preferred to exercise alone rather than in a group. For gym preference, they found that those who scored high on extraversion and conscientiousness preferred to exercise in a coed gym rather than at home. In comparison, those who scored high on neuroticism preferred to exercise at home compared to at a coed gym. No significant personality differences were found for the type of exercise (cardiovascular vs. weight training), instruction (directed vs. self-directed), and rhythm (same vs. continuous) preferences. Finally, gender did not moderate the results. The studies by Hagan and Hausenblas (in review) and Courneya and Hellsten (1998) have contradictory findings with regard to the relationship between exercise behavior and personality, and exercise preferences and personality. There are three potential reasons for these contradictory findings. First, different unvalidated exercise preference measures were used in each study. Second, although both populations were college students with similar mean ages (21.27 vs. 21.3 years), the total number of students (N = 507 vs. 264) and the percent of men and women (47.7% vs 62% women) were different. Additionally, the samples were from different countries (i.e., United States vs. Canada) which may result in cultural differences in the results. Third, Hagan and Hausenblas (in review) used the 240-item NEO-PI-R, while Courneya and Hellsten used the 60-item NEO-FFI. The NEO-PI-R has stronger psychometric properties, and it provides information on both the NEO domains and facets. Thus, further examination of the relationship between personality and exercise preferences is needed to clarify the

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29 relationship between exercise behavior and exercise preferences using a validated exercise preferences questionnaire with the 240-item NEO-PI-R. Understanding the relationship between these variables may allow for the development of specialized exercise programs and a greater understanding of the specific personality characteristics of exercise behavior. Purposes The purpose of this study was four-fold. The first purpose was to develop and conduct content validity and test-retest reliability for an Exercise Preferences Questionnaire. The second purpose was to examine the relationship between exercise behavior and the personality domains and facets of the NEO-PI-R. The third purpose was to examine the relationship between exercise preferences with the personality domains and facets. Finally, the fourth purpose was to explore the relationship between exercise behavior and exercise preferences. Hypotheses Purpose 1: Development of an Exercise Preference Questionnaire I hypothesized that the Exercise Preferences Questionnaire (EPQ) would have adequate test-retest reliability. Purpose 2: Exercise Behavior and Personality For the domains, based on the findings of Hagan (2003), I hypothesized that extraversion and conscientiousness would be positively correlated, and agreeableness would be negatively correlated, with exercise behavior. For the facets, I hypothesized that the extraversion facets of assertiveness, activity, and excitement seeking would be positively correlated with exercise behavior in addition to the conscientiousness facets of achievement striving and self-discipline. Finally, for the agreeableness domain, I

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30 hypothesized that the facet of compliance would be negatively correlated to exercise behavior. Similarly, I hypothesized that the extraversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism domains would be predictors of exercise behavior. Based on the findings of Study 1, I hypothesized that the extraversion facets of assertiveness, activity, and excitement-seeking would be significant predictors of exercise behavior. For the conscientiousness facets, I hypothesized that achievement striving and self-discipline would be significant predictors of exercise behavior. Finally, I hypothesized that the agreeableness facet of compliance would be a significant predictor of exercise behavior. Purpose 3: Exercise Preferences and Personality With regard to exercise preferences and the personality domains, based on the findings of Hagan and Hausenblas (in review), I hypothesized that for exercise intensity, individuals who scored high on extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness would prefer to exercise at a high vs. a low exercise intensity. In comparison, those who scored high on neuroticism would prefer low intensity exercise. For exercise company, those who scored high on neuroticism and low on extraversion would prefer to exercise alone rather than in a group. For gym preference, I hypothesized that those who scored high on extraversion and conscientiousness preferred to exercise in a coed gym rather than at home. In comparison, those who scored high on neuroticism would prefer to exercise at home. I hypothesized no difference for the preferences of mode of exercise (cardiovascular versus resistance training), rhythm of exercise, and instruction type. No a priori hypotheses were advanced for the relationship between exercise preferences and the personality facets because of the exploratory nature of this part of the study.

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31 Purpose 4: Exercise Behavior and Exercise Preferences No a priori hypotheses were advanced for the relationship between exercise behavior and exercise preferences because of the exploratory nature of this part of the study. First Purpose Three focus groups were undertaken to develop the Exercise Preferences Questionnaire (EPQ) and establish its content validity and test-retest reliability. Each of these focus groups are discussed in detail below. Focus Group 1 Purpose and participants. The purpose of Focus Group 1 was to determine the format and content of the EPQ. The participants were six active and two inactive Exercise and Sport Science students. The participants were considered active based on a question asking if they were regularly active during the week (i.e., Are you regularly active?). Of these students, six were graduate students and two were undergraduates, with 75% of the students being women. Exercise Preferences Questionnaire. Two separate EPQs were developed. For the first questionnaire, the items were in a multiple choice format. For the second questionnaire, the items were on a 7-point Likert scale (see Appendix D for a copy of these questionnaires). These questionnaires 10 and nine statements respectively, that assessed different exercise preferences. In addition, the participants completed open-ended items that assessed which questionnaire they preferred (multiple choice or Likert scale) and why they preferred that questionnaire. They were also asked if there were any preferences that were not included that they thought were important. Finally, they were

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32 asked if the wording on any items should be changed and if they had any other comments (see Appendix E for responses). Procedure and results. The participants were asked to individually complete both questionnaires during their free time. After I received the questionnaires, we met as a group and discussed the changes that could be made to the questionnaire. Based on group discussion, three additional items statements were added (i.e., What time of day do you prefer to exercise, How many days per week do you exercise, and What type of exercise instruction do you prefer?). We determined that a 7-point Likert scale would be used for eight of the preference questions, and multiple choice statements would be used for the remaining three. Participants preferred the Likert scale to the multiple choice because they had more freedom in their answers. Multiple choice questions were developed because unlike the Likert scale with two extremes, multiple choice allows for more than two extremes. I then met with my advisor and presented the feedback and the newly constructed questionnaire. Based on discussion with my advisor, minor changes were made (see Appendix F for the modified EPQ). Focus Group 2 Purpose and participants. The purpose of Focus Group 2 was to establish content validity of the modified EPQ. The questionnaire was administered to six graduate students (67% men) in the Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences. To determine if the students were regularly active, regular exercise was and defined as engaging in moderate exercise for 30 minutes each day, five times a week. Five of the six graduate students were classified as regularly active because they indicated engaging in moderate exercise for 30 min at least 5 times a week.

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33 Exercise Preferences Questionnaire. This version of the EPQ contained eight questions on a Likert scale and three multiple choice questions (see Appendix F). At the end of the questionnaire, the following questions were asked: “Do you have any comments or suggestions about any of the questions asked,” “Are there any preferences that are missing that you think should be added,” and “Do you think this questionnaire assesses your preferences to exercise and why?” (see Appendix G for responses). Procedure and results. The EPQ was administered to the participants, for completion during their free-time. The participants suggested using a visual analog scale because it allows more variability in an answer (Bigatti & Cronan, 2002; Collins, Moore, & McQuay, 1997). Based on this comment, a 15 cm line was drawn with anchors at each end of the line. Instructions were developed to inform the participants to put an “X” on the line to indicate their response. Additionally, rather than using the multiple choice items, Focus Group 2 suggested that check-off boxes be used so as not to bias the response as much as multiple choice (Penfield, 2002). Based on Focus Group 2’s discussion, a revised EPQ was developed (see Appendix H). Focus Group 3 Purpose and participants. The purpose of Focus Group 3 was to establish content validity of the revised EPQ and to establish 7-day test-retest reliability. Participants were 25 undergraduate students (60% seniors; 52% women; M age = 22.08) in an Exercise and Sport Science class. Most of the participants were Caucasian (80%), followed by African American (12%), Hispanic (3%), other (3%), and Asian (2%). The students reported to be exercising daily (64%), followed by often (28%), and seldom (8%).

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34 Exercise Preferences Questionnaire. This version of the EPQ contained eight questions on a visual analog scale and three questions with check-off boxes (will be called dichotomous questions from this point on; see Appendix H). Procedure & Results. The EPQ was administered twice during class, one week apart. The agenda for the focus group included distributing the questionnaire to be completed, telling the students the purpose of the focus group, and then reviewing the questionnaire with the students. The students were asked to complete the questionnaire individually. After the students completed the questionnaire, I reviewed the questionnaire with the students starting with the instructions and then each preference. I read the instructions aloud to the students and then asked for feedback to ensure the directions were clear. For the preferences, I read a preference and then told the students what information I was trying to obtain from the question. Based on what I wanted to find out about a preference, I asked the students if the wording of the question should be changed and if I would find the information I wanted (see Appendix I for responses). For example, one preference asked “What type of workout do you prefer?” with anchors at repetitive and continuously changing. The focus group interpreted the question in two different ways. That is, some students thought it meant you have the same routine when exercising (i.e., exercising on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday every week) versus doing a mode of exercise during a workout that is repetitive or continuously changing (i.e., stair stepper vs. basketball). After the feedback from the Focus Group 3 was reviewed, I decided that one question would be reworded regarding the rhythm of exercise. Additionally, the participant was asked to indicate whether they were referring to cardiovascular exercise

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35 or resistance training when responding to the specific question for three of the visual analog questions and all of the questions with dichotomous answers. Test-Retest Reliability. The updated Exercise Preferences Questionnaire (see Appendix J) was administered to 25 students. Only 19 students completed the time 2 administration which yielded a 76% (19/25) response rate. Pearson correlations for the questions using the visual analog scale between time one and time two revealed adequate values for all the questions (range = .51 .98; see Table 3.1) except for rhythm of exercise (During a single workout, what type of workout rhythm do you prefer?; r = .23) and preferred numbers of days per week to exercise (If your schedule would allow you, how many days per week do your PREFER to exercise?; r = .33). The dichotomous questions were not assessed for test-retest reliability. Table 3.1. Test-Retest Reliability for the Exercise Preferences Questionnaire Items for Exercise Preferences Questions Correlation 1. What exercise intensity do you prefer for most of your workouts? .51* 2. During a single workout, what type of workout rhythm do you prefer? .23 3. What mode of activity do you prefer? .88** 4. What time of day do you prefer to exercise? .98** 5. If your schedule would allow you, how many days per week do you PREFER to exercise? .33 6. How scheduled is your exercise? .96** 7. Where do you prefer to exercise? .84** 8. How often do you listen to music while exercising? .91** 9. What type of instruction do you prefer? .83** Note. * p < .05; ** p < .01

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36 With the exception of two preferences with low test-rest reliability, the EPQ was considered to be reliable and valid. The revised EPQ (see Appendix J) was used for Purposes 2, 3, and 4 of this study. Second, Third, and Fourth Purposes Method Participants Participants were male and female undergraduate students (M age = 21.19, SD = 2.84). Although only 266 participants were needed for a power of .80 based on a small effect size with an alpha of .05 (Statistical Product and Service Solutions, 2001), 371 participants completed the questionnaire. Varsity athletes (N = 29) were excluded from the data analysis because they are required to engage in a specific type of training for their respective sports. Six individuals did not indicate whether they were an athlete, therefore, they were not used in the analysis. Thus, the final sample was 336 participants (51% women). Most of the participants were Caucasian (69%), followed by Hispanic (14%), African American (7%), Asian (5%), and other (5%). Also, the participants had an academic classification of seniors (45%), followed by juniors (29%), sophomore (20%), freshman (7%), and graduate students (1%). Measures Demographic questionnaire. The demographic questionnaire contained questions pertaining to age, height, weight, sex, academic class, and ethnicity. The questionnaire also assessed whether the participant was a varsity athlete and where the questionnaire was completed (see Appendix K). NEO-PI-R. The NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992; see Appendix A) contains 240 statements representing the following five personality domains: neuroticism,

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37 extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Each of these five domains has six facets. The facets for each of the domains are: neuroticism (anxiety, angry hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, and vulnerability), extraversion (warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement-seeking, and positive emotions), openness to experience (fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas, and values), agreeableness (trust, straightforwardness, altruism, compliance, modesty, and tender-mindedness), and conscientiousness (competence, order, dutifulness, achievement striving, self-discipline, and deliberation). The participants respond to each item on a 5-point scale anchored with strongly disagree (0) and strongly agree (4). The 48 items for each domain are added together to provide a total score for that personality domain. Higher scores represent more characteristics of that domain. The NEO has adequate reliability and validity (Costa & McCrae). In Study 1, the internal consistency reliabilities for the domains were: neuroticism (alpha = .83), extraversion (alpha = .80), openness (alpha = .74), agreeableness (alpha = .80), and conscientiousness (alpha = .82). Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. The Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire is a self-report measure that assesses the frequency of strenuous, moderate, and mild leisure-time exercise done in 20 minute sessions during a typical week (Godin et al., 1986). Total Leisure-Time Exercise is found by the formula: 3(mild) + 5(moderate) +9(strenuous). The Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire is a reliable and valid measure of exercise behavior (Godin et al.; Jacobs, Ainsworth, Hartman, & Leon, 1993). Exercise Preferences Questionnaire. Exercise preferences were assessed with 12 questions pertaining to preferences related to exercise (see Appendix J). Participants

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38 indicated their preferences for exercise location (inside/outside), exercise intensity, rhythm of exercise, type of exercise (cardiovascular/resistance training), time of day to exercise, number of days per week they prefer to exercise, whether they listen to music while exercising, and exercise instruction (self led/instructor led) on a visual analog scale. For three questions on the visual analog scale, a question was asked if the participant answered the question with regard to cardiovascular exercise or resistance training. Additionally, gym preference (coed, same sex, home, outdoors, no preference), exercise company (alone, with a partner, small group (< 10 people), large group (> 10 people), no preference), and exercise duration (less than 20 minutes, 20-40 minutes, 40-60 minutes, more than 60 minutes) were assessed using dichotomous answers. All of the questions using dichotomous answers also asked the participate to indicate whether they were indicating a preference for cardiovascular exercise or resistance training. Procedure The questionnaires were given to undergraduate university students at the University of Florida. Permission was obtained from class instructors to administer the questionnaire to their students. Participants either completed the questionnaires during class or at home. The instructor explained to the students that participation was voluntary, and that they could withdraw from the study at any time. They were also told their responses would be anonymous and that the data would be kept confidential (see Appendix L). The questionnaires (i.e., the Demographic Questionnaire, the NEO-PI-R, the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, and the EPQ) took about 45 minutes to complete. To increase the response rate, instructors gave extra credit to students who completed the questionnaire.

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39 Response Rate A total of 383 questionnaires were administered, with 371 questionnaires being returned. This yielded a response rate of 97%. A high response rate was achieved because the students received extra credit from their instructors for participating. I then checked the questionnaires for missing data. I returned 192/371 of the questionnaires to the instructors because of missing data. The instructor then had the students complete the items that were omitted. Of the 192 questionnaires with missing data, 185 were returned with completed data. The seven questionnaires that did not have complete data were still used in the analysis because only a small amount of data was missing (<5%) so they were still suitable for data analysis (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Examination of Group Differences To determine if there was a difference for responses between the questionnaires completed at home and those completed at school, a one-way MANOVA was computed with the NEO-PI-R domains as the dependent variables and the location of completing the questionnaire (i.e., home vs. school) as the independent variable. Results revealed no difference on the personality domains between those individuals who completed the questionnaire at home versus at school [Wilks’ Lambda = .98, F(5, 309) = 1.04, p = .39]. A one-way ANOVA was computed to determine if a difference existed in exercise level between those individuals who completed the questionnaire at home and at school. I found that the individuals who completed the questionnaire at school exercised more than those individuals who completed the questionnaire at home [F(1,327) = 6.11, p < .01].

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40 Data Analysis Preliminary Analyses First, to ensure valid measurement instruments, internal consistency scores were computed for each personality domain and it’s corresponding facet. Second, descriptive statistics were computed for the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the NEO-PI-R personality domains and facets, and the EPQ. Third, to verify that the data met the assumptions for normality, the data were examined for skewness and kurtosis. Purpose 2: Personality and Exercise First, correlations were computed among the NEO domains and the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Second, for any significant correlation between a personality domain and the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, follow-up correlations were computed for its facets. Third, to determine which personality domains (independent variable) predicted exercise behavior (dependent variable), a multiple regression analysis was performed. Fourth, for the domains that were significant predictors of exercise behavior, follow-up multiple regressions were conducted to determine which facets (independent variable) predicted exercise behavior (dependent variable). Purpose 3: Personality and Exercise Preferences First, correlations were computed between the exercise preferences assessed with visual analog scales (i.e., EPQ items 1-9) and the personality domains. Second, for any significant correlation between an exercise preference and a personality domain, a follow-up correlation was computed between the exercise preference and the domain’s facets. Third, for the dichotomous exercise preferences (i.e., EPQ items 10-12), MANOVA’s were performed with the NEO-PI-R domains as the dependent variables and the preference categories as the independent variables. Fourth, for the domains that

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41 significantly predicted exercise preferences, a second MANOVA was computed with the domain’s facets as the dependent variables. If Box’s Test of Equality of Covariance Matrices was significant (p < .05), Pillai’s trace was used (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2001). If Box’s Test was not significant, the Wilks’ Lambda statistic was used. Fifth, for exercise preferences distinguishing between cardiovascular and resistance training, two analyses were conducted; one for cardiovascular exercise and one for resistance training. Purpose 4: Exercise Behavior and Exercise Preferences First, correlations were calculated between the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire and visual analog scales of the EPQ. Second, the variables with significant correlations were entered into a multiple regression analysis to determine which preferences (independent variables) predicted exercise behavior (dependent variable). Third, because items 7-9 of the EPQ contained two parts, two correlations were computed for each preference; one for cardiovascular exercise and one for resistance training. Fourth, for the dichotomous exercise preferences (i.e., items 10-12), one-way ANOVAs were performed with exercise behavior as the dependent variable and the preference categories as the independent variables. Additionally, because the dichotomous preference items were two-part, two analyses (i.e., MANOVA’s) were computed for each preference; one for cardiovascular exercise and one for resistance training. Results Preliminary Analysis First, internal consistencies scores (i.e., Chronbach’s alpha) ranged between .59 and .81 for the NEO domains and facets (see Table 3.2 on page 63). Because the alpha value is inflated as the number of variables increases, there is no set interpretation as to what is

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42 an acceptable value (George & Mallery, 2001). The general rule of thumb for reliability interpretations displayed in Table 3.3 was used to interpret the alpha levels of the study measures. Thus, although the general rule of thumb would indicate poor to good reliability, the reliability values obtained in this study are comparable to those in the NEO manual (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Table 3.3. Rule of Thumb for Reliability of Measurement Interpretation Alpha Value Interpretation > .9 Excellent > .8 Good > .7 Acceptable > .6 Questionable > .5 Poor < .5 Unacceptable Second, means, standard deviations, skewness and kurtosis scores for the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, NEO domains and facets, and the EPQ are presented in Table 3.4. Examination of the skewness scores revealed the data were normally distributed. Purpose 2: Personality and Exercise Pearson correlations between exercise behavior and the personality domains revealed that extraversion (r = .18, p < .01) was the only domain significantly correlated with exercise (see Table 3.5). For the extraversion facets, gregariousness (r = .11, p = .03), assertiveness (r = .13, p = .01), activity (r = .18, p < .01), excitement seeking (r = .13, p = .01), and positive emotions (r = .12, p = .02) were positively correlated with exercise behavior.

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43 Table 3.4. Mean (M), Standard Deviation (SD) Scores, Skewness, and Kurtosis for the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ) and the Exercise Preferences Variable M SD Skewness Kurotsis LTEQ total 49.34 29.63 1.83 5.93 Exercise Preferences Intensity 11.17 2.30 -1.06 2.09 Rhythm 7.24 3.12 -.05 -.33 Mode 6.23 3.38 .35 -.64 Time of day 9.37 3.87 -.85 -.38 Days per week 10.32 2.68 -.04 -.21 Scheduled 7.18 3.95 .13 -1.04 Location Cardiovascular 9.14 4.69 -.56 -1.04 Resistance Training 2.46 2.84 2.43 6.57 Music Cardiovascular 8.20 5.27 -.30 -1.45 Resistance Training 9.57 4.83 -.75 -.75 Instruction Cardiovascular 5.87 4.86 .42 -1.32 Resistance Training 5.98 4.90 .37 -1.41 Table 3.5. Pearson Correlations Between the NEO-PI-R Domains and the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ) Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. LTEQ total -.10 .18** .02 -.02 .04 2. Neuroticism -.36** -.10 -.15** -.34** 3. Extraversion .41** .31** .27** 4. Openness .29** .05 5. Agreeableness .26** 6. Conscientiousness Note. * p < .05; ** p < .01

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44 A multiple regression was undertaken to determine the strength of the relationship between the personality domains and exercise behavior. I found a significant relationship indicating that extraversion (= , p < .01) resulted in greater amounts of exercise behavior [F(5, 303) = 2.77, p = .02], with 4% of the variance in exercise behavior explained by the domains (see Table 3.6). A follow-up regression revealed that the extraversion facets predicted exercise behavior [F(6, 314) = 2.86, p = .01] with 5% of the variance of exercise behavior explained with the extraversion facets; however, examination of the coefficients revealed no significant predictors of exercise behavior (see Table 3.7). Table 3.6. Multiple Regression for Personality Domains and Exercise Behavior SEB Neuroticism -.01 .09 -.04 Extraversion .28 .10 .19* Openness .02 .10 .01 Agreeableness -.10 .10 -.06 Conscientiousness .02 .09 .02 Note. * p < .01 Table 3.7. Follow-up Multiple Regression for the Extraversion Facets and Exercise Behavior SEB Warmth -.34 .51 -.05 Angry Hostility .28 .44 .05 Depression .33 .36 .06 Self-consciousness .94 .54 .12 Impulsiveness .47 .42 .08 Vulnerability .32 .45 .05

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45 Purpose 3: Personality and Exercise Preferences Correlations were computed between the personality domains and the visual analog scales of the EPQ. Five of the six preferences were significantly correlated with personality (see Table 3.8 on page 64). More specifically, neuroticism (r = -.18, p < .01), extraversion (r = .21, p < .01), conscientiousness (r = .20, p < .01), and openness (r = .14, p = .04) were significantly correlated with exercise intensity level . A follow-up correlation between exercise intensity and the neuroticism facets revealed that anxiety (r = -.17, p < .01) and vulnerability (r = -.27, p < .01) were significantly correlated with intensity. For the extraversion facets, assertiveness (r = .12, p = .03), activity (r = .18, p < .01), excitement-seeking (r = .25, p < .01), and positive emotions (r = .17, p < .01) were significantly correlated with exercise intensity. For the conscientiousness facets, competence (r = .21, p < .01), dutifulness (r = .15, p < .01), achievement striving (r = .25, p < .01), and self-discipline (r = .19, p < .01) were significantly correlated with exercise intensity. Finally, although the openness domain was significantly correlated with exercise intensity, follow-up analyses did not reveal any significant correlations for the facets. Openness (r = -.18, p < .01) and agreeableness (r = -.21, p < .01) were significantly correlated with mode of exercise (see Table 3.8 on page 64). Follow-up correlations for the openness facets revealed that fantasy (r = -.14, p = .04), aesthetics (r = -.19, p < .01), feelings (r = -.17, p < .01), and values (r = -.16, p < .01) were significantly related to mode of exercise. For agreeableness, the facets of trust (r = -.12, p = .04), straightforwardness (r = -.19, p < .01), altruism (r = -.13, p = .02), compliance (r = -.15, p

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46 < .01), modesty (r = -.12, p = .04), and tender-mindedness (r = -.14, p = .01) were significantly correlated with mode of exercise. Time of day to exercise was significantly related to the agreeableness domain (r = -.12, p = .03; see Table 3.8 on page 64). Follow-up correlations for the agreeableness facets revealed that altruism (r = -.15, p < .01) was the only significant correlation with time of day. The preferred number of days per week of exercise was significantly correlated with extraversion (r = .22, p < .01). Correlations for the extraversion facets revealed that warmth (r = .18, p < .01), gregariousness (r = .20, p < .01), activity (r = .22, p < .01), excitement-seeking (r = .15, p < .01), and positive emotions (r = .15, p < .01) were significantly correlated with preferred number of days per week of exercise. Scheduled exercise was significantly correlated with the extraversion (r = -.13, p = .02) and conscientiousness (r = -.24, p < .01) domains (see Table 3.8 on page 64). Follow-up correlations for the extraversion facets revealed that warmth (r = -.21, p < .01), activity (r = -.20, p < .01), and positive emotions (r = -.12, p = .03) were significantly related to scheduled exercise. Additionally, the conscientiousness facets of competence (r = -.16, p < .01), order (r = -.20, p < .01), dutifulness (r = -.15, p < .01), achievement striving (r = -.23, p < .01), self-discipline (r = -.17, p < .01), and deliberation (r = -.14, p = .01) were correlated with scheduled exercise. Finally, the exercise preference of rhythm was not significantly correlated with any personality domain (see Table 3.8 on page 64). For the exercise preference items differentiating between cardiovascular exercise and resistance training, two analyses were computed for each preference (see Table 3.9

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47 for frequency counts). The results for cardiovascular exercise are presented first, followed by the results for resistance training. Table 3.9. Frequency Chart for the Preferences of Location, Music, and Instruction Cardiovascular Resistance Training Exercise location 253 81 Music 251 80 Instruction 209 125 Cardiovascular exercise. For cardiovascular exercise, neuroticism (r = -.13, p = .04) was the only domain significantly correlated with location of exercise (see Table 3.10). A follow-up correlation revealed that vulnerability (r = -.19, p < .01) was the only neuroticism facet significantly correlated with location of exercise. Listening to music during cardiovascular exercise was significantly correlated with the extraversion domain (r = .21, p < .01; see Table 3.10). Follow-up correlations were significant for the extraversion facets of warmth (r = .21, p < .01), gregariousness (r = .20, p < .01), excitement-seeking (r = .18, p < .01), and positive emotions (r = .13, p = .03). Instruction type (i.e., self led or instructor led) was significantly correlated with conscientiousness (r = -.15, p = .03). Follow-up correlations revealed that the conscientiousness facets of dutifulness (r = -.17, p = .02) and achievement striving (r = -.15, p = .03) were significantly related to exercise. For the dichotomous items for cardiovascular exercise, preference had a significant influence on personality [Wilks’ Lambda = .88, F(15, 536) = 1.74, p = .04; see Table 3.11-3.13 for frequency counts]. Univariate ANOVA’s revealed that the extraversion

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48 domain preferred to exercise in bouts of exercise 40 min or longer [F(3, 198) = 3.03, p = .03)]. A follow-up MANOVA for the extraversion facets revealed no significant difference between extraversion facets and exercise duration during cardiovascular exercise [Wilks’ Lambda = .89, F(18, 567) = 1.31, p = .18]. Resistance training. For resistance training, no personality domains were significantly correlated with location of exercise (see Table 3.10). As for listening to music , the domains of extraversion (r = .29, p = .01), openness (r = .23, p = .04), and conscientiousness (r = .32, p < .01) were significantly correlated (see Table 3.10). Follow-up correlations for the extraversion facets revealed that activity (r = .31, p < .01) and excitement-seeking (r = .31, p < .01) were significantly correlated with listening to music. Follow-up correlations for the conscientiousness facets of competence (r = .29, p = .02), dutifulness (r = .37, p < .01), achievement striving (r = .27, p = .01), and deliberation (r = .26, p = .02) were significant, while the openness facet of ideas (r = .24, p = .03) was also significantly related to music listening. For instruction , a significant correlation was found for neuroticism (r = .21, p = .02; see Table 3.10). A follow-up correlation of the neuroticism facets indicated the facets of anxiety (r = .31, p < .01) and angry hostility (r = .21, p = .02) to be significantly correlated with instruction type. For the dichotomous preference items, no preferences were significant with resistance training (see Tables 3.11-3.13 for frequency counts).

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49 Table 3.10. Pearson Correlations between Personality Domains and the Exercise Preferences of Location, Music, and Instruction Cardiovascular Resistance Training N E O A C N E O A C Location -.13* .06 -.01 -.03 .06 .04 -.09 -.08 .05 .07 Music .06 .21* .03 .08 .03 -.20 .29* .23* .10 .32** Instruction .14 .01 .01 -.09 -.15* .21* .14 .10 -.01 -.07 Note. Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), Openness (O), Agreeableness (A), and Conscientiousness (C). Table 3.11. Frequency Chart for the Dichotomous Preference of Location Cardiovascular N = 191 Resistance Training N = 141 Coed Gym 43 104 Same Sex 10 13 Home 9 8 Outdoors 103 4 No Preference 26 12 Table 3.12. Frequency Chart for the Dichotomous Preference of Exercise Company Cardiovascular N = 208 Resistance Training N = 125 Alone 64 28 Partner 77 87 Small group 40 7 Large group 14 1 No preference 13 2

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50 Table 3.13. Frequency Chart for the Dichotomous Preference of Exercise Duration Cardiovascular N = 217 Resistance Training N = 116 Less than 20 minutes 4 25 20-40 minutes 108 65 40-60 minutes 74 26 More than 60 minutes 31 116 Purpose 4: Exercise Behavior and Exercise Preferences First, for the preferences measured on the visual analog scales, correlations between the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire and the EPQ revealed that exercise intensity (r = .24, p < .01), preferred number of days per week of exercise (r = .36, p < .01), and exercise schedule (r = -.34, p < .01) were significantly correlated with exercise behavior (see Table 3.14). Second, a multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which exercise preferences (independent variables) predicted exercise behavior (dependent variable). Results revealed that exercise preferences explain 20% of the variance in exercise behavior [F(3, 325) = 26.20, p < .01] with only preferred number of days per week (= , p < .01and scheduled exercise (= , p < .01identified as significant predictors. Third, correlations were computed between exercise behavior and the preferences differentiating between cardiovascular exercise and resistance training (see Table 3.15). For cardiovascular exercise, a significant correlation was revealed for exercise location (r = .13, p = .04) and listening to music (r = .15, p = .02). No correlations were significant for resistance training.

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51 Table 3.14. Pearson Correlations Between Exercise Behavior and Exercise Preferences Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1. Exercise -.24** -.04 .05 -.08 .36** -.34** 2. Intensity -.09 -.05 .05 .37** -.29** 3. Rhythm -.23** .04 -.07 -.01 4. Mode -.04 .00 -.07 5. Time of day --.04 .08 6. Days per week --.30** 7. Scheduled -Note. * p < .05; ** p < .01 Table 3.15. Pearson Correlations between Exercise Total and the Preferences of Location, Music, and Instruction Cardiovascular Resistance Training Location .13* -.10 Music .15* .13 Instruction -.09 -.07 Note. * p < .05; ** p < .01 Fourth, for the dichotomous exercise preferences, one-way ANOVA’s were computed for total Leisure-Time Exercise (dependent variable) and the exercise preference (independent variable). During cardiovascular exercise, exercise duration was significant [F(3, 210) = 6.56, p < .01] (see Table 3.16). More specifically, a bonferroni post hoc test revealed that for cardiovascular exercise, it was found that 40-60 minutes and 60 or more minutes per exercise session was significantly different from 20-40 minutes. See tables 3.17 and 3.18 for the results for exercise location and exercise company which were not significant.

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52 Table 3.16. One-way ANOVA for the Dichotomous Preference of Exercise Duration and Exercise df F p Cardiovascular 3, 210 6.56 .00** Resistance Training 2, 109 .36 .70 Note. ** p < .01 Table 3.17. One-way ANOVA for the Dichotomous Preference of Exercise Location and Exercise df F p Cardiovascular 4, 183 1.97 .10 Resistance Training 4, 132 1.20 .31 Table 3.18. One-way ANOVA for the Dichotomous Preference of Exercise Company and Exercise df F p Cardiovascular 4, 205 1.35 .25 Resistance Training 4, 115 .78 .54 Discussion The study findings for each of the four purposes are discussed below. Purpose 1: Creation and Validation of the Exercise Preferences Questionnaire Three focus groups were formed to create and determine the content validity and test-retest correlations of the EPQ. Based on feedback from the focus groups, the final EPQ had 12 items; nine items measured with visual analog scales and three items measured dichotomously. While the 7-day test-retest reliability was acceptable reliability

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53 for 10 items, rhythm of workout (r = .23) and number of days per week preferred to exercise (r = .33) yielded a low test-retest alpha. The inadequate test-retest reliability for exercise rhythm may be due to different interpretations of the anchors of “repetitive” and “continuously changing.” While an earlier version of the EPQ provided the examples “running, stair stepping” for the repetitive anchor and “basketball” for the continuously changing anchor, these examples were removed after discussion during Focus Group 3. Perhaps replacing the examples would have yielded a better test-retest reliability. Additionally, the item assessing the preferred number of days per week to exercise may have had a low test-retest reliability because the question may not have been read correctly. The question asked, “If your schedule would allow, how many days per week do you PREFER to exercise?” Some individuals may not have indicated how many days they prefer to exercise, but how many days a week they currently exercise. Due to the low test-retest reliabilities, further examination of these items is needed. While the psychometric results provided preliminary support for the EPQ, establishing acceptable psychometrics for a scale is an ongoing procedure and further validation of this scale is needed. Purpose 2: Personality and Exercise Behavior In support of my hypotheses, I found that the extraversion domain was positively related to exercise behavior. Also consistent with my hypothesis, the extraversion facets of assertiveness, activity, and excitement seeking were positively related to exercise behavior. Contrary to previous research, the extraversion facets of positive emotions, and gregariousness were also positively correlated with exercise behavior with regard to the FFM for personality. The positive relationships between exercise behavior and the

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54 extraversion facets are consistent with the definitions provided by Costa and McCrae (1992). More specifically, gregariousness is the preference for other people’s company, while assertiveness is indicative of dominant and socially ascendant individuals, thus if exercise is used as a social event, the model supports the positive association with gregariousness and assertiveness (Bryan & Rocheleau, 2002; Shapiro, 2003). Similarly, the model defines excitement-seeking as the craving for excitement and stimulation and defines positive emotions as the ability to experience emotions such as joy and excitement (Costa & McCrae). These emotions and feelings while exercising are also supported by the FFM (Rhodes, Courneya, & Jones, 2002). Finally, the activity facet is characterized by rapid tempo and vigorous movement, both which are inherent in exercise. In contrast to my hypotheses, the conscientiousness and agreeableness domains were not significantly related to exercise behavior. As predicted, extraversion was a significant predictor of exercise behavior. A follow-up regression for the extraversion facets, however, revealed that the facets did not significantly predict exercise behavior. To determine why conscientiousness and neuroticism were not significant predictors of exercise as hypothesized, the mean scores and standard deviations of the domains obtained in this study were compared to the mean and standard deviation scores from Hagan (2003) and the NEO manual (Costa & McCrae, 1992). The data were similar except for a lower neuroticism domain score in the manual than obtained by Hagan and in this study (i.e., M of 96.3 vs. about 85.4). Thus, the similar results indicate the lack of significant results is not due to a difference in mean personality scores for the domains. Finally, in contrast my hypotheses, conscientiousness and neuroticism were not significant predictors of exercise behavior.

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55 In summary, the only consistent findings within the research examining the relationship between exercise behavior and the NEO domains is that extraversion is positively related to exercise behavior (Courneya & Hellsten, 1998; Hagan, 2003). More specifically, the relationship between exercise behavior and the NEO domains of neuroticism, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are inconsistent. Future research should include a meta-analytic review of the NEO personality domains and exercise behavior literature to determine the size of the effect of this relationship. Purpose 3: Personality and Exercise Preferences Consistent with my hypotheses, individuals who scored high on extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness preferred a high exercise intensity . Furthermore, those who scored high on neuroticism preferred to exercise at a low intensity. Specifically for extraversion, the facets of assertiveness, activity, excitement-seeking, and positive emotions were positively correlated with exercise intensity. Possessing high scores on these facets are reflective of an individual who is socially adept, outgoing, and seeking excitement from exercise. For conscientiousness, the facets of competence, dutifulness, achievement striving, and self-discipline were also positively related to intensity level. Competence and dutifulness are characterized by being sensible, prudent, and adhering to ethics, all of which can be evidenced by believing exercise is an important component to maintain and/or achieve health (Costa & McCrae, 1992; Powers & Dodd, 2003). Additionally, achievement striving and self-discipline may be correlated with exercise intensity because these facets are characterized by being diligent, purposeful, and motivated (Costa & McCrae).

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56 Although initial analyses indicated that those scoring high for openness were positively correlated with exercise intensity, follow-up analysis revealed no significant facets. This may have occurred because two of the facets (i.e., fantasy and actions) were approaching significance. As predicted, the neuroticism facets of anxiety and vulnerability were negatively correlated with exercise intensity. The preference for low intensity exercise for individuals scoring high on neuroticism may be due to the disruptive emotions they experience on a daily basis (Costa & McCrae, 1992), and the potential conflict of further emotions encountered by adding strenuous exercise. As for the neuroticism facets of anxiety and vulnerability, these are characteristics that would make someone less likely to exercise due to the uncomfortable emotions one might experience. Consistent with my hypothesis for mode of exercise , no personality domain predicted a preference for cardiovascular versus resistance training exercise. Similarly, for exercise rhythm , no relationship existed between the personality domains and a preference for repetitive or continuously changing exercise. Caution must be used when interpreting these results, however, because the test-retest reliability for the rhythm item of the EPQ was low (r = .23). Exercise location was assessed with two questions: a visual analog scale assessing inside/outside and a dichotomous question examining the preference for a coed gym, same sex gym, at home, outside, or no preference. The visual analog scale of exercise location revealed significant correlations, consistent with my hypothesis, that individuals who scored high on neuroticism preferred to exercise inside versus outside while

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57 engaging in cardiovascular exercise. When referring to resistance training and exercise location, there were no significant findings. For location of exercise using the dichotomous scale, no preferences were significant for the personality domains. Because resistance training is usually performed in a gym or health club, some of the results (i.e., outside and home) should not be significant. In contrast to my hypothesis, neuroticism and extraversion were not related to exercise company . This result, however, may be due to the format of the question. More specifically, this item was a two-part question; first asking the participants to circle either cardiovascular or resistance training exercise, then providing 5 possible answers for exercise company. This answer format created 10 comparison groups, with cell numbers as low as 1, thus reducing the statistical power. Therefore, future research should obtain a very large sample to ensure an adequate count in each cell. For instruction type , no relationship was expected for any personality domain. In contrast to this hypothesis, I found that when referring to cardiovascular exercise there were significant correlations with instruction type and conscientiousness. More specifically, conscientiousness was negatively related to exercise instruction, indicating people who scored high on conscientiousness preferred to be self-led during exercise. This may have occurred because those individuals who scored high on conscientiousness are purposeful and determined. Thus, they may want to control their own exercise session to ensure they reach the intensity level they desire (Smith, O’Connor, Crabbe, & Dishman, 2002). Follow-up correlations revealed that the conscientiousness facets of dutifulness and achievement striving were negatively related to exercise instruction

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58 during cardiovascular exercise. These significant facets supported the idea that individuals scoring high on dutifulness and achievement striving are diligent and dependable (Costa & McCrae, 1992). For exercise location and resistance training, neuroticism was positively related which indicated that individuals who scored high on neuroticism preferred to be led by an instructor. It is plausible that it could be stressful for individuals to exercise on their own without the guidance of someone due to the complexity of resistance training, thus increasing their negative affect (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Follow-up correlations revealed the neuroticism facets of anxiety and angry hostility were negatively related with instruction type for resistance training. These facets may have been significant because individuals who score high on these facets tend to get anxious and frustrated easily which can occur if they do not know how to proper do resistance training (Costa & McCrae). Although the preference for time of day for exercise had not been previously examined, results indicated a significant negative relationship between preferred time of day for exercise and the agreeableness domain. More specifically, individuals scoring high on agreeableness prefer to exercise in the morning compared to the afternoon or evening. Furthermore, follow-up correlations indicated that the altruism facet was the only facet negatively related to time of day to exercise. When investigating if the preferred number of days per week to exercise is correlated with personality, results revealed that extraversion was positively correlated. Thus, the higher the score on the extraversion domain, the more days per week the individual preferred to exercise. This finding supports the documented positive relationship between extraversion and exercise behavior (Courneya & Hellsten, 1998;

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59 Hagan 2003). A follow-up correlation revealed the extraversion facets of warmth, gregariousness, activity, excitement-seeking, and positive emotions were positively related to preferred number of days per week of exercise. Five of the 6 facets were significant indicating that extraversion, in general, is related to the preferred number of days of exercise per week and not only one or two facets account for this relationship. For scheduled exercise , I found that conscientiousness and extraversion were negatively correlated with scheduled exercise such that the higher an individual scored on these domains, the more they preferred an exercise schedule. Individuals who scored high on conscientiousness are purposeful which means they exercise for a purpose and are determined; thus they are likely to schedule exercise. For conscientiousness, all six facets were significant (i.e., competence, order, dutifulness, achievement striving, self-discipline, and deliberation), which indicates individuals with high levels of conscientiousness, in general, are more likely to prefer scheduled exercise. With regard to the extraversion domain, having an exercise schedule may make someone more likely to exercise, thus leading to positive feelings that an individual who scored high in extraversion will favor. Follow-up correlations for exercise schedule with the extraversion facets revealed the facets of warmth, activity, and positive emotions to be negatively correlated to exercise schedule. The facet of activity is characterized by leading a fast-paced life, which could explain the preference for scheduled exercise (Costa & McCrae, 1992). A fast-paced lifestyle may encourage the need for a schedule so that everything the individual wishes to accomplish in a given day is done. The preference for listening to music was significantly correlated with various domains for both cardiovascular exercise and resistance training. When referring to

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60 cardiovascular exercise, the extraversion domain was positively related to listening to music. Further examination revealed the extraversion facets of warmth, gregariousness, excitement-seeking, and positive emotions were positively correlated with listening to music. This may occur because those who scored high on gregariousness preferred not to be alone so they the music may keep them company (Costa & McCrae, 1992). For the extraversion facets of excitement-seeking and positive emotions, listening to music may enhance the feelings (i.e., joy, happiness) already produced by exercise. With regard to resistance training and listening to music, the domains of extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness were positively correlated. Further analyses revealed the extraversion facets of activity and excitement-seeking and the openness facet of ideas were positively correlated to listening to music. Additionally, the conscientiousness facets of competence, dutifulness, achievement striving, and deliberation were also positively related to listening to music. Based on the descriptions of the facets (Costa & McCrae, 1992; McCrae & Costa, 2003), it is not known why these domains the corresponding facets were significant. For the duration of exercise preference, a significant effect was found for cardiovascular exercise. More specifically, individuals who scored high on extraversion were more likely to exercise longer. Follow-up analysis revealed that, although the extraversion domain was significant, no facets were significant. As for resistance training, no significant correlations were found between personality and exercise duration. Purpose 4: Exercise Behavior and Exercise Preferences Because of the exploratory nature of this purpose, no a priori hypotheses were advanced. A positive relationship was found between exercise behavior and exercise intensity as well as a positive relationship between exercise behavior and preferred

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61 number of days per week for exercise. In contrast, exercise behavior decreased the more scheduled exercise became. This finding indicated that the more flexible an individual is with engaging in exercise, the more likely he/she will exercise. A positive correlation was found for exercise location during cardiovascular exercise and exercise behavior, such that the more someone exercises, the more likely he/she preferred to exercise outdoors versus indoors. Additionally, a positive relationship was also found between engaging in cardiovascular exercise and listening to music. More specifically, individuals who preferred to listen to music while engaging in cardiovascular exercise were more likely to exercise compared to those who did not listen to music. This may be because listening to music tends to distract individuals so they do not pay attention to how much energy is being used or how quickly time elapses (Wininger & Pargman, 2003). Finally, duration of exercise was found to be significantly related to exercise behavior. Examination of the data revealed that exercising 40-60 minutes or 60 minutes were significantly more preferable compared to exercising 20-40 minutes. Thus, the more time an individual spends during an exercise session, the more exercise he/she will engage in over the course of a week. This may be due to the anxiolytic effects of exercise that cause a person to feel more relaxed and decreases negative mood (Berger & Motl, 2000; Ekkekakis & Petruzzello, 1999). Limitations Limitations of this study include self-report data and a college-aged population. The use of self-report data has limitations due to self-report bias (Krosnick, 1999). That is, individuals may report information due to how they think they should report data rather than how they actually felt. This could alter their true responses, which result in

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62 inaccurate data. Rather than using only a self-report personality questionnaire, future researchers may consider using an objective third party appraisal of each participant (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Similarly, an objective measure of exercise should be used such as pedometers and accelerometers rather than self-report questionnaire. Finally, although personality is relatively stable throughout early to mid adulthood, a college-aged population does not necessarily permit these results to be generalized to all populations (McCrae & Costa, 2003). Conclusion Overall, this study reveals existing relationships between exercise behavior, personality, and exercise preferences. Due to the limited research examining these relationships, however, further research is needed. More specifically, future research is needed to examine the psychometrics of the EPQ by establishing validity and test-retest reliability in other populations (i.e., adolescent, middle-aged, and elderly). Furthermore, research using the FFM to examine the relationships between personality and exercise behavior should include both the personality domains and facets, thus providing valuable information for understanding the determinants and preferences for exercise behavior. This knowledge may aid in the creation of individualized exercise programs that increase adherence to exercise behavior.

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63 Table 3.2. Mean (M), Standard Deviation (SD) Scores, Alpha Levels, Skewness, and Kurtosis for the Domains and Facets, and NEO Alpha Values Facets M SD Alpha Skewnesss Kurotsis Neuroticism 85.37 21.34 .81 .15 .25 N1: Anxiety 16.23 5.37 .77 .07 .05 N2: Angry Hostility 14.05 5.20 .64 .93 4.70 N3: Depression 13.53 5.44 .78 .36 .30 N4: Self-Consciousness 13.67 4.68 .69 .21 .17 N5: Impulsiveness 16.42 4.31 .62 .18 .09 N6: Vulnerability 11.38 4.48 .74 -.02 -.35 Extraversion 122.25 20.73 .81 .27 -.26 E1: Warmth 22.88 4.71 .77 -.50 1.02 E2: Gregariousness 20.07 5.20 .75 -.14 .25 E3: Assertiveness 17.21 5.11 .76 -.09 .06 E4: Activity 18.41 3.71 .49 .09 .34 E5: Excitement-Seeking 21.90 4.90 .69 -.37 .02 E6: Positive Emotions 21.83 5.02 .63 -.31 .19 Openness 113.57 19.45 .73 .21 -.25 O1: Fantasy 19.31 4.68 .69 .23 -.21 O2: Aesthetics 17.50 6.18 .79 -.08 -.48 O3: Feelings 21.95 4.47 .71 .02 -.33 O4: Actions 15.37 3.81 .52 .29 .97 O5: Ideas 19.22 5.56 .81 -.23 -.21 O6: Values 20.27 4.53 .69 -.27 .24 Agreeableness 114.12 18.47 .75 .06 -.31 A1: Trust 18.38 4.98 .79 -.07 .14 A2: Straightforwardness 18.86 4.91 .70 -.05 -.32 A3: Altruism 23.53 4.23 .73 -.31 .07 A4: Compliance 15.88 4.84 .67 .05 -.14 A5: Modesty 18.22 4.68 .72 .11 .13 A6: Tender-Mindedness 19.22 3.93 .59 -.13 .44 Conscientiousness 114.76 19.91 .84 .02 -.28 C1: Competence 20.70 3.82 .61 .01 -.09 C2: Order 17.78 4.40 .64 -.13 -.10 C3: Dutifulness 21.23 4.31 .63 -.20 -.20 C4: Achievement Striving 19.40 4.48 .71 -.19 -.19 C5: Self-Discipline 18.93 5.04 .78 -.06 -.11 C6: Deliberation 16.75 4.55 .69 -.02 -.22

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64 Table 3.8. Pearson Correlations for the Personality Domains and Exercise Preferences Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1. Neuroticism --.34** -.11* -.15** -.32** -.18** -.02 -.07 -.05 -.00 .09 2. Extraversion -.45** .32** .27** .21** .04 -.07 -.06 .22** -.13* 3. Openness -.29** .04 .11* .09 -.18** -.00 -.09 .06 4. Agreeableness -.26** .01 -.07 -.21** -.12* .02 -.08 5. Conscientiousness -.20** .03 -.03 -.06 .08 -.24** 6. Intensity -.09 -.05 .05 .37** -.29** 7. Rhythm -.23** .04 -.07 -.01 8. Mode -.04 .00 -.07 9. Time of day --.04 .08 10. Days per week --.30** 11. Scheduled -Note. * p < .05; ** p < .01

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CHAPTER 4 GENERAL DISCUSSION The general purpose of this dissertation was to examine the relationship between personality, exercise behavior, and exercise preferences. This was accomplished with two studies. Each of these studies main findings and limitations, as well as future research directions, are highlighted below in bullet format. Study 1 Study 1 examined the relationship between exercise behavior and the NEO domains and facets. The extraversion and conscientiousness domains were positively related to exercise behavior o The extraversion facets of assertiveness, activity, and excitement seeking and the conscientiousness facets of achievement striving and self-discipline were positively correlated with exercise behavior The agreeableness domain was negatively related to exercise behavior o The agreeableness facet of compliance was negatively correlated with exercise behavior The agreeableness and conscientiousness domains were significant predictors of exercise behavior o The agreeableness facet of compliance and the conscientiousness facets of order, achievement striving, and self-discipline were significant predictors of exercise behavior 65

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66 Overall, Study 1 revealed that examining the NEO facets allow further insight into the relationship between personality and exercise behavior beyond the domains. Thus, future researchers are encouraged to continue examining the relationship between exercise behavior and personality by using the NEO-PI-R. Study 2 There were four purposes to Study 2. The first purpose was to develop the Exercise Preferences Questionnaire (EPQ) and examine its psychometric properties. The second purpose was to examine the relationship between personality and exercise behavior. The third purpose was to explore the relationship between personality and exercise preferences. Finally, the fourth purpose was to examine the relationship between exercise behavior and exercise preferences. The main study findings are outlined below. Purpose 1: Development and Preliminary Psychometric Assessment of an Exercise Preferences Questionnaire The EPQ had 12 items that assessed the following preferences: o Intensity o Workout rhythm o Mode of exercise o Time of day o Numbers of days per week preferred to exercise o Scheduled exercise o Location of exercise (inside/outside) o Listening to music o Type of instruction o Location of exercise (coed gym, same sex gym, home, outdoors) o Exercise company o Length of exercise session

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67 The test-retest reliability scores revealed that the items assessing workout rhythm and number of days per week of preferred exercise need to be revised Purpose 2: Exercise Behavior and Personality The extraversion domain was positively related to exercise behavior o The extraversion facets of gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement seeking, and positive emotions were positively correlated with exercise behavior The extraversion domain was a predictor of exercise behavior Consistent with the hypothesis, extraversion was positively related to exercise behavior. However, in contrast to the previous findings (e.g., Courneya & Hellsten, 1998; Hagan, 2003; Hagan & Hausenblas, in review), neuroticism and conscientiousness were not significantly related to exercise behavior. Thus, researchers have consistently found that the extraversion domain is positively related to exercise behavior (Courneya & Hellsten; Courneya, Bobick, & Schinke, 1999; Mathers & Walker, 1999). Research, however, examining the relationship between the openness, agreeableness, neuroticism, and conscientiousness domains with exercise behavior are equivocal. Thus, a quantitative review of the literature examining the relationship between the NEO domains with exercise behavior is needed to determine the size of these effects. Additionally, future research should use participants consisting of various ages to determine if the results with college students are applicable to other populations. Purpose 3: Exercise Preferences and Personality People scoring high on the neuroticism domain: o Preferred low intensity exercise

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68 The facets of anxiety and vulnerability were negatively related with intensity exercise o Preferred to exercise inside when engaging in cardiovascular exercise The facet of vulnerability was negatively related with exercising location when engaging in cardiovascular exercise indicating a preferences for inside o Preferred self led exercise sessions during resistance training The facets of anxiety and angry hostility were negatively correlated with exercise instruction during resistance training indicating a preference for self led exercise People scoring high on the extraversion domain: o Preferred high intensity exercise The facets of assertiveness, activity, excitement-seeking, and positive emotions were positively correlated with high intensity exercise o Preferred to exercise about 6 days per week The facets of warmth, gregariousness, activity, excitement-seeking, and positive emotions were positively related with exercising about 6 days a week o Preferred to have scheduled exercise The facets of warmth, activity, and positive emotions were negatively related to scheduled exercise indicating a preference for scheduled exercise o Preferred listening to music during cardiovascular exercise and resistance training The facets of warmth, gregariousness, excitement-seeking, positive emotions, and activity were positively correlated with listening to music during cardiovascular exercise and resistance training o Likely to engage in longer cardiovascular sessions

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69 People scoring high on the openness domain: o Preferred high intensity exercise o Preferred cardiovascular exercise (compared to resistance training) The facets of fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, and values were negatively related to cardiovascular exercise o Preferred listening to music during resistance training The facet of ideas was positively correlated with listening to music during resistance training People scoring high on the agreeableness domain: o Preferred cardiovascular exercise The facets of trust, straightforwardness, altruism, compliance, modesty, and tender-mindedness were negatively correlated with mode of exercise, indicating a preference for engaging in cardiovascular exercise o Preferred to exercise in the morning The facet of altruism was negatively correlated to time of day indicating a preference for morning exercise People scoring high on the conscientiousness domain: o Preferred high intensity exercise The facets of competence, dutifulness, achievement striving, and self-discipline were positively related to high intensity exercise o Preferred scheduled exercise The facets of competence, order, dutifulness, achievement striving, self-discipline, and deliberation were negatively correlated with scheduled exercise indicating a preference for scheduled exercise o Preferred listening to music during resistance training

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70 The facets of competence, dutifulness, achievement striving, and deliberation were positively related with listening to music during resistance training o Preferred to be self led during cardiovascular exercise The facets of dutifulness and achievement striving were negatively correlated with exercise instruction during cardiovascular exercise indicating a preference for self led exercise Overall, various preferences were related to specific personality domains and facets. Because this is the second known study examining exercise preferences and specific personality characteristics (i.e., the NEO-PI-R facets), additional research is necessary to determine the veracity of these results. One direction for the future is to implement exercise prescriptions based on a person’s personality and examine the adherence rates of individuals given an exercise program based on their personality versus a standard exercise prescription without accounting for personality. Purpose 4: Exercise Behavior and Exercise Preferences Exercise behavior was positively related to the following preferences: o High intensity exercise o Preferred number of days per week of exercise o Engaging in cardiovascular exercise outdoors o Listening to music while engaging in cardiovascular exercise o Performing more than 40 minutes of cardiovascular exercise Exercise behavior was negatively related to: o Having a very structured exercise program Further research examining the relationship between exercise behavior and exercise preferences may aid in developing exercise programs that are individualized and based on

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71 people’s exercise preferences. Further, research is needed examining if these types of exercise programs result in an increase in exercise adherence. Limitations and Future Directions There are limitations of this dissertation study that must be highlighted. First, self-report measures of exercise behavior and personality were used. When using self-report measures, participants may be more inclined to choose certain answers because of social desirability (Krosnick, 1999). Objective measures for exercise behavior could be monitoring exercise by observation or wearing a pedometer. For personality, a third party could complete a questionnaire on the participant which may render a more object measure (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Second, the correlational design of these studies precluded establishing a case-effect relationship. Thus prospective and experimental studies should be implemented in the future. Finally, caution is warranted when generalizing the results to populations other than college students. Thus, future researchers are encouraged to examine personality, exercise behavior, and exercise preferences in a variety of populations to determine the generalizability of the results. Third, the population was limited to students taking sport and fitness classes, which may create a bias because the students were motivated to take the class. This difference may have been displayed in their personality. Thus, future researchers should use a variety of participants including those who are not enrolled in a specific type of class or program. Fourth, the r-squared values were minimal indicating the amount of variance explained was small. This indicates personality plays a minor role in explaining and predicting exercise behavior and exercise preferences. Fifth, multiple analyses were conducted which inflated the alpha level (Licht, 1995). When computing multiple correlations and regressions, the probability of

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72 committing a Type I error increases. A Type I error is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true, thus, finding significance that is not actually present (Licht). In future studies, procedures should be used to reduce the chance of committing a Type I error. Sixth, exercise preferences may vary as season, geography, and demographics change. Thus, it may be beneficial to select only the preferences needed for the specific population that is being explored. Finally, although correlations and multiple regression are often used as the primary analyses in the literature, a more appropriate analysis may be cluster analysis. Conducting cluster analysis will allow for data reduction and can present a profile for personality rather than examining the extreme personality scores on the domains. Study Strengths There are also strengths of this dissertation that must be mentioned. First, a large sample was used in this study with a very high response rate, especially considering the long version of the NEO was used to assess personality. Second, I used validated self-report measures of exercise, personality, and exercise preferences. Many of the studies in the past have failed to use validated measures to examine all the components (e.g., personality preferences and exercise behavior; Courneya & Hellsten, 1998; Hagan, 2003; Hagan & Hausenblas, in review). Conclusion In conclusion, I conducted 2 studies to examine the relationship between exercise behavior, exercise preferences, and personality. The findings from the two dissertation studies suggest that both personality domains and facets should be examined when investigating exercise behavior and exercise preferences. These facets allow for greater

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73 insight and a more precise understanding of the relationship between personality and exercise behavior, and personality and exercise preferences. Additionally, because most Americans are sedentary, and obesity is a growing epidemic and health concern in the United States, methods of increasing exercise participation are needed (Center for Disease Control, 2002; United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). Therefore, this information may aid in increasing exercise adherence, which is needed.

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APPENDIX A NEO-PI-R PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE 1. I am not a worrier 1 2 3 4 5 2. I often get angry at the way people treat me. 1 2 3 4 5 3. I rarely feel lonely or blue. 1 2 3 4 5 4. In dealing with other people, I always dread making a social blunder. 1 2 3 4 5 5. I rarely overindulge in anything. 1 2 3 4 5 6. I often feel helpless and want someone else to solve my problems. 1 2 3 4 5 7. I really like most people I meet. 1 2 3 4 5 8. I shy away from crowds of people. 1 2 3 4 5 9. I am dominant, forceful, and assertive. 1 2 3 4 5 10. I have a leisurely style in work and play. 1 2 3 4 5 11. I often crave excitement. 1 2 3 4 5 12. I have never literally jumped for joy. 1 2 3 4 5 13. I have a very active imagination. 1 2 3 4 5 14. Aesthetic and artistic concerns aren’t very important to me. 1 2 3 4 5 15. Without strong emotions, life would be uninteresting to me. 1 2 3 4 5 16. I’m pretty set in my ways. 1 2 3 4 5 17. I often enjoy playing with theories or abstract ideas. 1 2 3 4 5 18. I believe letting students hear controversial speakers can only confuse and mislead them. 1 2 3 4 5 19. I tend to be cynical and skeptical of others’ intentions. 1 2 3 4 5 20. I’m not crafty or sly. 1 2 3 4 5 21. Some people think I’m selfish and egotistical. 1 2 3 4 5 22. I would rather cooperate with others than compete with them. 1 2 3 4 5 23. I don’t mind bragging about my talents and accomplishments. 1 2 3 4 5 24. Political leaders need to be more aware of the human side of their policies. 1 2 3 4 5 25. I’m known for my prudence and common sense. 1 2 3 4 5 26. I would rather keep my options open than plan everything in advance. 1 2 3 4 5 27. I try to perform all the tasks assigned to me conscientiously. 1 2 3 4 5 28. I am easy-going and lackadaisical. 1 2 3 4 5 29. I’m pretty good about pacing myself so as to get things done on time. 1 2 3 4 5 30. Over the years I’ve done some pretty stupid things. 1 2 3 4 5 31. I am easily frightened. 1 2 3 4 5 32. I’m an even-tempered person. 1 2 3 4 5 33. Sometimes I feel completely worthless. 1 2 3 4 5 74

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75 34. I seldom feel self-conscious when I’m around people. 1 2 3 4 5 35. I have trouble resisting my cravings. 1 2 3 4 5 36. I feel I am capable of coping with most of my problems. 1 2 3 4 5 37. I don’t get much pleasure from chatting with people. 1 2 3 4 5 38. I like to have a lot of people around me. 1 2 3 4 5 39. I sometimes fail to assert myself as much as I should. 1 2 3 4 5 40. When I do things, I do them vigorously. 1 2 3 4 5 41. I wouldn’t enjoy vacationing in Las Vegas. 1 2 3 4 5 42. I have sometimes experienced intense joy or ecstasy. 1 2 3 4 5 43. I try to keep all my thoughts directed along realistic lines and avoid flights of fancy. 1 2 3 4 5 44. I am sometimes completely absorbed in music I am listening to. 1 2 3 4 5 45. I rarely experience strong emotions. 1 2 3 4 5 46. I think it’s interesting to learn and develop new hobbies. 1 2 3 4 5 47. I find philosophical arguments boring. 1 2 3 4 5 48. I believe that laws and social policies should change to reflect the needs of a changing world. 1 2 3 4 5 49. I believe that most people are basically well-intentioned. 1 2 3 4 5 50. If necessary, I am willing to manipulate people to get what I want. 1 2 3 4 5 51. I try to be courteous to everyone I meet. 1 2 3 4 5 52. I can be sarcastic and cutting when I need to be. 1 2 3 4 5 53. I’d rather not talk about myself and my achievements. 1 2 3 4 5 54. I’m hard-headed and tough-minded in my attitudes. 1 2 3 4 5 55. I don’t take civic duties like voting very seriously. 1 2 3 4 5 56. I keep my belongings neat and clean. 1 2 3 4 5 57. Sometimes I’m not as dependable or reliable as I should be. 1 2 3 4 5 58. I have a clear set of goals and work toward them in an orderly fashion. 1 2 3 4 5 59. I waste a lot of time before settling down to work. 1 2 3 4 5 60. I think things through before coming to a decision. 1 2 3 4 5 61. I rarely feel fearful or anxious. 1 2 3 4 5 62. I am known as hot-blooded and quick-tempered. 1 2 3 4 5 63. I am seldom sad or depressed. 1 2 3 4 5 64. At times I have been so ashamed I just wanted to hide. 1 2 3 4 5 65. I have little difficulty resisting temptation 1 2 3 4 5 66. When I’m under a great deal of stress, sometimes I feel like I’m going to pieces. 1 2 3 4 5 67. I’m known as a warm and friendly person. 1 2 3 4 5 68. I usually prefer to do things alone. 1 2 3 4 5 69. I have often been a leader of groups I have belonged to. 1 2 3 4 5 70. My work is likely to be slow but steady. 1 2 3 4 5 71. I have sometimes done things just for “kicks” or “thrills.” 1 2 3 4 5 72. I am not a cheerful optimist. 1 2 3 4 5 73. I have an active fantasy life. 1 2 3 4 5

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76 74. Watching ballet or modern dance bores me. 1 2 3 4 5 75. How I feel about things is important to me. 1 2 3 4 5 76. Once I find the right way to do something, I stick to it. 1 2 3 4 5 77. I enjoy solving problems or puzzles. 1 2 3 4 5 78. I believe we should look to our religious authorities for decisions on moral issues. 1 2 3 4 5 79. I believe that most people will take advantage of you if you let them. 1 2 3 4 5 80. I couldn’t deceive anyone even if I wanted to. 1 2 3 4 5 81. Some people think of me as cold and calculating. 1 2 3 4 5 82. I hesitate to express my anger even when it’s justified. 1 2 3 4 5 83. I’m better than most people, and I know it. 1 2 3 4 5 84. We can never do too much for the poor and elderly. 1 2 3 4 5 85. I keep myself informed and usually make intelligent decisions. 1 2 3 4 5 86. I am not a very methodical person. 1 2 3 4 5 87. I pay my debts promptly and in full. 1 2 3 4 5 88. When I start a self-improvement program, I usually let it slide after a few days. 1 2 3 4 5 89. I am a productive person who always gets the job done. 1 2 3 4 5 90. Occasionally I act first and think later. 1 2 3 4 5 91. I often feel tense and jittery. 1 2 3 4 5 92. I am not considered a touchy or temper mental person. 1 2 3 4 5 93. I have sometimes experienced a deep sense of guilt or sinfulness. 1 2 3 4 5 94. It doesn’t embarrass me too much if people ridicule and tease me. 1 2 3 4 5 95. When I am having favorite foods, I tend to eat too much. 1 2 3 4 5 96. I keep a cool head in emergencies. 1 2 3 4 5 97. Many people think of me as somewhat cold and distant. 1 2 3 4 5 98. I really feel the need for other people if I am by myself for long. 1 2 3 4 5 99. In meetings, I usually let others do the talking. 1 2 3 4 5 100. I often feel as if I’m bursting with energy. 1 2 3 4 5 101. I tend to avoid movies that are shocking or scary. 1 2 3 4 5 102. Sometimes I bubble with happiness. 1 2 3 4 5 103. I don’t like to waste my time daydreaming. 1 2 3 4 5 104. I am intrigued by the patterns I find in art and nature. 1 2 3 4 5 105. I seldom pay much attention to my feelings of the moment. 1 2 3 4 5 106. I often try new and foreign foods. 1 2 3 4 5 107. I sometimes lose interest when people talk about very abstract, theoretical matters. 1 2 3 4 5 108. I believe that the different ideas of right and wrong that people in other societies have may be valid for them. 1 2 3 4 5 109. I think most of the people I deal with are honest and trustworthy. 1 2 3 4 5 110. Being perfectly honest is a bad way to do business. 1 2 3 4 5

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77 111. I generally try to be thoughtful and considerate. 1 2 3 4 5 112. If I don’t like people, I let them know it. 1 2 3 4 5 113. I try to be humble. 1 2 3 4 5 114. I have no sympathy for panhandlers. 1 2 3 4 5 115. I often come into situations without being fully prepared. 1 2 3 4 5 116. I like to keep everything in its place so I know just where it is. 1 2 3 4 5 117. Sometimes I cheat when I play solitaire. 1 2 3 4 5 118. I work hard to accomplish my goals. 1 2 3 4 5 119. I have trouble making myself do what I should. 1 2 3 4 5 120. I always consider the consequences before I take action. 1 2 3 4 5 121. I’m seldom apprehensive about the future. 1 2 3 4 5 122. I often get disgusted with people I have to deal with. 1 2 3 4 5 123. I tend to blame myself when anything goes wrong. 1 2 3 4 5 124. I often feel inferior to others. 1 2 3 4 5 125. I seldom give in to my impulses. 1 2 3 4 5 126. It’s often hard for me to make up my mind. 1 2 3 4 5 127. I really enjoy talking to people. 1 2 3 4 5 128. I prefer jobs that let me work alone without being bothered by other people. 1 2 3 4 5 129. Other people often look to me to make decisions. 1 2 3 4 5 130. I’m not as quick and lively as other people. 1 2 3 4 5 131. I like to be where the action is. 1 2 3 4 5 132. I don’t consider myself especially “light-hearted.” 1 2 3 4 5 133. I enjoy concentrating on a fantasy or daydream and exploring all its possibilities, letting it grow and develop. 1 2 3 4 5 134. Poetry has little or no effect on me. 1 2 3 4 5 135. I experience a wide range of emotions or feelings. 1 2 3 4 5 136. I prefer to spend my time in familiar surroundings. 1 2 3 4 5 137. I enjoy working on “mind-twister” –type puzzles. 1 2 3 4 5 138. I believe that loyalty to one’s ideals and principles is more important than “open-mindedness.” 1 2 3 4 5 139. I’m suspicious when someone does something nice for me. 1 2 3 4 5 140. I would hate to be thought of as a hypocrite. 1 2 3 4 5 141. I’m not known for my generosity. 1 2 3 4 5 142. When I’ve been insulted, I just try to forgive and forget. 1 2 3 4 5 143. I have a very high opinion of myself. 1 2 3 4 5 144. Human need should always take priority over economic considerations. 1 2 3 4 5 145. I pride myself on my sound judgment. 1 2 3 4 5 146. I never seem to be able to get organized. 1 2 3 4 5 147. When I make a commitment, I can always be counted onto follow through. 1 2 3 4 5 148. I don’t feel like I’m driven to get ahead. 1 2 3 4 5 149. Once I start a project, I almost always finish it. 1 2 3 4 5 150. I often do things on the spur of the moment. 1 2 3 4 5 151. I often worry about things that might go wrong. 1 2 3 4 5

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78 152. It takes a lot to get me mad. 1 2 3 4 5 153. I have a low opinion of myself. 1 2 3 4 5 154. I feel comfortable in the presence of my bosses or other authorities. 1 2 3 4 5 155. I sometimes eat myself sick. 1 2 3 4 5 156. I can handle myself pretty well in a crisis. 1 2 3 4 5 157. I find it easy to smile and be outgoing with strangers. 1 2 3 4 5 158. I’d rather vacation at a popular beach than an isolated cabin in the woods. 1 2 3 4 5 159. I would rather go my own way than be a leader of others. 1 2 3 4 5 160. I usually seem to be in a hurry. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 162. I am a cheerful, high-spirited person. 1 2 3 4 5 163. If I feel my mind starting to drift off into daydreams, I usually get busy and start concentrating on some work or activity instead. 1 2 3 4 5 164. Certain kinds of music have an endless fascination for me. 1 2 3 4 5 165. I seldom notice the moods or feelings that different environments produce. 1 2 3 4 5 166. Sometimes I make changes around the house just to try something different. 1 2 3 4 5 167. I have little interest in speculating on the nature of the universe or the human condition. 1 2 3 4 5 168. I consider myself broad-minded and tolerant of other people’s lifestyles. 1 2 3 4 5 169. My first reaction is to trust people. 1 2 3 4 5 170. Sometimes I trick people into doing what I want. 1 2 3 4 5 171. Most people I know like me. 1 2 3 4 5 172. If someone starts a fight, I’m ready to fight back. 1 2 3 4 5 173. I feel that I am no better than others, no matter what their condition. 1 2 3 4 5 174. I believe all human beings are worthy of respect. 1 2 3 4 5 175. I don’t seem to be completely successful at anything. 1 2 3 4 5 176. I tend to be somewhat fastidious or exacting. 1 2 3 4 5 177. I adhere strictly to my ethical principles. 1 2 3 4 5 178. I strive to achieve all I can. 1 2 3 4 5 179. When a project gets too difficult, I’m inclined to start a new one. 1 2 3 4 5 180. I rarely make hasty decisions. 1 2 3 4 5 181. I have fewer fears than most people. 1 2 3 4 5 182. At time I have felt bitter and resentful. 1 2 3 4 5 183. Sometimes things look pretty bleak and hopeless to me. 1 2 3 4 5 184. If I have said or done the wrong thing to someone, I can hardly bear to face them again. 1 2 3 4 5 185. Sometimes I do things on impulse that I later regret. 1 2 3 4 5 186. When everything seems to be going wrong, I can still make good decisions. 1 2 3 4 5 161. I love the excitement of roller coasters.

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79 187. I have strong emotional attachments to my friends. 1 2 3 4 5 188. Social gatherings are usually boring to me. 1 2 3 4 5 189. In conversations, I tend to do most of the talking. 1 2 3 4 5 190. My life is fast-paced. 1 2 3 4 5 191. I’m attracted to bright colors and flashy styles. 1 2 3 4 5 192. I rarely use words like “fantastic!” or “sensational!” to describe my experiences. 1 2 3 4 5 193. As a child I rarely enjoyed games of make believe. 1 2 3 4 5 194. Sometimes when I am reading poetry or looking at a work of art, I feel a chill or wave of excitement. 1 2 3 4 5 195. I find it easy to empathize – to feel myself what others are feeling. 1 2 3 4 5 196. On vacation, I prefer going back to a tried and true spot. 1 2 3 4 5 197. I have a lot of intellectual curiosity. 1 2 3 4 5 198. I think that if people don’t know what they believe in by the time they’re 25, there’s something wrong with them. 1 2 3 4 5 199. I tend to assume the best about people. 1 2 3 4 5 200. At times I bully or flatter people into doing what I want them to. 1 2 3 4 5 201. I think of myself as a charitable person. 1 2 3 4 5 202. I’m hard-headed and stubborn. 1 2 3 4 5 203. I would rather praise others than be praised myself. 1 2 3 4 5 204. I have sympathy for others less fortunate than me. 1 2 3 4 5 205. I’m a very competent person. 1 2 3 4 5 206. I’m not compulsive about cleaning. 1 2 3 4 5 207. I try to do jobs carefully, so they won’t have to be done again. 1 2 3 4 5 208. I strive for excellence in everything I do. 1 2 3 4 5 209. There are so many little jobs that need to be done that I sometimes just ignore them all. 1 2 3 4 5 210. I plan ahead carefully when I go on a trip. 1 2 3 4 5 211. Frightening thoughts sometimes come into my head. 1 2 3 4 5 212. Even minor annoyances can be frustrating to me. 1 2 3 4 5 213. Too often, when things go wrong, I get discouraged and feel like giving up. 1 2 3 4 5 214. When people I know do foolish things, I get embarrassed for them. 1 2 3 4 5 215. I am always able to keep my feelings under control. 1 2 3 4 5 216. I’m pretty stable emotionally. 1 2 3 4 5 217. I take a personal interest in the people I work with. 1 2 3 4 5 218. I enjoy parties with lots of people. 1 2 3 4 5 219. I don’t find it easy to take charge of a situation. 1 2 3 4 5 220. I am a very active person. 1 2 3 4 5 221. I like being part of the crowd at sporting events. 1 2 3 4 5 222. I laugh easily 1 2 3 4 5 223. I would have difficulty just letting my mind wander without control or guidance. 1 2 3 4 5

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80 224. I enjoy reading poetry that emphasizes feelings and images more than story lines. 1 2 3 4 5 225. Odd things – like certain scents or the names of distant places – can evoke strong moods in me. 1 2 3 4 5 226. I follow the same route when I go someplace. 1 2 3 4 5 227. I have a wide range of intellectual interests. 1 2 3 4 5 228. I believe that the “new morality” of permissiveness is no morality at all. 1 2 3 4 5 229. I have a good deal of faith in human nature. 1 2 3 4 5 230. I pride myself on my shrewdness in handling people. 1 2 3 4 5 231. I go out of my way to help others if I can. 1 2 3 4 5 232. I often get into arguments with my family and co-workers. 1 2 3 4 5 233. I’m a superior person. 1 2 3 4 5 234. I would rather be known as “merciful” than as “just.” 1 2 3 4 5 235. I am efficient and effective at my work. 1 2 3 4 5 236. I spend a lot of time looking for things I’ve misplaced. 1 2 3 4 5 237. I’d really have to be sick before I’d miss a day of work. 1 2 3 4 5 238. I’m something of a “workaholic.” 1 2 3 4 5 239. I have a lot of self-discipline. 1 2 3 4 5 240. I think twice before I answer a question. 1 2 3 4 5

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APPENDIX B LEISURE-TIME EXERCISE QUETSIONNAIRE Instructions. This is a scale which measures your leisure-time exercise (i.e. exercise that was done during your free time such as intramural sports-NOT your sport/fitness class). Considering a typical week, please indicate how often (on average) you have engaged in strenuous, moderate, and mild exercise more than 20 minutes during your free time? Please put a whole number for each intensity. 1. Strenuous exercise: heart beats rapidly (e.g. running, basketball, jogging, hockey, squash, judo, roller blading, vigorous swimming, vigorous long distance bicycling, vigorous aerobic dance classes, heavy weight training). How many times per typical week do you perform strenuous exercise for 20 minutes or longer? 2. Moderate exercise: not exhausting, light sweating (e.g. fast walking, baseball, tennis, easy bicycling, volleyball, badminton, easy swimming, popular and folk dancing). How many times per typical week do you perform moderate exercise for 20 minutes or longer? 3. Mild exercise: minimal effort, no sweating (e.g. easy walking, yoga, archery, fishing, bowling, horseshoes, golf). How many times per typical week do you perform mild exercise for 20 minutes or longer? 81

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APPENDIX C INFORMED CONSENT – STUDY 1 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD 1. TITLE OF PROJECT OF PROJECT: Exercise Behavior and Personality Characteristics. 2. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Amy Hagan, M.S.E.S.S., Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences. 3. SUPERVISOR: Heather A. Hausenblas, Ph.D., Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Florida Gymnasium Room 146, 392-0584 Ext. 1292 4. DATE OF PROPOSED PROJECT: From: 10-01 To: 10-02 5. SOURCES OF FUNDING FOR THE PROJECT: None 6. SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION: To examine personality characteristics in relation to exercise behavior. 7. DESCRIBE THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IN NON-TECHNICAL LANGUAGE: Students from Sport and Fitness, and undergraduate Exercise Science classes will be asked to volunteer for the study after informed consent is obtained. Volunteers will be given a series of questionnaires (NEO Personality Inventory, Costa & McCrae, 1992; Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, Godin et al., 1986; Barriers Efficacy Scale, McAuley & Mihalko, 1998; Theory of Planned Behavior Questionnaire, Ajzen, 1991). The questionnaires will take approximately 45 minutes. 8. POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND ANTICIPATED RISK: Potential benefits include insight into one’s personality. There are no anticipated risks. 9. DESCRIBE HOW SUBJECTS WILL BE RECRUITED, THE NUMBER AND AGE OF THE SUBJECTS, AND THE PROPOSED COMPENSATION: A total of 500 male and female subjects between the ages of 18 and 25 will be recruited through Sport and Fitness, and undergraduate Exercise Science classes. They will be asked to voluntarily participate by completing the questionnaire. No compensation will be given to the participants. 10. DESCRIBE THE INFORMED CONSENT PROCESS. INCLUDE A COPY OF THE INFORMED CONSENT DOCUMENT (if applicable). 82

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83 Please use attachments ONLY when space on this form is insufficient. Principal Investigator’s Supervisor’s Signature Signature I approve this protocol ______________________ ______ for submission to the UFIRB: Department Chairperson Date

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APPENDIX D FOCUS GROUP EXECISE PREFERENCES QUESTIONNAIRE Please help us in designing a questionnaire assessing individuals’ preferences to exercise. Below are two questionnaires that assess the same questions. Please complete both questionnaires and then answer the questions at the bottom. Thank you for your time. Amy Hagan Preferences #1 Instructions. The following questions explore your preferences to exercise. Please circle ONE of the letters provided for each preference. 1. Where do you prefer to exercise? A. Inside B. Outside C. No preference 2. What exercise intensity do you prefer? A. Mild B. Moderate C. Strenuous D. No preference 3. What type of exercise do you prefer? A. Cardiovascular B. Weight lifting C. Both/No preference 4. Do you prefer to exercise alone or in a group? A. Alone B. With a partner C. Small group (< 10 people) D. Large group (> 10 people) E. No preference 5. What type of activity do you prefer? A. Repetitive (e.g., stair stepper, running) B. Continuously changing (e.g., aerobic class, basketball) C. No preference 84

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85 6. Where do you prefer to exercise? A. Coed gym B. Women’s gym C. Home D. No preference 7. What type of exercise instruction do you prefer? A. Have someone direct you B. Self instructed C. No preference 8. What time of the day do you prefer to exercise? A. Morning B. Afternoon C. Evening D. No preference 9. Who do you prefer to workout with? A. A partner B. No partner C. No preference 10. While exercising you prefer to A. Listen to music B. Not listen to music C. No preference Preferences #2 Instructions. The following questions explore your preferences to exercise. Please circle ONE of the numbers provided for each preference. 1. Where do you prefer to exercise? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 inside no preference outside 2. What exercise intensity do you prefer? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 low moderate high

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86 3. How many people do your prefer to workout with? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 alone partner small group large group 4. What type of activity do you prefer? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 repetitive no preference continuously changing (running, stair stepping) (basketball, aerobics) 5. What time of day do you prefer to exercise? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 morning afternoon evening 6. How often do you prefer to listen to music while exercising? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 never always 7. What type of exercise do you prefer? A. Cardiovascular B. Weight lifting C. Both/No preference 8. Where do you prefer to exercise? A. Coed gym B. Women’s gym C. Home D. No preference 9. What type of exercise instruction do you prefer? A. Have someone direct you B. Self instructed C. No preference Assessment of Questionnaires Which questionnaire did you prefer? (please circle one) Preferences #1 Preferences #2

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87 Why did you prefer this questionnaire? Are there any preferences that were not asked what you think should be included? Do you think the wording should be changed on any of the preferences? yes no If so, please tell us how we should change the wording. Do you have any other comments about these questionnaires?

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APPENDIX E RESPONSES TO EXERCISE PREFERENCES QUESTIONNAIRE FOCUS GROUP 1 Eight individuals completed this questionnaire and their feedback is presented below: Question: Which questionnaire did you prefer? 1. Preferences #1 2. Preferences #1 3. Preferences #2 4. Preferences #1 5. Preferences #2 6. Preferences #2 7. Preferences #2 8. Preferences #2 Question: Why did you prefer this questionnaire? 1. More answer choices; 2. I hate having to grade my answers, prefer just one option 3. It allows the subject to clarify the weight of the preference quantitatively. 4. Because there were definite answers for the questions. 5. Because I didn’t have to pick one option. It showed strong vs. moderate options. 6. Questionnaire #2 offered more options. When I didn’t fall into a specific category in #1 my thoughts and feelings could still be expressed. 7. More options; able to be more specific. 8. It was easier to fill out for me and it gave me several degrees of preference. 88

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89 Question: Are there any preferences that were not asked that you think should be included? 1. Clothing types. (tight-lose) 2. Might need some open ended or address sports. 3. You didn’t address frequency or duration. You might want to consider asking both. 4. Do you vary your exercise? 5. Length of workouts 6. What time of day do you prefer to do each type of exercise (cardio/weightlifting). 7. No 8. No Question: Do you think the wording should be changed on any of the preferences? 1. Yes. 2. Preferences #1, question #2, intensity preference depends on their goals. What if they are training for something? On question # 3, if they only play sports which answer would that fall under? Same sex gym instead of Women’s gym for question #6. 3. Yes, instead of “weight lifting” consider “resistance training (i.e. weight lifting)”. 4. No 5. No. 6. No. 7. Yes, “both/no preferences” should be separate choices. 8. No. Question: Do you have any comments about these questionnaires? 1. Preferences #2, question 5, list by time of day. Where do you prefer to exercise? Same sex instead of Women’s gym on #8.

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90 2. Are you also collecting demographics with this? 3. No. 4. For question #2 on preference 1, maybe put a scale like preference two. Some people may feel their workouts are somewhat moderate to strenuous, but not one or the other. 5. No. 6. Each of the questionnaires have their strong points. Good luck in deciding which format is best. 7. No. 8. No.

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APPENDIX F REVISED PREFERENCES TO EXERCISE QUESTIONNAIRE Instructions. The following questions explore your preference to exercise. Please CIRCLE ONE of the numbers provided for each preference. Even if you do not exercise regularly, please indicate your preference for when do you engage in exercise. Exercise is a specific form of physical activity in which the individual engages for the specific purpose of improving fitness, physical performance, or health. 1. Where do you prefer to exercise? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 inside outside 2. What exercise intensity do you prefer? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 mild moderate strenuous minimal effort, not exhausting, heart beats no sweating light sweating rapidly 3. What type of activity do you prefer? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 repetitive continuously changing (running, stairmaster) (basketball, aerobics) 3b. What type of activity do you prefer? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 cardiovascular resistance training 4. What time of day you prefer to exercise? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 morning afternoon evening 91

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92 5. How often do you listen to music while exercising? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 never always 6. How many days per week do you exercise? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 days days 7. What type of exercise instruction do you prefer? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 self led instructor led 8. How many people do you prefer to exercise with? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 none large group 9. Where do you prefer to exercise? A. Coed gym B. Same sex C. Home D. No preference 10. Do you prefer to exercise alone or in a group? A. Alone B. With a partner (buddy or personal trainer) C. Small Group (< 10 people) D. Large Group (>10 people) E. No preference 11. How long do your prefer to exercise? A. Less than 20 minutes B. 20-40 minutes C. 40-60 minutes D. More than 60 minutes

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93 Do you have any comments or suggestions about any of the questions asked? Are there any preferences that are missing that you think should be added? Do you think this questionnaire assess your preferences to exercise? YES NO Why?

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APPENDIX G RESPONSES TO EXERCISE PREFERENCES QUESTIONNAIRE – FOCUS GROUP 2 These are selected answers from Focus Group 2: 1. Do you have any comments or suggestions about any of the questions asked? The type of activity that I prefer may not be the one that I practice most. Maybe there should be different questions to assess that. In other words, question number 6 may not relate to the answer to question 3 and 3b for some subjects. For question number three, the wording should maybe be changed to “what type of workout” rather than “what type of activity.” You need to define exercise. Some people may interpret exercise differently. For question nine, what about outdoors? Question four: What time of day do you prefer to exercise. You left out “do.” For questions 9-11, put checkboxes rather than letters. Need to put directions before questions 9-11. Check one box, all that apply, etc. 2. Are there any preferences that are missing that you think should be added? No 3. Do you think this questionnaire assesses your preferences to exercise? Yes Yes 94

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95 APPENDIX H REVISED EXERCISE PREFENCES QUESTIONNAIRE 2 Instructions. The following questions explore your preference to exercise. Please PLACE AN ‘X’ on the line where you want to indicate your answer. Even if you do not exercise regularly, please indicate your preference for when do you engage in exercise. Exercise is a specific form of physical activity in which the individual engages for the specific purpose of improving fitness, physical performance, or health. 1. Where do you prefer to exercise? Inside Outside 2. What exercise intensity do you prefer on most of your workouts? 3. What type of workout do you prefer? 4. What type of activity do you prefer? 5. What time of day do you prefer to exercise? mild moderate strenuous minimal effort, not exhausting, heart beats no sweating light sweating rapidly repetitive continuously changing (running, stair stepping) (basketball, aerobics) cardiovascular resistance training mornin g afternoo n evenin g

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96 6. How often do you listen to music while exercising? 7. How many days per week do you exercise? 8. What type of exercise instruction do you prefer? never always 0 days 7 days self led instructor led 9. Where do you prefer to exercise? Coed gym Same sex gym Home Outdoors No preference 10. Do you prefer to exercise alone or in a group? Alone With a partner (buddy or personal trainer) Small Group (< 10 people) Large Group (>10 people) No preference 11. How long do your prefer to exercise? Less than 20 minutes 20-40 minutes 40-60 minutes More than 60 minutes

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APPENDIX I RESPONSES TO EXERCISE PREFERENCES QUESTIONNAIRE – FOCUS GROUP 3 The following are responses from Focus Group 3 about each individual question/statement: Instructions. Should state “please complete this questionnaire with your typical/average training week in mind” 1. Where do you prefer to exercise? (inside – outside) Discussion: Depends on what activity you are doing: cardiovascular versus resistance training. 2. What exercise intensity do you prefer for most of your workouts? (mild, moderate, strenuous) No change 3. What type of workout rhythm do you prefer? (repetitive – continuously changing) Discussion: Students interpreted repetitive and continuously changing in different contexts. For example, some students thought it meant type of exercise over a week and others thought it meant during one exercise session. Change in intensity (2) Same routine (16) In workout (5) 4. What mode of activity do you prefer? (cardiovascular – resistance training) No change 97

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98 5. What time of day do you prefer to exercise? (morning, afternoon, evening) Discussion: I prefer to exercise in the morning but often only have time in the evening. How can we account for this in the questionnaire? 6. How often do you listen to music while exercising? (never – always) Discussion: Depends on what activity you are doing: cardiovascular versus resistance training. 7. How many days per week do you typically exercise? (0 days – 7 days) Discussion: Should I include number of days between 0 and 7? Put numbers in there to aid in selection Leave days open (7 people) Put numbers (7 people) 8. What type of exercise instruction do you prefer? (self led – instructor led) Discussion: Depends on what activity you are doing: cardiovascular versus resistance training. 9. How scheduled is your exercise? (scheduled – spontaneous) Discussion: What is the definition of scheduled and spontaneous. Is this in terms of having a weekly routine or going to the gym and doing what you planned on doing. For example, am I considered spontaneous if I go to the gym and rather than do what I planned (i.e., running) I decide to bike? Everyday at the same time (14) Planned mode (8) 10. Where do you prefer to exercise? (coed gym, same sex gym, home, outdoors, no preference) Discussion: Depends on what activity you are doing: cardiovascular versus resistance training.

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99 Depends on exercise Should specify what type of activity Coed if doing resistance training, outdoors if running 11. Do you prefer to exercise alone or in a group? (alone, with a partner, small group, large group, no preference) Discussion: Depends on what activity you are doing: cardiovascular versus resistance training. Depends on exercise Should specify what type of activity (I like to run alone but lift with a partner) 12. How long do you prefer to exercise? (less than 20 minutes, 20-40 minutes, 40-60 minutes, more than 60 minutes) Discussion: Should I do increments of time or let people write in their own number. If I do increments, are 20-minute increments sufficient. Think 20 minute increments are best Should specify what type of activity (I lift for short amount of time than when I do cardio) Should read “How long do you usually exercise” Other comments: people don’t always do what they prefer.

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APPENDIX J FINAL EXERCISE PREFERENCES QUESTIONNAIRE Instructions. Exercise is defined as a specific form of physical activity in which the individual engages for the specific purpose of improving fitness, physical performance, or health. The following questions explore your preferences to exercise. Please complete this questionnaire with a typical/average week during the last month in mind in regards to exercise. PLACE AN ‘X’ ANYWHERE on the line where you want to indicate your answer. Even if you do not exercise regularly, please indicate your preference for when you do engage in exercise. You may have several preferences, however, please indicate your strongest preference. Here is an example: What color do you like best? Black White 1. What exercise intensity do you prefer on most of your workouts? 2. During a single workout, what type of workout rhythm do you prefer? 3. What mode of activity do you prefer? mild moderate strenuous minimal effort, not exhausting, heart beats no sweating light sweating rapidly repetitive continuously changing X cardiovascular resistance training 100

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101 4. What time of day do you prefer to exercise? 5. If your schedule would allow you, how many days per week do you PREFER to exercise? 6. How scheduled is your exercise? For the following questions you will need to decide if you want to describe your cardiovascular preferences compared to your resistance training preferences. Please indicate which one you are referring to by circling one of the two options on the specified questions for questions 7-9. 7. Where do you prefer to exercise? (circle one) Cardiovascular Resistance Training Inside Outside 8. How often do you listen to music while exercising? (circle one) Cardiovascular Resistance Training 9. What type of exercise instruction do you prefer? (circle one) Cardiovascular Resistance Training morning afternoon evening 0 da y s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 da y s scheduled spontaneous neve r alwa y s self led instructor led

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102 For the following, please indicate whether you are referring to cardiovascular or resistance training and then check only ONE box. 10. Where do you prefer to exercise? (circle one) Cardiovascular Resistance Training Coed gym Same sex gym Home Outdoors No preference 11. Do you prefer to exercise alone or in a group? (circle one) Cardiovascular Resistance Training Alone With a partner (buddy or personal trainer) Small Group (< 10 people) Large Group (>10 people) No preference 12. How long do your prefer to exercise? (circle one) Cardiovascular Resistance Training Less than 20 minutes 20-40 minutes 40-60 minutes More than 60 minutes

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APPENDIX K DEMOGRAPHICS QUESTIONNAIRE Name (Please Print): Age: Height: Weight: ( pounds) Sex (circle one): Male Female Class (circle one): Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Grad Student Ethnicity (circle one): Caucasian African-American Hispanic Asian Other Instructor: Course: Where did you complete this questionnaire? Home School Are you a varsity athlete? Yes No 103

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APPENDIX L INFORMED CONSENT – STUDY 2 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD 1. TITLE OF PROJECT OF PROJECT: Exercise Behavior and Personality Characteristics. 2. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Amy Hagan, M.S.E.S.S., Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences. 3. SUPERVISOR: Heather A. Hausenblas, Ph.D., Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Florida Gymnasium Room 146, 392-0584 Ext. 1292 4. DATE OF PROPOSED PROJECT: From: 08-03 To: 08-04 5. SOURCES OF FUNDING FOR THE PROJECT: None 6. SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION: To examine personality characteristics in relation to exercise behavior. 7. DESCRIBE THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IN NON-TECHNICAL LANGUAGE: Students from Sport and Fitness, and undergraduate Exercise Science classes will be asked to volunteer for the study after informed consent is obtained. Volunteers will be given a series of questionnaires (NEO Personality Inventory, Costa & McCrae, 1992; Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, Godin et al., 1986; Exercise Motivation Scale, Li, 1999). The questionnaires will take approximately 40 minutes. 8. POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND ANTICIPATED RISK: Potential benefits include insight into one’s personality. There are no anticipated risks. 9. DESCRIBE HOW SUBJECTS WILL BE RECRUITED, THE NUMBER AND AGE OF THE SUBJECTS, AND THE PROPOSED COMPENSATION: A total of 500 male and female subjects between the ages of 18 and 25 will be recruited through Sport and Fitness, and undergraduate Exercise Science classes. They will be asked to voluntarily participate by completing the questionnaire. No compensation will be given to the participants. 10. DESCRIBE THE INFORMED CONSENT PROCESS. INCLUDE A COPY OF THE INFORMED CONSENT DOCUMENT (if applicable). 104

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105 Please use attachments ONLY when space on this form is insufficient. Principal Investigator’s Supervisor’s Signature Signature I approve this protocol ______________________ for submission to the UFIRB: Department Chairperson Date

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107 Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). NEO-PI-R professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. Courneya, K. S., & Hellsten, L. M. (1998). Personality correlates of exercise behavior, motives, barriers an preferences: An application of the five-factor model. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 625-633. Courneya, K. S., Bobick, T. M., & Schinke, R. J. (1999). Does the theory of planned behavior mediate the relation between personality and exercise behavior? Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 21, 317-324. Davis C., Fox, J., Brewer, H., & Ratusny, D. (1995). Motivations to exercise as a function of personality characteristics, age, and gender. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 165-174. Digman (1994). Higher-order factors of the big five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1246-1256. Dishman, R. K., Sallis, J. F., & Orenstein, D. R. (1985). The determinants of physical activity and exercise. Public Health Reports, 100, 158-171. Ekkekakis, P., & Petruzzello, S. J. (1999). Acute aerobic exercise and affect. Sports Medicine, 28, 337-374. Eysenck, S. B. G., Eysenck, H. J., & Barrett, P. (1985). A revised version of the psychoticism scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 6, 21-29. Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. G. (1964). Manual of the Eysenck Personality Inventory. London: University of London Press. Focht, B. C., & Hausenblas, H. A. (2001). Influence of quiet rest and acute aerobic exercise performed in a naturalistic environment on selected psychological responses. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 23, 108-121. Francis, K. T., & Carter, R. (1982). Psychological characteristic of joggers. Journal of Sports Medicine, 22, 386-391. George, D., & Mallery, P. (2001). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference 11.0 update. (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Gill, D. L. (2000). Psychological dynamics of sport and exercise (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Godin, G., Jobin, J., & Bouillon, J. (1986). Assessment of leisure time exercise behavior by self-report: A concurrent validity study. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 77, 359-361.

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108 Goldberg, G., & Sheppard, R. J. (1982). Personality profiles of disabled individuals in relation to physical activity patterns. Journal of Sports Medicine, 22, 477-483. Gough, H. G. (1952). The adjective checklist: Manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Gunthert, K. C., Cohen, L. H., & Armeli, S. (1999). The role of neuroticism in daily stress and coping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1087-1101. Hagan, A. L. (2003). A review of research examining personality and exercise behavior. Unpublished manuscript. Hagan, A. L., & Hausenblas, H. A. (in preparation). An examination of the distraction hypothesis. Hagan, A. L., & Hausenblas, H. A. (2004). Examination of personality correlates, exercise preferences, and exercise behavior. Manuscript submitted for publication. Hailey, B. J., & Bailey, L. A. (1982). Negative addiction in runners: A quantitative approach. Journal of Sport Behavior, 5, 150-154. Hathaway, S. R., & McKinley, J. C. (1943). Manual for the minnesota multiphasic personality inventory. New York: Psychological Corporation. Hersh, J. L. (1971). The relationship between participation in recreational physical activity and certain personality characteristics. Unpublished master’s thesis, Pennsylvania State University. Iannos, M., & Tiggemann, M. (1997). Personality of the excessive exerciser. Personality and Individual Differences, 22, 775-778. Jacobs, D. R., Ainsworth, B. E., Hartman, T. J., & Leon, A. S. (1993). A simultaneous evaluation of 10 commonly used physical activity questionnaires. Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise, 25, 81-91. Jang, Y., Haley, W. E., Mortimer, J. A., & Small, B. J. (2003). Moderating effects of psychosocial attributes on the association between risk factors and disability in later life. Aging & Mental Health, 7, 163-170. Jones, C. J., Livson, N., & Peskin, H. (2003). Longitudinal hierarchical linear modeling analyses of California psychological inventory data from age 33 to 75: An examination of stability and change in adult personality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 80, 294-308.

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109 Krosnick, J. A. (1999). Survey research. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 537-567. Lazarus, R. S., & Monat, A. (1979). Personality (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Li, F. (1999). The exercise motivation scale: It’s multifaceted structure and construct validity. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11, 97-115. Licht, M. H. (1995). Multiple regression and correlation. In L. Grimm, & P. Yarnold (Eds.), Reading and understanding multivariate statistics (pp. 19-64). Washington DC: American Psychological Association. Marshall, G. N., Wortman, C. B., Vickers, R., Kusulas, J. W., & Hervig, L. K. (1994). The five-factor model of personality as a framework for personality-health research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 278-286. Mathers, S., & Walker, M. B. (1999). Extraversion and exercise addiction. The Journal of Psychology, 133, 125-128. McAdams, D. P. (1994). The person: An introduction to personality psychology (2nd ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1990). Personality in adulthood. New York: Guilford. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (2003). Personality in adulthood. (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford. Morgan, W. P., & Dishman, R. K. (2001). Adherence to exercise and physical activity. Quest, 53, 277-278. Oman, R. F., & King, A. C. (1998). Predicting the adoption and maintenance of exercise participation using self-efficacy and previous exercise participation rates. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12, 154-161. Paunonen, S. V., & Ashton, M. C. (2001). Big five factors and facets and the prediction of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 524-539. Penfield, R. (2002, Fall). Survey Design and Analysis in Educational Research (Course packet). Powers, S. K., & Dodd, S. L. (2003). Total fitness and wellness (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings. Rhodes, R.E., Courneya, K.S., & Jones, L.W. (2002). Personality, the theory of planned behavior, and exercise: The unique role of extroversion's activity facet. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 1721-1736.

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110 Sallis, J. F., & Owen, N. (1999). Physical activity & behavioral medicine. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Saucier, G., & Goldberg, L. R. (1998). What is beyond the big five? Journal of Personality, 66, 495-524. Schnurr, P. P., Vaillant, C. O., & Vaillant, G. E. (1990). Predicting exercise in late midlife from young adult personality characteristics. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 30, 153-160. Shapiro, D. R. (2003). Participation motives of special olympics athletes. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 20, 150-165. Shifren, K., Furnham, A., & Bauserman, R. L. (2003). Emerging adulthood in American and British samples: Individuals' personality and health risk behaviors. Journal of Adult Development, 10, 75-88. Smith, J. C., O’Connor, P. J., Crabbe, J. B., & Dishman, R. K. (2002). Emotional responsiveness after lowand moderate-intensity exercise and seated rest. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34, 1158-1167. Statistical Product and Service Solutions. (2001). Sample Power. [Computer software]. Chicago, IL. Szabo, A. (1992). Habitual participation in exercise and personality. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 74, 978. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Computer-assisted research design and analysis. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Tillman, K. (1965). Relationship between physical fitness and selected personality traits. The Research Quarterly, 36, 483-489. Trost, S. G., Owen, N., Bauman, A. E., Sallis, J. F., & Brown, W. (2002). Correlates of adults’ participation in physical activity: Review and update. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34, 1996-2001. United States Department of Health and Human Services. (1996). Physical activity and health: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention of Health Promotion. United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2000, January). Healthy People 2010 (Conference Edition, in Two Volumes). Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services.

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111 Wang, C. K. J, Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., Spray, C. M., & Biddle, S. J. H. (2002). Achievement goal profiles in school physical education: Differences in self-determination, sport ability beliefs, and physical activity. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 433-445. Welsh, M. C., Labbe, E. E., & Delaney, D. (1991). Cognitive strategies and personality variables in adherence to exercise. Psychological Reports, 68, 1327-1335. Wiggins, J. S., & Trapnell, P. D. (1997). Personality structure: The return of the big five. In R. Hogan, J. Johnson, & S. Briggs (Eds.), Handbook of personality psychology (pp. 737-761). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Wininger, S. R., & Pargman, D. (2003). Assessment of factors associated with exercise enjoyment. Journal of Music Therapy, 40, 57-73. WordReference.com. (2003). Personality. Retrieved September 7, 2003, from http://www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=personality Yates, A., Shisslak, C. M., Allender, J., Crago, M., & Leehey, K. (1992). Comparing obligatory to nonobligatory runners. Psychosomatics, 33, 180-189.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH I, Amy Hagan, have received all my college degrees from the University of Florida. I received my Bachelor of Science in May 1999 and my Master of Science in Exercise and Sport Science in August of 2001 with a focus in exercise and sport psychology. I was a gymnast for the University of Florida and now play intramural softball. Upon graduating in May 2004, I will be moving to Berea, Ohio, where I have accepted a position at Baldwin-Wallace College as an Assistant Professor in the Division of Health and Physical Education. 112