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Identification of Critical Facilities along the Coast of Louisiana Using Geographic Information Systems for Emergency Management Planning

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Title:
Identification of Critical Facilities along the Coast of Louisiana Using Geographic Information Systems for Emergency Management Planning
Creator:
SWALES, W. CORY ( Author, Primary )
Copyright Date:
2008

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Subjects / Keywords:
Coasts ( jstor )
Datasets ( jstor )
Disasters ( jstor )
Emergency management ( jstor )
Flood damage ( jstor )
Insurance risks ( jstor )
Modeling ( jstor )
Ocean currents ( jstor )
Oil spills ( jstor )
Storm damage ( jstor )

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright W. Cory Swales. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Embargo Date:
8/1/2005
Resource Identifier:
84408282 ( OCLC )

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IDENTIFICATION OF CRITICAL FACI LITIES ALONG THE COAST OF LOUISIANA USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PLANNING By W. CORY SWALES A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2003

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This thesis is dedicated to my loving pa rents who have pushed and supported my whole life.

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iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my family for all of their loving support. There were many late night calls that soothed my soul through what would have been very stressful times. Their patience and understanding ha ve made me who I am today. I would like to thank all of my professors who have shown me the wonderful world of urban and regional planning. I would like to gi ve a special thanks to Dr. Ruth Steiner, who has taken much time revising and editing this document, and who has guided me though this entire process. An extremely special thank you goes out to Ms. Evelyn Cairns and Mr. Keith Ion Yearwood for all of their ultimate wisdom , patience and guidance throughout my entire graduate career. They are the reas on that I am in the position that I am in this very day. I am in debt to them until the end. I would like to thank Mr. Sam Palmer, Ms. Kate Norris and Rishiraj Manerikar for reading and formatting the many boring drafts that have been created dur ing this process. I would like to thank the Department of Urban and Regional Planning and the GeoPlan Center, especially Dr. Rhonda Phill ips and Mr. Alexis Thomas, for giving me the opportunity to work as a graduate assi stant and imagery technician. The knowledge that was gained during this time is invaluable.

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iv TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iii LIST OF FIGURES..........................................................................................................vii ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE.......................................................................................3 Emergency Management Planning Phases...................................................................3 Identification and Planning....................................................................................3 Mitigation..............................................................................................................4 Preparedness..........................................................................................................5 Response................................................................................................................6 Recovery................................................................................................................6 Short term recovery........................................................................................6 Long term recovery........................................................................................7 Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool (CVAT)..................................................7 Step 1: Hazard Identification.................................................................................8 Step 1a: Identify hazards................................................................................8 Step 1b: Establish relative priorities for your hazards...................................8 Step 2: Hazard Analysis........................................................................................9 Step 2a: Map risk consideration areas for hazards.........................................9 Step 2b: Assign scores within risk consideration areas, where possible......10 Step 3: Critical Facilities Analysis......................................................................10 Step 3a: Identifying criti cal facilities categories..........................................10 Step 3b: Complete a critical facilities inventory..........................................11 Step 3c: Identify intersecti ons of critical facilities with high-risk areas......11 Step 3d: Conduct vulnerability asse ssment on a critical facilities...............12 Step 4: Societal Analysis.....................................................................................13 Step 4a: Identify areas of special consideration...........................................13 Step 4b: Identify intersections of special consideration areas with high-risk areas.........................................................................................13 Step 4c: Conduct a general inventory of special consid eration/high-risk locations..................................................................................................13

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v Step 5: Economic Analysis..................................................................................14 Step 5a: Identify primary economic sectors and locate economic centers...14 Step 5b: Identify intersections of eco nomic centers and high-risk areas.....14 Step 5c: Conduct general inventor y of high-risk economic centers.............14 Step 5d: Identify large em ployers and their intersec tion with hazard risk areas........................................................................................................14 Step 5e: Conduct vulnerability analysis on structures of large employers as critical facilities..................................................................................15 Step 6: Secondary Hazards Analysis...................................................................15 Step 6a: Identify secondary hazard risk consideration sites and key environmental resource sites...................................................................15 Step 6b: Identify intersections of se condary risk sites, environmentally sensitive areas, and natural hazard risk consideration areas...................16 Step 6c: Identify key environmenta l resource locations and their proximity to secondary risk sites............................................................16 Step 6d: Conduct vulnerability analysis on priority secondary risk sites as critical facilities..................................................................................16 Step 7 Mitigation Oppor tunities Analysis...........................................................16 Step 7a: Identify areas of undevelope d land and their intersection with high-risk areas.........................................................................................16 Step 7b: Inventory high-risk undeveloped land...........................................17 Step 7c: Assess the status of your existing flood insurance program participation............................................................................................17 HAZUS & Emergency Management Planning...........................................................17 Inputs...................................................................................................................19 Outputs................................................................................................................20 Louisiana Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act of 2000........................................22 Techniques for Clean Up Efforts................................................................................26 3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................28 Step 1: Data Collection...............................................................................................28 Coastal Data Folder.............................................................................................29 Conservation Data Folder....................................................................................29 Currents Data Folder...........................................................................................30 Oil Related Data Folder.......................................................................................30 State and Water Boundary Data Folder...............................................................31 Transportation Folder..........................................................................................31 Step 2: Data Preparation.............................................................................................32 Re-Projection of Data..........................................................................................32 Raster Mask.........................................................................................................33 Step 3: Prediction Modeling.......................................................................................35 Inverse Distance Weighted..................................................................................35 Steps....................................................................................................................35 1: Setting parameters....................................................................................35 2: Cross validation........................................................................................36 Step 4: Integration of Sensitive Areas, Oil Related, and Tran sportation Datasets.....37

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vi Integration of Sensitive Areas Datasets...............................................................37 Integration of Oil Related Datasets.....................................................................37 Integration of Transportation Related Datasets...................................................37 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.................................................................................39 Hazard Identification..................................................................................................39 Critical Facilities Analysis..........................................................................................40 Economic Analysis.....................................................................................................51 Secondary Hazards Analysis......................................................................................51 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMENDATIONS.........................................................59 Recommendations.......................................................................................................60 Opportunities for further research..............................................................................60 Summary.....................................................................................................................61 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................62 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................64

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vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2.1 Sample of New Hanover Count y Relative Priority Matrix........................................9 2.2 Critical Facilities Haza rd Risk Scores Map.............................................................11 2.3 An Example of an Assessment that has been Conducted for New Hanover County......................................................................................................................12 2.4 HAZUS-MH Analysis Outputs................................................................................21 3.1 Re-Projection Summary of Input.............................................................................33 3.2 Creating Vector Data................................................................................................34 3.3 The Options Interface...............................................................................................34 3.4 Step 1: Setting Parameters........................................................................................36 3.5 Step 2 Cross Validation............................................................................................36 4.1 Ocean Currents off the Coast of Louisiana..............................................................41 4.2 RCRA Hazardous Waste Facilities..........................................................................43 4.3 In-Situ Pre-approval Burn Sites...............................................................................44 4.4 Oil and Gas Platforms..............................................................................................45 4.5 Oil Dispersant Pre-approval Areas...........................................................................46 4.6 Public/Private Airports.............................................................................................47 4.7 State Highway Networks..........................................................................................48 4.8 State Waterway Networks........................................................................................49 4.9 State Railroad Networks...........................................................................................50 4.10 Louisiana Conservation Plan Boundary...................................................................54

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viii 4.11 National Wildlife Refuges in the State of Louisiana................................................55 4.12 State Parks and Forests in the State of Louisiana.....................................................56 4.13 Seabird Colonies on th e Coast of Louisiana............................................................57 4.14 Wildlife Management Areas in Southern Louisiana................................................58

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ix Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning IDENTIFICATION OF CRITICAL FACI LITIES ALONG THE COAST OF LOUISIANA USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PLANNING By W. Cory Swales December 2003 Chair: Ruth Steiner Major Department: Urban and Regional Planning Geographic information systems (GIS) are powerful tools that can be used to provide planners with decision-making information to help mitigate a hazardous situation. The intent of this thesis will be to provide substantial evidence that GIS are efficient tools for emergency management pl anners to utilize during, or plan for a hazardous situation. In this time of adversity, this nation has to be prepared for any type of situation. This can mean a number of possible events, including both man-made events and natural events. An example of a man-made event would be an act of terrorism, or the accidental re lease of a harmful substan ce into a populated area. A natural event could mean anything from hurrica nes and tornados to earthquakes and fires. The hypothesis of this thesis is that GIS are an effective a nd efficient tool for emergency management planners.

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x The way this document intends to prove that GIS can determine the identification of critical facilities is by studying particular GIS programs that are designed for hazard mitigation. Though there are many different prog rams designed for this application, this thesis will focus its efforts on analyzing the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool (CVAT) and the Hazards US (HAZUS) programs. These two programs are at the forefront of the emergency management tec hnology field and provide excellent examples of how GIS can be used in an efficient manne r during a hazardous or crisis situation. GIS have been instrumental in the emerge ncy management process. They continue to be effective and efficient tools for emer gency management planners worldwide for the identification and analysis of hazards and critical facilities in communities. Upon analyzing the CVAT and HAZUS programs along with other various implemented policies, the use of GIS to identify critical facilities for emergency management planning is proved.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION On the fateful morning of September 11th, 2001, this nation was forced to face a nightmare that just hours before was thought not possible. As New York, Washington DC, and Pennsylvania were coping with the acts of terrorism, emergency management planners were busy searching for data, and c ontingency plans to deal with these events. On this day, emergency management planners were vividly reminded of how GIS plays a vital role in the mitigation strategies that we re enacted to deal with this catastrophic event, as they played out. Emergency management can be defined as the management and response to “any natural or man-caused situation that results in or may result in substantial injury or harm to the population or substantial damage to or loss of property” (F EMA, 2003). The classic definition of a geographic information system is, “a computerized database management system for the capture, storage, analysis, and display of spatially referenced data for the purposes of supporting decision-making and re search” (Ormsby et al., 2001). Planners, architects, engineers, and ge ographers worldwide use GIS to perform an enormous array of duties. It is considered by many as a quint essential tool for main taining and processing data that is essential for everyday life. As a result, the combination of both emergency management and GIS creates an ideal applica tion to ensure safety, and oversee mitigation processes for strategies to aid in a sm oother emergency management process. As lives were being shattered, and buildings were me rcilessly destroyed, emergency management planners knew they ha d a job to do, to ensure that the lives of

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2 the citizens were safely protected. GIS played an enormous role in this job, though the planners of New York almost were without this vital tool. New York CityÂ’s GIS headquarters was located in one of the World Trade Center buildings that had collapsed. With virtually no back up of data, the city Â’s emergency management planners relied on outside sources to rebuild their entire GIS da tabase, and get back on line, so that others could tap into the resources provided by GIS. The utilization of GIS by emergency mana gement planners has been responsible for assisting in numerous emergency disa ster situations. Emergency management planners worldwide have seen the benefits that have evolved from this type of technology. It is responsible for saving th e lives of countless individuals, and will continue doing so for the time to come . In this age of technology, emergency management planners should feel comfortabl e knowing that even though disasters are never welcome, technology is there to assist in assuring a quick and sa fe strategy that can provide adequate response to the demands produced by the hazardous event. This thesis looks at the various methods and models that can assist emergency management planners in developing mitigation plans that will better prepare them when an emergency situation does occur. Also, this thesis simulates a major oil spill off the coast of Louisiana, and examines the necessary steps that are involve d in the integration of GIS to the emergency management process.

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3 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE There are many different methodologies to consider when using GIS for emergency disaster planning. Throughout th e nation, cities have been ut ilizing these programs as a way to integrate GIS into their own planni ng process for a more efficient, and dynamic means to control and contain hazards that ma y arise from a disaster. Focusing on what the community is composed of, and what it is su rrounded by is the process leading up to this point in the mitigation of disasters is one of. This analysis of the composition of a city or community is a key element for any eff ective strategy for fending off any harmful situation. Emergency Management Planning Phases Emergency Management can be divided into 5 key phases. All of which are essential for the any strategy to work. Those five phases are as followed (Greene, 1999): Identification and Planning Mitigation Preparedness Response Recovery The actions that occur in each of th ese phases are briefly explained below Identification and Planning The process of identification and planning for a hazardous situation includes the analysis of any possible threat from hazards that could affect the three primary objectives of emergency management: life, property, and the environment. It is the stepping-stone

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4 for the following four phases of emerge ncy management planning: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. There are many important elements to take into consideration when dealing with the identification and planning phase. Identi fying the hazard, locating areas that are susceptible to said hazard, locating critical faci lities that might be be neficial or essential in the mitigation process, enacting policies th at would secure econom ic stability after a hazard or disaster takes place, and ensuring a quick clean up of the area are just a few critical components that are key to any strategy combating hazards, and other disasters. Databases can be created to keep track of many of these components, and maps can be made to give locations of all sites that pertain to each. Mitigation Mitigation can be defined as “activities that actually eliminate or reduce the probability of a disaster” (ESRI, 1999). An ex ample of how GIS could be utilized comes from the Marin County, California Fire Departme nt. Situated in nor thern California, in the San Francisco Bay Area, Marin County is of ten plagued by fire hazards. The Marin County Fire Department has c ounter acted this often deadly hazard by utilizing GIS to create a suitability model to prioritize areas of hazard mitigation within the County. A suitability model can be defined as a model th at aids in finding the optimum locations of high priority locations for mitigation activit ies (Ormsby et al., 2001) based on the relative worth of the location itself and the hazard being analyzed. Marin County has done this by giving a number value, one to four, with one being considered low suitability, and four being of high suitability. Suitability is estab lished based on a number of criteria including distances from fire stations, density of popul ation, and frequency of fire events. Using raster, or cell based data, Marin County has measured from the center of each cell

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5 outward. If the center of the ce ll was 10 minutes from fire eq uipment response, then that particular cell was considered high risk, and therefore was given hi gh priority (Greene, 2002). Once all of these criteria are analyzed, and given values, a Multiple Utility Analysis (MUA) is conducted to pin point specific locations that are most susceptible and vulnerable to the threat of fire. The MUA pr ocess entails the addition of multiple Single Utility AnalysisÂ’s to show areas of highest pr iority of areas of high risk. This statistical model has become a major asset for fighting fires, saving property and lives, and is responsible for determining the allocati on of funding of mitigation programs. Preparedness The preparedness phase plays a large role in emergency management planning. It is a continuation of the mitigation phase, and during it, emergency management planners prepare for the actual disaster itself. This could mean a nu mber of things. The following are all aspects to consider when preparing fo r a disaster: education of public on hazards, placement of fire stations, deciding the quickest evacuation routes, quantifying an adequate amount of shelter space for evacu ees; and deciphering how long in advance warnings should be issued. GIS can be used by emergency management planners to address many of these issues. Fire stations can be located using th e suitability model. Ev acuation routes can be found by analyzing road data and finding road s that can support large amounts of traffic at one time. Accurately estimating shelte r space and placement can again be found by using the suitability model, and referring to census data for population estimates. When, and if, a disasters strikes, GIS will eliminat e many of the problems planners face when

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6 dealing with emergency management, and provide them with the information needed to build stronger mitigation strategies to prepare for the next hazard. Response A quick response time to any disaster is imperative for any community, big or small. Therefore, this phase of emergency management is considered by many as one of the most important. At this time, many emergency management planners utilize Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) systems. These systems can pinpoint, prioritize, and locate areas of interest and disp atch the closest form of help to that area. If someone is injured in a disaster, then CAD can be used to locate and dispatch the closest fire rescue vehicle to that location. If ther e is looting and civil unrest, then CAD can be used to dispatch police or National Gu ard to these locations to re store order. Many emergency management offices are already utilizing A dvanced Vehicle Location (AVL). Systems give real time locations of emergency vehicl es, and estimates on how long it will take for those vehicles to get to the areas of interest (ESRI, 1999). Recovery Immediately after a hazard or disaster has occurred, the recovery phase starts. The recovery phase of emergency management can be divided into 2 sub phases, a short-term phase and a long-term phase (ESRI, 1999). Short term recovery During this phase, the immediate health and safety needs are addressed. Power is restored. Roads are cleared, and evacuees are safely returned to their homes. GIS can be utilized by providing planners with essential in formation that is vital to this process. Planners have an idea of where and when c itizens can return home. The utility companies can use it to determine when and where not to restore power. GIS can show roads that are

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7 passable, and those that are not. All of this information is ex tremely useful, and will help in the creation of order during an otherwise hectic time. Long term recovery The main purpose of the long term recovery period is to see that the community returns to normal as soon as possible. A majo r portion of this phase deals primarily with monetary issues. Cost estimates can begin to be generated, and insura nce claims can start to be filed. Models such as Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool (CVAT) and Hazards US (HAZUS) give estimates from data collected out in the field, and can then be sent out to the proper aut horities for processing. Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool (CVAT) Many states have taken the methods just described and formulat ed individual GIS programs that fulfill that state’s particular needs. The State of North Carolina has an effective solution to any hazard that may arise. Initiated by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool or, CVAT, was developed in conjunction with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the New Hanover Count y Department of Emergency Management. The main goal of this project was to “dev elop and implement a vulnerability assessment methodology that results in a foundation for identifying and prioritizing communitybased hazard mitigation activities.” (NOAA, 1999). The CVAT program’s main concern is dealing with the vuln erability aspect of disaster pla nning. It is imperative to find those areas that are most vulnerable to hazard s, and develop and implement mitigation strategies and policies to ensure that these areas are taken care of before a disaster strikes. Being no stranger to hazards and natural di sasters, the state of North Carolina has had to come to grips with the fact that they are always going to be an “At Risk” state for

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8 such tragic events as hurr icanes, ice storms, flooding, and fires. For this reason, CVAT has been cultivated out of the many experi ences that emergency management planners have faced in the past century and beyond. CVAT is composed of seven levels of analysis and multiple sub-levels that assist in this process. Each level is dependent upon the next in this cycle. Without one, the analysis can lack pertinen t information that is essential to emergency management planning and the mitigation process. Step 1: Hazard Identification This phase determines the actual hazards that might affect the area in which the hazardous event takes place. Step 1a: Identify hazards This is an essential element that is the bases of the entire project. Knowing what planners are up against is a key element to fighting an effective fight against man-made hazards and natural disasters. Step 1b: Establish relative priorities for your hazards Knowing the probability of hazards is an excellent means of es tablishing how often a planner is going to have to deal with these certain situations. The CVAT program recommends that a scoring system be de veloped to determine priority amongst the majority of facilities and infrastructures w ithin the community itself. The following is an example of such an equation that has b een used to plan in New Hanover County: (Frequency* + Area Impact*) x Potential Damage Magnitude* = Total Score The frequency is the amount of times an area has been affected by a specific hazard. The area impacted is the area in wh ich the hazard has taken place. These two elements are the multiplied by the potential damage magnitude, which is the level of damage in which an area has sustained during and after a hazard has taken place. Once

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9 this equation is formulated, a priority matrix can be developed to define what priorities should be designated to what facilities and in frastructures at specifi c locations within the community. *The frequency, area impact, and potential damage magnitude values are defined by a scale of numbers ranging from 1 to 5, where 1=low and 5=high. Figure 2.1: Sample of New Hanover County Relative Priority Matrix (NOAA, 1999) By looking at this matrix, it is easy to note that the hazards in New Hanover County with the highest priority are from Wind, Flood, and Storm Surge. Step 2: Hazard Analysis Step 2a: Map risk consideration areas for hazards Finding those areas that are considered “At Risk” is vital to th e analysis process. Some areas will be at higher risk for damage associated with specific hazards. This process allows planners to iden tify and take proper steps to initiating a plan of action for those areas. The planner has to take into cons ideration whether or not an area is at risk, and whether or not those struct ures located within the at-ris k area are vulnerable or not. Just because a structure is located within an at-risk area does not n ecessarily mean that it is vulnerable. The Community Vulnerabilit y Assessment Tutorial gives the following example: In one neighborhood of 50 homes there are 10 structures located within the floodplain (risk consideration area). Thes e 10 structures would be considered

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10 potentially at risk to floo ding and would be the targets for vulnerability assessment. Seven of the structures ar e elevated above the 100-y ear flood elevation and the remaining three structures are not elev ated. The three non-elevated structures would be considered vulnerable to flooding. (NOAA, 1999) Obviously those low lying areas within and around the beach front will be more susceptible to damage from storm surge th an those areas that at higher elevations. Inversely, those areas that are at the higher elevations or those that are not heavily impacted by a storm surge might be considered vulnerable for other hazards such as wind and flood. Step 2b: Assign scores within risk consideration areas, where possible Giving a certain rank to areas at risk can facilitate th e Hazard Analysis process further. Coming up with this ranking system should depend on each particular hazard and its relationship with the surrounding areas. Step 3: Critical Facilities Analysis Step 3a: Identifying crit ical facilities categories Identifying those facilities that can be considered “Critical” into categories of priority is yet another crucial task that need s to be taken into consideration when dealing with this analysis. These facilities should be those that are most important to the functionality of the commun ity itself. Police, Fire/EMT, Communication Outlets and Hospitals are fundamental to a community. Wit hout these critical facili ties working at an efficient level, the rest of the community could be put at increased risk from the decreased effectiveness of thes e organizations following a disaster or hazardous event.

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11 Step 3b: Complete a criti cal facilities inventory Maintaining an up-to-date database of per tinent information of critical facilities within the community helps alleviate some of the confusion that evolves from a hazard. These databases might include the following (NOAA, 1999). Facility type Facility name Street address City State Zip Owner/operator Contact name Contact title Contact telephone 24-hour telephone Township Fire district Step 3c: Identify intersections of crit ical facilities with high-risk areas This element deals with the overlaying of critical facilities data with areas that are considered high-risk. Planners can then loca te these areas, and accurately rate their priority during and after a disaster Figure 2.2: Critical Facilities Haza rd Risk Scores Map (NOAA, 1999)

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12 Step 3d: Conduct vulnerability asse ssment on a critical facilities Much like Step 3c, Step 3d takes into c onsideration the location, and structural inadequacies for each critical facility. In this step, the planner decides whether or not this particular structure is worth a higher priority. There are cert ain criteria that need to be taken into consideration when conducting a Vulnerability Assessment. Figure 2.2 is a map that New Hanover County used to determine whether or not a structure met the high priority qualifications. Figure 2.3: An Example of an Assessment that has been Conducted for New Hanover County (NOAA, 1999) This is an excellent example of how to qua ntify the importance of critical facilities within the community. Five ch aracteristics are take n into considerati on, Hazard Priority (Step 1), Risk Consideration Area, Damage History, Structural Vulnerability, and

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13 Operational Vulnerability. All were added up to determine each facilityÂ’s vulnerability score, and thus its priority rating within the community. Step 4: Societal Analysis The societal analysis looks at the composition of the community and focuses its attention on identifying those areas which are considered special depending on its demographics. Step 4a: Identify areas of special consideration This element takes into consideration the demographic characteristics of the community. Those areas that are considered sp ecial are those that could be comprised of minority, elderly, physically disabled or lowe r income populations. These segments of the population maybe in need of further assistance in times of disasters. Step 4b: Identify intersections of special consideration areas with high-risk areas Similar to that of Step 3c, Step 4b agai n takes into consideration those areas of special consideration, as outlined in Step 4a , and overlays them with areas of high-risk. Planners can then focus their attentions on t hose areas, and see that the individuals living in that particular community are accomidated. This step correlates with the response phase of emergency management planning. Responding to save the lives of those individuals living in these areas is of the utmost importance. Step 4c: Conduct a general inventory of sp ecial consideration/high-risk locations Where as in Step 3b, Step 4c is an inve ntory of residential communities. Using a database with this information, a planner can make adjustments to the mitigation plans in and around the community.

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14 Step 5: Economic Analysis This section of the CVAT program involve s the identification of primary economic centers within the community. Step 5a: Identify primary economic sectors and locate economic centers Finding where the primary economic sectors and centers are is essential for any community. A communityÂ’s entire economic well being could be located in an area of high-risk. If threatened, or severely damage d as a result of a disaster or hazard, the economic implications could be drastic for the community as a whole. An example of this could be a small beach town. If tourism provides economic stability for the community, a major disaster such as a hurricane could ha ve a profound effect on th e area. Ensuring that steps are taken to see that these areas are not overlooked will provide the community with a more secure future economically. Step 5b: Identify intersections of economic centers and high-risk areas Finding those areas that woul d be affected the most by a hazard or disaster, and seeing that mitigations efforts are focused on sa id areas is essential for those individuals that rely on these economic cen ters for their livelihoods. Step 5c: Conduct general inventor y of high-risk economic centers To optimize mitigation efforts and ensure the economic centers of community are back up and running in the least amount of time possible, an inve ntory of high-risk economic centers is needed. Step 5d: Identify large employers and thei r intersection with hazard risk areas Step 5d is a major component of the ec onomic analysis process. Locating those industries that are re sponsible for employing large numbers that live in the community, and seeing that these industries are, agai n, up and running in the least amount of time

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15 possible, can determine whether or not a community will survive a major negative economic impact. Step 5e: Conduct vulnerability analysis on st ructures of large em ployers as critical facilities This analysis is similar to that of Step 3b. Including these as cr itical facilities can focus the mitigation efforts. Getting the la rger employer’s up and running quickly is an essential step in bringing the community back to normal. Step 6: Secondary Hazards Analysis This step identifies the secondary hazard1 risks that are associated with a hazardous event. Step 6a: Identify secondary hazard risk consideration sites and key environmental resource sites A secondary hazard risk is one that is cr eated when a natural disaster creates a secondary affect that is itself hazardous to a community. An example of this could be damages caused by a hazard to an infrastruc ture that house or contains hazardous materials. These hazardous materials could be released into the co mmunity, thus creating more hazards for planners to contend with. Identification of such areas and taking the necessary precautions is imperative to ensure that the community is not affected by such secondary hazard. 1 This step was originally labeled “Environmental Analysis.” The title was changed to make it more relevant to the process described in this paper.

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16 Step 6b: Identify intersections of seconda ry risk sites, envi ronmentally sensitive areas, and natural hazard risk consideration areas Another critical measure that emergency ma nagement planners have to take into consideration is to find those intersecti on that contain sec ondary risk sites, environmentally sensitive areas, and natural hazards risk areas. Step 6c: Identify key environmental res ource locations and their proximity to secondary risk sites Once this is Step 6b is accomplished, then planners can make their assessments as to how much priority to give to these areas. By looking at the proximity of each location in comparison to those areas considered sec ondary risk, analysis should be concluded, and a priority should be designated on each area. Step 6d: Conduct vulnerability analysis on pr iority secondary risk sites as critical facilities At the conclusion of Step 6, a planner needs to analyze the secondary risk sites, and determine on a case-by-case basis whether or not these sites should be put on the critical facilityÂ’s list. Step 7 Mitigation Opportunities Analysis This phase looks at the unde veloped areas of the commun ity and how to deal with the effects of a hazardous event. Step 7a: Identify areas of undeveloped la nd and their intersection with high-risk areas In efforts to ensure that risk areas do not overly burden future developed land, a planner should overlay any undeveloped lands with those areas that are considered highrisk. This task is critical to any growing community.

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17 Step 7b: Inventory high-risk undeveloped land It is vital to keep and update a databa se of undeveloped lands, their zoning, and future land use is an excellent way of prepar ing for future development, and how to deal with these areas during an em ergency situation. Planners ca n then develop policies that can be put into place to d eal with such an event. Step 7c: Assess the status of your existi ng flood insurance program participation Being able to know where areas of high-risk are can be very beneficial to planners. By finding out where those areas are, and wh at its population consis ts of, planners can formulate mitigation strategies that will be aimed at helping those individuals that are in most need. The CVAT program focuses on the vulne rability of a community, which is essential for any community that experien ces any form of hazardous event. Other programs that are in use focus their efforts on creating prediction models that assist in the emergency management planning process. HAZUS & Emergency Management Planning Hazards US is another GIS program that ha s been developed in order to fulfill the particular needs both coastal and inland stat es is Hazards US. Initiated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), a nd created by the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS), Hazards US, or HAZ US has become one of the premier loss estimation programs that deals with emergenc y management. Originally released in 1997, HAZUS has grown and expanded from just earthquake mitigation to fire, flood, hazardous material spills, and wind. Estimates of casualties, building and bridge damage assessments, and hospital functionality are just some of the products th at this cutting edge software can produce.

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18 The primary use of the HAZUS software is to allow users to run “What If” scenarios. This simulation gives planners an idea as to what to expect in an actual emergency situation. The following are all ways that the HAZUS software can benefit the planner and assist them when dealing w ith an emergency situation (NIBS, 2002): Assess the level of readiness and preparedne ss to deal with a di saster in a given region within the U.S. Decide on how to allocate resources for mo st effective and efficient response and recovery when a disaster hits a certain region; and Prioritize the mitigation measures that n eed to be implemented to reduce future losses. The assessment phase of this process is si milar to that of the CVAT program. An essential element to this process is looking at infrastructure, and prioritizing critical facilities within the community. The HAZUS program has the ability to focus its attention on both small and large communities, thus making it an invaluable tool for planners nationwide. The allocation of resources during a di saster response is one of the most complicated processes for an emergency mana gement planner. With HAZUS, the planner will already know where the critic al areas of concern will be from analyzing the data that was produced during the assessment phase. Thro ugh the use of GIS, the most efficient routes for response agencies can be found by examining major trans portation utility data, thus eliminating a potential delay or immobilization of res ources to those who are in need. Emergency Management Planners have a duty to ensure highly effective mitigation strategies that will prevent possible losse s from occurring. Through the use of HAZUS, mitigation strategies can be developed and im plemented. HAZUS also looks at the social

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19 costs that result from a disaster. This soft ware provides decision-making information and estimates on determining the amount of shelter space needed, household displacement, and casualty that could result from the hazard. Inputs Much like the CVAT model, HAZUS takes into account three major factors when formulating the loss estimation equa tion. Those inputs are as follows: Hazard Vulnerability Inventory The analysis of the hazard plays an essentia l role in estimating the potential damage of the event. Certainly a category 5 hurricane wi ll rate higher than a tropical depression in terms of overall damage. This rating of h azards will provide the user with a higher accuracy rate of damage. The HAZUS Multi Hazard (HAZUS MH) program takes into consideration the following hazards: Hurricane Flood Earthquake. Each one of these hazards is broken down into multiple sections for further analysis. The HAZUS Wind model takes into consider ation aspects that would result from the various forms of disasters or hazards that come from wind based hazards. The first aspect is extreme wind hazards. This c ould involve extra tropical cyclones, thunderstorms, hurricanes, and tornados. From this analysis, the program breaks the information down further by examining the effects of the hazard. Wind loading eff ects can result from the extreme wind hazard. These effects could come from pressure, missiles, and tree blow-downs.

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20 HAZUS then again breaks this inform ation down to find th e potential risks involved with each of these elements, and the damage resulting from each within the community. The structural and physical dama ge is then determined. Structural and physical damage analyze the envelope, frame, interior, and contents of buildings. From each of these elements (extreme wind hazards , wind loading effects, and structural and physical damage) the loss estimation models can be formed. The vulnerability portion of the program examines the vulnerability of each structure in the community is effected by the disaster or hazardous situation. From this analysis, HAZUS can determine the amount of damage that will occur for each structure, and give planners some idea as to how mu ch funding will be needed to restore the community to its original state. Completing an inventory of the commun ity is imperative for any hazardous situation. Knowing what is out there, and how they can be useful in a hazardous situation is essential in the formulation of any mitig ation plan. HAZUS utilizes datasets from across the nation, including lo cations of nuclear power plants, dams, and hospitals. A component of the vast applicati ons of this program is that it also takes into consideration locations of pharmacies, and animal shelte rs. Though these datasets might not seem important at the time, they can be extremely helpful. Outputs Used in the proper context, HAZUS is an extremely valuable tool for emergency management planners. Four categories of outputs are shown in Figure 2.5: direct damages, induced damages, direct losses, a nd indirect losses. Each of these types of damages and losses are explaine d in greater detail below.

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21 The direct damage output consists of 5 main components: general building stock, essential facilities, high potential loss facili ties, transportation facilities, and lifelines (Laatsch, 2003). The earthquake and flood m odels can utilize all five of these components. The hurricane/wind model only utili zes the first 3. The main effort of this portion is to gain an idea of th e structural integrity of the buildings within the community, and will need to be evaluated to de termine the future course of action. The induced damage output consists of th ree components. These are fire following the event, hazardous materials sites, a nd debris generation (Laatsch, 2003). The earthquake model is the only haza rd that uses the fire following the event segment of the induced damage critique. Figure 2.4: HAZUS-MH Analysis Outputs (Laatsch, 2003)

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22 The hazardous materials sites portion pl ays a vital role in maintaining and containing any and all hazardous materials th at may be located within the community. The debris generation model gives estimates on the amount of debris that an event will produce. Knowing this figure will help planners decide how to rid the area of this debris, and where to put it. The direct losses output identifies the eff ects of a hazard on the society in which it takes place. This element estimates the cost of repairs/replacement, income loss, crop damager, amount of casualties, and the sh elter and recovery n eeds of a community (Laatsch, 2003). The earthquake model can utili ze all elements, with the exception of the crop damage element. The flood model utilizes a ll elements besides the casualty estimate element. The hurricane/wind model only utilizes the cost of repairs/replacement, and shelter and recovery needs element of this output. The indirect losses output is based on economic losses. It consists of supply shortages, sales decline, opportunity costs, and economi c loss (Laatsch, 2003). These outputs play a central role in the long term recovery of a community. The quicker a community can restore its economic base, the so on it can return to its original state. There are many GIS programs that can create decision-making information to assist the emergency management planner. Once this information is analyzed a plan can be formed. Louisiana Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act of 2000 The adoption of the Louisiana Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act (LOSPRA) is one measure that the State of Louisiana is taki ng to ensure that they will be prepared for the possibility of an oil spill. This act dir ects the planning and mitigation strategies of those communities that could be affected by an oil spill, and c oordinates efforts to

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23 oversee that the process of response and recove ry is initiated. This document is broken down into 8 sections. Each section covers a fundamental attribute of the process. The following are the sections within the act. Part I: General Provisions Part II: Administration Part III: State Oil Contingency Plan Part IV: Oil Spill Prevention and Response Part V: Liability of Persons Responsible Part VI: Oil Spill Contingency Fund Part VII: Remedies and Enforcement Part VIII: Miscella neous Provisions Part I of the LOSPRA is an overview of the general provisions within the document, and gives the definitions of ma ny of the issues surr ounding oil spill events. Also outlined in this section are the legislative findings and intents. The legislature finds and declares that the release of oil into th e environment presents a real and substantial threat to the public health and welfare, to th e environment, the wildlife and aquatic life, and to the economy of th e state (LOSPRA, 2001). Part II of the LOSPRA gives a summary of the administrative structure. It designates what duties are to be done, and by whom. Some of the agencies involved with this process include the Department of Wildlif e and Fisheries, the Department of Public Safety and Corrections, the Department of Natural Resources, and the Department of Environmental Quality. This section also delegates the amount of authority and responsibility that is given to each agency i nvolved with this process. Also described in this section is the regulato ry authority. This portion of Part II gives the schematics on maintaining and regulating the current draft of the act. Part III of the LOSPRA is concerned with the State O il Spill Contingency Plan. This section develops and distributes to th e public a state oil spill contingency plan of

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24 response for actual or threatened unauthorized discharges of oil and clean up of pollution from such discharges (LOSPRA, 2001). In a ddition, this section also defines the coastal boundary in which the plan will represent. La stly, this section covers the contingency plan provisions. This outline of what the plan should include gives the basis for the entire act and covers everything from detailed em ergency operating procedures for initiating actions in response to unauthorized discharges , to procedures for disposal of removed oil or hazardous substa nces (LOSPRA, 2001). Part IV of the LOSPRA deal s with the Oil Spill Preven tion and Response measures needed to sufficiently prevent or contain an oil spill off the coast of Louisiana. This portion of the act contains a comprehensive as sessment of the measures needed to be taken in the event of an oil sp ill event. The coordi nator of the response to the event is to oversee, and undertake the respons ibility of ensuring that ever y step of the prevention and response portion of the act is completed. Th is includes notificati on and response of the event, finding assistance and delegating comp ensation to the proper agencies, ensuring that the proper equipment and personnel ar e assigned to the area of the event, and registering terminal facilities. A terminal f acility can be defined as: “any waterfront or offshore pipeline, structure, equipment, or de vice used for the purposes of drilling for, pumping, storing, handling, or transferring o il and operating where a discharge from the facility could threaten waters of the state, including but not limited to any such facility owned or operated by a public utility or a governmental or quasi-governmental body” (LOSPRA, 2001). Each of these te rminal facilities need to be certified by the state, and qualify for state funded insurance. This certific ation also opens the terminal facility to audits and inspection conduc ted by the state government.

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25 Part V of the LOSPRA defines the liability of responsible persons. This section designates the financial responsib ilities, and limitations of th e liability for those involved. Also covered in this section are the guidelines for assessing damage to natural resources. This covers the quantity and quality of oil discharged, the time period during which coastal waters are affected by the oil and the physical extent of the impact, the condition of the natural resources prior to the unauthori zed discharge of oil, and the actual costs of restoring, rehabilitating, and/or acquiring the equivalent of the injured natural resources (LOSPRA, 2000). Finally this se ction includes possible defenses that can be used to declare innocence of wrongdoing. They are as follows (LOSPRA, 2001): 1. An act of God, war, or terrorism. 2. An act of government, either state, federal, or local. 3. An unforeseeable occurrence exclusively o ccasioned by the violence of nature without the interf erence of any human act or omission. 4. The willful misconduct or a negligent act or omission of a third party, other than an employee or agent of the person responsible or a third party whose conduct occurs in connection with a contractual relations hip with the responsi ble person, unless the responsible person failed to exercise due care and take precautions against foreseeable conduct of the third party. 5. Any combinations of Paragr aphs (1), (2), and (3). Part VI of the LOSPRA deal s with the Oil Spill Conti ngency Fund. It defines how the fund will be used, and its purpose. “The purpose of the f und is to immediately provide available funds for response to all threatened or actual unauthorized discharges of oil, for clean up of pollution from unaut horized discharges of oil, natural resources damages, damages sustained by any state agency or pol itical subdivision, and removal costs from threatened, unauthorized discha rges of oil” (LOSPRA, 2000). This section also defines

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26 the allocation of the fund and guidelines fo r distribution, any mone tary fees involved, liability issues surr ounding the fund, and reimbursement of the fund. Part VII of the LOSPRA defines exclusive remedies, and enforcement of the act. This section outlines the laws and actions that can be enforced by the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries to reimburse any losse s in which they have incurred during the event of an oil spill. This por tion states that if an y of the regulations of this chapter are broken, those individuals responsible for th ese infractions will be subject to the consequences of this act. Part VIII of the LOSPRA covers the mi scellaneous provisions of the act. This includes the acquisition of fede ral funds, the development of interstate compacts, the funding of research by institutions of high education, and the issuance of executive authority over the hazardous event. All eight of these sections of the LOSPRA of 20 00, have been implemented to ensure that the proper steps will be taken in case of an oil spill of the coast of Louisiana. Without such a plan in place, the process of responding, and restoring the coastline to its natural habitat would hinder said process. In the next section, clean up techniqu es covered under the Baton Rouge Area Contingency Plan are discussed. Techniques for Clean Up Efforts LOSPRA is the overall plan that the State of Louisiana has adopted to mitigate against an oil spill w ithin the stateÂ’s coasta l boundaries. Many of th e communities within the state itself have also adopt ed their own acts to add to an already constructive plan. One such plan is the Baton Rouge Contingenc y Plan. This plan outlines several methods to dispose or eliminate oil and other hazar dous material. They range from natural to

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27 chemical and biological methods . The following are just some techniques, taken from the Baton Rouge Area Contingency Plan, that planne rs can use to rid oil from contaminated regions of the state: In-situ burning. This method involves the burning of hazardous materials to break down their compound, so that they disintegrate at a faster pace. This method can be done under close supervision in the areas designated by the state. Inshore/nearshore in-situ burning . This technique involves the burning of wetlands and other areas of vegetation to rid them of oil contamination. There has been much interest in this method due to its extreme nature, but has been overall effective in the mitigation process. In-situ bio-remediation . This method utilizes fertilizer s that spawn oil metabolizing microbes to breakdown the chemical make up of th e spilt oil. Two types of this fertilizer can be used, liquid and granular. This form of clean up can have a negative side effect of algal blooms in protected areas. Natural remediation. This is a natural breakdown of the oils consistency. Though natural occurrences such as tides and waves, the remediation process can be completed without any intervention. Flooding. This method involves the pumping of la rge amounts of seawater to flush oil out from contaminated areas. This method does not necessarily rid the area of oil, only cleans it from a certain loca tion such as a beach. The toxic compounds still remain within the oil itself, and therefor e can affect other local areas.

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28 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The methodology of this thesis is based on an assessment of the possibility of a major oil spill off the coast of Louisiana. The methodology used in th is process relied on mainly on the technology itself. Utilizing th e ArcGIS software, analysis and formulation of plans were made possible. Hypothetically simulating an oil spill was made possible with the use of the Geo-Statistical Analyst ex tension of the ArcGIS software. The process used to prove that GIS is an efficient and e ffective tool for use in emergency management situations, is defined by the following steps: Step 1: Data Collection Step 2: Data Preparation Step 3: Prediction Modeling Step 4: Integration of Sensitive Area s Datasets, Oil Related Datasets, and Transportation Related Datasets Step 1: Data Collection During this process, all available datase ts were collected. Each had specific relevance to the overall project. Finding the right data is essential when making any analysis. Upon locating and deciphering which data was going to be most effective, folders were made to better manage the data. Out of 26 datasets that were chosen for this project, seven main folders were created. Th e following is a list and explanation of all data that was used:

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29 Coastal Data Folder Coastal Zone Boundaries ( zongeog3dpcoa ).This dataset represents the coastal areas from 30 miles west of the edge of the state line to approximately 150 miles east of the Mississippi river delta. It shows the land bounda ries of the state, and where the water meets these boundaries. Major Water Bodies (majorwatbods). This dataset represents all major water features in the state of Louisiana. Conservation Data Folder Louisiana Conservation Plan Boundary (zongeog3dpcwc). This dataset shows the areas of the coastal wetlands on the coast of Louisian a. It is used to id entifying high priority areas for clean up and mitigation strategies. National Wildlife Refuges (nwrgeog3dptnc). This dataset outlines the boundaries of all wildlife refuges within the state of Louisiana. It was used to identify high priority areas for clean up and mitigation strategies. Park and Forest (namgeog3dxpar). This dataset represents all of the parks and forests that are located within the state of Louisiana. It is used to iden tify high priority areas for clean up and mitigation strategies. Seabird Colonies (habgeog3dxsbd) This dataset represents the seabird colonies on the coast of Louisiana. It is used to identify high priority areas for clean up and mitigation strategies. Wildlife Management Areas (wmageog3dptnc). This dataset displays the wildlife management areas in the state of Louisiana. It is used to identify high priority areas for clean up and mitigation strategies.

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30 Currents Data Folder Eastern Gulf of Mexico Ocean Currents (curgeog3dxav6). This dataset shows the yearly average for all eastern Gulf of Mexico ocean currents. Though this dataset is divided up into monthly sections, only the average was used for analysis. This dataset is, in conjunction with oil and gas platform data , used for processing though the ArcInfo extension Geo-Statistical Analyst to devel op maps indicating prediction models. These prediction models are the core of the anal ysis, and provide the locations in which mitigations strategies should be utilized. Western Gulf of Mexico Ocean Currents (curgeog3dxav3). This Dataset is the sister set to the eastern Gulf of Mexico ocean currents, and also represents the yearly average for all western Gulf of Mexico ocean current s. Though this dataset is divided up into monthly sections, only the average was used for analysis. This dataset was, in conjunction with oil and gas platform data , is used for processing though the ArcInfo extension Geo-Statistical Analyst to devel op prediction models. These prediction models were the core of the analysis, and provided identification of locations that mitigations strategies should be utilized. Oil Related Data Folder RCRA Hazardous Waste Treatment, Di sposal and Storage Facilities (etdgeog3dxepa). This dataset gives the location of all hazar dous waste treatment, disposal, and storage sites. A key to locating where byproducts of clean up efforts, this dataset was extremely useful. In-Situ Burn (of Oil) Pre-approval Area for Offshore Louisiana (zongeog3dpbrn). This dataset gives the locations of In-Situ areas. In the event of a major oil spill, authorities can grant permission to burn sp ilt oil in these areas.

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31 Oil and Gas Platform Structures in the Gulf of Mexico (poggeog3dxmms). This dataset gives the locations of all oil and gas platform structures in the Gulf of Mexico. This dataset was used in conjunction with the ocean currents to identify where oil or gas could affect the coastline of Louisiana in the event of a major oil spill. Oil Dispersant Pre-approval Area (zongeog3dbdis). This dataset gives the locations of areas where authorities can use dispersant ag ents that break up the chemical compounds of oil. This method is used to c onfine and minimize an oil spill. State and Water Boundary Data Folder State Boundary of Louisiana (stageog3dpdot). This dataset give the state boundaries of Louisiana. It was utilized to give refere nce to locations offshore of the coastline. Water Boundary (wtrbnd). This dataset gives reference to the waters of the coast of Louisiana. It was created in re sponse to the need of a raster mask for the analysis from created by the Geo-Statistical Analyst extension. A raster mask is a dataset that serves as a boundary for spatial data. Transportation Folder Airport Features (namgeog3dxapo). This dataset provides documen tation that reflects the locations of all airports in the state of Louisi ana. It was used to find locations for clean-up crews to land closest to the area s hardest hit by the oil spill. Louisiana Highway System (rdcgeog3dldot). This dataset displays all interstates, US highways, and Louisiana state highways. It wa s used to find the quickest routes to the potential hazard sites. From that analysis , deployment options for cleanup and other resources could be identified. Railroads (rrcgeog3dlt97) This dataset gives the locations of all railroads in the state of Louisiana. It was particularly useful in finding those roads that lead directly or closely to

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32 the mitigation site. From that analysis, de ployment options of cleanup tools and other resources could be identified. Waterway Network (navgeog3dkbts). This dataset gives the locations of the waterway network in the state of Louisi ana. It was particularly usef ul in finding those waterways that lead directly or closely to the mitigati on site. From that analysis, deployment options of cleanup tools and other reso urces could be identified. Step 2: Data Preparation Preparing the data for analysis is some times time consuming, but essential for the overall process. This may include re-proje cting, editing, manipulati ng, or creating data. Step 2 gives an overview of the steps involve d with the preparation of data for this project. Re-Projection of Data GIS data comes in many diffe rent coordinate projections . In order to utilize the data, all must be in the same coordinate proj ection. The process of re-projecting data is facilitated though the Arc Toolbox. The first step in re-projecting data is to de fine the data itself. This can be accomplished using the “Define Projection Wizard” in Arc Toolbox. Once the projection has been defined, one can begin the re-proje ction process. The first step in defining the data is to select the dataset that needs to be re-projected. Selecting an output location for the newly re-projected file follows this step. Choos ing, importing and selec tion the coordinate projection, that is going to be the universal projection for all of your data is the next step taken in this process. The No rth American Datum 1983 was sele cted for this project. The coordinate extents for the output dataset ar e then displayed, followed by a summary of the input dataset (See Figure 3.1). Once this pr ocess is complete, all data can be used.

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33 Figure 3.1: Re-Projectio n Summary of Input Raster Mask When using the Spatial Analyst, or Geo-St atistical Analyst extensions of ArcGIS, a raster mask is needed to contain the outputs of the analysis. Rasters represent geographic features by dividing the world in to discrete squares called cells. Cells are laid out in a grid, where each cell has a location relative to an origin and a value describing the feature being observed (Ormsby, et al., 2001). The first step in making a raster mask is to either create or modify a vector dataset to a raster dataset. The reason for this mask for this particular project was to create a space where the outputs of the oil spill prediction model coul d be contained. Upon opening the Editor extension of ArcGIS, a vector dataset was created by outlining the coastal region of the state of Louisiana (See Figure 3.2). Once the vector data was created, it was then exported into a raster data file. The raster mask is ready to be made at this point in the process. This is accomp lished by opening the Spa tial Analyst extension

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34 of ArcGIS, and selecting the options function do this. Figure 3.3 displays the options interface. Figure 3.2: Creating Vector Data Figure 3.3: The Options Interface Three folders are shown: general, extent, and cell size. The general folder is where the working directory, and analysis mask is set. The extent folder gi ves the coordinates of the mask, and where it will be cropped on each side. Cell size can be determined and adjusted under the cell size folder. This si ze is set depending on the accuracy level

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35 needed. Smaller cell sizes provide greater de tail of the data. Once all these requirements have been met, a raster mask can be defined. Step 3: Prediction Modeling There are many benefits to using GIS wh en dealing with emergency management. One of those benefits is the ability to create prediction models that reflect the probability of a hazardous situation, and therefore provide s the identification of areas that would be most affected. For this thesis, the inverse distance weighted (IDW ) method was selected. Other prediction models that could be used in this process ar e the various Kriging methods. Though the Kriging method will give a more precise analysis of the prediction model, the IDW method was chosen because it is a deterministic model. The level of accuracy obtained through Kriging was not needed for the level of modeling used in this thesis. Inverse Distance Weighted Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) model a ssumes that the surface is influenced by nearby points. This model gives strong re flectance off the closer points, and less reflectance from those points that are fu rther away. This method is used when interpolating the data from the ocean current s. The following steps are taken in finding this analysis. Steps 1: Setting parameters Using the Average Western Gulf of Mexico Currents dataset, figure 3.4 displays the first step in the IDW process. The neighbor s to be included were set at 15, with at least 4 to be included in the set. Includi ng 15 neighbors increases the area of reflectance. The shape type was set to eight sectors for focus of data.

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36 Figure 3.4: Step 1: Setting Parameters 2: Cross validation The cross validation analysis of IDW gives the prediction errors of the model. This procedure occurs when one piece of data is removed and the remaining pieces of the data are used to predict the removed data. Figur e 3.5 displays the mean for this model, – 0.1073, and the root mean squared which was calculated to 6.876. These calculations provided for a better fit of data, and more accurate prediction. This model used the velocity in centimeters per second attri bute as its continuous data attribute. Figure 3.5: Step 2 Cross Validation

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37 Step 4: Integration of Sensitive Areas, Oil Related, and Transportation Datasets Integration of Sensitive Areas Datasets Once the prediction model is ready for analys is, data that indicates those areas that give reference to areas that are considered sensitive are overlaid on top of the prediction model to show what areas will be affected firs t. The following is a list of data sets that represent sensitive areas. Louisiana Conservation Plan Boundary National Wildlife Refuges State Parks and Forest Wildlife Management Areas Integration of Oil Related Datasets Oil related datasets provide the planner with the whereabouts of every oil-related structure, area, or zone off the coast of L ouisiana. The following are the datasets that were used in this process: RCRA Hazardous Waste Treatment, Dispos al and Storage Facilities In-Situ Burn (of Oil) Pre-approval Area for Offshore Louisiana Oil and Gas Platform Structures in the Gulf of Mexico Oil Dispersant Pre-approval Area Integration of Transportation Related Datasets It is imperative to know how and where to get the supplies needed for mitigation efforts. The transportation related datasets provide accurate information to planners so that they can map out the most efficient route of travel for incoming supplies. The following are the datasets that were used in this process: Airport Features Louisiana Highway System Railroads through the State of Louisiana Waterway Network through the State of Louisiana

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38 This data was critical for a ny analysis of the critical facilities along the coast of Louisiana to be conducted. Knowing the closes t form of transportation facility and its locations will speed the process of determini ng the closest routes for clean up crews to use. Analyzing the CVAT and HAZUS programs, and each of their attributes and methodology for each formed this entire proce ss. Collection, formulation and preparation of data are crucial steps that assist the pla nner. From the research that was conducted, this process fulfilled all of the key elements that are to be analyzed in an emergency situation.

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39 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This thesis was designed to show the be nefits of GIS to emergency management planning. Developing a hypothetical disaster event completed this process. Using GIS to create decision-making information to assist emergency management planners is the result of this thesis. The results that are c oncluded from this section come from using a modified version of the CVAT methodology. The steps taken to derive these results are as follows: 1. Step 1: Hazard Identification 2. Step 2: Critical Facilities Analysis 3. Step 3: Economic Analysis 4. Step 4: Secondary Hazards AnalysisThis methodology proved to be the best way to find the results needed. Hazard Identification The first oil well to be drilled in L ouisiana came in 1901. Today, the State of Louisiana produces 256 thousand barrels per da y (2002), and is ranked 4th in the nation for the production of crude oil. This is the ma in economic function of the state. The threat of a major oil spill in this state is a very real possibil ity. There are approximately 4,400 oil and gas platforms off the coast of Louisi ana. The ocean currents that travel through this part of the Gulf of Mexico have velocities that ra nge between .25 and 41.03 centimeters per second. Having faster currents can have positive and negative effects. The positive effect of a faster moving current is that the natural remediation will break down the oils chemical compounds faster. The negative effect of a faster moving current

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40 is that it will push the oil spill faster toward s the coastline of Louisiana. There are also positive and negative effects associated with a slow to stagnant moving current. The positive effect of a slower moving current is that the displacement of the oil will not be as substantial as that of a faster moving curre nt. The negative effect of a slower moving current is that the natural remediation proce ss is much slower, and the oil will remain in the area unless physically removed by clean up crews. Figure 4.1 gives spatial reference to the velocity of the ocean currents off the coast of Louisiana. The darker areas represent the slower moving currents, and the lighter ar eas refer to the faster moving currents. Once the location of a hazards has been identified, the critical facilities can be selected. Critical Facilities Analysis In determining what critical facilities are, one needs to analyze the situation. Obviously a Hazardous Waste Disposal Facili ty would rank higher than a Police Station would in the circumstance of a major oil spill. There are 8 critical faci lities that have been selected for the purpos e of identification: RCRA Hazardous Waste Treatment, Dispos al and Storage Facilities IN-Situ Burn (of Oil) Pre-approv al Area for Offshore Louisiana Oil and Gas Platform Structures in the Gulf of Mexico Oil Dispersant Pre-approval Area. Public/Private Airports State Highways Network Waterways Network Railroads Network In the event of a major oil spi ll, these critical facilities wi ll play a vital role in the response and recovery phase. A RCRA Hazardous Waste Treatment, Dispos al, and Storage Facility are facilities that would house the all oil that has been gathered. It is at these sites that the oil can be

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41 disposed of or burned. Figure 4.2 designates the locations of all RCRA Hazardous Waste Treatment, Disposal, and Storage Facil ities in the State of Louisiana. Figure 4.1 Ocean Currents off the Coast of Louisiana

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42 The In-Situ Burn Pre-approval Area for Offshore Louisiana is the area that the government has designated for the burning of oil that has been collected as a result of an oil spill. Figure 4.3 gives reference to the locations of these areas. As stated before, there are approximatel y 4,400 oil and gas platforms off the coast of Louisiana. This is LouisianaÂ’s main econom ic center, and is cri tical for the stateÂ’s economy. Figure 4.4 displays the large number of oil and gas platforms that are located off the coast of Louisiana. The Oil Dispersant Pre-approval Area is the area designated by the government to use for the purposes of dispersing oil, a nd breaking down its chemical compounds. This method of clean up is conducted under strict mo nitoring from safety officials. The use of chemicals is widely used during this pro cedure. Bio-remediation is the process of creating algae plums that eat away at th e oil, and thus br eaking down the oils composition. Figure 4.5 shows the area where these methods occur. Both public and private airports are ex tremely important to the response and recovery phase of emergency management pl anning. Finding the right airport that can handle large amounts of traffic is essential during the recover effort. Figure 4.6 displays all of the airports, both public and pr ivate, in the State of Louisiana. Using the state highway data set allows planners to locate the exact route that recovery teams will need to take to get to an area affected by an oil spill. Figure 4.7 locates all state highways in the State of Louisiana. The waterways network throughout the Stat e of Louisiana is a vast maze of channels that link critical ar eas to each other. This datase t is used to navigate large

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43 tankers to and from oil-contaminated areas. These large tankers can bring in recovery tools, as well as store large amounts of spilt oil and deliver them to the RCRA Hazardous Figure 4.2: RCRA Hazardous Waste Facilities

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44 Figure 4.3 In-Situ Pre-approval Burn Sites

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45 Figure 4.4: Oil and Gas Platforms

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46 Figure 4.5: Oil Dispersant Pre-approval Areas

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47 Figure 4.6: Public/Private Airports

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48 Figure 4.7: State Highway Networks

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49 Figure 4.8: State Waterway Networks

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50 Figure 4.9: State Ra ilroad Networks Another major form of transportation is railroads. These transportation facilities provide for excellent mobility of large respons e and recovery tools to be brought into the

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51 areas that have been affected by an oil spi ll. Figure 4.9 displays the railroad networks throughout the State of Louisiana. Once the critical facilities analysis has been accomplished, an economic analysis needs to be conducted. Economic Analysis The main economic center of the State of Louisiana is Oil. It produces 256 thousand barrels per day, and ranks 4th in the nation for crude oil production (DOE, 2003) (See Figure 4.4). If a major oil spill were to occur, millions of dollars would be lost. Employees of these major oil-producing comp anies such as Texaco, Shell, and Exxon, would suffer cutbacks in wages, and even the possibility of losing their jobs. Another economic force that employs larg e amounts of individuals living on the coast of Louisiana is the commercial fish ing and shrimping industry. Fishermen and shrimpers would have to wait until all areas of contamination are cleaned up to proceed with their work. Oil has a very adverse effect on these industries, ki lling off many of the much-needed capital that both fishermen and shrimper rely on as their means of economic stability. Secondary Hazards Analysis The Secondary Hazards Analysis entails find ing those areas that will be affected by the secondary hazard of an o il spill. Environmentally sensitive areas play a vital role when developing mitigation strategies for emergency management planning. Oil has a very horrific, and lasting effect on the environment, so ensuring that these strategies are in place is essential. Figure 4.10 displays the Louisiana Conser vation Plan Boundary. All transportation facility datasets are overlai d on top of the boundary. Figure 4.6 clearly sh ows that the

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52 entire coastline of the stat e is within this boundary. Though this area is dominated by marsh and swamp, it is possible to strategi cally place mitigation efforts within its confines. Due to its relatively large surface area , this area will be di fficult to cover in its entirety, so resources should be deployed st rategically. All forms of transportation will be needed for a thorough mitigation strategy to be effective. The National Wildlife Refuges that are located within the state of Louisiana are shown in Figure 4.11. Only two refuges are loca ted in the slower current zones. These areas play a large role in the conservations effo rts set forth by the State of Louisiana. It is imperative to get the necessary tools and e quipment to these areas immediately following a major oil spill. As indicated in figure 4.11, those National Wildlife Refuges that are affected most by the simulated oil spill are also very accessible. This information will be very beneficial to the planners, and will help support mitigation efforts out to those areas. Figure 4.12 displays all of th e state parks and forests in Louisiana. There are a number of parks and forests that fall on th e coastline of Louisian a. And though most of them fall within range of some form of major transportati on utility (highway, railroad, airport, waterway), there are st ill a few that will challenge plannerÂ’s ability to effectively distribute mitigation tools to their locations. Seabird colonies are abundant on the co ast of Louisiana. Figure 4.13 gives a graphic representation of the num ber that line the coastline, a nd their relation to the areas that would be hardest hit by an oil spill. As with the state parks and forests, the seabird colonies will be difficult to get out to due to the shear number and their locations in relation to any major transportation facility.

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53 Wildlife Management Areas (Figure 4.14) comp rise the largest area per square foot of any environmentally sensitive area. These areas, due to their size, will be heavily affected by an oil spill. From the analysis, fi nding a major transportation facility in the vicinity of these areas will not be difficult. Most encompass a major transportation facility within the confines of the area itself, thus making the mitigation efforts much easier to fulfill. In the case of an oil spill, a 100 percen t clean up is an unattainable solution to substantial problem. This thesisÂ’s hypothesis is not whether this goal can be reached. The hypothesis of this thesis is whether or not GI S can be used effectively and efficiently by emergency management planners to develop mitigation strategies for hazardous events. With what has been presented here, the questi on of whether or not GI S is an efficient and effective tool has been answered.

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54 Figure 4.10: Louisiana Conservation Plan Boundary

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55 Figure 4.11: National Wildlife Refuges in the State of Louisiana

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56 Figure 4.12: State Parks and Forest s in the State of Louisiana

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57 Figure 4.13: Seabird Colonies on the Coast of Louisiana

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58 Figure 4.14: Wildlife Management Areas in Southern Louisiana

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59 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMENDATIONS GIS is an excellent tool for all different types of planning. Emergency Management has benefited from this tool, and will only improve more as time and technology advance. From deciding which buildings are most vulne rable, estimating the damage on an area, predicting where and when a pending hazard will effect a area, or routing mitigation tools to areas hardest hit from a disaster or hazardous situation, GIS can be utilize to do a number of tasks that will speed up the mitigation process. In the event of an oil spill off the coas t of Louisiana, GIS will greatly assist planners. As was shown in the previous chapte rs, GIS is a formidable tool for providing decision makers information that can assist in implementing initiatives that will reduce loss of life, structural damage, corruption of environmentally sensitive areas, and shortening the time taken for mitigation efforts to take effect. As demonstrated in this thesis, GIS assists emergency management pla nners by helping facilitate the determining of critical facilities along the coast of Louisiana. With the methodology that is employed, emergency management planners can form ulate and implement more efficient and effective strategies to prepare communities fo r the possibility of a hazardous situation. As this thesis has shown, GIS has a number of positive aspects. As with anything though, there is always room for improvement . The following recommendations are to assist planners to only increase the overall pow er and effectiveness that GIS can provide.

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60 Recommendations 1. Data sharing is crucial in any hazardous or disaster situation. The divided line between public and private owned data needs to be erased in times of critical situations. As seen in the 9/11 disaster s, data sharing became a pivotal element that was essential to all of those who were involved. Proprietary issues that arised during that situation were a ppalling. The private industry needs to realize that the need for profit in times of hardship cannot be abused. 2. Data management is essential for any or derly process to take effect. Discarding old, useless data, and consta ntly updating your database with the most up to date data is vital. Cataloging ol der historic data is also essential. GIS can provide planners with a lot of data, and keeping it in an organized format at all times will speed up the emergency management planning process. 3. Integrating all data into a single consistent format will keep planners from having to convert and change data from one t ype to the other. Agreeing upon a statewide projection that all planners will use can do this. In times of urgency, re-projecting data is the last thing that a planne r should be doing. By implementing this statewide projection system, planners will not have to deal with this process. Opportunities for further research In this post 9/11 age, planners need to constantly update methods of preparing and protecting the citizens of the co mmunities they represent. This thesis analyzes the use of GIS and its potential effectiveness when deali ng with a disaster or hazardous situation. Possible areas of research that might be fu rther explored that will benefit emergency management might deal with the actual ar chitecture of the buildings themselves. The integration of urban design and the use of crime prevention though environmental design (CPTED) are new areas in the planning field, an d could become an in tricate part of the emergency management process. Another pos sible area for further research is the implementation of a statewide GIS program. This program would set the standards for using GIS in the state. Another future opportunity for research is to utilize more inputs in the prediction modeling process. This thesis used the currents variable wh en determining the prediction

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61 model. Other variables that would be useful to utilize would be tides data, monthly currents data, and large storm data such as hurricanes, and winter cold fronts. These elements play a major role in different variables that might affect a major oil spill. The use of the Kriging method of predic tion modeling would be another area of future research. This method provides the user with a more precise model that will assist the emergency management planner with more accurate decision-making information. This would be useful when breaking down the process form large scale to smaller scale. This thesis looked at the entire coastline of the State of Louisiana. Smaller communities that are encompassed by this area would be ab le to utilize the Kriging method, and make predictions that pertain to their community. Summary This thesis has looked at the many diff erent aspects of the use of GIS and Emergency Management. It has analyzed some of the different GIS programs that directly deal with emergency management, and has given the benefits of each. This thesis also has given a hypothetical situation of an oil spill off the coast of Louisiana, and how GIS can be used to determine critical facilities that can be valuable for planners to strategize and prepare mitigation plans for this hazard. The pur pose of this thesis was to demonstrate the use of GIS to find critical facilities to assist emergency management planners in preparing for a h azardous situation. In this proj ect, it has been demonstrated that GIS could be used to identify the hazar ds associated with o il spills, the critical facilities necessary during a response, the economic assets, and environmentally areas that need to be protected.

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62 LIST OF REFERENCES Department of Energy, 2003, Petr oleum Profile: Louisiana, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/oog/info/s tate/la.html, August, 14, 2003 Environmental Systems Research Institute , GIS for Emergency Management, ESRI Press, Redlands, CA, 1999 Environmental Systems Research Institute, Challenges for GIS in Emergency Preparedness and Response, ES RI Press, Redlands, CA, 2000 Federal Emergency Management Agenc y, 2003, Federal Emergency Management Agency, http://www.fema.gov/, June 16, 2003 Federal Emergency Management Agency, HAZUS 99 Service Release 2 (SR2) –Tech Manual ArcView, FEMA, Washington, D.C., 1999 A Federal Emergency Management Agency, HAZ US 99 Service Release 2 (SR2) – User Manual ArcView, FEMA, Washington, D.C., 1999 B Greene, R., Confronting Catastrophe: A GIS Handbook, ESRI Press, Redlands, CA, 2002 Laatsch, E., Overview of the HAZUS Multihazard Loss Estimation Program, Emergency Preparedness and Response Directorate, Department of Homeland Security, Washington, D.C., April 17, 2003 Marine Safety Office New Orleans, 1990, Baton Rouge Oil Spill Contingency Plan, http://www.uscg.mil/d8/mso/nola/Librar y/acp/NOLA_ACP_TOC.htm, August 22, 2003 National Institute of Building Sciences , HAZUS For Mitigation, FEMA, Washington D.C., 2002 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admi nistration, 1999, Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, http://www.csc.noaa.gov/products/n chaz/startup.htm, June 16, 2003 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administ ration , 2001, Louisiana Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act of 2000, http://www.darp.noaa.gov/seregion/ larrppdf/laospra.pdf, August 22, 2003

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63 Ormsby, T., Napoleon, E., Burke, R., Feaste r, L., Getting To Know ArcGIS Desktop, ESRI Press, Redlands, CA, 2001

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64 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH W. Cory Swales was born and raised in Indian Rocks Beach, Florida. In 1997, he moved to Orlando, Florida, where he began hi s college career. Mr. Swales received his Bachelor of Arts in public administration from the University of Central Florida in May of 2001. In August of 2001, Mr. Swales was then accepted into the urban and regional planning graduate program at the University of Florida. Throughout his entire educati on, Mr. Swales has remained focused and determined to succeed. He has always been a role m odel for his colleagues and continues to push others to strive for excellence.