Environmental geology series, Tampa sheet ( FGS: Map series 97 )

Material Information

Environmental geology series, Tampa sheet ( FGS: Map series 97 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Map series 97 )
Added title page title:
Tampa sheet
Knapp, Michael S
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Florida -- Division of Resource Management
Place of Publication:
Florida Dept. of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
1 map : col. ; 81 x 42 cm.
Scale 1:250,000


Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Maps -- Florida -- Hillsborough County ( lcsh )
Geology -- Maps -- Florida -- Manatee County ( lcsh )
Geology -- Maps -- Florida -- Sarasota County ( lcsh )
Geology -- Maps -- Florida -- Tampa Bay Region ( lcsh )
Geology -- Maps -- Florida ( lcsh )
Land use -- Maps -- Florida ( lcsh )
Geology -- Hillsborough County -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- 1980 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- Manatee County -- 1980 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- Sarasota County -- 1980 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- Tampa Bay Region -- 1980 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- 1980 ( local )
Land use -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- 1980 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Hillsborough County (Fla.) -- 1980 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- Hillsborough County -- 1980 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Manatee County (Fla.) -- 1980 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- Manatee County -- 1980 ( local )
1:250,000 -- Sarasota County (Fla.) -- 1980 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- Manatee County -- 1980 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Tampa Bay Region (Fla.) -- 1980 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- Tampa Bay Region -- 1980 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- 1980 ( local )
Land use -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- 1980 ( local )
City of Tampa ( local )
Geology ( jstor )
Maps ( jstor )
Natural resources ( jstor )
Limestones ( jstor )
Rocks ( jstor )
Maps ( lcsh )
single map ( marcgt )
28 x -83, 26 x -83, 26 x -82, 28 x -82 ( Map Coverage )


"References" on verso.
General Note:
Relief shown by contours and spot heights. Depths shown by bathymetric isolines.
General Note:
Includes location map and sectionized township diagram.
General Note:
Base map: USGS 1:250,000 topographic, 1974.
General Note:
Text, location map, and 2 cross sections on verso.
Map series (Florida. Bureau of Geology) ;
Statement of Responsibility:
by Michael S. Knapp

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
025312187 ( aleph )
22101222 ( oclc )
AJM6565 ( notis )


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MAP SERIES NO, 97 FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES BUREAU OF GEOLOGY 83"00' "'9 "'8 ________ +-__ o o + o ME leo 83'00' zoo 000 FEET 310000m. [ '2 45' '3 Scale 1 -250,000 StflCO\ NH 16.9 Fe NH 1 1(\ 0 OIILMOO \. lTJ..AI\"TJC OCl-;A,"; P!JJ4/CIIY N H 17 11 C('t.F "j"'N NG 17 2 Of' NG MEXICO "\ NG175 u . "-7.cj : NG 1 7 11 -60. " " '(;IOOIt[, .. ).UU(' hili'''''''''' '--. ,"",." .... """' .. I .. 4 I,n ... 1"" .lit". , 11)0,\100 .",., ", •• ",.""*, ... "",. " ,,, 1 l ... t. ,,,,, I .,.. 10 lVI oj .... , '04 roo. ""U I , ... ... 001,.... ,. 11'1' , ..... IIon o .. "' ....... . . , ....... " ... I"",,,. , ,01', h _ rlC! ......... , ). loul. ,,, .. MQII10"'AI r.t "'" B ilOW ..... ..,t".I .!tGfhl",.,._ftl' .. . "._,.t .. .. ... '100 ... ,hd ... 1t I .. If", IIOCI ... ,g ,..<11 , l , l .... 1.11 UN O,"l' 1 .. hJl''' '" lfld "v ... IM<, 510.""'1.[ Rif['lOOCl LAI. ........ 28SOOOO " "wtI .. II .. ,a, 1It,t

MAP SERIES NO. 97 ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY SERIES TAMPA SHEET By Michael S. Knapp FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT BUREAU OF GEOLOGY TALLAHASSEE 1980 INTRODUCTION Deve lopmen t of guidelines for wise management of Florida 's natural re sources depends upon a good working knowledge of the State's geology as it relate s to environmental problems. Management de cis ions must be b ased upon adequate geo logi c data for such fields as waste dispou.l, water resources management, land management, h ighway construction, geo lo gic hazards, soils mapping, mining and reclamation . Environmental geologic maps provide the bas i c data needed for the creation and execution of sound programs in the above-mentioned rields. I t i s hoped that this map will not only serve the pur P05e for which it i s intended but will also serve .s • base map for future pre of geologically rei. ted data of a morc specialized or local nature. The ultimate of the State's environmental geology mapping program is to insure development of FloridA's natmal with the lea s t possible environmental dAma,ge. This map presents geologic data in such a way that it can be understood b y persons not specially trained in the sc i e nc e of geology. Common rock types are shown as they occur from just below the soil zone to depths of expccted usc for most purposes. Mapping inv ohoed aerial photographic and topographic inter pret .. tion and field work quarries. borrow pits, canals, road cuts and other rock exposures) to provide the n e (.:essary data points. Use was also made of all published and unpublished data in the files of the Florida Bureau of G e o l ogy plus published reports of the U.S. Geolo/.:dcal Survey and the U.S. Soil Con servation Service. REGIONAL SETTING Thl' physicCiI charactcr of the sed iments in southwest Florida va r ies co n sidera bly near the surface. In lleneral. tht: deposits dip to the south towards the South Florida S h elf (Applin a n d Appli n , 1965). The near-surface deposits, than 600 feet in depth, range in age rrom Eocem: (UJl to 40 million years ago) to Recent. The litholol!Y i s \ 'arLoible with limestone, dolomite, she ll. daycy sa nd, sand dOly, quartz sa n d, and phosphorite all being present. The t wo major physiog raphic divisions in the arc. are the (iulf Coastal Lowland s .nd the Ccntr .. l Highlands (White , 1970). Ph ysi og raphic features assodated with two divi$i o n s ,lTe the G ul t Burier Chain and Lagoons. the marine terraces. the DeSoto Plain , and tILe P olk Upland. LOCATION AND EXTENT The m'lp area is o n ,hl ..... and by Gul f ot Mexico, on ThL' north by the paralle l of btitude 28 dei!rc...:s North, and on the t:c the pupulation is coneen tratled around the m;1jor c ities and The 1970 census shows the largest COUll tics to b e: Pinellas _ 522.329: 490.265: ."hnalcc -97.115: Sarasota J 20.413; and Charlotte 27,559. A to the 1970 census, Tampa was the largest city ...... ith a population of 217 .767. SI. Petersburg is the next largl.::sl city with a population of 216,232. Othe r metropolitan area!> indude: Clearwiltcr 52,074; Sa rasota 40,237; Park _ 22.287; Lugo _ 22,031; Bradenton 21.040: Brandon -1 2 ,749: Port Char lotte _ 10,769; and Venice -6,648. The University of South Florida is the only state univ c rsity WIth campuses in the m.p area. The main campus i s Im:aled in Tampa and two other sm.lIer campuscsare located in St. Petersburg and Sarasota. INDUSTRY AND TRANSPORTATION The: industrY of this area is quite diversified; however. tourism . agrieultulc, and industries h ave the ,.:rcatest impact on the economy. Shipping interests oue another important industry with a vcry active port at Tampa. The retirement community is a s ignificant l:ontributor to the economy of the area. and larg e developmental tracts of land arc common . Most of the coast"I,u-=as have been extensively drained b y the buildinr; of canals. The beautiful beilchcs and multitude of commercial attractions make this OUC:.l of Florida very popular with vacationers. Busch (iardcns in Tampa, and the R i ngling Circus Museum in Sar.sota. a re two o f the favorit e for touris ts. Deep sea fishing, sa ilin g, golf, and swimming an: only a few of the numerous a ... ailable, The major agricultural of the area is the citrus industry, but ex land development has limited its economic contribution. At! other forms or agriculture, sudl as cattle farming and poultry are also limited duc to alternatc land use . Phosphate mining .. nd processing is a major contributor to the economy of this area. The edge of the map includes a ctive mining areas th.t lie in the Central Florida Phosphate Distrkt. Limestone, shell matertll, undo and clayey sand are ;also mined, with most of the material being used for construction purposes. U.S. Highway 19 and U.S . llighway 41 are the maj o r north-south routes on the map. Interstate 75, which is still under construction south of Brad('nton, will be the major north-south route as soon as it is completed. There is also an network of state and county roads criss-crossing the area. Commercial air sen' i ce is available in all or the major of the area. The largest and most modern airport is International. MacDilI Air Force Base is the major militarY air and it is locate d in Tampa. There are smaller airports in the rural (;ommunities.. Other of transportation include bus lin es, railways, and lin es. CLIMATE The average annual temperature far the area approximately 73 degrees F.lmllheit (22 Celsius), with July and August being the hottest IIlunths. The average annual precipitation i s approxim"tely 53 inches ( 135 e m) , but differs m:ukedly from year to year. The months occur during the summer betwee n June and September. GEOLOGY Surface deposils of southwest Florida a r e all afTcrtiary age and range from un co n sol idatcd sands to well-indurated limestones and dolo mit es. Six lith ologic units are recognued in the area cove red by thc map for surfacc mapping and cross section constlUction. These units arc limeston e, c:layey sand. sandy day. medium to fin e sand and silt, and sand. shell :md c lay. The o ldest rock outcroppings are the limestones occurring near Point and t he Hillsborough Rher. Cooke and (1929) assigned these deposits to the Tampa Limestone of early \1iocene age (approx 25 million years ol d) . Limestone crops out or is re latively n car the surface along the Hillsborough River and on the Interbay Peninsula in Tampa Bay. These limeston es oecm in the subsurfal:c throughout muc h of the area. They have been referred to by various )!eologists as t he Tampa Formation. Tampa Group. Tampa limestone. and St. Marks Formation. The Florida Bur e au nf recognizes this unit as the downdip equivalent of the Chattahoochee Formation of North I lorida and refers to it as the St. Mark s Formation. This formatio n is cilarot(;terislically :J lim e lTlud that is white to Ian. sandy. raTcly phosphatic. with low to modcrate m o ldie .... nd vu}!ul ... r porosity. In m.lIlY art:a s it i s ver y fossiliferous and co ntClins rnany vari...:tie s and large n umbers o f corals . echinoids, ostra cods. fcraminifers. and mollu sks. The S1. \1ark s l oTmation underi:lin b y the Suwannce" limesto ne of Oli!!:oC"enc Age . Lime s t o n e docs not crop o ut within the map area. but i s in th e subsurfact!. the Suwannee Linwstom: i s much less s.ndy, and h as a di tlnent faunal from the ov e rlyini! St. Mark s Formation. On >cctions t h e basal limcstom' lithulo!!it.:s arc associatt:d \\.ith thcSl.' two g e u l ugn: lormatiom. The tops of thl'Sf h cds di p ttl 111(" south ;md arlO oyerbin the l !Jwtl1orn F ormation of \1iddlc \1ioc( '!l c A!! c. The liml'stone-dol omitc litholo!!}' is ur is very ncar the a l un!! the Manatee Rivcr ncar Bradcnton. and east of Vt"nice the M ya kkil Riv cr. \\'ithin the map area this i s very sandy and phosphatk, and for an y given locality thl! t ype o f carbon:.Hc ro c k that i s l'nl'ountl..'red .... ill var y frolll a limcstonl' to dolomite Jnd will exhibit varying del!r ces o f rccrystallilatio n. Ue p o s it. \ o f this an' pUrl o f the Hawthorn Form ... tion :Ind. :IS shown on c ross sections A -A' amI B -8', this ullit th i ck.ens to th e south. Thc l1awthorn i"ormation c:, hib its a very diwrse litholof!i c nature. It is composed lIr inte. r bo.:dded clays, lime stones, and dolomites . whit;h an' all int e rmi:\cd with phosphate of sizcs. In gl.:ncral _ t h e lower part of the forlllClt ion is much more calc areous th: m the upper section. In the it i s difficult to torrdate the ind ividual Hawthorn beds. but vcry silndy. phosphatic . and drllomitil' lime arc rred ominant in th e The sandy clay lith o log y i s r eco!!nizcd from well data t o be ncar tin: surfaLt' Just north of the A l alia River. In this arl.:a thl' SClndy clay very lalcareous and fo rms tbt " rcsiduLllll on: r the SI. Mark.s F ormatio n. o n c ross A -A' and B -B', this is part of till ! H awthorn Forlllution and i s s andy. phosphatic. dolomitic, and micritic. of sandy day art : intclbl'J dcd with both the clayey sand and the limestone-dolornit .. lilh nlo!!ies The clayc y und l itho log y, as repr esented on the map and the I.:russ is rekrr a blc to the Bone Valley Form:ltion. This fOf[IJation is at or ncar the surface ove r lIlos t 0]" the quadrant o f the map. The unit i s ver y JlllOS phatic and normally found in association with sands. cakareous and clays. The Bone VaUey Formation and the deposits associll t ed with it are brte ly thought r o bc derived from the reworking. of Hawthorn I'orm ation during Pliocen e time. The sand, shell, and cia}' lithology occurs in the segments of t he IllCip area and not bccn found at clevations exceedin g 25 fect. T hi s lithol ogy i s quite variable, ranging fwm lithified coquinas to pourly indurated and scmi con solidated sand, shc ll . and clay ocds. South of Satasotil, it is generall y re garded as belonginl! to either the Caloosahatchec o r Anastasia formations and being Pleistocene i n age . North of SarasotCl, this lithology is recogn i 7 . e d Plcisto(..-ene to Recent but n o formal name has been g.iven to it The medium to fine san d and unit. which covcrs almost tJrc enlir c area, was o nly mapped where it eonsistcntly att.ined Oln appreciable thickness (at least 8-10 feet). The sands illso contain minor amounts of heav y min erals, shell, phosphorite, and organics. PHYSIOGRAPHY The rIorida Peninsula has been divided into three distinc t phniographic zones White (1970). zones are the Northern or Proximal Zone. the Central or Mid-peninsular Zone , and the Southern or Distal Zone. The map area falls primarily into the M i d-peninsular Zone, with the extreme southern tip being near the Zone boundary. Characteristically, the Central Zone a series of ridges and valleys which runs paIall e l to the peninsula oaastline. The map area lies to the west of the dominant ridges and valleys and is characterized more by broad uplands and marine terrace features. The surface topography of the map area is directly related to ancient stands of the sea that repeatedly covered this area and then retreated. exposing it 10 erosion. Broad marin!' characteri7.ed by such features as the DeSoto Plain , P olk Upland, and the Gulr Coastal Lowlands, were formed when the SI.: .. s b ecame more stationary during interglacial episodes. Healy (1975) showed $C\'eral marine terraces that are possibly present in the map area . These terraces are the Silver Bluff (10'). Pamli co (8' -25'), T .. lbot (25'-42'), P e nb olowClY (42'-70'), Wicomico (70'-100'), and Okcefenokee (100'-170'). The Silver Bluff terrace is only recognized in the area surrounding Charlotte Harbor. Between the Alana and Little Manatee rivers. elevations decrease rapidly in only a few miles and are in the form of • series of ridges. White (1970) refers to this region as ..... one of the most conspicuously terraced parts of the Coastal Plain showing fo ur nats and three intervening scarps . " The elevations of the nat ridges are consistent with other Pamlioo , Wicomico. and Okeefenokee terraces in the state. The Gulf Barrier Chain forms most of the present day coastline. It:s broken by tidal major and where the barrier joined mainland. The Gulf Barri e r Chain extends rrom Anclole Key on the north to Naples an th e south. Whi t e (1970) points out that most of the san d in barrier island s was locally derived by erosion of the headlands. This is exemp li fied by the more sandy nature of the barriers north of Tampa Bay . Elevations on the barrier chai n rarely e.xceed 10 feet above mcan sea le .. el. As a result of the dominant on-shore winds, medium to fine sand and silt has built up on the sides of the barrier The may contain accesso ry materials , such as heavy minerals. phosphorite. shell material. and organics. South of Tampa Bay, the sand, sh cll and clay content of th e Barrier Chain lagaonward and only the Gulf-facif11!; sid e has relatively thick sequenc es of sand. The Gulf beaches south of Sarasota. cspeci:llly around Venice. contain an apprcciablt:: amount of phosphor ite in variable up t o I!ravds . Abund:lnt phos phatil. ed fossils. s uch us shark teeth, ray plates. and mollusk fraf!ments can be found on the beaches after sturms u r se.s. rhe Gulf C oastal Lago o ns form the bounda r y betwcen the (.uJ! H arrie T Chain and the Gulf Coast al Lowlands. The la!!oun s !!en e rall y widen toward thcir mOJJths and narrow toward th ci r headlands. NOTlh o f Tampa R ay. Ih c arc bounded b y the medium t o fine sand and sil1 ;jnd south ofT