Environmental geology series, Tallahassee sheet ( FGS: Map series 90 )

Material Information

Environmental geology series, Tallahassee sheet ( FGS: Map series 90 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Map series 90 )
Schmidt, Walter, 1950-
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Florida -- Division of Resource Management
Place of Publication:
Florida Dept. of Natural Resources, Division of Resource Management, Bureau of Geology
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
1 map : col. ; 47 x 80 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Maps -- Florida ( lcsh )
Land use -- Maps -- Florida ( lcsh )
Geology -- Maps -- Florida -- Tallahassee Region ( lcsh )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- 1979 ( local )
Land use -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- 1979 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- Tallahassee Region -- 1979 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- 1979 ( local )
Land use -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- 1979 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- Tallahassee Region -- 1979 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Tallahassee Region (Fla.) -- 1979 ( local )
City of Tallahassee ( local )
Geology ( jstor )
Silts ( jstor )
Gravel ( jstor )
Eggshells ( jstor )
Limestones ( jstor )
Maps ( lcsh )
single map ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States of America -- Florida -- Leon County -- Tallahassee


"References" on verso.
General Note:
Relief shown by contours and spot heights.
General Note:
Text, location map, and 3 cross sections on verso.
Map series (Florida. Bureau of Geology)
Statement of Responsibility:
By Walter Schmu!t.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
025272742 ( aleph )
06498638 ( oclc )
AJM7958 ( notis )


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MAP SERIES NO. 90 I I flORIDA G EOLOGiCAL SURVEY 903 W. TENNESSEE S TREET TAllAHASSEE, FLORIDA 3 2 3 0 4 ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY SERIES i , TALLAHASSEE SHEET By Walter Schmidt FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT BUREAU OF GEOLOGY TALLAHASSEE 1979 INTRODUCTION Development o f guidelines for wise management of Florida's natural resources depends upon a goo d working knowledge of the Sta te 's geology as it relates to man's environmental probl ems. Management decisions must be based upon adequate geologic data for such fields as waste disposa l , water resources management, land management, highway eOTl'Struction, geo l ogic hazards, soils mapping, mining and r eclamation. Environmental geologic maps provide (he basic data nceded for the creation and execution of sound programs in the above mentioned fields. It is hoped that this map will not serve t he purpose for which i t is intended but will also serve a base map for future prescntation of geologically rela te d data of a more specialized or local nature. The ultimate pu rp ose of thc State's cnvironmental geology mapping program is to i nsure development of Florida's natural resources with the least possible environ mental damage. This map presents geologic data in such a \vay that it can be understood by persons not specia lly trained in the of geo logy. Common rock types are shown as they occur from just be l ow the soil zone LO depths of e'-.pected use f or must purposes. M a pping involved aerial photographic and topographic i nter p r etation and field work (vi siting quarries, borro"" pits, canals, road cutS and other rock exposu res) to provi d e th e n e cessary data pOints. Usc was also made of all publis h ed and u n publishcd da t a in the files of the Florida Bureau of Geology p l us published reports of the U .S. Gcological Survcy and the U.S. Soil Conserva t ion Scrvic e . REGIONAL SETTING Sediments in the eastern panhandle of fo'iorida vary considerably ncar the surface. The deposits in general dip to the south; however, due to a number of subsur face structures the dip direction is complicated. The material, within a few hundred feet of the sllIface, consists o f sedimcnt s r a nging in age from up p er Eocene to Recent. Its lithologic character includes limestone, dolomite, shell marl, clay, clayey sand, and fine quartz sand s . There are three ma j o r physiographic d i v i s i ons i n this area as proposed oy Puri and Vernon(1964) . These are the Mari anna Lowlands, the Tallahassee Hill s and associated ridges, and the Gulf Coast a l Lowlands. The ten counties that make up the Tallahassee Sheet include a wide arr;IY of surface environments . The topography shifts from the karst terrain in the limestune region to the clayey sand hills in the highlands, to t he white sandy beaches along the Gulf coas t. LOCATION AND EXTENT 111e map area (west of the Apalachicola River) is bounded to the north by Alabama, and east of the river by Georgia. To the east it bounded by Jefferson County, t o the west , Walton C o unty, and un t h e by F ranklin County, southern Gulf County and the Gulf of Mexico. Nor th to south the area measures approximate l y 100 miles; east to west, abou t 125 miles. The ten c ounties total 6,690 square miles in l and area although southern Gulf County does not appear on this map. POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT The arc;) cove red by the map averages 50 people per sq uare mile. The major citie s are T allahassee and Panama City, where approximately hal f tbe population of th e te n -county area resides. The major sources of inc om e through out t he region is general a griculture. w i th timber. th e t o urist trade and state government also contribut ing a significant amount. The southern half of the map area is dominated by t imber land, nat i onal forest and w i ldlife preserves. T he northern h a lf has mostly agricu l tural activity in a b ette r clayey sand soil. T he principal crops grown are corn, s oybeans , sweet potatocs, peanuts , beans, and peas. In contrast to the vas t amounts of agricultural land in Northwest Florida, th e state capital. employs numerous people invol ved in state govern ment and is also the home of two majo r universities. I>anama City i s one of the principal tourist centers in west Florida, in addition to be ing a commercial fishing center and located near an Air Force Base. Gadsden and Jackson counties employ a large number o f people in the m i n i ng of f ullers earth a n d limestone . TRANSPORTATION Interstat e 10 is the only four-lane inter st ate route in the arca. It east-west from Tallahassee to Ponce de Leon . T h ere are nu m erous othcr s t ate and county roads that cross the area as well as hundreds of secondary roads. The major cities have r ailroad a n d bus service. Tallahassee , Panama City, a nd Marianna have muni c ipal airports. Quin cy, Cottonda le, Blount s town , and Chip l ey are served by smaller airstrips. There are numerous military airstrips in the area, predominantly in Bay County. CLIMATE r he climate for the ten-county area is mild and humid, with long, w,um summers and mild winters. The average about 810F (28 oe), an d the winters average about 5201' (11 oc). Average rainfall in the district is about S5 inches (140 cm ) a year with .Tune, July, August and Septem ber r eceiving O l e heaviest amount. l;hundersh ower s of high intensi t y ar e common with as much as t hree o r f o ur inthes (8-10 cm) of rainf all during an h o ur period. Occasional tropica l storms hurricane s blow in from the Gulf of Mexico. I , GEOLOGY The ncar-surface deposits of the eastern Florida panhandle include sed iments which rang e in age from Upper Eoc ene to Recent. Eocene a nd Oligocene sediments are entirely carbonates, that is, limestones and dolomites. The Miocene deposits consist of a variety of lim es toncs , shell beds, clays and sands. Pliocene and Pleistocene sediments are dominated by quartz sand s and grave ls, and clays. The recent material is mostly fine sands along the present coast and stream valleys. Limestone and dolomite deposits are present at the surface in two gen eral areas, one along the southeast corner of the map in eastern Wakulla and in southeast Leon counties, and another in Jackson County. Th ere arc small depos its or l i mestone presen t in Holmes, Washington and Gadsden counties as well as a few other isolated occurrences, however, the major portion of limestone mined is from Wakulla and Jackson counties. TIle Wakulla County deposits are presen t as two limestone the Suwannee Limestone and the S1. Marks Formation. These units dip to the southwest and in central Wakulla County are covered by a subs tantial thickness of fine sands and c1a}'s which thicken westward. The Suwannee Limestone observed in this area is a fossiliferous rock com posed or.a granular, partially recr}'staltized limestone, buff to very pale orange in color. The St. Marks Formation is predominant l y a fine to medium grained, sandy limestone. The color ranges from very pale orange to grayish. Microfos sils arc present but not common. Exposures in Jackson County represent the Ocala Group, Marianna, Suwannee, and Tampa Stage Limestoncs. These depo s its vary with location; however, they are s imilar to the Wakulla County material in that t hey arc buff to white fossiliferous limes to nes , that have undergon e varyin g amounts o f recrys tallization. In one area in south-central Jackson County, the Suwa nn ee Limestone has been extensivel y dolomitized and is be ing mined as dolomite. These limestones dip away from the outCIfOP area in Jackson County to the south a nd southwest. This is shown in croSis-section which traces the upper one-hundred feet of sediment from near the Alabama line in central Jackson County t o Panam a City in Bay County. In southern Bay County t he limesto n e is 1 00 to 150 feet below sea level. S h ell beds arc present as small outcr ops associated with present stream ,,' alleys. These sediments occur predominantly in Washington, Calhoun and Bay coun t i es where M idd1e and Upper Mioccne formations crop out due to erosion and removal of a clayey sand overburden. The trend of the shell material can also be seen in cross-section B-B'. Sandy clay a n d clay is not an extensive litholo gy in this area, although in Gadsden County an econo mic deposit of fullers earth has been mined for years. This clay is dominantly llttapulgite (polygorskite) and was laid down during the Middle M i ocene in a mar i ne environment. Other clays arc prescnt throughout the area, however, they are generally of small areal extent and are difficult to show' on the scale of this map. I"ine sands and silts are commonly associated with the present shoreline and stream valleys. Composed mostly of quartz, there are a lso minor amounts o f heavy minerals, and other debris prescnt. The clays are sporadic in their distribution, as are the gravel and coarse sand materials . Most gravel is associated with the Pliocene deposits and is gen erally located at highcr elevations. Reworked gravel from older deposits is an exception to this, as it is usually found in lower areas. Clayey sand, the most extensive lith o logic unit in the map area, represents many ages and formations. for the most par t man}' of the geo l ogic fo rm atio ns in the panhandle weather and break down chemically af ter a long period of time, leaving a clayey sand remnant. This lithology is generally fou nd as a th in veneer over much of the area. PHYSIOGRAPHY The Tallahassee Sheet has three major physiographic divisions in Florida; the Gulf Coasta l Lowlands, the Marianna Lowlands and the Tallahassee Hills. There are numerous o ther smaller geomorphic features that have also been named by Pur i and Vcrnon (1964). These are the resu l t s of locali zed reshaping of thc three larger prov i nces, creating valleys, ridges, hill s and bars. The Gulf Coastal Lowlands is the land adjacent t o the coast line and is generally low in e levation (1 to 70 f eet) and poorly drained. The coastal area is c haracleri/,ed by reatures th at are generally coast paraliel, indicating a close relationship with the marine forces . The landforms are composed of barrier islands, lagoons , estuaries, coastal ridges, sand dune ridges, relict bars and spits, with intervcning coast parallel valleys. Gently s l oping plains extend from the highlands coastward, and some of these arc modifi ed by well developed karst, as in \Vakulla County. The ancient marine shorelines in this province have been divided into four terraces. A terrace i s the former bottom of shallow seas, usually floored with dep osits of sand, silt, clay and sheUs. The lowest te rrace from J-I0 feet has been designated the Silver Bluff; from 8-25 feet, the Pamtico; from 25-42 feet, the Talbot Terracc; and from 4 2 -70 feet the Penholoway Terrace (Healy,,1975). The Cody Scarp is the inland boundarY of these t erraces in the eastern half of thc map arel. In the west the New Hope Ridge divides the Coastal Low lands from the Marianna Lowlands. Ancient marine sea botto ms can be traced up to the highest elevations in florida. In the Tallahassee Hills higher terraces mapped includ e the Wicomic o (70-100 fcer), the (100-170 feet), the Coharie (170-215 fect) , and the Hazelhurst (215-320 feet). These surfaces, although they arc mappable over long distances, often vary in elevation from place to plac e . The reason for this is du fere . ntiallowering o f the underlying limestones due to solution processes and vary ing erosion rates of the sur f ace sediments. A numbe r of remna nt hills and ridges in the Marianna Lowlands indica te that the Northern Highlands were once continuous and that the Western H igh lands, New Hope Ridge, Grand Ridge, and Tallahassee Hills were connected. Stream erosion, com bined with solution acti v ity, ha s reduce d this highland to elevation s lower than th e land to t he south, producing a steep north-facing scarp known as the Holmes Valley Scarp. This scarp separate s the Marianna Lowlands from the high sand h ills of the New Hope Ridge. The l owland s in Holmes, Washington and Jackson counties cover a rectan gular area of about 1900 square miles. The pro"ince extends into Alabama and Georgia, only along the principal streams. The No r thern Highlands i s a continuous highland, d issected by' larger stream valleys, The marginal slopes are well drained by dendritic streams, but the tops arc gently sloping plateaus. The soils in t he eastern panhandle vary greatly d epen ding on locat ion, however, some generalizations can be made. Normally, th ey are loams and sands on an undulating topography which is often gullied. The soil is slightly acid and requires liming. Grazing and general farming are major uses of t h e land, with fore sts of pine and hardwoods common. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY Limestone, dolomite, clay. sand, clayey sand, shell marl, gravel deposits and ground water are the mineral re sources of the eastern panhandle of Plorida occurring in economic quantities. Quartz sand occurs in abundance in the panhandle. It occurs over the entire an:a, but only tluoughout the southern half is it relatively clay free, clean, and unconS(ludalcd. Sands have been mined along the banks and within some of the rivers throughout the a rea. The clayey sand also is locally mined, being used primarily for road base and fill for foundations. Gravel is not prescnt in large quantities, however, there are small deposits that could be developed. Most quartz gravel occurs sporadically in th e Mic cosukee Formation and in the Citronelle Formation. These deposits are found in the highlands. Shell mar l is prescnt in minor amounts i n Leon, Calhoun, Washington, and Bay counties. This material is Upper Miocene in age (10 million yearsago),and is assigned to the Choctawhatchee Stage. It is used locally as a stabilizer on some rural roads. Clay is found as sporadic deposits in most of the eastern panhandle, but in Gadsden County a well mapped deposit of fullers earth clay is present and has been mined since the 1800's. Fullers earth is a clay differing from other clays chiefly in that it is light, porous, and possesses in a high degree the quality of ab sorbing liquids and greasy substances. This material was formerly used to remove greasy spots from cloth, from which usage it receives its name of fullers earth. The clay is dominantly attapulgite with minor amounts of montmorillonite, kaolinite and quartz sand. The clay occurs in the Hawthorn Formation (Middle Miocene). The Quincy area produces a major portion of the United States' pro duction of fullers earth with a number of active mines in both Gadsden County and southwest GeOIgia. Other clay deposits that are dominantly kaolinite have been utilized locally for brick manufacturing. One clay mine is owned by the State of Florida and is lo cated ncar Chattahoochee. Limestone is presently mined in Wakulla and Jackson counties. In general, the uses of limestone may be classified into two groups, c hemic a l uses and phys ica l uses. The limestone s of t he Florida panhandle are weU suited for both uses because of their high purity a nd generally poorly indurat e d character. In Wakulla County, limestone from the St. M ar ks and Suwannee formations is mined and crushed for use in cemen t and road base. In Jackson County, t he Marianna lime stone has been mined as building sto ne in the past and is presently used for agricultural purposes. Future deve lopment could be expected in other areas of Wakulla and Jack son counties whcre the sand over burden is at a minimum, as well as in Leon, Washington an d Holmes counties. Dolomite is presently mined in one small area along Rocky Creek in southern Jackson County. There, two operations mine dolomite from the Suwannee Formation. Its primary use is agricultural. GROUND WATER Occurrence A portion of the water that falls as rain percolates down ward into the underlying permeable sediments. This water is ca lled subsur face water, but only that which is in the zone of saturation ( where all interstitial spaces are filled wit h water) is calle d ground water. Aquifers and Aquicludes The grou nd water reservoir system is made up of b o th aquifers and aquicludes. An a quif er is a lithologic unites) that i s able to yie l d usable quantities of water to wells and tluough which water moves with relative case. An aquiclude i s a lithologic unites) of l owe r permeability t han an aquifer which ret ards the movement of water and whieh will not readily yield water to wells. The Floridan Aquifer serves most of the water needs of this area through wells. Th e three cross-sections included demonstrate the attitude of the top of the limestone in the subsurface. T here arc many local undul ations but in general the dip is t o the southwest. The o"'erlying wedge of sediments (gravels, sands, and clays) arc often developed for small domestic supply wells, however , the volume and quality will be limit ed. The water in the Floridan Aquifer gene r ally migrates southwar d a nd down dip (deeper). It would follow then that a large portion of the recharge takes place locally, that is, where the limestones arc closer to the land surface, namely Holmes, Washington and J ackso n co unti es. In add ition, a great deal of recharge to the Floridan ori g inates f rom the shallow unconfined aquifers a l ong the contact lone. Northwest Florida ha s an abundance of exception all}' good qua lit y gruund water, which stems f rom two main factors . First, the area ha s one of t h e highest annual rainfalls in the country, averaging about 63 in c h es (160 cm) and second, th e area is underlain by several hundred feet of clay sands an d pure limestones that serve as an immense reservoir for the water that into t he grou nd. Watt=r from the shallow aquifer tend s to be re lativ e ly l ow in mineral con tent beca use the aquifer cons i sts principally of insoluble quartz sand . There is, however, often high co n centrat i ons of dissolved iron and sulphur. Water from the deeper wells which tap the Floridan Aquifer generally is harder due to the presenc e of calcium bicarb onate. In the upper limestone beds the water is low in solids, which reflects t h e quality of re c harge from the ove rl y ing sands. At depth within t he Fl oridan Aquifer, th e water is of the sod i um chlo rid e type and is higher in dissolved solids. Aquifcr discharge occurs naturally as springs from both aquifers, and ground-water withdrawal by pumping (farming and domestic) also accounts for considerable depletion. The shallow aquifer contains ground water under both artesian and water table con ditions. Where the water is confined by clay or limonite hardpan , it i s under artcsia n pressuJe. Wher e the wateI is n o t confined by imp e rmeable layers it is under water table conditions. OUTCROPS OF INTEREST 1. Jackson County: Townsh ip 5N, Range lOW, Section 27, Florida Caverns State Park. Here a visitor can see caves and oth e r solution features in t h e Ocala Group Limestones. 2. Washington County: Township 4N, Range 13W, Section 27, Northeast quarter. At Falling Waters State Park. Here in th e Falling Water Sink the Suwannee and Chattahoochee Limestones can be observed. 3. Gadsden County: Township 3N, Range 3W, Section 36, West half. In the pit of Flor idin Company, clay (fullers earth) i s mined. Permission s hould be obtained before entrance to t he mine area . 4. Lcon Co unty: Township IS, Range 4W, Section 21 ,Northwest q u ar ter. At Jackson B luff along the Ochlockonee River is an exposure of shell bed s . This is the type l oca lity of the Jackson BlutT Fo rmation. 5. Liberty County: Township IN, Range 8W, Section 24, east ban k of Apalachicola River. Here exposed js 8-10 feet of Jackson Bluff shell beds, and clayey sands and fine sands of younger deposits, the total section being over 130 feet. Permission should be obtained before entering the bluff area. REFERENCES Bureau of Geology, Florida, Well Files Gremillion, L. R., 1968. Geology of Gadsden County, Florida. Unpublished Report, Florida Bureau of Geology. Hendry, C. W., Jr., and Sproul, C. R., 1966. Geology and Ground Water Resour ces of Leon County, Florida. F lorida Bureau of Geology Bulletin No. 47. Hendry, C. W., Jr., and Yon, 1. W., Jr. , 1958. Geology of the Area in and Around the Jim Woodruff Reservoir. F l orida Bu r eau of Geo l ogy Report of Investigations No. 16. B SOUTHWEST zoo 150 100 50 rSY5S;3Wy70 WByASIIWIOa I WBy-2SW BAY \ ? CO, I JACK SON CO. W Jk 2NI2 W !2bd FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES BUREAU OF GEOLOGY B' N ORT HEAST I WJlo: 3N t2W t 2 d c 200 I WJk4NIO W 7ca I 'KGNWc b '50 '00 Moore, W. E., 1955. Geology of Jackson County, Florida. florida Bureau of Geology Bulletin No. 37. Puri, H. S., and Vernon , R. 0., 1964. Summary of the Geology of Florida and a Guidebook to the Classic Exposures. Florida Bureau of Geology, Special Publication NO.5 (revised). Reves, W. D., 1961. The Limestone Resources of Washington, Holmes, and Jackson Counties, Florida. Florida Bureau of Geology Bulletin No. 42. Vernon, R. 0., 1942. Geology of Holmes and Washington Cou1lties, Florida. Florida Bureau of Geology Bull et in No. 21. -50 -100 _100 -150 _t50 -200 ____________ A NorthweST 250 200 WHQ6N1 7W-7dd t50 I WHo 5 1 W-35bd WHo 4NW5db \ 100 50 HOLMES CO. ! I ! I WASHINGTON CO. W 4NI W WHo 4N.15W I I I I I I I i. J ACKSON CO, TD 46tO' CALHOUN CO. LI BERTY CO, WLbI N 7W1 3cb I WCn-2.N9W2:2dc I WLb.IN 8W24db I L EON CO. WAKUL L A CO. WW'K 2S-3W27a A' SOulheas t 250 200 ISO 100 50 I _0;" " f'" ''''''I .. MSL 50 -'00 -15 TD4012' EXPLANATION '-------II Gravel and Coarse Sand c=:JMed.-Fine Sand and Silt c=J Clayey Sand [=:J Sandy Clay and Clay c:::::J Shell Beds-Sand andClay [=:J Limestone '-------II Dolo mit e c::J Limestone and Dolomite / , J B (----( '"''' . I '" l-• LOCATION of CROSS SECTIONS C SOUTHWEST 200 WAKULLA CO '50 100 ITWWk,5S,2W,31 I WW'K-5SW-1 2cc I \'4S3W24, 50 -50 -100 TDt tlOO LEON CO. WLnIS2W34 r=WXd --'V -50 -100 c' NORTH EAS T '00 WLn 2N I W 2bc I 250 200 150 '00 50 -50 100 __________ -"' __ -'-_150


MAP S E RI E S NO . 90 w '" " . o g GULF OF MEXICO Eac h are a outlined o n thi! map may consist o f mor c than one kind of s u b sUI face se dim ent. The map i s t hu s meant f o r , e neral p lann i n g ra t he r t h an a basis f o r gecision s on t h e use of specific Iracn. 000, 1 11 (FLA. NORT H ) EXPLANATION D M e d . F ineSandand Silt D Clayey Sand o San d y Cl a y D Gravel and Coarse Sand D Shell Beds o Limestone o Dolomite Limestone/Dolomiie TALLAHASSEE CONTOUR I N [ERVAL 50 FEET WI I H SUPPLEMENTARY CONTOURS AT 25 FOOT INTERVALS ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY SERIES TALLAHASSEE SHEET . /Sand 15 FLORID A DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOUR CES BUREAU OF GEOLOGY APAtACHEE BAY LF OF 000 FEEl (GA. W[sJ) o o o o o • '''Tl[ltIOlt-OI[OI..-OGIC'''L .UI'IVE". W ... II""'N,.TON, o. DEP AR TMENT OF NA1URAL RESOURCES BUREAU OF GEOLOGY This pu blic docwnen t was promulgated at a total cos t of $3,420.00 or a pe r copy cos t o f $ 1. 37 fOr the p urp ose of disse m inating geologic dill. FLOR I DA GEOI_OG I C SURVEY MAP SER I ES TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA; GEORGIA; ALABAMA 1954 1I1011lrO Rr"/ISION 1966 u 3931 . 1:1 . }.leo .. 90 1 1979 .53 t:; 2.1


MAP SER IES NO . 90 ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY SERIES TALLAHASSEE SHEET B y W a lt er Schmidt F LORID A D E P A RTMENT O F NATURA L R E SOURCES DI V I S IO N OF RESOURCE M A NAGEMENT B U R EAU O F GEOLOGY TALLAHAS SEE 1979 INTRODU CTION Dev e lopme n t of guidelines for w ise man age m ent of 1-'Iorida's natur a l r eso urces depend s upon a good worki ng knowledge of the State's geo logy as i t rel a tes t o nun's e n v ir o nment a l p roblems. Management decisions m u st be based upon adeq ua t e geOlogic data (or such fie lds ;IS wasle disposal , water resources ma nagemen t, l and management, highw3Y const r u c tion, gt'ologic ha7:l.rds, soils mappin g , mini n g and re c lamation. E n vir onmental geu logk maps providc rhc basic dat a need e d fo r the c rcation and e;"l;c{'ution o f sound progranis i n the abovc menti o n e d fields. It i s h o ped that thi s map will n o t o nl y scm: tht! purpose f o r which it i s i n t ende d but will a l so serve as a base map fo r future p re!ICn tation of geo logicaU y related data of a mOle specia l ized or l (Jcd nature. T h e IIl tilTl;Jte pllrpuse uf tht: S t a tc's l'm'ironmcnt al geo logy mapping program i s to i nSllre development o f Florida's natural resources w it h l l w h':.tst poss i b l e environ menta l dam age . T hi s m a p pre se n ts geol ogic dala i n such a \\':.Iy Ihat i t e m be unders1uod by p e r so n s n o t speciall y tr a in e d in the scie n ce of !!eology . Common rock I y p es are s hown a s tlley occur f r o m jus t be l o w the soil zo n e to de pths of us.: fo r most purposes. M a p p i ng i n .... o lved aerial pho tographic and t o p ogt":Jp lli e inter p retatio n a n d fie l d w o rk ( v i s iti ng quani es, b orrow pits, ca n a ls, road ('uts a nd o ther rock exposur es) t o provid e the necessary data points. Use was a l so made of all pub lis h e d and u npublished d a t a i n the files or t he Florid a Burea u of Geology p l us publishe d reports o r t he U . S. Geologi cal Survey and t h e U,S, Soil Consen'ation Servi ce, REGI ONAL SETTI N G Sedi me nts i n t h e east ern panhandle of r1o ridOl \ 'ary co n si derabl y ncar t he s u rfa c e . The d e posit s i n general dip t o t h e south; howner. d u e t o a number of subsurfa ce structures t h e d i p direction i s complicated, The ncar-s ur face material , withi n a few hundred. feet of the s urface.l:onsiSIS 01' sediment" r;ln ging in ; l gC from u pper Eucen e 10 Recent. lil ho logic in cl udes limestnn c, d o lomile, s h ell marl, clay , dayey sand, and f in c quart z sands. T h e re Iluce ma jor di v i s i o n s in thi , ;trc:} a s proposed Puri and Vernon(l964). T h csl' 3ft' t h e M arbnna Luwl a nd s. t ht' Ta ll ahassee I 'JiUs and associa t e d r i dges, :l.nd the G u l f CoaSt a l Lowl a nds. T he Il' n CLluntics t h at make up t he T a ll ahassee S h ee t inclu d e a wide .. rray of surface cO\ironments. The topography s hi fts from the karst terrain i n the limest o ne re;! i o n to the d:l.yey s a n d hills i n the h i ghl;t nds, t o the white sandy beadles Ihe l;ulf coast. LOCATIO N AND EXTENT The map a rea (west o f t he A p ala c h icol a R i\'Cr) bounded t o t h e north by A labama, and east of t h e ri ver by Georgi a, T o the cast it is bounol.'d by Jefferson County. t o t h e west. Walt on County. and on t h e soulh by l"rank l i n ('ounty. southern Culf County and the Gul f of M c , x i(o. North to south th c 'HC:J measures approximately 100 m iks: eaSI to west, aboul 1 25 m i le" The ten CUlint ies t01:l1 6,690 s q uare mi les in l :Jnd :Jrca although southern Gul f County does not appear o n I hi s map. P OPULAT ION AND DEVELOPMENT The area co\'e r e d by Ihe nl:JP aver:rgcs .50 peopk per ,qu:rre m i le, T h e major cities are T:Jllahassee and Panama City, where ap(Ho\imatcly ha lt' the population of the len-county a r ea re s i des, The ma jor sour,.;:es of inl'oille lhroughout the regio n i s general agricultme, with timber, the t'lUriSt trade and st:Jtc governmen t a l so contributin g a sign ificant amount. T he southern h a l f or the map area i s domina te d by t i mber land, lIa t i o na l forest and wildl ife p r eserves. The north .:rn h a lf has mus tl y a}!ri n litur .. 1 a(li yity in a better clayey sand soil. The principal t'fOp S grown arc corn, :;u)'bea n s, sweet potatoes, peanuts, beans, and peas. In contrast to Ihc amounts o f agrirultural land i n Northwest Florida. Tallah assee, the s t a t e capital, employs numerous pe o ple i nvolved in state govern ment a nd is a l so the home of two major universi ties , P an:Jm:J C it y i s one of t h e p ri ncipal tou r i s t ce nters i n west Florida. i n a d d ition to be i n g a commercial fish i ng cente r and locat e d n ca r an Air Force Base. Gadsden and Ja(k son counti es employ a large n umber o f peopl e in t h e m in i n g o f carlh (ciay) a n d limeston e , TRANS P O RTA TION I n l erslalt: lOis the onl y fourlane interstate mule i n the a rea, It eaSI wt:st f r o m T alla h Jssce III Ponc e de Leon. There all' other a nd cOU",y roads that cross the area as well as of roads. The majo r cities h ave r a ilr o ad and bus se rvi ce. T a l lahassee , P a namediment s occur p r e dominantly in Washington , Calhoun an d Bay count ies where Middle and U pper fo rmations crop out d ue to erosion and removal of a dayey sand ovcrburden. T he t re n d o f t h e she ll malerial ca n also be seen in cros.;sect ion BB' . Sandy day a n d c!;ty is not an cxtensh ' c litho logy in thi s arca, although i n Ga d s d e n Count y an econum ie deposit of f uUcrs ear t h has bee n m i n.:d fur } ' eurs. Thi s clay is dominantly atlapul gi t c {polygo r s l dte) and was l aid down duri ng th.: Mioccnc i n a mari n e environmcnt. Other clays illC prescnt t hroughout the area , hOWe\ ' Cf, they an: generally of small areal e ,xtenl and arc diffiLult to show all t h e scale ot' t h i s map. j' i n t sa nus :lIld silts (lfC Lorlllmm!y associated wit h I he present shorel ine amJ strt::;Jn\ Cllmpllsed must l y of q uartl, the rt"-:lIl' 3lso mi n o r amounts ot' he:Jv y m i n erals, or!,? a lith,do[! i c un itbl lit" I .. wer perml':lbil il}' titan an aquikr whtdl fl'la r d s t il\' I\lUHmcnt n f W;.ttl'r Jnd whi d l wil l Ih)t readily ridd wall' r t o w d ls, Thl' l ' h a i d 'lIl Aqui fl'r saves Illus t uf the WJtc r Ill'cds Ill' thj" .If..-a we ll s . Thl' I h rel' aoss'!IC\,tions induded dl'mumtr;Jtc Ihe J lt r tudl' "I' tllc lOp o f the l i llll'ShlnL' i n Ill..: Thnc .. m: 1Il:J1l} ItlL;J1 undu!:Jtiul]\ lJllt in gl'ner: 1 1 d ip i s tl,) thl' s.,luthwl'St. r hl' \\Cd):l' lit" '1I.:uirrll"llts (gravl"is, Xlllds, and l'i;JY\) :lrc uften I.k\"t"lupnl ["Llr \1l1:t11 lllllllL'stk <;uprly the Vll!tIIllL' ; Ind qu:.tlilY will be l illlill'd. Till' walL'r in lh ,' I lur i J:Hl Aquilcr bl'!1erJlly .... I Ulll\V , Hd :Jnd d'IWTI d i p (deeper), 11 wlluld fll l luw tl wnth:l1:1 !:rrf!.' p!lnhm u t I Ill' rn'h:.lrgc loc.d ly. tll;.]1 i s. Ilw :Ill' I" till' l al1d 1l0 '00 I WHQ !7W 7dd '00 '0 HOLMES CO. i I WASH I NGTON CO. WHo 4 N . 1 5 w I I I I I B S OUTHWEST i i BAY co I JACKSON C O F LORIDA DEPARTMENT O F NATURAL RESO U RCES BUR EAU OF GEO LO GY B' HOftTHfAST ______ WLb IN 1W 13c b I A ' Southeolt 250 '00 050 '00 .0 ____ -+ ________ '0 '0 '00 -100 .150-.,>0 EXPLANATION c=J G r ovel and Coarse Sand c=:J Med.-F ine Sand and S ilt c::::J C l ayey Sand Sandy Clay and C l ay Shell Beds-SandandClay Limestone C]Dolomite .. L i mestone and Dolom i te ,:L " c,,----, ... ,101 I .' (---( , I l. . LOCATION of CROSS SECTIONS c ' NORTHEAS T 300 WLn 2 N I W 2 bc I "" C SOU THWEST 200 WAKULLA L E O N 200 CO. C O . ," 150 ' 0 [[WWkS52W31 WWk 55 3 W 12ce I .\k 4 5 3 W 24, '00 '00 .", .>0 000 • r ______ ...... _.-.;.;;J.....:..L-L. ''''

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