Environmental geology series, Gainesville sheet ( FGS: Map series 79 )

Material Information

Environmental geology series, Gainesville sheet ( FGS: Map series 79 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Map series 79 )
Knapp, Michael S
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Florida Dept. of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
1 map : col. ; 47 x 80 cm. on sheet 56 x 87 cm.
Scale 1:250,000


Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Maps -- Florida -- Gainesville Region ( lcsh )
Land use -- Maps -- Florida -- Gainesville Region ( lcsh )
Maps -- Gainesville Region (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- Gainesville Region -- 1978 ( local )
Land use -- Gainesville Region -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- 1978 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- Gainesville Region -- 1978 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Gainesville Region (Fla.) -- 1978 ( local )
1:250,000 -- Florida -- Gainesville Region -- 1978 ( local )
1:250,000 -- Gainesville Region (Fla.) -- 1978 ( local )
Land use -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- Gainesville Region -- 1978 ( local )
Land use -- 1:250,000 -- Gainesville Region (Fla.) -- 1978 ( local )
Geology ( jstor )
Natural resources ( jstor )
Ions ( jstor )
Limestones ( jstor )
Lowlands ( jstor )
Maps ( lcsh )
single map ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States of America -- Florida -- Alachua County -- Gainesville
30 x -84, 29 x -84, 29 x -82, 30 x -82 ( Map Coverage )


General Note:
Relief shown by contours and spot heights. Depths shown by bathymetric isolines.
General Note:
Text, 3 cross sections, and ancillary map on verso
General Note:
Includes location map and township grid.
Map series (Florida. Bureau of Geology) ;
Statement of Responsibility:
by Michael S. Knapp

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
025227187 ( aleph )
22101220 ( oclc )
AJJ6978 ( notis )


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De_-opment of guidelines -or w-se management of Florida' natural

be based upon adequate geologic data for sudc lields as waste disposal,

eat re o f Teure Taage mnow las n the m anagement irghay e ighrmtl geologT c

2l0d T les lmaopng pndsbot 70 mieads wd re.l hetre y Lnvo n centra m penin
ao r eprode tsied e asiv1del a nud o1t the 1-1rea1 M and 1 o11 un-1

po m -s U n a I abo e19no arle 9 is d uCts tgla ns the I ls t
on.9rve R. dge, III rpo -hillsd B intendged wig l asonse G a a bao

op oflort h nurnu o 2 G Nolog rahy r hed a ouatoe spo w deahS
9oloa 9 1 1ur91e and l uhs e 9pul o 191 1o11 Stat eson e nvic g l
In dI 9 11s mapda Badfor -o dt wh 33 ur an, bnd9-
s 1o 1yi1 Te1nse, to he sialy trined st th e tesnaee l 4 U n Ion.
34.2 ,, Pro, 3 711 1. 1 1- 1 -.l, .1 11%, 1 -1 d 091a,1

-tk196o f anre s19 ag w as the Oc ,nli just o f t uIhe -. zIons t1 9 th11e

it tle d -n g l -1ogs t c 70ypon s _apind winser d a er6 incal c nto pophulan

9nra1 1r0o 1cu 70 o and o other im poesato proviadte w t 9h 1 wi 1r e a
In U .ds I l I ad ot allIubhsthed o and npubhs da I t. Iles

Inut re abld F reat ora t o-Bgy plus pueddhhdnd freps U S
1o81n Col Su1 rny nd19 a the hu C untr Sg9a9 ns1 e I s I

LowsnsesTe ra nrd ln n 18 9s9 t r1 0nd C rld ik 9 t.1e U 1er ti,


a T he rei n oth e aial ovr f i -sdy dpIo a d iby a su --N,
ft9e -o -Ter 11 kown a1The o]I pal1 9,phlt o1, 0. Iigh TIn s -uc ture1 1

yas dt-e d LI oc ated b one t19 at 5ins "t -1les1 Le e o aty c Tily
1 s,230 1s l and. 1 a bo-9 E 70 kie 1 d1 e, -0 eope d P eo l p eAi1 nsul9 r

unopalty Eocene a nd nheof, ramnette onwSepColutember 5wi6, 19a5t0rS e
1a -19s10ed 19t901y 9 po0 t -1ap I Mi-ensoe yn .u.Ger
sed a- Ili nn rIng the dIne -nd I llgl ond areas

Tuhe Io 1a119 p1 y d1sins11 th- m11 are p c d
sunnL Ton h L e th uo I d 1- 5e urph faures t.

..9111ta11 0,9 0the a1ea1an a 01 9)1111 9, 111
B 9,oks 9 -tidg,, FarIfd OI ll, Bel[ Ridge, HbiI Spitg Gap, D-6

G a9p S. e- and 199 h Hill, Mar Hdl, u- P t R g, a nt t I

91 N19 9 Highlad 1T Ca-stal17 sanos 1 0osi e1wl9uch f t9res1
t Ith e 119 19Cle 1, --- O1and 19P 19 19 -, 9 IIy 1-h and, th p -1

L7 b II9sIa -1 III 011199 11a 19 9pr119 III
_est by I If Mexio ..d U. -s by t h. If

910, o1 lb,,,- 301 No111t 291 Norh Th c I -.
II9 9- -,0 II LIy DL9Ie, G-19his,, A h O011-e -ount1 oy
p919ly show9n Taylo, L9 ayette. S 11991 Co 0b1, I Bradord,II

1are the9Su10ne, S 9t 1,,1. 0 01119, andi W0thlaoche 1

Most1f the119d, however, -1-1tain 1ewe residen ts i 1ta r1, e -1-e1 u
11,1 pop utIII n i, con ntr9d 9111 d III me1or le d 1910 01nsu
by ,c..nty I Aqlh,1 104,764 wth111, 61 1 ,ra, Mario 69,030 wt1,

19 wh119 _ra, Bradford 14,21 1 1 13 1 "1, 11 U -
9,1190-911 11 1 -1 1ol 1inelthe 196,dn--s -t1hhe19 i ensus

Ga9nes9 9 he]' gest 1 dfase11 t w M-11 y in th11I ar Its



reslted Io ..i dep t ng ,ie E.- epoh (deposted fro

58 to 36 mllon years ago) and tIe Ogocene epoch (depo I ted from 36 lo

nds and clays (1111deposited 1from 25 mon years ago9 to pre111) of variable
9h10n w, h ...... .. e1,11 n1 g 9g1pod If on bly thicker
01 9 Iu Mos II th e Ipose iIt eng I the Iate Eo-ene O0a1 a
Group, although, I te 11. iIlnlty of Gulf Hammock hr e exposu1,es of1
thIe iate Middle Eoene Avon Pak Limestone Tie Avon Park Limestone
9is Ih old cppmb Ifr ion I F1lor id. T Ih Tetiay li m 1wn
p in ti "'p aa b elon" I. th e L.mI ston1 If Ohgole

n. Ie L Couty Is -ns-dy

and mmas They an als be very finely rystalIne and occasionally
C Ihmnatd (le.t inusg siltton ith be ant reaso e t the b IIIdolomite

ha-nd Tie coues repng ated .. tis ia, t latd fl II Avn

Park L ieste I., Pl neromes ts Ga orale folohge d poslote moe tern oA-on

21ark Lmesne1 ed111 by erIo 0951) 1,s "te9 0 asal bRr

W eilterst c ld he desrU I ep Is ae tran d etreeno e s awd-ppar ntl
Io.loa-d --js Iand Io eo t h-, maknin g It h e y odifyth recog nh e I s
Cn s1owtern9 conunu s l-ie III 111 so lo ca bh e des9d
eds in so u theLn Lestounty arough o at the p Ao area a L mestone

n Thu e ht n t h is posed `- partst sads111 clye 011111 I Df y sD .
ada ylor coi nltti .eing e qate d l h l tones hd t holog eans that le ,n y

Iitn I ocat hetpo1a1 -b ho111 t., 9en11111 ely wll d ar111 y Ie
a 1one Io 11, -olomite ,,d I wilhibi dfff ng deers f 11111h9

Tora In Te 1 cuyth hmstonperio ee, Tossgy P11 aocene a1ge a1 -

T1g he1 1' f 1ne1 f to 90 m u and an s1ts rph1, units v l01mos9 the en0,9e
ptere ands ereonymad p werey bey iandantiehd aun I.
-Iwse D1 1 1 Co ..ty 991Id Ih S, h 9t-111,1 Ri911 It a I

This, en. 11 in9ormally t 111ed t e e o 11 mbe and o, t-

th e Inh e loda exenin gs e d int o Tyo un11 y thre dimstinct lom1te.1

ghlwand nara y f iddy -e-11-st d Johns a R hve Ie-to 11 .-e lof 0
91e W 1h11 1191 1r 1, ey 1`1 -11o11119e 9ar1 111t

S19,1, nh a -d y others be1ng1,g 1 Uh C, ya,,l Ri119 T1t, Cryst
R10 9 I -mt- -ps o-t tem e 0-y o1 1te11 P-hah era
Laye,111, DI and Gllct9cou es t 0 I. theste AG-a and 19t91

Cr R n Wlh.i-1n1 I-19-1w 1 teisoelth1 logy11 y1

L TI- it-l -1 n u 1- I ol bia a-d Suwann,0 -,n1-1 and i1

9lt1od11 Th1 h11 st s 1111 1911- o 1 111h -1a -r y
hn It- io et191911) y ti Ii h bn sh d

9,1id h11]9and 191 1, ith -r, A Io are mmonly 1 -,111
s1ed ients o1 Mio -n 19,g o 9pe1119ly, a9M 9 IIIII 9 1hd 11I
H11.1wth I .r- ,11 I, -pe.d dn 11191 p I. 1 1119h11, q91111 nt 1 n1
I. p0 rts If -Ion CI ty Ti1 e 1 4-ho I, I1 I -ery 1 t1 er, 091 o11g1 1
119 11909 19 9- t 9011, dd Itd~, lyy nd, 1 1ndy 91 ys,
-Imts d ---n, h e d wIth 1phosphate1 gras

i, apparently a de111 y lut.on1 d -,11ty I 1 .1 -1,1g L- T1 0

T" e rn porin "of ieI p I "' thpysiogaphi p -
known as tie Gulf Coasal Lowlands Te lowlands begin at 1 e pre111 nt1
astlhne and e-tend t d to eastern GlchlSt, central Levy- and enral
Suwannee counties, _undedr b thett di,, e. t etit If i th
Low ,nds the1 e ar ,1 ral iver valley y lowlands and I-hre mar, e terra e
Theil terra s and asse11 1ed shorelines, beg, g wit the youngest, are
tie Sidver Blut. Pamhco, and Wicomico.
T1he S1 Bluff sho111 e s 11 ns-Idered to at aIn ,elvalon of 1 0,

-.-1c1ed with 911111 119 9 Th. m.-sh11 .11, etendig bit. 1 I1

I0 -1m d primay If Pl 1es n t rnt I I n In I --die9 ndrl i
by stones nd dolomites t a sallow depth In Diie, County, the Sde
ltn e a s ma d a n as ctr III e I in mle and S, als u 0i. r- -d by
masta] marshes The Saiver Bluff terrain is Try arrow n the portion to

Tbc P(15 1 hid h pr bly an taine 0a -t and t25 1ee,
e a disllntCt mark on Taylor County in the near arraneme t a Flats
. 15I 1.o 50 R1 t i1 11 dunes 11 that parallel e a st Tr e toe of h1 s strand
.m.e is marked bya e10-1 o nT Ioeto nemditi tath erc, S11-cdr Bi

In D e 1 Coun ly the9 Pamho e dipmen ts less well de1 e 1 d, bu tPI, licrra
-a P, 0 id9r9d tP e 19t bitween-111 1t -oo and 2519 eo,.011

The Northern ty d 111 91 d hio e ot y Ithai pe er alles th 9 n e
1ie it Die- Conty Itho mgh 11 1n be0 t 1 as e wII, nIo-therI P-Lh

1-l e9, ul does 1 wit. u. w e ll cors Su1ingL o n to -1 the g d aern 1

athe Alanune Ls a nd C rsins al ovey s the orrac e.san rean el

aneat4 aounte6 th and e o f sande an lmedan se etusom res, odu alg letone
ti There Venit pro 5bly le create p -e-tw n Ihes nrhe Levy,

doutly d, nlt c nt thle lhr iston d theology II IDsItn CPnlt
by ver v ley o shre l R ge and tIe n le nRd sern h I 1ont1
111 t1st 9 9not o9 the0 9on1 91111f m a nd 9 o cup ying 9 ntal
Leym9 on1 s9 l aswm py9e wetrekon s the W aec0c91 91- I I. 9I 1l9r

-on ler Flats and embankmd eLam go Pamo nts I tle di-es f
(14 911e 1 the-e Ti s h) s well ey m pfed b suntklae [99 e T I,0, aI l -l
d y m norlh to. Gtdrtt Co9 un..I 1cosing tIIe -nd 11th1 lo I a 1 endn
9I9 01 i1ty ol9 c 1w 1, 11 S-1 1 nd 9 a t i R i- T the i lhlgy .t,
Wlalall Al 1I'ill 1 9 "I i 9- I L l o ny a res Lon o nd I0 1- 1- t1 .. sy -d,
111 9o91 beig 19,-ldby T1n19 th.n..1Levy0n1I1l ... ...9l
"elsI Wh \ 91110 I. 9s 1u9e9 Le1t on. Verno 95 a1 nd Wh i
911979y lntcd ,1,l110,l)1i un1at h ,ty 1 uv 1lllowV e 1951 prml9o9n
0&d O .les 9 11967) --1019d III 9101090 01111were 91spos 1

919t9i) thr 9 is 119dthe I 1 wneln W -e1-on 1`lt 111-1 ediyll, 1
Clnefland hu I 1ii 111t9e ha oslbee 9R0de i 11no 111iT lhng sum po
y 1, the relate 1111ns du1ng Wd 9 c 1 11 th- 1. l-t1 o 1,e 1
9191m I II )1d, 9 IJd id Lon1 h 19 nd -1- .) ]].Jl.) ,Ny

and .u....[la e ou me, )lncfsnT 91eo le ..1 1'am t repo a e d b,,

B11er1en 1h 1 9u sclla nd L ol P 9l1mt n ll1d .(te lana d I lt,
test Jbded mean to teoel bn the wmaothey re Rweren ted by the s-nd

1111101 190 91hl10 .1199 111 1 111111 -.
111191y 1r1- Iid h010 1 -1 1 119 9,1) d as 11999119 I0
b0 9199I I, h 9e rok- )111 )99 -II drn, -- 001 0I. 0

T b1 0 bent1 h ln se end n111 1 1 the northen e I fre t

-1 1 -o1, 119 e 1 r 1.1 1 dge9 n eastwl d 119 1r1 s1nted t) 1
h 191d SaOnlli ) 9T 1 0 0t1e 91ns -ldos In 9ola I
inhea urel [ I n d regI zer th e en lan e Vhtoloey1 nnhgh Sp ,n,

(m9p, Dullo G 11p,1 o s1 ed I ie ild 9 ls S--dem Uplani -,
11ll B M -a il l,, n d g Iot on ldil It.- 1,ll1 10 -1 I'9

The1 b okv ,l1ing9ec cs t 11n, eatu 9 re1 19 o9 9 0 m s g
rs d jdcd to tI c In d Ihd pthlo w er a l toune T he,
drt, er ro n, w ch n t hr o g eeys p are a. i s s e .in lo me long

a ry nta i needhr0t 1Cont Thew t. ro11i t -,1 otthe k tl

on Lht od pm and] U edbth eW ts Ind mol th -th taprso w
1nds, 0tl9 11,90 b, 1arel s1ul. It ns R.-111-1 1 9 11910s I.1lit

9,olut 111-9l - the t11119911 11 glands 9191 w the0,1 0 mr 1h9,n

to 0themhh prs T- 11-91 m1,11, b he Santa ..o through th OLto
911 9n 0I9 n 09
90l 1 9ll, 11t19 0 1,91 119919119' 119[1 h lah 11 Hil9 ,,Ier i,,d

t19 911g1, 11tile 1 r 1111i 1 11i1 111 I99 91Dunelo 1 I 11G -
T1. 1 .1 1a'h.9111, 91-1d I t9119 f0t.a1es bro 0011em 10111,1

Marten 99 9o1t199t)1 hthd,,, ,1 11gII I- P 9,11. 91111 1 01111

Fairfie1d IhlT I Olnd-- VI d ye 1 ,n 1-91-r 9 11111 TheO 91111s1xtrt

111,9 md 9,1 h s,1l 11 9 W-- il0 1y n Oe .a M1 ,el 9 l 0 es1 n m 'e

1111 II yi 911L99 n911111 t 0099 0l eatuir- 1 1

1a11i .- I eI I. ab ou t .-1 I1 ]~ -1 1n 1 aa w h b

IIIe Nar, itn Colmbia County ThI S-t 171 R-ve dh~ppear -d low
Sntra I'I Rie ne s ch annel n tiI
pointsof dCtppea9 acn and 9appe 1an 1 The rIver m hls channel
at tIme If -ey h~ig wae

At Thomas 1-rm m northern Gdchnst County, an ammblage .1
Mionne and Phso~nn terrestrial vertebrate remains were found mo tie chyey
i.- 909,9 ph 10 __ -t, 1111011 01111 19111 ,9 0 I yi
1nds o, the Al111c1 ua 1 o1maon Tis 1 IIes a good Indit9on 0 ta9 at 0east9
parts of thie OcaLa High area wre above ma level during Mloane time and
were emg surrounded by an inll t the marie sediments The. aras

.y veencn nnected It-irm a smaI pI nsuhi which jo ed t, larger

M 1o9 1 n -Phce0 eP9 t t1 ston a sasgres1 d hO usI .111 t0ea -1

the elevated Mioene adaments with the formation ol shorelimes and oftdioie

tins process The core b- the ridge Is ompowd of Mto -ne wdtmets, whicl
were probably deposited an a coastal lagoon or brackeslh rwer The Western
Vallc, and Guit CoastlM low]nds pro mbly are boundaries to tilts feature
M car Miocene As I me progresed the surrounding limestone plums

Lr Imestone pulrr in, opernon are or 0v e,i Ptil-eceinal
11111--111 I, t1 -1101 011. 11, 1111 11 110, I 1-dip.1

were ed 9d I Iower 9 a11m on II Mt-9anth M rne 1 d omns Th r Phio.
Ple111111e -s t110 dr- ead th asan si y thesMioene lIm-eat st .M- icswr
a, t 9 1he1 a1o1 9-they 111101 1e1a1d -oI 9 11 9 tona I lo
- -ned ond h .d bar rnd ol se Iastal fea urs o

M91 11 10191 a1e 1ep9o9I1 ated by w111 us rte 1 rye1-1 I1f hh
uta lify hin-t-onmard rk ano pble phorno -a I- e mIp-etusy been
1I'0d 1-1 19'l'l99m -1- L I]ahr 1 ,ist and a1 t 1en ounies TLe a.11

ain Ibundantoo d laOcit olnea mined lono aton i 83adhrockly
Lim e,9 09oston te 9a111 9ed are,1 9 1 1re h 1ae e en 1 eistenc1me 1 n1 9
bo -dtie .eine mnhem Ison -d d Qro a
1111 ~ ~ ~ ~~~~- -,1 .I 11 19111 I19911 011-1 90111

1 ,lub n tb u e d1, 1 0l l I'd 999 9 Il9y by bl 09l9 1 1 1 T 9e 1 o- 1

1901901io, 111, 91119199,111911)9111 111111l1-

bmonpicmarel tlpsed juot roa bst 0 iCluenn Jnd aumerous somoall quares r
_dr '= .e o..... .
iedon 91, I 9oO h -ay9 1--nld 1llml 1I0 11-Y1 Ia

d 19 1 erro9ad 919 aewarimth 1ondstunrs a1

IP w119110)1 19911oe9911-11- n1 th0111919

sm eth m e as r po g te subsuocr et h ls a d rq l u 1 t
pe19 11911bbe o 1o icl 9po 1t9ae ] Td w9ithin t heo1 lypey 9nd 9

.,,,,I' Il.lgll .91911191191lt it P

_he b i i-the'unconfmedaqln which nothas er po ton t fiea area the
1-1910.-I 11t PIAId 991.d1 lI 11, I,99911 1 111
111 111 -d1 11199

991111 ll,111110199., 91119111
demopohe re deropg bured nd poe exa s olemb pors ate contdmaqg method
eald o h e d red r o us aI th

rea aTheeA~. I Irmsanell tc i r o psts c cn wtd n ier n~ b y rmgn c n ty~ ut
hl/ g lnd- nl s yrom ,Ill n ma d A deua onlut ers dotnhro c L nevy I

ampforidan unontupeam ne~ as tow e sutbrn m 88nd hmsard croc

throuphae wJ rlz ned n ear w D icrlo imetne an9 Altougl em te atus

(leard erock b ph tlhae milta nn nd oex wtensvl thereo h tih e preent tiympernos
powphrl bmg dmentd m the mapo wate ers m eowRda
en g d 9 un11o o- 0 e11 m 1 d9 m1ned o-oy11 andt 1111, 1.

.......1 1t 9 11b9t Ir1eguate y 99er mthol 11 d me, -andr011cneov
hmonle ae C~~ose It west e t nll- n -It it ornl to loca birit ces

t 9 u 1m te ordcon o e -o1,tnr s- 1 t111
.O)i th1n -- h d t o 1tern u11 fo the flurary In bIte9

n water 1, the1 d-u-sr 11 .1 -,r 1 the 1o11n 19 t 1ont

-o -d 1 -9i I- 1in ll s. e aI Ied It w -ahe 11119 9e
099 bI 1,11111-1099 .1- Th -111111 1-9991 -1119
If1 t1a0, ro-e the 1911 o911 1- l 0 nder t199 -1,11111
of ph lravlt h towar p Iate p- ,llg p.-, -I sprng wets dlae Td
med rn hih -nprssbufaewtrI ald anI aqurr abd ,h e s defined-

A -1 n t 1a 9e l th, a11I 1 1p ,9 91,11ied -II. to1, 11 .els 9 s f e,
ai. h n nf9ind1111 quifer, 9hI9h t I- be1 1 91h111 eII 1 0111 lhd
a Tmosphee tI h oe 1,1 -- -g spa' it o e hn qi

Anther I p I- f -l s d aqi19 r- w1 hh t, n 11 1-1 t1d b101
p191 y Iayey ind, an dy ,hays, -n1 s cnded .. -nhn1d
9 19 9 hee r n d by -, I, 991 9 t e tpe Id 9 -1
A..he good --rc It grond Ite -n III, -. e ist, e ],I eonda-
alte- aquld" Ti* n" e .S retictd t. the ldgh ind res A Ies
i-pot-- -n-n.nd dqinil,, e ist n the sutl-la -n deport ot fe a
aa Ti ', n s1 temed J, -11at 11r I1.01 1au nd t ore 09119n 119r
Iit un-delin by 1Ie 1-ae -dd .r .ndy hly, oft,, highad u
The I -eden Aquiferts I, m- -d primaily ofpereal hd to,
-h, dolom .1 o-f1 T I,age. In t9 nr1,1 e1ster .1 p n h ma II

:1-dIon A110e I, uder -- ,onditionsI -od e-eh .
reai e.y Impermeabl, 1lye t 101ent9 andth -1 t It IheI west
_9p 9r 11 I t9b19 condit1ons, Th1 Ilo1 dan II i 9 I- ehag

through 1-1-11ed 10911110 hIet1one1 -nd d 9l11te tt III0
sur-ace or9a1e -19, 19ne 99 by 9 1-hiay,9 ,1 ..d. Th9 Fl11dan A1uif-9
-] eevs ehrel ro stale perchd aqier lkes, and II-am ,h-r
th, imemal di-nl, supoti gt th-e -d-,re -Iv -ee brechdd
A-owm dowwad -1r-ao .1 1-,e Another -etho If recarg t.
the Iqu-, I, by dh inll Ito Pe truh t~he -~lly I~perIous
o-dy'mg -mets it h ao ae nguti [el, Rechag,

-pg, n,. I-ivr and up-ad over.lying -,ay aufr
The IIsIl- .ids mt wate frmt.. I pe p- r -1 t the 1-1-ortda Aquife m
III ..p Ie ae rdomatb --tu and -anamb--te Ind

,b-u 1000 parts lay r-e
The -e d. y artsia aqifers" -e -Id w llu the blyey n

Icu wtm th d-whr Io ato n 1h fo o thin dis-ont-.,u
-~soe olmtmd -11 s 1e 1, bes hitch -srruded by reGti-eb
i dire-l clyyd ady cla. '

-,b,,e I lowe -ha th Itble I tII ovelyting Id-mnt. it ...rcev
rechge fro. tdoe The ..ond~y artean aqifers IIIe II Ieh -edfo

FIo. dn i, hill", Iha the -Gento ctt sufc f thInI r atm

rlra lwrtihan that If t da- te theI pele d aquW.,

moedist-ed sohds.

a TI, -1 1, wh1 Iu n19 II Ind de, 01)01
ae pr-910 pri0rily 91 1 1191 9 .1 111e -p -Th9 w1-1 It a

Seupw ou1 per Tol n tion rom o111 1 r aqA s wi he 1r p ,lent metr qsa rates

990f 9g911 1hamon -h 9, 19.b A 9 ro 9loine 119i0 111 10,1 ed p1ayt
repagin o under-lyilg aquders when d te potent-omet cle sura of thl
underlying aquters s lower than 1he water table o the su-tecl and

atmosphere by ev1po-transp ration The quaL. y e 1 11the water wun
a11,11,0 a- 19 11 1. 1 I_ 1ids109


1 Levy County Township 14S, Range 16E, Section 28 Northeast quarter
of Northeast quarterI DIte L-me & Stone Compny quarry 12 m-les -utl
Iammock on U S. 19. A sity dolomtte -wr ..t-edded t
reain and I -y hd id.. dolomite re d _h _ibot
of 1tliw1 1posu11 s ar-e rom the Avon Park Nime tone
2 CIu Counyl Townlp 17S. Range 16L. Section 11 Norths quarter
of Southeast quarter, Dohme quarry ust uh 1 Barge Canal on Us 19

Dolome nodules, 9 t1e crystals and e ds are abundant m excavated

99191 011111 d m e knd 1111 1te 119hi 9s locale 1t I 1 1 Uper
4 Uii C11ount Townshlp IS, Range 181, Secion 9 No thwes9 qte
oI Southwest quarter, 9 t1r9 a br 1dge on 1 214h1. 919 r, m10 rt
nterms a anatral bade w hisil_ t 79l A --nellwe1t1g oa lormed by

5 TUyon Count-y Townshnp 8S, Range 101, Setion 3, Northwest qu-
fl Northeast quarter, Iust oI Highway 5] at Stemhatche i ells A dolonnic
lens mlormally called tIh "Stemhatchee Dolomite Membr" .1 t0, Ocala
Group is expend m fie riveI bed and banks


Clark. W Mlsg R. I Mcnkc. C G, Id Ca1 .1 11, 1964,

horinda I'lorida Geological Survey Report ol Investigation No 35,
170 p
,rard, 9 w, Jr, 1968. T 'he 9,olo oj TAU he a1 h 1-6. 647 dane
li huna C( oiiur Florar Masters Thesis$ Unlvrsny of I lorda. in

M 19is A 99, 9 ,9 I -d 9 1i,7 1 i 71 dilon Tle

Pur II S Yon J Ve Rnd Oe]9sby. 9 CW R. -,, / the,/ and ,1 rtI-,

.ll....r art I ti or dan Aqufler Flori Fld Florida Bi a ofI
P Ing1), 1 MapSei s No 14
9e5non R 1O 15 l1 ) ,-lo-l1' d e, 33 C 1156
",g-dgIal S1l9-91 B0IIhn 0 N. 33, 256 p
0111 9). 1 91970- The ho e e ra11 IIt Io
0)Iu .91 Gclg) B1k1t N. 51 164 1 9


1117 1111

AI.-~;;~ fl~~~--- I a99

1 4

Full Text


M A P S ERIES N O . 79 G A INFSVILLE + '''3 " 8 ------+-, '" \ d + ::J " 6 " 5 + , \ $ t ". \ " . t \ \ " 3 0 il' ____ + :.:;.:. " " 84 "OO' 2 10000mE 2 2200000 FE [ T ( N O R T H ) 2 4 2 6 2 7 29 3 0 '1 D E P A R T M E NT 01' NATUR A L RESOURCES BUREAU O F GEOLOG Y Th i s pubUc document was promulpted . 1 . tota l ro S I of $I, 99S.oo o r I per co py oo,t of S.80 rOT the pWPOJe of diueminatiJla l eolo&k: data . EXPLANATION o Clayey San d o Sand o L imlltone DOolomif. o Limn'one/Dolomite SUle , 250,000 CON TOUR 50 f EET WITI-i SUPP LEMENTAR Y CONTDUR S AT 25 FOOT INTE R VALS E NVIRONMENTAL G EOLOGY SERIES G AINESVILLE SHEET $[( TlOt;IZ[D T )WN,>H P I) 5 " 3 7 8 9 10 II 17 18 17 16 14 13 192021 324 30 29 28'17 25 31 U .:i1_l4 :') 36 tOW t

f, MAP SER IES NO . 79 ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY SERIES GAINESVILLE SHEET " S. FLOR IDA DEPARTMENT Of NATURAL RESOURCES BUREAU OF GEOLOGY 1978 INTRODUCTI ON l)eWlIOllmcnr of f ur "',S(' or Florid., nan". 1 reSOllrce , depend , UpOn a good "otkml' knowledjte of the Slate's u It rebre, 10 envlronmcntul M anagement decl5lolls must be ba$Cd adequate l\colo)!"c ed fields II.s hUllCd Ihat th i S rrup w.1I nOI o nl y serve the purpose fOI wlllch 11" Intcnd ed bul " 'il l a s a oose map fOI f utur c presenlallQn 01 r C lated data uf 3 more specia h ze d o . ioQ[ nalu.C The u]"male purpose of the envIJonmenl3 ] geoklt!y m.:Lpping p ,ollam is to msure of Ilo .. d as natura] resours wllh Ihe leall poS!!lble envlfo nnwnlal damage. Thu m,p prellenlS lco"",e dala In such 3 wa) ' it Can be under stood b y penons nOI lpeci:l lly Ifained In Ihe scien"" uf llC0!uto' ('ommon rock Iypes ,re shown as Ihey Our from jusl below Ihe 'S('IlllU,", 10 deplh s of e,pecled UK for muSI purposes Invohcd :lCf131 and IOpog'3pl.ic mlerllrelation 3nd fieLd 'NO.k [VUIt"'g qIUI,"'S. bonow pllS. calU l s, 103dcutsandOlhCl lock e'p<>sUles) 1 0 provide IheneSS3lydala POints Use was also made of all publishcd and unpubhshe d dala in Ihe file, o f Ihe FI :md:t DutCau of plus pubh.shed repOlIS uf Ihc U . S Geo l oalcal SUlv.:y and the US So.L('onsclvauon ScrVltt ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Sincere apptCcLl ll on Is " p.essed 10 Dr E. (' Pukle. 01 Ih e Unl"ersllY uf •• whu j(a .. c ur hi s time and geoloFtc loxlmately 4.725 Slluare mIles a nd h u a popuLat . o n denSLly of 38 peop l e per $quart m I l e. MOSI of Ih e land. however. contams fe"er res.dents than Ihe a.erage beC'lluse the populal1on IS concentrated around the major CIl1es The L970 census by county I,. Alachua' 104.164 wtlh 68'l> urban . Marion. 69.030 with 4 0.4 ';; ... rban. leV)' 12.756 nO urban. Dnle -5.48 0 wilh no urban . Gltchml 3.551 wllh no urban ; T aylor -13.641 wllh 565';; ur\>.1.n. lafayetle -2,892 wllh n o urban ; Bradford 14.625 wllh 33 , 1-:f u.ban. a nd UnIOn. 8,L12 Wllh n o urban . By compallng the ]960 cenlU S with tile' 1970 cenrus • glowlh .ate fo r eac h roun ty has been a$I)Crlained. from Ihe wlcst populallOn incruse 10 Ihe, lhe rates ale Alachua, 41.4'l1i: Union. 34,2';1': M3Iion. 33,7 'l-: Gllchlllt. 238'J..levy. 22,3':1-. Brad for d . 17 .S'l-; Ta y lor.J,6':J:andlafayelle.0 1<;1. IS the Wiest and fastnl po",n cily .n Ihe arca . L n 1970 pOpublion of 64..510 .nulted from a 1]7'). pop ... lallon mClUIle be tween 1960 and 1970. Gaincsvllle hn the dlSl1nCllOn of being lhe home o f Ihe Univ ers lly of ['lorida since 1853 Ocab ..... llh a pop ... blion of 22,583. IS lhe ne:>;1 IUlut CIty m the area and ILas had I 66'l IneIC3K In population f,orn 196010 1970, Some of Ihe olher impo.tant t o .... n s Ito'\th m ore than 1.000 populalion are Tlenton. Chttlland. ALachua. Cr oss ClIy. W,ltinon. Sluke.Newberry.lakeOutlcr.lIighSpllngS.liawlhorne.and Dunnellon Indus"y and TransportallOn-Beml a predominanrly luul alea. thc m:I}Or indul1lle s .tl e agllculture and forestry Thc prmclpaL crops pO"'n are ro.n. w31ermeloR$. peanuts. peppers. polalocs. cucumbers. and 10bacco Callk. swine. and pouluy fuming abo Important economic flclon in thi! di'1I1CI. L arge lIaeu of land. abundant WIth planled pmes and some native ILI".I>."""",, h .. ;" 'v "",ko for •• "y ma)oe cum,lb"."r I " ,,'" <>onu",y of II", k lea limcstone quarryIng opelallons ale also In eXl1l1ence. wnh 111011 of th e hmeSione bemg crushed and u sed as aggregate fOI IUlhway eonSlluction The lWO major fourLane hlghwa)'s traver s mg Ihc area are I nterstate 75 and U S Highway]9 Inlentalc 75 IS a north SOuth rOUIC trOSIle' Mall on Counly nCar Ocala and Ala chua County n e ar GaInesvil le, U . S Highwa y L9 IS a lso a nOllh-south lOUIe an d more or less parallels Ihe eout line throll g h l evy. DIXie. and Taylor counllCS . NUmerous o lhcr state a nd road s c . iss"",oss Ihe nup area The cmes 3S well u most of the rural areal are llerved b y railw,y, and bu S hne , Th l l d lst,icl has Ihe d'SllnC\lon of the first crossstne railr o ad hn e I n 1860 the rlonda hnked on the eUI roast. with Cedar Keys on the "est Com"",,,,,,L au KrVI Is In GaInesville and Oab and Iher e arc stycral smalle l npofl' In Ihe rural eommunillesof lhe' area Cllmlle-The .YCl age ,nnual lemperalure for th e area tsapPloxlm.:Ltcly 7to I' wilh July and AUluS! bein g the holtul monlhs, The aYCI:,tgc annulL is apP loslmalely 49.S in ehe's. bul d.frtu malbdly from yea. 1 0 yur. The record fo. rainfall 0 ..... a 24hou. pe.iod tn FlorMb i s held b y Yanktflown. located on lhe roast In southwest L cvy County, Thi, municipalil Y rrce l ycd 38 7 inehes of lalnbll o n Septrmber 195 0 SInn' L888 I h b Irea hal had six lepolted hUII=ncs come ashorc on ItiGulf GEOLOG I C D ISCUSSION Surface depoms of WUI ocnllal flolida Ue mostly hmeSlOneJ wh",h resulted from m3T1fte depOSitIOn dUllng IIIe Eocene epoch (deposited fl o m 581036 mllh o n ye;ou ago) and th e Ol"ocene epod! (deposited 36 to 25 mtloon years :0;0) Theil: IImestones.tle by Mlo<;c:ne 10 reeeni $lInds a nd days (depollled f . o m 25 million yea" ago 10 prescnl) of nrbble Ih l c k nesses Ihe I"ghland alCai bei", compolled of • considenbly thicker soequenoc. Mosl of Ihe upo5'"d limeno n e belongs 10 the ble Eocene Ocala Group. a llhough. In Ihe VIC,"lIy of Gulf H a mmocl: IIle're expOStl l es o f Ihe Late Middk Eocene Avon P;uk l Imestone. The Avon Park LImestone is the o ldest o .... croppmg fo.mallon in FlOIi 31C3 Ihe A von P ark lImestone W U apparently d olo mlHted su bsequent 1 0 de,lOSIIIOn.lhu$ m akinl it velY drfficult 1 0 rccognl>!e foSS.11 and struct urellndl\::lUv e ofa parll cula renvlfonmenl. On eroS!! KCllon COC' Ihe L ow e r connnuous dolomm bed ali d some of the lime sto n e -dolomLle beds In soulheIM Counly arc al5OCL3red w.lh tile' Av on P ark llmeslone. nlC hmestone-dolom .1e hthology is upolled i n parll of l evy. Dixit. 3n d Taylor ooun ll es ScI'" equaled IllIs lilh ology mean, Iha! fo. a n y g iYen lo,)Clhly I ype o f Olbonat e rock that iscncountered will n r y from a 10 a and WIll uhibll, depee, of lIOn, I n Lev) ' County Ihe hmellone40lomtt c hthoio&r is aSSOCl3ltd wllh II", I nghs ' o rmallon. one of three s trolleraphle umrs witilln Ihe G.oup ThIS fOlnullon SUIIOUndS the Avo n P ark limestone in outcrop paltern an d " tecngnlzed p llm all l y by 11. a bund a nt echi n o id rauna, I n SOUlh"'eSlern D,x", Counly and arollnd Ille Sleinhatehee River a d olo mll e lenK occurs In Ihe !x\sal seCllon of the Upper Ocala Crystal r OlmaltOn, Thl1l ]enlle I S InfolmalLy telmed Ih e S te lnh:ttcllCe d o lomll e m e mber and O UI' ClOpS conlmuous l y Jlong Ihe COlned. dl3lky. po.ous. crum colored IIme$lone wh.d, conr"ns many larSI foumlnlfcu and mollusks . On Ille C'OS!! KctlOns Ihe (',yslal RIver and 'i{.!h s l o n wilh IIIC lime stone Lttho ] ogy I ymg elosr: to Ihc The IInwSlonc lilhOlOly .... lIh Ihe Suwannee C 'OP$ Olt In soulhCtn Columb .... and SuwanMe counti es .nd . s a hud. c",am 10 yello w. ma$5lVc. chalky wilh numelOus echinolds The hrn. S lones Ihroughoul th e map area are j(enerally vcry high In calcIUm conlenl Ihe hmestone h as been S ih elfltd and The daley s.nds over l YlIIg 'hc Terllary Ltmestones and fOlmlng much o t Ihe I"ghland In north cenlral are co mmonly usoclaled wilh stdnTlcnts of Mloc < ne age M ore speCIfically. a Mio""ne unit lhe Hawthorn 10rmallO n e> on th e map m Ih e n O rthUSI quadrant and In of Maflon Counly The lbwthom IS of l dIv erS(: hlho L og .c n31ure [I.S composed of mlCrbedded u nd s . clayey !.'Inds. sandy cbys. d o lomlle s. and whICh a.e all Inte.mhe d with phosphate pains of v:LIlabk s I zes The Hawlho.n . s r e presr:nlCd on eross US ' n clayey I3nds COllla" "ng lenscs o f IImeslonel and dolomItes, TheSo! knses of caroonate and ebsllc scdlnwnt pin c h-OUI over Ihe Ot;l b l Imeston e 1M wh,at I S 3 decpl y 'IOlullOne d aVlly in 11le' v)ci nil y of Oranle L ake. TIIC H awlhorn in pemnS lbr Ilullda i s thoughl 10 be blge l y a lesull of near sho.e manne deposl\lOn dull"!/. MlQCf:ne IImc, The' ebyey RInds which crop OUI in GlkhllSi. ALaclnu. 3nd Levy COUnl JeI belong to !tIC Alachua Formal1on. TIle' Alachu3 . s of Ul'pel MlOCCne . possibly Pliocene age. an d like Ih e llawlllOln iI of a vcry hlllOlOilY. I t Ii J of "'nd s. cla)ey san dI. and sandy cb)'s The Abchua hal been m in ed i n man y In tile m.p 31(3 fOI the hald .ock phosphalC that IS commonly foun d In 115lowcr The fine t o And! 3nd SlI15, which l imo s l Ih e enllre nup ilCa. a r e 3.$5.lCI31ed wtlh Phocene and PlelS!one In level sland" TheK san ds "ere o nl y mapped "hele Ihey h . d lI!3lntd an thIc kness 131 8 IIJ 10 feet) The hmeston , thloughou l lhe map Brca 11 u t e nSlveLr pinnacl e d h<-CllLse <:of and oUlero!', of lh e 101' o f Ih " ate YUllable In eLc"allo" Th e 10WCI elevatIons. th e coas tal '1<3$, have m ore conSlstenl OUlcrops of hmestone than the upl a nd ar e a s. D o l01!UlIla1l0n and mJl;c hmc sIunes 1M somc areas mOre ,es""nl t o dllsolullQn An example 0 1 II", can be S(en weSI of GaIneSVIlle and In some arCaS of Mallon ('ounly w\"re reS Idual SIl icIfied hmest ol\c boulder s ca n be seen e mbeddcd In a cla y ey sand m,tllx a mOle de ep l y bUlled hmeslone 5urlacc T he oll]':ln31 hme s ton e surfaee havinLl bee n Ihe more reSlSlanl rnalelbls a r e Ihen lefl at s urfa ce . Apparenlly. the karSt sur face has been developln:.; from M lOccnc t o Reco.>nt lirncswh e n Ih e hmeslone rurface W3$ Ka leveL and eXllOSCd 10 W Ullle'lIn i an d solU\lonln g aLlents Subsequent S(aievcllTansglCSllonS3lC lesponSlble fo. much of the dolomlliu \Ion and arc>!. such Gulf H ammock . may have existed as .Ulstant hmeSIQne 'Slandsateena," tomes. PHYSI OGRAP U Y TIle' J'lorid3 pemnsula has been dIvided into three distinCI geomorph I C zones b y Whllt (1970) zon es • • e Ihe nOllhern o . prdx i mal zone. the centra l or midpcnruular zone. and th e southern 01 dlSt31zone TIoe map area fallS pllrn:I.fILy into the nt,,1 zone. Ihe northeastern $CetlOn duectly north"'esl .md eaSI of GalllesvilLc belongm, to lloe nonhern zone. o.,IactellslIcally. Itoe niTa] zone IS I Krics of .idgellnd which run s parallel to lhe pc.lnsub COmlco TI", SII""r IIluff is considered 10 be 31 an dcvatlon of to feet on 101lULl.aphic map s, In levy ('ounl )', the Silver Bluff terrace I S assocl;lled wllh a n>:Ist:t1 manh belt ThlS manh belt. from lhe WlIhlacooch .. e RIver Valley lowlands 10 Ihe Suwannee Valley Iowbnds. .s cumposed p"madly o f Plei s l oce ne to reeent mallne scIunny uf Cuw C.cek and Sanla , c RIVer Til ... "I Ih c IbiS 11\ Glld"iSl ('uunl)' flO", a sand to dale)' so.llld . I n ",uSI c"n1' n."iaule l"o""Sse. whll ... PUfI Yon . and O!!k,b) 119671 behe.ed Ihal IIIJrlll, pr"...:.,.,swer. L U(at,' d 10 Ihc nullhwesl "I lhe , lals In ('UUlll) ' IS Itnl<'lIuIIC ,hdl wllh til<' ]'erraee ti5 to 100loot ekvatLunl Ih,1 I s e,lIed Ihe Cluo:tland lnnestt)ne P lalll In Ihe "'<1"") of Ihc hnW!lO nc has bern inlv a prubab l y b) IIIarine p",e.:I!C1 during Wic"mku ,,",e 3nd low aJe,s IllIed in lil'll: dale) san d s JIISI soul h uf (,hICtland rio,' IIme .. un, plain I S d". ded b) ' 3 bke namcd l ,, "): Pund In w,'Slern ("ldIllS I and easteln LlI\IC cuunllC' til<' ('hk'lland 11 b) ' a fallly llal undcrlaln al a wlY IIlalluw d .. plh b ) ' hme.ronc iklw,-cn IIIC ('hio:lland l,meSIU,,", PI3 in and Ih e Fb.,. .n Gl l c h ... 1 Counl )'. is a Llh)J1Uj(.apllic I Caiure kn u wn as Bcll RId!!". TIllS I S aelllally a !Cries t)f "'nd Inlls In ck>':lllOns "urn 80 10 100 feet aoove me3n le>tl On Ihe mJp they arc leprcsenled b )' Ihe ",,>0,1 In holugy frum tllC luwn of Bell In nunl"'3Slelly and soutll usterly d .... ct""\I, Thc'" sa nd hill, m3) ' h"e orl) anulTshorf barr",. cll3ill Ihe 1I.00ks,ilk durin,; WIcomico tim<: 1 he ('elliral n l en d SOUlh ffUm the nuTlhe.n of lhe 1l,,,,,ts,,lk 10 ( ;,.II cl,,11o and II IS .ep.u"nled b) cumpu,., d ,uo,nlbll) of and e b ys and Iowbndl m:ldc UI' 01 , .. Iubk hn ... slu.IO,$. featules in thc ll ",h land s Ihe and \VUlern Valk" HIgh SPII"I!S Gap. ])un""]]",, Gal>. ll"",ksvllk Rld )!c. I 31Ificld Ihlli. Sumlc, Upl:tnd Ocala H,]]. Martd Ihl l and ('ollun The Br""ksvl]]e I S a 11II,'ar tea ture abvut 110 mIles Ion); Ihal .s dIVIded 11\10 1"1,1 ..:ctiulls br Ihe \\ ' ilhIJrouchec Rlvcr at I)unncll"n The n""I".rll I",r",," wllld. run s Ihrough Ihe m,1' IS some 50 m.les 3nd Ya.ICS III wldlh frum 4 to 6 tnl!.' '' The I S rotnllUSCd ot a pre domlllalli !ks>lILe RldllC to form ])unnc]]on TI", I alfllCld U,lIs C\lend lOme 20 miles fro m soulhe.n Al:lell ... 3 ('00111) ' inl o nurthweste", Maltun On Ihe en"ronmenlal map 11111. fUlIlrt can be b y Ih e darey gnd III nUllh ... eSlcrn ('uunl) Olhtr IIIniJ.:1f fea .... rcs ro Ihe soulh ul the f a .. nel d Hill . a,,' tit , Oe:tlJ Ihlls "artd U ,ll The O C3b 1I,]]s 9 miles llOuth",SI".Id from Ihe Clly o f Ocala M 31le l IILI! I", . JU" IWl> nl1le$ soulh of Ihe H ills White 11970) Ih3t Ihese real ... rcs "CrC rcmnants 01 a fUlmer wide SI''''a d hljlhbnd. preKrved flom leducllon by dISSOlllllonb) ' ove rl) 'III/lrehelroas13lfealure s DLlec tl) ' Wel l uf lla!1cl ]JIll il a sand) ' feature known as Ihe COllon Planl Rldgc LIS lenl!lh IS abuut 16 nllte s ,nd II altams a WIdth of aooul 5 mIlt s On map s Illl s area to be J dune Ikld, bul its Ollentat lon .s contrary t o Olher dun31 fC31ures \II Ihe area AdJ,celll 10 Ihl s and formmg Ihe l owe r areas l u the cast I S Ihe Sumter Upland The W es lcrn and ('enlral Valle ys ale re""Llntled on the envITon"",ntal mal' as being Ihe 31ea5 of hmest o n e KpaJaled by the sands of laITrICld IlLlIs wtth Ihc lVeS lern V3Uey w nlinuln g u n 10 Ihe HIgh Springs These IWO vallc)'s arc connectcd b y 3 physiographIc ttalure known ClOSS V alley . Thi , fealure .tOlnS Ihe northern end of Ih e V311ey t o Ih e WeS l e rn Valley belwn the no.thern eSllemlt) of th t \-aufi c ld Ihlls and Ih e cily of TIllS arta I S known 'IS P aynes P lalf.e ,nd i s o n tlte e nvi. o nmental map IS LimeSlone More atturaldy • • h ou,h. Ihe limest o n e i n Paynu IS bUlled bene a lh about 6 1 0 10 feCi of RInds a nd cla)'s w!lh some lesidual hmestone al surfae<' VerllOn f I9S]) called lhe' V au",y In levy. Alachua. ,nd GllchllSt coun l ics Ih e \VilliSlo n limestone Pia," . Norlh of the AlaehlJ.:! lake ClOSS Valle y and CO>'enng l he .eglOn t o the north"ut a nd eaSI o(GaineS"ILe is lloe NO!lhem Ihghlands E xposu res on Ih e map in II", No.thern IIlghbnds are pllmalilr cb)ey $lIndi . bUI III Ih e 11""1 valky l owbnds. Trail R.d ge. and the Abchua Counly aren. medlumfine sand i s Ilrcdom,"an l Trail Ridge. II a lehCI hll oral fcaiurc andlsrcl'reso;::nledby l hesandhillOIOSytnthecxtremenollhe3ltern co.ner of Ihe mal ' The rIven t10 wlng Ihrough the Nonl",rn H.ghbnds usuaUy h"e de pos tted IllIck arrounts of ITl'dlUm 10 fine san d and SlIts on Ihell t100d pbins and c mbankments. In mOst CIICl. 1$ the II\'CTS now nut of the N o.thern onlO a lImcsl o ,", Itrrain they have, lendenq' to .nCIK themsc Thi s I S wdl txempl ir",d b)' Iht Santa re Rivel al O'leno Sute P ark In ColumbI a County TIIC Santa f e RIver dl$llppear s fo llow s , rou.1Ie reappearl", several mIles 1 0 Ihe south The San" Ie River. h o wever. hu,n aban doned su.f3ce channel bet"'een Ihe points o f disappearane<' and reappe3/ance . The nows III Ilu s ch,nnel al times of very higll waler Al I arm In n o rthern GIlchllst County. 311 assembla,e 01 MlOocne,nd Pliu{\!1IC.' I .. "nubl >1::rrcbrale rem:lm l ,,-etC fou nd I n Ihe eb)ey ands of lit e I u rmalion . ThIS a ind ica lion I hal a t least pailS of Ih e H"h area were above sea le"d dUllng MlOCC,", lime wele belli, ,u"ounded b) ' an of tilt m :lfl ne sedlm .. nts T he", may Iuyc becn conneCled 1 0 form a small ,ICntnrula whidl jUlII<'d Ihe larllCl tvnti""nl t o th e n o rth In Ihe v l eln l1r of Tal lahassee Seve,,1 Icrre strul Mi<:>e.:ne remain s ha'" alII<> been found "ound Thro u gh, OUI M iocc,", l ime Ihe C'llUscd limc$lo""s w.,re bemg ... duce d b y crosion and d'$$Olulton . PllUo::<:nePldslQnc scas transgressed IheOcala ul'hflarUailcllng Ih e ck"ated Ihoo::<:ne scd,nlcnts wtth Ihe f o rmallon of $llo.thncs and oftsilolC b.ln T t.r limestone plallll beeam, bgoons 3nd offlll o le areas , The llruoksvllk Ihdj(e as 11 In Ihe map area 1 $ an eXo::<:llent exampl e of Ihts pruC'\:ss The core 0 1 Ihe Ildjle i s composed of IlCdimenli. which were I"ubab!) ' dellUSilcd In 3 eoaSla l bgoon or brackIsh mcr, The We1llern and Cul f ('oaslal 1 0"lands pro\>.1.bly """.e boundaTics 10 IILlS IUlme III Iht carl) M lu,-.:m A S progTcsscd slllroundlllg IImeslone plain s WCle ,cdllc.:d I U , l o wcr clcv a ll o n Ihan the Mlocclle !CdlmcnlS lhc Pho ' Plcis lu e.:nc seas Ihen co'cred the and Slntt Ihe Mlottnc elasllcs werc al a hlj!.hcr cic'","on the) ' "ere encr oache d upon and hllOrall'lo""sscS fOlmedolflllOIC oorsandUlher coasta l featurn ECONOMIC GEOLOGY Mosr uf IIIC area I",lTelO.:llted b ) ' map has largt reSCIVC$ of h"h qU3hl) ' IImeilone , li ard rock an d ]X'bbLe phosphale IlTeVlOUsl)' been mined in ]).JIIS ul Alachua. Gilthllil. l ev) ' and M3TlOn cou nt ,..s There ,Iso aloSIl50tsandllllnedlooll)' . L.meSlun. quall)'lnJ arc. or ha"., been . m nis,,'nce In all of Ihe ""unl;"s "I,,,, 15 .. :d O ... arr) lUg i s nornl311y C'IIrrlCd UUI b) ' the us<' uf dr""lin,: s and b) ' blasllng . Th e hmesto n e .. Itr;manl) ' "M'd fOI r ..... d 11;1 .. ' m.1lerul and nnnwlous small qU3111tS 3Ie lu IIIt:h ... '3) ' S I) ulumlle and C alSO min,'d an d ,,!Cd for ro;od base m31cr",1 at: ..... uhural lUll condlliOl"'". and som,tmK'S as in I,ho.pha l e dCI>ums ale 1.,...,led wllinn Ih .. cla)t r 5;lnd s of Ihe lIawlhc'n I orlllatll>n In th e n O/lhea.lern polllOn of Ihc mal' 3 1U The!C dC]'u"l$ aI<' ''''<'1,1)' buried and 10 c,,,act them by I"escm milling methuds ",ullid be e,unumILall) unfeas.ble liard roc k phosphate OCCurS at thc ba!C uf AI.d.IIJ I ""l1a """ "h,,,h i. oil Ihe n"p i.>y '''e d.y") ... IId hlhu l,,)'.) Irom G l k hllSl and Alachua counllCS l ev)' and ltarldn The 11 .. 1 JlIempl al mining Ilebbk phosphalC In 11,)lId, look ne.If Ille l o wn of Ibwlhmne In 1883 3nd hard lOCI: l,ho'l)hal, Was IlrSI III,",'d Dllnnellon In 1890 11\ Ihe paSI ha,d ruck phu.phalc ",'as mm e d Ihere II al lh e presenl n o .... Inj( mIned 11\ the mal' area Sand I S a bnnd.lI1t Ih e d,slrtcl wnh Ihe fUllnd on B",,,ksvllk II IS mIned L ocally and used tm cunstruetlUn.nnntal, flal.andasphatr Lu nonite <>e,' ur" t)'tr much mJp 3nd the Iinckncucs and di smbullUn I>t lh e del",.,1S are varuble Several outcrops of hmumte npo"",d )11.1 "e'l of (,hlelhnd and 10 Iota l $Uur<'Cs the " ' as bl' Ihf ('onlederaq' during Ihe B el"'een Slalcs fmuselnlheIJrudUCl;onofllon. 011 h" .... ""I been plOduttd 110m 3 n y of I h e Ih ill )'r1ve "dIs i n IILe map arn GROUND WATER GIOUnd Watrr ;1. Ihe subsurface "aIe l in I he lone of salu.atlon, the lOne In which all mlcTSI;I",1 spates are r.Ucd "llh water . Once w3tel has InlO the zonc of saluralion. 1\ mO''eS under the tnt1uence uf pavlt) t o "'3rd plactS 01 d.scharGe lOch as spllngs. " clls or bku The medium wh i ch lIansports subsu rf3 IS c:Jlled an and 1$ defined as a lone belo'" the surfate Ihal will y ",ld "ale r 10 "elis m sufficielll quan1L1y to be eCOllOml cally Impollanl The IWO major types of aq uifer s arc th., unconfIned aquifer. which I S m dlfCCI contJel ''ertl e all) ' with Ih e ulm ospll<'re Ihr o u g h open pore spaccs Or pores. and Ihe connned "'Iulfer. which IS separ a ted 110m Ih e JlmOSphele b) ' Icbl1,el) In.perme,ble s t rata AnOlher Iypc of u '!nllcl IS the I'elchcd aqUIfer. whtt\ •• s an Isol31ed co nlaininll wound whose pumlOn IS j!:ovcrncd by strallgral'hy 01 Sirucillfe The ['[o"d,n Aqullcl I S Ihe pr m c ljlal "utel b<'mn g unl! In Ih e map 31U and c h,racI ' artesi3n aquifel. The seco ndar ) ' alln",n aquifer dlSCh,a.geS water InlO Ille I lo l idan AquifCl in much Ihe Ame manner. When Ihe po tenllOmelllC SUlfa", o f Ihe I'loridan i s ' O"'er Ih:tn l ha l o f Ihe secondary artuun lhe perche'd aqulf e . di sclLargu InlO thor rlolidan AqUIfer The amounl of "'alcr whieh ClIn be pumped flom a ",condar) ' arlCSllln :oqu.fer IS much less rhan fro m th eflorid3n. but .... ould plobabl y be e n oujl h for small dom<:stk SUpplLCI Thr quahly of the w alCI flom Ihesc aqulfel$ I S .nferlOr 1 0 Ihe FIo.idan as lhey contain mOlt so lid s. The waler 'able aqu.fers wh",h OCCUI in the su.ficla l sand rltPOSlI S prr",nl pllm3nl) In tloe h",hlands of Ih( map ar ea . T he waler !able :III Ulfcl rech"'jle 3lmoS! enllle[y from lainfall and 1 0 a k:ucr b) ' upw3fd pcloobtlUn from lower 3qulfe r s wlICn thcir polenliomclrtc s urfa\-es 3re hijl.her Ihan Ihc wate. lable. Water from Ihi, aquifer i. di scharj!:ed by '.:'('P"ll< 1111<.> und<'rl) 'l"" aqulfcrs wh e n the polcnliulll<'uk s urfaC<' t)1 Ihe aqlllr.u I' 1o,,'C. Ihan Ih e " ':Iler o f Ihe s .... r1rial sand aqu.fel Water is 31so dl1dta'jl.ed int o bkes. Slleaml. wdls. 3nd lust It) Ih e almuspherc b r e ... quahly of Ihe .... iIllln IllIs 34uII"r IS conSlde .... d 10 be pool beeau", of the h;"h uf ,nd acids OUTCROP S OF I NTEREST t. l evy ('ounl)' Townsh.p 14S. R ange 16E, SeellOn 28 NortheaSI quarler of qualtel. &. Ston e Company quarry 12 mIle, south of Gu l f llammock o n U . S 19, A lIlly dolomile with mterbedded pla nt lema .nl and a v..) hard dCIl!C dulumlle al I h.s luca L e IIUIIL ut' thell' are Ilum Ih, Avon P,rk lillle.tone 2 CitrllS ('uunty TownshIp 1 7S. [{anl!c Ib!.. Secuon II N,"lh"-.:st '1"arter ul Suutheasl quarter. Dohm' 'IU311Y Just SUUlh 01 on U S 19 Dulumiw nodules. c:JIC\te ITystals and ect nn uids ,rc ,bllnd,nl \II e"ay,ted al<',1 lhc duloml1c and hm"slune lrum IllIs l ucale ,,,. IrOIll Ihe Luw,'r Ocala Gr"up J Dldc ('uunty T "wn.11I1' 8S. Seeti<:>n IS 0 1 Soulhwell n,lural o n Stetnh,lchee Rlvel Y, mIle "urlh ur U S 1 9 , T he ('Iplal R ... I ormatlQn IS e xposed \II Ihe r]"'r b,nks and fmmt a nalural bnd!!e IhlS loc3 1 e A ,uod ...... "'k lor Upper 0c:J1:I mullu5ks and cclunoids 4 i)mun ('uunl ) Town.hlp 6S. R311$C 181 . Section 9 NUrlh west , 1/,, r.,,,,, (i""d,,,,,,,I,,. 1 1",/",,, CUlm"'. fkxldll M ast,'IS ThcslS. Unt ..... rSlI)' uf IloTlda . in 1'''''1 r W. 1961 . 11.',<,,,,/110,,,,,,,,,'0' '-'J 1/'" (""lUI(' ""d /,r",,,,dh',,,,, H. .. ""r,,s '-'J (01,,,,,, .. ,, 0"",,,. Iluriw Ilu rida (;eo IOj:I,al Sur,,,,) [(",>Oil uf Nu. 30. 74 I' , \"",i,. A. 1975. n't' flu";"" 1'1751'171> 151h 1 \1",,,,, The ('",IlI'all) ' . Talbha., .. ,,. I lunda 647 " P llklc. I . ('. h. L956. ,\,,',. ,'" I'III,WK'''I,II;' "'"mr""J , 1/".-1",(1("""" /fund" J o ur .. I I"rlda u/ S,"''', .... '' 19 I' 168 182 . P Ull. II S. ,nd V,rllun. R 0 .. 1964. . • oJ II" (,',,,/01(1 oj I/u m/(1 QII"" "",d(hook 10 /Ile C/Q1JIC Elposurer I IUlILb 11I",'au ul Ge"l,,!!) SllClwll'lIbh,ahun No 5 u,vl",d) Pun II S. "mI. J IV. ,nd II'. • (''''/''1('' "J /)i,1.. ""d (",,,JiltS /I""d" J'ldnda IIlv ul (;colu):) \3l1l1clln N" 49. ISS l' Sh,\IIPUk' W . J . 1965 [Revlscd 19751. I)"'u/I,,) Solid. 11/ h'a/" Jrulll ,I", (/'f'I" 1'"" vi /1". f1I)1',dQ!, AqUlJer I" FlorrJa r 101lda Bwtau of (;"ul"l= rM'I'SCllcsNu 14. Vnllull. [{ O. L951. (''''"utI' "I (11m. "1I(11. rl,), C'''"'''.S . Humla (:cul .... il"'l Sur ..... )'.IIII[[elin No , 33. 256 p WIlli". IV A .. 1970. T/o<' /;rl>",.J/'I'"r.Nul(l uJ '"r HIJI',d" 1'('",,,$1"" U ,,"'all ul (;eolUj!:) ' lIulklin Nu, 51.164 I ) !L . . " D-.'IM __ Sil. D c"'",-. _s-trCloY .'-0-" _ l----....... "

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