Environmental geology series, Fort Pierce sheet ( FGS: Map series 80 )

Material Information

Environmental geology series, Fort Pierce sheet ( FGS: Map series 80 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Map series 80 )
Added title page title:
Fort Pierce sheet
Lane, Ed ( Edward ), 1935-
Knapp, Michael S
Scott, Tom
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Florida -- Dept. of Natural Resources
Place of Publication:
Florida Dept.of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
1 map : col. ; 45 x 80 cm
Scale 1:250,000


Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Maps -- Florida -- Fort Pierce Region ( lcsh )
Geology -- Maps -- Florida ( lcsh )
Land use -- Maps -- Florida ( lcsh )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- Fort Pierce Region -- 1980 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- 1980 ( local )
Florida -- Geology -- 1:250,000 -- 1980 ( local )
Land use -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- 1980 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- Fort Pierce Region -- 1980 ( local )
Geology -- 1:250,000 -- Fort Pierce Region (Fla.) -- 1980 ( local )
Land use -- 1:250,000 -- Florida -- 1980 ( local )
City of Fort Pierce ( local )
Geology ( jstor )
Atlantic age ( jstor )
Ions ( jstor )
Lakes ( jstor )
Eggshells ( jstor )
Maps ( lcsh )
single map ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States of America -- Florida -- St. Lucie County -- Fort Pierce
28 x -82, 27 x -82, 27 x -80, 28 x -80 ( Map Coverage )


Bibliography on verso.
General Note:
Relief shown by contours and spot heights
General Note:
Includes location map and sectionized township diagram.
General Note:
Text, 3 cross sections, and cross-section location map on verso
Map series (Florida. Bureau of Geology) ;
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ed Lane, Michael S. Knapp, and Tom Scott ; Florida Department of Natural Resources, Division of Resource Management, Bureau of Geology.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
025244722 ( aleph )
22100021 ( oclc )
AJN7012 ( notis )


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Full Text



Ed Lane. Michael S. Knapp.and Tom S-o1



Development of guidelmes for wie management of I Honda's natural re
sures depends uPon a good working knowledge ot the State's geology as it
rates to man's environmental problems. Management decisions must be basd

mapping, mining ad rechmation Envronmental gologic maps provde the
basic data needed for the creation and execution of sund programs m the above.

of geologi9lly related data of a more spc9al9zed or local nature The ultimate
purpo of the Stae's environmntal geogy mappmg program is to misure
development of Florida's natural eues with the least possible envIonmental

u or most purposs. Mappmg involved aeral photographic and topocg.aph,
n. prrtat.on and f -cd work (-w-ing qn--es, rrow pits, nds. oad .. us
ind other rock exposures) to provide the necessary data pomts. Us was d1m
made of all pubbshcd and unpubhshed data in the files of the I londa Burau of
Geology plus published ports of the U S. Geologial Surey and the US Soil


The study ra is looted east central peninlar I lorIda and includes
Highlands. Indan RIer. Okecchobee. and St. LUCI ~ unies, the nor thrn parts
of Cha]ott, Glades, and Martm cuntles, the eastern parts of De St-, and


o9 r 10,000; 1the were Bartw. 12,891, 11 Pilerce 29,721, Lake Wales -
23,714, and Vro Beah 11.908 The pIrtnIn of ladeses anid Charlotte -unt
shown on the map do not con. m an) urban aras. tt has a rural population
9119it2 09 l9299992919 1 1 t-a iour 99991 9d999 9 9192 9191922

population by unity was Brcvard 230,006, 70% urban, De Sate. 13.0-I 0.
43% urban, Hardee 14,889, 20% urban; lHihlands 29507, 48% urba--tnd-n
River 3S,992. 70% U1ban; M2artin 28.035. 982% urban. Oke-obec1. 911.233,
339 urban, Oso2 a 215.267, S urban; Pol. 227,222. 61 9 urban, and
St LuCe 50.836,66% urban


cattleraisMng and trunk-fam a predomian., Tousmec, nlbutast r

e Ier, past trnds mthcate tat tourism dli prnhably groI rapily In the future
and w-i, nt-rlt te more to the economy-
Many small, shallow, open-pit mmes are attered through the area which
extract sand, hmstone, c.quma, shlls, and clavey hands. These cmmodtles
ae primaly for locahIed consumption n construction and for roads Part of
the Central I Iorida phosphate distnc located n the ea-em p.t of Polk

Several major roads on the area. US. 1 p.a1lels the Atlantic Ocean on
the east .ast and I s as the main route for mur-m to South Florida. Inter,
ate 95 ( I9ord 1 's Turnpike) runs from the2 approximate north nteI of the
area to the -utheast crner. U.S. 27 .ns down the cnter of the Lake Wales

"In Many other "Ilndly, cast-west roads mnterconst amon them mjor
hbhways Innumerable dirt roads and trais ton he -ampy h~mos,

phate dustyy Other r-il lnes run do-n the Atlnthc coast and the Lake WaWIs
Rde to rr he -pa -o nr d ther industry. Atmos p-y pou-

St LucI anl is the eastern hll ol a barge al system that cross the entire
peninsula from the city of Stun on hc Atlantic Oan, aos Lake Okeechobee,
thence suthwestward m the Calnosatcihe River/Carl (not shwn on this
map) to Iort Myers on he Gulf The K-ssmmee River has been extensily
dredged and now provih s a vigable waterway between Lake K mme on
th- north ad Lake .Okeechobe on the buth. The Intra, astl Waterway
between the m9ainla9 *astline ad the outer barer island, provides sheltered
paie for b boatrameong the Atlantic cast


Temperatus range from an average low of 63 degrees I- (17 deges C) I Jan.
Iyto an -e of fi d.r- s1i (27 degrs )m A ust a y -
round avomge of 73 deg s (22 dgies C). Average nuI rafa, l s 50-55
inches (l7-139 c) wlt the heaviest -..nfal Junn, July. August, Sepember
ad Otobel.


Thick equences of sdimentary -ofs overlie the crysmaln atrent rocks
m this part of the -ntral prnoia The diments range from o 6,000 feet
thick (1.830 my no.hwe .rn Pe County to over 12,00fecat thhl (3,660m)
m eastern St Lucre and southern highlands counties Sedmiits whmn a few
hundred feet of the surface gener9a9y con2st of clast9222cs snoha nds. sits and
clays; Iand carbonales such as lit0ons, dolonmtes or Ash s bd In many 1. s
thes litholog c units are intcbcddcd or mterfmgnred maic gradational from

all0d marss, clays anti cayey snds that e dhaow ditches and
sreams, aund Lake rOkechobee, and aLong the _tlaitic .ast, Also. P.eis-
tocene sedimcnts arc the meto medum size ande and s.ts that comprise he

Ridges. Re s edmts are the deposts of peat, lake depa hs, dune rands and

A .ot of St. Luci. Martin. O(A obc. HghlMads. Brvjrd, Osceola.

deposits. Shil beds. clays and clayey --s underhe the surfcial hands and the
pat, .own on theoss tion
The .hell beds, cays, sands, and hmestones e la-i down by rene
pIoII During the last _0 niion years of Pletstoene time sa level t os1
.mo9 1.I0 eet1 (30 m) Wabove p91t 9 a lovel and fel- l more than 200 1et
(60 m) below prennt ea level Tee a Icel nuituatons occurred 1 -rat

any given location aoss the relatiely f -t Plateau. The result of these a
level changes s a very -mpW.x bddng and interfmgrm- of heterogeneousI
lithologies the sbsurfac Elat.raphiy The parent coastal beaches, offshore
barrier islands, and back-bay depos have been designated as shell hthology
beau of the1 shell, slt. and day content Quic often the shell beds Ihave
been changed to a quina, which is a limestone mnposd of shells, corals.
orgame debris, id or other mm -als tat have ben cemented together. Fr-
ments of the quina units are .mmonly found in poil pdeal ong he -.any

shel beds orhlly we thke Touh geologic ime however, their al-
eous shells nd debris ha been leached away leaving the iuded quart
Ind and oIter nslubte mieral as residuum. Intf nberedad mtetbedded
Ioor 929 o11 swh1 e 29y1 i d9 T n2d2usts ar. 11bh- d-sontuo t 99 .. .. s2 l

s "rmapge landtrms Penhh sular ]iond ns mte paot of the Ioridan

Plateau wch is prently above level On the eastern side of e

(16 to 32 km) offshore of S. Luct Brevard, Indian River, and Martnl

unoaver ps the [ te a londan Parteau As sf a leave d the a d -e
the p reatsw e Onelns modione the sueIatydde osf mby be 20

r I .) I -. I t ..3, 1 1- 11 -
.ed -by .I, a- d Vemon (196) Ths map mlhds pt&
foeet( ) higaplc proinhes, from east to we t. A 1i C m
Lowdans (inhudes he Atlantic Coastal Riadgeati and r a

operationsl A larn; Centra s locatd Includ and Idian R iver Sountleh
2th99e At9ohnseVae, R or Lam any) and t posits oSo pPeat T 2e po Ara -oundan2 -
2ae92s wt the9 12h2s0s rh9e9 2r991hane9s, 1 9and1m 9129 992at91 9aed o r t

prly drained se lowlands (or aTbtdes t as yae sal thmed) repdesent theu
hanlow, lat t oteornsof anae nt ar nthes low flatms
hei geologic o hs as If inaai I i. ord offshore bars On he maphy
19912 21 999191 12 9 9 999912. 2 9 -9 eas9 r 299 1 f th9 9

and actions dgese th o a evaon (L Pm) Gog from 10 20
(99 to929 km1 ofshoref 1t. Lucre Brevar, inda'n Re,9nd 29t9
21te9 9o 19 the wes9 sid9 9e 01 pn--7, th1 dg1 29 1e 1 9nd9

-Gl abo d 991 o 922 p92 .21 ee, 1-1. e 9 atey --e. 99

G2 2p.2 1

The Atlanic Coastal Ridge closely parallels the entry celm of gievard.
Ind.n River- St. Lucia ad Mtin counties d is abor m e mo
(1i.6 to 3 2 km) wde. The genera elevations along the Ridge a from 30 to 60

castal sand danes whtch are now relatively stable and spandy vQtean Te-
Mile Ridge and Green Ridge are mIdstnet features that am dffilt o dustngush

then slihtly higher elevations above the Atlantic Coastal L-o2wads Ty r1 anl
in elevation from 25 to 35 feet (76 to 10 5m) They ae ptMbly rdh beach
ridges o1 offshore bas. Lxamples of modern-day Iunte91at9 s of these fe9ar
may be found along the Atlantic Coast m the form of Pr. Hultohin ali
Jupiter Islands, and the offshoc shoals a d bars.

The western edge of the Atantic Coastal Lolamis teminates along a

--ntour ine. This scarp marks the boundary of the ascena Plan On the mhil

third of Polk County, the northern and east of O ot Conty,
ar small parts of western Brevard, Indian River St. Lade amit Mart ats
Lev t ns rangeofronabo. t 80 fet (244 4 ) a. ..A bro, ilthoT e part
and gradually slop-g down to about 50 f-t <15 W aI iii sthen edge Io the
north of Lake Okeechobee. with a narrwere m a that sopesdow to abut
40 feel (12 m) aI Ind.n Town m MartI Coly. Abo- th larlt thH phtu is
essentially flat and, expt for its very grdal dow ard from north to
uth, local rehef eldom exceds 5 iOt (1 m The mi dy of this pham

A fnier-li ke extension of ths plam pis to the h ogh e
Sl Lucic and Mart. unies. and -osely pItalkk t cstcr shor of Lake
Okeeehobee. This may have been a sandlon. o c4mp, whih tem ted the

-Superdmpod on !h O ola P s a vry promiet ine and rdg

lstokpoga (on the map it s situated btw the "Av park A rorce

i1' S. I t.~ .-, r ,... ,.t r b -t ,

and created poreoudy with, the Lake Wales Rge.
The OIeech laom xrne a farele that opes
very gradtay dawwad fm the oth fm ttu e toe of the Otceoa Paint It
is a tringular-haped aea whos apex is at the n ort.weixer diOle of Lake
slokpoga One sd of e angle tns n ht h fro he apex 1h
t rthnm border of ede map ao d o s aiproxnnatd by hec 50fooe t (15 m) conr
tour hna that etads ft Le Itokpga o a u thL a ad W th lo the
pnmt of idae iloBn of the Okepombee County o er c hwth fa ile orelmc of

, pet, rthology is udran by rslat y d depoa$ of peat (ctmmly
caped mck and orgafcnc sndt, 4epcaiding o Rocatin. Ihe peaty dTpo its
may be 20 feet (6 m) k m pdaces, bt a aavng wokld be fom 3-6 fl

(-2 m). They ae wo und eiia by tayey sads and un tods. Fxperu
Sm 5 these tpes of peaty h it VAn ei d haR show tht rapr d

the t weg o A srfa I b ill b. A -a fate an be
fo.scen for [his peal prn f it 11 dcetopoet and ,tld as the lrviades

kat a abru sarp ot f the ter e of te Lake Waler b drge. O s Lke

ofcttaula, both m elevate eand area- extent, it is dostincttve oteah lo be rt-

9appro9 2ra1s 9 axprs of the9 Rd00e The suth2rn t19 19p 1 kmIth bs vy 75-ft
<23 m) otour w tre the Gad hg hlaadt County hd about
3 imeE km) uth of the town of V u Te Rc c of rout tandy
hdlf wsah an large lakes The outras td to cluo e a the e central axs of the
.Wg; ey hae sep edes; ae d they are rhoyhd oa o- -Pmb tai of a

of derfaymp r ntlocs ao d r frbiequep l muc1 of the ovcayiog a tndy idi-
nhill T hipheR eauo o the Ridge n ths aa 293 fet (89 m) O a
- -1] jn eaf of C Lake m T31 S, R 268 i

two arge itre rn a.os. it, the Peae River and I i-tl, Creek, it ts poorly
daame with cutles as durng the wet s n. Its etern boundary
Il -west mmar.g of the Lake Wa-s Ridge. It beaIs at the poit where Polk.
.hjde and Highlands ountis' boundaies meet (T 33 S. R 21 r) and trends
99 t99 99the90t I92g th9 100 1 19 1 (30 19 192192r hn9 t 11 Ch-9(;]e Cnu-y

Ime at the .uth-rn tip of the Lake Wales Ridge. Is northern boundary 1s -ppro" -

ts another region of hth, rolling sndy his, the Polk U plan

ot being the largest fresh-watnr body in the 48 contiguous stl-es ot the uS., its
surfacarea ts approximately 700 square ies (1.B13 sq km) It isvery shallow

Water re-us of the region insist of -rfae ad ground water, both of
which cntribute signlfcatly to the e .nhmic and en -onmenta health nf the

Ground water occurs m this region m at9e2an aquifers and nonartes9an
aqifes Water lg unnfincd under -the fa said to under non-

under rt ndts. Water abkl conditions exist th ghut the map
arci Over mnt of ihc flt, ,wl4yi aeas the top of th water tbk v
iasonally from ground surfa t2o about 20 ftt deep. -Eceptions to these con-
dits ar in the aa of high dues of the Aantict Coasal Ridge and along
the Lke Wales Rid and other rg in the a- the top of the water abk
Sdper, g rally, and mo vriabk m nfiguman

-. ,, ,, -.,,

of' the domls f o snal-demand water spplies > obtained from khe water*

mhiy U.2 demand pplie s for m1 icipa, 1 n and atle a obtained
fr the i-iow water bt. sc thc atlsian I IOrfda aquifer water s oo

The artemn I'lordu aquifer underles th entir regon. It is spaated
from h sa watertable aqufen by ( n of eatively imprnea e
the map 2 2 e t 2nd of the top of the T9r9oen aquifer is from a high in the north-
sest cer of the map to the sutheaa. The tend reflects the genera mgnal
attitude of the top of the limsons that cmprs e upper part of the FIor-
dar qunfer. In the nrthws rner of the map I Po& Counw the top of the

N800 feet dep in Mat C-nty. The Lake Wk Rige in Po& County s a

able waters to the 1orida through nnuerble inkholes, permeabls sndey
- .., ,,b- -' -e- '-' i. _"-,a ..'. i'. '

ach ae. be poo~re with depth. Water quaty dete rates along the


Minel odt m th on nt of: clayey sand. mi h
beds), lilltone and phosphte. with the exeptin of phosphate, mItt of the

.-. for rad-bae ad otnctn at SoU i Iimne m.d in the

viinty of the town of Oeehob. which is ued m apl ad -nwte manu-

exoa ctyey Msads ma for m mmal
part of e Centru Flrid pho.ha- dimit that u loted m the
part of pok County l nsthutes a maAor, m ult'illion dola per ye

bc m xtra rium ox. l e as a martb by-p ut of processing ph-
ph~te. TMe predicted rv cap ildilt m iy a t to 15 per -nt of the
U2ted Sta-2s don9199 rquee9ts, 19S92 y and Windb2., 1979)

I. Highland County, T299 ip 33 S, Rate 28I E. Section 4. no th9st qAr-
of clayey sands of the Mi Hawthorn For b.ion-

3 keechobee Conty. To 35 S, Ran 36 E, Section northeast


Bishop, 1 W. 1956. Geoloy a G Grnd-Wa ter Re ces of Hghds Ct y,
F;-lord Flrida b eolkSgioiSuty Report ofIn pkigatoni NO. 1i.
DausJ.H. 1946. Thf Peal Drpo St of Floida, riomla Geologcal Suey BUSle-
tID No. 30.
Heady, HG. 1974. thlotate Surface od Ar of Atm Flow of the
Floria Aquf,. FkMda BN of- MhSerieiNo. 73.
KIcin, H., ShroederM. and Lhr.W.F. M9. Goy and Grond-Water
source of i-o a Hb- C-.n F Flri Geologal
Suey Report of iwsloa No. 37.

llda ['[orida ( ,ologfcal Su-y Report of 111stgatons No 23.
_laNeI. I S 1950. Ple-she- fhonlii in -onda Ind Geo-gi U.S. Geolog-
ical Su99 ey p92 f9u9 nal p29 ae 2212
Parker, G.G. and Coo2e2 C1 W 1944. late Cenozo9c 9eolt9 9l S1thern 9l9or9al
with A D o"f e Groud Water. I lnda GeoIlogi Survey
Buaethn No. 27.
Puri H.S. ad Vern. R.O 1964. Suminrv of the Geoloy of Ho-a ald A
Guidebok to the Chai Expore I onda Geotogical Surey Spe-a
Pub.iatio No, 5 (Roesed)
Swney, L.W. and Windham. S.R 1979 Florida The New Uranium Producer
FloridaBureaul of Geology Spcmil Pubhcation No. 22.
Veri AR., Jaen9. .WW. and Berpahi, D- 197,5 Enironmental Qualhy
B, Des* n. South I Universitly of Miami Plre s
'.. 9-.. 2 of the Flr.da Pen. .la For2a Bureau

92 99 999 229<92




I[ I Med.-Fine Sand and Silt I Shelly Sand and Clay

Clayey Sand I Peat

Sandy Clay Limestone/Dolomite

EJ Limestone


II I I t I ~


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MAP SE R IES N O . 80 Each area outlined o n this map may consist of more than o ne kind of s ub-surface sediment . The map thus meant f or general planning ra ther than a basis fo r decisions on the use o f spec ific tracts. D E PARTMENT OF NATIJRAL RESOURCES BUREAU OF GEOLOGY This public documen t was promulg ated at a total cost of $ 2 , 093.00 or a per coPY cost o f $1.67 for the purpose of disseminating geologic data. LAI{l:: 38 R lP. [ 30' 45 EX PLANATIO N o Med , F i n e Sand and S il t o Clayey Sand o Shelly S and and Clay o Peat FORT PIERCE -. o L KE , '1 Scale 1:250,000 Statl!" M tlts Kilometres N;wtical l 'IlIes CONTOUR IN TERV AL 50 FEET W I TH SUPPLEMENTAR Y CONTQURS A T 25 FOOT INTERVA L S ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY SERIES FORT PIERCE SHEET , / so LOCATION DIAGRAM ,,' 'r .... 17-& N" 1 6.9 ... rm 17)0 ... oo J , 17 Gt:/.F ..... N'C" , 1\<, !IIG \7-;> fJ/ NC, \ Mi':\/CU 17 N G " . ,,' ,,' " Y-" . y I " c.(".(t-. ': 1 . .. n ,,' ,,' '7 " . o g (J "" 0 c 0 0 F L O R IDA DEPA RT M E N T O F NATURA L R ESOURCES BUREAU OF GEOLOGY '8 307 45' J(16 305 30' 304 0 303 0 ) "'2 15' 301 so-oc)" • 'NTU"OH _ca:o..OGICAL ION( ClSIG UTIOH T O GIYE A STAH[)UD ON 17 R :;::::j I"IJINI 8RIGlfTDIII : T.J-l I:T:l 6d:::d .. I'NOII( II. . ru'" 01 'OJ P' .. "" .. , : I .... ar. 1 .. 11011_, II< , .. ,_,.;." ••. 11M O NlY !tit fit"'" 01 I .. t,il .. roN. ; ....... "2""'" "", ... 001 ' ... lA_ fopt ....... It.:! " I I I -.. -.. , .. .. .. , .. , .. t ... .. ,_: I • .... "'1ioo .. J lee.wli .. 1 .. iIIliM IU",," :,"';1., . '!"; I .. It..., : liM 10 .... 1 S IUI " U IIUlloa: . _ II '.fOI1rOC ...,.....Ir I • • • ' .... . ,,'" . ...'''; ... 1 __ ....... . . I .0"1 ( \ " . P') \481 ) , FLORIDA GEOLOGI C SURVEY MAP SERI ES FORT PIERCE, FLO , ,, .. 'I 1"56 REVISE D J 972


MAP SERlES NO . 80 ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY SERIES FORT PIERCE SHEET Ed Michael S. Knallp. ond Tom Scon F LO RIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES blVl S ION OF RESOURC E MANAGEMENT BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Talllhu.see 1980 Dcvdopmcnt of guidelines for wise management of Fl o rida's nalUral reo sou.cesdepends upon a goo d wo.king knowlc d ge of the Stat e 'sgeology as it relates to man's environmental problems. Management must be based u pon adequategeologicdat. f 01 wch rlCldsuwaSlcdisposal.wate" c$Our\'('s management. bnd manatlcmenl. h ighway ronSlruetion. Keologic hazards. soils mapping, mining and reclamation. E n viron m e nt a l geo logic maps provide the basic data needed for theereation3ndexecutionof$Oundprogramsintheabo"". It is hoped that this map .... ill not only serve the purpose for .... h'ch it Is mtended but will also serve na base map for future presentation of Ileo lo gically rdated data of a more specia li1.ed o r local nature. The ultimate pU'posc of the State's environmental geo l ogy mappin g program i s to insure development of rJo rida' s natural re$Ources .... i th the Ica$! possible enviro n men tal damagc. This map presenUgeologie data in wch a way that it can be undel.toad by per$Ons not Specially mined in Ihc scienre of geo logy. Common rock types • • e .ho .... n 3S they occor flomjust be low the $Oil zon e to depths of expcCled mOil purposes. Mapping involved acrial photographic and topogr d phi< i n,npretalion and field work (v i si tin g qu:uries. borrow pih. canals. road UII'. othe r rock exposures) to p r ovide the necessary data points. U5C wa,:oJ,., made of all publishcd and un pub lish ed data in the files of th e FloridaBu reauof Geology plus published repom of the U.S. Geol ogical Sorve y and the U.s. Soil Con5CTV;lIionService. REGIONAL SElTlNG The $!udy :uea i s located in cast central peninsular Florida and inc1ude l lI igh l ands. I ndian Ri'"er.Ohechobee.and St. Lueic rounties: the no.thern parts of C h :ulollC, G lades, and M a .tin rounti es: the USl e.n parts of De Sotn. and lIardee coon tics: a nd the $Outhern p:utsof Breva.d. Osccola. and I'olk countics. POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT The 1970 0. 4 3 % u.ban; lI a rdce -14.889. 29,507,4 8 % urban:lndu.n River 35.992. 7 ()';t urb.n: .035.18% uroon: O+;eeehobee 11.233. 3)" , u . ban; Oswola . 25.267.48% urban: Polk 227.222.61% urba n: and INDUSTRY AND TRANSPORTATI0N The area's I:OOn",") is ba5<:d p.imarily nn aJ:ricultu .c,wilh citrusgro .... ing. callic raising and ltuckfall"inJ; predominanl. Tourism l",nuibules amino. P'''' to the cronnm), a nd i s impo.lanl main l y alol\!! Ihe Atlantic coast, lIow. e"cr. past Il"'nds indkate that lourism will prnbably )!.IOW rapidly in Ihefutu.e amlwill.'Ontribl tc mor e to thc economy. Man y shal .... w. open_pit mines a.e ilCaliered through th. .... hich sand. limestone. oO'luina. shdls . clayey $ands. These rommodities arc primarily for l ocaliled in ,,,,nmuelion and for roads. I'art of the Central I lorida phosphate diSlrict is localed in The eastern pall of P olk ('ountythaliuho,,nonth,map. Severa l m:rjor roads cross the are3. U.s. I par allels the Atlantic Ocean on the cast roast a nd a:rvesas the main roote for tourism 10 South Florida.lnlcr s t ate 95 (florida's Turnpike) rum from thc approximate,.,ntc. of the are a t o the $Out hca$! rurncr. U.S. 2 7 runs d o"" n thc ce nl e r of the l ake Wales and plOvides for th e citrus industry thaI i s ron cenlrated there. U.S. 441 is a main nurth-tOuth route thaI provides access 10 Ih e Lalce Ok ee chobee arca. On 1he westcrn side of the map. State R oute 17 close l y follo w s the trend of the l'eaCt' R iver and provides t o th e phosphate producing arcu. M any othl'r se,""nd:uy. cast_west roa d s inlerconnect among these m r hio:hways . lnnum,'rable dirt mads and CTissI stream chaonels. and Ihc pnennially flu<)ded or poolly drained s " 'ampy areas. These are usually 'hin or di$Continuous. and of little potentia! value t'or ," PHYSIOGRAPHY Thc history of I",nin,ular !'lo rida i s reflected in its phy_ sivJ:r a phic l.nMotms. Pcninsubr !"lorida is the palt of Ihe Flo.ida n Plaleau .... hich i s p.esently abow sea level. On the caSIC," side o f Ihe m a l' area Ihe of the F l o.idan Plateau lies f .om 1 0 to 20 milci (16 to 32 km) offshu.c of SI. lucie. B rev3td. I nd ian Ri"" •. and M a . tin rounties. On th e sidc of t h e peninsu l a Ihe of Ihe F loridan Plat ea u Ii<:sasmuchas 1 0 0 miles(l60km) offshore. During past 1 " millioo ye ars sea level ha s flu"u3ted se"".ul above and below its present l evel. alternatel y coved"!; an d unrovering parts of the I'lo rid an As sea l evel I h e 1OIlvancing and retreatinj: !ohorelines modificd the surface of the P b, t eau and the peninsula 10 produ ce its p r esent physiOj!raphy. The loation, of many of 'til""" anei<:nt shorelines and marine fcauues can rtiI.l be tracedbythc,prea:neeofterraees . lilndridKellnddunes . provinces fo r the S ta t e of Florida haw: been pro posed iby If',uri I nd Vernon (1%4). Thill map inc1u 0lc.ccchob Plai n ; Central (iocludes L ;tkl' ' Wale. raid!!" a nc! the IntraRid)le Vallcy). and Ihe I)c SOl O P lain. The boundaries o f the"" p10vinces. Or l a ndform .. aN' balled on then elevation. Prattkally all ot' S1cvard. In dian River. SI.lLucit md MII"in countin lie wilh i n Ihe Atbntic ('oaslal lowland s province. T he COlIslal l owLmds inbnd from the .. U:;ly 20 miles 132 km). T hese Lowlands are characlerized 'by .mono1onuully fill. low cleva t ions (less th an 25 feet (7.5 m)abo .... thllt.&fCs .... ampyand poorl y d.aincd. These Io .... lands (or I1..:r.tlands, as IIh ey llJe ailo CIllled) represenl the shallow, flat bottoms of aneie nl ICllS.'Superimpnsed",pon thelC low fl a Tland s are a: ..... al sand .ldgcs ... hich arc distinguiihedobyitheirliEnifiC-oIntlyhighere[e. vations,theirlineuitYlindthcir.eoa Sl,pIlTaIlfl , o rienution.allof,,' hi ehrefleet their geologic origins asan oiml t 4ho rclines"dllllCli.oroffshon: bus. On the map a n d CIOlS-ICeOOnl these rlII&o>t Ilk abo"" 2S 'feet e levation ( 7.5 m) . Going f r o m th e COllllt 10 the ""'", t he .ue: , ,t.tlantic Coanal Ridge. T en-Mile Rid ge a nd Green Rid ge. The AtlantieCoasul Rid"e close l y parallels th e entire ooullinc of Brevard. Indian River . SI. Lucie and Martin rounties and is about one or ..... 0 mikl (1.6 10 3.2 km) wide. The elculions the Ridge • .., frolll 301060 feet (9 t o 1 8 m), .... ith $Omc 10C;t1 hill s ncar J e n sen and in J on.lllu. n Didinson Stalc Park ri sing to 80 fect (24.5 m). The"" unci Ire ... o.-n l roasul sand dunes " ' h ich arc n o .... r elatively slable a nd sparsely vq:ctated. Ten Mil e Rid ge Creen Rid ge arc indistinct features th.t are diff"lwlt lodining .. ;sh fro m th e but which u n gene,.U y be deline a ted onlop!lt:r:ophw: maplb), Iheir slightl y high e r the Atlantic Coastallotl lands.. T ltey IIfIEC in elevation from 25 t o 35 fcel (7 .6 to 10.5m). They are probably relict bead! 01 off!ohole b:us. of rounterp.ot.r IS of 1h<'1I: faturn may be fou nd alo!ij: the Atlan tic i n Ihe form of H li tchin"", and Jupiter l s1and s . and the offshore shoals and bars. The western edge of the Atlantlc Coastll Lotlunlis tcrmnu.les .Iong a prominent that r ises I"'lativcly sleeply .bo1lC' lhe 30 fccI (9 m)elcv.lion co ntOUt line. This scarp marks I h e boundary of I"" 050c0I.a P lain . On the ma p the O sceola I 'lain enrompasses all of Osceola County •• pp.oximately the eauern third of I'ulk Counly. the no.thern an d eastern parli of Okeechobo County, ar. small pun of weste," I:llevard. In dian Ri ver, St. Lude a nd Martin oo llnti", .. Elevation s '3!ij:e flom abOUI 80 feet (24. 4 m) IcrOSS its broad, northern part s lopinjldn" ' n norlh of l a keOkecehobcc: wilhanarro ... erel< t e n sionthatslopcsdo ..... to.boul 40 feet (12 m) at Indian Town::I Martin Counly. Abo"" the scarp this plain i s essentially flat and. ncept for ilS ve.y "",dllal doo,,mo. ard slope from north to $Oulh. local relief seldom 5 feet (1.5 m I . Tite main body o f t h i s plain is composed of san d probably rcprese ntt." aJlcicntlinc of b a r rier beadles, " ' hich when lcvel stood 4 0 fcet /12 m) or more abo"" prell.:nt \c1lC'1 A eXlension of thi:!; plain poinll to the .. utheast t hrouth .. ....,"em SI. Lucie MlIrlin counties . • nd close l y parallc h the shore of Lake Ok!chobec. This may have been • u nd -spit. Of cape, " 'hidr terminated the c h ai n ofbarrie1 beach es. Superimposed on theOsccob plaini, .... ry prominent linnr Yond.qc, callcd R a nge Ridge, thaI i s Ioated bet ... ""n L i k e K issimmee . nd lSlokpoga(onlhemnpitissituatedbe ...... ... vonf'arl< ... irl'ora: R lInge"). It lIends for 22 miles (lS km) and is from I to 4 mile l wide (1.6 to 6.4 km) . Ri sing abo ... thc 75 fcet (23 m) con w ur line. iu top slopes d o .... n"ar dfromno.thIDSOOIth,similartotheOsceola .. lain.l'eakelev.tion'ra .. e from 146 fcet (44.5 m) at iu north end to 97 fNt (30 ml .t i t s IOOth e nd . This ,.,nd body m lY have been I offsho.., lind bv th.ot ".15 .QOci.oted .... i th. andeteatcdcon temporaneousJ)' .. The Okcechob Plain is . n ilIt. featllfClei$ .re. thaI sIopn w.y gladually do....., .. u d to Ihe lOutb from the we: of the Osocot. Plain. I I is a ........ hole Ipe.. i$ It the nOTth ... ul<:m silo.., ofbkt I$lOkpogM. One side of the triangle !'\Inl nonh..,uth t h e apex 10 Ihc bottom borde. of the map a nd i s b)' the S()-(Ovt (15 ml c0ntour lil'lC t hl! from L a k e htolr.popt a nd m41th to the po i nt ofin lcrtCction of Okeechobee. II erv.tion IS feet (4.6 mi. I I is poo.1y drained . • It holl,ll;h ,n ,peent year, Iarl',l' I.actl had 11K-it ..... ter l o .... red throuh euen$ive ditchel. The arel to t h e ...,.th of Lalr.e 'iloitpoga tNt i s oiIo"'n U "pnl" Jit hok>gy underlain by ..,latMly thid: deposits of peat /rommotli}' c;r.llcd m .. d<) and .and • • dependin, on k)(:uion. The pell)' may be 20 fcct (6 m) thid< in pl.oces, b\lt an " 'oWel be from J.6 feel (1-2 mI . They are underlain b)' daye)' sa nd s and shc U boc1$. f. .. "., •. "'ncr: "ith thciC Iype. of peaty lOiIs in the.:we.pad.eihas shOtl'JI ra pid even spo n taneous combuJlion. takes place after lotI' thcir"'J"'r oonk'quences of cft'ectl been the compaction of the pear and the Io"'eril\l: of the .. !face over vUI areas. A similar fue an be f""'fCCn fOJ' thii pelt prair ie i f it ildcvelopnd and utili7eduthe._ .... rpadcs been. nil' weJU:rn edges of both the Osceola and Okeechobee !'lains le.minlte • 1 Mn abrupt seIT P that if thc eastern side of Ihe ..... ale i R • . The Lalr.e W ales Rid)!.c is one of the most prominent topographic (cIIUI' o n t he Florida pt.'TIin.uIa. both in elevation Ind . rcal eKtent; il to berecogniubk from spacecrlft a nd o n photova phy. ROUl<: 27 close l y allproKimate' liu. of tM The lOuthern lip iii outimnd by the 75fool (23 m) conlour lim ... he.e i t touches the GbdeH1;p.lm,h Count y line abou l 3 mil (S km) IOIIth of t h e to"' n of V enUI. The R)cIge consKts of toUin, sandy w ith many Iar!!C bku. The laIr;esl<:nd to cluitef along the niiof the ncepooes;and they . re rOUlhty circularorrombinationtof ooalescin.l! cirdcs. The,", characteristies poinl to thcir orjpls soIutionm,: of limestollCi . nd wbsequcrrt rolla"", crf the over l yilll: sa nd y 1OCIimenu. The h;p,.,st elcvationon t h e Ridge in Ihilarea .. 29 3 fec t (89 m) on a hilljull CuI of Crooked L a k e in T JI S. R 28 E . The "",th"'cilem COrne. of the map i s the flat,featutde" De Soto P lain. I t iI. very IpllTlCl)' populaled and il mainly devo l ed to cat tl e r aising. AlthoUf,h 1 .... 0 blge meami run lao" il. the Peace Rivcr a nd HshealingCreek . it ispoorl}' drained .... itb colintleSli boggy areu during the .... sealOn. JtseaSlern boundary iI. the .... ffi mar9rt of the Wales R idge. I t begins It Ihe poin: .... here Polk. lIardee and Highland i rounties' bounda. ies meel IT 33 S, R 27 I . ) and trends to th e the 100 foot (30 ml ,,,,ntour lin c tv 'he (ounty line U imatt .. d by The 100 foot DO m) l'Ontour lin e from the common point of tht three countiu $Outhwcst,, ard to Zolfo thenC'C " CST to the border of the map: State Roule 64 f ollow. th i s lin e duStly. North o f l hi, !ine isan!Jlhcr'(J;iooofhigh.rollingsandyhiUs.thePolkl1plan<1. LakcOkecehobce," 'ith the exception of the (:.Cat laku.hasth_disti neuoo of be ing the lar gest f.e!oh .... ater body in u.s.: its su.face area is,pploximatcly 700 squa.e milc I (I.813 sq. k m). l t .... a nd mostofil is l ess Ihn WATER RESOURCES Water .eso ur ces o f the r egio n oo nsi st of su. face and ground water. both of "'hich rontrib ut e significantly 10 the economic and envi. onmental health of the area . Surface .... atersare those ocrurringon the ClIn a ls an d marshes. I f it were n o t for the ready ll"Cessibi [jt )' of la'l:e qUantilies of sur face .... atel fo r irriKatlon. pouibly much of the are.'1 citrus cultivation w o uld be prohibitivdyupensiVt:. Groune! "'atel oceur s in this reg i on in artcsilln aquifers a nd nonanesian aqui fers. W a t e r unconfined unde r Ihe surf.ce is SlLid tooear. undcr non ulClian, Or "'Itel table conditions.. In l'Ontras l "round ... ate.lhat, isronflncd and u nder P"'ssu.., bet"'!;'e n rclatiVt:ly impermea ble rodr. units. is said tooeeur uTHkr arte sian conditions. W atc r table ronditions exist I h e map .rel. ()VC. most of the ilIt. Io .... areas thc top of the "'lIer table varies scatonally from ground $II.face 1 0 about 20 f""l drep . to these oon dinons 0. in the areas of high dunes of th e Atlantic Coastal Rid ge and a long the uke Wale s Rid", a nd I n !hex areas the top of w a ter table isdecper,generally .• ndmore\l3ri:tbkinronrlf!:ur:at ion. JCQIoI:ic units that rompc isc the .... ater-tablc aquifer $)'stcms a re matdy I S O to 200 f 1 thide in this regio n . W.tcrquality isusuaU y beller in thclliC ..11o .. .... ater_ l ablcaquifel'l th a n it i s in th c !lcepe r IItcsian aquifers.. Quality tasle Or oolo.,depcndi lLjlo n Ihc loca l gcoIOllY. r o u ,hout the re j(ion,moSl o f the dome";'; or srnall ... and construction sitcs.Some lirncSioneilmined in the vicinit y ofthc to"' n ofOkeechobce .... hich isutcdinllphall.ndoon C1't'temanu factorin,g. Sand is mined n tcVt:ral places akIO!\ the Wale s RidKC in I'olk. Ilit;bllndl I nd Glades oounticl and a1$O at seve ral place,on t h e dlille l ala,. the Atlantic rout . SC .... ra l of tbe pits aluM the Lake W ileS RidKC abo exlract clayey And" mostly for nil material. The pi" of !he Central I'\orida dimicl that i s located in the eutcm parI of P oll< County ronilitllle,. mJ,jc)f, multi-million dollar per year indli llry for the aru. Aho, secral phosphlte-pro!luci!l& oompanielh."" recently bqun 10 uranium o xide IS I marketabllC by.procluct of prooe$$ing phos phite. Thc predicted reooVt:ry apa.bili tie l ma y amount 1 0 IS per cent of the United Stites' dOmellW: rcqllircmenlll (Sweeney and Windlutm , 11179). OUTCROPS OF I . HighbndsCounty. Townlllip]3 S. R-. 28 E. Section 4 . northwestquar. ofcbyey sands o f I hc Miooenc llatl'thorn Formalion . 2. To ....... ip 16 S. Ra,., )0 E.Stion 34.:a1on& Route 621 on 50Uth shore o f Lak e hloIr.pop. Ditches in iacid l near thc .idge sho .... fcel of pea!: farthcr eut .. d bed s arc UnMM 3 . OIIlS of Anca.n 1'10 .... of tht FIorit:knAqlllfer. florida Blll'el.ll o fGc>olocY Map Scricl No. 7). It" Sch.oeder, M.c. and lidlt:let, W.F. 11164. Gt'O/oty IIJtd Ground''''IIIe' uf GWn liNd lIend,)' COUlltin. ,../oridJl. l ' lorida GcolOfl,i ca l SUM'y Rrpon 37. lkhtlcr. W.l'. 1%0 . ("td Groc.Jtd"'.,..,. of NUI;'I em",'),. F/vrid ll . SUIVCY Report o f I n""";,ations No , 23. I'.S. 11150. rlf';S/O('f' .... Short'IitK's in /-lorida IIl1d G .. U.s. GfologP arker. G.G. and C'ookr. CWo 1944 . I .llrr (;('010,.)' ulStffltirrm Flori