An index to springs of Florida ( FGS: Map series 63 )
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF90000312/00001
 Material Information
Title: An index to springs of Florida ( FGS: Map series 63 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Map series 63 )
Physical Description: 1 map : col. ; 41 x 51 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rosenau, Jack C
Faulkner, Glen L ( joint author )
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: The Bureau
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1974
Subjects / Keywords: Springs -- Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Groundwater -- Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Springs -- 1:950,000 -- Florida -- 1974   ( local )
Groundwater -- 1:950,000 -- Florida -- 1974   ( local )
Springs -- 1:950,000 -- Florida -- 1974   ( local )
Groundwater -- 1:950,000 -- Florida -- 1974   ( local )
1:950,000 -- Florida -- 1974   ( local )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
single map   ( marcgt )
indexed   ( marcgt )
Maps   ( lcsh )
Statement of Responsibility: by Jack C. Rosenau and Glen L. Faulkner ; prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources.
General Note: Includes text, indexes, and statistical table.
General Note: Springs indexed by county.
General Note: Identifies 4 classes of springs by color and shows average water flow.
Funding: Map series (Florida Geological Survey) ;
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001718862
oclc - 07691714
notis - AJD1298
lccn - 80695118 /MAPS
System ID: UF90000312:00001

Full Text







30 --


This public document was promulgated at a total
cost of $425.00 or a per copy cost of $.29 for the
purpose of disseminating geologic data.

T -O--S---



Jack C. Rosenau and Glen L Faulkner

Prepared by the
in cooperation with

Tallahassee, Florida


Florida is a State of beautiful waters-the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of
Mexico, the Suwannee River, and innumerable streams, lakes, and sinks
of all sizes; and of special beauty and interest are the many springs. The
total number of springs in Florida is not known, but there are more
than 200.
Florida's springs represent natural overflow from the State's vast
ground-water storage and circulation system. Their combined flow
is about 8,000 ft3/s (cubic feet per second) or about 5 billion gallons a
day. As a comparison, in 1971, public-water systems delivered 800 mgd
(million gallons per day) which is equivalent to only about one-sixth of
the water discharged each day from springs in Florida.
Springs vary in flow daily, seasonally, and from year to year.
Basically the flow is related to variations in rainfall, although man's use
of ground water affects the flow of some springs. During periods of
little rainfall, spring flow, streamflow, and ground-water levels all
decline, just as they increase during wet periods.
The springs of Florida are used to a limited degree as a source of
water supply by agriculture and industry; however, their primary use is
recreational. For this they are well suited because of the natural beauty
of their surroundings, their normal clarity and consistently moderate
temperature, and the seemingly subtle mystery of water upwelling from
the earth.
This map report is an index to the location and magnitude of flow of
165 of the better known natural springs and 7 pseudo-springs in Florida
(tables 1-A and 1-B). The eight counties bordering the Suwannee River
have at least 45 springs, or more than a quarter of the total, and most
are near the river. Conjunctive use of the map and table 1 provides
approximate locations, names, and magnitude categories of these
springs. In table 2, Florida's 22 first-magnitude springs, those having an
average flow of more than 100 ft3/s are listed giving discharge data and
some information on the quality of the water.
Nationwide, the State of Florida has the greatest number of
first-magnitude springs. Thenr total average flow is 5,600 ft3/s, or 65
percent of the average flow of all springs in Florida. Silver Springs, with
an average flow of 823 ft3/s, is the largest although Wakulla Springs has
the greatest instantaneous measured flow (1,870 ft 3/s) and also the
greatest range of flow.


Florida is underlain by a thick sequence of limestone and dolomite.
These sedimentary rocks were deposited in shallow seas that, at various
times in the geologic past, inundated the State. In many places these
rocks contain numerous small and large interconnected cavities or
caverns that have resulted from solution and removal of limestone by
circulating fresh ground water. The fresh water derived from rainfall
infiltrated the rocks after the sea level declined and left the surface of
Florida abova sea level. The majority of Florida's springs emerge from
cavites where the rocks open at the land surface. A few springs seep
iftm penweablo sands or shell beds that have been deposited over the
hmestoce. These springs are generally small compared with the ones
that ftow from limestone, and they also are more likely to go dry
during long periods of little or no rainfall
A spring is overflow or leakage from an underground reservoir
(aquifer). The source of Florida ground water is rainfall that seeps into
the ground and recharges aquifers in northern and central Florida and
southern Alabama and Georgia, where rocks of the aquifers are at or
near land surface. Most springs in Florida are permanent, that is they
flow the year round.
The water of most Florida springs is of excellent quality. It is low in
salinity and of moderate hardness depending, at least in part, on how
long the water has been in storage in the aquifer. Dissolved solids are
generally less than 250 mg/I (milligrams per liter). Spring temperatures
range between 68 and 770 Fahrenheit (20 to 25 Celsius). Springs
located in the southern part of the State tend to be the warmest.


Springs may be classified by the average quantity of water they
discharge and in this report the following 3-magnitude classification of
discharge is used. First magnitude, 100 ft /s or more; second
magnitude, 10 to 100 ft3/s; and third magnitude, less than 10 ft3/s.
Most of the better known springs in Florida are indicated by symbol
and identified by number on the map. The spring names are tabulated
by counties alphabetically and by number. Where several named springs
are close together they are grouped under one symbol and identified
with two or more numbers on the map; the location symbol is also
larger than for a single spring. For example, the large blue circle in the
southwestern part of Jackson County indicates there are five springs in
the area and that all are second-magnitude springs. Others, such as Blue
Springs and Ichatucknee Springs (Jackson and Columbia Counties,
respectively) are groups of springs not individually identified. Wacissa
Springs in Jefferson County is the most notable of these, with a dozen
named and unnamed springs known to exist in the upper mile and a;
half of the Wacissa River.
Seven pseudo-springs are indicated by stars. Located in southern
Florida and included because they are locally known or referred to as
springs, all of these pseudo-springs but Shangri La, in Lee County, flow
from artesian wells that are more than a thousand feet deep. There is
unconfirmed evidence that Shangri La may also be a welL
Information on the springs of Florida was obtained by the US.
Geological Survey in 1972 and 1973 as part of the statewide
cooperative water resource program with the Florida Department of
Natural Resources.


1. Gainm
2. Pilts

1. Hell

1. Abes


1. Gree
2. Wadi

1. Bell
2. Icha

S- / ..... 58,12
( / -- JACKSON


OKALOOSA 2 1.67,9,


Jefferson County

Springs 1. Wacissa Springs Group
nesby Spring a. Big Spring
nesia Spring b. Garner Springs
Springs e. Blue Spring
d. Buzzard Log Springs
Bay County e. Minnow Spring
f. Cassidy Spring
er Springs g. Springs No. 1 and 2
Spring h. Thomas Spring
i. Log Springs
Bradford County j. Alien Spring
k. Horsehead Spring

bronn Spring

Calhoun County

Lafayette County

1. Allen Mill Pond Springs
s Spring 2. Blue Spring
3. Convict Spring
Citrus County 4. Fletcher Spring
5. Mearson Spring
Sprinng 6. Owens Spring
sahawitska Sprinmgs 7. Perry Spring
nosrsa Spnngs 8. Ruth Spring
Spring 9. Steinhatchee Spring
10. Troy Springs
Clay County 11. Turtle Spring

n Cove Sprng
esboro Spring

Lake County

1. Alexander Springs
Columbia County 2. Apopka Spring
3. Blue Springs
Spnngs 4. Bugg Spring
tucknee Springs* 5. Camp La No Che Spring
6. Holiday Springs
Dixie County 7. Messant Spring
8. Seminole Springs

Copper Spring
Little Copper Spring


1. Mys

Leon County

tanto Spring 1. Horn Springs
rabb Spring 2. Natural Bridge
3. Rhodes Springs
Eseambia County 4. St. Marks Spring

tic Springs Levy County

Gadsden County 1. Blue Spring
2. Fannin Springs
1. Chattahoochee Spring 3. Manatee Spring*
2. Glen Julia Spring 4. Wekiva Springs

Gilchrist County

1. Bell Springs
2. Hart Spring
3. Lumber Camp Spring
4. Otter Spring
5. Rock Bluff Spring
6. Sun Spring
7. Townsand Spring

Gulf County

1. Delkeith Springs

Hamilton County

1. Morgans Spring
2. White Springs

Hernando County

1. Bobhill Springs
2. Little Springs
3. Salt Spring
4. Weekiwachee Springs

Hilsborough County

1. Buckhorn Springs
2. Eureka Springs
3. Lettuce Lake Spring
4. Lithia Springs
5. Six Mile Creek Spring


Santa Rosa County

1. Chumuckla Springs

Sarasota County

1. Little Salt Spring
2. Warm Salt Spring

Seminole County

1. Clifton Springs
2. Elder Springs
3. Heath Spring
4. Lake Jessup Spring
5. Miami Springs
6. Palm Springs
7. Sanlando Springs
8. Starbuck Spring

Sumter County

1. Fenney Springs
2. Gum Springs

Suwannee County

1. Bonnet Spring
2. Branford Springs
3. Charles Springs
4. Ellaville Spring
5. Falmouth Spring
6. Little River Springs
7. Peacock Springs
8. Royal Spring
9. Running Spring
10. Suwannee Springs
11. Thomas Spring
12. Tilford Springs

Taylor County

1. Carlton Spring
2. Ewing Spring
3. Hampton Springs
4. Iron Spring
5. Waldo Springs

Union County

1. Worthington Spring

Volusia County

Liberty County
1. Blue Spring
1. White Springs 2. Gemini Springs
3. Green Springs
Madison County -4.Ponce de Leon Springs
5. Seminole Spring

1. Blue Spring
2. Pettis Spring
3. Suwanacoochee Spring

1. Junipe
2. Orang
3. Rainbow
4. Salt Sp
5. Silver
6. Silver
7. The A
8. Wilson

1. Su-No-

1. Rock
2. Wekiv
3. Wither

Wakulla County

1. Crays Rise
Marion County 2. Indian Springs
3. Kini Spring
er Springs 4. Newport Springs
e Spring 5. Panacea Mineral Springs
ow Springs 6. River Sink Spring
springs 7. Spring Creek Springs
Springs 8. Wakulla Springs

Glen Springs
n Head Spring

Walton County

1. Camp Euchee Springs
Nassau County 2. Morrison Spring

-Wa Spring Washington County

Orange County 1. Beckton Springs
2. Blue Spring
Springs 3. Cypress Springs
a Springs* 4. Blue Spring
rington Spring 5. Williford Spring

Pasco County
*Florida State Park.

lhur Spring 1. Crystal Springs
2. Horseshoe Spring
Holmes County 3. Magnolia Springs
4. Salt Springs

1. Jackson Springs
2. Ponce de Leon Spring
3. Vogtex Blue Spring

Jackson County

1. Black Spring
2. Blue Spring
3. Blue Hole Spring
4. Bosel Spring
5. Daniel Springs
6. Double Spring
7. Gadsen Spring
8. Hays Spring
9. Mill Pond Spring
10. Springboard Spring
11. Sand Bag Spring
12. Waddell Mill Pond Spring

Pinellas County

1. Health Spring

Putnam County

1. Beacher Springs
2. Mud Spring
3. Nashua Spring
4. Satsuma Spring
S. Forest Spring
6. Welaka Spring
7. Whitewater Springs



Table 1-B. Peudo-Springs, ht County.

Broward County

1. Carlsbad Spa Villas

Charlotte County

1. Hot Springs

Dade County

1. Hurricane Lodge
2. Mineral Springs*

Lee County

1. Shangri La Motel Health Resort
2. Warm Springs Spa

Monroe County

1. Pennekamp*

*Florida State Park.



- 28


Table 2. First-magnitude springs of FloriJa-with period of record, discharge and representative temperatures and dissolved solids.

Perial Discharge Water Dissolved
Spring, number on map, of Aveage Range Number of temperature solids
and county recct-d (ft3s) (ft33s)' measurements 0C2 F3 (mg/I)4

Bay County
1. Gainer Springs

Citrus County
2. Chassahawitska Springs
3. Homosassa Springs

Columbia County
1. Ichatucknee Springs5

Hernando County
4. Weekiwachee Springs

Jackson County
2. Blue Springs

Jefferson County
1. Wacissa Springs

Lafayette County
10. Troy Springs

Lake County
1. Alexander Springs
Leon County
2. Natural Bridge Spring
4. St. Marks Spring
Levy County
2. Fannin Springs
3. Manatee Springs5

Madison County
1. Blue Spring

Marion County
3. Rainbow Springs
5. Silver Springs
6. Silver Glen Springs

Suwannee County
5. Falmouth Springs

Volusia County
1. Blue Springs

Wakulla County
3. Kini Spring
6. River Sink Spring
& Wakulla Springs

194 -72 159 131- 185 7 22.0 72 60

193172 139 32- 197 81 23.5 74 740
193!-72 192 125- 257 75 23.0 73 1,800

191'-72 358 241- 578 359 22.5 73 170

191!-72 176 101- 275 354 23.5 74 150

192)73 190 56- 287 10 21.0 70 116

1971-73 374 255- 596 14 20.5 69 150

194!-73 166 148 205 4 22.0 72 171

193 -72 120 74- 162 13 23.5 74 512

194 -73 106 79- 132 5 20.0 68 138
195-73 519 310- 950 130 20.5 69 154

193)-72 102 64- 137 7 22.0 72 194
1931-73 181 110- 238 9 22.0 72 215

194-73 123 78- 145 5 21.0 70 146

1891-1972 788
190i-72 823
193A-72 112

487-1,230 386
539-1,290 139
90- 129 11

1931-73 125 60- 159 3 21.0 70 218

193!-72 162 63- 214 352 23.0 73 826

197!-73 176
1941-73 164
1907-73 375

102- 215 6
25-1,870 266

21.0 70 105
21.0 70 105
21.0 70 153

Cubic feet per second
4 Miligrams per liter
'Florida State Park


frJ Q






3,60 First Magnitude Spring and County
Index number-average flow greater than 100 cubic
feet per second (64.6 million gallons per day).

4,110 Second Magnitude Spring and County Index Numbers
Average flow between 10 and 100 cubic feet per

20 Third Magnitude and County Index Number

Spring flow less than 10 cubic feet per second (6.46
million gallons per day)

19 Pseudo Spring and County Index Number



SNOV'2 2 19t
0 10 20 so' 50NILECS 3 3

oil ,ND. 63

4/ .R6s


Table I-A. Florida springs by county.

Alachua County



26 -

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