Top of the Floridan artesian aquifer ( FGS: Map series 56 )

Material Information

Top of the Floridan artesian aquifer ( FGS: Map series 56 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Map series 56 )
Vernon, Robert O ( Robert Orion ), 1912-
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Place of Publication:
The Bureau
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
1 map : col. ; 41 x 51 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Groundwater -- Maps -- Florida ( lcsh )
Maps -- Floridan Aquifer ( lcsh )
Maps -- Florida ( lcsh )
Groundwater -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1973 ( local )
Groundwater -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1973 ( local )
1:2,000,000 -- Floridan Aquifer -- 1973 ( local )
1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1973 ( local )
Aquifers ( jstor )
Rocks ( jstor )
Sediments ( jstor )
Rain ( jstor )
Bodies of water ( jstor )
Maps ( lcsh )
single map ( marcgt )


General Note:
Includes text and "North-south cross section."
Map series (Florida. Bureau of Geology) ;
Statement of Responsibility:
by Robert O. Vernon prepared by Bureau of Geology, Division of Interior Resources, Florida Department of Natural Resources, in cooperation with United States Geological Survey.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
025167617 ( aleph )
07691795 ( oclc )
AJP8722 ( notis )
80695131 /MAPS/r87 ( lccn )

Full Text



published by BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

89o0 *o 870 860 850 840 830 820 8P 80





This map depicts the approximate top of the roc
composes the Floridan aquifer. The contours repres
the top of this rock in relation to mean sea level In
is exposed at or near the land surface and may lie al
an area occurs along the middle Gulf coun
northwesterly into Holmes, Jackson, Washington an
In other areas of Florida the rock lies below sea lev
are shown with a minus prefix. The zero line or datu
Numerous geologic and structural characteristics
map. Among others, the Ocala uplift is clearly del
Coastal counties where the rock rises above sea level
a large fault block described by Vernon in 195:
Osceola County, and a coast parallel fault in Palm B
Martin and St. Lucie counties, partially controls the
the artesian water in these counties. Deep depri
representing karst, early geologic structures and
recorded in the irregular penetrations of the aquifer.
An aquifer is part of a rock unit, a rock unit or
that contain sufficiently saturated, permeable
significant sustained quantities of water to well
unsaturated part of the permeable unit through
ground water may fluctuate with time, constitutes a
An artesian aquifer is a confined aquifer, the water
to as the artesian water or artesian water body. T
pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The
artesian aquifer is the base of a confining bed, exci
with water table in recharge areas. The confining be
consist of part of a rock unit, a rock unit, or a series
are stratigraphically adjacent to and/or alternating
aquifers, and which have restrictive permeabiliti
conductivity distinctly below that of an aquifer.
The Floridan artesian aquifer consists of t
dolostones of Cretaceous to Eocene ages and of adj
permeable sediments of Miocene and younger ages
with the carbonates. The aquifer contains a series
bodies that act as one hydrologic unit over geologic
The map represents data taken from published r
intensified study of rock cuttings and cores con
sample library of the Bureau of Geology by the w
with the Bureau of Geology. The user is caution
gross representation of the top of the aquifer and i
made upon widely spaced data points.
The rock materials that compose the subsurface c
sediments that are closely related to marine depo
deposition along the sea's margins. These sediment
of rock matter that are separated by pores, interstic
size, degree, type, shape, connection and arrangeme
determine the ability of the rock to hold and to p
or in other terms these characteristics of the rc
amount of porosity and permeability that the sedim
In areas of recharge where the aquifer lies near th
is common for wells to penetrate an unsaturated z
to encounter decreased static water heads or levels
of penetration of the rock. In such areas the to
mapped includes the unsaturated zone or it ha
represent the elevation at which the highest rock wa

AIt -

lic 0;


III I i i I

-"------ b, o .

OM Prepared by
GADEDN, "/ + '-' ---- ASSAU/ in cooperation with

0 O L RLA 0 BI K / UVAL 1973

D0 FITR O00 R C DI--4iEE .T\
0 4 \F-" --.- LAFAYETTt ', YQ ("1

RobertO. Vernon, Director P A ATLANTIC
-0 ------ FLAGLER

-k or sediment that In those areas where wells encounter water under pressure the However, water bodies under atmospheric pressure may occur in the -
ent the elevation of elevation of the rock that contains artesian water was taken as the top surficial and intermediate sediments and local hydrologic and geologic V 0 LUSIA 1
some areas the rock of the aquifer, relationships may create a limited confined water body within these
above sea leveL Such The details of the top of the Floridan artesian aquifer provide a deposits. The slope and gradients of the water table or the top of the
ties and extends reasonable estimate of the thickness of covering beds that are generally saturated zone in these units approximate the slopes and contours of
id Walton counties, subject to collapse when unsupported in a drilled well, or that compose the land surface. Many of these water bodies are held in permeable '
el and the contours the confining beds that cover the artesian aquifer. sediment perched at elevations above the principal confined water body, -
m plane is sea leveL This approximate thickness or interval, an estimate of the and are separated by non-permeable beds.\ /, / \
are reflected on the requirement for casing depths in wells that produce artesian water, may The intermediate sediments, generally contained in the Hawthorn -- SUMTER S E
ineated in the Gulf be determined by taking the algebraic sum of the elevation of the Formation, lie below the surficial sediments and rest upon sediments, T [-- ..
L The Osceola Low, ground surface and the elevation of the top of the rock at the well site. the pores of which are filled with confined water bodies that make up \ \' !
1, is outlined over If the top of the rock has a plus value it must be subtracted from the the principal artesian aquifer of Florida. ERNA 0 R A N GE
leach, Indian River, ground surface elevation to obtain the approximate casing interval. The artesian aquifer may be connected with permeable sediments --- .I ,
flow and quality of Where the top of the rock has a minus value the ground elevation must that have limited spatial and geologic extent in the intermediate and
sessions and knolls be added to this value to obtain the casing interval. Estimates of the surficial units and the artesian aquifer may receive recharge from both / P -"
erosion have been casing required for health and safety reasons should include the water table bodies and from limited confined water bodies contained L. -
penetration of the artesian aquifer by the casing in the amount of about within these units, depending upon the relative differences of
group of rock units fifty feet. The casing should extend well below the water line in wells hydrologic head. 0 SC E 0 L\A
materials to yield that penetrate the top of the rock at elevations above the water level. The confined body of water (Florida's principal artesian water) fills HIL S OROUG 7
s and springs. The The map depicts the top of the Floridan artesian aquifer which in the permeable parts of limestones and dolostones, and merges with the "'
which the level of Florida is the top of the sediment or rock that has continuity, a wide water table ground-water nea. the ground surface. RE VARD
part of the aquifer. distribution and in which the principal confined water body of the state Where the water has moved beneath confining beds a potentiometric L \ V L K
in which is referred functions as one hydrologic unit. These sediments are usually either map corresponds to the averages of the pressure heads encountered in 00 I\ r- -
This water is under limestone or dolostone. In some areas several water levels are well bores that penetrate the upper part of the artesian aquifer, the top -200 I
upper limit of an penetrated by a well and the potentiometric head is plotted as the static of which is here depicted. INDIAN AC
ept where it merges head to which the several water levels adjust in the well bore. Where the With the exception of some limited ground water and streams that - - -V
ed or aquiclude may top of the aquifer lies below the potentiometric surface the water will move across the state line into Florida, the state depends upon a high -300 0 -y -
es of rock units that rise in the well bore and may flow at the ground surface, if under annual rainfall to provide its water needs. Not all the water that falls as 0TEE I HARDEE I
with an aquifer or sufficient head. rain enters the ground, but some runs off as streams or collects in basins I AD K EECHOEEE
es and a hydraulic Knowing the surface elevation at any point where an artesian well is to form lakes and swamps. Where rainfall exceeds the capacity of the )--E-HO / /B
to be drilled, the "Top of the Rock" can be used with the Bureau of sediment to store water, the rock may refuse additional recharge and IG-HL NDS LUCIE
he limestones and Geology Map Series No. 42, "The Base of Fresh Water" and with Map the water stands upon the ground surface and evaporates, seeps into the -
acent and overlying Series No. 4, "The Potentiometric Surface" to obtain a meaningful ground as pore space is emptied by discharge, or flows to the ocean -' / .TO
that are in contact estimate of the (1) depth of casing, (2) ability of the well to flow or the through low connected swales or valleys. SAR ASOITA E
of confined water pumping level of the water below the land surface, and (3) the All of the water in Florida is derived from precipitation (largely MARTI N
time. thickness of the fresh water column, or the depth to water containing a rainfall) from the atmosphere. The amount of rain that enters the voids -- _J
reports and from an high dissolved solids content, in sediment depends in part upon the amount and intensity of rainfall., -- ---
itained in the well For the purposes of ground-water use, the rock and sediment of That which enters the ground fills these voids to the depth that they- A TTE I LADES
writer and personnel Florida compose (1) layers called confining beds that restrict the flow occur or to the point where the fresh water encounters water of higher
-d that the map is a of water or (2) layers called aquifers that contain quantities of water salinities. The voids in the rock column are filled to a position that
its construction was and which have the ability to deliver this water to discharge. (See figure becomes stabilized based on the amount of rain, the elevations, and V ..
1). slopes of the land and water table and the amount of discharge. The
of Florida consist of The rock framework of the subsurface of Florida consists of part of the sediment saturated by water is the saturated zone. The top ALM BEACH
isition or to stream alternating and adjacent unconsolidated and consolidated sediments, of the saturated zone is the water table. H NDRY
s consist of particles roughly grouped as surficial, intermediate, and deep lying units. The The water in the saturated rock column may range from brines at
ces and cavities. The surficial unit occurs at the land surface which is formed essentially of depth upward through concentrations of salts equal to that of the
ent of these particles Holocene and Pleistocene quartz sand, sandy shell, clay and shell marl adjacent marine waters into ite relatively fresh water bodies that have
ass water through it with limited outcrops of older, harder rock that are exposed through a concentrations of salts that range between 6,000 and a few milligrams /
ocks determine the drape of these sediments. per liter. Water with concentrations of salts less than 6,000 milligrams is O- /
ent has. The intermediate unit generally lies below the surficial materials and considered, for management purposes, as fresh water, subject to f" B R
he ground surface, it the two units combine to make the interval between the ground surface desalting where necessary. BOR I I/ /
one in the rock and and the top of the aquifer. These sediments have been deposited upon 0 C LLE
with increased depth the more deeply buried and older sediments that compose the artesian
)p of the aquifer as aquifer. This unit consists of an irregular mass of sandy dolostones, I, / /-'- \.-5-
as been adjusted to limestones, sands, and clays that restrict the flow of water vertically
s penetrated. and horizontally and compose confining beds that hold water under
pressure in the deep lying limestones and dolostones.


CONFINING.../ 100 Foot Contour Interval

S e50 Foot Supplementary Contour Interval FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES

Fu o This public document was promulgated at a total cost of -0
A$262.00 or a per copy cost of $0.262 for the purpose of O
Line of Cross Section disseminating hydrologic data.

Figure 1. North-South cross section. A 0 A 10 503-*






6". 1 r

II I I I 3 -
goe 70 860 850 840 830 820 81 800


G 3C





PP rl --