CRITERIA FOR DESIGN:
a means to
CRITERIA FOR DESIGN:
A Means to Architectural Preservation
CHARLES EDWIN CHASE
F. Blair Reeves
Maelee T. Foster
A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN ARCHITECTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
This thesis and the research it represents could
not have been accomplished without the direction and
council of F. Blair Reeves, Harold Kemp, John McRae,
and Maelee Foster professors at the University of Florida.
Their knowledge, interest and patience has helped beyond
measure in this endeavor. I can only hope that it meets
My deepest thanks go to Sandra and Eric Wiedegreen
for without their help I could not have physically
produced this work.
Charles Edwin Chase
McIntosh, Florida 1975
TABLE OF CONTENTS
DISTRICT DEFINITION AND RECOGNITION OF
ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS 2
Component Parts of a District
Recognition of Building Relationships,
Architectural Elements and Urban Amenities
ANALYSIS AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ARCHITECTURAL
Survey and Inventory Process
ASPECTS OF DISTRICT DEVELOPMENT 102
Role of the Architect
Six kinds of Neighborhoods
Architectural Research in Restoration
Economic Feasibility Analysis for Urban
Renewal Housing Rehabilitation
the people of preservation, the greatest
of human beings,
Architectural preservation in America, since the
1930's has determined that structures of architectural,
social, and historical significance must be maintained
within their immediate surroundings. Development pressures
and incompatible alterations to structures cause deteriora-
tion to the scale, character, setting, and sense of place.
The result has been the creation of districts to provide
protection for these resources. The first defined and
enforced architectural and historic district in.America,
Charleston, South Carolina, established that buildings
grouped together forming the streetscape and neighbor-
hood were considered worthy of collective protection.
The National Register of Historic Places by its
recognition of districts as cultural resources places a
major emphasis on architecture as a part of the cohesive
environment. The Register defines architectural and
historical districts as "... rural or urban, possessing
significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of
sites, buildings, structures, or objects which are
united by past events or aesthetically by plan of
This recognition that buildings do not stand as
isolated elements on the urban landscape has prompted
architectural surveys to investigate existing signifi-
cant resources. Under present laws including state and
federal mandates, architectural preservation and historic
district legislation uphold architecture as a cultural
resource of the urban environment. The preservation of
such areas as the Vieux Carre in New Orleans, Society
Hill in Philadelphia, Beacon Hill in Boston, and
Ansonborough in Charleston is due to the recognition of
their physical and social amenities. The architectural
district is the means to utilize structures which make
up the physical urban setting as well as to maintain
the familiar in the panorama of urban change.
In the development of districts federal, state,
and local governments are taking stock of their property
and surroundings through the survey and inventory pro-
cess. Expressed community consciousness in an attempt to
save the remaining pieces of past development has
established a body of legal criteria. But how does the
architectural designer translate this legal framework into
a physical reality? Through the analysis of existing
conditions and an understanding of the effects of new
development, design criteria can be established and
incorporated into the district. While maintaining the
cultural resources and the quality environment, design
parameters can provide for growth and development.
The intent of this thesis is to study the architec-
tural and urban elements which are a part of the design
process. It is aimed at laymen, city and county officials,
members of design review boards, and architectural
designers. It is a study of design within the context of
fixed architectural environments. These environments
which have survived the passage of time are the criteria
for design. They do not promote imitation in new con-
struction, but affect a serious awareness of architectural
form as an expression of time and place.
This study will consider some of the following questions.
How is an architectural district defined and what does it
contain? What are the effects of modification and new
construction? To what extent does preservation reach?
Is it restoration, rehabilitation, or new construction?
What is the role of the architectural professional? What
are some of the legal criteria for historic districts?
ARCHITECTURAL DISTRICT DEFINITION AND
RECOGNITION OF ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS
CA S E
THE ARIPHRVE1 LCEN
OF THE WORLD
!_ -W 17
Recognition of an area's identity is the first
step in district definition.
Architectural district definition is a multi-faceted
problem relying on the locality, the prevailing use and
occupancy, the style and period of its architecture, and
the cohesiveness of its individual parts. The National
Register's general definition, cited in the preceding
introduction, with William J. Murtagh's article to ICOMOS
in Rome (1974) stating, "any historic environment has a
network of pivotal or focal buildings as its foundation...
Usually a public structure ... but can also be a residence
of unusual size or outstanding workmanship or even an
urban space ..."2 accounts for the open-ended nature of
architectural and historic district definition.
Intentionally general and broad in scope, they allow any
combination of architecturally, socially, or historically
significant structures and urban spaces to be designed as
districts. Natural and man made boundaries, with materials
and workmanship provide a sense of place which define an
There are general elements in each set of circum-
stances which can be conceptualized. They include location,
design, setting, material, workmanship, feeling, and
association. In a district the architectural details of
scale, proportion, rhythm, silhouette, height, materials,
colors, textures, design and association exist. Evidence
of these elements within an area constitute a unity that
can be defined as a district. Each locality will find
varying degrees of each element.
The harmonious association of structures in urban
and rural settings establish the initial criteria for the
district designation. Age and function may not exclude
structures from consideration. Building conditions must
be evaluated on a level of safety and feasibility of use
not on its visual appeal as buildings structurally sound
can be rehabilitated for new occupancy. This savings in
materials and energy maintain continuity of design and
form in the urban setting.
District definition and the recognition of archi-
tectural elements is the topic of this section. The
definition of architectural districts will be broken down
\ significant architectural contribution to
Savannah's Columbia Square.
into architectural, social, geographical, historical,
functional and political considerations. From these six
main areas a composite of a district will be discussed.
The recognition of architectural elements will be dis-
played in written and graphic forms to display the com-
ponent parts of structures, the various periods and
styles of architecture, the importance of urban settings
and spaces, and the use of materials and workmanship.
Keeping in mind that each locale has its own set of
unique circumstances this section will show the reader
how to evaluate general concepts and components with
application left to local interpretation.
The physical description and definition of an archi-
tectural district hinges upon the local elements which are
present. Many communities contain structures that are
important architecturally. Fine examples of period style
and construction designed by an architect of local or
national importance provide architectural merit and focus
These unique anonymous structures on Nantucket's
streets provide a sense of place through their
use of materials and construction.
for it-surroundings. There are many more structures which
exist without this significance that give continuity by
their period and type of construction. These 'anonymous'
structures create a framework on which a street or neigh-
borhood rely. Containing the elements of past design and
construction processes these buildings are evidence of a
sense of place. The familiar streetscape is dependent upon
those structures that have survived time and development
pressures. Changes such as increased density, new con-
struction methods, new building types, and non adherance
to street and building relationships cause deterioration
in area identity.
Ethnic and social characteristics provide another
means of defining the district. Villages, towns, and
cities have grown as a result of different social and
cultural immigrations. From Europe and Asia tfrey have
brought skills and customs which are reflected in their
religious, social, commercial, and residential building.
Particular skills and habits are evident in the streets
and neighborhoods which they inhabit. To surround them-
A natural harbor brought development to Newport,
selves with a tangible link with the familiar these people
have created distinct areas by changing existing structures,
by ornament and decoration and by the introduction of new
architectural styles. The resulting neighborhoods have a
character, continuity and sense of place unique to the
Today with the average family moving once every five
years the identity of neighborhoods and whole cities are
being lost. The nondescript architecture which attempts
to satisfy all tastes infiltrates communities and destroys
the very concept of neighborhoods.
The physical nature of an area can also define a
district. Geographical and topographical formations of
mountains, valleys and rivers have played an important
role in the location of settlements. The fall line of
rivers providing water and mechanical energy for indus-
trialization as an example were ideal locations for
towns of the eighteenth century. Within each community
its architecture has been molded to the topography of the
land. Churches and civic structures have used the hill
Boston's South East Expressway
and elevated rail line divide the
city into district areas.
top as a means of focusing attention: the man made
enhanced by nature. Community boundaries were created by
the availability of water, both river and ocean, soil
conditions, and suitable building materials. Today,
neighborhoods as the remnants of past development are
often masked by man-made changes in the land. Boston's
Back Bay exemplifies the filling in of marshland for the
, building for expanded populations. A visual investigation
of building groups and changes in the landscape offer a
key to historic relationships to land and water within
Man made boundaries can also define areas of
consideration. The major arterial highway connectors and
utility lines divide or border communities. Railroad lines
and above ground commuter rails do the same. These offer
visual and physical walls which can be utilized as
boundaries of a district. The massive and large scaled
structures create walls within the city, often destroying
the original scale and continuity of an area.
Endowed with historical association and
designed by Peter Harrison, the Redwood library
stands in Newport, Rhode Island.
The events and the figures linked with structures,
places and spaces give an area added dimension. Preserving
areas of historical association is a means of acknowledging
a part of our heritage. Valuable as a means of preserving
elements of the past, historical associations should be
linked with the other considerations for district definition.
Historical continuity is a means to provide the
cohesive environment which architectural preservation
seeks to maintain. Association, however, cannot stand
alone in producing a viable living district. The museum
approach to district demarcation creates an economic burden
upon the community. In cases where a local historical
society or preservation league has acquired structures
much of their time and finances are spent in the main-
tenance process. Necessary and important for finely_
individual, architectural, and historical structures, this
type of preservation cannot support all neighborhoods and
The activity boundaries of the city.
Architectural preservation areas can be designated
by the activities within the community. By the nature of
past growth and development, commercial, governmental,
industrial, residential, religious, scenic, and recreational
pockets of activity have developed in our urban areas.
Whether planned or created out of unconscious growth, cen-
ters of specific function and building type exist.
Mental images of our cities consist of the grouping
and arrangement of these centers of activity. Clearly
defined, overlapped or very broad in scope, these
elements as a part of the community unite a city. Kevin
Lynch attributed the ability of districts to give identity
to a city when he stated, "Districts are the ... sections
of the city, ... which the observer mentally enters
'inside of,' and which are recognizable as having some
identifying character."3 Examples can be found in cities
like New York with its skyscrapers gf the financial
district in lower Manhattan, or in Savannah with its town-
houses and continuous facades bordering its many squares.
Tampa, Florida, a product of more modern development has
"Rur lage railrl a"
Rural village railroad/industrial area.
Atlanta's financial and hotel district.
Hyde Park, a residential district of single family
residences bordered by commercial activity and Tampa Bay.
The number of activity areas or districts depends
upon the size of the city or community. Physical form
and visible activity denote specific areas in which
functions take place with component parts, size, appearance,
and internal events as the decernable elements of a district.
Districts worthy of preservation may include part or all of
an area$ or may encompass many'depending upon the size and
physical features. Historic districts may seek to pre-
serve the most outstanding'in each area resulting in a
series of sub districts or nodes throughout the city. In
this manner a cross section of the community and its
activities can be maintained.
Another consideration for the designation of an
architectural district lies within the realm of govern-
ment and politics. An aspect of community living which
is a vital part of the implementation of any activity,
is its governing body and legal framework. Approval of
community and city actions are based upon the voting
districts and precincts. Utilized in its proper per-
spective political divisions can be a positive force in
implementing architectural districts.
The funding and administration for architectural
preservation can be best accomplished with the approval
of the community. Often areas within cities need special
services and attention. It can be accomplished through
the political process if the desires of the community are
known and are brought out as issues. With monies being
distributed to cities through the Community Development
Act and block grants, monies must be sought at the state
and federal levels. The decision of appropriate spending
is now in the hands of the local authorities. Their
duties are to serve the voters and fulfil the needs of the
community. Political districts within an area can apply
pressure to achieve its goals.
The demarcation of political divisions overlayed with
the preservation needs of the community allow for a clearer
understanding of where and how money can be made available.
Concerned with the equitable distribution of its services
municipal governments often operate on a 'blanket'
approach to services for the community. However, when
needs and desires are made clear that the benefits of
upgrading specific areas is a service to the entire
community, action is easier to achieve.
The public funding of projects and the cooperation
of local government must not exclude the possibility
of private contribution. It does however, provide for
the community to directly reap the benefits of urban
upgrading through architectural district regulation.
Control of areas designated for preservation can provide
a unified development plan for the whole community, The
survival of a district noted for its physical and social
amenities must serve the needs of the community as well
as the community serving the needs of the district.
The reason for establishing a district is to maintain
areas for their character architecturally and socially.
The benefits derived are cultural and aesthetic but are
only successful when the practical needs of the area are
met. The interrelationship of these six considerations:
architecture, social, geographic, historic, functional and
ural Virginia is an example of an agricultural
rea which should be maintained.
political provide the basis for district demarcation.
As a means to direct design decisions these forces are
mutual assets for the community. The establishment of
criteria will preserve the streetscape and the relation-
ship of function and identity without impairing progress.
Rural Districts for Land Conservation
Rural areas and village communities scattered through-
out the country are an additional consideration for district
definition. Agricultural and wilderness areas are fast
becoming popular places for people seeking refuge from the
problems of urban dwelling. This exodus is mounting each
year creating pressure for the development of agricultural
and wilderness sites.
Rural community life and its architecture reflect a
slower, more stable development often maintained by a lack
of financial resources. Lower economic levels in these
areas have required greater efforts in conservation of
existing properties for residences, agriculture and
forestry. With the introduction of middle and higher
income families, who wish to enjoy the qualities of rural
Nantucket's Conservation Foundation insures
the preservation of the island's resources.
living, the resulting trend to develop such areas threatens
the very environment which they seek.
The protection of the natural landscape and wilderness
resources under the National Park Service has provided our
national park system. However, little thought has been
given to restrictions by rural localities to prevent over-
development. District demarcation in conjunction with
planned growth patterns can restrain urban encroachment.
By defining guidelines for design, use, and development
smaller communities and rural villages can insure the
maintenance of existing physical and aesthetic
Guidelines for the protection of an environment must
be established on the basis of existing elements tightly
defining services and amenities for the community. It
must also prove to the courts of law that management of
the built environment does not hinder an owner's right to
develop but directs it for the public well being. It
must educate and instruct future developers in the
appropriateness and feasibility of managed growth in
The Role of Structures in District Definition
An architectural district relies upon its structures
and urban spaces, as a unifying force. Within a community
the role which architecture plays in district definition
is twofold: physical and aesthetic. Both vitally impor-
tant to cohesiveness, they are inseparable qualities.
Structures assume the characteristics of focal points,
connectors, walls of continuity, edges, and limits to
circulation. Aesthetic considerations of districts
associated with structures is pointed out in Murtagh's
Aesthetic and Social Dimensions of Historic Districts.,
Civic, governmental, religious, and educational
structures focus attention and create identity in districts
which grouped together provide the image of a city.5
A church in Boston becomes a
oca bu il n b s s a p Governmental and educational functions do this on a daily
focal building in this streetscape.
basis while civic and religious activities may focus
attention on a periodic basis. These structures are
usually monumental in size and ornamentation having a high
degree of use and having some historic relationship.
Traditionally the location of these structures is
dependent upon the geography and topography of the land.
Ancient Athens and medieval Mantua are examples of
historic sites which capitalized upon siting and setting
to create dominance for civic and religious structures.
American examples of focal structures can be seen in
Colonial Williamsburg and in Washington, D.C. Monumental
structures accentuate and terminate long vistas in
centers of activity.
In each community focal structures can be detected.
Their characteristics are:
1. usually larger in scale than their
2. provide a visual impact to draw attention
3. provide a social, governmental, religious,
-. ; residential, or educational activity,
; 4. be supported by a series of anonymous
"i; -- -
These Savannah rowhouses form a wall of continuity.
These Savannah rowhouses form a wall of continuity.
Connectors and Walls of Continuity
The ability of focal structures to create activity is
dependent upon a series of 'anonymous' structures which
connect and focus interest on major functions and provide
walls of continuity. These structures of average quality,
providing uniformity and identity, are the framework upon
which the environment is built. However, they are often
the first to be destroyed in urban growth taking with
them the linkage necessary for sustaining a recognizable
As walls of continuity, structures unify streets and
neighborhoods with the physical characteristics of location,
architectural elements, setting, materials, workmanship
Location can identify accepted relationships unified
by buildings, sites, and spaces. Buildings and the like
stand within an environment endowed with traditional
Architectural elements of scale, height, proportion,
materials, colors, texture, rhythm, silhouette, and
The structures of Quincy Market become the
connecting link to Boston's City Hall.
This waterway divides the industrial area
from a residential area.
setting determine similarity and compatible diversity in
Setting determined by natural and man-made boundaries
establishes location of focal points and supporting frame-
work for area functions.
Materials either traditional or unique to the
locality create unity through physical characteristics of
size, color, texture, and use.
/ Workmanship provides continuity through the efforts
of past builders.6
-- Architectural districts rely on the physical
characteristics for the definition of its edges. Structures
as well as parks, utility lines, rail transportation,
highway arteries and waterfronts usually determine area
limits. Changes in function and scale determine the limits
of a district by creating visual and physical barriers.
# ,- . -
, -. - . -": ,. -' '. '
Both water and arterial highways divide
Boston and Cambridge.
An overall example of the various elements
which can make up a district.
.- . i---.--7
~sF7F-~: i L! ~ O ;;j.;
An alley for pedestrians only
Structures bordering highways, streets, and alleys
determine the flow of mechanized and pedestrian traffic.
As major traffic flow skirts an area, boundaries are
created. However, if allowed to pass through traffic can
visually and physically divide an area into smaller
districts which must seek to find new identity if the old
has been severed. Traffic can be controlled by the
accessibility and width of streets. Streets which are
-narrow promote pedestrian use away from high volume traffic
on the wide boulevards. The physical proximity of structures
can be utilized in this manner to define a district and
its circulation patterns. This, however, is an ideal
situation as it is usually the structure's fate which is
determined by the location of traffic. The demands of
local and city-wide circulation can be balanced with
district preservation if alternative routes to major
traffic border rather than divide districts.
.-79 -1 -- -- ^
... a thoroughfare for auto
As stated, architectural districts are based upon
considerations unique to each locale and area of the
country. With varying degree these characteristics are
evident in every city, community, and rural village.
Whether historic or contemporary an environment which
meets the physical and aesthetic determinants in the
community can be defined as a district. The goals for
district definition are to balance the need for con-
temporary growth with the preservation of established
systems of architectural and urban elements. It is an
attempt to have development recognize the existing built
environment as a quality which cannot be duplicated or
replaced. Without great thought to the impact upon
existing physical and aesthetic characteristics, new
construction will destroy an irreplaceable patrimony.
Through design restrictions it is hoped that growth will
enhance rather than belittle the existing environment.
To this end the goals for an architectural district
can be borrowed from R. L. Schluntz's Design for Downtown:7
1. Preserve and insure a high quality of
the environment for the future.
2. Maintain and improve the existing
character of the community.
3. Direct and guide the future development
of the community into desirable forms
and patterns, rather than insufficient
4. Prevent the development of unsuitable
5. Insure public facilities and services
keep abreast of the size and desires
of the population.
6. Provide a pattern for residential
growth that will provide desirable
concentrations of residences without
overburdening the community facilities
7. Improve downtown both functionally and
aesthetically in shopping, social,
administrative and cultural [ways].
8. [provide] suitable space for industrial
9. [insure] good access to all activities
10. Provide method of continuous citizen
participation in the formulation of
objectives and implementation.
-i '. . -. .
A Boston church expands on a small city plot
The Park Street Church in Bos- deep, fronting on Boston Con-
ton acquired 22,000 square feet mon. All concrete elements are
of multi-use space by putting an exposed and sandblasted, and
addition at the rear of the land- the existing rear wall of the
mark structure built in 1805. Church, with its record of alter-
Stahl/Bennett designed the new nations, was cleaned and left
concrete and brick building for exposed. The building was
a site 40 feet wide and 80 teet completed in 1972.
40 ARCHITECTURAL RECORD December 1974
Recognition of Building Relationships,
Architectural Elements and Urban Amenities
To provide architectural districts with a balance of
development, renovation, and restoration, the physical
characteristics of building relationships, architectural
elements, and urban amenities must be understood.
Continued renewal of a district sympathetic to existing
elements will assure district contribution to community
vitality. The recognition of these elements not only
provides the comprehension of past growth but provides
the criteria for compatible design and development.
These elements are outlined in written and graphic form
for planning commissions, design review boards,
architectural designers, urban planners, and laymen. The
examples will display the relationship of buildings and
spaces in the streetscape, the architectural elements
which display architectural style and construction, and
the urban amenities which support and unify the
neighborhood and district.
Pattern and rhythm
Scale is created by the size of construction units and
architectural detail which relate to the size of man.
Scale is also determined by building mass and how it relates
to open space. The predominant element of scale may be
brick or stone units, windows or door openings, porches
and balconies, etc.
The relationship of man and his environment deterimes
"scale". By example each identical square to the left
takes on a different physical relationship with the
size of man.
Above: These blocks have no relationship to the scale
of man. Without the familiar units of construction they
could be two feet or one hundred feet high. There is
nothing to relate their size to.
Left: Modern construction often does not give the
viewer the visual clues to the measuring of a buildings's
size and relationship to mar.
Above: The introduction of human figures gives some
clue to the size of these buildings
Left: A contemporary example of a new structure
adjacent to a historic one which totally ignores
the visual means of providing scale. The intracacies
of Trinity Church and its details are recognized as
being built by human hands for human use. The John
Hancock Tower stands devoid of any definers of scale.
A monolithic structure, the window grid could measure
2'x4' or 10'x20'.
i ,A -v -1 i, <- I:
I p in r -v i r i
l.- i j ^.rr~ a - -jr t ul-r--, _
Above: The addition of construction elements and details
of familiar size further define the size and scale of
the whole building and the structures in the strretscape.
Left: Often structures must utilize open space
to compete with the taller more massive structures
as well as breaking the building into component parts
to give it the attention that it can not achieve in
mass. Street furniture such as lamps, planters and
benches add another dimension to the street that the
passerby can relate to through personal size and dimension.
Above: The buildings which have been used as an example
of recognizing scale have a scale relationship with each
other. The one to the left and the smallest is inhabitable
by humans, however it seems-dwarfed by the larger, surround-
h: '- '
.411 L1 -1.Pill
The concept of proportion refers to the relation-
ship between height and width of the front elevation of
a building. In a streetscape buildings often have a
predominant proportion. When the majority of structures
in a district have similar proportions, it would be
destructive to construct a new building with different
historic structure may stand out ...
The prevailing setbacks of a street establish a
uniform vista with no single structure visually interrupting
the streetscape. Walls, hedges, or fences can provide a
unifying element where structures have been removed or
where spaces detract from the continuity of the street.
.E- .... . *
while these anonymous structures maintain the streetscare. 30
Buildings constructed within a district must be no
higher than the tallest building in a district. Usually
there must be a 10% + height limit to maintain an overall
Shadow is a major consideration in allowing tall structures.
Height can often be visually lowered
through the use of architecutral
This focal point is dwarfed by the overly high structures
which surround it.
Depending upon the period and style of construction
or the locality the type of roof shapes vary. Some areas
may have a predominant shape or may have a variety. A
new building must respect the dominant roof form, thus,
strengthening the district.
----- -I- -p ---.-
lenjamin Cushing House, Prov-
idence, 1737, showing gable
.-"- ---- . . '-....
hlip roof with leanto.
Gable roof and cornice
,,,;---.-- r p '\ IT-" 2- Tlilic- l~ I "
,ibe ~I I "I I S
' IL t' i ... : ; i'. .
.able w ith leanto ( S 2
(;nlen~ih rato S~t ni'P-e) House. 160 Pow~er St.. ~(ntrKo.Double Hlouse, 27- 9 J ohn St. .1S
Silhouette is based upon the quality of local,
traditional methods of handling mass which reflect the
majority of elements in a district.
~-. 1~ o~aL-~ J .a.
- building facades
The repetition of alternating solids and voids in
building facades establishes a pattern observed from a
distance. Rhythm is perceived while passing by the
- building spacing
The location and spacing of structures on their
sites establishes a solid (building):void (space)
relationship which should be adhered to in any new
- -. ~" ?'"* *.:r
r3 `1 L1I
Wherever possible traditional materials and con-
struction should be utilized or new materials, that do not
imitate existing but have the same characteristics of
texture, unit size, and color.
1A N U U
The suitability of new development would be enhanced
through the use of building materials which create the
predominant texture or one which is appropriate within
the context of other buildings in a district.
M riIimMlAWW 6 rrlA I POPM 7~?t
Color is an inherent quality of building material,
such as stucco, brick, wood, metal, stone and an applied
materials which mask the natural color of a material.
Local tradition in the use of natural color of materials
and applied color should be respected as it is utilized
in a district. Selection of color should be similar in
tone and be in harmony with the existing. It does not
necessarily demand duplication to the point of monotony.
Architectural Style and Construction
Georgian and Federal revival
Doors and entries
Windows and shutters
Architectural Style and Construction
The identification of an area's architecture can aid
in the determination of its historic value. To aid in the
general dating of an area a series of building styles are
displayed. The buildings shown are single family detached
dwellings but similar detailing can be found in row houses,
triple deckers, and apartment blocks. This section should
be viewed as a guide as different regions have adopted
variations of these basic styles.
The following descriptions are based upon a study
written by Vision Inc. for the Brookline, Massachusetts
Georgian, 1720-1825.--Often having gambrel roofs and
bold detail, houses of this type can also be called
"colonial" (since it occurs prior to the Revolution).
Doors, window trim, guoines, and cornices are prominent
features of the Georgian Style.
Federal is a late Georgian style so named because it
arrived with the birth of our federal system of government
following the Revolution. Derived from English adaptations
of ancient Roman architecture, buildings in the style are
marked by a simple box-like exterior, often low hip roof,
symmetrical facades, and delicate detail. Houses in this
style are generally organized around a large center entry
Greek Revival, 1825-1860.--Patterned after ancient
Greek temples, buildings in this, the first of the Victorian
styles, were the result of contemporary archaeological
interest in ancient Greece and reflected our nation's
admiration for the Greek republic.
Greek Revival houses feature a temple-like front whose
roof is of medium pitch and appears to be supported on
broad columns of pilasters. The "temple front" usually
faces the street and often has an entrance porch. The
exterior siding is usually clapboards but may have flush
siding scored to resemble stone.
Italianate-Bracketed, 1850-1880.--Loosely patterned
after Italian Renaissance farm houses, buildings in this
style are most easily identified by their heavy wooden
brackets. These brackets were produced cheaply and in
many variations for use over porches, doorways and win-
dows and under roofs. The Italianate style encouraged the
use of "L" shaped house plans and the addition of cupolas,
towers and bay windows to take advantage of sunlight and
vistas possible even on a small suburban lot.
English Rural and Gothic Revival are additional
styles of the period. The English Rural is characterized
by a truncated gable. The Gothic Revival utilized steeply
pitched roofs and gothic details in windows, doors, and
Mansard, 1855-1885.--Contemporary French planning
inspired the broad avenues and the Mansard style houses of
Boston's Back Bay development of the late 1850's. Most
readily identified by its slate or shingle covered double-
pitched roof with dormer windows which enclose the top
floor on all sides.
Queene Anne, 1875-1900.--The Queene Anne style of
the 18th century refers to the reign of the English queen
and is the name denoting styles of the English cottages.
Irregular roof outlines and freely planned, functional
layouts give each house an individual appearance. Stick
Style, the earliest Queene Anne Style, is noted by its
steep roofs and flared eaves, by its wood framing members
dividing the exterior wall surfaces. Panel Brick Style,
uses complicated brick patterns to subdivide.wall surfaces.
Shingle Style is named for the unpainted wood shingles
used to cover roofs and walls, featuring rounded corners
and arched openings. Medieval Revival can be identified
by gables infilled with heavy timbers and stucco.
Colonial Revival, although larger and more elaborate than
historic models is represented by tall hip roofs, elaborate
entrance porches, bow fronts, side porches and Palladian
windows, all of which were not used in the colonial period.
Georgian Revival, 1895-1940.--Copies of Georgian and
Federal houses of the 18th century are slightly larger than
the originals and often have additions to accommodate autos
and modern conveniences.
Not only to provide a solid base for construction,
foundations and particularly basements and raised
structures have sought to protect from water intrusion
in low lying areas and a means for ventilation in humid
climates. Basements also provide cool storage areas.
In some areas new construction must float on soft, wet
The selection of materials for the construction of
exterior walls was determined by the availability of
materials. Usually dependent upon local materials, local
workmen and craftsmen would fashion builidngs into the
style of the period often transferred through the use of
Elsi B-a^ i
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Fanlight Door. Elliptical Fan Door.
Flat topped door.
Doors and Entries:
Probably the first exterior element to be embelished
in the 'style' of the period, doors and entries reflect
the importance of the function inside or the owner's
social position. Their immediate function was to make
visible the entrance.
'W & Ill -
Early Nineteenth Century Window types.
The penetration of the exterior was initially to
provide light and air. The size and relationship to the
exterior was a combination of the amount and control of
light, the availability of glazing material, and the
appropriateness of placement in the design of the exterior
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Again the availability of materials determined use
of roofing material for water and weatherproofing.
Tin and other meatals were once used as well as wood and
slate shingles. More contemporary asbestos and composition
shingles now provide protection.
r-_ Historically, cornices, doorways, and most any
other surface has been utilized for the enhancement
of the exterior by architectural style and design.
To provide a measure of wealth, education, and social
prominence, structures have been embelished.
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paving and sidewalks
fences and walls
In the urban environment lighting provides the
function of guidance along the streets and highways
for pedestrian and auto traffic, and the enhancement
of focal structures.
I I' ll / I
Benches for relaxing and dining provide relief for
the resident and tourist alike in large urban areas.
They are a counterpoint to the fast moving activity of
Directing and controlling our lives, street graphics
have their function of informing the participant of where
and what the city has to offer. The lack of control and
appropriateness creates confusion and chaos in the street-
Fountains and the introduction of water provide
another means of relief. Enhancing plazas and parks
within the city, they are calming focal points with
their sound and movement in a seemingly harsh
Sculpture in the city provide pivotal points in
our great plazas and our quiet gardens. They are a
refection of man's involvement in the cityscape, indicating
his thoughts on conditions around him and his culture.
Paving and Sidewalks:
The history of paving our streets and sidewalks
has indicated the use of stone, wood, masonry, and asphalt.
The functional use of these are evident in distributing
loads uniformly over the roadbed, but there are inherent
qualities in their selective use which provide direct-
tion and placement. The breaking down of the street
surface by materials and texture into visible ares
brings the ground plane into human scale.
il ^' ^&A- y*r'y. 's' -is r- 'i 4 r' s^t^ -i
Steps provide a third dimension to the passerby.
The transition establishes the position and importance
of structures on the streetscape.
To individual structures it proclaims the importance
of the entrance anticipating the interior beyond.
Fences and Walls:
Fences direct and guide the passerby as well as
define personal areas and spaces belonging to adjacent
Walls continue the fabric of the street while
indicating a privacy demanded by the occupant on the
S1i I:I other side.
The use of trees and greenery can provide the natural
elements which are often lost in the urban environment.
Trees can provide shade and shadow, and direction for the
streets they border. Vines can give pedestrian spaces
a human dimension by a natural canopy for sun control
and weather protection. Foliage can define spaces
for both passive and active enjoyment.
Rit er Quay is not onl) an historic part of kansas (it
Missouri, but a part of the city rich in fine old--
but run-down-buildings which recall the period
t hen Kanias City was the fastest growing town in the
west. The ( it\ i first City Hall, the Board of
Trade Building, the Gillis Opera House, Pacific
House, and other buildings of strong character
and construi tion, are still standing, along with
the warehouses which came after the city r enter had
moved away troni the river. Now the old buildings
are being rehabilitated, given new uses--tor which
there is demand--to provide tor commerce and
recreation contracts between the city and the
Missouri River. The 32-1)loc k area is being
restored in three phases by Joseph Canizaro
Interests with Don Wudtke & Associates, Inc.,
ANALYSIS AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ARCHITECTURAL DISTRICTS
With a definition of what constitutes an architectural
district and with a recognition of the building relation-
ships, the architectural, and urban amenities, the
establishment of an architectural district is dependent upon
the survey and inventory process. The visual and written
data gathered in a systematic manner provide the leverage
for the legal support of a district. The process involved
in this accurate accounting of a community's cultural
resources is first directed toward an overall townscape
survey, "... covering the general character and setting
noting the different features of visual and historic
interest that are worth protecting."9 Secondly, a more
detailed building by building inventory should compile
photographic and written data on each structure to pro-
vide detailed information within a designated area.
Thirdly, an annotated map should be produced to indicate
the centers of cultural resources, the individual land-
marks, buildings, and spaces of federal, state, or local
significance and the areas which embody characteristics
which are endangered. This demarcation should be pre-
sented as the foundation for the local planning authority's
future development plans and conservation policies.10
The implementation of this process depends upon the
willingness and activism within the community. The
discussion of neighborhood groupings and their level of
organization reflects a desire to preserve their
surroundings. To provide an idea of the various types of
persuasion to use in stimulating interest and determination
for district designation the articles of Donald and
Rachelle Warren are discussed.
The implementation of an architectural district
requires the establishment of legal zoning, planning and
covenant regulations in addition to the maintenance of
architectural elements. The framework for the initiation
of architectural districts take on two distinct yet
interrelated matters: first the legal regulation of an
architectural district by zoning and planning and secondly,
the legal aspects of physical maintenance.
Survey and Inventory Process
The initial step in the development of an architectural
district worthy of maintenance is a townscape survey which
covers the entire urban area. The purpose is to search out
and map those characteristics that reflect physical develop-
ment and social amenities. This process requires the can-
vassing of all neighborhoods and streets. As the British
have constructed under their Civic Amenities Act of 1967,
a townscape survey should include:
a. buildings and groups of buildings of
special architectural, historical or
b. important street frontages or building
lines, squares, and spaces where the
general proportions, heights and align-
ment of buildings ought to be retained,
even if some rebuilding or new construc-
tion takes place.
c. areas of special character, which ought to
be safeguarded as a whole because of their
architectural and historic interest and
their importance to the town's character
d. other features of importance to the town
as a whole: focal points, viewpoints,
and skylines, extending possibly to bits
of landscape outside the town which should
be kept open
e. 'opportunity areas' where there is potential
,scope for visual improvement; for example,
a neglected river frontage.ll
The townscape appraisal attempts to analyze the
quality of the urban environment in areas under construction.
As an example of the townscape method survey the analysis by
Cambridge, England descriges categories in order of impor-
a. Feature Buildings
Buildings of architectural significance
which require permission for demolition
b. Valuable Buildings--Category 1
These structures make a positive con-
tribution to the townscape as a part of
a group but do not have any intrinsic
architectural merits singly.
c. Valuable Buildings--Category 2
These are of lesser quality providing
a total community character.
d. Substantial Buildings
These structures include buildings
which by their virtue of their recent
construction or substantial nature are
unlikely to be redeveloped. In most
cases these buildings occupy large sites,
and therefore, if redevelopment was to
take place, the impact on the townscape
would be great.
e. Acceptable Redevelopment Areas
Those buildings which make no positive
contribution and whose redevelopment
would not be opposed on visual grounds.
Plans for them would be judged against
criteria normal for a conservation area in
that any new structure should contribute
r to the quality of the street or area in
S-which it is situated
SIT; ] X f. Desirable Redevelopment Areas
This category covers both sites and
I buildings where it is considered that
development or redevelopment would
improve the visual quality of the
townscape. It makes no assessment
S- of the economic factors governing
g. Focal Points
SThis notation applies to those points
which are natural visual focus in the
townscape. It does not necessarily
imply that the feature is of any
architectural quality, but suggests
that it has visual significance beyond
the confines of its immediate environ-
ment which should be recognized if the
building is to be redeveloped.
This notation does not apply to whole
buildings but is used to specify
particularly interesting features
such as door ways, fountains, statues,
etc., which enhance the visual
quality of buildings or spaces.
i. Frontage Lines
In many cases within the town it is not
just the quality of the buildings but
their relationship to each other which
is of importance to the character of an
area. The frontages on either side of a
street define an enclosed space which
may be in a critical relationship with
the scale of the buildings. There are
many examples where this relationship has
been lost by redevelopment being set
back and thereby breaking the rhythmic
flow of the elevations and spaces.
j. Defaced Facades
This notation is used to indicate
facades which have been spoiled by
untidy advertisements, uncoordinated
street signs, poorly designed shop
k. Landscape and Floorscape
It is not only the buildings of a town
but also the spaces between them which
are important to the environment. These
spaces are either landscaped with trees,
grass, flower beds, or hardsurfaced,
with paving, cobbles, etc.
Also indicated are significant mature
trees of value to the townscape.
*-. ~ ~ ~ 1 S.~ u iL.
The quality of environment in certain
parts of the town is enhanced by views
down streets, across spaces, between
buildings and to other dominant buildings.
The existence and importance of these
lines of view will determine the per-
mitted heights of new buildings in many
parts of the area.12
From the townscape analysis of these areas of con-
sideration segments of the town worthy of further study
can be determined. The second stage of analysis involves
a street by street, building by building inventory of all
structures within the limits of the survey area. This
provides for an accurate accounting of each structure and
its specific value to the community. The inventory will
consist of photographs, maps and written data all designed
to aid in evaluation for district nomination.
The inventory process of this type has been initiated
at all levels of government including federal, state and
local. The National Register for Historic Places surveys
and accounts for landmarks and cultural resources signifi-
cant and worthy of national recognition. The fifty states
have been charged with the responsibility of developing
NATIONAL TREE SURVEY
The Tree Council was established to maintain the initiative begun in 1973, Plant a Tree Year and to
continue to stimulate public interest in tree planting and tree care.
The first National Tree Week, held last March, prompted a great deal of local activity in spite of the
short time available for its launching. Local Authorities and Civic Societies may like advance notice
that the Tree Council will be urging special tree planting activity in the coming autumn and winter
culminating in the second National Tree Week from the 6th-13th March, 1976.
National Tree week is the close of the tree planting season but the time to commence planning for
participation in the National Tree Survey.
MAKING A TREE SURVEY
The National Tree Survey, launched in 1975, is intended to
harness the goodwill of tree-lovers everywhere into a massive
practical exercise: the surveying of all trees throughout the
country. In this way we can best conserve our existing trees
and find out where tree-planting priorities should lie. Trees
are too valuable to waste and therefore we must not only
encourage more planting, but ensure that those planted are
of the right type in the right place. Your survey will be
invaluable in achieving this.
It is vital that those participating in this ambitious and
worthwhile programme should carry out their work
accurately and uniformly. Duplication of effort must be
avoided and liaison with your District Council is essential.
When you have completed the survey, make sure one copy is
deposited with your District Council. Send a second copy to
The Tree Council so we can build up a national archive.
To establish a national record of the number, species and
condition of amenity trees and reveal sites particularly
suitable for future tree-planting. The survey is also intended
to include trees in hedgerows. shelter belts. groups of trees
and small woodlands (up to I hectare or 2L acres) and will
provide information for the assistance of the local authority,
farmers, foresters and conservationists.
All trees in the area should be classified,
identified and recorded on maps and specially
prepared record sheets. Maps should be
Ordnance Survey, scale 1:2,500 and the area
may be sub-divided according to the squares on
the map, groups of squares becoming the
responsibility of a couple of volunteers.
T Single trees should be drawn as a dot with a circle around
beside which should be placed the code letter 'T' with
appropriate number (e.g. TI, T2, etc.). Make sure the dot
is accurately positioned.
A Areas or linear belts of trees and hedges with significant
trees (too many to list singly). These should be shown on
the map by dots outlining the area with the code letter 'A'
alongside with the appropriate number.
G Groups of trees should be shown by a surrounding
broken line with the code letter 'G' and appropriate
W Woods. As many species as possible should be named.
Outline the area and label with the code letter 'W' with
the appropriate number.
H Hedges without trees. These should merely be marked on
the map with a pecked (vvww) line.
See the map for examples of the above.
Each recording sheet should be laid out as shown with the
Code letter and tree number
Circumference at breast height
For the purpose of the survey, trees are divided into three
simple categories: A. B, or C.
A = Good specimens of individual or groups of trees, well
situated and enhancing their surroundings. These trees
must be healthy, well-shaped and showing no sign of
die-back or fungal infection. Rare species and trees of
special local or historical interest should be noted.
B = Normal specimens.
C = Poor specimens, e.g. mis-shapen, stunted or with
excessive dead wood.
D = Dead, dying or dangerous trees.
Name of Surveyor
O.S. Map No. (and Grid letters and nos, where given)
Date of surveN
Copies of leaflets containing the above instructions are available from The Tree Council, Room C10/13,
2 Marsham Street. London. SWIP 3EB or from the Civic Trust for the North West at 4p per copy, post
f'.- r. n f 1r I n, ;"- -* r ,1 r ,,, 'r s'nr vrv ^ ; I'.., ', 1 r- !',- 1,-_ i -f" f") -1 T in,
Tree Species Approx. erence at Category Comments
No. height breast
T4 Oak 50 ft 8 ft A Beautifully shaped, well
1 5 Horse Chestnut 0 ft 9 ft C Excessive dead wood; poor
leafing. Large cavity at 20 ft
I 6 Elm 70 ft 8 ft D Almost dead
A 10 Hazel hedge 40 ft 4 ft B Some promising young
sith Ash. Oak max av Oaks
A I I ditto ditto ditto B Yews becoming dominant
G I Beech 60 ft 8 ft A/C II mature Beeches; 6 of
av them in poor condition
inventories from which the federal register receives
nominations. Examples of each type of nomination form are
included. Historic American Building Survey and Historic
American Engineering Record provide detailed graphic and
written data on architectural and historical sites.
As a requisite from the federal level, state pre-
servation officers have been charged with the state's
inventory system and development of its preservation plan.
The process entails a survey of all prospective cultural
properties within state boundaries. The localities
within the state aid in the research and development of
surveys through their own local survey and inventory
process. From this data the state historic preservation
plan is determined. In addition to developing an adjunct
tool to local planning, the local survey promotes state-
wide consideration of future growth and conservation of
important state amenities.
The local inventory will entail the design of
"inventory data sheets" which are to record the data found
in the field and provide for the professional evaluation
of structures on assigned scale guided by the scope and
purpose of the undertaking.
The inventory form should be easily read and
understood by a neighborhood volunteer who is seeking to
aid in the survey. Generally, the urban area will be
divided into manageable sections for volunteer and
planning professionals to canvas each neighborhood,
street and building. It is important to pair volunteer
with an experienced district surveyor, one of which
should be experienced in photography. Their participation
in form completion can be divided into the two main
divisions of the inventory. The two areas records
the legal, technical, and historical data and the
physical architectural evaluation.
The legal and technical information takes the form
of street name, location in city records, past and present
ownership, date of construction, and site description.
This information is important to deed and document research.
The historical data collected will entail past and present
usage and the structure's associative national, state or
The physical architectural evaluation describes the
building's materials and notable elements. A location map
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15 I1 8 5 2:,
Phase 1 sections
bampa Urban Center ,.,,, .. .,A
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on which the structure in question can be marked and
photographs for visual identification are also included.
To further explain the technique of survey work
several forms are illustrated with a detailed explanation
of the Hyde Park Inventory for Tampa, Florida.13 It is a
typical example of volunteer and professional canvasing
with the end result being zoning and planning amendments
for architectural and historical reasons.
1) Phase and Section.--The Hyde Park Inventory has
been divided into phases of work with each subdivided
into sections for identification and division of work
2) Street Name.--As an indication to the research
staff the location and structure in question the street
name, subdivision, block number, lot number and zoning
type are recorded. This will aid in deed research which
might reveal historical or architectural significance
not visually apparent.
3) Ownership.--The name and address of the present
and original owners as well as the source of such infor-
mation should be recorded. If owners are living they may
Subdivj ;on __ Block_ T.ot___ Zoning__
IIYDE PARK DISTRICT SURVEY
Roll #_ Neg. #.
DATE OF CONSTRUCTION
size & dimension x
excellent good fair
unaltered minor alt.
original site moved
USAGE: present, original
major notable poor neighborhood
national__ state_ region_ local
BUILDING MATERIALS: Notable Elements
other (specify) out buildings
Remarks and sources of information (Bibliography)
preparedd by: -....
OCATION MAP / Scale: 1:200
HISTORICC SITES INVENTORY FOR1M
Typical houses surveyed in Tampa's Hyde Park.
provide vital information which may not be revealed in
4) Date of Construction.--The date of construction
should be indicated along with the name of the architect
and the building if known. The architectural and
historical association of structures is a determinant in
the evaluation process.
5) Site Description.--This entry not only provides
the physical description but has an evaluation element
inherent in the category under present condition. A
visual survey by a trained person can discern whether a
structure is in excellent, good, fair, or deteriorated
condition, and if the structure has had major alterations.
6) Usage.--Original and present usage should be
indicated under the twelve categories. It is important
to note the change in use so that additional research can
be done to determine its original significance to the area.
7) Architectural Significance.--This evaluation can
be best done by an architect or planner versed in archi-
tectural history, taking into consideration the style and
period of construction and its significance nationally,
locally, or as an element within the neighborhood.
Another Tampa structure which
was sited in the survey.
8) Historical Significance.--Whether a structure or
site has been associated with major historical persons,
or periods of development on a national, state, regional,
or local level should be indicated here.
9) Building Materials.--Exterior evidence of con-
struction and its materials are indicated. Shingles may
be of wood or slate and can cover the roof or walls.
Clapboards are used as wall material and are historically
constructed of wood. Masonry includes brick of any color,
concrete, and stucco facades. The combination category
indicates more than one material is evident. The materials
should be indicated. "Other" materials indicate those
not covered in the above categories. They should be
specified in writing.
10) Notable Elements.--Dominant features and appendages
which are unique in design or construction, or elements
which give a unique appearance to the structure should be
11) Remarks and Sources of Information.--Anything of
major interest not listed in the other areas should be
indicated here. Any bibliographical information and
source material pertaining to the structure such as
locations of photographs, deeds and records that have been
used to complete the inventory form should be indicated.
12) Photo Data.--A good quality photograph of the
structure should be attached for visual field identification
and a check on whether any pertinent information may have
been overlooked. By keeping an account of where this
photograph is by roll number and negative number it will
insure retrieval for additional photographs. Pictures
should be taken from the major street elevation to include
all the building and its immediate surroundings. The
indication of camera angle will indicate to others the
direction in which the photo was taken.
13) Location Map.--A location map at a convenient and
legible scale should be produced on each form so that
the structure in question can be indicated. In the
demarcation phase an accurate location of buildings and
their significance can be charted from these maps.
14) Prepared by: and Date: .--To insure that
information can be clarified the name of the surveyor and
the date should be written in.
Typical Organization Pattern: Flow of Information and Responsibility
Aid in establishing guidelines
of survey and training of team
members. Evaluation of survey
information and recommendations
as to further action.
Working with all
members of the sur-
to consultants and
making formal sub-
mission for district
Aid in resource infor-
mation and advise on
which may affect the
area. To consult on
Area Inventory Coordinator
Team member responsible for
preliminary check to see that
all forms are properly com-
pleted and photographs included.
Two members per section/
responsible for 'in the field'
information gathering, com-
pleting forms and taking
(One member per block) Members of
neighborhood who can inform
neighborhood and introduce team
members to area residents.
Organizational Pattern: Flow of Information and
It is suggested that an organizational pattern be
established to distribute field work and information
gathering to as many volunteers as seems reasonable and
to distinguish the proper levels at which decision making
and evaluation can occur. Because of the broad scope of
this inventory large amounts of information must be
handled in an orderly manner to produce an accurate
At the introduction to the inventory area probably
the most important link in the chain flow of information
is the Block Contact. This is a member of the block who
is sympathetic to the work of the volunteers and the pur-
poses of the survey. He or she should be someone who can
inform neighbors as to what the survey is attempting to
do and can aid survey team members if any problems arise.
In an effort such as this the neighborhood and the entire
area should be made aware of the work that is being done.
Radio, television and the newspapers should be employed if
at all possible to inform residents. Flyers in residents'
mail would alert the greatest segment of the area
The second link is the Survey Team. Two members of
the survey team should be assigned specific sections in
which they will work in the field to gather information.
Survey forms should be completed in the field (on the
site) as thoroughly as possible with aid from home owners
if available. The teams are also responsible for the
photography at this point. All information should be
completed prior to submission. If there are questions or
a lack of information available note on the form itself.
However, there should be a conscious effort made to
include all information requested.
The Area Inventory Coordinator is a member of the whole
team responsible for the preliminary checking of the
inventory forms to be sure that all information that is
available has been included. A check on photographs to see
that they have been taken and attached and that the photo-
graphic negatives are recorded and included. The
coordinator at this level should also begin to organize
inventory forms and other information into an orderly
format. The most commonly used is the three ring note-
book. All sections within the area should appear in this
form when the area survey is completed.
This material is then submitted to the Survey
Committee which should distribute copies to the con-
sultants for evaluation. The duty of the Survey
Committee is to initiate action and submit materials to
the proper authorities for their opinions as to the
worthiness of historic district consideration. The
ultimate responsibility for following up and initiating
further action rests with the entire committee.
This then establishes the order of responsibility
and information flow. It is a means of breaking down
into its component parts the work and coordination
necessary to complete the survey.
Two additional aids are the consultants who are out-
lined in the chart. Both a local authority and a pro-
fessional group versed in inventories previously
accomplished in the state are those that should be called
on at any point to aid in evaluation and recommendations.
Their input should not be sought after the survey has been
completed but at all times to insure a continuous flow
of information and understanding of what is being
The mapping of the results of these two surveys
is the visual accounting of an area's cultural and
architectural resources. The overlay of the information
compiled will produce the demarcation of areas worthy
of district recognition and protection. As the embodi-
ment of a majority of physical and aesthetic characteristics
these maps can provide a working document for local
The mapping of these resources provides a visual
tool for planning and zoning agencies. Rather than have
preservationist groups fall in front of the bulldozer each
time a building is ready for demolition the developer and
city council will be aware of what cultural resources
exist and which are threatened by public or private
development and which are deemed worthy of preservation.
This map, if accepted by the proper agencies with local
government can be the embodiment of legal criteria for the
development of townscape preservation.
Activism within a community and its neighborhoods
play a vital role in the success of any district desig-
nation. Whether a passively or actively involved group
inhabits an area determines if recognition and eventual
legal controls will be effective. The study of neigh-
borhood groupings by its level of organization is presently
under the scrutiny of Donald and Rachelle Warren, psycholo-
gists in urban research.14 Their findings on social groupings
reflect the amount of consciousness a neighborhood contains
and the roles which neighborhood groups play in self esteem
and self preservation. This can be directly equated to
the physical maintenance of a neighborhood and the willing-
ness of people to take an active part in the inventory and
The results of the Warrens' findings are included in
the appendix as a useful guide to the type of people and
their reactions to architectural district demarcation (see
Appendix A). The "Community Leader's Handbook" is repro-
duced here with various approaches and their appropriate-
ness to spur activity in neighborhoods.
Have you thought about mobilizing your
neighborhood to accomplish something, but
don't know exactly where to begin? This
brief guide can help you diagnose your
neighborhood and select the best prescrip-
tion for effective action.
Our research has identified eight neigh-
borhood characteristics that are pivotal
for organizational action and change. We
have listed these characteristics in terms
of eight questions to ask yourself about
your own neighborhood.
We also have identified seven strategies
that are frequently used by successful
activists. These strategies are listed on
the chart and marked according to their
To devise your own strategies, first
answer each question. Then, for each
'yes' answer, look across the list of
strategies to find which action would be
your best first step (+), which ones would
be your best follow-up actions ( ), and
which ones would be so costly in time or
money that it wouldn't make sense to use
Now let's examine the choices:
1. Interaction.--If your neighbors are in
frequent contact with one another, the
most efficient first step is to try to
mobilize a few key neighbors. They will
quickly spread your message. Door-to-door
contact and media advertisements might work,
but they are costly or time-consuming.
Developing a new local group and setting up
a pipeline to city hall are useful follow-
2. Heterogeneity.--If your neighbors'
lifestyles are many and various, it is
hard to find a suitable 'language' for a
newsletter or advertisement. Your neigh-
bors may misperceive your message. Door-
to-door, personal canvassing seems to be
the only effective first step, even though
it is time-consuming.
3. Identity.--Suppose your neighborhood
has little going for it except that people
like it and feel a certain sense of
identity. Publishing a newsletter can be
an effective starter. It can inform even
the newest resident about what is going on.
And once your neighbors find out, they may
readily help you with the follow-up steps.
4. Mutual Aid.--If neighbors are willing
to help each other but there is little
formal leadership, the best first step is
to get help from city hall. Your neigh-
borhood needs expertise. Neighbors may
develop leadership skills eventually, but
in the meantime having a pipeline to city
hall can be a good holding pattern.
5. Privatism.--If your neighbors put a
premium on privacy, it is difficult to
develop a base for collective action. Media
advertising is an effective first step,
followed by efforts to mobilize neigh-
borhood people through the community groups
they belong to.
6. Insulation.--A neighborhood that has
strong boundaries because of language,
ethnicity or other insulating factors often
has greater strength in resisting change than
in anticipating neighborhood problems. A
good first strategy is the personal
NEIGHBORHOOD ACTIVISTS' GUIDE
Publish' Conduct Advertise
News- Door-to-Door in Mass
letter Campaign Media
Use Set Up
Organization Form Grass- Pipeline to
Lists Roots Group City Hall
1 Interaction. During the year do people
in the neighborhood get together quite o -
2 Heterogeneity. Are there many people
of different backgrounds, lifestyles, or
social levels who live in the neigh-
3 Identity. Do people in the neighbor-
hood feel they have a great deal in
4 Mutual Aid. When someone has some-
thing on his mind that is bothering him,
are neighbors willing to help?
5 Privatism. Do people in the neighbor-
hood place more value on their family
privacy than on being in touch with
6 Insulation. If a bill collector came
around asking about a neighbor, would
people in your neighborhood refuse to
give out any information?
7 Connections. Do many people in the
neighborhood keep active in groups
outside the neighborhood?
8 Turnover. Are there many people who
move in and out of your neighborhood?
PSYCHOLOGY TODAY. June 1975
approach, door-to-door canvassing. Without
some initial icebreaking, you may find that
your actions will meet with stiff resistance,
particularly if you are not a long-time
7. Connections.--If your neighbors have
many ties to outside groups, your first task
is to reach them through these groups. This
approach is often more effective than pub-
lishing a newsletter or advertising in the
media. Setting up a pipeline to city hall
could be redundant, since your neighbors
probably have connections there already.
8. Turnover.--In a neighborhood where resi-
dents move in and out frequently, the would-
be activist has overwhelming problems. A good
initial tactic is to publish a newsletter to
let newcomers have some idea of what is going
on and to remind long-time residents that the
neighborhood does have some community. Setting
up a grassroots group comprised of newcomers
and oldtimers is a good follow-up tactic.
The implementation of an architectural district in
terms of its legal authority is determined by the local
governing body or in some instances the state legis-
lature as is the case in Massachusetts. Architectural
zoning in an area designated significant by the inventory
and survey process can be secured if the residents and
businessmen approve. This is a long and difficult aspect
of the designation of a district. It must be approved as
any limitation on buildings and properties such as height,
volume, use, and setbacks are administered today. The
architectural district attempts to carry the "attention
to detail" further in its establishment of additional
regulations and special zones.
Legal Means to Townscape Preservation
Architectural zoning law as historic zoning law
differs from that already being enforced in that it
"demands conformity to a norm set by the ... architecture
within specified boundaries in the community ..."1
Zoning changes and the establishment of new types of
zoning require a great deal of prodding and guidance from
those interested in the preservation of the community. An
item which may complement the findings of the survey team
is the presentation of modal zoning ordinances for the
maintenance of areas. Charleston, South Carolina has one
of the oldest zoning ordinances and should be of particular