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 District definition and recognition...
 Analysis and implementation of...
 Aspects of district developmen...
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Title: Criteria for design : a means to architectural preservation
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Title: Criteria for design : a means to architectural preservation
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Creator: Chase, Charles Edwin
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Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
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    Table of Contents
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    Analysis and implementation of architectural districts
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    Aspects of district development
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    Back Cover
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Full Text

a means to
architectural preservation

A Means to Architectural Preservation



F. Blair Reeves
Harold Kemp
John McRae
Maelee T. Foster

Committee Chairman
Committee Member
Committee Member
Committee Member




This thesis and the research it represents could

not have been accomplished without the direction and

council of F. Blair Reeves, Harold Kemp, John McRae,

and Maelee Foster professors at the University of Florida.

Their knowledge, interest and patience has helped beyond

measure in this endeavor. I can only hope that it meets

their expectations.

My deepest thanks go to Sandra and Eric Wiedegreen

for without their help I could not have physically

produced this work.

Charles Edwin Chase

McIntosh, Florida 1975





District considerations
Rural Districts
Component Parts of a District
Recognition of Building Relationships,
Architectural Elements and Urban Amenities


Survey and Inventory Process


Role of the Architect



Six kinds of Neighborhoods
Architectural Research in Restoration
Economic Feasibility Analysis for Urban
Renewal Housing Rehabilitation





the people of preservation, the greatest
of human beings,


especially to


Architectural preservation in America, since the

1930's has determined that structures of architectural,

social, and historical significance must be maintained

within their immediate surroundings. Development pressures

and incompatible alterations to structures cause deteriora-

tion to the scale, character, setting, and sense of place.

The result has been the creation of districts to provide

protection for these resources. The first defined and

enforced architectural and historic district in.America,

Charleston, South Carolina, established that buildings

grouped together forming the streetscape and neighbor-

hood were considered worthy of collective protection.

The National Register of Historic Places by its

recognition of districts as cultural resources places a

major emphasis on architecture as a part of the cohesive

environment. The Register defines architectural and

historical districts as "... rural or urban, possessing

significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of

sites, buildings, structures, or objects which are

united by past events or aesthetically by plan of

physical development."I

This recognition that buildings do not stand as

isolated elements on the urban landscape has prompted

architectural surveys to investigate existing signifi-

cant resources. Under present laws including state and

federal mandates, architectural preservation and historic

district legislation uphold architecture as a cultural

resource of the urban environment. The preservation of

such areas as the Vieux Carre in New Orleans, Society

Hill in Philadelphia, Beacon Hill in Boston, and

Ansonborough in Charleston is due to the recognition of

their physical and social amenities. The architectural

district is the means to utilize structures which make

up the physical urban setting as well as to maintain

the familiar in the panorama of urban change.

In the development of districts federal, state,

and local governments are taking stock of their property

and surroundings through the survey and inventory pro-

cess. Expressed community consciousness in an attempt to

save the remaining pieces of past development has

established a body of legal criteria. But how does the

architectural designer translate this legal framework into

a physical reality? Through the analysis of existing

conditions and an understanding of the effects of new

development, design criteria can be established and

incorporated into the district. While maintaining the

cultural resources and the quality environment, design

parameters can provide for growth and development.

The intent of this thesis is to study the architec-

tural and urban elements which are a part of the design

process. It is aimed at laymen, city and county officials,

members of design review boards, and architectural

designers. It is a study of design within the context of

fixed architectural environments. These environments

which have survived the passage of time are the criteria

for design. They do not promote imitation in new con-

struction, but affect a serious awareness of architectural

form as an expression of time and place.

This study will consider some of the following questions.

How is an architectural district defined and what does it

contain? What are the effects of modification and new

construction? To what extent does preservation reach?

Is it restoration, rehabilitation, or new construction?

What is the role of the architectural professional? What

are some of the legal criteria for historic districts?


district definition
recognition of
architectural elements


!_ -W 17

Recognition of an area's identity is the first
step in district definition.

Architectural district definition is a multi-faceted
problem relying on the locality, the prevailing use and

occupancy, the style and period of its architecture, and

the cohesiveness of its individual parts. The National

Register's general definition, cited in the preceding

introduction, with William J. Murtagh's article to ICOMOS

in Rome (1974) stating, "any historic environment has a

network of pivotal or focal buildings as its foundation...

Usually a public structure ... but can also be a residence

of unusual size or outstanding workmanship or even an

urban space ..."2 accounts for the open-ended nature of

architectural and historic district definition.

Intentionally general and broad in scope, they allow any

combination of architecturally, socially, or historically

significant structures and urban spaces to be designed as

districts. Natural and man made boundaries, with materials

and workmanship provide a sense of place which define an

architectural environment.

There are general elements in each set of circum-

stances which can be conceptualized. They include location,

design, setting, material, workmanship, feeling, and

association. In a district the architectural details of

scale, proportion, rhythm, silhouette, height, materials,

colors, textures, design and association exist. Evidence

of these elements within an area constitute a unity that

can be defined as a district. Each locality will find

varying degrees of each element.

The harmonious association of structures in urban

and rural settings establish the initial criteria for the

district designation. Age and function may not exclude

structures from consideration. Building conditions must

be evaluated on a level of safety and feasibility of use

not on its visual appeal as buildings structurally sound

can be rehabilitated for new occupancy. This savings in

materials and energy maintain continuity of design and

form in the urban setting.

District definition and the recognition of archi-

tectural elements is the topic of this section. The

definition of architectural districts will be broken down

\ significant architectural contribution to
Savannah's Columbia Square.

into architectural, social, geographical, historical,

functional and political considerations. From these six

main areas a composite of a district will be discussed.

The recognition of architectural elements will be dis-

played in written and graphic forms to display the com-

ponent parts of structures, the various periods and

styles of architecture, the importance of urban settings

and spaces, and the use of materials and workmanship.

Keeping in mind that each locale has its own set of

unique circumstances this section will show the reader

how to evaluate general concepts and components with

application left to local interpretation.

District Considerations

Architectural Considerations

The physical description and definition of an archi-

tectural district hinges upon the local elements which are

present. Many communities contain structures that are

important architecturally. Fine examples of period style

and construction designed by an architect of local or

national importance provide architectural merit and focus

These unique anonymous structures on Nantucket's
streets provide a sense of place through their
use of materials and construction.

for it-surroundings. There are many more structures which

exist without this significance that give continuity by

their period and type of construction. These 'anonymous'

structures create a framework on which a street or neigh-

borhood rely. Containing the elements of past design and

construction processes these buildings are evidence of a

sense of place. The familiar streetscape is dependent upon

those structures that have survived time and development

pressures. Changes such as increased density, new con-

struction methods, new building types, and non adherance

to street and building relationships cause deterioration

in area identity.

Social Considerations

Ethnic and social characteristics provide another

means of defining the district. Villages, towns, and

cities have grown as a result of different social and

cultural immigrations. From Europe and Asia tfrey have

brought skills and customs which are reflected in their

religious, social, commercial, and residential building.

Particular skills and habits are evident in the streets

and neighborhoods which they inhabit. To surround them-

A natural harbor brought development to Newport,
Rhode Island.

selves with a tangible link with the familiar these people

have created distinct areas by changing existing structures,

by ornament and decoration and by the introduction of new

architectural styles. The resulting neighborhoods have a

character, continuity and sense of place unique to the


Today with the average family moving once every five

years the identity of neighborhoods and whole cities are

being lost. The nondescript architecture which attempts

to satisfy all tastes infiltrates communities and destroys

the very concept of neighborhoods.

Geographic Considerations

The physical nature of an area can also define a

district. Geographical and topographical formations of

mountains, valleys and rivers have played an important

role in the location of settlements. The fall line of

rivers providing water and mechanical energy for indus-

trialization as an example were ideal locations for

towns of the eighteenth century. Within each community

its architecture has been molded to the topography of the

land. Churches and civic structures have used the hill

~-~n-1~ smrryrr~T_P~P~pr~_~:

- 414

Boston's South East Expressway
and elevated rail line divide the
city into district areas.

top as a means of focusing attention: the man made

enhanced by nature. Community boundaries were created by

the availability of water, both river and ocean, soil

conditions, and suitable building materials. Today,

neighborhoods as the remnants of past development are

often masked by man-made changes in the land. Boston's

Back Bay exemplifies the filling in of marshland for the

, building for expanded populations. A visual investigation

of building groups and changes in the landscape offer a

key to historic relationships to land and water within

Present conditions.

Man made boundaries can also define areas of

consideration. The major arterial highway connectors and

utility lines divide or border communities. Railroad lines
and above ground commuter rails do the same. These offer

visual and physical walls which can be utilized as

boundaries of a district. The massive and large scaled

structures create walls within the city, often destroying

the original scale and continuity of an area.



Endowed with historical association and
designed by Peter Harrison, the Redwood library
stands in Newport, Rhode Island.

Historical Considerations

The events and the figures linked with structures,

places and spaces give an area added dimension. Preserving

areas of historical association is a means of acknowledging

a part of our heritage. Valuable as a means of preserving

elements of the past, historical associations should be

linked with the other considerations for district definition.

Historical continuity is a means to provide the

cohesive environment which architectural preservation

seeks to maintain. Association, however, cannot stand

alone in producing a viable living district. The museum

approach to district demarcation creates an economic burden

upon the community. In cases where a local historical

society or preservation league has acquired structures

much of their time and finances are spent in the main-

tenance process. Necessary and important for finely_

individual, architectural, and historical structures, this

type of preservation cannot support all neighborhoods and


The activity boundaries of the city.

Functional Considerations

Architectural preservation areas can be designated

by the activities within the community. By the nature of

past growth and development, commercial, governmental,

industrial, residential, religious, scenic, and recreational

pockets of activity have developed in our urban areas.

Whether planned or created out of unconscious growth, cen-

ters of specific function and building type exist.

Mental images of our cities consist of the grouping

and arrangement of these centers of activity. Clearly

defined, overlapped or very broad in scope, these

elements as a part of the community unite a city. Kevin

Lynch attributed the ability of districts to give identity

to a city when he stated, "Districts are the ... sections

of the city, ... which the observer mentally enters

'inside of,' and which are recognizable as having some

identifying character."3 Examples can be found in cities

like New York with its skyscrapers gf the financial

district in lower Manhattan, or in Savannah with its town-

houses and continuous facades bordering its many squares.

Tampa, Florida, a product of more modern development has

"Rur lage railrl a"

Rural village railroad/industrial area.

Atlanta's financial and hotel district.

Hyde Park, a residential district of single family

residences bordered by commercial activity and Tampa Bay.

The number of activity areas or districts depends

upon the size of the city or community. Physical form

and visible activity denote specific areas in which

functions take place with component parts, size, appearance,

and internal events as the decernable elements of a district.

Districts worthy of preservation may include part or all of

an area$ or may encompass many'depending upon the size and

physical features. Historic districts may seek to pre-

serve the most outstanding'in each area resulting in a

series of sub districts or nodes throughout the city. In

this manner a cross section of the community and its

activities can be maintained.

Political Considerations

Another consideration for the designation of an

architectural district lies within the realm of govern-

ment and politics. An aspect of community living which

is a vital part of the implementation of any activity,

is its governing body and legal framework. Approval of

~sa~ rqCa~s~asrr''~'

community and city actions are based upon the voting

districts and precincts. Utilized in its proper per-

spective political divisions can be a positive force in

implementing architectural districts.

The funding and administration for architectural

preservation can be best accomplished with the approval

of the community. Often areas within cities need special

services and attention. It can be accomplished through

the political process if the desires of the community are

known and are brought out as issues. With monies being

distributed to cities through the Community Development

Act and block grants, monies must be sought at the state

and federal levels. The decision of appropriate spending

is now in the hands of the local authorities. Their

duties are to serve the voters and fulfil the needs of the

community. Political districts within an area can apply

pressure to achieve its goals.

The demarcation of political divisions overlayed with

the preservation needs of the community allow for a clearer

understanding of where and how money can be made available.

Concerned with the equitable distribution of its services

municipal governments often operate on a 'blanket'

approach to services for the community. However, when

needs and desires are made clear that the benefits of

upgrading specific areas is a service to the entire

community, action is easier to achieve.

The public funding of projects and the cooperation

of local government must not exclude the possibility

of private contribution. It does however, provide for

the community to directly reap the benefits of urban

upgrading through architectural district regulation.

Control of areas designated for preservation can provide

a unified development plan for the whole community, The

survival of a district noted for its physical and social

amenities must serve the needs of the community as well

as the community serving the needs of the district.

The reason for establishing a district is to maintain

areas for their character architecturally and socially.

The benefits derived are cultural and aesthetic but are

only successful when the practical needs of the area are

met. The interrelationship of these six considerations:

architecture, social, geographic, historic, functional and

ural Virginia is an example of an agricultural
rea which should be maintained.

political provide the basis for district demarcation.

As a means to direct design decisions these forces are

mutual assets for the community. The establishment of

criteria will preserve the streetscape and the relation-

ship of function and identity without impairing progress.

Rural Districts for Land Conservation

Rural areas and village communities scattered through-

out the country are an additional consideration for district

definition. Agricultural and wilderness areas are fast

becoming popular places for people seeking refuge from the

problems of urban dwelling. This exodus is mounting each

year creating pressure for the development of agricultural

and wilderness sites.

Rural community life and its architecture reflect a

slower, more stable development often maintained by a lack

of financial resources. Lower economic levels in these

areas have required greater efforts in conservation of

existing properties for residences, agriculture and

forestry. With the introduction of middle and higher

income families, who wish to enjoy the qualities of rural

W --

Nantucket's Conservation Foundation insures
the preservation of the island's resources.

living, the resulting trend to develop such areas threatens

the very environment which they seek.

The protection of the natural landscape and wilderness

resources under the National Park Service has provided our

national park system. However, little thought has been

given to restrictions by rural localities to prevent over-

development. District demarcation in conjunction with

planned growth patterns can restrain urban encroachment.

By defining guidelines for design, use, and development

smaller communities and rural villages can insure the

maintenance of existing physical and aesthetic


Guidelines for the protection of an environment must

be established on the basis of existing elements tightly

defining services and amenities for the community. It

must also prove to the courts of law that management of

the built environment does not hinder an owner's right to

develop but directs it for the public well being. It

must educate and instruct future developers in the

appropriateness and feasibility of managed growth in

sensitive areas.

The Role of Structures in District Definition


An architectural district relies upon its structures
and urban spaces, as a unifying force. Within a community
the role which architecture plays in district definition
is twofold: physical and aesthetic. Both vitally impor-
tant to cohesiveness, they are inseparable qualities.
Structures assume the characteristics of focal points,
connectors, walls of continuity, edges, and limits to
circulation. Aesthetic considerations of districts
associated with structures is pointed out in Murtagh's
Aesthetic and Social Dimensions of Historic Districts.,

Focal Points
Civic, governmental, religious, and educational
structures focus attention and create identity in districts
which grouped together provide the image of a city.5
A church in Boston becomes a
oca bu il n b s s a p Governmental and educational functions do this on a daily
focal building in this streetscape.
basis while civic and religious activities may focus
attention on a periodic basis. These structures are
usually monumental in size and ornamentation having a high
degree of use and having some historic relationship.

Traditionally the location of these structures is

dependent upon the geography and topography of the land.

Ancient Athens and medieval Mantua are examples of

historic sites which capitalized upon siting and setting

to create dominance for civic and religious structures.

American examples of focal structures can be seen in

Colonial Williamsburg and in Washington, D.C. Monumental

structures accentuate and terminate long vistas in

centers of activity.

In each community focal structures can be detected.

Their characteristics are:

1. usually larger in scale than their

2. provide a visual impact to draw attention
and activity,
3. provide a social, governmental, religious,
-. ; residential, or educational activity,

; 4. be supported by a series of anonymous
"TT" structures.

"i; -- -
These Savannah rowhouses form a wall of continuity.

These Savannah rowhouses form a wall of continuity.

Connectors and Walls of Continuity

The ability of focal structures to create activity is

dependent upon a series of 'anonymous' structures which

connect and focus interest on major functions and provide

walls of continuity. These structures of average quality,

providing uniformity and identity, are the framework upon

which the environment is built. However, they are often

the first to be destroyed in urban growth taking with

them the linkage necessary for sustaining a recognizable


As walls of continuity, structures unify streets and

neighborhoods with the physical characteristics of location,

architectural elements, setting, materials, workmanship

and feeling.

Location can identify accepted relationships unified

by buildings, sites, and spaces. Buildings and the like

stand within an environment endowed with traditional


Architectural elements of scale, height, proportion,

materials, colors, texture, rhythm, silhouette, and

The structures of Quincy Market become the
connecting link to Boston's City Hall.

This waterway divides the industrial area
from a residential area.

setting determine similarity and compatible diversity in

a district.

Setting determined by natural and man-made boundaries

establishes location of focal points and supporting frame-

work for area functions.

Materials either traditional or unique to the

locality create unity through physical characteristics of

size, color, texture, and use.

/ Workmanship provides continuity through the efforts

of past builders.6

District Edges

-- Architectural districts rely on the physical

characteristics for the definition of its edges. Structures

as well as parks, utility lines, rail transportation,

highway arteries and waterfronts usually determine area

limits. Changes in function and scale determine the limits

of a district by creating visual and physical barriers.

# ,- . -
, -. - . -": ,. -' '. '

Both water and arterial highways divide
Boston and Cambridge.

An overall example of the various elements
which can make up a district.

6.fi e

.- . i---.--7
~sF7F-~: i L! ~ O ;;j.;

An alley for pedestrians only
or ...

Circulation Definers

Structures bordering highways, streets, and alleys

determine the flow of mechanized and pedestrian traffic.

As major traffic flow skirts an area, boundaries are

created. However, if allowed to pass through traffic can

visually and physically divide an area into smaller

districts which must seek to find new identity if the old

has been severed. Traffic can be controlled by the

accessibility and width of streets. Streets which are

-narrow promote pedestrian use away from high volume traffic

on the wide boulevards. The physical proximity of structures

can be utilized in this manner to define a district and

its circulation patterns. This, however, is an ideal

situation as it is usually the structure's fate which is

determined by the location of traffic. The demands of

local and city-wide circulation can be balanced with

district preservation if alternative routes to major

traffic border rather than divide districts.

.-79 -1 -- -- ^

... a thoroughfare for auto

District Goals

As stated, architectural districts are based upon

considerations unique to each locale and area of the

country. With varying degree these characteristics are

evident in every city, community, and rural village.

Whether historic or contemporary an environment which

meets the physical and aesthetic determinants in the

community can be defined as a district. The goals for

district definition are to balance the need for con-

temporary growth with the preservation of established

systems of architectural and urban elements. It is an

attempt to have development recognize the existing built

environment as a quality which cannot be duplicated or

replaced. Without great thought to the impact upon

existing physical and aesthetic characteristics, new

construction will destroy an irreplaceable patrimony.

Through design restrictions it is hoped that growth will

enhance rather than belittle the existing environment.

To this end the goals for an architectural district

can be borrowed from R. L. Schluntz's Design for Downtown:7

1. Preserve and insure a high quality of
the environment for the future.

2. Maintain and improve the existing
character of the community.

3. Direct and guide the future development
of the community into desirable forms
and patterns, rather than insufficient

4. Prevent the development of unsuitable
land mixes

5. Insure public facilities and services
keep abreast of the size and desires
of the population.

6. Provide a pattern for residential
growth that will provide desirable
concentrations of residences without
overburdening the community facilities

7. Improve downtown both functionally and
aesthetically in shopping, social,
administrative and cultural [ways].

8. [provide] suitable space for industrial

9. [insure] good access to all activities

10. Provide method of continuous citizen
participation in the formulation of
objectives and implementation.

-i '. . -. .

A Boston church expands on a small city plot
The Park Street Church in Bos- deep, fronting on Boston Con-
ton acquired 22,000 square feet mon. All concrete elements are
of multi-use space by putting an exposed and sandblasted, and
addition at the rear of the land- the existing rear wall of the
mark structure built in 1805. Church, with its record of alter-
Stahl/Bennett designed the new nations, was cleaned and left
concrete and brick building for exposed. The building was
a site 40 feet wide and 80 teet completed in 1972.

Recognition of Building Relationships,
Architectural Elements and Urban Amenities

To provide architectural districts with a balance of

development, renovation, and restoration, the physical

characteristics of building relationships, architectural

elements, and urban amenities must be understood.

Continued renewal of a district sympathetic to existing

elements will assure district contribution to community

vitality. The recognition of these elements not only

provides the comprehension of past growth but provides

the criteria for compatible design and development.

These elements are outlined in written and graphic form

for planning commissions, design review boards,

architectural designers, urban planners, and laymen. The

examples will display the relationship of buildings and

spaces in the streetscape, the architectural elements

which display architectural style and construction, and

the urban amenities which support and unify the

neighborhood and district.

Building Relationships






Roof shapes

Pattern and rhythm





Scale is created by the size of construction units and

architectural detail which relate to the size of man.

Scale is also determined by building mass and how it relates

to open space. The predominant element of scale may be

brick or stone units, windows or door openings, porches

and balconies, etc.

The relationship of man and his environment deterimes
"scale". By example each identical square to the left
takes on a different physical relationship with the
size of man.

Above: These blocks have no relationship to the scale
of man. Without the familiar units of construction they
could be two feet or one hundred feet high. There is
nothing to relate their size to.


Left: Modern construction often does not give the
viewer the visual clues to the measuring of a buildings's
size and relationship to mar.

1 '41

- (

Above: The introduction of human figures gives some
clue to the size of these buildings

Left: A contemporary example of a new structure
adjacent to a historic one which totally ignores
the visual means of providing scale. The intracacies
of Trinity Church and its details are recognized as
being built by human hands for human use. The John
Hancock Tower stands devoid of any definers of scale.
A monolithic structure, the window grid could measure
2'x4' or 10'x20'.

i ,A -v -1 i, <- I:
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Above: The addition of construction elements and details
of familiar size further define the size and scale of
the whole building and the structures in the strretscape.


Ni 1

Left: Often structures must utilize open space
to compete with the taller more massive structures
as well as breaking the building into component parts
to give it the attention that it can not achieve in
mass. Street furniture such as lamps, planters and
benches add another dimension to the street that the
passerby can relate to through personal size and dimension.

Above: The buildings which have been used as an example
of recognizing scale have a scale relationship with each
other. The one to the left and the smallest is inhabitable
by humans, however it seems-dwarfed by the larger, surround-
ing structures.

- 'I!
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.411 L1 -1.Pill



The concept of proportion refers to the relation-

ship between height and width of the front elevation of

a building. In a streetscape buildings often have a

predominant proportion. When the majority of structures

in a district have similar proportions, it would be

destructive to construct a new building with different


historic structure may stand out ...


The prevailing setbacks of a street establish a

uniform vista with no single structure visually interrupting

the streetscape. Walls, hedges, or fences can provide a

unifying element where structures have been removed or

where spaces detract from the continuity of the street.

r I

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while these anonymous structures maintain the streetscare. 30

V r,


Buildings constructed within a district must be no

higher than the tallest building in a district. Usually

there must be a 10% + height limit to maintain an overall

height continuum.

Shadow is a major consideration in allowing tall structures.

Height can often be visually lowered
through the use of architecutral

This focal point is dwarfed by the overly high structures
which surround it.

Roof Shape:

Depending upon the period and style of construction

or the locality the type of roof shapes vary. Some areas

may have a predominant shape or may have a variety. A

new building must respect the dominant roof form, thus,

strengthening the district.

7- -
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lenjamin Cushing House, Prov-
idence, 1737, showing gable
overhang. IlABS

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hlip roof with leanto.



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Gable roof and cornice

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.able w ith leanto ( S 2
(;nlen~ih rato S~t ni'P-e) House. 160 Pow~er St.. ~(ntrKo.Double Hlouse, 27- 9 J ohn St. .1S


Silhouette is based upon the quality of local,

traditional methods of handling mass which reflect the

majority of elements in a district.

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- building facades

The repetition of alternating solids and voids in

building facades establishes a pattern observed from a

distance. Rhythm is perceived while passing by the


- building spacing

The location and spacing of structures on their

sites establishes a solid (building):void (space)

relationship which should be adhered to in any new


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Wherever possible traditional materials and con-

struction should be utilized or new materials, that do not

imitate existing but have the same characteristics of

texture, unit size, and color.

1A N U U

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The suitability of new development would be enhanced

through the use of building materials which create the

predominant texture or one which is appropriate within

the context of other buildings in a district.

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Color is an inherent quality of building material,

such as stucco, brick, wood, metal, stone and an applied

materials which mask the natural color of a material.

Local tradition in the use of natural color of materials

and applied color should be respected as it is utilized

in a district. Selection of color should be similar in

tone and be in harmony with the existing. It does not

necessarily demand duplication to the point of monotony.

Architectural Elements

Architectural Style and Construction

Greek revival
Italianate bracketed
Gothic revival
Queene Anne
Stick style
Shingle style
Medieval revival
Colonial revival
Georgian and Federal revival

Architectural Details

Exterior walls
Doors and entries
Windows and shutters
Roof materials
Decorative elements

Architectural Style and Construction

The identification of an area's architecture can aid

in the determination of its historic value. To aid in the

general dating of an area a series of building styles are

displayed. The buildings shown are single family detached

dwellings but similar detailing can be found in row houses,

triple deckers, and apartment blocks. This section should

be viewed as a guide as different regions have adopted

variations of these basic styles.

The following descriptions are based upon a study

written by Vision Inc. for the Brookline, Massachusetts

Planning Department.

Georgian, 1720-1825.--Often having gambrel roofs and

bold detail, houses of this type can also be called

"colonial" (since it occurs prior to the Revolution).

Doors, window trim, guoines, and cornices are prominent

features of the Georgian Style.

Federal is a late Georgian style so named because it

arrived with the birth of our federal system of government

following the Revolution. Derived from English adaptations

of ancient Roman architecture, buildings in the style are

marked by a simple box-like exterior, often low hip roof,

symmetrical facades, and delicate detail. Houses in this

style are generally organized around a large center entry


Greek Revival, 1825-1860.--Patterned after ancient

Greek temples, buildings in this, the first of the Victorian

styles, were the result of contemporary archaeological

interest in ancient Greece and reflected our nation's

admiration for the Greek republic.

Greek Revival houses feature a temple-like front whose

roof is of medium pitch and appears to be supported on

broad columns of pilasters. The "temple front" usually

faces the street and often has an entrance porch. The

exterior siding is usually clapboards but may have flush

siding scored to resemble stone.

Italianate-Bracketed, 1850-1880.--Loosely patterned

after Italian Renaissance farm houses, buildings in this

style are most easily identified by their heavy wooden

brackets. These brackets were produced cheaply and in

many variations for use over porches, doorways and win-

dows and under roofs. The Italianate style encouraged the

use of "L" shaped house plans and the addition of cupolas,

towers and bay windows to take advantage of sunlight and

vistas possible even on a small suburban lot.

English Rural and Gothic Revival are additional

styles of the period. The English Rural is characterized

by a truncated gable. The Gothic Revival utilized steeply

pitched roofs and gothic details in windows, doors, and

porched entries.

Mansard, 1855-1885.--Contemporary French planning

inspired the broad avenues and the Mansard style houses of

Boston's Back Bay development of the late 1850's. Most

readily identified by its slate or shingle covered double-

pitched roof with dormer windows which enclose the top

floor on all sides.

Queene Anne, 1875-1900.--The Queene Anne style of

the 18th century refers to the reign of the English queen

and is the name denoting styles of the English cottages.

Irregular roof outlines and freely planned, functional

layouts give each house an individual appearance. Stick

Style, the earliest Queene Anne Style, is noted by its

steep roofs and flared eaves, by its wood framing members

dividing the exterior wall surfaces. Panel Brick Style,

uses complicated brick patterns to subdivide.wall surfaces.

Shingle Style is named for the unpainted wood shingles

used to cover roofs and walls, featuring rounded corners

and arched openings. Medieval Revival can be identified

by gables infilled with heavy timbers and stucco.

Colonial Revival, although larger and more elaborate than

historic models is represented by tall hip roofs, elaborate

entrance porches, bow fronts, side porches and Palladian

windows, all of which were not used in the colonial period.

Georgian Revival, 1895-1940.--Copies of Georgian and

Federal houses of the 18th century are slightly larger than

the originals and often have additions to accommodate autos

and modern conveniences.


Not only to provide a solid base for construction,

foundations and particularly basements and raised

structures have sought to protect from water intrusion

in low lying areas and a means for ventilation in humid

climates. Basements also provide cool storage areas.

In some areas new construction must float on soft, wet


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Exterior Walls:
The selection of materials for the construction of
exterior walls was determined by the availability of
materials. Usually dependent upon local materials, local
workmen and craftsmen would fashion builidngs into the
style of the period often transferred through the use of
carpenter's handbooks.

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Fanlight Door. Elliptical Fan Door.

Flat topped door.

Doors and Entries:

Probably the first exterior element to be embelished

in the 'style' of the period, doors and entries reflect

the importance of the function inside or the owner's

social position. Their immediate function was to make

visible the entrance.

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Early Nineteenth Century Window types.


The penetration of the exterior was initially to

provide light and air. The size and relationship to the

exterior was a combination of the amount and control of

light, the availability of glazing material, and the

appropriateness of placement in the design of the exterior


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window type

Window type

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Roof Materials:

Again the availability of materials determined use

of roofing material for water and weatherproofing.

Tin and other meatals were once used as well as wood and

slate shingles. More contemporary asbestos and composition

shingles now provide protection.

Decorative Elements:

r-_ Historically, cornices, doorways, and most any

other surface has been utilized for the enhancement

of the exterior by architectural style and design.

To provide a measure of wealth, education, and social

prominence, structures have been embelished.

48 _

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street graphics
paving and sidewalks
fences and walls


In the urban environment lighting provides the

function of guidance along the streets and highways

for pedestrian and auto traffic, and the enhancement

of focal structures.

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Benches for relaxing and dining provide relief for

the resident and tourist alike in large urban areas.

They are a counterpoint to the fast moving activity of

the city

A I:j


Street Graphics:

Directing and controlling our lives, street graphics

have their function of informing the participant of where

and what the city has to offer. The lack of control and

appropriateness creates confusion and chaos in the street-




Fountains and the introduction of water provide

another means of relief. Enhancing plazas and parks

within the city, they are calming focal points with

their sound and movement in a seemingly harsh



Sculpture in the city provide pivotal points in

our great plazas and our quiet gardens. They are a

refection of man's involvement in the cityscape, indicating

his thoughts on conditions around him and his culture.

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Paving and Sidewalks:

The history of paving our streets and sidewalks

has indicated the use of stone, wood, masonry, and asphalt.

The functional use of these are evident in distributing

loads uniformly over the roadbed, but there are inherent

qualities in their selective use which provide direct-

tion and placement. The breaking down of the street

surface by materials and texture into visible ares

brings the ground plane into human scale.

- I

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Steps provide a third dimension to the passerby.

The transition establishes the position and importance

of structures on the streetscape.

To individual structures it proclaims the importance

of the entrance anticipating the interior beyond.


Fences and Walls:

Fences direct and guide the passerby as well as

define personal areas and spaces belonging to adjacent

I structures.
Walls continue the fabric of the street while

indicating a privacy demanded by the occupant on the
S1i I:I other side.

1h. ILh9K


The use of trees and greenery can provide the natural

elements which are often lost in the urban environment.

Trees can provide shade and shadow, and direction for the

streets they border. Vines can give pedestrian spaces

a human dimension by a natural canopy for sun control

and weather protection. Foliage can define spaces

for both passive and active enjoyment.

implementation of
architectural districts

Rit er Quay is not onl) an historic part of kansas (it
Missouri, but a part of the city rich in fine old--
but run-down-buildings which recall the period
t hen Kanias City was the fastest growing town in the
west. The ( it\ i first City Hall, the Board of
Trade Building, the Gillis Opera House, Pacific
House, and other buildings of strong character
and construi tion, are still standing, along with
the warehouses which came after the city r enter had
moved away troni the river. Now the old buildings
are being rehabilitated, given new uses--tor which
there is demand--to provide tor commerce and
recreation contracts between the city and the
Missouri River. The 32-1)loc k area is being
restored in three phases by Joseph Canizaro
Interests with Don Wudtke & Associates, Inc.,


With a definition of what constitutes an architectural

district and with a recognition of the building relation-

ships, the architectural, and urban amenities, the

establishment of an architectural district is dependent upon

the survey and inventory process. The visual and written

data gathered in a systematic manner provide the leverage

for the legal support of a district. The process involved

in this accurate accounting of a community's cultural

resources is first directed toward an overall townscape

survey, "... covering the general character and setting

noting the different features of visual and historic

interest that are worth protecting."9 Secondly, a more

detailed building by building inventory should compile

photographic and written data on each structure to pro-

vide detailed information within a designated area.

Thirdly, an annotated map should be produced to indicate

the centers of cultural resources, the individual land-

marks, buildings, and spaces of federal, state, or local

significance and the areas which embody characteristics

which are endangered. This demarcation should be pre-

sented as the foundation for the local planning authority's

future development plans and conservation policies.10

The implementation of this process depends upon the

willingness and activism within the community. The

discussion of neighborhood groupings and their level of

organization reflects a desire to preserve their

surroundings. To provide an idea of the various types of

persuasion to use in stimulating interest and determination

for district designation the articles of Donald and

Rachelle Warren are discussed.

The implementation of an architectural district

requires the establishment of legal zoning, planning and

covenant regulations in addition to the maintenance of

architectural elements. The framework for the initiation

of architectural districts take on two distinct yet

interrelated matters: first the legal regulation of an

architectural district by zoning and planning and secondly,

the legal aspects of physical maintenance.

Survey and Inventory Process

The initial step in the development of an architectural

district worthy of maintenance is a townscape survey which

covers the entire urban area. The purpose is to search out

and map those characteristics that reflect physical develop-

ment and social amenities. This process requires the can-

vassing of all neighborhoods and streets. As the British

have constructed under their Civic Amenities Act of 1967,

a townscape survey should include:

a. buildings and groups of buildings of
special architectural, historical or
local interest

b. important street frontages or building
lines, squares, and spaces where the
general proportions, heights and align-
ment of buildings ought to be retained,
even if some rebuilding or new construc-
tion takes place.

c. areas of special character, which ought to
be safeguarded as a whole because of their
architectural and historic interest and
their importance to the town's character
and identity

d. other features of importance to the town
as a whole: focal points, viewpoints,
and skylines, extending possibly to bits
of landscape outside the town which should
be kept open


e. 'opportunity areas' where there is potential
,scope for visual improvement; for example,
a neglected river frontage.ll

The townscape appraisal attempts to analyze the

quality of the urban environment in areas under construction.

As an example of the townscape method survey the analysis by

Cambridge, England descriges categories in order of impor-

tance as:

a. Feature Buildings

Buildings of architectural significance
which require permission for demolition
or alteration.

b. Valuable Buildings--Category 1

These structures make a positive con-
tribution to the townscape as a part of
a group but do not have any intrinsic
architectural merits singly.

c. Valuable Buildings--Category 2

These are of lesser quality providing
a total community character.

d. Substantial Buildings

These structures include buildings
which by their virtue of their recent
construction or substantial nature are
unlikely to be redeveloped. In most
cases these buildings occupy large sites,
and therefore, if redevelopment was to
take place, the impact on the townscape
would be great.

e. Acceptable Redevelopment Areas

Those buildings which make no positive
contribution and whose redevelopment
would not be opposed on visual grounds.
Plans for them would be judged against
criteria normal for a conservation area in
that any new structure should contribute
r to the quality of the street or area in
S-which it is situated

SIT; ] X f. Desirable Redevelopment Areas

This category covers both sites and
I buildings where it is considered that
development or redevelopment would
improve the visual quality of the
townscape. It makes no assessment
S- of the economic factors governing
'. redevelopment


g. Focal Points

SThis notation applies to those points
which are natural visual focus in the
townscape. It does not necessarily
imply that the feature is of any
architectural quality, but suggests
that it has visual significance beyond
the confines of its immediate environ-
ment which should be recognized if the
building is to be redeveloped.



I |

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h. Highlights
This notation does not apply to whole
buildings but is used to specify
particularly interesting features
such as door ways, fountains, statues,
etc., which enhance the visual
quality of buildings or spaces.

i. Frontage Lines

In many cases within the town it is not
just the quality of the buildings but
their relationship to each other which
is of importance to the character of an
area. The frontages on either side of a
street define an enclosed space which
may be in a critical relationship with
the scale of the buildings. There are
many examples where this relationship has
been lost by redevelopment being set
back and thereby breaking the rhythmic
flow of the elevations and spaces.

j. Defaced Facades

This notation is used to indicate
facades which have been spoiled by
untidy advertisements, uncoordinated
street signs, poorly designed shop
fronts, etc.


k. Landscape and Floorscape

It is not only the buildings of a town
but also the spaces between them which
are important to the environment. These
spaces are either landscaped with trees,
grass, flower beds, or hardsurfaced,
with paving, cobbles, etc.

1. Trees

Also indicated are significant mature
trees of value to the townscape.

*-. ~ ~ ~ 1 S.~ u iL.

m. Views

The quality of environment in certain
parts of the town is enhanced by views
down streets, across spaces, between
buildings and to other dominant buildings.
The existence and importance of these
lines of view will determine the per-
mitted heights of new buildings in many
parts of the area.12

From the townscape analysis of these areas of con-

sideration segments of the town worthy of further study

can be determined. The second stage of analysis involves

a street by street, building by building inventory of all

structures within the limits of the survey area. This

provides for an accurate accounting of each structure and

its specific value to the community. The inventory will

consist of photographs, maps and written data all designed

to aid in evaluation for district nomination.

The inventory process of this type has been initiated

at all levels of government including federal, state and

local. The National Register for Historic Places surveys

and accounts for landmarks and cultural resources signifi-

cant and worthy of national recognition. The fifty states

have been charged with the responsibility of developing


The Tree Council was established to maintain the initiative begun in 1973, Plant a Tree Year and to
continue to stimulate public interest in tree planting and tree care.
The first National Tree Week, held last March, prompted a great deal of local activity in spite of the
short time available for its launching. Local Authorities and Civic Societies may like advance notice
that the Tree Council will be urging special tree planting activity in the coming autumn and winter
culminating in the second National Tree Week from the 6th-13th March, 1976.
National Tree week is the close of the tree planting season but the time to commence planning for
participation in the National Tree Survey.

The National Tree Survey, launched in 1975, is intended to
harness the goodwill of tree-lovers everywhere into a massive
practical exercise: the surveying of all trees throughout the
country. In this way we can best conserve our existing trees
and find out where tree-planting priorities should lie. Trees
are too valuable to waste and therefore we must not only
encourage more planting, but ensure that those planted are
of the right type in the right place. Your survey will be
invaluable in achieving this.
It is vital that those participating in this ambitious and
worthwhile programme should carry out their work
accurately and uniformly. Duplication of effort must be
avoided and liaison with your District Council is essential.
When you have completed the survey, make sure one copy is
deposited with your District Council. Send a second copy to
The Tree Council so we can build up a national archive.
To establish a national record of the number, species and
condition of amenity trees and reveal sites particularly
suitable for future tree-planting. The survey is also intended
to include trees in hedgerows. shelter belts. groups of trees
and small woodlands (up to I hectare or 2L acres) and will
provide information for the assistance of the local authority,
farmers, foresters and conservationists.

All trees in the area should be classified,
identified and recorded on maps and specially
prepared record sheets. Maps should be
Ordnance Survey, scale 1:2,500 and the area
may be sub-divided according to the squares on
the map, groups of squares becoming the
responsibility of a couple of volunteers.

T Single trees should be drawn as a dot with a circle around
beside which should be placed the code letter 'T' with
appropriate number (e.g. TI, T2, etc.). Make sure the dot
is accurately positioned.
A Areas or linear belts of trees and hedges with significant
trees (too many to list singly). These should be shown on
the map by dots outlining the area with the code letter 'A'
alongside with the appropriate number.

G Groups of trees should be shown by a surrounding
broken line with the code letter 'G' and appropriate
number alongside.
W Woods. As many species as possible should be named.
Outline the area and label with the code letter 'W' with
the appropriate number.
H Hedges without trees. These should merely be marked on
the map with a pecked (vvww) line.
See the map for examples of the above.

Each recording sheet should be laid out as shown with the
following details:
Code letter and tree number
Tree species
Approx. height
Circumference at breast height
For the purpose of the survey, trees are divided into three
simple categories: A. B, or C.
A = Good specimens of individual or groups of trees, well
situated and enhancing their surroundings. These trees
must be healthy, well-shaped and showing no sign of
die-back or fungal infection. Rare species and trees of
special local or historical interest should be noted.
B = Normal specimens.
C = Poor specimens, e.g. mis-shapen, stunted or with
excessive dead wood.
D = Dead, dying or dangerous trees.
Name of Surveyor

O.S. Map No. (and Grid letters and nos, where given)

Date of surveN

Copies of leaflets containing the above instructions are available from The Tree Council, Room C10/13,
2 Marsham Street. London. SWIP 3EB or from the Civic Trust for the North West at 4p per copy, post
f'.- r. n f 1r I n, ;"- -* r ,1 r ,,, 'r s'nr vrv ^ ; I'.., ', 1 r- !',- 1,-_ i -f" f") -1 T in,

Tree Species Approx. erence at Category Comments
No. height breast

T4 Oak 50 ft 8 ft A Beautifully shaped, well
known landmark
1 5 Horse Chestnut 0 ft 9 ft C Excessive dead wood; poor
leafing. Large cavity at 20 ft
I 6 Elm 70 ft 8 ft D Almost dead

A 10 Hazel hedge 40 ft 4 ft B Some promising young
sith Ash. Oak max av Oaks
Yew trees
A I I ditto ditto ditto B Yews becoming dominant

G I Beech 60 ft 8 ft A/C II mature Beeches; 6 of
av them in poor condition

inventories from which the federal register receives

nominations. Examples of each type of nomination form are

included. Historic American Building Survey and Historic

American Engineering Record provide detailed graphic and

written data on architectural and historical sites.

As a requisite from the federal level, state pre-

servation officers have been charged with the state's

inventory system and development of its preservation plan.

The process entails a survey of all prospective cultural

properties within state boundaries. The localities

within the state aid in the research and development of

surveys through their own local survey and inventory

process. From this data the state historic preservation

plan is determined. In addition to developing an adjunct

tool to local planning, the local survey promotes state-

wide consideration of future growth and conservation of

important state amenities.

The local inventory will entail the design of

"inventory data sheets" which are to record the data found

in the field and provide for the professional evaluation

of structures on assigned scale guided by the scope and

purpose of the undertaking.

The inventory form should be easily read and

understood by a neighborhood volunteer who is seeking to

aid in the survey. Generally, the urban area will be

divided into manageable sections for volunteer and

planning professionals to canvas each neighborhood,

street and building. It is important to pair volunteer

with an experienced district surveyor, one of which

should be experienced in photography. Their participation

in form completion can be divided into the two main

divisions of the inventory. The two areas records

the legal, technical, and historical data and the

physical architectural evaluation.

The legal and technical information takes the form

of street name, location in city records, past and present

ownership, date of construction, and site description.

This information is important to deed and document research.

The historical data collected will entail past and present

usage and the structure's associative national, state or

local significance.

The physical architectural evaluation describes the

building's materials and notable elements. A location map


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Inventory Areas

bompa Urban Center..


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15 I1 8 5 2:,

Phase 1 sections

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on which the structure in question can be marked and

photographs for visual identification are also included.

To further explain the technique of survey work

several forms are illustrated with a detailed explanation

of the Hyde Park Inventory for Tampa, Florida.13 It is a

typical example of volunteer and professional canvasing

with the end result being zoning and planning amendments

for architectural and historical reasons.

1) Phase and Section.--The Hyde Park Inventory has

been divided into phases of work with each subdivided

into sections for identification and division of work


2) Street Name.--As an indication to the research

staff the location and structure in question the street

name, subdivision, block number, lot number and zoning

type are recorded. This will aid in deed research which

might reveal historical or architectural significance

not visually apparent.

3) Ownership.--The name and address of the present

and original owners as well as the source of such infor-

mation should be recorded. If owners are living they may

Subdivj ;on __ Block_ T.ot___ Zoning__



Roll #_ Neg. #.

Present owner_
Original owner:


size & dimension x
present condition:
excellent good fair
unaltered minor alt.
original site moved

/ _acres

deteriorated ruins
_maj. alt.

USAGE: present, original
entertainment _
multi-fam ily
private residence
vacant lot
major notable poor neighborhood

national__ state_ region_ local

shingle windows
clapboards doors
masonry dormers
combination appendages
other (specify) out buildings
decorative detail
Remarks and sources of information (Bibliography)


preparedd by: -....


OCATION MAP / Scale: 1:200




Typical houses surveyed in Tampa's Hyde Park.

provide vital information which may not be revealed in

initial research.

4) Date of Construction.--The date of construction

should be indicated along with the name of the architect

and the building if known. The architectural and

historical association of structures is a determinant in

the evaluation process.

5) Site Description.--This entry not only provides

the physical description but has an evaluation element

inherent in the category under present condition. A

visual survey by a trained person can discern whether a

structure is in excellent, good, fair, or deteriorated

condition, and if the structure has had major alterations.

6) Usage.--Original and present usage should be

indicated under the twelve categories. It is important

to note the change in use so that additional research can

be done to determine its original significance to the area.

7) Architectural Significance.--This evaluation can

be best done by an architect or planner versed in archi-

tectural history, taking into consideration the style and

period of construction and its significance nationally,

locally, or as an element within the neighborhood.

Another Tampa structure which
was sited in the survey.

8) Historical Significance.--Whether a structure or

site has been associated with major historical persons,

or periods of development on a national, state, regional,

or local level should be indicated here.

9) Building Materials.--Exterior evidence of con-

struction and its materials are indicated. Shingles may

be of wood or slate and can cover the roof or walls.

Clapboards are used as wall material and are historically

constructed of wood. Masonry includes brick of any color,

concrete, and stucco facades. The combination category

indicates more than one material is evident. The materials

should be indicated. "Other" materials indicate those

not covered in the above categories. They should be

specified in writing.

10) Notable Elements.--Dominant features and appendages

which are unique in design or construction, or elements

which give a unique appearance to the structure should be


11) Remarks and Sources of Information.--Anything of

major interest not listed in the other areas should be

indicated here. Any bibliographical information and

source material pertaining to the structure such as

locations of photographs, deeds and records that have been

used to complete the inventory form should be indicated.

12) Photo Data.--A good quality photograph of the

structure should be attached for visual field identification

and a check on whether any pertinent information may have

been overlooked. By keeping an account of where this

photograph is by roll number and negative number it will

insure retrieval for additional photographs. Pictures

should be taken from the major street elevation to include

all the building and its immediate surroundings. The

indication of camera angle will indicate to others the

direction in which the photo was taken.

13) Location Map.--A location map at a convenient and

legible scale should be produced on each form so that

the structure in question can be indicated. In the

demarcation phase an accurate location of buildings and

their significance can be charted from these maps.

14) Prepared by: and Date: .--To insure that

information can be clarified the name of the surveyor and

the date should be written in.

Typical Organization Pattern: Flow of Information and Responsibility

Architectural Preservation

Aid in establishing guidelines
of survey and training of team
members. Evaluation of survey
information and recommendations
as to further action.

Sponsoring Group
Survey Committee

Working with all
members of the sur-
vey team/directly
responsible for
relating information
to consultants and
making formal sub-
mission for district

Planning Commission

Aid in resource infor-
mation and advise on
planning considerations
which may affect the
area. To consult on
whether recommendations
are feasible

Area Inventory Coordinator

Team member responsible for
preliminary check to see that
all forms are properly com-
pleted and photographs included.

Survey Team

Two members per section/
responsible for 'in the field'
information gathering, com-
pleting forms and taking

Block Contact

(One member per block) Members of
neighborhood who can inform
neighborhood and introduce team
members to area residents.

Organizational Pattern: Flow of Information and

It is suggested that an organizational pattern be

established to distribute field work and information

gathering to as many volunteers as seems reasonable and

to distinguish the proper levels at which decision making

and evaluation can occur. Because of the broad scope of

this inventory large amounts of information must be

handled in an orderly manner to produce an accurate

product efficiently.

At the introduction to the inventory area probably

the most important link in the chain flow of information

is the Block Contact. This is a member of the block who

is sympathetic to the work of the volunteers and the pur-

poses of the survey. He or she should be someone who can

inform neighbors as to what the survey is attempting to

do and can aid survey team members if any problems arise.

In an effort such as this the neighborhood and the entire

area should be made aware of the work that is being done.

Radio, television and the newspapers should be employed if

at all possible to inform residents. Flyers in residents'

mail would alert the greatest segment of the area


The second link is the Survey Team. Two members of

the survey team should be assigned specific sections in

which they will work in the field to gather information.

Survey forms should be completed in the field (on the

site) as thoroughly as possible with aid from home owners

if available. The teams are also responsible for the

photography at this point. All information should be

completed prior to submission. If there are questions or

a lack of information available note on the form itself.

However, there should be a conscious effort made to

include all information requested.

The Area Inventory Coordinator is a member of the whole

team responsible for the preliminary checking of the

inventory forms to be sure that all information that is

available has been included. A check on photographs to see

that they have been taken and attached and that the photo-

graphic negatives are recorded and included. The

coordinator at this level should also begin to organize

inventory forms and other information into an orderly

format. The most commonly used is the three ring note-

book. All sections within the area should appear in this

form when the area survey is completed.

This material is then submitted to the Survey

Committee which should distribute copies to the con-

sultants for evaluation. The duty of the Survey

Committee is to initiate action and submit materials to

the proper authorities for their opinions as to the

worthiness of historic district consideration. The

ultimate responsibility for following up and initiating

further action rests with the entire committee.

This then establishes the order of responsibility

and information flow. It is a means of breaking down

into its component parts the work and coordination

necessary to complete the survey.

Two additional aids are the consultants who are out-

lined in the chart. Both a local authority and a pro-

fessional group versed in inventories previously

accomplished in the state are those that should be called

on at any point to aid in evaluation and recommendations.

Their input should not be sought after the survey has been

completed but at all times to insure a continuous flow

of information and understanding of what is being


The mapping of the results of these two surveys

is the visual accounting of an area's cultural and

architectural resources. The overlay of the information

compiled will produce the demarcation of areas worthy

of district recognition and protection. As the embodi-

ment of a majority of physical and aesthetic characteristics

these maps can provide a working document for local


The mapping of these resources provides a visual

tool for planning and zoning agencies. Rather than have

preservationist groups fall in front of the bulldozer each

time a building is ready for demolition the developer and

city council will be aware of what cultural resources

exist and which are threatened by public or private

development and which are deemed worthy of preservation.

This map, if accepted by the proper agencies with local

government can be the embodiment of legal criteria for the

development of townscape preservation.

Community Activity

Activism within a community and its neighborhoods

play a vital role in the success of any district desig-

nation. Whether a passively or actively involved group

inhabits an area determines if recognition and eventual

legal controls will be effective. The study of neigh-

borhood groupings by its level of organization is presently

under the scrutiny of Donald and Rachelle Warren, psycholo-

gists in urban research.14 Their findings on social groupings

reflect the amount of consciousness a neighborhood contains

and the roles which neighborhood groups play in self esteem

and self preservation. This can be directly equated to

the physical maintenance of a neighborhood and the willing-

ness of people to take an active part in the inventory and

survey process.

The results of the Warrens' findings are included in

the appendix as a useful guide to the type of people and

their reactions to architectural district demarcation (see

Appendix A). The "Community Leader's Handbook" is repro-

duced here with various approaches and their appropriate-

ness to spur activity in neighborhoods.

Have you thought about mobilizing your
neighborhood to accomplish something, but
don't know exactly where to begin? This
brief guide can help you diagnose your
neighborhood and select the best prescrip-
tion for effective action.

Our research has identified eight neigh-
borhood characteristics that are pivotal
for organizational action and change. We
have listed these characteristics in terms
of eight questions to ask yourself about
your own neighborhood.

We also have identified seven strategies
that are frequently used by successful
activists. These strategies are listed on
the chart and marked according to their
probable effectiveness.

To devise your own strategies, first
answer each question. Then, for each
'yes' answer, look across the list of
strategies to find which action would be
your best first step (+), which ones would
be your best follow-up actions ( ), and
which ones would be so costly in time or
money that it wouldn't make sense to use
them (no).

Now let's examine the choices:
1. Interaction.--If your neighbors are in
frequent contact with one another, the
most efficient first step is to try to
mobilize a few key neighbors. They will
quickly spread your message. Door-to-door
contact and media advertisements might work,
but they are costly or time-consuming.
Developing a new local group and setting up
a pipeline to city hall are useful follow-
up actions.

2. Heterogeneity.--If your neighbors'
lifestyles are many and various, it is
hard to find a suitable 'language' for a
newsletter or advertisement. Your neigh-
bors may misperceive your message. Door-
to-door, personal canvassing seems to be
the only effective first step, even though
it is time-consuming.

3. Identity.--Suppose your neighborhood
has little going for it except that people
like it and feel a certain sense of
identity. Publishing a newsletter can be
an effective starter. It can inform even
the newest resident about what is going on.
And once your neighbors find out, they may
readily help you with the follow-up steps.

4. Mutual Aid.--If neighbors are willing
to help each other but there is little
formal leadership, the best first step is
to get help from city hall. Your neigh-
borhood needs expertise. Neighbors may
develop leadership skills eventually, but
in the meantime having a pipeline to city
hall can be a good holding pattern.

5. Privatism.--If your neighbors put a
premium on privacy, it is difficult to
develop a base for collective action. Media
advertising is an effective first step,
followed by efforts to mobilize neigh-
borhood people through the community groups
they belong to.

6. Insulation.--A neighborhood that has
strong boundaries because of language,
ethnicity or other insulating factors often
has greater strength in resisting change than
in anticipating neighborhood problems. A
good first strategy is the personal




Taking Action

Publish' Conduct Advertise
News- Door-to-Door in Mass
letter Campaign Media


Use Set Up
Organization Form Grass- Pipeline to
Lists Roots Group City Hall

1 Interaction. During the year do people
in the neighborhood get together quite o -

2 Heterogeneity. Are there many people
of different backgrounds, lifestyles, or
social levels who live in the neigh-

3 Identity. Do people in the neighbor-
hood feel they have a great deal in

4 Mutual Aid. When someone has some-
thing on his mind that is bothering him,
are neighbors willing to help?

5 Privatism. Do people in the neighbor-
hood place more value on their family
privacy than on being in touch with

6 Insulation. If a bill collector came
around asking about a neighbor, would
people in your neighborhood refuse to
give out any information?

7 Connections. Do many people in the
neighborhood keep active in groups
outside the neighborhood?

8 Turnover. Are there many people who
move in and out of your neighborhood?


approach, door-to-door canvassing. Without
some initial icebreaking, you may find that
your actions will meet with stiff resistance,
particularly if you are not a long-time

7. Connections.--If your neighbors have
many ties to outside groups, your first task
is to reach them through these groups. This
approach is often more effective than pub-
lishing a newsletter or advertising in the
media. Setting up a pipeline to city hall
could be redundant, since your neighbors
probably have connections there already.

8. Turnover.--In a neighborhood where resi-
dents move in and out frequently, the would-
be activist has overwhelming problems. A good
initial tactic is to publish a newsletter to
let newcomers have some idea of what is going
on and to remind long-time residents that the
neighborhood does have some community. Setting
up a grassroots group comprised of newcomers
and oldtimers is a good follow-up tactic.


The implementation of an architectural district in

terms of its legal authority is determined by the local

governing body or in some instances the state legis-

lature as is the case in Massachusetts. Architectural

zoning in an area designated significant by the inventory

and survey process can be secured if the residents and

businessmen approve. This is a long and difficult aspect

of the designation of a district. It must be approved as

any limitation on buildings and properties such as height,

volume, use, and setbacks are administered today. The

architectural district attempts to carry the "attention

to detail" further in its establishment of additional

regulations and special zones.

Legal Means to Townscape Preservation

Architectural zoning law as historic zoning law

differs from that already being enforced in that it

"demands conformity to a norm set by the ... architecture

within specified boundaries in the community ..."1

Zoning changes and the establishment of new types of

zoning require a great deal of prodding and guidance from

those interested in the preservation of the community. An

item which may complement the findings of the survey team

is the presentation of modal zoning ordinances for the

maintenance of areas. Charleston, South Carolina has one

of the oldest zoning ordinances and should be of particular


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