Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 The earliest years
 Dr. A. S. Baldwin
 Jacksonville in the 1840’s
 First epidemics in Jacksonvill...
 1854 -- a year of hardship
 The yellow fever epidemic...
 Jacksonville physicians of the...
 The war between the states
 The post-war period
 Wretchedness - growth - progre...
 Duval county and St. Luke’s...
 Jacksonville physicians of the...
 Yellow fever in Fernandina
 Yellow fever in Jacksonville in...
 Sanitation problems
 Water works and sewer system
 The smallpox epidemic of 1883
 Florida University Medical...
 The yellow fever epidemic...
 Founding of the State Board of...

Group Title: century of medicine in Jacksonville and Duval County
Title: A century of medicine in Jacksonville and Duval County
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00103093/00001
 Material Information
Title: A century of medicine in Jacksonville and Duval County
Physical Description: xii, 201 p. : ill., ports. ;
Language: English
Creator: Merritt, Webster, 1906-
Publisher: Univ. of Florida Press
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1949
Subjects / Keywords: Medicine -- Florida   ( mesh )
Medicine -- Florida -- Duval County   ( lcsh )
Medicine -- Florida -- Jacksonville   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 187-195.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00103093
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01454062
lccn - 49005498

Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
    List of Illustrations
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
    The earliest years
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Dr. A. S. Baldwin
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Jacksonville in the 1840’s
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    First epidemics in Jacksonville
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    1854 -- a year of hardship
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    The yellow fever epidemic of 1857
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Jacksonville physicians of the 1850’s
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    The war between the states
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    The post-war period
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Wretchedness - growth - progress
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Duval county and St. Luke’s hospitals
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Jacksonville physicians of the 1870’s
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Yellow fever in Fernandina
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Yellow fever in Jacksonville in 1877
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    Sanitation problems
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    Water works and sewer system
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    The smallpox epidemic of 1883
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
    Florida University Medical School
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
    The yellow fever epidemic of 1888
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
    Founding of the State Board of Health
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
Full Text

A Century of Medicine


A Soldier of the Revolution

DId L i G %eEP.
-.2th Deor ~V
It7 'ear

Dr. James Hall's gravestone in Plummer's Cove
near Mandarin, Florida



Jacksonville and Duval County






To Elise


IN 1901, Jacksonville experienced a fire which destroyed
all the records of the Duval County Medical Society and
those of the Florida Medical Association as well. This dis-
aster left Jacksonville in particular and Florida in general
with a meager knowledge of the medical history of the city,
county, and state prior to that time.
The author's interest in the medical history of north-
east Florida began in 1936 when he settled in Jacksonville
to practice medicine. The dearth of records owing to the
fire of 1901 whetted this interest into genuine enthusiasm,
and the fact that his great-grandfather practiced medicine
in Jacksonville during the last quarter of the nineteenth
century was an added stimulus.
Working under the friendly guidance of the late Mr.
T. Frederick Davis, outstanding historian of Jacksonville,
the author in 1944 began his quest for source material.
The task of collecting and assembling the material and
of constructing the record has been fascinating, never
laborious. His highest hope is that all details of the work,
by the test of time, will prove to be accurate and that the
story itself will appeal to all types of readers.
It is not possible to thank the many persons who have
contributed to the collecting and assembling of the source
material. In addition to Mr. Davis, notable among those


who have made important contributions and to whom the
author extends his cordial thanks are: Dr. Edward Jelks,
Mr. Julien C. Yonge, Dr. Stewart G. Thompson, Dr. Mark
F. Boyd, Dr. Rembert W. Patrick, Dr. R. H. McGinnis,
Dr. Shaler Richardson, Mr. Richard P. Daniel, Mr. Her-
bert Lamson, Miss Audrey Broward, Mrs. Gladys Derrick,
Mrs. Edith B. Hill, and Miss Sarah Spears. The author
is also indebted to the librarians and the personnel of the
following libraries: the Jacksonville Public Library, the
Florida State Library, the Library of Congress, the Library
of the Florida Historical Society, the Library of the Flor-
ida Medical Association, the Library of the Jacksonville
Historical Society, the Library of the State Board of
Health, the P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History at the
University of Florida, and the Surgeon General's Office
Jacksonville, Florida
May 1, 1949



1 The Earliest Years 1
2 Dr. A. S. Baldwin 10
3 Jacksonville in the 1840's 17
4 First Epidemics in Jacksonville 25
5 1854-A Year of Hardship 30
6 The Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1857 37
7 Jacksonville Physicians of the 1850's 42
8 The War Between the States 50
9 The Post-War Period 63
10 Wretchedness-Growth-Progress 70
11 Duval County and St. Luke's Hospitals 79
12 Jacksonville Physicians of the 1870's 90
13 Yellow Fever in Fernandina 99
14 Yellow Fever in Jacksonville in 1877 108
15 Sanitation Problems 118
16 Water Works and Sewer System 124
17 The Smallpox Epidemic of 1883 131
18 Florida University Medical School 140
19 The Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1888 146
20 Founding of the State Board of Health 162



Pictorial Map of Jacksonville in 1847 . Front End Paper
Dr. James Hall's Gravestone . . . .. Frontispiece
Travel by Stage and Boat . . . . . . 7
Meteorological Table . . . . 13
Jacksonville's First Train . . . 14
Dr. A. S. Baldwin . . . . . . 16
Dr. Charles Byrne's Certificate . . . . .. 20
Dr. Charles Byrne . . . . . 21
Corner of Bay and Ocean Streets in 1842 . . .. 22
Near the Present Site of Riverside Viaduct in 1843 . 23
Dr. R. P. Daniel . . . . . .. 49
Dr. J. D. M itchell . . . . . . . . 57
Dr. E. T. Sabal . . . . . . 59
Confederate Paper Money . . . . . .. 60
Report of Smallpox Hospital . . . . .. 65
Signature of Dr. Holmes Steele . . . . .. 68
Dr. Baldwin's Home and Office . . . . .. 77
Duval County Hospital in 1915 . . . . .. 80
Duval County Hospital in 1915 . . . . .. 84
St. Luke's Hospital in 1888 . . . . . .. 86
Along the Border of the St. Johns River in 1881 . .. 92
Dr. Columbus Drew .............. 93
Home of Mr. Columbus Drew . . . . .. 94


Dr. A. W Knight . . . . . .

"Sacred to the Memory of Francis Preston Wellford, M.D." .

Dr. R. P. Daniel's Original Letter to the Mayor of Jacksonville

Frost-No Yellow Fever . . .

"Thomas McMurray, Proprietor." . .

Jacksonville Water Works in 1880 . .

Dr. Henry (Hy) Robinson . . .

Brooklyn Drug Store ........

Mr. Charles H. Jones ........

"The Reverend" John Kost . . .
Sub-Tropical Exposition . . . .

Grand Union Hotel ........

Sand Hills Hospital . . . .

Sand Hills Hospital-"Shotgun Quarantine"

Camp Perry ...........

Camp Perry Hospital . . . .

Fumigating the Jacksonville Mails . .

Camp Caroline ..........

Jacksonville During the Epidemic of 1888 .

Camp Mitchell ..........

Return of Yellow Fever Refugees . .

Dr. J. Y. Porter . . . .

Pictorial Map of Jacksonville in 1847

. . 115

. . 116

. . 125

. . 128

. . . 130

. . . 137

. . 141
. . 147

. . . 148

. . 150

. . 151

. . . 153

. . 154

. . 157

. . . 158

. . 159

. . . 160

. . 161

. . . 166

Back End Paper





A Century of Medicine

The Earliest Years


A T THE CLOSE of the eighteenth century, some one hundred and
fifty years ago, a young physician from New England settled in
Spanish Florida. He found on the St. Johns River near Cow Ford,
the point of crossing where the stream is narrowest, a wild and
rugged beauty not greatly different from that of today. This un-
usual beauty had been described in 1773 by the great botanist, Wil-
liam Bartram, as he sailed along the St. Johns:

In three days after leaving Amelia, we arrived at the Cow-ford, a
public ferry, over the St. Johns, about thirty miles above the bar ...
I crossed the river to a high promontory of wood-land, on the
west shore, and being struck with the magnificence of a venerable
grove of Live Oak, Palms and Laurel . stepped on shore to take
a view of the place. Orange trees were in full bloom, and filled the
air with fragrance. . .1

The young physician who elected to settle near Cow Ford was
Dr. James Hall, then in his thirties. In all likelihood he was the
first bona fide American physician to practice medicine in Florida
for an extended period of time.2* Born in Keene, New Hampshire,
on October 8, 1760, Dr. Hall had served his country during the
Revolutionary War4 as a sergeant in the Third Regiment, New
Hampshire Line. Many years later, he recalled some of his experi-
ences during the war and wrote of them to La Fayette when that
popular hero came to the United States for a visit:

*Dr. Hugh Rose, "practitioner of physick," settled at St. Johns Bluff in
December, 1782, having been banished from South Carolina following the
Revolutionary War because of his loyalty to Great Britain. He left Florida
about August, 1784.3


St. Johns, East Florida
October, 1824
General La Fayette-Sir, Your .. reception in the United States ...
[is] a just tribute . to your valor and merit . [and] to those
who have shared the . fatigues and dangers with you in the
field. At Monmouth I was in General Poor's Brigade, when we met
General Lee retreating before the army in some disorder. Gen.
Poor, with his brigade was ordered by Gen. Washington forward to
hold the British in play until he could form his army in order of
battle. Never were orders more perfectly obeyed, and we gave check
to the British Grenadiers led on by Sir Harry Clinton. . A moon-
light night saved him from destruction. In 1780, I was in Col.
Van Courtland's [Philip Van Cortlandt] Regiment, and Poor's
Brigade. ... In 1781, I was in Col. Alexander Scammell's Regiment,
who joined you, shortly before the siege of Yorktown, and was mor-
tally wounded; he was great in stature . greater in mind, and . .
lamented by Gen. Washington and all the army.
The 6th of October we intrenched . a little below Yorktown
near the British outposts, not far from Governor Nelson's brickhouse.
The 8th instant, we commenced a heavy firing on Lord Cornwallis.
All these circumstances must be fresh in your memory. . I hope
the next Congress of the United States will give you solid testimonies
of their gratitude . and that [you and] your family may spend
your days in a land that will love and honor you as long as the name
of Washington shall be remembered. . I am almost the only soli-
tary individual in East Florida that has had the honor of being under
your immediate command.
With all due respect,
I am your most,
Obedient and humble serv't,
James Hall5

Where and when Dr. Hall received his medical education, and ex-
actly when he moved to Florida is not known, but apparently he
arrived during the year 1798.6 Robert Pritchard,7 the first settler
on land which later became Jacksonville proper,8 had arrived a few
years earlier, in 1791.9 After four years he moved his family five
miles up the St. Johns to lands more protected from Indian attacks,
where he planned to farm and to breed cattle. In 1800 his petition
for seven hundred acres in the region known as Goodby's Lake was
granted,10 and in 1803 he was further granted sixteen thousand


acres on Julington Creek, where he planned to erect a mill.11 His
death about 1804, however, defeated his plans.12 Within the year
his thirty-six-year-old widow, Eleanor, was married to Dr. Hall.
During these early years this pioneer physician was active and
influential in affairs of the community and there is evidence that he
was interested in national affairs as well. There is record of his help-
ing a Revolutionary War veteran obtain a pension from the United
States government. His own pension was not obtained through the
usual channels; hence there is little information about him in the
office of the Bureau of Pensions.13
Information about Dr. Hall can be obtained by studying the
records of Spanish land grants. He testified repeatedly in behalf of
local persons before the board of commissioners for ascertaining
claims and titles to Spanish land grants in East Florida, and he and
his wife appeared many times to establish the claims of heirs to the
property of Robert Pritchard.14 Mrs. Hall is sometimes referred
to in the land-grant records as Eleanor Pritchard, at other times as
Eleanor Hall, and at still other times as Leonor Plummer, her maiden
name. James and Eleanor Hall made their home in Plummer's Cove
near the village of San Antonio, later known as Monroe, and finally
named Mandarin.
In 1810 Dr. Hall was banished from East Florida. Fourteen years
later he made an evasive report concerning that temporary banish-
ment. In a letter addressed to the editor of the East Florida Herald
he stated that, because he had been asked repeatedly by new ac-
quaintances in St. Augustine the cause for his banishment from
Florida, he was giving a "short answer" in order to prevent inquisi-
tive gentlemen from troubling him thereafter. He thereupon pro-
ceeded to make a statement which was not an answer to the queries,
and which was anything but short. He spoke of the reign of the
petty tyrants of the Spanish Government in the Territory of Florida,
called attention to the fact that in all revolutions the malice, envy,
and wickedness of petty tyrants fall on the great, the good, and the
wise, and observed that in all great convulsions of nature the moun-
tains and lofty trees of the forest suffer more than the little scrub.
At length he went on to cite the necessity for St. Thomas Becket to
flee for his life; the banishment of Henry, Duke of Hereford (later
Henry IV), by "the tyrant Richard the 2nd"; the banishment of
the dukes of Ormonde, Oxford, and Bolinbroke. He further stated


that "the great Duke of Marlborough . was disgraced by a set of
.. cowards who dared not shew their heads in the field of battle
at Blenheim."

He ended his communication with the modest little retort:

If you are not satisfied with these great characters you may add
that of your obedient humble servant of East Florida.
James Hall15

Then in an apparently semihumorous vein he added a postscript
which appeared to have a political angle and flavor.
Perhaps if Dr. Hall could rewrite his message today, he would
want to make a simple, straightforward statement which would give
the reason for his banishment from Florida and would permit the
reader to judge the facts for himself. His letter to the editor of the
Herald, however, is important for it at least permits us to glance at
Dr. Hall's educational background and to have a little better under-
standing of his personality.
During the first quarter of a century of residence in or near the
little settlement of Cow Ford, Dr. Hall practiced under Spanish Law,
for Florida was under the rule of Spain. The Floridas, East and
West, were ceded to the United States by Spain on February 22,
1819, by a treaty which was ratified exactly two years later, on
Washington's birthday.16 The county of Duval was created in Au-
gust, 1822,17 and just prior to that date, in June, the little village
of Cow Ford was surveyed,18 founded as a town, and named in
honor of General Andrew Jackson, the colorful provisional governor
of Florida.19

Jacksonville's first druggist apparently was a "Dr." Robertson. In
April, 1822, some two months before the little town was founded and
named Jacksonville, he bought sixty-four laths from a local concern
for which he agreed to pay approximately $10. Nearly eighteen
months later, he supplied the firm with drugs which were credited
to his account as follows:


2 lbs. salts
1 ounce Jalap
1 ounce rhubarb
4 phials Spirit of nitre
Small portion of laudanum
a large Phial of castor oil20

Other credits make it appear that these drugs had a market value
of somewhat less than $4.

The records of the Territory of Florida show that during the
earliest months of its existence the regulation of the practice of
medicine engaged the attention of the officials. On September 6,
1821, one of the last ordinances issued by General Jackson during
his brief tenure of office as governor conferred upon the Board of
Health of Pensacola full power to regulate the practice of medicine
and grant to physicians licenses to practice.21 Governor DuVal
and his "council of thirteen discreet and reputable citizens" in their
session of 1824 passed an act which required every person desirous
of practicing as a physician or surgeon in the territory to file within
the office of the clerk of the county court a diploma granted by some
college or university and a certificate of moral character, or in lieu
of a diploma, a certificate that the applicant had studied the science
of physic or surgery for a term of two years in a college or under
some reputable physician or surgeon. Any two judges of the county
court could then decide whether the applicant was qualified to prac-
tice medicine and could grant a license.22
In 1828 an act of the council created the first medical board of
the territory, whose duty it was to hold an examination at Tallahas-
see once each year "for the convenience of prospective physicians
and for the protection of the public." The board was made up of
fifteen members: three from St. Augustine, two from Key West,
three from Tallahassee, two from Gadsden County, three from Jack-
son County, and two from Pensacola. It may seem surprising that
not one of the board's fifteen members resided in Duval County;
however, this lack of representation is understandable when it is re-
called that in 1828 Dr. Hall was the only physician in Duval County
and that he was in his sixty-ninth year.


Jacksonville's growth was at first disappointingly slow. In 1830,
eight years after its founding, the estimated population was only
one hundred, but in 1832 the town received its charter of incorpor-
ation23 and began to show signs of life. During the next two or
three years its population doubled. On January 1, 1835, the Jack-
sonville Courier, the town's first newspaper, began publication24
and, with the exception of short suspensions,25 was published week-
ly until 1839,26 when it was replaced by the East Florida Advo-
cate.27 The various events and activities in Jacksonville were
chronicled in the Courier, one of the most notable of which was the
Fourth of July celebration in 1835. The patriotic mood of Jackson-
ville's citizens at that time, ten years before Florida was admitted
to the Union, is of particular interest. On Thursday, July 2, 1835,
the following editorial appeared:

INDEPENDENCE-The approaching Anniversary of our National
Independence, will be celebrated in this place on Saturday, next,
4th inst. . Arrangements have been made for a public dinner
. which will be provided at the Court-house. . We understand
that there has never been a public celebration of the kind, in this
place. We welcome this as a happy opportunity to invite the young
to attend and inquire into the causes of it. Although there have
been "changes of flags," we believe that fathers and mothers wish
their children to know that Liberty is dear, and they will be protect-
ed in all lawful efforts to sustain themselves, and prosper the country
in which they live. We are young as a Territory. Our resources,
like those of other Territories, are as yet in their infancy. The broad
field of public enterprise is comparatively untouched. The axe has
not yet made the forest of thousands of acres echo with cultivating
industry .... While our flag floats around us all should be free. . .

The celebration was impressive. A psalm was sung to the tune of
"Old Hundred," W. J. Mills, Esq., read the Declaration of Inde-
pendence, S. Eddy, Esq., sang the "Ode on Science with spirit and
taste," and John L. Doggett, Esq., delivered the oration of the eve-
ning in a "spirited and eloquent manner." Several visitors from St.
Augustine were present, and there was an abundance of food. At
the banquet there were thirteen regular toasts, one for each of the



TIIE Subscriber will run good Barouche
and good Horses from Jacksonville to
St. Augustine, once a week ; to leave this
place every Monday morning, and arrive in
St. Augustine on the evening ofthe same day.
Returning-will leave St. Augustine on
Wednesday morning, and arrive at this place
on the evening ofthe same day.
U(nForty pounds baggage will be allowed
to each passenger, and for any greater weight,
one cent per pound will be charged for every
ten miles.
te7 Fare each way $5.
Jacksonville, Feb. 2. 6tf


W ILL run once a week from Savannah
to Picolata, touching at Darien, St
1Mary's, and Jacksunuille.
l & W. KING,
Agents at Savannah.
Freight payable by shippers. All slave
passengers imust be cleared at the Custom-
Conveyances for St. Augustine, in readi-
ness at 1icolata.
July 1, 13.5.

Travel to and from Jacksonville, by stage and boat, in 1835

original states, and there were numerous volunteer toasts. A "cotil-
lion party" in the evening closed the ceremonies.28
The Seminole War, which began in 1835, produced more activity
in Jacksonville. There was a shift in trade from the interior part
of the territory, and the town became the gateway* for the transfer
of United States troops to the battlefront. Most of the troops came
from Georgia via King's Road to Jacksonville, where they embarked
on the St. Johns River for Fort King and other forts in the interior
of the state.
About 1836 a blockhouse of unique design was built on the
northeast corner of Ocean and Monroe streets, and residents of the
rural districts moved into the town for protection from the maraud-
ing Indians who were burning and pillaging the countryside. The
blockhouse, a one-room building constructed of logs, was perched
high above the ground on a small pedestal-like base. By means of
a ladder the townspeople could enter through a door in the floor of
the building, draw the ladder up, and close the door behind them.
Through portholes on all sides and in the floor of the blockhouse
the occupants could project rifles at many different angles, which
enabled them to protect themselves from attack and also to prevent
Indians from setting fire to the building from below.29
Jacksonville suffered in the financial panic and depression which

*Thus it will be seen that Jacksonville became the "gate city" to Florida
some one hundred and thirteen years ago.


began in 1837, but the Army surgeon who that year described Jack-
sonville as a miserable little place with sandy streets and a dozen
scattered houses30 was not given an entirely accurate picture of
the town.

Before any large clearings were made around Jacksonville and
before there was an influx of people, apparently there was little
sickness in this region.31 As early as 1833 the St. Johns River area
was recognized as a healthful locality in which to live. Some of the
most highly educated people of the time believed that if the settler
built near the St. Johns there was less danger of disease, and that
the air along the river was better in treating patients with pulmonary
disorders than was that of St. Augustine.32
Medicine during these early years was practiced in crude form.
In Florida there were not only self-appointed physicians who pre-
tended to be men of wisdom, but also many backwoodsters who
"physicked" folks. Most housewives knew how to administer such
drugs as castor oil, calomel, blue mass, rhubarb, and opium, as well
as how to prepare remedies gathered from herbs in the woods. Tur-
pentine, sulfur, spirits of niter, and paregoric, which also could be
found on nearly every plantation, were considered almost as essential
as clothing, cornmeal, and bacon.
When home remedies failed, the doctor was summoned. He
brought all medicines he thought necessary, and before leaving the
bedside gave particular directions for the administration of every
pill, powder, or liquid.
During the years 1829 to 1833, New Ross, a typical plantation
of that period, was located on the border of the St. Johns River
about four miles above Jacksonville. Of the happenings on the
plantation, Judge Farquhar Bethune, its owner, kept a comprehen-
sive account in his diary. On Friday, April 5, 1833, he wrote, "An-
drew sick." On Monday, April 8, he recorded, "Went to Jackson-
ville court [-] Andrew sick," and on the following day he added,
[-] at Jacksonville [-] returned before dinner with Dr. Hall
[-] had Andrew bled."33 This account of the treatment of one of
Judge Bethune's slaves in accordance with the medical custom of the
day is the first authentic record of the practice of medicine by a
physician residing in Duval County.


Dr. Hall died on December 25, 1837. His grave may be seen
today on private property in Plummer's Cove between Beauclerc
Road and Mandarin, about eleven miles from downtown Jackson-
ville. Miss Annie Locke, chairman of the Historic Spots Committee
of the Jacksonville Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution,
in 1924, was largely responsible for the discovery of his grave in that
year. The chapter engaged a caretaker to tend the plot, but the
caretaker became ill, the terrain of the land and nearby swamp
changed, and again the grave was lost. On August 3, 1944, it was
relocated by Mrs. Jessie R. Fritot and the author, and on August
24, after it had been restored, a photograph was taken (see frontis-
piece). The inscription on the gravestone reads:

In Memory of
James Hall, M.D.
A Soldier of the Revolution
Born in Keen, N. H.
8th of Oct. 1760
Died at La Grange, E. F.
25th Dec. 1837
Aged 77 Years.

Dr. Hall's death on Christmas Day in 1837 left Duval County
without medical attention worthy of the name. For nearly four dec-
ades he had been the only important representative of the medical
profession in the territory which he served. Fortunately, however,
just a little less than one year later, a young physician, then only
twenty-seven years of age, arrived with his bride to take up long
residence in Jacksonville. He was Dr. Abel Seymour Baldwin, des-
tined to become not only the town's greatest physician, but for
many years its most outstanding citizen.


Dr. A. S. Baldwin


A T THE TIME of the Seminole War three types of fever, described
as intermittent, remittent, and congestive,' were prevalent in Florida.
The congestive form was by far the most dreaded, but the remittent
form, usually called "bilious remittent fever," occurred with greatest
frequency. Apparently in most instances this fever was malaria.2
The treatment of malaria in those early days was far from satis-
factory. The old-fashioned "dose of bark and wine" was relied upon
to a considerable extent, for quinine was almost unknown in Florida
prior to the Seminole War.3 The lancet was used freely, just as Dr.
Hall had used it on Judge Bethune's slave, but unfortunately blood-
letting often exhausted the patients and retarded convalescence.
Frequently dropsy and an enlarged spleen, not to mention anemia,
were disturbing sequelae when malaria was treated by bleeding the
As quinine became better known, malaria became less formidable.
Dr. R. S. Holmes, an Army medical officer of the Seminole War,
wrote to the Surgeon General about the treatment of disease in
Florida, which he characterized as usually assuming a remittentt
form." He stated that when he first arrived in Florida in 1841 he
gave two grain doses of quinine, but after he himself had had an
attack of "congestive fever" that same year, he gave large doses,
sometimes as much as eighty grains, but usually about twenty grains
in a single dose.4
There has been much controversy over the question of who
deserves credit for first having used large doses of quinine in the
treatment of malaria. Surgeon General Thomas Lawson sent a
circular letter on August 14, 1843, to the medical officers of the
United States Army requesting a report on their experience with


the drug. After the replies were received, Assistant Surgeon Charles
McCormick of Fort Gamble, Jefferson County, Florida, popularly
was given credit because of his report for the quarter ending Septem-
ber 30, 1841. Careful study of the literature, however, reveals that
large doses of quinine were used before the Seminole War.5 As
early as 1825 Dr. Thomas Fearn in Alabama6 and Dr. Henry
Perrine,7 then living in Mississippi but later a resident of Florida,
were employing large doses of the drug in the treatment of malaria.
Surgeon General Lawson summed up his report as follows:

The medical statistics of the army in Florida during the war
would by no means afford a proper basis by which to judge the
healthiness or unhealthiness of that territory; nor would their colla-
tion do much more than prove that the troops suffered in an
extraordinary degree, from intermittent and remittent fevers, from
diarrhea and dysentery.
The prominent medical feature of that war was the introduction
into the army of the practice of giving quinine in large doses. ...
Without attempting to decide upon the originality of this practice
... it may with truth be said, that to the medical staff of the Army
[in Florida] belongs the credit of having demonstrated on an exten-
sive scale its safety and efficacy and of thereby having largely
contributed to revolutionize the treatment of fever in this country.8

Diseases other than malaria were prevalent in Florida during the
Seminole War. In 1836 measles and diarrhea were particularly
annoying at Garey's Ferry (Middleburg). Three years later there
was an epidemic of yellow fever in St. Augustine, and in 1841 there
was another epidemic throughout most of the state, particularly in
St. Joseph, Tallahassee, Pensacola, Tampa Bay, Indian Key, and
Key West.9 It appears, however, that no disease visited Duval
County in epidemic form until the turn of the mid-century.
Hookworm apparently was fairly common in this section and was
known as the dirt-eating disease. A physician of central Florida
described a patient with the disease in these words: "With head and
body large, limbs shrivelled and deformed, eyes dull and of a bilious
tinge, lips colorless and features distorted."10
The arrival of Dr. Abel Seymour Baldwin11 in Jacksonville at
about the midpoint of the Seminole War did not appear to be an
event of great importance at that time. From the vantage point of



today, however, it can be seen that had he gone elsewhere the history
of that section of the state might have been quite different.
Dr. Baldwin was born in Oswego County, New York, on March
18, 1811. Orphaned in infancy, he was adopted by an uncle in
Madison County, New York, where for some time he was taught by
private tutors. He was graduated from Geneva (now Hobart) College
in 1834 with the Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Arts degrees
and then studied medicine in the office of Dr. Thomas Spencer. Two
years later he received an appointment as botanist in the geologic
survey of Michigan, but exposure incident to camp life in that state
resulted in an acute attack of rheumatic fever, which made it
impossible for him to continue with the work. He returned to New
York, completed his medical studies, and received the degrees of
Master of Arts and Doctor of Medicine from Geneva College in 1838.
The climate in the North did not agree with him, he suffered recur-
rent attacks of rheumatic fever, and the following winter he departed
for Florida with his bride. He arrived in Jacksonville on December
2, 1838.
It became apparent almost immediately that this versatile new-
comer combined three qualities which were to make him unusual.
He was studious, scientific, and practical. Because of his training
in botany he was well versed in the life and growth of plants. He
did fine carving on ivory and wood and also played several musical
instruments. He became an active member of the St. Johns Episcopal
Church and for many years was the leader of its choir.
In 1839 Dr. Baldwin began to keep a record of thermometer
readings, to make careful observations of the weather, and to study
the climate which had restored him to health. In 1852 he became
official meteorologist for the Smithsonian Institute in Washington,
and in later years his records became, in large part, the basis for
studies of the climatology of Florida. Their publication did much
to attract great numbers of tourists to Florida each winter.
On professional visits up and down the St. Johns River he began
to observe the tides and currents and to study the bar at the mouth
of the river. He became convinced that the closing of the Fort
George Inlet would enable the waters of the St. Johns to flow into
the ocean with less obstruction and would force a channel deep
enough to allow the passage of larger vessels up the river to Jack-



sonville. At a public meeting in Jacksonville on August 2, 1852,
he was requested, by vote, to go to Washington, D. C., to secure
an appropriation for improvement of the bar.12 He obtained two
appropriations of $10,000 each, one for the bar and the other for
the lighthouse.13 After the initial success of his efforts to secure



1 83 S E 'Cloudy and Showery.
2 84 r2 e3 SW Clear.
3!:S4 !2 2 S W Thunder showers.
4! '4 .4 SW[ do. do.
5 ,i- z44 ; 7 .S E do. do.
4; 2'.4 S IE do. do.
7 : .-2 S E~ do. do.
r- t 4 4 2 S E'! do. do.
;) -'!15 2 S E" Showery.
n1) 12 (; 0 S W | Thtunder Showers.
1 4 K 0() S Elf do. do.
12 r|l 71 S E ,Cloudy and showers.
13 7i 4 76 S E ,Cloudy.
14 t2S80 75 S E Thunder shower.
15 76 79 7*2 S E JCloud, and showers.

HAS permanently located himself in'
Jacksonville Fr practising in the va-
rious departments of his profession.
Oece a few rods rorth of the Court-Hou.ie. '
1 After 9 o'clock at night, he may be )
found at Mhsm- A i.si'ess.
F'or imst encouragement. I r It lender; 1,o

the navigation facilities that were to become of inestimable impor-
tance to the development of the city, he continued to maintain
interest in the project, and many years later he was largely respon-
sible for the system of jetties at the mouth of the river.14
In the fall of 1852, while absent on his mission to Washington,
Dr. Baldwin was elected to represent Duval County in the state
legislature. From Tallahassee on January 21, 1853, he wrote a letter
to the editor of the Floridian and Journal championing the Florida,
Atlantic and Gulf Central Railroad. In so doing he took issue with
Governor Call, who had appealed to the citizens of middle Florida to



unite in promoting the construction of a railroad to connect the St.
Marks and Brunswick roads. Dr. Baldwin was convinced that this
route would shunt the trade of the state into Georgia.15 During
his first term in the legislature he secured a charter for the Florida,
Atlantic and Gulf Central Railroad with a proposed right of way
from Jacksonville to Pensacola. On September 1, at a meeting in
Tallahassee, Dr. Baldwin, Morris Kiel, A. A. Canova, Paran Moody,
J. P. Sanderson, D. S. Gardiner, F. C. Barreth, T. E. Buckman, and


Florida, Atlantic ,nd Gu.f Central
Leaves Jacksonville daily.(Sunday excepted )
at 8.30 P. M.. arriving at Lake City 12.30
A. M.
Leaves Lake City daily, (Sundays excepted.)
at 1.30 A. M., arriving at Jacksonville 5.30
A. M.
July 3. 1861.

Jacksonville's first train

John Roberts were elected directors of the railroad;16 and on
November 5, at a meeting in Jacksonville, Dr. Baldwin was elected
president of the directors.17
More than three years later, in March, 1857, ground was broken
for the road from Jacksonville to Alligator (Lake City), but an
epidemic of yellow fever in Jacksonville interfered with the work,
and there was delay. The railroad finally reached its destination on
March 13, 1860, and two days later the event was celebrated by
an excursion to Lake City, the name having been changed from
Alligator on January 15, 1859. At a barbecue there, Dr. Baldwin
and Dr. Holmes Steele addressed a large gathering. On March 21
a return excursion to Jacksonville was climaxed by a colorful cere-
mony staged at the Judson House, in which Miss Louisa Holland,



of Jacksonville, and Miss Kate Ives, of Lake City, mingled in
pitchers the waters of the St. Johns River and Lake De Soto.18 In
this auspicious manner was the Florida, Atlantic and Gulf Central
Railroad launched.
Soon after Florida seceded, Dr. Baldwin offered his services to
the Confederacy. He was made medical director for Florida and
was stationed at Lake City throughout the War Between the States.
Dr. Baldwin's two letter-books, a Medical Directory of Florida and
the book of the Chief Surgeon, District of East Florida, together with
his case book of the General Hospital at Lake City, are preserved
in the Confederate Museum in Richmond, Virginia.19
Because of Dr. Baldwin's participation in the struggle for Southern
independence, the United States Marshal in the District Court for
Northern Florida confiscated all of his property soon after he
returned to Jacksonville. Upon resuming the practice of medicine,
however, he re-established himself as a successful physician. A fire
soon destroyed part of "rotten row," a group of buildings on west
Bay Street which had degenerated into shanties. Dr. Baldwin repur-
chased his property in that region and, in 1868, prepared to build.20
A group of buildings on West Bay Street, known as the Palmetto
Block, which housed fourteen stores and many offices, was the
In 1874, at Dr. Baldwin's home and office located at that time
on Laura and Adams streets, the Florida Medical Association was
founded. Fittingly enough, he was elected to serve as its first
This beloved physician, ever the public servant as well, was
largely responsible for Jacksonville's excellent public water supply.
When eighty-five years of age, he was elected president of the
Jacksonville Board of Trade. He apparently had no mercenary
interest whatever. Public spirited in the truest sense of the word,
he seemed always to strive for the good of his adopted city, never
for pecuniary gain. The magnificent oak trees that made Jackson-
ville famous for its beauty in his declining years were a tribute to
his foresight, for in 1850, nearly half a century before, he, with
General Thomas Ledwith, had supervised their planting.23 Unfor-
tunately, they survived him but a short time, for nearly all of them
were destroyed by the disastrous fire of 1901.



For six decades, almost to a day, Dr. Baldwin led the vanguard
of progress in Jacksonville. At the time of his death on December
8, 1898, in his eighty-eighth year, he was the city's most distinguished

Dr. A. S. Baldwin


Jacksonville in the 1840's


IN ADDITION to Dr. Hall and Dr. Baldwin, another outstanding
physician settled in Duval County prior to 1840. He was Dr. Henry
Drayton Holland,' a typical gentleman of the era and a planter as
well as a physician, who was born in Charleston, South Carolina, in
1806. He learned to walk under the guidance of a remarkable
Negro woman named Dolly. In 1810, when her age was believed to
be seventy-three, Dr. Holland's father presented Dolly with her
freedom papers because of long and faithful service. She continued
nevertheless to serve the family through the years, survived the loss
of the father and mother, and, in addition, eight brothers and seven
sisters of Dr. Holland. In 1850, when her age was asserted to be
one hundred and thirteen, she was acting as a servant in Dr.
Holland's home and was well known for her ability as a cook and
her clearness of thought. Dolly vowed that she could remember
clearly the exploits of Colonel Washington, the defeat of General
Braddock, and the capture of Ticonderoga.2
Dr. Holland was graduated from the Medical College of the State
of South Carolina in 18303 and moved to Camden County, Georgia,
near Brunswick, where in 1831 he married Miss Ann Berrie. In late
January, 1836, Dr. Holland, surgeon for a group of thirty mounted
volunteers from Camden and Glynn counties in Georgia, came to
Jacksonville en route to join the "Richmond Blues" of Augusta,
Georgia, in their march to Fort King in central Florida (now Ocala).4
The public mind had been aroused by Dade's massacre of December
28, 1835, and General Duncan L. Clinch, Commander of the United
States forces in Florida, had been authorized to call for and accept
troops from the adjoining states. When General Clinch became
discouraged with the state of affairs in Florida and retired in the


summer of 1836,5 apparently Dr. Holland withdrew from the fight-
ing, returned to Duval County, and settled at Mulberry Grove, now
Black Point on the St. Johns River, about seven miles south of
Jacksonville, and the present site of the Jacksonville Naval Air
Station.6 Sometime between the years 1842 and 1845 he moved
to downtown Jacksonville and began the practice of medicine.
Like his distinguished colleague, Dr. Baldwin, Dr. Holland found
time to take an active part in community affairs, and it soon became
apparent that he was a public-spirited citizen as well as a good
physician. In 1846, as in 1835, Jacksonville and Duval County had
a gala Fourth-of-July celebration. The committee in charge of
arrangements was made up of prominent citizens, and Dr. Holland's
name headed the list.7 In 1852 Dr. Holland was elected intendant
(mayor) of Jacksonville and thus became the first physician to serve
as the town's chief executive.8 Under his able leadership an
ordinance was passed to prevent the spread of contagious or infec-
tious diseases, a board of health was organized,9 and Jacksonville
was guided safely through an epidemic of smallpox10 which at first
was the cause of much fear.11 During the late eighteen-fifties Dr.
Holland's health failed, and he died prematurely in 1860.

An early Jacksonville physician who had a brief, but sensational
career was Dr. J. D. Pelot. On August 4, 1840 he offered "his
professional services to the citizens of Jacksonville and the inhabi-
tants of the vicinity."'12 He had been in Jacksonville prior to that,
for on March 2 of that year Dr. Baldwin announced that he had
"removed his office to the rooms recently occupied as such by Dr.
One night during the early eighteen-forties, Dr. Pelot and his
friend, a Mr. Babcock, were drinking and playing billiards together.
A controversy arose and soon one challenged the other to a duel.
Rifles were chosen as weapons at 100 paces, and they agreed that
the duel should be fought at Amelia Island. After ten days' practice
the principals met on a cold, raw day at the appointed place, with
Dr. Holland serving as Dr. Pelot's second. Each received his instruc-
tions, the paces were stepped off carefully, and at the word both
fired almost simultaneously. The ball from Mr. Babcock's rifle
supposedly entered Dr. Pelot's abdomen and severed his spine. He



died amidst excitement which shook the very foundations of the
little town. It was reported that Mr. Babcock moved to New Orleans
where, in grief, he literally drank himself to death.14

In 1848 another prominent physician, Dr. Charles Byrne,15 editor
and builder, settled in Jacksonville for the practice of medicine. Dr.
Byrne was born in Wicklow, Ireland, on April 18, 1798, but at the
age of thirteen he came to the United States with his family and
settled near Baltimore, where he received his undergraduate educa-
tion and his degree in medicine. He began the practice of medicine
in Baltimore and soon thereafter was married. A few years later his
wife died, leaving him with three small children. In 1838 he
moved to Florida and settled at St. Augustine.16 He was particularly
active as a physician there when that city was threatened with a
yellow fever epidemic in the fall of 1841.17 Several years later he
purchased a fine orange grove and farm beautifully situated on the
St. Johns River at the mouth of Julington Creek, about two miles
from the post office at Mandarin. For a few years he lived on the
plantation which he named Wicklow, but in 1848, having recognized
the advantages for development which Jacksonville offered, he began
the practice of medicine there and made the growing town his home.
He entered into partnership with Dr. Baldwin for the practice of
medicine-an association which was not terminated until his death
in 1853.18
Dr. Byrne had an active mind and was able to express himself
well. About 1851 he took over the editorial management of the
Florida News, which was the Democratic mouthpiece for East
Florida. Mr. Columbus Drew at that time was the editor of the
Florida Republican, which was strongly pro-Whig in sentiment.
Jacksonville thus had two of the best newspapers and two of the
best editors in the state, holding strongly divergent political views.
A spirited if not sensational political war ensued, but the editors
were both men of unusually good character, and their war was con-
ducted on a relatively high plane. It was said of Dr. Byrne that
although he was firm in the support of his convictions, there was a
vein of humor flowing through his discourse which was calculated to
dispel all feeling of bitterness and, on analysis, there was unmis-
takable evidence of a kind heart.


T i +" .. ..

r" Al C V--lt

70# Ilf
/ 7, ,,, ,I 40 /1a/'|/n,

If 1/..* 0_o t
-Orn.off fI dft t, A
.... ""- '+- +- "

Dr. Charles Byrne's certificate of attendance at the University of
Maryland, signed by the dean of the Faculty of
Physick, February 18, 1825
,y./, ,.,:;,,,,, //+ .. ,// / / / ,,.;,,,.. ./ ,.. +,,/ / s -'^,,, .

///? /"'" /// ...... !.... ';". "" /f ,,''t y* < /'-i'>'/ <^<. t-....,, ,, ^ ,

",", +. t .^ ../.^. <. ." .7 +'',- ... ^ ^ .,4.^ ^ <-.,,,".... .":+,,,,,+".<,. 4.,

Dr. Charles Byrne's certificate of attendance at the University of
Maryland, signed by the dean of the Faculty of
Physick, February 18, 1825


Photo of the original Sully portrait owned by
Mrs. Austin McDonnell, Warrenton, Virginia

Dr. Charles Byrne
In the early eighteen-fifties he built a fine block of stores, known
as the Byrne Building, on Bay Street, between Market and Newnan
streets in downtown Jacksonville.
On March 1, 1853, Dr. Byrne boarded the steamer Carolina for
a trip North. He was said to have been in robust health and to have
shown his usual buoyant spirit. After a few hours he became sea-
sick, began to retch, and died suddenly of a cerebral hemorrhage.
His body was taken to Charleston, where services were held, and then
was brought back to Jacksonville for burial on March 8. On March
10, 1853, Mr. Columbus Drew wrote: "Dr. Byrne was a man of
generous feeling and social disposition. He was valued as one of the
best medical practitioners in this part of the state. He had conducted
the editorial department of the News for a year or two past and
showed unusual vigor and ability as a writer."'19



Corner of Bay and Ocean streets in 1842

It is fascinating to visualize the Jacksonville of a century ago
when Florida was admitted to the Union, and to examine some of
the more interesting aspects of its physical makeup at that time. On
Bay Street along the river front in 1842 were one store, one com-
mission house, and three residences: Dr. Baldwin's cottage, the
"Taylor House," occupied by "Colonel" Hart, and Captain Willey's
house.20 Dr. Baldwin's home, in which he had his office, was located
on the north side of Bay Street just west of Pine (now Main). His
property bordering on Pine was a garden consisting of low ground,
much in need of drainage. Actually the river marsh extended up
Pine as far as Forsyth, where a bridge or causeway was built across
its border. North of this point Pine was impassable-a quagmire
which could not be crossed until Duval Street was reached. At the
intersection of Pine and Duval streets a bridge consisting of "dune
sands" blown there at some remote period closed the natural outlet
of a small body of water on the north side, familiarly referred to as
"the pond." In 1847 Dr. Baldwin persuaded the city council to
have a ditch dug from the pond through the dune sand along Pine
Street to the river marsh. To the surprise of many, the pond, which



IT- T--

Near the present site of the Riverside Viaduct not far from the
intersection of Bay and Broad streets
The region as it appeared in 1843

had hitherto been considered a permanent body of water, was drained
and soon became covered with a luxuriant growth of grass which
made fine pasture for cattle.21
There were other signs of increased activity in Jacksonville during
that year. In May, 1847, the editor of the News wrote:

The advantages possessed by this place in its convenient situation,
its healthiness, and its climate seem to have produced their natural
effect .... Many buildings . have been erected and many improve-
ments . [made] for the convenience and beauty of the Town . .
[giving] evidence of . future rapid growth. Many . strangers
from the North who visited us last winter have avowed their intention
to return and make this their place of permanent residence. . The
rapid settlement of Florida has produced a corresponding effect in
increasing the business of Jacksonville.22

An incident graphically portraying life in Jacksonville at mid-
century is related in a letter written Christmas Day in 1849 by
William J. L'Engle, then a boy of seventeen, who later was to study
medicine and to practice for a short time in Jacksonville. He regaled
his Aunt Leonis with this Christmas Eve scene:



My head is full of a little incident that befell me last night.
I can think of nothing else so I must tell it to you. While returning
from Mr. Bryant's in company with Mr. Drew, where we had been
practicing the Anthems, for Christmas, we encountered, what do you
think? A huge black bear just at Mr. Reed's corner, as we turned
to cross the bridge, at the causeway [Main and Forsyth]. I was not
ten feet from the fellow's nose. I happened to be walking with
Father's sword cane and I drew it and pursued him, but Master
Bruin was too quick for me. He took to his heels, down the side
walk and ran up against Cyrus Bisbee . and scared him half to
death. We followed him until he got into the bushes back of town.23


First Epidemics in Jacksonville


A T MID-CENTURY, Jacksonville was known as a resort for invalid
tourists. On December 25, 1849, William J. L'Engle wrote: ".
There are more invalids in town this winter than there ever has
been. All the boarding houses are full and several private families
have prepared rooms to take a few. . There are no less than nine
houses going up . and the value of real estate is increasing.",1
During the winter of 1849-50 nearly two hundred tourists could find
no accommodations in the town.2

Early in the summer of 1850, Jacksonville experienced its first
epidemic of disease. Familiarly referred to as bone,3 bone-ache,4
broken-bone,5 and bilious fever,6 the disease was in reality dengue
fever and was characterized by severe aching and prostration of
several days' duration. So extensive was the epidemic that in many
families every grown person was in bed at the same time; business
transactions were paralyzed temporarily, and industry suffered. The
editor of the Florida News on August 24 wrote: "Owing to an
epidemic form of bilious fever, familiarly termed the 'bone-ache
fever,' from which hardly anyone in town has escaped, the effective
force of our office force has been reduced to one apprentice. . ."7
One week later he stated that the apprentice also had contracted the
fever and that compositors from the Florida Republican, furnished
by Mr. Columbus Drew, worked at night in order to issue the News.8
The epidemic reached its height in August and ended in late Septem-
ber. Richard P. Daniel, then a medical student at the University
of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, and later a practitioner in Jack-
sonville, made a study of the epidemic before returning to school for


his senior year, and in 1851 his graduation thesis was entitled
"Dengue As It Appeared in Jacksonville in 1850."*
In later years Dr. Daniel wrote that the disease was characterized
by high fever accompanied by severe aching pains in the limbs and
joints, that a rash appeared several days after the onset of the illness,
that the skin began to peel several days after the rash appeared, that
the actual duration of the illness was short, and that recovery was
slow and out of proportion to the short duration of the acute symp-
toms.10 Although the disease prostrated its victims, it caused no

During the summer and fall months of the early eighteen-fifties,
there was another type of fever in Jacksonville and Duval County
which members of the medical profession described as being intermit-
tent, open and active, rarely formidable, and scarcely ever congestive.
Most of this fever doubtless was malaria. Some of the physicians of
that day observed that among persons living near the river there was
a high incidence of the fever, while among those living along the
seacoast or within the salt marshes of the county the incidence was
low. It was believed that a wet summer followed by a dry fall was
apt to affect the river level, bring about exposure and decay of the
river grass, and cause more fever.12
As has been stated, Dr. H. D. Holland, in 1852, became the first
physician to serve as mayor of Jacksonville. He was elected on May
31 of that year to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Mr.
Oliver Wood.13 Mr. Columbus Drew wrote in the Florida Republican
of June 3: "In the choice of Dr. Holland the corporation has secured
that which, in our transition from a quiet little village to a busy
center of population and commerce, is so much required in its chief
executive-a combination of the qualities of firmness, impartiality
and public spirit."'14
Dr. Holland and the city council went to work immediately. On

*The University of Pennsylvania has preserved in its library the theses of
thousands of its early graduates, but that of Dr. Daniel unfortunately has been
lost or mislaid. These old manuscripts are in the process of being reviewed,
reclassified, and filed, and it is hoped that the thesis on dengue fever as it
appeared in Jacksonville at that early date will be found.9



June 3 they passed an ordinance to prevent the importation and
spread of contagious or infectious diseases. The ordinance was
divided into seven sections and provided: that it would be unlawful
for any captain, mate, or pilot to bring into Jacksonville any person
suffering with cholera, yellow fever, or smallpox under a penalty
fine of $20 or five days' imprisonment for each person so brought
and for every day each person remained within the town; that on
approaching the town every vessel with a sick person on board would
be required to stop outside the limits of the town and hoist a signal
for a physician; that the port physician or health officer would be
required to report to the intendant; and that the port physician
would be paid $10 for the first visit and $5 for each subsequent
visit to a ship.15
A board of health was created at a meeting of the town council on
June 18. On motion of Mr. Samuel Buffington that the intendant
[Dr. Holland] appoint a board of health for the ensuing year, the
following were duly appointed:

For the upper ward, west of Pine [Main] Street to corporation
limits Dr. A. S. Baldwin, George H. Smith, and Walter Kipp.
For the upper ward, west of Pine [Main] Street to corporation
Dr. Charles Byrne, George A. Turknett, Sr., and Morris Kiel.
For the Eastern and Lower Ward, from Market Street to Hogan's
Creek-Dr. J. S. Murdoch, J. E. Townsend and Joseph A. Barbee.16

At this same meeting, the new cemetery (now called the Old City
Cemetery, located on Union Street), which was a gift of Captain
Charles Willey to the town, was accepted with thanks, and Captain
Willey was offered a lot of his choice. On July 16 the cemetery
was named "Willey Cemetery. "17
On July 2 the committee for locating public wells selected the
lower end of Laura Street and urged that the wells be made available
as soon as possible.'s

This unusual concern about health and sanitary measures indi-
cated that there was disease in Jacksonville of undue proportion, but
not one word appeared in the local daily papers which would reveal
its nature. Since panic and disruption of business were likely to occur
when the general populace learned of an epidemic, local health



authorities and newspaper officials usually withheld sensational news
of this character. A current St. Augustine newspaper, however,
reported that smallpox was causing great excitement in Jacksonville,
that panic was rife among the people there, and that the town was
The manner in which the smallpox epidemic began is of consider-
able interest. In the reminiscences of several old citizens, recorded
by Mrs. W. M. Bostwick and furnished the author by Mr. T.
Frederick Davis, it is stated that a smallpox epidemic occurred in
1853, several years after the epidemic of broken-bone fever.20 There
is an error of one year in this date, but the circumstances of the
epidemic appear to be correct.*
Mr. J. W. Bryant, a prominent lawyer of the town, had gone to
Georgia on legal business and had been exposed to smallpox. Upon
his return to Jacksonville he was taken ill at the Buffington House,
where many friends visited him before the character of the disease
was recognized.21 Other patrons of the Buffington House soon
contracted the infection, sporadic cases appeared throughout the
town, and eventually the disease became fairly general among Negroes
as well as among the white population.22
On August 19 Dr. Byrne announced that he had received "a
supply of fresh, genuine vaccine matter from the Maryland Vaccine
Institute" and that he was prepared to vaccinate all who desired
it-the poor, free of charge.23 The epidemic was moderately se-
vere, and many of the afflicted were badly pitted, but judging by
the information available it would appear that the disease was
brought under control in a reasonable length of time.24 It is greatly
to Dr. Holland's credit and was decidedly to the advantage of the
town's residents that health measures were instituted promptly.
In April, 1853, Dr. Holland retired as intendant, and his place
was taken by the Reverend Mr. Isaac Swart, in some respects a
peculiar man, but one, nevertheless, who was active. Jacksonville's
first hospital, described later, was constructed under his direction.
On May 3 the city council passed an ordinance which provided for a

*It is gratifying to find that in most instances the reminiscences of these old
citizens are accurate and dependable. Mr. T. Frederick Davis in his evaluation
of their reports has presented as historical data only material that was agreed
upon by two or more old citizens. Without these data the historical knowledge
of early Jacksonville would be meager.



port physician, who was to be elected annually. Dr. Holland was
elected Jacksonville's first port physician, defeating Dr. W. J.
L'Engle, who had just begun the practice of medicine in Jackson-

The Florida Republican published on May 19, 1853, the following
significant notice: "The physicians of Duval County are requested to
meet in Jacksonville on Wednesday evening, next, the 25th inst. at
the office of Dr. L'Engle, for the purpose of organizing a county
medical association.'"26 The meeting was held on that date, an
association was formed, and it was named "Duval County Medical
Society." Dr. John S. Murdoch was elected the first president of
the society, Dr. W. J. L'Engle the first secretary, and Dr. Richard
P. Daniel the first treasurer.27 Dr. A. S. Baldwin,28 a charter
member, was largely responsible for the founding and organization
of the society.29 Drs. H. D. Holland and J. G. Dell were also charter
members.30 There were two important physicians in Jacksonville at
that time, Dr. J. D. Mitchell and Dr. D. C. Ambler, who probably
were not charter members of the society.
The Duval County Medical Society thus was born in the Republi-
can Building on Bay Street at the southwest corner of Market on
May 25, 1853. So far as the author has been able to determine,
there was no other county medical society in the state of Florida
until after the close of the War Between the States.*

*The Escambia County Medical Society, Florida's second, was founded
in 1873.31


1854- A Year of Hardship


IN 1853 Jacksonville was growing rapidly and was becoming a
prosperous little town. On June 23 Mr. Columbus Drew wrote:

In 1848 there was but one saw mill adjacent to the town. Now
there are no less than fourteen. . The demands of these for trans-
porting sawed lumber require some three hundred vessels a year. ...
Since 1850 the town has doubled in population and size also. . This
is the state of things without plank, rail or even good common roads
though a plank road for seventy miles westward is now under con-
struction. If the place has become this important despite disad-
vantages and without these aids what may it become when possessed
of them?I

In July the city council decided to remove the market house,
located at the foot of Ocean Street, and to build a new one.2 The
original house had been built for a meat market about 1840, but had
served as a market for both meat and fish after the original fish
market had been transformed into a jail.3 The Ocean Street market,
dirty, odorous, and insanitary, had become a liability to the health of
the community, and the butchers frequently were ill. The "market
committee" contracted with a Mr. Barbee to build a new market,4
and not long afterward the stalls were ready to be "let."5
In August the city council made no change in the Board of
Health except to appoint Dr. H. D. Holland to take charge of the
middle ward. He succeeded Dr. Charles Byrne, who had died on
March 1.6
On the last day of the year an editorial in the Florida News stated:
"The closing year has been one of peace, general prosperity and
plenty and it is hoped that the year 1854, at its close, will present


the same happy result. . ."7 Such was not to be the case, unfor-
tunately, for 1854 was to be a year of fire, sickness, and sorrow.

Late in March, scarlet fever became prevalent in Jacksonville.
There is a tradition that the disease was introduced by sailors from
a boat on which a member of the crew was sick. Little Ally Dell,
who was taken down to the boat yard by her nursemaid, is supposed
to have played with the sailors. A few days later she was taken
desperately ill and in late February died in the lap of Mrs. Mary
Turknett, who nursed her. A diagnosis of scarlet fever was not
made until her body was prepared for burial, and the skin was seen
to be peeling. The skirt which Mrs. Turknett wore when she
shrouded little Ally's body was not worn again until one month later,
whereupon scarlet fever broke out in her family.8 This tradition is
of interest, but in whatever manner the disease began, the Turknett
family received a devastating blow, for five sons, Elliot, Louis,
Charles, Robert, and Alex, died between April 2 and April 19. Four
died within three days,9 and two were buried from the same bier.10
The gravestones in the Old City Cemetery today are a witness to
this tragedy.
About the time that scarlet fever began to spread, an epidemic
of smallpox developed. While these two epidemics were in progress,
a huge fire broke out on April 5, which destroyed much of the town,
including both newspaper buildings." The Florida Republican got
out a special edition the following day and then did not publish
again until June 15, while the Florida News did not appear until
July 8.12 Consequently, there was little local news coverage during
that important period.
On April 23 a sensational letter, written in Jacksonville and later
published in a Tallahassee newspaper, stated that scarlet fever was
"still rife and doing its work of death"; that 49 cases of smallpox
and varioloid had been reported to the mayor by physicians on that
day; that the disease was scattered in every direction; and that
sanitary measures which were being advised were too late.13
Several weeks later, in mid-May, Mr. Columbus Drew and Dr.
Baldwin made statements which were published in the same Talla-
hassee newspaper which carried the sensational story. Mr. Drew,
after admitting that "several papers of the country" had mentioned



the remarkable fatality in one family due to scarlet fever, asserted
that the disease had "visited" only a few families and had not spread
to an alarming extent. Dr. Baldwin asserted at that time, May 15,
that there was no severe case of smallpox in town; that there were
perhaps ten or twelve cases of varioloid; and that the sensational
letter, in citing a specific number of persons involved, probably was
less than 10 per cent accurate.14
On June 15 the editor of the Florida Republican, in the first
paper issued following the fire, quoted "reports of physicians," to
show that there had not been more than twelve deaths from scarlet
fever and not more than fifteen deaths from smallpox. It was stated
that the diseases had assumed a prevailing form prior to April 10,
that on June 15 there was no scarlet fever and only one case of
smallpox, and that the patient with smallpox was confined to a hos-
pital in the outskirts of the town.15

This hospital, Jacksonville's first, was called the City Hospital.*
In the council chamber on July 18, 1854, the Reverend Isaac Swart
made the following report:

The Intendant to whom was entrusted the duty of purchasing a
lot and causing suitable buildings to be erected thereon for a City
Hospital respectfully begs leave to report: That he bought of Colonel
I. D. Hart, one lot for one hundred dollars to which he added
another by gift; a deed of both lots, five and six, in square ninety-
eight, is hereby presented to the council for its inspection. Upon
the North East corner of said square, bordering on Julia Street, he
has caused to be erected two buildings-one of which is fifty feet
long by twelve feet wide; the other twenty-two feet long by seventeen
feet wide with a chimney of brick.-It is hoped these buildings
will be sufficient for years to come. He submits for your examina-
tion and approval, the various accounts and vouchers for the expense
of this enterprise, amounting to $498.45.
I. Swart, Intendant.

Approval was expressed as follows:

*There was, however, a military hospital located in Jacksonville during
the early part of the Seminole War. That hospital, of which a Dr. Andrew
Welsh was in charge, was destroyed by fire on December 17, 1837.16



The special committee to whom was referred the report of the
Intendant begs leave to report that they have examined the same,
and find them correct and recommend their approval. They further
recommend that the thanks of this council be tendered his honor,
the Intendant, for the prompt and efficient manner in which he
has acted.
George W. Cole
S. N. Williams.17

When a severe epidemic of yellow fever broke out in Savannah,
Georgia, during the summer of 1854, the residents of Jacksonville,
having just suffered because of two contagious diseases which they
believed were brought to the town by travelers, determined to estab-
lish a strict quarantine against their neighboring city. Accordingly,
in late August the city council adopted an ordinance whereby pas-
sengers from Savannah were not permitted to come to Jacksonville
until a ten-day period had elapsed from the time of their leaving that
city. The ordinance further provided that the quarantine officer at
Dame's Point should board all Savannah steamers and inspect them.
None was to be allowed to proceed without a certificate from him.
Captain Shaw of the Gaston was served with a notice of the ordi-
nance, and a similar notice was mailed to Captain Nicholas King of
the Welaka.
On August 27 the Welaka arrived near Jacksonville with many
more passengers than usual, indicating that some were fleeing from
the epidemic in Savannah. After the gangplank had been lowered
and the passengers were preparing to come ashore, Mr. F. C. Barrett,
Jacksonville's intendant, inquired of Captain King if he had received
the notification of the town's quarantine regulation, and upon learn-
ing that he had, announced that the ordinance was in effect. Captain
King immediately ordered that the mail, which was then being
unloaded, be returned to the ship and stated that if no passengers
were allowed to debark, the city would receive no mail or freight
from his boat. There was an exchange of words, whereupon the
captain proceeded up the river. The Welaka was soon overtaken
by a small boat, and several passengers who were to have landed in
Jacksonville were brought back to town by friends. On the follow-
ing day these passengers were summoned before the intendant and



fined.18 One of the passengers, a prominent citizen, refused to pay
his fine and was placed in jail; but eventually he changed his mind
and was liberated. The editor of the Florida News wrote that it was
repugnant to have to take such extreme measures, but that it was the
verdict of the authorities, concurred in by the citizens, that the town
ordinance must be enforced.19
When the Welaka returned from Palatka that night and was
brought up to the wharf, the same orders were repeated. Again the
mail was withheld. The town marshal was ignored when he went
on board to serve a warrant for the arrest of Captain King for vio-
lating the quarantine. When the intendant went on board, the cap-
tain was said to have "applied violent and abusive epithets" in his
denunciation of the town authorities.
Accordingly, on the following night, August 29, in response to a
call posted on the streets, a large number of indignant citizens met
at the courthouse, and a committee of ten, consisting of Drs. A. S.
Baldwin, J. G. Dell, H. D. Holland, Messrs. Samuel Buffington,
W. K. Cole, Rodney Dorman, Samuel Fairbanks, Thomas Ledwith,
George Mooney, and Isaac Swart, found that Captain King had not
complied with the Jacksonville quarantine laws, and that his refusal
to deliver the mails was totally wrong and arbitrary. In view of
these conclusions the committee resolved, first, that the meeting ap-
proved of and would sustain the action of the town authorities, and
second, that they regarded the course pursued by Captain King in
not delivering the mails to be a flagrant outrage. It was further
resolved that the intendant be requested to write Captain King to
come to Jacksonville to answer for violation of the town's ordinances,
and that if the captain refused, the intendant was authorized to take
such legal steps as would bring him to a judicial account.
On September 3 the Welaka docked at Jacksonville, Captain King
presented a certificate of health from the quarantine officer at
Dame's Point, and, the quarantine time having been reduced, pas-
sengers who had not been in Savannah for five days were allowed to
debark. The mail, however, was withheld. When the ship returned
from Palatka on the following night, Captain King persisted in his
refusal to deliver the mail, stating that he was acting under instruc-
There was a widespread protest on the part of the townspeople.
Learning from the Charleston Mercury of August 30 that there were



ninety-two deaths in Savannah during the previous week and sixty-
seven deaths during the week prior to that, the town council deter-
mined to enforce the "five day quarantine."'21 Popular Captain
Charles Willey was sworn as a United States carrier, and mail for
Middleburg, Mandarin, and Magnolia was delivered on the steamer
Mount Pleasant.22
Upon determining that the boundaries of Jacksonville, fixed by
enactment of the legislative council in 1842, included the entire width
of the St. Johns River, and acting under authority of the town char-
ter which granted the council power to guard against the introduction
of infectious diseases by regulating the approach of vessels into the
waters of the town, the authorities forbade Captain King to bring his
vessel from Savannah up the St. Johns River past Jacksonville. Fore-
seeing that the captain would further disregard orders, the town coun-
cil requested the intendant to take forcible steps to prevent infraction
of the quarantine laws and regulations.
Volunteers were enrolled, and a company was formed to act as a
posse to aid the town officials. A battery, consisting of a "twenty-
four and a brass six-pounder," was installed on a bluff in an open
lot bordering on the river, between Foster and Stevens' mill and
Mooney and Gookins' foundry. The port physician was sent to
Dame's Point to warn Captain King that if he attempted to pass
Jacksonville in his ship he would be fired upon. Another messenger
was sent to Mayport to warn any passengers who might be on board.
Mr. Bisbee of "Bisbee and Canova," agents for the Welaka, went
down the river and urged the captain not to try to pass Jacksonville.
The captain's reply to the port physician was, "You have done your
duty, but I am bound for Palatka."
At eight o'clock on Sunday morning, September 17, the volunteers
assembled, established a military camp, planted sentries, and manned
their batteries. A lookout was posted on the dock to announce the
approach of a steamboat by discharging his musket.
The day passed quietly, but at sunset the report of the lookout's
musket was heard, and soon smoke from the approaching steamer
was visible. When it could be seen that the steamer was the Welaka,
the batteries were manned, and the port fires were lighted ready for
discharge. As the steamer came abreast of the battery, a blank cart-
ridge was fired to bring her to, but the boat continued on its way.
The guns then were shotted, and the volunteers began to fire upon



the ship in earnest; but it was growing dark and what damage was
done could not be accurately determined. That night it was report-
ed that the engineer had been wounded and that he had been carried
ashore to the residence of Dr. Ashurst near Phillips' Point.23
An extra edition of the Florida News was issued the next day, and
there was great excitement in the town. On that evening when she
returned from Palatka, the Welaka was not fired upon. A resident
of the town went out on the river in a small boat and learned that
one of the balls had struck the steamer, had passed through the
ladies' salon, and had wounded one of the stewards.24
The editor of the Savannah Georgian condemned Captain King
for his actions, but at the same time expressed the opinion that the
Jacksonville authorities had no right to close the St. Johns River to
the Savannah boats. In Palatka, however, an indignation meeting
was held by a group of citizens who expressed their views on what
they called an outrage committed against the steamer Welaka.25
Nevertheless, Captain King must have come to terms for Dr. E. S.
Gaillard, writing in the Charleston Medical Journal and Review of
September, 1855, commented:

This place [Jacksonville] is one of the great resorts among the
northerners in winter and it has so far sustained an untarnished
reputation. The authorities are, in their administration, orthodox
and strict contagionists, and during the summer of 1854, became
conspicuous in an open declaration and maintenance of their rela-
tive views.26



The Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1857


BETWEEN the eventful year of 1854 and the tragic year of 1857 the
health of the community apparently was good.
Physicians realized that a good water supply was important to
the health of the people, but no water works system had been con-
structed, and the means of supplying good drinking water in ad-
equate quantity was an unsolved problem. Public wells built at the
lower end of Laura Street at Bay, between the residences of Mr.
Kipp and Mr. Bisbee, supplemented privately owned wells and fur-
nished most of the drinking water for the townspeople.
In a few instances there were cisterns. Rain water taken from
cisterns was filtered through an unglazed, cone-shaped vessel set in
a frame, cone end down, and allowed to fall, a drop at a time, into
a smaller vessel underneath, called a monkey. This water was clear
and, when cold, was considered a luxury.1
Although Dr. John Gorrie, who lived in Apalachicola, had invent-
ed an artificial ice machine in 1850,2 artificial ice was not yet avail-
able in Florida for commercial purposes. Ice was brought to Jack-
sonville in sailing vessels from the North, but seldom could be ob-
tained. Soda fountains were almost unknown during that period.*
Lemonade and tamarind water were the principal soft drinks.
Tamarinds, a species of bean grown in the tropic islands, were placed
in a pitcher; hot water was poured over them and allowed to cool.
This decoction, to which no sugar was added, had a semiacid taste
and was considered healthful.4

*On April 21, 1840, a local paper announced that "Dr." M. S. Hyams had
constructed a soda fountain in Jacksonville. Apparently his business was not


The year 1857 will long be remembered as the year of the great
pestilence. The residents of Jacksonville frequently had encounter-
ed reverses during these early years, but never had they been called
upon to undergo the horrors that were to be their lot in the summer
and fall of 1857. During the early summer, which was hot, rainy,
and murky, "the pond" between Jacksonville and LaVilla, about
where Broad Street now is located, was first divested of its forest
and undergrowth, and the sun was allowed to shine upon the morass.
Excavation for a railroad was made from Bay Street west, and a
track was thrown up across the border of the partially drained little
body of water.5 In August, soon after this change, a malignant
grade of yellow fever broke out on the border of the pond and spread
along the span of McCoy's Creek, which was a dirty, stagnant little
stream of water flowing through a low, marshy area.
Dr. W. M. Bostwick, a prominent dentist in Jacksonville, remem-
bered in later years that the disease started at Mr. Nathan Vaught's
house, which stood on a bluff just east of the intersection of Bay
and Broad streets, and that it had been brought to Jacksonville by
Mr. Vaught on his return from a trip to St. Marys, Georgia,* where
an epidemic was raging.7 Dr. Bostwick's account probably is accu-
rate, but some medical authorities then and later believed that the
disease had originated in the soil that had been disturbed during the
summer. Until the true method of transmission of the disease
became known, people were cautioned not to "stir" the soil during
the summer months.8
After the Vaughts, the McFall family became afflicted, and then
the disease spread to the Currys, who lived close by on the banks
'of the creek. Residents of Jacksonville went out to this locality,
then well beyond the limits of the town, to nurse the sick.9 Soon
the contagion spread, and by August 24 it had assumed true epidemic
proportions.10 Most of the residents fled from Jacksonville, leaving
not more than five hundred persons in town. Grass grew up in the
deserted streets, the steamers would not dock, and Jacksonville was
isolated from the world. Except for one drugstore, there was an
entire suspension of business."1 This drugstore, founded in 1856
by Mr. E. P. Webster, was located at the corner of Bay and Ocean

*One authority believed later that the disease was brought to Jacksonville
by smugglers from Havana, Cuba.6



streets.12 Mr. Webster, affectionately called "Dr." Webster by the
people of Jacksonville, kept his store open throughout the epidemic
and furnished medicine and supplies free of charge to those who
were unable to pay. Physicians and members of the clergy, aided by
a few courageous citizens, remained to nurse the sick, to dispense
food and clothing, and to bury the dead.13
Some families suffered greatly. All twelve members of the Mott
family had the disease, and nearly all of them died. The Turk-
nett family, which had lost five sons in the scarlet fever epidemic of
1854, lost the father of the family and another son as the result of
yellow fever."1
The Reverend W. W. Bours, rector of the Episcopal Church and
one of Jacksonville's best-loved citizens, returned from his vacation
in New York in September as soon as he learned of the epidemic. On
the boat with Mr. Bours were Dr. and Mrs. Baldwin, who also had
been in New York during the summer. Mrs. Baldwin, who had
served as a helpmate and constant companion during Dr. Baldwin's
early years in Jacksonville, contracted the disease and died on
October 4.15 Mr. Bours visited the sick daily, became ill during his
ministrations, and succumbed on November 2.16
On October 26 there was an early frost17 which, it was hoped,
would bring the epidemic to an end, but these hopes were in vain.
In late November Mr. W. W. Moore, editor of the Florida Republi-
can, fled to Tallahassee and reported that "the sickness had not
abated in Jacksonville" and that "several of the leading citizens were
lying extremely low."18
The freeze of November 20 controlled the mosquitoes, and soon
the epidemic vanished. On December 7 Dr. J. D. Mitchell wrote to
the editor of the Florida News:

I am happy to inform you and your numerous patrons that the
Yellow Fever which has been prevailing here to an alarming degree
since August 24, has entirely disappeared. I would say to all who
have been staying away on account of the epidemic that our town
has never been in a more healthy condition than at the present time.
Absentees are returning and business which has for the last three
months been almost entirely suspended has put on a more cheerful
and lively appearance.19

It was reported that approximately six hundred persons in Jack-



sonville had the disease and that one hundred and twenty-seven
died.20 This high mortality rate, almost 20 per cent, was much
greater than that of yellow fever epidemics which were to occur later.
In Jacksonville, as in other cities of the South, facts relating to an
epidemic were concealed as long as possible, for many felt that it
was better to suppress the truth than produce a panic. Newspapers
refused to admit the presence of an epidemic until it was impossible
to ignore or deny it.21 Nevertheless, the inaccurate and misleading
editorials written during the epidemic by Mr. Joseph F. Rogero,
editor of the Florida News, are disconcerting. The tone of the edi-
torials indicates an intent to protect the business interests of the
town and to promote tourist trade rather than a desire to present
the facts.
In his issue of the Florida News of September 26, about one month
after the epidemic had assumed alarming proportions, Mr. Rogero

We have taken pains to make very general inquiry in reference
to the sickness in town. We have seen all the physicians and are
assured that our city and its environs are free from disease. Our
worthy mayor, C. C. Gibbs, has for the last ten days made daily
visits to all portions of the city and has added his endorsement to
the above. Our friends abroad may rest assured that the reports of
great mortality and sickness are fabulous. There is not now a serious
case of illness here. . 22

On October 10 Mr. Rogero stated:

Circumstances over which we have no control compel us to issue
the News this week short of matter. Our office has for the last
month been sorely afflicted by sickness. . There are a few alarm-
ists in our midst who seem determined at any cost to our town's
property to induce the belief both at home and abroad that we have
yellow fever among us. . The opinion of the united medical faculty
of the town and that of gentlemen familiar with the appearance of
the disease . permits us to say that there is not, nor has there been
a case of yellow fever in Jacksonville. .. .23

No issues of the Florida News are available after this date until
December 12, when Mr. Rogero, in an entirely different vein, ad-
mitted the truth:



After a suspension of a few weeks it affords us pleasure to once
again doff our beaver and make our generous patrons a very low
bow. Their indulgence is fully appreciated and we will endeavor in
the future to make them our accustomed weekly visits-and will
also make every effort to render ourselves more than entertaining-
Every vestige of the epidemic which has for two months raged with
such malignity and unabated fatality has at last disappeared. . .
During the past two weeks we have been in the enjoyment of delight-
ful spring-like weather. . The effect of this has not been as many
had feared, to cause the awful epidemic to rage in our midst again.
By none can such weather as we are now being blessed with be
more fully enjoyed than by those that are recovering from attacks of
the disease. Heaven grant that those who have passed through the
"fiery furnace" of the dreadful scourge may be fully restored to
their former state of health, and long live to inhale the genial and
balmy air with which they are at present being blessed. Jacksonville
is at present as healthy as it ever was. Our citizens who absented
themselves during the prevalence of the epidemic, have nearly all
returned and every northern steamer is bringing hither the health
seeking invalid as well as numerous other strangers whose missions
are either those of business or pleasure.24

Toward the end of December Mr. Rogero moved the Florida News
to Fernandina and in the first issue from there, early in February,
1858, wrote that it was difficult to collect his thoughts sufficiently
to get upon paper an editorial such as might be expected of him.
He reported the bracing sea breeze so exhilarating and the ring of
the hammer and trowel, the blowing of the steam whistles, and the
universal bustle so exciting that he thought Fernandina surely would
become in a few years the most important town in Florida.25



Jacksonville Physicians of the 1850's


THE LIVES of Jacksonville physicians who participated in the
medical activities of the eighteen-fifties are of much interest. Dr.
John Smith Murdoch,' the first president of the Duval County
Medical Society, was born in Frederick, Maryland, November 9,
1818. He was graduated from the Medical College of South Caro-
lina, March 30, 1839, and was awarded a medal for special profi-
ciency in obstetrics. Dr. Murdoch felt that this was a somewhat
doubtful honor, for obstetrics then was largely in the hands of mid-
wives, and to be known as an obstetrician was not a mark of dis-
tinction. He did not display the medal, but later, in his practice,
did stress proper care of the expectant mother and more adequate
attention at the time of delivery. His interest in this branch of
medicine made him a pioneer in Florida who helped raise obstetrics
to its rightful place as one of the important medical specialties.
In November, 1842, Dr. Murdoch married Miss Emma Wallace of
Columbia, South Carolina, where he lived until 1850. He did not
entirely approve of slavery; consequently he owned only a few
house servants. When he decided to move to Florida, he offered
freedom to each slave who wished to remain in Columbia. In Novem-
ber, 1850, he arrived in Jacksonville. Some time later he made his
home on the south side of Forsyth Street between Liberty and
On March 25, 1853, Dr. Murdoch was honored by being elected
the first president of the first county medical society in Florida.2
Although he had a flourishing practice, he had time to participate in
affairs of civic interest and importance. Among other activities, he
presided at a meeting of Jacksonville citizens to prepare a celebration
for July 4, 1853. Representative citizens attending the meeting were:


"C. Drew, Dr. J. G. Dell, Dr. H. D. Holland, A. A. Canova, S.
Buffington, J. A. Barbee, J. H. H. Bours, H. E. W. Clark, Dr.
William L'Engle and John Clark.'"3
Dr. Murdoch's account book for 1857 lists the names of 198
persons who consulted him that year, many of whom were prominent
citizens of Jacksonville.4 It is pleasing to note that the names of
John, James, and Laurens Turknett are listed and that each had
apparently recovered from his illness. This information permits
the conclusion that all the Turknetts did not lose their lives during
the scarlet fever epidemic of 1854 and the yellow fever epidemic
of 1857.
In 1858 Dr. Murdoch was elected intendant of Jacksonville. A
little less than one year later, while he was still in office, the title
of the chief executive was changed to mayor; hence Dr. Murdoch
held the distinction of being Jacksonville's last intendant. During
his administration many old ordinances were revised and republished,
and many new ones were passed. Stricter regulation of quarantine
to prevent the spread of contagious diseases was established, and
the penalty for violation was increased markedly.5
Dr. Murdoch was a man of charming personality who showed
evidence of much mental activity and energy. He was sociable, had
strong ties with his friends and at times, like many others, gave vent
to his emotions. On October 10, 1860, while in a state of depression
following strenuous physical and emotional activity, he took his own
life with a pistol.6 His body was buried in the City [Willey]
Less than one month later, on November 9, Jacksonville lost by
death its distinguished and beloved Dr. H. D. Holland. Dr. Holland's
casket was carried by his slaves to the Willey Cemetery for burial
and at a much later date was moved to the Evergreen Cemetery.7
Thus within the space of one month Jacksonville lost two of its
most valuable physicians and influential citizens, Dr. Holland some-
what more than fifty-four years of age and Dr. Murdoch not yet

Dr. William Johnson L'Engles was born in St. Augustine, Florida,
July 25, 1832. He was graduated from the University of Penn-
sylvania School of Medicine in 1853, choosing for his thesis



"Anaesthesia," a subject which was beginning to thrill the medical
world with its possibilities.9 Soon after graduating Dr. L'Engle
came to Jacksonville, where he opened his office for the practice of
medicine in the Republican Building.10 In this office on March
25, 1853, the Duval County Medical Society was founded, and he
was elected its first secretary.1" Dr. L'Engle practiced in Jackson-
ville only a few months, after which he moved to St. Marys, Georgia.
He married Miss Margaret Saunders of Raleigh, North Carolina, on
April 3, 1854.
On August 28, 1856, Dr. L'Engle was appointed Assistant Surgeon
in the United States Army, was made health officer, and was placed
in charge of the Marine Hospital at Key West. After a short time he
was transferred to the West Coast of the United States, where he
remained for about six months, and then was ordered back East. On
October 10, 1858, he was cited for his "unremitting attention to and
skillful treatment of both soldiers and citizens" during a severe
epidemic of yellow fever at Fort Moultrie, South Carolina. His
citation stated that he had qualities which could not fail to win the
admiration and the esteem of every officer and soldier of the Fort
Moultrie command.12
Dr. L'Engle was on duty in Texas when that state seceded from
the Union. He was transferred with other officers and troops to Fort
Jefferson, where, on April 30, 1861, he resigned from the United
States Army. After being detained at Fort Jefferson for a short
while, he was allowed to leave the post to await the acceptance of
his resignation. Proceeding almost immediately to Montgomery,
Alabama, Dr. L'Engle offered his services to the Confederate States,
and from there he left for Pensacola to obtain two Negroes at Fort
Pickens. Upon arrival he felt feverish and ill. On May 11 a
physician was summoned who wrote a prescription calling for, among
other things, 32 grain of morphine, but the pharmacist by mistake
compounded the prescription with 20 grains of that drug. After
taking nearly all of the prescription in broken doses, Dr. L'Engle
became violently ill; three physicians were called who succeeded in
reviving him temporarily. Upon learning that he had taken nearly
20 grains of morphine instead of 1/2 grain he is said to have "folded
his hands together" and remarked, "I am a dead man then." On May
13, two days after his tragic death, Dr. L'Engle was commissioned
to serve as Surgeon in the Army of the Confederacy.13



Dr. James Gadsden Dell was born November 30, 1825.14 About
his early life little information is available. In March, 1853, he was
appointed collector of customs for Jacksonville15 and in the same
month he became a member of the founders' group of the Duval
County Medical Society.16 On September 20, 1857, after a trip
North, Dr. Dell returned to Jacksonville on a steamer in apparent
good health. While preparing to retire that night, he was seized
with faintness and died almost instantaneously with what physicians
pronounced "a heart attack." An editorial in the Florida News
stated: "In the death of Dr. Dell Jacksonville has lost one of its
most enterprising citizens, the democrats one of their strong rods
and the Internal Improvements projected for this section one of its
strongest supporters."'17

Dr. Richard Potts Daniel,18 son of James M. and E. Jaqueline H.
Daniel,* was born in Pineville, Charleston District, South Carolina,
August 19, 1828. Soon after Richard's birth his father moved to
Columbia, South Carolina, to take charge of the Male Academy in
that city, and it was there that the boy received the first impressions
of his childhood. In later years he wrote with feeling that his
mother sang "those dear old Scotch melodies while she played on
the queer old spindle legged piano" and that his father played the
flute and could dance "Fischer Hornpipe" splendidly. One of Dr.
Daniel's earliest recollections was of riding behind his father on a
horse" . tied on with a handkerchief for I was a very small boy
. when I was almost four, I remember being lifted upon the bed
.. to look at a brand new little baby brother, Jacquelin-he .
was a twin.t
When very young, Richard fell from a fence and fractured his
right collar bone. In later years he wrote: . they must have
been careless about my recovery-because I have been left handed
through my life-a serious inconvenience to say the least." Young

*Formerly E. Jaqueline H. Murdoch, mother of Dr. John Smith Murdoch.
tColonel J. J. Daniel, later an important figure in the medical history of
Duval County.



Richard was every inch a boy. On one occasion ". . my step-
brother, John,* . was building a pigeon house. I kept meddling
with his tools although he charged me not to do so-finally whilst
trying to chop with a spade I chopped one of my great toes off it
merely hanging by the skin on sole of foot. .. It grew together all
right. . ."

Richard's father was a strict disciplinarian and used the hickory
rod freely on both Richard and the boys of the academy. Neverthe-
less, Mr. Daniel was a talented teacher, tireless in both mind and
body, and was popular with the boys.
Richard attended high school in Columbia and after graduating
began to teach in the schools. Early in the year 1847 his father
decided to move South. Leaving a comfortable home in Columbia,
the family set out for a rough and primitive section of Florida. In
later years Dr. Daniel wrote:

I was about . eighteen years old and preceded the rest by a
few weeks-coming on ahead with a wagon and four or five negro
men to prepare things somewhat. Mother and the smaller children,
as well as an aunt . rode in the family coach. Father had rented
from Captain Wm. Haddock a small farm in Nassau County in the
fork of the Mills' and Thomas' creeks, which two, united, form
Nassau River. . The farm was some twenty-two or three miles
northwest of Jacksonville ... a clearing of ten or twelve acres in the
midst of a magnificent virgin forest of yellow pine, which then
covered most of Duval and Nassau Counties, held a little group of
shanties . the living house was a log pen with rough piazzas
front and rear. . The floor was of great wide boards cut from
logs with a whip saw . clapboards were the shingles . and formed
the weather-boarding. . The chimney was built of mud and sticks
with a huge fireplace that one could sit inside of when there was
only a small fire.

A hole about eighteen or twenty-four inches, cut in a log near
the chimney, served as a window outside of which was a rough,
swinging shutter with wooden hinges.
Mrs. Daniel was an invalid with a chronic cough. She found life
on the frontier hard, but never complained. The rough, free living

*Dr. John Smith Murdoch.



held charm for young Richard, and in later years he wrote with
considerable warmth and feeling, describing the primitive life:

The . people in this sparsely settled region lived simply and
roughly . but never wanted .. or went into debt ... all had cattle
and hogs (some sheep). In the woods cane, corn, and sweet potatoes
gave sugar, syrup, cornbread and hominy . a small patch of long-
staple cotton ginned on a simple roller handpin and picked by hand
too, gave enough cash to buy their coffee, simple clothing and other
outside needs . cattle always represented a cash asset, too. . .
Everybody ground their corn for meal or grits at home-either with a
small pair of stones set upon a block and worked by hand or with a
small steel mill also turned by hand.

Mr. Daniel, aided by a crew of Negroes, did the logging, which
was tedious and risky work, while Richard, assisted by his brother,
worked zealously in the fields making the crop. Toward the end of
the summer the boys were stricken with malaria and were seriously
ill. Mr. Daniel, concluding that this life was too rigorous, moved
his family into Jacksonville in the fall of 1847 and rented a small
cottage which stood on Market Street at the corner of Duval-many
years later the site of the Telfair Stockton residence. This location,
now in downtown Jacksonville, was then in the heart of a pine
grove in which wire grass and cockspur abounded. There was an
occasional narrow boardwalk; the streets were sandy; the houses
were scattered.19
Becoming interested in medicine, Richard studied in the office of
Dr. H. D. Holland and in 1848 entered the Medical College of South
Carolina at Charleston. In 1849 he transferred to the University
of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in Philadelphia, where he was
graduated on April 5, 1851, choosing for his thesis, "Dengue As It
Appeared in Jacksonville in 1850." Returning to his home to practice
medicine, Dr. Daniel was elected the first treasurer of the Duval
County Medical Society.20
In the fall of 1854 Dr. Daniel was commissioned Assistant Surgeon
in the United States Navy and was assigned to the frigate Columbia,
then lying in the Navy Yard near Pensacola. En route from Virginia,
where he had been visiting relatives, Dr. Daniel passed through
Augusta, Georgia, and Birmingham, Alabama, where epidemics of
yellow fever were raging, and was actively exposed to the disease in



each of these cities. This was Dr. Daniel's first contact with yellow
fever, but he did not contract the disease until later. He arrived
safely in Pensacola and reported for duty on the frigate.
Ordered to St. Thomas Island a few weeks later, his ship reached
that destination about the first of February, 1855. After sailors had
been allowed shore leave, it was discovered that a malignant type of
yellow fever was prevalent on the island. In the course of a few
days two or three cases of fever occurred among the crew, whereupon
urgent orders were issued for the ship to sail for Norfolk, Virginia.
The uncertainties incident to weather at that time of the year made
the voyage tedious. Nearly every day a member of the crew died
of yellow fever and was buried at sea. Dr. Daniel was at great
disadvantage in treating the patients properly for the man-of-war was
crowded, the quarters were poorly ventilated, and he could not get
competent nursing help. Many years later he wrote:

We had an old "Son-of-a-Gun" of a Fleet Surgeon who seemed
imbued with the therapeutic ideas of the eighteenth century in regard
to the treatment of yellow fever and went recklessly on shovelling in
scruple doses of calomel with other drastic and depleting measures
regardless of direful results. Providentially, I myself was not taken
ill with the fever until the morning of the day we anchored in Chesa-
peake Bay; and a few hours afterwards I was carried ashore to the
Naval Hospital at Portsmouth where, under the kind and judicious
care of the Surgeon in charge at that place, I was but mildly ill.21

After Dr. Daniel recovered from his illness he was assigned to the
San Jacinto, a flagship in the United States Navy. On October 25,
1855, the ship set sail and for forty-four months did not return to
the United States. During a major portion of this time Dr. Daniel
sailed the seas of the Orient. "A Medical Journal" with notes on the
voyage of the San Jacinto written by Dr. Daniel is in the possession
of his nephew, Mr. Richard P. Daniel of Jacksonville. This record
shows an orderly, careful observation of the sick on board the vessel
and offers entertaining reading to the layman as well as to the
In 1859 Dr. Daniel resigned from the United States Navy and
during the summer of that year returned to Florida. With the
exception of three years spent in serving the army of the Confed-
eracy, he devoted his long life to the practice of medicine in Jackson-



ville. Later pages of this history will bring out in more detail the
life and activity of Dr. Daniel. Born seventeen years after Dr.
Baldwin, he survived his senior by almost the same number of years.
At the time of his death in 1915, in his eighty-seventh year, Dr.
Daniel was recognized as the outstanding leader of the medical
profession in Duval County.
During the eighteen-fifties Jacksonville was preparing for a
phenomenal growth. Few then realized that the town would become
the chief port and railroad center of the Southeastern seaboard. Its
growth and development, however, were to be seriously delayed by
the War Between the States.

Dr. R. P. Daniel




The War Between the States


IN FLORIDA the year of 1860 was one of agitation, unrest, and half-
hearted military preparation. On October 26, Dr. Holmes Steele of
Jacksonville wrote to the Floridian and Journal in Tallahassee:

Gentlemen: I desire through the columns of your paper as a
central organ reaching . more portions of the state perhaps than
any other, to make a suggestion which I think opportune. . I have
been gratified to notice, in various portions of the state during the
past year, that there have been several volunteer companies organized
and equipped, both of infantry, cavalry, and artillery. First among
them stands "The Jacksonville Light Infantry." As the honored
chief of this gallant corps I would invite the attention of the com-
missioned officers and of the rank and file of all volunteer companies
of the state of the propriety of associating in a volunteer battalion
and applying to the ensuing legislature for a charter under which
to organize and which shall grant to the battalion the privilege of
electing its own officers . to give it activity, vigor and efficiency.
The great advantages of such an organization . are too prominent
and suggestive to require specification at my hands. . The times,
gentlemen, are ominous; and while viewing the signs, let us "in peace
prepare for war" for though no evil may come, yet it is the imperative
duty of the state to arm. . .
Holmes Steele, Captain
Jacksonville Light Infantry.1
Dr. Steele was a physician who had wide interests. He was born
in Charleston, South Carolina, about 1820, and after graduating from
medical school he joined the faculty of the Oglethorpe Medical Col-
lege where he served as professor of obstetrics for about five years.2
Dr. Steele interested himself in national as well as local affairs of


government.3 In July, 1858, soon after he arrived in Jacksonville,
this versatile leader became editor of the Jacksonville Standard, a
democratic newspaper which began publication during that month.4
In April, 1859, he was elected mayor and later that same month was
made captain of the Jacksonville Light Infantry when it was organ-
ized on April 30. Thus Dr. Steele was physician, editor, mayor, and
Soon after becoming mayor he stimulated the city Board of Health
into activity. Garbage and sewage disposal became more adequate,
lime was used more freely to disinfect the streets, and many fine
shade trees were planted.5
On July 4, 1859, the Jacksonville Light Infantry held its first
street parade. The elaborate uniforms-coats of blue cloth with
three rows of brass buttons down the front, trousers of white, and
high caps with pompons-were colorful.* The company marched
from the Armory, then on the north side of Bay Street between
Hogan and Julia, to the country, about where Florida Avenue now is
located, for target practice. Besides Dr. Steele other well-known
residents enrolled in this volunteer organization were Messrs. T. E.
Buckman, S. Buffington, J. J. Daniel, Aristides Doggett, L. I. Flem-
ing, and 0. L. Keene.7
Dr. Steele's letter of October 26, 1860, stating that the times
were ominous and that it was the imperative duty of the state to
arm, shows the trend of that day. After the national election of
November 7, the Floridian of Tallahassee voiced the common senti-
ment of Florida when it declared: "Lincoln is elected. There is a
beginning of the end. Sectionalism has triumphed. What is to be

*Seven years later, in July, 1866, at a meeting when each member of the
infantry must have had vivid memories of the war, the style of the uniforms
was revised with an emphasis on change of color from blue to grey.
The uniform to be of dark grey jeans with green collar and cuffs on
the coat, and a green stripe down the outer sides of the pants. The coats of
the officers and noncommissioned officers to bear . the insignia of rank
in chevrons.
A black felt hat to be 4 inches high in the crown with a brim 2%
inches wide; to be looped up on the right side with a gilt star, and contain a
black ostrich feather plume; and to have the device of the company a gilt
wreath enclosing the letters J.L.I. in white metal, beneath which was the date
1859. The officers hats to . have the loop and plume . on the left side
instead of the right."6



done? We say resist."8 Governor Madison S. Perry, in his message
to the state legislature, recommended secession. A few members of
the legislature took an active part against secession, but their efforts
were futile.
Florida withdrew from the Union on January 10, 1861. Very soon
thereafter the Jacksonville Light Infantry, having offered its services
to the governor, became the first company which the state accepted
officially.9 Detachments from the company were sent without delay
to the mouth of the St. Johns River to erect fortifications, and
appeals were made to Jacksonville citizens to furnish slave laborers
to help with the work.10 At Fort Marion in St. Augustine four
cannons were put on log carts and hauled to the beach at Mayport,
where they were installed on a high dune west of the "Run." Here
a fort was built of palmetto logs and named, in honor of its captain,
Fort Steele. Above the fort floated two handsome flags; the flag of
the Confederacy, presented that year by Mrs. Bena Coker,"1 and
the company's battle flag, made and presented the preceding year
by "the ladies of Jacksonville."'12 The battle flag, like the first
state flag of 1845, was inscribed "Let Us Alone."
By April, 1861, the full personnel of the company had assembled
for duty at Fort Steele, and on August 10 was officially mustered
into the Confederate service as Company A, Third Florida Infantry.
In November Dr. Steele was transferred from the command of the
company, which he had led since the time of its organization, to the
Medical Department of the Confederate Army,13 where he served
with distinction until the end of the war.
The Jacksonville Light Infantry remained at Fort Steele until a
Federal squadron approached in March, 1862. Confederate authori-
ties, having decided not to defend Jacksonville, ordered the guns
spiked at the fort and transferred most of the members of the com-
pany to Cedar Keys.
During the war Jacksonville was occupied four times by Federal
troops, only to be evacuated promptly after each of the first three
occupations. This frequent change from Confederate to Federal,
then back to Confederate control, was most embarrassing to the
"Loyal Citizens of the United States" and caused general confusion.
The third Federal occupation of Jacksonville took place on March
10, 1863, by the first and second regiments of South Carolina Volun-
teers, Negroes commanded by white officers. Immediately after



landing from boats, in which they had come up the St. Johns River,
the Federal troops began erecting fortifications to guard the Florida,
Atlantic and Gulf Central Railroad at its Jacksonville terminus. The
Confederate troops, under the command of General Finegan, were
stationed near the railroad several miles west of Jacksonville. On the
day following the landing of the Federal forces, Dr. James S.
Meredith, serving as surgeon in the Confederate forces, was killed.
On March 17 nearly all the women and children of Jacksonville
were removed from the town, met by a Confederate escort under
flag of truce, and transported to safety in Lake City. Thereafter
heavier and more frequent skirmishes occurred. In order to increase
the efficiency of the Confederate force, Lieutenant T. E. Buckman,*
by an ingenious plan, created a railroad battery. A cannon was
mounted on a flat car, and the car was attached to a locomotive.
This battery could be run down the railroad track within range of
Jacksonville, the Federal fortifications bombarded, and the battery
then promptly withdrawn. This railroad battery, commanded by
Mr. Francis Sollee of Jacksonville, became celebrated for its effec-
tiveness and in the following year played an important role in the
battle of Olustee.1"
On March 22 and 23 the Eighth Maine and the Sixth Connecticut
regiments arrived in Jacksonville to support the South Carolina regi-
ments. Dr. J. D. Mitchell, who had practiced medicine in Jackson-
ville for about eight years prior to the war, was surgeon of the
Eighth Maine. Dr. Alfred Walton was also a medical officer of this

Dr. Walton wrote in his diary:

Wednesday, March 25, 1863. . At 3:30 this morning the rebels
came down on the railroad and opened on the town with an 8-inch
rifle gun. The first shot went through an unoccupied house next
to our medical headquarters and exploded; turning us all out in a
hurry. Just as I got out of doors the second one broke over our
heads; the third one struck the roof of a house where a Union man
and his wife were sleeping. . The shell passed through the side

*Grandfather of the late, beloved Dr. Thomas E. Buckman of Jacksonville



of the house and imbedded itself eight feet in the ground without
exploding. . Several of us dug out the shell and found it to be an
eight-inch rifle of English manufacture. They got seven of these
shells into the town before our gunboats got a range on them, when
they beat a retreat. . After guard mounting this morning four
companies of the Eighth Maine, three of the Sixth Connecticut, and
three of the negro regiment started out to tear up the railroad track
to prevent the rebels from getting near enough with their steam gun
to shell us. We had a four-inch rifle gun mounted on a small flat car
and shoved it by hand. . When four miles out we began to tear
up the track, and just then the rebels made their appearance down
the track with an engine and a large eight-inch gun on a flat car, and
they at once opened on us. The first shot struck in the center of
track just short of where Captain McArthur and myself stood,
exploded, and a large piece of the butt of the shell ricochetted to the
right, making a high curve, cut off the top of a tall pine tree, and fell
into the ranks of Company I, Eighth Maine, who were marching in
four ranks by right shoulder shift on a piece of plank road. It struck
the musket barrel of Thomas Hoole of Brunswick, Me., taking off
his head and scattering the fragments all about. Passing to the
next rank it took off the arm and partially tore out the bowels of
Joseph Goodwin of Lyman, Me. He lived two hours. Passing to
the next rank it took off the leg below the knee of another man. I
soon had the ambulance corps at work picking up every fragment of
flesh, hiding the piece of shell under the plank road, turning over
all the planks that had blood on them, and scattering soil over the
spot. We very quickly obliterated all signs of anyone being hurt ....
We got to the town at 3 P.M. with no further loss.15

A few days later preparations were made to withdraw the Federal
troops from Jacksonville for the purpose of taking part in operations
against Savannah and Charleston. Plans for the evacuation had
been shrouded in secrecy for Federal protection had been promised
the "Loyal Citizens of the United States," and the residents of Jack-
sonville had been told that the Federal troops would occupy the city
for the duration of the war.

Again Dr. Walton wrote in his diary:

Saturday, March 28, 1863. ... At 9 A.M. some of the boys set fire
to the Catholic Church, and it (together with parsonage, all fur-
nished) was destroyed. Two other houses were also burned before
the fire was put out. Our surgeon, Dr. Mitchell, formerly lived in



this city, and at the breaking out of war, he stored some valuable
paintings at a plantation of his about three miles out. The doctor
and myself, with 150 men, went out to get them. . We saw a large
number of cattle but did not confiscate any as we are to leave town
in the morning. . .
Sunday, March 29, 1863: Before we were ready to embark the
boys began to set fire to the city, and soon we had to hurry up for
the smoke was getting rather uncomfortable. . On my way down
[I] ran into St. John's Church, and groping through the smoke and
fire I took from the altar a large gilt bound prayer book with this
inscription on the cover "St. John's Episcopal Church, Jacksonville."
Farther down on Market Street I entered a burning building that
appeared to be some kind of office (probably the clerk's office) and
from the table or desk I took a manuscript map of the city of Jack-
sonville.* Farther down I saw some negro soldiers setting fire, and
from their songs and shouting they appeared to be having a good
time .... We got away from the wharf at 8 A.M .... and the last I
saw of the city of Jacksonville were the flames from the towers of
St. John's Church.t

The burning of Jacksonville was described by the New York
Tribune correspondent, under date of March 28,t as follows:

There must have been some understanding among the incendiaries
with regard to the conflagration. At eight o'clock the flames burst
from several buildings in different parts of the city, and at a later
hour still more were fired. The wind then rose to a stiff gale, and

*This probably is the map of 1859 which was presented to the Jacksonville
Free Public Library by Mr. G. D. Ackerly.
Sfn 1893 Dr. Walton wrote: "The prayer book above spoken of has been
returned under the following circumstances: When I was attending the medical
college at Brunswick, Maine, in 1866, I roomed with an Episcopal family, and
while there the pastor of the St. John's Church was traveling through New
England soliciting funds to rebuild the church. I told him I had no funds to
spare, but when he returned ... I would present him with something he would
appreciate. I sent to Bangor for the book, and on his return presented it to
him, much to his surprise. So through my confiscating propensity at that time
the St. John's Church has its prayer book.
And now I return to Jacksonville the old map which I have had in my
possession for thirty years. In all probability there is no other like it in
IMarch 29 is probably the correct date.



the torch of the incendiary became unnecessary to increase the fire.
S. .. I am now writing on the deck of the fine transport ship, The
Boston. From this upper deck the scene presented to the spectator
is one of most fearful magnificence. On every side, from every
quarter of the city, dense clouds of black smoke and flame are
bursting through the mansions and warehouses. A fine south wind
is blowing immense blazing cinders right into the heart of the city.
The beautiful Spanish moss, drooping so gracefully from the long
avenues of splendid old oaks, has caught fire, and as far as the eye
can reach, through those once pleasant streets nothing but sheets of
flame can be seen, running with the rapidity of lightning to the tops
of the trees and then darting off to the smallest branches. The whole
city . is being lapped up and devoured by this firey blast. . .
Is this not war, vindictive, unrelenting war? Have we gotten up
to the European Standards?17

Happily, the correspondent had obtained an exaggerated view of
the fire. General Finegan, from a position on the river not far
from Jacksonville, discovered that the city was on fire and that the
transports were being loaded with Federal troops. He hurried into
the town, arrived just after the departure of the last gunboat and
was able to extinguish the fire in some valuable buildings. About six
city blocks were burned over, and approximately twenty-five build-
ings were destroyed by the fire.

Dr. J. D. Mitchell,'s to whom Dr. Walton referred in his diary,
was born in Maine on March 10, 1823. He entered Harvard Uni-
versity in 1846 and was graduated in 1850. After practicing in St.
Stephens, New Brunswick, he came to Jacksonville in 1852. Dr.
Mitchell was a man of unusual force and character. His political
views so differed from those of his fellow physicians in Jacksonville
that at first he was not chosen to take part in activities of organized
medicine in Duval County. Nevertheless, in spite of this wide differ-
ence of opinions, none questioned his veracity. He was active in
the fight to conquer the yellow fever epidemic of 1857 in Jacksonville.
In 1862 he volunteered his services to the Union Army, soon was
placed in charge of the General Hospital at Beaufort, South Carolina,
and in the fall was made surgeon of the Eighth Maine Volunteers.
It was as surgeon of the Eighth Maine that he returned to Jackson-



ville when the city was occupied for the third time, and it was then
that he went to his plantation, accompanied by Dr. Walton, to
recover the valuable paintings which he had stored there at the
outbreak of the war. In 1864 he was made surgeon of the well-
known Thirty-First Maine Regiment, with which he served until

Dr. J. D. Mitchell

the end of the war. In 1865 he returned to Jacksonville, resumed
the practice of medicine, and lived to enjoy the sincere esteem and
admiration of his medical colleagues. At the time of Dr. Mitchell's
death in 1893, Dr. Daniel delivered an impressive eulogy before
the Duval County Medical Society. Dr. Mitchell's two sons,
Neal and Sollace, were prominent physicians in Jacksonville at the
turn of the century.



Two other physicians of this period were Dr. D. C. Ambler and
Dr. E. T. Sabal. Dr. Ambler, probably the oldest physician in
Jacksonville at the outbreak of the war, was a dentist as well as a
doctor of medicine. He was born about 1800 and came to Jackson-
ville about 1845.19 Like other Duval County physicians, Dr.
Ambler was a versatile man. Not only a physician and dentist, he
was an inventor as well. Among his inventions are porcelain artifi-
cial teeth and several devices for the sewing machine. Also, he is
said to have contributed a means of separating cotton-seed oil from
the gummy product of the seed.20 Dr. Ambler made his permanent
winter home in Jacksonville in 1846, but following the outbreak of
the war he sought refuge in Lake City. On March 10, 1865, Judge
J. M. Daniel,* also a refugee from Jacksonville, wrote to Major
General Samuel Jones of the Confederate Army:

Dr. D. C. Ambler .. intends making application to be permitted
to cross the lines and to pass for a time out of the Confederate States.
. His only son, Wm. Griffith Ambler [Daniel Griffith Ambler]
became a member of Captain Dickison's Company in its first forma-
tion. . The father and son are owners of funds and property in
New Berlin, N. Y. to a large amount. . For the purpose of securing
this property and transferring it to the Confederacy the father desires
to pass . to Jacksonville, and from there to avail himself of such
opportunity as may present itself to get to Canada communicate
with his friend in New Berlin -have his property converted into
exchange on England . invest in material for railroads (so much
needed here) ship to Nassau . and trust to running the blockade.
. .. Dr. Ambler is long past the age of military service, and his course
has been such as to give me assurance of his loyalty -while the
manly, gallant and loyal conduct of his son cannot but add strength
to this assurance.21

It is not known whether this mission was attempted, but probably
not, for the war ended soon. Dr. Ambler died in 1866. His son, Mr.

*Father cf Dr. Richard P. Daniel.



D. G. Ambler, lived in Jacksonville for many years following the war
and became one of Duval County's best-known citizens.*

Dr. E. T. Sabal

Dr. Emile Talvande Sabal22 was born in Augusta, Georgia,
November 20, 1835. He was graduated from the Long Island Medi-
cal College in Brooklyn, New York, and came to Jacksonville in

*Mr. Ambler, executor of the estate of Dr. Baldwin after the latter's death
in 1898, found Judge Bethune's Diary of 1829 to 1833 and Dr. Baldwin's
meteorological observations at Jacksonville dating back to 1839 among the
papers of the estate. Recognizing the value of these records, Mr. Ambler
presented them to Mr. Alexander J. Mitchell of the United States Weather
Bureau in Jacksonville. In 1931 Mr. Mitchell gave these records to the Florida
Historical Society, and they now may be observed in the Library of the
Society at St. Augustine.



1859. Soon after the outbreak of the war Dr. Sabal offered his
services to the army of the Confederate States and in July, 1861,
was sent to the fighting front in Virginia. At the close of the war
he resumed the practice of medicine in Jacksonville, where he lived
for the remainder of his life. A charter member of the Florida
Medical Association in 1874, he was elected president in 1889.23 At
the time of his death on October 11, 1907, Dr. Sabal was one of the"
best-known physicians in Northeast Florida.24

0 _W

cksonvill e., 862

Confederate paper money, Bank of St. Johns, 1862

Army surgeons during the war were greatly handicapped by lack
of supplies. Little or nothing was known of aseptic technique, and
ether and chloroform, though used prior to the war, apparently
were not available to the army surgeons of Florida. Important drugs
such as quinine and morphine had to be smuggled through the
Federal lines.
In the Florida Room of the Confederate Museum at Richmond,
Virginia, there is a pretty doll, with brown hair and blue eyes, named
Nina. During the war the little body was filled with morphine and
quinine, the head was tied on with tapes underneath the dress, and
the drugs were smuggled through the Federal lines to the Confeder-
ate forces. Nina belonged to General Patton Anderson's small niece



and later was treasured by all the family. In March, 1923, the doll
was presented to the Confederate Museum by "James Patton Ander-
son, Jr. and Margaret Bybee Anderson" of Palatka, Florida.25

Among the scarce medical records of the war period which are
available today are those of Dr. A. S. Baldwin. Soon after he offered
his services to the Confederacy, he was transferred from Duval
County to Lake City, where he served as Chief Surgeon for East
Florida. As early as September 15, 1862, a large group publicly
thanked him for his efforts at the General Hospital.26 On February
6, 1865, in Lake City, he became Medical Director of the General
Hospitals for Florida and Quitman, Georgia. His letter, case, and
account books are preserved in the Confederate Museum at Rich-
mond. The case book reveals that the medicines most commonly
used in the hospital at Lake City were morphine, Dover's powders,
quinine, tonic iron, and whiskey. One of the most popular prescrip-
tions was:
Sulphate of quinine gr. XVIII
Tonic Iron gr. LX
Whiskey oz. II
Water oz. II
Mix and give wineglassful every three hours.
The account book reveals the wholesale cost of food and supplies
during that critical period:

Surgeon A. S. Baldwin in charge of General Hospital
Lake City, Florida
In account with the Confederate States.
Hospital fund expended for the week of March 15 to 21,
To balance on hand last account current $4,382.14
27 doz. eggs @ $2.50 per doz. 67.50
7 chickens at $3 21.00
4Y bushels of potatoes @ $5. 22.50
11Y2 lb. lard @ $2.50 28.75
3 pkgs. envelopes @ $6. 18.00
2 tin pans @ $30. 60.00
2 gallons whiskey @ $125. 250.00




During the spring of 1865, the hospital authorities paid $1 per
pound for soap, $5 a gallon for vinegar, $1 a quart for milk and
buttermilk, 50 cents a package for matches, $6 for a bottle of ink,
and $5 a pound for butter.27 Thus it is apparent that the value of
Confederate paper money in Florida had become greatly inflated
toward the end of the war.


The Post-War Period


D URING the War Between the States, apparently no bona fide
physician remained in Duval County to care for the civilian popula-
tion. There was much illness, and there were untold hardships.
Soldiers coming home on furlough often brought the common con-
tagious diseases with them and were likely to spread lice and scabies
among those whom they met.
Following the war there was a great influx of people into Jackson-
ville. Some were refugees and soldiers who were returning to their
homes, while others were newcomers who felt that Jacksonville,
because of its strategic location, offered opportunity for the future.
Unfortunately, the city was prostrate. Much of the property had
been destroyed, and accommodations were most inadequate. The
streets and yards were strewn with garbage and trash, and the
crowding together of people in dirty tenements resulted in an increase
and spread of disease. In the early fall of 1865 a rumor arose that
there was yellow fever in Jacksonville. Apparently, however, this
rumor was quelled when the Florida Union published, on October 7,
"a testimony of physicians" that the city was relatively healthy
despite the unfavorable circumstances.1
By late fall, eight physicians had taken up the practice of medicine
in Jacksonville. Times were hard, and collections were poor. On
November 4 these eight men called a meeting of the Duval County
Medical Society and resolved that while they were "willing to do the
work of charity and administer to the truly indigent," they were
not willing to treat those persons who were "able yet too lazy and
dishonorable to make effort to pay their physicians." They further
resolved that they would report delinquents at the regular meetings
of the society and that no member of the society would treat a de-


linquent until he had made a satisfactory settlement with his
physician. The resolutions were published repeatedly in a local
paper and were signed by A. S. Baldwin, M.D., president; Holmes
Steele, M.D.; E. T. Sabal, M.D.; H. G. Vaughn, M.D.; George H.
McPherson, M.D.; J. A. S. Todd, M.D.; M. J. Murphy, M.D.; and
R. P. Daniel, M.D., secretary.2

Toward the end of the year smallpox made its appearance. On
January 17, 1866, the city council, meeting in the council chamber,
adopted the following resolution:

Whereas, the smallpox is prevailing to some extent among the
colored people within the corporation, now for the purpose of pre-
venting the further spread of disease and of improving the general
sanitary condition of the city, be it
Resolved, that the several ward committees of the city be required
to visit their respective wards and compel the inhabitants to thor-
oughly and efficiently police their property and take such measures
as necessary . and that the afternoon of January 18 be set apart
for this duty.
H. H. Hoeg, Mayor.3

On February 7 Dr. Daniel relieved Dr. Mitchell as health officer
in charge of the smallpox hospital. There were twenty-five patients
with smallpox confined at that time to the hospital, probably the
one mentioned in a previous chapter, which was built on block 98
in 1854. On May 7 there were ten patients in the hospital,4 and
on June 4, the date of the last report that is available, there were
five.5 Apparently the disease disappeared gradually.
It has been said that part of the work undertaken by the Freed-
men's Bureau was vaccination against smallpox and that thousands
of Negroes in Florida received the preventive treatment.6 The
Florida Union, a Jacksonville newspaper owned and edited by Mr.
J. K. Stickney, whose views for the most part were Northern and
ardently Republican, published an editorial written by him in the
fall of 1865 on the evils of the Freedmen's Bureau, which bears
considerable weight. After examining newspapers from New Orleans,
Mobile, Montgomery, Nashville, and Macon, Mr. Stickney declared:



These papers are full of matter to show the wretched operations
of the Freedmen's Bureau and the evil influences it is exerting on the
southern negro. Good order among our negro population seems to
depend in a great measure upon the removal of this organization
from the south, for though well designed, many of its agents pervert
its legitimate operations and are converting it into an engine of

..... <.2/, /t,,,.,7.v, e 47

j- / ,,g \--------

c -

Asiatic cholera, one of the most fearful and dreaded of all diseases,
made its appearance in Jacksonville during the late summer of 1866.*
Efforts were made to conceal its presence, but rumors which began
to fly soon represented the disease as being worse than the facts
indicated. Authorities finally admitted that a contagion was present
and that on Sunday, September 9, eleven new cases appeared and

*The statement that cholera never has invaded Florida is ill founded. The
disease is known to have been present in Fernandina, Apalachicola, and Key
West many years prior to its visitation in Jacksonville.8



three deaths occurred, but they maintained that the disease was not
present in epidemic form.9 Fifteen years later, a supposed authority
stated that the disease occurred in 1868, that a Negro woman took
the contagion from Jacksonville to Cedar Keys, gave it to all the
members of her large family, and started an epidemic. He further
stated that the first case in Cedar Keys occurred on a Friday, and
that on the following Sunday there were twenty-two deaths.10 This
authority probably was mistaken in the dates and in the actual
number of deaths which occurred at a specific time, but his state-
ment that the disease was spread from Jacksonville to Cedar Keys
probably is true. It would appear that the epidemic made its appear-
ance on Way Key Island, near Cedar Keys, on Saturday, September
8, 1866, and that on the following day ten deaths occurred. The
epidemic raged so fearfully among the lumbermen that all the mills
had to be shut down, and soon Cedar Keys was so nearly deserted
that hardly enough people remained to bury the dead.
Jacksonville suffered a great deal, but not nearly so intensely as
did Cedar Keys. On September 29, the Jacksonville Union, after
informing its readers that rumors had exaggerated the severity of
the disease, admitted that the contagion had been present on a scale
sufficient to excite apprehension and prevent visitors from coming
to the city. The paper declared that no person with cholera had
been found in that locality during the preceding ten days, that the
health of the general populace was good, and that the "country
people" might come to the city once again without fear.1"

Soon after the war Dr. Steele was living on the northeast corner
of Pine (Main) and Monroe streets, the present site of the Clark
Building.12 He was elected to represent Duval County in the
Senate13 and during the session of 1866 introduced a bill to establish
a state medical board, a bill to revise quarantine regulations in
Jacksonville, an act to provide artificial limbs to maimed soldiers,
an act to regulate the sale of poisons, and a bill to create a fund for
the benefit of orphans of Florida soldiers killed in battle.14 In
April, 1866, he was elected mayor of Jacksonville for a second term,*
and in April, 1867, was chosen to succeed himself.

*First Term 1858-59.



Two years earlier, in September, 1865, Dr. Steele had become
associate editor of the Florida Union.15 That fall he had a vigorous
feud with the editor of the Jacksonville Herald. The political views
of the two men were strongly divergent, and it was obvious that they
did not like each other. Dr. Steele's style and his ability to express
himself in a vitriolic manner are illustrated in this battle of words.
The editor of the Herald, who would not reveal his identity, had

Dr. H. Steele, formerly of the recruiting service in the rebel army,
has become associate editor of the Union. The animus of the last
issue of that paper affords an illustration of the couplet:
A man convinced against his will
Is of the same opinion 'still.

In reply, Dr. Steele wrote in the Florida Union:

Your facts like your philosophy and politics are conceived in dark
places, and consequently are brought forth in error. The Associate
Editor of this paper begs to decline "the soft impeachment." He was
not "formerly of the recruiting services in the rebel army" as the
"people of Florida" whom you are striving, in true missionary spirit
to enlighten, very well know. He did not stay in the rear to send
others but went himself and took "a front place in the picture, near
the flashing of guns." Not having been "convinced" either with or
"against his will" he pleads guilty of being "of the same mind still"
upon all subjects where principle was involved. But yet those ques-
tions being settled by a force to which he yields, he has set them to
rest forever, and having by oath asserted that purpose, and given in
an honest adhesion and allegiance to the Federal Government, none
but those whose moral infamy fits them for perjury can raise the
shadow of a question as to his loyalty, either by assertion or insinua-

On another occasion Dr. Steele wrote an editorial entitled, "The
Jacksonville Herald and Its Fuglemen," in which he flayed his rival
editor in these words:

The astute editor of this "Hybrid" sheet produced last week a
very learned literary contribution on the "Press of Florida", which
is as profound in its analytical force as it is chaste in its style and
tropes. In treating of the history and character of the Herald, how-



ever, a modest diffidence which we applaud, confined him to that pe-
riod of its existence when we [Dr. Steele] . were its conductor, and
of course, forbade him to mention aught of its brilliant history since it
passed into the hands of the mongrel crew of miscegenators, from
whose moral putrefaction a phosphorescent light has been shed.17

Signature of Dr. Holmes Steele, March 2, 1867

In March, 1867, Dr. Steele withdrew as associate editor of the
Florida Union. In the correspondence column of the Savannah News
and Herald the following note, dated March 17, appeared:

... It is with regret that I inform your readers of the withdrawal
of Dr. Steele from the editorial department of the Florida Union. The
loss of this polished gentleman and accomplished scholar will be
seriously felt by his world of friends, who so much admired the bold
and independent course he has pursued since the close of the late
unhappy war, in defense of that which he believed to be due from a
nation of people who boasts of one of the best governments under
the sun. Dr. Steele was educated in the school that taught states
rights principles, and for a number of years has been a decided
advocate of democratic doctrines. The Doctor was bitterly opposed
to the Sherman Military bill and could not consent to support a
measure that brought his own head to the block and at the same time
disenfranchised so large a number of his most cherished friends.
Consequently he withdraws from the Florida Union, and wishes our
common country well.18

On May 7, 1867, Dr. Steele died. A letter from Jacksonville,
dated May 8, and published in Tallahassee, under "Correspondence of
the Floridian," stated:

You have probably ere this . heard of the death of our honored
Mayor, Holmes Steele, who is also known to your community as the



Senator from this district. His death occurred at half past nine A.M.
yesterday morning. He had been disabled by sickness for the past
two months but was about the house a day or two before his end.
He was, however, in his weak condition again prostrated and died
from congestion of the brain and other attendant symptoms. The
following are the resolutions of Council, passed last evening:
Resolved . The members of the Council will wear the usual
badge of mourning for thirty days.
Resolved, that the council room be draped in mourning for the
space of thirty days.
Resolved, that the merchants of the city, out of respect for our
late esteemed Mayor and fellow-citizen be requested to close their
stores and places of business during the afternoon from two to seven
o'clock P.M. Wednesday, May 8, 1867.
P. S. At the time of writing this postscript, all the stores on Bay
Street are closed in compliance with the request of the city council
in respect to the memory of Dr. Steele. No distinction is made in
this observance. The colors of the United States Steamer in port
here are at half mast. . .19

The war and the confiscation of a large part of his property left
Dr. Steele very much in debt at the time of his death.20 His wife,
Rebecca, who had to support their young daughter, Tallulah, appar-
ently liquidated the estate, including his medical books and instru-
ments, in order to pay his debts.21 Dr. Steele is buried in the Old
City Cemetery with a small, undated marker over his grave. The
record book of burials indicates that his grave is Number 3, Lot 56,
Section 2, but gives no other information.22 Physician, state senator,
thrice mayor of Jacksonville, editor, captain of the Jacksonville Light
Infantry, and colorful figure during the War Between the States,
Dr. Steele today is unhonored and almost unknown.



Wretchedness- Growth- Progress


TOWARD the end of the eighteen-sixties Jacksonville was struggling
valiantly against adversities. In January, 1869, Mr. J. F. P. Le-
Baron, a visitor from New England, wrote in his diary:
Bay Street has quite a business appearance. Brick fronts and fine
looking stores. Some druggist stores that would compare favorably
with any in Boston. . Large live oaks grow in the center of the
streets in groups and singly. . But with the exception of one or
two streets the city looks very shabby. . The sand is ankle deep
in the streets and there is very little brick side walk . mostly
plank. The houses are mere shells .. and are put up very quick and
cheaply .... Mostly what is called "balloon frames" and a great many
of them are going up. Also large numbers of little cabins for negroes
on the outside of town. . It is astonishing what hovels human
beings will live in. I allude to the negro shanties. Actually over 3/4
of them are worse than a respectable N. E. Farmer would consign
a pig to. . Some contain only one room in which live a whole
family, in dirt and misery. Then again there are some neat and
even tasty cottages in which the better class of blacks dwell, but they
are exceptions. The depot . is not over 10 ft. square and only
the ticket master occupies it. There is no protection from the rain.
There is no baggage master. At the steam boat landing there is no
covered wharf or warehouse. . .
I walked down by the military Camp today. It is situated in the
southern outskirts of the place on the w. bank of the St. Johns. . .
It is altogether the pleasantest part of the place. . There is I
should think, about 200 men stationed here and quite a village has
grown up round the barracks, probably composed mostly of soldiers'
families. I found also, in travelling around the place, a small, desert-
ed, burying ground in the middle of where two streets met.* The
*Probably the old burial grounds of the St. Johns Episcopal Church. In
1853 Dr. Baldwin, secretary of the church, announced that there would be no


tombs were torn down, evidently for the brick which were carried
off. The monuments were defaced and overturned and altogether
it was a most desolate sight. .... I wandered on and found the regular
cemetery* which I think without exception the worst looking I ever
saw. Weeds and grass were most luxuriant and had choked the
walks and avenues . a negro was cutting the weeds and hoeing . .
the paths. . Things look dreadfull . but one must remember
that the place is just emerging from a civil war, that has been
carried into the very homes of the citizens. Jacksonville has been
tossed about like the shuttlecock, first in one parties' hands and then
in the other. . No wonder that business was paralized and the
place looks wretched. . The people seem to accept and make the
most of the condition. I am somewhat surprised in the negro. He
is shrewder and more of a man than I had supposed, so lately freed
from bondage. He knows enough to charge good prices for his labor.
50 cts. to carry a trunk from the boat to the hotel, about 1000 feet.
. . The young ones, "piccamimies," run loose in the streets and are
in everybody's way but 1 noticed that they were not saucy like the
Irish children .... Cows and their calves also run loose in the streets
. and as a general thing they are poor and tired looking. Milk at
this season is rare. . Mules are the principal beast of burden. .. .
Lumber is cheap here especially the Florida pine and "light wood." ...
Carpentry is very brisk. . I think one could live cheaper here than
in our New England cities. Beef 7 cts. per pound, sweet potatoes
75 cts. per bushel. Butter is high 60 cts. a lb. Bread 10 cts. a loaf.
. Oranges at the store for 1 & 2 cts. each . Board at hotels from
$3.00 per day to $2.00.4

In 1869 there were other signs of "dreadfull" conditions in the
city which had suffered so intensely during the war. The jail was in
worse condition, perhaps, than the graveyards. An inquest held on
the body of a prisoner on October 6, revealed that he had come to
his death as a result of imprisonment in the jail of Duval County.
Not long before that Dr. G. Troup Maxwell, city physician, had

The badly ventilated cells, in which are crowded prisoners of
every color, age, sex and conditions, are calculated to originate

further burials on grounds belonging to the church.1 It will be remembered
that the church was burned in 1863.2
*Old City Cemetery. In 1852, named Willey Cemetery.3



diseases .. I have never seen a building . so obnoxious . as
Duval County Jail.5

Not until six years later was the city able to levy a three-mill tax
for the construction of a new jail.6

Despite wretched conditions in the war-torn town, however, dis-
tinct signs of growth and improvement were beginning to appear. In
the latter half of the year 1866, a board of trade was founded7* and
during 1868, when Mr. E. A. Fernandez was secretary, its members
were surprisingly active. Dr. Baldwin, a member of the board,
made repeated recommendations for improvement of the St. Johns
Bar and served on a committee to outline and present the agri-
cultural and commercial advantages of the Jacksonville region.10
Constructive activity on the part of the board of trade continued for
several years. On January 1, 1869 the St. James Hotel, destined to
become one of the most famous hotels in the entire South, was opened
to the public. In February a note in the newspaper told of plans
for another hotel, the town's seventh," and with the turn of the
decade there were abundant signs of growth and progress. The
Mechanics' Fire Company, in 1870, received a new steam fire engine
weighing 3,500 pounds and capable of throwing a large stream of
water 200 feet at a rate of 250 gallons per minute. This was the
first steam fire engine of its kind in Florida.12 A new ice house,
erected by Mr. M. W. Drew in 1871, was declared to be the best
structure of its kind south of New York. Covering an area of 2,500
square feet and having a capacity of 1,600 tons, the ice house offered
a means of preserving food, a boon to the people's health. That same
year a "fine wharf" and "new depot" were completed by the Florida
Central Railroad, and the Florida Union announced plans for Flor-
ida's first daily paper.t13 The census of 1870 reported nearly seven

*There is record of a board of trade in Jacksonville as early as 1856, of
which Dr. Theodore Hartridge was president,S but there is no evidence that
it functioned for more than a short period of time. The Chamber of Com-
merce, as we know it today, was not founded until 1884.9
tThe Tallahassee Sentinel was issued daily for a short period during the
1870 legislative session, but apparently no regular daily paper had yet appeared
in Florida.



thousand inhabitants, and Hawk's Directory for that year listed
nineteen physicians who were practicing in the city.'1


General Robert E. Lee's visit to Jacksonville in 1870 was a social
event without parallel. Today, the city's oldest residents still enjoy
retelling some of the incidents told by their parents and grandparents.
General Lee's health had not been good for several years. As early
as 1863, following a throat infection, he had had a heart attack
which apparently was acute pericarditis. During the winter of 1869,
he began to notice pain in his chest and difficulty in breathing when
he exercised, probably due to angina pectoris and strain on the left
side of the heart.* In March, 1870, his physicians recommended that
he visit a Southern climate as soon as possible. That month he set
out on a six-week tour which carried him through the Carolinas and
Georgia into Florida.
General Lee, few will deny, was the most popular hero the South
has ever produced. When the editor of a Gainesville newspaper
learned that the General was on his way to Florida, he declared that
the mere announcement of the fact would send a thrill to the hearts
of thousands. He stated that the reverence, honor, and regard which
Southern people held for General Lee would not be evinced by shouts
of crowded assemblages, but by the kindling of their eyes when his
name was mentioned and by the earnest tones of their voices when
they breathed "God Bless General Lee."15
At four o'clock on Wednesday afternoon, April 13, 1870, the
Nick King arrived at the Jacksonville wharf bearing the General
and his daughter, Agnes. As soon as the gangplank was lowered, a
committee consisting of Colonel J. J. Daniel, Colonel J. P. Sanderson,
and Mr. L. I. Fleming, attorneys, Dr. G. Troup Maxwell, city
physician, and Mr. H. T. Baya, a grocer, stepped aboard, followed
by a crowd which soon filled the boat beyond capacity. One by one,
with uncovered head, each of the eager throng, after being introduced

*That was before the days of blood pressure determinations, but the Gen-
eral's florid complexion and the details of his final illness make it appear that
he had both high blood pressure and hardening of the arteries.



to the General, joyfully shook his hand. The committee then escorted
General Lee to the upper deck of the ship where he could stand in
plain view of the large crowd which remained on shore. His appear-
ance was greeted just as the editor of the Gainesville newspaper
had predicted it might be: A hush fell over the crowd.
The Jacksonville Union reported:

Not a word was spoken; not a cheer was uttered, but the very
silence of the multitude spoke a deeper feeling than the loudest
huzzas could have expressed.16

The committee, the St. James Hotel, the Price House, and other
hotels invited General Lee to visit the city, and Hartridge and Liv-
ingston offered the services of a fine carriage. The General, however,
having made plans to continue his voyage up the St. Johns, declined
the invitation and after a stay of little more than half an hour,
departed from Jacksonville amidst reluctant goodbyes.
Upon her return voyage the following day the Nick King docked
at Jacksonville at 4 P.M., not to sail until 3 o'clock the next morning.
The "Committee of arrangements" met the General and escorted
him to the residence of Colonel Sanderson located at the northeast
corner of Ocean and Forsyth streets.* A large number of ladies and
gentlemen met the General there, following which he took a drive
about the city. At 10 o'clock he returned to the boat where he met
many more people who had not seen him at the afternoon reception.
A writer for a local paper reported that General Lee looked worn
and feeble during his visit, but that he seemed to be enjoying his
trip. The General declared that he had felt much better after leaving
Savannah on the voyage south. Everyone hoped that Florida's balmy
climate would play an important role in restoring his health. The
beneficial effect which the climate might have played, however,
probably was more than counteracted by the strain of the trip, for
everywhere crowds met the popular hero and entertained him with
gala receptions. On October 12, 1870, one of the greatest men of the
modern era died quietly in Virginia, the result of what appears to
have been hardening and occlusion of the cerebral arteries.1s

*Colonel Sanderson's residence was one of the few brick homes in Jackson-
ville at that time.17



During the early eighteen-seventies it became more and more
obvious that there was need for medical organization in the state and
for a representative body of physicians who would govern equitably
the affairs of medicine. Realizing this need, the Duval County
Medical Society, in November, 1873, sent out a call to the other
medical societies and to individual members of the profession through-
out the state. As a result of this call, the Florida Medical Association
was founded in Jacksonville on January 14, 1874.19
The meeting was held in the home and office of Dr. A. S. Baldwin
on the northeast corner of Adams and Laura streets. Dr. George W.
Betton of Tallahassee was elected temporary chairman, and Dr. F. P.
Wellford was appointed temporary secretary. Drs. R. P. Daniel and
R. B. Burroughs, appointed as a committee on credentials, reported
the following present, and advised that they should be considered
members of the convention: Columbia County Medical Society.-
Dr. T. W. Carter, Dr. M. M. T. Hutchingson. Duval County
Medical Society.-Dr. A. S. Baldwin, Dr. R. P. Daniel, Dr. F. P.
Wellford. Leon County Medical Society.-Dr. G. W. Betton, Dr.
R. B. Burroughs. Marion County Medical Society.-Dr. T. P.
McHenry.* Nassau County Medical Society.-Dr. E. G. Clay. St.
Johns County Medical Society.-Dr. J. Peck.
On motion of Dr. Baldwin an organization was effected under
the title of "The Medical Association of the State of Florida." The
constitution and by-laws of the Medical Association of Georgia were
adopted until a suitable substitution could be provided at the next
annual meeting.
Dr. Betton, the temporary chairman, appointed Drs. R. B. Bur-
roughs, E. G. Clay, and R. P. Daniel to nominate permanent officers
for the association. Their report was as follows: President.-Dr.
A. S. Baldwin of Duval County. First Vice-President.-Dr. G. W.
Betton of Leon County. Second Vice-President.-Dr. Robert Harri-

*Dr. McHenry lived in Newnansville, then in the northern part of Alachua
County, but now abandoned. There was no Alachua County Medical Society
then and Gainesville, having been founded about 1854, was still a very small



son* of Nassau County. Secretary and Treasurer.-Dr. F. P. Well-
ford of Duval County.
The report of the committee on permanent organization was
adopted, and the officers nominated were elected unanimously for
the ensuing year. The association was called to order by its first
president, Dr. Baldwin, who addressed the body eloquently.
On motion, the officers of the society were appointed to prepare
a constitution and by-laws for presentation at the next annual meet-
ing. President Baldwin was authorized to appoint delegates to the
American Medical Association and he was empowered to select the
time and place for the next annual meeting of the society.
The following were nominated and unanimously elected charter
members of the association: Fernandina.-Dr. J. D. Palmer. Jack-
sonville.-Dr. Columbus Drew, Dr. J. D. Fernandez, Dr. E. T.
Sabal, Dr. A. J. Wakefield. Newnansville.-Dr. J. H. Williams.
Palatka.-Dr. J. C. Hill. St. Augustine.-Dr. Andrew Anderson, Dr.
Lewis Pacetti, Dr. William Shine. Tallahassee.-Dr. J. M. Carn,
Dr. A. L. Randolph, Dr. J. H. Randolph. Dr. Richard Gardner.t20
The second meeting of the association was held in Jacksonville on
February 17 and 18, 1875. The constitution and by-laws, presented
by the officers of the association and adopted as a whole with little
change, were engrossed and signed by the members present.
Article II of the Constitution of the Florida Medical Association
reads as follows: "The object of this Association shall be to organize
the Medical Association throughout the State in the most efficient
manner, to promote union, harmony and good feeling among the
members, to establish and maintain a high standard of professional
acquirement and ethics, and to inspire interest and zeal for the culti-
vation of medical science and literature." By maintaining this high
objective since its founding, the association has proved itself to be
an outstanding organization and has played a major role in the
maintenance of the practice of medicine in Florida on a highly ethical
basis. Through the years it has been a well-observed fact that the
association has received the interest and consistent support of the
outstanding physicians of the state.

*Following his nomination, Dr. Harrison, on motion from the floor, was
elected a member of the association.
tDr. Gardener, whose name was spelled variously, Gardener, Gardner, and
Gardiner, died in 1875. No record of his home city is available.



On the evening of the first day of the meeting, Dr. John P. Wall
of Tampa presented an interesting and well-prepared paper on
"Preventive Medicine." This paper is not available now, but appar-
ently was the substance of an article published in the Semi-Tropical

Dr. A. S. Baldwin's home and office, where the Florida
Medical Association was founded in 1874

for October, 1875, in which Dr. Wall proposed the establishment of a
"State Board of Health."21 The actual founding of the Florida
State Board of Health did not take place until fourteen years later,
in 1889, and then primarily because of the Jacksonville yellow fever
epidemic of the preceding year.
On the second day of the meeting, Dr. Baldwin delivered the
annual address, entitled "The Climatology of Florida." The subject
matter made it apparent that a great deal of observation and pains-
taking recording had gone into the work. When the address was
published in the Proceedings of the Florida Medical Association, it
occupied thirty-seven pages.



Dr. Baldwin was elected president of the association for a second
term; Dr. R. B. Burroughs of Tallahassee was elected first vice-
president; Dr. John P. Wall of Tampa, second vice-president; Dr.
F. P. Wellford of Jacksonville, secretary; and Dr. M. M. T. Hutch-
ingson of Lake City, treasurer. The second session of the Florida
Medical Association was adjourned to meet in Tallahassee for its
next session on the third Tuesday in January, 1876.22


Duval County and St. Luke's


WHEN the need for medical organization in the state became
apparent during the early eighteen-seventies, the necessity for better
hospital facilities in Jacksonville and Duval County likewise became
evident. During this period the Duval County and St. Luke's
hospitals were founded.

The site of the "old" Duval County Hospital, tracts 27 and 28,
in a subdivision of northeast Jacksonville known as Oakland,t was
purchased by the Duval County Commissioners on June 4, 1870.2
One thousand dollars was specified as the monetary consideration in-
volved.3 Early in the seventies the following buildings were con-
structed: a wooden building which served as a hospital ward, a brick
building which was used as an asylum, a small "double-roomed" build-
ing called the dead and wash house, and several small one-story
buildings, including a kitchen and a chicken house. In 1877 a new
and more spacious one-story building was erected and called "the
new hospital."4 Thus, it will be seen that in 1877 there were three
buildings available for the reception of patients. The group of build-
ings as a whole was called "the Duval County Hospital and Asylum"
and sometimes was referred to incorrectly as "the County Poor
No records were kept for the Hospital and Asylum up to March,
1876, but from March 1 to December 31 of that year there were
thirty-one admissions and nine deaths.6 When the county commis-

*Renamed "Duval Medical Center," June 23, 1948.1
tToday the original property is situated at the corner of Jessie and Franklin


sioners came into office about January 1, 1877, it was said that the
county was burthenedd" with a large number of pensioners for whom
the outlay of money was unnecessarily great. In the Hospital and
Asylum an average of eight patients was being maintained and for
their care a superintendent received a monthly salary of $45, a phy-
sician $25, and a cook $10. The county commissioners discontinued
"outdoor relief," Dr. C. J. Kenworthy was placed in charge of the
Hospital and Asylum, and Dr. Columbus Drew was engaged as the

Plates furnished the author by Mr. James T. Pate
Wards for male patients and patients with tuberculosis
Duval County Hospital in 1915

"County Physician." A Mr. Wright served as superintendent. In
December, 1877, the per capital cost was reduced from $8 monthly
per patient for attendants alone, to $3.73 monthly per patient for
total maintenance.7
An editorial on the Hospital and Asylum appeared in a local paper
during the fall of 1877. The style is so quaint and the subject matter
of such interest that the editorial is presented here almost in its

On last Sunday [October 7, 1877] a reporter of the Sun and Press
visited the above institution to ascertain in what condition it is, and
what improvements have lately been made. On approaching by the
Oakland Road, past the graveyard, the old building which formerly
and still fulfills the conditions of an asylum, comes in sight first; to
the rear of this . is the old hospital ward; back of this is the
double-roomed building called wash and dead house; east of the
asylum, . but further back from the road, is the new hospital, while





V alvular H eart D disease .......................................... 1 1
E p ilep sy ......... ... .. ............. .......... ...... ...... 1 1
Fever, Remittent .......................... 16 15 1
Fever, Interm ittent ............... ................................. 16 14 2
Fever, Typho-m alarial ........... ............................ 3 2 1
Pneum onia ............................... 3 1 2
General Debility ............. 4 3 1
Inflammation of the Brain ............................. 1 1
B ron ch itis .................. ............................................ 1 1
Abscess of the Liver ......... 1 1
Congestion of the Liver ............ .......................... 2 2
Eczema of the Feet ........... 1 1
Acute Metritis ............... 1 1
Phthisis Pulm onalis .............. .............................. 13 2 10 1
Scrofula ......... ..... ............ 1 1
Chronic Bright's Disease ........... ......................... 2 2
Chronic Paralysis .......................... 3 1 2
Opium H abit .............................. 1 1
A scites ........................ 1 1
Chronic Rheum atism ......... ............................ 3 2 1
M arasm us .................................... .................. .. 1 1
D o g B ite ......... ........ ................................................. 1 1
F ractu res ................ .. ............... ............... 3 1
Ulcers ........ ........................... 3 2 1
Burns ................................... 1 1
Syphilis ..... ......................................... 13 5 4 4
G angrene of the Legs ...................... ...... .......... 1 1
C aries of B one ..................... ................................. 2 1 1
C ystic T esticles .................... ................................ 1 1
G o n o rrh ea .................................................................... 1 1
U rethral Stricture ................ ............................... 2 1 1
P erineal A bscess .................. ................................ 1 1
C attract . ...... .. .. .. .. .. .. ......... 2 2
P rolap su s U teri .......................................................... 1 1
P reg n a n cy ..................................... ............................... 1 1
O ld A ge .................. .... ................................ .......... 4 1 3
Injuries from C ars ................ .............................. 2 1 1

T otals ........................................................... ... 114 68 28 178


between these two is the well and bath house, and back of this again
the kitchen and outbuildings, which include a chicken house-all
. . one-story buildings. Around these county buildings, a suitable
fence is now being put up, which keeps out the hogs and restrains
the inmates from taking extended walks. The asylum has had a
cheap verandah put up on the south side . and has been clap-
boarded . to keep out the rain. . Inside it is divided into 4
ordinarily sized rooms-the 2 larger of which are the male and
female wards, . the other 2 rooms the Superintendent's and a
general storeroom. All these rooms are kept in as cleanly a condition
as possible. . The inmates here, on being questioned, said they
had good food with good treatment, and their appearance would
indicate it ....
The old hospital ward is a structure . with 4 rooms and sup-
plied with light and ventilation by 4 doors, but windows are now
being placed in each apartment. One of these rooms is the syphilitic
ward, 2 will be used as sleeping rooms . and the 4th is the provision
room, where is flour, rice, hominy, sugar, crackers, coffee, tea, onions,
butter, lard, salt, beef and pork and other groceries from Holbrook's
in variety and quantity sufficient to show that all the inmates of the
place have good food, as indeed they all admit. The dead and wash
house* is a new building about 15 feet square and supplies what has
been needed there. The well-house is also divided into 2 rooms, one
of which contains the new well, with its force pump and 150 feet of
hose, and the other a bathing tub and other aids to cleanliness.
The kitchen house has 2 rooms, 1 of which is the kitchen proper,
which was kept in a very cleanly condition and here is the Sunday
dinner for all the well ones consisting of a joint of meat with rice
The new hospital building, occupied 3 weeks, is 85 feet long by 22
wide, with an 8 foot verandah all around it, while inside the ceilings
are 14 feet high. It is divided into two wards-male and female-
which are separated by the nurse's room and the dispensary; the
whole interior, even to the beds with their moss mattresses and white
coverlets being clean, sweet and airy as any housekeeper would
desire. No communication is allowed between these wards, nor
between the hospital and asylum, without a permit from the superin-
tendent, Mr. Wright. The bill of fare for those in the hospital is,

*The name "dead and wash house" is striking but, nevertheless, appropriate.
It was the custom in those days always to wash the bodies of the dead-some-
times with ceremony. Mr. Zephaniah Kingsley, who died about thirty years
prior to this period, directed in his will that his body "be excused from the
usual indiscreet formalities and parade of washing."9



of course, better than for the asylum inmates, and the order left by
Dr. Drew for a patient, comprised milk, rice, chicken broth, etc.,
which shows that nourishing food is considered a necessary adjunct to
this department. In front of this building the ground has been laid
down with Bermuda grass and a pleasant lawn will be the result
soon. ...
The work of reconstruction at this institution has been carried
out by Dr. C. J. Kenworthy, of the County Commissioners, who is
working at it as a labor of love and deserves recognition for the good
he has accomplished. . .10

Christmas dinner at the Hospital and Asylum in 1877 was a
great event." The following appeared in a local paper on the last
day of the year:

If those who liberally responded when called upon for donations
to a Christmas feast for the people living in a county asylum, could
have been present and seen the joy of those people they would have
been a thousand times repaid .... The table was spread in the female
ward of the hospital, and around it were gathered the inmates-to
the number of about thirty-and a few invited guests. At the head
of the table sat County Commissioners Kenworthy and Francis . .
and at the foot Dr. C. Drew, physician to the institution ....
There was roast beef, turkey, chicken, chicken pie, boiled ham,
and other meats; vegetables of all kinds; an enormous plum pudding,
cakes, ice cream and coffee. After dinner several resolutions were
handed up by inmates, one of these thanking the people of Jackson-
ville for their goodness of heart in providing this feast, and another
. .. complimentary to the Superintendent, Dr. C. J. Kenworthy and
the physician, Dr. C. Drew, for their courtesy, kindness and sym-
pathy during the year past. The resolutions being disposed of, some
nuts, raisins and candy were distributed, and tobacco and cigars
given out. The rules were generally suspended and every person
enjoyed himself in whatever he liked.*
.. As it is the close of the year in which much has been done

*Nearly sixty years later, on April 18, 1936, when Dr. R. B. McIver was
president, the staff gave another "Hospital Dinner." On this occasion Dr.
R. H. McGinnis, after thirty-five years of gratuitous service, was honored at
the time of his retirement. A plaque, upon which a profile of Dr. McGinnis
had been mounted, was presented by Dr. J. Knox Simpson, chief of the Depart-
ment of Surgery, and was accepted on behalf of the hospital by Mr. Frank E.
Jennings, chairman of the Welfare Board.12




Administration Building

Photograph furnished the author by Dr. R. B. McIver
Ward for female patients
Duval County Hospital in 1915


for the institution, it seems fitting to say something about the im-
provements inaugurated and carried to a successful ending. A ma-
jority of our readers will remember the filthy hovel for it deserved
no better appellation which passed for a county poorhouse two or
three years ago. . The difference between the place then and now
is as distinct and broad as the difference between hell and heaven.
In the first place the ground was cleared of all rubbish . plowed,
set with Bermuda grass, and no lawn in the city is smoother or
looks better. A substantial fence was built and whitewashed. The
two old buildings were thoroughly purified, fitted with good glazed
windows and blinds; whereas before, the only openings were the
doors. . .
The cemetery connected with this institution has been fenced
and put in good order. Each grave is numbered, and an entry of all
the known particulars concerning the deceased is made in the hospital
record. How was it before? The dead were buried, to be sure,
among the pines and saw-grass, no distinguishing mark to the grass,
and the cattle grazed and hogs rooted above them. .. 13

In the late eighteen-seventies and early eighteen-eighties the
institution grew little. In 1883, when every case of smallpox in and
around Jacksonville finally was assigned to the Duval County Hos-
pital, the epidemic, which had gotten out of control, was promptly
Though in 1884 the accommodations were more adequate, still
they were exceeded by the demand for admission. That year the
buildings were identified as being situated on high ground in Oak-
land, a half mile north of the fairgrounds. The broad verandahs
and abundant foliage, flowers, and vines were pictured as giving the
institution a homelike appearance, and the buildings were described
as being clean and well ventilated. The annual operating cost was
$4,000, of which $1,200 was furnished by the United States govern-
ment because of the marine patients who were hospitalized there.15
From 1885 to the late eighteen-eighties, Dr. H. Robinson served
as superintendent, without pay, while Dr. Drew served as the attend-
ing physician, with a small salary designed to reimburse him for
the medicine he furnished the sick. Sister Mary Ann of Saint
Joseph's Convent made frequent visits to the institution and was
loved by all.16



During the autumn and early winter of 1872, two invalid tourists
died on the streets of Jacksonville. The cause of their death was
traced to the lack of rooms in the crowded hotels and to the fact
that there were no hospital beds available for sick nonresidents of
Duval County. The people of Jacksonville were moved by the
deaths of these two travelers, but left the correction of the evil to the
ingenuity of three generous and far-sighted women, Mrs. Theodore

St. Luke's Hospital in 1888

Hartridge, Mrs. Aristides Doggett, and Mrs. J. D. Mitchell. Early
in 1873, these ladies formed a charitable society, which was named
the "Relief Association of Jacksonville."* The purpose of the
Association was to locate suitable places for the accommodation of
sick and destitute travelers. Within a short while, however, the de-
mand for such accommodations became so great that the ladies
determined to establish a "hospital." In February, 1873, the
society held a fair. Funds netted by the fair, when added to contri-
butions made by citizens and tourists, provided a sum sufficient to
pay the rent of a small two-room building.t This building was

*Known also as the "Ladies' Benevolent Society."17
tReferred to in the first annual report as small apartments.18 Location in
Jacksonville unknown.19


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