Phonetic notes on the Tapirape...
 Contact with the Whites

Title: Tapirape, a Tupi Tribe of central Brazil
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00103051/00001
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Title: Tapirape, a Tupi Tribe of central Brazil
Physical Description: Archival
Creator: Baldus, Herbert
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Bibliographic ID: UF00103051
Volume ID: VID00001
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    Phonetic notes on the Tapirape language
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Full Text

/Tr..slatorss note Thi. study v: s done in, I8 front
June 11 to August 6, in the coup :ny of Rev. P. K~eIsl,
a British missionary./


A Tupi Tribe of Central Brazil
(Special for the Revista do Arquivo)

Herbert Baldus

Revista do Arquivo Mun4C1Dal

/Journal or the Runicipal Arquives/

Prefetura do MulnilodSo d6
lecture or Me Sao Pa'k o M cInelpality/
191do 9tura
/Dpartment orClue


(Vols. 96-127)

PHONETIC NOTFS ON THF TAPIR .PF LANGUAGE (stmunirized from 96:156)

I%-4 2 +W at'p v** when nvIewnt 1v4i-n ln+ "n-s II' e ~'n,

Ari Ail fiiii 1am* I1ir WTff~ In o I All5In 01 Lira g1 1lr -M

S- 't1f "^L^. -- .I... -...t -n tr n .,tlc 1v left
,,t th@l? arnti h..-....-- +-.-, .... ,lsp ..in0.nore in the new

The Tapiruipe language is even more n;salized th.n the other
Tupi dialects we know. Since this nasalization anmmz ne rly all
sounds in the pronunciation of certain individuals, it h.s not been
specificallyy n-" .n ... ~/seC 4<.
Parenthese. ( ) indicate that the souni of the letter between
them is reduced to near imperceptibility.

aS L, are closed vowels.
bp, d, L, 1d, m, .t1, t V sound as in Portugue-e
/therefore, roughly as in English/.
a. sounds as in the German auf.

a before a vowel is the German j in 2j before a consonant or
at the end of a word, it is a vowel.

y represents the guttural I churuicteristic of Tupi and
certain other South American linguistic families, which appears, for
example, in the Tupi word y, "water." In Tapirape, it of en en,:s in
a reduced consonant that recalls the Germ:n ch in ich.
J sounds as in English good. It only forms u speci 1 sound
when preceded by n.


ng as in English king,
The g following at (ngg) sounds like the & in good.

] is aspired ai: in English has.
sounds as in English car.

gS as in English cham,
r as in Portuguese (sh as in English she).
r is mid?-dental (alveolar), close tu the nasal n.
A sounds as in English song,

A as in Germnn aInlich.
8 as in Germain mttgen.
3 as in German f.

The following sounds alternate between themselves:
(1) ate (2) azo (3) e8:tity (4) ozu (5) utay (6) msv (7) rIlsv
(8) chtt


/96:166/ tap 1. The Argu.ya River.

/97:48/ Map 2. The Tapir.pp4 River.

/96:157/ I. The TapDrapD River


/97t49/ Topography of the surrounding arte

The Tapirap4 River flovs through a vast s:tvanna region vhlch

t- qennrated from it, alonc most of its cour-e, by a strip of forest
# -C *':. : .
Qdl 4ei3llrqtglrini width. This savanna, aj a rule, stretches

/'7:i5C/ on such flat ground th?.t the horizon woul!i be very wide if

it were not for the trees, 2 or 3 meters high, which st.nd a few

paces from each other .n'd make up what i c llled th. cumpO cerrudo

/Tr. savanna with scattered scrub forest/. It is true that sometimes

the distance between the trees increase., and the. bccom, less

rachitic and a few meters higher. There are also lrge empty areas,

that is to say, grasJla.n,( completely free of arboreal growth.

Sometimes these stretche: are cro sed by a n-rrow forest strip of

high trees concealinU a small stream, or they are broken by swampy

groves of murity palm. This does not prevent large areas of empty

grassland from remaining flooded during the dry season, when their

black soil is often so slippery th.,t it well deserves the name of

"soap" which I gave *t these gymnastic-ind cing spots as I glided

over them.

On the other hand, there is no doubt that most of/he





sach a point that they become easily ilifl:aimmble. Un Jtne 15, 1935,
while I was in Tamphtana, the village of the Tapirap4 Indians, I
saw pill rs of smoke rising to the north, to the suuthwe.t and to
the east, .nd this brought to my attention the existence of
grasslands and people in those p:rts. The soil of the dry grasslands
can be so hard that the Indians will massage their feet and legs
after having walked several hours over it. Only rarely, however,
is this soil rocky. I found it covered with small, round,

brownish-red stones only in a few ema&t areas, e;peciallj in small
stretches of campo cerrado close to the forest inhabited by the

The savanna that lies 4-I th- h)L:i S r of the left river

margin is bounded to the north by this huge forest, in which many
generations of Tapir-pd Indians have found enough virgin growth to
prepare new plots yearly th..t provide them with an abundance of
bananas, maize, peanuts, gourds, beans, manioc, yams, seet potatoes,

peppers, tobacco, and cotton. This forest, aside from being flooded
extensively even in the dry season, contains small streams flowing
on wide beds of clear sand which offer the Indians cool, limpid

water for drinking and bathing, and abundant fish, l.rge and small,
.it4eh play an important part in their diet.
The only man-made trails that we know of y*ent in the

vicinity of the Tapirap4 River are the more or les deeply marked

footpaths of the Tapir.pS Indians. On the sa anna, they are about

20 centimeters, Vide and follow the sinuous line involuntarily, prod ced

by h man beings when they walk on flat ground. /97:51/ We can
verify this sinuosity, for example, on a long beach, when we attempt

to reach a certainly directly :nd later look at the trail left
by our feet. We then notice that' it me:.nder, .nd thus differ; fro.
all animal tracks, those of the juguar or vater cavy as well as
those of birds, which always run in a straight line unless they
curve out deliberately.
To give an idea of a specific part of the river surroundings
at a specific time of year, I shtl now describe my 1.nd journey
toward the north, from Porto Salvagao to Tamput.an.. I left on
June 19, 1.35, at 3t30 in the afternoon, carrying on my bick the
requisite sleeping and eating equipment. I walked zt the r.pid pace
used by the local frontiersmen on long hikes, making about 5
kilometers an hour on flat unobstructed ground. I went through dry
grassland scattered with medium-sized trees which sometime- stood
dozens of meters apart. After a wulk of nearly three hours, I
reached Lake Tuounard, thus c .lle. for its abnd. nt fish of the same
name which attract the Tapir:ip& Indians to the spot every year. At
the time of my passage, Lake Tucunard was a slow und deep brook which
I had to crosj up to my waist in water. The. say thdt it le&ns with
the Tapiripd River during the rainy season. It is surrounded by
trees, and the water iL fil1 of them. On the shore which I reached

after wading through, there is a spoyAhere those IndianpaBrw-tn
bobA&-vf setteg up their sleepingg hammocks. There I spent the
night. There were quite a few mosquitoes. The chief plague of the
day, however, in spite of my deliberately late start, was the heat.
I left at 6:3C the following morning. Everything was wet
with dev, I glided over a stretch of black eurth, dmp -.nd slippery

("soap"). I saw Jaguar tracks. At eight o'clock, I reached a flooded


forest strip vhich I had to ford. The same thinC haplene, after
walking another ten minutes. At 10 o'clock I re .ched a tr.iditiun..l
Tapirapd resting-place located in a small patch of fore~ whichh
contains fresh water. I rested there until four in the _fiernoon,
and then set out again and waded through a swampy area. At 500O
I reached dry scrub land where I was able to set up camp for the
night. Before going to sleep I heard frequent Jaguar calls,
When I awoke on the ilst, my clothes were sokled through
wxlbx6oeZ by -th dew, I set out at six o'clock. Half anf hour later,
I got lost in a large and swampy murity grove. At seven o'clock I
reached dry scrub l:nd, and the gre t forest,alt 9S.. During the
first 15 minutes w J the ground of the forest was mo.e or les. dry,
but after that it became completely flooded. I walked for in hour .nd
a half in water, which flowed in several pl.ce.. at 100 /V7t52/ I
found manioc in a brook. I then crossed four gardens separated from
one meer by forest strips. At a quarter before one o'clock I '%'k
greete4 four youths of the T-rirupe tribe, -ind half un hour later,
still walking through the immense forest, I in its midst the
village of those Indians.
When I returned from the village to Portt SalvaiCo An Augist 5
of the same year, I made the whole trip in a singlclay. I left at
dawn with a Tapirapd youth. Although these Indians, as a rule, walk
a little more slowly than the local Brazilian frontiersmen, their pace
is still quite rapid and very even# so that they proceed at the s"mc
speed through forest and grassland, and since they hardly stop to rest
in the iaytiie# they may walk 40 or 50 kilometers 3 day.

On the way back, we took a different course through the

forest. The area we had gone through on the way out was still flooded.
We walked on ground that was quite dry, and described a wide curve to

the west. We reached the grassland within two hours. In many areas
the Indians had already burned the grass, and our feet and legs were
free of that hindering growth which adds so much to the traveller's
weariness. Once in a while, a fressbreeze blew upon us. We walked
four hours through open grassland and scrub forest, with frequent

glimpses of pairs of deer, until we reached the traditional Tapirupe'
resting place in the small patch of forest containing fresh vater*
There we found Rev. Kegel bnd our camarada.* as well as several

Tr. Local term for a guide or hired hand.

Indians, and we set out again after a brief rest.
Two hours later we crossed another body of water surrounded by
C V- 0a& WFO
trees. Since Rev. Kegel was taken with leg oen-Mlt1 ens and also had
to vomit several times because he had drunk water too quickly, we stayed
there for about two hours.
Then we set out again in a long file, one behind the other.

The sun burned down, but fortunately there was a breeze from time to
time. To make their return journey easier, the Indians set fire to all

the grass they found. Suddenly, in an unburned patch of grassland, we
saw a pair of spotted Jaguars engaged in amorous play. My camarada
Daniel shot at them with his gun. Both animals ran away, one of them

bleeding. Daniel with the gun and two Indians with bow and club

vainly ran after them. The two Tapirapd dogs who were vith us behaved


in rather sorry fashion. One of then! juei'L Ie- little "nd
barked, while the other did not even Q'"r "-,nn' cour.ge for th t.
Two hours later we reached Lake Tucuncr4, where we found
numerous mosquitoes. It took us three or four hours to go fro there
to Porto Salvag9loalong an old Indian trail on very har-d .nd hot
/97553/ It took us, therefore, 13 or 14 hours to return from
the village to the river, and this was more or lejs the time we dpent
walking on the way oiut.

Names of the river and its tributaries

The Tapirapd Indians c.ll the Tapirup4 River rviohy (or
Vlju~y), which means "fluff water," gh being "vWter." Th, y tre very
fond of the fluff of the Jabiru stork, duck .nd vult re -ithair body
ornamentation, and find it chiefly on this river.

/98:105/ II. Name and origins of the tribe

The Tapirap4 River is the watercourse of the Trpirup4 Indi.ans.
They are known as the inhabitants of this river basin.
I have already stated that the word tapirapi means "tapir path"
in Tupi, tapir, being "tapir" and 2., "path." I have also mentioned
that the river known by this name differs from the Araguaia in the
profusion of the paths cut along its banks by these 1 rge mamnrls.
In view of this, it may be that white travellers give the name

"Tapirape" to point out this characteristic, and that the name was


later extended to the tribe knoun to inhabit the region. On a mup
of the area, however (No. 22C in the collection at It..mirati, the
Brazilian Ministry of Fxtern.l affairs),which. according to Dr. ,f1.n-o
de E. T.unay, one of the highest authorities on the subject, must
date from the end of the 18th century, we find the word "Tapirapd"
applied unly to these Indians and not to a river, and the Watercourse
that flows close to the vill.rces of this Tupi tribe, .lonC the ninth
degree of south latitude, (cf. Map 3),remains hnunymous. In view. of
thiL, it m;y be wtko that the n me "T;lpir.,pd" va extended from the
tribe to the river. Finally, there is the possibility /98:106/ that
the tribe and the river were given the si.,e n.me independently, sincee
we do not know whetherr or nut the river bore this name prior tu the
time when the tribe settled in its vicinity, or whether the people
were already called thus before they c .-e to the are ..
It is worth noting that on the m.p reproduced by Kisenribt rth

(137 & 237) there appears between the sixth .ni yevpnth degrees of
sooth lutit de and about the 51st degree of veut longitude,
therefore almost exactly to the north of Taput.,na Wnd .epirated from
this village by some three or four degrees of latitude, a seco-nd
Tapirapi river marked as one of the usuthern tributaries 8eet14i

Map 3: The middle course of the Araguuia (18th cent.*

/988107/ of the Itaceiunas River, which empties ncar Marabd into
the r ~ Tormed by the juncture of the Toc.ntins =nd Araguail. It
may be that the Tapirap4 Indiana lived there in former time and
got thei n .e from that river, or that the river got its name
from them. /omission/

The Tuti tribe found by a bandeirL. /Tr. pioneering
expedition/ which left S&o Paulo in 1613, lived not far from the

mouth of the Itacatunas, namely, on the right bank of the Arcguuia,
two leagues above its confluence wit. the Tocantins. The account
of this meeting, Met. --sen published only recently by .erafim
Leite (11lC3-110), is as far as I know the first reference to a
Tupi tribe on the Araguaia. According to Taunay (181-192), several
bandeiras left SSu Paulo between the beginning of the 17th century
and the departure of the above-mentioned expedition. The data
relating to these expeditions are so defective, however, that it is
possible tu identify the place n-mes on the itinerary only in a few
caues. Among the few expeditions which may thus be identified,
there is not one to the Araguaia. /omission/
The above-mentioned document dealing with the 1613 expedition,
recently published by Father Leite, was written by the Jesuit Antunio
de Araujo and covers the information provided by Pero Domingues, one

of the 30 inhabitants of the Sao Paulo Settlement who made up the

expedition. Referring to "seven very l1rge villages" founI by the
travellers "about two leagues from the bar of the labeberi," that is,

the TocAntins (cf. Leite, 1:101), the report goes on to say *bt
(ibidsl:b-1C6) "The Indians in these villages were called Ca'.tinga.
Thei language was the bmi -r-fteal co-mon to these shores. Our

men found among them rany iron tools, scythes, wedges, axej, Mnuh lUS
6 ,-/, nd large quantities of Imk shirts, along with

numerous hats, all of which they said they had traded in from the
French against feathers nd arrovs, of which they had many



canoefuls in their houses, .ni also ;.a 6nrt cotton. They asserted
that the French vere list-nt only 11 days' journey dov-n-river and
lived in a fortiezs they had buil* mrny years previously, .nd
ai :ed that they had a sugur mill n. made sug.r from th(a"ne

rl.ntation., they owned. They confessed that they h-il put tv de.th
seven Fr nchnen who must havejled the fortress of their countrymen,
0- A ""s. t-" 1uI. cj jf t M I" UAJi -e
VhJ". v-nLii he -:xfiffso r]A-t O r^ th- TIndiaHns to kill them.

And, without being asked, they said that so many iays' journey awa~y,
on another -rm of the same ParA River, lived those -hom we call
Alaazon.35 and whom they call /98:1L8/ CaVm 'm. th.Lt is t. say,
"bre-stle.j women." They alio stated that there were 1 rge numbers
of village. d n-river on both sides of the stre.a, -nd that they
wcre not jcarce up-river but senwee toward the interior. The
inhabitants of the seven villages sent messengers forthwith to the
other villages, asking them to come and visit the Vhites vhu were
with them. The 30 men, wary and .fraii th.t oome treachery might
be afoot, resolved not to stay long in those parts. They sng
the praises of the Whites, asked the Indi.an to come with them to
Sao Pai lo where they would be near their churches .nd all th.t was
necessary for their salvation, but they did all this deceitfully,
l _lim' -. rt. They stirred 3,COO souls. And
since it had not been long since the Indians h-d changed the 4te
/of tLeir gardens/ and the provisions of mdnioc flour from the
plots they had abandoned were almoAt eMA they emb-rked four days
later in 300 cnoes out of the many they o'ned. On embarking,
the 30 men managed to take from then all their bovj .nd arroi's

They proceed'l- up-river, t ouchinir ground. ev--r> ?i-i to r. ;t r!

leen. Amorng the 3,0CC oul.; w .. uan Indiir. vominor (who mu-t

have becn .hc .laughter of oe of Lhe .tVtr. FPrlnch-en, .-ho e progeny

vas nlc -rou ), the vife of the :on of u certain chief who had

followed our nmn. Thi: wo:iian (who h d been ne~.tly enlove;' by

nature ,cco:. 'ni to the inform .nt, with all the p:;rt.- refui ;ite tu

a perfect body) was give by the captain to one of his hench.:in.

The later, ei.-her to rid himself of the worr c:.usetd by" the pre..ence

of 'he WUn.Ln's husb. nd, or perhaps to -,di t( it still further,

return i the woman toi thec c:pt .in. The vTetched Indi':n va so

deeplJ fffedtevl by the u:urp;tion of his rightful matrimony, .nd

the others by the fact th.t within a few dLys the, ,voulb all be

separ..ted, th't t a certain time andi pl.ce they got Lgtether .and

rose .galn.t the 30 cier, killing 16 Lnri h few of the Indii-n.: they

had taken with them. Satisfied with the death of these men, they

tu.ntd b'ick toward their villages in the .;ame c.noes. Tlh 14 men

'.ho go't avy, b t whom the IndiLns couli h.v+illed, proceeded

up-river with only two of the -fore-rentioned Ca.ting., who either

would not or could not follow the other Indi-n, The, re-ched the

Sau Paulo Oettlement, which they had left 19 months earlier,,."

The identification of their language with linguu Rer"l

characterizes the "Caitinga" s Tupi. Tc my knovledEe, there i- no

evidence of the existence of other Tupi Indians, b..ide the T.pir;p4,

xaz along the p Lrt of the ArAguaia th .t stretche'- bet'v-en its

confluence wit'i the Toc.ntins :.nd the northern part of the island

of Ban;r.nl. We must t ke into account, however, thAt relatively

close tu this confluer.ce, that is t, say, to the north oAt, there


lived such Tupi tribes us the Anamb of the lo' er Toc .ntins
mentioned by Couto de Magalhies (2:%67) .nd Fhrenreich (1 & 3 IV),
the ManaJ4 of the Arar.nddua River studied by Nimuend:nju (I wzand

the '!rubu cited by Rice and R imundo Lopes (E).
/98:109/ The fact th t the "Cautini a" ovned m:.n, canoes does
not r le in any w.y against their identification with the Tapir .p.
The latter, although at the present day they are not navigAtors like

their neighbors the KaraJA /Caraja/ or the old-time Tupinamnb&, still

retain the Tupi word for canoe, yanu in -the Tapirup4 pronunciation.
Furthermore, in 1935, I saw on the TJpiitdua vil:lge stream a tree

trunk hollowed out in the shape of a dugout. It i: true that
apparently it had been made just for fun, since it lay with the

opening facing downward and was not used a3 a bo.t even in play.
This, however, does not m ke it unlikely thA;t the Tapir-pi should
huve owned many travelling canoes in former times.

Caatingj, a Tupi word consisting of ca&, "bush," and tinma.
"white, whitened," may refeitu the region inhabited at the time by

the Indi.ns of th.t nnme, for it is knovn that the forests of
gnarled, stunted trees which she4he:rly all of their leaves during

the dry se.son, forests called c tine: or nato stco /dry bush/,extend
to the north of the state of GoiAs (see Bern ndino Josd de Souza:

120-121). In any ca e, this designation does not rule against the

identification of the "Caatinga" Indians with the Tapirsp4 or iM

any other tribe with a different nime.

/985110/ The Tapir p6 appear in the 18th century as



"Tapuyr.pd4" .jndi "1.pirasse," in the 19th century ,;: "Tppir.,que"

and "Tapirapeque" .nd in the .Cth century ..s "It -pir pS," there

being even a street by this n;ime in the o'-p-1 of S1~ Pa lo (see

Airos 2:152). This le.ds us tuo assume thntt the name of thLe

tribe changed over these four ccrturies in accord nce with
v-iri-.ions in pronunciation. In any case, I agree viti. the opinion
OCt-e. 1I2.Z ~43f
of Nimuendaju /letter of April P I 13/ accor.iinE tu which it is

more probable th- t the "Pirapgz"l of uento Maciel P trente klendes,

de Almeida II35-37/ should be identified with the T.pi...pd, than

thar there should hbLve existed in the Toc.tntins basin t-i, different
tribes with such similar names.


/98t111/ Assuming, now, that the "Cautin. .nd "Pirup4"
were the 17th-century ;ncestors of the Tapir p4, vhich is not

impossible in the case of the formeryand probable in the case of
the latter, it must be admitted that the T-.pir p4 reached their

present habitat from the north.

The hypothesis in f vor of such an origin is strenghtned
further by the statements made to me by the Tapir p4 then.elve:;.

They say th.t they lived formerly to the north of Conceignlo and

closer to the Araguaia than today, but that they gr dually moved

further south for fear of the Kayap6 /Cayupo/, and further vest for
fear of the KF.raja They add, however, th-t they never lived ..outh

o0ihe Tapir.pde River, which is the southern boundary of their

present territory. It s interesting to note, in this connection,

th ,t the inhabitants of T:.mpiitiua maintained continuous relations
----------------------- ------------------ -- -
r t Ire k 4 -z c at $ e 0

~- _.1, _~...,~.~.. 11 ..~~.-.~~~~~.-.. -.~,,,..... .-~~~-~ .~..- ---- ----------~. ~ s~_.~. ~ .~~~. ~_.~

with another Tapirape village located "ter. dayst march to the north,"
*nIn therefore, in any case, at a cunsiderL.bl'dist:al.ce, while they had

no cfn-act wh everr vith their supposed neighbors to the .;outhwest,

the so-called AmpaneA, who apparently are alsu Tupi i: d who are much

less distant from Tam-litaua than th. t northern T.;:ir.pe vill.iLe.

It is possible thAt the Ampaned and Tupir Lp4 reached their pre-ent
habir:ts from different directions, or that the former got there

long before the Tapirapg became their neighbors.

/98:112/ Kissenberth (2:40-41, 75-78) een4elies it possible
th..t ihe potsherds he found on the Morro /hill/ of the Cayap6, located

in the hinterland west of ConceigSo do Araguaia and almost on the
sdhme latitude .-s this locality, w~la products of the Tapirip4

ceramic industry (see ibid:37, map). Stating th.t he is not fnmili.r

with TapirapS pottery, the same author goes on to say (ibidt77):

"Fven a cursory comparison of these fragments with the ceramics and

potsherds of South American peoples forcibly suggest the Tupi-

Guuruni," Rega:ding this, I must say th:,t I did not encounter among

present-day Tapir-Lpe pottery the ornamentation found. on these

Kis enberth (ibid:41) states in further = pport of the
assumption that the Tupir-ipe/c.me to their pre ent habitat forzety

from the north: "The first right-hand tribut-ries of some import nce

on the Itacaiunas River be-r the legitimate Tupi nimies of Katete and

Tapirupe. As the Mekubenokrd-KayapO rel te, there lives at the

present time, right in th;At virgin forces area at the heiadva'ers of the

Itacaiunas, an anthropoph;agous people, the Kubanpra (me.;ning "Bat

Indians") who according to their description mu t belong to the Tupi


group." The:e a.rgumaents, though in:e-resting, -.re r-th.-r vek i.t

the pre -n- sta~ce.


/98:12/ ...ccording tu repeated stu emern:; thbeoep&xope made

tro ac by the ".pirape, their tribe, although in the past it lived

clo-er to the Araguaia than today, never cro:sei this river -nn ntver

lived to the e.st of it. This, however, does not m-Lke rme doubt :he

veracity of Cunha Mattos then he v-rites of the 1-le of B&nnancl

('c:39-3c$9.) "The island is inhabited by Javahhf nd Ctir-.J In:lins,

nd occasionally by Carajahy, Xambio /Shmuboia/, T pirap4, Gr dad,

.,nd other b.rbari4ns..," Since this author's Chorographia /Chorogi'Lphy/

be-., the da'e 1824, it i- quite possible thatr fte! severa:-l gener ti<.ns

h.-i elapsed the Tapir .p lo;jt rec-ll of those "oce .stl'n:l settle.-en!s."

In addition, Dr. Villiam Lipkind, the North Americun

ethnologist who worked on the isle of :"nn .1 in 1.7,8 .'.nd 1Z?9, told

me that he obtained the following information from the YarajS of

Santa Isabel, Fontour, aind other locations: in the p..st there vere

T-rpirap4 living with the Javahd, that is, in the Interior of the iltl

uf Bunanal. Wahe setting fire once to a stretch of gras:-slAnd, they

/the Tapirapd/ burned the vill-ige of those Indi. ns, Then the Jovaih

chased them away. The Tapir ap4 crossed the AraguAi;. a little to thf

north of Malo Verde, and thus not too far front: the nouth of the

.ipiripd River. This happened bo4t 70 or 100 ye-: s go,

After having visited the T.ipir pd in Vgley's company,

Dr. Lipkind wrote me (letter of September 1C, 1939): /Fnlish/

"The Tapir.:pethem3elves say that they lernt the i.r3ked dances /98:1;4/

-- the mo.:t ma *ked cultural simil rity with the C.r.4j -- from the
firewehe' who, I take it, are the Javahe, ijevehe' in CarEja.

7 - --

Near tre Javahe village of ImOnci I was sho-n a T?.pirL.pe cemetery.

The Jav,-he tradition there is th t they lived in the s..e village

with the '.:.pirape, .nd i w-.s sho.wn the site."
Con:;i ering thAit the inhbbit..n-s of T.mpiit-.u bury the de:.a

inside the house in which they lived before they died, it is +Ittpia

vtA/ to inquire -hether the Tapir pe also used this burial method when

they vere living with the Javahd, in which case the "cemetery" seen

by Lipkind must have been the remnants of a village, or whether these
represent ives of the Tupi tribe proceeded in completely different

fashion, performing like the Ktirajd the so-called "secondary burial,"

that is to say, burying the corpse in a cemetery, then exhuming the

bones after the flesh hid putrefied and laying them in large urns -r, n

Laleareda.~r t a coimon spot.

Lipkin# Adds in the s:.nc letter /Fnglish/t "You me, be

interested to know that in the innermo.t Javahe vill:iges there are

some distinctly Tapirupe types, short stature, lighter coloring,

face-cast. My cpjaap Antonio Pereir 'ho vas not aware of my

preoccupation with Tapir:pe relation.;, noticed it and pointed out the



/98:125/ To conclude, it may be said with Cunha Mattos that

the Tapirapd were on the isle of Bananal "occc-sionally," th.t is to

say, that certain groups of their tribe were there transitorily and

probably meme-t4hn 100 years ago. The presence of "Tapirap6 types"

among the Javah4 may also be explained by the numerous Tapir-pd

womennimported" by the KaraJd.




In any case, the inhabitlnt. of T.mplitua kne: nothing of

ncestral nigr..tions tou:'lI the east, such as those, for example, of

the G,.rani who kept sec-rching for the /9811-6/ "1l-nd without evil"

(cf. Nimuend;ju:l and M4tr.Zux:l & 3). As far as I was able to
Ascertain, the Tiplrpe were ignorant of the existence of t:.e see.

They did not even recall beinL told -.bout it by the 'bites or by the
K-.ruj4. Apparently, there was no reference to the oce.Ln in the

tribal traditions either,
The Tapiri:pd knev of a gre..t river to the. vest, however, which

they c;.lled paninn-chingeh6 or chingh6. It is possible that the mnay
h'Wve heard thi.; word from Vhites t liking about the Yingu, A. I w:s

told in Tampiitu;h, no Ta ir..pe h id seen thht chingh6 river except for
one single youth "who was there once, abou 0 years .-go." I could not

obtain any further information about the life or death of this

traveller, It may be that he accompanied VAl d..r, the Karaj& f.med

for his exploring journeys, who i -erhe Tapir.pd in 1911 with
the cearense /inhabii.tnt of Ce jA/ Alfredo de Oliveira. The Tapirupd

Ka-iairah6 f indeed told me that Val;idar hid taken a few of them .long

when he made a trip to the Xingu at that time. It may be that only

one of those Ti.pir'.pd actua-lly got to see the great river, perh .p

only tht single youth of vhich they spoke to me in the village. Be
that as it m-y, by what I know of the cultures of the upper Xingu
tribes ..ndtht of the Tapirapd, it is unquestionable that the latter

did not come to their present hA:bitat fro: the west.
Everything inlic:.tes, ir. f.ct, that they hv. live: since the

18th century in the hinterlamd of the left margin of the Tapirspe, or

in other words, in the northern part of this river bsin. /omis-ion/

~1^1_~__~ ~~_ ~___ __~__~I _~___~I~_ ~I~~~_~ ~_~~_______~~ ~ ~ ___ ~_ _____~__~__I

/9'Jt64/ III. Cont-et -.ith the "hirte

Both Tapirip4 and K.,raja call the White tor_ omissionn/
/99r65/ The contact of the Tpirppd with the Vhite2 during
the 17th century is *.e"er more nor less uncertain than the
identification of these Tupi India:ns vith the "Ca .tini ." nd
"r'ir.ap." We must assume, however, thitt whitet e men visited the

Tapir.pd in their present hAbitat in the course of the following
44: :GO
century. This is implied not only by the path a the pioneers
in-licited by a dotted line on the 18th-cntury n-p, but also by a
reference iterl by hhrtnreich (2:88) according to which these Indi ns
had contact with colonists on the Tapirrp4 River in the 18th century.
Numerous 19th-century authors mention the Ta pirap4. I have
already mention *d what Silva e Sousa ~aid in 1812, Pizarro e '.ralujo
in 1822, Cunha Mattos in 1824, Fschvege in 183C, ...yre:. de Cazal in
1833, Milliet de Saint-Adolphe in 1845, Monteiro Buena in 1847,
Saint-Hilaire in 1848, and Alencastre in 1864. There is also the
following references the Roteiro d-1 vi,,gen q e fez o Ccpitto
Francisco do Paula Ribeiro as fronteiras da c,.pit.nia du '4ar.nhAo e
.1 'ie Goraz no anno de 1815 /Itinerary of the journey m ,de by Cptain
Francisco de Paula Ribeiro to the bounritries of the province of
MaranhAo and that of Goias in the year 1815/, in which the T.pir.p4
are mentioned (37) as one of the "barbarous and intractable nations"
who inhabit the "basin of the Toc.ntins."
/CV: did you v.nt pp. 66-67? marks unclear/


Concerning two maps of the period, Kissenberth rTites (Lt41))
"The map of Brzsil by C. F. KlOden, which appeared in 1817, mentions
Tapirapeque Indians north of a tributary of the Araguaiu, vhicn
corresponds to the preserjt-4:.y --pirrap.4 iver* A. #ruUzt 18%6 m-p
also mentorr.; T -pi"-.1:nuc Indiai, north of the tribut;.ry of the
Argu:i:-; rhtich is now C llP6 the F;, to Fiver. This mnrp bho S af
Tapirrp6 Fiver north of the isle of Bnannal, approxir.L.tely below
the ninth degree, Tapirap4 Indi;.n d,1ellnirs :Are to be found aouth
of this left tributary of the Ar.-guiiu."
On Table 28 of Balbi's Atlas ethnographiqUe /Ethnographic
Atlas/ (Paris, 1826), in which F'erdinand Denis deals with "Lai.nues
de la region Guarani-Brdsileinne" /Languitges of the Guarani region
of Brazil/ and which reveals the state of advancement of Brurilian
ethnography in the first h-lf of the list century, Tapir-p4 is not
listed in the "Guarani Family" which inclu.'es the '"Etst-Guarr.ni it'
or Brazilian /language/, uIso cz.lled Tupi aiid lingua ger.-l." We
read only that there is a "Tappiruque /language ,poken/ by the
Tappiraque or Tapir3pe. In the proving, of nMato 4ro-so they occupy
a large part of the T'ppirnquia district, to which they have lent
their name and where they are found in greater numbers than any
other savage group." The T-uirup6 language is missing from the
vocebuluries of Table 41 ("Tableau polyglotte 'ics langues ambrici4ines"
/Polyglot t;ble of American languages/) in the same ftlas. Actually,
the fact that Tapirapd was not included in the Guarani-Tupi family
makes it probable that it was unknown at the time not only to
scholars but possibly even to the Brazilian frontiersmen. It is to


be supposed th't the letter would h-:ve recognized it as akin to the
lingua geral, which was much more widely known by "civilized' or
"Christian" people over 100 years ago thaui it i1 nov. The Lick of
contact which may be inferred from the above-mentioned unfta.nili;rity
iL made understandable by the observation of the contemporaneous
Caz-1 /I1259/ that the "Tappiraquia" region is unexplored "Except
for its eastern boundary along the Araguai,."
The 'first volume of Pohl's vork (1f341), which appeared in
1832, contains the information, also included in the Memoria /Memoir/
written by Silvp e Souse in 1812, that the c.pitEo-morb Jofo de Godoy
Military officer in charge of local militia.

Pinto da Jilveira hod imprisoned 100 "T.pirapdz" who all died in
Castelnau (IIT114) says that in 1844, when he went down the
Araguaia, he was told about the existence of a village "of Tapirupd
Indians which is located in the province of Mato Groszo, at the
approximate latitude of the northern tip of the isle of Bnnanal, on
a large stream which flows into the Furo River from the left,"
In his classical outline of Brazilian tribes published in
1867, Martius (2sI205) includes the Tapirap4 with the "Central Tupi,
although he does not provide 9 Tapirapd vocabulary in his "Gloss:rios
de diversas lingoas e dialectos, que falllo os Indios no imperio do
Brazil" /Glossary of the various languages and dialects spoken by the
Indians of the Empire of Brazil/ (24II). Furthermore, giving as

I :,


his source the Diccionurio /Geographico/ /G-ographic Dictiontry/ of
Milliet de Saint-Adolphe, he list: (2i105) the Tplir:ipe, "who are
sald, according to one tr:,.ditior:, to h:ve com-e frorn Iio de J neiro,"
.s inhabitants of the "Tapir::p hiver (a western tribute iry of the
.Arguaia),* Since Martius gives no re-son for classifying the
T:pir-.pd 4s Tupi Indians, it is to be assumed th t he w : f-4mill r
*ith the dati of Souza Villa Re;:l curcerning the n-.ies of eight
"prominent" Tupir.pe, while zppr;rently the:e i',t ; vere not ti,,en

into account in the linguistic study of Ferldinrnd Denis since they
were published 22 years later, in 1848,

Moraes Jardi:a (24), who explored the Ariguai, in US 1879,
.rTte.. as follows about the Tapir.ip4 River: "The stelmhhip IAr.;gual.,
under the fS/ command of the late LieuT.Fr.-:t !.lluino, knhtLmautp
ascended this river about 10 leagues from its mouth to a harbor of
the Tapirapi Indians without encountering r.ny difficulties, 'hen he
reached this point, the captain sent a few scouts to the vill:4ge, which
.tood some distance from the river, The Indidns, however, sensed

their Aj.proach and r-in away, and the captain achieved nothing more
than reconnaissance of this section of the river,"
JLno Severiano de Fonseca (Ip90) refers to this ascent of the
Tapir.'pd River as follows: "The worthy Commrin'ier B:Plduino de Aguiur,
so well known for his heroie deeds in the battles of the Coimbra
Fortress and in others on the Paraguay River :-.nd at SAo Lourengo,
ascended this river in 1868 for about 50 kilometers in a small .te.amer,
the *Araguaya,* which Mr. Couto de Mig:tlh-es h.A.d poete. frc~
Cuiabi tv explore the river, whose r.nme it adoptedd."

U-- ..... d- m -' n ,,,, ,


At that time, therefore, the T. pir:,pe lived closer to the

Ar.guaia than today,
have built
Moraes Jardi': ulso vrites (:'4): "The T.pirrpe bkith their

village, un the banks of the river of the y.me name. It i- s:.id

that they are gentle Indians, more industrious th.rn the others, but
we have not h-,i1 any contact with them so f r."

There must have been indirect cc-ntact betveei the T.pir.-.p
In.n the V1hites it that time, however, proL'ibli through the Kr; j,

for aiside from the above-rentionei notice concerningtheir gentler.e:..s

A.nd industriousne-.s, we re,;ad the following concerning quartz lip

orn ,ents in :.n article 'bout the K-irajd writer. by Aristide- de

Cou a 'rinol. ::.nd included in the pamphlet by Mor: es Jardiln (40):

"In the course of my journey I s-iw nly one conmion~ Indian /orn.;ment/

of thiL sort. I possess two in my m-,ll Indiilr. chest iec(iv~i fr',u

the Tapirapf, who inhibit the mnirgins of the river of the U.niie nuti'e,

a tributary of the Araguaia."

Ehrenreich, who went 'dovn the Ar guaia in 1888, s ys in

1891 (2(88): "The Araguaia River region is inhabited by the Ta:ir .pd,

vho in truth have not yet been visited by .ny traveller, but who

already had contact with the colonists in the past century." Like

'4artius, he includes these Indil.ns vith the "Centr,,l Tupi /omision/

7f69] Concerning the contact of the T;-pir.,p4 viti the white. :
during the p: st century, one should. .Ilso mention the Col4gio Isabel

/Isabel School/, which Couto de M.igalhes (2132) referred to as

follows a few years after its foundation in 1871: "... all the tribe

of the traguai% are now represented .-ong itt 52 pupils." Accoriingr


to the preface tc the second edition of the Vi~.em ao -raguzyu
/Journey to the nrrguaia/ by the s:.me author (1, p. XYV), "About
LC' children of both sexes i:media-tely entered /the school/ from the
Chavante, Gorotirf, Cayapd, Caruj' and Tpirpl 4 tribes, -nd three

from the extinct tribe of the Guajajari."

In this connection, one should note th;t while the Guajajarl
are not yet extinct, the same cannot be seid of the Coligio Isabel.

Its existence v..s brief. In the account g of his 1888 journey
published in 1892, Ehrenreich ne ete-the follovaw4 "On August 14,

t number of Kayap6 arrived in Leopoldina. They ci ne from the
so-c lled Coldgio Isibel, which is nov looted two leagues down-river

on the left bank, near D'umbazainho. They vere in the company of
their headmaster, They provided us A'ith linguistic and som;.tic duta.

At the san.e time, we le;:rned something of the situation in that

colony, which is quite typical of the w~y in which the civilizing

task i- often carried out in this country. The institute was founded

by Couto de MaLalhaes in the year 1871, with the aim of christianizing

Indiar children, turning them into sedentary colonists, tnd

attracting, at the same time, their sav,:ge tribal fellows. The

government furnished clothes 'nd other imported articles, es-pecially

agricultural tools. It also provided a consider-ble quantity of

cattle, of which every Indian received on marrying a certain. number

of head. In addition, the government also provided .n annuall

subvention of 5 contos /5000 milreis/, At the time of Couto de

Magalhtes, and especially during oeb.,stio's administrationo, the

school prospered and enjoyed univers.,l respect, even among the most



dist.-ntif s-avae tribes. K:,yLp6 .nd Trir pi chil:rap enterP the

school. I was told that & Tapirl:pd vho hI-d been educ,.teii there c.nd
who h.d lZter returned to his tribe, :-ppe red a fev years 1. ter on

the river b nk and avwited the .-rrivl of/the sterner for two months
1-M ke cou(c f
in a K'arajd encvnpmnent tw send his son to the same institution.

Only the Karaj4, who vill not part from their children under any
circu:at-nnces, did not want to have -nything to do with the school.

Unfortun-tely, the mistake vE.s made once of t.kking children from

these Indians By force. As a result, they nov keep all the children
away whenever a ship comes by. -'.t the time t-wen,-u vlt.e It, the

institute wr.s bzdly neglected. The herd, .ister tre-ted the Indi.ns

as slaves .rnd ordered them to -ork -m9 .hamiwib~zmtmmt his personal
service. The forlorn boys were exposed! to his brutAlity :ind1thnt

of his friends. The girls had to attend to the pleasure of ll their

oppre5sors. Most of them had :,lrepdy borne children or vere :.bout

to do so. No new Indians had ;ippe red for long time, for the

outrages of the Vhite civiliLers h!,d increasingly kept them away.

Most of the school Indians had Ulreudy reached the hge of 30, but

not one of them thought of leaving. Trained a allalong to slavery
and tutelage, they carried on their services with dumb indolence.

Of course, there was no longer .!ny question of teaching. The cattle
had been stolen or h;,d run away. The funds provided by the

government ended up in the headnM'Aste:s pocket. Later, /99l71/

Dr. Baggi, who attempted as a goo- republican tc uncover Lnd prosecute
all the abuses of the current regime, achieve- the suppression of

the institute."

__,_____ __~ ~_ __I_~_ ~____ _~~ _~~ ~ __ _I I___~__~ ~


/99:71/ Although sanre T;ppir,..p indiividu.ls met with "hites

during the 19th century, there is no evidence th..t the l..i tr h i

-nn direct contact with the bulk of the tribe t th t ti-m.
Ehrenreich (5), who in his a,bove-cited classification, published in

1891, includes the Tapir;,pe among the centrall Tupi," confei t. as

late as 19C5 th;t they vwaa known only by he-irs.:y -nd this 444- nt

make it po:;sible to state whether they -:.e related :ith thi- e.sti rn

or th- central Tupi. He add' th t possibly they wso a sep.r.te

group which hI* originated in Par4 or Mar-.nhao.

the few Tapirapd who were seen by white during the fir.-t ten

years of this century were chiefly oomein ;nd children abduct i by the

KaraJ4. Krause (2i320 and 404) s;,ys th..t the c.iriei .. t the.e

abd'.ctions at the times when the men of the Tupi tribe ltft their

f:unilies to go and trade ..with them on ; s,.nd b.,r of the T-pir p4

River. The captive women served tC 4 la-borer., --nd sexual p rtners,

:ind the resulting children become part of4he tribe. .ome of those

women ,nd children were made prisoners in the course of ;..- atttcck
when the Karauj killed several men. Matwhal umenBis this, 1 iere iJ

the following reference by Glass (139) who w..s in the village of the

attackers in 19C90 /English/ "... the womee andchillren -.ere carried

away captive to the Bananal Isliand, "ind they either became pLrt of th,

C:AraJ& tribe we had seen or elsewhere sol, to ny' bidder &oaetime.. to

white men in exchange for an ox or other thing, their equiv-lent for


Krause, vho explored the Arjgu-.la in 1908, writes (-4CG5):

"In the villages of the Kiraja I svw, in all, vto vomen, three young

girls -.nd two boys of the Tapirapd tribe."' 4 .senberth, who w.s in




the same area in that ye-r -.nd the follwirng one, observed (ti47)t
"I s-w, in all, only seven individuals belonging to the T.pirpdsj
the ne-r-sexagenarian Ngroati (figs. 4 "n.i 5), whom I found in .
villlae of Mekubengokr4-Kayap6 called Ororogdiaki.mkikr4 and :ituated
on the 644o stream Salobro, a tributary of the P&u-dt:rco; two boys,
one of whom was in the pover of a rubber trader coming do n their
A ragudia, while the other was :. slrve of Tamanako, chief of the
Kar.J4 village Woudd; in E.ddition, there were three women ain one
,irl, sl-.ve. of chief Crisdstomo of the Veheriadd village, of chief
Taminako and of chief Ivan4 of the Dozahdka village."
Doni Delfin:a ace rruda Correia told me when I ps :ed through
the city of Goits /sic/ on &epte.rber 5, 1935., /99:Tr/ that v:hen she
was a teacher at the Leopoldina schoc.l she h.d amongg her pupils three
v or four Tapirap4 boys brought by the Kar;.Jl. "The letter ha'i abducted
them and sold them," said the l.dy, without'specifying, however, when
those events took place.
A reference by Krause (2t29) deserves special mention.
According to it, an Italian had abducted with his cmazadas a T piripd
girl w-'hom he later sold to the Karajd, shortly before Krause reached
the araguaia. If this really happened, the Italian would be, to the
best of our knowledge, the first White to make contact with the
TapirE.p on tribal, territory in this century. Vhen I wrote this to
Prof. Krbuse, he answered me (letter bf July 9, 1937)t "I do not
believe that the Italian really visited the TapirepdA. He may hve
abducted, or attempted to abduct, a Tapirdpi girl who lived -ith the
Krajd. This at least may be nferred from the hostility which the
Karaj- are said to have shown towards him. But even such an
assumption is more than doubtful. I lend no importance whatever

to th-,t rumor."
Thi explanation once accepted Fritz Kr.use him elf bec% i'-,

to our knowledge, the fir t Whi e who 4-6mpvel ystematice to

mrwe contact vwiC the Tupi tribe in the -Cth century. In August :tnd

september, 1908, he ascended the T pir pe Piver with gr, t Uifficulty
St Vctp ,
to its list n -vigable roheJ :lndl then tr:2vellel Ltr thi i.ie.-

lying tu the north of it:, upper cour-.e. Vh:t he found. were fX.otpriin,

on the .jnd, 'L;mS in the ra.iter, b rbecues it thit forest, nli tOhl

remnants of summer house n the s.v.-nna.

In April of the following yrar, Vilhelm Ki enberth, .nuth.r

Germann ethnogr pher, v. evei les- successful. He .Ire .-ly g ve up on

the second d;, of his journey up the T..pir.>pe River, hivinr: re ched
pr-t r L..,
the conclusion that "the only iidbl ..acce.ss to the T pir pe vill,.e...

is by land, sincee the difficulties inherent to ..n ;:scent of the

Tapir;ip6 River must be the s:m.e in the dery e::.un .;. they .re at

floo time.' (Kissenberth 1:4).

Finally, in the course of L.n expedition in te :.re of rubber

trees carried out in the ye .r 1911, a few men from Ce:-_r le, by their

countrymen Alfredo Olimpio de Oliveir;i, after r h .ving gont up the

T:;pir.Lpe River and crossed the sLvann'-, met -ith the T pir p4 Indians

and lived with them for a while in their, vill ges. The first

information about this wis given to :oe by Colonel Jolo Cris6stimo

de Oliveir.., brother of Mr. Alfredo. LAter, where I .ws in

Tampii .ua, the Indian K.m.,irah6 /99:73/ frequently r c..lled with

praise Mr. Alfredo and hi cuampnions. ;:ct-illy, t..4 journey of

the Ceard men was described by Angione Co-t. (Z2i-2 4), wh. published

Ian article ,bout it already in July 29, 191, in the Folh. do Norte

/u newspaper/ of Belem, Part. In addition, the fulloving pi.s-.ge
..ppe:ir3 in the report on the Dominic..n expedition of 1914 c lied

"Fntr'l os Tgpir .p.s" /Among the Tppir pe/ ;::d published in the

Mens.-ieiro do b.nto Ros rio (316-317)t "In 1911, a group of rubber

g therer. thought that the b.nks of the vater-.:ly (the T-pir pd

River. H.B.) would be rich in rubber. The l-;;der of the expedition

wEus one Mr. Alfredo. The st.irting point v.: Conctigao. The

exploraitiona 1sted for several months, from Mau to November.

Instead of rubber, they discovered Indi, n vill.,ges, t ,e three vilLAges

of the T;pirapd. It f.: the first time th.t the..e s.wvLe.A s Lw

civilize, people, or, to use the popular term, Chri.,ti,-n. It w~s

Cod's vill th.t sav;,ge:; ind Christi..ns should fraternize, ;lIfredo

bi c..me a friend of the Tupir..p4 :nd brought to Cone i9so .t group

consisting of an alre.edy elderly wom n, her gr nddaLughtfr Ewlam of

11 or 1i, and 4 few men. During the trip the men r.n .;y. The

girl was provided with clothes when she re,ached the. mi ..ion."

On October 9, 1912, the Rio newsp.-per 0 PRiz trLn-cribed from

the fortnightly Goirs paper 0 Est-ido de Goyaz of September 15 of the

satme ye:~r ..n article entitled "Protec o /a s Indios" F1 tr tle

Idine/ according to -hich Dr. Francisco M-indrLcrd h.-d vi3iteid

'iT pirapd village located 6 3/4 leagues from the river of the sone n me

nd h;:d returned "a Tapirlp4 woman ..nd her :;on of 12" whom he had

"rescued" in Conceiqgo, where they vere "enslaved" (Kissenberth S2

36, 43). They prob:bbly wee the grandmother -nd gr.ndd;.ughter

brought by Mr. Alfredo and mentioned in the .bove-mentioned report of

the Dominic ,n-.

__* 11_1___ ~~ __ _________~__~__~~1__I___ ~~~_I___~I___1I_1__r_~-~----_._C---l_ -~-II__X..~__C----. 11^---~1__~..1 ---1_-~----_.~.111 .~.~ .I._._._.X; _. ~_11(~-~-_1_

1 111

Fpebking of the tribes of the ,nragu'di.:, Cl- a (139) s.,ys that

in 1913 /Fngli.h/, "the Government Inspector of the Irdiairn of this
region ascended the T~pirLpe liver -nd discovered tAbout 10CO or 1*00
'of this tribe still existing, but living forty mile -:wL.vy from the
river for fear of the CaraJEs. He estimates thet the C.:r: j3s, .
TapirLrapB Javahds, Cherentes, Chavantes, .nd one or two other?
tribes around that district, number over L0,000 Indians."
In June, 1914, the French Dominic.ns Domingos Carrerot,
Yebastiao Thomas and Francisco bigorre visit. he Tapirapd village

located 50 kilometers from the river. They were led by the Indi:,n
Valadar, the son of a Karajd father .rnd a Tapirtlpd mother. T'hia

guide had participated in Mr. Alfredols expedition.
Ten yeFrs later, according to the Mernsageiro do Santo

ROSar.i of April, 1934, page 207, the regularr ch techitation" of the
/99:74/ Tapir.tpd by the Dominicrns got a "definitive start." Th.at
La.-t awy th-t the Fathers of Conceigno do Araguaia have ascended
the Tapirapi River to the port of SSo Domingos every two yehri: or so

since 1924, wauaiting there the arrival of the Indians who are alerted
to their presence by the smoke arising from burned grassland.
Sometimes they proceed on foot to the summer dwellings of the tribe
at Lake TucunarO or at some other location not too far from the
river. They remain with the Tapirap4 for one or several days,
distributinaxes, bush-knives, knives, scissors, tobacco and other
gifts, and fulfilling their religious duties.
Aside from them, missionaries of other creeds have attempted
:.nd are still attempting to save the souls of the T:npiittua
inhabitants. In 1923, the Baptist minister Benedito Propheta had

_ __ ___ ~~___I__ __II__ _ ~_ ___ _1~1__ __~~ __II_~ ~__ ~~____ ~_~___~~

I I .-

some -light contact with these Indil, s but did rot re:.ch their
vill-.~e. ''ht little he has to say about then in his book, with
grer-t verbosity, is too confue1 ,r,1 erroreour to be of scientific
v. lue.

In ';ugust 193C, the Pritish mi:ion:.ry Jo'i..h Lilding of the
Evengelict.l Union of South America, accompinled by the North .,mericLz,
traveller Mis: FlizL~beth -teen, puid a brief vi;Lt to T..ipiit-ua.
In the following year, North Amertican idVentists spent one night in
the village. In 1932, the Britic.h expe'lition in ;e. rch of the
vanished Colonel Fivcett, which is described so enjoybly in Peter
Fleeing's book, met iLth the T pir:.pe at the port of Sto io'tinLo:;.
Thi r.3s ,~ slight contact, such as the-e Indi'ns *;lso hid with a

group of prospectors, 'ith hunter:;, ,-r.. with .n officiL1 of the In'i],n
Service, The movie-m:nking group from $So P'.ulo rrferrfd to in
Ponpilio's notes (301-304) spent one night wi-'th them in :.ugust, 1934,
at Lake TucunTr4 and did not preee4 to 2.mpiitur,. At the en- of
Au;:ust, 1935, Ma.dame R.yliane de la F'l:..ise ,,nd her huisbAnd -per.t
t'o dys3 in that vill Ce., The st ae',entn rmde :'bout the T,.pir:p4

by this charming and dlegniit writer *-re, for the :most part, sheer
fl-nt isy,

The first white since the expedition of Mr. Alfredo, thwit is,
since 1911, to live with the T-iir.ip4 dot just for one or sever.il
days but for week.; and -nonths on eni Vws the British missionary

F. C. Kegel of the Evingelical Union of 2outh ,A'meric', rhich is
established at Maca'ubn on the isle of Ban;.n.'l, He stayed with them

in August, repte:iber and October of 1932, from July to lNovenmer of
1933, from .ugust to November of 1934, :.nd fro'n June to August of 1935,
This last period we spent there together, he and I.


/99:75/ The North American ethnographer, Dr. Charlez Vagley,
w"e with these Indians from April to October, 1939, and from December
of the same ye.r until May 1940.
A few Tapirape Fccompanied the Dominicans nd r, Keeul to the

Araguai and stayed briefly in the settlement of the fathers -ni of
the evangelic.1 missionary.
Considering all the various contacts which the Tapir.p4 have
had wit the Whites, it is clearly impossible to determine ny-stagte
2 a ct ov,* 'A 4tLA *
influence& True, I was able to identify certir, melodies "s having
been importe'i by Rev. Kegelj ;n.rd to determine the origin of -oiue
beads, clothes End iron tools. The source of the vague illusicnu to
Jesus Christ, however, had already become undecipherAble owing to the
number and variety of catechists and other visitor:- ;ho might have

mentioned the subject. Iron tools had already been introduced by
the Karaja long before the arrival of the rubber gatherers from
Ceard. And non-autochthonous plants, such as certain v;ritties 6f
ban:ians, have been cultivated by the Topirupd from time immemoril.

Euan the disease of Europeii, origin had :lredy reached the Tupi
tribe, probably through indirect contact with the Whites, th.t i. to
say, through othlr Indians.
If we look at the total influence of the Whites, both direct

and indirect, we may say that it has impoverished TapirEpd culture.
The iron tools make it easier to firm and to manufacture various
implements, but the need to replace thea constantly makes the Indians
wh. become used to them dependent orn our civilization. No such a
consequence derived from the introduction of sugar-cane and
other plants, but these remain unessential in view of the


successful cultivation of numerous autoehthonous plants. It is worth

noting, incident, lly, th:-t while iron tool- hwve replaced previous
implements made of other m.t riAls, they h;ve notch..nged the tr-itiunal
division of 1 bor between th-. sexes, Nor do trtaits of European origin
app='r ...; fertilizing elements in other are-s of the culture such .s

ornamenLttion, hou:e building, diet, industry, or the concept of the
supEirn-tural. Metil -pconL- .:e found Llong with shells Lndi gourds,
beads AlliAg vith strung seecd;; a piece of our clothing is worr. with
bod/ ;-licing; a pipe with an urright bowl, itn the fashion of the
'Whites, iz used A lonsn'ide the~l rrsmoking tube; Jesus Chri t -.

identified with a figure who -:'ppe;.rs in their mythology u; the o'.ner

of l.rQe pigs ind Iron imple-ients, us "cuptuin husband ,n'd ftLher.

All those imports from us, living alongside the trudition.1 traits,
are no more than curiosities in the minds of the Tupir:apd, curio:;itiu:

hardly more importhrt to the functioning of their culture th-.i. ,ne of
their ar:oVow or legends would be to the .vertq e Europer.n,

From th t I ws.j .,ble to observe, Rev. Kegel usu-lly res.tricted
him elf,to the teaching of songs a.nd the adminiAtration of medicines,

Owing to their sporladicquality and short duration, mnd especi.Ully to
the difficulty of communicating through words, the encounters -ith
Dominicans ,nd other visitors have enriched Tapirapi culture ev n leiba

Unfruitful, too, .4ere the attempts to yield an influence thrc.ugh
individuals who hud been taken to the Arguaia by the mission rie: .,ni
,ho knew more Ebout the white way of life th.-n tho.e who had never

left tribal territory. It is q vellAWno.n iSrt how easily

numerous Brazilian Indiuns educate- in oulcivilized



centers weve re-adjusted into .in re-absorbed by their native
A Actually,
environment (cf. Bilt'us 7:165, rnd Ar..ujo Lim. 1Vl4-135)0 munMa q

I did not see any T-.pir,.p4 who h::. liveId Vwth the Vhit.ei long enough
to experience the conflicts of the "1:irgin,.l man" of Park, Stonequist

,n'I other American sociologists.

The impoverishment of T;-pir-ip culture vw-.u induce-i largely by

the iisei .-..e of the Vhitc.t, but fhesc -.ere introd'iceed only partly as

a result of direct contact .1"tt 4ho &_-A. It i. probable th..t the

K..lr,:. neighbors, continually exposed t, ccmt..giun .. s inhabit nts of

the Ar'guaiil, fre,-uently acted -'.' trinsmlit ter,.:: Thi.j ..t lt..,;st my be
ass ume' as reg rde the strange diseasee: whichh vese inS r.dllced prior to

.i ect cun .auct with the r'hite.;, As l'.gley () rn; :tcrfully pointed out,

the catastrophic depopulation c;..used by the epidemic:. which rage-i

around 1895 and 19CO, .nd by later ones AJ well, Sffected the sucial

organization to such an extent th:,t import nt. tr its of T pir.p4

culture were modified or lost,

The Tapir-,p4 often told me th::t in the pr t&y -knew everything,

and now btey know almost nothing, :bout such cclezti 1 phenomen. uS

ecliTses ecpe .n.p~_ .nd' about mFrny other mytholocic 1 subjects.

This m-.y not be -,olely the result of the mortality cuuset b, epii.emicu

and by the pigna lat r.stt cks of KR.r.j:, ..rd T y:.po neighbor-, .ume

old people did Jurvive. I c n imauir.e the pr-es,-!ure exercised b, .he

presence of our culture upon the 4rtTit of the T.:.piit'ua inh.bit .nt...

This presence is made perceptitle through the complex rAchti evsSt s

of diseases, of the fitntastic storee. of tribal .1embrs '-h we-e 0"

'he ArLguaia, of the domineering b'h:.vio;- of Vhi e visitor.:, -.n, of

thetsAdisplay of "riches." The effects of this type of /99:77/

inter-ethnic pressure vary from culture to culture. Th y amty ir.uos

~_~__ IllslC__I~_~_1____~_.I__ _~.__.... _I~~~ .-..._ .__. _~~.I._.__.. .~.._----.~. I(-.11~.-.-- ~__.~-CI---_ll ~-___.I 1_~~~~1 ~1-_1~.~__1- ~-1_1_

.mor.: pecpl'-s of viti-lity, they m.n' ruse 'rcua force-. which aire

manifested for erDanple, in the cre:,tion of new m,.tILc.Cl devices M.ngn:

.borigees, or in improVeententy in irplarFes, t nks or pro,: L ,ni.

tec7.ni:.ue. mcLcnt: tY.c,:.e rho rege- I- themselves. :s mc-re "civilized."

.Among other pec!ilec., htwe.vtr, they maUz c: u.-E- re.ign:tion in:-tead of

redist:.r.cn, nd bring i.bout -ti4At might be called a "culturAl :hrink.tce,

that i; to ;.-y, .isreg L for their oun things: without a concomit.:nt

desire to repl.ice them with new one whether nefrr#ltitns of their

own or impoAts, Thus, i: seem: po.; ,ible to me that, thi,: pre sure miy.y

have c,iuspe the Tipir..pd to lose inter::,L in ceroi;in tr edition : 'hl.ch

did not. seen to t to no: seas '.ny imne'li's e v'..lue in the .tr Ci le

for existence,

/1O0:191/ IV. Contact !ithi other Inrd.:tna

while it is possible to discern, up to a point, the effects of

the direct and indirect contacts with the Whites, it i:. more difficult

to perceive the influences derived from other Indiin tribes. I have

already aluded to the killing forays of the Kayip6 and KarAJd nd to

their role as transmitters of epidemics and importers of iron tools.

It must be added that the Karajd, aside from acting as intermediaries,

also furnished products of their own culture, such as :ongs, I dare

not, however, formulate hypotheses about the origin of the ponalrllg --

masked dance as a whole, a .g~pm'l to vhich these song belong Und

which stands as one of the most characteristic aspects of both the

Tapirapd and the KaraJ cultures The T-pir..pd lend special importance
Tv ,
to the masked dances of the chaTnka. thrt is, jacrg /little Jfcu or

guan/ and of the irancha. a fish. They perform then dLily for wedk on en

_ -- -- - _ ' _

,.... I ;...

Karl von den -*teinen (:313), when dealing with thie m.skedi Oi.zces of

the Indi.an of the Xingu he-idwter.-, ilrite- th;At ihe d..nce of the

J4CU ("yakut") is "origin-. to" the AuetO an'l KanayurA /C.a.,yur-/
that is, the Tupi tribes of the Culuene b-'sinrtehef.ie.p tht eastern

part of th.t region which is serpr-.tel from T.pir pe territory by the
divider of Xingu and ArragudiA w'.ter,. Furthermore, /10C:192/, both W^

Auetd and Kamayuri dit-nguihe-l two kinds of m.>sked dlnces, the d-nce

of the JacuS and th t of a fish -.Aieh was c lled hct'hlu among the

former and htlvt among the latter (ibid.31C-3.17). True, the masks

used by thoue tribes ibidd, figs. 1C7-114) differ completely from tlih

musks made by the T.'pirape. In addition, what little n .y be

inferred from the slight references to the -MarnaCe of .-icLn nd to the

:onGs of those Xingu Indians (ibid?.13-315) indic-tes nu simil rity

wi-,i the ch..nkui and tr nsch performances. On the other h.anl, the

Tapir.,pe also differ from the Karaj4 in the lie::ign of their. m.u-k;,

in their songs, and in their dance motions.

Th.s, the complex of masked dances which Lairpreerd between the

Xingu and the ArAguaia teres :peciul forms in e.ch of the Lbove-
amentioned tribes, and these forms, A.tho;-h they hint Lt mAut al

kinship, do not dielene which of the tribes ias the firit to use Mnar.t-.,

or where it got the idea to do so. It may b- said weMpaJ. th t there

are no historically data tu sub:jt,-ntite conrt ct between the T pir pe

und the tribes of the Culuene bsin, while age-old relations between

the Tapir-ipe and the KarLja -'rethoroughly docluenLed.


/102t123/ While in Tampiitdua no one bothered %itL. the

southern Kyry4d4 neighbors, the northern Kayspo neighbors, called

*n6--C---- -- Cae 4"


Karanchah6, were mentioned frequently Lnd vith feeling. then

dealing vith the "KairaJg of the Xingu" I alre d; referred t- them

and to the fe-r they inspire. I v-:: informed th.at in 19.5 they had
.*estruyed a 1 ag, T:.pir.-pe village situated "ten d.ayst march" north

of Tamplit.ua and killed most of its inhabit ints. According to other

reports, an epiclemic depopulated that vill.,ge land compelled the

survivors to abandon it. No matter what the cause of4his mort lity

may have been, fe .r of the K:~ni.nchah6 undoubtedly contributed to thu

desire of the survivorss to put as much distance as poLsible between

themselves and tne.e neighbors .nd to t ke refuge in the southe-rnmo:t

village of their tribe, that is, T.mpiittu:.' The .:,ine feeling, the
shnae fear of the Kananchah6, aroused even in the inhabit int s of thi

letter village ; desire to abandon it .nd to settle untler the

protection of the Whites on the isle oinn nil. Pev. Kegel toll me

that when he arrived Porto SalvaCgo in 19.'4, he v visited by

Kamairah6 who crime to the river bank especially to ask him to cume
back, t, have large boats built, 'nd to mmra the entire tribe to

Macwuba. The reason for this request was fear of the Kayapo, It

was assumed th-t they had killed < men und viomen from Tumpiitduas

who had not returned from a hunting trip. Mr. Yegel toli th t must

influential man .imongthe Tipir pd th t it'would be impossible to fee,

the hole tribe since there v..s no longer time to prtpire plot; un the

land oquhe Ev.neelicl Union.

When we heard the harrowing cry of the potoo d ring the night
of June c3, 1935, the Tapirapd took this as a sign t?:t the Kayapd

we:e coming. Four days later, at night, ..s I stretched out on my


net beside Kamairrh6-.. har-mock, the Indian "oigvig" s id: "I am
,tfr-id." I retorted, with the courteous arrogance proper t. a

captainn" of my rank: I am here, and therefore you neel not be
afraid." A little later /102:1.4/, K&m-ir.lh6 inquire', on account

of the Yayapd, whether I h:.d with me the "little kill r," as we .used

tu c-.1 the r~:vlver to differentiate it from the "big killer or

rifle. I told him that I always :.lept well armed, anu he laughed

In the $e night d .nces, the men hol a hea.vy club or

bush-knife in their hand, and thi_ i. not jus' tu mark timn Aince

during the day they find an arrow or bow :-dequate for the purpose.

On the evening of July 8, as I talked with Mr. KeEgl in front

uf the little house which had been built for him and c"e camarada

Daniel beside t.e vill.i'ge, several men and women c me running, one of

the men holding a bush-knife and another a club, and told us excitedly
thatthere wer, Kananchah6 in the neighboring forest. Followed by an

Indian, I proceeded immediately to the -pot they h..d pointed out.

We found nothing, and I calmed the T pir p4 by telling then thut the

Kananchah6 were sleeping very far away. They returned in silence tc

their hammocks, and a middle-aged woman merely said: "They will come

when the moon goes to sleep,"

When I stretched out 6n my hammock, K-atir..ho, who u:; Already

lying in his net with his wife, smiled at me as usu.l and greeted me

courteously with the customary papanekA, "you hive come," I asserted,

no le..; decorously, "Hma hm. 6. e." He vent on, still smiling,

"Kananchah6 hoee. Kananchah6 amount I am afr id." Although he

did no. seem p:Articilarly scared in spite of thii statement, I c .med

him with a few words as I had done to the others, and he imnedia'ely

111 1 I

laughed, changed the subject and $ekd with his wife.
Later, it became evident tht the presence of Kayap6 in the
neighboring forest had been invented by Anavani, a :;omeehat foolish

youth of about 17. On the following morning he confessed th..t he h d

lied. He pro ably wanted to make himself import..nt. The general
re diness to believe him shows the s ate of mind of the T.pir.pd
toward their feared neighbors, Incidentally, on the day when
amairaho showed me the smoke pillars of the "Amp.:pnei" to the

southwest, he .howed me :i si.rilIr display by the Kayip6 to the north,
The non raaterial defenses sho-' that th- Ki.nanchah6 are regarded

as the number one enemy. Although the KaraJu ure also fe.ired, only
the northern neighbor, by whlt I w.Ls able to ub-erv j, L the object

of parodies, violently abusive songs, and ridiculizing p;intumiines.
On June 24, the Tapir,,pe sung in a weeping tone a seemingly ObsAs-u~

fr/oopoe e e?_-?T/ chant about the Kananchah6 which .roused endless
laughter. It was sung in the ments house, here other youths gave a
ludicrous impersonation of those enemies, emitting their vould-be

tribal cry, running and jumping crazily hither nind yon, gesticulating

with angry excitement and hitting the house stakes with their clubs.

At the same time, in front of the house, other men accompanied by
the women and children danced and sung th, ka6, the dr.nced .ong th..t
derives its war-like character not only from the wvepons in the hnndt
of the warriors .ind from the latter's serious npvomsn y but also

from the powerful rhythm of stamping feet and the menacing quality of
the guttural sounds.

/10i:125/ Vhile all this pertains to night performance'-,

another spectacle t ok place two days later in daylight. It w-~ a

-------- --------------------------r;- -------------- ~I~... ~.~ ~~~__~ ~~_~~~__

drw.tLtization of the supposed Kayapt att ck on the .0 Tp irap4

who hud faileld to return from the hunt during the previous ye..r.

Six youth. holding on to e;:ch other in friendly f.s^hion t\ o by. two,

with the pAirs one be..ind the other, wulke'd pc cefully from house

to house. They hurmed a song. The first two pAirs carried a

blanket on their bick, -.nd the last pair -erted a mat, A ,issed

man followed, bent forv-rd, dancing -nd shooting rroivw at the mat.

Af'er a while the p:.ir, lined up one beside the other ::n.l stayed put,

hunming their song, vhile the m:isked figure emitted the v.ayup6

trib l cry n', danced in men:icing f,.shion, ste rin lw-Ivys on thte same

spot. A little later, the walk wr .s resumed. This scne *.::; rIepe. td

sever .1 tiarnes;, suddenly, however, when the p.irs w-,ere alunding still

onee more in front ofa hut, tvo maked nayu~pd" rushe headlong from

behind it, and four others emerged from behind the neighboring house.

All these "Kayap6" had bows or clubs in their h .ndr; r.d vere disguised

with ham.'ock.;, bl.nk-ts, and other belongings of the White guest::,

Their flce "ere covered with sifters, iind my str.w, h-;t h ,i .a.:lso founi'

j4s .se. While the three Tapir p4 pairs kept w..lklng e., pe Lcefully

as before, the masked figures: alternately ran furio, ly hither &and

yonpemitting their typic.1 cry, 'and performed .)birculair dance. In

ihis di.nce, some of them lee4e4-c t the: b.ck of th, man in front

while other:-; Fcer tro d the m'n behind. They all JTumped tWr one

leg te the other, tossing about with their arm.. *rxl legs .;rnd geeticu-

lating with their weapons phott. 73). After repe ting All thii .ever 1

time for half cn hour, the "K,.y.4p6" att: cked one anotherr .nai quarr led

monb. t;.e'.elves. Then the T.Rpir.p p .ir; quietl/ broke up ,nd



-- r -- --

T.is performance, therefore, contrasts the mildnesi which is
indeed the tribal behavior pattern of the T:,pirpde with the nervous
aggressiveness of the Kayapd. This seem-. to be a symbol of
universal significance, when we look at the p:.cifists -nd militAribts
in other parts ofche world,
The opinion of the Tupi tribe about the nature of those
neighbors even seems to beexpressed in their mythp 4 whilee the Kar J
are regarded as descendants of a water serpent, the i.ncestor of the
Kayapd is tantevoga, the tick. One of the proofs of kinship with
those bugs, my informants say, iL the falsetto tribal cry which they
attribute to their northern foe. This proof, although it might not
satisfy a biologist, is sufficientto the ethnologist. Actually,
everyone knows th.st the tick is a pesky nuisance,
The Kayap6 who have intimidated the Tupirapd over the past
few years, however, do not belong to the bands visited by Krause in
1908 and by Kissenberth in the same ye.r .nd the following one, that
is to say, the Indians c lled by the niam of-Kayap6-Mekubengokrd by
this author. Kissenberth (G24G) heard Mekubengokr4 kb elders rel.te
that the last hostile encounters between their people <.nd the
Tapir-pd had occurred approximately in the middle of the lAst century.
This traveller does not /102 126/ explain, hovevir, how the near-
sexagenarian Tapirpdp he saw in a Mekubengokrd village (ibidt47 and
figs. 4 & 5j lifigs, 18 & 19) got e-4be there and 4tbew anexed to
the tribe.
I shall ahow later th-t the Tnpirapd have a few cultur 1 trAits
which are similar to those Of these Kayap6, but not as many a-. those
which reveal their kinship with the Karajh.

o siI68b


/103:183/ V. the number of villaeaxs ad if tribal members

Sixteenth-century authors such .s Pero de Ma.alhaes de
G;.nd'ivo (45) and Gabriel Soare., de Sousa (362) alre .dy pointed out

th propensity of the Tupi Indi..ns to divi'ei into b~nd- a:. a result

of certain diisenscions. /omission/

In the case of the Tipirup4, the disr. ptive forces were not

only countered by the authority of Kamair.h6 in Tnmpiitkua, but vere
alsc. kpt at b-y by more powerful destructive forces, th.t i" to say,
terrible epidemics. Kamair:ho's authority become ,jppar' nt when I

attempted to ascertain in which of thr v.riounvillages, now extinct,

the individuals who m.ke up the present population of TuLmplithUa

had originated. Those who h.d reve:lled their birthplace to me

/103:184/ did nol dare repeat the information in the presence of tiis

mo. t influential leader, The unifying activity of Kamuirho was
justified by the fact thft old antagonisms between the vill.,ge.. were

not yet entirely forgotten, although they were seldom r-cnlled.

In this regard it l 4 to mention, fir ,t A-nd foremost,
the survivors of the vill ge abandoned in 1932. They i.y be

distinguished from the other inhEbitants of T::mpiitdua by their scowl,

their perennial tendency to mn.ke mocking remarks in a lo,' voice, and

their l:-.ck of hospitality. Their village, loc:.ted "ten dayst march"

to the north, wau reputed to h.te the Vhite:;s It est blished contact
wit. Tiampiitiua through trade and a few m:irriage.,. I still. found

about 20 of those "enemies," counting the men, women, ind children.

I got along %ell with them. One of them, M-ninoh6, bee me my close


friend and an exception .among his people in hiU incre-sigly

hoppitc-ble behavior toward me. This did n.t keep m .n T...apiitnua

people from hating him. Perhaps it even increased, the bntagoni.,a.

Gradually, I learned th t the O- individuAls who disappe.,re.

in 1934 hAd been, for the mo-tp-rt, former inhabit .nts of the village

th-t bc me extinct in 1932, Mr. Kegel rec lied th t already in 193E

there wais ., rumor in Tampiittua that they ,would move far away. They

were on the whole unpopular, :.nd re-m.inr-d enemie of th, hite..

Uhen they left, they took with them everything they owned. They

talked aw.y tuoard. the north. A sorcerer-medicine m..n, an influenti 1

and hMtdy man who hAd been accused of canusing the deAth of Kanaird's

wife, joined the-i and become their le.-der, They Imum had not been

seen rigain in 1935, and it v:.. believed so widely that they h-id been

killed by the Kayap6 that, as I alreAdy mentioned, :he whole tribe

wanted to run away to Mac:uba ..And later commemorate the att- c through

the pantomime described e.rlier. There was no absolute certainty,

however, as to the end met by the <0 persons. It w.-; said, a. I

already mentioned, tht they never returned from a hunting trip.

,ll the Tapir.pd I asked spoke offhis communal hunt. It is probable,

however, that those cC persons were expelled from the community, It

is well to note, however,that this hypothesis woul: not be corrobor.-ted

b. the fact that they took with the: everything they o'ned. Indeed,

they left at the very time when the entire village v.Is being

tr-:nsferred tu a new site. Furthermore, when people le.ve the

village for several days with their f~a-ilies in order to hunt or fi-h

communally, they usually tike along all their household good'!, which

_ _1___^_____~__1__~~_____ _____~~~~~~_~_ 1_11~~_~_ __~_ __~ _____ 1~__1~_ __ ~__1~~ I_~^\~~~ _lli~_


Page 38

up, it is fitting\~ cite :al"o the following c .se. In September
13U, the young -.nd forceful "c .pt.in" Ik,.Ir nch, who h.-d qh -urrAltd
with KamYir.h6, founded a nev vill.te one league e.-t of T.-mpiit -..
r'ev, Kegel, to whotm I owe thi,; piece of information, visire, both
vill.ges. Ikar.:ncho had so much energy tht he imn-ged to post
well-disciplined sentries .t night -,roun hi settle ment. "uci. a

precaution, taken pr, bbly on account of the Payap6, vw,~ unh rd-of
among the Tapir-pC. One third of the inh..bit:.nts of T-.mpiitdua
mov.d to the new village. Ne rly all of them 'ere yoiunm peoplt * *

/omission/. At the t me when rk.-.r.rnch6's viiill e a founiderd,
Cumar d.s of the Dominic ns at Conceicgo p.':se on tu the T..pir p4,
with whom they h:,d been in contact on the river of the same n,.m., an

influenz.. which apparently wis aggriv:Ated by pneumoni:i. During the

rainy .eason th t followed, this epidemic caused high mortality
throughout the tribe, killing also Ikraranch6 nind his wife, Then the;
separatists returned to T;mipiitu-.-.
The 18th-c-ntury m;p rFpro',uced in this vork poin', out ,ith

three triangles the /Aldeu- do Uentio Tkpir.fp-df/vill. ge t ef t: e
Tapirape people/. In his account of Alfredc. Olimpio de Oliv. irild

expedition, iprrmie maut 4aI 1@1S, Angyone Costa (2'd-2-23) writ.r.,, A
follows about the Tapirip of the tLmet "The. e Indi:ns occupy three
villages, the first one located tvo days journey from the rivrbnk.,
the second one there iayst a-ay. The explorer did not vjit tV..

third one."
The following appears in the account of the Dominican

expedition of 1914, printed in the Mensageiro do -;anto Rosario (317)s


'The Thpirapp form three groups, or rather three m loc1 s /vill.ge-/,

five days' journey apart. The Indtins c.n walk 50 kilometer-s a day.

This shuvs how huge isihe region inhabited by such -- r l..tively

sparse tribe. The village we visited hAd 16 huts, ecn one Theltering

,everal families. It is true th.t vhen the Fathers drew ne r, some

of the shacks 'ere emptied, and familie- urgelI by Ia suspicious chief

ran to hide in the forest, The people we found did not exceed 160

souls, and from thi t may easily be inferred th tthe tribe doez not

include more th:n about a thousand members."

/1C3:186/ The note published inl91. .bout Dr. 'runcisco

Mandacard's journey states th .t the TWipir-.p vill..ge visited by this

explorer contained 868 inh'ibitantn,, an,: ren -rk- that "almost inv riably,

a vill ge merely consists of a single and numerou.. family The

number of vill..ges, however, is not mentioned (cf, Kissenberth ;t


Th. same thing applies to the -b.e --mnl^todI account of the
)fvY'e. OAAf e rtftr j
Indian inspector's tr'tp which only states that "some 10CO or 1500"

living Tapir,.,p were found (Glass:139),

Rev, Kegel told me th t in August of 1934 he found in
TampiitAua some 14 houses holding slightly more th-n 8)0 occup.,nts.

These, as we already mentioned, split up in September but were

together again when we visited them on the following year, 'r.m 50

to 80 of them died during the 1932-1933 rainy season, ..nd only three

or four children born :t that time were seen by this mission-iry,

There w.,s at the time only one couple with three children, while

other couple> with progeny only had one or two. Other. Mr. Kegel was


in Tampiittuu, in 19'4, c-fier the re-p-rture of the oft-m-ntioned "LO"

.ho h d not yet returned in 1975, he only s v sevn house, vith 113

occupants. It is to bte assumed th t ,ew-v addition 1 f miles vere
absentt duringithe miJiionry's visit that ye..r, for in 1Sz5 I

counted 130 T.pir p6, They were living in the sev n house seen by
Mr. Kegtl on the previous year, sani ;.lso in the 3o-c 11eC. itUana

/men's house/ and in ncthe shack (marker' with the letter j on the

c;roun'l pl.a. of Lhe vill .re) which was not .:& finishe'i as the other.,

The distribution of those 130 individuals .miunthe house. is
indicated on the ground plan of the villu, e (fijg 8).

The following table shows the r tios by :-.e, sex, 'i! ritual
status, .And progeny:

/ ypist: seq'p.ge 41a for t:.ble/

/103:187/ It is app .rE:nt, therefore, that at the time of this
census, made in 19.5, there ver in Tbmpiitfu.k 70 married individuals

and 60 unmarried ones,

The .8 men between: the age of 18 ni 45 include the- f.Lther3

of 20 children. 1he 26 women between the ages of l1 and 60 included

the mothers of O children. Theze 64 men and '1omen, therefore,

included the fz thers .,nd mothers of 52 children,

The.e 52 children do not include those who were cited as

stepchiliren or adopted offspring. It is possible, furthermore, th t

they may include step- or adopte.l children .-h vere not ci eld a- such,

In this case, the number of children: with a living f-ther or author,
.hLch is Llre .dj rel tively s.m!ll, vould be ev n smaller,

1____ _Il_~r~_~_ __ __ ~1~_~1~ ~___ ~~I~~~ _~ _~_ _~_____~ _~~ __~___~____I~~~_____ _j__l~rl~ ~~_I_


Individuals Married Sons Dauut Indiviluals As ried Suns bioL-< aai b-'-n

Leas than 1 year

1-2 years
Q-5 years
6-1C years

11-14 years

etc. etc. /typist: epy from 103:186/

Among the couple, who hLd children issued from their current
marriage, there was one with threat children, two with two, an ive

with one child each.

There was a 45-year-old grandfather with a three-year-old

granddaughter, and t grandmother of 60 with a granddaughter who v .s

alco three, A man of 33 said that tk he was the- grandfather of a

girl of five who had neither father nor mother, He m.iy hve been the

brother of the girl's grandfather,

No less striking than the above figures are the following

In the age group ranging from less thln one ye-r to 14, there
were 26 males and cO females, th-at is to say, 55 +-e-"c' e -e z

individuals of both sexes,

In the age group ranging from 15 to 30, there were 30 male

dnd .-0 females, that is, 50 individuals of both sexes.

In the age group ranging from 31 to 60, there were 13 males

and l~. females, that i to say, 25 individuals of both sexe.. Only
two among them were older than 45, one woman who w, s 48 .nd one who

w-s 60.

There was not a single individual older than 60.

The mos+striking fact is the smill number of individuals over

30 years of age. On the other hand, the number of individuals younger

than 15 is not, in proportion, as small as the corresponding group

among certain "civilized" peoples. /omission/

/1031l88/ The 35 Tampiitdua couples included 20 where the

husband appeared to be older than the wife, 12 whe:e the opposite

seemed to be the case, and three where they seemed to be of the same

_ 1~1_ ~__~~ ___________C__111___~_ I~-. ..-~----~~_~~__-_~~__--____ ~--~-------_.. .111 ICI~~l,_.___ __1_I_I ~


aie. I say "a, peered to be older" to :acknowledge minor inaccuracies

in figuring out people's age, even though I did not do thit- slUnr

b -t in coll abortion with Mr. Kegel, who hA:d more points of reference

th n I bec. us4e had observed thee Indiani for sever 1 years.

The following table shows the- hutber, sex and u e of th.

uccupantj of each hou-se indicated on the ground plan uf the viillrge

/typist: see p-ee 43a for table/

I herd in 19Q5, rind published in 1E37, th.t the Ttpirpd

formerly h..d five village- vhcse descendants make up tht present

population of Tjamplitdua (ef, Baldus 17:86). VaWgley (8:4C8-4G9)

confirmed this, adling (4?5) that those five vill.ges /Fnelish/
'probably existed I so late as th .txTn of the century nd are ',ld04o

hav:'e h:l .'A population of about ta-o huaped people e'ch," He all:o

refer. ibidd) to epidemics ai the unly cause for the ub:n~uinment of

thes~ vill. ge.0, I have already mentioned th t in the case of the

village abandoned in 1932, feir of the Kuya.p6 must huve been a

contributing factor. It is worth noting the explanation according to

which the occupants of three other village. moved to amnpiitkua

becau:,e there were no so: cerer-medicine men lef~.mong them, Thi'>

might of course h ive been the result of .n epidemic. The interesting

faCt, however, is th.at the Tapirape did not mention disea..e but the

lack of pages /medicine men/ as the reason for abandoning the

villages, Nothing could underline more clearly the ImportL.nce of

these men.

The village abandoned in 19~2 w v c..lied Moyt1ua, a word made




under 15

It & over


unler 15 1- t ovc-r tot 1

#.4#f~ j ~o,,~u
t ,t; 1

bouL.e a

hou-e b

.... etc.

tak:ana /men'n house/

/typist: copy from 103:188/




1 3'

up of goyan, "c.ne," und t4ua. "vill-ie," The oth r threeL extinct
vill:gez wee called' (1) Kuru.ntua,, fro-a kurMu or koruL, "squash*

(Br.azilian Cuicurbitacea), which remained in the Pr zili n vernacul-r
Scrua /Tr. l.icana odorifer;/ (C) MankoLtu-, from MLinko, ihe n.me

of b. Kar;aj, Tho wv.-i the ville chief, ..nd (3) Chechotdua, checAh
being probably the jeju (Hoplerythrious unitdeniatus), a fish akin

to the trara /Tr, Amazon lungfish/, or else a contraction of

chechod, "big chechd"1 thAt is to say, the piraCuru (Ar paim- gig-s).
It m.-y be th t Chechot:!ua v -.s the "Chichutguaf Wagley hf"r a .bout,
:nd th.t the T-'.pilt4uo emigr:.nts /103:189/ moveK, to the :.it. ofthe
former villnae of this n me on account of the fcod plhnt which h

undoubtedly still grew in the surrounding plots,

Tarnplitdua, the "lvill.,ce of the t' pir," no lon(t-r st.inci
here it was at the time of my viit. It vwa move'. fL.tther from the
river, This repre er.ts. a move v.'y front the White- nd, to some

-xtent, "toward the Ke.yep6." Such .: move- .:per.r to me. L as
"helblthy policy," There were, and continue to be, nttei pts to

relocate the Tapirapd at "Protective Post" located nF-ir the
Aragucia. The immediate :nil continuous contact of these Indi.nj vith
the most varied represent.Atives of our civilizAtion, wvhichi would be

inevitable if the :,bove-mentione4roject vere to be cii.ried out,
would bm g the certain annihilation of thi peaceful Tupi tribe, whose
number, a; I wvrte this (1944), probably do not re-.ch 150.



/105177/ VI. Physical appearance and orn ment.tion

On coming from the KarajA to the Tepirapd, one immediately
notices tht the latter, on the -verage, are much shorter atnd less
sturdy, shorter e..peeially than the Kar:ija I say in S.nt. IS.bel,
and less sturdy than the inhabibitnts of Beroromandu .nd other [C~^; J
villages located north of the Tapir pe river mouth. Fritz Krause
(2t405) noted the s.ime differences in Tapirsp4d women ;nnd boys as he
Al -mongthe KarajA. He li-ts (ibidll80) as the taver ge height of
the Karajd 166 centimeters for the southern grour and 160-162
centimeters for the northern group. The height of the Tpirlpd v..riesD
as a rule, between 150 and 160 centimeters. Ktmair4, the tallest, who
wvs but 170 centimeters tall, stood out amongg them quite strikingly.
The average height of the KayLpd, who are .lso taller th.in the
Tapirapd, is 165,7 centimeters (Ckr a4c *J: X'i To1
In all the above-mentioned tribes, the women are considerably
shorter th.n the men.
The physic l appearance of the T.pirlpd, like th:t of many
Brazilian tribes, reveals two different types. It is true that in the
majority of cases these two types are mixed to a gr-iter orlee.ser
extent, but they are nevertheless clearly distinguishable. One is u
slender type with fine features, represented for example by Ksoiir h6,
photss. 51 & 52), Urukumy phott, 53) and Mareromyo phott, 3), tind
the other a thick-set type with a coarser face, such as Vuanom.lnchi
fp /105:78/ phott. 63) and Ipsyvtw photss. 32 & 60). If these types
had originated from ethnic stratification, the former one would hove
made up the upper 1 yer, for it is not only numeric.lly superior but
also peculiar to chiefs and their close rel tives,

~_~~___~_ _II_______~_______ ~ _1____ _1_1_____~___1~_~_ 1~_~_~~ ~~~~__ _~_ __ _ ~ __~~_____ ~___1___~_1_~_~~___~__~___~__~ ____I __


Thi- type unquestionably has Tupi characteristics, while the other

one may perhaps be related to the Kayap6 a. described by Kruse or
to other G6 peoples.

The somatic characteristics I designate ;is Tupi iad peculiar
to the Tapirtap are the short and slender figur,-, the aquiline nose,
and a greater resemblance to !uropeans in f;.ciohl features nd over.11

appearance than is found in other Indi-ns.

/105:79/ The o-c .led ..quiline nose, which appears in nmany
Tupi tribes, is also found among the Tarir'pg phott. 1). Tenivuihdu.-
i a good example of this phott. 55). This Tupi no:e 'iiffer; from

the G0 type not only in its convey bridge, but sometime:. l.o in its
les..er vidth. /omission/

/105:80/ Many Talpir;pe4 be.-r A greater re..embl ncc- to Furope .nj
in face and overall appearance than other Indians, This shouldd i.ot be
taken to mean th:.t their "Europe;,n characteristics" outnumber their

Indian ones. My meaning will be understood by -.oking, for example,
at Iravuy phott. 62), There are Tapir;tpd vith thin lips, there are
others who hardly 'shov any Mongoloid features, and there ;.r some with

light skins. Ve gave the girl firovytyngaho phott. 87) the name of
"Tori" owing to her lick of pigmentation, for this is the n:ime given

to us, the TWhites, by the Karauj.

/105:81/ The difference between the T,:pir-p ..nd the Kar.:jg,
so clearly evident in terms of stature, is not :pp-rent in the hLir,
which in both tribes, contrary to the cunma~ i straight Indian hair,
is sometimes sligh ly curly and f-eqoently somewhat wvvy (cf.

KamairA, phot. 57, and the group, phot. 28), This is .en-st when


the hair is tousled, or when it is long .nd loose (of. phot. 2),

I did not see any white hair :minong the Tapirp4. It is, aa
a rule, unusual among Indians, and appears only at a very adv nced

se.r I did not find any b:.Id heads either d.m.ng the Tapirap4 or
-.ong any of the other South American tribes I visited. /omission/
Even bald spots seem to be unknown iiong the Tapir .pe, if we may dr..w

the.A infrenec from the admiration they sho'.e'i for the incipient
baldnes:, on my head, which they tactfully referred to as "sm..ll hair,"

F. Krause ( 2185) says of the Kar;ijd: '"The Indi:.nm have a
ch:rr-icteristic body odor. It is rather strong :n.i unpleiuasant to us,

It is hard to say, ho'!.ever, to what extent it is due to the oil
/105:88/ turning rancid on their skin and h.tir," Conce.rningthis, I

must sa:, that in spite of my excellent sense of smell, I was never

able to discern among the numerous Indian tribes I visited any
characteristic roifal odor such as the one I noticed, for example, in

many Afric.n Negrues (but not in all), that stench which Br zilins
call cUatin. .nd which is reminiscent of rancid soap. /omis:.ion/
Some Tatpirapd, indeed, have a rather light skin, In this
respect, however, most of them do not attain their own ide.Al of
beauty, which is white, at white as the habitually covered skin of

northern Furopeans. The women never tired of feeling my arms vh:n I
pushed up my sleeves. They expreL ,ed in this f-shior: their -d.miration

for the vhiteness of my skin, and not for its softness, for in this
respect they could no tbe surpassed. My c meanda Daniel, a northern

Brazilian who was almost as d -rk as they vere, did not attract as much

_~ I I _I ~ ~ __1

/ 48

attention. The skin tcne thl.y consider most attractive, ho ever,

must not seem to them as remote from their c.. n color as it se'-m. to

us, for they characterized their ow~ skin ex. etly as they dil mine,

ith th- terns chinf,: ..nd typi.rni., both of which :aean White."
SriA SC4 Fr
whetherr these Tapir p6 words differ from our own term for hLie"

I'n mroe^; wafvrrtmrj or whether the ye..rning for the ideal makes
the Indianm, appear to them'relves as lighter th n they actually are, ) L

in i.ny case t ~9-&- a prime ex.-e;ple of the po-sibility of bro.d

differ- nces in the concept cilizz:tion of :;uci concrcte-setmntig

phenomrn'n.n ,,.-.ar- e r r ,t shuws the re e .rcler the. das ir.bilit.y, of
cimr ring, whenever possible, his own ob.erv tiorn:i vith tll-

I info:m ;tiun provided by thekndlin:;.

Other native people of south .meric : .o p-recr while
skins. Fritz Kr .u:e (_ 185) 'rite.: "The ide: 1 of The K r j' i:

the vhitest skin pos_:Ible; they prizert my whitee co:nplexior. very
to be
highly, :,nd they thcselvE :.v -irc1hed' tasl m owprmmia *.ui. white

(cf. the role of v'hite people in their myth;)."

In 1663, .i,'-:o de V. -'concello' .' ro'e (LX) th t i e Indi .i:;

of Br:zil told the Portuguese th- t their n -n ncetor_ h d been

"people of white complexion," -nal rhcn rhen y -.Oe:'. ske ..liy they h I

not rem:ine.. '-hite, They n*: e-- (LXI): "Let u:, i kie n experiicnnt

mnhkoWm-lOnMnr Ba fske de'your .clothing for ours, ndr go

-.bout. r ked. in the sun -nd in t.h- r in, e do; .nd you "ll soon
from v-hite to
see, th.t /105:83/ tsaumxumak you bh vy turne:/our own hue,"

Consequently, just :cn "ecorinC th the 'or' of the T pir pe. Lhere

is no difference between their color ni -ir.e, tew- a the Indi ns

to who2 V:.sconcello: 1~ referring cle rly tt te. th. t they reg rded

I- i -

rIT --s: -. 1-. '-.r- -------- -- - -__ ~


their oil skin .us b.-sic.-1y identic 1 to th..t of the Portugueue.

lNot only ,:o forest Indi..ns like the TTpir.p4 !:.t river
Indians like the : .rJ, prefer '.hice complexions, buc -;o do ,. v.nn:.
Indi.ns like the Too,,. In the univer .l confl.gr.c.ton wth of li.is

Cha co tribe, only one mf:n survived i he fire th.t de-troye'i the
entire earth. "Buc there :- no .'om.n. Thrin they lowered do;,mn
tor .rd
from the sky *. vomtai tie!t o rope, nii the. cui the rope xt the

top whten the :.oa:.n i.,-S close to cho e-rth. t.I-.;ULe they cut it

very close to the ground, :he c .iae out ugly, but ii they h .. cut

the rope 4rptiher up, Lhe -o:;a.,n "'oul'l h vt. c:,ra7 out bu1.utiful, .nc
their ,..ll Indi..tns voula be v.hiLe ..n- be. utiful." (Lehia.nn-ixt-che

6, 195, 198). .'s 'e c.0s see, whitee" U .,i e..utiful" rimp~--4.. ly
egHprga equated in thiL myth.

/IgHA Just as most Taiir..pdl do not fit their own ideal of I
beauty with regard to skin color, they do not fit it eith r with

reg .rd to st ture, for vhile most of them are hor4, they like tard .nen,
They also like o have a body where none of the port-' provided

by nature are missing, except for the h,.ir out on -pecific occ.jsiuna

and the body hair which is carefully plucked. For thi.. re .son,

namely, for esthetic motives, Chief Kamuirah6 would not ,lloi one
of his incisor3 to be removed, although it v.i, quite loose f"nd the
source of
mmman mt frequent complaints on hispart,

Likt. most Brazilian Indians -who do not yet live in close and

continuous contact -ith the Vhite.., the Tapir.pd, both men :.n&l omen,

go altogether n:-ked. /omission/ And like mo-t Ind ..n. in thil

country, the Trpir:.ip4 always go barefoot. The men merely/ ve:.r the

penis she th, and i cmetim s the -aist cord.

Vhen I asked the Tapir.:pe for the nbIme of their ez;is -he.. th,
someone told me, At fir.t, the word ngh6. This is the n.-me civ, r to
the penis in KYrabj. But those Indians do not use a she:.th. They
o. 0 V tr fpi d.cl
tie the prepuce Just bo the glans with a cotton s4& ng which
they c.11 poo4dak&n (Krause 2:204). Later I heard : monpthe Tdir.pd
the word cherakuqfhivohdua to designate "my penis sheath," from
cheraUi. "my penis," and hdua which is related to the vurd for
"leaf." /omission/

/1(5:84/ The penis sheith of the TLpir .p is mrde of a strip
of inner b rk, from 1.5 to 2 centimeter:: wide, taken fro:! the -t..lk
of the center 1 leaf of a palm c; lled pinav by the e Indi .n. anil
simply "palm tree" by the non-Indian populltiun of the Ar.gu.i,.
As a rule, each man possesses a certain number of these strip, hung
in bundles tnd rolls from the wAlls of his shack.
To make the sheath, the strip is folded s; th.t its tips
nearly join. Then the tips are slipped together intu the resulting
knot. Thiproduces :, funnel with oblique vails, soomntime; adornedd
with a few burn made with lightly applied live coals phott. ;O), A
speciAl device prevents the funnel from opening too easily before
folding the strip in half, the men fold a smnill part of it obliquely,
..nd then fold the strip once more .o th-t the triangle is placed
exactly over it. The strip is not folded stiffly, since owing to
it. natural toughness. it retains a tendency to unfold. As a result
ofthi; tendency, the tip folded in this f..shion remain; securely
held in the knot along with the other tip.

As a rule, a man will prepare a new sheath us he get- p in


the morning. The prepuce is pushed through t.he funnel in such a
way that it project s beyond the s':ller opening 'and ia tied all
around like the ttp of a s:iusge, remaining erect. Thus, the funnel

is worn uprlde-down, tht.t is to say, 'lth the s aller opening on top
;nd the larger rim l facing toward the front (Kan ;hots. 5, 6Lo dnd 68),

.As m.y be seen on these photographs, the yellow color of the
inner-bark strip st nds out clearly against the skin, In view of

this, it -ay be that a desire to attract the attention of the
opposite sex ts involved in the use of the sheath. At the sinme time,
it is also possible that the men assign to the sheath the asn
purpose which, according to Krause (2t204) the K3iajd as.ign to their

penis cord, that is to say, thnt of concealing the glin., from the
eyes of women. There is no doubt, ho*'ever, ;-h't th. f-e-t th..t both

sheath and cord serve as protection 'gain t insects n'l crustaceans,
such as ticks for example. We have known case:. where these p.r'..itec

fastened their proboscis /105:85/ right at the opening of the
urethra, The Tapir-p6 make no distinctions among these various
kinds of bugs, and c-ll them all tantevoga,


Small boys do not protect their member. Just as the Kz.-raj
adolescents do not use the penis Si cord until their hair is cut for

the initiation, Tapirap4 youths first use the sheath at the time of

the haircut.
The importance of the penis sheath to the Tpir*.p is perhaps
made evident by the fact thht evrn the dolls made for fun were

supplied with such sheaths phott, 77),



/105k87/ The waist cord is c lied .pchekuikudn or
chikon'gkohiua in Timpirap4. It is made of cotton threads twisted
by the women on their thigh, but it is u.ed solely by the men. The
latter wear it so th:t it lies a good distance below the navel
(cf. photos. 5, 25, 69), This may corroborate the conjecture of
the evolutionist Von den oteinen A /2192/that the vaist cord
formerly hel'i the function of the penis she.th. Among pre.ent-day
T:.pir..pf this cord may be regarded, along with the tembet&, u a

;rerog.ttive of the males, I*s rarely ubed to carry /105:6/ things.
Occasionally the/ will hang a comb from it, or, in recent times, a
pair of sci.sorsi Ns well.
Dr. Charles Vagley told me that in 1979 he found chil1l-
x carrying straps which Ihe Tapirapd women wee over the shu'ulder bnd
across the chest. In 1937, Dominican missionzarie, hid gone up the
Tapirap4 river with large quantities of f.brics. The str.ps were
made o tho.e fabric~. It is interesting to note that in lU75 there
weie no such objects in existence. It is interesting btcause it
would have been possible to carry the children in small h.ammocks.
Furthermore, I had given away many pieces of cloth which could have
been used as child-carrying strips. uch straps not only are ujed
by the neighboring Kayap6 (Ertuse 2 t94) but are also a typical
cultural tralit of the Tupi Indians, /omission/ It is worth noting,
however, thdt child-carrying straps are not used by the e-.stern
neighbors of the Tapir-.p4~ that is to say, the Eariaj (Krause 2t276
&a to -. 18, 37, 42).

In the case of the Tapirupd, it v Ls a ;:.rently the numerous

pieces of fabric brought by the Dominic ns in 1937 tht pl.yea a

decisive role in the introduction of child-carrying str-ps. In

1935, all fabrics and clo'h article coming from our factorll.s hel,:
a merely decor::tive function m.nong tho:ke Indians. The men alone

:ed them, since mo:-t adornmenLs are prerogativeu oftheir sex anad

such impressive orn ment; a~ tho:e r,;'e of fe-ther.; A;nd clovs are

worn only by them. Kumair:mh6, the most import ntchief, liked bett

of ull tL vet r ;j rtC-. dre.s which his vifte h .d rc.:wiv a ,.s i gift,

Thus, the .Am the giver had Lfind, probably inspired by catechizing

hopes, was missed entirely, for the lady reraained -ltogeth-.r n...keo

while her husband wus coveretiown to the knees Lnd below. It i.L

vorth noting, ho e.er, that in the evening, when Yamair.hd retire',)

he would undres-s ,nd carefully fuld th- ires::. Thus, at "r. nour

when every protection a.:'ain.t the aosquitoe.- and the coldi .:oul'l have

seemed to me exceedingly welcome, this important m.;. 1iy in his

small hammock without the llighte t intention of hiiang hi:s skin,
vhifh iws occasionally lit up the vwvering fl mes.

/105:89/ The s:sme thing applied to tll other clothes of

similar provenience, Kamairh6 also po-:eas-ed a lirge piece of

fabric 4hich he used as a sort of cleak, but only during the aay and

not us frequently as the dress. Vuat.namy, another influential

leader, wrai-ped him-elf during the hottest hours of the acy in a

heavy poncho, which was of such good quality th-t I drttmpld to

find out the name of the person who had givcn out such pre.,,gntj.

(cf. Fhot, 58). Then the evil tong-es told me th...t this gaUcho
garment had belonged to a missionary, vho lost it unwittingly with

the full cooperation of Vuat-inamy. The former orner m y derive

~~~_~.~,~ _._.____.__....._ .._.__.~__.~_~...-d... .~._.._.. ...._..~.. ...,.....__ -.......... ~~.~.~.~..~ ~.~-.~..-~~~-~--~--

some consolation froi the ftcr that his unintended beneficiary

continued tu sleep n.ked through mosquito bites .nd cold spells.
The shirts, vests and trousers which I c .e to some of the

yo'ng menr were -i:.l- restricted to daytime use. The enthusit.m for

this kind of ornament 1 stei only a few da.ys. Then the l.vw of the

least effort prevailed, and the pieces ve:e put vWyl in corner

of the house, Incident,;lly, of all my gifts, the vests -ere the

least valued, Their new owners noted yigns of vea.r with obvious

displeasure, 'nd perhaps -Ilso felt that since the ve- t h-d no

sleeves, they were mere fragments of Jacket:. .Idl thus .corne.- by the

The "tim of these Indians, ho ever, was to be esteemed by the

Vhites by conforming to their beh vior, I dio not me .n to sajy th.t

this was the aim of very Tnpir,;pe. There vere scme, however, who

made itquite cle;ir, Ther- vws, for e ample, Kamaird, the tallest

and sturdiest maun in T:.mpiittua and a leader on certain occ:-sions.

Kamaird sometimes liked to use a rather dirty rag ns a loincloth.

This was the only loincloth I s.~v in The tribe, and its use v;.s
probably inspired by a desire to reach the idleal prooldited by some

zaissionary with highly modest sentiments,
luch propensities for adaptation, however, did not preclude

the use of ornaments furnished by us, even then such objects hatd

never appe red on our orn bodies. Thus, Vuattanmy '-ore a multi-

colored cap (of. phot, 68); Kamanand, the scng leader, liked to vesr

on his head a piece of brightly colored cloth; the red-and-blzck

cardboard wrap of my soip contributed to the mosaic of bird feathers

which adorned a dance mask; and beads were the favorite ornament of

both sexes, o adults as veil as children (cfl phots. 3, 4 8, and

many others).
.._ ___ ^__ ^._ ._ __ ^ ^ _^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

I 1 111

ThE 7t-prup6 r ho'-e4 thy s !ie love for those bQtLd:, :s thi.

Kararj, v;antinj al- wys the smallest .nii -whiiest one. (cf. phot. E)
*-n-l shoving intensc di..like for those of other colors ..nd tho.e made

of cleur /lC5:9C/ gl..s3. /onmitsion/

Amionr&ghe T'plrapt, the beads I sa% .ere used merely :.s neck-

1-ces, It is true th-t thee Indians _are :lso very fond of decking
up their cniliren in these ointment:;, .nd the larger the number of

beadc at the neck of a girl, the more beautiful she seems in

everyone's eye:. People often borrow beud:; from etch other tL enh:.r.ce

this .;ort of bc._uty, and not only do married couples use their be.-ds

in turn, but tdhi is :iiso done between pFren .,nd children, ind

between friends belonging to different families.

beads verie the object of the only theft between two T-pir.p4

committedl during my st&y at Thn.piitdua. *hen Maeyma w.s cLe;erted by

his wife and humg his ha: uock next to thA-t of Taip4, a mtlrucrly widow,

she apFeared on the following morning ith tbeadb round h r iueck,


/107:107/ Tapirapd of both sexes usually wear their hAir cut

straight across the forehead just Above the eyes, St thit it c ainot

fall across the face photss. 7 aind -8), They do alloww it to grove on

the sides nd in the back, however, .'ome of the men, vomen and

children sometimes part their hair '-nywhere on the Wt4A$ thus partly
S baring t?1 44bt photss. 59, 61 and 6?), The hair reaches holderr

height in the back, .nd this occurs more frequently .m-.ng the women

than among the men photss. 4, 67 and 69). The later .oxetimes hola

it with a strip of inner bark tied around the head photss. 4 & 5) or

gather it into a pigtail photss. 1, 4, 7), while the women and

I~~~~ _1__ I-Xlrll^. .~_ II~____~~--.~.--------_ ._ i.. 1-~_ 1_.._~.._1.... 1._ _I~--_ .---~----I__~~~.___I ~I__.._ .-

- 1-

children ,.lviay- wear it loose. The hair of sYoe- boys seem. to have
been cut at several levels photos 2 and 8), ad described by Kriiuse
(<;:L9 & fig, 37) for Karaija boys. It mau be said that, as a rule,
there are many simil ritie. between Tapir.,p4 and KaraJ hair styles,
In both tribes, also, the hair of boys is cut all over down to half
a centimeter when they are Libout 10 yeirs old, except for a narrow
strip of hair 3 centimeters long that surrounds the hehd like a
crown (cf. Krause, ibid, & plate 43, fig. 2),
Another occasion fe,- i- harcute is the de:ith uf a close
relative, when not only the males (see phots, 51 ;:nd 5.) but thie
opposite sex as well are copelled to undergo this n. This
custom is quite Aidespread in South America, /omission/
Among the Tiapirftp4, at the present time, the hair i: cut
with scissors received from the whites.

/107:108/ . in 164, Fr. Clude d*Abbeville (267) vro e
of the hair of the Tupinambd of Maranhlog /omission/ ,* /the
women/ are quite meticulous about combing their hair and *,o not fail
to wash it and rub it with oil and roucou every morning."
/omission/ Some Tapir-mp4 comb their hair with gre t care,
though they do not w: sh it as frequently as the Tupin',mba women
observed by Father Claude, or massage it au often with oil .nd uiOU.
They would no doubt anoint it more frequently if it were not for the
scarcity of the raw material, a palm nut that grove. only at certain
times of year. This scarcity impelled n honest m tron to :jteal from
us our only bottle of oil, which we had brought to remedy the l.ck


of fat in the aiet. Inste:.i of lining our sto-achs, the entire

liter of nutritious liquid ended up on the good womants he-l,

/omis sion/

/1073109/ The Tapir pd also put urucu in their hair, but

only on special occasions. They apply it to boys on the festive day

of initiation, to girls on the day when their first men;-truz.tiun enus,
a:nd to tht dead. It m-y h~ve religious significance, but I c.;nnot


Asirie from h:,ir-combing, delousing is a gesture of love. The

bugs caught and their existence between the teeth of the catcher, who

thus swiVllows the blood of his of her beloved. This ten er duty is

perfurmei on a mutual basis by parents and children and by loving

spuu.;es, Girl- show the greatest enthusiasm for this type of research.

It does happen, however, that in old man still ielouses :n f.lredy

mnArried son (cf, phot. 55),

Not only du they avoid losing the blood stolen by lice ind

mosquitoe. by eating the culprits caught in the fct, but they also

swallow tne h1ir plucked from their o~~n body. Indeed, like mo.t '-outh

American Indians, the Tpirap4 have the h-,bit of c rE.fully plucking

rill the hair from their face and body. They refer to this procedure

as ekopad, They remove body hair by covering it fir..t with hot ashes
and then plucking it out with their fingers. They like'-ise pluck out

their whiskers exclusively with the fingers. To remove eyebrows and

eyelashes, however, they use a speci...1 in:t ument consisting :imply

of the nxxz caryopsis of a certain grass plant /Tr. identified later

in omitted passage as being, according to F. C, Hoehne1 the fruit of

Streptogyne crinita Beauv./, which is equi ped with teeth forming

I -` I I I I

hooks At acute Ingles, The Indi n hol", thi,. poi betvet;. the right

thuub anri index finer, while holding. the eyebro- or eyel .h-e- of the

per-on he is about to be.utify -ith the corr-sipon in, finger cf t.it

left hand. Then h.- place- the little hooks tg:.n-t the strtLchEd

huir, pushing down, A few h;ir are inv r.i-bly caught in tjis

natural i:nplcment ani remove i .long with it,

/omission/ 4-pt n- ome --of hi*/ ,
Sr-/- '' 7 47 -The Tapir .p4 ,prly :c: rificrti'n to i" n ujnly.

They first -L, thi- at the time when th( boyvto b. initi. te 1i gie'en

h haircut, th t i1 to sty, oni year before tht initiation c-e i? ony.

The procedure is repes-ie: .ever 1 t .n.s until m:arriLte, nl not

amuktliy carried out even tfter th.t, The Indi n. mn .e vertical

scr~.tchec on the skin of the arm between the Thoul er n,: tht elbow,

..nd on the front part of the leg, both on the thigh .nt bethwen thl

knee *n; the foot. The procedure i., c rridrl out b /m. t.urt mn.

Im'nedit.ely :fterw:,r'1::, the p.itient step; into L.h W tr t. w. sh. It

is extremely rare for infl.:mm 'tion to rer:ult. ""ie ;Aim of thc procedure
'7 z
is t. "give strength." Accor.ing to V'-.ley (4Cr), tI the killer of

a sorcerer-medicine man, in order to protect him .elf ni the r ;t of

hiL tribe against sny possible derger, miut :Imon' other prt.c:utLir.n;-ry
aeasures/"scratch his chest, arms, thighs, Ln', b ck vith teeth of

the dog fish, just '.s he did in the Course of the ceremony he h-d

performed as a young boy to m.ke himself -, strong a ult." I obt..-ned

no -uch inform-tion while I wvs infr.-plit4u..

Th, scarifying to.,l h,.s the s-.-ie n ;n .:s th' cr.tches it

pieces, namely, chainigua. It i. -. trigngul -r gourd fr.g.ment

equipped vith a row of embedded teeth, their points ticking out of

._._~,~...~~.~.~~..~~.. -~,~__. s__.l~~._,._..__~..~_~.._~~__~. ~._~__~_~.. ...~_~_.~~__~ _~~~_~~~_~~

- -- --- .~. ............... .I ._..~- d~l

the outer, convex side of the piece. The opposite side is completely
covered .:ith a thick black layer of beeswax. The teeth are thote
of the so-called "dog fish," aikyngapev: in Tapirrp4, a sc-ly fresh-
water fish of the Characinidae family, fhi iaeiConaei .subfamily,
whose colloquial name alludes to its dog-like dentition (cf. Rodolpho
von Ihering, 165). The 17 teeth of the "scorifier" I acquired in
Tampiitaua phott. 7') Jut out from 3 to 6 centimeters. This piece
is 8 centimeter: long, and measures 5 1/2 centimeter:i at it. bro.iest

According to information obtained from the T.lpirlpd, the
girls -ire tattooed during the rainy season following their first
mensrtruttion. The oper tion is carried out at nightfall, between
January and March, when there is t .ll maize, plentiful game crowded
together by the rising waters, :Lnd much merry-making as result of
all this. The Indians tattoo their chin and cheeks (fig. 1). The

Figure 1,

cheek tattoo extends to b-low the ear, so that a small part of it is
covered by the hair. The crossing vertical and horizontal incisions
look like a fine-meshed net. Thi6 design is c.lle kohovL. The wounis
are first rubbed with a kaaunu leaf (from k[a, "pl.nt," anl un, "bl ck,
dark blue."). This leaf, previously squeezed into a turtle shell
(chauta- .mpekuera) full of water, is vet with its own juice mixed
in water. It is the juice of kaauna that yields the indelible dark-
blue tone of the tattoings. The leaf is held close to the wound for
some time. Then, the Indians blow crushe'i cotton leaves
(amynich6-ha(u)va) unto the wounds ith pi It my be hat they

I~ ~ _ ___ __~~_ ~ ~~____ _~ _~~I_

- -~" --- - -- ---- i

they ,do this to alleviate the pAin, for the girls cry a grAt deal
/1(7:115/ throughout the operation :in}l the t-~toed D rt- become
terribly swollen (ivururk). AS/the time of their first menstru tion,
the girls have so much urucu in their h;lir that their coiffure, mixed
with the greasy substance, looks like a zsort of c, p. They are not,
however,painted with genip&p. They h:.ve given up for keeps the

tamnkura' the cotton orn-ments they wore in childhood, Jome of them
ch-inge n.mies. if they did not already do so at the time of their first
EG<- $oJ 03
Sn menstru.,tion. They e t nothing but green-maize caul /: .e.Aenia a'mIA/

Both m.n ;an. women sing the k, uhiph ~ighr hr .rgan, ded - her
national anthem. Vhen the whole ceremony is over, the girl ij p.Ainted
with the genipp stripes charUcteristic of -omen.

The t:4ttoing is done bj certaiin mature men. They need not be
sorcerer-medicine men, but same of them .ire, like Urukumy for example

phott. 53). The aim of the tatitoing i. to d -tingiseh the women from
the girls. Th- sm ll-'knife used to mike the incisions phott. 'a) is
called vom..m It c.nsist3 of a fragment of rodent incisor embedded
Xlt. , C^> -. L 0
in a small piece of fine- bmbo vwrapped in narrow strip of
philodendron inner b.rk. Thiz strip str-ng-hens the smL.ll rod, which

was ;revio'.sly covered vith resin to provide a better hold. The

tootn fragment in the knife reproduced here phott. 22) consist, of

th.t part of a paca (kanoand) incisor nearest to the gum, anl thus
not of iLt cutting section. The ege w ur. created by scraping the
fragment with a knife. Sometimes the fragment is also t.ken from the

tooth of an agouti (,.utftankuchf), another rodent which, like the
paca, belongs to the Caviid~e family.



Krause (2 404) writes of Tapirap6 tattoing: "Tattoing

exists among married wvmen; they cut vertical lines in their chin,

and a line that goes down obliquely from either side of the mouth."

As we can see, this does not elrL 4lJ Ly with the tattoing I

observed. And the drawings published by Krause ibidd, fig. 262),

although they disagree -with the above-quoted description by the

same author in showing several oblique lines/originating at the

corners of the !ips rather than just onej still do not resemble

the crossed horizontal and vertical lines which I saw on the faces

of Tapirap6 women.
/omission/ /Tr, there follow several pages of comjrarativ
data on scarification/

/107:120/ To summarize, we may say that the special

character of female tattoing differentiates the Tapirap4 from all

neighboring tribes about which anything is known in this connection.
The data oierrmann Meyer about the Aravine and their tattoing,

which are listed in Chapter 5 of this work, are not sufficient
,^ f ;, f, .. ia f-
to be taken into cenmid4ers n in studying this topic. It should
be pointed out further that tattoing as a badge of the marriageable

girl is found in South America not only in such widely separated

regions as Guiana and Paraguay, but also among tribes belonging to

suCh distinct linguistic families as the Karaib /Carib/ and Tupi.

~-~~~~`-`~~~~ I~~ ~I--~-i~--~`-~`-- ---~-l...~r-~-.----- ----

/kio notr of
/.{),- .LJ"C/ Tu --'"....-. .L- ,. .-.v,,j ^ / hh c'rn-.p -i i i *- t r of

/1C8:121/ Body pointing is videly use.] a n4ghe Tpir .p. In
this respect, however, there arte ilifferences dictated by -ex, i;..Le, -.,i
the particular Ind vidual involved. The colors used .ire bl-. c.. btAined
from the juice of the genipap (cheniptu1 in T,,ir-p4), the fruit of a
tree of the Rubinceae family (Geilipa americina,n Lin.), .ind red extr..cted
fro.a the pulp of urucu, the fruit of a shrub of the Bix.ccelue f nmily
(8ix. or, llnn. Lin). The Tarir:ip4, too, c.ill it uruku l-nding the
vowel a sound tht lies between u bnd a closed o. The m..nuf cture of
the p-Iste derived froi this fruit is not as jimpl as the obtentlon of
genipap Juice, .rnd will be described in Chapter ko C~/ ^ <'
The genipap is simply chewed, as St:den (v 3) related of the
Tupinamba, ;.nd the juice isleft in a gourd, A'long the Ta ir..p4,both
men and omnen do this work, allowing the juice to run directly from
their mouth into the container. The liquid is cle;-r "s water, ,nd
turns black upon trying. The juice cian only be used a~ a dye ;'hen the
fruit i.: lost ripe, at th', time hen it stops growing, for tre
stainingiuality vr:nishes when the rind turns brownish ,ind the pulp
gro's soft. This dye, according to :tuden ibidd) .nd ,Sores de "ousu
(.15), lasts for nine days on the ukin and c-nnot be vw..he out before
thiat.~de I must say, ho':ever, th.t on my skin it dii nut re-atn--
lgt.er th n two o4three days.


Among the women, body p'iinting vith genipap W4.s sC videjpre.,d
thht the -bsence of this p.iintin rnve me almost the s .:aei feeling T-
r,,( when I see a "civilized" lady in a negligee at !he 'rong hour. The:
design uniformly used by Lil members of t"e female sex, with Lhe
exception of children and old women, is completely different fru::i the

Fig. '. Vuangkan m-ale boiy p inting.

vwiriuus types of body paintings displ ye'l by the men. I~. called
iokdpaf, while kuintim:n; is th' cenF.ric term for .II designs, including
those on pl.-iite' objects, gourds, etc. Straight lines stretch ,Ic\n
obliquely from between the breasts to the belly .n,' thighs, The letter
are covered in addition with a number of irregular lin s, .n; -0 is the
leg from the knee to the ankle, and :;ometim'-3 the rm. indl fore..r.'i us
well photss, 3, 4, 7 8, 48, 67). The womaii is not p. inte: during
menstruation, As soon as the bleod stops flowing, however, the
charactfrisLic line on the belly and thighs are ren'-wved. Phutograph
67 shows a girl of .bout 1. who has not yet menstrubted, but who
nevertheless wears the women's painting. This is bec.-se she sh.re.
her sleeping h.immock with a .O-yefir-oli boy,
The chief genipap paintings seai by the men r.re, "-iti. .light
vriatiouns, (1) vuangkand (fig. z), the n.zm of a water bir'i, pos .ibly
a kingfisher (Ceryle srec.); (2) ipihaudua (fig. 3), the n.;mc of a fit h;

Fit. 3. Ipihaum-ua mvjle bo-iy p'iinting.

(3) chankoaka (fig. 4), the name of n b ching or spirit aee;. by .A
sorcreer-medicine man; (4) kan.nchah6 (fig. 5), the n.jme by whichh the
northern Kayap6 are known It is doubtf'.l tn~.t the: n-me of t:.i- letter


painting alludes to its origin. Kr.luse (2t386) found nothing simill;i
among the K.qynp6. /omission/

Pig. 4. QChnkoaka male body painting.

I have sometimes seen Taplrap4 men hose painting merely
con iste. of i series of hand prints scattered all ever the body. They
called this vaippde, n ,'ori :'hinch .nay be derived fro:a taitepe, :n,.;nyV,

,nd pyt, '"h nd."
The T,: ir, p4 often blocker; their h.nd with cenipdip or outline
their mouth #ith it. In the vuangkan4 painting (fig. <), the mtn .l-o
has bl.ck border ?.round the mouth. This ~ornmmnt is .1.so used by
the KurLJA (of. Kr use tflig. 48.) /1C8:1L5/. The genipap de.,ign on

the inside of h mints thigh (fig, 6) wLs 'dr.vn by hi lover Lt the
outset of their rel .tionship. They c 11 it anamp'a and mnint-in th..t

it is ?. "fish," They also draw it on the F.rms,
While the above-mentioned m le pAintings ,r,. -orn by the men
from their initiation up to the time- when they no longer p lrticip.te in
daytime Iltances, boys h.ive their whole body blackenerj.th genip4is foz

Fig. 5. Kananchah6 male body painting,

a whole ye- r preceding the da:, of their ini. i;.tion. I Iotlid the ..r.iE

custom cmonf. the KaraJe Accor-.inc to Pv., Keftl's observytiuni, the
t pir.pt boy who i: .&bout to be initiated, on the day of thE ceremony,
bef.rs teniTal. design consistin. of twu parallel lines with ;cAt.

in-between, stretching frm the corners of the mouth to the e..v.,from
the root of the noSe tc its tip, fro:. the chin cavity to the t'itam's

___ __ __~_~~__~~~ .___ 1__ ____~ __~____ _____~1^_ __~_ _~_~_ __ ~ ___~~~_i~____l__r______ __Cr~l

apple, from the shoulder to the elbow- on the frrnft nd b;,ck surface
of each arm, and from e..ci. siie of thy- chest in duplicate/to t. little
dbo.:e the knees, with a ::--tchin? de;:ign on /10-8126/ the back. The
tips of theie l.bat eight pairs of nrr: l.el lines with dots ip-betvern
are connected by two bands of the same design, one running ac\os. the
shoulders and the other around the thighs,
On this occasion, the urucu paste was itpplied not only LQ the
boy's hair but also t,. his cotton bracelets and knee bands, us vetl us
tu the lover rprt of hi.; legs -nd to his feet. Such red stockings", are
a chntracteristid4.don:ent of the men (plot. 68), I never s.a- Tptr -.p&

Fig. 6. Design on a man's thigh.

woman p'tinted with urucu. Only a few girls sometimes wore urucu 4to ns
on their body, for example Kanurin:., a pampe're'l eight-year ol, girl \'
phott. 9). The girls' cotton orn-mentu are also dyed with thiL st"44ing
material, which also serves, incident.. lly, t, pl ster *e hair on th*
day when the first men-truation ends,

As a rule, the vyomen paint not only other members of the fe .ale
sex but also tneir zons, lovers -ind husb-.nd,. I once saw :i !n.,n '.'inting
a little girl, however,
Genipap c intingt, a s well as tho:.e done vith urucu, L e bui; -led
simply with the hand;, thLt is to say, without '-ny implement 'h1t4ver
photss. 7 nd 8j.
There are riuthors who reg-~:' the nr lic.tion of urucu on the
skin 4s protection against the Hctinic action of the sun an-: agin.-t
insect bite. Experiments proved th t one of the properties of urucu
is a failure to absorb sol;-r heat in ,iny but very.f molet .mount..,



The feet .And lower part of the legs, th t is to s.y, the pots where
urucu "stockings" a e often applied, ana.ntutnte one o he bod/ p..rts
moAt frequently exposed to the attack of various trouble-o.ne in:.ects.
The following objections, however, are in order (1) ai boiy paint,
although wide:.pre.d thruogi South America, uruc is used tc cover the-
4a"ur4 :-, , ov
entire body only in a very few tribes, Ad-u e usually 14- i replied to
certain p(ts-fL-the -akin e ly (2) Lmong the tribes with which we
are familiar, this staining materi li is not use': ev
on cer ~in occasions; (;) on such occasion; the Indi.n dt not p..int
all m mbers the tribe with urucu, but only certain spi-e&te per onta
(4) there are /108:127/ tribes 14#t prefer to bl.'cken the :,kin with
genipap juice rather th n unoint it with thbe oily urucu, although they

possess both st.ining material- in abundmi:nce. Such z preference ouldl
not be explained by the following sentence in Gabriel Jooareai :;elousu3

(215) about genipap: "This dye has the property of tryingg the yaws
pustules of the Indi..ns, and of -.nyone who uses it as .;,lve."

Thesupposition that body painting originally h:,d a m.Lgic
purpose, which was forgotten by many tribes in tie course oflime, would

seem to me more adequate than any ritionalistic explanation set forth
by ethnocentric Europe ns. Among the precautionary mer,:ures t ken

by the killer o;the Tapirapd medicine man .nd liste by VWgley
(40iA3AO), there is also the painting of the entire body with genzipap4

and that of the hair vith urucu. According to the sa.me author (ibid*l),
a certain Tapir pe medicine m..n p hinted his chest .nI chii, with urucUV

to rreprsent theblood th it tews fro1 the mouth of for-st spirit:.

/108:129/ Kr:.use (2:214) writes that the K;:r.jat, when they


paint their body, usually reserve the color red for men and adolescent
boys, '>ndthe black for boys .nml young girls. Headds ibidd), "Only
once did I see w woman painted enti.ely with re,." I wish /181170/
to note in this connection, however, that as far as our trading
fabrics are concerned, the Karaja in 1935 left the red ones exclusively
to the women, while the men dressed in those$ of other colors, such as
white ~nd green. They might alre..dy have learned from the whites tht
men do not wear red. A person like the Tapir p4 Kamiir:;h6, who had
h~d les contact with so-called civilized people than the Karj,, hid
his charms wath.at time under a vomen's dress which had originally been
red inli which might be s .id to h..ve remained red in :.pite of its 'ldiily
uee for weeks on end.
In view of the facts note. by Krause (ibid:386) about ht
northern Kayap6, and by Von den Steinen (2:184-188) boutt the Indians
of the upper Xingu basin, it may be sA d in summ;n.r that the T.pir .pe
are quite sharply differentiated from their neighbors in facial and
body painting, although cert .ln similarities exist with the Kar.,ji
in torso painting, and with the Kayap6 and Xingu Indians in the red
"stockings." It is worth noting that such "stockings" were aio used
by the Tupinamb4.
According to what Is .w, the Ta.pir pe stick soft plumage
(avid avid) chiefly on the arms mnd legs of children. The girl
Ampitania wva often adorned in this wby. "rownups, however, il.o use
white down glued on the armlin -iert'Iln e-- e- .(phot. 70). At the
initiation ceremony, the adolescent has white 'lo nr glued on the
forehead, arms, torso and thighs, with the exception of the buttocks.
The glue is a resin (ykyryva in T_..pirc.p) used by both sexes to anoint

Ii I

thebodiy -nd hair. Once rushed, it is mixei -:ith peanut oil (chny).


/1C8:11/ Larger feath-r orn ments :ire used b/ the T.pir-p4,

s.i a riOe, only on festive occasions. The Ta-ir pd KAnchov nfl ho.evL-r

when I invited hin to coa:e with me to the Ar;.gu&Aa, shoved me the 1 rge

reri macA v fe--'hrs whichh he intended to ve.r on hi. heu : on re ching

th K(ar'&J villages. These are the fe th:r; prizedl most highly both

in his o n tribe ..nd mmert tho-e shore dciellers of the big river.

I never suw any T,.rir-p6 use them aside from such occasions. /omisL3An/

/108:132/ The circular fe,.ther heiddres.. i.. of the gre :e..t

importLnnce to the T.pir.pd. Referring to its :ise in tht Thumb-r

ceremony, Wagley writes (4ta-A4 )t Fnglish/: ,,. eich man n.Aking

the ceremonial circuit wore .n el bo ate heuddres:-;--tie ,inkungitinLa.

Thiheaddres. enfuriate. Thunder -nl- attracts hi.- cr nature. to the

we .rer.f1/ g)*A pt*iihofe "-hat 1r. f

-T I ., h. at r--L ....-m t. the nup z--a r -l--iF .pg ma th _T_ ___n

Z"-d-ii nr,- T u" .r .." 1-- 'f Vi hout exception

all whu wore the headdress, even Panteri and Urur.umu, fell unconscious

before the forces of Thun-ier :;nd genuine fer w s s ho-n b; all tho.oe

whou ,ore it. Before a mn could put the headdres on his he,.d, A

sh.man waved it slowly before his eyes. The zh.:-;rn then pl.ccr- the

headdress on his he.d, blowing smoke through th: fe.thtr s tu t ke out

si me of the terrific *heat,* Vhen Urukumu wore the ankungi,.n.4, he

beg.;n to weave n. stu.-ble before left tX. fir t house of the circle,

He then ha' to be led ..n.: supported by two young men. Before he h .l

_ ~ 1____


completed one circle of the village, he vns seized by a trnce th-.t
seemed evn morevviolent than th:t of the younger men. His bo:y w, o

rigid :nd he w vs carried through the remaining circle of house.- to the
house At the southwest whire he v: s trt-.tted b., Panterf. P&nterf
likewise was defeated and fell when he wore the he:.drdress. During hi-

tr-nce he sing snatches of ;. son4and when hI regained c~.n-ciou-bnesj _j
he sAi&ae had traveled to the house ofThunder. L.ter, Pinter related

tu me hi.. experiences during his tr nce, His story, freely: t..,nl..ted,

was this: 't ate much smoke i.ndthen s'oked ag ;in. I sng, I s w une

large sun; it came toward me ran-' dis .ppei'redi. 3I st mfany sm .11 uns.

They approached and left. I saw Thunder. It wau small ..t.i c.rne In a
small c:.noe. It w-s Thunder's child (a top). It vore -3..11

headdress of re.- parrot feathers. It he I ;t smn l lip plg. I reich-.d

to pull out the lip plug (thus he would h:,v+enquishecd th' topi) but

it left the house. Then all w:zs d'Irk, (He h,.',i n t defeated the toi

and it had cons quently shot him with hi-: airrov). I s.-v many suns. I
traveled, singing ;S I walked. I vwlked three i.iayy :nil I climbed a

large mountain on the othe/side of the Ar.aguuya. There it iithut the
sun comes up. I saw Thunder; he is big and his boxy is covere,- vith

white hair. He had many feathers of the red parrot. I svaw many topi

and many souls of shamans near him. I did not t..lk but returned fast.'

He added later th;it if he had touched Thunder's rattle he voul.i h ve

had to stay in the other-world; he would h veied.
"A few novices, and nov an-' again a rare layman, vore the

headdres-; and people marveled at their ccuragei Most Tepirpd men,

however, did not hWve the courage to wear it,

"The headdress added danger and violence also ti the ndown

r r r I I ' I


ph'!ses of the ceremony on the third .ndkourth days ofthi ceremony.
At the height of the excitement, 'wen it was apprrnt th-t both the
pot.'erful sh.a.ns had sighted creatures of Thun-er, P.ntertgr..bbed
the headdress, which was hanging from a rafter, an l v.ved it in the

air, threat ening -nd challenging t.hfse enemies. He fell imme'iilely,

stricken by a palnce-Lnwera. Urukuu picked up the hedd'ress, He
to then fell unconscious ind all the participants with him."
I have alre-dy mentioned that red m;acv feAth-rs .re prized
most highly by the Tapir.p6. They m.ke up the es enti,il p.rt of the
circular occipital headdress Vs.gley ('bid, note 30) s ys in tViis

connection: /Fnglish/ "Red p rrot fe-theri .,re *hot like fire,! s y
the Tuair-pd; the Mun i hot bc-c. use he rve;.rs a large headdress, of re'i
feathers. This heat always attracts the supern tural. Tapir.po toli
Me that an attack of malAria I had was c.,used by my having left a

headdres: of red parrot feathers hanging orenly in my house."

The feather ornament usei in the Thun er ceremony does not touch
the head directly, when attached to it, but remains separate by me.-ns
of very peculi-r wooder. edifice (of. ibid, fig. 1). The figure in

L.tleyls work ibidd, figs. 1-9) do not provide any details about tht
con truction of the headdresi. or th: f: stenin, of the fe the:s, The

fr.me phott. 15' which I acquired in T:.mpiitiua belong e tc the he :dAre ,
c lle,. ungkrynghetanohd /108r1:4/, that is to s-.y, the s me term written

antgitana by WVgley with the addition of the augmentative suffic ho.
Strips 1 to 1.5 centimeters wide, t..ken from the murity p 1I leaf steu,
.re folde-i across in such a wvy that one t.i- projects 3 or 4 centi.n'ters

beyond the other (oe fig. 19). The jutting end:; of all the strips- lie

__~__II__ ~ ~ _~ _~~~~~ ~I_~ I_~~~ _~~_ __ I I_~ ~~I _I~ _



,n the s me aide when the folded ends are strung on cordr, which is
ttw twisted clockwise .nd made up of four thre;.ds of vegetable fiber
twisted counter-clokvise. The semi-circular position of this cord
forces the strips into a radiating pattern. In the particular specimen
unde discussion phott. 15), the folded ends cre su tightly packed
side by side and even on top of each other th. t the periphery of the
.emi-circle they form measures 27 centimeters. To keep them in this
position, the cord ib tied with knots at the tips of the semi-circle
to prev nt it from slipping. At a :istance of 13 or 15 centimeters from
the folded ends, the strips are entwineld with string twisted counter-
clocksise and made up of two threads of cotton spun clockrioe. These
strings lie parallel to e .ch other, close together, :~nd they are dyed
a dark broan color. The entwined band t ake. up from 7.5 to 9
centimeters of the longer strip sections, which vary in length between
28 and 30 centimeters. On the shorter-sectioti side, the entwined b.nd
is coated with light grey cldy, The strips tare held by this band in
such a way that their tips lie a few millimeter ; 'prt. This, along
with the already mentioned crowding of the folded ends, produces the
IckAL :h
semi-circular shape reminiscent of the form vhich the T&pir p4 tarne
k ij, jse k---. arf-., 4 "4-,-js
tr-tbet-of certain anchinga. that ijto s:.y, U$phamtcms' or spirits, and
in which they represent them. The periphery of the frame measures 175
centimeter -, &.~i it-. total width is 70 centimeters. The entwined band
consists of 1 strings, divided into units oft4. These units are due
to the fadt that two pairs of string are twined nlternrtely around
the strips, and that these pairs twine alternately around each other
after their common entwining of each strip. This mutual anD -Itern te
penetration of both pairs of string, with each pAir ali ys consisting

of the sime vo strings, is due to the fact th.t the strings of one ix.,

cross each other when they are entwined by the -.trinks of the other

pair, An irregularity I.e pro pn when the ..trings or one pAir cro..s
twice between two regular crossing points of the strings of the other

pair. Both pairs .re joined into .1 knot fiter h ving been twined once

.round every strip. Their starting point i. the other end of the band
was also a knot, so that the band displ :ys 8 knoLs -t e-ch end. The

strings are cut 3 or 4 centimeters beyond the knot, except for the

strings involved in the four outermost knots on each side, Thete strings

extend about 30 /1081135/ centimeter beyond the knotL on one side,

and slightly over 11 centimeters on the other side. These strings are
twisted into a cord in groups of Q while the other strings are not

joined in any wua along the 3 or 4 centimeter- which extend beyond the

knots. The strips, when they retain their natural cuiv .cur ,,leave an

empty space within their folded ends. The li3rgt t:il feathers of tie

red macuw are lck riutr this opening to complete the impressive

ornament. They are kept in an internode of SmmawauM thick cane vhen

not in use. The frame specimen described and reproduced abovee was the

only one I found in TampiitAua. It was in M ninoh6's possession. I
have not found any reference in the literature to such objects imong

the Karaja, the Kayap6, or any other Indians. Nor lo I know whether

anything like the Tapir..ap wooden head edifice reproduced by 'Vagly

is to be found in any orh-r tribe.
Rev. Kegel described to me the circular occipital headdre., he

saw at the initiation ceremony as a wooden disc blackened with genipap,

about 15 centimeters in diameter and centimeter. thick, and bearing
three concentric circles of feathers laid out in a radiating pattern.



The inner circle con sited uvctlloped, dark-green duck fe .there, the
middle one of white J..biru stork fe:,ther n, the outer one of red
mac"y. tlil fe-~Ahers. The hair of the boy who wv, being initiated w

tathere,- into u pigtail nd dr, .n through a hole in the c nter of the
/omission/ GM -. --/
/108:136/ I s w, h nging from the wll of the men's house in

Tampiitiua, a l:,rge semi-circU-lar ooden disc vith sm-ill hole in the

center. The T pirp4 shovel me that those holt vere mea.nt. for the: eyt-
c rie-t Wf , C v*< *o C oC .:V*< V C*toI.A et Sr-6uJ't^
.nrid Utit the ii.c, wien = a-A4 ,p.tpe f. a-Ih tho a mA n .a. e oe of

mcaw feAt1 irs, vas used r.s ;a dance m:sk phott. 70). Unfortunately,
however, I Aid not have nn opportunity to find out the specific function
of unis ia sk, vhich is as distinct from other T pir pi masks as it is

from those of the K :.;j'. (cf. Krause 8, pl-te :0), a.nib,;.;:s no
resemblance to the .aasks of .ood, plaitedi material *ndP--ibMe found by

von den -teinen (2, flg., 94-118) -mong the Xingu tribes.

The cylindrical mask- of the Tapir-ip4 are :also .dornet1 vith
feaLher.. phott. 72). In the l;aytime dLnce .of these Indians, some of

the male particip;-nts vear one or sever 1 red nmicav tAil feather's
vertically on the occiput phott. 5), On such occasions they il,;o wore

the e,,r on.m ent phott, 21) whichh I .c.cq'iired in T::mpiit.ua rni w -hich I
shdll no; de-;cribe. Tvo strings, twisted counter-clockwise ..nd
cun.isiing of tvo tIhr', .s -.pun clockwise, are tiel to a cotton curd
twisted clockwise nd consisting of two strings twisted count, r-clock-vi*e
and iidde n turn of two threads spun clockwise. The first two string,

mentioned are each folded in the middle .nd placed on the rope in
such a vaj that on one aide there i. a loop, .nd on the other the two


free-swinging ends. Thesfenas are slipped through the loop .r.d
st:.etched to m-ke u knot, Eacr- end, ..fter being slipped through

perforated palm nut, is attached to three or four t .l fe. th-r. of Zth;

green oropendola (Osinops viridis), Mhich are yellow wiitil bl. c. cpo.

and up to 9 centimeters long. The fe:,thera are tie& b, the lo er,

denuded part of the stem, which is folded up at the ti. for he pr.r.uI .

'-'en the cord is worn across the foreheao-i ,n: tiei on thl occipuL, iWlte

feAethers f:.ll over th, ears. All the thr: .dd-. Lre dyei '.'tii tenir..p.

.' /omisa on/
According to Rev. Kegel, the T. pir pe ;dodle',cent iLe r round

his necA at the initiation cere.aony two cotton strips, 3 crntLuiate--,

wide, which hang down in front to below the knee.; And in the b cji to

below the calves. These strips end in t;.isels ,nd under ihe t 1 i..

a palm-nut shell, its opening facing downw.r :, surrounde:i vt1 l s.X1

breast feathers of the red macaw. On e ch ar, the boy '.e .r cotton

cord froan which hang five of these shell:; vith the 1.. e r fc .t-r,.
To summa izes the Tapirtepd fe thu.r orn ment re noc only

distinct from tho.e of the K:raja' Javih6 and &ayap6 visted by- Kr..u;e

(2, passim), from those of the inhabitants of the ur per 'tin:u b.-in
(von den Steinen 2:328), the Boior6 (Colbacchint .n,.n .lb'I.eti, p :.

the Tupi tribe of the Uruby (Lopes 2, passim) :rnd the Tupinamb:.

(A4traux 2:130.148) but clso much less numerous Lind v rie !-,h i '. the
iv a- D1 I! o^
featherwork ort ta iee tribes. This scarcity nray be one of t. e

consequences of the great epidemics, since tht dead .are b-ri:: v'ith

all their feather ornaments. In addition, the T:,pir.p4, .-

cultivator nd forest Indians, h.vaever opportunities 1.o obt .in the

raw materials for these ornaments than the more g s.;e-orieieet1 tribtu-


who live close tL. rivers :.nd to other are..:; rich in bir'idlifl-.

Like the ancient Tupinumbi (LUry 159), the T.pir p6 ke,_; iht
t l,,rge macaw feathers in internodes of thick c ne (vu in3a), /o::Aiuion/

/109:75/ I found -Angle -pecimen of a cro'.n of j:.: ..r
cl-.vs in Tampiitgua phott. 16). It belon-e I to H.ninoh6, .ho u:.e.: it

only at certain daytime dances phott. 4). Its nami wi i i l

ch uvuanoh6 pyampe. "jaguar claw," It consisted of a v\.oden rint

that reached 1 centimeter in vidth ,nd LO centimeters in ii 1 ieLt.r,

wr.-pped in cotton thre-.,d bl.-ckened with genip:.p "-nd ch rco 1. Not u:lj

does this: thread keep the ring cloedl, but it .. o hold.. 14 J.~.u.,r

clhus, all of which are set pointing in the :-...rnie .direction, /o.i:;. iL,1n/

The use of flower-; n a he I orn ment is unu:Ui.l i 1 ni 'outh

.'americ n Indians. I observed it only ,nc. in T.mpiit'Lu-'. Ir v y, a

rmtrried ma-m 26 years old, returned ,nee fro;:i the fore t \vlt bunch of

flo.-er-, in hi:. hand. On entering the village, he met .mpit'ni. on the

p-.th :.nd gave her the flowers. This girl, who w..-. four or five y(..Irs
old, immedi;.tely tied lhem to her h ir. /omission/

Male Tupir;.p4 have pierc id e.rs, I v._: tol : ih:.t ,:ong rthei it

is the mother who /lC9:7./ m.,kes these terfor itions in th, e rly huur

of the day following the birth of her child. She do'. thi ith the

bone needle used in the mn;Inufricture of the cotton orn -nen C c 1-il

tamankurw Sinmall pi-ce-, of tu u /Tr. B:.tris s:etos) or t.in c .ne e

placed in the holes, and in boys undergoing iniUi tion rhe.._c iece

may reich 2 centimeters in length. /omission/

To summarize, it may be s id th;At .s f ; .%i e r orn :aen n.
their attendant cultur,.l tr.it:i :,:e concerned, the T pir pt. iffer

consider. bby not only from A.1l their neighbor., .Lou; whoi nyt'.ini, i.



no'n in this connection, but fro". the ancient Tupin.amb' vell.
Like the ear perform tion, tht of the lo'er lip i. re tricteu
to member of the male sex .-mong the inhabit -n s of T ':Jiit'u .
According to them, it is also per.toC~ag by tho moth r vith Lone

needle on the morning following the birth of herthild. Tht T pir p6
do no!h:.ve a generic nane for the objects inserted into the ..rtifici.l
lip opening, which v ry with the are of the we. r, r. "hen they .nt
to ref r to -i lip ornament without p.p cyfing which, thyj 'ni rely .y
eeuaMnaI (eaeguant temekuana), or emeku nni itf i. .nll boy 1.. c, nc rn. J4

Le me.,ns "lower lip" (eheremd "my lower lip"), kun ntu. na "holL," .ni
Sis diminutive (MSani "little hole"), The ,peninL in chill lip
is indeed much smaller th-in th-,t of in z.dult such m. M K..m irS phott, 57).

They insert a bone there until the time .'hen the boy who i.. bout to
be initiated hfs his hair eut, And this bone grows lun[t ith its

bearer ( hots. 3, 6, 5U 25, 28, 61). Thus, a boy who v 2 bout five
years old 'ore .ild-pig bone, 9.5 centimeters long n i froo 8 to

millimeters wide, with a cross-piece about 8 millimeters -ide buy
of eight or ten had a deer bone, 25 centimeter. long ..nd 2 3 to 5
/109:77/ in diameter, with a cross-piece 1 centimeter vide phott. 17).
Rhea bones were ,alo used a boys# lip ornaments, The bone is

introduced frcm the inside, so th:it the cross-piecE rc-: .i in.;i e th
mouth to secure the ornament.

fhen a boy's hair is cut, a year before hi initi tion
ceremony, the deer bone is replaced with the wooden plug 'orn b, the .,ien

phott. 19a). Some of those plugs ae embedded with the icoth of .

SLaitu (Sylvlbas minenaLs. tasilchl inTapirape) phott. 55:, 'Ihe plug
with a tooth shovn on photograph 19a is about 8 or 10 milli Lter.. in

~ 1~1~1_~ ^1_~~~1 ..1_..._...C~.-r.. .-. ..-1 1_~.._.._~...~.1__~.~ ~I ......._.,_.


di mettr :.n. 6 millimeters long its full length, or in othel or Is,

4 millimeter. in the x-ooden section nl 2 millimeter in th.. project r,.

pN:rt of the tooth. Thc piece t t secure-, the plu: is a c. nt L:ete.r,
t ide. The plugs fire m-de with the pointe : excre..cences foun-i on the

trunks of a tree c lied tunchimoyv.. in T-,mpir;.pe. Th' ont: re-proluck.

here phott. 19b) is 25 millimeters long and from 1i to ,L millimeter-:.


A.t t,,e initiation ceremony, ho::ever, ind only on th .t i-r t.i y,

the boy wear,.s i adornment th t would deserve to be c lie bj the Tui.
n me of tembtt, frum tembe "lover lip," lndl sit. "tone. Thi .

is usually given to all the h s:i, stiff objects worn by Br ;ili .n

Indi.an.- in the artificial lower-lip hole, except for the. bo toiue vhich

Is -it iei.i3huil from the tembet bs by h:pe .inl si:-e (ef. F .1du n

Fig. 7, /no c..ption, but is a "cere:ioni.il -u'atz tembet.("/

Villems 33-34 Lnd l18). It is true th..t the T.pir.pd :ure unf .nili..r

with this word, und spe;k only of it2chiin "white atone," "hen they

point to this quartz ornament, I wias told by them th.t the r im, teriul

is found "in l.rge quantities" in a stre.m they c-11 Tochypi, i.hich

tes several days* journey northwest of Tznpiltdua, ne..r Moyttu.., the

Tapir&pd village -Ab.andoned in 1932. The sp.-cimen I s::.w (fi., 7)

measured 9.5 centimeters Along its full length and 4.0entimetel, rouni

the ;lender part, while the thick part w:- 10.5 centimeter: al roun:

,nd 3.5 centimeters in di-iLmeter. It :v.s the only piecimtn t t nt' in

T.mpiitdua, and Kamairah6, in whose po.-session it w, did noi :.r nt to

le4me have it at mny price. This sho-. the import..,nce of thi or-n rent

-~-~-~ ~~~~-~ ~~~~- ~~~~


in the life of 'he tribe, sincee the tembet- "..; no lon.er cnpl Le:,

I ..ket the Indian YKnil to sho%:. me ho,- I. v. vorn, It: b.c r.e tvi Ln.

.h-.: the thicker part rem-iins out:iue th- mouth, for .7 n6i co t ;.ht

other end vwih w,,x ftj introduced ijtnto th. lip hole (pht. .).

In Chapter IV I mentioned hei- notice., of Jo.o M.nuel .:e IMen. -*
nriltides de Souza Spinol, 'rritz Kr:. &e un:li ;ilhelm Kl (..nb rt:. am .i-

exisrence of T pir-..p4 tembet. mong the /109:78/ Kar:;J;, The .; ci-.en

-c,- iret by Ki...:.enberth (1721 -iai fig, 15) from the.e Inui .n, whichh

he re produces in it-. actual si:.e, h..- .1mo .t the s-.roe length .... Lh

fragment : I ro..' in T'.mplitfu.A, thz;t is to s-y, 8.6 centimete:., n ii

too t., incomi.Itte. The difference, ho'-evt'r, lies in tht. f ct 'h it.

is the bro dened, con,-ex, plug-shape. end th .t is milin;, v ta, r .i 1

the securing piece. The latter hs the shape of a T th t i -.o 0 y,

it i' .. crosspiece like those on the bov.-mentionea bone orn .i;ent:

Its idth is -7 millimeters, The thin p:,rt of the t.embE.t' i, 14

millimeters. vide at the point ere it begins to sell to forii thie

cro: piece.

Lhrenreich (1:lO-11 Sd fig. 2), in hi monogr.ph ornthe -..i ,ji

reproduces complete specimen and m.-ke, the following r .markst TThe

most precious lip orn,-ment, 'ihich is only 'orn on festive occ..sin-s

,nad which is c-refully kept at other times wrapped in cotton, ib '

long -nd he ;vy tembet4 (:,njterze of rosy hyLlite or qu;rtz to:..e

T-shaped tip ij introduced into the lover lip, while the conic.l1 .lug

hangs undernezith. T'he largest of the four .;pecimens in the Col1cctiCn

is 17.5 centimeter long. The K-rrlJ tio not make these lip 'ton. .b ;t

tr.Ade them in from the TpirIp4. The elev tions on the left b.nk of

- --- I--- I -- -- -- ---

he (Araguaia) river, such as the CciAp6 RL.n6c, abound in rhii.
ma teria l.
The -pecimen reproduced by Kr .use (arfig. 62), re-cmbl. the t.ne

just mentioned. The author note in thi:. connection (bid :&.-L:a4)
"Unmarried men alone use these tembetd, which they wea:r only vn :pccl-1

festivities. -b en they marry, they pre ent then t. young kin i r..
The s'one tembetf is very thick, und requires previous enr .rginent of
the lip opening. To achieve this, the Indians we.,r incrt sLngly thick
v oden tembL td. I saw a single specimen of a stune tembetj amongg the
sJthern band. I wIs unable to acquire it. It wv: only lontti e
after leaving their village th t I he..rd of -i .pecimen# ext nt -mong
the southern band. These tembetd re ate not made by the Kar:.J& bi.t by
the Tapirape, from whom the Karaja of the northern b.nd tr ,ie them in.
The people of the southern b nd, in turn, purchase them fro- the latter.

They say that the current price is h-t dugout, an axe, n pot .n, L
bush-knife, in short, it is very high..." /omission/
/109:79/ /Mbtraux/ states (2:167-168) i "Among the prestnt-1l .y

Tupi-Guarani, the Tapir pe alone hi.ve tembetA ccmp r ble in .shipe ind
material to those of the Tupinamb4." /omission/
To summarize, the manufacture of quartz teabetg is Tp..ir..pe

culture trait. We knov of no such trait among other prejent-t. 'iu;i
cultures or among tribes neighboring the T pir.pd, with the e caption

of the northerrPKayapt. Their stone tembet4- hoverer, differ front
those of the Tapirape in lacking a "plug." I know of no such "plug.;"

on the stone lip cylinders of the ancient Tupinambd. Thos'e found on
the S:o Paulo coast .nd in the vicinity of Bahia., ;n, reproduced by

H. von Ihering egdner 3:34, fig. 5) do no: hAve .y.

- --~-~-r~--r-~-.~~~.-_--,.,_la~l~~_,._.. ~_~_~_____~~~_~~~~~~~~ ~__~~~ __ ___~__

/omission/ /109:81/ To :;unm-rize, it my b_ :: Id th t, .nong
the T .pir.pd, just as among the TupinumbA Kar ji .n'i Kr.yip6, the
tembetd is an exclusively mA.le orn..ment w1Aeh v ries in iti ..h.pe n'.
materi.1 .!ccorting to the age of the we .rer, The T.pir pe se- dcfry
d~mtigUlwTet from the TupinumbA in th .t ..dults .o no h .ve the coin-
shaped stone tembet. mentioned. by Lry. As f.r :s m Ateria.l, h.-ipe ,n',i
-ize ahe concerned, the differences between the T..pir.pd, K:.J $j n
Kayip6 teabet( are, on the whole, gre ter th n the re:;erblance_. The
%entril Tupi differ from the T.pirzip4 in not h vinE ..ny lip orn .nenL .:.
The *.rm .nd leg ornament.. ma.nde of cotton dyed v.ith ureu ..re a
striking link between the T:.pir.,pe -ind KarUjA cultures. They ..are
everyday ornaments worn by both sexes. Among the Kar.:jai, according to
Krause /109/82/i (s226), they are "the :litinctive b.tdge of unm..rrie.l
men, tnd therefore used from earliest chil-lhoodl until m.! ri .Ee, ..n.
in widowhood." The s .m author :dds (ibiri), ho evr-r, th t the e b aui:,
may also be used by marriedd men "if their "ivei *e ple...-e' .iti the i.
Amongthe Tapirnpd, I saw mnrrie men y:e ring '.he cotton orn .en
called t.malnkird in their language. Thi. na.-me covers three differentt
kinds, n.aely, the bracelet, the g:Arter, aund the x-nkle b nrl. 'hey Ire
.ll mBae by the women with the crochet nee-dle (chudni,. chu e ning
Thornn) which w.s originally m-de of bone ..r.d tod,:.y, a .; result of
white imports, may also be of metal. Among the Karaj.u, this is ilso
woman's work (cf. ibid).
The bracelets (dezi in Karuja) are cylinders with reinforced,
outcurving edges. Each of the two bracelets which hAd beer. w rn by e.
Tapirrpe man, andl which are reproduced in photograph 14b, is 14
centimeter, long, 19 centimeters in circumference at the uyper enl .nd

17 ut the lo er end, while the upper edge is 4 centimeter: -vide .nu
the lower one 2.5 centimeter- vide, The initial ph:,se of their
m;,nf .cture is shown in photograph 11. I saw few of them in
T.mpiitAua, an. those extant were worn exclusively by youths who h d
already y been initiLted photss. 10 ...nu 70). Among the K;ir. j', however,
these objects ae :lso vorn on !he forearms of young girls .:ni cil rera
The garters (deobute in K:1'rbjd, accor ing to Kr-use, ibid) ,ire
strips with reinforced edges and tassels hangint: do:n the front.
Indian women close them vith crochetstitche-. Directly on the leg, ii.t
is to s-.y, just belov the knee, F.ch of the F .ter., in th. p..ir Iihch
had been use.i by a T..pirap4 m.n, a-nd which are reproduced in photuu.i ,ph
14a, is -.5 centimeters tiide and 25 centimeter, in circumference, ,.hil
the tasslls are 12 centimeters long. A pair of garters belonging: tu a
little girl hbd the same width and its tassel.; vere CO centimeter. long.
Among6he Tapirape, the garters a e worn by girls before pub.-rty (phoi.i.
3 and 9), by boys photss. c8, 53, 61 and 69) .nd b., adultt ma.les
photss. 7, 8, 25, 26, 28, 61 ana 68). The s.ume applie. to the Ka j:.
(cf. Kr2use plates 11, 15, 16, 36, 38, -.3 and .5), Accoruing to
ibidd, 226 and plate 44),
KrauseA they frequently tie up the tassels in the back to prevent thc;e
from being an encumbrance on runs ,,nd long walks. onetimeme, imong the
Tapir.,pe, the;.e tass-els are merely cut off phott. 39),
Only a few little girls in Tampiittua wore t;zman nrd *.t the
ankles while I was there photss. 3, 9, 12). This ornament ii .. cylin.-er
with a reinforced -.rnd outc'.rving lo'er edge, -.nd frinte.: l.- lon a th-
tmankdZ a itself hanging from the upper edge. One .p. cimen w..s I
centimeters lon 19 centimeters in circumference at the upper eni .nd
16 at the lover end, while the lo.er edge w..s 4 centimeters wide. I

_ __.__ ~II_ _~ 1 ~111 _~~_ _1_~~~__1__~_7___1__~~~-_1. .~~-----~-1_1 .__..... ~_~~i--- .1_1._ --~-- -I~ ~ I--

vas told th t certAin social and spiritual leaders such s Kumuir..6d,
Vuatan-y and Urukimy ha'd also worn sinil r orn ments before puberty.
Among the Karaja, I saw boys as a ell as girls with trips at the
ankles. The.e were di-tinct, however, from the corresponding
tumankura of Tapir pe girls in that they did not h-.ve an outcuving
edge (of. Krause 2, fig. 414 .nd plates 16 ini 45). Their KrArja n-me,
is valag (bid 226).
/109:83/ According to Krause ibidd 227), the Karuj& begin to
use leg a4LIpe right after birth, :,nd cut them off ..nd replace them
ghen they become too tight. The s ne is done by the T:,pir:pe. I evt-n
found in Ta.mplitgua a forked stick which was used as a fr me to make
tJmnkura for the ankles of unvbm children phot. 1.) This fork
holds one unfinished tapankurd and a finished one which is 4 centimeters
long with an edge 2 centimeters wide.
tir pp ti 9, r?^ 1 Cou 4:4 Y-0.< araoWi 16.f
/omission/ jS'Ykff ni '7k, ex (.."j 0 (,l Id^/~ / oyre **'-. .
/109:87/ To summarizes one of the chief resemblncE., between
the TapirapA, Karajd and Javahd cultures resides in the t.mankur complex,
and differences in this Despect among the three cultures i;-e ingignific nt
khe Kaypp# culture, as described by Krause, differs from these culture
in /109188/ the absence offhis complex, which only left a few s+w*tterei-
traces upon it. According to the data mentioned above, certain element.;
im thr s complex distinguish the culture of the Tupirape from that of
other Tupi Indians as well as from that of the Xingu Indians, vhile
other elements reveal similarities between all these culture. Although
tbe.e similarities do not prove that this complex or Lny p .rt of it
originatedd among the Tupi Indians, they do not ale thveopuite--- -

~_ ~I_~I_~~ ~~ I ~ ~ ~~ __ ~W


hypothesis 4 ebe -.ee either. It is protbale th .t the g-.rter >houl:
rr i -. e At. r
be reg- ded as a trait of cultur:.l klmkie p between the T.pir pe, the

northern Tupinamb-., and other Tupi India-ns. Amons cert,.in Tupi tribe::

(Tapir pe, Yuruna), the leg cotton ornaments differ from tho e of

certain G6 tribes in that they are m.de with ;, crochet needle in:tet.d

of being woven. It will be ,-_att-ir _or' future ree.rch to determinee

whether this is the case among so many tribes in both f mili< s tht it

may serve c-. a gener.A1 dtl ~fgut factor between the Tupt nd the

CO peoples,

/110tl91/ VII, The vill4.e anfthe houses

A.t the time of my visit, Tzmplitiua wvs located in the center of

a lairge- clearing. Around e:,ch house (ahVyra in Tapir pe) theru e-are

tree stumps *:ind felled trunks (see phot. 67). Only the vill. ge square

had remained, up to a point, free front the.;e ob traction.;, The trunks

served as se ts and, bit by bit, is firewood. They 1.!y in :iuchi number
VastcIYr s4k S h-4. -'
over the huge-yM w ee tween the hou:,ez .nd the edge of the forest, and

they were so entangled and ensnarled by their branches, th.-t the

ima.ginative Madame de la Falaise (196), who visited Tampiitdun on

August '3, 1935, that is to say, shortly after my departure, went so

far as to write the following: "Ve proceeded tov'a-'i he villtg-,, wh.re

the tribe, for feur of armed aggression, h s fortified thf surromuning.

The felled, tangled trees, the traps .nd ingenious ob.-tacle. are

discouraging. The boldest hggreasor -'ould bre',k his neck. long before

he got theb~ mpr ,~_n

In this respect, however, I must confess th.t the only ;serious

----- ---- ---


obstacles I encountered daily on crossing the t-re in question were
the tPo-;ATm, of the trib 1 digestive processe, for the supposed

fortification held no role other th:n th:t of huge toilet. /lOzlS9;/

Sdo not visn to-sAL whether a ch ou taicles ma. be termed ingeniouss,
but I wish to emphasize that they did not di-courage me. The truth is

thit the Tapir pe do not fortify their village in any way, .,nd differ

in thAs respect fro-i the TupinambA who surrounded their villages

,J. F. de Almeida Prado 180; Hans St den p 3; Gabriel -oare de Souse.
366), The "traps and ingenious ob3t.cles" mentioned above exist only
in the imagination of .he author, Even the act of placinE sentries, a

pr-,cuution referred to in Chrpter is strikingly inconsist-nt *,ith
the natur-.l bent of rhe Tuplripe.
Toward the east a store a me ndered, few p:,ce.- fro'j ihe

villa e. Its clear, fresh waters r nr free of the thick forest only for
a short stretch, which was used all Ait once bathroom, drinking

fountain, annd as spot for fishing :.nd for w.;:hing the sleeping

haumocks. A well-be-ten p:th le from it to the village pl.z,, t.irting

a plot of sug-.r-co;ne to the left. According to wh.t Rev, Keget tol, me,
this plot resulted from collective lbor performed for Kam,.ir h6.
The latt-.r had *tawd on the site of the plot :-nd concurrently on th:.t

of the village, which hid been built later beside the Commun lly prepared

plot. It was, so to speak, a luxury plot, for it cont;ine'1 nothing D
beside the sweet grass which the Indi ns suck, It was, incidentally,

th. only cultivated plot within the clearing where Tamriit& u stod.
The center of Tampiitgua was the tikana. the lrge men's houue,

Eight communal huts were grouped around it, with their entrances set in
:uch a way that it vw:,s impossible tc look from the in ide of one hut

into another (cf. fig, 8, on which the chief entranc.-s are repre ented

- - -- --- - -- 1 1 I I 1 _ 1 -

with black rectangles, and the secondary ones vith blhnk rect ngles).
The village xaznU stretched r:etveen the front of the taking .ni the
semi-circle formed by the house. on the east siae of the settlement,
-nd it was the sen.- o d.nces, singing bonCu, g .me r:Lces, Speecires

na banquets.
The villagee of the Tapirs," ho-ever, h:.d not always stoo.i in

the clearing where I found it, not did it remain there after my
departure (see Chapter V). At certain times, the T pirf.pe move far

'aU'ty. At regulc.r interv:.ls v.rying from two to five years, however,

they move the village to a spot only one or a few league ,-iway. When

they abandoned the village located on the banks of the lo er Tapir pe,

the distance they covered was cc.n3ider tble, th;t is to s.,y, probably a

few dozen kilometers. Long disti.nces were also covered at various times

when village- s.lit up or joined together, ai a result, in the former

case, of internal di.serrfisions, r.nd in the latt r ease of dvo ndling

popul tion /llo193/ or lack of medicine men. The chief cause-. for

Fig. 8 /facing p. 193/1 Ground plan of the vill:ite,

the smaller, habitual moves are the cockroach pigut e ani tht numb-r of
graves within the huts. The unchecked prolifer...tion of blatella

germanica L. compels the Indians to abandon and burn doun all their houses
attep-. few years. The r-currence of thij evrnt is ensured by the

careles ness of the Indians, for after the vill..Ce h.' beer. lde.troyed

the household goods carried to the new siteA are never sufficiently

free from cockroaches to prev nt them from swarming --on i-jiu all

over the dwellings. When epidemics cause the floor of the huts to fill

rapidly with graves, this manner of burial maay entail the erection of
a ne- village within an even shorter period of time.

~ __~ _I_~~ _1_ ~_II____~~__ ~ ~~___ ___~_~ ___~ __I~___ _I _I_ I ~

Not only doe: the settlement change its site, hore'- r, but it
zl:;Io c&h.nge.. it- size, I have I re;,dy mentioned ir. Chapter U the
daltu furnished bj hev, Kegel, according to which Tampliitnut cunjihted
of .About 14 houses in Ar"ust 1932. The size of the hr.use. 1..o v.,ie,,

of course, with the number of their occupLsn c. The ground pi n uf the
villa e (fig. 8) ihovs this numerical distribution, ~Jnz*s in

Chapter L.; it stood at the time of ay visit.
Since I did nohitnes the construction of house (avuyrae-hi.,
"to buil. u house"), the follov-ing description of the procedure is

bused on vhat my companion, Mr. Kegel, ob.,erved on a previous visit,
In August, during the dk7y, the men cut down tree trunks of v.rying
thickness in the ntauik as well as leaves of the so-citlleli "wild
banana (Heliconia spec.) and of the palm called maicbcA by the

frontiersmen of 'he Aragunia. These provide the beams, pole ...nd thaltch
for th- houses, In the late r mnoonjhe Indians crry these minit.ralul
to the site of the future villagce thus avoiding the daytone he .t dbiich
would cause the "banana" leaves to curl in transit .nd th. be.,rer.: to
tire unduly,

The construction work begins around four or five in the
afternoon. First, the fr;,l-evork of beams is erected. The vertical o

sh fts are laid out in three parallel rows, UE -two outer rows being the
same height and the middle one being higher. Thus, in house t (fig. 10)

the outer shafts are about 1,60 meters high, while the inner one; are

about 3.80 meter.4 high, >nd this represent s [enr :1 average for Aii
houses except he taa. In house a the outer rowv stAn': about U,75
meters from the inner one, and ihe intervals between the shafts in

r__ ~_ ___~____1___~~~ ~_1_____~___1________1______~~_ r~___1____1_~1__~~~~ ___1__~_1 ~_ I_~_ __~__1 ~___ __ ~_r~~_l~~~ _~__I~_

e'ich row (marked with circle in fig, 9) are 1 meter, 3.4( meters,

. 90 meters, ?.k5 meter, 3.5C meters, .-n- 1.70O :.etev, retcti ely.
L.',t ;-;C. Aince these inherv:.l:- ire the s'_;ie in i-all three lin-., tbhe- rive rF "e-

te seven other ro-s of shiUft, :which st nd perpendicular to the othei.i

nd iivide thc house into rec-',ngul-r qu:.iril..ter.1.l. Thij division,

which h is jocilly import-.nt because it r fltct.- t:e distribution of

the occupL.nt /_10C193/ into couple :.nd nucilc r famili -*, 1-

emph:sized further b, cro.i-be.m. which h form tht. .ide. of 1ihf

qu-dril..ter.l.; :i d which are tied tith embira cord /Tr, r fi'n ti-

bfat fiber yielded by a tree/ at a height of 1.60 meters if they do not

rest on the forket tips of the outer vertical shift:, (of, fig. 10 n'rr

photrs. 5 an'd 48), In addition, the inner vertic 1 shaftt. are

connected to one anoth r with sever 1 pole: (mar-,ed itlh circlet., in

fig, 1C) at a high, v-rying from 3,c0 to 3.80 meterz..

Once the fr:imework ha-been completed, the Inrli rn; drive :;ds

into the ground in I straight line in-between the outer verlic 1 .li ftc.,

The series. of numbers in fig. 9 (3, 11, 10, 7 nd 1) r. fer to the e

rods, vhich I represented wit' .iots on the ground pl n of hou e a,

The rod n;r fastened with embira cord to the ridge forme: b, the

highest longitudinal pole.. and to the longitud-ln.1 pole. connecting thh.

outer vertical shafts. This results in an elon.'.tel ore where the

roof nd wtlls mike up a homogeneous mnit r th r th .n rv, ep I "

sections. Once the men have pl.nt.e.i the rouis risymx securely in th,

ground, they tie onto them horizont:,l ones (m.:rked with circle on

Fig, 9. Plan of house a.

Fig. 10. Cross-section of house a.

fig. 10), beginning at the bottom nni working their wrj up su that they




-se the ro'Is :j : a ladder until th.y r.t c,. tht top.

n'her. thi. has been done, stick-~ b*bout 1 meter lonL ::t: f.tentd
vertically about 1 meter ..p:.rt to tht out.- ie o dhe longitudin 1 pol -

connecting the outer shLkfts. The.e ..tir:s are f stn*d i:n uc: a v',
th .t they st .nl half -bovo nd h-lf belov rht londi iulln.il pole-, their
Lippe r h.lf c,.nforming to the eiirv.turt- of the dlome .ni t i ir lo er h if

Jutting out slightly. The sle purpo e of the-.e s icks i- to hol'I in
the aiduile of their lo'.er, jutting h. f, cu-o' of tr'ite. edbli fiber

which stretches all round th-t hou-e, tit.! vith knot to ever, stick.

Thi- Sy cord supports from belov the "'il-i b nfln:-" Ite ve:. 1.-id out
evenly ,nil c ruefully /llC0195/ on the fr', i-.ork of bt.-m. .n., ro,:.4 6 fits into nolche:; cut into th' stems for th' purpo.e. The Indi n-
curve the lave.. :slightly tu m ke th.e: conform to the curv.ture of the

dome. In .ny ca e, these leaves stop c'rling up in 'hc coolne-. of

the afternoon, -nd ot th t hour, -, a rule, tht-re is nic 'ini c .pable

of blowing thtc,; off.
Then, tht. men climb upon the fr menork tu cover up karyti.Py)

that is to s y, the upper p-irt of the houe. They .,re assisted in

this work by the young women Rnd the girls, who lift up the Heliconia
leaves and hand them tc the men. These le-..ve a lid dov -n in auch a
way that they cover the framework of be n.- ni rod ~ h nging from th ir
folded stems (pakva=ka, "to fold") which are doubled over the two

highest longitudinal poles lying on each si .e of the ridge) The tips

of the stems are secured between the hecon, longi-udinal poles, .nd
their covering leaves. In the case of large hou:e:, such as.for
example hou-e j, a second liyer of leaves hangs from the second S ^

longitudinal poles, with the tips of their stems inserted bet.eer, the
third longitudinal poles -,nd their covering leaves. The stems a;e

laid side by side until all the spaces between the vertic >1 rod., have
been filled. The crest itself is covered with "vild banirna" leaves
laid lengthwise along the ridgepole, so that their longitudinal
halves conform to those of the done.
Green aac;ba leaves are placed over the "vil. b.nin-" leaves',
'ith their stems jutting over the top andl tied together. These palm
leaves, which are quite heavy when green, prev.nt. the E3x1ux underneath
from being blown off by the wind or culed by the sun.

The lover part of the longitudinal side. of the house is
covered with macaba leaves which are fastened ont the fra&oevork from
without, laid out side by aide with their siem. pointing upward, and
interwoven. "Vild banana" leaves are placed over them, fiutene, to
the longitudinal poles in the same fashion as those hanging from the
higher lorni uinal poles. This thatching system is usually a plied to
the two smaller side of the house, since leaves helj on aji cord by
their notched stems would fall off for lack of support from these
vertical, mncurved walls. The "cord technique" is no; used in thatching
ihe takenu, either, for the lower part of this large structure remains
open (see phots. 88 and 69)Y while the upper part is covered in thr
same manner &s the corresponding section of other houes, vith a m'ny
layers as nrceae&py.

In simpler structures, such as for example house & photss. 64
and 67 to the right)p and the summer huts phott. 7), there is no
framework of rods, and because of this the leaves covering /11C:196/

Jhe lower part of the shelter lean obliquely against the ourer
longitudinal polesywith their stems resting directly on the ground,

_____11__1~_1_____~~ .._~~~~ ~ ~I~....._~__ __..~~.~_~.~ ____ ~__l_._~._l____r_.__~. __..._._....~1._1_1_I~ _1~


The smaller sides are open in house g) ini zr.ly lightly covered in
the summer hut shown on photograph 7, Structures of the later type

are erected in the field: and in neighboring woole,' are.:s .hen t.he
dry season zni its fishing opportunities, lure the Indians intu le:.ving
their villbite and moving closer to the river in August, Septembr.-r ..nd
October. The fact th .t the roofing of these tempor:.ry dvellint: is
not as goo as that of permc.nent houses is under t:. nible, sincee they
are used aL a protection atalnst dew inn', sunlight rather thri. giLnst

rain properly speaking. The rrmnant- of summer hut- ihich I found

along the path 1.-dinv from the river to the vill: e con-.isted merely
of a framework of poles lI-cking the finer lait1.'tvork of sticks, and
their covering was completely gone.
It is worth noting the existence of a sort of porch wU.ich took

u' entirely one of the smaller side of house ,nid which WLs .5 meters

wide (fig. 9). It was thatched only on its upper part, doin to the

longitudinal poles, and it was used by the men and women who w;,nted
to be in the open air ia lying in their hammock. or performing

household tasks, but who wished to bc sheltered from the sun phott, 48i.
The house doeas are about the vidth of c:n adult person photss.

59 and 67), and they are cr bound on topy the lons'irudinu.l Fol1e, 1.60
meters from the ground. To my knowledge, they are n'ver cloiedV u4.

Rev. Kegel told me that during the rainy se:.son the T pir.pi
raise an earth bank A.round each house to prev-nt the v,.ter: front seeping

Beside the houses there st;..nd gsS :-ooden frameworks,

triangular or quadrangular according to the number of their leg3, here


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