Front Cover
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The American Israelite
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102983/00001
 Material Information
Title: The American Israelite
Added title page title: Golden Jubilee Extra : June 30, 1904
Physical Description: Newspaper
Language: English
Publisher: Isaac M. Wise
Place of Publication: Cincinnati, Ohio
Publication Date: 6/30/1904
Genre: newspaper   ( sobekcm )
 Record Information
Source Institution: The Isser and Rae Price Library of Judaica, Newspaper Collection
Holding Location: The Isser and Rae Price Library of Judaica
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 9936176
lccn - sn 85025894
System ID: UF00102983:00001

Table of Contents
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        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
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    Back Cover
        Page 33
        Page 34
Full Text




I85.4 1904

r s-



B' eI !




Tlx Fit st of July



......... IN ......

First NatiOnaI
Bank Building

The A. L. Rich Co.




FreiberB s Workum

One man
left Cincinnati
hungry, but
wrote back to
Mayor Fleishman
that it was not the
fault of the Gibson
H-ouse, but a change
in his train time.

THE A. G. CORRE HoTEL Co., Props. M~podn o e


BONDS to Yield from
;~3 to j per cent..

By Decpositing with us under our

We accept $10 or more.
Privilege of withdrawal
is allowed. We pay
compound interest at 3
per ce tt 4 ffundscwith:
if Bonds purchased.

In accepting your deposit, we agree to maintain a
proper cash reserve available for withdrawals, and to set
Csdei Safe Dep si la It~s, sufficient AaPROa c@





216 to 220 E. FRONT ST.

Iklolp h Kley bolted & Co.

-- Ground Floor .


CINCINNATI, 0., JUNE 30, 1904.

people will doubtless be welcomed by
every friend of literature; it will be
especially sought after by every Jew
who is desirous of having his time-
Ilonorued faith defendedonrom the nue

scandals uttered against it by those
fanatics who least comprehend its
merits (merits that ages of cruel po-
litical and ecclesiastical persecutions
have fruitlessly striven to misrepresent
and kreep in abeyance).
The paper will be under the editorial
supervision of the undersigned, aided
by an efficient corps of assistants, and
arrangements have been made with
able correspondents for an early pub-
lication of every transaction in Europe
ance America of interest to the Jewish
public. The columns of the paper will
moreover be open for the free, open
and fair discussion of every topic tend-
ing to elevate the Hebrew religion and
literature, but no article will be in-
serted known to contain personalities.
The object of the journal being to ad-
vance, to enlighten, to improve, all its
efforts and all its means must be used
to that end solely.
M~uch can be presented through the
medium of such a paper as the Is
ITAELITE prOposes to be, and the hope. is
entertained that the children of the
Mosaic faith, widely scattered as they
are through this vast continent, may
learn in the pages of this journal more

pety rfthee daryrs wohaoreesuffe
in its defense, more of the biography
of its sages, its rabbins, its prophets
andeits commentator s, e awkakoenedato
feel its glorious tendency, and be thus
taught to know themselves and to be
drawn nearer and nearer in commu-
nion with their Crea o.ACM IE

The Israelite.
In another part of this issue is told
at length and in detail the great part
the IBSAELITE played in all public ques-
tions affecting the Jew. Looking back
over the records of the past half cen-
tury, the ISRAELITE~ may, with pardon-
able pride and with truth say that it
ever advocated all causes that in any
way tended to benefit the Jew; that it
neglected no opportunity to protect
the- religious and political rights of
the Jew; that it was among the first to
protest against all measures that
abridged in any manner the inherent
rights of the Jews to political free
The reader of this issue is urged to
examine carefully the record present-
ed, for here he will find an intensely
interesting story, one full of adven"
ture and fire. To-day the younger gen-
eration of Israel is apt to forget the
struggle their fathers endured in this
country, a struggle not only with the
nation and the respective States, but
a struggle with co-religionists.
Throughout this struggle, which in
some .respects is not at an end, the
Israelite was always found on the side
of progress, enlightenment and reform.
As in the past, the ISRAELITE Was the
fearless champion of the Jew, the zeal,
ous defender of his civil as well as
religious rights and the staunch advo-
cate of his cause, so in the future will
the ISRAEIITE be ever ready to safe-
guard the Jew's rights, to advocate all
measures that will elevate him, and to
further all1 plans that make for his
religious, moral and material progress.

(A Jubilee Song.)
One fateful day of long ago
A stream ran down a mountain side-
It bore the mountain heath and blooms,
And, too, perhaps a stone or so.

The days sped on, and into years'
That ever brighter, greater grew;
The streamlet, too, went flowing on
AnY, now, a leaping brook appears,
The children watch it gurgling by,
Andl oft refresh their busy hands;
They toss their paper boats therein,
They foat! They float! the joyous cry.

The years now quick uncounted run,
And every day is big with deeds;
The brook has to a river grown,
And shining glides neathh shining sun.

Proud cities rise upon its banks
(It bears far more than toy-boats now),
And while men work and toil and spin,
They bring the river, meed of thanks.

The years fly on like winged things,
The circling suns a cycle bring;
The river to a giant grown, .
Itself into the ocean flings.

The years have borne fair fruit and
And on the ocean proudly speeds

ilr um chtsy ae ofs amoin hw'

The cargoes carried in the hold
Make gad our hearts with buoyant

That time will bring the ships to port,
So we the treasures may unfold.

Now read the riddle as you can-
More so en thal e roll on with time,

Flow on, stretch out, to gladden man.
Annette Ko0ln.
New York, 1904.

11 Golden Jubilee.
The AMrERICAN ISRA.ELITE is the jubi-
]laian of this celebration, and is en-
titled to all the honors of the occasion.
The pages that follow are therefore de-
Y'oted almost exclusively to telling the
story of its life and to putting upon
record in convenient form an account
of whkat it has done in the service of
God, humanity, our country, Judaism
and the Jews.
There has been no attempt made to
do more than to give the ISRAELITE fle
honor which it deserves as the oldest
Jewish newspaper in America, and by
far the most widely read and most in-
fluential, and to pay a passing tribute
to the writers, most of whom are no
longer. living, who helped build upon
a lasting foundation the national or-
gann of Jewish Americans. .

Prior to the publication of the first
number there was issued the follow.
On. July 15 (1854) will be issued
the first number of the ISRAELITE, a
weekly paper devoted to the interests
of the Jewish community, in which
Jewish history, poetry, literature, re'
ligion, political and social position'
and the affairs of the schools, congre-
gation and institutions will be freely
discussed and commented upon.
A journal having as interesting an
object in view as the discussion of af-
fairs, past and present, of the Hebrew

quer, you will be admired and re-
ver'ed, but not beloved. If you fail,
hatr d and contempt will be your por-

lintilst reacl d t fohl oing ec sio
"Come what may and how it may, I
will not swerve a hair's-breadth fr om
my convictions. Either I will build
up a Judaism suited to the age andl
breathing the atmosphere of American
freedom, or I will be buried beneath
the ruins of the old Judaism. I do not
wish to be rich nor honored, nor ree-
ognized, nor beloved. I will do my
duty. I will remain true to my con-
Then I wrote the prospectus--shor~t,
concise, clear and fearless. I prom-
ised Judaism a sharp weapon. I prom-
ised progress enlightenment, spirit-
ual striving, a fearless organ. The
pronspectus was printed, distributed
and mailed by the following after-
I have often thought how little con-
ception the general reader has of the
emotions which sway a poet or author
while engaged in literary composition1;
how little they imagine that silme-
times every Line has surged forth from
an overcharged heart, and every wordl
is a crystallized tear. TIhese poor. lit-
terateurs, victims of careless human-
ity, pour out their heart's blood on the
altar of historical progress, in order

tin ent and asotmemn tdha oneefir
execration and persecution. If all goes
well the hungry poet is fed, though

hv eoften ben s ise tehaw 1he do
not all write--write bitterly-11kle
Heine. Only that which is deeply felt
can produce a deep effect, and that
whch hs bldeeply f tveiso peb lhe
enced this, but why it is so, I krnow

no he prospectus was well received in
Cincinnati for the most part. Nat-
urally, only a few friends were enthu-
siastic. .The replies from the country
were few, and still fewer from other
cities. The indifference was greater
than the objection to reform. Shortly
thereafter I visited, with Dr. Rosen-
feld, a friend in M., where about ten
Jewish families lived, to whom I gave
the prospectus. Seven of them de-
clared they could not read English;
one said that a Jewish paper was a
11seless commodity, and two eub-

Lo isille teor the frs tie. I fotn
there a well organized congregation
with a beautiful synagog. Mr. Go~tt-
helf was preacher and chazan. I dc-
livered two public addresses there. I
was admired by the public, and mlade
a number of very warm friends. My
prOSpectus was received coldly, except

dn ees nPAwo en v ry nhmues a. iF
At the end of June we had about .ive
hundred subscribers for the ISRAELITE,
and began to print and mail one thou-
sand copies. The first number na-
Deared on the 6th of July.* It con-
tained the beginning of a novel, "The
Convert," a poem, news, leading arti-
cle~s, my Fourth-of-July oration, an
apnigarticle 1onm te institutions of
matter of course, every one in Cin
cinnati had to see the paper whose
motto was "fyK %;"tv and which was to
voyage through the world bearing the
I~ame of Israel.
I knew full well that every begin-

*The Airst number was dated July
15, 1854, which was evidently. an error,
as this was a Saturday. It should
probably have been July 14, as the
next number is dated July 21.





The Pounding of The
I8780 ite,
When the ISRAELITE WaS established
in 1854 there was no Jewish journal
published 'West of the Alleghanies'
and the Jews who could read English
were comparatively few in number,
It was, therefore, not with a prospect
of money profit that Dr. Wise under-
took what to a man with no means, a
large family and a very small salary
must have seemed a task that pre-
sented almost prohibitive difficulties
What he had in mind is best told in
his own words. He says in his "Rem
iniscence~s" (Rem., pp. 265 to 273).
As early as the! month of May, 1854,
I began to take steps toward establish-
ing a Jewish weekly. I wrote very
many letters and received very glow-
ing promises, which, however, were
never kept. Contributions of all kinds
were promised, but they were never re-
ceivedl; yet I went confidently to work
and wrote matter which I intended to
mak~e use of later. Fortunately I wrote
very readily, and possessed rare facil-
ity in the use of the English language;
hence I could commit to writing very
quickly thoughts which, may have oc-
cupied my mind many days. Writing
itself was mere play after I had
thought out a theme.
foA,tthme enmerciMay I egan to loo
would be so amiable as to publish a
Jewish weekly under my direction;

bud su ban oea mrn thetogo d, oo ndd
untsee of all the disciples of Fumt g
the Jews who had any idea of print-
ing or publishing; therefore I could
not expect any one of them to under-
take this very risky venture. Chris-
atnewpu lsherouldeclarednsbhmuny that
cess of any paper. I did not relish the
thought of borrowing money so soon
after my arrival in Cincinnati, partic-
ularly as my debt in Albany was not
yet liquidated. I did not know what
to do. Finally I came across a vis-
ionary, Dr. Schmidt, the owner of the
Geman ev ming papar, the Renp bic

lishment on Third Street, in the very
heart of the business district of Cin-
cinnati. Di'. Schmidt accepted my
promise that I would make good alk
losses at the end of the first year.
Steps were now taken to have the
IS*rAELITE appear at the beginning of

nut wisHa nobe di nrb ed lokd my
self in my room from 2 o'clock in the
afternoon till 4 in the morning, and
wrote a prospectus. What should, I
say to the puble, what suppress? was
a leading question. I stood before the
burning thornbush and struggled with
myself. Conviction, conscience, duty'
were ranged against policy. I had to
decide one way or the other. If I used
my talents anld my position in a pol,
itichwa I woulpr tonbecoem rich, a r
ing upon and pursuing successfully a
brilliant career. But if I reniailed
true to my convictions, the bent of my
nature, then I must be ready to -re-
nounce wealth, honors, recognition and
love; I must be ready to serve the
cause for the love of the truth. Mrs.
F. arose before me like a ghiost, and
I read once again her words, whc I
had written in my diary with red .n
"The fighter may be feared, admired,
yea, even worshiped; but he can never
be beloved. He is too terrible. Just
now you are beloved like all geniuses-
This love you will lose. If you con-

nlingr is difficult; but I had 110 idea
that the establishment of a Jewish
weekly would prove as difficult as it
did. Three things particularly were
wanting, viz., confidence in the editor:
secondly. writers; thirdly, readers,
Ever since I had undertaken the ed-
itorship of the Asmlonean, Isaac Leeser
had treated me as a public opponent,
and we had many a sharp encounter,
although we had never belabored each
other with polemical diatribes a la
Boerne, such as were later imported
from Germany. Upon the appearance
of the IsRAE~LTE, Wita its outspoken re-
form tendency, Leeser wrote in the
Occitedet: "A weekly paper has begun
to appear in Cincinnati under the di-
rection of the well known Mr. Wise,"
falsely called ISlHAELITrE. It Will in &11
likelihood prove a creature of a days
and will soon go the way of all flesh.
The ~satoniean, did not dare be as un-
friendly as this, since it was edited by
Dr. L~ilienthal, but it looked upon the
new paper with distrust, and accorded
it as cool a reception as was possible.
The political press took scarcely any
notice of the ~the little Jewish paper,"
as some called it. Abroad the paper
was unknown, and no one even me1-
tioned it, except the Allgemeinae Zci-
tungy des J~udenzthums, which noticed it
in its news columns. All tnis neither
angered nor surprised me; for I have
never cared whether I was mentioned,
praised or blamed; besiues, I knew
very well that my paper would have
to be simple and popular; for I wanted
to write tor the people--i. e., for my
people. This would not give scholars
any reason for particular admiration.
I was convinced that I could not count
on the support of the press.
A number of friends had promise
me original contributions and transla-
tions; but when the campaign was
ready to be opened, I found myself
without an army. My sorriest embar-
rassment lay in the fact that I had
announced Jewish novels in the pros-
pectus, and could not obtain, any. I
wished to reawakren the slumbering
patriotism by Jewish stories, and thus
overcome the indiltference. I had an
object, therefore, in desiring novels;
but, despite all promises, I had none.
I had no choice but to write novels in
the sweat of my brow. During the
first year I wrote two, "The Convert"
and "The Shoemaker's Family," the
latter with a historical background.
TIhese assisted the paper greatly.
How did I write novels? I wrote the
required chapter every week, but no
sooner than I had to. The first pages
were set up while the last were being
written. On one occasion I was in a
sorry plight: I had made two maidens
fall in love with one and the same
character, and I had to get rid of one
of them. I was in sore straits. H~ow
was 01 to get rid of a lovelorn fe-
male. I had no experience in such
things, and yet I wanted to dispose
of her decently, romantically and ef-
fectively. I therefore had the poor
thing become insane; and the unhappy
creaturle had to jump from a window
during the conflagration of the ghetto
of Frankfort and thus meet her death.
The poor creature was greatly
mo~uned and wept for the following
Saturday, and all the tears fell upon
my burdened conscience. The most
serious feature of the whole matter
was that my wife made sport- of me
every Thursday evening, and declared
stoutly that I had forgotten entirely
how to enact a lover's part-
A4 still greater difficulty lay in pro.
cur~ing readers. It was very hard tO
obtain such. No one was used to read.
ing a Jewish paper. My personal
friends readl the paper and ought to
circulate it; but their number was, sad
to say, very small. I received fre-
q~uently communications of the follow-
ing import from the country: "We are
are not Jews. We do not need a Jew-
ish paper. We do not wish to be
known as Jews. There is no honor in

withJeaw .e Or el .n'"I noth gi e
to have myself shmad as yet; I do
not want any 'l"refah posal in my

house," etc. The fact is, that very few
could read English, and the fewest of
these wanted to be known as Jews.
Frivolity and indifference were the or,
der of the day, and in the cities athe-
ism and hatred of all religion wvere
rampant among the Germans. This
was the case in Cincinnati, particu.
larly under the aegis of the Fireeman's
Hall. It did not profit me to have at
tacked, scourged and finally routed
atheism with all the weapons at my
command; for it took time to accom-
plish this. The mass was large and
ulnapproachable, and my arguments
were slow in convincing a foolish'
misguided and semi-cultured class of
people who repeat, parrot-likre, what-
ever happens to be the fad of the
But this was not the worst feature
of the situation. A company of bap-
tized Jews, armed with McAll's writ-
ings, had been sent to this country by
the London Society for the Conversiol
of the Jews. McAll had rehashed Eis-
enmenger; hence the Talmud and, in
cidentally, the Jews and Judaism were
attacked. It came to pass ere long
that every pastor and every insignifi-
cant little preacher, every common
jester, and every political rogue,
rained blows upon the Talmud and the
Jews. A rascally Jew figured in every
cheap novel, every newspaper printed
some stale jokes about the Jews to fill
up space, every backwoodsman had a
few such jokes on hand for use in pub-
lict addresses; and all this called forth
not one word of protest from any
source. A company of English mis-
sionaries plied the conversion busi-
ness in New York systematically with
the aid of their own magazine; and
there was no one in the great city of
New York who objected to their 3ro-
ceedings. I can not deny that these
things disgusted me; but for this very
reason I proceeded against them ma.
liciously, wrote articles filled with fire
and brimstone instead of with become.
ing word's, forgetting for the time that
I was a clergyman. I did not mind
the abuse to which I was subjected,
and cared not though the rabble cried,
Help! Help! I struck right and left
so violently that the sparks flew in all
directions. I belabored unmercifully
everyone who spoke against the Jews,
Judaism and the Talmud, and used
both fists on the principle, "Two
kiickrs for one blow; in short, I be-
came a malicious, biting, pugnacious,
challenging and mocking monster of
the pen. Mrs. F`. scolded me in every
letter, and begged me for God's sake
to be a gentleman; but I would not
listen to her, and continued to fight
like a wild boar that had been fired at
These tactics proved efficacious, buit, as
a matter of course, only after a time.
In the first place, I succeeded in si-
lencing the opposition, and routed the !
the New Yorkr company, together with
their magazine. In the second place'
the ISRAE.ITE: became known and rec-
ognized as the organ of all Jewry, and
not alone of the reform party. Thir~d~y.
the cowards threw off their disguise
and were no longer ashamed to be
Jews. Fourthly, the much-derided
Wise became all at once a mighty per-
sonage, so that the ISRAELITE COIntillued
to exist and to prosper despite all ob-
stacles and all opponents.

The Israelite;

its Position on Public Questions During
the Past Half Century.
The day of personal journalism has
passed. In the middle of the last cen-
turyr the personal note in journalism
was still heard and editorial writers
moulded public opinion. Chief among
these in the secular press was Horate
Grehe a td his friune oin th carcr
and his Liberator; in the Jewish relig-
ious world, Isaac M. Wise and his

nSA~.~s pr 1 T1se head writtten f

cinna~ti from Albany and in the follow-
ing month he realized that his life's

workr, the union of Jewish C~ongrega.-
tions, the establishment of an institu-
tion for the educating of rabbis and
the Americanization of the Jew, could
not be accomplished without a paper,
through whose columns he could speak
to the whole country.
He decided to establish a religious
weekly and in his prospectus "prom-
isedl Judaism a sharp weapon." prom-
ised progress, 'enlightenment, spirit-
ual striving, a fearless organ." On
July 14, 1854, the first number of the
ISHAELITE appeared, with a new his-
tori mtm, ,oseL sherelleb Light."
bers were coldly received. The Occi-
dent, Leaser's orthodox paper, com-
mented as follows: "A weekly paper
has begun to appear in Cincinnati un-
der the direction of the well-known
Mr. Wise, falsely called ISRAELITE. It
will, in all likelihood, prove a creature
of a day and soon go the way of all
The ISRAEL.ITE, Ilow called the AME~R-
caN ISRlAELITE, 11RS SUTviVed all its pre-
decessors and to-day is the oldest Jew-
ish weekly in America. During the
past fifty years the paper has been the
fearless champion of the Jew, the
zealous defender of his civil as well
as religious rights and the staunch ad.
vocate of his cause. Without the ad-
vocacy of the ISRABELITE, WithOut the
ever watchfulness of its intrepid edi-
tor, without his constant and persist-
ent appeals, protests and demands in
behalf of the American Jew, the Jew
to-day in this country would not be
enjoying the political and social rights
now so eagerly and freely accorded
him. -
To many of the present generation
this statement may seem an exagger-
ation, but a careful study of the files
of the ISR~AELITEr from 1854 to the pres-
entday wi11easily convince the most
skepticalen ofy its truth.
In a brief sketch of this character,
it is impossible to tell the whole story
of the brave fight made by the
I;IWAELITE On behalf of the Jew, of its
insistence upon the fundamental
truths of the Declaration of Indepent-
ence, that all men a~re created equal,
of its persistent demand w.at the un.
derlying principle of this government,
the separation of church and state, he
adhered to and that in the domain of
politics no discrimination be made
against citizens because they are of
Jewish faith. Neither is it possible
to tell the whole story of the con.
structive work done by the ISRAELITE-
the Americanization of the Jew.
At best, the most important events
and movements can be selected and
in narrating these, the writer believes
tht rthe radr oill gehtea bbHt E Tg
allowed to tell its own story, and '
teeo ,fibee ha thaw pevery largely
The Jew of to-day, untrammeled
save when he wishes to visit Russia
as a Jew, or stop at certain summer
resorts, is prone to forget that in the
middle of last century, when the Is.
RAELITE was founded, he was a very
negative quantity in America; that
his histoi'y was unknown, his religion
misunderstood and his political rights
ignored, if not denied.
In telling the story of the work done
for the American Jew, the writer has
deemed it best to divide his subject
into three parts: (1) The Jew and the
Law-making power; (2) The Jew and
his Neighbors; and, (3) The move
ment for union among the Jews.
Under thiS head will be treated the
protests of the ISHIAELITE against dlis-
crimination on account of the Jew's
religious belief. 011 many different oc-
easions when the rights of the Jews
welre ignored or denied, as in Thankrs-
giving proclamations, the Swiss
T~reay th infamous Grn li der No.
11,th Rblean te Pulc Schools,
the enactment of laws declaring cer-
tain Christian religious days public

toamn th aited Stt es m stt
tionl by inetin u- rlgo cas
the R ssia ar ing a, d raligi r anesd

tion, the iSRA1LtTE illmediatefy called
attention to the denial of rights, to the
abuse of the Jew and demanded re-
dress and fair treatment and pro-
claimed to the world that in free
America the Jew was the equal of his
neighbor and entitled to the enjoy-
ment of equal political rights.
The ISRAEL.ITE began its criticism of
Thanksgiving proclamations on a~c-
count of their sectarian form, in its
first volume. In the issue of Decem-
her 1Fj 154 IVol 23, tpher cea a

tions issued in the previous months
and those of Governors Seymour, of
New York; Washburn, of Massachu-
setts; Bakrer, of New Hampshire;
Bryce, of Vermont, and Hopkrins, of
Maine, arT Singled out because of their
C'hristian tone and illiberal and narrow
Probably the editor of the ISHAELITE
had no warmer' and closer friend than
Salmon P. Chase, who in January,
1856, entered upon -his first term as
Governor of Ohio. In 1855 Mr. Chase
was one of the speakers at the open-
ing of Zion College and on several oc-
casions advised Dr. Hilse that it would
be much better for him to attach him-
self to the rising Republican Party--
then the party of progress and reform
-than to work for a religious idea in
a narrow circle. Yet this friendship
did not prevent the ISRAELITE frOm1
protesting in unmistakable words,
when Governor Chase, in issuing his:
Thanksgiving proclamation in the fall
of 1856j, used this language: "In con-
formity with a custom sanctioned by
Legislative Resolves, commended by
the practice of my predecessors in the!
executive office and in itself highly be-
coming a Christian people, I, Salmon
P. Chase," etc.
In the issue of November 14, 1856,
Vol. Ill., No. 19, this document is
called illiberal and the following ex-
tracts from an editorial show the at-
titude of the ISHAELITE tOward the
State: "The Governor addresses himt-
self to a Christianl people, but he ought
to krnow that the people of Ohio ar~e
neither Christian nor Jewish; they
ar~e a free and independent people."
"Next the Governor desires us 'to
thank God 'For the mercies of re-
demption and the hopes of immortal-
ity.' Fall upon your knees, Jews, de-
ists, infidels and atheists, and thank
God that Jesus of Nazarethi died on
the cross to redeem the people of
Ohio, as His Excellency, the Governor,
decrees. On the whole, we do not see
by what right the Governor of Ohio as-
sumes the prerogative of exercising a
rlgiou ISRItheori icaTh ds no us t

ent with the constitution of this
"In conclusion, however, we must
say, in justice to the Governor, that
we do not believe this document to
have been examined closely by him.
He considered it immaterial and un-
important and cared little what his
secretary wrote. So do we care little
about the whole matter. We merely
dislike to see sectarian views grafted
on the people."
Governor Chase, in answer to a let-
ter of inquiry from Dr. Lilienthal,
wrote: "I look for the coming of a
day when the icy barriers created be-
tween brethren of the same great fam-
ily by religious differences, will dis-
solve and disappear under the fervid
rays of truth. Our creeds are many,
Our Father 15 One."
Commenting on this letter in the
IslraELIT~E of November 21, 1856, Vol.
III, No. 20, the editor writes: "The
correspondence before us can be con-
sidlered a private matter and no more.
A state paper, however, is a public andl
official document filed among the his-
torical records of the state and be-
comes a part of our history; hence the
insult offered in such a document to
any portion o~f the community can not
be eradicated by a private letter. We
knon s dthellyo appreciate ah b ntn
this case we have nothing to do with
hisnedthe Governoe of O01io stands ae-


A wAeekly Periodical, devoted to the Religion, History and Literature of the Israelites.

The above is an exact reproduction of the original heading of the first number of the Israelite.

of protesting every year against those
illiberal and unconstitutional procla-
This was the beginning of a series
of protests against the illiberal ten-
dency of the times; against the ever
recurrent efforts to amend the Consti-
tution of the United States by adopt-
ing an amendment expressly recogniz-
ing Christianity and against all laws,
state and federal, that in any way
abridged the rights and privileges of
the Jews or offended them in the exer-
cise of their religion.
The limits of this article prevent a
special reference to every editorial
protest on this subject; suffice it to
state that the ISRIAELITE, With itS RC-
customed vigilance, called attention to
every fanatical andl sectarian act and
so throughout the. past fifty years its
files are full of reports and criticisms
directed against Sunday or Blue laws,
the Federal and state acts declaring
such Christian festivals as Christmas,
New Year's Day and Good Friday pub-
lic holidays, the various attempts at
Christianizing the Constitution and
the effort to prevent any but Christian
chaplains in the Union Army during
the rebellion.
The importance of these topics justi-
fies the following quotations from an
editorial in the ISRAEL.ITE Of JRaluary
24, 1873. Vol XX., which is typical of
the series that appeared on this ques-
tion: "Ohio will have a Consuitu-
tional C~onvention. H-er Consti~tution
will be reshaped, tel be the basis of leg
isolation for the next twenty years.
Lookout in time. Plenty obnoxious
clauses will turn up and post festutn,
complaints come too late. It is neces-
sary that some prominent Israelites
be sent into that convention so that
complaints be not necessary on our
part. We call attention of our friends
to this point, especially of Cincin-
nati, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton,
etc., to be on the lookout on this sub.
"IWe want free schools and free col-
leges without any sort of religion in
them. Wek want equal rights for all.
We want state institutions purged of
sectarianism. Wanting this as we do,
have your men there to do it."
During the campaign of 1876 the
IsnsrAELTE urged the defeat of Col.
Barnes, Republican candidate from
Hamilton County, because he had sup-
ported a petition to Christianize the
Ohio Constitution and during October,
of that year, the Toledo Blade severely
criticized the attitude of the ISRAEIT~.
There are two very strong editorial
answers to the Blade, one in the issue
of October 20, 1876, the other O~ctober
27. Although this editorial refers to
many subjects, which will be dis-
cussed later on in this article, still the
general tone is so appropriate to the
immediate subject under discussion
that a lengthy extract will be par-
"1We protested fifteen years since
against the insolence of politicians and
their violations of constitutional pro-

visions. When Congress excluded the
Jews and the Catholics from the
chaplaincy in the United States Army,
we protested, although none in Con-
gress would listen, except Mr. Val-
landingham, of Ohio. W~hen General
Grant's insolent Order No. 11 ap-
peared, expelling the Jews from his
department, we protested, although
none in Congress except Mr. Pendle-
ton, of Ohio, and Governor Powell, of
Kentucky, would give us any assist-
ance. When the late Vice President
Wilson publicly insulted the Jews in
the Senate of the United States and it
hild become fashionable in W~ashing-
t'on among speakers and correspond-
entS t0 inSult SOme Jew Or thrOw sus-
picion on some Catholic, we protested,
although demagogues and idiots de-
cried us as a traitor, a secessionist.
sympathizer with treason. When
Generals Wright, Butler and a number
of post commanders, provost marshals,
spies and clandestine traders, insult.
ed and slandered the Jew, we protest-
ed again, and if it had not been for
Abraham Lincoln and Salmon P.
Chase, there would have been none in
Washington to listen. When the Re-
Dublican Congress imposed upon the
country a number of Christian and
Puritan holidays, we protested, and
there was none in W~ashington to lis-
ten. When bigots made the public
school Protestant chapels and placed
a Protestant praying individual every-
where without right or reason, we pro-
tested as we did when they wanted
to makre the Constitution and the Con-
stitutions sectarian instruments. We
protested against he insolence of im-
posing Sunday laws, temperance laws
and Blue laws upon the Republic.
"This country needs subsoil-
ing, and will 1a.ve it. .. This is
a Democratic Republic and must be
governed by honest men without hy-
Ipocrisy or insolence, without religious
lies and imposition and also without
Blue laws, Sunday laws, P'uritan holi-
days, God's special police hereabouts'
Bible fanatics or other fanatics.
This is the proper place to state the
IsrtAErTTE'S position on the famous Bi-
ble reading controversy. In 1852 the
Cincinnati Board of Education adopted
a resolution providing that the open-
ing exercises in every department of
the schools shall commence by read-
ing a portion of the Bible by or under
the direction of the teacher with ap-
propriate singing by pupils. On Sep-
tember 28, 1855, Vol. II., No. 12, the
TSISAELI~TE said, "We agree to have the
Bible read in the common schools-
But this is not the case, nor is it in-
tended to b~e the case. There is used
in the public schools an E~nglish trans-
lation, or rather a version of the Bible,
It is well known that every sect has
another version of certain portions
of the Bible. All sects are entitled to
equal rights, hence all versions of the
Bible must be read in the public
schools or none." On November 1,

1869, the Cincinnati Board of Educa-
tion, by a majority vote, repealed the
Bible reading regulation and resolved
that "religious instruction and read-
ing of religious books, including the
Holy Bible, are prohibited in the Com-
mon Schools of Cincinnati, it being
the true object and intent of this rule
to allow the children of the parents
of all sects and opinions in matters of
faith and worship, to enjoy alike the
benefits of the Common School Fund."
immediately a fierce controversy was
begun and prominent citizens engaged
eminent counsel to enjoin the Board
of Education from excluding the Bible
from the public schools, claiming that
the resolutions were in violation of
law and against public policy and
morality and an abuse of authority
vested in lauw. The ISRAELITE took a
decided stand in the matter and on
October 8, 18691, nearly a month before
the iniunction was begun, said inter
alia, "We are opposed to Bible read-
ing in the schools. Wne want secular
schools and nothing else. Nor has
the state a shadow of right to sup-
Dort any other. As Jews we do not
want any one to teach our young ones
the religion of our fathers. We do it
all ourselves.
"From a general standpoint, how-
ever, we are opposed to Bible reading
in the school. The American people
consists of a conglomeration of na-
tionalities and sects united by the Con-
stitution and laws of the United
States, the common interests and the
love of liberty anh independence. The
gist of the whole is, we agree to disa-
gree on every point except public gov-
ernment, which we agree to support,
maintain and obey. ..-
"The public schools are institutions
for the education of free, intelligent
and enlightened citizens. That is all. To
this end we need good secular schools
and nothing else. The state has no re.
ligion. .. Having no religion it
can not impose any religious instrue-
tion on the citizen, adult or child. The
Bible is a book of religion-all admit
this. By what right is it imposed on
th~e pubhlic schools?" On November 2,
1869. Messrs. Sage & Hinkle. William
M. Ram~sey and King, Thompson & ~
Avery filed a petition in the Superior
Court of Cincinnati in behalf of Minor
et a~l., vs. the Board of Edu~cation, to
enioin the Board from excluding the
Bib~le. Messrs. Stanley andl Samuel R.
Matthews, George Hoadly, Stallo and
K~iltridge and Walker & COtmnor, City
Solicitor~s, represented the majority
members of the board. The case wa~s
elaborately and exhaustively argued
before Judges Hapans, Storer and
Taft by M4essrs. Sage, Ramsey and
King for the Bible reading and' Messrs.
Stall, Hoadly and Stanley Matthews
against the r~eading. The court de-
ciderl for the Bible. Judges Hagans
and Stor~er each delivering a favorable
oninion. Judge Taft dissenting. Tle
Board of E~ducation carried the case to
the Supreme Court of Ohio, where the
judgment below was reversed and the

right of the Board of Education to dis-
pense with the reading of the B3ible
fully established (Board of Education
vs. Minor 23 0. S. 211).
Since that time there has been no
serious attempt made to introduce re~-
ligious exercises into the Cincinnati
Public Schools. The IsHlAEr~LTTE haS RI-
ways taken up the fight for the com
plete secularization of the Public
Schools, only last year printing in full
the opinion and briefs in the Nebraskia
On November 8, 1855, ratifications
were exchanged of a treaty entered in-
to between the United States andi tbo
Swiss Confederation. Article I. of this
treaty reads in part: "The citizens of
the United States of America and the
citizens of Switzerland shall b~e ad-
mitted and treated upon a footing of'
reciprocal equality in the two countries
when such admission and treatment
shall not conflict with the constitution-
al or legal provisions, federal as well
as state and cantonal of the contract-
ing parties."' In 1850 a similar treaty3
had been proposed and Mr. Dudley
Mann, the American negotiator, wrote
to Daniel Webster, then Secretary of
State: "Any canton can permit an
Israelite to become a citizen upon the
same conditions as a Chlristian and
consequently one hailing from the
United States can establish himself
and trade as a native, a privilege
which I am assured will never be de-
nied." According to the ISRAELFFE~r Of
July 31, 1857, Vol. IV., No. 4, owing to
protests on the part of the Jews the
treaty was never ratified.
In 1853 a Mr. Gootman, a Jew and a.
citizen of the United States. had some
difficulty in acquiring a domicile in
one of the Cantons and at his re-
auest our minister resident at Berne,
Hon. Theodore F~ay, p~rocured the nee-
essary permission. (See Government
Document 2,26i2, No 76). In 1855 the
convention of 1850 was again consid-
ered by our Gover~nment and the
IsRAELIrTE~ Caled Secretaly of State
Marcy's attention to the ob~noxious ar-
ticle and Secretary Marcy assured tbo
editor that nothing unjust or ulnfair
would be done. (Vol. IV., No. 4.)
Nevertheless, the treaty as originally
drafted was ratified. In 1857 arose the
second Gootman case. The editor ofI
the IsHAETr.TTE~ received a letter from a
Mr. M\uhlhauser, an optician, a Jew
and a citizen of the United S~tates,
in which it was stated that Mr. Fay,
the U~nited States Minister at Berne.
had expressed an opinion that under
the treaty a Jew, although a citizen of
the U~nited States, had no r~edrepss if
certain Swiss Cantons denied him
right of domicile and other valuable
privileges. On receipt of this letter,.
which is printed in the Deboralr, of
AugKust 7, 1857, Vol. III., No. 5, Dr.
W~ise tooks the matter up with the
State Department. His only satisfac-
tion at that time was a brief note from
Secretary of State Cass, enclosing a
copy of the treaty, and this was the








Vol. I.

Cincinnati, O., July 15, 5614 A. M., 1854 A. C.

No. 4.

and that their rights as citizens of the
United States will be zealously main-,
tained. We publish these cheerful
facts in the discharge of our duties
as delegates with the request to our
coreligrionists to abstain from further
agitation on the subject.
President Buchanan was as good as
his word. On November 5, 1857, wit~h-
in five days after receiving the delega-
tion, Secretary of State Cass writes
to Hon. Theodore S. Fay, Minister of
the United States at Berne: "I am
directed by the President to instruct
the consul at Berne to use all means
inl his power to effect the removal of
the odious restrictions complained of'
which, it is understood, exist in some
Cantons." (Executive Documents'
36th Congress, 1st session, Vol. XII.'
No. 76). Our government and the Is-
raelites particularly are fortunate at
this time in being represented at
Berne by so accomplished and faithful
a minister as Hon. Theodore S. Fay.
As already stated, Mr. Fay, in 1853, ha~l
interfered in behalf of a Mr. Gootman.
His work, now under instructions from
Washington, was to him both a labor
of love and duty. The writer regrets
very much that space prevents him
from making any extended extracts
from the 101 pages of the correspond-
ence between the State Department
and M\r. Fay. Any reader interested is
referred to the printed report as found
in the House Publication of Executive
Documents, 36th Congress, 1st session'
No. 76, and to the very excellent pa-
per of Mlr. Sol. M. Stroock on Switzer-
land a.nd the American Jews. (Ameri-
can Jewish Historical Publications,
Vol. XII., page 7.)
This correspondence discloses that
Mr. Fay began at once to secure re-
dress for the Jews, and pursued the
even tenor of his way with persist-
ency and vigor. His note was sub~
mitted to the Swiss Government on
May 26. 1859 (Dublished in the ISRAE-
LITEF beginning Vol. 6. No. 47 and com-
pleted Vol. 7, No. 11), is a most ex-
haustive and conclusive presentation
of the question, and, in time, Mr. Fay
succeeded in getting many of the
Swiss Cantons that still had restric-
tive Jewish laws to repeal them.
The negotiations extended over many
years, and. like all diplomatic mat-
ters, especially where there was no
cable communication, were very slow.
Every now and then the ISRAEL~TTE
would manifest its impatience. On
August 27, 1858. Vol. 5, No. 8, the
ISRAELITE: printed an important edi-
torial on the Swiss question, in which
a report of an interview between the
Secretary of State and a committee,
consisting of Members C~ohen, of Bal-
timore; Leopoldl, of Cleveland, and
W~ise?, of Cincinnati. is given. Also
a summary of Mr. Fay's notes. C'om-
menting on the Cantonal restrictions
the editor says: "It is impossible for
an American to read these responses
(i. e. Chutonal answers on restric-
tions) without being disgusted with
the loathsome scent of medieval doc-
trines and views. Yes, indeed, there
is enough narrowness of mind in those
documents to counterbalance all the
illiberality of Russia, Rome and
SpDain. The authors of these docu-
ments always speaker of American
Israelites, without reflecting for a mo
ment, that this is a term unknown in
American constitutions or laws, un-
ktnown to the power with which they
entered upon a reciprocal treaty;
hence this distinction cannot, and
dare not, he imposed on said treaty-
But it is not for us to debate the
question; it is now in the hands of
our Government, who will not suffer
any citizen to be wronged."
Commenting on this editorial Mr.
Fay, under date of October 28, 1858,
writing to General Cass, says: "Some-
time ago I received a copy of the
I~SRAESLITE, an American newspaper,
containing an article on the
Swiss restrictions against the Is~rae-
lites, with an account of the visit of
the editor and other Jewish gentle-
men to the State Department in Au-
gust last, and an extract from my dis-
patches, with the resume forwarded

by me of legislation of the Cantons
with regard to the Jews. I thought
it proper to show this to President,
Furrer, who had it translated and
placed upon the table of the Federal
Council. The article contained some
Jubilee-Israelite-EIGHT ..8 ..8 ..8
biting remarks in language most un-
reserved, but I thought it better to
show it myself, rather than it should
be sent by anyone else. I have no
doubt copies of it will b'e communi-
cated to the C~antonal governments,
and that a good effect will be pro-
duced, although not so good as if the
language had been less strong than
thes alsuentseof Mr. Fay and the va-
rious articles quoted above, show con-
clusively that the credit for the agi-
tation in this Swiss treaty matter be-
longs to the ISRAE;ITE~, Rnd itS fearleSS
and vigilant editor. That the several
Cantons, who for a time persisted in
their harsh regulations, finally yield-
ed, and that the Ainerican Jew was
accrorded, in the end, equal privileges
with his neighbors, was the work of
Mr. Theodore S. Fay. All honor to
him. In the IScAELITEi of May 4, 1859,
Vol. 6, No. 44, the ISRAEUTl~E, COm-
menting on a letter received from Mr.
Fay expressing his hope of success,
says: "Thus Mr. Fay identifies his
name with the benefactors of Israel,
and erects for himself a lasting monu-
ment of gratitude in the hearts of all
those who sympathize with our
wronged brethren."
During the sixties most of the Can-
tonal restrictions against the Jews
Tvere removed, and in 1874 religious
liberty was established by the S'wiss
constitution, and thereafter the
treatment of aliens became a Federal,
rather than Cantonal question.
The ISRAELITE 11RS, Since its foun-
dation, severely criticized Russia's at-
titude toward itsJewishsubjects and
the Jews of America. As early as
November 16, 1855, Vol. 2, No. 19.
the severity of Russia's treatment is
spoken of, and on December 28, 1855,
Vol. 2, No. 25, the ISRAELIrTE TejOICOS
at the defeat of Russia in the Crimea.
"Russia, the arch enemy of civiliza-
tion and enlightenment, of equal rights
and liberty, the powerful and relent-
less defender of privileges and exclu-
sive laws, this taskmaster of thirty-
four millions of serfs, Russia the gi-
gantic SCarT cTOW Of the friendS Of lib-
erty, was chastized and humiliated by
the allied powers in the year 1855."
Throughout the next quarter of a cen-
tury no opportunity for criticizing the
Russian policy was neglected. In
March, 1879, the ISRAE~tLTE printed a
letter from Mr. H. Rosenstraus, a
citizen of this country, calling at-
tention to the great discrimination to-
ward him in Russia because he was
a Jew. The ISRAELITE immediately
sent Mr. Leo Wise to W~ashing-
ton to investigate the situation.
Mr. Leo Wise reported that Sec-
retary of State Evarts stated nothing
could be dlone. Ever since April,
1879, to the present time, the IsRAELTErT
has maintained a consistent position
on the Russian Jewish question, to
wit: That it is the solemn duty of
this government to procure the same
rights and privileges for all its citi-
zens, irrespective of race or creed,
andl that as long as this government
does not do so, it is acting unjustly
toward the Jew. As long as an Ameri-
ean citizen of Jewish faith is denied
the right to travel in Russia as of
right, this government is permitting
discrimination. The recent K~ishineff
horr~ors have called again the nation's
attention to Russia's treatment of the
Jews, and the subject is being agita-
ted. The American Drs sb innn
to see the question pirne itstru imingh
and in all probability some good re-
su~lts will soon be fortheommng.
On December 17, 1862, General U. S.
Grant, Department Commander of' the
armies of the United States, with head-
qu~arters at Oxford, Miss., issued the
following order, known as General
Order No. 11: "The Jews, as a class,

On October 28 the various delegates
to the convention to protest against
the Swiss treaty met in the hall of
the Young Men's Hebrew Association,
Baltimore, and organized by electing
Isaac M. Wise, of Cincinnati, Chair-
man, and Philip Herzberg, of Balti-
more, Secretary. The committee de-
cided that a memorial be drafted, to
be presented to the President of the
United States, requesting a declara-
tion that this government did not and
does not understand the obnoxious
paragraph ofe the Swiss treaty as con-
strued by the Swiss authorities, and
that the President be requested to give
this explanation to the Swiss Govern-
ment, and cause it to alter the word-
ing of the article to that effect. The
Committee on Memorial consisted of
Messrs. M. J. C'ohen, M. Bijur and
Isaac M. Wise, and by agreement, Mr.
M. Bijur, of Louisville, wrote the
The memorial recites the obnoxious
clause, the fact that certain Cantons
have laws forbidding the Jews to re-
side or do business within the Can-
tons, calls attention to those United
State Constitutional clauses and
amendments forbidding discrimination
on account of religion and proceeds as
follows: "Your memorialists further
represent that the clause referred to
above is directly contradicted
if the attempted construction be ca~r-
ried out. .. But, more than this,
there is a strange clashing of the
rights of the two governments as to
the effect of their constructions of that
clause. If it is against the Cantonal
laws of Switzerland that those citi-
zens of the United States who are
Israelites come within the benefits of
that treaty, then it is at least as clear-
ly against the Constitutional laws of
the United States that those citizens
be excluded and yet both Constitu-
tinoal and Cantonal laws are guarded
against a conflict with articles of the
convention. The whole subject seems
to be reduced to this question: WVhich
of the two governments shall yield
and waive its equal right of construe-
tions? ...
"While your memoralists take pleas-
'use in expressing on behalf of them-
se~lves and of their constituents their
implicit confidence in your Escellen-
cy's wisdom as to the remedy and in
the firmness to enforce it, they never-
theless humbly suggest that a con-
struc~tion in accordance with these
views communicated to the Swiss
confederation, would be followed by
those salutary results for whose ob-
tention your memorialists are so so-
licitous. Such action would send a
thrill of gratitude through thousands
of Israelitish citizens of the United
.States; it would be balled as a timely
act of national justice to a people gen-
erally and will engraft itself upon the
hearts of your memorialists never to
be effaced."
M. I. COHIEN, Maryland.
REv. Dn. ISAnc M. WISE, Ohio.
MaRTIN Braun, Kentucky
M. Ml. GERSTELEY, 11111018.
LouIs F. LEOPOLD, Ohio.
The committee proceeded to Wash-
ingto~n and on Octob~er 31, 1857, was
presented to President Bu~chanan by
Hon. P. Phillips, Congressman from
Alabama. The committee, after its in-
terview with President Buchanan, is-
sued an official statement in which it
was said: "After listening to the
views and objects expressed and re-
ceiv~ing the memorial, the President
reviewed at some length the prin-
ciple involved in that treaty; express-
ed his conviction that the treaty would
never have received the approval of
his predecessor had it been understood
in its present effect and unequivocally
promised a speedy and energetic
course of action with a view to a rem-
edy not inconsistent with internation-
al faith. We feel satisfied that the Is-
r~aelites of the United States may place
implicit confidence in the execution

first intimation that such treaty had
been made.
The ISRAlEITE then began the famous
fight for equal rights of the Jews who
wer~e citizens of the United States.
On July 31, 1857 (Vol. IV., No. 4)1
the paper says: "The treaty in ques"
tion was made in violation of the Con-
stitu~tional laws and by an assumption
of a power never granted to the gov-
ernment. It is unjust for it protects
the acquired rights and privileges of
but one. class of citizens. ...
Congress should be memorialized at
the next session by all who are to do
it, so that the wrong inflicted on the
Jewis:1 citizens of this country be
remedied forthwith. .. Our ex-
changes are respectfully requested to
notice this matter and give their opin,
ions on the subject to the community.
In the issue of the very next week'
August 7, 1857, the following notice
appears on the first page of the paper
in large type:
(MPIsraelites, Freemen, Citizens-
Let not the disgrace of the treaty be-
tween the United States and switzer-
land remain upon the history of our
country. Do not stand the insult
heaped upcut the Jewish citizens bbi
uetnpnn ipgive upttemance to your psenti.
ments, resolve upon a proper course
of action against that mean and ille-
gal instrument made in violation of the
Constitution of the United States. Try
to win the press in favor of your
cause and rest not until this outrage is
blotted from the UniteddStatn%' rr 1

sumit Stl sc andoucotIage;o we are
men and must be treated as such. De.
cide in your meetings upon efficient
measures to have your voice heard,
publish your resolutions in your local
papers and send us a copy thereof,
that a concert of actions be ensured."
Isit~s ait le nonb fhepartimmed1
ately. The issues of August 14 and 21
cont: in editorials from the Cincin-
nati Enqullirer, Chicago Press, Louisville
Jour~nal, Shelbyville Republican Ban-
nLer, Chicago Daily/ Journal, Vincennes
Gazeftt, all condemning the treaty.
Te p er comments a folloewtri "e
out of about sixty papers which com-
ment on this subject, which unani-
muously declare the Swiss treaty unjust
And unbecoming our government.
There will be no doubt but that the
President will takre proper steps to
rectify it when brought before him in
a proper shape." (ISRAELITE, Vol. IV.,
No. 7.)
During the following weeks the
ISRAEr~LYT printS the TepOrts of indigna-
tion meetings held in various cities of
the country. On September 2, 1857,
Baltimore held a meeting and appoint-
ed a committee to meet with similar
committees of other cities. The report
of this meeting was sent to the Is-
THAEL:ITE. On September 24, the Balti-
more committee wrote to Dr. Wise (Is-
RAEuTE'I, Oct. 2, 1857, Vol. IV., No. 13),
informing him that it had deemed it
wise to call a convention at Balti-
more, October 28, to discuss the Swiss
question and requesting him to give
publicity to the call and urging him
to support this attempt to bring mat-
ters to a head. On October 9, 1857,
Vol. IV., page 14, under the head, "A
Call to the Community," the ISRAELIrTE
said: "The Swiss question has been
discussed long enough; action, de-
cisive action is necessary. We be-
liev~e the proposition of the Baltimore
Committee is the best. Let the repre-
sentatives of the different cities meet
in Baltimore, October 28, proceed to
Wlashmngton and lay our grievances be-
fore the President and we entertain
no doubt redress will be had. Elect
youlr representatives, let them be in
Baltimore the 28th inst., and let us
do our duty. It is an honest and hon-
orable struggle on behalf of justice and
Drinciples. Let nonestand back. The
honor of our country and the princi-
ples of liberty no less than our honor
abroad, imperatively demand that we
act. Go at it without delay." The
same issue states that the French
Jews had become interested in the


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29 -1819 -






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I ,

The above is a reproduction of the Diploma awarded to
the publishers of the American Israelite for showing the
paper best adapted for its purposes of any of its class. The
Award was made by the World's Fair Commissioners of the
Paris Exhibition of 1900.

This is a view of the home of the Hebrew Union College, founded by the
late Isaac IT. Wise in 1875 and over which he presided for twenty-five years.
From this unpretentious building went forth over one-hundred graduates who
now fill many of the leading Jewish pulpits in the United States.

people, hence none can say who tol-
erated and who was tolerated."
When the New Yorkl Tribltne print-
ed a long article giving a description
of the state of the Jews in Turkrey,
intern'oven with most absurd misrep-
resentation, the ISRA\ELITE, August 15,
1856, Vol. 3, No. 6, in an editorial by
Associate Editor Dr. Lilienthal, com-
mented as follows: "We are really at
a loss ho v to explain the fact that
Horace Greeley, the champion of lib-
erality permits the columns of his pa-
per to be used for such medieval-likre
calumnies and disgr~acing stories,
...Sir, the pretension in your pa-
per that we are strangers wherever
we reside is false and untrue. We
are true citizens of this great and
glorious republic, and have, ever since
we inhabited the soil, proved, by ac-
tions, that we were Americans..
mrle are Jews in religious respect, but
as citizens we are as true and de-
voted to our country as any denomina-
tion whatever."
During the session of Congress,
1860-61., Senator Wilson, of Massachu-
setts. in a speech delivered in the
Senate of the United States replying
to a speech of Sena~tor Benjamin, of
Louisiana, used this language: "His
heart was in the plot.
to overthrow the government of his
adopted country, which gives equality
of rights even to that race that stoned
prophets and crucified the Redeemer
of the world."
Trhe ISRnAELITE ill (11 issueS Of MarTh
22 and 29, 1861, Vol. 7, Nos. 38 and 39,
severely criticized Senator Wilson for
those remarks, exposed his ignorance
of historical matter on this subject,
and said: "But if this was not the
case, we would still raise our voice
againSt you, because we consider it
outrageously wrong for any man to
abuse the authority the people confide
in him .. for the base purpose
of slandering, before the eyes of the
world, a race of men and a class of
peaceable citizens who have no de-
fender, no advocate there to retaliate
for .them or plead their cause. Now,
sir, you did insult every Israelite in
this country and elsewhere; we do not
care what his political opinions might
be." The paper demanded an expla-
nation. Evidently none was ever given
by the Senator, and when he was nomi-
nated for Vice President in 1872, the
ISP.AELITE dellOunced him and reprint-
ed its editorial of March 291, 1861.
The main object of the ISRAELITE
was to Americanize the Jew so that he
should be under no disadvantage with
his neighbor, and to that end it
seized every opportunity to expose all
those who abused and maltreated the
Jew solely on account of his religion.
The files of the paper are replete with
articles of the character of those
quoted above, and. toward the end of
the editor's longs career it was always
a source of great satisfaction, as well
as gratification to him, that the Jew
was received on an equal footing with
his neighbor, and that religious hatred
and ignorance had, in a very great
measure, disappeared,
The ISHAEL~ITE~ did not advocate the
cause of any political party. However,
when any political party supported
measures that tended to abridge the
rights of any citizens, or that in any
way leaned toward sumptuary legis-
lation, or had in view the further-
ance of Christianity, the ISRAeLITE did
not hesitate to speaks out and advocate
the defeat of such party and its meas-
ures. The editor, himself, was a
thorough Democrat, a lover of free-
dom, opposed to all sumptuary andl
class legislation, to all attempts to
Christianize the Constitultion, to
K~nownothingism and centralization, a
true disciple of Jefferson, and, inas-
much as all he opposed was advocated
by the Republican party, especially the
Republican party of 1876, the ISRAE-
un~p boldly espoused the cause of Til-
den and reform.
One point, however, the ISRAELITE
always emphasized; the mere fa~et
that a candidate was of the Jewish
faith did not entitle him as such to
the Jewish vote. To deserve its sup-

violating every, regulation of trade es-
tablished by the Treasury Dlepart-
ment, also department orders are here-
by expelled from the department with-
in twenty-four hours from the receipt
of this order by the post commander.
They will see that all this class of
people are furnished with passes and
requested to leave, and any one re-
-turning after such notification will be
arrested and held in confinement un-
til opportunity occurs of sending them
out as prisoners, unless furnished
with permits from these headquarters-
No passes will be given these people
to visit headquarters for the purpose
of making personal application for
Toward the end of December, 1862,
the Jews of Cincinnati, Louisville,
Mlemphis and Paducah were startled at
the information received from their
co-religionists within the military 11,uers
of General Grant that all Jews had
been expelled from the department of
General Grant. In the ISRAELITE Of
December 26, 1862 Vol. 9, No. 25, there
was printed a general order of Col.
John V. Dubois, post commander at
Holly Springs, Miss. This order used
the following insolent language: "On
account of scarcity of provisions all
cotton speculators, Jews and other
vagrants, etc. .. having no per-
mission from the Commanding Gen-
eral will leave town within twenty-
four hours." The ISRAELITE Ullller-
cifully scored Col. DuBois, and, among
other things, said: "It is not the Jew,
it is the American whom that order
disgraces. In us it is not the Jew but
the man and American citizen who
feels outraged by such proceedings. As
a Je~w we feel ourselves in our re-
ligious conviction far, far beyond the
slanderous jargon of anybody, far be~
yond the reach of general orders,
stump speeches, or other ephmeral
pieces of paper. .. As a man
and a citizen, however, we feel out-
raged and demand justice from the
hands of the chief magistrate of the
c~ountry. We send this paper to the
President, M~r. Stanton, Generals Hal-
leck, Grant, Rosencrans and others,
and hope they will bestow proper at-
tention on the subject. At the same
time, however, we request our friends
to collect all orders and affidavits on
this point to be brought before the
President, and to be placed on record
for future reference, for information
of the historian who will render an
impartial verdict." In the issue of
January 2, 1863, Vol. 9, No. 26, the pa-
per stated that the Holly Springs
order had been issued in accordance
with instructions from General Grant,
and that a gentleman within the lines
doubting the order and asking for per
mission to telegraph the General was
arrested. The editorial comment is
naturally very bitter and pointed.
"Need we comment on this handsome
piece of military despotism? W7e trust
not. But we do not care for
causes. The orders above mentioned
do exist, and this suffices to alarm
every honest friend of the Republic.
Are we to be slaves of military chief-
tains? Are we playthings in the
hands of presumptuous men to abuse
and maltreat us at pleasure? Are we
frogs and mice to be trampled under
anybody's feet, or are we men who
stand by their rights? Is there no law
in the land, no authority, higher than
bayonets? If we can stand this, then
we are unworthy of being citizens of
a free country. If we do stand all this,
we must not wonder if one day any-
body will treat us as pariahs and out-
casts of society. Israelites, citizens
of the United States, you. have been
outraged. Your rights as men and
citizens trampled in the dust, your
honor disgraced as a class, you have
officially been degraded. It is your duty,
your duty of self-defense, your duty
first to bring this matter directly be-
fore the President of the United
States and demand redress and satis-
faction due to the citizens thus morti-
fled and offended. It is not only the
business of the Jew to lookr to these
matters, it is everybody's affair. .
If the Jews, as a religious community,
are handled thus, how will the Catho-
lics, U~nitarians, Universalists, or any

other religious denomination be treat-
ed, if a Gjineral or provost officer sees
fit to come down on one or the other?"
It seems that the only local papers
that condemned these orders were the
Enqucirer and Vollesfreucnc. A meeting
of Israelites was held at Cincinnati,
and a committee consisting of pr.
Wise and Mr. Lilienthal was appointed
to meet with similar committees from
Louisville and Paducah. Before this
committee arrived at Washington, Mr.
Kaskecl, of E~aduca~h, went to Washing-
ton and was introduced to President
L~incoln by Congresman Gurley, of
Cincinnati. The President, upon learn-
ing the genuineness of the order, im-
mediately directed General Halleck to
revoke it. The Cincinnati committee
learned of the revocation of the order
at Philadelphia en route to W~ashing-
ton. They decided to go to W~ashing-
ton and meet the President. In a re-
port of this meeting the editor writes:
IsnFRAELTE, January 16, 1863: "WW ~
Were introduced to the President, who,
being all alone, received us with that
frank cordiality which, though usual-
ly neglected. becomes men high in of-
fice so well. Having expressed our
thanks for the promptness and dis-
patch in revoking General Gra~nt's
order, the President gave utterance to
his surprise that General Grant should
have issued so ridiculous an order,
and added: 'To condemn a class is to
say the least to wrong the good with
the bad. I do not like to have a class
or nationality condemned on account
of a few sinners."' The committee,
however, succeeded in having Con-
gressman George H. Pendleton, of Cin-
cinnati, and Senator Powell, of Ken-
tucky, introduce resolutions into their
respective bodies condemning the
order. Both resolutions were tabled in
the House by a vote of 56 to 53 on mo-
tion of Mr. Washburne, and in the
Senate by a vote of 30 to 5 on motion
of Mr. Hale. The speedy protest on
the part of the Israelites of Cincinnati,
Louisville and Paducah, in which lat-
ter city the order was put in force,
and the insistence of fair treatment
brought about the revocation.
In the winter of 1868 General Grant
was mentioned as the probable Repub-
lican candidate for President. The
ISRAEITE: Of February 28, 1868 vigor-
ously objected to his nomination on
account of his conduct in December,
1862. After General Gra~nt's nomina-
tion the ISRAEL.ITE Said nothing about
the order. After General Grant's elec-
tion in November the ISRAELITE "Che6T-
fully published" the following letter of
General Grant
Galena, Sept. 14, 1868.
MR. J. N. MonI(s,
Dear Sir--In regard to order No. 11
hundreds of letters have been written
to me about it by persons of the faith
affected, by it. I do not or did not
answer any of the writers, but per-
mittedl a statement of the facts con-
cerning the origin of the order to be
made and given to some one of them
for publication. I do not pretend to
sustain the order. At the time of its
publication I was incensed by a rep.
rimand received from Washington for
permitting acts which Jews within my
lines were engaged in. .. This
order was issued and sent out with.
out thinking of the Jews as a sect or
race to themselves. .. Give Mr.
Moses assurances that I have no preju-
dice against sect or race, but want
each individual judged by his own*
merit. Order No. 11 does not sustain
this statement, I admit, but then I do
not sustain that order. It never would
have been issued if it had not been
telegraphed the moment it was penned
and without reflection."
In justice to General Grant the
IsnirrRAELTT of December 4, 1868, said,
under the head, "The Mysteries of
'General Grant's Order No. 11:" "With
the advance of our armies in the
Southwest the cotton trade began to
claim the attention of cotton traders.
Some prominent gentlemen in Wrash-
ington, Senators and high officials
whose names we know, but do not
wish to mention, were the first and
most extensive cotton dealers at the
time, and realized vast profits from

the trade. Some Jewish houses in the
West discovered the opportunity and
went into the cotton trade. This was
an unpleasant opposition to the Wash-
ington operators, for the Jews paid
-higher prices, bought cotton up and
the speculators down on them.
...Nothing was easier at that
time than to play chicaneries on the
Jews. It was given out that the Jews
smuggled gold across the lines to pur-
chase cotton of the rebels, and every-
body was ready to believe and to add
in explanation,'All Jews buy all the cot-
ton, and all of them smuggle all the
gold.' This was a masterstroke, for it
led to secret instructions from head-
quarters to all commanders in the
Wnest to look after the Jews. ...
"All these chicaneries and outrages
did not terrify Jewish traders along
the line, especially in General Grant's
department, where most of the cotton
was. This set Wlashington operators
to work against General Grant. ...
"On the 17th of December, 1862,
General Grant, at Oxford, Miss., re-
ceived the following instructions from
Washington: 'We are reliably in-
formed that the Jews in various cities
are buying up the gold to take South
and invest in cotton that will place in
the hands of rebels increased means to
carry on the war. That should be pre-
vented. You will, therefore, take meas-
ures to prevent it in your department.'
"The natural consequences of this
peremptory instruction after previous
experience from headquarters, was the
issue of order No. 11, exiling Jews
from the Department of Tennessee.
.The order came from WVash-
ington." The editor then states that
in his opinion some high ollicials were
in league with cotton speculators.
The position of the ISRAELITE in th10
matter of the Grant order was a bold
one, and its publication of every de-
tail connected with the revocation was
important to the American Jew at that


The IsAELrTTE insisted at all times
that the citizen of the Jewish faith
was an American in nationality--a
Jew in religion. Before the founding
of the paper, while the editor was do-
ing pioneer workr at Albany, it was the
fashion of the day to hold up the Jew
to ridicule on every possible occasion.
The Reminiscences of Dr. Wise con-
tain many instances of his protests
REainSt SUCh Outrage. If, perchance,
a crime were committed by a Jew
the press of that day, unfortunatelY
also of today, always recorded that a
"German Jew" did so and so. The
ISRAT,rTTE furnished the Jew with a pa-
per that looked after his welfare and
attempted to cry down the unjust
treatment received at the hands of the
public. Whenever there appeared in
public prints anywhere any statement
derogatory of the Jew, whenever any
public official denounced the Jew or
in any way spoke of him as differing
from his neighbor, save in religion, the
unjustly abused Jew found a fearless
and trenchant defender in the ISRAE-
LITE. The editor constantly insisted
that in America the Jew deserved to
be treated likie his neighbor, provided
he conducted himself properly.
A~searly as August 3, 1855, Vol. 2, No.
4, the IrsRAEL~TT TeprilltS a letter writ-
ten to the Boston Daily Timzes, in
which the writer speaks of Masoils as
Christians, and says: "No, sir, I
would have it known that here in Mas-
sachusetts, Masonry is a Christian,
or rather a Protestant institution;
Christian as it merely tolerates Jews.
In commenting on this letter the editor
says: "The principles seemingly de-
fended in the above article are anti-
republican, and, therefore, a pasquil
in a republican country. They toler~-
alte the Jew; we say this is a false-
hood. We tolerate the Massachusetts
E'piscopalians or any other sect. We
have the same right to speakr or think
of them as they do of us, and treat
them as they treat us, hence we
tolerate them. There is no toleration
in the United States, because there is
no ruling church; there is a constitu-
tion made by the people and for the


port a man must have merit and
possess the necessary qualifications
for the office.
The paper always deprecated, and,
as far as possible, discouraged the or-
ganization of "Jewish" or "Hebrew"
political clubs.
By far the greatest achievement of
the ISRRAEITE: WaS fie OrganizatioR Of
The Union of American Hebrew C'on-
gregations in July, 1873, and the found-
ing of the Hebrew Union College,
which was opened in 1875. Had the
ISRArETJITE accomplished nothing else in
its history, the establishment of these
institutions would be a lasting monu
ment to the courage and perseverance
of the paper, and the indomitable will
of its fearless editor. The achieve-
ment is all the greater when we real-
ize that the ISRAEL~ITE WRs 1118 Only
Jewish paper that advocated the
cause, and that all other Jewish pa
per.s opposed it.
The writer is overwhelmed by the
wealth of material at his command in
telling the story of the ISRAE~LITE(S
glorious campaign for the Union of
American Israel. He can truthfully
say that scarcely a week passed since
July 14. 1854, to October, 1875, but
that there were one or more references
to this a~ll-absorbing and all-important
mission, the establishment of a Union
in Israel. In fact, the ISRAELITE was
started for the very purpose of ad.
vocating this cause, and never in the
history of journalism bas there been
a paper more faithful to its cause, or
more successful in its advocacy. Dur-
ing the twenty years, 1854-1873, no op.
opportunity of pleading the cause was
missed. Every possible occasion was
made use of, and if all the editorials,
sermons, communications and address.
as that appeared in the ISRAELIrTE during
that period could be reprinted in book
form, there would be presented to the
reader one of the most wonderful and
interesting stories in the history of re.
ligions. The writer is embarrassed,
not only by the abundance of mater.
ials, but by the lack of space. He can
narrate the facts only, illustrating
here and there by salient quotations;
some day the historian of this cause
will tell the story with all its facinat.
ing details.
In 1848, while Isaac M. Wise was
still in Albany, he published in the
Occirlent, of Philadelphia, a call for a
convention to meet in New York in
1849), and that call contained these
memorable words: "Now, in order to
fulfill our sacred mission to send our
important message to mankind, it be
hooves us to be united." In that call
he likewise dwelt upon the necessity
of providing proper education for the
ministers and teachers of religion.
"What will become of our Syna-
gogues? What of our faith if we do
not take care that better educated men
fill the pulpit and schoolmaster's
chair?" That was the burden of the
ISHAEL~TTE'S Song from the beginning
until the realization of the dream.
Israel's faith could be preserved only
by the establishment of a theological
seminary in America, such a seminary
could b~e supported adequately only by
a Union of American Hebrew Congre-
In the second issue of the ISRAELITE
Jully 21. 1854, Vol. 1, No. 2, under the
11ead. "What Should Be Done," atten
tion is called to the lack of schools
and text books. "All these difficulties
could be overcome by a Union of the
American Judaic Congregations." The
following week the editor wrote: "We
bought to be American Israetlites, i. e..
American as men and citizens, and
Israelites in our religion. .. The
Israelite is an American as soon as he
enjoys the privileges which our Con-
stitution guarantees to ithe citizen.
.Let us educate our ministers
here in our own college, and we will
soon have American ministers, Ameri-
can Congregations and an American
Union of Israelites for religious and
charitable institutions. Let us have
American trained leaders, and they
will educate for us American citizens."
On October 7, 1854, the project for
Zion College was mentioned, and dur-

ing the following few years a sus-
tained agitation for its support was
krept up. This movement received no
support, and-nottling came of the Zion
College Association.
On October 31, 1856, Vol. 3, No. 7, in
an editorial, "Our Protest," the editor
says: "As we with heart and soul
protest against radicalism, so we most
emphatically do against the practice
of American congregations in appoint-
ing ministers of congregations who
have not the least knowledge nor the
remotest comprehension of Jewish
theology. .. We want men of
knowledge who know our creed and
our literature, who know it from its
primitive sources and are capable of
expounding it. The. preservation of
Israel's religion in this country; the
mission of our nation; the will of God
TequiTOS this protest from our hands.
"But in order to effect this neces-
sary reform three things are requisite.
1.--The condition of the ministers
must be impfoved decidedly and radi-
cally. 2.-WTe must at present get min-
isters from Europe. 3.-Wne must es-
tablish a theological seminary. This,
and only this, is the remedy."
In October, 1856, Dr. Merzbacher, of
New Yor~k, onle of the few learned and
progressive Rabbis in the country,
died. In November 7, 1856 issue, in
an editorial, "Dr. Merzbacher's Death
and the Ideas it Suggests," the ISRAE-
LITE'F said: "We have no school to
educate the champions of Israel, and
no desire to establish one. We have
plenty of money to spend for any and
every article of luxury. We are rich,
Very rich, make plenty of money. But
Judaism, the Synagague, the future of
our great cause, our mission among
the nations, the honor and position of
Israel's religion--let us be silent,
dumb with shame and blush. ...
With painstricken heart we lookr into
future days and see angels weeping
around the coffin of American Ju-
daism, because none consoled her of
all her friends. The indifferent look
on with indifference. I cannot. HFad I
the power of thunder, I would cry my
rain in every heart until they awake
and act in behalf of God and Israel."
So week after w~eek through the com-.
ing decades the Thorlikie editorials
continued to appear. The following
are extracts of the most powerful
editorials on this subject: On No-
vember 26, 1858, Vol. 5, page 164, it is
said: "Our cause in America requires
American Rabbis and Teachers, with
American principles and eloquence,
who are thoroughly acquainted with
our mode of thinking and believing,
our sentiments and conceptions as
they are to inculcate God's words in
the American hearts, therefore, we
must educate American Rabbis and
Teachers." In 1859 the ISRAELITE
(April 29, 1859, Vol. 5, page 340) sug
gested that every congregation should
collect fifty cents per capital for the
creation of a fund to enable young
American Jewish scholars to pursue
their theological studies abroad. On
March 9, 1860, Vol. 6, page 284, the
ISHAETJTEe in an editorial, "Remember
This," calls attention to the great
scholars Judaism produced, Maimon, .
Spinoza, Mendelsohn, Boerne, Keine
and adds, "We have one National
litert~lbT6. ThiS is the basis and cause
of our oneness. Therefore, the knowl-
edge of this, our literature, and the
united desire to inquire after the
truth, is not only our private duty and
satisfaction, is not only for us and
our children, for us and our neighbors,
it is the glorious bond of Israel's
union all over the earth, the earthly
representative of God enthroned
among Israel.-
"If Israel's sacred inheritance should
be preserved intact, we must unitedly,
and all of us, support and preserve our
synagogues, schools andl literature,
and truth must be the main object of
these institutions."
On November 2, 1860, Vol. 7, page
140, in an editorial, "The College," the
editor stated that he had completed
arrangements for the opening of a col-
lege in September, 1.861. There were to
be three departments, Hebrew, Classi-
cal and Commercial. Then came the

great civil war and all plans came to
naught. Meanwhile the Jews were be-
ing treated with disdain, and there
were few to resent insults. The
ISRaELITE (November 19, 1862, Vol. 9,
page 188) insisted the fault lay in the
lack of knowledge of Judaism and Eng-
lish. "This can be remedied only in
one way, by a college of our own, a
college .. where ~Judaism is
taught from its original sources ...
"Here we are again on our old hobby
borse, our opponents will say, but we
mean to ride it until we are released
by a better laborer, we shall never
cease to cry aloud, 'In the wilderness
prepare the way, of the Lord.' ...
As long as we must import our min-
isters and writers, we will be orphans
in America. and as long as we have
no college of our own, where Judaism
is a branch of study, we cannot ex-
pect ministers and writers for our
cause. Here is the old advice re-
newed because we know no better,
...If our opponents want to si-
lence us let them establish a college
with all collegiate studies and Juda-
ism. If our friends wish to silence us,
let them furnish us with the means to
establish a college on our plan, and we
shall molest them no more. Our time
and energy shall be devoted to the
education of worthy champions of
light and truth, disciples of science
Rnd pillarS Of OUT cRuse.
In 1863 the ISRAELTITE became con-
vinced that a college for the education
of Rabbis could not be established
until it had succeeded in effecting a
union of congregations to support
such an institution. During the next
decade the editorials treat of the ne-
cessity of such a union. On August
14, 1863, Vol. 10, page 52, in an edi-
torial "To the Israelites of the West,"
it is said: "Nothing can be more de-
sirable than a union of synagogues.
The future greatness of Judalsm in
America depends upon the union of
congregations. We must be united in
form of worship in order to have no
element of discord among us. ...
Hitherto all attempts at union were
frustrated by the reform leaders of
the East. The proposition of having
one college for all of us was defeated
in the East. The attempt to establish
a synod the surest safeguard of union
was killed in the East. .. But
a union we must have, a union based
on the progressive principles of re-
form. We must have a college. ...
Our strength lies in union and pro-
gress. .. You have established
congregations and support them well.
Now is the time to unite them for
grand purposes." At this time the
paper predicted that the union of con"
gregations would be effected within
the next quarter of a century.
In June, 1865, Dr. Wise appeared
before the New York Board of Dele-
pates for the purpose of inducing that
body to take steps to found a college,
bult he was unsuccessful. On March 2,
1866,~ Vol 12, page 276, the ISRAELIlE
published an article of Mr. A. Cohen,
of Chicago, in which it was suggested
that every American Israelite over 21
years should contribute $1.00 annually
for the purpose of establishing a col-
lege. In the ISRAELIrTE of the following
week it was said in. commending this
scheme, that every Hebrew congrega-
tion should exact and enforce two
laws: (1) Every member of the con-
gregation should pay annually $1.00 to
a college fund. (2) Every congregation
should appoint a. committee to collect
$1.00 from non members for the same
purpose. Here we already see the
scheme which afterwards became a
part of the Constitution of the Union.
The Independent Order of Bene Berith
(Sons of the Covenant) were urged to
worke for a college; about the same
time the Emanue~l Theological Asso-
ciation of New Yorkr resolved to estab-
lish "The American Hebrew C~ollege of
City of New York." In an editorial,
"Better Two Than One," the ISRAELITIC
of Feb~ruary 16, 1867, said, "We hope
our brethren all over the land will
take this matter into serious consid -
eration.. .. Words are not want-
ed; deeds are required. Let none for-
get deeds are required. Let the Bene

Berith lodges work on with renewed
energy and carry out their laudable
enterprise. .. Let the New
York Association do the same and suc-
ceed equally as well. Both intend to
do good. May God bless them both.
Both workr to the same end and if both
succeed, they may finally merge into
one, or if the worst should come to
pass, we will have two colleges. Bet-
te~r two than one."
On March 5, 1869, Vol. 15, No. 35, in
an editorial, "Our American Israel,"
the editor writes: "For a long, prob-
ably too long a time, we have ob-
served a silence on all practical ques-
tions concerning the American Israel.
But we feel it our solemn duty to
speak once more. .. You must
act and speak and demonstrate that
you are, what you are and where you
are. You must meet in annual confer-
enc~e if you have nothing else to dis-
cus~s to speak out annually in clear
terms that you have a standpoint and
are ready to defend it.
"Numerous indeed are the topics
which require public discussion and
united action. In twe-nty years or less,
four-fifths of the American IsraeliteB
will not understand much more Ge'r-
man than French; but they will have
to import preachers and teachers from
Europe as they do now, because no
American Israelites study theology.
Why do they not? Why have hitherto
all attempts failed to build up a sem-
inary and provide it with students?
Is it the money, the manager-s or the
students that are scarce? We must
krnow where the fault lies and we must
remove the obstacles. If we do not,
the Am~erican Temple will, in twenty
years, be an outlandish institution to
which passing men and women will
say here my father and mother tised
to worship.
"We must have American preachers
and teachers, cost what it may. We
must have them early as possible, if
we have soul enough to love and heart
enough to support our cause. We want
concert of action and a union of many,
many purses and the balance will
come of itself."
In February, 1870, Vol. 16, No. 34,
under the "Education for the Pulpit "
the SISRAELITE used these prophetic
words, "If we want a seminary we
must have the convention to establish
and support it. As long as the
Congregations do not meet in conven-
tion and adopt measures and have
them carried out by their Executive
Committees, the community at large
will take no interest in the matter "
At the Philadelphia Conference of
Rabbis in 1869, convened at the call of
Rev. Doctors Adler and Einhorn, Dr.
Wise proposed to convene a. general
convention of rabbis and delegates of
the various Congregations to discuss
the question of union and college. The
proposition was rejected. Dr. Wise
was, therefore, compelled to bring the
matter before the New York Board of
IDelegates, which body approved of his
plan, providing for two conventions, or
conferences, one composed of rabbis,
to discuss theologia 1usios t
other of represengaicaqes ifons; the
tions, to solve practical questions,
such as finance and organization. Both
of these bodies were to work for one
end--union in Israel.
During the latter part of 1870, the
TrINrAELTE'S editorials became stronger
and stronger, and the editor seemed
to appreciate th~e fact that no argu-
ment could be too extreme. On Octo-
her 24, 1870, Vol. 17, No. 16, the
INlrAELYTEI. printed an editorial, "Sell
Out: or Work." "Let us give up these
synagogs and temples. Let us sell
them and either divide the proceeds
or donate them to some charitable
purpose. What! sell our magnificent
synagogs? Dispose of our gorgeous
temples? Yes, you had better sell
them. In twenty years, if you go on
as you do now, there will be no use
for them. A synagog without a preadi-
er, without a good and eloquent
preacher, is of very little use. In
twenty years an American Jew will
speak English only as a rule. We will
have no English preachers. England


I ---- -- 9 -1 I I

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CCATION ileal with respect to hIome comfort and Iluuriouls
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educates hone. America educates
none. No preachers will be equivalent
to no synagogs and no temples. In
twenty years you will need none. You
had better sell them at your first best
chance. Therefore sell out in time or
go to work to educate eloquent min-
isters for the American Jewish pulpit.'
In October, 1870, the New Yorkr Con-
ference of Rabbis indefinitely post.
p~oned the Wise proposition for a union
and college. Nevertheless, the
ISI: ICorI` continued to print editorials
calling upon congregations to meet in
conference. On December 9, 1870, the
IsRAIlrEUT anHOunced that Mr. Henry
Adler, of L~awrocneeburg, had con-
sented to give $10,000 to Cintinnati
Congregation Bene Yeshurun (Dr.
Wise) for the establishment of a co,-
lege thereby "rendering his name im-
mortal in the history of American
The y'ear 1871 was to witness a great
change in the history of American
Juldaism. In June, 1871, a conference
of rabbis mlet at Cincinnati. Dr. Lil.
ienthal, in his inaugural address, stat-
ed that the establishment of a rabbin-
ical college demanded most serious
consideration. At this conference Dr.
'Wise succeeded in securing the adop-
tion of his plans to bring about a
union of' Congregations and the estab.
lishment of a college. He introduced
a plan for t~he establishment of a He.
brlew Congregational Union, to pre-
serve anld advance the union of Israel,
to take proper care of the development
and promulgation of Judaism, to estab.
lish and support a scholastic institute
for the education of rabbis, preachers
and teachers in religion. Any Con.
gregation could become a member by
agreeing to be represented at the con-
vention and paying $2Z.00 for each con-
tributing member. Whenever thirty
Congregations of three thousand menl
hers agree r colrvent onl w g to b

years, the appeals of the ISHA.ELITE fo'
union and the college were more fre.
quent and of greater force. In the sal-
utatory to the 18th Vol., July 7, 1871,
the launuTE7`I Said: "WTe open this
eighlteenth volume with the ob-
jective point of: the Union of Israelite
Congregations of America. strictly oil
the proposition adopted by the Cincin-
nati Conference, June 9, 1871. The
public, we believe, are less impressed
than we are with the excellence and
pr~acticability of this project. But
we krnow how difficult it is to move
the masses, .. and we profess as
Chairman of the Committee (W\ise, ~il-
ienthal, Sonnenshein, Thayer and
H-uebsch) to carry this measure
through as a journalist; and 13ublic
orator, in any and every capacity will
we -work. .. In the first place'
we offer the columns of the ISRAELITE
and UDeorah to a full and thorougli
discussion of this important matte'.
.In the name of Israel's God we
speaks to you rabbis, preachers, presi-
dents, trustees and influential men in
Conlgregations. .. In behalf of
your children of unborn generations we
appeal to you men and brethren to rise
and to u~nite, to save and to elevate
Israel's sacred heritage, that the law
be not forgotten in Israel; that God's
holy name be not profaned by us
among the Gentiles; that the glory
may return to Zion."
On August 18, 1871, Vol. 18, No. 7,
thle ISR(AELITE'', Said, "The greatest dit-
ficult~y, the most; serious obstacle in
our way, is the entire absence of or-
granization or system. .. W\e are
torn asunder in fragments of small
Congregations none of which appear
to care for the other. Twent.y-three
years long, we have called out; loudly
and cried vehemently, let us be united

for God' hseake; le us a te bannni ns
as men and br~ethren and shake off re
proach, the lethargy, the shameless
indiffer~entism, and twenty-three long
yeRts We have been met: with scorn
and mortlifcation. Still thef6
is HOne to sp~eakr, none? to act, still
there is none to takre cognizance.
Where is your fait~h, youir honor, your

duty to God, to your cause, to coming
generations. It canl not be that all are
slaves to the almighty dollar, fashion
and amusements; it can not be that
all are indifferent to the holiest in-
terests of humanity, blind to the sa-
cred heritage of Israel, careless of
God's commands and deaf to the warn-
ings of conscience. Rise and let us
makre a covenant of peace and uInionl.
L~et us organize caucuses in each and
every Congregation to unite every-
where the men-who love God, peace,
union, progress and elevation in Israel.
Let them fix upon a proper plan to
bring before their respective Congre-
gations, in proper shape, the propo-
sition to form a union of the Israel-
ite Congregations of America as adopt.
ed by the Conference."
On September 23, 1871, Dr. Wise's
Congregation, Bene Yeshurun, decided
to send delegates to such a convention
whenever twenty Congregations of two
thousand members should appoint del.
egates. A few Congregations joined
in this movement, but the time was
not yet ripe for the realization of this
glorious idea.
The Isl~rELYTe continued to advocate
union, to urge men and Congregations
everywhere to work. In October, 1872,
Congregation Bene Yeshurun, of Cin-
cinnati, acting upon suggestion of its
President, M. Loth, adopted a resolu-
tion requesting sister Congr~egations
of Cincinnati to appoint a committee
to consider the calling of a general
conference of all Congregations of the
West, South and Northwest, for the
purpose of forming a union of Congre.
gations to establish a Jewish Theolog.
ical Faculty. On M~arch 30, 1873, dele
gates from all the Cincinnati Congre-
gations met and organized by electing
Julius Freiberg, Chairman, and Lip-
manl Levy, Secretary. On April 4, 1873,
Vol. 20, No. 14, under the head, "It is
C mng' the ISRA.ELITE Said "It is com-
ing af r all, the college, seminary,
theological faculty, or whatever it may
be named, and the union of meric n
Hebrew Congregations.Cicnat e-
On May 18 tt "R Ived Cniato isse a
eral Commit ee "eso fe the Wset a
call to all Congrega ions of t Ws
and South for a Congregational con-

tins 'onder amoae anus ice Co gJws
Theological Institute' shall be estab.
lishedl and other measures adopted,
which will advance the prosperity of
1u rein"
oT re iI 1LIa~TE from May to July,
1873, devotes its editorials to the dis.
cussion of plans to be laid before the
Convention. On July 8, 1873, there met
at Cincinnati in convention delegates
from thirty-four Congregations, who
organized The Union of American He,
brew Congregations, the main purpose
of which was "to establish a Hebrew
Theological College to preserve Juda-
ism intact, to bequeath it in its purity
and sublimity to posterity, to Israel
united and fraternized, to establish,
sustain and govern a seat of learning
for Israel's religion and learning."
On July 18, 1873, Vol. 21, No. 3, the
ISltAElLrIE, under the head "A New
Chapter in the History of American
Israel," said: "'For a child was born
unto us and the dominion shall be
upDon his shoulder.' On the eighth,
ninth and tenth days of July (1873) in
the Convention held in Cincinnati, the
youngest child of Israel was born, the
Union of American Hebrew Congrega-
tions was organized, constituted and
established. .. The child was
born in peace, brotherly love and beau-
tiful harmony .. The new chap-
ter in our history begins with peace
anld sends forth the ancient salutation

Shalom Alechem, 'Peace to all of
"The first object of this union is the
Hebrew College. It proposes first _of
all things to establish a seat of learn-
ing for Hebrew Literature.
But the first; thing must come first".
During the ensuing year the ISl:IH.LEUTE
dwelt on the founding of the college,
urged Congregation to join the union,
and appealed for funds to open the
college. In 1874, at the first annual
meeting of the Council of the Union
held at Cleveland, where in 1855 a
rabbinical conference had declared in
favor of Zion College, the Hebrew
Union College was organized, and it
was resolved to locate the College at
Cincinnati and open its preparatory de-
partment at Cincinnati in the fall of
1875. Accordingly in October 3, 1875,
the college opened with Dr. Isaac M.
Wise, president, and Professors Lilien-
thal and Eppinger and fifteen students.
The battle waged for twenty-five years
had b~een won. The opponents of union,
progress and enlightenment had been
vanquished. The future of American
Judaism seemed assured. Since 1875,
the IsAITEsrr~ devoted a large part of
its editorials to the Union and in be-
11alf of thea College,
The first class was graduated from
the College in July, 1883.
Since 1883, and including 1904, there
haveF been 100 graduates, of whom 99
are living. Nearly one hundred grad-
nlat~es are occupying pulpits, some of
them the most important and historic
in the land. In New York city and
Brooklyn there are four, in Baltimore
and Chicago three each, in Cincinnati,
Boston and Philadelphia two each, two
in New Orleans, Denver, Kansas City,
Albany, Richmond, Va.; Louisville,
D~etroit, Providence, Omaha, Evans-
ville, M~ilw~aukeee Cleveland, Mobile,
Peoria, Savannah, Atlanta, Chatta-
nooga, Charleston, W. Va.; Vicksburg,
Macon, Montgomery, St. Paul. Grad-
uates of the College are officiating in
New Yorkr, Pennsylvania, Massachu-
setts, New Jersey, Maryland, Rhode
Island, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio,
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin,
K~entucky, Tennessee, Georgia, Ala.
bama, Filorida, Mississippi, Texas, Ar-
kransas, Colorado, Washington, Call-
for~nia, Utah, Wyoming, Montana,
Iowa, Minnesota and New Mexico.
The Union of American Hebrew
Congregations is composed of 127 Con-
gregations, consisting of about 14,000
member~s. This Union and the College
is the result of the campaign so loyalty
and indefatigably waged by the
ISRAELITE,. But in One TOSpect the
ISRAErLITE failed and it is a reproach
to the Jews of America that it did fail.
Notwithstanding the success of the
Union and the College, notwithstand.
ing the appeals by all lovers of Juda-
ism for a permanent endowment for
the College, none was forthcoming.
When the founder of the ISRAELITE,
the Union and the College, died on
March 26, 1900, a movement was start,
ed to raise $500,000.00 to be called the
Isaac Ml. Wise Memorial Fund, the in-
come of which should be used for the
support of the College he founded, and
to which he had given his services
gratutiously for twenty-five years as
president and professor. Of the half
million dollars, -nearly $400,000.00 has
been subscribed.
The ISRAEL~IITE Since 1900 has de-
voted iteslf toward securing this fund,
although often its taskr seemed indeli.
cate. It seems now, however, that the
paltry3 $9100,000.00 still needed to com-
plete the endowment will shortly 138
forthcoming. When that sum has been
secured and The Union of American

Hebr~ew 00nlgregations anld the H-e-
br~ew Unijon College are firmly estab,-
lished upon a sound financial basis,
that Union which the ISRA~ELITE SU@g
gested and laboredl for so faithfully to
bring about, should devote itself more
and more to the solution of the great
Problems that are confronting Amer-
ican Judaism. In that: great workl the
IsR~AELITEl pledges itself to be as zeal.
ous and as faithful in the future as it
has beenl inl the past fifty year~s.

The year 1819 is relnowned as the
birth year of many eminent; persons,
among whom thle most notew~orthy ar~e
Queen Victor~ia, Prinlce Alber~t, Geor~ge
Eliot, John Ruskin, James Russell
Lowell, Charles Kingsley, andi Elias
Howe. On M~arch 29 of that year Isaac
Mayer Wise was born at Steingrub,
Bohemia. His father was a teacher,
and gave his son religious instruction;
his grandfather, with whom he spent:
some time, was a physician who had
studied at Padua. Early in life he was
ambitious for knowledge, and took ad-
vantage of every opportunity to secure
a good education. As soon as he was
able he attended thle University of
Prague. After leaving the university
he became a rabbi, a teacher in Israel,
and for a time he was a tutor at the
home of the Blochs at Grafenried, Blo-
hemia. Here he first met Theresa
Bloch, whom he shortly afterwards
married. The young married couple
moved to Radnitz, a ver~y small town'
in German Bohemia, whose Jewish in-
11abitants were narrow-minded, ultra-
orthodox and unlprogrlessive, and thle
young rabbi, who was the contlent-
porary of all the distinguished Grer-
man and Austrian Jewish literati, be-
came restless in his uninviting en-
vironment. Realizing that the prola-
lems of Judaism could not ue solved in
any monarchial country, and having
acquired a knowledge of English by
reading the Bible, Shakiespeare, Thle
Federal Farmer, and the novels of J.
Fenimor~e Cooper, he emigrated will
his wife and infant daughter to Amer-
ica, and arrived at New York July 23,
At the time of the arrival of young
Dr. Wise in America, Judaism was in
a chaotic state; there were many Con-
gregations scattered over the land,
mostly ultra-orthodox, but many of the
worshippers were beginning to Lire of
the strict laws which the legalism of
the Talmud imposedl, and were gradu-
uallyy drifting away from Judaism and
its institutions. There were, however,
r~eform Congregations at Charleston,
S. C.; Baltimore, and New York, and
able men lite~ the Rev. Isaac Leeser,,
of Philadelphia, and Dr. Max Lilien-
thal, of New York, were doing wor~k in
educational matters, but they were nlot
yet prepared for reform.
Dr. Wise before his depar~tur~e from
Europe had already formulated a plan
for the reform of Judaism. The
young enthusiast: was welcomed by
Dr. Lilienthal, and was appointed as
his representative at the dedication
of synagogs at New H~avenl, Conn., and
Syraculse, N. Y. En route to Syracuse
he stopped at Albany to officiate there,
and was elected rabbi of thle B~eth-El~
Congregation of that city. In hris in-
augural sermon he set forth his plan of
reform, which may be briefly stated as
follows: "Religion is intended to
make manl happy, good, just, active,
charitable, and intelligent., and what-
ever tends to this end must be ret~ainedl
or introduced, and whatever opposes
this must be abolished."
In those days this was indleed a


various Congregations, but nothing
came of the movement. But in 1873
he had the pleasure of seeing his hopes
realized, for in that year, in response
to a call issued by his Congregation,
Bene Yeshurun, a convention of dele-
gates from many reform Congregations
met at Cincinnati and organized the
Union of American Hebrew Congre-
At the meeting of the Council of the
Union at Cleveland, in 1874, the He-
brew Union College was established,
and on October 3, 1875, this College
was formally opened. In the meantime,
Dr. Wise had been elected President of
the Hebrew Union College. In Sep-
tember, 1875, he wrote in the
ISCAEITIE, "IWe deem it our duty to
speak a few words for the President-
elect (of the Hebrew Union College)
and say that he considers it the high-
est honor Which could have been im-
posed on him. Neither a seat in the
Senate of the United States, or the
office of Chief Jusitice appears to him
as responsible a position as the Pres-
idency of the Hebrew Union College,
where the finest opportunity is offered
to contribute largely to the education
of young people of our country, to lay
a solid foundation to the future great-
ness of American Judaism, and to
promulgate Hebrew learning, and raise
high the moral and intellectual
standard of American Judaism."
How well he realized his hopes, the
1-esult proves. The first class was
graduated in 1883. To-day the total
number of graduates of this institution
is 100. Strange to say, the East,
which was the seat of bitterest oppo-
sition to Dr. Wise and his plans, is
the field of usefulness of many of thess
young American rabbis. The establish-
ment of the Hebrew Union College has
undoubtedly preserved Judaism in
What Martin Luther was to the Re-
formation, Samuel Adams to the Amer-
ican Revolution, and Wm. Lloyd Gar-
rison to Abolitionism, Isaac M. Wise
was to Reform Juda~sm in America,
to the Union of American Hebrew Con.
gregations, to the Hebrew Union Cob
lege, and the Central Conference of
American Rabbis.
He was the very head and front of
the movement, and bore the whole
brunt of the struggle.
After vain efforts in 1855, 1869, 1871
and 1887 to establish a Synod, Dr.
wV~ise finally succeeded, in 1889, in or-
ganizing the Central Conference of
American Rabbis, which meets annual-
ly. The body has succeeded in pub-
lishing uniform prayer books, in use
in most of the reform Congregations.
Dr. Wise, in addition to his work
as President of the Hebrew Union Col
lege, President of the Conference. ed-
itor of the AMrERICAN ISarAELITE and
Die Deborah, and rabbi of Bene
YeSlhTHI1 COngregation, which had at
his death 360 members, was a. busy
author. In 1860 he published his "Es,
sence of Judaism," which in 1862 ap-
peared with the title "Judaism: Its
Doctrines and Duties." In 1868 ap
peared his Prayer Book and Book of
Hymns. Then followed the "Origin of
Christianity," "Judaism and Christi-
anity; Their Agreements and Disagree-
ments," "The Martyrdom of Jesus of
Nazareth," "The Cosmic God," "The
History of the Hebrews' Second Com-
monwvealth," "A Defense of Judaism
Versus Proselytizing Christianity,"
and "Pronaos to Holy Writ."
In 1876 Dr. Wise, who several years
before had lost his wife, married Miss
Selma Bondi, daughter of the late Dr.
Jonah Bondi, of New York. Of his
twelve children ten are living, seven
of the first marriage and three of the
second. To the very last he was in
excellent health, and as active, enthu-
siastic, and zealous as ever. In addi
tion to his manifold duties he was
until January, 1899, a faithful mem-
her of the Board of Directors of the
University of Cincinnati. He was easy
of approach, amiable, genial, modest
and full of humor; his greatest merit,
however, was his thorough simplicity,
in which he out-Jeffersons Jefferson, of

whose political faith he had been a
stanch adherent.
N\o other man in American Israel
traveled in behalf of the cause as
much as he. In 187i7 he went to Call-
fornia. En route both ways he stop-
ped at important cities and addressed
the Congregations in behalf of the
Union and the College. In July, 1877,
in a report of his trip (ISRAELITE,
July 13), he writes from Peoria a
delightful letter. The following ex.
tract is worthy of preservation: "We
are in Peoria, and here we must stop
to see the ladies. You need not laugh;
we must stop to see the ladies. Here
is one of them--a wonderful woman.
She is eighty-six years old, speaks,
sees and hears like a young woman,
and goes every Sabbath to the temple,
even if it rains or is right hot. She
tells beautiful stories of events from
60 to 75 years ago, and laughs over a
good joke to-day. She is never cross,
never displeased, and has a good word
for everybody. She speaks, thinks and
feels as I do, and, like me, laughs at
the world's numerous follies. She looks
likre me, and is as incurable an op-
timist as I am. She is my mother,
God bless her. I stopped over to see
her and my baby sister."
He was essentially a man of the
people, one who never courted the
wealthy or held himself aloof from
the poor and those in moderate cir-
cumstances. In 1861 many of the lead,
ing and wealthy Jewish men in the
community conceived the idea of build.
ing a palatial temple, the pulpit of
which should be occupied by Drs. Wise
and Lilienthal, the former to lecture
in English; the latter in German;
the old synagog was to be abandoned
to those who would or could not join
in the new movement.
For a time it seemed as if the new
project would be successful; finally his
Congregation asked him directly
whether he favored the new move-
ment. His answer was as noble as un,
equivocal, "I will not leave K. K. Bene
Yeshurun. The honor of Judaism in
Cincinnati requires that Bene Yesh.
urun should come out of Lodge Street
(a narrow, dark street) into the broad
daylight of a more suitable locality.
Still, if the Congregation believes that
the time has not come for such an enter-
prise, I will patiently wait with you.
If some of our wealthy members leave,
I will-stay with you even if, by neces,
sity, my salary must be reduced to
Dr. Wise, who was aptly called "the
Moses of America,"' and by his enem-
ies "the Jewish Pope," was honored
on many occasions. In 1889 his seven-
tieth birthday was made the occasion
of a national, celebration by American
Israel. In commemoration of that
event, and in appreciation of his serv-
ices to the cause, he was presented wit!
a large house, in which he spent the
winter months. In summer he lived
on his farm near College Hill, which
11e purchased in 1860. His country
life and his strict adherence to the
laws of nature preserved all his fac-
In 1899 the eightieth anniversary of
his birthday was fittingly celebrated
at Cincinnati. For many years it has
been the custom of the students of
the Hebrew Union College to observe
the 3d day of Nissan (the date of Dr.
Wise's birth) as founder's day. In
1899, in addition to tihis celebration,
the Central Conference of American
Rabbis, held a special meeting at Cin-
cinnati in honor of the 80th birthday
of its President and Founder. His
Congregation held special services to
commemorate this ev~nt, and commis-
sioned Sir M. Ezekiel, the renowned
sculptor, to make a life-size bronze
bust, which in 1901 was placed in the
Hebrew Union College. Mr. Ezekriel
worked upon this bust nearly all the
summer of 1899, giving the Doctor
daily sittings. On the occasion of this
80th birthday, Dr. Wise was presented
with loving cups, other silverware,
books, testimonials and resolutions of
all kinds and received hundreds of
congratulatory letters and telegrams.

in politics, 1)r. Wise, starting with
Whig proclivities, developed into an
ardent States' Rights Democrat. A
strong anti-slavery man and aUnion
war Democrat, he was one of the faith-
ful few who had the courage of their
convictions and raised his voice in
Southern Ohio for the preservation of
what he held to be the constitutional
rights of the people in the dark days
of '63. He never held a political office,
except in connection with the public
school system, of which he was an
enthusiastic advocate, and in whose
interests he had been an untiring
He ever guarded the civil rights of
the Jews here and elsewhere.
In 1857 he visited Washington as
Chairman of a delegation to protest
against the treaty of this country with
Switzerland, because Switzerland dis,
criminated against American Jews, an"
during the war he called on Lincoln
to object to the tone of General Grant's
Order No. 11, and in the time of Pres-
ident Hayes he went as Chairman of a.
delegation to request the administra-
tion to protect the rights of the Amer-
ican Jews in Russia.
The part he played in these matters
is told in detail in another part
of this issue, under the head, "The Is-
raelite and Public Movements."
Despite his four-score years and ten
he was an indefatigable worker. He
was accustomed to-work in his library
every evening until after midnight,
he never refused an invitation to ded-
icate a temple or go on a mission by
which Judaism could be benefited. His
mind was as active on the day of the
fatal stroke as it had been at any
time during the past twenty years.
He took a keen interest in current
events and kept himself well inform-
ed upon every phase of American, Eu-
ropean and world politics. He enter-
ed the lists for Dreyfus; nor did he
hesitate to oppose Zionism, because he
believed the movement had denation-
alizing tendeneles. As late as Decem;-
her, 1899, he wrote, "Now, after we
have for many decades attempted to
make our neighbors understand that
we are men and patriots everywhere,
Americans in America, Englishmen in
England, F'renchmen in France, Ger-
mans in Germany, and so in all other
countries. Without 'it' or 'when,' with-
out dodge or subterfuge, and after we
have protested loudly and emphatical-
ly against any and every denial of our
civic virtues, now come these Zionists
and proclaim us as members of a for-
eign nation, one that has not existed,
in fact, nearly eighteen centuries, give
us all the lie and brand us forever
fossils and mummies, fit subjects for
the museum."
Dr. Wise's career may be character-
ized as eminently successful. Every-
thing that he set out to do, he did
and did it well. A union of Congre
'gations was formed, a college, the Ho-
brew Union College, was founded, andl
a Synod, the Central Conference of
American Rabbis, became an annual
event. It has seldom been given to
men to see the efforts of their life
crowned with success; he was among
those fortunate few who enjoyed this
pleasure. He was active to the last.
On the day he was stricken he had
preached a powerful sermon, and that
afternoon had taught his class, then
came the stroke. But the college was
ever in his mind, and the day before
he died he attempted to speak about
the baccalaureate address of 1900, but
unfortunately he could not be under-
Eighty-one years is a long life, but
to him it was short indeed. He was
always busy, and still he could not do
all he desired. He has left unfinishedl
a work which he often told me he
hoped would be his greatest work--
"The Theology of Judaism."
But it was not to be. And now that
band and that voice that have ever
championed Israel's cause are motion
less and silent. But his great work
was done; Israel's religion, the creed
of Abraham, Isiaac and Jacob, was
adapted to new environments, and that

startling and radical program; it ivas
a declaration of war` against the mean-
ingless formalism of Talmudical Juda-
ism. At Albany he opened a school in
which English, as well as German and
Hebrew, was taught for the purpose of
Americanizing the Jews. He at once
began his congregational reforms by
introducing a choir composed of men
and women. This innovation paved
the way for liturgical changes, the
most important of which was the ex-
cision of the conventional prayers for
the restoration of the throne of Davids
the coming of a personal Messiah, and
the returning of Israel to Palestine.
Notwithstanding the fierce protests
raised on all sides, the young rabbi
kept steadily on, working fifteen to
eighteen hours a day, spending much
time at the Albany state Library
where he soon became a familiar
Being in ill health in 1850, he went
to Charleston, S. C., and was present
at a public debate between a reform
and an orthodox rabbi. On being asked
by the orthodox minister whether he
believed in the coming of a Messiah
and the resurrection at the body, he
unhesitatingly answered, "No; the Tal-
mud is no authority for me in the
matter of doctrine." The proceedings
of this debate were published in the
East, and the Albany reformer was de-
nounced as a heretic. On Rosh Has-
honah (New Year) the president of
his Congregation assaulted him in the
pulpit, and a disgraceful scene fol-
lowed. On the following day the
abused rabbi's friends seceded and a
Reform Congregation, called Anshe
Emeth, was organized. Within a year
a new temple, with an organ and fam-
ily pews, was built
In 1853 Dr. Wise received a call from
Bene Yeshurun Congregation of Cin-
cinnati, which he accepted on condi-
tion only of being elected unanimously
for life and at a salary that would
make him independent. The condi-
tions were promptly accepted,
Early in 1854 appeared Dr. Wise's
"Hilstory of the Israelitish Nation," in
which was set forth in English the first
rational definition of Judaism, its his-
tory, its origin, and its aims. The
book was denounced immediately by
orthodox Jew and Christian alike, and
so rancorous were the criticisms that
Dr. Wise offered to release the Cincin-
nati Congregation from its contract.
The latter refused the offer and urged
the rabbi to come to them as soon as
Accordingly, on April 26, 1854, Dr
Wise arrived at Cincinnati, and from
that day Cincinnati became the center
of Jewish learning in America and
the IMecca for all Jewish reformers.
Dr. Wise immediately set to work to
carry out his cherished ideas con-
ceived many years before in Bohemia.
In July, 1854, he issued the first num-
her of The ISHAELITE, nOW the AM~ER"
IC'AN IsltAELITE, with the motto, "Let
There Be Light," a weekly publication
which he edited to the end. From
1854 to 1900, including the issue of
March 29, 1900, which appeared on the
day of his funeral, he constantly con-
tributed to the editorial page.
This paper became the champion,
not only of American Israel, but of
the Jews of the whole world. The
next year appeared a German weekly,
"D~ie DeborahL," with a motto, "For-
ward, My Soul, With Strength." Amer-
ican Judaism had now fearless organs,
and the seeds of reform scattered
broadcast over the land soon bore
fruit. During the ensuing quarter of a
century Dr. Wise visited all the im-
portant cities of the country, from
New York to San Francisco, advocat-
ing his views. His own Congregation
at Cincinnati aided him in every man-
He had three principal objects in
view--the union of Jewish Congrega-
tions to care for the common inter-
ests of American Israel, the founding
of a college where young Americans
could be prepared for the Jewish pul-
pit, and the establishment of a Synod.
As early as 1848 Dr. Wise has issued
a call for a meeting of delegates from



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spiration to the reform element ald
really brought the Charleston move-
ment into line with the Hamburg re-
form Congregation, for Poznanski had
come from that city and brought into
his work in the new world the ideas 1e
had imbibed before leaving the
1-anseatic town.
Still, although this very first step in
the history of the reform movement in
the United States was in all likelihood
independent, yet the broad develop-
ment that reform had assumed in this
country rests without doubt upon a
German basis and is inseparably con-
nected with the German reform move-
ment. The two first Congregations
that were organized as reform Con-
gregations in this country, viz., the
Har Sinai of Baltimore, in 1842, and
the Emanuel of New York, in 1845,
were German Congregations, and were
directly influenced uy the religious
struggles in Jewry in the mother
country. The organization of these
two pioneer reform Congregations was
really the beginning of the free and
full development that the spirit of
Judaism experienced in this land. Here
the conditions were altogether atller-
ent than in Europe. TIhere were no
restrictions. There were no communal
or congregational traditions. There
was no governmental interference.
True, the Jews who emigrated hither
brought with them the traditions they
had received from their fathers, and at
first European religious conditions
were simply transplanted. There were
many Judaisms represented in the va-
rious congregations that were organ-
ized; there were Polish Congregations,
Dutch Congregations, Hungarian Con-
gregations, English Congregations,
German Congregations, many geo-
graphical Judaisms, if I may use that
term; but although traditional cus-
toms and mediaeval conceptions were
thus transplanted, such a condition of
things could not last here. The Amer-
ican spirit was pervasive and the Jew
could not but be affected by that spirit
in his religion as he was in every other
interest in life. America had to pro-
duce an American Judaism, and it did
produce an American Judaism. This
term is frequently pooh-poohed as par-
adoxical and unmeaning ana we who
use it are accused of introducing an
unwarranted and unjustifiable element
of differentiation into the general con-
ception of Judaism. But it requires
only a moment's consideration to ree-
ognize that what we call American
Judaism is something as distinctive
as were Palestinian Judaism and Hel-
lenistic Judaism of old, as was Baby-
lionian Judaisni in the early Christian
centuries, as were Sephardic and Ash-
kenasic Judaism in mediaeval times;
if it is legitimate to use these modify-
ing adjectives to define various broad
tenaencies in Jewish thought and de-
velopment in these different lands and
ages past, it is no less legitimate to
use the term American Judaism now,
for it, too, has a distinct and definite
meaning. American Judaism is the
latest expression that the prophetic
spirit of universal religion has as-
sumed. Broadly speaking, there have
always been two streams of thought
in Judaism, prophetism versus ritual-
ism, hellenistic versus Palestinian
Judaism, the broad thinkers among the
rabbis of old, the Hillelites, the Jo-
hanan ben Zakktais, the Akibas, the
Joshua ben Chananyahs, the Meirs,
versus the Shammaites, the Eliezer
ben Hyrkanos, the Tarfons, and among
later thinkers the Leo da Modenas, the
Solomo del Medigos, the Joseph Albos
ver~sus the Asheris, the Raawads, the
Joseph Karos, and as a matter of
co~use, the orthodox versus the re-
formers since the opening of the nine-
teenth century. True, owing to the
circumstances of Jewish life during
the Christian centuries the freer move-
ments of thought that of old had
flowered so gloriously in prophetism
and Hellenistic Judaism could not re-
ceive full swing, but; when the revolu-
tions that inaugurated the modern era
made of the Jew a free man, the spirit
of Judaism soared once more into the
regions of universal thought and relig
ion. And t is is American Judaism; a-

the life in the world which the Jews
were leading made their observance
impossible; if Judaism meant only
these things then surely it was pass-
ing and would soon be no more; but
great thinkers and rabbis like Geiger,
Holdheim, Einhorn, Hirsch, the Ad-
lers, P~hilippson, Stein, and others
showed that the faith in its essence
was a- great deal more; they accentu-
ated the eternal spiritual prophetic
universalistic messianic aspect as the
true Judaism which in different ages
and lands assumed varying aspects,
and now that entirely new conditions
confronted them the faith had to be
interpreted accordingly. I have not
the space here to discuss the philos-
ophy and theology of the reform move-
ment nor its history. Sufficient to say
that it has a philosophy despite the
claim of its opponents, that it is mere-
ly a matter of convenience, sufficient
to indicate that it has a theology de-
spite the remark of the caustic critic
who said that when a Jewish peddler
ate a ham sandwich reform Judaism
was born, as though mere convenience
and the desregard for some traditional
customs constituted the whole of the
reform movement. Nay, reform is not
a system of liale negations, it has its
positive constructive side that has ac-
centuated the universal import of the
religious truths preached and ex-
pounded in Judaism from the days of
the prophets, and which though hidden
temporarily beneath an encrustation of
enveloping forms and ceremonies only
needed to shed these accretions in
order to shine forth undimmed as eve~r.
For Judaismu as for every other relig-
ious system, Carlyle's significant words
hold true: "First must the dead let-
ter of religion own itself dead and
drop piecemeal into the dust, it the liv-
ig spirit of Religion, freed from this
charnel house, is to arise on us, new-
born of Heaven, and with new healing
under its wing."
But, as the title of this article shows,
my purpose is not to write a disserta-
tion on the reform movement as such,
but rather to indicate its progress,
achievement and purpose In the United
States. It is usually and rightly held
that reform in Judaism in this country
was directly connected with the ef-
forts put forth in Germany in this di-
rection, and that notably the Hamburg
Temple movement was mirrored in the
earliest congregational reforms in this
country. It seems, however, that the
very first reform in Jewish religious
interpretation in the United States
was an altogether native independent
effort. As far as we know the Reformed
Society of Israelites which began its
activity in Charleston, S. C., in 1825,
had no further connection with the
trans-Atlantic agitations which were
stirring German Jewry from center to
circumference, than that invisible and
unconscious influence that so frequent-
ly brings forth similar results in wide-
ly separated regions. The same causes
produced the same effects in Hamburg
and Berlin on the other side, and in
Charleston on this side. It was essen-
tially the spirit of freedom here and
there which breathing upon the dry
bones of Judaism bade them live
again; the era of freedom was the new
Ezekiel summoning the spirit of the
Lord to revivify the house of Israel.
This initial effort toward reform in
this country, however, did not flourish
as dict the similar movement in Ham-
burg, particularly because there was
as yet no competent leader to direct
the work; the forty-seven Jews of
Charle~ston who signed that first peti-
tion to the Congregation requesting
reforms in the service formed a fine
nucleus and would have accomplished
much had there been at that time in
Charleston a theologian of broad learn-
ing and strong personality who would
have been able to give the movement
the authority and distinction which
only learning and personal force can
impart; the movement languished de-
spite the splendid efforts of Isaac
Harby, the member of the Congrega-
tion wn~o was the guiding spirit
among the memorialists. The election
of Gustav Poznanski in 1835 as minis-
ter of the Congregation gave new in

reassertion of the world embracing
ideas and the world enveloping hopes
of ethical monotheism, an optimistic
outlook toward the messianic age, a
substitution of prophetic vision for
Oriental legalism and elegiac mediae-
valism, a fearless propagandism of the
message that God's revelation is con-
tinuous, and therefore religion, the
embodiment of that revelation must
adapt its teachings and its methods to
tile changing needs and requirements
of the successive ages of the world to
whom God speaks as surely as ever He
did in ages past, for indeed "God is
not dumb that He should speak no
more."' American Judaism is possible
because of the free American spirit;
tne breadth of thought that American
Judaism represents shall dominate the
future unless the prophets of the race
have babbled vain things. I have not
said American Reform Judaism, but
American Judlaism, for the two are
identical; mediaeval orthodoxy and
traditionalism can not flourish here;
the future belongs to reform despite
some present seemingly contradictory
phenomena in the Jewish religious
world; but of this I shall have some-
thing more to say later on.
It was an extremely fortunate cir-
cumstance that at the time when the
rerorm agitation was beginning In the
United States there were competent
men here to take the helm of leader-
ship. True, the Baltimore and New
York congregational movements, to
wsich reference has been made, were
inaugurated by laymen; and this is
extremely significant, for it shows that
the need for the reform movement
arose from the people; the life that the
people were leading in the new time
made the observance of rabbinical
'Judalsm as traditionally handed down
impossible; the new outlook demanded
a readjustment of the standards; but
the people, however earnest and well-
incentioned, can not of itself guide any
larger movement safely and wisely;
strong men are necessary. For that
reason the Baltimore movement did
not become really significant until
David Einhorn, disheartened by his
experiences in Pesth, emigrated to this
country, where he felt he would findl
the right field for his activity as a re-
ligiou~s reformer. But nine years before
Einhorn placed foot on the American
shore, the man had landed here who
more than any other was to set the
stamp of his powerful personality
upon the development of Judaism in
this country. Isaac M. Wise came to
toe United States because the tree
spirit wherewith he had been dowered
at birth could not brook the narrow re-
strictions and limitations of the sur-
roundings wherein he had been reared.
With the instinct of genius he per-
ceived the possibilities ,in this land.
The story of his early struggles here in
the cause he had espoused has been
told so graphically by himself in his
"Reminiscences" that it is surely un-
necessary to repeat it here. The eight
years of his service in Albany were
strenuous years of preparation for the
work he was to do in the great west-
ern country after his call to Cincinnati
in 1854. Though born abroad he was the
embodiment of the Americant spirit;
he was democratic through and
through, democratic in his sympathies,
in his leanings, in his thoughts, in his
hopes, in his ideals. For him Judaism
spelt democracy too, and therefore he
perceived that the American environ-
ment gave Judaism such an opportun-
ity for its true development as it had
not had since the Roman legions set
flame to the temple that crowned
Moriah's height, and the ~Jews were
scattered to the four corners of the
Hight nobly, bravely, self-sacrific-
ingly he set to work; intrepid fighter,
skilful organizer, passionate preacher,
he had all the necessary qualities for
the taskr; but he felt at the very outset
that; in the life-long campaign wherein
he was entering he required an organ
wherein he could express his views,
unfold his plans and plead his cause.
Therefore he tiolsokstepslalmo t ic ed-

the American Jewt entered uipon the
twentieth century with a strong, virile
and live religion was the work of Isaac
Mlayer W'ise. 1\AX B. MAY.
------- ----

Reform Judaism in

The reform movement in Judaism
has flourisned in the United States as
in no other country. Germany was
the land of its birth, but the United
States has been the sphere of its devel-
opment and progress. It lacks but six
years ere the century will be rounded
out since Isr~ael Jacobson dedicated his
synagog at Seesen, an event which an
enthusiastic writer of the time hailed
as the Festival of the Jewish Reforma-
tion. Although this designation was
bombastic and unjustified, still Jacob-
son must be accredited with being the
pioneer whose labors mark the real b
ginning of reform as a practical
achievement in Jewry. But this relig-
ious reform was only one aspect of the
new life upon which the Jews were
entering. It was the religious coun-
ter~part of the movements for the polit'
ical and educational emancipation of
the Jews. Political emancipation
transformed the Ghetto-Jewv into a citi-
zen of a fatherland, educational eman-
eipation changed the cheder-Jew into a
man of modern culture, religious eman-
cipation transmuted the shuklha~n-
arukhcl Jew into the reformer for whom
Judaism spelt universalism and not
Orientalism, prophetism and not rab'
h~inism, world-wide Messianism and not
Palestinianism. Religious reform then
wass not an isolated phenomenon. Had
not the French Revolution sounded the
tocsin of freedom for the Jews of West-
ern Europe, had not the modern spirit
working through Mendelssohn and his
senool made the Jews of Germany
familiar with the intellectual output
of the Kants, the Lessings, the
Schiller~s, and the Goethes, there would
have been no movement for religious
reform; just as Ghettoism, chederism
and rabbinism form the three-fold
product of mediaevalism, so do politi-
cal freedom, modern education and re-
ligious reform constitute the triple
effect of the modern spirit which be-
ganl to breathe upon the world in the
latter half of the eighteenth century-
The rabbis of the old school who put
the ban upon Mendelssohn's German
translation of the Pentateuch, who ex-
communicated Wiessely because of his
efforts to introduce secular education
among his co-religionists, and who
frowned upon the strivings for civil
emancipation were thoroughly consist-
ent; they recognized that the acquisi-
tion of knowledge other than that im-
parted in the Hebrew schools and the
participation of the Jews in the politi-
c~al life of the world meant the death
b~low to rabbinico-halakhic Judaism;
they scented the danger and tried to
avert it by every means in their
power; but all in vain; the old order
which they represented was passing;
Jew and Judaism were entering upon
a new stage; Judaism had to adapt it-
self to the new life and the new sur-
roundings if it was to continue to
mean something for the Jew. Thou-
sands had turned upon it or grown in-
different because the religion in its
narrow rabbinic interpretation had
ceased to appeal to and satisfy the
]lager outlook which freedom had
brought. There was an undeniable
conflict between Judaism and life. The
recognition of this conflict gave rise to
the reform movement; the needs of the
time became imperative with these
leaders whose eyes were open to- the
signs of the times; it was claimed and
proven that there had always been
freedom of thought in Judaism;
Geiger and others with him framed
and defended the thesis of develop-
ment in Judaism; what a seething
time those early years of the reform
movement were! What an era of storm
and stress. Life was pressing on all
sides; institutions, practices, cere-
monies, laws considered sacred for cen-
turies were being disregarded because


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toward this end, and within less than
three months the first number of the
ISHAEL.ITE appeared. During the forty-
six remaining years of his life his newvs-
paper was the weekly means of com-
munication of his thoughts to the
world. The files of the ISRAELITE pre-
sent a faithful record of his great
achievements in the cause of reform
Judaism. Here he advocated, week
in, week out, year in, year out, the
ideas he believed should receive prac-
tical embodiment if Judaism was to
be an active force in the life of the
American Jew; reform was the watch-
wora of his activity, but practical re-
form. What a tremendous force he
and his paper were in American Jew-
ish life! The history of early rabbini-
cal conferences, of the Union of Amer-
ica Hebrew Congregations, of the He-
br~ew Union College, of the Central
Conference of American Rabbis, can be
written only from the pages of the
ISRAELITE. HOw he went from strength
to strength! How his free spirit ex-
panded more and more with the pass-
ing of the years!
For years, after the publication of
tule Sinai ceased in 1863, the ISRAELITE
was the only organ representing the
reform cause in this country, but it
was a host in itself; its influence was
all pervading, notably in the West and
in the South, and I believe it can be
said without fear of contradiction that
one of the greatest agencies making
for the predominance of Reform Juda-
ism in these sections has been the
ISnAELITE. It 11RS preached in Season
and out of season the doctrines of an
American Judaism; it has insisted on
the truth of development in Judaism;
it has stood in the breach against all
narrowing interpretations; it has been
the champion of all free and liberal
movements; it has denounced each
and every un-American movement
whether it has been the American Pro-
tective Association, or the agitation to
have a religious clause in the consti-
tution, or Bible reading in the public
schools, or this country recognized as
as a Christian country, or the persecu-
tion of Seventh Day Adventists or Bap-
tists for working on Sunday; but no-
where has this characteristic been
more emphatically apparent than in the
attitude towards that un-American lat-
ter-day movement in a section of
Jewry, viz., Zionism. Dr. Wise, in the
ISRA\ELITES and in the pulpit, in conven~
tion and on platform, set his face lite
steel against this retrograde movement
wherein he saw a surrender of all that
prophetic universalistic American
Judaism stood for. And to this true
insight of its lamented founder the
InrsRAELTE has remained faithful, and
ef mr J i cns nui. As an organs o

eorpm Judaism et an hetheu mesgd s
spi;Rform Judaism fn Zoundaras uon
lupthe barrecniers; Reform Judaismis
uivesprstal, Zionism is pOrietial. Refom
Jun Juaism lookto hes uture, ionism o
to te paonst; the oulook of Refom
Judaism isor th wrd, tne outloo uof

theabroteh of moral Zionismad sirtual
Zinivesm. Zionism was seta.rted as a
duuistinclyk political movuemt, aind s
such it is stll consdred, ana urgedk by
Zitnsm fode a ondr it leaders, As Isae
Zanwil wrote no morein wtha fie ms
mots ha gown "It is) more oltha wevr
Zinecssayt dfn Zionism cle s arly as a
a modencl political movement, haing a
forh imthe sil reestablishment ofIrael b
ats a oliicl ntty and incladr, sidrently
the sallvto wofthe massesta of Rsia
words her; o' hay talk mof moral ovr
ncspiritualein Zionism. "Havng fo aim
f a the re-establishment of Israelasa
asapolitical entity; Mr angwinietll d-
t serves outhnk ofo thi ass clea and i

unmie-staablesmn ronouncaement No

words could state more decidedly the

incompatibility of the aims of Zionism
and Reform Judaism. For whatever
else Reform Judaism may or may not
be, it is not a political movement;
and whatever else Zionism may or may
not be: it is a political movement.
Here truly is a parting of the ways.
The same Mr. Zangwill once said that
there were but two possible solutions
of the Jewish question, "either a com-
mon country or a common idea;" Zion-
ism represents the "common country"
solution, Reform Judaism the "com-
mon idea". From its very inception
Reform Judaism was proclaimed a
purely spiritual interpretation of
Judaism; one of the first practical re-
sults of the agitation for reform was
the elimination from the traditional
liturgy of all prayers for the return to
Palestine, the reinstitution of the
Jewish State, and the re-establishment
of the throne of David; this substitu-
tion of the purely spiritual for the
political mission continued one of the
main tenets of the reform movement,
as it was so well summarized in the
admirable Declaration of Principles of
the Pittsbuhrg Conference: "We recog-
nize in the modern era of universal
culture of heart and intellect, the ap-
proaching of the realization of Israel's
great Messianic hopes for the estab-
lishment of truth, justice and peace
among all men. 'We -consider our-
selves no longer a nation, but a relig-
ious community, and therefore expect
neither a return to Palestine, nor a
sacrificial worship under the sons of
Aaron. nor the restoration of any of
the laws concerning a Jewish State.',
Let us have done then with all at-
tempts at defending the thesis of the
possibility of reconciling the attitude
of Reform Judaism and Zionism; such
attempts are the sheerest casulstry.
Zioism means a surrender of all the
ideals for which Reform Judaism
stands. I am glad that the ISRAELITE
has continued in the line marked out
in this matter by its great founder.
Were Dr. Wise living to-day I can
imagine the scorn wherewith he
would treat all this latter-day coquetry
with the retrograde Zionistic move.
ment which he opposed so vehemently.
May the IsxrAELITE g0 on fighting the
good fight for spiritual univsrsalistic
Judaism as against the political arch-
mlogrical romanticism that now holds
so many imaginations captive.
I remember well also Dr. Wise's im
patience with the ghetto novel and the
Yidijsh cult; he evidently feared the
reactionary effect that this might have
on the cause for which he had fough+
all his life, and may have seen therein
a future wherewith Reform Judaism
would have to struggle. If this was
indeed his reason, it showed again his
remarkable foresi ht.t For a sruggl

1tlyenaN e rt ce ofth hox hn Res

there; the vast Russian immigration
a.nnearsi to enallf the native element.
I'he citadels of reform are being at.
tacked by a mighty host. Saddest of
all, many who shoulld have stood firm
and true are joining the reactionary
forces. But with it: adl this can be but
temporary. Despite the vast numerical
strength of the ghetto, American Juda-
ism will not be Russianized, will not
be ghettoized. The power of the free
institutions of this country will exert
a mighty influence in occidentalizing
too the Judaism of the rising genera-
tion of the immigrants. Educated in
American schools and colleges, grow-
ing up in the American atmosphere,
the young men and women of the next
generation will pass through the same
religious development as did the Ger-
man Jews of sixty years ago. Not
backwards, but forwards, will be their
motto. Russian Judaism and the Rus-
slan Jews will be Americanized. Here
will lie the test of the strength of
Reform Judaism in America. Here
is the great worke of the immediate
future. Reform Congregations must
be organized, and reform services in-
stituted in the congested Jewish dis-

tricts. The beginning has been made,
but only the rim of the problem has
been touched. Has Reform Judaism
in America the power and the potency
of appealing to these hundreds of thou-
sands to whom, with their new oppor-
tunities and their wider outlook,
Judaism in the form that their fathers
Imnew it in Russia can not be synipa-
thetic? The future is big with por-
tentous significance. Many, over-
whelmed by the problem, have thrown
up their hands in despair. Many others
have succumbed to the siren-voice of
medieval romanticism. But some there
are who have faith still in the pro-
phetic ideals, who will not permit
themselves to be distracted nor con-
fused by the cries in the market place.
Time and the American spirit fight on
their side. Hopefully they look for-
ward, eager and ready to carry on
the struggle for the spread of the
teachings of Judaism in its purity, so
interpreting it that it shall be of liv-
ing significance. A mighty force in
this cause has the IsRAELIrTE been dur-
ing the half century of its existence
al las prti ipateo rntel ietwinpnong e
and enlightenment. But the battle for
progress never ceases. An outpost
won only shows others beyond. May
the brave, intrepid, indomitable spirit
of its immortal founder go marching on
in its utterances during the coming
time. May all the free, broad and uni-
versal tenets which mark Reform Juda-
ism inform its columns so that it
continue till the very end what the
prospectus issued before the appear-
ance of the first number promised it
would be "a fearless organ for progress:
enlightenment and spiritual striving."

ISraelite Personalities.

Telling About the People Who Wrote
For It and Other Things of Inter-
est in Conn~ection With It*
The first number of the ISRAELITE
was datel July 15, 1854, ad bears the
imprint of Isaac Mayer Wise, Editor,
residece.No. 141 East Third Street,
which was then in a rather fashion-
able part of the city, and Charles F.
Schmidt & Co., publishers, 21 E. Third
Street. The contributors to this first
number were not numerous. They
were, beside the editor, Samuel Bruel,
who writes on "Cincinnati Israelitish
Institutions," a sketch of the history
of early Cincinnati Jewry and a few
writers using pneudonyms, whose iden-
tity is undiscoverable,
It contains an interview with Rev.
James K. Gutherin, of New Orleans,
who passed through the city on his

whthloe e hfroamco aied the r -
main o ah Te e a

f aCincinnati, except where otherwise
A. Abraham
Sol. Friedman
J. L. Miller *
S. L. Miller'
J. Sylvester.'
J. Judah
Jacob Mayer,
Daniel Ullmann,
Benjamin Urner
G~. Simon '
A. Fatman,
B. Frankel,
a. Aub,
L. block,
Buchman, Rindskopf & Co.,
Nat-han & Escales,
L. Holstein.
M. Simon
B. Simon,
a'. Eichberg,
Wm. B. Pierce,
L. F~riedman,
P. Heidelbach,
Brown, E~lsbach & Co.,
Mendersohn & Frohman.
L~. Stix & Co..
A. Kuhn
M. Klaw
L. Isaacs
hirsch & Straus,

I. H. Wertheimer,
I. J. Wertheimer,
Jacob Benrimo.
Forchheimer, Gutman & Co.,
Joseph Elsas,
David March,
I. Billigheimer,
S. N. Pike,
L. Loeb,
H. J. Amburg,
Springer & Fries,
H. A. Hoffheimer,
Sachs & B~ro.,
P. Stockfeldt,
Jos. Goldsmith, Indianapolis, Ind.
Louis Kahn, Evansville, Ind,
Jacob Gottlieb, Evansville, Ind.
H. A. Jessel, Nashville, Tenn.
S. Nathan, Nashville, Tenn.
Wolf Gerson,
Elias Mayer,
IV. Fechheimer,
Ab'm Fechheimer,
Samuel Fechheimer, Rogersville, Ky.
M. Sulzbacher, Nashville, Tenn.
M. Hollstein, Lafayette, Ind.
G. W. Shohl & Bro.
Abraham Cohen.
Martin Stadller.
I. Marienthal.
Wm. Kraus,
S. Mack,
Isaac Wolf,
M. J. Mack.
Abraham Wolf,
Rau, Guiterman & Co.,
Moses Heidelbach,
Sol. Levi,
Newman & Moss,
I. and M. Kornblith,
Slomer & Vanderbeughl,
Isaac Oppenheimer,
Isaac Freiberg,
I. Lehman, Donaldsville, La.
Jacob Mack,
Mr. Lowenthal, Shelbyville, Ky.
John Trounstine.
C~has. Keifer,
A. Bergman,
A. Wertheimer,
Lewis Wald.
Jacob' Elsas,
Adolph Rindskopf, New Yor~k.
Jacob Netter,
L. Rosenthaler,
A. Louis,
John C. Spencer,
Alex F'indley, Oxford, O.
Franco & Wolf, Indialnap~olis.
E. Simon,
M. Kleinman,
S. Amburg,
M. Dernham, Indianapolis.

th 1 of these, as far as I know, witn
the exception of L. Friedman, M. Dern.
haa, Frederick Eichberg and M. J.
Mc, are no longer living.

This list was continued from week
sto u Ia~ndr te nam during he

ofirts bet-ayngterrrnpintory As itn
urneds outap howeer ita was notusnti
h quarter gof a centry later sand, unde
anentirel dif fer entregme tha t the

ISnrAELITE Was placed on a profitable
and substantial basis.
The earlier numbers almost justify
the belief that prevailed for many
years, that the editor wrote the paper
fr~om beginning to end, even including
the advertisements. His productivity
cluring this period was remarkable. It
was not long, however, before the con-
tributors became more numerous.
IXlost of them, however, were too mod-
est to write over their signatures, andi
in consequence missed their opportun-
ity for earning immortality. There is;
many a gem in poetry and prose in the
earlier numbers of the ISRtAEL1TE~Whose
aulhor is unknown, which would be a
source of pride to his or her descend-
ants could its ownership be established
The original number also containedl
the following ~advertisements: Leon

]VI us, M ., physician ad surgeon;
( oore, iWilstach & Keys, books and sta-
1a snice beco e Fh hmeia oe




A Section




the New S~hoel I g"`~


A Room in Our Furnished Room Suite.

passable $5
Shoe for $3.50.

A Cozy Corner in the Riestaurant.


Estimates given on rooms or houses complete.
Models shown from your plans or ours.
See what the room looks like before you buy it.

Meals a la carte 8.30 a. m. to 5 p. m. Table d'Hote Din-
ner 11 a. m. to.8 p. m, 1350. Special menu and arrange-
ments for parties.

A Glimpse
Into the NVe~W

FrenchP Room.

Liberal Discounts

AlIlo we d


Bridal Trosseaus.

West Fourth Street, Between Vine and Race.


presumably the gentleman over
whom there was such a bitter
controversy in Cleveland later on. Dr.
Miayer became the minister of Tifereth
Israel Congregation in Cleveland. It
was charged against him, by some of
the opponents of Dr. Wise who had
recommended him for the office, that
while in England, before coming to
the United States, Mayer had been an
apostate. Wise, the late Jacob Rohr-
heimer, of Cleveland, and other friends
of Mayer besought him Ito make a clean
breast of the matter, promising that,
if he were guilty as charged, they
were prepared to forgive his lapse and
that they would procure him a posi-
tion as teacher in some secular institu-
tion, and see that he and his family
did not come to want.
Mayer, however, protested his, inno-
cence, and backed his protestations
wi~a the most solemn oaths. His
friends believed him, and a most sav~
age fight ensued, which resulted in the
opposition bringing conclusive evi-
dence of his apostasy, much to the dis-
comfiture of his defenders. Miayer had
to leave Cleveland, and died in poverty
and obscurity.
His story is a familiar one. He. e~mi-
grated from Poland as a. mere lad and
wient to London. Here, ignorant of the
language, too delicate for manual labor
and without friends, he fell into the
clutches of the emissaries of the
Church of England Society for the
Conversion of Jews, who are always at
hand to make the deal when some poor
fellow is driven to desperation by des-
titution and is willing to barter his
soul for help. Mayer was tempted and
fell, but repented and returned to Ju-
daism as soon as he could earn enough
to keep body and soul together. He
kept his own counsel and hoped his se-
cret was buried forever. But after
many days his sin found him out,
though thousands of miles away in a
new land. The enemies of Dr. Wise
struck at him through the man he was
befriending, and neRver rested until
they had hounded Mayer to ruin and
an untimely grave.
In February, of 1856, J. Blooming-
dale, M. Frank and L. Fischer, respec-
tively President, Vic President and
Secretary of congregation Emann EI'
of San Francisco sent a three column
protest against something that had ap~
peared in the ISRAELITE, thiS prOVing
that before the paper was two year;
old it had recognition and readers on
the Pacific coast.
In the same month there pears also
the first installment of "Leaves From
the History of the Spanish Jews," by,
Nathan Mayer. Young Mayer was at
this time a medical student in Cin-
cinati, where his father was Rabbi.
Rev. Dr. Mayer (not the one referred
to above) afterward removed to Hart-
ford. Conn., where he was Rabbi for
a very long term, and where he diet
full of years and honors after a life-
time of noble work. He was for many
years a contributor to the ISRAELITE,
and was notably a clever writer of Jew-
ish stories, both serial and short. He
wrote a number of bright poems as
well. From Cinoinnati he went to
Europe, where he graduated. Return,
ing to America at about the outbreak
of the Civil war he entered the army
as surgeon of a Connecticut regiment,
and served with distinction until peace
was declared. After the close of the
w~ar he settled in Hartford and became
a very successful physician. He is
still living, and, as the poet laureate oL
his old regiment, is heard each year at
their annual reunions. He is a delight
ful exemplar of what the best class of
young Jewish Americans were about
half a century ago.
The next name of note to appear
among the Israelite's writers is that of
B. F'elsenthal, the learned Rabbi of
Zion Congregation, of Chicago, who
remained an occasional contributor for
many years. He wrote mainly on ab-
struse theological or philologiical topics.
Dr. Felsenthal is still living, though,
owing to his advanced age, has done no
active work during the last few years.
Another writer at this period was

one S. Hoga, who furnished a long,
and a trifle dry, series of articles on
"T'he Faithful Missionary," in which
he uncovers the sinous ways of the
missionaries for the conversion of
Jews. I have not been able to identify
The earlier number of the ISRAELITE
do not show much original poetry.
Nathan Mayer was a very frequent con-
tributor of excellent metrical transla-
tions of Psalms ~and now and then a
"written for the Israelite" poem ap-
pears, but not often. Dr Wise and Dr.
Nathan Mayer both wrote serial nov-
els, and the rest of the paper was given
up to polemics and news.
In 1857 Dr. Lilienthal ceased to be
the associate, editor and we find Dr.
Wise's name alone at the head of the
fourth page.
In the same year I find a poem from
the pen of that rather remarkable
woman, Adah Isaacs Menken. Mrs.
Menkren was a native of New Orleans
of Christian parentage, and while she
did not have a drop of "Semitic" blood
in her veins, she was in faith and
ideals an ardent Jewess. She became
an actress when yet a child, and mar-
ried Alexander Isaacs Menken, of Cin-
cinnati, at an early age. The marriage
was not a happy one and some years
later the parties separated and were
divorced. Mrs. Menken returned to
the stage, where she thrilled and
shocked both hemispheres by her his-
tronic abilities and her reckless disre-
gard of the conventionalities of dress.
She brought out "Mazeppa," "The
French Spy," and several other luridT'yj
melodramatic plays. Her costumes or
lack of them which caused so much
scandal at that time, would, of course,
be scarcely noticed or commented upon
now. But half a century ago the semi-
nude was a novelty on the stage.
After the resumption of her theatrical
life she seems, in severing home ties,
to have lost the restraint she needed,
and her natural waywardness asserted
itself. She trod the downward path
and finally died a broken and poverty.
stricken woman in Paris. She was, by
the. way, the first woman l eve

nt e Mnen, as stated before, was
des ad ewess, but she most ardently
uesire d to become one, and often re-
qhe fold Dr. Wise to receive her into
th I l, going so far at one time as
tio limp ore him on her knees (her ar-
tIi temperament made her very im-
pusive) to accept her as a convert.
tor some reason unknown to me he
s eadfastedly refused to do this. She
was a frequent Visitor at the ISRAELITE
o fce, where she formed one of a bright
coterie of young people, who had a mu-
tual admiration for each other which
o ten found expression in verse. A
number of Mrs. Menken's poems ap-
peared in the ISnAELITE, and a small
volume was published by her over the
110m de plume of "Infelicia." Several
of her poems were included in the
M~inhag of America" hymn book. One
of them, "Sinai," being especially fine.
The first of her poems that I find in
the ISRAELITE (NOv. 6, 1857), reads as
follows :
OppressionT kithe Jews Under the
Tri Empire.


At Spes non fracta.
Will he never come?. Will the Jew,
In exile eternally pine?
By the idolaters scorned, pitied only by
11l he never his vows to JEH~OVAH
Beneath his own olive and vine?

Will he dwell with the Gentiles, who
His shrine, and who make gold their
Must he slink in lone avenues, where
the dark rite
Of cities is offered to Mammon? He of
Whose fathers Jerusalem trod?

posed to the public schools. Mr. Fried-
man was in the early days one of the
leaders in Cincinnati Jewry. Both he
and Mr. Busch have passed away.
The next name noticed is that of
Annie M. Jonas, a daughter of Cincin-
nati's first Jewish family, which came
here from Devonshire, England, when
the century was in its teens. 1Miss
Jonas wrote very beautifully, and
from a heart filled with piety.
D~r. A. B. Arnold, who died at Balti-
more a few weeks ago at an advanced
age, was an editorial contributor at
an early date. He was a most vigorous
writer and a master of a fine English
style. His utterances would not be un-
timely if reprinted to-day.
Another of the early writers was
Joseph Jonas, the first Jew to come to
Cincinnati (in 1815). He began in
May, 1855, to write serially on "The
Signs of the Times; a Review of the
Prophecies--Past, Present and F~u-
ture." Mr. Jonas, even in th~e early
days, was a man of influence in civic
affairs, and was a member of the Ohio
legislature back in the forties. It is
from this family that B. F. Jonas, who
w~as United States Senator from Louis.
iana, sprang.
In 1855 Dr. Lilienthal wrote a series
of letters on his travels in Russia that
were most interesting, and their con.
tents are strikingly illustrative of how
much better the conditions under
which the Russians lived fifty years
ago were than they are to-day.
Turning the pages of the 1855 vol-
umes I find signed to articles the
names of Dr. J. H. Dessar, the senior
teacher of the Talmud Yelodim Insti.
tute, the great day school maintained
by Congregation Bene Yeshurun until
the latte sixties; "A Unionist" (Jacob
Ezekriel, of Richmond, Va.), a most
lovable man, who was afterward one
of the upbuilders of the Hebrew Union
College, and for many years its secre-
tary. He removed to Cincinnati many
years ago, and died here at a venerable
age, enjoying the affectionate respect
of the entire Jewish community. The
celebrated sculptor, Moses Ezekriel, is
his oldest son. In 1855 also appears
the name of Joseph Houseman, of Bat-
tle Creek, Mich., a name which became
well known throughout the State later
on, and is borne by a large and influ.
ential family there to-day.
At this time the Rev. Abraham de
Sola, of Montreal, was also an occa.
sional contributor. Though rigidly
orthodox, Rabbi de Sola was not fanat-
ical, and discussed in the ISRAELITE
the Jewish problems of the day with
moderation and good temper,
It may not be amiss to state here
that after the first year Dr. Schmidt
withdrew, and the publication of the
ISRA~ELITE, after it had been issued
two weeks by "'Wise & Co. was as-
sumed by Bloch & Co., ~that firm being
composed of Edward Bloch and Dr.
Wise. Mr. Bloch was a brother-in-law
of Dr. 'Wise, who remained in the firm
until about 1870. This was the origin
of the Bloch Publishing Co., the lead-
ing Jewish book publishing and selling
house in the United States. The Is
RAELITE and Bloch & Co., as the Bloch
Publishing Co., were, with intervals of
separation, one concern until 1887,
when the present publishers assumed
final charge. The business man-
agement was undertaken on January
1, 1875, by the present publisher, and
retained uninterruptedly ever since,
As Dr. Wise advanced in years his son
-the writer of this--gradually as.
sumed the work of managing editor,
and for a number of years before his
death Dr. Wise confined himself to ed.
itorial writing solely. This, however
the krept up until the very end, and the
paper that was issued the day after his
funeral contained his usual quota of
editorial matter, written for that num-
b~er. Mr. Edward Bloch is still living
in Cincinnati, and was in the enjoy,
ment of health and strength until last
April, when he was stricken with an
illness, from which, however, he has
largely recovered.
Continuing my researches, I find the
name of Dr. Mayer (no initials given),

Co); Union Bank, J. B. Ramsay, pro-
prietor, Fourth near Walnut; Howard
Matthews & Co., bankers, Third, be-
tween Main and Sycamore; M. Light,
bookseller (New York); John Lind-
heim's Hotel (New York) ; G. W. Scholl
&F Bro., manufacturers of trunks, va-
lises, etc., corner of Western Row and
Plum,* between Everett and Mason;
Strauss & Levy, furniture store; Edgar
M. Johnson, attorney at law; J. Abra
ham, attorney at law; Wolt Gerson, 183
Walnut Street, a~nd S. Levi, Northeast
corner Fifth and Sycamore Streets,
hotels; Rev. Dr. Lilienthal's school in
New York; and that of the publisher
who issued the daily and weekly
Geran~n Repu~blican~, and a column
prospectus of Rabbi Isidor Kalish's "A
Guide for Rational Inquiries into the
Biblical Writings," which, judging
from the space occupied, was probably
a deadhead.
The only names that appear as reg-
ular writers in the earlier numbers
are: those of the editor and Mr. Bruel.
Ai number of communications appear
in each issue, but they are, as a rule,
signed with noms de plume, and there
is of course no way to identify the
writers. Some, however, bore the sis
natures of their authors; among these
were Rebecca Gratz, Philadelphia;
Isaac Friedlander, Cincinnati; Abra-
ham I. Dittenhoefer, New York; Henry
Mackr, Cincinnati.
In November of 1854 the name of
Rev. Dr. Max Lilienthal, of New Yor;,
appears as "Correspondence editor. '
Dr. Lilienthal at this time lived in
New York City, where in addition to
his labors as rabbi he conducted a
large and successful "Hebrew and
Classical School." After he came to
Cincinnati in 1856 to become the rabb'
of Congregation Bene Israel he con-
tined his work on the ISRAELITE, and
afterward on the "DEBORAHI," its Ger-
man supplement, with intervals, up
to the time of his death. He was a
graceful and vigorous writer, though
not an aggressive one.
Rabbi B. H. Gotthelf, of Louisville,
Ky., who many years afterward died
at Vicksburg, Miss., was also among
the early contributors. G. Yunkerman:
Professor of German at the Talmud-
ical Yelodim Institute, furnished a
translation of a short story by "Diego
de Aguilar." Prof. Yunkerman was
afterward the Superintendent of Music
of the Cincinnati public schools. He
is still living and enjoying a green
old age-
Rabbi Isidor Kalish and L. M. Haine-
bach are the next names we come
across. Kalish died at Newark, N. J-*
the rabbi of the congregation thero,
andi Hainebach, who was a typesetter
and worked at the cases on the De-
boralh for many years, eventually died
at L~ouisville. Hainebach was a queer
character. He was ecentric to the ex-
treme limit permissible to those at
large. He was a writer of blood-
curdling dramatic plays, none of which
ever got beyond the manuscript stage
or were presented on the stage. Dur-
ing the later days of his stay on the
paper he developed an irrepressible
penchant for editing all the copy that
was given him to set up, including Dr.
Wise's. He not only did not hesitate
to correct the writer's spelling ani
grammar, but he went further and al-
tered statements he did not agree with,
and the arguments based upon them,
until the writer agreed with him
though he may have meant to do the
exact contrary. When it was found l
that Hainebach was incurable he was
asked to find another job.
In March of 1855 we come across the
name of Solomon F~riedman, the pres-
ident of the Talmud Yelodim Institute,
signed to a two-column communication
in which he replies to an article by
Isidlor Busch, who opposes the maint:-
nance of Jewish day schools as op-

*These streets run parallel to each
other; Western Row is now called Cen-
tral Avenue. Presumably this factory
was a~t the intersection of Central Ave-
nue and McMicken Avenue, that is, at
the "Mohawk Bridge," over the canal.


W~hy shouh1 hre yield up his treastirds
of wealth,
On the rack, at the gibbet or stake?
Shall his wife, daughter, son--shall
his ease and his health,
Aye, and life be cut off, or enjoyed but
in stealth?
Shall he not from such tyranny

Will he crouch neathh Mohammed's
In suburbs pent up like a thief?
And drink of contempt and reproach-
ing the bowl,
Who, of chivalry, once, and of honor,
was soul--
Whose nation, of nations, was chief?
Shall his wine and his oil ne'er be
Shall his harp hang by Euphrates'
Whose music of sweetness for ages,
has slept,
O'er whose strings hath no finger of
cheerfulness swept,
In songs of deliverance and pride.
Shall he ne'er at the F~estival's sheen,
The New Moon nor Sabbath attend?
Where Israel in beauty and glory, was
Where shouting went up, trumpets
calling between,
While praises were wont to ascend?

Where the censer gave od'rous per-
Where the Holy of Holies had place,
Where the Almond of Aaron was laid
up in bloom.
Where the Ar'k of flee Govenant had
resting and room,
Where Shechinah gave token of
ISRAEL! Name that brings freshly the
ISRAEL! Na.Re at Which tearS freely
Even there, where mosques of Mo-
hammed peer proudly on high,
Whence the Muzzein at noon sends
idolatrous cry,
Where Allah is worshipped of all!
'Tis ISRAEL, oh God! Which Thy arm
Still embraces! For Israel is set
Most safe in Thy love, deeply graved
on Thy palm,
Secure from destruction, and terror
and harm--
Her bulwarks before Thee are yet!

And Thy oath was to Abraham given,
Thy servant devoted to Thee--
As the sands by the shore, as the
leaves by the wind driven,
As the hosts that then studded the
Syrian heaven,
To his children uncounted should be'

Like kings on their conquering car,
They shall return! Their bondage
,, ill burst!
"My sons shall be gathered, my daugh-
-ters from afar,
To bear them where shines Jacob's

To aa fs i, s th ships shall be
first ,,

I see them! I see them! Behold-
Every stream, sea and ocean is
Where their canvass points home,
where their standard's broad
Waves on to the East, as it waved once
of old.
When the Ark moved, enveloped in
I see them! How wondrous the crowd,
F'rom Ganges, from Humber, from
As doves to their windows, they fly as
a cloud.
How roll their Hosannas! How lordly
and loud
Harp and timbrel give answer the

Who is He, that of glory is King?
To whom shall be lifted the gates?
Shout thousands of Israel! Ye wor-
shippers bring
Oblation! Let; Earth with her jubilee
SMessiahI For Thee ISRAEL waitsI
New Orleans, Tishri 21, 5618. A

With all her shortcomings she was 1
brilliantly gifted, warm-hearted and
lovable woman, who might have made
a lasting record had her strength of
character been as great as her intelli-
About this time I find the name of I.
Wechsler, of Olney,Ill., who writes fre-
quent letters concerning sectarianism
in Free Masonry, and argues over ques-
tions that are as far from being settled
now as they were then.
In the! February 6, 1858, issue, "The
Fatal Secret, or Plots and Counter-
plots," a novel of the Sixteenth Cen-
tury, by Nathan Mayer, M. D., is be-
gun, and in the same issue another pic.
turesque figure makes his bow. to the
ISRAELITE readers, in the person of
Herman M. Moos, then a stripling liv-
ing at Louisville, Ky. He subsequent,
ly went to Tennessee to live, at Clarks.
ville, I believe, or possibly Savannah,
the latter being his home at the out-
break of the Civil War. He was a
youngster, a poet, an ardent Union
man, and he tried to save Tennessee
for the Union by making fiery speeches
for the cause. As a result he had to
take to the mountains to avoid the
civilities of some of his neighbors and
ex-friends, who were looking for him
with a, rope to reward him for his zeal.
They did not catch him, however, and
after a number of hair-breadth es-
capes and thrilling adventures he
managed to get across the Con
federate lines and came to Olincin-
nati. He was for years a regular con-
tributor to the ISRAELITE in poetry and
prose. He wrote several novels for it,
the best known being "Hannah, a
Glimpse of Paradise." This story was

an early forerunner of the intense
school, and served up passion at a
temperature more in keeping with the
present style than with that of half a
century ago. Appearing in a religious
journal it naturally created a sensa-
tion. iBut it was widely read and, in
book form, sold well for years after,
Moos was one of the Menkren-Mayer,
e. a., mutual admiration society that
brightened the dingy old building on
West Sixth Street where the ISRAELITE
hLeadquarters were in those days. This
rookery, by the way, was standing up
to a couple of years ago, when it was
torn dlown and an addition to the
Timnes-Star building erected on the site.
During the war Moos was one of the
partners of Bloch & Co., and devoted
considerable of his time to the manage.
ment of the ISRAELITE. He severed his
connection with the firm for a short
time, but entered it again and remain-
ed for a number of years. During this
time he studied law and was admitted
to the bar. He left business to take up
the law early in the seventies. He was
successful at the bar and accumulated
a competence. His associates were the
late Judge Alfred Yaple and Hon. John
M. Pattison, the present president of
the Union Central Life Insurance Co.,
of Cincinnati. Mr. Moos married Miss
Jeanette Levi, of Cincinnati, but had
no family. He died in 1894. Herman
M\. Moos was in many ways a remarr-
able man. He was brilliant in conver-
sation a writer of fine ability and a
successful lawyer, with but a common
school education to build on. He was
possessed of a robust Americanism and
was in every way abreast of the times,
In the same year (June 4, 1858)

there appears a poem, "Sandolphon, the
Angel of Prayer,"' by Henry Wads-
worth Longfellow, whom Dr. Wise
knew well and had the greatest ad-
miration for, a feeling which the poet
reciprocated. Mr. Longfellow some
time afterward wrote the following for
the TISHAEIITES, Which as far as I know
is not included in any of the published
collections of that author's writings:

A Simile.
Slowly, slowly up the wall
Steals the sunshine, steals the
Evening damps begin to fall,
Evening shadows are displayed.

Round me, o'er me, everywhere,
All the skry is grand with clouds,
And athwart the evening air
Wheel the swallows home in crowds.

Shafts of sunshine from the west:
Paint the dusky windows red;
Darkrer shadows deeper rest
Underneath and overhead.

Darker, darker and more wan,
In my breast the shadows fall;
Upward steals the life of man
As the sunshine from the wall;

From the wall into the sky,
From the roof along the spire
Ah, the souls of saints that die
Are but sunbeams lifted higher.
AMIERICAN~ ISR(AELITE, April 25, 1861.

In the years following the new
names that appear are mainly those of
rabbis. Prominent among them were
Dr. S. Szold, of Baltimore, and Dr. A.

cfui3tLi~f~ ilifJi~IJ~E~i~t,

Huebsch, o, New York, arid Dr. Sab-
bato Marais, of Philadelphia.
An occasional writer was Simon
Tuska, the bright youn rabbi who
died at an early age at Memphis,
where his memory is still cherished by
such of the older members of the Con-
gregation who are left alive. Rev. Dr.
M. Samfield, his successor, who still
ably holds his office, was also one of
the ISRAELITE'S writers until he started
a paper of his own, the Spectator.
The interesting figure that is next
thrown on the screen is that of Moritz
Loth, of Cincinnati, who subsequently
became the first president of the
Union of American Hebrew Congrega-
tions, and was associated with Dr.
Wise in the founding of the Union of
American Hebrew Congregations and
of the Hebrew Union College. Mr. Loth
was a very frequent contributor from
1861 up to 1876 or '77, both literary
and as an editorial writer. He is also
the author of several novels, the best
known of which is "The Forgiving
K~iss." The first of his stories to ap-
pear in the ISRAELITE was "The Miser's
Fate." Mr. Loth is still a resident of
Cincinnati, and takes an active inter-
est in Union and College affairs.
Among the older assistants there
must yet be mentioned Mr. Lewis
Abraham, who for many years repre-
sented the paper at the National Cap-
ital and wrote weekly letters over the
signature of "Sopher." Mr. Abraham
was an English subject by birth and
cmheto clincinnat in te irs ha
to manhood he followed a mercantile
career, but afterwards he studied law
and practiced in Cincinnati until he
removed to Washington, where he died
December 31, 1903. Lewis Abraham
lived a short while in San Francisco,
assisted in the founding of Ophir
Lodge, the first organization of the I.
O. B. B. on the Coast, of which he was
the last surviving member, and gen-
erally was prominent in Jewish affairs
for the time he lived in that commu-
nity. He wielded a trenchant pen, and
generally presented studies in Jewish
affairs, which were highly regarded
for their moral tone and deep insight.
In his time he was a prominent mem-
ber of the Board of Delegates on Civil
and Religious Rights and of the now
defunct Jewish Publication Society,
the forerunner of the present organi-
zation, a prominent and active mem-
ber of the I. O. B. B., and kindred
societies. May his memory be kept
green amongst his brethren, for he de-
served well of them and his reward
will be exceeding with God who has
taken him." He married Miss Hetty,
the daughter of the late Elias and Ab.
by Mayer, early pioneers of Cincinnati.
He is survived by three children--Mrs.
J. Wallace Barnes, Miss Hetty Abra-
ham and Mr. Alexander Abraham.
Another doughty co-1aborer was
Rev. Dr. Solomon H. Sonneschein, for
many years a resident of St. Louis, but
now of Des Moines, la., a most bril-
liant man whose name was frequently
appended to articles in these columns.
I. N. Choynski, "Maftir," of San
Francisco, was another of those who
helped to make the ISRAELITE famOus.
For many years his witty, sarcastic,
though not overly refined letters were
eagerly read all over the country, and
although it is nearly twenty years
since they ceased to appear, there are
any number of people who still speak
of them and ask after the writer. But
he will write no more, for he died
some years since.
Another writer of force, but of later
date, was Dr. Julius Wise ("Nicker-
down"), the second son of the found-
er. He was born at Albany, N. Y., in
1851, and came to Cincinnati with his
parents in 1854. He was a graduate
of the old Farmers' College on College
Hill and of the University of Michigan
Medical School. He alterwards set-
tled in 1Memphis, where' he was a suc-
cessful practitioner and distinguished
himself for his heroic, unselfish labors
during the terrible yellow fever epi-
demic of 1878. He was among those
who were stricken down, and though

The great Dueber-Hampden Watch Works, at Canton, Ohio, are unique among
the Watch Works of America. Here, and here only, is a complete watch,
case and movement, made. At other "watch works" only parts of a watch
are manufactured. The "ACCURATE TO THE SECOND"

is made under one roof, superintended in every detail by one management, and
sold under one guarantee. I want every reader of The Israelite to read the
new booklet, "L Light from the Watchman," in which the whole truth is told
about Dueber-Hampden Watches and some others. Address

Dept. B, canton, 0. '

he did not die of the attack, it left
him with his nervous system so shat-
tered that he was never quite himself
again. He was shortly afterwards
obliged to give up the practice of medi-
cine and he then devoted himself al-
together to newspaper writing. For a
number of years he was the principal
writer of the Chicago Israelite and
his articles were reprinted in these
columns. His terse, witty and almost
grimly humorous way of putting things
struck a responsive chord in the
breasts of the readers of the ISRAELITE,
and with the one exception of our
founder he was the most missed of all
when he died in April of 1902, in his
51st year. Two years previously he
had lost by death a beautiful boys
"Neil," whom he fairly worshiped.
Wise was a very reserved man, who
was given to keeping his sorrows to
himself, but none who knew him
doubted that his grief for his son
hastened his end. His last request
was that his body should be cremated
and the ashes taken to St. Louis and
buried in Neil's grave. After "Nicker-
down's" death there was found in his
desk a sketch of an unfinished poem
on the boy which, like a flash of
lightning, gives a momentary view of
the grief filled recesses of the father's
heart. The sketch reads as follows:

Alas! Alas! that in my life's declme
IT rstnshould lear t idstgfs
Can more enhance a human woe
'Tha ud reme inen harsh it made

Oh! that with whitening hair should
That hopeless knowledge
Which makes me know that never-
Will dawning spring have power
To re-enkindle the winter's coldness
or the gloomy year.

'Twas no blind love that hallowed him
to me,
The gentle, loving, happy lad
Was Nature's best
Born to all lovingly impress
All, all within his sphere.
No more does spring abloom bring
Unto my wearied soul; .
The lilac and the violet bring no joy
And blossoms of the apple, peach and
Sadden the heart which once they filled
With sweet content,

Alas! Alas! the new-born days
Which once were happiness without
Now only speak of sorrow,
And all in re-awakened nature that
brought bliss
Now fills my very inmost life
Wita1 unavailing grief.
Tne happy birds of spring
Hanled nature's re-awakening,
But he who with me joyed the glory
of the year,
When happy birds and happy flowers
I^ss presence for me made thrice

Poor, brave, tender-hearted "Nickrer-
down." His life had the sadness that
so often is the lot of those who have
the poetic temperament. He served
his country and his co-religionists
.well. Let only his virtues, and they
were many, be remembered.
Another writer of note on the IsRAEL-
ITE WRS ReV. Dr. Emile G. Hirsch, of
Chicago, who modestly hid himself un-
der the psuedonym of "Ibn Samuel."
For quite a while his fortnightly let-
ters were read with pleased attention,
but after a while he got tired or some-
thing and quit, much to the regret of
both editor and readers-
.Helen Wise Mlolony, a daughter of
Dr. Wise, also contributed a number of

bright poems and sketches, and for a
while conducted a children's depart-
Mrs. Rosa Sonneschein, of St. Louis,
was at one time a contributor or
stories, and for a while conducted a
woman's department.
After Dr. I. M. WTise died, in April of
1900, the chief editorial writer for a.
while was Rev. Dr. David Philipson,
of Cincinnati. Dr. Philipson's editor-
ials were erudite and pointed. Hiis
11umerous duties, however, prevented
him from devoting the necessary time
to the work, so he found himself
obliged to give it up, which he did
very reluctantly, to become an. occa-
sional contributor. During this time
Dr. Louis Grossmann, also of Cincin-
nati, was a regular contributor, but he
stopped writing about the same time
that Dr. Philipson did.
Another editorial writer was Barnett
A. Elzas, of Charleston, S. C. Dr.
Elzas is a bright and readable editor-
ial writer. On one untortunate day,
~however, he was called upon to write
something in connection with the
history of the Jews of his city
and state. The subject took such
a, strong hold on him, filled him
so completely that there was no room
for anything else, aside from his reg-
ular duties as the rabbi of the leading
Congregation of his State. He dropped
off' the ISRAELITEi Staff and its readers
were the losers thereby. But the his-
tory of Judaism and Jews in America.
has gained much by Dr. Elzas' enor-
mous and indefatigable researches, and
he has saved from destruction inval-
uable records and put their contents
in imperishable form.
Among the current writers there
should not be forgotten Miss Annette
Kohn, of New York, who, whether for
beautiful, inspiring poetry or trench-
ant prose has no superior among to-
day's contributors to the Jewish preds.


Premises as it. on Elm and 200 ft. on Mcsarland St., Cincinnati, O.


"' W BLL W1/O IQT I-1"
-D11 E! S) 8g CLT I. IN E IlT

.g. If You Are Not
SCincinnati Creation. +i Writ Us

1S. W. Cor. Elm and McFarland Sts, CINCINNATI. 01
S Between Third and Fourths Sts ,*

lo er shoui n omit too mentions t a

manhood, Miss Jeanette M~iriam Gold-
berg, of Jefferson, Tex., who favors the
IsHtAELITE'S TeaderS 110W andL then,
1sidor Wise, another son of the late
rabbi, was also for several years a
bright writer on its staff, but he has
abandoned literature for other pur-
An occasional contributor of solid
merit is Mr. Max B. May, a prominent
C~incinnati attorney, who occupies the
place of honor in Unis number*
One of the notable departments of
the luitAELIFE is its foreign neWS. The
entire field. is covered each week intel-
]Igently, tersely and in a manner that
rous: it of the dryness by which a de-
partment of this kind is usually mar-
r~ed. TIhe IsHAELITE'S; fOreig1 IleWS de-
p~artment is not only by far the best
edited in the country, but serves its
contemporaries with an unfailing
source from which they can fill their
own columns. T'he master hand to
which this is due is that of Dr. G~ott-
hiard D~eutsch, the professor of history
of the Hebrew Union College. Dr.
Deutsch knows more of current history
and has a better understanding of the
correlation of occurrences the worict
over than anly man I have ever met.
His marvelous memory retains and is
trained to produce upon demand what-
ever is stored in it. He has a. keen
sense of humor, and. Is very aggressive.
He is also a frequent contributor to
the editorial columns, but does not
write regularly. He writes only when
11e has something special to say.
Another of the IsutAELITE S staff is
Rabbi Tobias Schanfarber, of Chicago,
who writes the "N\ews and Views" for
the IsHtAEUTE Of that City, Which haVe
been reprinted in these columns for
several years past. He is a thought-
ful and vigorous writer and it~ is to be
hoped that the readers of the IsRAEL.
rml will be edified by his productions
for many years to come.
Rev. Dr. Jacob Voorsanger, of sMan
Francisco, was, and is an editorial
contributor, and it is the fervent wish
of the managing editor that he long
will be. Taking him all in all he is
the equal of the best writer the Jewish
press of America can boast of to-day.
His argument is always strong and im-
bued with sufficient warmth to prevent
him from ever being dull and unin-
teresting. At the same time his dict-
tionn is elegant, and his use of words
absolutely correct, to a degree that is
most rare among writers of foreign
The work of the present chief editor-
ial writer, Dr. Max Heller, of New Or-
leans, speaks for itself. As a writer
for the people he has no superior in
the country. If such there were the
ISRAELITE: Would secure his services.
Dr. Heller charms and persuades. He
carries his reader with him. He is
sympathetic and his words evidently
flow from a heart filled with the mily
of human kindness. Dr. Heller is the
rabbi of Temple Sinai, New Orleans,
where he has won an enduring success.
There are a, number of others who
Tvere occasional or regular contribu-
tors for a time that I might have men-
tioned, such as the Hon. Simon Wolf,
of Washington; Hon. R-. F. Peixotto
(dead) ; J. L. Mayer, Rev. Dr. Maurice
J. Harris, of New York; Rev. MOR-
tagne N. A. Cohen, of Tacoma, Wash,
and a number of rabbis who graduated
from the Hebrew Union College and
others, but the space at my disposal
prevents. One of them, Nina Morais,
of Philadelp~hia, was stopped, by a
happy marriage, on the threshold of
what promised to be a brilliant liter-
ary career.
Of the manl who sits in the office to-
day and directs it all, selects, accepts
and, often unfortunately finds himself
obliged to refuse, modesty prevents mly
writing anything. Suffice it to say
the "Jottings" column is in his special
charge, and he writes most of the un-
signed editorials that refer to current
events. Hie plans the workr, shapes the
policy of the paper, and is in short
charged with the full responsibility of

maintaining its standing and useful-

I would be guilty of a great injus-
tice if I were to fail to take this oppor-
tunity to express the well deserved
gratitude which the editor feels for
that unpaid body of volunteer corre-
spondents, which sends the news, es-
pecially the social news, from the
smaller towns. We Jews are truly a
scattered people and there is hardly a
family that is not represented in al-
most every State throughout the length
and breadth of the land. To the vari-
ous separated members, living hun-
dreds, often thousands of miles apart,
the ISI(AEL.ITE comes each week like a
letter from home, bringing news or
the doings of relatives and friends.
To those good people who, without any
other reward than that derived from
the COIISciOUSnleSS Of being useful to
the cause, write their budget detailing
the doings of the Jewish community
of their town, with commendable regu-
larity year after year, the editor and
readers of the ISRAELITE OWe many
thanks. These writers are mostly
young ladies and, in spite of the con-
stant loss by marriage, they form an
effective corps of invaluable assistants.
F~rom the foregoing it will be seen
that even its earlier days, when the
ISRAEsLITE Was largely the personal or-
gan of Dr. Wise, a weapon which he
wielded in the cause of Jewish Re-
form, he was not alone in its service.
After the first few years many brains
and hands were always hard at work
to produce the material for its col-
umns. To-day there is no other Jewish
weekly, and few Christian, for that
matter, that employ anything like so
many men and women as editorial
writers and regular contributors.
It is the OInl JeWiSh n6wspap6T in
the United States, that is, the only
journal whose mah1 object is the gath-
ering and dissemination of news con-
COTrling JeWS Or Of Special interest tO
them, all other matters being of sec-
ondary importance.
It was feared by many as Dr. Wise
progressed into extreme old age, that
his passing would involve that of the
who were near enough to him to know
how solidly he had built had no
such fear. Death had no terrors for
him, and with wise prescience he
made his preparations for it, in his
sanctum, as he did in every other of
his numerous spheres of duty. He
trained up a staff of assistants to con-
tinue the work when he should be
obliged to relinquish it, and when his
11ands were folded in their last rest
they tooki up the burden where he laid
it down, and served in his stead--ac-
ceptably, many, very many, of the
11ave been kind enough to say.
F;rom the small beginning he made
in 1854 there has grown the National
organ of American Judaism. its rep-
resentative journal. In its fifty vol-
umes there is chronicled the latest
half century of the history of Amer-
ican Isr~ael, in the making of which
it played a large part.
Leo Wise.

The Jews of the United

States Today.

The progress of our country in the
past fifty years in the arts and indus-
tries of life, in the stretch and increase
of population and territory, has been
marvellous--its material development
along every line of activity belong al-
most to the realm of magic so rapid
and far-reaching has been our national
growth. None the less remarkable,
however, has been the progress of the
various creeds. It would almost seem
that the American atmosphere pos-
sesses a certain mysterious element of
its own, which gives to every religion
a distinct character and vitality, and
enables all to attain a degree of pros-
perity and reach a position of influence
which make them envied, however mis-
represented, in other lands. What
superb growth and efficiency can be



witnessed, for instance, among the Ro-
man Gatholics on American soil with*
in the past half century! Take the
Methodists and Baptists--a similar
progress can be asserted of them with
splendid results from the educational
point of view. And the latest Chris-
tian denomination--the Christian
Scientists--could their present status
be possible in any other country than
the United States?
What is characteristic of other
creeds is pre-eminently true of Amer-
ican Judaism. The element of free-
dom in the American atmosphere, the
principle of civil, religious liberty
which gives our land its vitality, has
made the past half century a remark-
able era in the history of Judaism and
the Jew. Nuot alone has there been an
increase in numbers: that is prophetic
of American Judaism's predominating
influence in the near future, but the
genius of the Jew, disengaging itself
completely from the Ghetto environ-
ment and looking upward and around
rather than backward, is practically
for the first time in modern history en-
tering upon an entirely new epoch, not
an era of transition, but one of revolu.
tion. Every line of activity is open to
him. All the rewards of ability and in.
dustry are at his feet. There is abso-
lutely no barrier to check his advance.
ment. He is his own master and can
rise or fall at his own sweet will. Nat.
urally the new conditions have pro.
duced serious problems, in whose solu-
tions the energies of the Synagog will
probably be more severely strained
than eveorbefool, din Ep,veorrSpint
and useful in Judaism will survive the
Ghetto--the rest can perish and no
Kaddish will be said in its memory.
we shall have to be prepared for mo-
mentous changes--the readjustment
will be slow but thorough.

Fin t wi o ago taer nerleeflour sh
Philadelphia, Charleston, Savannah,
Richmond, New Orleans, Mobile, Balti.
more, San F'rancisco, Albany, Cincin-
nati, and smaller communities else-
where. Perhaps the entire Jewish pop-
ulation of the United States might
have reached 50,000 souls. Today their
numbers have increased to probably
1,500,000. Half a century ago the Ger-
man immigration was at its height,
which was rapidly to outnumber the
so-called Portuguese and English con-
tingent. To-day the Russian element
has as swiftly outnumbered the Ger-
man. At first sight it might seem
trhat the development of the Jews in
America into an American type is an
impossibility, with these successive
landslides from Germany, Poland, Rou-
mania, Hungary, Russia. But happily
just as out of all the heterogeneous
elements that constitute American life,
the distinct American is recognizable,
so thed smea nsalselte saesriclearla

tionalities that have settled on Amer-
ican soil. Thanks to his energy, enter-
prise and ability, under favoring Amer-
ican conditions, his status to-day is a
magnificent tribute to the Jew's genius
and adaptativeness. It would almost
appear as if the charges which envy,
narrowness, ignorance, \hatred have
launched against the Israelite, were
forever to Vanish When One Surveys his
growth and development in the United
mta e, hiMsversat lityoandrac omplish-
industry, his contributions to science
and letters, t es gfis 1sh enetr hi

in philanthropy. Within present lim-
itations it is impossible to write with
any fullness on this subject--a volume
is necessary to treat it with the ac-
curacy and comprehensiveness it de-
sre, ard o roit any desire to exag-

Place auxz Dames. Fifty years ago
th Amri aae tewessd losdo pg her

ularly in the Sabbath-school. The
hymns of Penina 1Voise were sung by
hundreds of Jewish children. In 1853
Mrs. Rebekah Hynenan issued "The
Leper, and Other Poems" (Philadel-
phia: A. Hart). Twelve years earlier

Isaac Leeser had edited Grace Agul-
lar's "Spirit of Judaism." Those were
pioneers, it is true, and their services
are not to be underrated. But their
influence was necessarily limited.
Emma Lazarus was to attain a place
among11 the leaders of American opin-
ion and a rank among prominent writ-
ers of her day. Emma Wolf's novels
have won favorable notice for their
strength and tendency. Martha Wolf-
enstein's stories have acquired for
their young author an enviable fame.
Esther Herrman is honored in New
York's art and literary circles for her
helpful benevolence that knows no
distinction of creed. F'rances Hell-
man's translations from Heine and the
German poets have a literary flavor of
their own. Martha Morton has written
more than one popular play. Annie
Nathan Meyer gave the impetus to the
founding of IBarnard College. Mary M.
Cohen is a graceful interpreter of
Browning, while her sister, Katherine,
is a sculptor of promise. The Amer-
ican Jewess is a contributor as well to
the magazines and weeklies of the day;
it would be invidious to mention any
special names. In other fields, too, is
she exerting a helpful influence. Mrs.
Frederick NT~athan as head of "The
Consumers' League" has done much to
raise the status of the working girl
and ensure the comfort of the women
who toil in the large department
stores. The Jewish Woman's Council
and the Sisterhoods for Personal Serv-
ice, with their many agencies for char-
itable relief, indicate marked advance,
ed tthe e adines ohe th mJewesg o
share of the success of the Jewish Pub-
lication Society is due to the unremit-
ting industry of Henrietta Szold,
whose services, too, as translator have
been utilized with excellent results.
The presence at the New York pan-
quet to PrinceiHnH y when eminent

scene, of Prof. Albert A. Ivlichelson, of
the chair of physics of the University
of Chicago, suggests the many univer-
sity positions held by Israelites, al-
though all have not Michelson's ra~ni
as specialists. However, in political
economy Professor Seligman, of Co-
lumbia, is an authority, as is Professor
Jastrow, of the University of Penn-
sylvania, in Semitics, with Margolis, of
the University of California, and Got-
theil, of Columbia, in the same field
of research. No less an authority in
his line is Professor Charles Gross, of
Harvard, whose contributions to early
English history have permanent value.
i ycung Cincinnati n, Pirotessor Max
gan, issued a few years ago an ex-
tremely creditable edition of Goethe's
"'Egmont." Professor Wiener, of Har-
vard, has written an anthology of Rus-
sian literature and a history of Yid-
is literature -aP soelworledol
Cohen, of Columbia, has been fore-
most in developing the study of
14rench. At the same university .1-ro-
fessor Harold Jacoby has done modest
but thorough work in astronomy.
There are Jewish professors at the
New York University, College of New
York and Normal College. Along edu-
cational lines may be mentioned Dr.
Cyrus Adler, curator of the Smithson-
ian Institute, and Dr. H. M. Leipziger,
to whom ishded thee prominence etu
movement in New York and other cit-

ece a ue ther scFolx of th Ethiha
Culture Society and an organization
that has been the center for three de-
cades of educational and charitable
work. In this connection the public
schools prove how widespread is the
1 ye orstu er n among the Tpoorest

girls make a splendid showing in
every city, and their intellectual keen-
ness has been repeatedly acknowl-
edged. Naturally there is, a host; of
Jewish teachers in every grade and
some principals and superintendents.
No wonder the Jews are such zealous
champions of the public school sys-
tem; for they realize their indebted-
ness to them.

-~~~. .-

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Elegan Grile af6c 400y room wihse nd

fr OeshA ater beath, hot iand cold. Erpa l

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d ~1879-1904.

o The College of Music 1


A Announces the opening of the Twenty- P
b ~seventh Academic Year, SEPTEMBER q

f ~7, 1904, with the best instruction in %
all departments, by

A Faculty of Eminent Teachers

mercial."--New Yorke Musical Courier.

"School of Opera," "School of Expres- 9
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Endowed and NOT conducted for profit. I
% Students are afforded unlimited oppor- 1
tnnitieS. o[

Send for Catalogue MOdernly Equipped Dormitory I
a Dl~ue~scsrip rdYess, Exclusively For Lady Students. .

a r
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And Ladies' Costumes.



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Telephone Main 2844.


With mRny yarTS' experience as a

A Leading Bookstore

*n *na

We feel that we are warranted in appealing to a still

larger CODStituency.

In Our Retail Department

We have a large and well-selected stock of IMlscel-
]aDeOUS and Non-Technical Books, embracing full
liTIS Of all the standard and popular works in Belles-

Fietion, Mensoirs,

History, Travel, Poetry, Art, Biography, Science and
all the new books of the day at the lowest prices.
A large assortment of the best and most popular
Juvenile BOOks.

Our arrangements with the English and foreign

publishers are such that we can import any books de-
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We do job printing, book printing, and binding, in
the very best styles at the most reasonable rates.

Jenn1HgS G iraham,

C inc in n at i.

In the depa tmn n oa law ad na -

ardor do our young men turn to these
professions, especially among recent
immigrants, that there is serious dan-
ger of overcrowding, with resultant
economic peril. However, a large pro-
portion meet with success. Some have
furnished names of prominence. With-
in a comparatively few decades, A~mer-
ican Isr eidges 11ave beeno po inte sy

vania, Ohio, Missouri, Illinois--it is
a lengthening list. In medicine ad-
mittedly foremost specialists are Is-
raelites, a field which the Jew has
pre-empted from earliest times. In
art., among leading etchers are Louis
Loeb, Henry Wolf and Jacques Reich.
In portraiture Jacob H. Lazarus, of an
old New Yorkr family, was a leader in
hs lne then in thibe amd otioo

sGeorenoh and oErnestEPei eatto, then R
Woolf; in architecture Fernbach and
El dlitz hav been sucheeead dA era 1

Arnold W. Brunner.
In literature it will take a few de-
cades at least before there will be gen-
eral participation; but some work has
been done. Feuchtwanger's book on
Gems was a pioneer. Simon A. Stern
was a genial translator or Heine and
Auerbach. Oscar S. Straus has vindi-
cated Jewish principles in his books
on Roger W~illiams and Religious Lib-
erty in America. Lewis Einstein's re-
cent work on the Renaissance aroused
warm Draise. The Heilprins, rather
and sons, have added notable works in
the study of the Bible, science and
history. It is beyond the present
scope to refer to works in theology,
Talmud, Jewish history and literature
written by Israelites. But in the field
of general literature it must be con-
fessed their influence is rather unim-

to compare with a Mayor Noah,
Adolph S. Ochs has made cheap journ-
alism respectable and influential. The
Rosewaters are more identified with
p lii scu celorits Phi Wipl rve da ge-
eral Morris on the old Home Journal,
On most of the leading dailies through-
out the country Israelites are found
in editorial or subordinate positions.
Although in political life there is no
striking pesonalityenlj iPh rep Phl

none the less cerditable representa-
ti s. Diplomacy fa oitto me

Strauss, Solomon Hirsch and several
Others of less prominent rank. The
office of Secretary of the United States
Treasury was once offered to Joseph
Seligman, of New York. A large num-
her of judgeships have been filled by
Israelites, the names being too numer-
nustoemention.a requ Idtly they ha e
a state and national legislatures. In
finance and trade they are admitted-
ly among the leaders. The department
store is almost wholly their creation,
While they are not identified with the
great industrial trusts, they are forces
to be reckoned with in every import.
ant commercial transaction. Among
the really notable names in American
finance certainly that of Jacob H.
Schiff stands foremost. In the trades
and manufacturers it may safely be
.stated that the Israelite Is worthily
represented in every line. The charge
that he can be no producer is com-
pletely refuted by the trade director-
ies, wholesale and retail. He can be
found in the most diverse industries,
He is wage earner and capitalist as
It was on April 11, 1657 when Jacob
Cohin Henriqunes was refused permis-
sion to bake and sell bread in New
Amsterdam. In the same year, Asser
Levy was refused to be admitted as a
"burgher." The good authorities of
those days would indeed be amazed it
they could realize the change in the
times. In that; same era a Dutch Re-
formed clergyman objected to the erec-

inm o yaog inH t o wn. bu

and a Jewish clergyman-Rev. S. M.
Isaacs--took part in the Lincoln me-
morial services at Union Square, New
York, in April, 1865, The spirit of
American freedom is appreciated by
the Israelite. In such an atmosphere
can the best elements in every creed
attain their highest development. Here
fe eime nheneedcthe synagog a b een
Christian been brought to realize the
broadening borderland of the creeds.
Paterson, N. J., June, 1904.

Jews in Public Service.

My experience at the time of writ-
ing the book entitled "The American
Jew as Patriot, Soldier and Citizen,"
le r moe teonetrha inclusiona prc las
ize. In other words, I received hun-
drdi letters after ehe pbliea ion
States claiming that they had been ig-
nored, although I gave them four
years' time to send me their record.
Based on this knowledge I think it is
better to make some general observa-
tions in regard to what American citi-
zens of Jewish faith have contributed
in peace and in war. In my judgment
it will be more satisfactory, for I
might give a most exhaustive list,
longer than the ISRAELITE COuld furn-
ish space for, and yet leave out one or
more and thus destroy the value of
the article. It has been historically
proven that the Jews of the United
States as citizens of the Republic have
proven their patriotism and loyalty to
all the civic duties incumbent upon
them, and have never proven recreant
to the call of the country of their birth
or adoption. Not only the records

gathr ba oour or n co-er igioni tes

all circumstances, trials and criticism,
Americans, that our first duty has ever
been on the highest conception of na-
tional life, and to further strengthen
t1e institutions -founded byethe Revo-

their descendants. Politically, the eit-
les and towns of our country have,
time and again, elected to places of
tne highest prominence representa-
tives of our faith, who have evidenced
by their oti al at the integrity, ex-

triotism that should ever characterize
plltos swho serveethe e ospel eThus,
country most successfully and have
left their impress on the records of
toe State Department, mayors, presi-
dents of common councils, members
of common councils, members of board
of aldermen, collectors of taxes, sher-
11Ts, marshals, district attorneys,
ulrsr cou sem ambeers on otat r g
Senators, form a galaxy as bright in
comparison with our numbers as any
of the other faiths. In war from the
time of the Revolutionary struggle up
to the present, we have contributed
more than our quota, as I abundantly
proved in the book above referred to.
Not only have we had brigadier-gener-
als, colonels, majors, captains, lieuten-
ants, sergeants in the army, commo-
dores, captains, lieutenants, ensigns and
gunners in the navy, but we also have
had more than our quota of privates in
both branches of the service, notably
in the great Civil War, which is noth-
ing abnormal or unnatural. This is
as it ever should be, and in reality
there never should be occasion to
write articles of this character or to
publish books, proving the loyalty and
patriotism of the Jew as a citizen, but
unfortunately, conditions in other
lands, as well as a lingering doubt in
the minds of some in our own country,
makes it essential to occasionally
show by irrefutable facts the exact
condition and to prove how false and
criminal it is on the part of any one,
to suppose for a moment that the Jew
would prove unfaithful to the land of



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his birth and particularly so to the
Republic which recognizes him in di-
rections of equality, and affords him
opportunities which no other country
on ille face of the earth gives or prom-
ises. I have ever claimed and will as
long as I can secure an audience, that
in all these positions, whether in
peace or war, we should not figure as
Jews but as citizens, that there should
be no separate organizations, either
political or military, exclusively or
our own people; that we should, in all
matters outside of religion, be absorb-
ed in the great aggregation of citizens,
and it is most unfortunate when any-
one poses as a Jewish politician, or a
Jewish soldier or sailor. We can not
be too careful to refrain from any such
assumption, for recognition of that
principle involves the question of
Church and State, and denationalizes
"", tnd bri gs us~ sihctn the n rrow
times is detrimental to the welfare
and prosperity, not only of the nation
but of the individuals concerned.
There must be no wheel within wheels,
but everything should be attuned to
the grand anthem of our country.
There must be no flag flowing over any
of our institutions or carried in any
of our processions save that of the
Starry Banner, which so gloriously
protects the rights of eacal and every
citizen. SantoN WOLF.
Washington, D. C., June, 1904.

What the A~merican Jew
Stands For.

To the American citizen, who is, at
the same time, a loyal Jew, the name
o~f his country never comes but that it
arouses emotion at once tender and
proud. While, as a citizen, he shares
with his fellow-citizens the patriotic
enthusiasm which the thought of his
country and its history never fails
to evokre, yet as a Jew that thought
comes to him with a peculiarly pro-
found and cogent appeal. He rejoices
Sin the achievement of scarce a century
and a quarter, that has brought -e
United States from a mere rebellious
colony to be among the leaders of the
world's nations. But he rejoices still
more in the possibilities that e before
I it in the centuries yet unrun. To him
every memory of it is a precious heri-
tage-L~exington and Concord, Tren-
ton and Yorktown, New Orleans and
I Lakre E~rie, Chapultapec and Mexico,
Ge~tty'~~sburg and Appomatox, teseare
the eyes, and set as gems in the cor-
onet of heroic accomplishment. But
while his heart thrills with pride in
the recollection of them, it beats no
less high with the hope that the fu-
ture holds the promise to America of
still more glorious victories, because
I they will be the nobler victories of
peace, the triumphs of truth and jus-
"Th J~ea an h thtnk usessot help
feeling that the ideals of his religion
and his country are identified; that
lated. The Puritan spirit, which has
exercised so dominating an influence
d Amset enntlise itndheul ire ios nhe
compromising morality.
The bell that "proclaimed liberty
throughout the land to all the inha,-
itants thereof," bore this Old Testa-
ment verse inscribed upon its lips.
The men who laid the foundations of
our national streeture were in man?
ways comparable to the great Judean
seers and statesmen, and prophets and
leaders, whose words have krindled the
hearts and guided the life of civilized
humanity for 10, these thousands of
years. As a modern ;Moses there looms
Ithe noble figure of Thomas Jefferson,
ga far-sighted, constructive statesman,
to whose breadth of view, sane democ-
racy, and unselfish service our country
owes more than the average citizen
I realizes. As a modern Joshua, beholdl
SWashington, the warrior of the prom-

ised land. The homely and common-
sense philosophy of Franklin sounds
as an echo of,the proverbs of Solo-
mon. Like David of old, "Old Hick
ory"' Jackison set free the nation from
the menace of the enemy at home andi
abroad. Likre the prophets, Isaiah:,
Amos, Micah and Malachi, with their
worldl-embracing visions, were the
seers and statesmen who laid the con-
stitutional basis and safeguards of our
law~ and liberty. In that sanctified
hall of fame, which the discriminating
gratitude of a nation must ever erect
within its heart, the names of 1Vlason
and Madison, of Sherman, King, Wil-
son, Ellsworth, Hamilton and Ran-
dolph, besides those of Jefferson, Washl-
ington and Franktlin, may be not un-
worthily inscribed.
These men were the pioneers, break-
ing through the wilder-ness of civic
tyranny andl of recligious intolerance.
Upon the broad basis, by them laid
down, the coming ages are to build
the splendid suplerstructure of Amer-
ica's ideals and her consummated
world-taskr. Eliminating the purely
theological r'equisites with which a
state, as a secular organization has no
logical connelction, the American na-
tion stands for those things which are
most strongly emphasized as the work-
ing world-moralities of Jewish teach-
188 Viz: 8(Juality of all men before the
law, unrestricted freedom of con-
science, even-handed justice, and civic
righteousness, which is the communal
expression of individual righteousness.
A2nd among all the varied classes of
men w~ho makre up her popullation,
there is none who gives more loyal
and loving support to these princi les
than does the Jew. His civic durtiies
appeal to him with the force of a re-
ligious obligation, and he finds a dou-
b~le motive in that the better Jew he
is, the better he is an American citizen.
The one great, fundamental principle,
whose insistence is the safeguard of
our national ideals, and whose viola-
tion is the mother of innumerable
evils, is that of the separation of
church and state. *For this the Jew
must ever contend, not for his own
safety alone, but for the very life or
those institutions that are the peculiar
strength and glory of the nation itself
WTithout this separation there can be
neither justice, nor freedom of con-
science, nor equality before the law.
Thomas Jefferson, than whose no name
should stand higher in the grateful
appreciation of the American people,
as the author of the Virginia statute
for religious freedom prepared the way
for the general adoption of this prin-
ciple. Of it he said, "Believing that
religion is solely a matter that lies be-
tween a man and his God, that he owes
a~ccoulnt to none other for. his faith and
his worship; that the legislative pow-
e 's of government reach actions only
E nd not opinions, i contemplate with
,overeign reverence that act of the
whole American people which declared
that their legislature should 'makte
no l w reospetiT ana establishment of
cise thereof,' thus building a, wall of
separation between church and state."
David Dudley Fields, speakiing of it,
saidl: "In the category of these indi-
vidual rights I conceive that the great-
et achievement evr sm ehin tote
and final separation of the state from
the church. If we had nothing else
to b~oast of, we could claim with justice
that first among the nations we, of this
coulntrly, made it an article of organic
law that the relations betwe a
anti his Makter were a pr~iva e onnme n
into which other men h;ad no right
to intrude. To measure the stride thus
madle for the emancipation of the race,
wer have only to looke backt over the cen-
turies that have gone before us, and
recall the draf plscto i h
name of religie dfu ic hIv fleo 1 h
world with horror. Think of Torque-
mada in Spain; the martyrs suffering
at the stake or in prison in many an
other land; the exiles driven fl~ro
France by the revocation of the edict
of Nantes; the 'slaughtered saints,

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whose bones lay scattered on the Al-
pine Mountains cold! Amid all our
shortcomings, it will remain forever
to the glory of these states that they
allow no man to step between his fel-
low-man and his Maker. Clouds and
darkness do indeed often seem to cover
the land; but there is one rift in the
clouds through which, to the mind's
eye at least, the daytime will shine as
long as the world lasts. This nation
may be torn into fragments, or other
races may occupy the land in some
era far away, but the fact will still re-
main that there was a nation of free
men on this continent which first rent
the shackles that priestly domination
bad been forging for centuries, and
solemnly decreed that no man should
dare intercept the radiance of the Al-
mighty upon the human soul."
i The Amter cn Je amostofirmhy e
mighty shall fall unhindered upon
every human soul.
He contends that in those institu-
tions that are the creations of the
state, the religious convictions en-
shrined within the arcanum of a man's
heart shall have no place. In the pub-
lic schools, no sect shall be glorified
and none defamed. Before the tribunal
of citizenship and in the bestowal of
public honor nothing shall-prejudice
a man's opportunity or his equality
save his ow~n worth and conduct alone.
No creed, no condition, no class of
men shall be recognized as such. He
is opposed to the formation of polit-
ical clubs of hyphenated citizens, for
the benefit of selfish and irresponsible
demagogues, be they Jews or Chris-
tians. The man who will prey upon
the religious passions and fanaticism
of his ignorant fellow-man for his own
self-seeking and sordid aggrandise-
ment, is a traitor to his country and
an enemy to his faith. It can not be
too strongly emphasized, or too often,
or too widely promulgated that there
is no "H~ebrew vote."' The American
Jew, who deserves the name, does not
wish to be catered to as a Jew by the
political powers that be, in any state,
county or city. A few may rise to
civic honors, and hold them worthily
and honorably, and when he does so we
Jews are proud of him, and share in
the reflection of his glory; but he must
rise as a citizen, and hold office as a
citizen, and not as a Jew. The fact
of his being a Jew should not have
an iota of influence for or against him.
In the courts of law he seeks that
"justice, only justice" should be done.
The religious affiliation of a man shall
not weigh as the feather of a humming-
bird to incline the scales in one di-
lretion or the other. The desperate
attorney who seeks to inflame the sec-
tarian prejudices of a jury against any
man in order to win a case is a dis-
grace to the high profession of the law,
and an enemy to his country. Like-
wise the misguided citizen who sees
to shield a criminal from his just pun-
ishment because -he is a co-religionist,
is derelict in his duty as a citizen and
a violator of his obligation. "From
My altar shalt thou takre him" was
the mandate of the God of justice
anent the criminal. Righteousness
and justice are co-eqlual and identical,
and "righteousness exalteth a nation."
The American Jew, as an American,
stands for civic righteousness as a
vital element in the welfare of his
coulntryr. If he thought of himself at
all as a Jew, he feels that where right-
cousness ob~tains there he will find
place and appreciation.
As I sit and write there is a small
American flag fastened to my desk.
As I lookr at it my heart thrills with a
solemn pride and the words flow spon.
taneously from my pen. "Oh, my
country, how great has been thy past.
How strong art thou, how rich, how
pr~osperous, and how promising of
nobler beauty yet to be. How art thou
now the terror of the tyrant and the
friend of the weak. Thou art the sanc-
tuary of liberty, the shrine of justice,
the holy of holies of law and human
right. M~ay the eyes of thy children
never grow dim to these splendid

ideals, nor the courage to maintain
them depart from their hearts. Glor-
ious is the destiny which the Almighty
Arbiter of the nations of the earth has
allowed to thee, magnificent the duty,
sublime the opportunity. Go thou
forth upon thy appointed path and
purpose. Be thou ever the defender of
the persecuted and the haven of the
oppressed. Let thy stainless, starry
flag float proudly on the breeze and its
folds fly ever over a people enlighten-
ed, free and obedient to law. Give the
world to understand that thou art the
leader of the nations by the majesty
of morals and not of might, that thine
is the dominion of freedom and right-
eousness and not of strength or force,
that thou dost point the way and walk
before in the building of the "parlia-
ment of man and the federation of the
horol d. nd may htee God of jus ieg
prosper thee on thy way." Amen.
Richmond, Va., June, 1904.

a EiRCiHHati PiaHO'

The Baldwin Piano Company has
now on exhibition at the W~orld's Fair
24 instruments which form a remark-
able group of artistic pianos, prepared
especially for its St. Louis exhibit.
No one who has not seen them can
form an idea of what this firm has ac-
complished in building up a great art
industry in Cincinnati.
This St. Louis exhibit was some-
thing like two years in preparation. It
was planned to represent various his-
toric periods associated with Louisi-
ana, the purchase of which the exposi-
tion commemorates. The plan was to
adopt for the design of the piano cases
characteristic French and American
styles, namely, Louis XIV., Louis XV.,
Louis XVI., Empire, Colonial Amer.
ican and Modern American,
To take them in order: The Louis
XYIV. was a Vernis Martin small grand,
finished all over in gilt bronze, with
decorative panels of painted land-
scapes, with cupids. The Louis XV.
was a remarkable example of cabinet-
makting in this difficult style; the man-
ner in which the legs were worked into
the body as part of the design, the
skill with which the red tulip-wood
veneer was applied, and the richness of
the ormolu mounts, make a brilliant
combination of rare effectiveness. Con-
trasting with this was the extremely
refined Louis XVI., full size grand in
satin wood, with inlays of flower fes-
toons in delicate colors, and ormolu
mounting modeled as one seldom sees
it. The Empire piano was a mahogany
upright of characteristic form, also
with ormolu. The Colonial was also
an upright, of dark walnut, with
quietly-carved panels, and no metal
whatever. A11 of these pianos con-
formed to the styles well known under
these names. In some instances de-
signs and certain details were obtain-
ed in Paris, that no pains should be
spared in correctly carrying out the
scheme, but artistic judgment and the
thorough craftsmanship which made
the work the success it is was supplied
here in Cincinnati.
The last piano in the list, one for
which it is difficult to find a descrip-
tive name, is thoroughly modern, not
only American, but in every sense-lu
design and execution--purely a prod-
uct of Cincinnati. It is a grand piano
in which a framework of red mahog-
any, richly but simply carved, incloses
panels of primavera, upon which is
developed, following the grain, a con-
tinuous landscape decoration in trans-
Darent colors. The motive is derived
from the flowing lines of mountain
Landscape, with cloud and lake forms
running through behind occasional
masses of trees in the foreground.
The aim has been through line andl
color arrangement to secure a decora-
tive movement sympathetic with mu-
sical composition.
In preparing this remarkable group
of pianos for St. Louis, the Baldwin
Piano Company has given new evi-
dence of the capabilities of Cincinnati
in the art industries.



ALFRED HERTZ, the great

ductor of "Parsifal," writes under

of March 9, 1904, as follows:
"My acquarinltanesh~ip, witL We~ber Pian a begann
twco years ago, 2ochen I visited Amercica for the first
time, and at onlce / was delfghLted ?cith them2; since
thenL I have subj~ected youtr inlstrumentk to the most
rig'orous testsa, using theml continu~orsly, and it is
note m1y e duranbility thecy are unsurpal~ssed. 3Their tone is
captivating~, nand is the richLest p:'anoforte tone I
havre ever hear~d. My complimlents, gentlemen, on
your great success.
Very sin~ce~ely/,


Endorsed by Leading Musicians.

The National Jewi~sh Hospital

for Consurnptves ....

_I~ __ ~__

You may have tried other wKaters; but have you used

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Also Iii uip Splrkling in Quiorts. Pints and Halnf-Pints.



LRalies' and Gents

Furnsh g God



The popularity of this house has become more
mar ed each year of its existence. The suc-
cess attained and the increased growth of the
business have been due to the fact that
merchants can find here

Th6 NOWeSt anti Most Complete Lines a

Undoubtedly the low .prices named are the
cause of this phenomenal growth,

IN. E. Cor, Third and Race Sts., Cincinnati,



whose condition does not warrant
their admission, not because we do
not wish to receive them, but because
we have not the room. Our mission
is the cure of consumption, the amel-
ioration of the dread disease, and we
have neither the room nor the inten-
tion to accept chronic and hopeless
cases. Our aim is to cure, not to pro-
vide a last home for incurables.
In many instances it is useless to
send the afficted person to Denver.
Money expended for that purpose
could be far better employed in pro-
viding him with the comforts his ex-
treme necessity demands, and letting
him pass his last days among his own,
in comparative comfort and ease.
'Where the disease is advanced to the
second or third stage, or is of a pro-
gressive form it does more harm than
good to send the victim to Denver,
which is a mile above sea level. The
altitude is too great, the conditions
are then unfavorable. It would but
hasten death, and in most cases the

President Samuel Grabfelder,
Louisville, Ky.
First Vice President--Sol. W. Levi,
Cincinnati, O.
Second Vice President--Louis Gerst.
ley, Philadelphia, Pa.
Secretary--Alfred Muller, Denver,
Treasurer--Benj. Altheimer, St.
Louis, Mo.
Field Secretary--Mrs. S. Piskro, Den-
ver, Colo.
The doors of the hospital were
opened on December 10, 1899, near
the close of the old and the dawn of
the new century. The exercises which
marked its inauguration were worthy
or that grand occasion.
From December 10, 1899, to Janu-
ary 1, 1901, 150 patients were treated.
As expected from the outset, these
people came from all sections of the
country. Of the whole number of pa-
tients received, twenty died, six were
discharged without improvement, and


the balance were restored to good
health. aThs latter exass is sixty-six
in number, and patients so discharged
are so much improved that they are
able to follow pursuits which give
the alivlioo. Of ... ...gy, n
ber of deaths, ninety per cent oc-
curred within three months of the
opening of the hospital. It may be a
matter of speculation why so large a
number of deaths occurred in the
early months of the hospital's exist
ence, especially as we are presumed
to accept only incipient cases and
such patients to whom permanent, or
at least marked relief is possible. We
are free to admit that no rigid or ar-
bitrary rules were enforced at the out.
set. When the hospital was first
opened there was plenty of room, and
we were well able to take care of
those- poor, dying sufferers who had
come to this city with the hope of
recovering their health. They hiad no
roof to shelter them, no hand to
soothe them, and we took them into
this haven to pass their last hours in
comfort and peace. They had come
here, or had been sent, believing that
all their troubles would be ended
when once under the shadow of the
Rocky mountains. Unfortunately,
they merged into the slums, the un-
healthful part of the city, and, for
want of proper food and attention,
were finally compelled to come to us.
P/e could not refuse them; we did not
think it outside our province to lend
them a hand, to take them in and
ie them te acomfodrtco o aa Jwish
the Shma Yisrael at the deathbed.
If we exceeded our rights, the grate-
ful blessings of those poor, dying hu-
m a b in s hopro fite by ou r tra s

Since the opening of the hospital
conditions have changed. We bave
been forced to turn a

sufferer would pass his last hours
among strangers, away from the sol-
ace of home and loved ones.
From January 1, 190;1, to January
1, 1902, there were treated at the hos-
pital 179 patients, of which number
111 were discharged during the year
and six died.
One of the greatest sources of trou-
ble for the hospital during this year
was the ever-recurring attempt to
send advanced and hopeless cases to
the hospital. This effort has always
been due to a wrong conception of
the purposes of this institution and a
lack of knowledge of the condition's
in the hospital. Urged on by a big
heart and a broad sympathy for the
individual case in question, there is
forgotten the injury done to those al-
ready in the hospital who have some
hope of recovery. The hospital in its
Present cramped quarters, making it
absolutely impossible to segregate
cases, and with its small force of
nurses likewise impossible to give
these advanced, helpless people the
individual attention day and night of
a nurse, which they demand and need,
cause the hospital authorities never-
ending worry. Advanced cases are
helpless--careless, thus exceedingly
dangerous to the health of others. As
an object lesson, in their misery and
pain-drawn countenances, they are an
ever-present Nemesis of depression
and discouragement to their more for-
tunate fellow sufferers of this dread
disease.. Until we are better situ-
aed,u withasero e rt aomm daions
clusion should be strictly adhered to,
under all circumstances, without ex-

mra cae nosld eaeeci or,
aeltitudie is not suitable for all cases,
nor are all cases benefited by a stay
!here. Rapid. military or galloping

~ ~



consumption should never be sent
away from their homes, nor patients
who have organic disease of the heart.
There are always a large number of
suitable cases awaiting room.
It is necessary that the institution
which has already acquired a world-
wide reputation, shall be endowed
with all the facilities necessary to
properly accomplish its purposes. It
must be provided with all the modern
material science has discovered dur-
ing the past few years in aid of the
battle against consumption. The first
year was but an experimental one,
IVethods were not so well understood,
conditions not so woll appreciated.
Experience has been a splendid tasr-
mnaster to u~s. This experience has
taught us that our facilities must be
il~argedl. The building contemplated
last year has been completed, at the
rsxpense of $25.000, including equip-
monllt. TheC bulildingf located in the
central p~art of thle hosDital grounds
cciinainis the general andl staff dining
rooms, the ktitchen andi ice storage and
gene?(ral storagen rooms, sleeping quar
tors~ for the ktitchen employes; a laun-
dry! pcrfcct in overy detail, with an
ecescllent sterilizer in whiich very
p~article o~f clothing and linen is ster-
ilizedt. The bulildling contains also
the( hociller a:nd heatinr:: lapparus for

loss, who lived two months after ad-
One who died of oedema of the
In results obtained we have certain-
ly far exceeded those of the preceding
year. More than double the number
of patients have been discharged in
excellent condition, practically well,
while of those remaining in the hospi-
tal, a large percentage give every
promise of recovery. Unfortunately
many hopeless cases are still sent us,
unavoidably many are taken in on
trial, who after a stay in the hospital
we are compelled to discharge as in-
curable, or not even to be benefited,
thus accounting for the number in the
table of "Results," as discharged un-
improved, which also includes the
number who leave in a few weeks for
one reason or another. A much larger
number of patients would have been
admitted during the year, if we had
had the room for them, our capacity
being also diminished by the policy of
retaining to the full limit of time such
cases as promised a full recovery.
Since about a year ago all patients
leaving the hospital are furnished
with printed blankrs, which they are
requested to fill out from time to time,
not less than once every three
months, and send to the hospital. On

ru ...


this card they are to report--just fill-
ing in blank space for that purpose--
their ability to do work, the nature of
the workr, their condition of health
sinoe leaving the hospital, and all
other items necessary to give the
physicians in charge of the hospital
sufficient data to form a correct opin-
lon of the progress of the ex-patient.
This system will enable us, perhaps
already in the next annual report, to
furnish statistics as to the conditions
of patients after they left the hospi-
tal, and as the result of this observa
tion to give opinion as to the per
manency and efficacy of the treatment.
TIhere are many things which need
correction in some way or other, and
which require our careful considera-
tion. For instance, patients admitted
to the hospital from other cities are
often badgered and worried by let-
ters from their own at home reciting
unpleasant or poor conditions existing
there, and which necessarily involve
the patient in a great deal of worry.
Such things not only retard improve-
ment bt altseo otenemake al neaet

condition with which we have to con-
tean i teln fb tha afe hpati nts
they become homesickr, desire to be
immediately reunited with their fam-
ilies at home, and insist upon return.
ing. This, as can readily be con-
ceived, vitiates all efforts made there-
tofore in the behalf of the patient, es-
pecially where they have only been
under treatment for a short period of
time. Or, also after a short stay, the
patient, feeling his returning strength
and finding an opportunity for work,
leaves the hospital, and not having
completely recovered or not having
sufficiently improved, soon relapses
into his former condition. All these
things militate against efficient work.
Another serious and important prob-
lem in connection with the hospital is

the present buildings and for such as
may hereafter be constructed.
We need pavilions to house people
in smaller numbers and to keep tie
men and women in separate struc-
tures. The present building used as a
hospital is required solely- for admin-
istrative purposes. A beginning has
been made through the generosity of
M. Guggenheim's Sons of New Yorr,
who have donated thle munificent sum
of $35,000 to erect a pavilion to be
known hereafter as the "Gu~ggenheim
Pavilion." This building is indeed
beautiful, andi complete in every re-
spect. A grander monument they
could not hlave conceived to perpetu.
ate the memory of their beloved dead.
It will stand a witness to their love
for the departed, to their generosity
to the lIvingr, for all eternity.
During the year 3902 there were
treated at the hospital 181 patients, of
which number 106 were discharged
and six diel.

Recovery (disease alrrsted).1011901
Great improvement ........ 44 36
SliglR rmprov0 ent on ... 30

Deaths 6......~~. 6 0

117 112
Of the six deaths during the year,
one was due to acute gangrenous ap-
Dendicitis, death following an opera-
One was due to acute military tuber-
culosis of the brain.
One was a case of military tubercu-
losis, or galloping consumption, sent
to us as an incipient case.
One, a case of advanced tubercu-
losis, brought to the hospital in an un-
conscious condition and who died four
days after admission.
One, a Case of advanced tubercu-


Cut Glass,

Clocks and B~ronzes

The Clemens Oskamp Co

417 VINE ST., Cincinnati, O.

Elgin and Waltham Watches.

529 TO 537 E. PEARL 8T.




-r 1 -rr r -r -rr r I -rC I I .

- . . . . .

Albert Kleybolte & Co



The Jewesh Chautauqua Society

By Rev. Dr. Henry Berkowitz, President.

We buy and sell Municipal County and School Distr
Bonds, which are suitable for investment of Savings Ban
Beneficial Organizations, Trust Funds, Estates, Etc., n
ting investors 33 per cent, to 5 per cent. Also submit e~
mates of values on this class of securities for the closing
Estates and Guardian Accounts.




317 HialTut Stree0

(After October Ist, 1904, Third and Pike Streets)


a; I'eetent iil llsln Iqnd gnler d I For
tire in tendl or onI tol. tile ordlinalry way. .

flr~ ce r Ii tizn ercr r Ileat unl I tlint
theI fuecl colntai ns. No r~~ichnes; fer ashelS,

tllrt e dit(I wYrite for cartrlaloe aboutll this moneIIy-

housesandllc 1 clarssesof public buildings.
7110 .a: '
Peck-W ili amson

Company, ~~~:

338 W. 5th St., Cincinnati, 0. J AeTENE.


the question, what to do with liatients
whose disease has been arrested by
treatment which they have received
in our institution.
A patient, suffering from consump-
tin vifadnm td t hdibospital in tbe
cured by the methods rigidly adhered
toby us mBu ine oderatt mtakee she
ease itself has been checked, it is
necessary that for a time, differing in
length according to the condition of
the patient, he should continue to live
in pure, fresh air and have a diet
suitable to his enfeebled condition.
As we admit only persons who are
toodpaoor to pay for their rm ien n c
room and because vacancies in our
accommodations are eagerly waited
for by many, to keep the restored pa-
tients a sufficient length of time, and
aloo ecaue "tour wa ssn isonyoto
sumption, hence, as I have stated, it
becomes a serious problem what dis-
position to make of these persons who
havee been under our treatment until
I thoroughly cured. To allow them to
go backr to the conditions, which have
in many instances been the cause of
contracting the disease, would invite

an easy entrance ttgain in the system
still weake from the effects of the dis-
ease and thus become again the vic-
tim of consumption in a more pro-
nounced degree. And yet, unless suit-
ableaerntdoymen is p ovideadrethrough
to go back, perhaps, to a crowded ten-
amnt n use or into some sweat-sho
ble to a renewal of the trouble from
which the patient has just been re-
If we could purchase or acquire a
suitable tract of land, not too far dis-
tant from our hospital, to which we
could send our convalescents, there to
cnga c intedra~isiug e t opr, aotm
vantage in the kitchen of the hospi-
tal, it would serve, first the pur-
pose of providing the very conditions
which would complete the cure that
has heien umade p s ileabd osucoret
the products of the soil thus raised
would furnish most of the things
needed in the hospital, and thus the
saving made could be used either by
the hospital or devoted to clothing
itud maintaining those who are sent
to the farm by upi.....


WEl L, ROTH : C0.

---- 144 East Fourth Street. ---


City 80CI COtlty BOHCIS.


-- C C -

207 Traction Building.

Telephone 1Yain 540.

The opening of a new year in the
Jewish calendar called for the custom-
ary review of events during 5663. In
both Europe and America apprecia-
'ict tive recognition was given in these
ks, re ielstoyearnea 11inkrf rgedtodu in
et closer European and American Jewry.
sti- of tact o roasysem o e isa eodaud
cation fostered by the Jewish Chau-
of tanqua society. The latest chapter in
thedhr ef ututis- oorgnieza ionmre
Assembly at Ramsgate in England,
under the auspices of the Union of
r eighLt prarye .ciet es, i re ned
event was widely reported during the
month of August by the Jewish press
of the two countries. The writer here-
of, on invitation of the English soci-
ety, proceeded at the close of the
seventh Summer Assembly in Atlan-
tic City to the old world, carrying its
message to our brethren across the
waters. Your readers will permit me
to report more directly to them the
impressions of that visit.
The sessions were held at Ramsgate
because that is like our Atlantic City,
summer meeting place for large
numbers of the Jewish people. More-
over it is the seat of East Cliffe
Lodge, the beautiful home of Sir
Moses Montefiore and of the Monte-
flore College close by the beautiful
little synagogue erected by the great
philanthropist, near which stands the
mausoleum containing nis remains and
those of his beloved wife, Lady Ju.
dith. You may readily imagine that I
was deeply moved when standing
within the sacred inclosure of the
beautiful marble tomb on the very
day which marked the Jabr Zeit of
Sir Moses.
When placed ~within the college
walls, face to face with a most dis-
tinguished gathering of the leaders of
English Jewry, a flood of associations
and ot historical memories overwhelm.
ed me. The walls of this little college
building are lined with illuminated
addresses in many languages, and its
shelves are laden with gifts in gold,
silver and bronze, conveying the trib-
ute paid by the whole civilized world
to the devout spirit that created the
place. Sir Moses Montefiore's picture
dominates the ball. The benign in-
fluence, which seemed to be diffused
from that benevolent countenance, so
familiar in American homes, seemed
to create a sense of kinship on the
common heritage of reverence and ad-
miration for a. noble life, bluding
Ane icant Isaelltto tade br theeen i
home and among friends and encour-
aged me to present the message which
I had been summoned to deliver.
I gave an account of the growth of
th6 WOnderful movement for popular
education which had sprung up in
America and kagwq as the "Ohautau*

qlua system." The University Exten-
sion movement, whidh originated in
Great Britain, had been welded with
the Chautauqua movement in Amer-
cea~ticT as on issfension f the uani 1r
sity to the people. The American
system was democratic-theaspiration
of the people towards the university.
1h blendient vof thes wo sysesImss

Thda plcticoan f this combine ewan
ish community embodies the efforts
of the Jewish Chautauqua Society. It
aimed to meet the needs of a wvide-
sprtea pmepemeont ta lea inghediriectly
life, to awaken a sense of self-respect
in the Jew and lead him Dack with
enthusiasm and heroic loyalty to the
heritage he so sadly neglected. In-
struction and enthusiasm were the
desiderata, the latter to be a natural
and healthy product of the former. I
told them our story of ten years'
earnest effort in America. The or-
ganization of circles and the enroll-
ment of readers had brought into ell-
istence carefully planned course books
in the study of the Bible and in the
study of post-Biblical history and lit-
erature. These had become familiar
in Great Britain through the agency
of the Jewish Study Society, organ-
ized there through the impetus given
by a visit of some of the ladies of
the Council of Jewish Women. During
the past year this society had repub-
lished intact one of the course books
prepared by Dr. Harris. It had pre-
viously issued a number of such sylla-
buses based mainly on those prepared
for our society by Prof. Richard Got-
thell. The information was received
with much interest that during the
summer our organization had issued a
Beginners' Course Bookr in Hebrew
and an advanced course on the "Cor-
respondence Method." The specimens
of these which I brought with me
were eagerly sought after for closer
examination and evoked favorable
criticism. The publication this sum-
mer of an interesting course on; "Jew-
ish Characters in EnIglish Fiction," by
Rabbi Harry Levi, likewise aroused
favorable comment.
The utmost interest was manifested
in the Summer Assembly. I described
to them the little city on Lakre Chau-
taugua, which had this year celebrated
its thirty-fifth anniversary. Nearly a
hundred assemblies of a like charac-
ter had since sprung into existence in
all sections of the United States, at
seaside and inland lakes, at univer-
st twons andhinirthe neoe twonune
of pleasure a wise pursuit and of
study a pleasant pastime." As Rabbi
Jochanan Ben Zacchai moved to Jabna
by the Sea, when the Temple was
closed, so the Summer Assembly
planted itself among the people dur-
ing the suspension of synagogue activ-

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ities during the sumnier beat. The
summer meetings inaugurated seven
years ago at Atlantic City have grown
'from strength to strength." A West"
ern branch sprang uip this year in
Wrest Virginia. It was the token of
similar assemblies for the Jewish peo
ple in various sections of the land,
which it is ardently hoped may de-
velop in due course of time. The
workr of the assembly is divided into
various departments, resting upon the
guiding principle laid down by Simon
the Just in the Great Synod of old:
"Upon three things the world rests-
upon organized education, upon organ-
ized worship, and upon organized char-
I will not review here the story of
the Summer Assembly during its past
seven years of steady development,
This is presumably familiar to your
readers. Let me only say that the
influence of our meetings has stirred
up our English brethren to earnest
emulation. The session held at Rams-
gate lasted a week. It began under
better auspices than the assembly in
Atlantic City. Commenting upon this
the London Jewish Chronicle said edi-
torially under date of August 14th,
1903: "A gigantic success, far ex-
ceeding the most extravagant expec-
tations of the organizers, has attended
the latest effort of the Union of Jew-
Ish Literary Societies to popularize
Jewish science and its many branches
and to bring into the homes of the
Jewish people a taste and desire for
an acquaintance with the entrancing
history and affecting literature of their
race. As an experiment the summer
session was decided upon, and a very
moderate measure of success would
have satisfied its organizers in their
first missionary effort. On the first
morning a larger audience attended
than coulld be collected for the similar
meeting at the first assembly at At-
lantic City, despite the twenty-five
thousand Jews who every summer
makie that favorite American resort
their headquarters." The "Chronicle"
was kind enough to refer editorially
among the causes leading to the suc-
cess of the Ramsgate meeting to "the
sympathy and assistance of the Amer-
Ican krindred body and of its chancel-
lor, who came without delay from
the latest gathering of Atlantic City
to the first of Ramsgate, bearing a
message of good will and encourage-
ment from American Jewry to that of
England, that has been commenced
here in consequence of the American
example. The enthusiasm of the
American body and its founder seem-

ed to have preceded him across$ the At-
lant(ic, and when he reached Rams-
gate he found that the monopoly of
energy, determination and success In
w~orkc such as this did not rest with
citizens of the United States, and that
in1 the old country also young Jewry
is awakte and is devoting himself to
the revival of the consciousness of the
race. Each one who had the privilege
of listening to Dr. Berktowitz's stir-
ring address is now an ardent and
e~nthu~siastic missionary in the cause."
Prof. Israel Abrahams of Cambridge
University is the or~ganizer and lead-
ing spirit of the English movement.
Under his capable and enthusiastic
direction its future success is assured.
An admirable program was carried out
during the weekc, in which a course of
lectures on "The History of the Syna-
gogue," by Mlr. Abrahams, constituted
at most important feature. Dr. Singer
of London also gave a lecture, as did
the Rev. Mr. Belasco of Ramsgate. I
noticed particullarly the address of Dr.
J. Snowman, M. D., of London, in
which he "regretted the tendency of
Anglo-Jewry to avoid the discussion
of t~he most vital fundamental ques.
tions of Judaism, to shirk the task of
properly ventilating the religious edi-
fice. He considered that a grievous
error and expressed the hope that the
new movement would provide a plat-
form which would admit and encour-
age the debate of every phase of
Jewish life." The sentiment was
strongly re-echoed later by the chair-
man, Mr. Albert M. Hyamson. I call
attention to these expressions more
especially because they embody to
my mind the best effect of the Ameri-
canl movement upon the English. The
Chautauqua has certainly created an
open platform upon which our men
and women of different affiliations
meet for the frank and open discus-
sion of the vital questions which con-
cern Judaism. Our schools, charities
and congregations are receiving di-
rect and tangible benefits through
this agency. Similar good results are
destined to come to English Judaism
in the same way.
Let me express in conclusion the
ardent hope that what the Chautau-
qua has done and is doing in this
country and abroad may stimulate the
growth of its constituency and may
awaken in the minds of our people a
recognition of the value of this organ-
ization and stimulate them to a more
generous support. Its sphere of use-
fulness is limited only by the failure
of those who have means to properly
endow the work.


Long Distance Telephones:
Main 2192.
Main 9897.

313 Vine Street,
Burnet House Block.

conetto," Miss Wolfenitein's "Idylls of
the Gass," a charming sketch, which,
like Zangwill's work, has since found
its way to a wider public. It has
brought out Schechter's "Studies in
Jde ts nd r pleste oth learning lisn-

b as aion ve IDubnow's p ilosoplucal
Graetz' "History of the Jews" and
Lazarus' "Ethics of Judaism The
work r opciid ar rbut Hllu oat

There have been works of fiction, as
says, histories, sketches of Jewish life
and literature in various aspects, and
though the ability displayed, the
style and clearness have varied, there
has been a good average maintained
from a literary point of view.
One feature of the society's worl{
which can undoubtedly be strength-
ened during the progress of its devel-
opment is the furnlishing of text books
for Jewish schools. Lady Magnus'
"Outlines of Jewish History" is a
godisehxeadmp ofasuch a bnok ilwh cr ces
Graetz' history is in regular demand.
not only by Jewish schools, but by cir-
c es and e nhd es o alseo ira ion ns an

taught. But to have useful text books
there must be competent text book
writers. This applies with equal
weight to other avenues of the soci-
ety's usefulness.
Among the society's plans is the
publication of a revised edition of the
bible. The first volume of this Bible
will be the Book of Psalms.

"The said corporation is formed for
the support of a benevolent educa-
tilonal undertaking, namely, for the
publication and dissemination of lit-
1rry gceti ona rh lgois iwor1 ,
the Jewish religion, which are to be
distributed among the members of
the corporation, and to such other per-
sons and institutions as may use the

sm in the pro ottio of bseoucvole t

stated in its charter.
The society was organized June 3,
1888, and was incorporated February
1, 1896. During the fifteen years of
the existence of the society it has
sent thousands upon thousands of
volumes relating to Jewish subjects
into Jewish homes. No single influ-
ence has helped more strongly to dis.
seminate a knowledge of Jewish sub-
jects among the Jewish people of the
United States.
The object of the society is two-
fold. primarily to disseminate woris
besarig cio tnllewish el erature bu
literature upon American soil. Both
wer~e pursued with difficulty. In every
dprtment of i otsraue'e bn tog

state facts accurately and the liter-
ar~y still to put them forward in a
form suitable for the general public.
These two ideals, which have been
steadily in the minds of the managers,
have not always been realized, yet the
society has brought before the Eng-
lish reading public the classic work
of Zangwill, "The Children of the

Wardrobe Trunks ""/~:p r:: 1
Usual pressing unnecessary. Clothes hung as in
closet, but held fast. Can't be crushed mna

a ently No need to unpack. Get anything in a
minute without disarranging contents.
No lifting. A wardrobe-chiff~ unler, as
~a~i~h convenient at holme as whenl tmravling.
ASK YOURl DEALER.E: If he hasn't them,11 .endl Us

Look for the Ilon In every trunk.
Dept. A, cImS('IrrI o.
"^vu nx akrs of all styles o~f trlnksa.



Ci noi n ~ati,

B~y Mus. HaRNaH G. SOLOMrON, President

The story of the organization of the
Council of Jewish WVomen hlas often
been written. It has b~een told in
newspapers and magazines and has
found a place in the Jewvish Encyclo-
p~aedia. At the convention held in
Baltimore, November, 1902, its dele-
gates represented between seven and
eight thousand women in seventy cit-
ies, fifteen junior sections with five
ilundred members, eighty-nine study
circles in religion and twelve in phil-
anthropy. The officers elected were:
President--Mrs. Henry Solomon,
44116 6lrchigan avenue, Chicago, Ill.
First Vice President--Mrs. Hugo
Rosenberg, 1167 Fayette street, Alle-
ghieny, Pa-
Second Vice President--Mrs. Moses
Gokhnb rdg, 1628 Bolton avenue, Bal-

Treasurer--Mrs. J. B. Judah, 639
Fifth street, Louisville, Ky.
Recording Secretary Gertrude
Berg, 1533 Diamond street, Philadel-
phia, Pa-
Cor. Secretary--Sadie American, 448.
Central Park, West. New Yorr.
Aulditor-ils a ene l wenstein, 700
The following chairmen of commit-
tees were appointed:
Philanthropy--Miss Rose Sommer-
field, 225 East 63d street, New York.
Religion--Miss Evelyn Kate Aron-
son, 71 East 92d street, New York.
Religious School--Mrs. Joseph
Steinem, 119 15th street, Toledo, Ohio.
Reciprocity-M1Liss Mary Coben, 1922
Rittenhouse street, Philadelphia, Pa.
Junior Sections--Miss Jeanette
Goldberg, Jefferson, Texas.
The Council of Jewish Women was
the direct outcome of one of the de
nomirrl national congresses of the Parlia-
ment of Religions. The success of the
Jewish Women's Congress was a sur-
prise to the most sanguine of the lit-
tie band of Chicago Women who for a
y'ear planned and toiled to interest
the Jewish women of the country and
to secure their attendance. A strong
impetus was given the work by the
refusal of the Jewish men's Commit-
tee to give place upon their program
to any paper written by a woman, al-
though a cordial invitation bhad been
extended to the Women's committee
to co-operate in what was to be called
the "Jewish Congress." With great
kindness and tact, yet firmness, we
were given to understand that women
had nothing of worth to contribute-
nor indeed had they, when the pro-
gram as mapped out by the Program
Committee was presented and includ-
ed all of Judaism there was in the
heavens, on the earth, including all
written and oral lore and in the wat-
ers beneath. The two subjects we had
to present, one on "What Judalsm
Has Done for Women" and "The Out-
look of Judaism," did seem exceeding-
ly feminine and trivial when com-
pared to "The Influence of Early
Christian Sects" and "Eschatology."
Among those most earnest in his
opposition was Dr. Wise, of blessed
memory. To have given the women
an invitation to co-operate and to ex-
clude them from the privilege of talk-
ing seemed at the time most tragic
to me. I ordered the secretary to ex-
punge from the minutes all the fiery
speeches I had made and all mention
of the Women's Committee, which
he by return mail informed me had
been done. A meeting of the Women's
Committee was called posthaste and
more determined than ever to make
a success of the Congress, they plot-
ted and planned ways and means.
After the highly successful sessions,
at a large reception given the repre-
sentatives to the Parliament of Re-
ligions, I met Dr. Wise. He said:
"I take off my hat to you. You knew
better than I what to expect of Jew-
ish women." And he was most earn-

CLAIMS are made daily by EMPLOYEES against'

>their EMIPLOYERS for Personal Injuries.

For Protection against Such Claims
Insure with The

Limited, of London1, England.

Samuel Anpleton, B. M. &r Geo. D. Alhison,
U. S. Manager and Attorney, 39 E. Third Street,

General Agents Ohio, Tennessee,
W. Virginia and East. Kentucky.

10181 AYailabll! Re80111003 $6,408,821,00,



Geea *ice .'
({\([81 1 C, CI

(After September 1, S. W. Gor. Fifth sad Broadway.)


~~~x S~ ~ ~ ~ S 000000*0000 GAr~~


a The ssociet3) has alo in pr para io
the condition of the Jewvs in Russia,
arropos of tl~ihinisinff affair.
This fall there was issued one
of the series of Jewish Year Books,
which contains such handy infor-
mation regardingr currIent events re-

rpan t tel ecivtyof Jews in this
The record of the society is an open
book, or rather, we hope, a series of
open books, to whose value the Jews
of the United States can best give
testimony by diligent perusal of their

est in wishing the new permianent or-
ganization SuIccess and, oftered all as-
sistance possible. When the Rabbini-
cal Conference recently sent notices
to the various national bodies calling
for a meeting to consider thle advisa-
bility of holding a Worldl Conference,
the Council of Jewish Womreni re-
ceived an invitation. I asked one of
the rab~bis whether we would be ex-
pncted, to keep silent in meeting and
hie replied: "We have learned some-
thing in ten years. The Couincil has to
its credit thle organization of the Eng-
lish Studly Society, out of which has
come the Union of Women Workiers,
both of England, and which were the
result of the visit of Miss Sadie Amer.
ican in L~ondon as delegate to the In-
ternational Congress.
So thle Council has evidently made
some impres nocn age nlv orke ant
ceived at our meeting of organization
from the many rabbis who were pres-
ent promised success aIt the start.
Many were the influences potent in
the beginning, which will never be
chronicled, but which will live as
bright memories in the hearts of the

hv ntd the Je ish tase o u
land, have broadened them in sym-
pathy and interest. The Jews of the
North and East have joined hands
with those of the Soulth and Wlest, and
the work for the temple as an end
has become a link in the chain which
hinds the Jews in the consciousness
that Judaism is a living force with a
world history and a world mission
that knowledge of the one must lead
to consciousness of the other.
The five committees are preparing
a program which will be published in
t~he falll ready for use and which will
he followed for the next three years.
Although the study circles are not as
successful as they should be, the gen-
eral meetings present to the members
the Jewish questions of the day and
women are undoubtedly better in-
formed on these matters than they
were. Women are devoting more
time to study, and why should not a
small portion of this be given to the
important part we have played in the
world's history. The philanthropies of
the Council number 85, and include all
reform methods for assisting the un-
fortunate. Upon three occasions the
Council as a whole has acted. At the
time of the Spanish-American war,
when $20.000 in money and Supplies
were: given, for the Indian and Bess-
arabian F~amine Fu~nds, and recently
for the Kisheneff Relief. Schools of
every description are undertaken and
controlled. The Sabbath schools have
become an object of interest and the
mothers are urged to send their chil-
dren and to influence others to do the
same, so that every Jewish child shall
feel an active Jewish influence in his
young life. Most cordial relations ex-
ist between the various sections, pa-
pers of general interest are furnished
through the Reciprocity Committee, as
does also the fullest sympathy and co-
operation with large non-Jewish na-
tional bodies, such as the National
Council of Women, of which we are
a part, and the General Federation of
The convention at Baltimore was a
phenomenal success. WComen are be-
ginningr to realize that attendance for
a week at a convention is as permiss-
able as traveling in Eulrope, that the
age which gives woman the privilege
ot being a factor in the momentous
movements of the day exacts from
her the performance of duties as well.
And in no way can she repay the ob-
ligations she owes for her advance-
ment and her freedom, to better pur-
pose than in her devotion to the high
moral religious ideals she has inher-
ited and in using her power to have
these a necessary condition in the
home she creates, the circle in which
she moves and the large community
of which she is a Dart.

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Population Otty, 825,90?; Population 56 Suburban Towns, 79,00(1

I ~--I L I -'c~ ,, I L L~r~ L ,, I ~

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and like merchandise are handled in a, surprisingly satis-
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miraculous. They are cleaned, steamed, disinfected and
the nap is raised in such a way that the appearance and
touch of positive newness results.
Ladies and Gentlemen's Garments are frequently
thrown aside, because they appear shathy or soiled. But
when the garment is still worn for the purpose of saving
money, an equal folly is committed. A mr ppaac
does not depend upon financial ability andar willingnesst
pay the tailor or dressmaker. Benzol cleaning guarantees
to clean like new, steaming, pressing and shaping appli-
ances produce the appearance of the garment, as it orig-
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Benzol Is King.
Gasoline, benzine and other washes have been used
for a great many years in the so-called dry cleaning
business, but it remained for the Strnuss Benzol Process
to remove the many objections and morels neretofroe
found. Under other methods there wals a, perceptble
shrinkage, disagreeable odors and soiling very rapidly
after cleaning. Benzol removed those objections to dry
cleaning. All fabrics remain clean fully three or four
timetshass songo tuhe sigdhtest odo ris percedetible, atd
ries. Benzol itself is nothing new; it is a well known
mineral product, but it remained for Morris Strauss to
erac san dinven Teeimflcae r schineryI list llativ a10-
to be the exclusive users of Benzol for dry cleaning
Steam Dyeing
with up-to-date machinery and under scientific methods
is a big part of the business done. Reliability and honest
treatment of all customers is a by-word of the concern,
whether you do your business with the main office or its
various branches in person, or are a resident in any part
of the United States or Canada. Under this head it will
not be amiss to mention the
System of Clubbing
for the purpose of cheapening express rates or freight
charges. They will prepay all charges, both ways, on
orders or $5.00 and over, one way on $3.00 orders. As every
single article is priced separately on the bill, you can get
your neighbor to join you in shipping goods, thereby
avoiding all charges to you for expressing either way.,

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There are excellent reasons to account for the rapid
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Cincimnnati Ohio. TIhe untir~ing energy of Mr. Morris
StraLuss, its founder and president, has its splendid effect
in every department of this institution of industry.
H-is scientific attainments in the past, coupled with the
devotion and intecllect, offers a great spur to continued ad-
vancemen~t in the future. But this is as it should be. The
continuouls challenges in the weaving of various fabrics by
the texutile mills in this and other countries, necessitates
the closest scrutiny of every new fabric that appears on
the market. Microscol~ical and chemical examinations
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adoptL in dyeing or cleaning the made-up garment, delicate
laces, chifl~on tapestries, etamines, voiles, etc., etc.

A General Guarantee
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By A. S SOLOMrONs, General Agent (Since resigned.)


Cincinnati and Eastern
StOcks and Bonds'
High Grad'e
InVeSinlent Securities*


People Have Learned COft l"I 0LAM S For
TO Look To lU EI O.R of E

Vaudeville. .--
Ban d r
ConcertS. l~
IMuSic. '
Dancing. `f~~., ,,
VsClub House. r n-

Crounds .
For The p
Children. ,-

Til0 PlSCO t0 Entertain Your Guests anti

Sole owners of Mosler &e Corliss Patents. Contractors to the United S
Government. Contractors to the Mexican Government. Mosler Patent '
in general use all over the world. Plans, Specifications and Estimates
ur\he r rl fid of Bank Vaults and Safe Deposit Work, and Fire




past year was $i.S7 foi each person
employed, and the average yearly
earnings $689, which is $181 more
than the average wages throughout
the county for factory workers.
The factory population is housed in
195 single and double framed cottages
with all the modern improvement,
containing from 5 to 8 rooms. Only
fourteen houses are owned by the
fund, and the remainder by the occu-
pants themselves. It is a small town
s110ouse owne .75About 700per eet
and about 30 per cent cost over $1,000,
the total cost being about $177,000, of
which amount about $58,000 or 37 per
cent has been paid for, and the bal-
ance is mortgaged by the owners at
a. low rate of interest and on easy
The business places in the town are

gr cries d2s 10nir noes ,t sutlh-
er shops; 1 fish dealer; 3 bakeries; 1
shoe shop; 3 hardware and bicycle
stores; 1 watch, clock and jewelry
store; 1 hat store; 1 cigar shop, and
one hotel with bar attached, this be-
ing the only bar in the town. A fine
abbatoir with most modern improve-
ment has been completed. There is
also a public bath house, under the
direction of the Woodbine Brother-
An agricultural school is one of the
main features, and during the past
year it graduated 158 pupils, 140 of
whom were boys and 18 girls, in-
structed in house workr,--lookring for-
ward to their .becoming farmers'
wives. These children were all tene-
ment house dwellers, with little pros-
pect of obtaining healthy or remun-
erative occupation. The school re-
ceived two medals for excellency of
its products from the Paris Exposi-
tion of 1900, and the workings of the
school have been referred to and en-
dorsed by the best agricultural
schools and colleges of the country.
The school is continuously in ses-
sion 5 days of each week with the ex-
ception of holidays. In summer, the
studies are limited to natural history,
botany, entomology and similar sub-
jects. In winter the English language
is taught, together with applied
studies of agriculture and horticul-
tr,senod tsh ey or athsysitematized
several months in the summer the
girls work on a special plot of ground
reserved for teaching kitchen garden-
ing, and during the winter the girls'
department is organized as follows:
Milking, creamery, poultry cleaning,
hou:e cooking adsloeu rk.Biesi es
practical departments, the girls at-
tend too cooking anid serv n, and tke

cottage. The boys are instructed in
horticulture, agriculture, dairying and
out-door farm work generally.
rIn the summer the pupils of the
acqui e pactieal tanclege ofrmstua
far lf I This plan has proved quite
The religious needs of the school
and townspeople are met by the
holding of regular Sabbath and holi-
day services in the Synagogue, church
and Talmud Torah School Building.
biIhe agricul uralapu sui rn nWod
an~d can be co id red from two stand-
scalle as a principal oc 1 m io. sec
by tie employes of factories, and by
There are at present 36 farms, the
Ioa area of the cultivated land of
Some oamf t frmers nae 5a~tthacre-
ginning of t~he settlement andi by this
bimse la e suce ededeirl change g their
marktable degree.
Tie o wing are a few examples:
L,. ps far aelmpt l~c 03( acl es 1h
1 1 ose apnal of whc 116 ocultiva OL.

I'ops. 110 raises considerable truck,
alas a larul orchar dsand makes quite
a s~caly o risnf grapes. He
loossejsses at: present 7 cows, a. few
I udined theadse of apfult~ry and raises

The Baron de Hirsch Fund of the
United States was incorporated in
February, 12th, 1891, with the follow-
Ing trustees: Meyer S. Isaacs, presi-
dent; Jacob H. Schiff, vice president;
Jesse Seligman, treasurer, and Julius
Goldman, honorary secretary, and Os-
car S. Straus, James H. Hoffman and
Fgenry nice of New York, and Judge
Sulzberger and Wm. B. Hackrenburg
of Philadelphia. Messrs. Goldman and
Straus resigned, and Messrs. Selig-
LDING, mln eanwerfoffmanbdie~dmand 1 e
man, who was made treasurer, and
Eugene S. Benjamin, who was made
honorary secretary, and Messrs. Abra-
ham Abraham and Nathan Bijur.
The chairman of the Philadelphia
committee is Mr. Wm. B. Hackenburg;
of the Baltimore committee, Moses
the Best Pels; of the St. Louis committee,
everything Eliias Michael nf theuBstas nof
Pittsburg committee, A. Leo Weil.
A. S. Solomons is general agent.
The capital originally furnished by
Baron Maurice de Hirsch was $2,400,-
..000, to which there have been acces-
sions for special and general objects
of the fund by gift of the Baroness
de Hirsch and bequest under her
_-. Teaching Immigrant Children English.
English day and evening schools
-r were begun and have continued in the
Educational Alliance Building, corner
1% East Broadway and Jefferson street,
for the teaching of elementary
branches to recently arrived immi-
grant children from Russia, Rou-
mania and Galicia, and preparing
Family.them under the prevailing system for
New York City.
ENSATION. There is an average attendance in
the day classes of 500 children, and
the pupils in the evening classes, who
are prepared in Er, lish, American
history and other subjects, number
About 300. The proportion of absen-
ttats tees is less than 1 per cent daily.
isaes Loans to Students.
fur- Loans are made to students who
,and are short of means to finish their last
Term in college, and for this purpose
9 a committee has been designated,
composed of Profs. Morris Loeb, E.
R. A. Seligman and Isaac Adler, who
HBA T. fiedt rminfe sac liited aid as is con-
Trade School,
In 1891 the Baron de Hirsch trade
school was established in a building
that was rented for the purpose at
225-7 East 9th street, New York,
wherein two classes were graduated

EL the"'-- mnfce'"'"= "'t th aeBrn
de Hirsch de Gereuth, a new build-
insdewas cn tu teadt un th ts t
street. During that year 150 pupils
were graduated under the direction of
ti, O. printendn.r .E n t G. Yalden, the new su-
Instruction is given in eight trades,
as follows: Carpentry, pattern mai-

On "o mea asid, lcrcal wo$
painting and machinery. There are
l h two school terms each year of 5%
:IP70n mokths, odseer Tpgradouat ies given
ISPECIALTY: i ftosaatdt i e o
sa and Mining" cation.
The school is open for any Jewish
boys, though preference is given to
agillie ofR, ssasm Roumsni eda
mate dbaa ever duoc atnd bheygse m be t

NOS Iheir me liaton as to the trade they

I er Fifty-fi i~ifyve hu1#e incres of land
A wer purhase in oodbine, Cape
emiumd M to ,n nagri utr 1 aondbem n
s, facturing settlement.
Woodbine has become a veritable
pockt. Ibee-hive of successful energy and is
aoTP i C98 May county, having recently
been created mnto a borough, with
PTOf. H. L. Sabsovich as mayor, and
M. L. Bayard as president of the com'
ation, mo ncoun ,rs under a spuere al lact of
0 CO. hab taan number runearldrew thiroej-
en~i Bld1gb. attend the public schools.
innat, O. There are at present employed 419
perSORS in itS four two-story factories.
)Am gg The average weedy wages during the



Rates, 73 cents and up per day.
First-Class Cafe Atlached,


M. E. SHINKLE, Manage~r.

Fifth and Ml~ain Streets,

IMM I~umili

e Companies Esti


f div:dends to pre
,aid for five yearI

appeals to your

B. Morrell, M D.,
Bureau of Inform

bLe InSuf800
commercial Tribuni
FORD, MgIbr, Cinci



Ratio o

an E

oxxorwNSATI, -onIo.



3 I2 Te

aThe Cc
ComarN i



For the Convenience of our Many
Patrons We Have Located Our
General Sales Offices in the



o Where All Orders or Remittances
Can Be Left-




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which shipped to alparts o thscountry.



++*1*+++* Mo + *!***!****** M.**+*


lrIrlnir. M ( M O~nn~~~~


with- ZB heEl~ ofea2tile ki pt in an-li-
cellent condition; there is a creamery
where butter is made, and a nursery
of trees as well as bee colonies be-
longing to the institution.
The Woodbine farmer has an ex-
cellent chance to profit by the ex-
ample set by the school farm. He
can use to advantage the advice of
competent men, who are always ready
to explain and to give their assist-
ance when applied to. The farmer is
taught the formula of the fertilizer
he needs. He is instructed how to
plant, care and harvest his products.
He can learn how to properly care
for trees, he sees how they are pro-
tected from insects and disease. If
something is wrong on his farmn, he
can consult an authority. If his cow
is sickr the teacher of the school is
ready to prescribe for her, and thle
same applies to his horse. The school
grounds ar~e the promenade. of t~he set-
tiers. The beautiful'lawns, the flow-
er beds and trees attract visitor's
from the town, who visit the place on
Satur~days, and when they return
home they utilize the knowledge they
attain in the interest of their own
gardens, cattle and flowers.
Education eliance aaidesUnited He-

The United Hebrew Charities are
the almoner of the fund for certain
branches of work and relief as ap,-
plied to recently arrived immigrants
from Russia, Re3umania andi Galicia,
while the Educational Alliance pro-
vides teachers and special ac~commlo-
dation in their building f'or thre same
class of persons.
Brooklyn Hebrew Educational Society.
The Brooklyn Hebrew Educational
Society, of which S. F. Rothschild is
President, N. H. Levi, secretary, andt
M. H. Harris, treasurer, togecther'
with a board of 25 directors ar~e in
possession of a large building erectedl
expressly for their use and leased to
In this building, which is commodli-
ous, there are a number of class andi
club rooms. The library of 4,200 vol-
umes has a monthly circulation of
In the neighborhood where this
building is located, that of Browns-
ville, there are 25,000 Jews, nearly all

toug mf 1at ther aebe anfe
tenements built under improved con-

by ,57 eron i 7 dys
Therei clu circlse uewnde tcheo dei

Soleh etLte re ioa aloensanc u ngar
dies F,00riendsi Club, 'Gol dern Rule
Clubme," "Marth Watshigo whClub,
and an orces tra ofe strling inr u-
nient and dirume andfie codrps. d
The intern coursitte ofth orough
Bord of Edn" Yucation use thir larg
areattende toa the fll seratin Scapa-
ciebty n of iey, thel room.ti
a LThery Newb Eraw Club. t'
'Thiet, "New Eruatal Club"" wa raied
pesirovidinga suitables, patil omeg fo
the "marturin young mn of thelower
East Sid of thesr city. n istu
Thits was deemead nie crssayown
Thealhu entertainmsenfth for oung
men resdn in thuatetion ofe theirllg

city did oth exst.
The pan enered Cupo roie
gtameb "NwEaCu"ws andmaauedeter
whviich hitherto had nota been enoyed
bythe Jewuishyon miden clas in anye
part Sd of the city.
Thes clb s notme in ayensea a re-
I'l "I' '"r- :ietis ":::':itsfor
abou 350 young menha between the
ages of18and 23,re allof whomared
hiarde workes adurn the odays and
ine smaull unatrctv rooms in catene-
menth houetheyt havno ben hertoye
amse the ei mselve cas upo stee cr
ners, oglte ingyougwmnpasn
bhettn iu ciga sop nys ore poo rooms
for passi"ng her midnight hor istlmnt
dtisancehals govr other places of e
abaucher0yn whc aen beteen the ri
ofe man8 a god y3 aloun felow-anel
then opotunty ims, lnow affre them d
meto realie th t~hey have animport-

SMr. B. is another old farmer who
is now assisted by his son, a lad of
16. Notwithstanding the youthful age
of the latter, he is the main worker
of the farm as his father is in deli-
cate health, and the boy works it by
himself and also attends to the dis-
posal of the products. He is known
in the town as "the young farmer."
The enthusiasm and devotion of this
Jboy is that of a born farmer.
Another example of a successful
farm is that belonging to Mr. A. The
main worker of this farm is the wom-
an, and under her management their
household has been enriched, the land
is in excellent cultivation, they raise
truck and field crops and have a large
flock of fowls. Mrs. A. is a great
lover of the location and is never
tired of praising the land, saying that
she never had a disappointment in
whatever she planted.
Right near her is a farm belonging
to Mr. S., who is a recent settler, a
Roumanian, and this farm is a good
example of what can be done by per-
sistence and perseverance. His per-
severance originated in the over-
crowded districts of the city where
he happened to come first, and after
wic aif adne a farm hseemedotno
siderably by his wife, who, as she
says, never worked in lier life before,
but who is now willing to labor to
help her husband in gaining a live.
lihood and in giving her children
Healthy surroundings. In her quaint
and simple language she says that
the rosy cheeks of her children are an
inspiration in her diflieult labors.
A farmer of a, more modern ten.
dency with a definite future in his
work, enthusiastic and somewhat con-
ceited about his profession, is Mr. T.,
a graduate of the Baron de Hirsch
Agricultural and industrial school. He
has a very neat farm and is improv-
ing it from year to year. He serves
as a living illustration of what can
be accomplished by rational methods.
It is worth while to notice that the
home market of the town of WVood-
blue is sufficient to consume all the
Supplies brought in by the farmers,
Iand that the latter have no trouble
Sin fmding customers for their prod-
)0 ucts. An old farmer, Mr. K., has suc-
Wodin e durn 1 he seso sw r abo in
$75, and he s co f e roo y one wh
of them cared to ship their products
*+ osde ofr GCod ine eThis ise e p-

but also for their neighbors. Here
agriculture is practised on a very in-
O esv pa, anda en s r cssM t

raisintisya afn crop ofacdub a e
TI ese example Se s clld fo0qrth a
nuembe Aof oloer se r whic is, inras-
o ing fromyea tossu ear. The stlrs i
lookupng thi not o nl fuub rom t thae
ecnomuic stlyandpoint, bt a lso ind
great eapleasr in attedin to the
gaonubrdens flowers, etc. I is uitce s
to ucing to see, early in o the mrig

before the working men go to the
shop, the owner of a cow pasturing it
*~ on the road side or hoeing his garden;
and in the afternoon to see his wife
and children together with him en-
joying the sight of the growing crops.
*Only a few years ago a number of

found a good market in Woodbine,
*and every morning they could be seen
*2* coming in to sell their products. Now
othe conditions are changed. Not-
w,'i istandn th increase of th p-
plied by the Woodbine farmers and
4 very few strangers sell vegetables in
athe town. It is therefore not stating
without a foundation, that with the
furre grwt oft" the poos: ::-iio tea
Swill grow proportionally.
The tendency toward agriculture in
Woodbine is considerably fostered
and strengthened by the Baron de
** Hirsch agricultural and industrial
School located there. It comprises
over 150 acres of cultivated land.
There are large orchards with thou-
sands of trees; from 30 to 40 acres
are devoted to truckr gardening where
vegetables of the best kind are
raised; there are three green houses
~QOa large poultry establishment with a
Thousand occupants; a modern dairy






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I 59 LaSalle St., Chicago, III.
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W~Vinclisch= Mu~rhhalhauser
~j~...Bre wing Con~pany ...
Respectfully asks a trial of its beers, both draught and bottle,
guaranteeing to every patron
Absolute purity, and the selection of only the choicest hops and malt.
A thoroughly brewed beer, prepared in the new and modern brew house, erected
within the last year.
Awell-aged and matured beer, as the large and finely ventilated storage
cellars enlables us to prepare large stocks in advance.
Beer free from all contagion, as the beer is cooled in coolers of modern design,
which are hermetically sealed and prevent all contact with the atmosphere.
Telephone orders to
Telephone M i:General Offices, 2358; Shipping Department, 2357; Bottling Department, 4326.




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LOCRton and Service Unsurpassed.
Cuisine Of Superior Excellence.

$oms d2 5tR PO YE00er &

Ed ard N. Roth, Pres. and M r

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SBreWing 00 RD $~t


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"F 1

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~sC OL U M BlA s

~R~~I622 to I628 Vine St. ciB


charge of by 1FedI~anlf Strauss, has
done very energetic work, especially
in locating families in the New Eng-
land cotton mills and other branches

In Pttsurgundr th ade direecs
tion of M~r. A. Leo Well, are estab-

of 221; bookkeeping classes of 12,
besides classes in stenography and
co r ing eb oideny soekermwt
large and well equipped gymnasium.
The income of the fund is appor-
tioned among the activities herein
outlined, while its active work is con-
centrated upon its educational insti-
tutions and Woodbine. F'or many
years the fund aided and promoted
the settlement of Jewish farmers in
New England and other sections, with
very gratifying results. About 700
farmers were thus aided. In 1900 this
department and agricultural and in-
dustrial activity generally were coup
led to a society incorporated for the
purpose--the "Jewish Agricultural and
Industrial Aid Society." The fund is
represented on the board and con-
tributes $60,000 a year towards its in-
The Jewish Colonization Assocla-
tion, established by the Baron de
Hirsch contributes $80,000 a year.
The special department concerned in
the removal of families from the con-
gested districts of New York to other
cities is designated the "Removal Of-
fice," and transfers about 8,000 per-
sons annually to places west and
suth,e were orkoas thtoume iawai
protected against the unhappiness and
dagr -een ie
By Cyrus Adler, President.
The American Jewish Historical So-i
city was organized at a meeting held)
in New York on June 7, 1892, with
the following objects: "The collection,
preservation and publication of ma-i
terial having reference to the settle-)
ment and history of the Jews on thej
American continent." Its first scien-/
tific meeting was held at Philadelphiai
DH December 15, 1892, and since then a'
meeting has been held annually in the
cities of New York, Philadelphia, Bal-:
timore or Washington, at which meet-~
ings papers were read and discussions'
had, and on several occasions minor
exhibitions were held in connection
with the meeting. Each year a selec-
tion of the papers read at the meetings
was printed in octave form, ten vol-~
umes having thus far appeared. In
addition to purely historical papers,
there has been an occasional paper,
on an economic or statistical subject.
The ten volumes published contain
the largest body of material thus far
unearthed for the history of the Jews
in America. The Society has enlisted
a number of active, zealous workers,
who had not hitherto evinced an in-
terest in Jewish historical affairs, has
secured the aid of well-known scholars
and has plainly shown that the Jews
are an integral part of the population
of the United States, that they have
been here since the earliest time, that
they have taken an honorable part
in the civic, literary, scientific, mili-
tary and commercial life of the nation,
and that, from early colonial times
down to the present day, their activi-
ties form a chapter of American his
tory which has been hitherto neglect-
ed but which deserves the attention
of the future historian of the United
The society also designed the mak-
ing of a permanent collection of books,
pamphlets, engravings and objects,
and has arranged with the Jewish
Theological Seminary of America for
a safe place of deposit for its collec-
tion. All students of history and all
persons interested in the work of the
society are cordially invited to co-op-
erate in its labors.

Perseverance is more prevailing
can nvd neov rnoed n hen the r
oeittleryibeldlit em eles u when

Have no thoughts1 you dare not put
in deeds.

Bn~eer at the Post oftice at cincinnati, Ohio, as

ant Bduf toi per40olm, Iioit onTy- to
themselves, but to the community
in which they live.

read and converse in a manner which

gentlemanlyr conduct.
They have a literary society, where
c"Jif or esras?,"brae bad baseae 11
club, and occasional outings. The
club has developed in its members a
social instinct and a higher moral
standard by introducing weekly balls,
to which they bring their sisters and
girl friends, and thereby develop un-
consciously a higher mutual regard
for the sexes.
Fifteen East Side young men over
25 years of age, but none of them
men of means, constitute the govern-
ing body, and as evidence of the good
effects the club has upon the neigh-
borhood, a Christian minister of one
of the oldest churches on the East
Side, Dr. Wm. F. Dunnell, is one of
the active directors, and takes pains
to speak from his pulpit as well as
to the individual members of his
flock, of the example they are setting
to his Christian brethren.
Members contribute 30 cents per
month, so that each boy is made to
feel that he is maintaining the club,
but the aggregate of these dues is
not sufficient for current expenses.
As a bar is not permitted on the
Premises, and card playing for money
is prohibited, it is a well known fact
riad frmutthease ist s, thr msd no
at blb inmNew sohk 11i supports
Jewish Women's Council.
Ladies of the Jewish Womei's
Council have established on the East
Side recreation rooms in connection
with their work, wherein are classes
for cooking, sewing, basket weaving,
kitchen gardening and also clubs,
where reading, singing and story tell-
ing, form the principal- attractions,
The younger children have a special
spacious play ground in the rear of
these premises. In the evening work-
ing girls assemble, both for tuition
and for club work, where singing is
taught, resulting in refined influences.
Saturday and Sunday evenings are
given over to dancing and general
merriment. During Saturday morn-
ings the Jewish Endeavor Society
conduct classes in religious teaching
and Hebrew.
Downtown Ethical Society.
The Downtown Ethical Society have
classes for moral instruction; a sew.
ing school for 40 children and moth.
er's meetings,--careful attention be.
ing given to cement the proper rela-
tionship between parents and chil.
Philadelphia Committee.
The Philadelphis branch, under the
charge of Hon. Mayer Bulzberger and
Mr. Wm. B. Hackenburg of the Baron
de Hirsch fund trustees, in conjunc-
tion with a committee of the chari-
ties have provided for 451 persons
during 1902. Of these 162 were sup,
plied with mechanic's tools, 54 were
taught trades, 81 assisted in business,
13 were supported while working and
141 were transported to places where
work had been obtained for them in
Besides doing educational work on
a large scale together with teaching
mechanical trades to adults and chil-
dren of both sexes,
Their work is voluminous and cov-
ers nearly every branch of activity.
Baltimore Committee.
In Baltimore, under the direction
of the Hebrew Benevolent Society *
while their field is limited compared
with some of the other cities, their
work has been very effective in its
results, and immigrants are cared
for in a most intelligent manner.
During the past year families com-
,Dosed of 738 persons have been as-
sisted with temporary relief, supplied
with tools, taught trades, assisted
while peddling, given furniture, and in
som ""se tr n p rato work

dTIe gei as 1 P2575. the Port
Boston Committee.
The Boston branch of the Free Em-
ployment Bureau and the Industrial
!Schol 00nd r th dieto of tha

vetry Ao erpn Im ement.



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a specialty of

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