Title: The Internet: A guide to working smarter
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102982/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Internet: A guide to working smarter
Physical Description: Book
Publisher: Area Health Education Centers
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00102982
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text




Introduction ..............................................1

I. Computer Fundamentals ................2.
Basic Computer Setup ....................2.
Motherboard................................ 2
CPU (Central Processing Unit).........2
RAM (Random Access Memory) ......3
Peripheral Cards............................3.
Video Card ...................................... 3
Sound Card ..................................3.
Peripheral Devices...........................4.
M monitor .......................................... 4
Printer............................ ........... 4
Speakers .......................................... 4
Storage Devices...............................4.
Hard Drive ....................................4
Floppy Disk Drive ........................4.
CD-ROM Drive ........................... ....4
CD-R and CD-RW Drive ..............5.
Zip D rive........................................ 5
Input Devices....................................5.
Keyboard ........................................ 5
M ouse............................................. 5
M odem ........................................... 5
Optional Accessories .........................5

II. The Internet and the
World Wide Web ..............................
Accessing the Internet.......................
Internet Service Providers-ISPs .......6
Web Browsers .................................
Web Addresses or URLs....................7
Using Web Browsers .....................8.
Toolbars .......................................... 8
M enu Bar........................................ 8
Other Toolbars................................9
Navigation Toolbar (Standard Buttons
in MS Internet Explorer) ................9.
Location Toolbar (Or Address Toolbar
in IE) ............................................ 10

Managing Bookmarks: Editing and
Splitting Bookmark Files.................10
Personal Toolbar............................11
Searching the Internet ....................11
World Wide Web Search Tools .......11
Subject Directories........................11
Using Subject Directories ...............11
Exercise 1................................... 11
Search Engines..............................12
Using Web Search Engines..............12
Exercise 2................................... 12
Power Searching Techniques ...........12
Phrase Searching ...........................12
Exercise 3...................................12
Boolean Searching.........................12
Exercise 4...................................13
N testing ......................................... 13
Exercise 5..................................... 13
Truncation ....................................13
Exercise 6...................................13
Meta Search Engines.....................13
Using Meta Search Engines.............14
Exercise 7...................................14
Specialized Databases
(The Invisible or Deep Web) ..........14
Subject Guides.............................. 14
e* Evaluating Websites ......................14
Accuracy ....................................... 14
Authority ...................................... 14
O bjectivity......................................14
Currency..................................... 15
Coverage....................................... 15
Communicating Via the Internet .....15
Introduction to E-Mail .................15
Netiquette: E-Mail
Do's and Don'ts.............................15
Listserv Lists ................................. 16
Florida School Nurse Project
Email Discussion List....................17
Topica, Mailing List Directory........17


III. Online Resources.............................18
Alternative and
Complementary Medicine ..............18
Bioterrorism.......................... .. 19
Clinical Trials and Practice
Guidelines............................. ..24
Consumer Health And
Patient Education .........................24
Cultural Competence......................25
D entistry ...................................... 26
Diseases and Medical Specialties.....26
Domestic Violence........................27
Employment Opportunities............27
Environmental Health ..................28
Federal Government Resources.......29
Florida .......................................... 30
General Reference Resources...........30
G eriatrics .................................... 31
Grants and Grant Funding .............31
Health Administration ..................32
Maternal-Child Health
see Obstetrics and Gynecology
Medical Specialties
see Diseases and Medical Specialties
Mental Health ..............................33
Nutrition and Food Safety .............34
Pediatrics ...................................... 35
Primary Care ................................36
Public Health................................36
Rural and Migrant Health ..............38
School Health and School
Nursing................................. ..38
Substance Abuse ...........................39
Tobacco/Smoking Cessation ...........39

IV. Additional Resources ......................40
D atabases...................................... 40
Textbooks and Journals...................40
Print Resource
G lossaries ..................................... 42

V. Florida AHEC Network....................43
Nova Southeastern University
S AHEC Program ............................43
University of Miami
AHEC Program ............................43
University of Florida
AHEC Program ............................44
University of South Florida
SAHEC Program............................45

LN Online Tutorials ...............................46


In the spring of 2000, Florida's AHEC
Program Directors asked the Florida
AHEC Network Library and Learning
Resources Subcommittee members -
Deborah Hynes, MLS, Subcommittee
Chair, University of South Florida AHEC
Program, Sharon Schmidt, MLS, Nova
Southeastern AHEC Program, and Linda
Butson, MLn, MPH, North Florida AHEC
Program. - to consolidate their training
materials into a single publication for distri-
bution to AHEC clients throughout the
state. These computer and Internet search
training materials had previously been indi-
vidually provided for several years.
Additionally, Linda recruited Nancy
Schaefer, MLS, a University of Florida col-
league, to help with the Online Resources

section. The resulting manual has been
created with the intent to increase Florida
health professionals' knowledge of health
care resources on the Internet.
The purpose of this training and
resource manual is to provide information
on using computers and the Internet as
resources to: answer clinical questions,
support decision making, and assist in
patient/consumer education. This manual's
audience is clinical health care professionals
working with Florida's rural and under-
served populations.
For additional training opportunities,
such as in the use of various software pro-
grams, contact the Computer Information
Services professionals on staff with your
organization or your local AHEC .



A although the use of personal comput-
ers has been common since the early
1980s, there are still many people
with no computer experience and no desire
to enter the world of computer technology.
Today, most businesses utilize some type of
computer technology; therefore, it is
becoming impossible to avoid computers.
Our experience as AHEC Librarians has
taught us that in many cases a person's first
contact with computers occurs at work. A
person often considers purchasing a home
computer after becoming comfortable with
the technology.
The following section is designed to
provide basic information about common
computer systems. For the computer profi-
cient, this will be a review.

For health care providers, the primary
purpose of a computer is often to obtain or
provide information regarding treatment
protocols. The components of the setup
needed to accomplish this purpose are: A
computer, monitor, printer, speakers, floppy
disk drive, CD-ROM drive, and modem for
an Internet connection. There are many
choices in today's market for each compo-
nent. The basic information necessary to
understand these and other parts of a com-
puter system will be given.
Most people purchase a pre-packaged
computer system at a retail store. Every
system is different. The following generic
information takes into consideration that
upgrades, rather than a new purchase, may
be desired in the future.
The basic parts of a computer are:
Motherboard (contains the chip set,
CPU and RAM)
Peripheral cards (video cards, sound
cards, network interface cards, and

Peripheral devices (monitor, printer,
speakers, etc.)
Storage Devices (hard drive, floppy
drive, CD-ROM drive, etc.)
Input devices (keyboard and mouse)

The motherboard contains the chip set,
central processing unit (CPU), and random
access memory (RAM) of your computer.
A comparable analogy to the human body is
that the chip set is the nervous system of the
computer while the CPU is the brain.

The CPU is a small module that
dominates the operation of the entire com-
puter system. There are many different
CPUs available today. Some of the names
commonly heard are Pentium, Pentium II,
Pentium III, Celeron-all of which are
proprietary names of Intel Corporation.
AMD and Cyrix are also major manu-
facturers of CPUs.
The dominant characteristic of CPUs
is number of megahertz. This refers to the
speed at which a CPU can process informa-
tion. The greater the megahertz, the faster
the CPU can run computer applications.
The minimum recommendation is that you
purchase a computer with a CPU speed of
at least 500-megahertz. This speed is more
than necessary for simple operations but
often less than optimal for high-end com-
puter games. If the computer is to be used
by the entire family, investigate the CPU
megahertz requirements for the software
programs desired.
The motherboard also has slots for
random access memory (RAM), connec-
tions for storage devices, and connections
for the input devices (keyboard and mouse).
There are two basic types of motherboards:


AT and ATX. If purchasing a used com-
puter, avoid the older AT format mother-
board since it will become increasingly
harder to find parts for AT board upgrades.

Memory, or RAM, holds the instruc-
tions and data you're working with while
your computer is turned on. The larger the
RAM, the more efficiently your computer
will manipulate the programs installed on
your hard drive. The recommendation for
absolute minimum RAM is 32 megabytes.
RAM is one of the easiest components to
upgrade. If you can get a bargain on a
computer with small RAM (16 megabytes),
you can upgrade at a later date when RAM
is on sale at a retail computer store. It is
important to note that different software
programs require varying amounts of RAM,
so the minimum amount required is direct-
ly related to what programs you intend to
install and use on your computer. There is
more than one type of memory module
currently utilized. Be sure you know what
your computer requires before you make a
RAM purchase.
There are two basic form factors of
RAM commonly in use today. They are:
72 pin SIMM (Single Inline Memory
Module)-Can be either Fast Page
Mode (FPM), which is an older mem-
ory type, or Extended Data Output
(EDO). SIMM chips usually must be
installed in pairs; two-16 megabyte
modules (32 megs), two-32 megabyte
modules (64 megs), or other paired
168 pin DIMM (Dual Inline Memory
Module)-Comes in EDO and
Synchronous Dynamic Random Access
Memory (SDRAM). DIMM chips
can be installed singly and do not

require that each module be the same
number of megabytes. In other words,
a 16-megabyte module could be com-
bined with a 64-megabyte module for
a total of 80 megs of RAM.
The next generation of RAM is
RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random
Access Memory) which will use a
Rambus Inline Memory Module

The three basic types of peripheral
cards are video cards, sound cards, and net-
work interface cards (NIC). The main
forms are:
AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) for
newer video cards.
PCI (Peripheral Component Inter-
connect) for video, sound, NIC
(Network Interface Cards), SCSI
(Small Computer Systems Interface)
adapters, and many other types of
peripheral cards.
ISA (industry standard architecture)
used by older peripheral cards.
The devices controlled by these peripheral
cards are referred to as peripheral devices.

A monitor will not work without a
video card installed in your computer. The
monitor dictates the card that you must
have. The monitor's specifications will list
the card requirements.

Speakers and sound cards are neces-
sary to utilize CD technology. Your com-
puter sound system dictates the require-
ments of the sound card. If you anticipate
playing complex computer games, you may
opt for a more sophisticated, more expen-
sive sound card.



There are a variety of monitors avail-
able on the market. The simplest require a
basic video card. The more complex, high-
er technology monitors will be more expen-
sive. Size and resolution of monitors are
distinguishing characteristics. Determine
your personal requirements before purchas-

To determine what type of a printer to
buy, examine your needs with regard to
speed and resolution. Printer speed is
measured in pages per minute (PPM).
PPM can vary widely between draft quality
and best quality output. The fastest speed
will be displayed most prominently in
printed advertisements. If you will be only
printing documents, a lower resolution,
inexpensive color printer may meet your
needs. If you will be printing photographs
that have been scanned or downloaded
from a digital camera, you may opt for a
more costly, higher resolution printer.

To utilize CD-ROM technology, you
must have speakers. An adequate pair of
speakers can cost as little as $10. If you
play music CDs, you may want to invest in
higher quality speakers.


The hard drive is a storage device for
software programs and essential (hidden)
information that the computer utilizes to
perform its various functions. Computers
are sold with software programs that take
up storage space on your hard drive. To
determine what size hard drive is needed,
examine what types of software you are
going to use immediately and what you
might want to add to your system in the
future. A few years ago, a one-gigabyte
hard drive was considered to be a lot of
storage space. Today hard drives of forty
gigabytes, which hold an enormous amount
of data, are commonly available for pur-
chase. The recommendation is to buy a
hard drive about twice as large as you esti-
mate you'll need.

A floppy disk drive is a standard inclu-
sion in a computer system purchased today.
The floppy disk can hold 1.4 megabytes of
data, which is more than adequate for text
files but often not adequate for games, mul-
timedia, etc. A floppy disk drive can be
used to save data on an independent storage
medium (floppy disk) as a backup to your
hard drive. A disk is also useful for trans-
porting data from one computer to another.

CD-ROM drives are fast becoming
standard parts of basic computer systems.
Most of us are familiar with music CDs.
The CD is also a fantastic storage medium
for data in addition to music. To utilize
CD-ROM technology, you must have a set
of speakers to hear the audio portion of the
CD. You can also play music CDs through
your computer.


Recordable CD-ROM (CD-R) and
CD-RW (CD-Rewritable) drives are now
available. This technology utilizes a drive
not only to read data from a CD, whether
text or multimedia, but also to record data
onto a CD and/or to rewrite data onto a
CD. Visit your public library or retail store
for more information.

Zip drive technology is a portable
storage medium utilizing disks that hold
much more data than a standard floppy
disk. Zip disks can hold 100 megabytes or
more of data. Zip disks are handy for
downloading large files from the Internet
for transfer.to a different computer. Zip
disk drives can be either internal or external


The keyboard is the primary way the
user communicates with and controls the
computer. The keyboard resembles a type-
writer keyboard. It has specialized function
keys and a numeric keypad located at the
right edge. Arrow keys can be used to navi-
gate a page displayed on the monitor.
Internet keyboards with special buttons are
available that make Internet navigation easier.

The mouse is an input device that
controls the pointer on the monitor screen.
There are many different models on the
market. You should select the one you are
most comfortable using.

A modem allows the computer to
communicate and transfer data over phone
lines. It can be either internal or external.
Modems transfer data at a rate measured in
bits per second (BPS). The higher the
number of BPS, the faster the data trans-
fers. Obtain the fastest modem you can for
the greatest satisfaction with a dial up
Internet connection.

There are many accessories that will
enhance the computer's performance,
including scanners, digital cameras, DVD
drives, etc. As your experience with com-
puters grows, your needs and desires will
change. Being aware of your needs prior to
purchasing your computer will help you to
avoid buying a component that you may
never use. Your purchase should be one that
will enable you to utilize your system fully
and allow for possible upgrades in the



The Internet is a global network of
networks, connecting millions of
independent computers to each
other. It uses standard protocols and high-
speed data lines to transmit information.
There is no central Internet server. No sin-
gle government or business controls its con-
tent or access to it. Most published
accounts on Internet history agree that the
U.S. Military and various educational insti-
tutions developed the Internet in the late
The World Wide Web is an informa-
tion system on the Internet that uses the
standard protocol HTTP: (Hypertext
Transfer Protocol) and the format HTML
(Hypertext Markup Language). Hypertext
allows a user to jump to a related page by
clicking on an image or a line of text and
integrates text, graphics, audio and video on
a Web page. The World Wide Web is the
largest and fastest growing area on the

To make a connection to the Internet,
users must have an Internet connection and
a browser.

The Internet connection is obtained
through an agreement with an Internet
Service Provider (ISP). Universities, state
organizations, computer producers and pri-
vate companies can be Internet service
providers. Internet service can either be
something for which you pay or may be
available for free depending on your place
of business or other affiliations. Listings of
Internet providers can be found in the
phone book, newspapers and on the

Internet itself. Two source lists can be found
at http://www.thelist.com and at
When choosing a provider, get feed-
back from people in your community
regarding what service they use and how
satisfied they are with the service. Cost and
a timely connection during peak usage
times are important features to look for.
Also consider the amount of time you
expect to be connected. Some agreements
may be time-limited by month, with extra
charges incurring when the limit is exceed-
ed. It is also useful if your ISP maintains a
help desk that is accessible by email and by
phone. Problems can often be resolved
with some direction from a help desk. It is
important to understand the conditions of
the ISP service agreement.
Internet service providers will general-
ly provide a disk or downloadable instruc-
tions to set up your computer for Internet
access. For most effective service, it is best
to have an agreement with a company that
provides access through a local number to
avoid long distance charges. Most ISP's
have home pages where there are lists of
their service access points by state, zip code
or area code. Some providers have toll free
numbers as access points that are especially
useful for people in small communities.

A Web browser is a piece of software
that is installed on your computer. This
software may be provided by the ISP or
may be downloaded from the Internet.
Web browsers enable you to connect
to the World Wide Web to view different
websites. It allows hypertext access to docu-
ments (that is, to view graphics and text on
the Web). Two very popular browsers on
the market are Netscape Navigator and
Microsoft's Internet Explorer. Some


Internet service providers, like America
Online (AOL), have their own Web inter-
face that may be considered a browser.
Netscape Navigator and Internet
Explorer are available for free and may be
downloaded from the World Wide Web
using file transfer protocol (FTP). New
versions of browsers are always being devel-
oped and released. Some Internet sites and
databases work better with a specific brows-
er or version of a browser. A website will
sometimes specify a "minimum browser
requirement." If you have the required or
higher version, you should be able to view
and use all the features of the site. If you
have a lower version, you may not be able
to see all the graphics or features of the
In many work situations, all the com-
puters are set up to be exactly the same. For
computers at your workplace, you will want
to know who is responsible for maintaining
the computer programs, what software you
are allowed to change or download and
other computer/Internet use policies.

Note here:

What Internet Service Provider do you use?

Who is the person/position responsible for
maintaining computers?

What browser do you have and what is the



Web addresses are known as URLs
(Universal Resource Locators). A Web
address is made up of two parts: a protocol
and a domain name. The domain name can
be further divided into parts that describe
the domain. Let's look at an example.
http:// is the protocol-the hypertext
transfer protocol.
www is the first part of the domain
name and stands for World Wide Web.
yahoo is the host name-the site that
has the server on which the page resides.
com is the type of site. In this case,
com means commercial, a for-profit entity
This last three-letter code refers to the
agency that sponsors the page. There is a
standardized list of codes that have been
selected and there are others that have been
promoted for adoption. Among the most
common codes that you will run across are
the following:
.edu educational site (most universi-
ties and colleges)
.gov government site
.com commercial site (for-profit
.org not-for-profit organizations
.net network hosts
.mil U.S. military sites
In some cases you will also see geo-
graphical codes in a Web address. An ex-
ample is http://www.state.fl.us. Here, "fl"
stands for Florida and "us" is for the United
States. Sites in other countries often use
these abbreviations as a part of their names.
Examples include "au" for Australia and
"ca" for Canada.
Additional information about the page
will follow a "/" (forward slash) after the
site or geographic designation. This infor-
mation states where in the server the actual
page is located and may designate the lan-


guage that is used to write the page such as
htm or html.
Note that there are never any blank
spaces within a URL. When there appears
to be a blank space, there is actually "_" (an
underscore) that is hidden between two let-

In this section, we will look primarily
at Netscape. Many of the same features are
available in Internet Explorer, but they may
be labeled differently.

Toolbars are fairly standard in most
software programs. They feature the most
frequently used commands and tools.
Generally, toolbars appear at the top of a
program and consist of buttons, pull down
menus and blanks in which to type a Web
address. Portions of the browser may be
customized to the individual user.

The Menu Bar is a special toolbar that
appears at the very top of the screen. It con-
tains the menus File.....Edit..... and ends
with Help. Selecting any of these words
will result in a drop down box that will pro-
vide you with more selections.
From the selection File, you can
choose to open pages, copy pages, send
pages, print pages and close the page and
exit the browser. Selecting Edit from the
toolbar will allow you to search for words in
a particular Web document or set your par-
ticular preferences for interacting with the
Web. The preferences you can select include
changing the appearance of the page with
fonts and colors or changing the language

in which you want pages displayed.
Advanced features include setting cache
size, enabling the use of proxies and
enabling special scripts. With each window
that opens, there is usually a Help button
to be used for further explanation and
View allows you to change how a page
looks on your computer screen. You can
increase or decrease the size of the font. If a
page is slow to load, you can direct the
browser to Reload. On some pages new
information may be added as you are read-
ing; therefore, you may want to Refresh the
page. This drop-down box is also where
you can see the source code that the author
used to markup and construct the page.
Finally, you can view the page information
to find the structure of the page, where it
originated and when it was last updated,
among other information.
Use the Go button to view a list of the
pages that you have most recently visited.
From this list you can select a page to
which you would like to return. Pages are
listed by their site name rather than a Web
address or URL.
In Netscape Navigator,
Communicator activates several other pro-
grams including email, calendar, instant
messaging and bookmarks. To learn more
about these features you will want to read
Help or visit the Netscape Webpage:
In either browser, a Help button
appears in the toolbar on the far right. This
feature is an online manual to aid you in
using the program. Selecting Help generates
a drop down menu from which you can
select the type of help that you want.

File Edit View Go Bookmarks Communicator Help


There are several other toolbars that
can be turned on and off depending upon
how you want to customize your browser.


To move within the pages that you
have searched, use the Back and Forward
arrow keys. You will move one page at a
time in the reverse or forward sequence that
you have searched.
The Reload button is used to refresh
your page. At times a page may not load
properly. If the system halts or staggers, the
Reload button will allow you to start over
from the current page. In many browsers, a
circular arrow is used to depict this feature.
Home is characterized as a house.
Most browsers will load and start with a
page that has been identified as your home
page. When you do not designate one, the
default is usually the browser's home page.
Clicking on the Home button at any time
while you are on the Internet will bring you
back to that pre-designated screen/page.
This screen/page may be set locally by a sys-
tem administrator for networked machines
or by an individual for a particular worksta-

Search is a link to the browser's search
page. In Netscape the search page allows
you to choose a search engine and provides
a box for you to insert your topic as a key-
word or phrase. Refer to Searching The
Internet section for more detail on this
Clicking on the Print button, which is
characterized as a small printer, signals your
printer to print the entire page/document
that you are currently viewing. This can be
one page or several pages depending on
which document you are viewing. You will
want to be aware of the size of the docu-
ment before you hit the Print button so
that you have enough paper available. The
printed job appears just like the screen you
were viewing. At times it may be more effi-
cient to copy the contents of a screen into
your word processor to reduce the physical
size of the document.
Stop will enable you to cancel a page
from loading into the browser. On occa-
sion, a browser may continue to look for
the website and a server may not be
responding appropriately. You can Stop or
cancel the request and then choose to go
elsewhere or exit the browser.
Favorites is also located on the
Internet Explorer standard toolbar. It is
similar to Netscape's Bookmarks and will
be explained below in the Location Toolbar

Back Forward Reload Home Search Netscape Images Print Security Shop Stop



|1 LoaUton: http://www.usf.edu/

This is where you can specify the site
to which you want to connect. You must
have the complete address, or URL, and
write the complete URL in the box called
Location. Sometimes servers may be down
or you may have a problem with the
address that you have written. In either
case, the program will respond with an
error message. Check the address to make
sure you have typed it correctly. Some
additional hints are:
If searching with the Web address that
begins with www and it does not
work, try adding http:// before the
www or
Try searching for the site omitting the
Bookmarks are used to remember the
sites that you have found and would like to
revisit. Browsers usually come with a few
bookmarks identified in categories. You can
add sites, delete sites and edit those sites
into the existing categories or choose your
own. When you click on Bookmarks,
select Edit Bookmarks. There is a Help
button on the menu bar for the window
that opens. You can use it to read more
about bookmarking your favorite websites.
If you bookmark a lot, you can have fairly
long lists. While editing bookmarks can be
done and is explained in the next section,
you may want to establish categories related
to your interests. The topics in our Online
Resources section may be a useful starting

The method used to edit your book-
mark file depends on how you will use the
bookmarks afterwards. If you want to print
the URLs, or if you want to create Web
pages from your different bookmark folders,
then use a word processor.
If you want to split a large bookmark
file and have each smaller file usable as
Netscape Bookmarks, then DO NOT edit
the bookmark file with a word processor!
Bookmark.htm is an html file that you
"can" edit. This does not mean you
SHOULD edit it! Bookmark.htm is not a
PLAIN html file, and if you edit it, you can
corrupt the folders and end up with blanks.
If you want to create different book-
mark files, follow the procedure outlined
Copy the whole bookmark.htm file to
a different file.
In Netscape, Go to Bookmarks and
delete all the ones you don't want.
Exit Netscape and save the new book-
mark file in a different directory or on
diskette. Make a copy of the original
bookmark.htm file and replace it in
the Netscape directory.
Back in Netscape, go to Bookmarks.
Delete the ones you don't want for the
next set.



[ Ma.ointosh Produ .Net Searh Liv Home Page

This is where you can customize the
browser for your preferences. You can iden-
tify your home page and select other pages
that you frequently use to display them as
sites that link with a button. Bookmarks,
mentioned above, is one way to customize.
There is also a toolbar that you edit or add
to within your bookmark file. On the
Personal Toolbar, you can designate specif-
ic sites that you regularly use to be at your
fingertips. The White Pages of the phone
book, a Staff Intranet site, a business/news
page are some of the items you may choose.


There are several search tools available
for finding information on the World Wide
Web. They include Subject Directories,
Search Engines, Specialized Databases,
Subject Guides and Meta Search Engines.

Directories are made up of selected
Web pages that are evaluated and organized
into hierarchical categories. They may also
include Specialized Databases and Subject
Guides. Web directories are compiled
either by humans or computers that follow
preset selection criteria and link to pages of
high quality. Subject directories are time
consuming to compile and maintain and
tend to be smaller databases. Because they
are smaller databases, the scope of the
results will be smaller, too. Web directories

are most useful when browsing broad sub-
ject areas, though it can be difficult to find
topics that are not easily categorized. The
lack of controlled vocabulary within and
among directories can make browsing diffi-
cult and time consuming. To ease this
problem, most directories offer keyword
searchable indexes. Yahoo is the oldest and
most popular directory on the Web, listing
over one million sites. One hundred fifty
editors categorize the Web for Yahoo.

To use a directory first identify the
broadest subject meeting your information
needs. Follow the links until you reach
those closest to your desired subject.
Bookmark relevant sites to review later as
you move through the links.

Go to Yahoo, http://www.yahoo.com,
and browse through the category Health.
Notice that the topic Health is broken
down into categories like Alternative
Medicine, First Aid, and Travel Health and
Medicine. Click on Medicine and notice
that this category covers topics from
acupuncture to wound care. Click on the
topic Pediatrics and scroll down to the cate-
gory section and click on Sleep Medicine.
Find the topic Sudden Infant Death
Syndrome and click on that. Click on the
link to the American SIDS Institute and
browse the website.


Internet Search Engines are giant
indexes that enable keyword searching.
Search engines use computer programs
referred to as robots or spiders that "crawl
across the Web" to find information that
matches your keywords. Indexes are much
larger than directories and are more current.
Search engines vary in size, frequency of
updating and search options. Search
engines are most useful when you have a
very specific subject to research. To keep
up on the latest news regarding search
engines go to Search Engine Watch
(http://www.searchenginewatch.com) or
Search Engine Showdown

To perform a keyword search, you will
need to analyze your topic, choose a search
engine and then formulate a search state-
ment. Compose a list of synonymous terms
and distinctive phrases. Use several differ-
ent search engines and then compare the
results, which can be very different. Use
Phrase Searching, Boolean Searching, and
Truncation where appropriate. Check the
Help file for the search engine you choose
to make sure that they support these types
of searches. Check the Help file often for
any changes or enhancements to the search
engine you are using.

Go to Google, www.google.com, and
type in sudden infant death syndrome in
the subject line and click on Search.
Notice how many documents are retrieved.
Take a look at some of the sites retrieved.

When using search engines to search
the Internet, often thousands of documents
are retrieved. To limit/focus a search and
retrieve more relevant documents, power
searching techniques are used. These
include Phrase Searching, Boolean
Searching, Nesting and Truncation. Check
the Help file for techniques available for the
search engine you are using.

When inputting a keyword search
with more than one term in the search
statement, consider phrase searching.
Entering a phrase enclosed within quota-
tion marks signals the search engine to
search for that specific phrase. If you enter
multiple words and omit the quotation
marks, the search engine looks for refer-
ences that include any of the words regard-
less of whether they are related.

Go to Google, www.google.com, and
type in "sudden infant death syndrome"
(enclose the phrase in quotation marks) in
the subject line and click on Search. Look
for any differences in the search results and
compare to your last search. What are the

Boolean Searching refers to a form of
logic applied to a search. The Boolean
operators are AND, OR, NOT. Some
search engines require these operators to be
capitalized. It will be useful to always use
capitals. These terms may vary from search
engine to search engine, but the ideas are
the same. Check the Help file if in doubt.


* AND narrows a search. It intersects
two sets and is used to reduce results.

* OR broadens a search. It is the union
of two sets and is used to increase

NOT narrows a search. It is the exclu-
sion of one set and is used to reduce

Go to Excite, www.excite.com, and in
the subject line type "sudden infant death
syndrome" AND prevention. Browse
through the documents retrieved and look
for the SIDS Network home page. Click
on this link and see if you can find infor-
mation on SIDS and smoking.

When you have a search statement
that contains more than one type of
Boolean operator, use parentheses to com-
bine synonymous terms.
The search statement: Cancer AND
(teen youth adolescent) signals the search
engine to look for any of the terms within
the parentheses and then combine the
results with the term outside of the paren-
theses. (Note: some search engines do not
require the OR operator between the search
terms. Check the Help file if in doubt.)

Go to Northern Light, www.northern-
light.com. In the subject line type (infant
OR newborn) AND "sleep disorders."
Click on the link to the most relevant site
you find and browse the website.

Truncation allows you to search on
the root of a larger word. Most commonly,
an asterisk (*), but sometimes a question
mark (?), is used to signal the search engine
to look for the root of the word and all of
the possible variations.
For example,
Child retrieves references with the
word child in it.
Child* or Child? retrieves references
with the word child in it as well as child's,
childish, childishly, childishness, children,
children's, childhood, childlike, etc.

Go to Webcrawler, www.webcrawler.com,
and in the subject line type in "sleep disorders"
AND child*. Examine the results. Notice that
Webcrawler lists directory search results and
then also Web search results. Notice under
Web results, there is an option to show link
summaries or just the rides.

Search engines vary in size and often
retrieve different results. Using a Meta
Search engine is a quick way to detemiine
which search engines will vield the best
results. Simple searches work best in Me'
Search engines. Meta Search Engines seand
several search engines at the same time iet
most only retrieve the top 1A-50 n( esu il
from each search cn*ini. Phwer ~kd;li'.A
techniques may not be pr'.d' pir'. ,i'' j!
or available. One Meta Search cW e in~re,
Ixquick, www.ixquick.Lon, bmws Xwihiidh


search engines can support Boolean, Phrase,
Truncation, Nesting, etc, searching. It will
only send your search statement to search
engines that can process it properly.

When using Meta Search Engines you
enter the search statement one time and it
is sent to several search engines simultane-
ously. The results are then blended togeth-
er. They generally only catch about 10% of
search results in the search engines they
cover. Some examples of Meta Search
Engines include Dogpile, Mamma,
MetaFind and Ixquick.

First go to Ixquick, www.ixquick.com,
and in the subject line, type in SIDS. Take
a look at the results. Can you tell which
search engines were searched? Next, go to
Dogpile, www.dogpile.com, and perform
the same search. Notice the differences
between the two Meta Search Engines.

The Invisible Web is made up of con-
tent that search engines either cannot or
will not index. Like Subject Directories,
Specialized Databases are also organized
into subject categories that are often evalu-
ated and organized by humans. The docu-
ments found using these databases are
referred to as the Deep or Invisible Web.
One study estimates the size of the Invisible
Web to be 400 to 550 times larger than the
visible Web.
Sites that list these databases include:
Lycos Invisible Web Catalog at
Databases/, IntelliSeek at http://www.intel-
liseek.com and WebData at

Subject Guides are collections of gen-
eral Web pages. They are organized by sub-
ject and are searchable, browseable and
compiled by "experts." These experts do
exhaustive searches of the Web to assemble
guides to a field, subject or discipline.
They are very useful when doing academic
To locate subject guides, use Infomine
at http://infomine.ucr.edu/, and Internet
Scout Project at http://scout.cs.wisc.edu/.

Anyone can put anything on the Web,
and they do. Now that you know how to
find information, how do you judge its reli-
ability? You should be able to evaluate the
content of a website based on its:
Accuracy Currency
Authority Coverage.

The site should identify its source of
information. Clinical or scientific evidence
should be clearly stated. The method of the
research should be described.

The site should include the name of
the institution responsible for the research.
The authors should be listed along with
their credentials.

The site should identify any sponsors of
the research. Look at the URL. The type of
URL it is will disclose sponsorship, bias, and
signal possible conflicts of interest. Refer to
page 7 for the 3-letter URL extensions.


The date of the research and any revi-
sion dates should be clearly posted on the
page. Although this does not guarantee cur-
rency, it can be a good indicator of if and
when the information has been updated.

The scope of the research should be
comprehensive and balanced. Be wary of
one-sided views. The intended audience of
the research should be clear. Look at the
external links selected by the site. The links
should be current and relevant.


Since its inception electronic mail,
or e-mail, has become a vital communica-
tion medium. It may be the most popu-
lar application of the Internet because it
extends and enhances our ability to com-
municate with others. This medium can
be used to accomplish a number of com-
munication tasks. E-mail allows oppor-
tunities to develop personal and profes-
sional contacts with colleagues around
the world that previously would have
been difficult or impossible. Through e-
mail, we can now more easily overcome
barriers of geography to form professional
partnerships based upon common inter-
ests. By using e-mail, it is possible to
broadcast questions, discussion topics,
opinions, documents and more to thou-
sands of colleagues around the world vir-
tually simultaneously.
E-mail encourages informal com-
munication. The ease of quickly typing a
reply to a message and zapping it off
within minutes of receiving the message

that prompted it is a powerful and effi-
cient way to communicate.
Correspondents quickly slip into fre-
quent, informal correspondence using
quickly composed notes and comments
rather than deliberating through the com-
position of a formal hardcopy letter.
However, such ease and informality has
its problems. Therefore, judgment,
restraint, and thoughtfulness are especial-
ly important when communicating elec-
At first glance e-mail appears to be
merely an electronic way to send a memo.
But e-mail is an entirely different way to
communicate with its own benefits and
shortcomings. The conventional format-
ting of paper communication is not nec-
essarily transferred to e-mail. For
instance, the sender's electronic return
address is automatically embedded in the
message, and if a subject is assigned to
the message, it is also included automati-
cally at the very top of the message. This
allows you to concentrate on the content
of the message rather than the form.

The ease and informality of e-mail
can lull you into complacency about what
you say and how you say it. The disci-
pline of composition exercised in hard-
copy communication is often lacking in
e-mail messages. This can work to the
detriment of the parties involved. Don't
be fooled by the ease of firing off a mes-
sage electronically-that message still rep-
resents you to your recipient and it
should represent you well. Since it is so
easy to forward messages to additional
recipients, the intended destination of
your message may not be its final resting-
place. Because you may not know where


your message may eventually end up, it is
best to be judicious in what you say and
either know or trust your recipient. A
good rule of thumb is: Don't send a mes-
sage unless you are willing to have it
appear on the front page of a national
Although original messages are easy
to send, replies are so easy they require
little thought. With the click of a but-
ton, e-mail programs will reverse the
direction of the message and await the
text you enter in response. A few lines
from you, another click of a button, and
it is enroute to its original source. The
receiver cannot see your expression or
hear the tone of your voice. You should
always be aware of to whom, exactly, you
are replying. Often there is one com-
mand that will reply to the sender only
and another command that will reply to
the sender as well as everyone who
received a copy of the message.
Forwarding messages you have
received to other recipients is technically
easy yet fraught with interpersonal peril.
That cute story about the good luck
angel may be charming to you but unbe-
lievably trite to a coworker. Also, the
sender may not want their messages for-
warded to unknown recipients.
Therefore, get permission from the origi-
nal sender before forwarding e-mail mes-
sages because you really have no control
over where the message may eventually
end up. E-mail friendships can be dam-
aged, if not destroyed, by thoughtlessly
forwarding a message in a way that proves
to be embarrassing or harmful.
Two emotions that can get a person
into trouble through e-mail are anger and
humor. Because e-mail correspondence is
so easily accomplished, beware of snap-
ping off an irritated, snippy, insulting or

otherwise objectionable message. What
is too easily sent cannot be taken back
and lives longer in people's memory since
it can be printed. If a message evokes
strong feelings from you, take time before
sending a response to calm down and get
control of your feelings. If after a few
hours or even a day your feelings remain
strong, then respond with full awareness
of how your message may affect the recip-
ient. Likewise be careful of using humor
in e-mail. Face-to-face communication
allows the use of expression and inflexion
to impart subtle humor. This ability is
lost in e-mail although the desire and ten-
dency to use humor in communication
How can you wink or crack a smile
electronically? Do not despair, there is a
way. Typically, sideways smiley faces (;-))
are most commonly used to indicate
humor. There are variations on this that
may be found through a simple Internet
search on "emoticons." The point is to
be explicit when using humor. Don't
leave the recipient of your message guess-
ing whether you're kidding or if you real-
ly think she's an idiot.

Electronic discussion occurs when-
ever a group of users come together to
discuss a particular topic. This can hap-
pen in chat rooms, instant messaging,
and listserv discussion lists. Although
there are several methods of electronic
discussion, the purpose of each method is
to bring together persons of like interests
to share ideas, opinions, problems and
solutions. Generally they get started
because someone decides to offer discus-
sion on a particular topic. Then they
find a networked computer that can
"host" the discussion and put out an


announcement that the discussion group
exists. Interested network users can then
"subscribe" to the discussion. From then
on, any message sent to the discussion is
automatically distributed as e-mail to all
subscribers. When a person initially
requests to subscribe to a listserv list, they
will be sent an e-mail message that con-
tains instructions on how to subscribe
and unsubscribe, suspend (such as when a
person is on vacation and doesn't wish to
have their e-mail box clogged with mes-
sages in their absence), and other useful
information. For every list to which you
subscribe, these instructions should be
printed and retained in a handy place for
future reference.
Listserv lists can be "moderated" or
unmoderatedd." The distinction denotes
whether messages are automatically for-
warded to all subscribers unmoderatedd)
or whether messages are first screened and
may be combined with other similar mes-
sages by a human being before being sent
to subscribers (moderated). All other
things being equal, moderated lists are by
far more useful than unmoderated ones.
When messages are automatically for-
warded it is possible for subscribers to
receive a lot of spurious messages (for
example, replies mistakenly directed at
the list rather than an individual, botched
subscription or unsubscription messages,
or "junk mail" from groups selling prod-
ucts you don't want.).
Electronic discussions can be
extremely useful and professionally
rewarding, but they can also be useless.
They are guaranteed to be time consum-
ing and can consume all of your time if
you let them. Whether they are useful or
useless depends upon a number of vari-
ables, only some of which are under your

Electronic discussions can also be
"open" or "closed." Anyone can subscribe
to an open discussion, whereas a closed
discussion is constrained to a particular
group of persons, such as the Florida
School Nurse Project Email Discussion

This closed discussion list is hosted
by the Pediatric Development and
Behavior Homepage to encourage discus-
sion about education related medical
issues for school nurses. The URL,
gives information regarding the list,
parameters for posting information, sug-
gested discussion topics, and subscription
information. This moderated list is made
possible by support from the Florida
AHEC Network and Florida Diagnostic
Learning Resources Service at the
University of South Florida.

Topica, located at http://www.topi-
ca.com, is a large directory of Internet
discussion groups including mailing lists,
newsgroups, and chat channels. The site
is browseable and searchable. Topica pro-
vides information on how to join the list-
ed lists and also provides useful informa-
tion about list etiquette. Instructions are
provided on how to add a list to the site,
make changes to a list description, and
delete a list. Topica is a highly acclaimed
website that might be useful as a


Identifying relevant resources and web-
sites among the many available on the
Internet can be a bit easier by using
search tools like the search engines men-
tioned in Part I. To help you avoid picking
through the masses of sites of questionable
authority and vested interest that are likely
to result from such a search, the authors
have selected a few respected sites in each of
the following selected subject areas. We
have used the criteria for evaluating web-
sites presented in Part One: accuracy,
authority, objectivity, currency, and cover-
age. Additionally, we evaluated for compre-
hensiveness of the topic, relative ease in
navigation, and regular maintenance. This
is far from a comprehensive list. We intend
only to provide a "Starter Kit" ofwebsites.
We have tried to assure that all the
links presented are stable and accurate as of
the printing of this publication (August
2001). If you find a link that does not
work, please use your new knowledge of
searching the Internet to locate the new
URL or another appropriate site related to
the subject.
A standard record includes the name
of the site on the first line, the sponsor of
the site on the second, a paragraph describ-
ing the features and value of the site, and
the Web address (URL) on the last line. All
named sections of a website are enclosed
within quotation marks. We have noted
non-English language versions of a site at
the end of its annotation.


NCCAM (National Center for
Complementary and Alternative
National Institutes of Health (NIH)

"The National Center for
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
(NCCAM) at the National Institutes of
Health (NIH) is dedicated to exploring com-
plementary and alternative healing practices
in the context of rigorous science; training
CAM researchers; and disseminating author-
itative information." There are four main
sections: "For Consumers and Practitioners"
provides fact sheets, links to related databas-
es, information about research, an informa-
tion clearinghouse, clinical trials informa-
tion, and selected federal links; "For
Investigators" provides information about
research policies, applications and guidelines,
funding opportunities, and research awards
data from 1993 to 2000; "About the
NCCAM" contains extensive information
about the organization including a five year
strategic plan, the annual report, and
employment opportunities; "News and
Events" gives information about meetings,
the organization's newsletter, and press
releases. The site is searchable, easy to navi-
gate, well organized, and frequently updated.

Rosenthal Center for Complementary
and Alternative Medicine
Richard and Hilda Rosenthal Center for
Complementary and Alternative Medicine,
Columbia University, College of Physicians
and Surgeons
Created in 1993, the Rosenthal Center
was one of the first centers at a major med-
ical school devoted specifically to research,
education and training in complementary
and alternative medicine. This site provides
information about the center, past and cur-
rent projects, courses and events, comple-
mentary and alternative medicine links, and
the Carol Ann Schwartz Cancer Education
Initiative, which is worth a look. The site is
searchable, browseable, well organized, and
frequently updated.



Anthrax Threat Information
Florida Department of Health
The first section listed is titled Anthrax
Informational Internet Links and includes
three links: "Investigation of Bioterrorism
Related Anthrax and Adverse Events from
Antimicrobial Prophylaxis;" "Interim
Guidelines for Investigation of and Response
to Bacillus Anthracis Exposures;" and
"Considerations for Distinguishing
Influenza-Like Illness from Inhalational
Anthrax." Immediately following these links
are instructions to also consult the CDC's
bioterrorism site which is the site listed
below. Additional topics include: Anthrax
Informational Internet Links; What You
Need to Know; Drug Information; Public
Health Information; Public Safety Issues;
Training; Contacts; Related Links. The final
topic is World Wide Web Information and
has links to pre-configured searches for
"anthrax" in Yahoo!, Google, Alta Vista, and
Northern Light. Some of this information is
available in Spanish.

Public Health Emergency Preparedness
& Response
U. S. Department of Health & Human
Current featured links are "Anthrax
Information," CDC Health Alerts,
Advisories, and Updates including "CDC
Factsheet: Children and Anthrax: A Fact
Sheet. .." for clinicians and parents, "Media
on Demand (archived webcast)," "United
States Postal Service," "National
Pharmaceutical Stockpile," "The Health Alert
Network (HAN)," "Videos/Satellite
Broadcasts," "Health Agency Locator
(HAL)," and "MMWR Information About
Anthrax and Bioterrorism." Other links pro-

vide "Facts about: Anthrax, Botulism,
Pneumonic Plague, and Smallpox;"
"Frequently Asked Questions;" "CDC's
Initiative;" "Events, Meetings, and
Conferences;" and "Notification Procedures
for State and Local Public Health Officials."
This site is also available "En Espafiol."

Public Health Training Network
U. S. Department of Health & Human
CDC's Public Health Training Network
gives information on CDC's special programs
available via the web including the original
broadcast date as well as the rebroadcast date.
Checklists, factsheets, and technical specifica-
tions pertinent to the broadcasts are viewable
and/or downloadable. Information is also
given about "a series of live distance learning
programs responding to emerging threats to
the public's health. This series uses a mix of
media strategies in an effort to reach the
broadest possible audience." There are links
to past "CDC Responds:" broadcasts, order-
ing information for free videotapes of certain
broadcasts, and "Online Registration" for
selected satellite broadcasts and self-study
courses. Also available is information about
PHTN, dates of video- and audioconferences,
meetings of interest, and PHTN's catalog.

U. S. Food & Drug Administration
This site has three main categories:
General Information, Biological Agents, and
Public Health Initiatives/Actions/
Preparedness. Under General Information
are links to such topics as "Countering
Threats to the Food Supply," "Preparing for
a Bioterrorism Threat," "Medical Response
in Emergencies," FDA congressional testi-
mony on "Safety of U.S. Food Supply," and


"Biodefense Studies" at Johns Hopkins
University and St. Louis University. Also
located under General Information are
Frequently Asked Bioterrorism Questions.
The Biological Agents section has several
links to the topic of Anthrax Information
and also Anthrax Vaccine/Treatments. The
Public Health Initiatives section provides
information about such topics as funds
requested to combat bioterrorism, toxico-
logical research, the White House statement
on "America Responds to Terrorism,"
"Antibiotic Resistance," and "Buying
Medicines Online." Also under this main
topic is a section about "Other Biological
Agents" including "Smallpox, Botulism,
Plague . .," Department of Defense's piece
on "Defending the Military," "U.S. Army
Research," and "Fact Sheets" from Johns
Hopkins University. There is a separate sec-
tion entitled "In The News" that addresses
timely topics such as bogus bioterrorism
products, the difference between the flu and
anthrax, handling suspicious letters, web-
sites selling unapproved Cipro, and other
topics of current interest.

Bioterrorism Resources
American College of Physicians/American
Society of Internal Medicine
This site gives information on
"Therapeutic Recommendations for
Exposure to or Disease Caused by Biological
Weapons," "Images of Cutaneous Anthrax
and its Mimics," "Images of Smallpox and
its Mimics," "Inhalation Anthrax Chest X-
ray," as well as "Quick Facts About" anthrax
and smallpox. Information is provided
about two online bioterrorism courses, one
from The University of Alabama (funded by
the Agency for Healthcare Research and
Quality) and one from the Michigan
Department of Public Health (in coopera-

tion with the CDC). Additional topics
included are: Psychological Resources; News;
Additional Resources; Information for
Patients (including the Association of
Professionals in Infection Control and
Epidemiology's Bioterrorism Readiness Plan
Template to facilitate readiness plans for
institutions), various articles from major
journals, ordering information for an audio-
cassette tape on bioterrorism, a bioterrorism
speakers bureau, and a bibliography to cur-
rent literature regarding bioterrorism. Brief
information is also included on Public Policy
and Advocacy and College Activities.

Center for Civilian Biodefense
Johns Hopkins University, The Alfred P.
Sloan Foundation & The Robert Wood
Johnson Foundation
Topics include: Updated Anthrax
Information; JAMA Consensus Statements
on Anthrax, Botulinum Toxin, Plague,
Smallpox and Tularemia; Concise Diagnostic
Criteria and Treatment Guidelines for vari-
ous bioterrorism agents; Handling Anthrax
Threat Letters; Bioterrorism Preparedness
and Response; FAQs for the General Public
and a report on a bioterrorism exercise held
at Andrew's Airforce Base June 22 & 23,
2001 along with the lessons learned from
that exercise. Congressional testimony on
the threat of bioterrorism (dated Sept. 5,
2001) and FEMA's role in managing bioter-
rorist attacks (dated July 23, 2001) are also
included. There is a featured section on
"Confronting Biological Weapons: a special
section in Clinical Infectious Diseases"
which has a new link entitled "People's Role
in Biodefense." Also, there is a link to an
article from the June 2001 issue of
Biodefense Quarterly about the changing
face of international security.


Bioterrorism Articles
Journal of the American Medical
This is JAMA's site of archived bioter-
rorism-related articles. This list of 90 full-
text articles is organized according to the
following subjects: Anthrax; Smallpox;
Botulinum Toxin; Plague/Yersinia pestis;
Tularemia; Ebola; Brucella; Clinical Articles
and Epidemiologic Investigations;
Preparedness; Policy, Historical and
Editorial Perspectives; and Bioterrorism arti-
cles. There is no charge to print out the arti-

Bioterrorism-Are You Prepared?
UCLA Center for Public Health & Disasters
The materials presented were devel-
oped specifically to help familiarize physi-
cians with: Agents most likely to be used in
a BT attack; Associated signs & symptoms;
Decontamination and infection control;
Treatment; Reporting, Working with gov-
ernmental facilities; and Bioterrorism-related
information resources. Training materials
include: PowerPoint slide presentation;
Frequently asked questions; Links to other
resources; A list of bioterrorism-related jour-
nal articles. The materials were developed
with input and support from the California
Department of Health Services and CDC.

Center for the Study of Bioterrorism &
Emerging Infections
Saint Louis University School of Public
This well organized and easily search-
able web site has the following new features:
"The WHO Big Red Book on Smallpox;"
"CDC Interim Plan for Responding to
Smallpox;" "Procedures for Collecting
Surface Environmental Samples for

Culturing Bacillus anthracis; "Free Resources
from McGraw-Hill Education" which
include links to pertinent topics from
Harrison's Online, the e-book The Post-
Traumatic Stress Disorder Sourcebook, and a
variety of other links relevant to different
aspects of bioterrorism education including
self-studies, conferences, and free satellite
broadcasts; "US Army Medical Command,
Bio/Chemical Terrorism Satellite Broadcast;"
and "Clinical slide presentations on primary
bioterrorism agents." Other features include
Quick References (fact sheets, slide presenta-
tions, commercial products, etc.), mission
statement, a "comprehensive" bibliography
on bioterrorism, current research projects at
CSB&EI, news (updated weekly) related to
bioterrorism and emerging infections, key
references, a chronology of congressional tes-
timony and presidential remarks, case stud-
ies, emergency reporting procedures and a
hotline number, available education and
training, and links to government, private
and academic resources available online.

AHA Disaster Readiness
American Hospital Association (AHA)
This area of the American Hospital
Association's website provides access to the
latest news and information concerning dis-
aster readiness. A "key issues" section
explains the importance of disaster readiness
and links to partner websites and readiness
resources. A "what's new" section links to the
latest information from the Department of
Health and Human Resources as well as
AHA headlines. The "AHA advocacy" section
lists member advisories, updates and AHA
and government reports. Links to "readiness
resources" are geared towards the interests of
federal, state and local governments, hospitals


and health professionals. A "calendar" sec-
tion lists upcoming education and training
opportunities. Final reports on readiness
efforts and obstacles faced can be found
under "lessons learned." They include natu-
ral disasters as well as various scenario based
studies. Also available are links to relevant
published reports and websites. A list of
"Hotlines" and "Helplines" are included.

National Association of County and
City Health Officials (NACCHO)
National Association of County and City
Health Officials (NACCHO)
This nonprofit organization represents
and serves over 3,000 health departments
nationwide. The NACCHO is committed to
keeping the public informed about the role
of local public health agencies in responding
to an act of terrorism. The Homepage links
to a "NACCHO Responds to Bioterrorism"
page which includes NACCHO statements,
testimony, program activities, publications,
"best practices," links to news articles,
upcoming events and links to useful bioter-
rorism websites. A "Bioterrorism and
Emergency Response Plan Clearinghouse"
synthesizes the different elements of existing
planning tools and makes them available to
health officials who are developing guidance
documents and protocols for their jurisdic-
tion. Various programs and reports can be
found in the "Bookstore" and are available
for purchase. "NACCHO Tools" lists various
software based assessment tools. "Programs"
links to numerous activities in support of
local health departments. "Public Health
Advocacy" links to resolutions concerning
public health, letters to Congress, fact sheets,
testimony and additional online resources. A
"Legislative Action Center" contains a
searchable database of elected officials and
also links to important issues, recent votes,

current legislation and a guide to the media.
"Congress Today" lists the schedules for the
house, senate and committee hearings.

Medical NBC (Nuclear, Biological and
Chemical) Online Information Server
Office of the Surgeon General
This site was developed specifically for
US Army Medical Personnel, but it contains
bioterrorism information relevant to all
healthcare professionals. The homepage
highlights current bioterrorism publications
and documents concerning emergency pre-
paredness. A scrolling screen links to several
full-text handbooks like, The Medical
Management of Biological Casualties 4th
ed. c2001. Under "What's New" and
"Calendar" information can be found on
current and upcoming bioterrorism confer-
ences, symposia and meetings. "News" links
to full-text newspaper articles and "Medical
References" contains comprehensive links to
Internet resources, briefings, online manu-
als, publications, reports, software and a
glossary. "Training" contains available videos
and training courses.

Federal Emergency Management
See under "Health Care
Administration" for a full description of this
website. Includes coverage of anthrax,
bioterrorism preparedness and response as
well as news articles on assistance.

Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare
Health Sciences Library, The State
University of New York at Buffalo
Lists current resources on the medical
aspects of biological warfare. Includes select-
ed textbooks and reports, periodicals and


organizational websites.

Florida Medical Association Hot Topics
Florida Medical Association
contains many links including archived epi-
demiology updates and webcasts from the
CDC and several CME courses online. The
site includes contact information for terror-
ist and other disasters specific to Florida,
including the Red Cross and FBI. There are
links to press releases, journal articles and
resources, and guidelines available from
other organizations. You will want to have
Adobe Acrobat Reader to access information
presented in PDF format.

MEDLINEplus: Biological and Chemical
National Library of Medicine
This section of the NLM consumer health
website has many links to current topics and
reputable sources. Contents include: latest
news, general overview, alternative therapy,
coping, pictures, prevention and screening,
specific conditions, directories, organizations
and information for specific populations --
children and teenagers. There are links to
tutorials, which require plugins, and PDF
files, which require Adobe Acrobat Reader.
A link to the MEDLINE database will
enable searches to be run on specific agents,
infectious diseases, disaster preparedness,
poisoning, toxicology and environmental
health topics. The site is regularly updated.
Some information is available in Spanish.

APIC: Bioterrorism Resources
Association for Professionals in Infection
Control and Epidemiology
The goal of this organization is to pre-
vent infections and adverse outcomes. In
addition to fact sheets on specific bioterror-
ism agents, there is information on the
"Economic Impact of a Bioterrorism
Attack," and the "Epidemiology,"
"Identification and Diagnosis," and
"Management and Treatment" of infections,
"Threat of Bioterrorism" and "Vaccination."
Two sections, "Readiness Planning" (which
includes checklists and downloadable strate-
gic plans) and "Scenarios," provide opportu-
nities for users to respond to situations.
"Resources and Reference" includes wall
charts on agents, manuals, links to newslet-
ters (including the Homeland Security
newsletter) and education courses.

Health Aspects of Biological &
Chemical Weapons
World Health Organization
This is WHO's contribution to
informing the public. It includes: the latest
press releases from WHO, FAQ's about bio-
logical and chemical agents as well as links
to other relevant information from WHO,
which gives a broader perspective than just
the US. Information includes reference man-
uals and training materials in addition to
sections on "Diseases in the News," "The
WHO technical guide: Public health
response to biological and chemical
weapons: WHO guidance. 2nd edition,
2001," "Chemical incidents & emergen-
cies," "Radiation accidents and emergencies"
and "Endemic diseases."
http://www.who.int/emc/deliberate epi.html


Clinical trials are research studies in which
new treatments drugs, diagnostics, proce-
dures, vaccines, and other therapies are
tested on patient volunteers.

National Institutes of Health (NIH),
National Library of Medicine (NLM) and
the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
This site is consumer-oriented contain-
ing current information about clinical
research studies. It is a very comprehensive
site for clinical trials that offer patients alter-
native treatments. It is searchable by dis-
ease, location, treatment or sponsor. New
clinical trials from the pharmaceutical indus-
try are added regularly. "What's New" con-
tains information about Medicare coverage
and clinical trials. The "Frequently Asked
Questions" link, located on the "About"
page, includes information patients should
seek when deciding whether or not to par-
ticipate in a clinical trial. Help screens)
guide you in searching the database while
links take you to other NLM resources for

Clinical or practice guidelines are defined as
"user-friendly statements that bring together
the best external evidence and other knowl-
edge necessary for decision-making about a
specific health problem." (Sackett, DL et
al), Evidence-based Medicine: how to practice
and teach EBM. New York: Churchill
Livingston, 1997.)

US National Guideline Clearinghouse
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
(AHRQ), American Medical Association

(AMA) and American Association of Health
Plans (AAHP)
This comprehensive database of evi-
dence-based clinical practice guidelines and
related documents is searchable by disease,
treatment, or organization that developed
the guidelines. Resources have been selected
from peer-reviewed journal literature and
from non-journal sources. For some dis-
eases/interventions, there is a synthesis of the
guidelines. "Compare Guidelines" provides
side-by-side, item-by-item comparisons of

Primary Care Clinical Practice
Developed by Peter Sam, MD at the
University of California, San Francisco
School of Medicine.
This comprehensive site has links to
guidelines beyond those available from the
National Guidelines Clearinghouse. They
can be searched by disease, body system,
treatments and symptoms. The alphabetic
listing is browseable. There is a listing of the
top twenty-five diagnoses most commonly
seen in primary care. "Introduction"
includes information on methods for guide-
line development and evidence-based medi-
cine. The site provides links to cross-cultur-
al health, teaching and patient information
resources. The site is easy to read, easy to
navigate, and updated no less than monthly.
All references are well documented.


National Library of Medicine


Health professionals will find this a
useful source for patient education informa-
tion. "Health Topics" are arranged alphabeti-
cally and by broad subject groups. The
information on each health topic includes
news, general overview, clinical trials, diag-
nosis/symptoms, disease management, pre-
vention, treatment, print publications avail-
able, organizations, statistics, special effects
in particular age groups and resources in
Spanish. Frequently searched topics are
highlighted. There are interactive modules
for some diseases, conditions, tests, proce-
dures and treatments. Links to "PubMED"
run searches of the topic to retrieve current
journal articles. "Dictionaries" include sever-
al medical dictionaries. The Adam.com
medical encyclopedia can be searched by dis-
ease, injury, nutrition, poison, special topics,
surgery, symptoms, and tests. "Drug
Information" for over 9,000 prescription and
over-the-counter medications is searchable
or browseable by either generic or trade
name. Newly-approved FDA drugs and
FDA warnings are included.

NOAH : New York Online Access to
Brooklyn Public Library, City University of
New York (CUNY), Metropolitan New York
Library Council, New York Academy of
Medicine, New York Public Library, New
York State Library and Queens Borough
Public Library
NOAH is an extensive list of health
topics. Additions and updates are clearly
marked, along with the month they were
added. Each topic has basic information
such as diagnosis, symptoms and specific
concerns. Some discuss treatment. There are
extensive links to other resources from each
topic. A list of reputable resources for drugs,

support groups and statistics are available.
Spanish version available.

Department of Health and Human Services
A gateway to health information pro-
duced by the federal government with useful
links to health-related organizations and to
the twenty most frequently searched topics,
current health news, and "Smart Choices"
information about prevention techniques,
health care fraud, making complaints, and
identifying reliable providers. Searchable by
keyword. Spanish version available.


National Conference of State Legislatures,
Resources for Cross Cultural Health Care,
and Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation
On this site one can learn about lan-
guage and cultural competence in health
care, design better programs and policies,
and network with colleagues and experts.
While the site is updated infrequently, it
contains comprehensive information on
essentials, models and practices, policy, legal
issues, and networking. Subscription infor-
mation is available for a quarterly newsletter
about cultural and linguistic competency.

The Cross Cultural Health Care Program
Cross Cultural Health Care Program, Seattle,
This site provides information on
recent news, articles and facts related to cross
cultural health, books and resources, training


programs, medical interpreter services,
translation services, and research programs.
There is a searchable library in the section
on books and resources along with links to
other cultural competence resources.


Oral Health Resources
CDC (National Center for Chronic Disease
Prevention and Health Promotion)
Contains detailed information about
water fluouridation, infection control in
dentistry, children's oral health research and
surveillance efforts, and oral cancer. Also
included are links to the National Oral
Health Surveillance System (NOHSS) and
Oral Health in America, a report of the
Surgeon General. Sample purchasing speci-
fications for Medicaid Pediatric Dental and
Oral Health Services are available.

American Dental Association (ADA)
American Dental Association
This is an excellent site for oral health
information. For the health professional, it
features the section "Tools for your
Practice" and covers topics like insurance,
licensure and practice management.
Continuing education, career resources, leg-
islative and regulatory issues, discussion
forums and professional meetings are also
covered. For the consumer, a directory of
oral health topics from A-Z is available.
Each topic includes "Frequently Asked
Questions" about the subject, an informa-
tive news feature on the topic called an
"ADA Dental Minute," plus ADA news
releases if available for the subject.


Hardin Meta Directory of Internet
Health Sources
Hardin Library for the Health Sciences,
University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA
This is a directory of authoritative,
unbiased websites on health topics and dis-
eases health that have been evaluated before
their inclusion in this 'list of lists.' The index
indicates the number of large, medium and
small lists on each subject. Multi-subject lists
used in Hardin MD include MedWeb,
Medmark, Yahoo:Health, Karolinska
Institute's MIC-KIBIC MeSH Index,
Medical Matrix, Martindale's Health Science
Guide, Tward's Multimedia Medical
Reference Library, and EiNet Galaxy. Links
are checked regularly. The section "YAWN
for Health" identifies new health sites on the
Internet by the date they are introduced.
There are links to free full-text medical jour-
nals that are available on the Web. Searchable
and browseable by subject.
National Center for Biotechnology
Information, National Library of Medicine
The PubMed database provides biblio-
graphic access to citations to citations from
MEDLINE and life science journals from
1960-present. A search identifies citations to
articles on a topic, including the author, article
title, journal title, publication date and page
numbers. Many citations have abstracts that
summarize the articles, not necessarily the full-
text of the article. As PubMed develops, links
to some full-text articles and related resources
are being added. This database is useful for
finding journal articles on an aspect of a dis-
ease, a treatment, or other topic. To become
proficient, you may want to take a class or a


tutorial. Two useful tutorials are available on
the Web at:
bMed2/index.html and
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/pubmed tutori-
al/ml001.html. When the journal you have
identified is not available locally, individuals
can subscribe to a service called Loansome
DOC to facilitate the requesting and obtain-
ing of materials. To use Loansome DOC, you
must have an agreement with a medical
library. Information about this service can be
found under "Order Documents."

University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center
The most recognized site for this dis-
ease, information for patients, and providers
including "Types of cancer," "Cancer treat-
ments," "Coping with Cancer," "Cancer
Causes, Screening, and Prevention,"
"Clinical Trials," "Global Resources for
Cancer Information," "Cancer FAQs,"
"Symptom Management," "Financial
Issues," "Conferences and Meetings," "Book
Reviews and Recommended Reference List."
"Cutting Edge Cancer Research" highlights
treatment with great promise but not yet
being used with patients. Listen to lectures
in the virtual classroom that requires Real
Player. Very easy to navigate.


Domestic Violence: National Directory
of Professional Services
Criminal Justice Initiative (CJI), Open
Society Institute
This site provides information on
domestic violence services in the areas of
social services, criminal justice, health care,

and the business community. The health
care section has sections on "Children Who
Witness Battering," "Prevention,"
"Mandatory Reporting," "Diagnosis and
Treatment," "Guidelines," "Medical
Education," and "Payment." The Directory
can be searched by organization name, state,
and alphabetic index.

National Coalition Against Domestic
National Coalition Against Domestic
This site provides a definition of
domestic violence, information about com-
munity responses, methods for getting help,
various projects undertaken by the organiza-
tion, resources, and links to related sites.
While this site is not focused exclusively on
health care, it provides comprehensive infor-
mation on the problem of domestic violence.

While many websites list job opportunities,
these two sites are devoted exclusively to jobs
in medically underserved areas.

Florida AHEC Network Health Careers
Employment Database
Florida AHEC Network, Florida
Department of Health, Florida Association
of Community Health Centers
This site allows free searches for Florida
job opportunities, free and confidential regis-
tration of applicants, and free job listings for


This searchable site provides listings
for health care positions, particularly in
rural and medically underserved areas.
Searching for positions is free, and the site
accepts no banner advertisements. No per-
sonal information is collected nor is registra-
tion required prior to searching job listings.


Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Protection Agency
Browseable by geographic level (tribal,
local, state), by program area (wastes &
recycling, pesticides, water, air, endocrine
disruptors, microbiology) and by informa-
tion source (listservs, dockets, hotlines,
clearinghouses, test methods, models,
regional and laboratory libraries, EPA tech-
nical and public publications). Links on
present laws and proposed legislation/regula-
tions. "Your Community" retrieves environ-
mental information on a specified zip code.

National Institute of Environmental
Health Sciences
National Institutes of Health
Training, education, jobs and funding
information. Links to the National
Torcology Program and its Center for the
E~an asion of Risks to Human
Il~roduction, Worker Education and
T~tiiirn Program for those working with
tni.s~ sasRWces, the National Center for
tl inies, and Environmental
tmme IP~3j at. Pamphlets, factsheets,
p-rs iilm, dltavbas~s, and a rich library of
lihWbt aia dlmis~es publications for profes-
siWi~ a tt~le :y-w' -0 1' public. Some infor-

mation is available in Spanish.

National Environmental Data Index
Mounted and maintained by the National
Oceanographic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA)
One-stop searching through environ-
mental databases from the Departments of
Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Energy,
Transportation and the Interior, including
U.S. Geological Survey, the Patent and
Trademark Office, Census Bureau, Federal
Emergency Management Agency (FEMA),
National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA), Library of
Congress, National Institute of Standards
and Technology (NIST) and National
Science Foundation (NSF). Plans for the
site include expansion to similar information
on an international scale.


World Wide Web Virtual Library -
Epidemiology (Public Health,
Biosciences, Medicine)
University of California at San Francisco
Clearly organized epidemiology links
organized by categories such as cardiovascu-
lar, molecular, and behavioral.
Epidemiological computing information,
newsgroups and mailing lists.

National Institute of Allergy and
Infectious Disease (NIAID)
NIH's National Institute of Allergy and
Infectious Disease (NIAID)
News, contact information for key


individuals, an alphabetic list of publica-
tions by topic, a calendar of events, jobs,
grants and contracts information, links to
divisions researching specific types of infec-
tions and procedures.


Firstgov: Your First Click to the Federal
United States Government
This government portal provides one-
stop access to all online U.S. Government
resources from researching at the Library of
Congress to tracking a NASA mission,
applying for student loans, tracking Social
Security benefits, comparing Medicare
options, and administering government
grants and contracts. In addition to a
lengthy table of contents in the left frame,
the site can be searched by topic. The section
"First Time User" introduces efficient use of
the site including specific features, naviga-
tion, tools, descriptions of file formats and
plug-ins, and settings for the best view.
"Healthy People" features links to statistics,
Healthfinder (see CONSUMER HEALTH),
insurance choices and links to disease infor-
mation. Navigating within the site, particu-
larly back to the homepage, can be challeng-

Thomas: Legislative Information on the
Library of Congress
Named after Thomas Jefferson, this site
provides searchable information about the
U.S. Congress and the legislative process.
Search bills by number or keyword, bill sum-
mary and status, bill text and the Public Law

number for enacted legislation. Search and
read the Congressional Record for the 101st
through the 107th Congresses. Committee
reports can be searched by topic or commit-
tee name for both the House and the Senate.
The week's anticipated schedule of activities
and directories for both are available.

United States Department of Health
and Human Services (DHHS)
United States Department of Health and
Human Services (DHHS)
This is the portal to agencies under the
DHHS umbrella, including Administration
for Children and Families, Administration
on Aging, Agency for Healthcare Research
and Quality, Agency for Toxic Substances
and Disease Registry, Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, Food and Drug
Administration, Health Resources and
Services Administration, Indian Health
Service, National Institutes of Health, and
the Substance Abuse and Mental Health
Services Administration. It is searchable, has
a "News" section, grant and employment
news, and links to sites on specific topics
like adolescents and organ donation. Can
search all HHS sites at one time.

US State and Local Gateway
United States Government
This site was developed to give stare
and local governments easy access to federal
information. It is rich with links and
descriptions of procedures. All levels of gov-
ernment are involved. It is easy to learn
what different states are working on. You
can search by state and get maps for demo-
graphic and economic information down to
the county level.



Florida Department of Health
State of Florida
The Florida Department of Health's mis-
sion is "to protect the health and safety of all
Floridians." This site provides information
about the services provided at Florida County
Health Departments and covers a host of sub-
jects like AIDS/HIV, aquatic toxin health con-
cerns, beach water quality, biomedical waste,
body piercing, children's medical services, dia-
betes control program, emergency medical
services, migrant farm workers, pesticide poi-
soning and much more. Also provided is
information regarding vital records, health sta-
tistics, practitioner profiles for medical, osteo-
pathic, podiatric and chiropractic physicians,
and the regulation of health care practitioners,
from acupuncturists to speech language

Florida Association of Community
Health Centers
Florida Association of Community Health
The Florida Association of Community
Health Centers is the leading state advocate
for community-based health care programs.
This site lists all Florida Community Health
Center organizational members. The list
contains detailed profiles of the member site
and can be accessed by an alphabetic list or
by clicking on the appropriate geographic
location on the map of Florida provided.
Featured on this site is the Association's quar-
terly newsletter Health Beat. A "Calendar"
lists upcoming events and "Important Links"
lists websites of related interest. Information
about the Association and its board members
is also available.This site is only completely
visible on Internet Explorer

State of Florida
This is the official website for the state
of Florida. It provides easy access to state
information, including business and indus-
try, education, health, family and elders,
public safety, tourism, legislative updates and
more. Pull down menus make it easy to
locate state agencies. "E-government
Services" are listed and include driver licens-
es, fishing and hunting licenses, corpora-
tions, and high tech jobs. The site is also

State of Florida.com
Livingston North Communications
Run by a non-government entity, this
site provides useful and timely information
about Florida, including Florida government
and facts. Subjects of interest to Floridians
include Web listings of state agencies, cities
and counties, doing business in Florida,
labor and employment, colleges and univer-
sities, newspapers, education, senior guide,
Web cams and much more. One of the
most comprehensive lists of Florida websites


A good starting point for locating peo-
ple or businesses. It claims more than 400
links from over 170 countries, has directo-
ries of people and business listings by name,
address or number with reverse look-up pos-
sible. Also includes e-mail addresses, coun-
try and area codes, U.S. federal and state
government directories. Links to sites on


world climate, time, and international
hone rates.

Maps.com (formerly Magellan Geographix)
National and world maps and map
concepts for education, government, busi-
ness and personal interest/recreational enjoy-
ment (driving directions and trip planning).
Includes topographic maps, mapping soft-
ware, measurement and currency converters,
weather center and maps, world and U.S.
factbooks and a world time zone map.

DIRLINE Directory of Health
Organizations Online
National Library of Medicine
This is a searchable database of health
organizations. Information can be limited
by location or services such as toll-free
hones and hearing-impaired services.


There are many agencies that work with the
elderly and have links to relevant informa-
tion on their websites. Most of it is con-
sumer oriented. The two sites listed below
are good for health professionals. Consider
also looking under the particular diseases,
such as Alzheimer's or osteoporosis.

HARDIN MD Geriatrics, Gerontology,
& Geriatric Health
Hardin Library for the Health Sciences,
University of Iowa
This "list of lists" for aging is part of
the Hardin MD megasite (see DISEASES).

Merck Manual of Geriatrics
Edited by Mark H. Beers, M.D and Robert
Berkow, M.D. Internet edition provided by
Medical Services, USMEDSA, USHH.
This comprehensive, 134-chapter text-
book providing clinical information on the
care and treatment of diseases in the elderly
was designed to be interdisciplinary. It can
be read cover-to-cover or searched topically
and has a browseable index. Features include
laboratory values and their effects with
aging, a listing of commonly-used drugs by
generic and trade name, and a resource list
with names, addresses and links of national
associations related to aging.
http://www.merck.com/pubs/mm geriatrics/


The Foundation Center
The Foundation Center
This site provides information to pro-
mote an understanding of philanthropy and
help grant seekers achieve success. Not all of
the information on the site is freely accessi-
ble. The Philanthropy News Digest is available
online. Under "Finding Funders," there are
two searchable databases: "Grant Maker
Websites" and "Foundation Finder." "Grant
Maker Websites" contains links to granting
agencies and is searchable by the topic for
which funding is being sought.
"Foundation Finder" is a free, searchable
directory providing contact information and
basic fiscal profiles for U.S. private and com-
munity foundations.

U.S. Department of Health and Human
An overview of the federal government
grants program for DHHS, this site provides


help to find funding opportunities, explain
the application process and manage grants.
It is useful to grant seekers and grant makers
including state and local governments.


Health Resources and Services
U.S. Department of Health and Human
Information on HRSA's primary pro-
grams for the underprivileged and medically
underserved, including various minorities'
health, HIV/AIDS, and rural health issues.
Links to HRSA's Managed Care, Quality
and Public Health Practice Centers. "Data
and Statistics" allows you to profile states for
demographic and program statistics.

Agency for Healthcare Research and
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
Sections for clinicians, consumers and
policymakers, and on children's, women's
and minorities' health. Information on fund-
ing opportunities, news stories, research
findings and quality assessment. "Data and
Surveys" includes Medical Expenditure Panel
Survey (MEPS), Healthcare Cost and
Utilization Program (HCUP and
HCUPNet), HIV & AIDS Costs & Use.
"Quick Menu" contains "Prevention
Services," "Outcomes," "Technology
Assessments," "Policy Notices" and
"Medical Errors."

Federal Emergency Management Agency
Basic and advanced search functions, a
hot-topics list, mapping functions, training
materials and schedules, a library of pictures
and documents. Covers prevention, prepara-
tion and management. Excellent user help
and alphabetic list. Some information avail-
able in Spanish.


HIV/AIDS Information
National Library of Medicine's Specialized
Information Services
A gateway site to NLM AIDS databas-
es and tutorials. AIDSLINE provides cita-
tions to AIDS research, clinical aspects and
health policy issues; and the meeting
abstracts from AIDS-related meetings,
conferences and symposia, newsletters and
special AIDS journals. The links to other
government, non-government and
International information are valuable.
Includes links to the ACTIS and ATIS sites
described below.

AIDS Clinical Trials Information Service
U.S. Department of Health and Human
Information about clinical trials that
evaluate experimental drug treatments for
people of all ages at all stages of HIV/AIDS.
Information on vaccine trials for HIV pre-
vention. Descriptions of drugs used in trials,
including synonyms for the name (including
trade names and the standard chemical
name), pharmacology, contraindications,
adverse reactions, manufacturer, and physi-


cal/chemical properties. Links to HIV/AIDS
databases and websites. Spanish version

HIV/AIDS Treatment Information
Service (ATIS)
A U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services project managed by the National
Library of Medicine
This sister site to ACTIS features fed-
erally-approved treatment guidelines for
HIV and a very comprehensive directory of
HIV/AIDS websites. Contact information
for multilingual health information special-
ists who are available by phone to answer
questions on HIV treatment options. Some
information available in Spanish.

AEGIS (AIDS Education Global
Information System)
Unrestricted financial support provided by
Boehringer Ingelheim
Presumably the largest HIV/AIDS site
in the world, with information updated
hourly. Has a very long table of contents
which includes basic information, preven-
tion, exposure and living with AIDS issues;
links to new services and court cases; patient
and professional information; chat and dis-
cussion groups; reference materials and spe-
cial features for newly diagnosed individuals.




National Institute of Mental Health
National Institutes of Health (NIH), a com-
ponent of the US Department of Health
and Human Services
This site covers mental health issues
including, depression, anxiety disorders,
Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit disor-
der, schizophrenia and more. There are
links to current news articles, clinical trials,
funding opportunities and upcoming events.
"For the Public" features fact sheets on vari-
ous mental health topics, statistics and
research. "For the Practitioner" includes
patient education materials, upcoming con-
ference information, literature alerts and
research reports. "For the Researcher"
focuses on funding opportunities, research
training, policies, statistics and employment
opportunities. Some information available
in Spanish.

American Psychiatric Association (APA)
American Psychiatric Association (APA)
This is the official website of the APA.
A pull down menu allows easy access to the
various sections of the site. These sections
include current news, public policy advoca-


cy, clinical resources, research resources,
public information, medical education, prac-
tice of psychiatry, governance, library and
publications, schedule of events, psychiatric
news, and links to other organizations. Each
section is comprehensive in scope. For
example, "Public Information" includes links
to APA fact sheets, "Let's Talk Facts" pam-
phlet series, information on choosing a psy-
chiatrist, medications as well as community
outreach. The site is keyword searchable.


Worldwide Nurse, LLC
This site is a directory of nursing-spe-
cific sites on the Web, covering topics from
boards of nursing and associations to contin-
uing education, employment and nursing
literature. The site features links to current
nursing news articles and online nursing dis-
cussion lists. "What's New" links to recently
added websites and "What's Cool" lists pop-
ular nursing sites. The site is also fully

Nursing World
American Nurses Association, Inc (ANA)
This is the official website of the
American Nurses Association. It features
access to the full text of The American Nurse,
the ANA's official newspaper. The site links
to constituent member associations, affiliate
organizations, employment, continuing edu-
cation online, government affairs, workplace
advocacy, position statements, email discus-
sion lists, ethics and human rights and
health and safety. It also links to the full

text of Online Journal of Issues in Nursing.


American Dietetic Association (ADA)
American Dietetic Association
Food and nutrition information is
presented in-depth. The website includes
a daily tip and a feature article. "Healthy
Lifestyle" includes nutrition fact sheets,
health campaigns, reading lists and
"Dieting for Dummies" section.
"Knowledge Center" contains lists of books
and nutrition resources as well as informa-
tion on careers in dietetics and gateway links
to related websites.

Tutfs University Nutrition Navigator
Tufts University School of Nutrition Science
and Policy. Underwritten by a grant from
Kraft Foods, Inc.
This is a very comprehensive directory
of nutrition websites covering such topics as
weight loss, nutrition management, food
safety, sports nutrition, and vitamins and
minerals. Each indexed site is evaluated by a
nutritionist, contains a brief review and is
rated numerically. An explanation of the
ratings system is included. Site reviews and
ratings are updated quarterly. The websites
are categorized by intended audience and
include educators, kids, parents, health pro-
fessionals, special dietary needs and women.
"Hot Topics" highlights new entries and
improvements made to the site. "News" cov-
ers commentary on nutrition news, policy
and trends.


National Food Safety Information Network
Contains information from federal
agencies and state and local governments.
Consumer information, including teen and
teacher-oriented materials; instructions for
reporting illnesses and lodging product com-
plaints; information on food-borne
pathogens, industry assistance, and the
National Food Safety Initiative. Links to
federal, state & local agencies, and "other
topics" (alcoholic beverages, food irradiation,
health professional education and publica-
tions, food laws & regulations, etc.).
Extensive FAQs. Links to documents in lan-
guages other than English, including


American College of Obstetricians and
Gynecologists (ACOG)
American College of Obstetricians and
Gynecologists (ACOG)
News releases, articles on adolescent and
underserved women and on government
affairs, a list of post-graduate and computer-
based courses, information on Medicare cod-
ing and quality assessment programs, a link to
National Fetal and Infant Mortality Review
Program (NFIMR). A searchable archive of
monthly patient education pamphlets that
have been featured on the homepage. Also a
directory of member physicians and a book-
store with "secure" online ordering for profes-
sional multimedia and patient education

Sponsored by Ferring Pharmaceuticals,
Organon, Schering, ACMI, Olympus, and
Separate sections for medical profes-
sionals, medical industry professionals and
consumers. Links to the International
Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics
(FIGO), "Endometriosis Zone" and a
descriptive, linked list of relevant discussion
lists. Features include an acronym expander,
alphabetic links on "Conditions and
Procedures," an alphabetic, descriptive list of
peer-reviewed ob/gyn journals, and a ven-
dor's list searchable by name or product cat-
egory and limitable by distribution or ven-
dor area. "Gold Services" include access to
Medline and the Cochrane Library for
health care professionals. Spanish,
Portuguese, Dutch and German versions.


Harriet Lane WWW Links
Johns Hopkins University
An edited collection of reviewed and
rated pediatric resources (over 5,000 links)
on the Web. There are several options for
searching. A directory lists sites by cate-
gories. A title search allows up to six words
to be entered and searched. A full-text
search searches the actual text of the links in
the database. A limiting feature allows you
to narrow a search to sites that are only
intended for health professionals, contain no
advertisements and are English language


American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)
American Academy of Pediatrics
This is the official website of the
AAP. "What's New" contains information
on grants, continuing medical education,
proposal writing and professional meetings.
"Current News from the AAP" focuses on
current news items as they relate to infants,
children, adolescents and young adults.
"Immunization" contains public service
announcements, brochures, fact sheets, news
letters and video clips that can be down-
loaded. Advocacy, research, education and
publications are also covered. "You and Your
Family" contains many useful links for fami-
lies regarding topics like sleepwear, sports,
safety, and injury prevention.

See also Primary Care Clinical Practice
Guidelines in the PRACTICE GUIDE-
LINES section.

Bureau of Primary Health Care
U.S. Department of Health and Human
This site is searchable by name of pro-
gram, topic, or keyword. There is an exten-
sive list of links to other primary care sites as
well as a list of on-site resources on such top-
ics as access to healthcare, cultural compe-
tency, poverty guidelines, patient education,
and other issues of interest. Information is
provided for primary care physicians who are
serving the underserved, underserved com-
munities, and how to find primary care serv-
ices. An organizational chart provides links
to related government agencies.


AAFP (American Academy of Family
American Academy of Family Physicians
This site is the official site of the
national association of family doctors.
Previously known as the American Academy
of General Practice, the name changed in
1971 to more accurately reflect the delivery
of primary health care. The site is searchable
and browseable and contains sections on
Family Practice, Clinical Information, CME,
Practice Management, AAFP information,
Products and Services, Publications, and
Career Opportunities. "Patient" provides a
link to www.familydoctor.org which is a site
containing health information for the whole
family including health information hand-
outs, drug information, self-care flowcharts,
herbal and alternative remedies, and a sec-
tion in Spanish.


Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC)
U.S. Department of Health and Human
Possibly the most massive government-
sponsored maze on the Internet. The riches
in this site reward the effort of exploring and
noting the path to a useful page. Includes the
electronic journals Morbidity and Mortality
Weekly Report and Emerging Infectious Diseases
(MMWR and EID Journal, respectively), pre-
vention guidelines, an alphabetic list of links
on health topics, announcements of reports
and upcoming events, annotated lists of


grants and cooperative agreements, and
"About CDC" -a linked list of agencies
within the CDC. "Data and Statistics" con-
tains CDC Wonder ("a single point-of-access
to a wide variety of CDC reports, guidelines
and numeric public health data"); HAZDAT
(Hazardous Substance Release/Health Effects
database); WISQARS (Web-based Injury
Statistics Query and Reporting System); reg-
istries and surveillance reports on cancer,
STDs, TB, pregnancy and birth; the
National Center for Health Statistics and
CLIA (Clinical Laboratory Improvement
Amendment) regulations and lab standardi-
zation programs. "Publications, Software and
Products" links to pertinent documents and
downloadable epidemiologic and training
materials, including the Public Health Image
Library, a collection of free images and mul-
timedia files searchable or browseable in
three main categories. Some information
available in Spanish.

Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA)
U.S. Department of Labor
Includes OSHA regulations, interpre-
tation letters, inspection data, documents on
health issues for specific industries from var-
ious sources (CDC, NIOSH), an archive of
ergonomic standards and a Workers' Page
with information on rights and responsibili-
ties, how to file a complaint, and links to
resources. "Library" contains Hazard
Information Bulletins and OSHA Manuals.
"Outreach" addresses evaluation, controls
and training.

Healthy People
Office of Disease Prevention and Health
Promotion, U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services
Resource lists for each of the "Leading
Health Indicators" and publications, includ-
ing statistics from the National Center for
Health Statistics and the "Healthy People
Toolkit," which contains guides and other
documents in PDF format designed to facil-
itate carrying out the state-specific "Healthy
People 2010" plans.

Public Health Software, Websites &
Internet Resources in the Public
Delta Omega Alpha Honorary Society at
Johns Hopkins University School of
Hygiene and Public Health along with the
American Public Health Association's
Computer Software Exchange and
Computer Theater
A compendium of selected download-
able public-domain (no copyright issues)
software, websites and documents useful
to public health professionals. Links for
distance education. Updated annually after
the American Public Health Association
annual meeting.



National Rural Health Association
National Rural Health Association
This site provides current news of rural
health, membership information, news of
educational opportunities, publications and
resources, rural health research, and links to
related sites. There is also a link to recent
website updates for visitors who may not
visit often. This site is very useful for public
policy and legislative information regarding
rural health in America.

Migrant Health Program
Bureau of Primary Health Care
This site provides comprehensive infor-
mation on the program, its mission, activi-
ties, appropriations, publications, etc. The
section on Additional Information actually
seems to provide more information pertinent
to the issues surrounding migrant workers in


The Internet for School Nurses
Developed by Jama Chorush, MLS and
Dolores Zegar Judkins, MLS at Oregon
Health Sciences University Library in part-
nership with Multnomah Education Service
District Department of School Health
This very comprehensive site on School
Nursing provides more than links to web-
sites. For the computer novice, there is a syl-
labus of Internet and Web Browser Basics,
links to tutorials, information on Email dis-

cussion groups and links to medical databas-
es, health related websites and health infor-
mation for children and adolescents. The
websites portion has an extensive list of
school health and school nursing sites and
links to consumer health and medical data-
bases where medical conditions can be

The Florida School Nurse Project
A collaborative effort between Gulfcoast
North Area Health Education Center, the
Florida Diagnostic Learning and Resource
System at USF, the Tampa Bay
Comprehensive System of Personnel
Development, and University of South
Florida Department of Pediatrics.
This site contains information from
school nurse workshops, "care plans" for fre-
quently seen disorders, and a "topic" list.
Links to Continuing Education opportuni-
ties are planned. This site hosts the school
nurse discussion list referred in the E-mail
section of this manual.

School Health Alert
This site is the online presence of the
monthly School Health Alert Newsletter. The
links to school nurse organizations and
information are particularly valuable.

The National Association of School
The National Association of School Nurses
Links to the electronic Journal of
School Nursing and to other organizations
working with children and schools.


"Positions and Issues" section gives full-text
position statements, including their dates of
adoption or revision. New information on
this frequently-updated website is well


National Institute on Alcohol Abuse
and Alcoholism
National Institutes of Health
This comprehensive site is searchable
and contains sections on the following top-
ics: Publications, Databases, Press Releases,
Extramural Research, Conferences/Events,
Other Resources, FAQs, Graphics Gallery,
Intramural Research, and information
about the Institute. The home page has a
pull-down menu of current programs on
alcohol abuse. As with all federal sites,
links to related branches of the NIH are

National Institute on Drug Abuse, National
Institutes of Health
This excellent site has on its opening
page headlines which link to current infor-
mation regarding drug abuse. There are
sections about the organization, current
activities, information on common drugs of
abuse, recent press releases, publications,
and funding. There are separate sections on
information focused at researchers and
health professionals, parents and teachers,
and students.


Smoking Cessation
American Heart Association
This site gives statistics on smokers,
their desire to quit, smoking cessation and
its part in heart disease and heart attack
recovery, and several valuable links to tobac-
co-related topics including smoking cessa-
tion programs, nicotine addiction and nico-
tine replacement therapy, tobacco advertis-
ing, tobacco industry's targeted advertising
to youth, minorities and women, federal
regulation of tobacco and federal support
for tobacco.

American Lung Association
American Lung Association
This site contains comprehensive
information on the ills of smoking and
ways to quit and stay quit. There are data
and statistics on smoking, lung diseases, air
quality, occupational health, school pro-
grams, research, and advocacy. The site is
searchable for topics as well as searchable
for programs in zip code areas. Some infor-
mation is available in Spanish.



National Center for Biotechnology
Information, National Library of Medicine,
PubMed is the database that provides
bibliographic access to citations from
MEDLINE and life science journals from
1960-present. A search identifies citations
to articles on a topic, including the author,
article title, journal title, publication date
and page numbers. Many citations have
abstracts that summarize the articles, not
necessarily the full-text of the article. As
PubMed develops, links to some full text
articles and other related resources are being
This database is useful for finding
journal articles on an aspect of a disease, a
treatment, or other topic. To become profi-
cient, you may want to take a class or a
tutorial Two useful tutorials are available
on the Web at:
PubMed2/index.html and
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/pubmed tuto-
rial/m 1001.html.
When the journal you have identified
is not available locally, individuals can
signup for a service called Loansome DOC
to facilitate the requesting and obtaining of
materials. To use Loansome Doc, you must
have an agreement with a medical library.
Information about this service can be found
on left frame under "Order Documents."


E-medicine: Instant Access to the
Minds of Medicine
Medical textbooks for health profession-
als and consumers. Reliable medical informa-
tion listed by specialty, four levels of physician
peer-review in each chapter. Use this site to
develop a differential diagnosis, obtain CME.
Textbooks provide medical definitions,
anatomical illustrations, digital images, X-rays,
audio, and video. Continually updated 24
hours a day. Searchable, can be sorted by
topic name, textbook, last updated (date) &
relevancy. Authors and dates appear on every
topic. Links to journals on the Internet with
tables of contents and abstracts, sometimes
full text is available.

Hardin Meta Directory of Internet
Health Sources
Hardin Library for the Health Sciences,
University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA
Hardin MD has links to a selected
list of free full-text online electronic med-
ical journals, with an emphasis on jour-
nals that are included in Medline. Most
of them have no trial period stated by the
publisher and will presumably be avail-
able permanently; some are available on
free trial basis. There are links to back
issues (archives), links to a representative
recent issue (with all articles full-text
unless noted), and a sample article from
the issue. The third column has a link to
a PubMed Medline search for citations in
the journal. For help in using this
search, see "About Searching."


The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and
Therapy Seventeenth Edition
Edited by Mark H. Beers, M.D., and
Robert Berkow, M.D.
Its 308 chapters provide concise
accurate clinical information on all sub-
jects expected in an internal medicine
textbook. Detailed information on pedi-
atrics, psychiatry, obstetrics, gynecology,
dermatology, pharmacology, ophthalmol-
ogy, otolaryngology, and special subjects
including: User and navigation help, and
abbreviations, and symbols. Read cover to
cover or search by keyword and topic.

The Merck Manual of Geriatrics
(For annotation, see Geriatrics in
http://www.merck.com/pubs/mm geri-

The Merck Manual Home Edition
Written in easy to understand
English. Comes in two versions, one of
which is interactive with photos, anima-
tions, videos, pronunciations, and illus-
trations. The required software and plug-
ins are specified on the front page. From
the URL below select the version you
want. There are 237 chapters with
appendices on Legal Issues, Weights and
Measures, Common Medical Tests, Some
Trade Names of Generic Drugs, and
Resources for Help and Information.


"Brandon/Hill selected list of books
and journals for the small medical
library." Dorothy R. Hill, Henry N.
Stickell. Bulletin of the Medical
Library Association. 2001
"This list of 630 books and 143
journals is intended as a selection guide
for health sciences libraries or similar
facilities. It can also function as a core
collection..." This list is updated in odd
numbered years.

"Brandon/Hill selected list of print
books and journals in allied health."
Hill DR, Stickell HN. Bulletin of the
Medical Library Association. 2000
"This list of 424 books and 77 jour-
nals is intended as a selection guide for
print literature to be used in a library
supporting allied health educational pro-
grams or allied health personnel in either
an academic or health care setting." This
list is updated in even numbered years.

"Brandon/Hill selected list of print
nursing books and journals."
Nursing Outlook. 2000 Jan-


FOLDOC: FreeOnline Dictionary of
Denis Howe, Editor.
SSearchable dictionary of acronyms,
jargon, programming languages, tools,
architecture, operating systems, network-
ing, theory, conventions, standards,
mathematics, telecoms, electronics ...
anything to do with computing. Within
definitions, other terms in the dictionary
are linked to their definitions. Links to
Google and OneLook are available.

NetLingo: the internet language
Netlingo, Inc.
This site contains an Internet lan-
guage dictionary, a pocket dictionary, a
section about e-mail, and lots of informa-
tion regarding doing business on the

The Florida AHEC Network

The Florida Area Health Education
Centers (AHEC) Network is an
extensive, statewide system for
health professional education and support
founded upon ten regional Area Health
Education Centers. Each AHEC is sup-
ported by an AHEC Program at one of
four medical schools. This organizational
structure enables the AHECs to draw
upon the resources of the academic health
centers in addressing local health care
issues. The Florida AHEC Network has,
over this past decade, addressed the pri-
mary health care needs of Florida's most
vulnerable populations through a series of
innovative strategies designed to:
Extend academic health resources;
Provide information and support for
community providers;
Influence health professions educa-
Influence the future health profes-
sional workforce.
The four AHEC Program Offices
and Directors, their Centers and Center
Directors, and the counties they serve are
given below. The Web address for the
Network is


Program Office
Steven B. Zucker, D.M.D., M.Ed.
AHEC Director
Associate Dean for Community Affairs
Nova Southeastern University
College of Osteopathic Medicine
3200 South University Drive, Suite 1588
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33328

954-262-1588 Fax 954-262-3209

AHEC Centers
Blake Warren, M.H.S.A., Executive
Central Florida AHEC
328 South Central Avenue
Apopka, FL 32703
407-889-2292 Fax 407-889-4124
Toll Free 888-323-2432
Serving the following counties: Brevard,
Hardee, Highlands, Lake, Orange, Osceola,
Polk, Seminole, Sumter

Joe Peters, B.S., Executive Director
Everglades AHEC, Inc.
4450 South Tiffany Drive
West Palm Beach, FL 33407
561-844-1099 Fax 561-844-1051
Toll Free 800-819-2357
Serving the following counties: Broward,
Collier, Glades, Hendry, Indian River, Lee,
Martin, Okeechobee, Palm Beach, St. Lucie


Program Office
Arthur M. Fournier, M.D.
AHEC Program Director
Associate Dean for Community
Health Affairs
University of Miami School of Medicine
P O. Box 016700 (R700)
Miami, FL 33101
305-243-2847 Fax 305-243-2888

The Florida AHEC Network

AHEC Centers
Michael Cunningham,
Executive Director
Florida Keys AHEC
9713 Overseas Highway
Marathon, Florida 33050
305-743-7111 Fax 305-743-7709
Toll Free 800-392-0631
Serving the following county: Monroe
Martha Sanchez, Executive Director
Miami-Dade AHEC
7700 North Kendall Drive, Suite 804
Miami, FL 33156
305-275-6663 Fax 305-275-8388
Serving the following county: Miami-Dade

Program Office
Alan Jameson, M.PH. and
Larry Rooks, M.D.
AHEC Program Co-Directors
North Florida AHEC Program
P 0. Box 103581
Gainesville, FL 32610-3581
352-265-8026 Fax 352-265-8027

AHEC Centers
Andrde Aubrey, L.C.S.W,
Executive Director
Big Bend AHEC
325 John Knox Road,
Building M, Suite 200
Tallahassee, FL 32303
850-224-1177 Fax 850-224-8441
Serving the following counties: Bay,
Calhoun, Franklin, Gadsden, Gulf

Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty,
Madison, Taylor, Wakulla, Washington

Barbara Taylor, M.H.S.,
Executive Director
Northeast Florida AHEC
1107 Myra Street, Suite 250
Jacksonville, FL 32204
904-482-0189 Fax 904-482-0196
Serving the following counties: Baker, Clay,
Duval, Flagler, Nassau, St. Johns, Volusia

Barbara Richardson, Ph.D.,
Executive Director
Suwannee River AHEC
P. O. Box 2157
Alachua, FL 32616-2157
386-462-1551 Fax 386-462-1601
Serving the following counties: Alachua,
Bradford, Columbia, Dixie, Gilchrist,
Hamilton, Lafayette, Levy, Marion,
Putnam, Suwannee, Union

Paige Collier, M.S., Executive Director
West Florida AHEC
2207 South Ferdon Boulevard
Crestview, FL 32536
850-682-2552 Fax 850-682-2521
Serving the following counties: Escambia,
Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Walton

The Florida AHEC Network


Program Office
Cynthia S. Selleck, A.R.N.P., D.S.N.
AHEC Program Director
University of South Florida
College of Medicine, MDC 76
12901 Bruce B. Downs Boulevard
Tampa, FL 33612-4799
813-974-3507 Fax 813-974-3605

AHEC Centers
John Wills, M.S., LD/N,
Executive Director
Gulfcoast North AHEC
6763 Land O' Lakes Boulevard
Land O' Lakes, FL 34639-3234
813-631-4350 Fax 813-631-4421
Toll Free 888-546-2432
Serving the following counties: Citrus,
Hernando, Hillsborough, Pasco, Pinellas

Edna Apostol, M.P.H., Executive
Gulfcoast South AHEC
2201 Cantu Court, Suite 117
Sarasota, FL 34232
941-361-6602 Fax 941-361-6612
Toll Free 800-967-0807
Serving the following counties: Charlotte,
DeSoto, Manatee, Sarasota


This is a brief list of tutorials available
on the Web for your personal con-
tinuing exploration. Most of these
lists have other lists included in them.
Since the Web is constantly growing and
changing, this may be one way to keep up
with changes.

BARE BONES 101: A Basic Tutorial on
Searching the Web
University of South Carolina Beaufort
This basic tutorial also has a list of
tutorials included in its last chapter.

The Internet for School Nurses
Developed by Jama Chorush, MLS and
Dolores Zegar Judkins, MLS at Oregon
Health Sciences University Library in part-
nership with Multnomah Education Service
District Department of School Health
For the computer novice, there is a
syllabus of "Internet and Web Browser
Basics," "Guidelines for Using the Internet"
and the links to other tutorials within these

Finding and Using Health Statistics: A
Self-Study Course
Dan Melnick PhD
This Powerpoint presentation is
designed for the National Library of
Medicine, to help users locate statistics in
print resources and on the Web and appre-
ciate the limitations. Consists of over 130
slides. Current as of October 2000.

Interactive and Multimedia Tutorials
for Acquisition of Information Skills
Philadelphia College of Osteopathic
Listing of Internet tutorials available.

Using PubMed
information on PubMed)
1) Tutorial developed by University of
Florida Health Science Center Libraries
2) Tutorial developed by National Library
of Medicine
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/pubmed tuto-

Web Search Strategies
Deb Flanagan
Free interactive tutorial on using
search engines and subject directories which
has examples and practice opportunities
throughout the course.

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