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The development and validation of a multidimensional exploration and commitment scale for assessing ego identity development

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The development and validation of a multidimensional exploration and commitment scale for assessing ego identity development
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Moberly, Jeanne C., 1943-
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1985
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English

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Adolescence ( jstor )
Adolescents ( jstor )
Area development ( jstor )
Ego ( jstor )
Foreclosures ( jstor )
Gender roles ( jstor )
Political ideologies ( jstor )
Social psychology ( jstor )
Tax moratoriums ( jstor )
Women ( jstor )

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THE DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A MULTIDIMENSIONAL
EXPLORATION AND COMMITMENT SCALE FOR
ASSESSING EGO IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT








By

JEANNE C. MOBERLY


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1985























Copyright 1985 by

Jeanne C. Moberly























Dedicated to my two children, Laura and Richard, whose pride in me has been a constant source of support throughout this venture, and of whom I am very proud.















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I would like to thank my committee chairperson,

Dr. Dorothy Nevill, who has been a good friend as well as a mentor throughout my graduate school experience. I would also like to thank my committee members, Drs. Grater, Resnick, Miller, and Fukuyama, whose suggestions and questions helped me to clarify and articulate my own ideas. There are many friends I wish to acknowledge--people who xeroxed and assembled tests and aided me in collecting and coding the data: Dr. Robert Ashley, Pat Atkins, Barbara Beynon, Betty Black, Cheryl Boggess, Drs. Leonard Beeghley and Mary Anna Hovey, Lissa Friedman, Tricia Gregory, Dale Midgett, Kristen McIntyre, Marilyn O'Connor, Sandy Peterson, Joyce Perrotta, and Ann Wilson. Thank you for your time and efforts, energy and support.















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . iv

ABSTRACT . vii

CHAPTERS

I INTRODUCTION . 1

II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . 8

Erikson's Psychosocial Stages . 8 Adolescence . 10 Definition of Ego Identity . 11 Ego's Tasks in Identity Development . 12 Seven Perspectives on Ego Identity . 13
Early Attempts to Measure Differences in
Ego Identity Development . 16
Marcia Interview . 20 Other Measures of Ego Identity . 24
Gender Difference in Ego Identity
Development . 26
Separating Content Areas . 36 Exploration and Commitment Variables . 39 Social Desirability . 41
Instrument Development--Reliability and
Validity . 41
Hypotheses . 46

III METHOD . 55

Subjects 55
Procedure . 56 Instruments . 62

IV RESULTS . 68

Reliability . 69 Content Validity . 70 Construct Validity . 73 Concurrent Validity . 76 Social Desirability Bias . 85 Summary . 88








V DISCUSSION . 89

Reliability Data . 89 Content Validity . 89 Construct Validity . 91 Concurrent Validity . 94 Social Desirability . 106 Summary . 107 Future Directions . 109


APPENDICES

A SELF-REPORT MEASURE OF EXPLORATION AND
COMMITMENT . ill

B EXPLORATION AND COMMITMENT SCALE . 114 C CROWNE-MARLOWE SOCIAL DESIRABILITY SCALE. 124 D SIMMONS IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT SCALE . 127 REFERENCES . 130 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . 139














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate
School of the University of Florida in Partial
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A MULTIDIMENSIONAL
EXPLORATION AND COMMITMENT SCALE FOR ASSESSNG EGO IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT

By

Jeanne C. Moberly

May 1985

Chairperson: Dorothy Nevill Major Department: Psychology

The major goal of this research was to develop a reliable and valid instrument for assessing ego identity development. The two variables that have consistently been regarded as integral parts of ego identity are (1) the individual's experience of exploration of his or her options and values and (2) the development of a sense of commitment to values that provide self-definition.

The Exploration and Commitment Scale (ECS) is a 64-item instrument containing 32 exploration items and 32 commitment items, each scored on a 7-point scale. The ECS is divided into four subscales (Career, Interpersonal, Sexual, and Ideology), each containing eight exploration and eight commitment items. The ECS may be scored to provide the following information:

1. an overall score--a measure of ego identity
development,


vi i









2. an overall exploration score,

3. an overall commitment score,

4. an Identity Status (Achievement, Moratorium,
Foreclosure, or Commitment) within each subscale,

5. an exploration and/or commitment score for each
subscale.

Data analyses from 245 undergraduates at the University of Florida indicate a moderately high level of internal consistency and a significant level of test-retest reliability for the ECS. The convergence and divergence of subscale items supports the belief that the subscales measure discriminably different areas of identity. Correlations with a self-report measure indicate that test results compare significantly with the individual's own experience of exploration and commitment. Correlations with an instrument that measures overall ego identity development were also significant. Correlation with the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale confirmed a lack of social desirability bias in the responses. Comparisons between males and females within the subscales indicate that exploration and commitment within the Interpersonal and Sexual areas are particularly salient for females. Males have explored more and express more commitment in the Ideology area. Small between-sex differences in the Career Commitment area indicate an equally high level of career commitment for both sexes.

The validity and reliability of the ECS were supported. Directions for future utilization of the measure were suggested.


viii














CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


Erik Erikson (1959, 1968) is generally considered to be the most influential theorist and writer on the processes of ego identity development. He placed the crucial period for ego identity formation in adolescence and described both the psychodynamic bases of and the psychosocial influences on ego identity.

Operationalizing the concept of ego identity is the

first step in studying its processes. A variety of definitions can be seen in the early attempts to construct measures of ego identity (Bronson, 1959; Block, 1961; Heilbrun, 1964; Gruen, 1960; Hauser, 1972; Constantinople, 1969; and Dignan, 1965.

other measures of ego identity have been constructed so that they are closely linked conceptually to Erikson's theories (Rasmussen, 1964; Marcia, 1964, 1966; Baker, 1971; Simmons, 1970, 1973; Tan, Kendis, Fine, and Porac, 1977; Schilling, 1975; and Adams, Shea, and Fitch, 1979). The semistructured interview developed by James Marcia (1964, 1966) has been the most widely used method for operationalizing adolescent ego identity development (Bourne, 1978a). The interview format categorizes individuals into identity statuses which Marcia describes as "four modes of dealing

1









with the identity issue characteristic of late adolescents"

(1980, p. 161). Marcia's statuses (Achievement, Moratorium,

Foreclosure, and Diffusion) are closely related to Erikson's

formulation of ego identity development.


There are two notions which seem to characterize Erikson's writing about the phase
of late adolescence. The first is the presence of some period of re-thinking,
sorting through, trying out various roles and life plans. This is taken to be the
behavioral referent for the internal process
referred to in psychoanalytic theory as
"The synthesizing function of the ego"
(Erikson, 1956, P. 104). We call this decision period, crisis, a time during
adolescence when the individual seems to
be actively involved in choosing among
meaningful alternatives.
The second indication of the achievement
of ego identity is subsequent commitment, particularly in such important life areas
as occupation and ideology. Commitment
refers to the degree of personal investment
the individual expresses in a course of
action or belief. (Marcia, 1964, pp. 23-24)


Marcia's statuses are defined based on 1) the presence

or absence of a period of exploration of alternatives and

decision making ("crisis period") and on 2) the degree

of commitment exhibited in areas considered crucial to

ego identity formation. An individual in the achievement

status has gone through a period of exploration and has

developed firm commitments to self-chosen goals. Moratorium

youths are in the midst of a crisis period of exploration

and are moving toward firm commitments, though they have

not yet clarified their goals. Foreclosures exhibit strong









commitments, but their commitments (usually parentally influenced) have been arrived at without having experienced a period of exploration. Youths who are assigned to the diffusion status demonstrate no clear or firm commitments, nor do they appear to be currently exploring to clarify their values and goals. Matteson (1977) underlined the importance of the variables of exploration and commitment to ego identity development in his study with Danish adolescents. He suggested measuring the variables separately and on continuous scales.

The interview content areas explored in research on

ego identity have varied across studies. Marcia's original content areas for use with males were career and political and religious ideology. When the interview was extended to females, "attitudes toward sexual intercourse" was added to the interview (Marcia and Friedman, 1970). Sex role ideology and sex values have also been utilized as content areas of the interview (Matteson, 1977; Hopkins, 1980; Nevid, Nevid, O'Neill, and Waterman, 1974). Interpersonal areas (friendship and dating) have recently been suggested as additional areas to consider in identity formation (Grotevant, Thorbecke, and Meyer, 1982; Thorbecke and Grotevant, 1982). As the number of interview areas has increased, an overall identity status has become less and less meaningful.









The importance of each of the content areas to ego

identity development has been explored for both males and females (Matteson, 1977; Nevid et al., 1974; Schilling, 1975; Hodgson and Fischer, 1979; Waterman and Nevid, 1977; Kacergius and Adams, 1980; Thorbecke and Grotevant, 1982; Waterman and Waterman, 1971; Waterman, Geary, and Waterman, 1974; and Rogow, Marcia, and Slugowski, 1982). It has become clear that an increased understanding of ego identity development will be assisted by separate evaluation of the content areas. Sex differences in the importance of the content areas to identity development is an especially important area of investigation.

The Marcia Interview used in much of the above research has been criticized as being too time-consuming. Since it takes between 30 to 45 mi nutes to administer, sample sizes in studies using the interview are typically small. Additionally, the ratings used to categorize individuals into statuses rely on subjective judgment (Schilling, 1975; Adams, Shea, and Fitch, 1979; Simmons, 1970).

Schilling (1975) and Adams, Shea, and Fitch (1979) have both created questionnaires designed to replace the Marcia Interview in assigning subjects to an overall identity status. Because they can be group administered, they are less time-consuming, and the sample sizes can be increased. Since the scoring procedures are clear and objective, they










avoid the problems of subjectivity associated with trained raters assessing interviews to assign statases.

The Schilling (1975) measure allows for separate assignment of individuals to identity statuses based on either the Interpersonal area or the Occupational, Political, and Religious area. Schilling provided little evidence of content or construct validity, internal consistency, or test-retest reliability in presenting his measure which was written for use with males.

Adams, Shea, and Fitch (1979) present considerable evidence of internal consistency, predictive validity, construct validity, and test-retest reliability with their measure which has been used with large numbers of male and female college undergraduates. The measure, as it is presently constructed, has some limitations. It provides only for assignment to an overall identity status based on the three original content areas used with males-occupation and political and religious ideology. It does not provide for a separate assessment of the exploration and commitment variables. And, scoring procedures allow for "transition statuses" (i.e. Achievement-Diffusion or Foreclosure-Moratorium) that are theoretically inconsistent.

There is still a need for an objective measure of

ego identity that assigns individuals to an identity status in each content area of identity--Interpersonal (friendship and dating), Sexual Values and Sex Roles, Career, Political









and Religious Ideology--based on test items that clearly reflect the presence or absence of exploration and commitment variables, and that allow for separate analyses of these two variables. The purpose of this study is to create a reliable and valid objective measure of ego identity that has the following qualities:

1. It includes a variety of areas that have been

shown to contribute to ego identity. These areas include the Interpersonal (Dating and Friendship), Sexual and Sex Role Values, Career, and Political and Religious Ideology.

2. It is based on the amount of exploration and the level of commitment exhibited in these areas and allows for separate assessment of each of these variables.

3. It allows for the assignment of a separate ego identity status for each content area.

4. It enables the calculation of a total score which reflects the current level of identity achievement in terms of the amount of exploration and level of commitment the individual has experienced.

5. It is easily and quickly administered and scored.

6. Scoring is not influenced by the subjectivity of raters, and responses are not influenced by social desirability concerns.

The following literature review covers theoretical

conceptions of ego identity and the efforts made at operationalizing the concept. Research in the measurement of







7

gender differences in ego identity development is also discussed. The content areas that have been used in assessing ego identity are presented, and a discussion of the research exploring the relative importance of the various content areas for males and females is also included.














CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


Erikson's Psychosocial Stages


Erikson (1959) defined psychosocial stages of development from birth through old age (Chart 1). Each stage occurs within a particular age period. The early stages parallel Freud's psychosexual stages, but Erikson's stages continue into old age. Each stage has a developmental crisis associated with it. Each crisis grows out of the individual's developmental readiness and society's demands of the individual. The crisis arises at a particular time developmentally but is not confined to one developmental period. How an individual has mastered past crises will influence how he (or she) masters later crises. The individual's ability to meet each crisis adequately develops within him or her the conviction that his (her) way of being is


a successful variant of the way others in
the society master experience and recognize
mastery. Thus, self-esteem, confirmed at the end of each major crisis, grows to be
a conviction that one is learning effective
steps toward a tangible future, that one
is developing a defined personality within
a social reality which one understands.
(Erikson, 1959, P. 89)








A

Psychosocial Crises


CHART I
B

Radius of Significant
Relations


C

Psychosocial Modalities


D

Psychosexual
Stages


I Trust vs.
Mistrust

II Autonomy vs.
Shame, Doubt

III Initiative vs.
Guilt



IV Industry vs.
Inferiority


V Identity
Achievement vs.
Identity Diffusion

VI Intimacy vs.
Isolation


VII Generativity
VS.
Self-Absorption

VIII Integrity vs.
Despair


Maternal Person


Parental Persons


Basic Family




"Neighborhood,"
School


Peer Groups and
Outgroups; Models of
Leadership

Partners in friendship, sex, competition, cooperation

Divided labor and shared household


"Mankind"
"My Kind"


To get
To give in return

To hold (on)
To let (go)

To make
(=going after)
To "make like"
(=playing)

To make things
(=completing)
To make things togeth

To be oneself (or not to be) To share being
oneself

To lose and find
oneself in
another

To make be
To take care of


To be, through
having been
To face not being


Note. From "Identity Issues, 166.


and the life cycle," by E. H. Erikson, 1959, Psychological


Oral-respiratory, Sensory-Kineshetic Anal-Urethral
Muscular

Infantile-Genital
Locomotor
(Intrusive, Inclusive)

"Latency"

.er

Puberty




Genitality









Adolescence


Adolescence has been described by many as a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. In the mastering of the crises of the first four stages of development, the individual is presumably adequately prepared to integrate an identity out of the growth and change of the adolescent period.

Adolescence is a fertile period of change. Physical and cognitive growth occurs which promotes psychological changes and affects the way adolescents interact within their social environment. Puberty triggers many changes. As body shape becomes more adult-like, adolescents struggle with changing self-images. As adolescents' sexuality matures, they move away from their parents toward increasingly more intimate peer relationships. As the distance between parent and child becomes clearer, the adolescent is able to gain a greater appreciation for the unique attributes that make him or her distinct from others.

Cognitively, individuals move from the concrete cognitive level to the level of formal operations. This movement is characterized by an increasing ability to think abstractly and to synthesize information. The world around the adolescent can now be considered from a new, more holistic, and more integrated perspective. The adolescent is able to confront abstract values and moral issues. The idealism and questioning of human values, which is a familiar part









of adolescence, encourages growth in moral development. The ability to empathize with another, which is a part of a more mature level of moral development, is an important foundation for the development of intimate relationships, the next major life task.

The relationship between the developing individuals and society is reciprocal. Social expectations influence identity formation. The adolescents' self-definition must be confirmed by the social world around them. Adolescence has its beginnings in the physical changes of puberty and its endings in the assumption of adult roles and responsibilities through marriage, procreation, and self-support. It is a time of preparation for these future adult roles. Josselson (1980) emphasizes that developing ego identity is a two-fold task:

1. Constructing a stable, integrated self, autonomous from internal and external authority (Who am I?).

2. Fitting the new found self to the world (What shall I become?).


Definition of Ego Identity


James Marcia (1980) has provided a concise definition of ego identity which takes into account both its psychodynamic and its psychosocial aspects. Ego identity can be defined as









a self-structure-an internal selfconstructed, dynamic organization of drives, abilities, beliefs, and individual history.
The better developed this structure is, the more aware individuals appear to be of their own uniqueness and similarity
to others and of their own strengths and
weaknesses in making their way in the world.
The less developed this structure is, the
more confused individuals seem about their
own distinctiveness from others and the
more they have to rely on external sources
to evaluate themselves. (p. 159)


Ego's Tasks in Identity Development


Marcia's definition is based on Erik Erikson's (1959, 1968) definitive work on the development of ego identity. Erikson uses the term ego identity in recognition of the ego's three major tasks in identity development.

The ego synthesizes childhood identifications, keeping those that continue to fit as the adolescent moves towards adulthood. Josselson (1980) emphasizes that "much of the process of identity formation that takes place is selective repudiation of possible selves. Identity is exclusive; it is manifested in commitment and in the giving up of potentialities: 'I will do (be) this and not that!'" (p. 202). This melding of childhood identifications with the developing personality and with the aspirations of the adolescent provides an inner stability for the individual, "an assured sense of inner continuity and social sameness which will bridge what he was as a child and what he is about to become" (Erikson, 1959, p. 111).









The second task of the ego is to integrate the drives of the id with the social ideologies of the super ego and the social aspirations of the ego ideal (Erikson, 1968). The ego's functions are to reality test the sometimes rigid and vindictive rules of the super ego and to mitigate their punitive nature. The ego ideal, according to Erikson (1968), is less closely tied to morality and more closely related to the contemporary ideals of the historical period in which one is born than the superego is. It influences the developing ego with the cultural values of what one should be.

The final task of the ego in identity development is to affirm the development of the individual within a social reality. "The sense of ego identity, then, is the accrued confidence that one's ability to maintain inner sameness and continuity (one's ego in the psychological sense) is matched by the sameness and continuity of one's meaning for others" (Erikson, 1959, p. 89). This confirmation of who one is by society is an important contributor to a strong sense of self-esteem. It grows out of the conviction that one is and has been performing effectively within the expectations of that society.


Seven Perspectives on Ego Identity


In his review of the research on ego identity, Bourne (1978a) identified seven perspectives from which the










construct, ego identity, could be explored. Erikson's writing on ego identity encompasses all seven theoretical perspectives. The seven perspectives are 1) structural, 2) subjective, 3) genetic (developmental), 4) dynamic, 5) adaptive, 6) psychosocial, and 7) existential.

The structural dimension emphasizes the organizing coherent sense of self that emerges from a clear selfdefinition. Marcia's (1980) definition, quoted earlier, emphasizes this self-structure which allows an individual to rely on an inner sense of direction and evaluation.

The next five perspectives are all contained in

Erikson's description of the ego's tasks in identity development. The developmental perspective emphasizes the adolescent's task of resynthesizing one's childhood identifications in light of continuing developmental changes. The subjective perspective stresses the individual's sense of continuity that results from the blending of childhood identifications with the new emerging aspects of the personality. The dynamic perspective underlines the long-term developmental processes that encompass ego identity. Different issues affect the individual's sense of self at different points of development. Grotevant, Thorbecke, and Meyer (1981) underscore this aspect of developing identity. "Identity researchers, who have almost exclusively studied college students, are now beginning to ask which domains and which









issues within a domain are salient at different points within a life cycle" (p. 36).

The adaptive, psychosocial, and existential perspectives all accentuate the interactions between the developing individual and his interpersonal and historical context. Individuals must develop basic life commitments that, to some extent, define them (existential perspective). The self definitions are developed within a social context (adaptive perspective), and the self-definition must be acknowledged socially (psychosocial perspective).

According to Bourne (1978a), it is this sense of reciprocity with society that differentiates ego identity from the most traditional concepts of the self.


The self, in one way or another, is conceived
as the sum total of an individual's ref lections, perceptions, and cognitions of himself, which may or may not all be derived
from social comparison, and may or may
not be entirely conscious. on the other
hand, ego identity is not simply a configuration of intrapsychic, self-representations, but a sense of oneself defined in
terms of a particular relationship to a
certain group, community or society.
(p. 227)


It is this perspective from which the individual affects and is affected by his/her social surroundings that helps to differentiate between the ego itself and ego identity. The ego carries on reality testing functions as it integrates the desires of the id with the rules of the super ego and ego ideal. Ego identity can be conceived of as being more









closely tied to reality "in that it would test, select, and integrate the self images derived from the psychosocial crises of childhood" into a configuration which, ideally, matches the way important others see the individual (Bourne, 1978a, p. 226).


Early Attempts to Measure Differences in Ego Identity Development


Early attempts to operationalize ego identity utilized Q sorts, self-report questionnaires, and semistructured interviews. Different definitions of ego identity are evident in the different methods used to operationalize the concept (Bourne, 1978a; Marcia, 1980).

Bronson (1959) operationalized his conception of the construct, identity, in terms of four "subdimensions" of identity:

1. Degree of certainty about the subject's past and present ideas about self.

2. The subject's certainty about his/her dominant personal characteristics.

3. The subject's report of fluctuations in his/her feelings about self.

4. The subject's "level of internal tension."

Semistructured interviews were rated in terms of these subdimensions. Bronson found a modest correlation among the four which he took as evidence of construct validity. Bourne (1978a) reports some problems with this conclusion.









The four were arbitrarily selected and do not reflect the scope of Erikson's concept. Also, no evidence of discriminant validity was reported, and construct validity relies on both convergent and discriminant evidence.

Block (1961) and Heilbrun (1964) also based their conceptualizations of ego identity on a sense of inner continuity. Role variability, as perceived by the self and observed by others, was thought to define ego identity. Block (1961) had his subjects sort 20 adjectives with respect to the subject's relationships with eight different individuals, such as a parent of the same sex, a close friend of the same sex, or an acquaintance whom they would like to know better. He hoped to find a curvilinear relationship

--i.e., individuals with excessively high and low role stability would display maladjustment. He found that extreme role variability did appear related to maladjustment as measured by the Psychoneuroticism Scale of the California Psychological Inventory (Gough, 1957). However, extreme role stability was not indicative of neurotic qualities.

Heilbrun (1964) related role consistency to masculinity and femininity. He found that male adolescents whose behavior tended to conform to cultural stereotypes of masculinity showed higher role consistency (using a Q sort measure) than less masculine males. Females who were either high or low in femininity were more consistent than females









who measured moderately feminine on The Adjective Check List (Gough and Heilbrun, 1965).

Gruen (1960) used a Q sort (Butler and Haigh, 1954) to measure differences between descriptions of real self and ideal self. The hypothesis was that achievement of a stable sense of identity would be accompanied by a reduction in the difference between idealized and realistic self-descriptions. He found a significant positive relationship between real-ideal discrepancies and willingness to accept a false personality sketch of themselves. His conclusion was that both a large discrepancy between real and ideal selves and a tendency to let others define them were indicators of a weak sense of identity.

Hauser (1972) used a Q sort of self-descriptive statements to measure "structural integration" and "temporal stability" of identity. The statements were sorted according to eight different types of self-images, such as "how I am now," "how I will be in 10 years." The study was conducted over a three-year period. The correlation among the sorts within one year was defined as the "structural integration of identity." The intercorrelation between two sorts of the same type over two or more successive years defined the "temporal stability" of identity. He found differences between black and white males on both measures.










Rasmussen (1964) designed an ego identity questionnaire with subscales to measure the degree of resolution of each of Erikson's first six psychosocial crises. The scale consists of 72 items--12 items indicating healthy and unhealthy resolutions of each of the six stages. He presented some evidence as to convergent and discriminant validity of his measure of ego identity. However, Bourne (1978a) points out that Rasmussen presents very little evidence beyond face validity to demonstrate that what his test items tap is germane to Erikson's construct as opposed to some general personality construct, such as self-esteem or social competence.

Constantinople (1969) used a questionnaire based on

a Q sort by Wessman and Ricks (1966) to measure personality development among four different grade levels of college students. Significant differences were found between freshmen and seniors of both sexes on industry, inferiority and identity and on identity diffusion for males. However, results appear to be influenced by social desirability problems when used with males (Tan, Kendis, Fine, and Porac, 1977).

Dignan (1965) also constructed a self-report measure, the 50-item Ego Identity Scale, in her effort to relate identity resolution in females to maternal identification. The items were based on a "description of ego identity found in the writings of Erikson and others who have









critically examined and developed the construct" (p. 478). The components which were considered indicators of ego identity were the following: sense of self, uniqueness, self-acceptance, responsiveness to role expectations of important others, stability, goal directedness, and ability to permit involvement and intimacy with others. Dignan presented evidence of internal consistency and stability and some evidence for construct validity. She found that females who scored high on the Ego Identity Scale also reported high levels of maternal identification.


Marcia Interview


The early attempts to operationalize ego identity

investigated characteristics which would result from achieving a strong sense of identity, such as sense of inner continuity, self-acceptance, and the ability to achieve intimacy with others. James Marcia (1964) proposed that a measure of ego identity should deal with the psychosocial criteria (experiencing a "crisis" period of exploration and developing firm commitments) that determine the degree of ego identity achieved.

The vast majority of research on ego identity since 1966 has utilized the Marcia Semi-Structured Interview as a measure of ego identity. Marcia's work (1964, 1966) is closely tied to Erikson's conceptualization of ego identity development in that Marcia's statuses are based on










the presence or absence of a period of "crisis" (a time of exploration among different alternatives), and the formation of commitments in the process of ego identity development. His statuses and their relationship to the crisis and commitment variables can be outlined as below.





Achievement Moratorium Foreclosure Diffusion Crisis
(Exploration) High High Low Low


Commitment High Low High Low




Marcia enlarged on Erikson's dichotomy of identity

achievement vs. identity diffusion by proposing two other statuses. Youths in the moratorium status are presently in the midst of a crisis period, but they have made no firm commitments. They resemble diffusions in their lack of commitments, but they are struggling for self-definition while diffusions remain largely uninvolved with the struggle. Foreclosures resemble achievements in their firm commitments, but they have not actively explored to define themselves. Instead, they have incorporated others' expectations into their identity. Because they have not questioned the goals or assumptions their commitments are based on, they are assumed to have acquired less self-knowledge










and flexibility regarding their occupational goals and ideological commitments.

Marcia considered those individuals who had gone through a period of exploration and had developed firm commitments to self-chosen occupational and ideological goals (Identity Achievement Status) to be the most mature. The period of exploration was called a crisis period by both Erikson (1959, 1968) and James Marcia (1964, 1966) because it involves a period of doubt and indecision during which the youth struggles with competing alternatives. The process of struggle should, theoretically, produce ego development as it clarifies values and goals and increases selfknowledge. The commitments that follow from such a decision-making period should involve strong investment as they arise from a struggle to assess oneself and to accurately perceive one's alternatives.

Marcia (1980) describes three advantages of the four Identity Statuses as opposed to Erikson's (1959, 1968) dichotomy of identity achievement vs. identity diffusion.

1. The four statuses provide for a greater variety of approaches in dealing with identity issues.

2. There are both healthy and unhealthy aspects to each status so the statuses describe whole people with both positive and negative qualities. Achievements appear to be strong, self-directed, and highly adaptive, but an individual may settle on an identity that has limited










adaptive value for the future. "Foreclosures may be seen either as steadfast or rigid, committed or dogmatic, cooperative or conforming; Moratoriums may be viewed either as sensitive, or anxiety ridden, highly ethical or selfrighteous, flexible or vacillating; Identity Diffusions may be considered either carefree or careless, charming or psychopathic, independent or schizoid" (1980, p. 161).

3. The behavior of individuals in each of the four statuses is fairly easily differentiated, so individuals can be classified into a status based on a 30-45 minute interview.

The interview is rated by two or three raters for the presence of a crisis period and the development of firm commitments. On the basis of the ratings the subject is assigned to one of the four statuses. Marcia (1980) reports approximately 80% interrater reliability.

In addition to the Identity Status Interview, Marcia (1964, 1966) also developed the Ego Identity Incomplete Sentences Blank (EI-ISB). The EI-ISB produced a score as an indicator of the overall level of ego identity achievement but did not assign the subject an Identity Status. The subject's responses to sentence stems were scored by three trained raters, who demonstrated 74% interrater agreement.

The major problems with both of the above procedures have been noted by several authors (Simmons, 1970, 1973;









Adams, Shea, and Fitch, 1979; Schilling, 1975; and Bourne, 1978b). The interview and the EI-ISB are time-consuming to administer and score, and they rely on subjective judgment in the ratings of the response.


Other Measures of Ego Identity


Marcia (1964, 1966) used his Ego Identity Incomplete Sentences Blank (EI-ISB) to validate his Identity Status Interview. He found that achievements scored the highest and diffusions scored the lowest on this overall measure of ego identity development. Simmons (1970) created a 24-item easily scored multiple choice measure, The Identity Achievement Scale, based on Marcia's Ego Identity Incomplete Sentences Blank. Because it is objectively scored, it eliminates the need for trained raters and the possible problems of subjective judgment used in the ratings. The measure does not assign subjects to an identity status but provides an overall rating of identity achievement.

Tan, Kendis, Fine, and Porac (1977) developed a 12-item ego identity scale with a forced choice format which measures identity achievement vs. identity diffusion. Evidence was presented for the test's construct validity. There is also some evidence that the scale measures achieved identity following a period of exploration rather than a foreclosed identity. The scale does not attempt to assign subjects to ego identity statuses.









Adams, Shea, and Fitch (1979) constructed a 24-item

self-report measure that assigns individuals to an overall identity status based on three content areas--Career Orientation and Political and Religious Ideology. Convergentdivergent, concurrent and predictive validity, and test-retest reliability have all been documented in the reported data.

Schilling (1975) devised a forced choice format for assigning individuals to two Ego Identity Statuses. His measure, the Ego Identity Questionnaire, consists of two parts. Part A assesses identity based on occupational, political, and religious concerns, while Part B assesses identity based on interpersonal issues. Schilling provided some evidence of the instrument's validity with males. The limitations of both of these measures have been discussed in Chapter 1.

Baker (1971) based his definition of identity on four qualities he derived from Erikson's writings: "a) knows who he is, b) knows where he is going, c) perceives himself as having 'inner sameness and continuity,' and d) is certain about the way his perception of himself compares to the perceptions which others have of him" (p. 167). He constructed a 32-item measure consisting of 8 Likert-type scale items for each of the four qualities. His internal reliability coefficients (Kuder-Richardson-Formula 20) were "quite low" (p. 170), but he achieved good









intercorrelations among three of the four areas. He concluded that his measure is a successful translation of Erikson's work on ego identity into operational terms.


Gender Difference in Ego Identity Development


Much of the research in ego identity formation has

followed Erik Erikson's (1968) conception of gender differences in identity development. Erickson emphasized commitments toward occupational goals and toward a political and religious ideology as important processes in male identity development.

Female identity has a biological base in what Erikson referred to as a "vital, productive inner space." Inner space refers to the physical reality of the uterus and vagina and also to the somatic awareness of a woman's reproductive capacity. This awareness affects her manner of relating to a male, the potential father of her children, and her sense of direction in life. While she may experiment with and enjoy development in "male" areas of career and ideology, "womanhood arrives when attractiveness and experience have succeeded in selecting what is to be admitted to the welcome of the 'inner space' for keeps" (p. 283).

While Erikson emphasized the importance of a woman's biological inheritance on her identity development, Douvan and Adelson (1966) highlighted the importance of culturally










influenced sex role expectations on developing males and females.

The key terms in adolescent development
for the boy in our culture are the erotic,
autonomy (assertiveness, independence,
achievement), and identity. For the girl the comparable terms are the erotic, the
interpersonal, and identity . . . what
the girl achieves through intimate connection
with others, the boy must manage by disconnecting, by separating himself and asserting
his right to be distinct. (pp. 347-348)


Research by Josselson, Greenberger, and McConochie

(1977a, 1977b) supports the above view. They studied psychosocial maturity in adolescent males and females and found that high maturity females used interpersonal relationships for identity resolution and were less focused than the high maturity males on career goals as a source of self-esteem. "They are, in a word, identity seekers, attempting to discover who they are and who they want to be in relation to the significant others in their lives" (1977b, p. 159). High maturity males were more concerned with who they would become than in how they would relate to others.

The early studies utilizing the Marcia Interview were conducted with males, and the interview focused on the three areas considered relevant to male identity development: occupational goals and political and religious ideology. The question that underlay this research was "What are the characteristics of late adolescent males who pursue









different modes of identity resolution?" (Marcia, 1980, p. 162).

When research in ego identity using the Marcia Inteview was extended to females, it was assumed that the occupational and ideological issues considered focal for males were not as pertinent to female identity development. Marcia and Friedman (1970) in the first study using the Marcia Interview with females added a section of questions assessing "attitudes towards premarital intercourse" to the interview format.

Both Schenkel and Marcia (1972) and Hopkins (1980) investigated the relative importance of sexual values to female identity development, but with conflicting results. Schenkel and Marcia (1972) found that identity status assigned by the sexual ideology section of the interview ("attitudes toward premarital sex") accounted for more variance on their several dependent measures than identity status assigned by the occupation and the political and religious ideology sections on the interview. The religious ideology section of the interview predicted performance on the dependent measures almost as well as the sexual ideology section.

Hopkins (1980) conducted two interviews with her female subjects--the standard Marcia Interview used with males-occupational goals and political and religious ideology ("outer space" interview) and an interview on premarital









sex, life plans, and sex roles ("inner space" interview). Her conclusion was

The women were just as likely to have
experienced an outer space crisis as an
inner space crisis. Factor analysis revealed that the inner space and outer space statuses
were distinct, independent factors. This
finding supports the use of separate inner
and outer space interviews in assessment
of identity status . . . . Regression analysis
showed that the outer space identity status
was the better predictor of the dependent
variables. The best measure of female identity status was found to be either
the outer space interview alone or joint
use of both interviews. (P. 9)


Schilling (1975) designed a questionnaire to determine the importance of sex role and interpersonal issues for male identity formation. His results appear to indicate that sexual and interpersonal issues are important to males as well as females in clarifying their identities.

Several other investigators have studied the importance of the different content areas to identity development in studies using both males and females. Results have confirmed the importance of occupational choice, sex values and sex role, and political and religious ideology to identity issues for both young men and women.

Matteson (1977) reports a study by Nevid, Nevid,

O'Neill, and Waterman (1974) that was the first to compare the importance of the ORP (occupational and religious and political ideology) and the sexual ideology interviews ("attitudes toward sexual intercourse") for subjects of










both sexes. This study investigated only the distribution of subjects in the four Identity Statuses, assigning subjects to a status in each of the content areas of the interview. No dependent measures were used. Using the sexual ideology section of the interview, a higher percentage of women than men was assigned to statuses indicating exploration (Achievement and Moratorium). The authors report that there was no evidence that the other content areas (ORP) were less important to female identity than to male identity.

Mattesop (1977) reproduced the above study with Danish adolescents. He used "male and female sex roles" to explore sexual ideology rather than "attitudes toward premarital intercourse." His results paralleled Nevid et al. (1974). When subjects were assigned on the basis of the sex role portion of the interview, a higher percentage of females than males were assigned to categories involving exploration (Achievement and moratorium--51% of the females compared to 38% of the males). He concluded that more females than males appear to undergo an exploration of sexual identity.

Matteson (1977) also used continuous scales of exploration and commitment to test the hypothesis of a higher degree of exploration of sexual identity among women than men. Exploration and commitment were separately rated for each content area on a four-point scale: 1) limited, 2) some, 3) considerable, 4) very intense. This method







31

of measurement also indicated a higher level of exploration of sexual identity for women than men. Matteson (1977) reported the following results when comparing exploration and commitment between sexes and among the four content areas (occupational goals, political ideology, values, and sex roles):

1. There is generally a higher level of commitment among Danish females than males, across all content areas except politics, in which males show a slightly higher level of commitment.

2. There is some indication of a higher level of exploration for women generally using either categories or scales.

3. Females as well as males indicated high levels of occupational exploration.

4. For both men and women the highest levels of commitment occur in the areas of sex roles and values.

Matteson concluded that it may be valuable in future research to consider the process variables (exploration and commitment) separately and to separately analyze the impact of each of the content areas on identity development for males and females.

Hodgson and Fischer (1979) studied sex differences

in identity and intimacy development among college undergraduates. The dependent variables were identity status, intimacy status, and self-esteem. In addition to the







32

standard Marcia Interview, they included a section on overall sexual ideology (sex values and sex roles). The authors did not assign an overall identity status but assigned subjects to either a high (Achievement or Moratorium) status or a low (Foreclosure or Diffusion) status based on "part conflicts" which were explored in the content areas of the interview. The content areas are as follows: Occupation, Overall Ideology, Religion, Politics, Overall Sexual Ideology, Sexual Values, and Sex Roles. The first of Hodgson's and Fischer's hypotheses was that there would be more males than females in the more advanced stages (Achievement, Moratorium) of identity development in the areas of occupation and political and religious ideology; and females would more commonly be in the advanced stages of identity development in the areas of sexual ideology and sex roles. These predictions were supported. Significantly more males than females were developmentally advanced in areas of occupation, politics, and religion and overall (religious and political) ideology, while significantly more females than males were developmentally advanced in sex roles and overall (sex values and sex role) sexual ideology. Sex Values area produced no significant sex difference. Hodgson and Fischer concluded that these results provided evidence for the influence of sex roles on identity development. Young men, they concluded, seemed to define








33

themselves with respect to issues of competence while young women's identity issues were focused on relating to others.

Waterman and Nevid (1977) investigated the relative importance of premarital sexual values and of the occupational and political and religious ideology sections of the interview for males and females. The authors predicted that females would be more likely than males to be found in statuses involving a crisis period of exploration (Moratorium and Achievement) as assigned by the premarital sexual values section of the interview. Females would also be more likely to have undergone a crisis in the sexual area than in the ORP area. Results indicated that females were more likely than males to have experienced a sexual identity crisis and males were more likely to be foreclosed in this area. Males as well as females were more likely to be committed about sex than any other area of the interview. In all areas other than sex, female identity appeared to have a similar pattern to male identity.

Kacerguis and Adams (1980) investigated whether for

both males and females advanced overall ego identity status would be associated with more advanced intimacy development. Using only three content areas (occupation and political and religious ideology), they predicted that the occupational and political ideology sections of the interview would be more indicative of intimacy development for males, while religious identity, as an affiliative, nurturant, and









34

expressive life issue, would be more predictive of intimacy development for females. Results indicated that for both males and females, occupational identity was the primary predictive factor in the level of intimacy development.

Interpersonal relationships (friendship and dating relationship) have been proposed as important areas of assessment in ego identity development (Grotevant, Thorbecke, and Meyer, 1982). The ability to establish intimate relationships has been described by Erikson (1959, 1968) as the central crisis of the developmental stage following the Identity Achievement vs. Identity Diffusion crisis of adolescence. Grotevant et al. (1982) stress that it is important to distinguish between the achievement of one's identity and ideology with respect to interpersonal relationships and the actual establishment of intimate relationships. They suggest that exploring interpersonal issues and making commitments to an ideology of interpersonal relationships is an important aspect of adolescent ego identity development and is a precursor to successfully meeting the challenge of the next stage of development. Grotevant et al. (1982) extended the Marcia Interview to include friendship, dating, and sex roles as important areas of assessment and provided evidence that the extended interview is psychometrically sound.

Thorbecke and Grotevant (1982) used the extended interview to assess gender difference in interpersonal identity










formation. Measures of Vocational Identity, MasculinityFemininity, and Achievement Motivation were the dependent variables. The data indicated that young women who were more advanced in vocational identity were also more advanced in interpersonal identity formation. Their vocational identity scores were correlated with friendship commitment, dating exploration, and dating commitment. For males, vocational and interpersonal identity achievement appeared to proceed more independently. Young women were significantly more identity achieved than men in the friendship domain although there were no gender differences in the dating domain. Finally, for both males and females, expressive attributes of psychological femininity were positively related to interpersonal identity formation.

These data support the conclusion that for females the processes of interpersonal and vocational identity formation may be more interrelated than for males. Thorbecke and Grotevant (1982) suggest that the late adolescent female may be in a "double bind dilemma"--she is attempting to negotiate her occupational and interpersonal identities simultaneously.


While most young men are clearly socialized
for career establishment, women are in
the more complex position of being socialized
for both career and family establishment.
The perceived need to integrate these two
roles may make identity formation in these
two domains more interrelated for females
than for males. (p. 489)









Separating Content Areas


Much of the research on ego identity development has assumed that identity status for one individual is similar across different content areas (Bourne, 1978b). This assumption allows researchers to assign an individual to one overall identity status regardless of the number of areas that are assessed. Grotevant et al. (1982) suggest that as the number of areas considered in assigning an Identity Status increase (i.e., the addition of friendship, dating, and sexual values areas), an overall rating becomes less meaningful. Matteson (1977) and Grotevant et al. (1982) argue that adolescents undergo a series of crises and that one area of their lives may be stable while another area is very much in crisis. Overall ratings may mask the processes of identity development rather than clarify them.

Coleman's (1978) work with 800 boys and girls ages 11 to 17 supports the idea of a different sequencing of consideration of identity domains among adolescents. His "focal theory . . . proposes that at different ages particular relationship patterns come into focus, in the sense of being most prominent, but that no pattern is specific to one age only" (p. 8). Issues are not necessarily linked to a particular age, nor is their sequence fixed. This process of focusing on different issues at different times, he suggests, spreads the process of adaptation over a span









of years and contributes stability to the adolescent time of stress and change.

Schenkel (1975) investigated the content areas of the Marcia Identity Status Interview for females by separately assigning identity statuses for occupational, political ideology, religious ideology, and sexual values areas of identity. She found wide discrepancies in some of her subjects across content areas.

Waterman and Waterman (1971) and Waterman, Geary,

and Waterman (1974) separately assigned college males to identity statuses in terms of two content areas--ideology (religious and political) and occupation. Their data indicated that college males first confronted decisions regarding occupations and only later explored areas of ideology. The sexual values content areas was not included on these interviews.

Marcia (1980) described ego identity as a self-structure that gets formed little by little. Each decision builds on previous experience and contributes to future decisions until a consistent whole evolves. Hypothesizing that "the area in which an individual is most involved may vary from person to person or over time within an individual" (p. 328), Rogow, Marcia, and Slugoski (1983) investigated the relationship between identity status within a content area and an overall identity status with male subjects only. Expanding the standard Identity Status Interview (occupational









and Political and Religious ideology) to include two new interpersonal-sexual areas ("attitudes toward sexual expression" and "sex role beliefs"), they described three aims of the study:

1. To assess the concurrence of identity statuses across content areas.

2. To assess the relative importance of any one content area to overall identity status.

3. To determine the relationship between identity status in a content area considered to be important by the subject and the subject's overall identity status.

The results suggested that the process variables of crisis and commitment may be more important than any one particular content area in investigating ego identity development. The ideology areas of the interview appeared to correspond to the overall status rating more than the occupational area. The ideological areas were also more predictive of results on the dependent variables than were the other areas. However, all interview areas corresponded well with the overall identity status and discriminated significantly on the dependent variables. Result on the "attitudes toward sexual expression" and "sex role beliefs" areas indicated that interpersonal sexual concerns are important for male identity development as well as for female identity development.









Exploration and Commitment Variables


Matteson (1977) and Grotevant et al. (1982) have both underlined the importance of the variables of crisis and commitment in their work on ego identity development. In addition to assigning subjects to identity statuses, they both measured the processes of exploration and the development of commitments in the different areas of identity. "The advantage of rating exploration and commitment separately is that the researcher then has two continuous scales available for each identity domain; these can be used in correlational analysis with other variables" (Grotevant et al., 1982, p. 45). Looking at the variables of exploration and commitment separately allows researchers to explore many unresolved issues in identity formation. How are these two processes related? How do adolescents explore the different areas? Is there a sequence for adolescents as they explore the different identity content areas? Does commitment in one area provide stability for exploration in other areas? Are there sex differences in the patterning of exploration and commitment across content areas?

Matteson (1977) concludes


If one were designing research on the effects
of three factors in the identity process
(search among alternatives, degree of
involvement, and timing of commitments)
upon the outcomes of that process, it would
be preferable to measure each of these










factors separately, and to measure the
variables in degrees along a quantitative
scale, rather than lump persons into two
categories on each variable. The development
of science proceeds from categorization
to the isolation of specific variables
and the discernment of their interactions.
(p. 355)


The main purpose of this study is to create an objective measure of ego identity, the Exploration and Commitment Scale, that assigns individuals to an identity status in each content area of identity based on test items that clearly reflect the presence or absence of exploration and commitment. Separate analyses of the variables of exploration and commitment will be enabled by constructing test items for each area that reflect either exploration or commitment.

For the present study I have also constructed a SelfReport Measure of Exploration and Commitment in which the subject is asked to assess and report separately his/her level of exploration and level of commitment in each of the following areas: career, dating, friendship, political ideology, religious ideology, sexual values, and sex role values. The subjects' self-reports can then be compared to their responses to the exploration items and to the commitment items on the Exploration and Commitment Scale.









Social Desirability


One of the criticisms of assessments which rely on

interviewing is that the rating of the interview responses is affected by the subjectivity of the raters. A problem of equal magnitude in test construction is the problem of social desirability. "People tend to give responses that are socially desirable, responses that indicate or imply approval of actions or things that are generally considered to be good" (Kerlinger, 1973, p. 486). Test items need to be constructed so that the socially desirable direction of response is minimized. Anonymity in responding helps decrease the effects of the social desirability motive. However, an assessment of the possible social desirability effects on responses in any new measure is an essential part of providing evidence of reliability and validity.


Instrument Development-Reliability and Validity


Since a major portion of this study is the creation of an objective measure of ego identity, it is important to review methods of assuring an instrument's reliability and validity. Reliability concerns the extent with which measurements are repeatable under the same conditions, while the validity of measurements has to do with their generalizability (Nunnally, 1970). Three measures of reliability described by A.P.A. (1954) are the 1) coefficient









of internal consistency, 2) the coefficient of equivalence, and 3) the coefficient of stability.

The coefficient of internal consistency is a reliability estimation based on homogeneity, or the amount of correlation among items on a single test. Coefficient alpha is generally considered to be the most useful equation for testing reliability based on internal consistency. The KuderRichardison formula 20, a short-cut version of that equation, is also commonly used (Nunnally, 1970).

Using alternate forms of the same test or correlating part scores for different parts within the same test also provide evidence of reliability--usually referred to as the coefficient of equivalence (Nunnally, 1978).

The coefficient of stability refers to the correlation between test and retest scores with an intervening time period. A period of several weeks is suggested to diminish the effects of memory on the second set of scores obtained (Nunnally, 1970).

The four types of validity most commonly referred

to in the literature are described by the A.P.A. (1954). These are 1) content validity, 2) construct validity, 3) concurrent validity, and 4) predictive validity.

Content validity depends upon the adequancy with which the test items represent the entire content domain about which conclusions are to be drawn (A.P.A., 1954). Nunally (1970, 1978) describes two standards for ensuring content









validity: a) a representative collection of test items, and b) sensible methods of test construction. Evidence that the above standards have been met is provided by a thorough and logical explanation of the plan and procedures of this construction. The values that underlie the test should be made explicit, and it should be indicated how these values guided in formulation of the test outline and the selection of items. "Even though there are often problems involved in ensuring content validity, inevitably content validity rests mainly on appeals to reason regarding the adequacy with which important content have been sampled and on the adequacy with which the content has been cast into the form of test items" (Nunnally, 1970, p. 137). Two statistical measures provide some circumstantial evidence for content validity. The test should demonstrate at least a moderate level of internal consistency (see reliability measures above). Correlating scores on different instruments which purport to measure the same thing also provide some indirect evidence for content validity.

Both predictive and concurrent validity concern correlating scores on an instrument with scores obtained for some criterion measure. Nunnally (1978) combines predictive and concurrent validity since they are both criterion related measures only differing in the timing of the data collection for the criterion measure. Predictive validity refers to correlation with a subsequent criterion measure while









concurrent validity refers to correlation with scores obtained at the same time. The nature of the problem dictates when the two sets of measures will be obtained. Criterion related validity is another term often used for this type of validity measurement.

Construct validity is a measure of the meaning of

test scores in terms of psychological "constructs" (Cronbach and Meehl, 1955). Nunnally (1978) describes three major aspects of the construct validation process.

1. The domain of observables related to the construct should be specified.

2. Using empirical research or statistical analysis determine the extent to which the observables measure the same things or different things.

3. Studies (or controlled experiments) should be performed to determine if results that are predictable from well-grounded hypotheses concerning the construct can be obtained.

In specifying the domain of observables Nunnally (1978) suggests explicitly outlining the theory of how the construct can be translated into measurable variables and how these variables relate to one another. outlining the domain in this way is helpful in proceeding with the next step which involves determining how well the measure of observables "go together" in empirical studies. Correlation between scores on measures which are related to the construct










are computed. If the measures correlate highly with one another, it can be concluded that they measure the same thing. Measures of internal consistency also provides some evidence for construct validity.


To the extent that the elements of a domain
show this consistency, it can be said that some construct may be employed to account for the data, but it is by no means necessarily legitimate to employ the construct
name which motivated the research. In
other words, consistency is a necessary
but not sufficient condition for construct
validity. . . . Sufficient evidence for construct validity is the fact that the
supposed measures of the construct (either
a single measure of observable or a combination of such measures) behave as
expected. (Nunnally, 1978, p.146)


Construct validity is supported by evidence of predictive validity and content validity. An instrument which is designed to measure a construct can accurately serve as a predictor of other scores or behavior which would enhance the contract validity of the measure. The same procedures intended to ensure content validity are helpful in defining the domain of observable in construct validity, since content validity depends on the thoroughness with which the domain of observable has been sampled and converted into good test form.

Nunnally (1978) concludes discussion of this complex area as follows:


One could rightly argue that all this fuss and bother about construct validity really










boils down to something rather homespun-namely, circumstantial evidence for the usefulness of a new measurement method.
New measurement methods, like most new
ways of doing things, should not be trusted
until they have proven themselves in many
applications. (p. 109)


Hypotheses


The current study provides some evidence to support the usefulness of an instrument, the Exploration and Commitment Scale. This scale assesses the amount of exploration and commitment in four content areas considered relevant to identity development: Career Values, Political and Religious Ideology, Sexual and Sex Role Values, and the Interpersonal Areas of Dating and Friendship.

The Exploration and Commitment Scale was designed to provide the following information.

1. An overall score which indicates the level of identity achievement but which does not categorize an individual according to method of identity resolution (i.e., foreclosed or achieved) can be calculated.

2. Exploration test items indicate the amount of

exploration the individual has undergone or is currently experiencing. An exploration score can be given for each area, or an overall score can be computed.

3. Commitment test items indicate the amount of commitment the individual currently is expressing. A commitment









score can be given for each area, or an overall score for commitment can be computed.

4. Individuals can be categorized into one of Marcia's four Identity Statuses in each content area. An overall Identity Status could be calculated but is not recommended.

As the number of content areas used to define ego

identity increases, the idea of an overall Identity Status becomes less meaningful. The interaction of exploration and commitment within each content area and the pattern that develops within the individual as he or she consolidates an identity in the content areas define the processes of ego identity development. Assigning an overall status may mask the processes rather than clarify them.

The reliability of the Exploration and Commitment Scale was assessed by measures of internal consistency (Coefficient Alpha, Nunnally, 1970), and test-retest stability (Pearson Correlation, Agresti & Agresti, 1979). Evidence is presented regarding content, construct and, concurrent validity.

In assessing content validity, one must consider whether the test items adequately sample the entire domain of the construct and whether the domain is accurately represented in the test items. In Chapter 3, the methods used in test item selection and the relationship of the individual test items and content areas to Erikson's construct of ego identity are discussed. Erikson's writing (1959, 1968) and









the body of research literature exploring ego identity development support the use of the processes of exploration and commitment in operationalizing ego identity. The four content areas of the Exploration and Commitment Scale are the areas emphasized in the research literature, within which the two processes are explored. .

Whether the test items do indeed reflect these two processes is also important to establish. The Pearson Correlation (Agresti & Agresti, 1979) was used to test the relationship between exploration scores on the Exploration and Commitment Scale and exploration scores on the Self-Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment (Appendix A). The Pearson Correlation (Agresti & Agresti, 1979) was also used to test the relationship between commitment scores on each instrument. The Self-Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment (Appendix A) provides an indication of the individual's assessment of his (her) own level of exploration and commitment.

Correlating the scores on these two instruments provides evidence that the test items do reflect the individual's experience of exploration and commitment. Two hypotheses test the relationship between the Exploration and Commitment Scale and the Self-Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment (Appendix A).









Hypothesis 1


There will be a significant positive relationship

between overall exploration scores on the Exploration and Commitment Scale and total exploration scores on the SelfReport Measure of Exploration and Commitment (Appendix A).


Hypothesis 2


There will be a significant positive relationship

between overall commitment scores on the Exploration and Commitment Scale and total commitment scores on the SelfReport Measure of Exploration and Commitment (Appendix A).

Correlating test scores on other instruments that

purport to measure the same construct is another indirect piece of evidence for content validity. The Pearson correlation (Agresti & Agresti, 1979) was used to assess the relationship between the overall score on the Exploration and Commitment Scale and the total score on the Simmons (1973) Identity Achievement Scale. Both instruments produce a total score which reflects the level of identity achievement attained. Additionally, a comparison of the mean scores on the Simmons' test of two groups--l) those scoring above the median on the Exploration and Commitment Scale and 2) those scoring below the median on the Exploration and Commitment Scale--was accomplished using the Kruskal-Wallis








50

test. This comparison provides evidence that both measures significantly differentiate among a range of scores. Two hypotheses test the relationship between the Exploration and Commitment Scale and Simmons (1970) Identity Achievement Scale.


Hypothesis 3


There will be a significant positive relationship

between the overall scores on the Exploration and Commitment Scale and total scores on the Simmons (1970) Identity Achievement Scale.


Hypothesis 4


There will be a significant difference in mean scores on the Simmons (1970) Identity Achievement Scale between those who scored above the median and those who scored below the median on the Exploration and Commitment Scales.

Construct validity is the most difficult to describe and to assess. Specifying the domain of items used to operationalize the construct is one step in providing evidence that a measure's results have a valid meaning in terms of the psychological constructs it is said to represent. So, evidence that an instrument has good content validity supports the measure's construct validity.

Construct validity also addresses the question of whether the test items combine to measure a coherent









psychological construct. Evidence of internal consistency (Coefficient Alpha, Nunnally, 1970) provides some support for the coherence of items within a test. Convergencedivergence data can also support the construct validity of a measure. The internal consistency of the overall scale as well as of the exploration items and the commitment items was assessed using the Coefficient Alpha (Nunally, 1970). Evidence that the exploration items correlate highly and the commitment items correlate highly and that both combine into a scale with an adequate level of internal consistency supports the construct validity of the instrument. Additionally, the convergence of the exploration and commitment items within each of the four content areas

and their divergence from the other scale totals was assessed using multiple Pearson correlations (Agresti & Agresti, 1979). High correlations of test items within a content area and low correlations with other content area totals provides evidence that the four content areas measure different aspects of ego identity.

Construct validity is supported by evidence of concurrent or predictive validity. The central question in concurrent predictive validity is whether subjects score on a measure as one would predict they should. Predictions can be theoretically based or based on the pattern of previous research results. Studies which have examined ego identity development within content areas have typically compared









male and female differences in exploration and commitment within the content areas. Six studies (Matteson, 1977; Waterman & Nevid, 1976; Hodgson & Fischer, 1979; Nevid et al., 1974; Kacerguis & Adams, 1980; Grotevant et al., 1982; and Thorbecke & Grotevant, 1982) have investigated male-female differences within the content areas. The pattern of results from these studies appears to indicate that females generally have a higher level of exploration and commitment in the Interpersonal and Sexual content areas. There are some data to support the hypothesis that the Ideology content area (particularly political ideology) is more important to males' identity development than to females' (Matteson, 1977; Nevid et al., 1974; Waterman & Nevid, 1976; and Hodgson & Fischer, 1979). Results in the Career Content area from the six studies have been mixed indicating a high level of salience to both males and females. Accordingly, evidence of concurrent validity is presented by testing the following hypotheses:


Hypothesis 5


The mean exploration score for females for the Sexual Content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean exploration score for males in the sexual content area.









Hypothesis 6


The mean commitment score for females for the Sexual Content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean commitment score for males in the Sexual Content area.


Hypothesis 7


Females will be significantly more likely than males

to be categorized in the more advanced ego identity statuses (Achievement and moratorium) in the Sexual Content area. Hypothesis 8


The mean exploration score for females for the Interpersonal Content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean exploration score for males in the Interpersonal Content area.


Hypothesis 9


The mean commitment score for females for the Interpersonal Content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean commitment score for males in the Interpersonal content area. Hypothesis 10


Females will be significantly more likely than males

to be categorized in the more advanced ego identity statuses









(Achievement and Moratorium) in the Interpersonal Content area.


Hypothesis 11


The mean exploration score for'males for the Ideology Content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean exploration score for females.

One of the criticisms of objective measures is that the responses are influenced by the subject's desire to appear in a socially acceptable light. To provide evidence that the responses on the Exploration and Commitment Scale are not confounded by the social desirability motive, the overall scores were correlated with the overall scores on the Crowne and Marlowe (1964) Social Desirability Scale. The following hypothesis was tested. Hypothesis 12


There will be no significant relationship between

the overall scores on the Exploration and Commitment Scale and total scores on the Crowne and Marlowe (1964) Social Desirability Scale.















CHAPTER III
METHOD


Subjects


All su-1--jects were undergraduate students at the University of Florida. A total of over 400 students participated in various stages of this research. over 100 students in Elementary Education and Introductory Psychology classes participated in pilot studies with earlier forms of the Exploration and Commitment Scale. Their efforts were valuable in the creation of the final instrument. Two hundred and seventy-one students in Introductory Sociology and Introductory Psychology courses completed the series of tests necessary to test the reliability and validity of the final version of the Exploration and Commitment Scale. Data from 26 of these subjects were not used because the subjects were overage or because they had incompletely filled out the forms. The final sample of 245 consisted of 95 males and 150 females between the ages of 18 and 23 years. The mean overall age was 19.4 years. For females the mean age was 19.5 years; for males, it was 19.2 years. This age range was chosen as this is the developmental period when males and females are typically addressing the identity issue.

55









Procedure


Development of the Exploration and Commitment Scale


The basic assumption in operationalizing the construct of ego identity was that the variables of exploration and commitment were essential in its definition. Both Erik Erikson (1959, 1968) and James Marcia (1964, 1966) emphasized these two variables in describing the processes of ego identity development. Others (Matteson, 1977; Waterman & Nevid, 1977; and Grotevant, Thorbecke, & Meyer, 1981) have also selected these as essential factors in operationalizing the ego identity construct. The vast majority of the research on ego identity development in the last 20 years has utilized the Marcia Interview. The Marcia Interview is aimed at assessing the amount of exploration the subject has engaged in and his or her degree of expressed commitment toward personal goals and values. Exploration and commitment on the Exploration and Commitment Scale were defined as Marcia (1964) defined them. Exploration is "a time during adolescence when the individual seems to be actively involved in choosing among meaningful alternatives. . . . Commitment refers to the degree of personal investment the individual expresses in a course of action or belief" (p. 24).

Thirty-two statements were constructed which indicate past or current exploration. The statements express









involvement in the process of examining one's beliefs, opinions, or positions. Past exploration is indicated by a change in opinions, beliefs, or positions over time or by an increased ability to consider a broader range of options.

Thirty-two commitment items were written reflecting personal investment in a belief, or in a position and/or a feeling of stability or consistency in the position taken. No effort was made to differentiate between foreclosed commitment and commitment made after an exploration of alternatives. The presence of an expressed sense of a firm stance with regard to an issue, however arrived at, underlies the commitment items.

Each of the exploration and commitment variables was considered within the context of four areas of an individual's life which have been considered relevant in research on ego identity development in late adolescence:

1. career goals,

2. ideology (political and religious),

3. sexual and sex role values,

4. interpersonal (friendship and dating values).

The resulting format consisted of four subtests,

each having eight exploration and eight commitment items. Content areas and examples of exploration and commitment

items for each area follow. The Exploration and Commitment Scale is entirely reproduced in Appendix B.









Career Exploration Items


1. Trying to narrow my interests down to one career has been a struggle for me.

57. Talking over career possibilities with others has

been helpful to me. Career Commitment Items


6. 1 consider myself settled as far as my career plans are concerned.

10. The career area that I have chosen suits my interests

and abilities.


Ideology Exploration Items


5. 1 have gone through (or am now going through) a period of questioning and uncertainty about my religious

beliefs.

23. Having political discussions with friends has helped

me to clarify what I think politically. Ideology Commitment Items


2. 1 have strong political opinions. 12. 1 feel like my religious beliefs are an important

influence in my life.













27. Dating different people has influenced me to rethink

some of my ideas on men's and women's roles in marriage. 35. I've had to figure out for myself what is right for me

sexually.


Sexual Commitment Items


42. While my friends may not agree with my sex role values

(traditional or liberal), it would not be easy for

them to change my mind.

50. 1 feel strongly about what I think is right and wrong

in the sexual area.


Interpersonal Exploration Items


11. What I would look for in a person I would date has

changed over the years since I first started dating. 15. I've worked at understanding my friends better. Interpersonal Commitment Items


4. 1 can tell after the first few dates if someone is right for me.

8. 1 don't easily change my ideas about friends. Data Collection


Pilot studies on three earlier versions of the Exploration and Commitment Scale were conducted with over 100


Sexual Exploration Items









undergraduates in Elementary Education and Introductory Psychology classes. Items were refined following each study. The resulting test items were examined by two advanced graduate students and a clinical psychologist who had been trained in assessing exploration and commitment items according to Marcia's definition. The final test version incorporated their suggestions.

Two hundred and seventy-onp Introductory Sociology

and Introductory Psychology students were asked to complete the final version of the Exploration and Commitment Scale (Appendix B) along with the following instruments:

1. The Self-Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment (Moberly, 1985) (Appendix A).

2. The Social Desirability Scale (Crowne and Marlow, 1964) (Appendix C).

3. The Identity Achievement Scale (Simmons, 1970) (Appendix D).

A subsample of these students (N=45) completed a retest of the Exploration and Commitment Scale after a one-week interval.

The data were collected by the author during the

regular class period. Since all the classes had at least 75 students, the forms were filled out in large groups. The data were collected anonymously except for the sample of students who were in the test-retest group. Their social security numbers were removed from their tests









as soon as the test and retest data were matched. The

students were informed of the nature of the study by the

following paragraph on the front of their packet of tests.


General Instructions for Participants in this Study


This is a study exploring how each
of you decides your position on issues,
and how each of you thinks and feels. A
series of several different kinds of
tasks will be used to help gain an
understanding of your values, thoughts
and feelings. There are no right or
wrong answers, only your answers. All
the data will be handled on a coded
basis and reported as group data. We
are asking for your age, sex, and social security number to classify and code the
data. Following the collection of all the data, your social security number
will be deleted. Thank you for participating in this study.



The students were reminded to answer all questions

and to fill in their age and sex on the front of the packet.

Those not in the test-retest group were told not to fill

in the social security number. The students in the testretest group were given 10 extra points toward their overall

grade in the Introductory Psychology course for their

participation. No other compensation was given to any

of the participants.








Instruments


The Exploration and Commitment Scale was constructed for the purposes of this study. The Scale consists of 64 statements, and the subject is asked to indicate on a 7-point scale how much the statement agrees with the way he or she thinks and/or feels. The analysis and validation of this instrument is the primary goal of this study. The data relating to its reliability and validity will be considered in Chapter 4.

The Exploration and Commitment Scale was constructed to provide several different kinds of information.

1. A total score (the sum of scores from all test

items) which indicates the overall level of both exploration and commitment. This score can be considered an indicator of ego identity achievement.

2. A total exploration score (the sum of all oddnumbered items) which indicates the amount of exploration the individual has undergone or is currently experiencing. An exploration score can also be given individually for each subtext area.

3. A total commitment score (the sum of all evennumbered items) which indicates the amount of commitment the individual is currently expressing. A commitment score can also be given individually for each subtext area.







63

4. Individuals can be categorized into one of Marcia's four Identity Statuses in each content area. The test items and their content areas are all listed following the test in Appendix B. The scoring instructions for assigning identity statuses are also in Appendix B.

Three methods were tested for assigning individuals to identity statuses. A description of the methods and the data concerning these methods are reported in the Results section of this paper. The utility of each of these methods is discussed in Chapter 5.

The Self-Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment (Moberly, 1985) was also constructed for use in this study. This instrument was designed following the suggestion by Matteson (1977) that exploration and commitment be measured separately using continuous scales. He rated each of his content areas separately using a 4-point scale. The Self-Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment rates each content area (U) sexual values and sex role values; (2) dating and friendship; (3) career; and (4) political and religious ideology) separately using a 5-point scale. The Exploration scales range from (1) Limited ("I haven't given this area much thought") to (5) Very Intense ("I have thought a lot about this area" or "I am now trying to sort out my feelings about this area"). The Commitment Scales range from (1) Limited ("I don't really have a position on this issue that I feel strongly









about") to (5) Very Intense ("I know what I think and feel about this issue and it would be hard to change my mind"). This scale measures the subject's overall selfperceptions of the amount of exploration and commitment he or she has experienced in a given area. It differs from the Exploration and Commitment Scale in that it measures an overall assessment while the Exploration and Commitment Scale measures responses to specific thoughts, feelings, and actions that may indicate exploration and commitment in the four areas.

The Social Desirability Scale (Crowne and Marlowe,

1964) consists of 33 statements to be marked true or false. The scale was constructed so as to strike a balance between two types of statements; one half are culturally acceptable but probably not true; the other half are true but not socially desirable. The scale is designed to indicate the effect of the social desirability motive on an individual, i.e., the need to describe oneself in socially desirable terms in order to gain other's approval. Of the 33 items, 18 are keyed in the true direction and 15 are keyed in the false direction. Scores range from 0 (no social desirability) to 33 (highest social desirability). The scale norms, drawn from 1,400 students in Introductory Psychology classes at Ohio State University, indicate a mean for males of 15.1 (s.d. = 5.6) and for females 16.8 (s.d. = 5.5). The Social Desirability Scale has









an internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson 20) of .88, and a test-retest correlation after a month interval of .88. Evidence for its validity rests on many studies in which predictive and/or concurrent hypotheses have been confirmed. People who are susceptible to the motive to characterize themselves in socially desirable ways tend to (according to these studies) be more socially conforming, to give popular word associations, to cautiously set goals in a risk-taking venture, and to show greater susceptibility to persuasion.

The Identity Achievement Scale (Simmons, 1970) is a 24-item forced-choice format scale. The measure was devised from Marcia's (1964) Ego Identity Incomplete Sentences Blank instrument. On the Marcia instrument sentence stems were used as stimuli. Responses to the stems were rated by trained raters according to degree of identity achievement indicated by the responses. Using Marcia's (1964) scoring manual, Simmons constructed sentence completion stems followed by two alternatives. The alternatives were taken from Marcia's examples of high-, medium-, and low-scoring responses. The alternative response indicated by Marcia as most indicative of identity achievement was scored with a plus. Scores range from 0 to 24, the higher scores indicating a higher level of identity achievement. The original pool of 90 test items was reduced to 24 through item analyses. Preliminary norms for the









scale are based on 147 freshman students in a Personality Development class at Oregon STate University. The mean for the sample was 12.56 (12.75 for males and 12.39 for females). The standard deviation was 3.18. No statistically significant sex differences in scores were found. Simmons' measure has a test-retest Pearson product moment correlation coefficient of .76 with 122 General Psychology students after a one-week interval. The measure has been validated against a number of measures including the Marcia Interview, the Edwards Personal Preference Schedules (Edwards, 1954), Shostrom's Personal Orientation Inventory (Shostrom, 1966), and against aptitude test scores and grade point averages for high schol and college students (see Simmons, 1973).

In a study correlating scores on the Identity Achievement Scale with scores on the Anomie Scale (Srole, 1956), Christie's Machiavellianism IV Scale (Christie & Geiss, 1970), Eysenck's Neuroticism's Scale (Eysenck, 1958), Couch and Keniston (1960) Yeasaying response set scale, Journard and Resnick (1970) Self-Disclosure Scale, and Rotter's (1966) Locus of Control Scale, Simmons (1973) concluded,

The tabled Pearson product-moment correlations show the Identity Achievement Scale may be assessing flexible, adaptive, functioning (e.g., the negative correlation
with yeasaying and neuroticism) but is
unrelated to self-disclosing tendencies
and to perception of the locus of control
as internal. The scale seems to tap somewhat
different aspects of functioning for males
and females, e.g., it is significantly









and negatively related to the Anomie and
Mach IV scales for males but not for
females. These results suggest differential
interpretation of male and female scores.
(p. 10)


A later correlation with self-ratings of adjustment with male and female freshman students in Psychology classes at Oregon State University has been helpful in clarifying the male-female differences. The pattern of specific aspects of adjustment that correlated significantly with the Identity Achievement Scale, "suggests that both males and females high on Identity Achievement status emphasize that they operate as productive and self-disciplined persons. Males emphasize their lack of conformity to expected behaviors while the females emphasize their efficiency, social harmoniousness, clear and realistic thinking, social approval, self-acceptance, and personal fulfillment, etc." (Simmons, 1973, pp. 11-12).















CHAPTER IV
RESULTS


The means and standard deviations for the Exploration and Commitment Scale are listed in Table 1. Females had higher scores in both exploration and commitment. Both males and females reported higher levels of commitment than exploration. The means and standard deviations for each of the content areas are listed in Table 5.



Table 1

Means and Standard Deviations for the Exploration and Commitment Scale



Total Males Females
N = 245 95 150

Mean (S.D.) Mean (S.D.) Mean (S.D.)


Total scores
on Exploration
and Commitment
Scale 297.77 (28.86) 294.40 (27.38) 301.13 (30.33)

Total
Exploration 145.58 (17.93) 144.60 (17.81) 146.55 (18.08) Total
Commitment 147.61 (20.01) 145.07 (18.49) 150.15 (21.52)









While it is clear that the various kinds of evidence

supporting the reliability and validity of a test are closely related, I have separated the statistical results into four areas--(l) Reliability, (2) Content Validity,

(3) Construct Validity, and (4) Concurrent Validity.


Reliability


Internal Consi3tency


Composite reliability (internal consistency) was computed using Cronbach's alpha (1951). Three tests were run. The internal consistency of the items making up the Exploration Scale and of the items making up the Commitment Scale were examined as well as the overall level of internal consistency for the entire scale. The coefficient alpha for the exploration items was .72; for the commitment items the coefficient alpha was .81. The coefficient alpha for the entire scale was .78. These alphas indicate significant internal consistency for the two subscales as well as for the whole Exploration and Commitment Scale. Test-Retest Stability


The test-retest stability was explored for 45 subjects who retook the test after a one week interval. The Pearson product moment correlations and their associated probabilities for the overall score, for the exploration items and commitment items, and for the exploration and









commitment items within the four content areas can be seen in Table 2. All except for Friendship Exploration are significant (p < .001).


Table 2.

Test-Retest Correlations for the Exploration and Commitment Scale


Correlation


Overall score All exploration items All commitment items Career exploration items Career commitment items Friendship exploration items Friendship commitment items Political exploration items Political commitment items Sexual exploration items Sexual commitment items


= 0.83397* = 0.78976* = 0.88861* = 0.80181* = 0.83511* 0 0. 4616 2* 0 0.7 26 07* =0.85017* 0 0.9 30 87* 0 0.7 40 93* 0 0.7 2 268*


*2 K .001. ** < .005 Content Validity


The coefficient alpha is recognized as evidence for

the content validity of an instrument. Additional evidence is supplied by testing the following hypotheses.


Test Items









Hypothesis 1


There will be a significant positive relationship

between overall exploration scores on the Exploration and Commitment Scale and total exploration scores on the SelfReport Measure of Exploration and Commitment (Moberly, 1985).


Hypothesis 2


There will be a significant positive relationship

between overall commitment scores on the Exploration and Commitment Scale and total commitment scores on the SelfReport Measure of Exploration and Commitment (Moberly, 1985).

Both of these hypotheses were supported. Using a Pearson product moment correlation for the comparison, these results were obtained. Between the exploration scores for both measures, the obtained correlation was r = .42 with a significance level of p < .001. The correlation between the commitment items on both measures was r = .57 with a significance level of p < .001.

Further tests were conducted to examine the relationship between the content areas on both measures. The results can be seen in Table 3. All the correlations were significant (p < .001)except for Career Exploration and Sexual Exploration.









Table 3.

Content Area Correlations Between the Exploration and Commitment Scale and the Self-Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment


Content Areas


Correlation


Career Exploration Career Commitment Friendship Exploration Friendship Commitment Political Exploration Political Commitment Sexual Exploration Sexual Commitment


*2 < .001.


* < .05.


.60*

.41* 34* .52* .65*

* 19** .40*


**p> .05.


Additional evidence for the content validity of the Exploration and Commitment Scale is provided by examining the relationship between the Exploration and Commitment Scale and the Simmons (1970) Identity Achievement Scale. Two of the hypotheses are concerned with this relationship.


Hypothesis 3


There will be a significant positive relationship

between the overall scores on the Exploration and Commitment









Scale and total scores on the Simmons (1970) identity Achievement Scale.

This hypothesis was supported. The obtained Pearson product moment correlation between the overall scores on the two measures was r = .26 which is significant (p < .001). Hypothesis 4


There will be a significant difference in mean scores on the Simmons (1970) Identity Achievement Scale between those who scored above the median and those who scored below the median on the Exploration and Commitment Scale.

For this test the subjects were divided into two groups

--those who scored above the median on the Exploration and Commitment Scale (the High group) and those who scored below the median (the Low group). The mean score for each group on the Simmons (1970) Identity Achievement Scale was calculated and compared. A Kruskal-Wallis test was performed on the data producing a chi square approximation of 6.02 (p < .01) which was significant. The hypothesis was supported.


Construct Validity


Internal Consistency


The alpha levels for Internal Consistency provide some evidence that the exploration items and the commitment items combine to measure a coherent construct. The









convergent-divergent pattern of correlations between items in a content area and the total content area score provides further support for the construct validity of the Exploration and Commitment Scale.


Convergent-Divergent Analysis


The convergent-divergent pattern of correlations between items within a content area and their total score for the content area on the Exploration and Commitment Scale indicates that the items for each content area load moderately to high with their own content area score while scoring low correlations with the total scores for the other content areas. Table 4 summarizes the range of correlations for the individual items across the four content areas. The ranges for IC-he exploration items and for the commitment items are listed separately. The median score is for the combined range of exploration and commitment items. The median correlations load significantly higher (p < .001) on their own content area total than on the total scores for the other three content areas. The items for the sexual content area and for the interpersonal content area appear to share some common variance. This would be expected as interpersonal values (relating to friendship and dating) are closely linked to sexual and sex role values.










Table 4. Convergent-Divergent Correlation Ranges for the Content Area Items
with Total Scores for Each Content Area


Career Ideology Interpersonal Sexual


Total Content Area Scores


CAREER


-.03 to .22
-.06 to .20
.11


.09 to .35 01 to .19
.14


.02 to .32
-.02 to .16
.10


EXPLORATION -.00 to .63 COMMITMENT .32 to .67 MEDIAN .42*


IDEOLOGY


EXPLORATION COMMITMENT MEDIAN

INTERPERSONAL


.02 to .13 .10 to .25
.10


.18 to .70 .34 to .73
.47*


-.10 to .34
-.05 to .21
.08


-.04 to .26 .02 to .28 .06


.05 to .40
-.00 to .34
.15


EXPLORATION -.04 to .28 COMMITMENT -.01 to .25 MEDIAN .17


-.01 to .23
-.04 to .18
.06


.14 to .55 .10 to .55
.39


SEXUAL


-.08 to .15
-.00 to .18
.07


-.10 to .33
-.08 to .38
.20


.07 to .54 .11 to .53
.39


EXPLORATION -.19 to .17 COMMITMENT -.06 to .29 MEDIAN .14


*P < .001.









Concurrent Validity


Evidence for concurrent validity is presented by comparing males' and females' performance in the four content areas: (1) Career, (2) Sexual and Sex Role, (3) Interpersonal, and (4) Political and Religious Ideology. The data comparing the means for exploration and for commitment for males and females can be found in Tables 5. Hypotheses

5 and 6 concern mean comparisons between males and females in the Sexual Content area.


Hypothesis 5


The mean exploration score for females for the Sexual Content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean exploration score for males in the Sexual Content area.

The exploration mean for females was higher than for

males (females = 36.52; males = 34.27) in the Sexual Content area. An analysis of variance (F (1, 244) = 7.61, p < .05) showed that the difference was significant (see Table 5). The hypothesis was supported.


Hypothesis 6


The mean commitment score for females for the Sexual Content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean commitment score for males in the Sexual Content area.









The commitment mean for females was also higher than for males (females = 40.68; males = 35.63) in the Sexual Content area. An analysis of variance (F (1, 244) = 36.20, P < .001) showed that the difference was significant (see Table 5). Since the commitment means for males and females are significantly different, this hypothesis was also supported.

Hypotheses 8 and 9 concern comparisons between males and females in the Interpersonal Content Area. Hypothesis 8


The mean exploration score for females for the Interpersonal Content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean exploration score for males in the Interpersonal Content area.

The mean for females (41.91) was higher than the mean for males (40.79); however, the difference was not significant (F (1, 244) = 2.39, p > .05). The hypothesis was not supported.


Hypothesis 9


The mean commitment score for females for the Interpersonal content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean commitment score for males in the Interpersonal Content area.












Table 5.

Mean Exploration and Commitment Scores (and Standard Deviations) for Males and Females on the Exloration and Commitment Scale



Males a Females bF


Mean (S.D.) Mean (S.D.)


Sexual Sex Role
Exploration 34.27 (5.97) 36.52 (6.36) 7.61**
Commitment 35.63 (6.61) 40.68 (6.26) 36.20***

Career
Exploration 38.65 (7.94) 39.84 (7.31) 1.43
Commitment 37.93 (10.62) 37.36 (10.89) 0.16

Interpersonal
Exploration 40.79 (5.47) 41.91 (5.53) 2.39
Commitment 38.93 (5.45) 41.18 (6.16) 8.35**

Ideology
Exploration 30.88 (8.18) 28.29 (6.82) 7.21*
Commitment 37.29 (9.02) 35.35 (7.84) 3.19

Total
Exploration 144.60 (17.81) 146.55 (18.08) 0.69

Total
Commitment 145.07 (18.49) 150.15 (21.52) 3.23

Total E & C
Score 294.40 (27.38) 301.13 (30.33) 3.08


a N =95.

*2 < .05.


bN= 150.


c df = 1.


** .005. ***j2 < .001.









The mean for females (41.18) was higher than the mean

for males (38.95). The difference was significant (F (1,244)

8.35, P < .005). The hypothesis was supported.

Hypothesis 11 concerns comparisons between males and females in the Ideology content area.


Hypothesis 11


The mean exploration score for males for the Ideology Content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean exploration score for females.

The male exploration mean (30.88) was higher than

the female mean (28.29). The difference was significant (F (1,244) = 7.21, p < .05). The hypothesis was supported.

There were no hypotheses regarding differences in means in the career area for males and females because results have been mixed in this area. It is interesting to note that the means for Career Commitment show the smallest difference of any of the areas (males = 37.93, females

37.36) (F (1,244) = .16, p > .1).

In summary, it appears that females generally had

higher levels of exploration and commitment. Significant differences were found in four areas. Females had significantly higher levels of sexual exploration, sexual commitment, and interpersonal commitment. Males had a significantly higher level of exploration in the Ideology area. The smallest difference between males and females was found









in the area of career commitment suggesting that females are as committed to career goals as males are. Interpersonal exploration and ideological commitment appear to be important to both males and females.

There were two hypotheses that were related to comparing males and females within Marcia's Identity Statuses.


Hypothesis 7


Females will be significantly more likely than males

to be categorized in the more advanced ego identity statuses (Achievement and Moratorium) in the Sexual Content area. Hypothesis 10


Females will be significantly more likely than males

to be categorized in the more advanced ego identity statuses (Achievement and Moratorium) in the Interpersonal Content area.

Three methods of placing subjects in Marcia's Identity Statuses were explored. A "ranking" method was tried in which exploration and commitment scores were rank ordered. The top third were considered high and the bottom third low. Achievements were high on both exploration and commitment. The diffusions were low on both dimensions. Moratoriums were high in exploration and low in commitment. Foreclosures were low in exploration and high in commitment. The subjects in the middle third wre not placed in statuses.









The "mean-split" method was also explored. Those

above the mean were considered high; those below the mean were considered low. Achievements were high in both exploration and commitment. Diffusions were low in both dimensions. Foreclosures were high in commitment and low in exploration. Moratoriums were high in exploration and low in commitment.

The third method--the "standard deviation" method-established a mean and a standard deviation for each total content area score. Those who scored one standard deviation above the mean were Achievements. Those who scored one standard deviation below the mean were Diffusions. The subjects who scored between the two standard deviations were classed as either Foreclosures or Moratoriums depending on how their Exploration score compared to their Commitment score. If the commitment score was higher by 10 points, they were considered Foreclosures. otherwise, they were considered Moratoriums.

A comparison of the percentages of males and females

in the more advanced identity statuses vs. the low identity statuses for the various content areas was computed for all three methods using the chi square statistic. Results are summarized in Tables 6, 7, and 8. There were no significant differences for any of the content areas.

As can be seen from Tables 6, 7, and 8, hypotheses 7 and 10 were not supported. There were no significant













Table 6.


Standard Deviation Method. Male-Female Differences in Identity Status Classification Based on Content Areas of the Exploration and Commitment Scale


Ch i
Content Area Identity Statuses Squarea


High Low


Career


Males


63%


Females 59%


Sexual and Sex Role Values

Political and Religious Ideology

Interpersonal Area (Friendship and Dating)


Males Fema le s Males Females Males Fema le s


Males N = 95. Females N= a df = 1


67% 58% 58%


54.7%


37%

41% 33%

42% 42%


45.3%


73% 67%


27% 33%


34*


2. 47 *


.25*


.77*


150.


*P> . 10













Table 7.

Mean Split Method. Male-Female Differences in Identity Status Classification Based on Content Areas of the Exploration and Commitment Scale


Ch i
Content Identity Statuses Square a


High Low


Career Males 50.5% 49.5%
34*
Females 52% 48%


Sexual and Males 47.4% 54.7
Sex Role 1.24*
Values Females 54.7% 45.3%


Political Males 47.3% 52.7%
and Religious .86*
Ideology Females 41.3% 58.7%


Interpersonal Males 58% 42%
Area (Friend- *35*
ship and Females 54% 46%
Dating)


Males N = 95. Females N= a df = 1.


150.


*P> . 10.













Table 8.

Ranking Method. Male-Female Differences in Identity Status Classification Based on Content Areas of the Exploration and Commitment Scale

Ch i
Content Area Identity Statuses Square a


High Low N


Career Males 41.46% 58.54% 54
1.79*
Females 55.00% 45.00% 90
Total 144
Sexual and Males 34.88% 65.12% 52
Sex Role 3.74*
Values Females 53.62% 46.38% 81
Total 133
Political Males 63.27% 36.73% 46
and Religious 5. 90**
Ideology Females 40.58% 59.42% 81
Total 127
Interpersonal Males 43.18% 56.82% 51
Area (Friend- 1.18*
ship and Females 53.73% 46.27% 83
Dating) Total 134


Males N = 95. Females N = 150. a df = 1


*p > .10. ** < .05. 2>.5


***p > .05.









differences in the percentages of males and females in the more advanced ego identity statuses in the Sexual and Interpersonal Content areas.

A post hoc analysis was conducted in the four content areas. Males and females were compared in the Committed (Achievement and Foreclosure) Statuses vs. the Uncommitted (Moratorium and Diffusion) Statuses, using the Standard Deviation method of placing subjects in statuses. Results are seen in Table 9.

The only significant difference was found in the area of Sexual and Sex Role Values. Females were significantly more likely to be found in the Committed Statuses in this area.

Table 10 contains the numbers and percentages of males and females in each identity status as classified by the Standard Deviation Method.


Social Desirability Bias


The question of whether the test responses were

contaminated by a social desirability bias was examined by testing the following hypothesis. Hypothesis 10


There will be no significant relationship between

the overall scores on the Exploration and Commitment Scale













Table 9.

Male-Female Differences in Committed v. Uncommitted Statuses Based on Content Areas of the Exploration and Commitment Scale


Chi
Content Area Identity Statuses Square a

Committed Uncommitted


Career Males 41% 59%
23**
Females 38% 62%


Sexual and Males 30% 70%
Sex Role 5.33*
Values Females 46% 54%


Political Males 43% 57%
and Religious . 15**
Ideology Females 40.6% 59.4%


Interpersonal Males 34% 66%
Area (Friend- . 0032**
ship and Females 33% 67%
Dating)


Males N = 95.


Females N = 150


a df = 1


*2 < .05. **2 > .1.









Table 10.

Numbers and Percentages of Males and Females in Each Identity Status as Classified by the Standard Deviation Method



Males Females


Number Percentage Number Percentage


Career Content Area

Achievement 18 19% 30 20%
Moratorium 38 40% 64 43%
Foreclosure 21 22% 27 18%
Diffusion 18 19% 29 19%

Interpersonal Content Area

Achievement 30 32% 41 27%
Moratorium 39 41% 60 40%
Foreclosure 2 2% 9 6%
Diffusion 24 25% 40 27%

Sexual Content Area

Achievement 20 21% 37 25%
Moratorium 44 46% 49 33%
Foreclosure 9 9% 31 21%
Diffusion 22 24% 33 21%

Ideology Content Area

Achievement 26 27% 38 25.3%
Moratorium 29 31% 44 29.4%
Foreclosure 15 16% 23 15.3%
Diffusion 25 26% 45 30%


Males N = 95. Females N = 150.







88

and the total scores on the Crowne and Marlowe (1964) Social Desirability Scale.

This hypothesis was supported. A Pearson product

moment correlation (r = .11) was not significant (p > .05).


Summary


This study provides evidence for the adequacy of the

reliability, content, and construct validity of the Exploration and Commitment Scale. The comparison of means data were consistent with previous research results, providing evidence of concurrent validity for the scale. Social desirability bias does not appear to affect subjects' responses to the test items. The hypotheses relating to classifying subjects into Marcia's statuses were not supported. Possible reasons for these results will be discussed in Chapter 5. Finding a significantly greater percentage of females in the committed statuses in the Sexual Content Area was consistent with previous research findings. This result will also be discussed in Chapter

5.














CHAPTER V
DISCUSSION


This study provides some evidence for the reliability and validity of the Exploration and Commitment Scale. The scale's internal consistency, test-retest reliability, the convergence and divergence of subscale items, and its content, construct, and concurrent validity have all been investigated.


Reliability Data


The two measures of reliability (test-retest and internal consistency) were both significantly supported, showing the test to be a reliable measure. Internal consistency results will be discussed in conjunction with the convergence-divergence data in the Construct Validity Section.


Content Validity


Correlation with Measurement of Ego Identity


It is important in validating an instrument to provide

some empirical evidence that the scale measures the construct you intend to measure. The significant correlation with the Simmons Identity Achievement Scale (IAS) (1970) is a first step in providing empirical evidence of the content 89









validity of the Exploration and Commitment Scale. The IAS is based on Marcia's (1964) Ego Identity Incomplete Sentence Blank, against which he validated his Identity Status Interview. Evidence for the validity of the IAS can be found in the instrument description in Chapter 3. The IAS measures an overall sense of identity development without discriminating as to the mode of identity resolution. Simmons does not suggest that the IAS will place subjects in an identity status.

The two tests that compared the Exploration and Commitment Scale to the IAS were both significant. They provided two different kinds of evidence for content validity. The overall correlation shows that the subjects who scored high on the Exploration and Commitment Scale scored high on the IAS. The comparison of means demonstrates a significant difference between high and low scorers on each measure. Not only does the Exploration and Commitment Scale correlate with an instrument that measures ego identity, but both instruments discriminate significantly among a range of scores.


Correlation with Self-Report Measure


While the above data support the contention that the

test measures ego identity as it is theoretically described, the correlations with the Self-Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment (Moberly, 1985) provide another kind of









evidence. The self-report measure was designed to ask directly for an individual's overall sense of the amount of exploration and commitment he or she has experienced in each of the four areas. The Exploration and Commitment Scale asks for responses to specific beliefs, behaviors, and experiences that less directly indicate exploration or commitment. That the exploration items in the two measures and the commitment items in each of the measures correlate significantly suggests that the test items do reflect the individual's experience of exploration and commitment and thus do indeed sample the content domain of ego identity.


Construct Validity


Internal Consistency and Convergence-Divergence Data


The construct validity of the instrument is supported

both by its level of internal consistency and by the convergence-divergence data. That the levels of internal consistency were acceptably high not only for the two subsections of exploration items and commitment items but for the overall test is important. When this information is combined with the convergence-divergence data, one gets a sense for the flexibility of the instrument as a measurement of the construct, ego identity. The converence-divergence data show that the items in the four content area subscales (Sexual, Interpersonal, Ideology, and Career) load moderately high









on their own subscale totals while having lowcorrelations with the other subscale totals. This supports the belief that the four content area subscales measure discriminately different areas of identity development.

The construct, ego identity, as it has been discussed by Erik Erikson (1959, 1968) and James Marcia (1964, 1966), combines the two variables of exploration and commitment. Both are closely linked to ego identity development. The ego expands through exploring options and testing out possibilities. One's sense of personhood is enlarged as the individual is able to try himself or herself out through new experiences. A sense of one's similarity to others is important, but so is the ability to savour the differences between oneself and others. A sense of individuality is built on both.

As the individual explores, he or she chooses values, goals, or options that provide self-definition. It is from the vantage point of one's commitments that the individual is able to see the similarities or differences between himself or herself and others. In making commitments that one will stand by, the individual is giving up possibilities. Deciding to be a lawyer or a Methodist or monogamous means that one has chosen to limit oneself to a particular career, religion, or sexual status. The goal in individuation could best be described as finding a comfortable balance between these two variables. Exploring enough so that




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THE DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A MULTIDIMENSIONAL EXPLORATION AND COMMITMENT SCALE FOR ASSESS~NG EGO IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT By JEANNE C. MOBERLY A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1985

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Copyright 1985 by Jeanne C. Moberly

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Dedicated to my two children, Laura and Richard, whose pride in me has been a constant source of support throughout this venture, and of whom I am very proud.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank my committee chairperson, Dr. Dorothy Nevill, who has been a good friend as well as a mentor throughout my graduate school experience. I would also like to thank my committee members, Drs. Grater, Resnick, Miller, and Fukuyama, whose suggestions and ques tions helped me to clarify and articulate my own ideas. There are many friends I wish to acknowledge--people who xeroxed and assembled tests and aided me in collecting and coding the data: Dr. Robert Ashley, Pat Atkins, Barbara Beynon, Betty Black, Cheryl Boggess, Drs. Leonard Beeghley and Mary Anna Hovey, Lissa Friedman, Tricia Gregory, Dale Midgett, Kristen McIntyre, Marilyn O'Connor, Sandy Peterson, Joyce Perrotta, and Ann Wilson. Thank you for your time and efforts, energy and support. iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMZNTS................................ iv ABSTRACT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vii CHAPTERS I INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.................. 8 Erikson's Psychosocial Stages............. 8 Adolescence............................... 10 Definition of Ego Identity................ 11 Ego's Tasks in Identity Development....... 12 Seven Perspectives on Ego Identity........ 13 Early Attempts to Measure Differences in Ego Identity Development................ 16 Marci a Int e rv i ew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 Other Measures of Ego Identity............ 24 Gender Difference in Ego Identity Development ............................. 26 Separating Content Areas.................. 36 Exploration and Commitment Variables...... 39 Social Desirability....................... 41 Instrument Development--Reliability and Validity................................ 41 Hypotheses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 6 I I I METHOD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5 Subjects.................................. 55 Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6 Instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 IV RESULTS................................... 68 Reliability............................... 69 Content Validity.......................... 70 Construct Validity........................ 73 Concurrent Validity....................... 76 Social Desirability Bias.................. 85 Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 8 V

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V DISCUSSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 9 Reliability Data.......................... 89 Content Validity.......................... 89 Construct Validity........................ 91 Concurrent Validity....................... 94 Social Desirability....................... 106 Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7 Future Directions.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 APPENDICES A SELF-REPORT MEASURE OF EXPLORATION AND COMMIT~1ENT.............................. 111 B EXPLORATION AND COMMMITMENT SCALE......... 114 C CROWNE-MARLOWE SOCIAL DESIRABILITY SCALE.. 124 D SIMMONS IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT SCALE........ 127 REFERENCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 0 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH............................. 139 vi

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A MULTIDIMENSIONAL EXPLORATION AND COMMITMENT SCALE FOR ASSESSNG EGO IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT By Jeanne C. Moberly May 1985 Chairperson: Dorothy Nevill Major Department: Psychology The major goal of this research was to develop a reliable and valid instrument for assessing ego identity development. The two variables that have consistently been regarded as integral parts of ego identity are (1) the individual's experience of exploration of his or her options and values and (2) the development of a sense of commitment to values that provide self-definition. The Exploration and Commitment Scale (ECS) is a 64-item instrument containing 32 exploration items and 32 commitment items, each scored on a 7-point scale. The ECS is divided into four subscales (Career, Interpersonal, Sexual, and Ideology), each containing eight exploration and eight com mitment items. The ECS may be scored to provide the following information: 1. an overall score--a measure of ego identity development, vii

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2. an overall exploration score, 3. an overall commitment score, 4. an Identity Status (Achievement, Moratorium, Foreclosure, or Commitment) within each subscale, 5. an exploration and/or commitment score for each subscale. Data analyses from 245 undergraduate3 at the University of Florida indicate a moderately high level of internal consistency and a significant level of test-retest reliabil ity for the ECS. The convergence and divergence of subscale items supports the belief that the subscales measure dis criminably different areas of identity. Correlations with a self-report measure indicate that test results compare significantly with the individual's own experience of exploration and commitment. Correlations with an instrument that measures overall ego identity development were also significant. Correlation with the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale confirmed a lack of social desirability bias in the responses. Comparisons between males and females within the subscales indicate that exploration and commitment within the Interpersonal and Sexual areas are particularly salient for females. Males have explored more and express more commitment in the Ideology area. Small between-sex differences in the Career Commitment area indicate an equally high level of career commitment for both sexes. The validity and reliability of the ECS were supported. Directions for future utilization of the measure were suggested. viii

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Erik Erikson (1959, 1968) is generally consider~d to be the most influential theorist and writer on the processes of ego identity development. He placed the crucial period for ego identity formation in adolescence and described both the psychodynamic bases of and the psycho social influences on ego identity. Operationalizing the concept of ego identity is the first step in studying its processes. A variety of defini tions can be seen in the early attempts to construct measures of ego identity (Bronson, 1959; Block, 1961; Heilbrun, 1964; Gruen, 1960; Hauser, 1972; Constantinople, 1969; and Dignan, 1965. Other measures of ego identity have been constructed so that they are closely linked conceptually to Erikson's theories (Rasmussen, 1964; Marcia, 1964, 1966; Baker, 1971; Simmons, 1970, 1973; Tan, Kendis, Fine, and Porac, 1977; Schilling, 1975; and Adams, Shea, and Fitch, 1979). The semistructured interview developed by James Marcia (1964, 1966) has been the most widely used method for operationaliz ing adolescent ego identity development (Bourne, 1978a). The interview format categorizes individuals into identity statuses which Marcia describes as "four modes of dealing 1

PAGE 10

2 with the identity issue characteristic of late adolescents" (1980, p. 161). Marcia's statuses (Achievement, Moratorium, Foreclosure, and Diffusion) are closely related to Erikson's formulation of ego identity development. There are two notions which seem to charac terize Erikson's writing about the phase of late adolescence. The first is the presence of some period of re-thinking, sorting through, trying out various roles and life plans. This is taken to be the behavioral referent for the internal process referred to in psychoanalytic theory as "The synthesizing function of the ego" (Erikson, 1956, p. 104). We call this decision period, crisis, a time during adolescence when the individual seems to be actively involved in choosing among meaningful alternatives. The second indication of the achievement of ego identity is subsequent commitment, particularly in such important life areas as occupation and ideology. Commitment refers to the degree of personal investment the individual expresses in a course of action or belief. (Marcia, 1964, pp. 23-24) Marcia's statuses are defined based on 1) the presence or absence of a period of exploration of alternatives and decision making ("crisis period") and on 2) the degree of commitment exhibited in areas considered crucial to ego identity formation. An individual in the achievement status has gone through a period of exploration and has developed firm commitments to self-chosen goals. Moratorium youths are in the midst of a crisis period of exploration and are moving toward firm commitments, though they have not yet clarified their goals. Foreclosures exhibit strong

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commitments, but their commitments (usually parentally influenced) have been arrived at without having experienced a period of exploration. Youths who are assigned to the diffusion status demonstrate no clear or firm commitments, nor do they appear to be currently exploring to clarify their values and goals. Matteson (1977) underlined the importance of the variables of exploration and commitment 3 to ego identity development in his study with Danish adoles cents. He suggested measuring the variables separately and on continuous scales. The interview content areas explored in research on ego identity have varied across studies. Marcia's original content areas for use with males were career and political and religious ideology. When the interview was extended to females, "attitudes toward sexual intercourse" was added to the interview (Marcia and Friedman, 1970). Sex role ideology and sex values have also been utilized as content areas of the interview (Matteson, 1977; Hopkins, 1980; Nevid, Nevid, O'Neill, and Waterman, 1974). Interpersonal areas (friendship and dating) have recently been suggested as additional areas to consider in identity formation (Grotevant, Thorbecke, and Meyer, 1982; Thorbecke and Grotevant, 1982). As the number of interview areas has increased, an overall identity status has become less and less meaningful.

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4 The importance of each of the content areas to ego identity development h~s been explored for both males and females (Matteson, 1977; Nevid et al., 1974; Schilling, 1975; Hodgson and Fischer, 1979; Waterman and Nevid, 1977; Kacergius and Adams, 1980; Thorbecke and Grotevant, 1982; Waterman and Waterman, 1971; Waterman, Geary, and Waterman, 1974; and Rogow, Marcia, and Slugowski, 1982). It has become clear that an increased understanding of ego identity development will be assisted by separate evaluation of the content areas. Sex differences in the importance of the content areas to identity development is an especially important area of investigation. The Marcia Interview used in much of the above research has been criticized as being too time-consuming. Since it takes between 30 to 45 minutes to administer, sample sizes in studies using the interview are typically small. Additionally, the ratings used to categorize individuals into statuses rely on subjective judgment (Schilling, 1975; Adams, Shea, and Fitch, 1979; Simmons, 1970). Schilling (1975) and Adams, Shea, and Fitch (1979) have both created questionnaires designed to replace the Marcia Interview in assigning subjects to an overall identity status. Because they can be group administered, they are less time-consuming, and the sample sizes can be increased. Since the scoring procedures are clear and objective, they

PAGE 13

avoid the problems of subjectivity associated with trained raters assessing interviews to assign stat~ses. 5 The Schilling (1975) measure allows for separate assign ment of individuals to identity statuses based on either the Interpersonal area or the Occupational, Political, and Religious area. Schilling provided little evidence of content or construct validity, internal consistency, or test-retest reliability in presenting his measure which was written for use with males. Adams, Shea, and Fitch (1979) present considerable evidence of internal consistency, predictive validity, construct validity, and test-retest reliability with their measure which has been used with large numbers of male and female college undergraduates. The measure, as it is presently constructed, has some limitations. It provides only for assignment to an overall identity status based on the three original content areas used with malesoccupation and political and religious ideology. It does not provide for a separate assessment of the exploration and commitment variables. And, scoring procedures allow for ''transition statuses" (i.e. Achievement-Diffusion or Foreclosure-Moratorium) that are theoretically inconsistent. There is still a need for an objective measure of ego identity that assigns individuals to an identity status in each content area of identity--Interpersonal (friendship and dating), Sexual Values and Sex Roles, Career, Political

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6 and Religious Ideology--based on test items that clearly reflect the presence or absence of exploration and commitmen~ variables, and that allow for separate analyses of these two variables. The purpose of this study is to create a reliable and valid objective measure of ego identity that has the following qualities: 1. It includes a variety of areas that have been shown to contribute to ego identity. These areas include the Interpersonal (Dating and Friendship), Sexual and Sex Role Values, Career, and Political and Religious Ideology. 2. It is based on the amount of exploration and the level of commitment exhibited in these areas and allows for separate assessment of each of these variables. 3. It allows for the assignment of a separate ego identity status for each content area. 4. It enables the calculation of a total score which reflects the current level of identity achievement in terms of the amount of exploration and level of commitment the individual has experienced. 5. It is easily and quickly administered and scored. 6. Scoring is not influenced by the subjectivity of raters, and responses are not influenced by social desirability concerns. The following literature review covers theoretical conceptions of ego identity and the efforts made at opera tionalizing the concept. Research in the measurement of

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7 gender differences in ego identity development is also discussed. The content areas that have been used in assess ing ego identity are presented, and a discussion of the research exploring the relative importance of the various content areas for males and females is also included.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Erikson's Psychosocial Stages Erikson (1959) defined psychosocial stages of develop ment from birth through old age (Chart 1). Each stage occurs within a particular age period. The early stages parallel Freud's psychosexual stages, but Erikson's stages continue into old age. Each stage has a developmental crisis associated with it. Each crisis grows out of the individual's developmental readiness and society's demands of the individual. The crisis arises at a particular time developmentally but is not confined to one developmental period. How an individual has mastered past crises will influence how he (or she) masters later crises. The indi vidual's ability to meet each crisis adequately develops within him or her the conviction that his (her) way of being is a successful variant of the way others in the society master experience and recognize mastery. Thus, self-esteem, confirmed at the end of each major crisis, grows to be a conviction that one is learning effective steps toward a tangible future, that one is developing a defined personality within a social reality which one understands. (Erikson, 1959, p. 89) 8

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I II III IV V VI VII VIII A Psychosocial Crises Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame, Doubt Initiative vs. Guilt Industry vs. Inferiority Identity Achievement vs. Identity Diffusion Intimacy vs. Isolation Generativity vs. Self-Absorption Integrity vs. Despair CHART I B Radius of Significant Relations Maternal Person Parental Persons Basic Family "Neighborhood," School Peer Groups and Outgroups; Models of Leadership Partners in friend ship, sex, competi tion, cooperation Divided labor and shared household "Mankind" "My Kind" C Psychosocial Modalities To get To give in return To hold (on) To let (go) To make (=going after) To "make like" (=playing) D Psychosexual Stages Oral-respiratory, Sensory-Kineshetic Anal-Urethral Muscular Infantile-Genital Locomotor (Intrusive, Inclusive) To make things "Latency" (=completing) To make things together To be oneself (or not to be) To share being oneself To lose and find oneself in another To make be To take care of To be, through having been To face not being Puberty Genitality Note. From "Identity and the life cycle," by E. H. Erikson, 1959, Psychological Issues, 166.

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10 Adolescence Adolescence has been described by many as a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. In the mastering of the crises of the first four stages of develop ment, the individual is presumably adequately prepared to integrate an identity out of the growth and change of the adolescent period. Adolescence is a fertile period of change. Physical and cognitive growth occurs which promotes psychological changes and affects the way adolescents interact within their social environment. Puberty triggers many changes. As body shape becomes more adult-like, adolescents struggle with changing self-images. As adolescents' sexuality matures, they move away from their parents toward increas ingly more intimate peer relationships. As the distance between parent and child becomes clearer, the adolescent is able to gain a greater appreciation for the unique attributes that make him or her distinct from others. Cognitively, individuals move from the concrete cogni tive level to the level of formal operations. This movement is characterized by an increasing ability to think abstractly and to synthesize information. The world around the adoles cent can now be considered from a new, more wholistic, and more integrated perspective. The adolescent is able to confront abstract values and moral issues. The idealism and questioning of human values, which is a familiar part

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of adolescence, encourages growth in moral development. The ability to empathize with another, which is a part 11 of a more mature level of moral development, is an important foundation for the development of intimate relationsips, the next major life task. The relationship between the developing individuals and society is reciprocal. Social expectations influence identity formation. The adolescents' self-definition must be confirmed by the social world around them. Adolescence has its beginnings in the physical changes of puberty and its endings in the assumption of adult roles and responsi bilities through marriage, procreation, and self-support. It is a time of preparation for these future adult roles. Josselson (1980) emphasizes that developing ego identity is a two-fold task: 1. Constructing a stable, integrated self, autonomous from internal and external authority (Who am I?). 2. Fitting the new found self to the world (What shall I become?). Definition of Ego Identity James Marcia (1980) has provided a concise definition of ego identity which takes into account both its psycho dynamic and its psychosocial aspects. Ego identity can be defined as

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a self-structure--an internal self constructed, dynamic organization of drives, abilities, beliefs, and individual history. The better developed this structure is, the more aware individuals appear to be of their own uniqueness and similarity to others and of their own strengths and weaknesses in making their way in the world. The less developed this structure is, the more confused individuals seem about their own distinctiveness from others and the more they have to rely on external sources to evalute themselves. (p. 159) Ego's Tasks in Identity Development Marcia's definition is based on Erik Erikson's (1959, 1968) definitive work on the development of ego identity. Erikson uses the term ego identity in recognition of the ego's three major tasks in identity development. 12 The ego synthesizes childhood identifications, keeping those that continue to fit as the adolescent moves towards adulthood. Josselson (1980) emphasizes that "much of the process of identity formation that takes place is selective repudiation of possible selves. Identity is exclusive; it is manifested in commitment and in the giving up of potentialities: 'I will do (be) this and not that!'" (p. 202). This melding of childhood identifications with the developing personality and with the asirations of the adolescent provides an inner stability for the individual, "an assured sense of inner continuity and social sameness which will bridge what he was as a child and what he is about to become" (Erikson, 1959, p. 111).

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The second task of the ego is to integrate the drives of the id with the social ideologies of the super ego and the social aspirations of the ego ideal (Erikson, 1968). 13 The ego's functions are to reality test the sometimes rigid and vindictive rules of the super ego and to mitigate their punitive nature. The ego ideal, according to Erikson (1968), is less closely tied to morality and more closely related to the contemporary ideals of the historical period in which one is born than the superego is. It influences the developing ego with the cultural values of what one should be. The final task of the ego in identity development is to affirm the development of the individual within a social reality. "The sense of ego identity, then, is the accrued confidence that one's ability to maintain inner sameness and continuity (one's ego in the psychological sense) is matched by the sameness and continuity of one's meaning for others" (Erikson, 1959, p. 89). This confirmation of who one is by society is an important contributor to a strong sense of self-esteem. It grows out of the conviction that one is and has been performing effectively within the expectations of that society. Seven Perspectives on Ego Identity In his review of the research on ego identity, Bourne (1978a) identified seven perspectives from which the

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construct, ego identity, could be explored. Erikson's writing on ego identity encompasses all seven theoretical perspectives. The seven perspectives are 1) structural, 2) subjective, 3) genetic (developmental), 4) dynamic, 5) adaptive, 6) psychosocial, and 7) existential. The structural dimension emphasizes the organizing coherent sense of self that emerges from a clear self definition. Marcia's (1980) definition, quoted earlier, emphasizes this self-structure which allows an individual to rely on an inner sense of direction and evaluation. 14 The next five perspectives are all contained in Erikson's description of the ego's tasks in identity develop ment. The developmental perspective emphasizes the adoles cent's task of resynthesizing one's childhood identifications in light of continuing developmental changes. The subjective perspective stresses the individual's sense of continuity that results from the blending of childhood identifications with the new emerging aspects of the personality. The dynamic perspective underlines the long-term developmental processes that encompass ego identity. Different issues affect the individual's sense of self at different points of development. Grotevant, Thorbecke, and Meyer (1981) underscore this aspect of developing identity. "Identity researchers, who have almost exclusively studied college students, are now beginning to ask which domains and which

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issues within a domain are salient at different points within a life cycle" (p. 36). 15 The adaptive, psychosocial, and existential perspec tives all accentuate the interactions between the developing individual and his interpersonal and historical context. Individuals must develop basic life commitments that, to some extent, define them (existential perspective). The self definitions are developed within a social context (adaptive perspective), and the self-definition must be acknowledged socially (psychosocial perspective). According to Bourne (1978a), it is this sense of reci procity with society that differentiates ego identity from the most traditional concepts of the self. The self, in one way or another, is conceived as the sum total of an individual's reflec tions, perceptions, and cognitions of him self, which may or may not all be derived from social comparison, and may or may not be entirely conscious. On the other hand, ego identity is not simply a config uration of intrapsychic, self-representa tions, but a sense of oneself defined in terms of a particular relationship to a certain group, community or society. (p. 227) It is this perspective from which the individual affects and is affected by his/her social surroundings that helps to differentiate between the ego itself and ego identity. The ego carries on reality testing functions as it integrates the desires of the id with the rules of the super ego and ego ideal. Ego identity can be conceived of as being more

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16 closely tied to reality "in that it would test, select, and integrate the self images derived from the psychosocial crises of childhood" into a configuration which, ideally, matches the way important others see the individual (Bourne, 1978a, p. 226). Early Attempts to Measure Differences in Ego Identity Development Early attempts to operationalize ego identity utilized Q sorts, self-report questionnaires, and semistructured interviews. Different definitions of ego identity are evident in the different methods used to operationalize the concept (Bourne, 1978a; Marcia, 1980). Bronson (1959) operationalized his conception of the construct, identity, in terms of four "subdimensions" of identity: 1. Degree of certainty about the subject's past and present ideas about self. 2. The subject's certainty about his/her dominant personal characteristics. 3. The subject's report of fluctuations in his/her feelings about self. 4. The subject's "level of internal tension." Semistructured interviews were rated in terms of these subdimensions. Bronson found a modest correlation among the four which he took as evidence of construct validity. Bourne (1978a) reports some problems with this conclusion.

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The four were arbitrarily selected and do not reflect the scope of Erikson's concept. Also, no evidence of discriminant validity was reported, and consruct validity relies on both convergent and discriminant evidence. Block (1961) and Heilbrun (1964) also based their conceptualizations of ego identity on a sense of inner continuity. Role variability, as perceived by the self 17 and observed by others, was thought to define e~o identity. Block (1961) had his subjects sort 20 adjectives with respect to the subject's relationships with eight different indi viduals, such as a parent of the same sex, a close friend of the same sex, or an acquaintance whom they would like to know better. He hoped to find a curvilinear relationship --i.e., individuals with excessively high and low role stability would display maladjustment. He found that extreme role variability did appear related to maladjustment as measured by the Psychoneuroticism Scale of the California Psychological Inventory (Gough, 1957). However, extreme role stability was not indicative of neurotic qualities. Heilbrun (1964) related role consistency to masculinity and femininity. He found that male adolescents whose behav ior tended to conform to cultural stereotypes of masculinity showed higher role consistency (using a Q sort measure) than less masculine males. Females who were either high or low in femininity were more consistent than females

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who measured moderately feminine on The Adjective Check List (Gough and Heilbrun, 1965). Gruen (1960) used a Q sort (Butler and Haigh, 1954) to measure differences between descriptions of real self and ideal self. The hypothesis was that achievement of 18 a stable sense of identity would be accompanied by a reduc tion in the difference between idealized and realistic self-descriptions. He found a significant positive relation ship between real-ideal discrepancies and willingness to accept a false personality sketch of themselves. His con clusion was that both a large discrepancy between real and ideal selves and a tendency to let others define them were indicators of a weak sense of identity. Hauser (1972) used a Q sort of self-descriptive state ments to measure "structural integration" and "temporal stability" of identity. The statements were sorted according to eight different types of self-images, such as "how I am now," "how I will be in 10 years." The study was con ducted over a three-year period. The correlation among the sorts within one year was defined as the "structural integration of identity." The intercorrelation between two sorts of the same type over two or more successive years defined the "temporal stability" of identity. He found differences between black and white males on both measures.

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19 Rasmussen (1964) designed an ego identity questionnaire with subscales to measure the degree of resolution of each of Erikson's first six psychosocial crises. The scale consists of 72 items--12 items indicating healthy and unhealthy resolutions of each of the six stages. He presented some evidence as to convergent and discriminant validity of his measure of ego identity. However, Bourne (1978a) points out that Rasmussen presents very little evidence beyond face validity to demonstrate that what his test items tap is germane to Erikson's construct as opposed to some general personality construct, such as self-esteem or social competence. Constantinople (1969) used a questionnaire based on a Q sort by Wessman and Ricks (1966) to measure personality development among four different grade levels of college students. Significant differences were found between fresh men and seniors of both sexes on industry, inferiority and identity and on identity diffusion for males. However, results appear to be influenced by social desirability problems when used with males (Tan, Kendis, Fine, and Porac, 1977). Dignan (1965) also constructed a self-report measure, the SO-item Ego Identity Scale, in her effort to relate identity resolution in females to maternal identification. The items were based on a "description of ego identity found in the writings of Erikson and others who have

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20 critically examined and developed the construct" (p. 478). The components which were considered indicators of ego identity were the following: sense of self, uniqueness, self-acceptance, responsiveness to role expectations of important others, stability, goal directedness, and ability to permit involvement and intimacy with others. Dignan presented evidence of internal consistency and stability and some evidence for construct validity. She found that females who scored high on the Ego Identity Scale also reported high levels of maternal identification. Marcia Interview The early attempts to operationalize ego identity investigated characteristics which would result from achiev ing a strong sense of identity, such as sense of inner continuity, self-acceptance, and the ability to achieve intimacy with others. James Marcia (1964) proposed that a measure of ego identity should deal with the psychosocial criteria (experiencing a "crisis" period of exploration and developing firm commitments) that determine the degree of ego identity achieved. The vast majority of research on ego identity since 1966 has utilized the Marcia Semi-Structured Interview as a measure of ego identity. Marcia's work (1964, 1966) is closely tied to Erikson's conceptualization of ego iden tity development in that Marcia's statuses are based on

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the presence or absence of a period of "crisis" (a time of exploration among Gifferent alternatives), and the formation of commitments in the process of ego identity development. His statuses and their relationship to the crisis and commitment variables can be outlined as below. 21 Achievement MoratoLium Foreclosure Diffusion Crisis (Exploration) High Commitment High High Low Low Low High Low Marcia enlarged on Erikson's dichotomy of identity achievement vs. identity diffusion by proposing two other statuses. Youths in the moratorium status are presently in the midst of a crisis period, but they have made no firm commitments. They resemble diffusions in their lack of commitments, but they are struggling for self-definition while diffusions remain largely uninvolved with the strug gle. Foreclosures resemble achievements in their firm commitments, but they have not actively explored to define themselves. Instead, they have incorporated others' expec tations into their identity. Because they have not ques tioned the goals or assumptions their commitments are based on, they are assumed to have acquired less self-knowledge

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and flexibility regarding their occupational goals and ideological commitments. 22 Marcia considered those individuals who had gone through a period of exploration and had developed firm commitments to self-chosen occupational and ideological goals (Identity Achievement Status) to be the most mature. The period of exploration was called a crisis period by both Erikson (1959, 1968) and James Marcia (1964, 1966) because it involves a period of doubt and indecision during which the youth struggles with competing alternatives. The process of struggle should, theoretically, produce ego development as it clarifies values and goals and increases self knowledge. The commitments that follow from such a decision-making period should involve strong investment as they arise from a struggle to assess oneself and to accurately perceive one's alternatives. Marcia (1980) describes three advantages of the four Identity Statuses as opposed to Erikson's (1959, 1968) dichotomy of identity achievement vs. identity diffusion. 1. The four statuses provide for a greater variety of approaches in dealing with identity issues. 2. There are both healthy and unhealthy aspects to each status so the statuses describe whole people with both positive and negative qualities. Achievements appear to be strong, self-directed, and highly adaptive, but an individual may settle on an identity that has limited

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23 adaptive value for the future. "Foreclosures may be seen either as steadfast or rigid, committed or dogmatic, cooper ative or conforming; Moratoriums may be viewed either as sensitive, or anxiety ridden, highly ethical or self righteous, flexible or vacillating; Identity Diffusions may be considered either carefree or careless, charming or psychopathic, independent or schizoid" (1980, p. 161). 3. The behavior of individuals in each of the four statuses is fairly easily differentiated, so individuals can be classified into a status based on a 30-45 minute interview. The interview is rated by two or three raters for the presence of a crisis period and the development of firm commitments. On the basis of the ratings the subject is assigned to one of the four statuses. Marcia (1980) reports approximately 80% interrater reliability. In addition to the Identity Status Interview, Marcia (1964, 1966) also developed the Ego Identity Incomplete Sentences Blank (EI-ISB). The EI-ISB produced a score as an indicator of the overall level of ego identity achieve ment but did not assign the subject an Identity Status. The subject's responses to sentence stems were scored by three trained raters, who demonstrated 74% interrater agreement. The major problems with both of the above procedures have been noted by several authors (Simmons, 1970, 1973;

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Adams, Shea, and Fitch, 1979; Schilling, 1975; and Bourne, 1978b). The interview and the EI-ISB are time-consuming 24 to administer and score, and they rely on subjective judgment in the ratings of the response. Other Measures of Ego Identity Marcia (1964, 1966) used his Ego Identity Incomplete Sentences Blank (EI-ISB) to validate his Identity Status Interview. He found that achievements scored the highest and diffusions scored the lowest on this overall measure of ego identity development. Simmons (1970) created a 24-item easily scored multiple choice measure, The Identity Achievement Scale, based on Marcia's Ego Identity Incomplete Sentences Blank. Because it is objectively scored, it eliminates the need for trained raters and the possible problems of subjective judgment used in the ratings. The measure does not assign subjects to an identity status but provides an overall rating of identity achievement. Tan, Kendis, Fine, and Porac (1977) developed a 12-item ego identity scale with a forced choice format which measures identity achievement vs. identity diffusion. Evidence was presented for the test's construct validity. There is also some evidence that the scale measures achieved identity following a period of exploration rather than a foreclosed identity. The scale does not attempt to assign subjects to ego identity statuses.

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25 Adams, Shea, and Fitch (1979) constructed a 24-item self-report measure that assigns individuals to an overall identity status based on three content areas--Career Orien tation and Political and Religious Ideology. Convergent divergent, concurrent and predictive validity, and test-retest reliability have all been documented in the reported data. Schilling (1975) devised a forced choice format for assigning individuals to two Ego Identity Statuses. His measure, the Ego Identity Questionnaire, consists of two parts. Part A assesses identity based on occupational, political, and religious concerns, while Part B assesses identity based on interpersonal issues. Schilling provided some evidence of the instrument's validity with males. The limitations of both of these measures have been discussed in Chapter 1. Baker (1971) based his definition of identity on four qualities he derived from Erikson's writings: "a) knows who he is, b) knows where he is going, c) perceives himself as having 'inner sameness and continuity,' and d) is certain about the way his perception of himself compares to the perceptions which others have of him" (p. 167). He con structed a 32-item measure consisting of 8 Likert-type scale items for each of the four qualities. His internal reliability coefficients (Kuder-Richardson-Formula 20) were "quite low" (p. 170), but he achieved good

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intercorrelations among three of the four areas. He con cluded that his measure is a successful translation of Erikson's work on ego identity into operational terms. Gender Difference in Ego Identity Development 26 Much of the research in ego identity formation has followed Erik Erikson's (1968) conception of gender differ ences in identity development. Erickson emphasized commit ments toward occupational goals and toward a political and religious ideology as important processes in male identity development. Female identity has a biological base in what Erikson referred to as a "vital, productive inner space." Inner space refers to the physical reality of the uterus and vagina and also to the somatic awareness of a woman's repro ductive capacity. This awareness affects her manner of relating to a male, the potential father of her children, and her sense of direction in life. While she may experiment with and enjoy development in "male" areas of career and ideology, "womanhood arrives when attractiveness and experi ence have succeeded in selecting what is to be admitted to the welcome of the 'inner space' for keeps" (p. 283). While Erikson emphasized the importance of a woman's biological inheritance on her identity development, Douvan and Adelson (1966) highlighed the importance of culturally

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influenced sex role expectations on developing males and females. The key terms in adolescent development for the boy in our culture are the erotic, autonomy (assertiveness, independence, achievement), and identity. For the girl the comparable terms are the erotic, the interpersonal, and identity ... what the girl achieves through intimate connection with others, the boy must manage by discon necting, by separating himself and asserting his right to be distinct. (pp. 347-348) 27 Research by Josselson, Greenberger, and McConochie (1977a, 1977b) supports the above view. They studied psycho social maturity in adolescent males and females and found that high maturity females used interpersonal relationships for identity resolution and were less focused than the high maturity males on career goals as a source of self-esteem. "They are, in a word, identity seekers, attempting to discover who they are and who they want to be in relation to the significant others in their lives" (1977b, p. 159). High maturity males were more concerned with who they would become than in how they would relate to others. The early studies utilizing the Marcia Interview were conducted with males, and the interview focused on the three areas considered relevant to male identity development: occupational goals and political and religious ideology. The question that underlay this research was "What are the characteristics of late adolescent males who pursue

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different modes of identity resolution?" (Marcia, 1980, p. 162). 28 When research in ego identity using the Marcia Inteview was extended to females, it was assumed that the occupational and ideological issues considered focal for males were not as pertinent to female identity development. Marcia and Friedman (1970) in the first study using the Marcia Interview with females added a section of questions assessing "attitudes towards premarital intercourse" to the interview format. Both Schenkel and Marcia (1972) and Hopkins (1980) investigated the relative importance of sexual values to female identity development, but with conflicting results. Schenkel and Marcia (1972) found that identity status assigned by the sexual ideology section of the interview ("attitudes toward premarital sex") accounted for more variance on their several dependent measures than identity status assigned by the occupation and the political and religious ideology sections on the interview. The religious ideology section of the interview predicted performance on the dependent measures almost as well as the sexual ideology section. Hopkins (1980) conducted two interviews with her female subjects--the standard Marcia Interview used with malesoccupational goals and political and religious ideology ("outer space" interview) and an interview on premarital

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sex, life plans, and sex roles ("inner space" interview). Her conclusion was The women were just as likely to have experienced an outer space crisis as an inner space crisis. Factor analysis revealed that the inner space and outer space statuses were distinct, independent factors. This finding supports the use of separate inner and outer space interviews in assessment of identity status .... Regression analysis showed that the outer space identity status was the better predictor of the dependent variables. The best measure of female identity status was found to be either the outer space interview alone or joint use of both interviews. (p. 9) 29 Schilling (1975) designed a questionnaire to determine the importance of sex role and interpersonal issues for male identity formation. His results appear to indicate that sexual and interpersonal issues are important to males as well as females in clarifying their identities. Several other investigators have studied the importance of the different content areas to identity development in studies using both males and females. Results have confirmed the importance of occupational choice, sex values and sex role, and political and religious ideology to identity issues for both young men and women. Matteson (1977) reports a study by Nevid, Nevid, O'Neill, and Waterman (1974) that was the first to compare the importance of the ORP (occupational and religious and political ideology) and the sexual ideology interviews ("attitudes toward sexual intercourse") for subjects of

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30 both sexes. This study investigated only the distribution of subjects in the four Identity Statuses, assigning subjects to a status in each of the content areas of the interview. No dependent measures were used. Using the sexual ideology section of the interview, a higher percentage of women than men was assigned to statuses indicating exploration (Achievement and Moratorium). The authors report that there was no evidence that the other content areas (ORP) were less important to female identity than to male identity. Mattesoj (1977) reproduced the above study with Danish adolescents. He used "male and female sex roles" to explore sexual ideology rather than "attitudes toward premarital intercourse." His results paralleled Nevid et al. (1974). When subjects were assigned on the basis of the sex role portion of the interview, a higher percentage of females than males were assigned to categories involving exploration (Achievement and Moratorium--51% of the females compared to 38% of the males). He concluded that more females than males appear to undergo an exploration of sexual identity. Matteson (1977) also used continuous scales of explora tion and commitment to test the hypothesis of a higher degree of exploration of sexual identity among women than men. Exploration and commitment were separately rated for each content area on a four-point scale: 1) limited, 2) some, 3) considerable, 4) very intense. This method

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31 of measurement also indicated a higher level of exploration of sexual identity for women than men. Matteson (1977) reported the following results when comparing exploration and commitment between sexes and among the four content areas (occupational goals, political ideology, values, and sex roles): 1. There is generally a higher level of commitment among Danish females than males, across all content areas except politics, in which males show a slighly higher level of commitment. 2. There is some indication of a higher level of exploration for women generally using either categories or scales. 3. Females as well as males indicated high levels of occupational exploration. 4. For both men and women the highest levels of com mitment occur in the areas of sex roles and values. Matteson concluded that it may be valuable in future research to consider the process variables (exploration and commitment) separately and to separately analyze the impact of each of the content areas on identity development for males and females. Hodgson and Fischer (1979) studied sex differences in identity and intimacy development among college under graduates. The dependent variables were identity status, intimacy status, and self-esteem. In addition to the

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32 standard Marcia Interview, they included a section on overall sexual ideology {sex values and sex roles). The authors did not assign an overall identity status but assigned subjects to either a high {Achievement or Moratorium) status or a low {Foreclosure or Diffusion) status based on "part conflicts" which were explored in the content areas of the interview. The content areas are as follows: Occupation, Overall Ideology, Religion, Politics, Overall Sexual Ideology, Sexual Values, and Sex Roles. The first of Hodgson's and Fischer's hypotheses was that there would be more males than females in the more advanced stages {Achievement, Moratorium) of identity development in the areas of occupation and political and religious ideology; and females would more commonly be in the advanced stages of identity development in the areas of sexual ideology and sex roles. These predictions were supported. Signifi cantly more males than females were developmentally advanced in areas of occupation, politics, and religion and overall {religious and political) ideology, while significantly more females than males were developmentally advanced in sex roles and overall {sex values and sex role) sexual ideology. Sex Values area produced no significant sex difference. Hodgson and Fischer concluded that these results provided evidence for the influence of sex roles on identity development. Young men, they concluded, seemed to define

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33 themselves with respect to issues of competence while young women's identity issues were focused on relating to others. Waterman and Nevid (1977) investigated the relative importance of premarital sexual values and of the occupa tional and political and religious ideology sections of the interview for males and females. The authors predicted that females would be more likely than males to be found in statuses involving a crisis period of exploration (Moratorium and Achievement) as assigned by the premarital sexual values section of the interview. Females would also be more likely to have undergone a crisis in the sexual area than in the ORP area. Results indicated that females were more likely than males to have exerienced a sexual identity crisis and males were more likely to be foreclosed in this area. Males as well as females were more likely to be committed about sex than any other area of the inter view. In all areas other than sex, female identity appeared to have a similar pattern to male identity. Kacerguis and Adams (1980) investigated whether for both males and females advanced overall ego identity status would be associated with more advanced intimacy development. Using only three content areas (occupation and political and religious ideology), they predicted that the occupational and political ideology sections of the interview would be more indicative of intimacy development for males, while religious identity, as an affiliative, nurturant, and

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34 expressive life issue, would be more predictive of intimacy development for females. Results indicated that for both males and females, occupational identity was the primary predictive factor in the level of intimacy development. Interpersonal relationships (friendship and dating relationship) have been proposed as important areas of assessment in ego identity development (Grotevant, Thorbecke, and Meyer, 1982). The ability to establish intimate rela tionships has been described by Erikson (1959, 1968) as the central crisis of the developmental stage following the Identity Achievement vs. Identity Diffusion crisis of adolescence. Grotevant et al. (1982) stress that it is important to distinguish between the achievement of one's identity and ideology with respect to interpersonal relationships and the actual establishment of intimate relationships. They suggest that exploring interpersonal issues and making commitments to an ideology of interpersonal relationships is an important aspect of adolescent ego identity development and is a precursor to successfully meeting the challenge of the next stage of development. Grotevant et al. (1982) extended the Marcia Interview to include friendship, dating, and sex roles as important areas of assessment and provided evidence that the extended interview is psychometrically sound. Thorbecke and Grotevant (1982) used the extended inter view to assess gender difference in interpersonal identity

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35 formation. Measures of Vocational Identity, Masculinity Femininity, and Achievement Motivation were the dependent variables. The data indicated that young women who were more advanced in vocational identity were also more advanced in interpersonal identity formation. Their vocational identity scores were correlated with friendship commitment, dating exploration, and dating commitment. For males, vocational and interpersonal identity achievement appeared to proceed more independently. Young women were signifi cantly more identity achieved than men in the friendship domain although there were no gender differences in the dating domain. Finally, for both males and females, expres sive attributes of psychological femininity were positively related to interpersonal identity formation. These data support the conclusion that for females the processes of interpersonal and vocational identity formation may be more interrelated than for males. Thorbecke and Grotevant (1982) suggest that the late adolescent female may be in a "double bind dilemma"--she is attempting to negotiate her occupational and interpersonal identities simultaneously. While most young men are clearly socialized for career establishment, women are in the more complex position of being socialized for both career and family establishment. The perceived need to integrate these two roles may make identity formation in these two domains more interrelated for females than for males. (p. 489)

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36 Separating Content Areas Much of the research on ego identity development has assumed that identity status for one individual is similar across different content areas (Bourne, 1978b). This assump tion allows researchers to assign an individual to one overall identity status regardless of the number of areas that are assessed. Grotevant et al. (1982) suggest that as the number of areas considered in assigning an Identity Status increase (i.e., the addition of friendship, dating, and sexual values areas), an overall rating becomes less meaningful. Matteson (1977) and Grotevant et al. (1982) argue that adolescents undergo a series of crises and that one area of their lives may be stable while another area is very much in crisis. Overall ratings may mask the processes of identity development rather than clarify them. Coleman's (1978) work with 800 boys and girls ages 11 to 17 supports the idea of a different sequencing of consideration of identity domains among adolescents. His "focal theory ..• proposes that at different ages particu lar relationship patterns come into focus, in the sense of being most prominent, but that no pattern is specific to one age only" (p. 8). Issues are not necessarily linked to a particular age, nor is their sequence fixed. This process of focusing on different issues at different times, he suggests, spreads the process of adaptation over a span

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of years and contributes stability to the adolescent time of stress and change. Schenkel (1975) investigated the content areas of the Marcia Identity Status Interview for females by separately assigning identity statuses for occupational, political ideology, religious ideology, and sexual values areas of identity. She found wide discrepancies in some of her subjects across content areas. Waterman and Waterman (1971) and Waterman, Geary, 37 and Waterman (1974) separately assigned college males to identity statuses in terms of two content areas--ideology (religious and political) and occupation. Their data indi cated that college males first confronted decisions regarding occupations and only later explored areas of ideology. The sexual values content areas was not included on these interviews. Marcia (1980) described ego identity as a self-structure that gets formed little by little. Each decision builds on previous experience and contributes to future decisions until a consistent whole evolves. Hypothesizing that "the area in which an individual is most involved may vary from person to person or over time within an individual" (p. 328), Rogow, Marcia, and Slugoski (1983) investigated the relation ship between identity status within a content area and an overall identity status with male subjects only. Expand ing the standard Identity Status Interview (Occupational

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38 and Political and Religious ideology) to include two new interpersonal-sexual areas ("attitudes toward sexual expres sion" and "sex role beliefs"), they described three aims of the study: 1. To assess the concurrence of identity statuses across content areas. 2. To assess the relative importance of any one content area to overall identity status. 3. To determine the relationship between identity status in a content area considered to be important by the subject and the subject's overall identity status. The results suggested that the process variables of crisis and commitment may be more important than any one particular content area in investigating ego identity devel opment. The ideology areas of the interview appeared to correspond to the overall status rating more than the occupa tional area. The ideological areas were also more predictive of results on the dependent variables than were the other areas. However, all interview areas corresponded well with the overall identity status and discriminated signifi cantly on the dependent variables. Result on the "attitudes toward sexual expression'' and "sex role beliefs" areas indicated that interpersonal sexual concerns are important for male identity development as well as for female identity development.

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Exploration and Commitment Variables Matteson (1977) and Grotevant et al. (1982) have both underlined the importance of the variables of crisis and commitment in their work on ego identity development. In addition to assigning subjects to identity statuses, they both measured the processes of exploration and the development of commitments in the different areas of identity. "The advantage of rating exploration and commitment 39 separately is that the researcher then has two continuous scales available for each identity domain; these can be used in correlational analysis with other variables" (Grotevant et al., 1982, p. 45). Looking at the variables of exploration and commitment separately allows researchers to explore many unresolved issues in identity formation. How are these two processes related? How do adolescents explore the different areas? Is there a sequence for ado lescents as they explore the different identity content areas? Does commitment in one area provide stability for exploration in other areas? Are there sex differences in the patterning of exploration and commitment across content areas? Matteson (1977) concludes If one were designing research on the effects of three factors in the identity process (search among alternatives, degree of involvement, and timing of commitments) upon the outcomes of that process, it would be preferable to measure each of these

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factors separately, and to measure the variables in degrees along a quantitative scale, rather than lump persons ~nto two categories on each variable. The development of science proceeds from categorization to the isolation of specific variables and the discernment of their interactions. (p. 355) 40 The main purpose of this study is to create an objective measure of ego identity, the Exploration and Commitment Scale, that assigns individuals to an identity status in each content area of identity based on test items that clearly reflect the presence or absence of exploration and commitment. Separate analyses of the variables of exploration and commitment will be enabled by constructing test items for each area that reflect either exploration or commitment. For the present study I have also constructed a Self Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment in which the subject is asked to assess and report separately his/her level of exploration and level of commitment in each of the following areas: career, dating, friendship, political ideology, religious ideology, sexual values, and sex role values. The subjects' self-reports can then be compared to their responses to the exploration items and to the commitment items on the Exploration and Commitment Scale.

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Social Desirability One of the criticisms of assessments which rely on interviewing is that the rating of the interview responses is affected by the subjectivity of the raters. A problem of equal magnitude in test construction is the problem of social desirability. "People tend to give responses 41 that are socially desirable, responses that indicate or imply approval of actions or things that are generally considered to be good" (Kerlinger, 1973, p. 486). Test items need to be constructed so that the socially desirable direction of response is minimized. Anonymity in responding helps decrease the effects of the social desirability motive. However, an assessment of the possible social desirability effects on responses in any new measure is an essential part of providing evidence of reliability and validity. Instrument Development--Reliability and Validity Since a major portion of this study is the creation of an objective measure of ego identity, it is important to review methods of assuring an instrument's reliability and validity. Reliability concerns the extent with which measurements are repeatable under the same conditions, while the validity of measurements has to do with their generalizability (Nunnally, 1970). Three measures of reliability described by A.P.A. (1954) are the 1) coefficient

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42 of internal consistency, 2) the coefficient of equivalence, and 3) the coefficient of stability. The coefficient of internal consistency is a reliability estimation based on homogeneity, or the amount of correlation among items on a single test. Coefficient alpha is generally considered to be the most useful equation for testing reliability based on internal consistency. The Kuder Richar1son formula 20, a short-cut version of that equation, is also commonly used (Nunnally, 1970). Using alternate forms of the same test or correlating part scores for different parts within the same test also provide evidence of reliability--usually referred to as the coefficient of equivalence (Nunnally, 1978). The coefficient of stability refers to the correlation between test and retest scores with an intervening time period. A period of several weeks is suggested to diminish the effects of memory on the second set of scores obtained (Nunnally, 1970). The four types of validity most commonly referred to in the literature are described by the A.P.A. (1954). These are 1) content validity, 2) construct validity, 3) concurrent validity, and 4) predictive validity. Content validity depends upon the adequancy with which the test items represent the entire content domain about which conclusions are to be drawn (A.P.A., 1954). Nunally (1970, 1978) describes two standards for ensuring content

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43 validity: a) a representative collection of test items, and b) sensible methods of test construction. Evidence that the above standards have been met is provided by a thorough and logical explanation of the plan and procedures of this construction. The values that underlie the test should be made explicit, and it should be indicated how these values guided in formulation of the test outline and the selection of items. "Even though there are often problems involved in ensuring content validity, inevitably content validity rests mainly on appeals to reason regarding the adequacy with which important content have been sampled and on the adequacy with which the content has been cast into the form of test items" (Nunnally, 1970, p. 137). Two statistical measures provide some circumstantial evidence for content validity. The test should demonstrate at least a moderate level of internal consistency (see reliability measures above). Correlating scores on different instruments which purport to measure the same thing also provide some indirect evidence for content validity. Both predictive and concurrent validity concern cor relating scores on an instrument with scores obtained for some criterion measure. Nunnally (1978) combines predictive and concurrent validity since they are both criterion related measures only differing in the timing of the data collection for the criterion measure. Predictive validity refers to correlation with a subsequent criterion measure while

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concurrent validity refers to correlation with scores obtained at the same time. The nature of the problem dic tates when the two sets of measures will be obtained. Criterion related validity is another term often used for this type of validity measurement. Construct validity is a measure of the meaning of 44 test scores in terms of psychological "constructs" {Cronbach and Meehl, 1955). Nunnally {1978) describes th~ee major aspects of the construct validation process. 1. The domain of observables related to the construct should be specified. 2. Using empirical research or statistical analysis determine the extent to which the observables measure the same things or different things. 3. Studies (or controlled experiments) should be performed to determine if results that are predictable from well-grounded hypotheses concerning the construct can be obtained. In specifying the domain of observables Nunnally {1978) suggests explicitly outlining the theory of how the construct can be translated into measurable variables and how these variables relate to one another. Outlining the domain in this way is helpful in proceeding with the next step which involves determining how well the measure of observ ables "go together" in empirical studies. Correlation between scores on measures which are related to the construct

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are computed. If the measures correlate highly with one another, it can be concluded that they measure the same thing. Measures of internal consistency also provides some evidence for construct validity. To the extent that the elements of a domain show this consistency, it can be said that some construct may be employed to account for the data, but it is by no means neces sarily legitimate to employ the construct name whict motivated the research. In other words, consistency is a necessary but not sufficient condition for construct validity •... Sufficient evidence for construct validity is the fact that the supposed measures of the construct (either a single measure of observables or a com bination of such measures) behave as expected. (Nunnally, 1978, p.146) 45 Construct validity is supported by evidence of predic tive validity and content validity. An instrument which is designed to measure a construct can accurately serve as a predictor of other scores or behavior which would enhance the contruct validity of the measure. The same procedures intended to ensure content validity are helpful in defining the domain of observables in construct validity, since content validity depends on the thoroughness with which the domain of observables has been sampled and converted into good test form. Nunnally (1978) concludes discussion of this complex area as follows: One could rightly argue that all this fuss and bother about construct validity really

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boils down to something rather homespunnamely, circumstantial evidence for the usefulness of a new measurement method. New measurement methods, like most new ways of doing things, should not be trusted until they have proven themselves in many applications. (p. 109) Hypotheses The current study provides some evidence to support 46 the usefulness of an instrument, the Exploration and Commitment Scale. This scale assesses the amount of explora tion and commitment in four content areas considered relevant to identity development: Career Values, Political and Religious Ideology, Sexual and Sex Role Values, and the Interpersonal Areas of Dating and Friendship. The Exploration and Commitment Scale was designed to provide the following information. 1. An overall score which indicates the level of identity achievement but which does not categorize an individual according to method of identity resolution (i.e., foreclosed or achieved) can be calculated. 2. Exploration test items indicate the amount of exploration the individual has undergone or is currently experiencing. An exploration score can be given for each area, or an overall score can be computed. 3. Commitment test items indicate the amount of com mitment the individual currently is expressing. A commitment

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score can be given for each area, or an overall score for commitment can be computed. 47 4. Individuals can be categorized into one of Marcia's four Identity Statuses in each content area. An overall Identity Status could be calculated but is not recommended. As the number of content areas used to define ego identity increases, the idea of an overall Identity Status becomes less meaningful. The interaction of exploration and commitment within each content area and the pattern that develops within the individual as he or she consolidates an identity in the content areas define the processes of ego identity development. Assigning an overall status may mask the processes rather than clarify them. The reliability of the Exploration and Commitment Scale was assessed by measures of internal consistency (Coefficient Alpha, Nunnally, 1970), and test-retest stabil ity (Pearson Correlation, Agresti & Agresti, 1979). Evidence is presented regarding content, construct and, concurrent validity. In assessing content validity, one must consider whether the test items adequately sample the entire domain of the construct and whether the domain is accurately represented in the test items. In Chapter 3, the methods used in test item selection and the relationship of the individual test items and content areas to Erikson's construct of ego iden tity are discussed. Erikson's writing (1959, 1968) and

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48 the body of research literature exploring ego identity development support the use of the processes of exploration and commitment in operationalizing ego identity. The four content areas of the Exploration and Commitment Scale are the areas emphasized in the research literature, within which the two processes are explored. Whether the test items do indeed reflect these two processes is also important to establish. The Pearson Correlation (Agresti & Agresti, 1979) was used to test the relationship between exploration scores on the Explora tion and Commitment Scale and exploration scores on the Self-Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment (Appendix A). The Pearson Correlation (Agresti & Agresti, 1979) was also used to test the relationship between commitment scores on each instrument. The Self-Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment (Appendix A) provides an indica tion of the individual's assessment of his (her) own level of exploration and commitment. Correlating the scores on these two instruments provides evidence that the test items do reflect the individual's experience of exploration and commitment. Two hypotheses test the relationship between the Exploration and Commitment Scale and the Self-Report Measure of Exploration and Commit ment (Appendix A).

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Hypothesis 1 There will be a significant positive relationship between overall exploration scores on the Exploration and Commitment Scale and total exploration scores on the Self Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment (Appendix A). Hypothesis 2 There will be a significant positive relationship between overall commitment scores on the Exploration and Commitment Scale and total commitment scores on the Self Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment (Appendix A). 49 Correlating test scores on other instruments that purport to measure the same construct is another indirect piece of evidence for content validity. The Pearson correla tion (Agresti & Agresti, 1979) was used to assess the rela tionship between the overall score on the Exploration and Commitment Scale and the total score on the Simmons (1973) Identity Achievement Scale. Both instruments produce a total score which reflects the level of identity achievement attained. Additionally, a comparison of the mean scores on the Simmons' test of two groups--1) those scoring above the median on the Exploration and Commitment Scale and 2) those scoring below the median on the Exploration and Commitment Scale--was accomplished using the Kruskal-Wallis

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50 test. This comparison provides evidence that both measures significantly differentiate among a range of scores. Two hypotheses test the relationship between the Exploration and Commitment Scale and Simmons (1970) Identity Achievement Scale. Hypothesis 3 There will be a significant positive relationship between the overall scores on the Exploration and Commitment Scale and total scores on the Simmons (1970) Identity Achievement Scale. Hypothesis 4 There will be a significant difference in mean scores on the Simmons (1970) Identity Achievement Scale between those who scored above the median and those who scored below the median on the Exploration and Commitment Scales. Construct validity is the most difficult to describe and to assess. Specifying the domain of items used to operationalize the construct is one step in providing evi dence that a measure's results have a valid meaning in terms of the psychological constructs it is said to rep resent. So, evidence that an instrument has good content validity supports the measure's construct validity. Construct validity also addresses the question of whether the test items combine to measure a coherent

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psychological construct. Evidence of internal consistency (Coefficient Alpha, Nunnally, 1~70) provides some support for the coherence of items within a test. Convergence divergence data can also support the construct validity of a measure. The internal consistency of the overall 51 scale as well as of the exploration items and the commitment items was assessed using the Coefficient Alpha (Nunally, 1970). Evidence that the exploration items correlate highly and the commitment items correlate highly and that both combine into a scale with an adequate level of internal consistency supports the construct validity of the instru ment. Additionally, the convergence of the exploration and commitment items within each of the four content areas and their divergence from the other scale totals was assessed using multiple Pearson correlations (Agresti & Agresti, 1979). High correlations of test items within a content area and low correlations with other content area totals provides evidence that the four content areas measure dif ferent aspects of ego identity. Construct validity is supported by evidence of concur rent or predictive validity. The central question in con current predictive validity is whether subjects score on a measure as one would predict they should. Predictions can be theoretically based or based on the pattern of previous research results. Studies which have examined ego identity development within content areas have typically compared

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male and female differences in exploration and commitment within the content areas. Six studies (Matteson, 1977; Waterman & Nevid, 1976; Hodgson & Fischer, 1979; Nevid 52 et al., 1974; Kacerguis & Adams, 1980; Grotevant et al., 1982; and Thorbecke & Grotevant, 1982) have investigated male-female differences within the content areas. The pattern of results from these studies appears to indicate that females generally have a higher level of exploration and commitment in the Interpersonal and Sexual content areas. There are some data to support the hypothesis that the Ideology content area (particularly political ideology) is more important to males' identity development than to females' (Matteson, 1977; Nevid et al., 1974; Waterman & Nevid, 1976; and Hodgson & Fischer, 1979). Results in the Career Content area from the six studies have been mixed indicating a high level of salience to both males and females. Accordingly, evidence of concurrent validity is presented by testing the following hypotheses: Hypothesis 5 The mean exploration score for females for the Sexual Content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean exploration score for males in the sexual content area.

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Hypothesis 6 The mean commitment score for females for the Sexual Content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean commitment score for males in the Sexual Content area. Hypothesis 7 Females will be significantly more likely than males 53 to be categorized in the more advanced ego identity statuses (Achievement and Moratorium) in the Sexual Content area. Hypothesis 8 The mean exploration score for females for the Inter personal Content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean exploration score for males in the Interpersonal Content area. Hypothesis 9 The mean commitment score for females for the Inter personal Content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean commitment score for males in the Interpersonal content area. Hypothesis 10 Females will be significantly more likely than males to be categorized in the more advanced ego identity statuses

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(Achievement and Moratorium) in the Interpersonal Content area. Hypothesis 11 The mean exploration score for males for the Ideology Content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean exploration score for females. 54 One of the criticisms of objective measures is that the responses are influenced by the subject's desire to appear in a socially acceptable light. To provide evidence that the responses on the Exploration and Commitment Scale are not confounded by the social desirability motive, the overall scores were correlated with the overall scores on the Crowne and Marlowe (1964) Social Desirability Scale. The following hypothesis was tested. Hypothesis 12 There will be no significant relationship between the overall scores on the Exploration and Commitment Scale and total scores on the Crowne and Marlowe (1964) Social Desirability Scale.

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CHAPTER III METHOD Subjects All subjects were undergraduate students at the University of Florida. A total of over 400 students participated in various stages of this research. Over 100 students in Elementary Education and Introductory Psychology classes participated in pilot studies with earlier forms of the Exploration and Commitment Scale. Their efforts were valuable in the creation of the final instrument. Two hundred and seventy-one students in Introductory Sociology and Introductory Psychology courses completed the series of tests necessary to test the reliabil ity and validity of the final version of the Exploration and Commitment Scale. Data from 26 of these subjects were not used because the subjects were overage or because they had incompletely filled out the forms. The final sample of 245 consisted of 95 males and 150 females between the ages of 18 and 23 years. The mean overall age was 19.4 years. For females the mean age was 19.5 years; for males, it was 19.2 years. This age range was chosen as this is the developmental period when males and females are typically addressing the identity issue. 55

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56 Procedure Development of the Exploration and Commitment Scale The basic assumption in operationalizing the construct of ego identity was that the variables of exploration and commitment were essential in its definition. Both Erik Erikson (1959, 1968) and James Marcia (1964, 1966) emphasized these two variables in describing the processes of ego identity development. Others (Matteson, 1977; Waterman & Nevid, 1977; and Grotevant, Thorbecke, & Meyer, 1981) have also selected these as essential factors in operationalizing the ego identity construct. The vast majority of the research on ego identity development in the last 20 years has utilized the Marcia Interview. The Marcia Interview is aimed at assessing the amount of exploration the subject has engaged in and his or her degree of expressed commitment toward personal goals and values. Exploration and commitment on the Exploration and Commitment Scale were defined as Marcia (1964) defined them. Exploration is "a time during adolescence when the individual seems to be actively involved in choosing among meaningful alternatives .... Commitment refers to the degree of personal investment the individual expresses in a course of action or belief" (p. 24). Thirty-two statements were constructed which indicate past or current exploration. The statements express

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involvement in the process of examining one's beliefs, opinions, or positions. Past exploration is indicated by a change in opinions, beliefs, or positions over time or by an increased ability to consider a broader range of options. Thirty-two commitment items were written reflecting personal investment in a belief, or in a position and/or a feeling of stability or consistency in the position taken. No effort was made to differentiate between fore closed commitment and commitment made after an exploration of alternatives. The presence of an expressed sense of a firm stance with regard to an issue, however arrived at, underlies the commitment items. Each of the exploration and commitment variables was considered within the context of four areas of an individual's life which have been considered relevant 57 in research on ego identity development in late adolescence: 1. career goals, 2. ideology (political and religious), 3. sexual and sex role values, 4. interpersonal (friendship and dating values). The resulting format consisted of four subtests, each having eight exploration and eight commitment items. Content areas and examples of exploration and commitment items for each area follow. The Exploration and Commitment Scale is entirely reproduced in Appendix B.

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Career Exploration Items 1. Trying to narrow my interests down to one career has been a struggle for me. 57. Talking over career possibilities with others has been helpful to me. Career Commitment Items 6. I consider myself settled as far as my career plans are concerned. 10. The career area that I have chosen suits my interests and abilities. Ideology Exploration Items 58 5. I have gone through (or am now going through) a period of questioning and uncertainty about my religious beliefs. 23. Having political discussions with friends has helped me to clarify what I think politically. Ideology Commitment Items 2. I have strong political opinions. 12. I feel like my religious beliefs are an important influence in my life.

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59 Sexual Exploration Items 27. Dating different people has influenced me to rethink some of my ideas on men's and women's roles in marriage. 35. I've had to figure out for myself what is right for me sexually. Sexual Commitment Items 42. While my friends may not agree with my sex role values (traditional or liberal), it would not be easy for them to change my mind. 50. I feel strongly about what I think is right and wrong in the sexual area. Interpersonal Exploration Items 11. What I would look for in a person I would date has changed over the years since I first started dating. 15. I've worked at understanding my friends better. Interpersonal Commitment Items 4. I can tell after the first few dates if someone is right for me. 8. I don't easily change my ideas about friends. Data Collection Pilot studies on three earlier versions of the Explora tion and Commitment Scale were conducted with over 100

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undergraduates in Elementary Education and Introductory Psychology classes. Items were refined following each study. The resulting test items were examined by two advanced graduate students and a clinical psychologist 60 who had been trained in assessing exploration and commitment items according to Marcia's definition. The final test version incorporated their suggestions. Two hundred and seventy-onP Introductory Sociology and Introductory Psychology students were asked to complete the final version of the Exploration and Commitment Scale (Appendix B) along with the following instruments: 1. The Self-Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment (Moberly, 1985) (Appendix A). 2. The Social Desirability Scale (Crowne and Marlow, 1964) (Appendix C). 3. The Identity Achievement Scale (Simmons, 1970) (Appendix D). A subsample of these students (N=45) completed a retest of the Exploration and Commitment Scale after a one-week interval. The data were collected by the author during the regular class period. Since all the classes had at least 75 students, the forms were filled out in large groups. The data were collected anonymously except for the sample of students who were in the test-retest group. Their social security numbers were removed from their tests

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as soon as the test and retest data were matched. The students were informed of the nature of the study by the following paragraph on the front of their packet of tests. General Instructions for Participants in this Study This is a study exploring how each of you decides your position on issues, and how each of you thinks and feels. A series of several different kinds of tasks will be used to help gain an understanding of your values, thoughts and feelings. There are no right or wrong answers, only your answers. All the data will be handled on a coded basis and reported as group data. We are asking for your age, sex, and social security number to classify and code the data. Following the collection of all the data, your social security number will be deleted. Thank you for par ticipating in this study. The students were reminded to answer all questions 61 and to fill in their age and sex on the front of the packet. Those not in the test-retest group were told not to fill in the social security number. The students in the test retest group were given 10 extra points toward their overall grade in the Introductory Psychology course for their participation. No other compensation was given to any of the participants.

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Instruments The Exploration and Commitment Scale was constructed for the purposes of this study. The Scale consists of 64 statements, and the subject is asked to indicate on a 7-point scale how much the statement agrees with the 62 way he or she thinks and/or feels. The analysis and valida tion of this instrument is the primary goal of this study. The data relating to its reliability and validity will be considered in Chapter 4. The Exploration and Commitment Scale was constructed to provide several different kinds of information. 1. A total score (the sum of scores from all test items) which indicates the overall level of both exploration and commitment. This score can be considered an indicator of ego identity achievement. 2. A total exploration score (the sum of all odd numbered items) which indicates the amount of exploration the individual has undergone or is currently experiencing. An exploration score can also be given individually for each subtest area. 3. A total commitment score (the sum of all even numbered items) which indicates the amount of commitment the individual is currently expressing. A commitment score can also be given individually for each subtest area.

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63 4. Individuals can be categorized into one of Marcia's four Identity Statuses in each content area. The test items and their content areas are all listed following the test in Appendix B. The scoring instructions for assigning identity statuses are also in Appendix B. Three methods were tested for assigning individuals to identity statuses. A description of the methods and the data concerning these methods are reported in the Results section of this paper. The utility of each of these methods is discussed in Chapter 5. The Self-Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment (Moberly, 1985) was also constructed for use in this study. This instrument was designed following the suggestion by Matteson (1977) that exploration and commitment be measured separately using continuous scales. He rated each of his content areas separately using a 4-point scale. The Self-Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment rates each content area ((1) sexual values and sex role values; (2) dating and friendship; (3) career; and (4) political and religious ideology) separately using a 5-point scale. The Exploration scales range from (1) Limited ("I haven't given this area much thought") to (5) Very Intense (''I have thought a lot about this area" or "I am now trying to sort out my feelings about this area"). The Commitment Scales range from (1) Limited ("I don't really have a position on this issue that I feel strongly

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about") to (5) Very Intense ("I know what I think and feel about this issue and it would be hard to change my mind"). This scale measures the subject's overall self perceptions of the amount of exploration and commitment he or she has experienced in a given area. It differs 64 from the Exploration and Commitment Scale in that it measures an overall assessment while the Exploration and Commitment Scale measures responses to specific thoughts, feelings, and actions that may indicate exploration and commitment in the four areas. The Social Desirability Scale (Crowne and Marlowe, 1964) consists of 33 statements to be marked true or false. The scale was constructed so as to strike a balance between two types of statements; one half are culturally acceptable but probably not true; the other half are true but not socially desirable. The scale is designed to indicate the effect of the social desirability motive on an indi vidual, i.e., the need to describe oneself in socially desirable terms in order to gain other's approval. Of the 33 items, 18 are keyed in the true direction and 15 are keyed in the false direction. Scores range from 0 (no social desirability) to 33 (highest social desirabil ity). The scale norms, drawn from 1,400 students in Intro ductory Psychology classes at Ohio State University, indicate a mean for males of 15.l (s.d. = 5.6) and for females 16.8 (s.d. = 5.5). The Social Desirability Scale has

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65 an internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson 20) of .88, and a test-retest correlation after a month interval of .88. Evidence for its validity rests on many studies in which predictive and/or concurrent hypotheses have been confirmed. People who are susceptible to the motive to characterize themselves in socially desirable ways tend to (according to these studies) be more socially conforming, to give popular word associations, to cautiously set goals in a risk-taking venture, and to show greater susceptibility to persuasion. The Identity Achievement Scale (Simmons, 1970) is a 24-item forced-choice format scale. The measure was devised from Marcia's (1964) Ego Identity Incomplete Sentences Blank instrument. On the Marcia instrument sentence stems were used as stimuli. Responses to the stems were rated by trained raters according to degree of identity achievement indicated by the responses. Using Marcia's (1964) scoring manual, Simmons constructed sentence completion stems followed by two alternatives. The alterna tives were taken from Marcia's examples of high-, medium-, and low-scoring responses. The alternative response indicated by Marcia as most indicative of identity achieve ment was scored with a plus. Scores range from Oto 24, the higher scores indicating a higher level of identity achievement. The original pool of 90 test items was reduced to 24 through item analyses. Preliminary norms for the

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scale are based on 147 freshman students in a Personality Development class at Oregon STate University. The mean 66 for the sample was 12.56 (12.75 for males and 12.39 for females). The standard deviation was 3.18. No statistically significant sex differences in scores were found. Simmons' measure has a test-retest Pearson product moment correlation coefficient of .76 with 122 General Psychology students after a one-week interval. The measure has been validated against a number of measures including the Marcia Interview, the Edwards Personal Preference Schedules (Edwards, 1954), Shostrom's Personal Orientation Inventory (Shostrom, 1966), and against aptitude test scores and grade point averages for high schol and college students (see Simmons, 1973). In a study correlating scores on the Identity Achieve ment Scale with scores on the Anomie Scale (Srole, 1956), Christie's Machiavellianism IV Scale (Christie & Geiss, 1970), Eysenck's Neuroticism's Scale (Eysenck, 1958), Couch and Keniston (1960) Yeasaying response set scale, Journard and Resnick (1970) Self-Disclosure Scale, and Rotter's (1966) Locus of Control Scale, Simmons (1973) concluded, The tabled Pearson product-moment correla tions show the Identity Achievement Scale may be assessing flexible, adaptive, func tioning (e.g., the negative correlation with yeasaying and neuroticism) but is unrelated to self-disclosing tendencies and to perception of the locus of control as internal. The scale seems to tap somewhat different aspects of functioning for males and females, e.g., it is significantly

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and negatively related to the Anomie and Mach IV scales for males but not for females. These results suggest differential interpretation of male and female scores. (p. 10) A later correlation with self-ratings of adjustment with male and female freshman students in Psychology classes 67 at Oregon State University has been helpful in clarifying the male-female differences. The pattern of specific aspects of adjustment that correlated significantly with the Identity Achievement Scale, "suggests that both males and females high on Identity Achievement status emphasize that they operate as productive and self-disciplined per sons. Males emphasize their lack of conformity to expected behaviors while the females emphasize their efficiency, social harmoniousness, clear and realistic thinking, social approval, self-acceptance, and personal fulfillment, etc." (Simmons, 1973, pp. 11-12).

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CHAPTER IV RESULTS The means and standard deviations for the Exploration and Commitment Scale are listed in Table 1. Females had higher scores in both exploration and commitment. Both males and females reported higher levels of commitment than exploration. The means and standard deviations for each of the content areas are listed in Table 5. Table 1 Means and Standard Deviations for the Exploration and Commitment Scale Total scores on Exploration and Commitment Total N = 245 Mean (S.D.) Scale 297.77 (28.86) Total Exploration Total Commitment 145.58 (17.93) 147.61 (20.01) 68 Males 95 Mean ( S. D. ) Females 150 Mean ( S. D. ) 294.40 (27.38) 301.13 (30.33) 144.60 (17.81) 146.55 (18.08) 145.07 (18.49) 150.15 (21.52)

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69 While it is clear that the various kinds of evidence supporting the reliability and validity of a test are closely related, I have separated the statistical results into four areas--(1) Reliability, (2) Content Validity, (3) Construct Validity, and (4) Concurrent Validity. Reliability Internal Consi3tency Composite reliability (internal consistency) was com puted using Cronbach's alpha (1951). Three tests were run. The internal consistency of the items making up the Exploration Scale and of the items making up the Commitment Scale were examined as well as the overall level of internal consistency for the entire scale. The coefficient alpha for the exploration items was .72; for the commitment items the coefficient alpha was .81. The coefficient alpha for the entire scale was .78. These alphas indicate significant internal consistency for the two subscales as well as for the whole Exploration and Commitment Scale. Test-Retest Stability The test-retest stability was explored for 45 subjects who retook the test after a one week interval. The Pearson product moment correlations and their associated probabilities for the overall score, for the exploration items and commitment items, and for the exploration and

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commitment items within the four content areas can be seen in Table 2. All except for Friendship Exploration are significant (p < .001). Table 2. Test-Retest Correlations for the Exploration and Commitment Scale Test Items Overall score All exploration items All commitment items Career exploration items Career commitment items Friendship exploration items Friendship commitment items Political exploration items Political commitment items Sexual exploration items Sexual commitment items *p < 0 01. **p < 0 05 Content Validity Correlation r = 0.83397* r = 0.78976* r = 0.88861* r = 0.80181* r = 0.83511* r = 0.46162** r = 0.72607* r = 0.85017* r = 0.93087* r = 0.74093* r = 0.72268* 70 The coefficient alpha is recognized as evidence for the content validity of an instrument. Additional evidence is supplied by testing the following hypotheses.

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Hypothesis l There will be a significant positive relationship between overall exploration scores on the Exploration and Commitment Scale and total exploration scores on the Self Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment (Moberly, 1985). Hypothesis 2 There will be a significant positive relationship between overall commitment scores on the Exploration and Commitment Scale and total commitment scores on the Self Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment (Moberly, 1985). Both of these hypotheses were supported. Using a Pearson product moment correlation for the comparison, 71 these results were obtained. Between the exploration scores for both measures, the obtained correlation was r = .42 with a significance level of E < .001. The correlation between the commitment items on both measures was r = .57 with a significance level of E < .001. Further tests were conducted to examine the relationship between the content areas on both measures. The results can be seen in Table 3. All the correlations were signifi cant < .00l)except for Career Exploration and Sexual Exploration.

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Table 3. Content Area Correlations Between the Exploration and Commitment Scale and the Self-Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment Content Areas Career Exploration Career Commitment Friendship Exploration Friendship Commitment Political Exploration Political Commitment Sexual Exploration Sexual Commitment *E. < 001. **E. < .05. ***.e > .05. Correlation r = .07*** r = .60* r = .41* r = .34* r = .52* r = .65* r = .19** r = .40* 72 Additional evidence for the content validity of the Exploration and Commitment Scale is provided by examining the relationship between the Exploration and Commitment Scale and the Simmons (1970) Identity Achievement Scale. Two of the hypotheses are concerned with this relationship. Hypothesis 3 There will be a significant positive relationship between the overall scores on the Exploration and Commitment

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73 Scale and total scores on the Simmons (1970) !dentity Achievement Scale. This hypothesis was supported. The obtained Pearson product moment correlation between the overall scores on the two measures was r = .26 which is significant < .001). Hypothesis 4 There will be a significant difference in mean scores on the Simmons (1970) Identity Achievement Scale between those who scored above the median and those who scored below the median on the Exploration and Commitment Scale. For this test the subjects were divided into two groups --those who scored above the median on the Exploration and Commitment Scale (the High group) and those who scored below the median (the Low group). The mean score for each group on the Simmons (1970) Identity Achievement Scale was calcu lated and compared. A Kruskal-Wallis test was performed on the data producing a chi square approximation of 6.02 < .01) which was significant. The hypothesis was sup ported. Construct Validity Internal Consistency The alpha levels for Internal Consistency provide some evidence that the exploration items and the commitment items combine to measure a coherent construct. The

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74 convergent-divergent pattern of correlations between items in a content area and the total content area score provides further support for the construct validity of the Exploration and Commitment Scale. Convergent-Divergent Analysis The convergent-divergent pattern of correlations between items within a content area and their total score for the content area on the Exploration and Commitment Scale indi cates that the items for each content area load moderately to high with their own content area score while scoring low correlations with the total scores for the other content areas. Table 4 summarizes the range of correlations for the individual items across the four content areas. The ranges for the exploration items and for the commitment items are listed separately. The median score is for the combined range of exploration and commitment items. The median correlations load significantly higher < .001) on their own content area total than on the total scores for the other three content areas. The items for the sexual content area and for the interpersonal content area appear to share some common variance. This would be expected as interpersonal values (relating to friendship and dating) are closely linked to sexual and sex role values.

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Table 4. Convergent-Divergent Correlation Ranges for the Content Area Items with Total Scores for Each Content Area Total Content Area Scores Career Ideology Interpersonal Sexual CAREER EXPLORATION -.00 to .63 -.03 to .22 .09 to .35 .02 to .32 COMMITMENT . 3 2 to .67 -.06 to .20 -.01 to .19 -.02 to .16 MEDIAN .42* .11 .14 .10 IDEOLOGY EXPLORATION .02 to .13 .18 to .70 -.10 to .34 -.04 to .26 COMMITMENT .10 to .25 . 3 4 to .73 -.05 to .21 .02 to .28 MEDIAN . 10 .47* . 08 .06 INTERPERSONAL EXPLORATION -.04 to .28 -.01 to .23 .14 to .55 .05 to .40 COMMITMENT -.01 to .25 -.04 to .18 .10 to .55 -.00 to .34 MEDIAN . 17 .06 .39 .15 SEXUAL EXPLORATION -.19 to . 17 -.08 to .15 -.10 to .33 . 07 to .54 COMMITMENT -.06 to .29 -.00 to .18 -.08 to .38 .11 to .53 MEDIAN .14 . 07 .20 .39 *12 < . 001. -..J u,

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76 Concurrent Validity Evidence for concurrent validity is presented by com paring males' and females' performance in the four content areas: (1) Career, (2) Sexual and Sex Role, (3) Inter personal, and (4) Political and Religious Ideology. The data comparing the means for exploration and for commitment for males and females can be found in Tables 5. Hypotheses 5 and 6 concern mean comparisons between males and females in the Sexual Content area. Hypothesis 5 The mean exploration score for females for the Sexual Content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean exploration score for males in the Sexual Content area. The exploration mean for females was higher than for males (females= 36.52; males= 34.27) in the Sexual Content area. An analysis of variance (r (1, 244) = 7.61, < .05) showed that the difference was significant (see Table 5). The hypothesis was supported. Hypothesis 6 The mean commitment score for females for the Sexual Content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean commitment score for males in the Sexual Content area.

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77 The commitment mean for females was also higher than for males (females= 40.68; males= 35.63) in the Sexual Content area. An analysis of variance (f (1, 244) = 36.20, E < .001) showed that the difference was significant (see Table 5). Since the commitment means for males and females are significantly different, this hypothesis was also supported. Hypotheses 8 and 9 concern comparisons between males and females in the Interpersonal Content Area. Hypothesis 8 The mean exploration score for females for the Inter personal Content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean exploration score for males in the Interpersonal Content area. The mean for females (41.91) was higher than the mean for males (40.79); however, the difference was not signifi cant (f (1, 244) = 2.39, E > .OS). The hypothesis was not supported. Hypothesis 9 The mean commitment score for females for the Inter personal content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean commitment score for males in the Interpersonal Content area.

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78 Table 5. Mean Exploration and Commitment Scores (and Standard Deviations) for Males and Females on the Exloration and Commitment Scale Sexual Sex Role Exploration Commitment Career Exploration Commitment Interpersonal Exploration Commitment Ideology Exploration Commitment Total Exploration Total Commitment Total E & C Score aN = 95. bN = *.e < . 05. **.e a Males Mean ( S. D. ) 34.27 (5.97) 35.63 (6.61) 38.65 (7.94) 37.93 (10.62) 40.79 (5.47) 38.93 (5.45) 30.88 ( 8 .18) 37.29 (9.02) 144.60 (17.81) 145.07 (18.49) 294.40 (27.38) 150. cdf = 1. < .005 . * * *.e < . 001. b Females Mean ( S. D. ) 36.52 (6.36) 40.68 (6.26) 39.84 (7.31) 37.36 (10.89) 41.91 (5.53) 41.18 (6.16) 28.29 ( 6. 82) 35.35 ( 7 . 8 4 ) 146.55 (18.08) 150.15 (21.52) 3 01.13 (30.33) 7.61** 36.20*** 1.43 0.16 2.39 8.35** 7.21* 3.19 0.69 3.23 3.08

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79 The mean for females (41.18) was higher than the mean for males (38.95). The difference was significant (F (1,244) = 8.35, E < .005). The hypothesis was supported. Hypothesis 11 concerns comparisons between males and females in the Ideology content area. Hypothesis 11 The mean exploration score for males for the Ideology Content area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale will be higher than the mean exploration score for females. The male exploration mean (30.88) was higher than the female mean (28.29). The difference was significant (F (1,244) = 7.21, E < .05). The hypothesis was supported. There were no hypotheses regarding differences in means in the career area for males and females because results have been mixed in this area. It is interesting to note that the means for Career Commitment show the small est difference of any of the areas (males= 37.93, females = 37.36) (r (1,244) = .16, E > .1). In summary, it appears that females generally had higher levels of exploration and commitment. Significant differences were found in four areas. Females had signifi cantly higher levels of sexual exploration, sexual commit ment, and interpersonal commitment. Males had a significantly higher level of exploration in the Ideology area. The smallest difference between males and females was found

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80 in the area of career commitment suggesting that females are as committed to career goals as males are. Interpersonal exploration and ideological commitment appear to be important to both males and females. There were two hypotheses that were related to comparing males and females within Marcia's Identity Statuses. Hypothesis 7 Females will be significantly more likely than males to be categorized in the more advanced ego identity statuses (Achievement and Moratorium) in the Sexual Content area. Hypothesis 10 Females will be significantly more likely than males to be categorized in the more advanced ego identity statuses (Achievement and Moratorium) in the Interpersonal Content area. Three methods of placing subjects in Marcia's Identity Statuses were explored. A "ranking" method was tried in which exploration and commitment scores were rank ordered. The top third were considered high and the bottom third low. Achievements were high on both exploration and commit ment. The diffusions were low on both dimensions. Mora toriums were high in exploration and low in commitment. Foreclosures were low in exploration and high in commitment. The subjects in the middle third wre not placed in statuses.

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81 The "mean-split" method was also explored. Those above the mean were considered high; those below the mean were considered low. Achievements were high in both exploration and commitment. Diffusions were low in both dimensions. Foreclosures were high in commitment and low in exploration. Moratoriums were high in exploration and low in commitment. The third method--the "standard deviation" methodestablished a mean and a standard deviation for each total content area score. Those who scored one standard deviation above the mean were Achievements. Those who scored one standard deviation below the mean were Diffusions. The subjecsts who scored between the two standard deviations were classed as either Foreclosures or Moratoriums depending on how their Exploration score compared to their Commitment score. If the commitment score was higher by 10 points, they were considered Foreclosures. considered Moratoriums. Otherwise, they were A comparison of the percentages of males and females in the more advanced identity statuses vs. the low identity statuses for the various content areas was computed for all three methods using the chi square statistic. Results are summarized in Tables 6, 7, and 8. There were no significant differences for any of the content areas. As can be seen from Tables 6, 7, and 8, hypotheses 7 and 10 were not supported. There were no significant

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Table 6. Standard Deviation Method. Male-Female Differences Status Classification B~sed on Content Areas of and Commitment Scale Content Area Identity Statuses High Low Career Males 63% 37% Females 59% 41% Sexual and Males 67% 33% Sex Role Values Females 58% 42% Political Males 58% 42% and Religious Ideology Females 54.7% 45.3% Interpersonal Males 73% Area (Friendship and Females 67% Dating) Males N = 95. Females N = 150. adf = 1 *E. > .10 27% 33% the 82 in Identity ExEloration Chi Squarea .34* 2.47* .25* .77*

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Table 7. Mean Split Method. Male-Female Differences in Identity Status Classification Based on Content Areas of the Exploration and Commitment Scale Content Career Sexual and Sex Role Values Political and Religious Ideology Interpersonal Area (Friend ship and Dating) Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females Identity Statuses High Low 50.5% 49.5% 52% 48% 47.4% 54.7 54.7% 45.3% 47.3% 52.7% 41. 3% 58.7% 58% 42% 54% 46% Males N = 95. Females N = 150. * > 10. Chi Squarea .34* 1.24* .86* .35* 83

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Table 8. Ranking Method. Male-Female Differences in Identity Status Classification Based on Content Areas of the Exploration and Commitment Scale Chi Content Area Identity Statuses Square a High Low N Career Males 41.46% 58.54% 54 1.79* Females 55.00% 45.00% 90 Total 144 Sexual and Males 34.88% 65.12% 52 Sex Role 3.74*** Values Females 53.62% 46.38% 81 Total 133 Political Males 63.27% 36.73% 46 and Religious 5.90** Ideology Females 40.58% 59.42% 81 Total 127 Interpersonal Males 43.18% 56.82% 51 Area (Friend1.18* ship and Females 53.73% 46.27% 83 Dating) Total 134 Males N = 95. Females N = 150. adf = 1 *p_ > .10. * *p_ < .05. * * *p_ > .05. 84

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differences in the percentages of males and females in the more advanced ego identity statuses in the Sexual and Interpersonal Content areas. A post hoc analysis was conducted in the four content areas. Males and females were compared in the Committed (Achievement and Foreclosure) Statuses vs. the Uncommitted (Moratorium and Diffusion) Statuses, using the Standard Deviation method of placing subjects in statuses. Results are seen in Table 9. The only significant difference was found in the area of Sexual and Sex Role Values. Females were significantly more likely to be found in the Committed Statuses in this area. 85 Table 10 contains the numbers and percentages of males and females in each identity status as classified by the Standard Deviation Method. Social Desirability Bias The question of whether the test responses were contaminated by a social desirability bias was examined by testing the following hypothesis. Hypothesis 10 There will be no significant relationship between the overall scores on the Exploration and Commitment Scale

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86 Table 9. Male-Female Differences in Committed v. Uncommitted Statuses Based on Content Areas of the Exploration and Commitment Scale Content Area Identity Statuses Career Sexual and Sex Role Values Political and Religious Ideology Interpersonal Area (Friend ship and Dating) Committed Males 41% Females 38% Males 30% Females 46% Males 43% Females 40.6% Males 34% Females 33% Males N = 95. Females N = 150 *E < .05. **E > .1. Uncommitted 59% 62% 70% 54% 57% 59.4% 66% 67% Chi Squarea .23** 5.33* .15** .0032**

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87 Table 10. Numbers and Percentages of Males and Females in Each Identity Status as Classified by the Standard Deviation Method Males Females Number Percentage Number Percentage Career Content Area Achievement 18 19% 30 20% Moratorium 38 40% 64 43% Foreclosure 21 22% 27 18% Diffusion 18 19% 29 19% Interpersonal Content Area Achievement 30 32% 41 27% Moratorium 39 41% 60 40% Foreclosure 2 2% 9 6% Diffusion 24 25% 40 27% Sexual Content Area Achievement 20 21% 37 25% Moratorium 44 46% 49 33% Foreclosure 9 9% 31 21% Diffusion 22 24% 33 21% Ideology Content Area Achievement 26 27% 38 25.3% Moratorium 29 31% 44 29.4% Foreclosure 15 16% 23 15.3% Diffusion 25 26% 45 30% Males N = 95. Females N = 150.

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88 and the total scores on the Crowne and Marlowe (1964) Social Desirability Scale. This hypothesis was supported. A Pearson product moment correlation (r = .11) was not significant > .05). Summary This study provides evidence for the adequacy of the reliability, conter.t, and construct validity of the Explora tion and Commitment Scale. The comparison of means data were consistent with previous research results, providing evidence of concurrent validity for the scale. Social desirability bias does not appear to affect subjects' responses to the test items. The hypotheses relating to classifying subjects into Marcia's statuses were not supported. Possible reasons for these results will be discussed in Chapter 5. Finding a significantly greater percentage of females in the committed statuses in the Sexual Content Area was consistent with previous research findings. This result will also be discussed in Chapter 5.

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CHAPTER V DISCUSSION This study provides some evjdence for the reliability and validity of the Exploration and Commitment Scale. The scale's internal consistency, test-retest reliability, the convergence and divergence of subscale items, and its content, construct, and concurrent validity have all been investigated. Reliability Data The two measures of reliability (test-retest and inter nal consistency) were both significantly supported, showing the test to be a reliable measure. Internal consistency results will be discussed in conjunction with the conver gence-divergence data in the Construct Validity Section. Content Validity Correlation with Measurement of Ego Identity It is important in validating an instrument to provide some empirical evidence that the scale measures the construct you intend to measure. The significant correlation with the Simmons Identity Achievement Scale (IAS) (1970) is a first step in providing empirical evidence of the content 89

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90 validity of the Exploration and Commitment Scale. The IAS is based on Marcia's (1964) Ego Identity Incomplete Sentence Blank, against which he validated his Identity Status Interview. Evidence for the validity of the IAS can be found in the instrument description in Chapter 3. The IAS measures an overall sense of identity development without discriminating as to the mode of identity resolu tion. Simmons does not suggest that the IAS will place subjects in an identity status. The two tests that compared the Exploration and Commit ment Scale to the IAS were both significant. They provided two different kinds of evidence for content validity. The overall correlation shows that the subjects who scored high on the Exploration and Commitment Scale scored high on the IAS. The comparison of means demonstrates a signifi cant difference between high and low scorers on each meas ure. Not only does the Exploration and Commitment Scale correlate with an instrument that measures ego identity, but both instruments discriminate significantly among a range of scores. Correlation with Self-Report Measure While the above data support the contention that the test measures ego identity as it is theoretically described, the correlations with the Self-Report Measure of Exploration and Commitment (Moberly, 1985) provide another kind of

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evidence. The self-report measure was designed to ask directly for an individual's overall sense of the amount of exploration and commitment he or she has experienced in each of the four areas. The Exploration and Commitment Scale asks for responses to specific beliefs, behaviors, and experiences that less directly indicate exploration 91 or commitment. That the exploration items in the two meas ures and the commitment items in each of the measures cor relate significantly suggests that the test items do reflect the individual's experience of exploration and commitment and thus do indeed sample the content domain of ego identity. Construct Validity Internal Consistency and Convergence-Divergence Data The construct validity of the instrument is supported both by its level of internal consistency and by the conver gence-divergence data. That the levels of internal consis tency were acceptably high not only for the two subsections of exploration items and commitment items but for the overall test is important. When this information is combined with the convergence-divergence data, one gets a sense for the flexibility of the instrument as a measurement of the con struct, ego identity. The converence-divergence data show that the items in the four content area subscales (Sexual, Interpersonal, Ideology, and Career) load moderately high

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92 on their own subscale totals while having low correlations with the other subscale totals. This supports the belief that the four content area subscales measure discriminately different areas of identity development. The construct, ego identity, as it has been discussed by Erik Erikson (1959, 1968) and James Marcia (1964, 1966), combines the two variables of exploration and commitment. Both are closely linked to ego identity development. The ego expands through exploring options and testing out pos sibilities. One's sense of personhood is enlarged as the individual is able to try himself or herself out through new experiences. A sense of one's similarity to others is important, but so is the ability to savour the differences between oneself and others. A sense of individuality is built on both. As the individual explores, he or she chooses values, goals, or options that provide self-definition. It is from the vantage point of one's commitments that the indi vidual is able to see the similarities or differences between himself or herself and others. In making commitments that one will stand by, the individual is giving up possibili ties. Deciding to be a lawyer or a Methodist or monogamous means that one has chosen to limit oneself to a particular career, religion, or sexual status. The goal in individua tion could best be described as finding a comfortable balance between these two variables. Exploring enough so that

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one's options are not limited prematurely but having a firm enough sense of one's commitments so that a measure of stability is achieved is important in healthy development. 93 That both the exploration subtest and the commitment subtest have a high level of internal consistency indicates that the exploration items acceptably measure the exploration variable, and the commitment items acceptably measure the commitment variable. That the overall test has a high level of internal consistency shows that the overall con struct that the test measures closely combine the variables of exploration and commitment. The four content areas of the Exploration and Commitment Scale all appear to be important parts of the construct, ego identity. Career goals, sexual and sex role values, ideological commitments (particularly political and religious), and interpersonal values relating to friendship and dating have all been investigated as important areas of adolescent identity development. The ideology and career areas were used originally with males. The sexual area was added in measuring female identity development. The interpersonal area has been most recently explored. It is becoming clearer that the four areas are important to the identity development of both sexes. The data in this study support the inclusion of all four content areas in a measure of ego identity development. That they are

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discriminately different areas of identity can be seen in the divergence of the test items. That they combine 94 to measure a consistent construct can be seen in the overall level of internal consistency for the scale. Concurrent Validity Comparisons Between Males and Females In the research studies placing subjects in one of Marcia's Identity Statuses based on the total Marcia Inter view, a different pattern has emerged for males and females. In studies with males, Moratoriums have most closely resembled Achievements, and Foreclosures have scored most like Diffusions across a number of dependent variables. Foreclosures and Diffusions have been more likely than Moratoriums and Achievements to change their self-evaluation based on feedback from others (Marcia, 1967). Achievements and Moratoriums have higher levels of moral reasoning than Foreclosures and Diffusions (Podd, 1972). Achievements and Moratoriums demonstrate higher levels of intimacy and are more autonomous (Orlofsky, Marcia, & Lesser, 1973). They also demonstrate a lower level of impulsivity (Waterman & Waterman, 1974) and perform better on a concept attainment task under stress (Marcia, 1966). Studies with females have produced a different pattern. Foreclosures have fairly consistently performed more like Achievements, and Moratoriums have more closely resembled

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95 Diffusions. Foreclosures and Achievements appear to be highest in self-esteem and lowest in anxiety (Marcia & Friedman, 1970). They also chose more difficult college majors (Marcia & Friedman, 1970); were more field independent (Schenkel & Marcia, 1972); less conforming (Teder & Marcia, 1972); had a higher level of self-esteem (Prager, 1976); and a more internal locus of control (Howard, 1975). Marcia (1980) summarizes this pattern this way: Most of our research with men suggested that chronological proximity to Identity Achievement was a crucial factor in the grouping of the statuses. That is, Moratoriums could be expected to behave most like Identity Achievements on any measure involving general ego strength, while Foreclosures would perform most like Identity Diffusions. However, with women, the stability of the identity status was emerging as the important issue. Identity Achievement and Foreclosure are both fairly stable statuses; both groups have an identity, even though one is achieved and the other, foreclosed. Moratorium and Identity Diffusion are unstable statuses; neither one has a firm sense of identity, although Moratoriums are moving toward it. (p. 174) Douvan and Adelson (1966) stated that males and females focus on different issues during adolescent development. Females are socialized to establish and maintain committed interpersonal relationships and are rewarded for their skill in the interpersonal area. Males are encouraged to place exploration and personal decision making ahead of facilitat ing smooth interpersonal relationships. Gilligan (1982) suggests that different achievement styles and problem solving strategies may be related to gender differences

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96 in ego identity development. Women tend to value connected ness and attachment to others; while men stress separation and autonomy. In order to examine the validity of the above theories and to explore male-female differences in identity develop ment, two steps must be taken. 1. Males and females should be compared on the same measures in the same study. 2. The different content areas of identity should be separated so that possible sex differences in the pattern ing of exploration and commitment across content areas can be explored. Matteson (1977) emphasized the importance of separately analyzing exploration, commitment, and the timing of each in understanding the patterns that males and females follow in consolidating their identities in different content areas. A better understanding of the patterns could help explain the different results for males and females in overall identity statuses. That Foreclosure females look healthier than Moratoriums may be explained when one looks at the high level of commitment demonstrated by females across all content areas. Foreclosures make their commit ments early; and, having established committed values in some areas may provide some stability for an individual while she struggles with exploration issues in other content areas.

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Thorbecke and Grotevant (1982) discuss the "double bind" dilemma for females. Women appear to be struggling 97 to negotiate their occupational and interpersonal identities simultaneously. In their study, Thorbecke and Grotevant (1982) demonstrated that for females more advanced levels of interpersonal identity formation were associated with advanced vocational identity. For males there was no apparent association between interpersonal identity and vocational identity. For both males and females clarifying a vocational identity is important (Kacerguis & Adams, 1980). Four studies (Matteson, 1977; Nevid et al., 1974; Hodgson & Fischer, 1979; and Waterman & Nevid, 1976) have provided evidence for high levels of exploration and commit ment by women in the areas of sex roles and sexual values. While these areas are also important to males, in all these studies, levels of exploration and commitment for females in the sexual area exceeded male levels. These findings provide support for the view of women as valuing connected ness and attachment. Rogow et al. (1982) found evidence for the importance of the ideology area for males. This is consistent with the view that males are socialized to value achievement and independence, both of which emphasize thinking for oneself.

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98 Comparison of Means Comparisons between males and females on the Exploration and Commitment Scale were accomplished by two methods. A comparison of the mean scores for exploration and for commitment for each of the four content areas provided one kind of evidence. Comparing the percentages of males and females in the High (Achievement and Moratorium) vs. the Low (Foreclosure and Diffusion) Identity Statuses was the second method. An additional comparison involved looking at differences between males and females in the Committed (Achievement and Moratorium) Statuses as compared to the Uncommited Statuses (Moratorium and Diffusion). The results in the Comparison of Means data are consis tent with the theories and pattern of results from the research literature on ego identity development. Females reported higher levels of overall exploration and commitment than males. The differences between levels of exploration and commitment in the sexual content area were significant. Females also reported significantly higher levels of commit ment in the interpersonal area than males. The high levels of commitment in both these areas is consistent with theories of female socialization. Whether the commitment is fore closed or achieved after a period of exploration remains to be established. The high levels of both exploration and commitment in the sexual area would suggest that women may be exploring and then committing to an identity

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99 (Achievement Status) in this area. The significant level of commitment without an equally high level of exploration in the interpersonal area would suggest that this may be an area where women typically foreclose on their values. The levels of exploration and commitment in the career content area showed the smallest difference of any content area. Males were only slightly higher in career commitment. Females had higher mean scores in career exploration. Neither of the differences were significant. That the means were so similar in the career area is especially interesting when one looks at the high level of commitment expressed by females in the sexual and ideological areas. These data provide support for Thorbecke's and Grotevant's (1982) "double bind dilemma" for females. They suggest that women today may be attempting to negotiate their interpersonal and occupational identities simultaneously. Alternatively, women may be foreclosing on commitments in one area while they explore and develop an identity in the other area. Males have been socialized to establish a career identity and then develop intimate relationships. Erikson's psychosocial stages describe this progression. Identity Achievement vs. Identity Diffusion is the task of late adolescence. Intimacy vs. Isolation is the focus of young adulthood.

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100 Females typically have been socialized to find an identity through marriage and procreation. Today, thP. traditional female pattern is no longer attractive to large numbers of female adolescents. Finding a career identity has become as important for females as for males. However, women still value the sense of connectedness and attachment to others that has been a part of their socialization. Commitment to an interpersonal and a sexual identity remains high for females. It is probable that the necessity of negotiating a sense of identity in several different areas may make the period of late adolescence and young adulthood particularly stressful for females. Perhaps early commitment to interpersonal values provides women with some stability as they negotiate identities in other areas. That males had a significantly higher mean score for exploration in the ideology area is consistent with theories of male socialization which emphasize the support for male assertiveness, competitivenss, and autonomy. This study can only begin to suggest possible patterns for males and females in their exploration and the develop ment of commitments in areas of identity formation. The Exploration and Commitment Scale can be used in future studies to investigate the balancing of exploration and commitment in various areas. It might be helpful to look at males and females at different age levels to see if there are areas of identity within which commitments are

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101 made early. Are there times during adolescence when explora tion in one content area becomes more important for one sex than another? It could also be helpful to explore the usefulness of the Exploration and Commitment Scale with other populations. It is probable that the knowledge that one is going to college for four years or more has an effect on exploration and commmitment levels in various areas that is different than the knowledge that one will bcome self-supporting immediately after high school. What can be said at this point is that the results from comparing means for males and females in different content areas of identity are consistent with socialization theories and research results in ego identity development. Comparison of Identity Statuses The hypotheses regarding comparisons between males and females in the "High" and "Low" statuses in the sexual and interpersonal areas were based on results from the few studies that have placed males and females in identity statuses based on different content areas. Hodgson and Fischer (1979) found significant differences between the numbers of males and females in the High vs. Low Statuses in several areas. They used Marcia's Interview to place subjects in statuses. Significantly more males than females were in the "High" statuses in Overall Ideology, chi square (df = 1) 9.04, E = .005. Significantly more

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females than males were in the "High" statuses in overall Sexual Ideology (including Sexual Values and Sex Roles), x 2 (1) = 5.13, = .05. 102 Waterman and Nevid (1976) found a significant difference only for Sex in their comparisons of males and females in Occupation, Religion, Politics, and Sex. A significantly greater proportion of females than males were Achievers (x 2 (1) = 8.48, < .005), and the greater proportion of females than males in the Moratorium Status approached significance (x 2 (1) = 3.66, < .10). Based on these results and on the studies that compared means for males and females in the different content areas, two hypotheses were made comparing the percentage of males and females in the High and Low Statuses in the Sexual and Interpersonal areas. The predictions were that a sig nificantly greater percentage of females than males would be in the High Statuses in the Sexual and Interpersonal areas. No significant differences were found (see Tables 6, 7, and 8). One possible explanation for the lack of results is that the Achievement and Moratorium Statuses are considered developmentally advanced only for males. The pattern of research results for females indicates that Foreclosures generally score most like Achievements. If the Foreclosure status provides some stability for women that facilitates their identity development, then the Foreclosure Status

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would be combined with the Achievement Status as "High" statuses for females. If so, then comparing males and females in the Committed Statuses (Achievement and Fore closure) vs. the Uncommitted Statuses (Moratorium and Diffusion) might indicate differences that were masked by the "High" vs. "Low" comparison used in Hodgson and Fischer's (1979) and Waterman and Nevid's (1976) studies. The comparison between committed and uncommitted statuses in the Sexual content area was significant (see Table 9). There was a significantly larger percentage 103 of females than males in the committed statuses in the sexual area. When one looks at the percentages of males and females (see Table 10) in each status (Achievement: 21% of the males, 25% of the females: Foreclosure: 9% of the males, 21% of the females), it is clear that the Fore closure status accounts for most of the difference. This result suggests that females' high level of com mitment in the sexual area results from early foreclosure on sexual values. Comparison between male and female means for exploration (see Table 5) in the sexual area indicated that females had a significantly higher level of explora tion. When one looks at the statuses (46% of the males were Moratoriums as compared to 33% of the females), it appears that the higher level of mean exploration for the women resulted in a higher percentage of females than males

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in the Achievement status, while male exploration was not combined with high levels of commitment. Because the classification of subjects into a status based on only one content area is a relatively new method of exploring ego identity development, it is difficult 104 to draw any firm conclusions concerning male-female status comparisons. Looking at status comparisons can be a valuable aide in clarifying differences in levels of exploration and commitment. Whether a high level of commitment is based on early foreclosure or has been achieved after exploration is significant in understanding identity develop ment. Whether levels of exploration are combined with commitment as in the Achievement status or whether the subject is in the midst of exploring to arrive at commitments make a real difference in understanding an individual's current identity development. The area of the Exploration and Commitment Scale that appears most questionable at this time is its ability to classify subjects into an identity status in a manner that is consistent with Marcia's interview. Three methods of classification were tried. (See the description of all three methods in Chapter 4.) The Standard Deviation method was chosen as the best method of classification for two reasons. (1) With the ranking method too many subjects were not able to be classified in a status (see Table 8). (2) The Mean-Split method and the Standard Deviation method produced

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105 very similar results. The Standard Deviation method of assigning people to statuses appears to be more theoretically consistent than the other methods. Achievements ought to be those whose total score for exploration and commitment is much higher than those placed in other statuses. Dif fusions ought to have much lower exploration and commitment scores than those in the other statuses. Because Fore closures have high commitment levels and lower levels of exploration and Moratoriums have high levels of explora tion and low levels of commitment, their overall scores ought to fall between Achievements and Diffusions. The difference between the Foreclosures and Moratoriums lies in the relationship between their exploration and commitment scores. The Foreclosures' commitment scores should theoretically be higher than their exploration scores since they have made commitments early in some areas foreclosing on the chance to explore options in that area. Moratoriums are in the process of exploring and forming commitments so their level of commitment ought to be higher than Diffusions but lower than Foreclosures or Achievements. Since they are involved in exploration, their exploration level should be higher than Foreclosures. It may be as high as Achieve ments, but the Achievements would also have a high level of commitment so an Achievement's overall score would be higher than a Moratorium's. The Standard Deviation method

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106 of classifying subjects into statuses is theoretically consistent with Marci~'s conception of the statuses. Whether the scale's classification system produces similar results to the Marcia Interview remains to be tested. A future study is needed to place subjects in statuses based on Marcia's Interview and on the basis of responses to the Exploration and Commitment Scale. The percentage of subjects in each status by each method could then be compared as well as the congruence between the two methods in placing a single subject in the same status. In the current study, the scoring system did not reproduce results from the two previous studies (Hodgson & Fischer, 1979; Waterman & Nevid, 1976) that placed males and females in identity statuses based on the Marcia Interview. Until a more direct comparison can be made between the two classification methods, no valid scoring norms can be reported. Directions for status classification are in Appendix B. When it is established that the classification method compares favorably to Marcia's classi fication system, norms for means and standard deviations can be validated. Social Desirability One of the criticisms of the Marcia Interview and of his Ego Identity Incomplete Sentences Blank is that both measures rely on raters for scoring. Raters' scoring

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107 is inevitably somewhat contaminated by subjectivity. The usual criticism of objective measures is that the subject's responses are contaminated by the desire to appear in a positive light on the measure. Efforts were made to minimize the social desirability bias by having most of the tests completed anonymously. Only the 45 test-retest subjects were identified by their social security numbers which were removed when the retest data were compared to the original test. Scores on the Crowne-Marlow (1960) Measure of Social Desirability did not significantly correlate with the scores on the Exploration and Commitment Scale indicating that the social desirability bias was not a significant problem in the responses. Summary Research results indicate that the Exploration and Commitment Scale has good test-retest reliability and a high level of internal consistency. While the two subsections of the scale (i.e., the Exploration and Commit ment Items) and the four content areas of the scale measure discriminately different aspects of ego identity development, they combine with a high level of consistency to measure the construct, ego identity. The construct measured by this scale is closely related to the theoretical definition of ego identity (as examined by Simmons' (1970) Identity Achievement Scale) and to the individual's self-report

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108 of exploration and commitment. The responses to the scale items are not significantly influenced by the social desir ability bias. Adequate evidence for the scale's internal consistency, test-retest reliability, content, and construct validity have been produced by this study. The evidence for concurrent and predictive validity is less adequate. The mean scores for males and females for exploration and commitment within the content areas is congruent with past research. However, only two studies have separately analyzed levels of exploration and commit ment. Future research in this area could produce important information on the coordinating of the variables of explora tion and commitment in different content areas in the process of ego identity development. Differences between the sexes and between different populations in the amount of explora tion and commitment at different points in development and in different content areas could provide valuable information on the processes that contribute to ego identity development. The process of classifying individuals into Marcia's Identity Statuses based on each content area is an important function of the Exploration and Commitment Scale. The question of whether commitment is foreclosed or achieved is directly assessed by placement in one of Marcia's statuses. The research in ego identity development has paid insufficient attention to assigning statuses based

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on partial content areas of identity. The Exploration and Commitment Scale can assign individuals to Identity Statuses based on each content area of identity. Whether this assignment is valid remains to be explored in future studies. Future Directions 109 Conclusive evidence for the validity of an instrument is achieved when it can be seen that the instrument not only correlates with the appropriate measures but discrimi nates among inappropriate measures. Future studies can use the Exploration and Commitment Scale with different populations and different age groups. The differences between achieved commitment and foreclosed commitment in various content areas can be explored. The relationships between adjustment and levels of exploration and commitment need to be evaluated. How males and females with various levels of commitment in the Career area compare in G.P.A.'s in high school and college and how various levels of exploration and commitment in the Interpersonal area correlate with popularity and sociability could also be explored. In applying this measure to counseling, the most appropriate question to be explored is how to achieve a healthy balance between exploration and commitment in the different content areas of one's life. This is perhaps

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110 the whole point in exploring ego identity development, facilitating the processes so that we produce healthy stable individuals.

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APPENDIX A SELF-REPORT MEASURE OF EXPLORATION AND COMMITMENT Instructions for the Exploration and Commitment Survey On the following pages are some issues that confront most of us at one time or another. We are interested in knowing (1) how much you have thought about or are thinking about these areas (Exploration) and (2) whether you are committed to a position that you feel strongly about with regard to these areas (Commitment). Limited Exploration "I haven't given this area much thought" Limited Commitment 1. "I don't really have a position on this issue that I feel strongly about" EXPLORATION 2 COMMITMENT 111 Very Intense Exploration "I have thought a lot about this area" or "I am now trying to sort out my feelings about this area" Very Intense Commitment "I know what I think and feel about this issue and it would be hard to change my mind"

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112 CIRCLE THE NUMBER THE BEST APPLIES TO YOU 1. In the area of POLITICAL ISSUES I would rate my level of EXPLORATION of my thoughts and feelings: 1 Limited 2 Some 3 Average 4 Considerable 5 Very Intense 2. In the area of POLITICAL ISSUES I would rate my level of COMMITMENT to my thoughts and feelings: 1 Limited 2 Some 3 Average 4 Considerable 5 Very Intense 3. In the area of RELIGIOUS ISSUES I would rate my level of EXPLORATION of my thoughts and feelings: 1 Limited 2 Some 3 Average 4 Considerable 5 Very Intense 4. In the area of RELIGIOUS ISSUES I would rate my level of COMMITMENT to my thoughts and feelings: 1 Limited 2 Some 3 Average 4 Considerable 5 Very Intense 5. In the area of CAREER ISSUES I would rate my level of EXPLORATION of my thoughts and feelings: 1 Limited 2 Some 3 Average 4 Considerable 5 Very Intense 6. In the area of CAREER ISSUES I would rate my level of COMMITMENT to my thoughts and feelings: 1 2 3 4 5 Limited Some Average Considerable Very Intense 7. In the area of FRIENDSHIP I would rate my level of EXPLORATION of my thoughts and feelings: 1 2 3 4 5 Limited Some Average Considerable Very Intense 8. In the area of FRIENDSHIP I would rate my level of COMMITMENT to my thoughts and feelings: 1 Limited 2 Some 3 Average 4 Considerable 5 Very Intense

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113 9. In the area of SEXUAL VALUES I would rate my level of EXPLORATION of my thoughts and feelings: 1 Limited 2 Some 3 Average 4 Considerable 5 Very Intense 10. In the area of SEXUAL VALUES I would rate my level of COMMITMENT to my thoughts and feelings: 1 Limited 2 Some 3 Average 4 Considerable 5 Very Intense 11. In the area of DATING I would rate my level of EXPLORATION of my thoughts and feelings: 1 Limited 2 Some 3 Average 4 Considerable 5 Very Intense 12. In the area of DATING I would rate my level of COMMITMENT to my thoughts and feelings: 1 Limited 2 Some 3 Average 4 Considerable 5 Very Intense 13. In the area of SEX ROLE VALUES I would rate my level of EXPLORATION of my thoughts and feelings: 1 Limited 2 Some 3 Average 4 Considerable 5 Very Intense 14. In the area of SEX ROLE VALUES I would rate my level of COMMITMENT to my thoughts and feelings: 1 Limited 2 Some 3 Average 4 Considerable 5 Very Intense

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APPENDIX B EXPLORATION AND COMMITMENT SCALE USING THE FOLLOWING SCALE, CIRCLE THE NUMBER THAT BEST APPLIES TO YOU: 1 = This is not at all how I think and feel about this area or issue. 2 3 4 5 6 7 = This is eretty far from the way I think and feel about this area or issue. = This is not too far from describing how I think and feel about this area or issue. = This is more or less how I think and feel about this area or issue. = This is fairly close to how I think and feel about this area or issue. = This is almost exactly how I think and feel about this area or issue. = This is exactly how I think and feel about this area or issue. 1. Trying to narrow my interests down to one career has been a struggle for me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 I have strong political opinions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. Talking with friends is helpful in getting a better understanding of one's sexual values. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 114

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4. I can tell after the first few dates if someone is right for me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 115 5. I have gone through (or am now going through) a period of questioning and uncertainty about my religious beliefs. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. I consider myself settled as far as my career plans are concerned. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. My sexual values are not very different from what they were when I first started dating. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. I don't easily change my ideas about friends. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9. I try to keep informed about current political issues. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10. The career area I have chosen suits my interests and abilities. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11. What I would look for in a person I would date has changed over the years since I first started dating. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12. I feel like my religious beliefs are an important influence in my life. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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13. My ideas on what it means to be "masculine" or "feminine" have changed since I started dating. 1 2 3 4 5 6 14. I've decided on my sexual values and what I am willing to do and not do. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 15. I've worked at understanding my friends better. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16. Politics is not an area that matters much to me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 17. I have explored several different possible career ideas. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 18. The types of careers that I'd be good at are clear to me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 19. I would consider membership in a church other than the one I was raised in. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 20. My beliefs about what husband's and wife's roles in a marriage ought to be are still not totally clear. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 21. I have thought a lot about what I might enjoy and be good at as a career. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 116

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22. It's easy for me to decide if I like a person. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 23. Having political discussions with friends has helped me to clarify what I think politically. 1 2 3 4 5 6 24. I would not easily change my career direction. 1 2 3 4 5 6 25. I wouldn't consider dating someone who is very different than me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 7 26. Even though others may not agree with my religious beliefs, I know that they are right for me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 27. Dating different people has influenced me to rethink some of my ideas on men's and women's roles in marriage. 1 2 3 4 5 6 28. I pretty much do what I feel like doing at the time sexually. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 7 29. I have been looking for a carer that really appeals to me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 30. I have worked out a fairly consistent political position. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 117

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31. I haven't questioned my career goals. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 32. Even if my friends didn't like my fiance, they probably couldn't easily influence me to change my about him (her). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 33. I've worked out my own religious beliefs. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 34. I can't understand how some of my friends can be so sure about their career choices. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 35. I've had to figure out for myself what is right for me sexually. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 36. If a good friend changed in some way and I didn't, I would probably be less interested in him (her). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 37. I don't follow politics too closely. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 38. I feel very sure of my career choice. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 39. I could become romantically involved with a person my parents didn't approve of. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 118

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40. I know what I believe about God and religion. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 41. All this questioning of woman's roles in society has just made things more confusing. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 42. While my friends may not agree with my sex role values (traditional or liberal), it would not be easy for them to change my mind. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 3. I have gone through a period when I questioned the sexual values my parents taught me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 44. What is important to me in a friend is very clear to me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 45. I am actively involved in at least one political group. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 46. I've decided on a career direction, but I'm not really committed to it. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 47. I've given a lot of thought to the qualities that are important to me in the person I would marry. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 48. I don't feel strongly about my religious beliefs. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 119

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49. I've tried to figure out what is right for me in terms of whether I have a more traditional or a more liberated set of sex role values. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 120 50. I feel strongly about what I think is right and wrong in the sexual area. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 51. My values about friendship have changed as I have met different kinds of people. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 52. Even if others didn't agree with me politically, I would be willing to stand up for my views. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 53. It's possible that I would choose a career that my parents weren't enthusiastic about. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 54. I'm sure of what's important to me in a marriage partner, and I probably wouldn't marry someone who didn't have those qualities. 1 2 3 4 5 6 55. Being with people whose religious beliefs are different than mine is interesting to me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 56. While others may not agree with my sexual values, it would not be easy for them to convince me to change my mind. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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121 57. Talking over career possibilities with others has been helpful to me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 58. I expect that my ideas on men's and women's sex roles will stay the same over the next few years. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 59. I think a lot about how my relationships with other people are going. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 60. I would probably be willing to rethink my standards for dating in order to maintain a relationship. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 61. My career interests haven't really changed over the past few years. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 62. I would not consider marrying anyone whose ideas on a wife having her own career are very different than my own. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 63. When a friend seems distant to me, I try to understand what's happened. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 64. My present career plans look like a good choice for me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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Exploration and Commitment Subtest Items Subtests Exploration Commitment Career 1, 17, 21, 29, 1_!, 6, 10, 18, 24, l!, 53, 57, 61 3 8, .!_, 64 Ideology 5, 9, 19, 23, 33, 2, 12, 16, 26, 30, TI, 45, 55 4 0, ~, 52 Sexual 3, ]_, 13, 27, 35 14, ~, ~, 42, so, Q, 43, 49 56, 58, 62 Interpersonal 11, 15, 25, 39, 4, 8, 22, 3 2, 1._, 47, 51, 59,63 4 4, 54, 60 All items are scored in a positive direction except for the underlined items which are reverse scored. 122

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Scoring Procedures for Status Classification for the Four Content Areas of the Exploration and Commitment Scale 123 1. Compute the mean score for the Content Area using both the exploration and commitment items. 2. Compute the standard deviation for the scores in the content area. 3. Adding the standard deviation to the total mean, establish an upper level cutoff. 4. Subtracting the standard deviation from the mean, establish a lower level cutoff. 5. All scores above the upper level cutoff are classed as Achievements. 6. All scores below the lower level cutoff are classed as Diffusions. 7. Those subjects whose scores fall between the two cutoff levels are scored as either Foreclosures or Moratori ums depending on the comparison of their exploration score to their commitment score. a. If their commitment score is at least 10 points higher than their exploration score, they are placed in the Foreclosure Status. b. The remaining subjects whose scores fall between the two cutoffs are placed in the Moratorium Status.

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APPENDIX C CROWNE-MARLOWE SOCIAL DESIRABILITY SCALE Listed below are a number of statements concerning personal attitudes and traits. Read each item and decide whether the statement is true or false as it pertains to you personally. Circle T (True) or F (False). (T) F (T) F T (F) (T) F T (F) T (F) (T) F (T) F T (F) T (F) T (F) T (F) 1. Before voting I thoroughly investigate the qualifications of all the candidates. 2. I never hesitate to go out of my way to help someone in trouble. 3. It is sometimes difficult for me to go on with my work if I'm not encouraged. 4. I have never intensely disliked anyone. 5. On occasion I have had doubts about my ability to succeed in life. 6. I sometimes feel resentful when I don't get my way. 7. I am always careful about my manner of dress. 8. My table manners are as good at home as when I eat out in a restaurant. 9. If I could get into a movie without paying for it and be sure I was not seen, I would probably do it. 10. On a few occasions I have given up doing some things because I thought too little of my ability. 11. I like to gossip at times. 12. There have been times when I felt like rebelling against people in authority even though I knew they were rights. 124

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(T) F T (F) T (F) (T) F (T) F (T) F T (F) (T) F (T) F T (F) T (F) (T) F (T) F (T) F (T) F T (F) (T) F T (F ) 13. No matter who I'm talking to, I'm always a good listener. 14. I can remember "playing sick" to get out of something. 15. There have been occasions when I took advantage of someone. 16. I'm always willing to admit it when I make a mistake. 17. I always try to practice what I preach. 18. I don't find it particularly difficult to get along with loud-mouthed obnoxious people. 19. I sometimes try to get even rather than forgive and forget. 125 20. When I don't know something, I don't at all mind admitting it. 21. I am always courteous, even to people who are disagreeable. 22. At times I have really insisted on having things my own way. 23. There have been occasions when I felt like smashing things. 24. I would never think of letting someone else be punished for my wrongdoings. 25. I never resent being asked to return a favor. 26. I have never been irked when people expressed ideas very different than my own. 27. I never make a long trip without checking the safety of my car. 28. There have been times when I was quite jealous of the good fortune of others. 29. I have almost never felt the urge to tell someone off. 30. I am sometimes irritated by people who ask favors of me.

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T ( F) T ( F) ( T) F Scoring 126 31. I have never felt that I was punished without cause. 32. I sometimes think that when people have a misfortune they only got what they deserved. 33. I have never deliberately said something that hurt someone's feelings. Subject is. given 1 point for each item that they have scored as above.

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APPENDIX D SIMMONS IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT SCALE Personal Preferences for Completing Sentences Below you will find a number of incomplete sentences fol lowed by two possible completions. Select the completion which best fits the answer you would give were you trying t0 express your true feelings. Mark your answer by putting an x through the letter of the completion you prefer. 1. When I let myself go I A. sometimes say things I later regret. X B. have a good time and do not worry about others' thoughts and standards. 2. If one commits onself X A. he should follow through. B. he should have made certain beforehand he was correct. 3. For me, success would be X A. the achievement of a large amount of competence in my main career. B. a good job with a family and enough money to support them. 4. Sticking to one occupational choice X 5. X 6. X A. does not enchant me, but will probably be B. It A. B. To A. B. necessary. is sometimes difficult. makes me feel good when I look back on the progress I have made in life. I can be with my friends and know they approve of me. change my mind about my feelings toward religion I would have to know something about religious beliefs. would require a terrific amount of convincing by some authority. 127

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7. X I'm A. B. at my best when I'm on my own and have sole responsibility to get a job done. my mind is clear of all worries, even trivial ones. 8. When I let myself go I X A. don't change much from my regular self. B. think I talk too much about myself. 9. I am A. not as grateful as I should be. X B. not hard to get along with. 10. Getting involved in political activity X A. is as futile as necessary. B. doesn't appeal to me. 11. When I consider my goals in the light of my family's goals A. they are basically the same. X B. I feel that they are missing a lot. 12. If one commits onself X A. one must know oneself. B. then he's liable to miss a lot of opportunities. 13. For me, success would be X A. in what I do, not in how much money I earn. B. to be accepted by others. 14. If I had my choice. A. I would live in a warm climate such as Southern California or Hawaii. X B. I would do things as I have. 15. It seems I've always X A. wanted to go to college. B. held back from reacting to certain things. 16. Sticking to one occupational choice A. does not enchant me, but it will probably be necessary. X B. suits me fine. 17. It makes me feel good when A. I can be with my friends and know they approve of me. X B. I think of all the good things that can happen in a lifetime. 128

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18. When I let myself go I X A. have a good time and do not worry about others' thoughts and standar1s. B. never know exactly what I will say or do. 19. To change my mind about my feelings toward religion A. is not hard to do, but I keep going back to the religion I started with. X B. would require a terrific amount of convincing by some authority. 20. The difference between me as I am and as I'd like to be X A. is very likely to be dissolved in time. B. is that I have potential, but lack a certain amount of drive. 21. I know that I can always depend on A. the good will of others, if I treat them right. X B. my mind and diligence to surmount my barrier. 22. If one commits onself A. one must know oneself. X B. he should finish the task. 23. For me, success would be X A. being a recognized authority in my chosen field. B. to be accepted by others. 24. When I let myself go I A. never know exactly what I will do or say. X B. am most apt to do well. Scoring 129 Subject is given 1 point for each item that they have scored as above.

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135 Marcia, J. E. (1964). Determination and Construct Validity of Ego Identity Status. Doctoral Dissertation, Ohio State University. Marcia, J. E. (1966). Development and validation of ego identity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,}, (5), 551-558. Marcia, J. E. (1967). Ego identity status: Relationship to change in self-esteem, "general maladjustment," and authoritarianism. Journal of Personality, TI, (1), 119-133. Marcia, J.E. (1980). Identity in adolescence. In J. Adelson (Ed.), Handbook of Adolescent Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Marcia, J. E., & Friedman, M. L. (1970). Ego identity status in college women. Journal of Personality, }.!!, (2), 249-263. Matteson, D. R. (1977). Exploration and commitment: Sex differences and methodological problems in the use of identity status categories. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, i, (4), 353-374. Nevid, J. S., Nevid, A. S., O'Neill, M., & Waterman, C. K. (1974, April). Sex Differences in the Resolution of the Sexual Identity Crisis. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association Convention, Philadelphia. Nunnally, J. C. Measurement. (1970). Introduction to Psychological New York: McGraw-Hill. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory, New York: McGraw-Hill. Orlofsky, J. L. (1978). Identity formation, n-achievement, and fear of success in college men and women. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1, (1), 49-62. Orlofsky, J. L., Marcia, J. E., & Lesser, I. M. (1973). Ego identity status and the intimacy vs. isolation crisis of young adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, D_, (2), 211-219. Podd, M. H. (1972). Ego identity status and morality: The relationship between two developmental constructs. Developmental Psychology, i, 497-507.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jeanne c. Moberly was born in Nashville, Tennessee, on December 26, 1943. She attended St. Ignatius grade school in Chicago, Illinois, and graduated from Evanston Township High School in June 1961. She graduatec with honors from the University of Wisconsin, receiving her Bachelor of Science degree in June 1966. Her Master of Science degree from the University of Tennessee was conferred in August 1977. She is a member of Phi Kappa Phi National Honor Society. Jeanne has worked as a Religious Education Director for the Unitarian Church in Knoxville, Tennessee, and as a social worker and counselor for Big Brothers and Big Sisters of Greater Gainesville. She has conducted many workshops on parenting skills, interviewing techniques, and communication skills for the Guardian Ad Litem Program. For the last two years, Jeanne has worked as a children's therapist with the Community Counseling Center in Bronson, Florida. At the completion of her graduate studies, Jeanne will become program director of the Child, Youth, and Family Unit of Mental Health Services Incorporated in Gainesville, Florida. 139

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Dorothy __,___-x, Associate ofessor Psychology I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. li~r-~ Professor of Psychology I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Patricia Mier Associate Professor of Psychology

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. ofessor of Counselor Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Mary7C Fukuyama Counseling~:;:::, Counselor Education This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Psychology in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate School, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. May 1985 Dean for Graduate Studies and Research

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