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Occupations and compensating wages for unemployment risk

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Occupations and compensating wages for unemployment risk
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OCCUPATIONS AND COMPENSATING WAGES FOR UNEMPLOYMENT RISK








By

Cynthia D. Stephens


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1992




























Copyright 1992

by

Cynthia D. Stephens















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The research reported in this paper was sponsored by

the firm of Deiter, Stephens and Durham. The author thanks Lawrence Kenny, David Denslow, Douglas Waldo, Stephen Donald, Robert Emerson, John Deiter, Stephen Durham and the participants in the Micro-Macro Empirical Economics Workshop for their valuable comments and suggestions. In addition, most sincere thanks go to Elizabeth Fortier for editorial assistance and to my parents and family for their support.


iii
















TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . iii

ABSTRACT . vi

CHAPTERS

1 UNEMPLOYMENT RISK . 1

2 OCCUPATIONAL WAGE . 9

Long-Run Equilibrium . 9 Short-Run Equilibrium . 14 Industry Wage Differentials . 17 Evidence of occupational Wage Differentials . 21 Conclusions . 22

3 OCCUPATIONAL RISK MEASURES . 23

4 EMPIRICAL STUDY . 51

5 TEST RESULTS . 59

Risk Measures . 61 Growth Rates . 64 Unemployment Rates . 67 Geographic Location . 67 Fraction Female . 68 Fraction Employed in Industry . 68 Education and SVP . 70 Experience . 70 GED . 71 Physical Demands . 71 Environmental Conditions . 72 Hazards . 72 Unionization . 73 Fraction Nonwhite . 73 Heteroskedasticity . 73 Conclusions . 76

APPENDICES

A INDUSTRY CLASSIFICATIONS . 79










B OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRY OF
LARGEST CONCENTRATION . 81 C RISK MEASURES FOR DETAILED OCCUPATIONS . 92 D VARIANCE RISK MEASURE BY
DETAILED OCCUPATION . 101 E ORDINARY LEAST SQUARES REGRESSIONS . 111


F GED SCORE - REASONING.

G GED SCORE - MATH .

H GED SCORE - LANGUAGE .

I SVP SCORE .

i DEXTERITY .

K STRESS .

L STRENGTH .

M EXTREME COLD .

N EXTREME HEAT .

0 EXTREME WET .

P EXTREME NOISE .

Q VIBRATION .

R ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS.

S MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT .

T SHOCK .

U HEIGHTS .

V RADIATION .

W EXPLOSIVES .

X TOXINS .

Y OTHER HAZARDS . BIBLIOGRAPHY . BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .


. 133 . 146 . 159 . 172 . 185 . 187 . 190 . 203 . 205 . 209 . 214 . 222 . 230 . 236 . 238 . o . 239 . 240 . 241 . 242 . o . o.243 . 245 . o . o . 248
















Abstract of Dissertation Presented
to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy





OCCUPATIONS AND COMPENSATING WAGES FOR UNEMPLOYMENT RISK





By

Cynthia D. Stephens

August 1992





Chairman: Dr. Lawrence Kenny Major Department: Economics


The study tests the theory that occupations with

employment opportunities concentrated in an industry (or similar industries) require a compensating wage relative to occupations with diversified opportunities across many industries. An occupational risk measure was constructed that accounts for the variance and covariance of industry employment. This risk measure was tested and earnings were found to be positively related to occupational employment risk.















CHAPTER I
UNEMPLOYMENT RISK

Most studies of the effect of unemployment risk on

wages do not control for differences between occupations. Since individuals choose education and training for an occupation rather than an industry, this study will explore compensating wage effects from an occupational standpoint.

The observed wage paid to an occupation reflects its

contribution to the employer's revenues, in addition to the preferences of the individual providing the labor services. In equilibrium, the wage is simultaneously determined by these demand and supply factors. If all occupations were identical in skill requirements, enjoyment and risk, wages would not vary between occupations, but clearly these features do differ. Individual preference is a factor. Consider, for example, differences between occupations in exposure to hazards. occupations which are more hazardous are compensated at a higher rate than those lacking such risks. The increased wage level reflects individual preference for safer occupations and the resulting demand for a compensating wage in a riskier environment.

Wages also reflect unemployment risk, a factor which differs between occupations. To see this, suppose that utility is a function of consumption and leisure, as



































ME --oI
0


UU

U
M U

II



II

0 T T
L Leisure Time


Figure (1-1)










depicted in Figure 1-1. competition among firms will make a worker indifferent between occupations offering the combinations of consumption and leisure depicted by the indifference curve "U." This individual would be indifferent in selecting between an occupation offering (TTL) hours of work each week which provided consumption at the level Of Me and one with some unemployment if it yielded consumption at the level of Mu when unemployed (and enjoying T hours of leisure) and Me when employed. If wages are paid only during employment weeks and the number of weeks unemployed is equal to the number of weeks employed, the occupation with unemployment must have Mu higher wages than the occupation with no unemployment risk for the individual to be indifferent between the occupations. The formula which represents this relationship is described by Equation 1-1. The occupation with no unemployment risk is denoted by superscript "All and the occupation with unemployment risk is denoted by superscript 11B."

MB e = (Muu)/(52-u)+MA e Equation 1-1

As the unemployment period (u) lengthens, compensation for occupation B (MB e) must be higher in order for an individual to be indifferent between occupations A and B.

Others have estimated the effect of risk on wages.

King (1974) examines the relationship between occupational choice and risk aversion. He defines two types of earnings risk: How an individual will fare relative to others in










the same occupation and how the occupation fares in response to structural and business cycle risk.

King tests for wage differentials due to the first type of risk. He finds that riskier occupations offer higher mean incomes and that individuals from wealthier families choose the riskier occupations. King's measure of risk is the variance of earnings within an occupational classification.

In exploring wage differentials for unemployment risk, Adams (1985) tests for compensating wage differentials based on geographic and industry unemployment differences. The regression model tested is outlined in Table 1-1.


Table 1-1
Adam's Risk Model

Log Hourly Wage = f(URCSEHMORXTLDNYG) Variable Definitions:
U - State Unemployment Rate 0 - Union Membership
R - State Unemployment Insurance R - Race
Replacement Ratio (UI X - Sex
Benefits/Employed Earnings) T - City Size C - Current Industry L - Climate
Unemployment Rate D - Durable Goods
S - Years of Schooling N - Nondurable Goods
E - Years of Experience Y - Industry Sensitivity
H - Health Limitation G - Industry Growth Rate
M - Marital Status


Differentials are divided into permanent and

transitory components by controlling for state unemployment insurance benefits. The data comes from Waves 4-10 of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, which contain industry identifiers for seventeen industries. The calculation of










the growth rate begins with a regression of log GNP on Time, defining the predicted value as Trend and the residual value as Deviation.

Adams calculates regressions of log Industry Value

Added on the Trend and Deviation values. The coefficient on Trend is the industry growth variable, and the coefficient on Deviation is a variable measuring the industry's sensitivity to the business cycle. The results show that wage differentials are related to long-run unemployment differences between industries. Wages are also found to be higher in industries which are cyclically sensitive. Adams does not measure the effects of any risk unrelated to the business cycle.

Li (1986) also measures the effect of unemployment

risk on the wage differential between industries. Li tests whether wages are a function of both the systematic (cyclical or market) unemployment risk and the nonsystematic (industry-specific) risk. Li uses the Panel Study of Income Dynamics covering white male heads of household over the period 1969-1973. To measure the systematic risk, individuals are grouped into fourteen twodigit level industries. Those in the same industry are assumed to face the same systematic and nonsystematic risk. The hours worked value is regressed on the prior period's hours and on the rate of change in real GNP. A pooled industry regression and a full sample regression are calculated. The predicted hours value from the industry










regression is the industry employment norm, and the predicted value from the full sample is the economy-wide norm. The residual variances (MSE) from the industry regressions are the estimate of the industry-specific, noncyclical risk of unemployment. The cyclical risk (COV) is estimated by the residual variance derived from a regression of the difference between industry predicted hours and economy-wide predicted hours on the rate of change in real GNP. Both MSE and COV are divided by the mean number of hours in the industry for the empirical measures of risk. Li's test of compensating wages is outlined in Table 1-2.

Table 1-2
Li's Risk Model

Log Wage= f(E,D,PCOV,PMSE,EX,R,O) Variable Definitions:
E-Education PMSE-Noncyclical
D-Difference in Hours from Unemployment Risk
Average Economy Hours EX-Experience
PCOV-Industry Cyclical Systematic R-Regional Dummies
Unemployment Risk O-Occupational Dummies


Positive compensating wage differentials are found for both measures of risk. Differences in industry unemployment risks can explain 14-41% of the observed differences in wages. The noncyclical risk compensating wage differentials are much higher than the cyclical risk compensating wage differentials.

Li's study has two main deficiencies: It is concerned with the industry of employment, yet only fourteen










industries are isolated, and the control for occupational differences is broadly classified at six occupational groupings. If the sample of occupations in the Current Population Survey (CPS) data was as large as the sample of industries of employment, Li's model could be estimated with occupations. However, observations for three-digit or four-digit classification of occupations are too infrequent for consistent estimates with the annual CPS database.

Both studies document wage differentials for

unemployment risk with measures based on the cyclical behavior of the industry in which the individual is employed. The industry data approach is used because annual data are reported by industry rather than by occupation. However, specific occupational risk appears more relevant to an individual's human capital decision and is therefore worthy of study. An occupation's unemployment risk should reflect the combined unemployment risk of all industries in which the occupation is employed. If individuals require a compensating wage for unemployment risk and occupations differ in their exposure to this risk, then the wage differential between occupations should be measurable. If an occupation is closely linked to an industry, the cyclical and long-run unemployment risks of that occupation reflect the risks of the industry. If an occupation has employment opportunities in many industries, the unemployment risk should be diversified.










Since occupations differ in employment opportunities

between industries, occupations may be considered as having varying degrees of diversification. The data indicate that industry-diversified occupations, such as that of secretary or accountant, are relatively low-paying occupations. For example, in 1979, 35-year-old males with college degrees working full-time in securities and financial services sales occupations earned an average of $20.25 per hour. Similar males employed as accountants and auditors earned $13.16 per hour. This differential could be considered a compensating wage for the concentration of security sales occupations in the finance industry; economic theory would suggest that stockbrokers require a wage premium to cover future downturns in the finance industry which would expose them to a period of unemployment.

This study provides documentation of the importance of an occupational perspective in the analysis of wage differentials, especially the effect of compensation for unemployment risk. The method of calculation of industry risk used by Li and Adams defines risk based on variances in industry employment. Building on their methodology, this study adds an occupational employment variance measure and includes factors such as skill requirements and hazard features in order to comprehensively analyze wage differentials between occupations.
















CHAPTER 2
OCCUPATIONAL WAGE

The primary determinants of an occupation's wage must be identified before any compensating wage effect due to risk can be studied. Wages paid to an occupation are fundamentally determined by supply and demand factors; wage levels fluctuate in response to changes in the number of qualified people who are seeking employment and changes in industry demand for such skills. The wage paid to an occupation is thus determined simultaneously by the forces of supply and demand.

Long-Run Equilibrium

Long-run occupational wage differences are defined as differentials which have no tendency to change unless there is a change in the long-run demand or supply. In equilibrium, if the wage paid to one occupation exceeds the wage paid to another, the difference exists due to differing supply and demand characteristics for the occupation.

In general, the labor supply for all occupations is determined by individual preferences for work versus leisure and the availability of nonwage income. The labor supply to a particular occupation, however, is influenced by the cost of acquiring the necessary skills to enter that










occupation. These costs include required education and specific vocational preparation. If there is an initial investment cost to train for a profession, that occupation's wage would be higher than an occupation with little or no initial training cost in order to generate a return on the skill investment.

The nonwage aspects of the occupation, such as

prestige, health or safety risks and income variability, also influence the supply of individuals to an occupation. In long-run equilibrium, wages adjust to levels that enable individuals to be indifferent in selecting occupations. The resulting wage differentials are defined as compensating wages for nonwage features.

In addition, market imperfections which restrict the supply of workers to an occupation will result in wage differentials. Barriers to entry into an occupation can be established by licensing or certification requirements and union control of job placements.

The long-run demand for labor in an occupation is determined by the forces which affect the profitmaximizing combination of a firm's capital and labor. Therefore, changes in the demand for a firm's product, in the cost of other production resources, or in the firm's production technology will influence the demand for a particular occupation.

The long-run supply and demand relationship is

illustrated in Figure 2-1. If individuals have identical










preferences, then the long-run equilibrium wage for an occupation, denoted by w*, reflects characteristics of this occupation relative to other occupations. For each of the L * employed in the occupation, the wage compensates for human capital brought into the occupation in addition to any characteristics of the occupation which require a compensating wage. Thus, the equilibrium wage includes any compensation for the probability of cyclical or seasonal unemployment.

Numerous studies of equilibrium wage differentials primarily assume that the current wage is the long-run equilibrium wage. These studies measure wage differentials between individuals based on differences in skill levels and educational accomplishments, commonly referred to as human capital stocks, and in nonwage features of their current industry or employer.

As Gary Becker (1975) argues, human capital is an important determinant of wages. Human capital theory proposes measuring an individual's stocks of human capital, categorized as general and firm-specific skills. These stocks can be considered capital on which individuals earn a return. When an individual changes employer, firmspecific skills do not transfer and the new wage rate is determined by general skills transferred by the individual which are applicable to the new employer.

Individuals can be envisioned as possessing other classes of human capital skill stocks. Skills may be






















Wage


SLR DLR


Quantity of Labor


Figure (2-1)










sorted by employer, occupation, or industry. An individual facing a human capital investment decision, such as the choice of a college major or a change of employer, is evaluating an additional investment in the occupation or an employer skill investment. Individuals do not typically evaluate an investment of human capital in an industry independent of an investment in an occupation or employer. More commonly, individuals invest in education or training specific to an occupation. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of wage differentials between occupations requires information about differences between occupations. In considering skills from the perspective of individual investment, the relevant analysis concerns human capital investments in occupations and the expected return.

A similar analysis was done by Shaw (1984). Using the National Longitudinal Survey of men aged 14-24 over the period 1966-1975, Shaw studies wages as a return on occupational investment at a three-digit level of occupational classification.

Shaw calculates the total occupational investment as the sum of stocks of specific occupational investment weighted by the transferability of skills between occupations. As a first approximation of specific occupational skills, Shaw employs information from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The Standard Vocational Preparation (SVP) score is derived from a nine-level scale










which indicates the amount of time necessary to acquire the skills necessary to perform the job at an average level. The second measure of specific occupational skill is the TQ measure from the Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics. This is the scored response to the question "How long would it take an average person to become qualified in a job like yours?" Transferability is measured by similarity of occupational mobility patterns. Shaw finds that an occupational investment measure that takes into account the level of investment brought from previous occupations is a stronger determinant of income than work force experience.

Short-Run Eguilibrium

The relationship between short-run supply and demand is depicted in Figure 2-2. A new level of long-run demand for an occupation, which is represented by the shift of the demand curve, denoted by Di LR, may result in an increase in wages if no trained, unemployed individuals are available to meet the excess demand. In the short-run, the labor supply curve is steeper than in the long-run. Labor markets are not as efficient as goods markets. If one has both the skills to compete in an occupation that is in great demand and the ability to move to the job site, one will earn rents as an early adapter until others relocate and drive the wage down. Additionally, a higher wage is required to motivate established workers in other occupations to forgo the return on human capital specific to the occupation and enter an alternative occupation.










Similarly, a higher wage is required to motivate

established workers in other firms to forgo the return on human capital specific to a firm and seek employment with a new firm.

If time is required for individuals to acquire the

skills necessary to perform an occupation and there is an insufficient number of qualified unemployed individuals, the short-run supply curve would be vertical for any wage greater than w*. The dynamic effects of changes in demand for an occupation are evident in unemployment rates for the occupation. Current unemployment rates should be lower than average in occupations which have experienced a recent increase in demand, since the existing unemployed move to fill the vacancies. over time, individuals receive the required training and enter the profession. The short-run supply then shifts to the right over time, driving the wage down toward w*.

In order to induce individuals to leave an occupation, the wage must fall below w*. In Figure 2-2, the decrease in long-run demand for an occupation is depicted by a downward shift in the demand curve to D2 LR. The equilibrium wage falls, the number of individuals employed decreases, and the unemployment rate in the profession is higher than average. Individuals in this occupation will experience unemployment while they change occupations.

In summary, there is a positive relationship between wages and the number of employed individuals. A growing





















SSR


Wage


SLR


DLR


D 1
LR


Quantity of Labor


Figure (2-2)


\S\\










occupation will command a higher wage. This is necessary to bring about an unusually high rate of entry into an occupation. The relationship between unemployment rates and wages is inverse, however. The wage rate decreases as unemployment increases. Unemployed individuals must relocate in order to find alternative employment or be retrained.

Wage levels and short-run demand shifts due to a business cycle or seasonal demand are not necessarily correlated. If the long-run wage w* already reflects compensation for the probability of short-run unemployment, there is no need to further adjust the wage level to induce individuals to enter or leave the profession.

If an occupation is expanding in the long-run and has high seasonal unemployment, fluctuations in employment are absorbed through changes in the rate of new hiring and layoffs. If the occupation is contracting in the long-run, the occupation will have a slower rate of new entry.

Industry Wage Differentials

Research on wage differentials between industries

includes studies compiled by Krueger and Summers (1988) and Katz and Summers (1989). These studies use the CPS data to test for wage differentials between industries. The findings include the observation that some industries (e.g., mining and petroleum) consistently pay higher wages than other industries (e.g., food and beverage establishments and household services). This ranking of










industry wage differentials holds over time and between large classes of occupations, even with controls for unions, education, and experience. The results hold even between countries. The inclusion of fringe benefits increases rather than decreases the industry wage differential.

Krueger and Summers attribute these industry differentials to efficiency wage practices in some industries. Efficiency wage practices should be examined, because they account for involuntary unemployment. The literature defines "efficiency wages" as the payment of a wage higher than the value of marginal product (VMP). The firm benefits because the higher wage discourages shirking, excessive turnover or malfeasance, all of which increase the firm's costs. Firms "share rents" with workers; employees are motivated to perform in the firm's best interest due to the risk of unemployment if their behavior results in dismissal. Current unemployment must exist in order to make dismissal an effective deterrent. Without current unemployment, the employee would have the option of finding a position at another firm.

Current unemployment is not required in other

compensation schemes in which the wage paid differs from the VMP. Lazear (1976) proposes an age-dependent wage profile in which an implicit wage contract exists between the firm and the employee. The employee is paid a wage lower than the VMP early in his or her career and is paid a










wage in excess of the VMP at the end of his or her career. Essentially, employees post a performance bond with the firm while working for a wage lower than the VMP. The employee is repaid in the form of higher wages at the end of his or her career only if job performance is satisfactory to the firm. Otherwise, the employee is dismissed and the bond is forfeited. The loss of the bond is the deterring force in this case, rather than the risk of unemployment.

Becker and Stigler (1974) also describe a model in

which wages are paid in excess of VMP. If the opportunity for undetected malfeasance is high, as in the case of a police officer accepting a bribe, the employee should be compensated at a wage higher than the potential earnings in an alternative position. The loss of the higher earnings stream reduces the expected benefits from malfeasance after weighting for the probability of detection resulting in dismissal. In this model, unemployment is not preventing the malfeasance; it is prevented by the risk of losing the higher earnings stream.

These wage theories are not easily tested, since data on both the firm and the employee are required to compare wages and costs of shirking, malfeasance and turnover, and comprehensive data sets of both firms and employees have not been constructed. However, the main implication of the efficiency wage theory is that higher wages are paid in industries with higher levels of unemployment. Indeed, the










theory is specifically designed to explain higher unemployment. The effects of efficiency wages are not easily isolated from the effects of compensating wages for expected unemployment discussed in this study, since both theories relate wages and unemployment. However, the distinction is found in the difference between levels and variability. For example, if a normal unemployment level generated by efficiency wages is assumed to exist in an industry, compensating wages for unemployment risk could still be required if cyclical volatility is higher in the industry.

Differences in wage levels between industries

documented by Krueger and Summers could also be attributed to any factors that differ between industries, such as risk characteristics. For example, many occupations in the mining industry are not found in any other industry, therefore, different levels of unemployment risk exist for mining occupations than for industry-diversified occupations. Thus, the efficiency wages attributed to the mining industry are expected to be correlated with occupational risk premiums.

A test of efficiency wage theory would exploit the relationship between wages and unemployment rates. The expected negative short-run relationship between wages and unemployment rates would be tempered by the positive relationship between wages and unemployment when efficiency wages are paid. The positive relationship between wages










and unemployment proposed by efficiency wage theory can be indirectly tested by estimating the coefficients on unemployment rates in a wage model which concurrently isolates compensating wages for unemployment risk. If efficiency wages are paid, the coefficient on unemployment would be biased positive when industry controls are not included. A more negative coefficient on the unemployment rate would be expected in the model with the industry controls when efficiency wages are paid. Again, significant coefficients on industry control regressors could account for anything that differs between industries, and the behavior of the coefficient on the unemployment rate is a more precise test of the theory.

The association between industry and wages provides indirect evidence in favor of efficiency wages only if controls are in place for all differences in human capital and job conditions. Murphy and Topel (1987) find that individual characteristics may explain this industry wage differential, i.e., the efficiency wage studies were unable to adequately control for differences in human capital.

Evidence of Occupational Wage Differentials

Thaler and Rosen (1976) measure compensating wage differentials between occupations associated with differences in safety. Wages are found to be positively related to the mortality rate within the occupation.

Many other wage studies control for occupation by using large occupation classification dummies, usually










finding significant occupational wage differentials. For the most part, no theory is proffered for, or tested by, this approach.

Conclusions

In order to measure long-run wage differentials between occupations which are caused by exposure to employment risk, controls for other factors which would also cause wage differentials between occupations are required. These factors include controls for differences in occupational skill levels, exposure to health and safety risks, potential industry efficiency wages, and short-run supply and demand fluctuations for the occupation.















CHAPTER 3
OCCUPATIONAL RISK MEASURES

In order to test the effect of employment

diversification on wages, a measure of employment risk must be designed that takes into account the mobility of the occupation between industries. Employment offers to recent four-year college graduates by industry classification are examined for evidence of occupational mobility between industries over time. Of the nontechnical degree graduates, those with General Business majors are recruited by virtually all industries. Offers to graduates in Accounting are primarily from the Public Accounting Industry. Humanities and Marketing majors receive 40-50% of their offers from the Merchandising Industry. Among the Technical majors, Civil Engineers and Agricultural Sciences majors are the most widely recruited. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering majors are primarily recruited by the Chemical and Petroleum Industries. Offers to Computer Science, Industrial and Mechanical Engineering and Math majors are 40-50% concentrated in the industry classification which includes Aerospace, Electrical Machinery and Computer Manufacturing. The majority of offers to Civil Engineers are from the Construction and Government Industries.










As an example of the effects of diversification on employment opportunities, Civil Engineering majors were exposed to a significant decline in offers from the Government in 1981; however, increased offers from the Construction Industry offset the reduction, producing no net effect on the total number of job offers. In contrast, Chemical Engineering majors are repeatedly exposed to fluctuations in the Petroleum and Chemical Industries. Between 1981 and 1983, total offers to Chemical Engineers declined by 85%. This was driven by an 87% decline in offers from the two primary industries. A summary of the percentage of offers by industry classification is presented in Table 3-1. Table 3-2 presents ten-year averages and variances of the number of offers per graduate and a Herfindahl-Hirschmann (H) concentration statistic for each curriculum category. The H statistic is calculated as the sum of square values of the industry shares of an occupation's total employment, enabling the measurement of the degree of concentration of an occupation on a 0 to 1 scale. Among the engineering fields, there is some evidence that when a curriculum is less industrydiversified, as represented by a high H statistic, the employment opportunities are more volatile over time, as represented by a higher variance in offers per graduate. The correlation between H and the variance is .04 overall. The correlation is much stronger (.97) for the engineering fields.









Table 3-1

Percentage of Total Job Offers by Industry to Bachelor
Degree Candidates by Curriculum 1978-1988

CURRICULUM
Computer Marketing & General Accounting Science Distribution Business INDUSTRY
Public
Accounting 76% 3% 1% 4%

Banking, Finance,
& Insurance 3% 5% 8% 23%

Merchandising 2% 5% 47% 28%

Aerospace, Electronic
& Computers 3% 53% 12% 13%

Automotive & Mechanical Equipment 1% 2% 3% 2%

Construction & Building Materials 1% 1% 2% 2%

Chemical, Drugs &
Allied 1% 4% 7% 4%

Food & Beverage
Processing 1% 1% 7% 5%

Glass, Paper &
Packaging 1% 1% 3% 2%

Metals & Metal
Products 0% 1% 2% 2%

Petroleum & Allied
Products 6% 8% 3% 5%

Research &
Consulting 0% 5% 1% 2%

Tire & Rubber 0% 0% 0% 0%

Public Utilities &
Transportation 2% 6% 4% 4%

Government 3% 4% 1% 3%

Nonprofit &
Education 0% 1% 1% 1%









Table 3-1--continued
CURRI CULUM
Chemical Mechanical Industrial civil
Engineers Engineers INDUSTRY
Public
Accounting 0% 0% 4% 1%

Banking, Finance & Insurance 0% 0% 1% 1%

Merchandising 0% 0% 2% 0%

Aerospace, Electronic & Computers 8% 39% 39% 9%

Automotive & Mechanical Equipment 2% 11% 8% 2%

Construction & Building Materials 2% 3% 4% 25%

Chemical, Drugs & Allied 43% 8% 10% 2%

Food & Beverage
Processing 4% 2% 4% 0%

Glass, Paper &
Packaging 6% 2% 4% 1%

Metals & Metal
Products 2% 6% 7% 4%

Petroleum & Allied Products 27% 10% 2% 9%

Research &
Consulting 2% 3% 4% 10%

Tire & Rubber 1% 1% 0% 0%

Public Utilities & Transportation 2% 8% 6% 10%

Government 2% 6% 5% 25%

Nonprofit &
Education 0% 0% 0% 0%









Table 3-1--continued

INDUSTRY

Chemistry
Public
Accounting 1%

Banking, Finance & Insurance 2%

Merchandising 3%

Aerospace, Electronic & & Computers 8%

Automotive & Mechanical Equipment 1%

Construction & Building Materials 1%

Chemical, Drugs & Allied 49%

Food & Beverage Processing 3%

Glass, Paper & Packaging 3%

Metals & Metal Products 1%

Petroleum & Allied Products 7%

Research &
Consulting 7%

Tire & Rubber 4%

Public Utilities & Transportation 2%

Government 3%

Nonprofit & Education 4%


CURRI CULUM


-umanities

2%


18%

42% 6% 1% 1% 3% 3%


2% 1% 1% 3% 0%


2% 7%


Agricultural
Mathematics Sciences

4% 1%


28% 3%


35%


13% 15%


12% 26%


1%

15%


1% 5%









Table 3-2

Job Offers per Bachelor Degree Candidate 1978-1988 Offers/Grads

Curriculum Average variance H
Statistic

Accounting 0.16 0.0013 0.58
Agricultural Sciences 0.02 0.0001 0.15
Business General 0.09 0.0017 0.16
Chemistry 0.02 0.0001 0.27
Computer Science 0.14 0.0061 0.08
Humanities 0.24 0.0053 0.23
Marketing 0.08 0.0005 0.25
Mathematics 0.05 0.0003 0.22
Civil Engineering 0.24 0.0207 0.17
Chemical Engineering 0.60 0.1726 0.27
Industrial Engineering 0.39 0.0326 0.19
Mechanical Engineering 0.51 0.1000 0.20


The analysis of wages in Chapter 4 utilizes the threedigit level of detail for occupations in 1980. In order to perform a quantitative identification and ranking of occupations by degree of exposure to unemployment risk and to later test for compensating wage effects, three measures of unemployment risk are calculated. To compute these measures, data referring to occupational employment by industry were obtained from the Commerce Department's .1980 Census Subject Reports. Responses to questions regarding occupation and industry of current employment are compiled in these reports. occupations are identified by the 1980 detailed classification system consisting of 434 threedigit level specific occupational categories describing the nature of the occupation.

The industry classification of the employer, or the

nature of the employer's business, is also identified from










this data source. This industry classification consists of 231 categories based on the Standard Industrial Classification Manual. The industry variance and covariance measures, however, are derived from the Labor Department's Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) annual employment estimates for 100 industries from 1968-1990, as reported in Employment and Earnings. Although the Census reports the industry of employment at a three-digit level, in some cases the three-digit level industries were not available for the full 32-year period. These industries were regrouped to the two-digit level. Similarly, because the BLS uses one-digit level reporting in the industries of Agriculture, Construction and Finance, Insurance and Real Estate (FIRE), employment in these industry classes was grouped to maintain compatibility between the two sources. The resulting industry classifications are presented in Appendix A.

The first two measures test whether employment risk is lower in occupations that are diversified between industries. The first measure calculated is a simple dummy variable. If greater than 50% employment is found in any one industry, an occupation is defined as high-risk. The industry with the largest concentration of employment for each occupation is presented in Appendix B. Table 3-3 presents the dummy and H risk measures at a three-digit occupational level ranked from highest to lowest concentration.










The third, more sophisticated, risk measure is

calculated based on employment variability over time. Since time series data on employment at a three-digit occupation level have not been compiled for more than a few large occupational classifications, the study must rely on time series data on industry employment, similar to the studies by Adams and Li, together with the industry-byoccupation matrix of employment to make inferences about the time series of occupational employment.

A regression was computed using the annual industry employment growth rates for each industry for the years 1960-1990 as the dependent variable and the average of the three prior years' U.S. employment growth rate as the independent variable. This method controls for labor force changes due to varying labor force participation rates (e.g., for women) and fluctuations in demographic patterns, which should not be included in a measure of unemployment risk.

The residual will embody changes in employment due to business cycle fluctuations and shifting demand for industry products, which should be included in an employment risk measure.

The variance of industry deviations from the predicted values is considered the unemployment risk for the industry, or the industry variance. The covariances of industry deviations from predicted values are also calculated. The unemployment risk of each occupation is










Table 3-3
Risk Measures for Detailed Occupations

SOC TITLE DUMMY H

227 Air Traffic Controllers 1 1.00
383 Bank Tellers 1 1.00
424 Correctional Institution 1 1.00
488 Graders and Sorters 1 1.00
253 Insurance 1 1.00
375 Insurance Adjusters 1 1.00
179 Judges 1 1.00
003 Legislators & Public Administration 1 1.00
355 Mail Carriers, Postal Service 1 1.00
418 Police and Detective, Private Service 1 1.00
354 Postal Clerks, except Mail Carriers 1 1.00
017 Postmasters 1 1.00
255 Securities and Financial Services Sales 1 1.00
423 Sheriff, Bailiffs and Other Law Enforce 1 1.00
414 Supervisors, Police 1 1.00
317 Hotel Clerks 1 0.99
457 Barbers 1 0.94
254 Real Estate Sales 1 0.94
595 Roofers 1 0.94
614 Driller, Oil Well 1 0.93
573 Drywall Installers 1 0.93
005 Administrators, Officials, Pub. Admin. 1 0.92
176 Clergy 1 0.92
458 Hairdressers 1 0.92
006 Administrators, Protective Services 1 0.91
024 Underwriters 1 0.91
588 Concrete and Terrazzo Finishers 1 0.90
445 Dental Assistants 1 0.90
204 Dental Hygienists 1 0.90
417 Firefighting 1 0.90
018 Funeral Directors 1 0.90
089 Health Diagnosing nec 1 0.90
085 Dentists 1 0.87
823 Railroad Conductors and Yardmasters 1 0.87
745 Shoe Machine Operator 1 0.87
425 Crossing Guards 1 0.86
413 Supervisors, Firefighting 1 0.86
869 Construction Laborers 1 0.84
845 Longshore Equipment Operators 1 0.84
177 Religious 1 0.84
876 Stevedores 1 0.84
465 Public Transportation 1 0.83
825 Railroad Brake, Signal & Switch Operator 1 0.83 584 Plasterers 1 0.82
088 Podiatrists 1 0.82
679 Bookbinders 1 0.81
498 Fishers 1 0.81
594 Paving, Surfacing and Tamping Equipment 1 0.81
553 Supervisors, Brickmasons, Stonemasons 1 0.81










Table 3-3--Continued

SOC TITLE DUMMY H
558 Supervisors, nec 1 0.81
437 Short-Order Cooks 1 0.80
826 Rail Vehicle Operators, nec 1 0.78
387 Teachers' Aides 1 0.77
563 Brickmasons and Stonemasons 1 0.76
306 Chief Communications 1 0.75
678 Dental Laboratory and Medical Appliance 1 0.75
455 Pest Control Occupations 1 0.75
556 Supervisors, Painters, Paperhangers 1 0.75
198 Announcers 1 0.74
087 Optometrists 1 0.74
529 Telephone Installers and Repairers 1 0.74
527 Telephone Line Installers and Repairers 1 0.74
438 Food Counter 1 0.72
565 Tile Setters, Hard and Soft 1 0.72
086 Veterinarians 1 0.72
435 Waiters and Waitresses 1 0.72
495 Forestry Workers 1 0.71
773 Motion Picture Projectionists 1 0.71
598 Driller, Earth 1 0.70
016 Managers Properties 1 0.70
554 Supervisors, Carpenters and Related 1 0.70
205 Health Record 1 0.68
694 Water & Sewage Treatment Plant Operators 1 0.68 434 Bartenders 1 0.67
824 Locomotive Operating Occupations 1 0.67
875 Garbage Collectors 1 0.66
186 Musicians and Composers 1 0.66
583 Paperhangers 1 0.66
206 Radiologic Technicians 1 0.66
464 Ushers 1 0.66
567 Carpenters 1 0.65
047 Petroleum Engineers 1 0.64
865 Helpers, Construction Trades 1 0.63
278 News Vendors 1 0.63
844 Operating Engineers 1 0.63
557 Supervisors, Plumbers, Pipefitters 1 0.63
173 Urban Planners 1 0.63
353 Communications Equipment Operators, nec 1 0.62
577 Electrical Power Installers and Repair 1 0.62
737 Miscellaneous Printing Machine Operators 1 0.62 744 Textile Sewing Machine Operators 1 0.62
496 Timber Cutting 1 0.62
203 Clinical Laboratory 1 0.61
178 Lawyers 1 0.61
226 Airplane Pilots 1 0.60
183 Authors 1 0.60
829 Sailors and Deckhands 1 0.60
155 Teachers, Prekindergarten 1 0.60
885 Garage and Service Station Related 1 0.59
738 Winding and Twisting Machine Operators 1 0.59









Table 3-3--Continued

SOC TITLE DUMMY H
193 Dancers 1 0.56
095 Registered Nurse 1 0.56
828 Ship Captains and Mates, except Fishing 1 0.56
597 Structural Metal Workers 1 0.55
096 Pharmacists 1 0.53
593 Insulation Workers 1 0.52
695 Power Plant Operators 1 0.52
497 Captains & Other Officers Fishing Vessel 1 0.51 207 Licensed Practical Nurses 1 0.51
015 Managers Medicine 1 0.51
366 Meter Readers 1 0.51
735 Photoengravers and Lithographers 1 0.51
277 Street and Door-to-door 1 0.51
514 Automobile Body and Related Repairers 1 0.50
683 Electrical and Electronic Equipment 1 0.50
036 Inspectors and Compliance 1 0.50
028 Purchasing Agents 1 0.49
318 Transportation Ticket & Reservations 1 0.49
344 Billing, Posting and Calculating Oper. 1 0.48
329 Library Clerks 1 0.48
579 Painters, Construction and Maintenance 1 0.48
877 Stock Handlers and Baggers 1 0.48
066 Actuaries 1 0.47
025 Other Financial Officers 1 0.47
084 Physicians 1 0.46
494 Supervisors 1 0.46
467 Welfare Service 1 0.46
014 Administrators 1 0.45
599 Construction Trades, nec. 1 0.45
726 Wood Lathe, Routing and Planing Machine 1 0.45
855 Grader, Dozer and Scraper Operators 1 0.44
164 Librarians 1 0.44
747 Pressing Machine Operator 1 0.44
459 Attendants, Amusement 1 0.43
466 Baggage Porters 1 0.43
536 Locksmiths and Safe Repairers 1 0.43
433 Supervisors, Food Preparation 1 0.43
808 Bus Drivers 1 0.42
739 Knitting, Looping, Taping and Weaving 1 0.42
616 Mining Machine Operators 1 0.42
447 Nursing Aides, Orderlies 1 0.42
693 Adjusters and Calibrators 1 0.41
487 Animal Caretakers 1 0.41
686 Butchers and Meat Cutters 1 0.41
436 Cooks except Short Order 1 0.41
596 Sheetmetal Duct Installers 1 0.41
063 Surveyors 1 0.41
187 Actors and Directors 1 0.40
566 Carpet Installers 1 0.40
097 Dieticians 1 0.40
669 Shoe Repairers 1 0.40










Table 3-3--Continued

SOC TITLE DUMMY H
443 Waiters and Waitresses Assistants 1 0.40
736 Typesetters and Compositors 1 0.39
228 Broadcast Equipment 1 0.38
517 Farm Equipment Mechanics 1 0.38
446 Health Aides except Nursing 1 0.38
585 Plumbers, Pipefitters and Steamfitters 1 0.38
044 Aerospace Engineers 1 0.37
508 Aircraft Engine Mechanics 1 0.37
687 Bakers 1 0.37
853 Excavating and Loading Machine Operators 1 0.37
515 Aircraft Mechanics except Engine 1 0.36
377 Eligibility Clerks 0 0.36
613 Supervisors, Extractive Occupations 1 0.36
867 Helpers, Extractive Occupations 1 0.35
058 Marine Engineers 1 0.35
684 Miscellaneous Precision Workers, nec 1 0.35
647 Precious Stones & Metal Workers-Jewelers 1 0.35 284 Auctioneers 1 0.34
034 Business and Promotion Agents 1 0.34
748 Laundering and Dry Cleaning Machine 1 0.34
646 Lay-out Workers 1 0.34
734 Printing Machine Operators 1 0.34
349 Telegraphers 1 0.34
054 Agricultural Engineers 1 0.33
035 Construction Inspectors 1 0.33
163 Counselors 1 0.33
208 Health Technologists 1 0.33
848 Hoist and Winch Operators 1 0.33
275 Sales Counter Clerks 1 0.33
667 Tailors 1 0.33
199 Athletes 1 0.32
079 Forestry 0 0.32
439 Kitchen Workers 1 0.32
763 Roasting and Baking Machine Operators 1 0.32
174 Social Workers 0 0.32
866 Helpers, Surveyor 1 0.31
617 Mining Occupations, nec. 0 0.31
727 Sawing Machine Operators 1 0.31
165 Archivists 1 0.30
468 Child Care Workers except Private 0 0.30
543 Elevator Installers and Repairers 1 0.30
416 Fire Inspection and Fire Prevention 0 0.30
729 Nailing and Tacking Machine Operators 1 0.30
677 Optical Goods Workers 0 0.30
636 Precision Assemblers, Metal 1 0.30
707 Rolling Machine 1 0.30
688 Food Batchmakers 0 0.29
037 Management Related 1 0.29
833 Marine Engineers 1 0.29
814 Motor Transportation Occupations nec 1 0.29
175 Recreation 0 0.29









Table 3-3--Continued

SOC TITLE DUMMY H
668 Upholsterers 0 0.29
589 Glaziers 0 0.28
749 Miscellaneous Textile Machine Operator 1 0.28
733 Misc. Woodworking Machine Operator 1 0.28
813 Parking Lot Attendants 0 0.28
194 Artists 1 0.27
834 Bridge, Lock and Lighthouse Tenders 0 0.27
657 Cabinet Makers and Bench Carpenters 0 0.27
658 Furniture and Wood Finishers 0 0.27
444 Miscellaneous Food Preparation 1 0.27
784 Solderers & Braziers 1 0.27
026 Management Analysts 1 0.26
539 Mechanical Controls and Valve Repairer 0 0.26
259 Sales Reps. 1 0.26
499 Hunters and Trappers 1 0.25
218 Surveying Technologists 0 0.25
053 Civil Engineers 0 0.24
007 Financial Managers 1 0.24
486 Groundskeepers 0 0.24
234 Legal Assistants 0 0.24
106 Physicians Assistants 0 0.24
485 Supervisors 0 0.24
555 Supervisors, Electricians & Power 1 0.24
809 Taxicab Drivers and Chauffeurs 1 0.24
505 Automobile Mechanics 0 0.23
325 Classified-ad Clerks 1 0.23
575 Electricians 1 0.23
075 Geologists 0 0.23
538 Office Machine Repairers 0 0.23
169 Social Scientists 0 0.23
348 Telephone Operators 1 0.23
256 Advertising and Related Sales 0 0.22
535 Camera, Watch and Musical Instruments 0 0.22
276 Cashiers 0 0.22
427 Protective Service Occupations 0 0.22
456 Supervisors 0 0.22
074 Atmospheric 0 0.21
525 Data Processing Equipment Repairers 0 0.21
195 Editors 0 0.21
083 Medical 0 0.21
076 Physical Scientists nec 0 0.21
384 Proof Readers 0 0.21
168 Sociologists 0 0.21
167 Psychologists 0 0.20
757 Separating, Filtering and Clarifying 0 0.20
316 Interviewers 0 0.19
449 Maids and Housemen 0 0.19
046 Mining Engineers 0 0.19
509 Small Engine Repairers 0 0.19
673 Apparel and Fabric Patternmakers 0 0.18
068 Mathematical Scientists 0 0.18










Table 3-3--Continued

SOC TITLE DUMMY H
674 Misc. Precision Apparel & Fabric 0 0.18
189 Photographers 0 0.18
336 Records Clerks 0 0.18
314 Stenographers 0 0.18
804 Truck Drivers, Heavy 0 0.18
077 Agricultural 0 0.17
526 Household Appliance & Power Tool Repair 0 0.17
489 Inspectors 0 0.17
188 Painters, Sculptors, Craft Artists 0 0.17
743 Textile Cutting Machine Operators 0 0.17
029 Buyers 0 0.16
048 Chemical Engineers 0 0.16
224 Chemical Technologists 0 0.16
463 Guides 0 0.16
516 Heavy Equipment Mechanics 0 0.16
328 Personnel Clerks except Payroll 0 0.16
257 Sales Occupations, Other Business 0 0.16
507 Bus, Truck & Stationary Engine Mechanic 0 0.15
534 Heating, Air Conditioning & Refrigeration 0 0.15
723 Metal Plating Machine Operators 0 0.15
656 Patternmakers and Model Makers, Wood 0 0.15
774 Photographic Process Machine Operators 0 0.15
666 Dressmakers 0 0.14
649 Engravers, Metal 0 0.14
347 Office Machine Operators, nec 0 0.14
653 Sheet Metal Workers 0 0.14
803 Supervisors, Motor Vehicle Operators 0 0.14
078 Biological 0 0.13
326 Correspondence Clerks 0 0.13
343 Cost and Rate Clerks 0 0.13
055 Electrical Engineers 0 0.13
787 Hand Molding, Casting and Forming 0 0.13
849 Crane and Tower Operators 0 0.12
806 Driver-Sales Workers 0 0.12
523 Electronic Repairers, Communications 0 0.12
454 Elevator Operators 0 0.12
615 Explosive Workers 0 0.12
426 Guards and Police, except Public Service 0 0.12
786 Hand Cutting and Trimming 0 0.12
793 Hand Engraving 0 0.12
689 Inspectors, Testers and Graders 0 0.12
376 Investigators except Insurance 0 0.12
703 Lathe and Turning Machine Set-up Operator 0 0.12
715 Miscellaneous Metal, Plastic, Stone 0 0.12
699 Miscellaneous Plant and System Operator 0 0.12
049 Nuclear Engineers 0 0.12
069 Physicists 0 0.12
067 Statisticians 0 0.12
303 Supervisors General Office 0 0.12
243 Supervisors & Proprietors, Sales 0 0.12
887 Vehicle Washers and Equipment Cleaners 0 0.12










Table 3-3--Continued

SOC TITLE DUMMY H
023 Accountants 0 0.11
378 Bill and Account Collectors 0 0.11
643 Boilermakers 0 0.11
213 Electrical Technologists 0 0.11
864 Helpers, Mechanics and Repairers 0 0.11
704 Lathe and Turning Machine Operators 0 0.11
374 Material Recording, Scheduling 0 0.11
714 Numerical Control Machine Operators 0 0.11
319 Receptionists 0 0.11
285 Sales Support Occupations nec 0 0.11
728 Shaping and Joining Machine Operators 0 0.11
415 Supervisors, Guards 0 0.11
634 Tool and Die Makers 0 0.11
389 Administrative Support nec 0 0.10
223 Biological Technologists 0 0.10
064 Computer Systems 0 0.10
708 Drilling and Boring 0 0.10
755 Extruding and Forming Machine operator 0 0.10
765 Folding Machine Operators 0 0.10
675 Hand Molders & Shapers except Jewelers 0 0.10
789 Hand Painting, Coating and Decorating 0 0.10
724 Heat Treating Equipment Operators 0 0.10
705 Milling and Planing Machine Operators 0 0.10
533 Miscellaneous Electrical and Electronics 0 0.10 659 Miscellaneous Precision Woodworkers 0 0.10
754 Packaging & Filling Machine Operators 0 0.10
469 Personal Service Occupations, nec 0 0.10
706 Punching and Stamping Press 0 0.10
315 Typists 0 0.10
283 Demonstrators, Promoters and Models 0 0.09
185 Designers 0 0.09
359 Dispatchers 0 0.09
059 Engineer, nec. 0 0.09
713 Forging Machine Operators 0 0.09
794 Hand Grinding 0 0.09
637 Machinists 0 0.09
027 Personnel 0 0.09
258 Sales Engineers 0 0.09
448 Supervisors, Cleaning & Building Services 0 0.09
785 Assemblers 0 0.08
229 Computer Programmers 0 0.08
217 Drafting Technologists 0 0.08
335 File Clerks 0 0.08
799 Graders and Sorters 0 0.08
357 Messengers 0 0.08
045 Metallurgical Engineers 0 0.08
065 Operations and Systems Researchers 0 0.08
327 Order Clerks 0 0.08
676 Pattern Makers, Lay-out Workers & Cutters 0 0.08
645 Patternmakers and Model Makers, Metal 0 0.08
644 Precision Grindersf Filers, and Tool 0 0.08










Table 3-3--Continued

SOC TITLE DUMMY H
797 Production Testers 0 0.08
386 Statistical Clerks 0 0.08
304 Supervisors, Computer Equipment 0 0.08
503 Supervisors, Mechanics and Repairers 0 0.08
235 Technicians nec 0 0.08
805 Truck Drivers, Light 0 0.08
385 Data Entry Keyers 0 0.07
345 Duplicating Machine Operators 0 0.07
717 Fabricating Machine operators, nec 0 0.07
883 Freight Stock & Material Handlers, nec 0 0.07
323 Information Clerks nec 0 0.07
453 Janitors and Cleaners 0 0.07
346 Mail & Paper Handling Machine Operators 0 0.07
544 Millwrights 0 0.07
725 Miscellaneous Metal & Plastic Processors 0 0.07 719 Molding and Casting Machine Operators 0 0.07
197 Public Relations 0 0.07
225 Science Technologists nec 0 0.07
313 Secretaries 0 0.07
305 Supervisors, Financial Records 0 0.07
843 Supervisors, Material Moving Equipment 0 0.07
043 Architects 0 0.06
073 Chemists 0 0.06
308 Computer Operators 0 0.06
166 Economists 0 0.06
216 Engineering Technologists 0 0.06
379 General Office 0 0.06
709 Grinding, Abrading, Buffing and Polish 0 0.06
878 Machine Feeders and Offbearers 0 0.06
356 Mail Clerks, except Postal Service 0 0.06
057 Mechanical Engineers 0 0.06
215 Mechanical Technologists 0 0.06
759 Painting and Paint Spraying Machine 0 0.06
309 Peripheral Equipment Operators 0 0.06
184 Technical Writers 0 0.06
783 Welders and Cutters 0 0.06
337 Bookkeepers, Accounting & Auditing 0 0.05
753 Cementing and Gluing Machine Operators 0 0.05
768 Crushing and Grinding Machine Operator 0 0.05
766 Furnace Kiln & Oven Operators except Food 0 0.05 056 Industrial Engineers 0 0.05
214 Industrial Technologists 0 0.05
013 Managers Marketing 0 0.05
655 Miscellaneous Precision Metal Workers 0 0.05
795 Misc. Hand Working 0 0.05
307 Supervisors, Distributions 0 0.05
863 Supervisors, Handlers, Equipment Cleaners 0 0.05 233 Tool Programmers 0 0.05
764 Washing, Cleaning and Pickling Machine 0 0.05
339 Billing Clerks 0 0.04
758 Compressing and Compacting Machine 0 0.04









Table 3-3--Continued

SOC TITLE DUMMY H
373 Expediters 0 0.04
888 Hand Packers and Packagers 0 0.04
519 Machinery Maintenance Occupations 0 0.04
019 Managers and Administrators nec 0 0.04
777 Miscellaneous Machine Operators, nec 0 0.04
756 Mixing and Blending Machine Operator 0 0.04
796 Production Inspectors, Checkers 0 0.04
009 Purchasing 0 0.04
369 Samplers 0 0.04
769 Slicing and Cutting Machine Operators 0 0.04
547 Specified Mechanics and Repairers, nec 0 0.04
696 Stationary Engineers 0 0.04
365 Stock and Inventory 0 0.04
856 Industrial Truck and Tractor Equipment 0 0.03
889 Laborers, except Construction 0 0.03
779 Machine Operators, not Specified 0 0.03
859 Miscellaneous Material Moving Equipment 0 0.03
549 Not Specified Mechanics and Repairers 0 0.03
338 Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks 0 0.03
008 Personnel and Labor Relations 0 0.03
363 Production Coordinators 0 0.03
873 Production Helpers 0 0.03
798 Production Samplers and Weighers 0 0.03
033 Purchasing Agents nec 0 0.03
364 Traffic, Shippings 0 0.03
368 Weighers, Measurers 0 0.03
518 Industrial Machinery Repairers 0 0.02
633 Supervisors, Production Occupations 0 0.02


estimated by the sum of the weighted industry variance and

covariances. The weights are the frequencies of the

occupation's employment in industries in 1980. If an

occupation is employed exclusively in one industry, the

occupation's risk measure is equivalent to that industry's

risk measure. If the occupation is employed in many

industries, the covariance of the industries is also

included. For example, an occupation with 80% employment

in Industry one and 20% employment in Industry Two in 1980,

would have its occupational variance calculated as in

Equation 3-1.










Var-80%2(Varl)+20%2(Var2)+2*80%*20%(C0vl,2) Eq. 3-1 This procedure downweights the risk of an occupation if its opportunities are in industries which are negatively correlated. The risk measure of an occupation is increased if the industries are positively correlated. In contrast to Adams' and Li's measures of risk, the occupational measure will capture the combined industry unemployment risk as measured by the covariance terms, and not just the risk of the industry as measured by the variance terms.

occupation variance measures ranked from highest to

lowest volatility are presented in Table 3-4, which reports the sum of weighted industry variances as the occupation's variance. The sum of weighted industry covariances is reported as the occupation's covariance. The total is the sum of the variance and covariance, representing the total occupational variance.

For 21 of 434 total occupations, the weighted sum of the industry covariances has a negative sign, thereby reducing the total variance for the occupation. Among the occupations with negative industry covariances are timber cutters, hoist and winch operators, veterinarians, groundskeepers and actors and directors. These occupations appear to have little in common. The inclusion of the covariance in the total variance significantly changes the risk ranking of occupations. For example, purchasing agents are found in industries which have a relatively low










variance, but the high positive industry covariance makes it a riskier occupation.

Based on the total risk measure, mining, lumber and petroleum occupations rank highest, due to high industry employment volatility. These occupations are found primarily in the same industries which purportedly pay efficiency wages. Low-risk occupations include government, administrative, retail and service positions. Performers, artists and athletes also have a low ranking.

The correlation between the risk measures Dummy and H is very high at .81. Both measure the concentration of an occupation in industries. The correlation between the total occupational variance and H is .06; with the Dummy, it is .09. The correlations with total occupational variance are expected to be low, since the variance measure is measuring risk by the employment volatility of the relevant industries instead of the dependence of an occupation's employment on the industry. Appendix C presents the Dummy and H measures, and Appendix D presents the occupational variance measures. occupations are ranked from lowest to highest risk within each two-digit classification.

The risk measures are very small for most classes at the one and two-digit levels, with the exception of construction, extractive and farming occupations which have high risk measures. The variation in risk measures within the two-digit classes from the weighted average of the










Table 3-4
occupation Variance Measures


Variance Covariance Total


SOC Title


Timber Cutting Supervisors, Forestry Driller, Oil Well Petroleum Engineer Supervisors, Extractive Adjusters & Calibrators Mining Machine Operators Shoe Machine Operator Mining Occupations, nec Aerospace Engineers Helpers, Extractive Wood Lathe, Routing Miscellaneous Metal Lathe & Turning Machine Electrical Rolling Machine Tool and Die Makers Sawing Machine Operator Punching & Stamping Heat Treating Equipment Nailing & Tacking Solderers and Braziers Forging Machine Hoist & Winch Drilling and Boring Lathe and Turning Precision Assemblers Grinding, Abrading Patternmakers and Model Roofers
Drywall Installers Hand Molders & Shapers Shaping and Joining Misc. Woodworking Assemblers Concrete and Terrazzo Precision Grinders Miscellaneous Precision Milling and Planing Paving, Surfacing Supervisors, Brickmason Patternmakers and Model Lay-out Workers Numerical Control Construction Laborers Brickmasons Plasterers Tile Setters Cabinet Makers & Bench


0.04841 0.03013 0.00721
0.00492 0.00269
0.00254 0.00292 0.00307 0.00225 0.00203 0.00238
0.00174 0.00075
0.00044 0.00174 0.00115
0.00045 0.00132 0.00038 0.00036 0.00113 0.00090 0.00029 0.00253
0.00034 0.00035 0.00127 0.00023
0.00045 0.00201 0.00201 0.00034 0.00038 0.00106
0.00034 0.00194 0.00031 0.00101
0.00034 0.00175
0.00174 0.00027 0.00097
0.00042 0.00180 0.00163 0.00176
0.00154 0.00068


-0.00025 0.00037 0.00005
0.00024 0.00090 0.00092
0.00049 0.00013 0.00093
0.00114 0.00078 0.00108 0.00206 0.00232 0.00098 0.00150 0.00207 0.00108
0.00201 0.00202 0.00119 0.00139 0.00197
-0.00028 0.00190 0.00187 0.00089 0.00192 0.00165 0.00005 0.00006
0.00174 0.00167 0.00098 0.00171 0.00009 0.00171 0.00100 0.00165 0.00018 0.00019 0.00163 0.00091
0.00146 0.00007
0.00022 0.00008 0.00028
0.00114


0.04816 0.03051 0.00726 0.00516 0.00358
0.00346 0.00341 0.00320 0.00318 0.00317 0.00316 0.00282 0.00281 0.00277 0.00272 0.00265 0.00252
0.00240 0.00240 0.00239 0.00232 0.00229 0.00226
0.00224 0.00224 0.00222 0.00216 0.00215
0.00210 0.00207 0.00207 0.00207 0.00205
0.00204 0.00204 0.00202 0.00202 0.00200 0.00199 0.00193 0.00192 0.00190 0.00188 0.00188 0.00187 0.00185
0.00184 0.00182 0.00182


496 494 614 047 613 693 616
745 617
044 867 726 715 703 683 707
634 727 706
724 729 784 713 848 708
704 636 709 656 595 573 675 728 733 785 588
644 684 705
594 553
645 646 714 869 563
584 565 657










Table 3-4--continued


variance Covariance Total


SOC Title


Supervisors, nec Misc. Metal & Plastic Production Testers Structural Metal Worker Metal Plating Machine Fabricating Machine Supervisors, Painters Molding & Casting Aircraft Mechanics Misc. Precision Metal Supervisors, Carpenters Millwrights Carpenters Mining Engineers Metallurgical Engineers Machinists Driller, Earth Helpers, Construction Paperhangers Geologists Mechanical Engineers Supervisors, Plumbers Crane and Tower Sheetmetal Duct Extruding & Forming Operating Engineers Insulation Workers Production Inspectors Misc. Precision Wood Welders and Cutters Inspectors, Testers Winding & Twisting Mechanical Engin. Tech Painting & Paint Furniture & Wood Painters, Construction Hand Grinding Industrial Engineer Public Transportation Carpet Installers Sheet Metal Workers Pattern Makers, Lay-out Knitting, Looping Construction Trades nec Cementing & Gluing Miscellaneous Textile Machine Operators Plumbers, Pipefitters Textile Sewing Machine Misc. Machine Operator


558 725 797 597 723 717 556 719 515 655
554 544 567
046 045 637 598 865 583 075 057 557
849 596 755
844 593 796 659 783 689 738 215 759 658 579
794 056
465 566 653 676 739 599 753
749 779 585
744 777


0.00174 0.00019 0.00027 0.00119 0.00035
0.00021 0.00161
0.00020 0.00124 0.00016 0.00150 0.00025
0.00140 0.00128 0.00030 0.00026 0.00152 0.00135
0.00140 0.00145 0.00025 0.00135 0.00039 0.00086 0.00026 0.00136 0.00111 0.00015
0.00022 0.00017
0.00040 0.00088 0.00030
0.00014 0.00059 0.00103 0.00016 0.00016 0.00126 0.00060 0.00033 0.00016 0.00062 0.00096
0.00012 0.00043 0.00009 0.00081 0.00072 0.00009


0.00007 0.00161
0.00149 0.00057
0.00141 0.00155
0.00014 0.00155 0.00050 0.00156 0.00019
0.00143 0.00027
0.00040 0.00135 0.00137 0.00009 0.00027
0.00020 0.00012 0.00130 0.00016 0.00109 0.00059 0.00119 0.00006 0.00031 0.00127 0.00119
0.00124 0.00099 0.00050 0.00109
0.00122 0.00077 0.00030 0.00115 0.00113
0.00002 0.00068
0.00094 0.00111
0.00064 0.00029
0.00112 0.00079
0.00112 0.00039
0.00040 0.00102


0.00181 0.00180 0.00177 0.00176 0.00176 0.00176 0.00175 0.00175
0.00174 0.00172 0.00168 0.00168 0.00167 0.00167 0.00165 0.00163 0.00162 0.00162 0.00160 0.00158 0.00155 0.00151
0.00148 0.00145 0.00145 0.00142 0.00142 0.00142 0.00141 0.00141 0.00139 0.00138 0.00138 0.00136 0.00135 0.00132 0.00131 0.00129 0.00128 0.00128 0.00127 0.00127 0.00126 0.00125
0.00124 0.00122 0.00121 0.00120 0.00112 0.00110










Table 3-4--continued


Variance Covariance Total


SOC Title


Agricultural Engineer Elevator Installers Furnace Kiln & Oven Explosive Workers Electricians Hand Molding, Casting Slicing & Cutting Machine Feeders Upholsterers Textile Cutting Machine Grader, Dozer & Scraper Airplane Pilots Sales Engineers Excavating & Loading Railroad Brake, Signal Railroad Conductors Electrical Engineer Electrical Technician Precious Stones & Metal Drafting
Glaziers
Industrial Truck Supervisors, Electrician Locomotive Operating Aircraft Engine Mechanic Shoe Repairers Automobile Body Apparel & Fabric Pattern Compressing & Compacting Supervisors, Production Transport Ticket Agent Engineers, Architects Industrial Engin. Tech Postal Clerks Mail Carriers, Postal Postmasters Rail Vehicle Operators Heavy Equipment Industrial Machinery Data Processing Equip Boilermakers Washing, Cleaning Tool Programmers Civil Engineer Hand Engraving Telephone Installers Pest Control Occupation Hand Painting, Coating Crushing, Grinding Chief Communications


0.00083 0.00063 0.00015 0.00063
0.00049 0.00022 0.00007 0.00013 0.00038 0.00027 0.00105 0.00092 0.00011 0.00083 0.00079 0.00083 0.00037 0.00030
0.00046 0.00011
0.00034 0.00010
0.00049 0.00065 0.00057 0.00066
0.00049 0.00021 0.00006 0.00005
0.00074 0.00011 0.00006 0.00078 0.00078 0.00078
0.00074 0.00028 0.00005 0.00030
0.00021 0.00006 0.00009
0.00040 0.00013 0.00068 0.00068 0.00011 0.00007 0.00068


0.00026
0.00044 0.00093
0.00041 0.00056 0.00083 0.00098 0.00091 0.00065 0.00077
-0.00003 0.00006 0.00086 0.00013 0.00016 0.00009 0.00055 0.00060
0.00044 0.00077 0.00053 0.00077 0.00037 0.00018 0.00026 0.00015 0.00033 0.00061 0.00076 0.00077 0.00007 0.00069 0.00073 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000
0.00004 0.00049 0.00072
0.00046 0.00055 0.00070 0.00065 0.00033 0.00060
0.00004 0.00004 0.00059
0.00064 0.00002


0.00109 0.00108 0.00108 0.00105 0.00105 0.00105 0.00105
0.00104 0.00103 0.00103
0.00102 0.00098 0.00097 0.00096 0.00095 0.00092 0.00092 0.00091 0.00090 0.00089 0.00086 0.00086 0.00085 0.00083 0.00083 0.00082 0.00082 0.00082 0.00082 0.00082 0.00081 0.00080 0.00079 0.00078 0.00078 0.00078 0.00078 0.00077 0.00077 0.00076 0.00076 0.00076
0.00074 0.00073 0.00073 0.00072 0.00072 0.00071 0.00071 0.00070


054 543 766 615 575 787 769 878 668
743 855 226 258 853 825 823 055 213
647 217 589 856 555
824 508 669
514 673 758 633 318
043 214 354 355 017 826 516 518 525
643 764 233 053 793 529
455 789 768 306










Table 3-4--continued


Variance Covariance Total


SOC Title


Garage & Service Station Machinery Maintenance Misc. Material Moving Graders and Sorters Telephone Line Installer Folding Machine Operator Helpers, Surveyor Teachers' Aides Misc. Electrical Repair Purchasing Agents nec Misc. Hand Working Truck Drivers, Heavy Automobile Mechanics Small Engine Repairers Engineering Tech, nec Production Helpers Heating, Air Condition Communications Equipment Production Coordinators Production Samplers Expediters Traffic, Shippings Engineer, nec. Surveyors
Locksmiths & Safe Repair Vehicle Washers Barbers
Bus, Truck & Stationary Misc. Precision Apparel Hairdressers Fishers
Funeral Directors Camera, Watch Repair Surveying
Mixing & Blending Tailors
Specified Mechanics Forestry Workers Taxicab Drivers Household Appliance Supervisors Material Not Specified Mechanics Helpers, Mechanics Freight Stock & Material Chemical Engineer Purchasing Manager Misc. Plant Operator Computer Systems Analyst Pressing Machine Auctioneers


885 519 859 488 527 765 866 387 533 033 795
804 505 509 216 873
534 353 363 798 373
364 059 063 536 887
457 507
674 458 498 018 535 218 756 667
547 495 809 526
843 549 864 883
048 009 699
064 747
284


0.00057 0.00013 0.00011 0.00069 0.00067 0.00011
0.00040 0.00066
0.00014 0.00007 0.00006
0.00024 0.00024 0.00023 0.00011 0.00006 0.00023 0.00056 0.00006 0.00007 0.00006
0.00004 0.00009
0.00041 0.00039 0.00013 0.00058 0.00017 0.00013 0.00056 0.00055 0.00055
0.00020 0.00028 0.00004 0.00033
0.00004 0.00051 0.00036 0.00019 0.00007
0.00004 0.00012 0.00009
0.00014 0.00005
0.00021 0.00011
0.00034 0.00027


0.00014 0.00057 0.00059 0.00000
0.00002 0.00058 0.00028 0.00001 0.00053 0.00060 0.00062
0.00042 0.00041 0.00042 0.00056 0.00060
0.00042 0.00008 0.00058 0.00056 0.00057 0.00059 0.00053 0.00019
0.00021 0.00046 0.00000
0.00041 0.00045 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.00037 0.00027 0.00051
0.00021 0.00050
0.00002 0.00016 0.00033
0.00045 0.00048 0.00038
0.00042 0.00035
0.00044 0.00027 0.00036 0.00013
0.00020


0.00070 0.00070 0.00070 0.00069 0.00069 0.00069 0.00068 0.00067 0.00067 0.00067 0.00067 0.00066 0.00066 0.00066 0.00066 0.00066 0.00065
0.00064 0.00064 0.00063 0.00063 0.00063 0.00062 0.00060 0.00060 0.00059 0.00058 0.00058 0.00058 0.00057 0.00057 0.00057 0.00057 0.00055 0.00055
0.00054 0.00054 0.00053 0.00052 0.00052 0.00052 0.00052 0.00050 0.00050
0.00049 0.00049 0.00048 0.00048 0.00047 0.00046










Table 3-4--continued


SOC Title


Variance Covariance Total


649 Engravers, Metal 185 Designers 086 Veterinarians 889 Laborers, except Const 677 Optical Goods Workers 224 Chemical 184 Technical Writers 349 Telegraphers 049 Nuclear Engineers 329 Library Clerks 026 Management Analysts 523 Electronic Repairers 799 Graders and Sorters 888 Hand Packers & Packager 845 Longshore Equipment 876 Stevedores 229 Computer Programmers 259 Sales Reps., Mining 365 Stock & Inventory Clerk 164 Librarians 829 Sailors and Deckhands 503 Supervisors, Mechanics 338 Payroll and Timekeeping 445 Dental Assistants 204 Dental Hygienists 014 Administrators, Educ 497 Captains & Other Officer 035 Construction Inspectors 813 Parking Lot Attendants 757 Separating, Filtering 538 Office Machine Repairers 089 Health Diagnosing nec 085 Dentists 225 Science Tech, nec 307 Supervisors Distribution 013 Managers Marketing 828 Ship Captains and Mates 058 Marine Engineer, Naval 275 Sales Counter Clerks 088 Podiatrists 678 Dental Lab Tech 206 Radiologic Technicians 803 Supervisors, Motor 068 Mathematical Scientists 359 Dispatchers 666 Dressmakers 437 Short-Order Cooks 205 Health Record Tech 774 Photographic Process 426 Guards and Police


0.00009 0.00006
0.00049 0.00003
0.00020 0.00013 0.00008 0.00031 0.00011 0.00038
0.00022 0.00013 0.00009 0.00003
0.00040 0.00040 0.00008 0.00008 0.00003 0.00036 0.00031 0.00010 0.00003 0.00038 0.00038 0.00036
0.00034 0.00030
0.00024 0.00015 0.00013 0.00038 0.00037 0.00011 0.00005 0.00003 0.00028 0.00025
0.00020 0.00035 0.00032 0.00031 0.00016
0.00014 0.00010 0.00009 0.00033 0.00032
0.00012 0.00010


0.00037
0.00041
-0.00005
0.00042 0.00023 0.00030 0.00036
0.00012 0.00033 0.00003
0.00020 0.00029 0.00033
0.00040 0.00001 0.00001 0.00033 0.00033 0.00038
0.00004 0.00009 0.00030 0.00037 0.00001 0.00001 0.00003 0.00005 0.00009 0.00015
0.00024 0.00026 0.00000 0.00001 0.00027
0.00034 0.00036 0.00009 0.00011 0.00016 0.00001 0.00003 0.00005
0.00020 0.00022 0.00025 0.00026
0.00002 0.00003
0.00022 0.00025


0.00046 0.00046 0.00045 0.00045 0.00044 0.00044 0.00044 0.00043 0.00043 0.00042 0.00042 0.00042 0.00042 0.00042 0.00041 0.00041 0.00041 0.00041 0.00041 0.00040 0.00040 0.00040 0.00040 0.00039 0.00039 0.00039 0.00039 0.00039 0.00039 0.00039 0.00039 0.00038 0.00038 0.00038 0.00038 0.00038 0.00037 0.00037 0.00037 0.00036 0.00036 0.00036 0.00036 0.00036 0.00036 0.00036 0.00035 0.00035 0.00035 0.00035










Table 3-4--continued

SOC Title Variance Covariance Total

786 Hand Cutting & Trimming 0.00006 0.00029 0.00035 805 Truck Drivers, Light 0.00006 0.00029 0.00035 073 Chemists 0.00005 0.00030 0.00035
065 Operations, System 0.00005 0.00030 0.00035
368 Weighers, Measurers 0.00003 0.00032 0.00035
694 Water and Sewage 0.00033 0.00002 0.00034
679 Bookbinders 0.00033 0.00001 0.00034
875 Garbage Collectors 0.00032 0.00002 0.00034
808 Bus Drivers 0.00027 0.00007 0.00034
203 Clinical Laboratory 0.00029 0.00005 0.00033
863 Supervisors, Handlers 0.00005 0.00027 0.00033 087 Optometrists 0.00031 0.00001 0.00032
438 Food Counter 0.00030 0.00002 0.00032
435 Waiters and Waitresses 0.00030 0.00003 0.00032 366 Meter Readers 0.00021 0.00011 0.00032
277 Street & Door-to-door 0.00020 0.00012 0.00032 166 Economists 0.00004 0.00027 0.00032
095 Registered Nurse 0.00026 0.00004 0.00031
737 Misc. Printing Machine 0.00025 0.00006 0.00031 015 Managers Medicine 0.00024 0.00008 0.00031
257 Sales Occupations, Other 0.00013 0.00018 0.00031 415 Supervisors, Guards 0.00009 0.00023 0.00031
008 Personnel & Labor 0.00002 0.00028 0.00031
198 Announcers 0.00028 0.00001 0.00030
434 Bartenders 0.00027 0.00003 0.00030
833 Marine Engineers 0.00015 0.00014 0.00030
304 Supervisors, Computer 0.00005 0.00025 0.00030 283 Demonstrators, Promoters 0.00005 0.00025 0.00030 369 Samplers 0.00004 0.00027 0.00030
019 Managers, Administrator 0.00002 0.00028 0.00030 207 LPN 0.00024 0.00005 0.00029
577 Electrical Power 0.00023 0.00005 0.00029
517 Farm Equipment Mechanics 0.00014 0.00016 0.00029 374 Material Recording 0.00008 0.00021 0.00029
069 Physicists 0.00008 0.00021 0.00029
696 Stationary Engineers 0.00005 0.00024 0.00029 163 Counselors 0.00026 0.00003 0.00028
348 Telephone Operators 0.00020 0.00008 0.00028
084 Physicians 0.00020 0.00007 0.00027
189 Photographers 0.00012 0.00015 0.00027
309 Peripheral Equipment 0.00003 0.00024 0.00027 487 Animal Caretakers 0.00027 0.00000 0.00026
414 Supervisors, Police 0.00026 0.00000 0.00026
227 Air Traffic Controllers 0.00026 0.00000 0.00026 423 Sheriff, Bailiffs 0.00026 0.00000 0.00026
424 Correctional Institution 0.00026 0.00000 0.00026 418 Police & Detective 0.00026 0.00000 0.00026
179 Judges 0.00026 0.00000 0.00026
003 Legislators & Public 0.00026 0.00000 0.00026 317 Hotel Clerks 0.00026 0.00000 0.00026










Table 3-4--continued


variance Covariance Total


SOC Title


0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00025 0.00025
0.00024 0.00024 0.00024 0.00024 0.00024 0.00024 0.00024 0.00023 0.00023 0.00023 0.00023 0.00023 0.00023 0.00023 0.00023 0.00023 0.00023
0.00022 0.00022 0.00022 0.00022 0.00021 0.00021 0.00021 0.00020 0.00020 0.00019 0.00019 0.00019 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018 0.00017 0.00017


735
499 539 029 327
345 027 308 385
447 754 006 005
466 834 734 339 326
417 425 413 097 695
446 243 285 337 305
468 736 235
453 814 763
343 007 335
433 378 376
436 443 173 256 188 325 067
346 748 208


Photoengravers Hunters and Trappers Mechanical Control Buyers
Order Clerks Duplicating Machine Personnel Specialist Computer Operators Data Entry Keyers Nursing Aides, Orderlies Packaging & Filling Admin., Protective Admin., Public Admin. Baggage Porters Bridge, Lock, Lighthouse Printing Machine Billing Clerks Correspondence Clerks Firefighting Crossing Guards Supervisors, Fire Dieticians Power Plant Operators Health Aides Supervisor Proprietor Sales Support Occupation Bookkeepers, Accounting Supervisors, Financial Childcare Worker Typesetters & Compositor Technicians Janitors and Cleaners Motor Transportation Roasting & Baking Cost and Rate Clerks Financial Managers File Clerks Supervisors, Food Prep Bill & Account Collect Investigator Cooks except Short Order Waiters Assistant Urban Planners Advertising and Related Painters, Sculptors Classified-ad Clerks Statisticians Mail Preparing Laundering Health Technologists


0.00021 0.00018 0.00013 0.00008 0.00006 0.00005 0.00005 0.00003 0.00003 0.00019 0.00003
0.00024 0.00024 0.00018 0.00018 0.00013 0.00003 0.00003 0.00023
0.00022 0.00022 0.00019 0.00019 0.00017 0.00005 0.00005
0.00002 0.00002 0.00017 0.00013 0.00005 0.00005 0.00015 0.00007 0.00003 0.00005 0.00003 0.00018 0.00005
0.00004 0.00018 0.00017 0.00016 0.00010 0.00005
0.00004 0.00004 0.00003
0.00020 0.00015


0.00006 0.00008
0.00014 0.00018
0.00020 0.00021 0.00021 0.00023 0.00023 0.00006
0.00021 0.00001 0.00000 0.00006 0.00006 0.00010
0.00022 0.00021 0.00000 0.00001 0.00000
0.00004 0.00004 0.00005 0.00018 0.00018
0.00020 0.00021 0.00005 0.00008 0.00017 0.00017 0.00006
0.00014 0.00018 0.00016 0.00017 0.00001
0.00014 0.00015 0.00000 0.00000
0.00002 0.00008 0.00013 0.00013
0.00014 0.00015
-0.00003
0.00002










Table 3-4--continued


Variance Covariance Total


SOC Title


Purchasing Agents Inspectors Messengers Office Machine Operators Accountants Mail Clerks Insurance Insurance Adjusters Bank Tellers Securities & Financial News Vendors Medical Scientists Management Related Personnel Clerks Elevator Operators General Office Secretaries Real Estate Sales Underwriters Kitchen Workers Other Financial Officers Proof Readers Physical Scientists nec Supervisors Stenographers Information Clerks nec Statistical Clerks Inspectors, Agricultural Billing, Posting Interviewers Atmospheric & Space Supervisors, Cleaning Business Agent Public Relations Miscellaneous Food Prep Managers Properties Broadcast Equipment Driver-Sales Workers Supervisors Office Administrative Support Forestry Scientists Groundskeepers Teachers Prekindergarten Physicians Assistants Psychologists Actuaries Editors
Typists
Clergy
Motion Picture Project


028 036 357
347 023 356 253 375 383 255 278 083 037 328
454 379 313
254 024 439 025
384 076
456 314 323 386
489 344 316
074 448 034 197
444 016 228 806 303 389 079
486 155 106 167 066 195 315 176 773


0.00014 0.00013
0.00004 0.00004 0.00003
0.00002 0.00016 0.00016 0.00016 0.00016 0.00010 0.00010 0.00008
0.00004 0.00003
0.00002 0.00002 0.00015 0.00015 0.00013 0.00009 0.00008 0.00007 0.00007 0.00006
0.00004 0.00003 0.00011 0.00008 0.00006 0.00006 0.00006 0.00006 0.00003 0.00013
0.00012 0.00010 0.00003 0.00003 0.00003 0.00017
0.00014 0.00012 0.00010 0.00010 0.00008
0.00004 0.00003 0.00011 0.00009


0.00003 0.00003 0.00013 0.00013 0.00015
0.00014 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00006 0.00006 0.00008
0.00012 0.00013
0.00014 0.00014 0.00000 0.00000
0.00002 0.00006 0.00007 0.00008 0.00008 0.00009 0.00011
0.00012 0.00003 0.00006 0.00008 0.00008 0.00008 0.00008 0.00011 0.00000 0.00001
0.00002 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010
-0.00005
-0.00001 0.00001
0.00002 0.00002 0.00004 0.00007 0.00009 0.00000
0.00002


0.00017 0.00017 0.00017 0.00017 0.00017 0.00017 0.00016 0.00016 0.00016 0.00016 0.00016 0.00016 0.00016 0.00016 0.00016 0.00016 0.00016 0.00015 0.00015 0.00015 0.00015 0.00015 0.00015 0.00015 0.00015 0.00015 0.00015
0.00014 0.00014 0.00014 0.00014 0.00014 0.00014 0.00014 0.00013 0.00013 0.00013 0.00013 0.00013 0.00013
0.00012 0.00012 0.00012 0.00012 0.00012 0.00012 0.00012 0.00012 0.00011 0.00011










Table 3-4--continued


Variance Covariance Total


SOC Title


193 186 877 688
416 177 096
464 168 336 078
469 276 319
194 183 199 169
459 178 686 223
234 187
449 377 165
427 485 077 175
174 463 687
467


Dancers
Musicians & Composers Stock Handlers Food Batchmakers Fire Inspection Religious Pharmacists Ushers
sociologists Records Clerks Biological Scientist Personal Service Occup Cashiers Receptionists Artists
Authors
Athletes Social Scientists Attendants, Amusement Lawyers
Butchers & Meat Cutters Biological Tech Legal Assistants Actors and Directors Maids and Housemen Eligibility Clerks Archivists Protective Service Supervisors, Agriculture Agricultural Scientist Recreation Workers Social Workers Guides
Bakers
Welfare Service


0.00008 0.00008 0.00006 0.00006 0.00013 0.00010 0.00010 0.00008 0.00007 0.00006 0.00005
0.00004 0.00004 0.00004 0.00004 0.00008 0.00008 0.00006 0.00006 0.00008 0.00006
0.00004 0.00004 0.00008 0.00007 0.00007 0.00005 0.00005 0.00010 0.00008 0.00007 0.00006 0.00005 0.00005 0.00007


0.00003
0.00002 0.00005 0.00005
-0.00004 0.00000 0.00000
0.00002 0.00003
0.00004 0.00005 0.00006 0.00006 0.00006 0.00005 0.00001
0.00002 0.00003 0.00003 0.00000
0.00002 0.00005 0.00003
-0.00001 0.00000 0.00000
0.00002 0.00002
-0.00004
-0.00002
-0.00001 0.00000 0.00001 0.00001
-0.00001


0.00011 0.00011 0.00011 0.00011 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00009 0.00009 0.00009 0.00009 0.00008 0.00008 0.00008 0.00008 0.00007 0.00007 0.00007 0.00007 0.00007 0.00006 0.00006 0.00006 0.00006 0.00006 0.00006 0.00005


combined class warrants the analysis of risk at the threedigit level. There is much variation in industrial concentration and risk at the three-digit level which is not captured at the two-digit level, much less the onedigit level. This is evidence of how control for differences between occupations using one and two-digit level classifications will lead to distorted results.
















CHAPTER 4
EMPIRICAL STUDY

The empirical study employs data from the Department of Commerce's 1980 Census Subject Reports. The Subject Report Earnings by Occupation and Education is the source of the wage data.

The Decennial Census was selected as the data source because alternative panel data sources, such as the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Current Population Survey, contain too few observations at the three-digit occupational level for reliable estimates of occupational differences. To regroup the three-digit occupational categories at the two-digit or one-digit classification level for increased observations would misrepresent the level of exposure to industry concentration experienced by most occupations as shown in Appendices C and D.

Although earnings are reported by occupation for men and women in earlier Censuses, comparability between years is reduced by the emergence or disappearance of certain occupational classifications. If 1970 data were added and the study restricted to occupations consistently defined in each Census, the number of occupations deleted from the study would be greater than the number of 1970 observations added. Therefore, the study uses only 1980 data.










The Census data report the mean annual earnings for males and females employed full-time, year-round in 1979. This sample includes persons who usually worked 35 hours or more per week for 50-52 weeks in 1979, compiled by the three-digit level Standard Occupational Classification code. If the occupation changed during the course of the year, the occupation of longest duration is specified.

Earnings observations are delineated for age groups 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65+, and by education levels 0-8, 9-11, 12, 13-15, 16, and 17+ years. Earnings are defined as the algebraic sum of wage or salary income, nonfarm self-employment income and farm net self-employment income. This earnings figure represents income before deductions for personal income taxes, Social Security, bond purchases, union dues, Medicare and the like. Mean earnings is defined as the aggregate earnings of a particular occupation's wage and education class divided by the number of observations included in that cell.

Given the age and education groupings, 30 potential earnings observations exist for each occupation for each sex. For males, a total of 12,229 mean earnings observations are available and for females, 10,391 observations are available. The means and standard deviations for the male and female samples are presented in Table 4-1.

Years of education and potential work experience are used to measure human capital. Potential work experience











Full Sample M

Variable: LOG WAGE EDUCATION
EXPERIENCE GED REASONING GED MATH GED LANGUAGE SVP
DEXTERITY STRESS
STRENGTH EXTREME COLD EXTREME HEAT EXTREME WET EXTREME NOISE VIBRATION ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT SHOCK
HEIGHTS RADIATION EXPLOSIVES TOXINS
OTHER HAZARDS FRACTION NORTH FRACTION NORTH CENTRAL FRACTION SOUTH FRACTION WEST GROWTH DUMMY FRACTION UNEMPLOYED FRACTION FEMALE FRACTION AGRICULTURE FRACTION MINING FRACTION CONSTRUCTION FRACTION DURABLE FRACTION NONDURABLE FRACTION TRANSPORTATION FRACTION WHOLESALE FRACTION RETAIL FRACTION FIRE FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT FRACTION PROFESSIONAL FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. FRACTION UNION COVERAGE FRACTION NONWHITE DUMMY - RISK
H
VARIANCE COVARIANCE


Table 4-1
aans & Standard Deviations


Males


Females
MEAN STD.DEV 9.3207 0.5325 12.5840 3.0957 24.6430 14.2430 3.1985 1.1136 2.2841 1.2107 2.6498 1.3057 1.3312 1.2274 3.7028 0.3775 0.0392 0.1431 2.1644 0.7000 0.0046 0.0251 0.0275 0.0905
0.0454 0.1182 0.1709 0.2416 0.1520 0.2363 0.0727 0.1446 0.0032 0.0187 0.0022 0.0162 0.0022 0.0161 0.0029 0.0297 0.0008 0.0109 0.0018 0.0118 0.0087 0.0525 0.2283 0.0626 0.2509 0.0743 0.3174 0.0882 0.2033 0.0659 0.4214 0.9069 0.0591 0.0431 0.3540 0.2892 0.0182 0.0981
0.0210 0.1074 0.0530 0.1658 0.1717 0.2531 0.1175 0.2062 0.0973 0.2071 0.0313 0.0713 0.0861 0.1722 0.0530 0.1564 0.0546 0.1050 0.0305 0.1244 0.0187 0.0842 0.1604 0.2663 0.0796 0.1758
0.2469 0.2134 0.0826 0.0552 0.4588 0.4983 0.3314 0.2860 0.0005 0.0025 0.0003 0.0005


STD. DEV
0.4024 3.1600
14.4060 1.1022 1.2132 1.2929
1.2416 0.3747
0.1491 0.7167
0.0246 0.0981 0.1331 0.2525
0.2548 0.1599
0.0234 0.0167 0.0191 0.0297 0.0111 0.0113 0.0508
0.0645 0.0796 0.0915 0.0686 0.9223
0.0457 0.2850 0.1060
0.1264 0.1956 0.2599 0.1995
0.2221 0.0737
0.1641 0.1453 0.1080
0.1194 0.0873
0.2514 0.1770
0.2334 0.0591
0.4996 0.2860 0.0028 0.0005


MEAN 9.7725 12.7760 25.6430 3.1892 2.2863 2.6133 1.3703 3.6758
0.0425 2.2335
0.0046 0.0300 0.0526 0.1890
0.1745 0.0822
0.0041 0.0023 0.0027 0.0029 0.0008 0.0017 0.0085 0.2233
0.2498 0.3216 0.2053 0.3867
0.0614 0.3135
0.0212 0.0274 0.0701 0.1777 0.1101 0.1070 0.0313
0.0794 0.0461 0.0543 0.0279 0.0188
0.1434 0.0781
0.2643 0.0866 0.4785
0.3416 0.0006
0.0004










is measured as the age less years of education less six. Since labor force participation rates differ between sexes, the total sample is separated into male and female samples for estimation.

The U.S. Government's Dictionary of occupational Titles (DOT) was originally developed in 1939 by the Department of Labor to assist in providing occupational guidance in local employment service offices. The DOT comprehensively identifies and defines virtually all civilian sector occupations. It is now widely used in career guidance counseling to assist in making occupational choices.

The DOT data are based on more detailed definitions of occupations than those used by the Standard Occupational Coding (SOC) of the Census. The DOT codes have fortunately been associated with their respective SOC code by the National Crosswalk Service. To aggregate the DOT data to the SOC level, the average value of a job characteristic for the corresponding DOT observation is used to represent the score for the SOC.

The data available from the DOT include measures of skill requirements, such as the level of general educational development (GED) and the years of SVP for each occupation. The GED scores reasoning, math and language skill requirements separately on a scale of 1-6. The GED scores for reasoning, math and language skills for each SOC are listed in Appendices F, G, and H. The SVP ordinal










scale from 1-9 was transformed to a time-based scale ranging from 0-10 years. The SVP score for each occupation is listed in Appendix I.

occupational complexity is also reported in the DOT data. Worker function ratings measure the dexterity and eye-foot coordination requirements on a scale of 1-5 for each variable. Higher wages should be observable for occupations requiring these skills if they are scarce in the labor force. Scores for each occupation requiring dexterity are listed in Appendix J.

Information regarding working conditions by occupation is also extracted from the DOT information, since adverse working conditions should also result in higher wages. Extreme physical demands and adverse working conditions such as exposure to hazards, weather, vibration, noise and stress, are coded with a zero or one dummy variable which denotes the existence of adverse conditions in an occupation. Appendix K contains a listing of stressful occupations by SOC code. Appendix L lists occupations by order of strength requirements. Occupations that are exposed to extreme heat, cold, wet noise and vibration are listed in Appendices M, N, 0, P and Q. occupations exposed to hazards such as atmospheric conditions, mechanical devices, shock, heights, radiation, explosives, toxins and other hazards are listed by order of exposure in Appendices R, S, T, U, V, W, X and Y.










Further data have been accumulated from the Census reports. Each occupation's location is reported for the South, West, North Central and Northeast United States. Wages vary between regions to compensate for differences in amenities and in the cost of living.

Current unemployment rates and the fraction employed in major industry classes are also available from the Census reports. These data are included to test for efficiency wages and industry wage differentials. Additionally, percentages female and nonwhite in an occupation are also reported by the Census. These are included to measure any wage discrimination practices.

Higher wages may be required to lure workers into

growing occupations. Occupations which experienced growth in employment from 1970 to 1980 are coded one, denoting a growth occupation. If an occupation appears for the first time in the 1980 Census, it is considered a growth occupation. Any occupation experiencing negative growth from 1970 to 1980 is coded -1. In 1980, 31% of the occupations experienced no increase in employment from 1970 employment levels.

A growing occupation with high employment volatility

should not command as high a level of compensating wage for risk of unemployment as a no-growth occupation with volatility. Employment fluctuation in a high-growth occupation can be absorbed by reducing new hires rather than by laying off employees. This hypothesis can be










tested with an interaction variable which equals the product of the long-run growth and the occupational variance measure. A +1/-l dummy is employed instead of a 0/1 dummy so that interaction of the risk variables with the growth variable retains information on the sign of the risk variable.

Unionization rates are available from Curme, Hirsch and Macpherson (1990), who have calculated union coverage and membership rates by occupation. Their rates are based on the Current Population Survey for the years 1983-1985. This study utilizes the union coverage rate, which is defined as the fraction of workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, since wages should be more closely associated with it than with union membership. This variable will be used to test whether unions raise wages.

To test the hypothesis that increased employment risk commands a compensating wage, an empirical study using an ordinary least squares regression is performed as specified by the model presented in Table 4-2. Transformation of the wage to the log of the wage is the specification that others have found provides the best fit when wage is the dependent variable and traditional human capital measures are the independent variables.











Table 4-2
OccpktonBased Risk Model


Variable Definitions:

O = Log Occupation i's Mean Hourly Earnings F = Fraction Female of Total Occupational Employment E = Median Years Education for Cell X = Experience = Age less Education less 6 S = Years Specific Vocational Preparation (SVP) Q = SVP * Education

Dp = Physical Demands Indicator Vector
P = Dexterity, Stress, Strength Indicator

HZ = Hazardous Working Conditions Indicator Vector Z = Atmospheric Conditions, Mechanical Parts, Shock, Heights, Radiation, Toxins, Other Hazards EC = Environmental Conditions Indicator Vector C = Cold, Heat, Noise, Other U = Unionization Rate of Occupation GL = Fraction of Occupation in Geographic Location L = North Central, North, South, West T = Long Run Occupational Employment Growth Indicator Z = Current Unemployment Rate for Occupation I= Fraction of Occupation Employed in Industry I I = Agriculture, Mining, Construction, Durable Goods, Transportation, Wholesale, Retail, FIRE, Business
Services, Personal Services, Entertainment,
Professional Services & Public Administration Rj = Unemployment Risk Measure J = Crude, Herfindahl, or Occupational Variance Measures of Risk

L = Interaction of Long-run Growth and Variance Measure















CHAPTER 5
TEST RESULTS

In order to test for the effect of unemployment risk on wages, an ordinary least squares regression model was estimated. Tests of the residuals found heteroskedasticity, so White's (1980) correction was employed for significance tests of the ordinary least squares regression coefficients. Since additional information could be obtained if the heteroskedasticity was corrected, many modifications of the model were tested, but no reduction in heteroskedasticity resulted. These results are discussed at the end of this chapter.

Regressions were run in six passes. The first regression pass was the base wage model with no risk measure. Regressions two through five included one of the four risk measures described in Chapter 3. The sixth regression estimated the model with no industry control variables. Detailed regression results for all models and both samples are presented in Appendix E.

Due to differences between the male and female labor force attachment rates, the calculated experience measure may misrepresent work experience for males relative to females. Separate regressions were calculated for each sex to allow for this and to determine the sensitivity of the regression results to sex.










The models which include industry controls are

preferable, since the hypothesis that the industry control regressors are jointly equal to zero can be rejected. However, this does not indicate conclusively that efficiency wages are the cause. Table 5-1 reports the estimates of the coefficient for unemployment in models five and six, which differ only by the inclusion of industry control variables. If efficiency wages are the cause of the industry wage differentials, the unemployment coefficient should be more negative when industry controls are included. This is indeed the case in both the male and female samples. However, the unemployment rate coefficients in these two specifications are not more than two standard deviations from each other and therefore do not appear to be significantly different. Thus, these regressions provide no support for this implication of efficiency wages.


Table 5-1
OLS Unemployment Rate Coefficients
and Corrected t-statistics (in Parenthesis) Males Females
Model 5 -0.35 -1.16
With industry controls (-2.71) (-4.95)

Model 6 -0.11 - .98
No industry controls (-1.07) (-5.06)


A Hausman specification test can be performed to test the efficiency wage hypothesis based on the difference in the coefficients from each model. The estimate of the










coefficient of the unemployment rate is asymptotically efficient under the null hypothesis, which is a condition for this test. The null hypothesis that no efficiency wage exists is rejected with the male sample, but it is not rejected with the female sample.

Risk Measures

It was expected that compensating wages would be

required for increased unemployment risk. The occupation variance measure was expected to fit the data more closely than when an industry variance alone is included, as in the Adams and Li studies, since the occupational variance would better account for the mobility of certain occupations between industries. Table 5-2 presents the coefficient estimates and correlated t-statistics for both samples and all risk variables.

Model four includes a variance measure alone which is positive and significant at the 90% level in the male sample only. When the covariance and its interaction with growth is added to the model, the coefficient on the variance variable increases in significance with the female sample, but decreases in significance with the male sample. The coefficients with the covariance measure and its interaction with growth are jointly significant in both samples. In the female sample it is significant at a 95% level. In the male sample the joint test is significantly different from zero at a 99% level.















MODEL 2
Dummy Dummy*Gr MODEL 3
H

H*Growth MODEL 4 Variance MODEL 5 Variance Covarian

0cc. Var


Table 5-2
OLS Risk Variables Coefficients
and Corrected t-statistics (in Parenthesis)
by Model and Sex of Sample

Male Female
-.013 -.015
(-1.75) (-1.17)
owth .022 -.010
(3.34) (-0.86)

-.057 -.053
(-3.73) (-2.02)
.040 -.039
(3.50) (-1.76)

1.588 2.564
(1.72) (1.09)

1.120 4.016
(1.04) (1.56)
ce 18.207 67.01
(1.02) (1.93)
*Growth 29.733 29.253
(2.93) (2.02)


Thus, taking account of the covariance of employment

across industries provides a better fit, as predicted. The magnitude of the effect of covariance risk on wages is the combined effect of the covariance and the interaction of total variance and growth. Based on the estimates computed with the female sample, if the covariance increases by one standard deviation and the occupation is scored one for growth, a compensating wage increase of 5% is measured. If the occupation is scored as a no-growth occupation, the compensating wage differential is increased by 2%. Based on the estimates computed with the male sample, if the covariance increases by one standard deviation and the occupation is scored one for growth, a compensating wage increase of 2.4% is measured. If the occupation is scored










as a no-growth occupation, wages are estimated to be decreased by .58%. These results generally support the hypothesis that earnings are higher in occupations with greater employment risk, but do not support the theory that growing occupations would require smaller compensating wages for employment risk than declining occupations.

Regression model two tests the risk dummy variable (Dummy), which denotes whether an occupation's concentration in an industry is 50% or greater. Using the male sample this model specification finds that wages are .9% higher in concentrated growth occupations, and 3.5% lower in concentrated no-growth occupations. Using the female sample, the effect of concentration is a 2.5% decrease for positive growth occupations and a .5% decrease for negative growth occupations. Thus, industry concentration is associated with higher wages in only one of these four cases. The joint significance test of the dummy variable and the growth interaction is significant at the 99% and 85% level with the male and female samples respectively.

The H measure is a risk variable which measures the

degree of concentration of an occupation in all industries on a scale from 0-1. This measure is employed in model three. The hypothesis that concentrated occupations require positive compensating wages is not supported with this definition of risk. Negative differentials are










estimated as the H measure increases whether or not the occupation is growing.

Regression model five, which contains the covariance risk measure and industry variables, is presented in Table 5-3. Since the dependent variable is the log wage, a coefficient less than or equal to 10% can be interpreted as the percentage change in the wage due to a change in the independent variable. For coefficients greater than 10%, the wage is calculated for a one-unit change in the independent variable. The effect of the independent variable is then calculated based on the percentage change of this wage from the mean sample wage. The following detailed discussion of the coefficients is based on regression model which includes the covariance risk measure and industry dummies.

Growth Rates

The growth rate is a -1 or +1 dummy variable which measures whether an occupation experienced increased or decreased employment from 1970 to 1980. The model estimated also includes the interaction of growth and the occupation variance risk measure. The combined effect of these growth variables on wages is significant at 99.5% in both samples. If the mean occupational variance measure of .001 is employed, earnings in growing occupations are estimated to be 2% and 6.4% than in declining occupations in the female and male samples respectively. This supports the hypothesis that earnings in rapidly growing occupations










Table 5-3
Model Five Regression Results Log Wage is Dependent Variable
Males Females
Coefficient Coefficient
(t-statistic) (t-statistic)

FRACTION NORTH 0.2085 -0.2525
(2.66) (-1.92)
FRACTION SOUTH -0.1847 -0.6191
(-3.27) (-4.19)
FRACTION WEST -0.0067 -0.1726
(-0.09) (-1.51)
GROWTH DUMMY -0.0024 0.0113
(0.63) 1.53
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE -0.3523 -1.1555
(-2.71) (-4.95)
FRACTION FEMALE -0.2597 -0.1012
(-11.23) (-3.00)
FRACTION AGRICULTURE -0.0517 -0.1865
(-1.01) (-1.71)
FRACTION MINING 0.2898 0.4798
(8.12) (7.11)
FRACTION CONSTRUCTION 0.1456 0.3102
(4.09) (4.72)
FRACTION NONDURABLE 0.0255 0.0858
(0.77) (1.32)
FRACTION TRANSPORTATION 0.1443 0.3027
(4.14) (4.67)
FRACTION WHOLESALE 0.1410 0.1173
(2.60) (1.21)
FRACTION RETAIL -0.1811 -0.1381
(-5.06) (-2.12)
FRACTION FIRE 0.1424 0.1482
(3.83) (2.50)
FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. -0.0657 -0.0119
(-1.68) (-0.18)
FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. -0.2626 -0.1671
(-6.54) (-2.61)
FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT 0.0741 0.1919
(1.48) (2.40)
FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. -0.132.3 -0.0293
(-3.48) (-0.49)
FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. -0.1382 0.1093
(-3.85) (1.72)
EDUCATION 0.0337 0.0151
(21.64) (5.32)
EXPERIENCE 0.0312 0.0032
(17.99) (0.88)
EXPERIENCE SQUARED -0.0007 0.0001
(-8.65) (0.45)
EXPERIENCE CUBED 3.00 x 10-6 -4.00 x 10-6
(2.51) (-1.83)










Table 5-3--continued


GED-REASONING GED-MATH GED-LANGUAGE SVP

SVP * EDU DEXTERITY STRESS STRENGTH EXTREME COLD

EXTREME HEAT EXTREME WET EXTREME NOISE VIBRATION ATMOSPHERIC MECHANICAL SHOCK HEIGHTS RADIATION EXPLOSIVES TOXINS OTHER HAZARDS NONWHITE UNION REPRESENTATION VARIANCE


Males
Coefficient (t-statistic)

-0.0139 (-1.82)
0.0204
(3.22)
0.0516
(6.98)
-0. 0279 (-2.24)
0.0047
(5.40)
0.0519
(4.23)
0.1292
(5.14)
-0.0435 (-5.63)
-0. 1678 (-1.48)
0.1016
(3.26)
0. 1276
(4.66)
0.0067
(0.39)
- 0.0403 (-2.23)
-0.0357 (-1.59)
0.0362
(0.27)
0.0928
(0.55)
-0.0169 (-0.13)
0.3692
(4.35)
-0.2282 (-1.18)
-0.2635 (-1.30)
-0.0699 (-1.14)
-0.7503 (-8.74)
0.0743
(3.86)
1.1198
(1.04)


Females
Coefficient (t-statistic)

0.0025
(0.17)
-0.0479 (-5.74)
0.0325
(2.86)
-0.1581 (-6.64)
0.0129
(7.41)
0.0526
(3.59)
0.0649
(1.94)
-0.0455 (-3.90)
0.0712
(0.51)
0.0130
(0.25)
-0.0011 (-0.02)
0.0272
(0.87)
0.0330
(0.84)
0.0409
(0.97)
0.1379
(0.50)
0.4180
(1.23)
-0.2935 (-0.90)
0.3039
(2.37)
0.2185
(0.56)
-0.2883 (-0.91)
0.1271
(1.95)
0.0419 (0.24) 0.0156
(0.41)
4.0155
(1.56)










Table 5-3--continued
Males Females
Coefficient Coefficient
(t-statistic) (t-statistic)
COVARIANCE 18.2070 67.0110
(1.02) (1.93)
GROWTH * TOTAL VARIANCE 29.7330 29.2530
(2.93) (2.02)
CONSTANT 8.9453 9.0766
(110.24) (65.42)
Statistics:

R-SQUARE .3897 .2115
ADJ. R-SQUARE .3872 .2078
VARIANCE .0992 .2246
STANDARD ERROR .3150 .4739
SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS 1209 2323
LOG LIKELIHOOD -3201 -6961


are driven up in order to draw workers from other occupations.

Unemployment Rates

The current unemployment rate is expected to be

negatively related to wages. Lower wages help to induce workers to leave an occupation that has recently experienced a fall in long-run demand. In both samples, the current unemployment rate has a significant negative coefficient. Based on the male sample, if the unemployment rate increases by 1% wages will drop by .3%. Based on the results from the female sample, as the unemployment rate increases by 1%, wages decrease by .7%.

Geographic Location

The coefficient on geographic regions is expected to be higher in urban areas to reflect higher costs of living and lower in geographic areas with positive amenities.










The test results differ greatly in the two samples. Using the male sample, the regression estimates a 23% higher wage for employment in the Northeastern states relative to the omitted variable, the North Central states. Wages are estimated to be 17% lower for employment in the South. For the female sample, the differential for wages in the South is -46%. At a reduced level of statistical significance, wages are estimated to be 22% lower in the North and 16% lower in the West, relative to wages in the North Central States.

Fraction Female

The coefficient on fraction female is expected to be negative due to the combination of differing labor force participation rates and discrimination. In the male sample, as the fraction female increases from 0 to 100% in an occupation, wages drop 23%. With the female sample, wages are estimated to drop 10% as the fraction female increases by 100%.

Fraction Employed in Industry

This variable controls for efficiency wages as well as any omitted variable which systematically differ by industry, such as percent self-employed, benefit packages, hours of work and safety. Positive wage differentials are found with the male sample for the Mining, Construction, Transportation, Wholesale and FIRE Industries. Negative wage differentials are found for the male sample for the Retail, Personal Services, Professional Services and Public










Administration Industries. These results differ for the female sample, however. Relative to the Durable Goods Manufacturing Industry, positive wage differentials are found with the female sample for the Mining, Construction, Transportation, FIRE and Entertainment Industries. Negative wage differentials are found for the Retail and Personal Services Industries.

A comparison of regression models one and five shows the effect of including risk measures in a model measuring industry differentials. A simple correlation between the set of industry coefficients from models one and five is .999 for males and .989 for females. The standard deviation of the sets of coefficients is reduced from .159 to .156 with the male sample and from .198 to .194 with the female sample. For the full set of coefficients, the effect of including a risk measure does not measure a notable difference.

The importance of the risk measures is demonstrated for specific industries when they are isolated from the full set. For example, the Business Services Industry differential is 10% lower and significant when risk measures are excluded. The differential is not significantly different from zero when the risk measures are included. In six of the thirteen industries, the coefficients estimated with the male sample move closer to zero when the risk measure is included. In seven of the industries, the coefficients move further away from zero










when the risk measure is included. In the female sample, seven industry coefficients moved closer to and six coefficients moved further away from zero when risk measures were included.

Education and SVP

It is expected that education and wages are

significantly and positively related. The effect of an additional year of education is estimated to increase earnings by 4%, using the male sample and a score of 1.37 for the mean years of SVP. The corresponding effect of an additional year of education for the female sample is 3.2%, based on a mean SVP of 1.33 years. The positive coefficient on the interaction variable indicates that education is more valuable in an occupation that requires more training.

Experience

The coefficient for experience is expected to be

positively related to earnings. As expected, the estimated return on the experience variable differs for the male and female samples. This could be explained as the result of differing labor force attachment rates between the sexes, rather than the result of the effect of sex on the return on experience. Using the male sample, the regression estimates that wages increase until 27 years of experience and decline thereafter. Employing the female sample, wages are estimated to increase until 24 years of experience, and decline thereafter. These estimates were derived by taking










the derivative with respect to experience and solving the quadratic derivative for the positive root.

GED

The coefficient on the educational requirements of the occupation is expected to be large and positive for math skills, which are relatively scarce, but lower for language and reasoning skills, which are relatively common. However, the estimated coefficients for the skill variables differ by sex. Math skills are associated with 2% higher wages in the male sample and 5% lower wages in the female sample.

Language skills also earn a premium in both samples. Based on the male sample, a 5% premium is assessed for language skills. The comparable coefficient measured with the female sample is 3%.

The results for reasoning skills are puzzling.

Reasoning skills are associated with significantly lower wages in the male sample, but this is not significant at a 95% level. No discernible wage differential is estimated with the female sample.

Physical Demands

It is expected that higher physical demands in an occupation will be associated with higher wages. This differential reflects the relative scarcity of these skills in addition to compensating wages required for physically demanding jobs. Employing the male sample, the regression estimates a differential of 12% higher compensation for










stressful occupations. The wage differential for the female sample is estimated at 6.5%, but at a lower level of significance.

Strength requirements in the male sample are estimated to reduce earnings by 4.3%. Similarly, for the female sample, the model estimates a -4.5% wage differential for strength requirements. Dexterity requirements increase wages by 5% in both samples.

Environmental Conditions

It is expected that the environmental conditions

variables will have positive coefficients which reflect compensating wages for discomfort. The coefficient for exposure to extreme heat estimated with the male sample indicates 10% greater compensation for this discomfort. No discernible differential is found with the female sample.

Exposure to extreme wetness for the male sample is

estimated to command 14% higher wages. Again, the female sample does not estimate any wage differential due to exposure to wetness.

Exposure to cold, noise or vibration was not

associated with a wage differential in either sample.

Hazards

significant positive wage differentials are expected for exposure to hazards as compensation for increased health and safety risks. Exposure to radiation is estimated by the regression to require a 36% wage










differential in the female sample and a 45% differential in the male sample.

Exposure to atmospheric conditions, risk of shock,

heights, mechanical equipment, explosives and toxins were not estimated to require any significant wage differential by either sample. Exposure to other hazards was reported to increase wages by 14% in the female sample, but this is estimated at a slightly reduced level of significance.

Unionization

Representation by unions is expected to be positively related to wages. However, the regression results differ by sex of sample. The regression for males estimated 7% higher wages at a high level of significance. The presence of unions does not indicate any improvement in earnings for females, however.

Fraction Nonwhite

It is expected that the fraction nonwhite will be

negatively related to wages due to the combined effect of low-quality schools and the practice of discrimination against nonwhites. The regression estimates a negative earnings effect of 5.3% for a 10% increase in percent nonwhite. No effect is indicated with the female sample.

Heteroskedast icity

Heteroskedasticity was discerned when residuals from the OLS regression of this model failed three tests of homoskedasticity. The first of the three tests which failed was the Breusch-Pagan-Godfrey Test; this is a










regression of the squared residuals on the independent variables. Similarly, the two other tests, the Harvey Test and the Glejser Test, are regressions of the log of the squared residuals and the absolute residual on the independent variables. With heteroskedasticity, the coefficients are not efficiently estimated.

To correct for heteroskedasticity, interpretations of coefficients are based on t-statistics constructed with White's (1980) consistent variance covariance matrix. This correction is asymptotically efficient in large samples, which is the case in this study. Elimination of the heteroskedasticity can sometimes provide more information; therefore, further investigation of the source is warranted.

Tests of the OLS residuals indicated that the squared OLS errors were positively related to the level of SVP and years of education. Based on this information, the sample was divided into two groups: Those with more than one year of SVP and those with less than one year of SVP. This division of the sample did not reduce the heteroskedasticity.

The model was reestimated with additional variables for each level of education and SVP. Each level became a dummy variable. Again, this did not reduce the heteroskedasticity problem.

In order to reduce the heteroskedasticity, weights were constructed and weighted least squares regressions










were employed. Weights based on the number of individuals representing the wage cell, both relative to the total individuals in the sample and to the total in the occupation, did not reduce the heteroskedasticity. In fact, these weights and their inverses increased the tested heteroskedasticity of the residuals.

Two weights were found to individually reduce the

heteroskedasticity of the errors in the male sample only. First, a weight was constructed in which all occupations were represented with the 30 possible wage observations. Since some occupations had less than 30 actual observations, each occupations' observations were weighted by the fraction 30 divided by the number of wage observations for the occupation.

Secondly, the weight which was found to most reduce

the heteroskedasticity of the errors was the inverse of the ratio of the number of individuals in the occupation to the number of individuals in the sample. This procedure essentially downweights the largest occupations.

In another procedure, the inverses of the squared OLS residuals were used as weights. This procedure downweights the observations with the largest errors. The weighting procedure failed due to the presence of residuals with no error which implied division by zero. A constant was then added to each squared residual and the model was reestimated. The heteroskedasticity was not reduced by as










much as by the model where larger occupations were given less weight.

Further research in this area should capitalize on the work of King regarding earnings differences between occupations. He found that the variance of earnings within occupations differs across occupations. This may be the cause of the heteroskedasticity problem in this study. Correcting for this form of heteroskedasticity and reestimating the model would result in more efficient estimates.

Conclusions

Data from the United States Government Departments on industries and occupations have become more standardized through the use of standard industrial classification and occupation coding systems. This facilitates creation of large data sets from multiple sources, such as the Bureaus of Census and Labor Statistics. In this study, the standard occupation code was used to link the data from multiple sources.

The premise that occupations exposed to higher employment volatility require compensating wage differentials was tested, and some evidence supporting the theory was found. The results are sensitive to the specification of the risk measure. Based on the unemployment risk measure which accounts for the covariance of employment opportunities across industries, both males










and females were found to require compensating wages for unemployment risk.

Other factors which were found to increase wages include higher occupational growth rates, education, experience, the occupation's skill requirements, dexterity requirements and exposure to radiation. Unemployment, high percentage female and strength requirements were found to be negatively related to wages.

Nonwhite males were found to have lower wages than

white males, and no differential was found for the female sample. Occupations exposed to stress, heat, or wetness require differentials in the male sample only. Additionally, the coefficients of the regional dummies differed by sex. Collinearity between percent nonwhite and geographic region dummies was tested and rejected as the source of the differences in estimates between males and females.

The inconsistencies in the results between the male and female samples may reflect omitted variable problems. Further research could include pooling the samples and adding the 1990 Census data as it becomes available. Potential omitted variables include a measure of the degree of transferability between occupations, better measures of occupational earnings which would include fringe benefits and geographic concentration of employment.

Despite these issues, it is worthwhile to study wages from an occupational perspective. Measures of unemployment






78



risk differ across occupations as compiled in this study. Others have found that compensating wages are required for exposure to unemployment risk as measured by industry employment variance alone. This study improves the risk measure by incorporating the covariance between industries' employment.
















APPENDIX A
INDUSTRY CLASSIFICATIONS

Agriculture
Metal Mining
Coal Mining
Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Mining Nonmetallic Minerals Except Fuels Mining Construction
Meat Products Manufacturing Dairy Products Manufacturing Grain Mill Products Manufacturing Beverages Manufacturing Other Food Manufacturing Tobacco Manufacturing Knitting Mills Manufacturing Textile Finishing, Except Wool Manufacturing Floor Coverings Manufacturing Miscellaneous Textile Goods Manufacturing Other Textile Manufacturing Apparel and Other Textile Products Manufacturing Paperboard Containers and Boxes Manufacturing Other Paper Manufacturing Newspapers Manufacturing Other Printing Manufacturing Plastics Manufacturing Drugs Manufacturing Soap, Cleaners and Toilet Goods Manufacturing Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Other Chemicals Manufacturing Petroleum Refining Manufacturing Other Petroleum Manufacturing Rubber Manufacturing Leather Tanning and Finishing Manufacturing Other Leather Manufacturing Other Nondurable Goods Manufacturing Logging Manufacturing Other Lumber Manufacturing Furniture and Fixtures Manufacturing Cement, Concrete, Gypsum & Plaster Manufacturing Structural Clay Products Manufacturing Pottery and Related Products Manufacturing Other Stone Manufacturing Blast Furnace & Basic Steel Production Manufacturing
Iron and Steel Foundries Other Metal Manufacturing Cutlery, Handtools, and Hardware Manufacturing









Screw Machine Products, Bolts, etc. Manufacturing Other Metal Fabrication Manufacturing Engines and Turbines Manufacturing Construction and Related Machinery Manufacturing Metalworking Machinery Manufacturing Other Office Machinery Manufacturing Household Appliances Manufacturing Other Electronic Equipment Manufacturing Motor Vehicles and Equipment Manufacturing Aircraft Space Vehicles and Parts Manufacturing Ship and Boat Building and Repairing Railroad Equipment Manufacturing Other Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Watches, Clocks, Watchcases and Parts Manufacturing Other Durable Goods Manufacturing Railroad Transportation Bus
Taxicabs
Trucking Service Public Warehousing and Storage U.S. Postal Service Airline
Pipelines, Except Natural Gas Radio and Television Broadcasting Telephone Communications Other Transportation and Public Utilities Wholesale Electrical Goods Apparel, Piece Goods and Notions Wholesale Wholesale Groceries and Related Products Other Wholesale Retail Department Stores Retail Food Stores Retail Gasoline Service Stations Other Automotive Retail Shoe Stores
Other Apparel
Furniture and Homefurnishings Stores Other Retail Furniture Eating and Drinking Places Drug Stores and Proprietary Stores Other Retail
Hotels
Advertising
Other Business Services Hospitals
Other Medical
College
Other Education Engineering
Other Services
















APPENDIX B
OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRY OF LARGEST CONCENTRATION


Industry


Concentration


SOC occupation


Advertising Agriculture











Airline


256 Advertising & Related Sales

086 Veterinarians 485 Supervisors 486 Groundskeepers 487 Animal Caretakers 488 Graders and Sorters 489 Inspectors 495 Forestry Workers 497 Captains & Other Officers Fishing 498 Fishers
499 Hunters and Trappers

226 Airplane Pilots 318 Transportation Ticket &
Reservation Agents 465 Public Transportation 508 Aircraft Engine Mechanics 863 Supervisors, Handlers, Equipment
Cleaners & Laborers

044 Aerospace Engineers 515 Aircraft Mechanics Except Engine 636 Precision Assemblers, Metal 714 Numerical Control Machine Operators


35%

84% 31%
43% 61% 100% 37%
84% 70% 90%
47%

78%

69% 91% 55%

12%

51% 50% 53%
22%

20% 50%
41% 79%
24% 8% 7%

20% 16% 52%
22%

13% 27% 8%


Aircraft & Space Vehicle Parts


Apparel & Other Textile






Blast Furnace Basic Steel


659 667 673
744 765 769 798


Misc. Precision Woodworkers Tailors
Apparel & Fabric Patternmakers Textile Sewing Machine Operators Folding Machine Operators Slicing & Cutting Machine Operators Production Samplers and Weighers


045 Metallurgical 544 Millwrights 707 Rolling Machine 724 Heat Treating Equipment Operator 766 Furnace, Kiln & Oven
Operators, Except Food 849 Crane & Tower Operators 873 Production Helpers










Concentration


Industry


SOC Occupation 808 Bus Drivers


47%

48% 23%
20% 11%
20% 27% 52% 17% 13%

78% 28% 31% 87%
40% 67% 29% 36%

31% 26%

42% 65%
12% 8%
45% 18%
34% 27% 26% 51% 29% 28%

37% 17% 37%
12% 42%

34% 23% 62% 7% 52%

21% 20%


Bus


Business Services




































Chemicals, other




Coal Mining




College


026 Management Analysts 064 Computer Systems 069 Physicists
184 Technical Writers 229 Computer Programmers 257 Sales Occupations, Other Business 284 Auctioneers 304 Supervisors-Computer Equipment 345 Duplicating Machine Operator 353 Communications Equipment
Operator nec
415 Supervisors-Guards 426 Guards & Police Except Public Serv. 455 Pest Control Occupations 505 Automobile Mechanics 514 Automobile Body & Related Repairers 523 Electronic Repairers Communications 525 Data Processing Equipment Repairers 526 Household Appliance and
Power Tool Repairer
533 Misc. Electronic Equipment Repairer 535 Camera, Watch & Musical
Instrument Repairers
536 Locksmiths & Safe Repair 547 Specified Mechanics & Repairers nec 549 Not Specified Mechanics & Repairers 668 Upholsterers 759 Painting & Paint Spraying Machine 774 Photographic Process Machine 789 Hand Painting, Coating & Decorating 793 Hand Engraving 813 Parking Lot Attendants 864 Helpers, Mechanics & Repairers 887 Vehicle Washers & Equipment Cleaner


048 073
224 756 757


Chemical Engineers Chemists
Chemical Engineering Technician Mixing & Blending Machine Operator Separating, Filtering & Clarifying


046 Mining Engineers 615 Explosive Workers 616 Mining Machine Operators 859 Misc. Material Moving Equipment 867 Helpers, Extractive Occup.

225 Science Technicians 235 Technicians except Health & Science










Industry SOC OccupationCnctrio


Construction 053 Civil Engineers
216 Engineering
516 Heavy Equipment Mechanics
519 Machinery Maintenance Occupations
534 Heating, Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Mechanics 543 Elevator Installers & Repairers
553 Supervisors, Brick & Stonemasons
554 Supervisors, Carpenters & Related
555 Supervisors, Electricians & Power Transmission 556 Supervisors, Painters,
Paperhangers & Plasterers 557 Supervisors, Plumbers, Pipefitters
558 Construction Supervisors nec
563 Brickmasons & Stonemasons 565 Tilesetters, Hard & Soft
567 Carpenters
573 Drywall Installers
575 Electricians
579 Painters, Construction & Maintenance
583 Paperhangers
584 Plasterers
585 Plumbers, Pipefitters & Steamfitters
588 Concrete & Terrazzo Finishers
593 Insulation Workers
594 Paving, Surfacing & Tamping
595 Roofers
596 Sheetmetal Duct Installers
597 Structural Metal Workers
598 Driller, Earth
599 Construction Trades nec
643 Boilermakers
653 Sheet Metal Workers 783 Welders and Cutters 844 Operating Engineers
853 Excavating & Loading Machine
855 Grader, Dozer & Scraper Operators
865 Helpers, Construction Trades
869 Construction Laborers

Crude 047 Petroleum Engineers
Petroleum 075 Geologists
& Natural 613 Supervisors, Extractive Occupations
Gas 614 Drillers, Oil Well
617 Mining Occupations nec 848 Hoist & Winch Operators


Drugs


223 Biological Technicians


Durable Goods 645 Patternmakers & Model Makers, Metal other 647 Precious Stones & Metals (Jewelers)


40% 18% 31% 11%

29% 51% 90% 83%

47%

86% 79% 90% 87% 85% 81% 97%
47% 69% 80% 90% 61% 95% 71% 90% 97% 62% 73%
84% 66% 26% 30%
12% 79% 60% 65% 79% 91%

80%
43% 53% 96% 39% 55%

22%

15% 53%


Concentration


Industry










Concentration


Industry


SOC Occupation


Patternmakers & Model Makers, Wood Patternmakers, Layout Workers Hand Grinding

Administrators Counselors
Librarians
Library Clerks Teachers' Aides supervisor cleaning & Building Janitors & Cleaners Child Care Workers Except Private

Nuclear Engineers Meter Readers Elec. Power Installers & Repairers Power Plant Operators

Electrical Engineers Industrial
Electrical
Production Coordinators Supervisors, Production Occupations Electronic Equipment Assemblers Inspectors, Testers & Graders Compressing & Compacting Machine Misc. Machine Operators nec Machine Operators, Not Specified Solderers and Braziers Assemblers
Production Inspectors, Checkers Production Testers

Engineers, Architects Engineer nec Surveyors
Drafting Technicians Surveying Technicians Helpers, Surveyor

Misc. Precision Metal Workers Punching and Stamping Press Forging Machine Operators Fabricating Machine Operators nec Metal Plating Machine Operators Misc. Metal & Plastic Processing

Financial Managers Managers Properties Underwriters Other Financial Officers Actuaries


30%
21% 26%

60% 50% 62% 62% 88% 15% 18% 39%

21% 58% 78% 72%

30%
14% 27% 8% 6% 70% 31% 8% 9% 7%
49% 19%
12% 19%

15%
24% 62%
22% 44% 51%

11%
22% 23% 15% 32% 15%

48% 83% 95% 67%
64%


656 676
794

014 163
164 329 387
448 453 468

049 366 577 695

055 056 213 363 633 683 689 758 777 779 784 785 796 797

043 059 063 217 218 866

655 706 713 717 723 725

007 016
024 025 066


Education other








Electrical




Electrical other















Engineering







Metal Fabricating





Financial Services, Insurance, Real Estate


















































003 005 006 008 027 033 035 036 037 065 067 068
074 076 077 078 079 168


Concentration


Industry


SOC Occupation


166 253
254 255 285 305 308 309 326 328 335 336 337

343 344 347 356 357 375 378 383 385
454


Economists Insurance
Real Estate Sales Securities & Financial Sales Sales Support Occupations nec Supervisors, Financial Records Computer Operators Peripheral Equipment Operators Correspondence Clerks Personnel Clerks, Except Payroll File Clerks Records Clerks Bookkeepers, Accounting & Auditing
Clerks
Cost & Rate Clerks Billing, Posting & Calculating Office Machine Operators nec Mail Clerks, Except Postal Service Messengers Insurance Adjusters Bill & Account Collectors Bank Tellers Data Entry Keyers Elevator Operators


14% 100% 97% 100%
22% 22% 15%
20% 33% 35%
22% 28%

14% 34% 69% 31% 17%
20% 100% 25% 100% 17% 31%


Food, other





Furniture & Fixtures Government


688 Food Batchmakers 754 Packaging & Filling Machine 763 Roasting & Baking Machine Operators 764 Washing, Cleaning & Pickling Machine 888 Hand Packers & Packagers

657 Cabinet Makers & Bench Carpenters 658 Furniture & Wood Finishers


43% 25% 55% 10% 11%

43% 44%

100% 96% 95% 9%
22% 9%
46% 71% 53%
20% 31% 36%
42% 42% 27%
24% 45% 34%


Legislators & Public Administration Administrators & Officials, Public Administrators, Protective Services Personnel & Labor Relations Manager Personnel Specialists Purchasing Agents nec Construction Inspectors Inspectors and Compliance Management Related Operations & Systems Researchers statisticians Mathematical Scientists Atmospheric Scientists Physical Scientists nec Agricultural Scientists Biological Scientists Forestry Scientists sociologists










Concentration


Industry


SOC Occupation


Social Scientists Urban Planners Judges
Air Traffic Controllers Broadcast Equipment Supervisors, General Office Stenographers Typists
Interviewers Payroll & Timekeeping Clerk Investigators, Except Insurance General Office Statistical Clerks Administrative Support nec Supervisors, Firefighting Supervisors, Police Fire Inspection & Prevention Occup. Firefighting Police & Detective, Private Service Sheriff, Bailiff, Other Law Correctional Institution Crossing Guards


38% 79% 100% 100% 58% 26% 38% 23%
34% 11% 23% 15%
20% 21% 93% 100%
43% 95% 100% 100% 100% 92%


169 173 179 227 228 303
314 315 316 338 376 379 386 389
413 414 416 417 418 423 424 425


Grain Mill Products Hospitals
















Hotels



Iron & Steel Foundries


768 Crushing & Grinding Machine Operator 16%


015 083 095 097 106 203 205 206 207 208 339
446 447 696

317
449 466


Managers, Medicine Medical Scientists Registered Nurse Dieticians
Physicians Assistants Clinical Laboratory Technologists Health Record Technologists Radiologic Technicians Licensed Practical Nurses Health Technologists Billing Clerks Health Aides, Except Nursing Nursing Aides, Orderlies Stationary Engineers

Hotel Clerks Maids & Housemen Baggage Porters


62% 39% 73% 60% 32% 76% 82% 79% 66% 53% 13%
47% 50% 9%


100% 32% 61%


675 Hand Molders & Shapers Except Jewel 21%


Leather Logging


93% 61% 78%


745 Shoe Machine Operators 494 Supervisors 496 Timber Cutting
































































Funeral Directors Photographers Sales Counter Clerks Barbers


Industry


Concentration


SOC Occupation


Wood Lathe, Routing & Planing sawing machine operators Shaping & Joining Machine Operator Nailing & Tacking Machine Operator Misc. Woodworking Machine Operator

Agricultural Engineers Tool Programmers Machinists
Precision Grinder, Filer & Tool Misc. Precision Workers nec Lathe & Turning Machine Setup Lathe & Turning Machine Operator Milling & Planing Machine Operator Drilling and Boring Grinding, Abrading, Buffing


Lumber, other





Machinery, other


726 727 728 729 733

054 233 637
644 684 703
704 705 708 709


64% 53% 25% 51%
49%

53% 10% 26% 15% 58%
20% 28% 25% 25%
14%

29%

56% 93% 86% 90% 95% 29% 95% 25% 95% 86%

21%


14% 17% 30%

39% 78%
46% 17%

9%


7% 10%

95%
34% 52% 97%


Meat Products 786 Hand Cutting and Trimming


Physicians Dentists Optometrists Podiatrists Health Diagnosing nec Psychologists Dental Hygienists Receptionists Dental Assistants Dental Lab & Medical Appliance Tech


Medical other


084 085 087 088 089 167
204 319
445 678


Metalworking Machinery Motor Vehicles & Equipment Newspapers




Paperboard


634 Tool & Die Makers


Mechanical Engineers Mechanical Technicians Misc. Metal, Plastic, Stone & Glass


057 215 715


195 Editors
278 News Vendors 325 Classified Ad Clerks 346 Mail Preparing & Paper Handling

753 Cementing & Gluing Machine operator


Containers & Boxes


Paper, other Personal Services


214 Industrial 369 Samplers


018 189 275
457










SOC Occupation


Concentration


Industry


Hairdressers Dressmakers Shoe Repairers Pressing Machine Operators Laundering & Drycleaning Machine


96% 27% 51% 55%
54%

31%


40% 27% 90% 57% 71%
54% 79%

85%


55% 93% 82% 91% 88% 15%

33%


21% 33%

13%
24% 10% 29%

69%


10%
64% 81% 85% 62% 89%
84% 54% 61%
47%


458 666 669 747 748


Pottery 787 Hand Molding, Casting and Forming
& Related Products


Printing, other


Proofreaders
Engravers, Metal Bookbinders
Printing Machine Operators Photoengravers and Lithographers Typesetters and Compositors Misc. Printing Machine Operators


384 649 679
734 735 736 737


Radio & 198 Announcers
Television Broadcasting


Railroad Transport





Retail Apparel

Retail Automotive

Retail Department Stores


Retail Drug & Proprietary

Retail Eating & Drinking Places


349 823
824 825 826
843


Telegraphers
Railroad Conductors & Yardmasters Locomotive Operating occupations Railroad Brake, Signal & Switch Rail Vehicle Operators nec Supervisors Material Moving Equip.


674 Misc. Precision Apparel & Fabric 503 Supervisors, Mechanics & Repairers 509 Small Engine Repairers


Purchasing Managers Buyers
Expediters Material Recording & Scheduling


009 029 373
374


096 Pharmacists


Managers and Administrators nec Supervisors, Food Preparation Bartenders
Waiters & Waitresses Cooks, Except Short Order Short Order Cooks Food Counter Kitchen Workers Waiters' & Waitresses' Assistants Misc. Food Preparation


019
433 434 435 436 437 438 439 443 444










Industry


SOC Occupation


Concentration


Retail Food Stores




Retail Furniture


276 686 687 795 877


Cashiers
Butchers & Meat Cutters Bakers
Misc. Hand Working Stock Handlers & Baggers


42% 58%
54% 11% 69%

46%


75%


22% 23% 71% 19% 39%
45%

22% 27%

26% 56%
74% 52%
44% 40% 96% 91% 77% 77% 81% 53%
34% 71% 50%
14% 49% 37%
14% 42% 34% 36%
64% 29% 81%
64% 16%
84%


566 Carpet Installers


Retail 885 Garage & Service Station Related
Gasoline Service Stations


Retail, other 185
243 277 283 589 677


Designers
Supervisors & Proprietors, Sales Street & Door-to-door Sales Demonstrators, Promoters & Models Glaziers
Optical Goods Workers


Rubber


719 Molding & Casting Machine Operators 755 Extruding & Forming Machine Operator


Services,
other


023
034 155 165
174 175 176 177 178 183 186 187 188 193
194 197 199
234 313 377
427 456 459 463 464 467 469 773


Accountants Business and Promotion Agents Teachers, Pre-kindergarten Archivists Social Workers Recreation Clergy
Religious workers Lawyers
Authors
Musicians and Composers Actors and Directors Painters, Sculptors, Craft Artists Dancers
Artists
Public Relations Athletes Legal Assistants Secretaries Eligibility Clerks Protective Service Occupations Supervisors Personal Service Attendants, Amusement Guides
Ushers
Welfare Service Personal Service Occupations nec Motion Picture Projectionists










Industry SOC OccupationCocnatn


Ship & Boat Building

Taxicabs

Telephone comunnicat ion





Textile, other





Transport. Communication & Public Utilities









Trucking Service





U.S. Postal Service


646 Layout Workers


809 Taxicab Drivers & Chauffeurs


306 323 327
348 527 529

518 738 739
743 749 878

058 539
694 699
814 828 829 833
834 845 875 876

359 507 803
804 805 883

017 307
354 355


chief communications Information Clerks nec Order Clerks
Telephone Operators Telephone Line Installers & Repairer Telephone Installers & Repairers

Industrial Machinery Repairers Winding & Twisting Machine Oper. Knitting, Looping & Weaving Mach. Textile Cutting Machine Oper. Misc. Textile Machine Operators Machine Feeders & Of fbearers

Marine Engineers Mechanical Controls & Valve Repairer Water & Sewage Treatment Plant Misc. Plant & System Operators Motor Transportation Occup. nec Ship Captains & Mates Except Fishing Sailors & Deckhands Marine Engineers Bridge, Lock & Lighthouse Tenders Longshore Equipment Operators Garbage Collectors Stevedores

Dispatchers
Bus, Truck & Stationary Engine Mech. Supervisors, Motor Vehicle Operators Truck Drivers, Heavy Truck Drivers, Light Freight Stock & Material Handler nec

Postmasters
Supervisors, Distributions Postal Clerks, Except Mail Carriers Mail Carriers, Postal Service


Watches, 693 Adjusters & Calibrators
Clocks, Watchcases & Parts


Wholesale Grocery

Wholesale other


799 Graders and Sorters 806 Driver-Sales Workers

013 Managers Marketing 028 Purchasing Agents


57%


48%

87% 13%
21% 46% 86% 86%

7%
76% 59% 33% 50% 15%

55%
45% 82% 23% 51%
74% 77% 53%
43% 91% 80% 91%

24% 29%
34% 41% 17%
22%

1.00%
19% 1.00% 1.00%

63%


20% 25%

14% 68%


Industry


Concentration






91


Industry SOC Occupation Concentration

258 Sales Engineers 24%
259 Sales Rep., Mining, Mfg. & Wholesale 49% 364 Traffic, Shipping 10%
365 Stock & Inventory 8%
368 Weighers & Measurers 9%
517 Farm Equipment Mechanics 58%
538 Office Machine Repairers 38%
856 Industrial Truck & Tractor Equipment 6% 889 Laborers, Except Construction 10%
















APPENDIX C
RISK MEASURES FOR DETAILED OCCUPATIONS

SOC Three-digit Level Classification Dummy H

Managerial and Professional Specialty 0 0.07
Executive, Administrative & Managerial 0 0.05
003 Legislators & Public Administration 1 1.00
005 Administrators, Officials, Pub. Admin. 1 0.92
006 Administrators, Protective Services 1 0.91
007 Financial Managers 1 0.24
008 Personnel and Labor Relations 0 0.03
009 Purchasing 0 0.04
013 Managers Marketing 0 0.05
014 Administrators 1 0.45
015 Managers Medicine 1 0.51
016 Managers Properties 1 0.70
017 Postmasters 1 1.00
018 Funeral Directors 1 0.90
019 Managers and Administrators nec 0 0.04
023 Accountants 0 0.11
024 Underwriters 1 0.91
025 Other Financial Officers 1 0.47
026 Management Analysts 1 0.26
027 Personnel 0 0.09
028 Purchasing Agents 1 0.49
029 Buyers 0 0.16
033 Purchasing Agents nec 0 0.03
034 Business and Promotion Agents 1 0.34
035 Construction Inspectors 1 0.33
036 Inspectors and Compliance 1 0.50
037 Management Related 1 0.29
Professional Specialty 0 0.14
043 Architects 0 0.06
044 Aerospace Engineers 1 0.37
045 Metallurgical Engineers 0 0.08
046 Mining Engineers 0 0.19
047 Petroleum Engineers 1 0.64
048 Chemical Engineers 0 0.16
049 Nuclear Engineers 0 0.12
053 Civil Engineers 0 0.24
054 Agricultural Engineers 1 0.33
055 Electrical Engineers 0 0.13
056 Industrial Engineers 0 0.05
057 Mechanical Engineers 0 0.06
058 Marine Engineers 1 0.35
059 Engineer nec 0 0.09
063 Surveyors 1 0.41










SOC
064 Computer Systems
065 operations and Systems Researchers
066 Actuaries
067 Statisticians
068 Mathematical Scientists
069 Physicists
073 Chemists
074 Atmospheric
075 Geologists
076 Physical Scientists nec
077 Agricultural
078 Biological
079 Forestry
083 Medical
084 Physicians
085 Dentists
086 Veterinarians
087 Optometrists
088 Podiatrists
089 Health Diagnosing nec
095 Registered Nurse
096 Pharmacists
097 Dieticians
106 Physicians Assistants
155 Teachers, Prekindergarten
163 Counselors 164 Librarians 165 Archivists 166 Economists
167 Psychologists
168 Sociologists
169 Social Scientists
173 Urban Planners 174 Social Workers
175 Recreation
176 Clergy
177 Religious
178 Lawyers
179 Judges
183 Authors
184 Technical Writers
185 Designers
186 Musicians and Composers
187 Actors and Directors
188 Painters, Sculptors, Craft Artists
189 Photographers
193 Dancers 194 Artists 195 Editors
197 Public Relations
198 Announcers
199 Athletes
Technical Sales and Administrative


Dummy
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0










0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1




0
0


0
0


0
0


0


H
0.10 0.08
0.47 0.12 0.18
0.12 0.06
0.21 0.23
0.21 0.17 0.13 0.32
0.21 0.46 0.87 0.72
0.74 0.82 0.90 0.56 0.53
0.40 0.24 0.60 0.33
0.44 0.30 0.06
0.20 0.21 0.23 0.63 0.32 0.29 0.92
0.84 0.61 1.00 0.60 0.06 0.09 0.66
0.40 0.17 0.18 0.56 0.27
0.21 0.07
0.74 0.32 0.05










Dummy
0






0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0



0
0
0
0
0
0
1


0
0
0


0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


H
0.08 0.61 0.90 0.68 0.66 0.51 0.33 0.11 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.25 0.10 0.16 0.07 0.60 1.00 0.38 0.08 0.05
0.24 0.08 0.09
0.12 1.00
0.94 1.00
0.22 0.16 0.09 0.26 0.33
0.22 0.51 0.63 0.09
0.34 0.11 0.05
0.12 0.08 0.07 0.75 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.18 0.10 0.19 0.99
0.49


e


SOC
Technicians
203 Clinical Laboratory
204 Dental Hygienists
205 Health Record
206 Radiologic Technicians
207 Licensed Practical Nurses
208 Health Technologists
213 Electrical Technologists 214 Industrial Technologists 215 Mechanical Technologists
216 Engineering Technologists
217 Drafting Technologists
218 Surveying Technologists
223 Biological Technologists
224 Chemical Technologists
225 Science Technologists nec
226 Airplane Pilots
227 Air Traffic Controllers
228 Broadcast Equipment 229 Computer Programmers
233 Tool Programmers 234 Legal Assistants 235 Technicians nec Sales Occupations
243 Supervisors & Proprietors, Sales
253 Insurance
254 Real Estate Sales
255 Securities & Financial Services Sal
256 Advertising and Related Sales
257 Sales Occupations, Other Business
258 Sales Engineers
259 Sales Reps.
275 Sales Counter Clerks
276 Cashiers
277 Street and Door-to-door
278 News Vendors
283 Demonstrators, Promoters and Models
284 Auctioneers
285 Sales Support Occupations nec Administrative Support
303 Supervisors General Office
304 Supervisors, Computer Equipment
305 Supervisors, Financial Records
306 Chief Communications
307 Supervisors, Distributions
308 Computer Operators
309 Peripheral Equipment Operators
313 Secretaries
314 Stenographers
315 Typists
316 Interviewers 317 Hotel Clerks
318 Transportation Ticket & Reservation


s




Full Text
OCCUPATIONS AND COMPENSATING
WAGES FOR UNEMPLOYMENT RISK
By
Cynthia D. Stephens
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1992

Copyright 1992
by
Cynthia D. Stephens

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The research reported in this paper was sponsored by
the firm of Deiter, Stephens and Durham. The author thanks
Lawrence Kenny, David Denslow, Douglas Waldo, Stephen
Donald, Robert Emerson, John Deiter, Stephen Durham and the
participants in the Micro-Macro Empirical Economics
Workshop for their valuable comments and suggestions. In
addition, most sincere thanks go to Elizabeth Fortier for
editorial assistance and to my parents and family for their
support.
in

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
ABSTRACT vi
CHAPTERS
1 UNEMPLOYMENT RISK 1
2 OCCUPATIONAL WAGE 9
Long-Run Equilibrium 9
Short-Run Equilibrium 14
Industry Wage Differentials 17
Evidence of Occupational Wage Differentials...21
Conclusions 22
3 OCCUPATIONAL RISK MEASURES 23
4 EMPIRICAL STUDY 51
5 TEST RESULTS 59
Risk Measures 61
Growth Rates 64
Unemployment Rates 67
Geographic Location 67
Fraction Female 68
Fraction Employed in Industry 68
Education and SVP 70
Experience 70
GED 71
Physical Demands 71
Environmental Conditions 72
Hazards 72
Unionization 73
Fraction Nonwhite 73
Heteroskedasticity 73
Conclusions 76
APPENDICES
A INDUSTRY CLASSIFICATIONS 79
iv

B OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRY OF
LARGEST CONCENTRATION 81
C RISK MEASURES FOR DETAILED OCCUPATIONS 92
D VARIANCE RISK MEASURE BY
DETAILED OCCUPATION 101
E ORDINARY LEAST SQUARES REGRESSIONS Ill
F GED SCORE - REASONING 133
G GED SCORE - MATH 146
H GED SCORE - LANGUAGE 159
I SVP SCORE 172
J DEXTERITY 185
K STRESS 187
L STRENGTH 190
M EXTREME COLD 203
N EXTREME HEAT 205
0 EXTREME WET 209
P EXTREME NOISE 214
Q VIBRATION 222
R ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS 230
S MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT 23 6
T SHOCK 238
U HEIGHTS 239
V RADIATION 240
W EXPLOSIVES 241
X TOXINS 242
Y OTHER HAZARDS 243
BIBLIOGRAPHY 245
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 248
v

Abstract of Dissertation Presented
to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
OCCUPATIONS AND COMPENSATING
WAGES FOR UNEMPLOYMENT RISK
By
Cynthia D. Stephens
August 1992
Chairman: Dr. Lawrence Kenny
Major Department: Economics
The study tests the theory that occupations with
employment opportunities concentrated in an industry (or
similar industries) require a compensating wage relative to
occupations with diversified opportunities across many
industries. An occupational risk measure was constructed
that accounts for the variance and covariance of industry
employment. This risk measure was tested and earnings were
found to be positively related to occupational employment
risk.
vi

CHAPTER 1
UNEMPLOYMENT RISK
Most studies of the effect of unemployment risk on
wages do not control for differences between occupations.
Since individuals choose education and training for an
occupation rather than an industry, this study will explore
compensating wage effects from an occupational standpoint.
The observed wage paid to an occupation reflects its
contribution to the employer's revenues, in addition to the
preferences of the individual providing the labor services.
In equilibrium, the wage is simultaneously determined by
these demand and supply factors. If all occupations were
identical in skill requirements, enjoyment and risk, wages
would not vary between occupations, but clearly these
features do differ. Individual preference is a factor.
Consider, for example, differences between occupations in
exposure to hazards. Occupations which are more hazardous
are compensated at a higher rate than those lacking such
risks. The increased wage level reflects individual
preference for safer occupations and the resulting demand
for a compensating wage in a riskier environment.
Wages also reflect unemployment risk, a factor which
differs between occupations. To see this, suppose that
utility is a function of consumption and leisure, as
1

Consumption
2
Figure (1-1)

3
depicted in Figure 1-1. Competition among firms will make
a worker indifferent between occupations offering the
combinations of consumption and leisure depicted by the
indifference curve "U." This individual would be
indifferent in selecting between an occupation offering (T-
Tl) hours of work each week which provided consumption at
the level of Me and one with some unemployment if it
yielded consumption at the level of Mu when unemployed (and
enjoying T hours of leisure) and Me when employed. If
wages are paid only during employment weeks and the number
of weeks unemployed is equal to the number of weeks
employed, the occupation with unemployment must have Mu
higher wages than the occupation with no unemployment risk
for the individual to be indifferent between the
occupations. The formula which represents this
relationship is described by Equation 1-1. The occupation
with no unemployment risk is denoted by superscript "A" and
the occupation with unemployment risk is denoted by
superscript "B.”
MBe = (Muu)/(52-u)+MAe Equation 1-1
As the unemployment period (u) lengthens, compensation for
occupation B (M e) must be higher m order for an
individual to be indifferent between occupations A and B.
Others have estimated the effect of risk on wages.
King (1974) examines the relationship between occupational
choice and risk aversion. He defines two types of earnings
risk: How an individual will fare relative to others in

4
the same occupation and how the occupation fares in
response to structural and business cycle risk.
King tests for wage differentials due to the first
type of risk. He finds that riskier occupations offer
higher mean incomes and that individuals from wealthier
families choose the riskier occupations. King's measure of
risk is the variance of earnings within an occupational
classification.
In exploring wage differentials for unemployment risk,
Adams (1985) tests for compensating wage differentials
based on geographic and industry unemployment differences.
The regression model tested is outlined in Table 1-1.
Table 1-1
Adam's Risk Model
Log Hourly Wage =
f(U,R,C,S,E,H,M,0,R,X,TrL,D,N,Y,G)
Variable Definitions:
U - State Unemployment Rate
R - State Unemployment Insurance
Replacement Ratio (UI
Benefits/Employed Earnings)
C - Current Industry
Unemployment Rate
S - Years of Schooling
E - Years of Experience
H - Health Limitation
M - Marital Status
0 - Union Membership
R - Race
X - Sex
T - City Size
L - Climate
D - Durable Goods
N - Nondurable Goods
Y - Industry Sensitivity
G - Industry Growth Rate
Differentials are divided into permanent and
transitory components by controlling for state unemployment
insurance benefits. The data comes from Waves 4-10 of the
Panel Study of Income Dynamics, which contain industry
identifiers for seventeen industries. The calculation of

5
the growth rate begins with a regression of log GNP on
Time, defining the predicted value as Trend and the
residual value as Deviation.
Adams calculates regressions of log Industry Value
Added on the Trend and Deviation values. The coefficient
on Trend is the industry growth variable, and the
coefficient on Deviation is a variable measuring the
industry's sensitivity to the business cycle. The results
show that wage differentials are related to long-run
unemployment differences between industries. Wages are
also found to be higher in industries which are cyclically
sensitive. Adams does not measure the effects of any risk
unrelated to the business cycle.
Li (1986) also measures the effect of unemployment
risk on the wage differential between industries. Li tests
whether wages are a function of both the systematic
(cyclical or market) unemployment risk and the
nonsystematic (industry-specific) risk. Li uses the Panel
Study of Income Dynamics covering white male heads of
household over the period 1969-1973. To measure the
systematic risk, individuals are grouped into fourteen two-
digit level industries. Those in the same industry are
assumed to face the same systematic and nonsystematic risk.
The hours worked value is regressed on the prior period's
hours and on the rate of change in real GNP. A pooled
industry regression and a full sample regression are
calculated. The predicted hours value from the industry

6
regression is the industry employment norm, and the
predicted value from the full sample is the economy-wide
norm. The residual variances (MSE) from the industry
regressions are the estimate of the industry-specific,
noncyclical risk of unemployment. The cyclical risk (COV)
is estimated by the residual variance derived from a
regression of the difference between industry predicted
hours and economy-wide predicted hours on the rate of
change in real GNP. Both MSE and COV are divided by the
mean number of hours in the industry for the empirical
measures of risk. Li's test of compensating wages is
outlined in Table 1-2.
Table 1-2
Li's Risk Model
Log Wage= f(E,D,PC0V,PMSE,EX,R,0)
Variable Definitions:
E-Education PMSE-Noncyclical
D-Difference in Hours from Unemployment Risk
Average Economy Hours EX-Experience
PCOV-Industry Cyclical Systematic R-Regional Dummies
Unemployment Risk O-Occupational Dummies
Positive compensating wage differentials are found for
both measures of risk. Differences in industry
unemployment risks can explain 14-41% of the observed
differences in wages. The noncyclical risk compensating
wage differentials are much higher than the cyclical risk
compensating wage differentials.
Li's study has two main deficiencies: It is concerned
with the industry of employment, yet only fourteen

7
industries are isolated, and the control for occupational
differences is broadly classified at six occupational
groupings. If the sample of occupations in the Current
Population Survey (CPS) data was as large as the sample of
industries of employment, Li's model could be reestimated
with occupations. However, observations for three-digit or
four-digit classification of occupations are too infrequent
for consistent estimates with the annual CPS database.
Both studies document wage differentials for
unemployment risk with measures based on the cyclical
behavior of the industry in which the individual is
employed. The industry data approach is used because
annual data are reported by industry rather than by
occupation. However, specific occupational risk appears
more relevant to an individual's human capital decision and
is therefore worthy of study. An occupation's unemployment
risk should reflect the combined unemployment risk of all
industries in which the occupation is employed. If
individuals require a compensating wage for unemployment
risk and occupations differ in their exposure to this risk,
then the wage differential between occupations should be
measurable. If an occupation is closely linked to an
industry, the cyclical and long-run unemployment risks of
that occupation reflect the risks of the industry. If an
occupation has employment opportunities in many industries,
the unemployment risk should be diversified.

8
Since occupations differ in employment opportunities
between industries, occupations may be considered as having
varying degrees of diversification. The data indicate that
industry-diversified occupations, such as that of secretary
or accountant, are relatively low-paying occupations. For
example, in 1979, 35-year-old males with college degrees
working full-time in securities and financial services
sales occupations earned an average of $20.25 per hour.
Similar males employed as accountants and auditors earned
$13.16 per hour. This differential could be considered a
compensating wage for the concentration of security sales
occupations in the finance industry; economic theory would
suggest that stockbrokers require a wage premium to cover
future downturns in the finance industry which would expose
them to a period of unemployment.
This study provides documentation of the importance of
an occupational perspective in the analysis of wage
differentials, especially the effect of compensation for
unemployment risk. The method of calculation of industry
risk used by Li and Adams defines risk based on variances
in industry employment. Building on their methodology,
this study adds an occupational employment variance measure
and includes factors such as skill requirements and hazard
features in order to comprehensively analyze wage
differentials between occupations.

CHAPTER 2
OCCUPATIONAL WAGE
The primary determinants of an occupation's wage must
be identified before any compensating wage effect due to
risk can be studied. Wages paid to an occupation are
fundamentally determined by supply and demand factors; wage
levels fluctuate in response to changes in the number of
qualified people who are seeking employment and changes in
industry demand for such skills. The wage paid to an
occupation is thus determined simultaneously by the forces
of supply and demand.
Long-Run Equilibrium
Long-run occupational wage differences are defined as
differentials which have no tendency to change unless there
is a change in the long-run demand or supply. In
equilibrium, if the wage paid to one occupation exceeds the
wage paid to another, the difference exists due to
differing supply and demand characteristics for the
occupation.
In general, the labor supply for all occupations is
determined by individual preferences for work versus
leisure and the availability of nonwage income. The labor
supply to a particular occupation, however, is influenced
by the cost of acquiring the necessary skills to enter that
9

10
occupation. These costs include required education and
specific vocational preparation. If there is an initial
investment cost to train for a profession, that
occupation's wage would be higher than an occupation with
little or no initial training cost in order to generate a
return on the skill investment.
The nonwage aspects of the occupation, such as
prestige, health or safety risks and income variability,
also influence the supply of individuals to an occupation.
In long-run equilibrium, wages adjust to levels that enable
individuals to be indifferent in selecting occupations.
The resulting wage differentials are defined as
compensating wages for nonwage features.
In addition, market imperfections which restrict the
supply of workers to an occupation will result in wage
differentials. Barriers to entry into an occupation can be
established by licensing or certification requirements and
union control of job placements.
The long-run demand for labor in an occupation is
determined by the forces which affect the profit-
maximizing combination of a firm's capital and labor.
Therefore, changes in the demand for a firm's product, in
the cost of other production resources, or in the firm's
production technology will influence the demand for a
particular occupation.
The long-run supply and demand relationship is
illustrated in Figure 2-1. If individuals have identical

11
preferences, then the long-run equilibrium wage for an
occupation, denoted by w*, reflects characteristics of this
occupation relative to other occupations. For each of the
L* employed in the occupation, the wage compensates for
human capital brought into the occupation in addition to
any characteristics of the occupation which require a
compensating wage. Thus, the equilibrium wage includes any
compensation for the probability of cyclical or seasonal
unemployment.
Numerous studies of equilibrium wage differentials
primarily assume that the current wage is the long-run
equilibrium wage. These studies measure wage differentials
between individuals based on differences in skill levels
and educational accomplishments, commonly referred to as
human capital stocks, and in nonwage features of their
current industry or employer.
As Gary Becker (1975) argues, human capital is an
important determinant of wages. Human capital theory
proposes measuring an individual's stocks of human capital,
categorized as general and firm-specific skills. These
stocks can be considered capital on which individuals earn
a return. When an individual changes employer, firm-
specific skills do not transfer and the new wage rate is
determined by general skills transferred by the individual
which are applicable to the new employer.
Individuals can be envisioned as possessing other
classes of human capital skill stocks. Skills may be

12
Figure (2-1)

13
sorted by employer, occupation, or industry. An individual
facing a human capital investment decision, such as the
choice of a college major or a change of employer, is
evaluating an additional investment in the occupation or an
employer skill investment. Individuals do not typically
evaluate an investment of human capital in an industry
independent of an investment in an occupation or employer.
More commonly, individuals invest in education or training
specific to an occupation. Therefore, a comprehensive
analysis of wage differentials between occupations requires
information about differences between occupations. In
considering skills from the perspective of individual
investment, the relevant analysis concerns human capital
investments in occupations and the expected return.
A similar analysis was done by Shaw (1984). Using the
National Longitudinal Survey of men aged 14-24 over the
period 1966-1975, Shaw studies wages as a return on
occupational investment at a three-digit level of
occupational classification.
Shaw calculates the total occupational investment as
the sum of stocks of specific occupational investment
weighted by the transferability of skills between
occupations. As a first approximation of specific
occupational skills, Shaw employs information from the
Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The Standard Vocational
Preparation (SVP) score is derived from a nine-level scale

14
which indicates the amount of time necessary to acquire the
skills necessary to perform the job at an average level.
The second measure of specific occupational skill is the TQ
measure from the Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics.
This is the scored response to the question "How long would
it take an average person to become qualified in a job like
yours?" Transferability is measured by similarity of
occupational mobility patterns. Shaw finds that an
occupational investment measure that takes into account the
level of investment brought from previous occupations is a
stronger determinant of income than work force experience.
Short-Run Equilibrium
The relationship between short-run supply and demand
is depicted in Figure 2-2. A new level of long-run demand
for an occupation, which is represented by the shift of the
demand curve, denoted by D1^, may result in an increase in
wages if no trained, unemployed individuals are available
to meet the excess demand. In the short-run, the labor
supply curve is steeper than in the long-run. Labor
markets are not as efficient as goods markets. If one has
both the skills to compete in an occupation that is in
great demand and the ability to move to the job site, one
will earn rents as an early adapter until others relocate
and drive the wage down. Additionally, a higher wage is
required to motivate established workers in other
occupations to forgo the return on human capital specific
to the occupation and enter an alternative occupation.

15
Similarly, a higher wage is required to motivate
established workers in other firms to forgo the return on
human capital specific to a firm and seek employment with a
new firm.
If time is required for individuals to acquire the
skills necessary to perform an occupation and there is an
insufficient number of qualified unemployed individuals,
the short-run supply curve would be vertical for any wage
greater than w*. The dynamic effects of changes in demand
for an occupation are evident in unemployment rates for the
occupation. Current unemployment rates should be lower
than average in occupations which have experienced a recent
increase in demand, since the existing unemployed move to
fill the vacancies. Over time, individuals receive the
required training and enter the profession. The short-run
supply then shifts to the right over time, driving the wage
down toward w .
In order to induce individuals to leave an occupation,
the wage must fall below w*. In Figure 2-2, the decrease
in long-run demand for an occupation is depicted by a
downward shift in the demand curve to D lr* The
equilibrium wage falls, the number of individuals employed
decreases, and the unemployment rate in the profession is
higher than average. Individuals in this occupation will
experience unemployment while they change occupations.
In summary, there is a positive relationship between
wages and the number of employed individuals. A growing

16
Figure (2-2)

17
occupation will command a higher wage. This is necessary
to bring about an unusually high rate of entry into an
occupation. The relationship between unemployment rates
and wages is inverse, however. The wage rate decreases as
unemployment increases. Unemployed individuals must
relocate in order to find alternative employment or be
retrained.
Wage levels and short-run demand shifts due to a
business cycle or seasonal demand are not necessarily
correlated. If the long-run wage w* already reflects
compensation for the probability of short-run unemployment,
there is no need to further adjust the wage level to induce
individuals to enter or leave the profession.
If an occupation is expanding in the long-run and has
high seasonal unemployment, fluctuations in employment are
absorbed through changes in the rate of new hiring and
layoffs. If the occupation is contracting in the long-run,
the occupation will have a slower rate of new entry.
Industry Wage Differentials
Research on wage differentials between industries
includes studies compiled by Krueger and Summers (1988) and
Katz and Summers (1989). These studies use the CPS data to
test for wage differentials between industries. The
findings include the observation that some industries
(e.g., mining and petroleum) consistently pay higher wages
than other industries (e.g., food and beverage
establishments and household services). This ranking of

18
industry wage differentials holds over time and between
large classes of occupations, even with controls for
unions, education, and experience. The results hold even
between countries. The inclusion of fringe benefits
increases rather than decreases the industry wage
differential.
Krueger and Summers attribute these industry
differentials to efficiency wage practices in some
industries. Efficiency wage practices should be examined,
because they account for involuntary unemployment. The
literature defines "efficiency wages" as the payment of a
wage higher than the value of marginal product (VMP). The
firm benefits because the higher wage discourages shirking,
excessive turnover or malfeasance, all of which increase
the firm's costs. Firms "share rents" with workers;
employees are motivated to perform in the firm's best
interest due to the risk of unemployment if their behavior
results in dismissal. Current unemployment must exist in
order to make dismissal an effective deterrent. Without
current unemployment, the employee would have the option of
finding a position at another firm.
Current unemployment is not required in other
compensation schemes in which the wage paid differs from
the VMP. Lazear (1976) proposes an age-dependent wage
profile in which an implicit wage contract exists between
the firm and the employee. The employee is paid a wage
lower than the VMP early in his or her career and is paid a

19
wage in excess of the VMP at the end of his or her career.
Essentially, employees post a performance bond with the
firm while working for a wage lower than the VMP. The
employee is repaid in the form of higher wages at the end
of his or her career only if job performance is
satisfactory to the firm. Otherwise, the employee is
dismissed and the bond is forfeited. The loss of the bond
is the deterring force in this case, rather than the risk
of unemployment.
Becker and Stigler (1974) also describe a model in
which wages are paid in excess of VMP. If the opportunity
for undetected malfeasance is high, as in the case of a
police officer accepting a bribe, the employee should be
compensated at a wage higher than the potential earnings in
an alternative position. The loss of the higher earnings
stream reduces the expected benefits from malfeasance after
weighting for the probability of detection resulting in
dismissal. In this model, unemployment is not preventing
the malfeasance; it is prevented by the risk of losing the
higher earnings stream.
These wage theories are not easily tested, since data
on both the firm and the employee are required to compare
wages and costs of shirking, malfeasance and turnover, and
comprehensive data sets of both firms and employees have
not been constructed. However, the main implication of the
efficiency wage theory is that higher wages are paid in
industries with higher levels of unemployment. Indeed, the

20
theory is specifically designed to explain higher
unemployment. The effects of efficiency wages are not
easily isolated from the effects of compensating wages for
expected unemployment discussed in this study, since both
theories relate wages and unemployment. However, the
distinction is found in the difference between levels and
variability. For example, if a normal unemployment level
generated by efficiency wages is assumed to exist in an
industry, compensating wages for unemployment risk could
still be required if cyclical volatility is higher in the
industry.
Differences in wage levels between industries
documented by Krueger and Summers could also be attributed
to any factors that differ between industries, such as risk
characteristics. For example, many occupations in the
mining industry are not found in any other industry,
therefore, different levels of unemployment risk exist for
mining occupations than for industry-diversified
occupations. Thus, the efficiency wages attributed to the
mining industry are expected to be correlated with
occupational risk premiums.
A test of efficiency wage theory would exploit the
relationship between wages and unemployment rates. The
expected negative short-run relationship between wages and
unemployment rates would be tempered by the positive
relationship between wages and unemployment when efficiency
wages are paid. The positive relationship between wages

21
and unemployment proposed by efficiency wage theory can be
indirectly tested by estimating the coefficients on
unemployment rates in a wage model which concurrently
isolates compensating wages for unemployment risk. If
efficiency wages are paid, the coefficient on unemployment
would be biased positive when industry controls are not
included. A more negative coefficient on the unemployment
rate would be expected in the model with the industry
controls when efficiency wages are paid. Again,
significant coefficients on industry control regressors
could account for anything that differs between industries,
and the behavior of the coefficient on the unemployment
rate is a more precise test of the theory.
The association between industry and wages provides
indirect evidence in favor of efficiency wages only if
controls are in place for all differences in human capital
and job conditions. Murphy and Topel (1987) find that
individual characteristics may explain this industry wage
differential, i.e., the efficiency wage studies were unable
to adequately control for differences in human capital.
Evidence of Occupational Wage Differentials
Thaler and Rosen (1976) measure compensating wage
differentials between occupations associated with
differences in safety. Wages are found to be positively
related to the mortality rate within the occupation.
Many other wage studies control for occupation by
using large occupation classification dummies, usually

22
finding significant occupational wage differentials. For
the most part, no theory is proffered for, or tested by,
this approach.
Conclusions
In order to measure long-run wage differentials
between occupations which are caused by exposure to
employment risk, controls for other factors which would
also cause wage differentials between occupations are
required. These factors include controls for differences
in occupational skill levels, exposure to health and safety
risks, potential industry efficiency wages, and short-run
supply and demand fluctuations for the occupation.

CHAPTER 3
OCCUPATIONAL RISK MEASURES
In order to test the effect of employment
diversification on wages, a measure of employment risk must
be designed that takes into account the mobility of the
occupation between industries. Employment offers to recent
four-year college graduates by industry classification are
examined for evidence of occupational mobility between
industries over time. Of the nontechnical degree
graduates, those with General Business majors are recruited
by virtually all industries. Offers to graduates in
Accounting are primarily from the Public Accounting
Industry. Humanities and Marketing majors receive 40-50%
of their offers from the Merchandising Industry. Among the
Technical majors, Civil Engineers and Agricultural Sciences
majors are the most widely recruited. Chemistry and
Chemical Engineering majors are primarily recruited by the
Chemical and Petroleum Industries. Offers to Computer
Science, Industrial and Mechanical Engineering and Math
majors are 40-50% concentrated in the industry
classification which includes Aerospace, Electrical
Machinery and Computer Manufacturing. The majority of
offers to Civil Engineers are from the Construction and
Government Industries.
23

24
As an example of the effects of diversification on
employment opportunities, Civil Engineering majors were
exposed to a significant decline in offers from the
Government in 1981; however, increased offers from the
Construction Industry offset the reduction, producing no
net effect on the total number of job offers. In contrast,
Chemical Engineering majors are repeatedly exposed to
fluctuations in the Petroleum and Chemical Industries.
Between 1981 and 1983, total offers to Chemical Engineers
declined by 85%. This was driven by an 87% decline in
offers from the two primary industries. A summary of the
percentage of offers by industry classification is
presented in Table 3-1. Table 3-2 presents ten-year
averages and variances of the number of offers per graduate
and a Herfindahl-Hirschmann (H) concentration statistic for
each curriculum category. The H statistic is calculated as
the sum of square values of the industry shares of an
occupation's total employment, enabling the measurement of
the degree of concentration of an occupation on a 0 to 1
scale. Among the engineering fields, there is some
evidence that when a curriculum is less industry-
diversified, as represented by a high H statistic, the
employment opportunities are more volatile over time, as
represented by a higher variance in offers per graduate.
The correlation between H and the variance is .04 overall.
The correlation is much stronger (.97) for the engineering
fields.

25
Table 3-1
Percentage of Total Job Offers by Industry to Bachelor
Degree Candidates by Curriculum 1978-1988
CURRICULUM
Computer Marketing & General
Accounting Science Distribution Business
INDUSTRY
Public
Accounting
76%
3%
1%
4%
Banking, Finance,
& Insurance
3%
5%
8%
23%
Merchandising
2%
5%
47%
28%
Aerospace, Electronic
& Computers
3%
53%
12%
13%
Automotive & Mechanical
Equipment
1%
2%
3%
2%
Construction & Building
Materials
1%
1%
2%
2%
Chemical, Drugs &
Allied
1%
4%
7%
4%
Food & Beverage
Processing
1%
1%
7%
5%
Glass, Paper &
Packaging
1%
1%
3%
2%
Metals & Metal
Products
0%
1%
2%
2%
Petroleum & Allied
Products
6%
8%
3%
5%
Research &
Consulting
0%
5%
1%
2%
Tire & Rubber
0%
0%
0%
0%
Public Utilities &
Transportation
2%
6%
4%
4%
Government
3%
4%
1%
3%
Nonprofit &
Education
0%
1%
1%
1%

26
Table 3-1—continued
Chemical
Engineers
INDUSTRY
Public
Accounting 0%
Banking, Finance &
Insurance 0%
Merchandising 0%
Aerospace, Electronic
& Computers 8%
Automotive & Mechanical
Equipment 2%
Construction & Building
Materials 2%
Chemical, Drugs &
Allied 43%
Food & Beverage
Processing 4%
Glass, Paper &
Packaging 6%
Metals & Metal
Products 2%
Petroleum & Allied
Products 27%
Research &
Consulting 2%
Tire & Rubber 1%
Public Utilities &
Transportation 2%
Government 2%
Nonprofit &
Education 0%
CURRICULUM
Mechanical
Engineers
Industrial
Civil
0%
4%
1%
0%
1%
1%
0%
2%
0%
39%
39%
9%
11%
8%
2%
3%
4%
25%
8%
10%
2%
2%
4%
0%
2%
4%
1%
6%
7%
4%
10%
2%
9%
3%
4%
10%
1%
0%
0%
8%
6%
10%
6%
5%
25%
0%
0%
0%

27
Table 3-1—continued
CURRICULUM
INDUSTRY
Agricultural
Chemistry
Humanities
Mathematics
Sciences
Public
Accounting
1%
2%
4%
1%
Banking, Finance &
Insurance
2%
18%
28%
13%
Merchandising
3%
42%
3%
15%
Aerospace, Electronic &
& Computers
8%
6%
35%
2%
Automotive & Mechanical
Equipment
1%
1%
2%
2%
Construction & Building
Materials
1%
1%
1%
2%
Chemical, Drugs &
Allied
49%
3%
3%
12%
Food & Beverage
Processing
3%
3%
0%
26%
Glass, Paper &
Packaging
3%
2%
0%
2%
Metals & Metal
Products
1%
1%
1%
0%
Petroleum & Allied
Products
7%
1%
3%
3%
Research &
Consulting
7%
3%
7%
3%
Tire & Rubber
4%
0%
0%
0%
Public Utilities &
Transportation
2%
2%
4%
1%
Government
3%
7%
7%
15%
Nonprofit &
Education
4%
8%
1%
5%

28
Table 3-2
Job Offers per Bachelor Degree Candidate
1978-1988 Offers/Grads
Curriculum
Average
Variance
H
Statistic
Accounting
0.16
0.0013
0.58
Agricultural Sciences
0.02
0.0001
0.15
Business General
0.09
0.0017
0.16
Chemistry
0.02
0.0001
0.27
Computer Science
0.14
0.0061
0.08
Humanities
0.24
0.0053
0.23
Marketing
0.08
0.0005
0.25
Mathematics
0.05
0.0003
0.22
Civil Engineering
0.24
0.0207
0.17
Chemical Engineering
0.60
0.1726
0.27
Industrial Engineering
0.39
0.0326
0.19
Mechanical Engineering
0.51
0.1000
0.20
The analysis of wages in Chapter 4 utilizes the three-
digit level of detail for occupations in 1980. In order to
perforin a quantitative identification and ranking of
occupations by degree of exposure to unemployment risk and
to later test for compensating wage effects, three measures
of unemployment risk are calculated. To compute these
measures, data referring to occupational employment by
industry were obtained from the Commerce Department's 1980
Census Subject Reports. Responses to questions regarding
occupation and industry of current employment are compiled
in these reports. Occupations are identified by the 1980
detailed classification system consisting of 434 three-
digit level specific occupational categories describing the
nature of the occupation.
The industry classification of the employer, or the
nature of the employer's business, is also identified from

29
this data source. This industry classification consists of
231 categories based on the Standard Industrial
Classification Manual. The industry variance and
covariance measures, however, are derived from the Labor
Department's Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) annual
employment estimates for 100 industries from 1968-1990, as
reported in Employment and Earnings. Although the Census
reports the industry of employment at a three-digit level,
in some cases the three-digit level industries were not
available for the full 32-year period. These industries
were regrouped to the two-digit level. Similarly, because
the BLS uses one-digit level reporting in the industries of
Agriculture, Construction and Finance, Insurance and Real
Estate (FIRE), employment in these industry classes was
grouped to maintain compatibility between the two sources.
The resulting industry classifications are presented in
Appendix A.
The first two measures test whether employment risk is
lower in occupations that are diversified between
industries. The first measure calculated is a simple dummy
variable. If greater than 50% employment is found in any
one industry, an occupation is defined as high-risk. The
industry with the largest concentration of employment for
each occupation is presented in Appendix B. Table 3-3
presents the dummy and H risk measures at a three-digit
occupational level ranked from highest to lowest
concentration.

30
The third, more sophisticated, risk measure is
calculated based on employment variability over time.
Since time series data on employment at a three-digit
occupation level have not been compiled for more than a few
large occupational classifications, the study must rely on
time series data on industry employment, similar to the
studies by Adams and Li, together with the industry-by¬
occupation matrix of employment to make inferences about
the time series of occupational employment.
A regression was computed using the annual industry
employment growth rates for each industry for the years
1960-1990 as the dependent variable and the average of the
three prior years' U.S. employment growth rate as the
independent variable. This method controls for labor force
changes due to varying labor force participation rates
(e.g., for women) and fluctuations in demographic patterns,
which should not be included in a measure of unemployment
risk.
The residual will embody changes in employment due to
business cycle fluctuations and shifting demand for
industry products, which should be included in an
employment risk measure.
The variance of industry deviations from the predicted
values is considered the unemployment risk for the
industry, or the industry variance. The covariances of
industry deviations from predicted values are also
calculated. The unemployment risk of each occupation is

soc
227
383
424
488
253
375
179
003
355
418
354
017
255
423
414
317
457
254
595
614
573
005
176
458
006
024
588
445
204
417
018
089
085
823
745
425
413
869
845
177
876
465
825
584
088
679
498
594
553
31
Table 3-3
Risk Measures for Detailed Occupations
TITLE DUMMY H
Air Traffic Controllers
1
1.00
Bank Tellers
1
1.00
Correctional Institution
1
1.00
Graders and Sorters
1
1.00
Insurance
1
1.00
Insurance Adjusters
1
1.00
Judges
1
1.00
Legislators & Public Administration
1
1.00
Mail Carriers, Postal Service
1
1.00
Police and Detective, Private Service
1
1.00
Postal Clerks, except Mail Carriers
1
1.00
Postmasters
1
1.00
Securities and Financial Services Sales
1
1.00
Sheriff, Bailiffs and Other Law Enforce
1
1.00
Supervisors, Police
1
1.00
Hotel Clerks
1
0.99
Barbers
1
0.94
Real Estate Sales
1
0.94
Roofers
1
0.94
Driller, Oil Well
1
0.93
Drywall Installers
1
0.93
Administrators, Officials, Pub. Admin.
1
0.92
Clergy
1
0.92
Hairdressers
1
0.92
Administrators, Protective Services
1
0.91
Underwriters
1
0.91
Concrete and Terrazzo Finishers
1
0.90
Dental Assistants
1
0.90
Dental Hygienists
1
0.90
Firefighting
1
0.90
Funeral Directors
1
0.90
Health Diagnosing nec
1
0.90
Dentists
1
0.87
Railroad Conductors and Yardmasters
1
0.87
Shoe Machine Operator
1
0.87
Crossing Guards
1
0.86
Supervisors, Firefighting
1
0.86
Construction Laborers
1
0.84
Longshore Equipment Operators
1
0.84
Religious
1
0.84
Stevedores
1
0.84
Public Transportation
1
0.83
Railroad Brake, Signal & Switch Operator
1
0.83
Plasterers
1
0.82
Podiatrists
1
0.82
Bookbinders
1
0.81
Fishers
1
0.81
Paving, Surfacing and Tamping Equipment
1
0.81
Supervisors, Brickmasons, Stonemasons
1
0.81

32
Table 3-3—Continued
SOC TITLE DUMMY
H
558
Supervisors, nec
1
0.81
437
Short-Order Cooks
1
0.80
826
Rail Vehicle Operators, nec
1
0.78
387
Teachers' Aides
1
0.77
563
Brickmasons and Stonemasons
1
0.76
306
Chief Communications
1
0.75
678
Dental Laboratory and Medical Appliance
1
0.75
455
Pest Control Occupations
1
0.75
556
Supervisors, Painters, Paperhangers
1
0.75
198
Announcers
1
0.74
087
Optometrists
1
0.74
529
Telephone Installers and Repairers
1
0.74
527
Telephone Line Installers and Repairers
1
0.74
438
Food Counter
1
0.72
565
Tile Setters, Hard and Soft
1
0.72
086
Veterinarians
1
0.72
435
Waiters and Waitresses
1
0.72
495
Forestry Workers
1
0.71
773
Motion Picture Projectionists
1
0.71
598
Driller, Earth
1
0.70
016
Managers Properties
1
0.70
554
Supervisors, Carpenters and Related
1
0.70
205
Health Record
1
0.68
694
Water & Sewage Treatment Plant Operators
1
0.68
434
Bartenders
1
0.67
824
Locomotive Operating Occupations
1
0.67
875
Garbage Collectors
1
0.66
186
Musicians and Composers
1
0.66
583
Paperhangers
1
0.66
206
Radiologic Technicians
1
0.66
464
Ushers
1
0.66
567
Carpenters
1
0.65
047
Petroleum Engineers
1
0.64
865
Helpers, Construction Trades
1
0.63
278
News Vendors
1
0.63
844
Operating Engineers
1
0.63
557
Supervisors, Plumbers, Pipefitters
1
0.63
173
Urban Planners
1
0.63
353
Communications Equipment Operators, nec
1
0.62
577
Electrical Power Installers and Repair
1
0.62
737
Miscellaneous Printing Machine Operators
1
0.62
744
Textile Sewing Machine Operators
1
0.62
496
Timber Cutting
1
0.62
203
Clinical Laboratory
1
0.61
178
Lawyers
1
0.61
226
Airplane Pilots
1
0.60
183
Authors
1
0.60
829
Sailors and Deckhands
1
0.60
155
Teachers, Prekindergarten
1
0.60
885
Garage and Service Station Related
1
0.59
738
Winding and Twisting Machine Operators
1
0.59

33
Table 3-3—Continued
SOC TITLE DUMMY
H
193
Dancers
1
0.56
095
Registered Nurse
1
0.56
828
Ship Captains and Mates, except Fishing
1
0.56
597
Structural Metal Workers
1
0.55
096
Pharmacists
1
0.53
593
Insulation Workers
1
0.52
695
Power Plant Operators
1
0.52
497
Captains & Other Officers Fishing Vessel
1
0.51
207
Licensed Practical Nurses
1
0.51
015
Managers Medicine
1
0.51
366
Meter Readers
1
0.51
735
Photoengravers and Lithographers
1
0.51
277
Street and Door-to-door
1
0.51
514
Automobile Body and Related Repairers
1
0.50
683
Electrical and Electronic Equipment
1
0.50
036
Inspectors and Compliance
1
0.50
028
Purchasing Agents
1
0.49
318
Transportation Ticket & Reservations
1
0.49
344
Billing, Posting and Calculating Oper.
1
0.48
329
Library Clerks
1
0.48
579
Painters, Construction and Maintenance
1
0.48
877
Stock Handlers and Baggers
1
0.48
066
Actuaries
1
0.47
025
Other Financial Officers
1
0.47
084
Physicians
1
0.46
494
Supervisors
1
0.46
467
Welfare Service
1
0.46
014
Administrators
1
0.45
599
Construction Trades, nec.
1
0.45
726
Wood Lathe, Routing and Planing Machine
1
0.45
855
Grader, Dozer and Scraper Operators
1
0.44
164
Librarians
1
0.44
747
Pressing Machine Operator
1
0.44
459
Attendants, Amusement
1
0.43
466
Baggage Porters
1
0.43
536
Locksmiths and Safe Repairers
1
0.43
433
Supervisors, Food Preparation
1
0.43
808
Bus Drivers
1
0.42
739
Knitting, Looping, Taping and Weaving
1
0.42
616
Mining Machine Operators
1
0.42
447
Nursing Aides, Orderlies
1
0.42
693
Adjusters and Calibrators
1
0.41
487
Animal Caretakers
1
0.41
686
Butchers and Meat Cutters
1
0.41
436
Cooks except Short Order
1
0.41
596
Sheetmetal Duct Installers
1
0.41
063
Surveyors
1
0.41
187
Actors and Directors
1
0.40
566
Carpet Installers
1
0.40
097
Dieticians
1
0.40
669
Shoe Repairers
1
0.40

34
Table 3-3—Continued
SOC TITLE DUMMY
443
Waiters and Waitresses Assistants
1
0.
736
Typesetters and Compositors
1
0.
228
Broadcast Equipment
1
0.
517
Farm Equipment Mechanics
1
0.
446
Health Aides except Nursing
1
0.
585
Plumbers, Pipefitters and Steamfitters
1
0.
044
Aerospace Engineers
1
0.
508
Aircraft Engine Mechanics
1
0.
687
Bakers
1
0.
853
Excavating and Loading Machine Operators
1
0.
515
Aircraft Mechanics except Engine
1
0.
377
Eligibility Clerks
0
0.
613
Supervisors, Extractive Occupations
1
0.
867
Helpers, Extractive Occupations
1
0.
058
Marine Engineers
1
0.
684
Miscellaneous Precision Workers, nec
1
0.
647
Precious Stones & Metal Workers-Jewelers
1
0.
284
Auctioneers
1
0.
034
Business and Promotion Agents
1
0.
748
Laundering and Dry Cleaning Machine
1
0.
646
Lay-out Workers
1
0.
734
Printing Machine Operators
1
0.
349
Telegraphers
1
0.
054
Agricultural Engineers
1
0.
035
Construction Inspectors
1
0.
163
Counselors
1
0.
208
Health Technologists
1
0.
848
Hoist and Winch Operators
1
0.
275
Sales Counter Clerks
1
0.
667
Tailors
1
0.
199
Athletes
1
0.
079
Forestry
0
0.
439
Kitchen Workers
1
0.
763
Roasting and Baking Machine Operators
1
0.
174
Social Workers
0
0.
866
Helpers, Surveyor
1
0.
617
Mining Occupations, nec.
0
0.
727
Sawing Machine Operators
1
0.
165
Archivists
1
0.
468
Child Care Workers except Private
0
0.
543
Elevator Installers and Repairers
1
0.
416
Fire Inspection and Fire Prevention
0
0.
729
Nailing and Tacking Machine Operators
1
0.
677
Optical Goods Workers
0
0.
636
Precision Assemblers, Metal
1
0.
707
Rolling Machine
1
0.
688
Food Batchmakers
0
0.
037
Management Related
1
0.
833
Marine Engineers
1
0.
814
Motor Transportation Occupations nec
1
0.
175
Recreation
0
0.
H
40
39
38
38
38
38
37
37
37
37
36
36
36
35
35
35
35
34
34
34
34
34
34
33
33
33
33
33
33
33
32
32
32
32
32
31
31
31
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
29
29
29
29
29

35
Table 3-3—Continued
soc
TITLE
DUMMY
H
668
Upholsterers
0
0.29
589
Glaziers
0
0.28
749
Miscellaneous Textile Machine Operator
1
0.28
733
Mise. Woodworking Machine Operator
1
0.28
813
Parking Lot Attendants
0
0.28
194
Artists
1
0.27
834
Bridge, Lock and Lighthouse Tenders
0
0.27
657
Cabinet Makers and Bench Carpenters
0
0.27
658
Furniture and Wood Finishers
0
0.27
444
Miscellaneous Food Preparation
1
0.27
784
Solderers & Braziers
1
0.27
026
Management Analysts
1
0.26
539
Mechanical Controls and Valve Repairer
0
0.26
259
Sales Reps.
1
0.26
499
Hunters and Trappers
1
0.25
218
Surveying Technologists
0
0.25
053
Civil Engineers
0
0.24
007
Financial Managers
1
0.24
486
Groundskeepers
0
0.24
234
Legal Assistants
0
0.24
106
Physicians Assistants
0
0.24
485
Supervisors
0
0.24
555
Supervisors, Electricians & Power
1
0.24
809
Taxicab Drivers and Chauffeurs
1
0.24
505
Automobile Mechanics
0
0.23
325
Classified-ad Clerks
1
0.23
575
Electricians
1
0.23
075
Geologists
0
0.23
538
Office Machine Repairers
0
0.23
169
Social Scientists
0
0.23
348
Telephone Operators
1
0.23
256
Advertising and Related Sales
0
0.22
535
Camera, Watch and Musical Instruments
0
0.22
276
Cashiers
0
0.22
427
Protective Service Occupations
0
0.22
456
Supervisors
0
0.22
074
Atmospheric
0
0.21
525
Data Processing Equipment Repairers
0
0.21
195
Editors
0
0.21
083
Medical
0
0.21
076
Physical Scientists nec
0
0.21
384
Proof Readers
0
0.21
168
Sociologists
0
0.21
167
Psychologists
0
0.20
757
Separating, Filtering and Clarifying
0
0.20
316
Interviewers
0
0.19
449
Maids and Housemen
0
0.19
046
Mining Engineers
0
0.19
509
Small Engine Repairers
0
0.19
673
Apparel and Fabric Patternmakers
0
0.18
068
Mathematical Scientists
0
0.18

36
Table 3-3—Continued
SOC TITLE DUMMY
674 Mise. Precision Apparel & Fabric 0
0.
189
Photographers
0
0.
336
Records Clerks
0
0.
314
Stenographers
0
0.
804
Truck Drivers, Heavy
0
0.
077
Agricultural
0
0.
526
Household Appliance & Power Tool Repair
0
0.
489
Inspectors
0
0.
188
Painters, Sculptors, Craft Artists
0
0.
743
Textile Cutting Machine Operators
0
0.
029
Buyers
0
0.
048
Chemical Engineers
0
0.
224
Chemical Technologists
0
0.
463
Guides
0
0.
516
Heavy Equipment Mechanics
0
0.
328
Personnel Clerks except Payroll
0
0.
257
Sales Occupations, Other Business
0
0.
507
Bus, Truck & Stationary Engine Mechanic
0
0.
534
Heating, Air Conditioning & Refrigeration
0
0.
723
Metal Plating Machine Operators
0
0.
656
Patternmakers and Model Makers, Wood
0
0.
774
Photographic Process Machine Operators
0
0.
666
Dressmakers
0
0.
649
Engravers, Metal
0
0.
347
Office Machine Operators, nec
0
0.
653
Sheet Metal Workers
0
0.
803
Supervisors, Motor Vehicle Operators
0
0.
078
Biological
0
0.
326
Correspondence Clerks
0
0.
343
Cost and Rate Clerks
0
0.
055
Electrical Engineers
0
0.
787
Hand Molding, Casting and Forming
0
0.
849
Crane and Tower Operators
0
0.
806
Driver-Sales Workers
0
0.
523
Electronic Repairers, Communications
0
0.
454
Elevator Operators
0
0.
615
Explosive Workers
0
0.
426
Guards and Police, except Public Service
0
0.
786
Hand Cutting and Trimming
0
0.
793
Hand Engraving
0
0.
689
Inspectors, Testers and Graders
0
0.
376
Investigators except Insurance
0
0.
703
Lathe and Turning Machine Set-up Operator
0
0.
715
Miscellaneous Metal, Plastic, Stone
0
0.
699
Miscellaneous Plant and System Operator
0
0.
049
Nuclear Engineers
0
0.
069
Physicists
0
0.
067
Statisticians
0
0.
303
Supervisors General Office
0
0.
243
Supervisors & Proprietors, Sales
0
0.
887
Vehicle Washers and Equipment Cleaners
0
0.
H
18
18
18
18
18
17
17
17
17
17
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
15
15
15
15
15
14
14
14
14
14
13
13
13
13
13
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12

37
Table 3-3—Continued
soc
TITLE DUMMY
H
023
Accountants
0
0.11
378
Bill and Account Collectors
0
0.11
643
Boilermakers
0
0.11
213
Electrical Technologists
0
0.11
864
Helpers, Mechanics and Repairers
0
0.11
704
Lathe and Turning Machine Operators
0
0.11
374
Material Recording, Scheduling
0
0.11
714
Numerical Control Machine Operators
0
0.11
319
Receptionists
0
0.11
285
Sales Support Occupations nec
0
0.11
728
Shaping and Joining Machine Operators
0
0.11
415
Supervisors, Guards
0
0.11
634
Tool and Die Makers
0
0.11
389
Administrative Support nec
0
0.10
223
Biological Technologists
0
0.10
064
Computer Systems
0
0.10
708
Drilling and Boring
0
0.10
755
Extruding and Forming Machine Operator
0
0.10
765
Folding Machine Operators
0
0.10
675
Hand Molders & Shapers except Jewelers
0
0.10
789
Hand Painting, Coating and Decorating
0
0.10
724
Heat Treating Equipment Operators
0
0.10
705
Milling and Planing Machine Operators
0
0.10
533
Miscellaneous Electrical and Electronics
0
0.10
659
Miscellaneous Precision Woodworkers
0
0.10
754
Packaging & Filling Machine Operators
0
0.10
469
Personal Service Occupations, nec
0
0.10
706
Punching and Stamping Press
0
0.10
315
Typists
0
0.10
283
Demonstrators, Promoters and Models
0
0.09
185
Designers
0
0.09
359
Dispatchers
0
0.09
059
Engineer, nec.
0
0.09
713
Forging Machine Operators
0
0.09
794
Hand Grinding
0
0.09
637
Machinists
0
0.09
027
Personnel
0
0.09
258
Sales Engineers
0
0.09
448
Supervisors, Cleaning & Building Services
0
0.09
785
Assemblers
0
0.08
229
Computer Programmers
0
0.08
217
Drafting Technologists
0
0.08
335
File Clerks
0
0.08
799
Graders and Sorters
0
0.08
357
Messengers
0
0.08
045
Metallurgical Engineers
0
0.08
065
Operations and Systems Researchers
0
0.08
327
Order Clerks
0
0.08
676
Pattern Makers, Lay-out Workers & Cutters
0
0.08
645
Patternmakers and Model Makers, Metal
0
0.08
644
Precision Grinders, Filers, and Tool
0
0.08

38
Table 3-3—Continued
SOC TITLE DUMMY
797
Production Testers
0
0.
386
Statistical Clerks
0
0.
304
Supervisors, Computer Equipment
0
0.
503
Supervisors, Mechanics and Repairers
0
0.
235
Technicians nec
0
0.
805
Truck Drivers, Light
0
0.
385
Data Entry Keyers
0
0.
345
Duplicating Machine Operators
0
0.
717
Fabricating Machine Operators, nec
0
0.
883
Freight Stock & Material Handlers, nec
0
0.
323
Information Clerks nec
0
0.
453
Janitors and Cleaners
0
0.
346
Mail & Paper Handling Machine Operators
0
0.
544
Millwrights
0
0.
725
Miscellaneous Metal & Plastic Processors
0
0.
719
Molding and Casting Machine Operators
0
0.
197
Public Relations
0
0.
225
Science Technologists nec
0
0.
313
Secretaries
0
0.
305
Supervisors, Financial Records
0
0.
843
Supervisors, Material Moving Equipment
0
0.
043
Architects
0
0.
073
Chemists
0
0.
308
Computer Operators
0
0.
166
Economists
0
0.
216
Engineering Technologists
0
0.
379
General Office
0
0.
709
Grinding, Abrading, Buffing and Polish
0
0.
878
Machine Feeders and Offbearers
0
0.
356
Mail Clerks, except Postal Service
0
0.
057
Mechanical Engineers
0
0.
215
Mechanical Technologists
0
0.
759
Painting and Paint Spraying Machine
0
0.
309
Peripheral Equipment Operators
0
0.
184
Technical Writers
0
0.
783
Welders and Cutters
0
0.
337
Bookkeepers, Accounting & Auditing
0
0.
753
Cementing and Gluing Machine Operators
0
0.
768
Crushing and Grinding Machine Operator
0
0.
766
Furnace Kiln & Oven Operators except Food
0
0.
056
Industrial Engineers
0
0.
214
Industrial Technologists
0
0.
013
Managers Marketing
0
0.
655
Miscellaneous Precision Metal Workers
0
0.
795
Mise. Hand Working
0
0.
307
Supervisors, Distributions
0
0.
863
Supervisors, Handlers, Equipment Cleaners
0
0.
233
Tool Programmers
0
0.
764
Washing, Cleaning and Pickling Machine
0
0.
339
Billing Clerks
0
0.
758
Compressing and Compacting Machine
0
0.
H
08
08
08
08
08
08
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
04
04

39
Table 3-3—Continued
soc
TITLE 1
DUMMY
H
373
Expediters
0
0.04
888
Hand Packers and Packagers
0
0.04
519
Machinery Maintenance Occupations
0
0.04
019
Managers and Administrators nec
0
0.04
777
Miscellaneous Machine Operators, nec
0
0.04
756
Mixing and Blending Machine Operator
0
0.04
796
Production Inspectors, Checkers
0
0.04
009
Purchasing
0
0.04
369
Samplers
0
0.04
769
Slicing and Cutting Machine Operators
0
0.04
547
Specified Mechanics and Repairers, nec
0
0.04
696
Stationary Engineers
0
0.04
365
Stock and Inventory
0
0.04
856
Industrial Truck and Tractor Equipment
0
0.03
889
Laborers, except Construction
0
0.03
779
Machine Operators, not Specified
0
0.03
859
Miscellaneous Material Moving Equipment
0
0.03
549
Not Specified Mechanics and Repairers
0
0.03
338
Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks
0
0.03
008
Personnel and Labor Relations
0
0.03
363
Production Coordinators
0
0.03
873
Production Helpers
0
0.03
798
Production Samplers and Weighers
0
0.03
033
Purchasing Agents nec
0
0.03
364
Traffic, Shippings
0
0.03
368
Weighers, Measurers
0
0.03
518
Industrial Machinery Repairers
0
0.02
633
Supervisors, Production Occupations
0
0.02
estimated by the sum of the weighted industry variance and
covariances. The weights are the frequencies of the
occupation's employment in industries in 1980. If an
occupation is employed exclusively in one industry, the
occupation's risk measure is equivalent to that industry's
risk measure. If the occupation is employed in many
industries, the covariance of the industries is also
included. For example, an occupation with 80% employment
in Industry One and 20% employment in Industry Two in 1980,
would have its occupational variance calculated as in
Equation 3-1.

40
Var=80%2(Var1)+20%2(Var2)+2*80%*20%(Cov1,2) Eq. 3-1
This procedure downweights the risk of an occupation if its
opportunities are in industries which are negatively
correlated. The risk measure of an occupation is increased
if the industries are positively correlated. In contrast
to Adams' and Li's measures of risk, the occupational
measure will capture the combined industry unemployment
risk as measured by the covariance terms, and not just the
risk of the industry as measured by the variance terms.
Occupation variance measures ranked from highest to
lowest volatility are presented in Table 3-4, which reports
the sum of weighted industry variances as the occupation's
variance. The sum of weighted industry covariances is
reported as the occupation's covariance. The total is the
sum of the variance and covariance, representing the total
occupational variance.
For 21 of 434 total occupations, the weighted sum of
the industry covariances has a negative sign, thereby
reducing the total variance for the occupation. Among the
occupations with negative industry covariances are timber
cutters, hoist and winch operators, veterinarians,
groundskeepers and actors and directors. These occupations
appear to have little in common. The inclusion of the
covariance in the total variance significantly changes the
risk ranking of occupations. For example, purchasing
agents are found in industries which have a relatively low

41
variance, but the high positive industry covariance makes
it a riskier occupation.
Based on the total risk measure, mining, lumber and
petroleum occupations rank highest, due to high industry
employment volatility. These occupations are found
primarily in the same industries which purportedly pay
efficiency wages. Low-risk occupations include government,
administrative, retail and service positions. Performers,
artists and athletes also have a low ranking.
The correlation between the risk measures Dummy and H
is very high at .81. Both measure the concentration of an
occupation in industries. The correlation between the
total occupational variance and H is .06; with the Dummy,
it is .09. The correlations with total occupational
variance are expected to be low, since the variance measure
is measuring risk by the employment volatility of the
relevant industries instead of the dependence of an
occupation's employment on the industry. Appendix C
presents the Dummy and H measures, and Appendix D presents
the occupational variance measures. Occupations are ranked
from lowest to highest risk within each two-digit
classification.
The risk measures are very small for most classes at
the one and two-digit levels, with the exception of
construction, extractive and farming occupations which have
high risk measures. The variation in risk measures within
the two-digit classes from the weighted average of the

42
Table 3-4
Occupation Variance Measures
soc
Title
Variance
Covariance Total
496
Timber Cutting
0.04841
-0.00025
0.04816
494
Supervisors, Forestry
0.03013
0.00037
0.03051
614
Driller, Oil Well
0.00721
0.00005
0.00726
047
Petroleum Engineer
0.00492
0.00024
0.00516
613
Supervisors, Extractive
0.00269
0.00090
0.00358
693
Adjusters & Calibrators
0.00254
0.00092
0.00346
616
Mining Machine Operators
0.00292
0.00049
0.00341
745
Shoe Machine Operator
0.00307
0.00013
0.00320
617
Mining Occupations, nec
0.00225
0.00093
0.00318
044
Aerospace Engineers
0.00203
0.00114
0.00317
867
Helpers, Extractive
0.00238
0.00078
0.00316
726
Wood Lathe, Routing
0.00174
0.00108
0.00282
715
Miscellaneous Metal
0.00075
0.00206
0.00281
703
Lathe & Turning Machine
0.00044
0.00232
0.00277
683
Electrical
0.00174
0.00098
0.00272
707
Rolling Machine
0.00115
0.00150
0.00265
634
Tool and Die Makers
0.00045
0.00207
0.00252
727
Sawing Machine Operator
0.00132
0.00108
0.00240
706
Punching & Stamping
0.00038
0.00201
0.00240
724
Heat Treating Equipment
0.00036
0.00202
0.00239
729
Nailing & Tacking
0.00113
0.00119
0.00232
784
Solderers and Braziers
0.00090
0.00139
0.00229
713
Forging Machine
0.00029
0.00197
0.00226
848
Hoist & Winch
0.00253
-0.00028
0.00224
708
Drilling and Boring
0.00034
0.00190
0.00224
704
Lathe and Turning
0.00035
0.00187
0.00222
636
Precision Assemblers
0.00127
0.00089
0.00216
709
Grinding, Abrading
0.00023
0.00192
0.00215
656
Patternmakers and Model
0.00045
0.00165
0.00210
595
Roofers
0.00201
0.00005
0.00207
573
Drywall Installers
0.00201
0.00006
0.00207
675
Hand Molders & Shapers
0.00034
0.00174
0.00207
728
Shaping and Joining
0.00038
0.00167
0.00205
733
Mise. Woodworking
0.00106
0.00098
0.00204
785
Assemblers
0.00034
0.00171
0.00204
588
Concrete and Terrazzo
0.00194
0.00009
0.00202
644
Precision Grinders
0.00031
0.00171
0.00202
684
Miscellaneous Precision
0.00101
0.00100
0.00200
705
Milling and Planing
0.00034
0.00165
0.00199
594
Paving, Surfacing
0.00175
0.00018
0.00193
553
Supervisors, Brickmason
0.00174
0.00019
0.00192
645
Patternmakers and Model
0.00027
0.00163
0.00190
646
Lay-out Workers
0.00097
0.00091
0.00188
714
Numerical Control
0.00042
0.00146
0.00188
869
Construction Laborers
0.00180
0.00007
0.00187
563
Brickmasons
0.00163
0.00022
0.00185
584
Plasterers
0.00176
0.00008
0.00184
565
Tile Setters
0.00154
0.00028
0.00182
657
Cabinet Makers & Bench
0.00068
0.00114
0.00182

43
Table 3-4—continued
SOC Title
558 Supervisors, nec
725 Mise. Metal & Plastic
797 Production Testers
597 Structural Metal Worker
723 Metal Plating Machine
717 Fabricating Machine
556 Supervisors, Painters
719 Molding & Casting
515 Aircraft Mechanics
655 Mise. Precision Metal
554 Supervisors, Carpenters
544 Millwrights
567 Carpenters
046 Mining Engineers
045 Metallurgical Engineers
637 Machinists
598 Driller, Earth
865 Helpers, Construction
583 Paperhangers
075 Geologists
057 Mechanical Engineers
557 Supervisors, Plumbers
849 Crane and Tower
596 Sheetmetal Duct
755 Extruding & Forming
844 Operating Engineers
593 Insulation Workers
796 Production Inspectors
659 Mise. Precision Wood
783 Welders and Cutters
689 Inspectors, Testers
738 Winding & Twisting
215 Mechanical Engin. Tech
759 Painting & Paint
658 Furniture & Wood
579 Painters, Construction
794 Hand Grinding
056 Industrial Engineer
465 Public Transportation
566 Carpet Installers
653 Sheet Metal Workers
676 Pattern Makers, Lay-out
739 Knitting, Looping
599 Construction Trades nec
753 Cementing & Gluing
749 Miscellaneous Textile
779 Machine Operators
585 Plumbers, Pipefitters
744 Textile Sewing Machine
777 Mise. Machine Operator
Variance Covariance Total
0.00174
0.00007
0.00181
0.00019
0.00161
0.00180
0.00027
0.00149
0.00177
0.00119
0.00057
0.00176
0.00035
0.00141
0.00176
0.00021
0.00155
0.00176
0.00161
0.00014
0.00175
0.00020
0.00155
0.00175
0.00124
0.00050
0.00174
0.00016
0.00156
0.00172
0.00150
0.00019
0.00168
0.00025
0.00143
0.00168
0.00140
0.00027
0.00167
0.00128
0.00040
0.00167
0.00030
0.00135
0.00165
0.00026
0.00137
0.00163
0.00152
0.00009
0.00162
0.00135
0.00027
0.00162
0.00140
0.00020
0.00160
0.00145
0.00012
0.00158
0.00025
0.00130
0.00155
0.00135
0.00016
0.00151
0.00039
0.00109
0.00148
0.00086
0.00059
0.00145
0.00026
0.00119
0.00145
0.00136
0.00006
0.00142
0.00111
0.00031
0.00142
0.00015
0.00127
0.00142
0.00022
0.00119
0.00141
0.00017
0.00124
0.00141
0.00040
0.00099
0.00139
0.00088
0.00050
0.00138
0.00030
0.00109
0.00138
0.00014
0.00122
0.00136
0.00059
0.00077
0.00135
0.00103
0.00030
0.00132
0.00016
0.00115
0.00131
0.00016
0.00113
0.00129
0.00126
0.00002
0.00128
0.00060
0.00068
0.00128
0.00033
0.00094
0.00127
0.00016
0.00111
0.00127
0.00062
0.00064
0.00126
0.00096
0.00029
0.00125
0.00012
0.00112
0.00124
0.00043
0.00079
0.00122
0.00009
0.00112
0.00121
0.00081
0.00039
0.00120
0.00072
0.00040
0.00112
0.00009
0.00102
0.00110

44
Table 3-4—continued
SOC Title Variance Covariance
054
Agricultural Engineer
0.00083
0.00026
0
543
Elevator Installers
0.00063
0.00044
0
766
Furnace Kiln & Oven
0.00015
0.00093
0
615
Explosive Workers
0.00063
0.00041
0
575
Electricians
0.00049
0.00056
0
787
Hand Molding, Casting
0.00022
0.00083
0
769
Slicing & Cutting
0.00007
0.00098
0
878
Machine Feeders
0.00013
0.00091
0
668
Upholsterers
0.00038
0.00065
0
743
Textile Cutting Machine
0.00027
0.00077
0
855
Grader, Dozer & Scraper
0.00105
-0.00003
0
226
Airplane Pilots
0.00092
0.00006
0
258
Sales Engineers
0.00011
0.00086
0
853
Excavating & Loading
0.00083
0.00013
0
825
Railroad Brake, Signal
0.00079
0.00016
0
823
Railroad Conductors
0.00083
0.00009
0
055
Electrical Engineer
0.00037
0.00055
0
213
Electrical Technician
0.00030
0.00060
0
647
Precious Stones & Metal
0.00046
0.00044
0
217
Drafting
0.00011
0.00077
0
589
Glaziers
0.00034
0.00053
0
856
Industrial Truck
0.00010
0.00077
0
555
Supervisors, Electrician
0.00049
0.00037
0
824
Locomotive Operating
0.00065
0.00018
0
508
Aircraft Engine Mechanic
0.00057
0.00026
0
669
Shoe Repairers
0.00066
0.00015
0
514
Automobile Body
0.00049
0.00033
0
673
Apparel & Fabric Pattern
0.00021
0.00061
0
758
Compressing & Compacting
0.00006
0.00076
0
633
Supervisors, Production
0.00005
0.00077
0
318
Transport Ticket Agent
0.00074
0.00007
0
043
Engineers, Architects
0.00011
0.00069
0
214
Industrial Engin. Tech
0.00006
0.00073
0
354
Postal Clerks
0.00078
0.00000
0
355
Mail Carriers, Postal
0.00078
0.00000
0
017
Postmasters
0.00078
0.00000
0
826
Rail Vehicle Operators
0.00074
0.00004
0
516
Heavy Equipment
0.00028
0.00049
0
518
Industrial Machinery
0.00005
0.00072
0
525
Data Processing Equip
0.00030
0.00046
0
643
Boilermakers
0.00021
0.00055
0
764
Washing, Cleaning
0.00006
0.00070
0
233
Tool Programmers
0.00009
0.00065
0
053
Civil Engineer
0.00040
0.00033
0
793
Hand Engraving
0.00013
0.00060
0
529
Telephone Installers
0.00068
0.00004
0
455
Pest Control Occupation
0.00068
0.00004
0
789
Hand Painting, Coating
0.00011
0.00059
0
768
Crushing, Grinding
0.00007
0.00064
0
306
Chief Communications
0.00068
0.00002
0
Total
.00109
.00108
.00108
.00105
.00105
.00105
.00105
.00104
.00103
.00103
.00102
.00098
.00097
.00096
.00095
.00092
.00092
.00091
.00090
.00089
.00086
.00086
.00085
.00083
.00083
.00082
.00082
.00082
.00082
.00082
.00081
.00080
.00079
.00078
.00078
.00078
.00078
.00077
.00077
.00076
.00076
.00076
.00074
.00073
.00073
.00072
.00072
.00071
.00071
.00070

45
Table 3-4—continued
soc
Title Variance
Covariance
885
Garage & Service Station
0.00057
0.00014
0
519
Machinery Maintenance
0.00013
0.00057
0
859
Mise. Material Moving
0.00011
0.00059
0
488
Graders and Sorters
0.00069
0.00000
0
527
Telephone Line Installer
0.00067
0.00002
0
765
Folding Machine Operator
0.00011
0.00058
0
866
Helpers, Surveyor
0.00040
0.00028
0
387
Teachers' Aides
0.00066
0.00001
0
533
Mise. Electrical Repair
0.00014
0.00053
0
033
Purchasing Agents nec
0.00007
0.00060
0
795
Mise. Hand Working
0.00006
0.00062
0
804
Truck Drivers, Heavy
0.00024
0.00042
0
505
Automobile Mechanics
0.00024
0.00041
0
509
Small Engine Repairers
0.00023
0.00042
0
216
Engineering Tech, nec
0.00011
0.00056
0
873
Production Helpers
0.00006
0.00060
0
534
Heating, Air Condition
0.00023
0.00042
0
353
Communications Equipment
0.00056
0.00008
0
363
Production Coordinators
0.00006
0.00058
0
798
Production Samplers
0.00007
0.00056
0
373
Expediters
0.00006
0.00057
0
364
Traffic, Shippings
0.00004
0.00059
0
059
Engineer, nec.
0.00009
0.00053
0
063
Surveyors
0.00041
0.00019
0
536
Locksmiths & Safe Repair
0.00039
0.00021
0
887
Vehicle Washers
0.00013
0.00046
0
457
Barbers
0.00058
0.00000
0
507
Bus, Truck & Stationary
0.00017
0.00041
0
674
Mise. Precision Apparel
0.00013
0.00045
0
458
Hairdressers
0.00056
0.00001
0
498
Fishers
0.00055
0.00001
0
018
Funeral Directors
0.00055
0.00001
0
535
Camera, Watch Repair
0.00020
0.00037
0
218
Surveying
0.00028
0.00027
0
756
Mixing & Blending
0.00004
0.00051
0
667
Tailors
0.00033
0.00021
0
547
Specified Mechanics
0.00004
0.00050
0
495
Forestry Workers
0.00051
0.00002
0
809
Taxicab Drivers
0.00036
0.00016
0
526
Household Appliance
0.00019
0.00033
0
843
Supervisors Material
0.00007
0.00045
0
549
Not Specified Mechanics
0.00004
0.00048
0
864
Helpers, Mechanics
0.00012
0.00038
0
883
Freight Stock & Material
0.00009
0.00042
0
048
Chemical Engineer
0.00014
0.00035
0
009
Purchasing Manager
0.00005
0.00044
0
699
Mise. Plant Operator
0.00021
0.00027
0
064
Computer Systems Analyst
0.00011
0.00036
0
747
Pressing Machine
0.00034
0.00013
0
284
Auctioneers
0.00027
0.00020
0
Total
.00070
.00070
.00070
.00069
.00069
.00069
.00068
.00067
.00067
.00067
.00067
.00066
.00066
.00066
.00066
.00066
.00065
.00064
.00064
.00063
.00063
.00063
.00062
.00060
.00060
.00059
.00058
.00058
.00058
.00057
.00057
.00057
.00057
.00055
.00055
.00054
.00054
.00053
.00052
.00052
.00052
.00052
.00050
.00050
.00049
.00049
.00048
.00048
.00047
.00046

46
Table 3-4—continued
soc
Title Variance
Covariance Total
649
Engravers, Metal
0.00009
0.00037
0.00046
185
Designers
0.00006
0.00041
0.00046
086
Veterinarians
0.00049
-0.00005
0.00045
889
Laborers, except Const
0.00003
0.00042
0.00045
677
Optical Goods Workers
0.00020
0.00023
0.00044
224
Chemical
0.00013
0.00030
0.00044
184
Technical Writers
0.00008
0.00036
0.00044
349
Telegraphers
0.00031
0.00012
0.00043
049
Nuclear Engineers
0.00011
0.00033
0.00043
329
Library Clerks
0.00038
0.00003
0.00042
026
Management Analysts
0.00022
0.00020
0.00042
523
Electronic Repairers
0.00013
0.00029
0.00042
799
Graders and Sorters
0.00009
0.00033
0.00042
888
Hand Packers & Packager
0.00003
0.00040
0.00042
845
Longshore Equipment
0.00040
0.00001
0.00041
876
Stevedores
0.00040
0.00001
0.00041
229
Computer Programmers
0.00008
0.00033
0.00041
259
Sales Reps., Mining
0.00008
0.00033
0.00041
365
Stock & Inventory Clerk
0.00003
0.00038
0.00041
164
Librarians
0.00036
0.00004
0.00040
829
Sailors and Deckhands
0.00031
0.00009
0.00040
503
Supervisors, Mechanics
0.00010
0.00030
0.00040
338
Payroll and Timekeeping
0.00003
0.00037
0.00040
445
Dental Assistants
0.00038
0.00001
0.00039
204
Dental Hygienists
0.00038
0.00001
0.00039
014
Administrators, Educ
0.00036
0.00003
0.00039
497
Captains & Other Officer
0.00034
0.00005
0.00039
035
Construction Inspectors
0.00030
0.00009
0.00039
813
Parking Lot Attendants
0.00024
0.00015
0.00039
757
Separating, Filtering
0.00015
0.00024
0.00039
538
Office Machine Repairers
0.00013
0.00026
0.00039
089
Health Diagnosing nec
0.00038
0.00000
0.00038
085
Dentists
0.00037
0.00001
0.00038
225
Science Tech, nec
0.00011
0.00027
0.00038
307
Supervisors Distribution
0.00005
0.00034
0.00038
013
Managers Marketing
0.00003
0.00036
0.00038
828
Ship Captains and Mates
0.00028
0.00009
0.00037
058
Marine Engineer, Naval
0.00025
0.00011
0.00037
275
Sales Counter Clerks
0.00020
0.00016
0.00037
088
Podiatrists
0.00035
0.00001
0.00036
678
Dental Lab Tech
0.00032
0.00003
0.00036
206
Radiologic Technicians
0.00031
0.00005
0.00036
803
Supervisors, Motor
0.00016
0.00020
0.00036
068
Mathematical Scientists
0.00014
0.00022
0.00036
359
Dispatchers
0.00010
0.00025
0.00036
666
Dressmakers
0.00009
0.00026
0.00036
437
Short-Order Cooks
0.00033
0.00002
0.00035
205
Health Record Tech
0.00032
0.00003
0.00035
774
Photographic Process
0.00012
0.00022
0.00035
426
Guards and Police
0.00010
0.00025
0.00035

47
Table 3-4—continued
SOC Title Variance Covariance
786
Hand Cutting & Trimming
0.00006
0.00029
0
805
Truck Drivers, Light
0.00006
0.00029
0
073
Chemists
0.00005
0.00030
0
065
Operations, System
0.00005
0.00030
0
368
Weighers, Measurers
0.00003
0.00032
0
694
Water and Sewage
0.00033
0.00002
0
679
Bookbinders
0.00033
0.00001
0
875
Garbage Collectors
0.00032
0.00002
0
808
Bus Drivers
0.00027
0.00007
0
203
Clinical Laboratory
0.00029
0.00005
0
863
Supervisors, Handlers
0.00005
0.00027
0
087
Optometrists
0.00031
0.00001
0
438
Food Counter
0.00030
0.00002
0
435
Waiters and Waitresses
0.00030
0.00003
0
366
Meter Readers
0.00021
0.00011
0
277
Street & Door-to-door
0.00020
0.00012
0
166
Economists
0.00004
0.00027
0
095
Registered Nurse
0.00026
0.00004
0
737
Mise. Printing Machine
0.00025
0.00006
0
015
Managers Medicine
0.00024
0.00008
0
257
Sales Occupations, Other
0.00013
0.00018
0
415
Supervisors, Guards
0.00009
0.00023
0
008
Personnel & Labor
0.00002
0.00028
0
198
Announcers
0.00028
0.00001
0
434
Bartenders
0.00027
0.00003
0
833
Marine Engineers
0.00015
0.00014
0
304
Supervisors, Computer
0.00005
0.00025
0
283
Demonstrators, Promoters
0.00005
0.00025
0
369
Samplers
0.00004
0.00027
0
019
Managers, Administrator
0.00002
0.00028
0
207
LPN
0.00024
0.00005
0
577
Electrical Power
0.00023
0.00005
0
517
Farm Equipment Mechanics
0.00014
0.00016
0
374
Material Recording
0.00008
0.00021
0
069
Physicists
0.00008
0.00021
0
696
Stationary Engineers
0.00005
0.00024
0
163
Counselors
0.00026
0.00003
0
348
Telephone Operators
0.00020
0.00008
0
084
Physicians
0.00020
0.00007
0
189
Photographers
0.00012
0.00015
0
309
Peripheral Equipment
0.00003
0.00024
0
487
Animal Caretakers
0.00027
0.00000
0
414
Supervisors, Police
0.00026
0.00000
0
227
Air Traffic Controllers
0.00026
0.00000
0
423
Sheriff, Bailiffs
0.00026
0.00000
0
424
Correctional Institution
0.00026
0.00000
0
418
Police & Detective
0.00026
0.00000
0
179
Judges
0.00026
0.00000
0
003
Legislators & Public
0.00026
0.00000
0
317
Hotel Clerks
0.00026
0.00000
0
Total
.00035
.00035
.00035
.00035
.00035
.00034
.00034
.00034
.00034
.00033
.00033
.00032
.00032
.00032
.00032
.00032
.00032
.00031
.00031
.00031
.00031
.00031
.00031
.00030
.00030
.00030
.00030
.00030
.00030
.00030
.00029
.00029
.00029
.00029
.00029
.00029
.00028
.00028
.00027
.00027
.00027
.00026
.00026
.00026
.00026
.00026
.00026
.00026
.00026
.00026

48
Table 3-4—continued
soc
Title Variance
Covariance Total
735
Photoengravers
0.00021
0.00006
0.00026
499
Hunters and Trappers
0.00018
0.00008
0.00026
539
Mechanical Control
0.00013
0.00014
0.00026
029
Buyers
0.00008
0.00018
0.00026
327
Order Clerks
0.00006
0.00020
0.00026
345
Duplicating Machine
0.00005
0.00021
0.00026
027
Personnel Specialist
0.00005
0.00021
0.00026
308
Computer Operators
0.00003
0.00023
0.00026
385
Data Entry Keyers
0.00003
0.00023
0.00026
447
Nursing Aides, Orderlies
0.00019
0.00006
0.00025
754
Packaging & Filling
0.00003
0.00021
0.00025
006
Admin., Protective
0.00024
0.00001
0.00024
005
Admin., Public Admin.
0.00024
0.00000
0.00024
466
Baggage Porters
0.00018
0.00006
0.00024
834
Bridge, Lock, Lighthouse
0.00018
0.00006
0.00024
734
Printing Machine
0.00013
0.00010
0.00024
339
Billing Clerks
0.00003
0.00022
0.00024
326
Correspondence Clerks
0.00003
0.00021
0.00024
417
Firefighting
0.00023
0.00000
0.00023
425
Crossing Guards
0.00022
0.00001
0.00023
413
Supervisors, Fire
0.00022
0.00000
0.00023
097
Dieticians
0.00019
0.00004
0.00023
695
Power Plant Operators
0.00019
0.00004
0.00023
446
Health Aides
0.00017
0.00005
0.00023
243
Supervisor Proprietor
0.00005
0.00018
0.00023
285
Sales Support Occupation
0.00005
0.00018
0.00023
337
Bookkeepers, Accounting
0.00002
0.00020
0.00023
305
Supervisors, Financial
0.00002
0.00021
0.00023
468
Childcare Worker
0.00017
0.00005
0.00022
736
Typesetters & Compositor
0.00013
0.00008
0.00022
235
Technicians
0.00005
0.00017
0.00022
453
Janitors and Cleaners
0.00005
0.00017
0.00022
814
Motor Transportation
0.00015
0.00006
0.00021
763
Roasting & Baking
0.00007
0.00014
0.00021
343
Cost and Rate Clerks
0.00003
0.00018
0.00021
007
Financial Managers
0.00005
0.00016
0.00020
335
File Clerks
0.00003
0.00017
0.00020
433
Supervisors, Food Prep
0.00018
0.00001
0.00019
378
Bill & Account Collect
0.00005
0.00014
0.00019
376
Investigator
0.00004
0.00015
0.00019
436
Cooks except Short Order
0.00018
0.00000
0.00018
443
Waiters Assistant
0.00017
0.00000
0.00018
173
Urban Planners
0.00016
0.00002
0.00018
256
Advertising and Related
0.00010
0.00008
0.00018
188
Painters, Sculptors
0.00005
0.00013
0.00018
325
Classified-ad Clerks
0.00004
0.00013
0.00018
067
Statisticians
0.00004
0.00014
0.00018
346
Mail Preparing
0.00003
0.00015
0.00018
748
Laundering
0.00020
-0.00003
0.00017
208
Health Technologists
0.00015
0.00002
0.00017

49
Table 3-4—continued
soc
Title Variance
Covariance Total
028
Purchasing Agents
0.00014
0.00003
0.00017
036
Inspectors
0.00013
0.00003
0.00017
357
Messengers
0.00004
0.00013
0.00017
347
Office Machine Operators
0.00004
0.00013
0.00017
023
Accountants
0.00003
0.00015
0.00017
356
Mail Clerks
0.00002
0.00014
0.00017
253
Insurance
0.00016
0.00000
0.00016
375
Insurance Adjusters
0.00016
0.00000
0.00016
383
Bank Tellers
0.00016
0.00000
0.00016
255
Securities & Financial
0.00016
0.00000
0.00016
278
News Vendors
0.00010
0.00006
0.00016
083
Medical Scientists
0.00010
0.00006
0.00016
037
Management Related
0.00008
0.00008
0.00016
328
Personnel Clerks
0.00004
0.00012
0.00016
454
Elevator Operators
0.00003
0.00013
0.00016
379
General Office
0.00002
0.00014
0.00016
313
Secretaries
0.00002
0.00014
0.00016
254
Real Estate Sales
0.00015
0.00000
0.00015
024
Underwriters
0.00015
0.00000
0.00015
439
Kitchen Workers
0.00013
0.00002
0.00015
025
Other Financial Officers
0.00009
0.00006
0.00015
384
Proof Readers
0.00008
0.00007
0.00015
076
Physical Scientists nec
0.00007
0.00008
0.00015
456
Supervisors
0.00007
0.00008
0.00015
314
Stenographers
0.00006
0.00009
0.00015
323
Information Clerks nec
0.00004
0.00011
0.00015
386
Statistical Clerks
0.00003
0.00012
0.00015
489
Inspectors, Agricultural
0.00011
0.00003
0.00014
344
Billing, Posting
0.00008
0.00006
0.00014
316
Interviewers
0.00006
0.00008
0.00014
074
Atmospheric & Space
0.00006
0.00008
0.00014
448
Supervisors, Cleaning
0.00006
0.00008
0.00014
034
Business Agent
0.00006
0.00008
0.00014
197
Public Relations
0.00003
0.00011
0.00014
444
Miscellaneous Food Prep
0.00013
0.00000
0.00013
016
Managers Properties
0.00012
0.00001
0.00013
228
Broadcast Equipment
0.00010
0.00002
0.00013
806
Driver-Sales Workers
0.00003
0.00010
0.00013
303
Supervisors Office
0.00003
0.00010
0.00013
389
Administrative Support
0.00003
0.00010
0.00013
079
Forestry Scientists
0.00017
-0.00005
0.00012
486
Groundskeepers
0.00014
-0.00001
0.00012
155
Teachers Prekindergarten
0.00012
0.00001
0.00012
106
Physicians Assistants
0.00010
0.00002
0.00012
167
Psychologists
0.00010
0.00002
0.00012
066
Actuaries
0.00008
0.00004
0.00012
195
Editors
0.00004
0.00007
0.00012
315
Typists
0.00003
0.00009
0.00012
176
Clergy
0.00011
0.00000
0.00011
773
Motion Picture Project
0.00009
0.00002
0.00011

50
Table 3-4—continued
SOC Title Variance Covariance Total
193 Dancers
186 Musicians & Composers
877 Stock Handlers
688 Food Batchmakers
416 Fire Inspection
177 Religious
096 Pharmacists
464 Ushers
168 Sociologists
336 Records Clerks
078 Biological Scientist
469 Personal Service Occup
276 Cashiers
319 Receptionists
194 Artists
183 Authors
199 Athletes
169 Social Scientists
459 Attendants, Amusement
178 Lawyers
686 Butchers & Meat Cutters
223 Biological Tech
234 Legal Assistants
187 Actors and Directors
449 Maids and Housemen
377 Eligibility Clerks
165 Archivists
427 Protective Service
485 Supervisors, Agriculture
077 Agricultural Scientist
175 Recreation Workers
174 Social Workers
463 Guides
687 Bakers
467 Welfare Service
0.00008
0.00003
0.00011
0.00008
0.00002
0.00011
0.00006
0.00005
0.00011
0.00006
0.00005
0.00011
0.00013
-0.00004
0.00010
0.00010
0.00000
0.00010
0.00010
0.00000
0.00010
0.00008
0.00002
0.00010
0.00007
0.00003
0.00010
0.00006
0.00004
0.00010
0.00005
0.00005
0.00010
0.00004
0.00006
0.00010
0.00004
0.00006
0.00010
0.00004
0.00006
0.00010
0.00004
0.00005
0.00010
0.00008
0.00001
0.00009
0.00008
0.00002
0.00009
0.00006
0.00003
0.00009
0.00006
0.00003
0.00009
0.00008
0.00000
0.00008
0.00006
0.00002
0.00008
0.00004
0.00005
0.00008
0.00004
0.00003
0.00008
0.00008
-0.00001
0.00007
0.00007
0.00000
0.00007
0.00007
0.00000
0.00007
0.00005
0.00002
0.00007
0.00005
0.00002
0.00007
0.00010
-0.00004
0.00006
0.00008
-0.00002
0.00006
0.00007
-0.00001
0.00006
0.00006
0.00000
0.00006
0.00005
0.00001
0.00006
0.00005
0.00001
0.00006
0.00007
-0.00001
0.00005
combined class warrants the analysis of risk at the three-
digit level. There is much variation in industrial
concentration and risk at the three-digit level which is
not captured at the two-digit level, much less the one¬
digit level. This is evidence of how control for
differences between occupations using one and two-digit
level classifications will lead to distorted results.

CHAPTER 4
EMPIRICAL STUDY
The empirical study employs data from the Department
of Commerce's 1980 Census Subject Reports. The Subject
Report Earnings by Occupation and Education is the source
of the wage data.
The Decennial Census was selected as the data source
because alternative panel data sources, such as the Panel
Study of Income Dynamics and the Current Population Survey,
contain too few observations at the three-digit
occupational level for reliable estimates of occupational
differences. To regroup the three-digit occupational
categories at the two-digit or one-digit classification
level for increased observations would misrepresent the
level of exposure to industry concentration experienced by
most occupations as shown in Appendices C and D.
Although earnings are reported by occupation for men
and women in earlier Censuses, comparability between years
is reduced by the emergence or disappearance of certain
occupational classifications. If 1970 data were added and
the study restricted to occupations consistently defined in
each Census, the number of occupations deleted from the
study would be greater than the number of 1970 observations
added. Therefore, the study uses only 1980 data.
51

52
The Census data report the mean annual earnings for
males and females employed full-time, year-round in 1979.
This sample includes persons who usually worked 35 hours or
more per week for 50-52 weeks in 1979, compiled by the
three-digit level Standard Occupational Classification
code. If the occupation changed during the course of the
year, the occupation of longest duration is specified.
Earnings observations are delineated for age groups
25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65+, and by education
levels 0-8, 9-11, 12, 13-15, 16, and 17+ years. Earnings
are defined as the algebraic sum of wage or salary income,
nonfarm self-employment income and farm net self-employment
income. This earnings figure represents income before
deductions for personal income taxes, Social Security, bond
purchases, union dues, Medicare and the like. Mean
earnings is defined as the aggregate earnings of a
particular occupation's wage and education class divided by
the number of observations included in that cell.
Given the age and education groupings, 30 potential
earnings observations exist for each occupation for each
sex. For males, a total of 12,229 mean earnings
observations are available and for females, 10,391
observations are available. The means and standard
deviations for the male and female samples are presented in
Table 4-1.
Years of education and potential work experience are
used to measure human capital. Potential work experience

53
Table 4-1
Full Sample Means & Standard Deviations
Males Females
Variable:
MEAN
STD.DEV
MEAN
STD.DEV
LOG WAGE
9.7725
0.4024
9.3207
0.5325
EDUCATION
12.7760
3.1600
12.5840
3.0957
EXPERIENCE
25.6430
14.4060
24.6430
14.2430
GED REASONING
3.1892
1.1022
3.1985
1.1136
GED MATH
2.2863
1.2132
2.2841
1.2107
GED LANGUAGE
2.6133
1.2929
2.6498
1.3057
SVP
1.3703
1.2416
1.3312
1.2274
DEXTERITY
3.6758
0.3747
3.7028
0.3775
STRESS
0.0425
0.1491
0.0392
0.1431
STRENGTH
2.2335
0.7167
2.1644
0.7000
EXTREME COLD
0.0046
0.0246
0.0046
0.0251
EXTREME HEAT
0.0300
0.0981
0.0275
0.0905
EXTREME WET
0.0526
0.1331
0.0454
0.1182
EXTREME NOISE
0.1890
0.2525
0.1709
0.2416
VIBRATION
0.1745
0.2548
0.1520
0.2363
ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS
0.0822
0.1599
0.0727
0.1446
MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT
0.0041
0.0234
0.0032
0.0187
SHOCK
0.0023
0.0167
0.0022
0.0162
HEIGHTS
0.0027
0.0191
0.0022
0.0161
RADIATION
0.0029
0.0297
0.0029
0.0297
EXPLOSIVES
0.0008
0.0111
0.0008
0.0109
TOXINS
0.0017
0.0113
0.0018
0.0118
OTHER HAZARDS
0.0085
0.0508
0.0087
0.0525
FRACTION
NORTH
0.2233
0.0645
0.2283
0.0626
FRACTION
NORTH CENTRAL
0.2498
0.0796
0.2509
0.0743
FRACTION
SOUTH
0.3216
0.0915
0.3174
0.0882
FRACTION
WEST
0.2053
0.0686
0.2033
0.0659
GROWTH DUMMY
0.3867
0.9223
0.4214
0.9069
FRACTION
UNEMPLOYED
0.0614
0.0457
0.0591
0.0431
FRACTION
FEMALE
0.3135
0.2850
0.3540
0.2892
FRACTION
AGRICULTURE
0.0212
0.1060
0.0182
0.0981
FRACTION
MINING
0.0274
0.1264
0.0210
0.1074
FRACTION
CONSTRUCTION
0.0701
0.1956
0.0530
0.1658
FRACTION
DURABLE
0.1777
0.2599
0.1717
0.2531
FRACTION
NONDURABLE
0.1101
0.1995
0.1175
0.2062
FRACTION
TRANSPORTATION
0.1070
0.2221
0.0973
0.2071
FRACTION
WHOLESALE
0.0313
0.0737
0.0313
0.0713
FRACTION
RETAIL
0.0794
0.1641
0.0861
0.1722
FRACTION
FIRE
0.0461
0.1453
0.0530
0.1564
FRACTION
BUSINESS SERV.
0.0543
0.1080
0.0546
0.1050
FRACTION
PERSONAL SERV.
0.0279
0.1194
0.0305
0.1244
FRACTION
ENTERTAINMENT
0.0188
0.0873
0.0187
0.0842
FRACTION
PROFESSIONAL
0.1434
0.2514
0.1604
0.2663
FRACTION
PUBLIC ADMIN.
0.0781
0.1770
0.0796
0.1758
FRACTION
UNION COVERAGE
0.2643
0.2334
0.2469
0.2134
FRACTION
NONWHITE
0.0866
0.0591
0.0826
0.0552
DUMMY - RISK
0.4785
0.4996
0.4588
0.4983
H
0.3416
0.2860
0.3314
0.2860
VARIANCE
0.0006
0.0028
0.0005
0.0025
COVARIANCE
0.0004
0.0005
0.0003
0.0005

54
is measured as the age less years of education less six.
Since labor force participation rates differ between sexes,
the total sample is separated into male and female samples
for estimation.
The U.S. Government's Dictionary of Occupational
Titles (DOT) was originally developed in 1939 by the
Department of Labor to assist in providing occupational
guidance in local employment service offices. The DOT
comprehensively identifies and defines virtually all
civilian sector occupations. It is now widely used in
career guidance counseling to assist in making occupational
choices.
The DOT data are based on more detailed definitions of
occupations than those used by the Standard Occupational
Coding (SOC) of the Census. The DOT codes have fortunately
been associated with their respective SOC code by the
National Crosswalk Service. To aggregate the DOT data to
the SOC level, the average value of a job characteristic
for the corresponding DOT observation is used to represent
the score for the SOC.
The data available from the DOT include measures of
skill requirements, such as the level of general
educational development (GED) and the years of SVP for each
occupation. The GED scores reasoning, math and language
skill requirements separately on a scale of 1-6. The GED
scores for reasoning, math and language skills for each SOC
are listed in Appendices F, G, and H. The SVP ordinal

55
scale from 1-9 was transformed to a time-based scale
ranging from 0-10 years. The SVP score for each occupation
is listed in Appendix I.
Occupational complexity is also reported in the DOT
data. Worker function ratings measure the dexterity and
eye-foot coordination requirements on a scale of 1-5 for
each variable. Higher wages should be observable for
occupations requiring these skills if they are scarce in
the labor force. Scores for each occupation requiring
dexterity are listed in Appendix J.
Information regarding working conditions by occupation
is also extracted from the DOT information, since adverse
working conditions should also result in higher wages.
Extreme physical demands and adverse working conditions
such as exposure to hazards, weather, vibration, noise and
stress, are coded with a zero or one dummy variable which
denotes the existence of adverse conditions in an
occupation. Appendix K contains a listing of stressful
occupations by SOC code. Appendix L lists occupations by
order of strength requirements. Occupations that are
exposed to extreme heat, cold, wet noise and vibration are
listed in Appendices M, N, O, P and Q. Occupations exposed
to hazards such as atmospheric conditions, mechanical
devices, shock, heights, radiation, explosives, toxins and
other hazards are listed by order of exposure in Appendices
R, S, T, U, V, W, X and Y.

56
Further data have been accumulated from the Census
reports. Each occupation's location is reported for the
South, West, North Central and Northeast United States.
Wages vary between regions to compensate for differences in
amenities and in the cost of living.
Current unemployment rates and the fraction employed
in major industry classes are also available from the
Census reports. These data are included to test for
efficiency wages and industry wage differentials.
Additionally, percentages female and nonwhite in an
occupation are also reported by the Census. These are
included to measure any wage discrimination practices.
Higher wages may be required to lure workers into
growing occupations. Occupations which experienced growth
in employment from 1970 to 1980 are coded one, denoting a
growth occupation. If an occupation appears for the first
time in the 1980 Census, it is considered a growth
occupation. Any occupation experiencing negative growth
from 1970 to 1980 is coded -1. In 1980, 31% of the
occupations experienced no increase in employment from 1970
employment levels.
A growing occupation with high employment volatility
should not command as high a level of compensating wage for
risk of unemployment as a no-growth occupation with
volatility. Employment fluctuation in a high-growth
occupation can be absorbed by reducing new hires rather
than by laying off employees. This hypothesis can be

57
tested with an interaction variable which equals the
product of the long-run growth and the occupational
variance measure. A +1/-1 dummy is employed instead of a
0/1 dummy so that interaction of the risk variables with
the growth variable retains information on the sign of the
risk variable.
Unionization rates are available from Curme, Hirsch
and Macpherson (1990), who have calculated union coverage
and membership rates by occupation. Their rates are based
on the Current Population Survey for the years 1983-1985.
This study utilizes the union coverage rate, which is
defined as the fraction of workers covered by a collective
bargaining agreement, since wages should be more closely
associated with it than with union membership. This
variable will be used to test whether unions raise wages.
To test the hypothesis that increased employment risk
commands a compensating wage, an empirical study using an
ordinary least squares regression is performed as specified
by the model presented in Table 4-2. Transformation of the
wage to the log of the wage is the specification that
others have found provides the best fit when wage is the
dependent variable and traditional human capital measures
are the independent variables.

58
Table 4-2
Occupation Based Risk Model
0is=f(F,E,X/X2,X3,S,Q,Dp,Hz,EC/U/GL,T,Z,II,Rj,L)
Variable Definitions:
0 = Log Occupation i's Mean Hourly Earnings
F = Fraction Female of Total Occupational Employment
E = Median Years Education for Cell
X = Experience = Age less Education less 6
S = Years Specific Vocational Preparation (SVP)
Q = SVP * Education
Dp = Physical Demands Indicator Vector
P = Dexterity, Stress, Strength Indicator
Hz = Hazardous Working Conditions Indicator Vector
Z = Atmospheric Conditions, Mechanical Parts, Shock,
Heights, Radiation, Toxins, Other Hazards
Ec = Environmental Conditions Indicator Vector
C = Cold, Heat, Noise, Other
U = Unionization Rate of Occupation
Gl = Fraction of Occupation in Geographic Location
L = North Central, North, South, West
T = Long Run Occupational Employment Growth Indicator
Z = Current Unemployment Rate for Occupation
Ip = Fraction of Occupation Employed in Industry I
I = Agriculture, Mining, Construction, Durable Goods,
Transportation, Wholesale, Retail, FIRE, Business
Services, Personal Services, Entertainment,
Professional Services & Public Administration
Rj = Unemployment Risk Measure
J = Crude, Herfindahl, or Occupational Variance Measures
of Risk
L = Interaction of Long-run Growth and Variance Measure

CHAPTER 5
TEST RESULTS
In order to test for the effect of unemployment risk
on wages, an ordinary least squares regression model was
estimated. Tests of the residuals found
heteroskedasticity, so White's (1980) correction was
employed for significance tests of the ordinary least
squares regression coefficients. Since additional
information could be obtained if the heteroskedasticity was
corrected, many modifications of the model were tested, but
no reduction in heteroskedasticity resulted. These results
are discussed at the end of this chapter.
Regressions were run in six passes. The first
regression pass was the base wage model with no risk
measure. Regressions two through five included one of the
four risk measures described in Chapter 3. The sixth
regression estimated the model with no industry control
variables. Detailed regression results for all models and
both samples are presented in Appendix E.
Due to differences between the male and female labor
force attachment rates, the calculated experience measure
may misrepresent work experience for males relative to
females. Separate regressions were calculated for each sex
to allow for this and to determine the sensitivity of the
regression results to sex.
59

60
The models which include industry controls are
preferable, since the hypothesis that the industry control
regressors are jointly equal to zero can be rejected.
However, this does not indicate conclusively that
efficiency wages are the cause. Table 5-1 reports the
estimates of the coefficient for unemployment in models
five and six, which differ only by the inclusion of
industry control variables. If efficiency wages are the
cause of the industry wage differentials, the unemployment
coefficient should be more negative when industry controls
are included. This is indeed the case in both the male and
female samples. However, the unemployment rate
coefficients in these two specifications are not more than
two standard deviations from each other and therefore do
not appear to be significantly different. Thus, these
regressions provide no support for this implication of
efficiency wages.
Table 5-1
OLS Unemployment Rate Coefficients
and Corrected t-statistics (in Parenthesis)
Males
Females
Model 5
-0.35
-1.16
With industry controls
(-2.71)
(-4.95)
Model 6
-0.11
- .98
No industry controls
(-1.07)
(-5.06)
A Hausman specification test can be performed to test
the efficiency wage hypothesis based on the difference in
the coefficients from each model. The estimate of the

61
coefficient of the unemployment rate is asymptotically
efficient under the null hypothesis, which is a condition
for this test. The null hypothesis that no efficiency wage
exists is rejected with the male sample, but it is not
rejected with the female sample.
Risk Measures
It was expected that compensating wages would be
required for increased unemployment risk. The occupation
variance measure was expected to fit the data more closely
than when an industry variance alone is included, as in the
Adams and Li studies, since the occupational variance would
better account for the mobility of certain occupations
between industries. Table 5-2 presents the coefficient
estimates and correlated t-statistics for both samples and
all risk variables.
Model four includes a variance measure alone which is
positive and significant at the 90% level in the male
sample only. When the covariance and its interaction with
growth is added to the model, the coefficient on the
variance variable increases in significance with the female
sample, but decreases in significance with the male sample.
The coefficients with the covariance measure and its
interaction with growth are jointly significant in both
samples. In the female sample it is significant at
a 95% level. In the male sample the joint test is
significantly different from zero at a 99% level.

62
Table 5-2
OLS Risk Variables Coefficients
and Corrected t-statistics (in Parenthesis)
by Model and Sex of Sample
MODEL 2
Male
Female
Dummy
-.013
-.015
(-1.75)
(-1.17)
Dummy*Growth
. 022
-.010
MODEL 3
(3.34)
(-0.86)
H
-.057
-.053
(-3.73)
(-2.02)
H*Growth
. 040
-.039
MODEL 4
(3.50)
(-1.76)
Variance
1.588
2.564
MODEL 5
(1.72)
(1.09)
Variance
1.120
4.016
(1.04)
(1.56)
Covariance
18.207
67.01
(1.02)
(1.93)
Occ. Var. * Growth
29.733
29.253
(2.93)
(2.02)
Thus, taking account of the covariance of employment
across industries provides a better fit, as predicted. The
magnitude of the effect of covariance risk on wages is the
combined effect of the covariance and the interaction of
total variance and growth. Based on the estimates computed
with the female sample, if the covariance increases by one
standard deviation and the occupation is scored one for
growth, a compensating wage increase of 5% is measured. If
the occupation is scored as a no-growth occupation, the
compensating wage differential is increased by 2%. Based
on the estimates computed with the male sample, if the
covariance increases by one standard deviation and the
occupation is scored one for growth, a compensating wage
increase of 2.4% is measured. If the occupation is scored

63
as a no-growth occupation, wages are estimated to be
decreased by .58%. These results generally support the
hypothesis that earnings are higher in occupations with
greater employment risk, but do not support the theory that
growing occupations would require smaller compensating
wages for employment risk than declining occupations.
Regression model two tests the risk dummy variable
(Dummy), which denotes whether an occupation's
concentration in an industry is 50% or greater. Using the
male sample this model specification finds that wages are
.9% higher in concentrated growth occupations, and 3.5%
lower in concentrated no-growth occupations. Using the
female sample, the effect of concentration is a 2.5%
decrease for positive growth occupations and a .5% decrease
for negative growth occupations. Thus, industry
concentration is associated with higher wages in only one
of these four cases. The joint significance test of the
dummy variable and the growth interaction is significant at
the 99% and 85% level with the male and female samples
respectively.
The H measure is a risk variable which measures the
degree of concentration of an occupation in all industries
on a scale from 0-1. This measure is employed in model
three. The hypothesis that concentrated occupations
require positive compensating wages is not supported with
this definition of risk. Negative differentials are

64
estimated as the H measure increases whether or not the
occupation is growing.
Regression model five, which contains the covariance
risk measure and industry variables, is presented in Table
5-3. Since the dependent variable is the log wage, a
coefficient less than or equal to 10% can be interpreted as
the percentage change in the wage due to a change in the
independent variable. For coefficients greater than 10%,
the wage is calculated for a one-unit change in the
independent variable. The effect of the independent
variable is then calculated based on the percentage change
of this wage from the mean sample wage. The following
detailed discussion of the coefficients is based on
regression model which includes the covariance risk measure
and industry dummies.
Growth Rates
The growth rate is a -1 or +1 dummy variable which
measures whether an occupation experienced increased or
decreased employment from 1970 to 1980. The model
estimated also includes the interaction of growth and the
occupation variance risk measure. The combined effect of
these growth variables on wages is significant at 99.5% in
both samples. If the mean occupational variance measure of
.001 is employed, earnings in growing occupations are
estimated to be 2% and 6.4% than in declining occupations
in the female and male samples respectively. This supports
the hypothesis that earnings in rapidly growing occupations

65
Table 5-3
Model Five Regression Results
Log Wage is Dependent Variable
Males Females
Coefficient Coefficient
(t-statistic) (t-statistic)
FRACTION
NORTH
0.2085
-0.2525
(2.66)
(-1.92)
FRACTION
SOUTH
-0.1847
-0.6191
(-3.27)
(-4.19)
FRACTION
WEST
-0.0067
-0.1726
(-0.09)
(-1.51)
GROWTH DUMMY
-0.0024
0.0113
(0.63)
1.53
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE
-0.3523
-1.1555
(-2.71)
(-4.95)
FRACTION
FEMALE
-0.2597
-0.1012
(-11.23)
(-3.00)
FRACTION
AGRICULTURE
-0.0517
-0.1865
(-1.01)
(-1.71)
FRACTION
MINING
0.2898
0.4798
(8.12)
(7.11)
FRACTION
CONSTRUCTION
0.1456
0.3102
(4.09)
(4.72)
FRACTION
NONDURABLE
0.0255
0.0858
(0.77)
(1.32)
FRACTION
TRANSPORTATION
0.1443
0.3027
(4.14)
(4.67)
FRACTION
WHOLESALE
0.1410
0.1173
(2.60)
(1.21)
FRACTION
RETAIL
-0.1811
-0.1381
(-5.06)
(-2.12)
FRACTION
FIRE
0.1424
0.1482
(3.83)
(2.50)
FRACTION
BUSINESS SERV.
-0.0657
-0.0119
(-1.68)
(-0.18)
FRACTION
PERSONAL SERV.
-0.2626
-0.1671
(-6.54)
(-2.61)
FRACTION
ENTERTAINMENT
0.0741
0.1919
(1.48)
(2.40)
FRACTION
PROFESS. SERV.
-0.1323
-0.0293
(-3.48)
(-0.49)
FRACTION
PUBLIC ADMIN.
-0.1382
0.1093
(-3.85)
(1.72)
EDUCATION
0.0337
0.0151
(21.64)
(5.32)
EXPERIENCE
0.0312
0.0032
(17.99)
(0.88)
EXPERIENCE SQUARED
-0.0007
0.0001
(-8.65)
(0.45)
EXPERIENCE CUBED
3.00 X 10 6
-4.00 X
(2.51)
(-1.83)

Table 5-3—continued
66
Males
Coefficient
(t-statistic)
Females
Coefficient
(t-statistic)
GED-REASONING
GED-MATH
GED-LANGUAGE
SVP
SVP * EDU
DEXTERITY
STRESS
STRENGTH
EXTREME COLD
EXTREME HEAT
EXTREME WET
EXTREME NOISE
VIBRATION
ATMOSPHERIC
MECHANICAL
SHOCK
HEIGHTS
RADIATION
EXPLOSIVES
TOXINS
OTHER HAZARDS
NONWHITE
UNION REPRESENTATION
-0.0139
(-1.82)
0.0204
(3.22)
0.0516
(6.98)
-0.0279
(-2.24)
0.0047
(5.40)
0.0519
(4.23)
0.1292
(5.14)
-0.0435
(-5.63)
-0.1678
(-1.48)
0.1016
(3.26)
0.1276
(4.66)
0.0067
(0.39)
- 0.0403
(-2.23)
-0.0357
(-1.59)
0.0362
(0.27)
0.0928
(0.55)
-0.0169
(-0.13)
0.3692
(4.35)
-0.2282
(-1.18)
-0.2635
(-1.30)
-0.0699
(-1.14)
-0.7503
(-8.74)
0.0743
(3.86)
1.1198
(1.04)
0.0025
(0.17)
-0.0479
(-5.74)
0.0325
(2.86)
-0.1581
(-6.64)
0.0129
(7.41)
0.0526
(3.59)
0.0649
(1.94)
-0.0455
(-3.90)
0.0712
(0.51)
0.0130
(0.25)
-0.0011
(-0.02)
0.0272
(0.87)
0.0330
(0.84)
0.0409
(0.97)
0.1379
(0.50)
0.4180
(1.23)
-0.2935
(-0.90)
0.3039
(2.37)
0.2185
(0.56)
-0.2883
(-0.91)
0.1271
(1.95)
0.0419
(0.24)
0.0156
(0.41)
4.0155
(1.56)
VARIANCE

67
Table 5-3—continued
COVARIANCE
GROWTH * TOTAL VARIANCE
CONSTANT
Statistics:
Males
Coefficient
(t-statistic)
18.2070
(1.02)
29.7330
(2.93)
8.9453
(110.24)
Females
Coefficient
(t-statistic)
67.0110
(1.93)
29.2530
(2.02)
9.0766
(65.42)
R-SQUARE
ADJ. R-SQUARE
VARIANCE
STANDARD ERROR
SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS
LOG LIKELIHOOD
.3897
.2115
.3872
.2078
. 0992
.2246
.3150
.4739
1209
2323
-3201
-6961
are driven up in order to draw workers from other
occupations.
Unemployment Rates
The current unemployment rate is expected to be
negatively related to wages. Lower wages help to induce
workers to leave an occupation that has recently
experienced a fall in long-run demand. In both samples,
the current unemployment rate has a significant negative
coefficient. Based on the male sample, if the unemployment
rate increases by 1% wages will drop by .3%. Based on the
results from the female sample, as the unemployment rate
increases by 1%, wages decrease by .7%.
Geographic Location
The coefficient on geographic regions is expected to
be higher in urban areas to reflect higher costs of living
and lower in geographic areas with positive amenities.

68
The test results differ greatly in the two samples. Using
the male sample, the regression estimates a 23% higher wage
for employment in the Northeastern states relative to the
omitted variable, the North Central states. Wages are
estimated to be 17% lower for employment in the South. For
the female sample, the differential for wages in the South
is -46%. At a reduced level of statistical significance,
wages are estimated to be 22% lower in the North and 16%
lower in the West, relative to wages in the North Central
States.
Fraction Female
The coefficient on fraction female is expected to be
negative due to the combination of differing labor force
participation rates and discrimination. In the male
sample, as the fraction female increases from 0 to 100% in
an occupation, wages drop 23%. With the female sample,
wages are estimated to drop 10% as the fraction female
increases by 100%.
Fraction Employed in Industry
This variable controls for efficiency wages as well as
any omitted variable which systematically differ by
industry, such as percent self-employed, benefit packages,
hours of work and safety. Positive wage differentials are
found with the male sample for the Mining, Construction,
Transportation, Wholesale and FIRE Industries. Negative
wage differentials are found for the male sample for the
Retail, Personal Services, Professional Services and Public

69
Administration Industries. These results differ for the
female sample, however. Relative to the Durable Goods
Manufacturing Industry, positive wage differentials are
found with the female sample for the Mining, Construction,
Transportation, FIRE and Entertainment Industries.
Negative wage differentials are found for the Retail and
Personal Services Industries.
A comparison of regression models one and five shows
the effect of including risk measures in a model measuring
industry differentials. A simple correlation between the
set of industry coefficients from models one and five is
.999 for males and .989 for females. The standard
deviation of the sets of coefficients is reduced from .159
to .156 with the male sample and from .198 to .194 with the
female sample. For the full set of coefficients, the
effect of including a risk measure does not measure a
notable difference.
The importance of the risk measures is demonstrated
for specific industries when they are isolated from the
full set. For example, the Business Services Industry
differential is 10% lower and significant when risk
measures are excluded. The differential is not
significantly different from zero when the risk measures
are included. In six of the thirteen industries, the
coefficients estimated with the male sample move closer to
zero when the risk measure is included. In seven of the
industries, the coefficients move further away from zero

70
when the risk measure is included. In the female sample,
seven industry coefficients moved closer to and six
coefficients moved further away from zero when risk
measures were included.
Education and SVP
It is expected that education and wages are
significantly and positively related. The effect of an
additional year of education is estimated to increase
earnings by 4%, using the male sample and a score of 1.37
for the mean years of SVP. The corresponding effect of an
additional year of education for the female sample is 3.2%,
based on a mean SVP of 1.33 years. The positive
coefficient on the interaction variable indicates that
education is more valuable in an occupation that requires
more training.
Experience
The coefficient for experience is expected to be
positively related to earnings. As expected, the estimated
return on the experience variable differs for the male and
female samples. This could be explained as the result of
differing labor force attachment rates between the sexes,
rather than the result of the effect of sex on the return
on experience. Using the male sample, the regression
estimates that wages increase until 27 years of experience
and decline thereafter. Employing the female sample, wages
are estimated to increase until 24 years of experience, and
decline thereafter. These estimates were derived by taking

71
the derivative with respect to experience and solving the
quadratic derivative for the positive root.
GED
The coefficient on the educational requirements of the
occupation is expected to be large and positive for math
skills, which are relatively scarce, but lower for language
and reasoning skills, which are relatively common.
However, the estimated coefficients for the skill variables
differ by sex. Math skills are associated with 2% higher
wages in the male sample and 5% lower wages in the female
sample.
Language skills also earn a premium in both samples.
Based on the male sample, a 5% premium is assessed for
language skills. The comparable coefficient measured with
the female sample is 3%.
The results for reasoning skills are puzzling.
Reasoning skills are associated with significantly lower
wages in the male sample, but this is not significant at a
95% level. No discernible wage differential is estimated
with the female sample.
Physical Demands
It is expected that higher physical demands in an
occupation will be associated with higher wages. This
differential reflects the relative scarcity of these skills
in addition to compensating wages required for physically
demanding jobs. Employing the male sample, the regression
estimates a differential of 12% higher compensation for

72
stressful occupations. The wage differential for the
female sample is estimated at 6.5%, but at a lower level of
significance.
Strength requirements in the male sample are estimated
to reduce earnings by 4.3%. Similarly, for the female
sample, the model estimates a -4.5% wage differential for
strength requirements. Dexterity requirements increase
wages by 5% in both samples.
Environmental Conditions
It is expected that the environmental conditions
variables will have positive coefficients which reflect
compensating wages for discomfort. The coefficient for
exposure to extreme heat estimated with the male sample
indicates 10% greater compensation for this discomfort. No
discernible differential is found with the female sample.
Exposure to extreme wetness for the male sample is
estimated to command 14% higher wages. Again, the female
sample does not estimate any wage differential due to
exposure to wetness.
Exposure to cold, noise or vibration was not
associated with a wage differential in either sample.
Hazards
Significant positive wage differentials are expected
for exposure to hazards as compensation for increased
health and safety risks. Exposure to radiation is
estimated by the regression to require a 36% wage

73
differential in the female sample and a 45% differential in
the male sample.
Exposure to atmospheric conditions, risk of shock,
heights, mechanical equipment, explosives and toxins were
not estimated to require any significant wage differential
by either sample. Exposure to other hazards was reported
to increase wages by 14% in the female sample, but this is
estimated at a slightly reduced level of significance.
Unionization
Representation by unions is expected to be positively
related to wages. However, the regression results differ
by sex of sample. The regression for males estimated 7%
higher wages at a high level of significance. The presence
of unions does not indicate any improvement in earnings for
females, however.
Fraction Nonwhite
It is expected that the fraction nonwhite will be
negatively related to wages due to the combined effect of
low-quality schools and the practice of discrimination
against nonwhites. The regression estimates a negative
earnings effect of 5.3% for a 10% increase in percent
nonwhite. No effect is indicated with the female sample.
Heteroskedasticitv
Heteroskedasticity was discerned when residuals from
the OLS regression of this model failed three tests of
homoskedasticity. The first of the three tests which
failed was the Breusch-Pagan-Godfrey Test; this is a

74
regression of the squared residuals on the independent
variables. Similarly, the two other tests, the Harvey Test
and the Glejser Test, are regressions of the log of the
squared residuals and the absolute residual on the
independent variables. With heteroskedasticity, the
coefficients are not efficiently estimated.
To correct for heteroskedasticity, interpretations of
coefficients are based on t-statistics constructed with
White's (1980) consistent variance covariance matrix. This
correction is asymptotically efficient in large samples,
which is the case in this study. Elimination of the
heteroskedasticity can sometimes provide more information;
therefore, further investigation of the source is
warranted.
Tests of the OLS residuals indicated that the squared
OLS errors were positively related to the level of SVP and
years of education. Based on this information, the sample
was divided into two groups: Those with more than one year
of SVP and those with less than one year of SVP. This
division of the sample did not reduce the
heteroskedasticity.
The model was reestimated with additional variables
for each level of education and SVP. Each level became a
dummy variable. Again, this did not reduce the
heteroskedasticity problem.
In order to reduce the heteroskedasticity, weights
were constructed and weighted least squares regressions

75
were employed. Weights based on the number of individuals
representing the wage cell, both relative to the total
individuals in the sample and to the total in the
occupation, did not reduce the heteroskedasticity. In
fact, these weights and their inverses increased the tested
heteroskedasticity of the residuals.
Two weights were found to individually reduce the
heteroskedasticity of the errors in the male sample only.
First, a weight was constructed in which all occupations
were represented with the 30 possible wage observations.
Since some occupations had less than 30 actual
observations, each occupations' observations were weighted
by the fraction 30 divided by the number of wage
observations for the occupation.
Secondly, the weight which was found to most reduce
the heteroskedasticity of the errors was the inverse of the
ratio of the number of individuals in the occupation to the
number of individuals in the sample. This procedure
essentially downweights the largest occupations.
In another procedure, the inverses of the squared OLS
residuals were used as weights. This procedure downweights
the observations with the largest errors. The weighting
procedure failed due to the presence of residuals with no
error which implied division by zero. A constant was then
added to each squared residual and the model was
reestimated. The heteroskedasticity was not reduced by as

76
much as by the model where larger occupations were given
less weight.
Further research in this area should capitalize on the
work of King regarding earnings differences between
occupations. He found that the variance of earnings within
occupations differs across occupations. This may be the
cause of the heteroskedasticity problem in this study.
Correcting for this form of heteroskedasticity and
reestimating the model would result in more efficient
estimates.
Conclusions
Data from the United States Government Departments on
industries and occupations have become more standardized
through the use of standard industrial classification and
occupation coding systems. This facilitates creation of
large data sets from multiple sources, such as the Bureaus
of Census and Labor Statistics. In this study, the
standard occupation code was used to link the data from
multiple sources.
The premise that occupations exposed to higher
employment volatility require compensating wage
differentials was tested, and some evidence supporting the
theory was found. The results are sensitive to the
specification of the risk measure. Based on the
unemployment risk measure which accounts for the covariance
of employment opportunities across industries, both males

77
and females were found to require compensating wages for
unemployment risk.
Other factors which were found to increase wages
include higher occupational growth rates, education,
experience, the occupation's skill requirements, dexterity
requirements and exposure to radiation. Unemployment, high
percentage female and strength requirements were found to
be negatively related to wages.
Nonwhite males were found to have lower wages than
white males, and no differential was found for the female
sample. Occupations exposed to stress, heat, or wetness
require differentials in the male sample only.
Additionally, the coefficients of the regional dummies
differed by sex. Collinearity between percent nonwhite and
geographic region dummies was tested and rejected as the
source of the differences in estimates between males and
females.
The inconsistencies in the results between the male
and female samples may reflect omitted variable problems.
Further research could include pooling the samples and
adding the 1990 Census data as it becomes available.
Potential omitted variables include a measure of the degree
of transferability between occupations, better measures of
occupational earnings which would include fringe benefits
and geographic concentration of employment.
Despite these issues, it is worthwhile to study wages
from an occupational perspective. Measures of unemployment

78
risk differ across occupations as compiled in this study.
Others have found that compensating wages are required for
exposure to unemployment risk as measured by industry
employment variance alone. This study improves the risk
measure by incorporating the covariance between industries'
employment.

APPENDIX A
INDUSTRY CLASSIFICATIONS
Agriculture
Metal Mining
Coal Mining
Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Mining
Nonmetallic Minerals Except Fuels Mining
Construction
Meat Products Manufacturing
Dairy Products Manufacturing
Grain Mill Products Manufacturing
Beverages Manufacturing
Other Food Manufacturing
Tobacco Manufacturing
Knitting Mills Manufacturing
Textile Finishing, Except Wool Manufacturing
Floor Coverings Manufacturing
Miscellaneous Textile Goods Manufacturing
Other Textile Manufacturing
Apparel and Other Textile Products Manufacturing
Paperboard Containers and Boxes Manufacturing
Other Paper Manufacturing
Newspapers Manufacturing
Other Printing Manufacturing
Plastics Manufacturing
Drugs Manufacturing
Soap, Cleaners and Toilet Goods Manufacturing
Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing
Other Chemicals Manufacturing
Petroleum Refining Manufacturing
Other Petroleum Manufacturing
Rubber Manufacturing
Leather Tanning and Finishing Manufacturing
Other Leather Manufacturing
Other Nondurable Goods Manufacturing
Logging Manufacturing
Other Lumber Manufacturing
Furniture and Fixtures Manufacturing
Cement, Concrete, Gypsum & Plaster Manufacturing
Structural Clay Products Manufacturing
Pottery and Related Products Manufacturing
Other Stone Manufacturing
Blast Furnace & Basic Steel Production
Manufacturing
Iron and Steel Foundries
Other Metal Manufacturing
Cutlery, Handtools, and Hardware Manufacturing
79

80
Screw Machine Products, Bolts, etc. Manufacturing
Other Metal Fabrication Manufacturing
Engines and Turbines Manufacturing
Construction and Related Machinery Manufacturing
Metalworking Machinery Manufacturing
Other Office Machinery Manufacturing
Household Appliances Manufacturing
Other Electronic Equipment Manufacturing
Motor Vehicles and Equipment Manufacturing
Aircraft Space Vehicles and Parts Manufacturing
Ship and Boat Building and Repairing
Railroad Equipment Manufacturing
Other Transportation Equipment Manufacturing
Watches, Clocks, Watchcases and Parts Manufacturing
Other Durable Goods Manufacturing
Railroad Transportation
Bus
Taxicabs
Trucking Service
Public Warehousing and Storage
U.S. Postal Service
Airline
Pipelines, Except Natural Gas
Radio and Television Broadcasting
Telephone Communications
Other Transportation and Public Utilities
Wholesale Electrical Goods
Apparel, Piece Goods and Notions Wholesale
Wholesale Groceries and Related Products
Other Wholesale
Retail Department Stores
Retail Food Stores
Retail Gasoline Service Stations
Other Automotive Retail
Shoe Stores
Other Apparel
Furniture and Homefurnishings Stores
Other Retail Furniture
Eating and Drinking Places
Drug Stores and Proprietary Stores
Other Retail
Hotels
Advertising
Other Business Services
Hospitals
Other Medical
College
Other Education
Engineering
Other Services

APPENDIX B
OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRY OF LARGEST CONCENTRATION
Industry SOC Occupation Concentration
Advertising 256 Advertising & Related Sales 35%
Agriculture 086 Veterinarians 84%
485 Supervisors 31%
486 Groundskeepers 43%
487 Animal Caretakers 61%
488 Graders and Sorters 100%
489 Inspectors 37%
495 Forestry Workers 84%
497 Captains & Other Officers Fishing 70%
498 Fishers 90%
499 Hunters and Trappers 47%
Airline 226 Airplane Pilots 78%
318 Transportation Ticket &
Reservation Agents 69%
465 Public Transportation 91%
508 Aircraft Engine Mechanics 55%
863 Supervisors, Handlers, Equipment
Cleaners & Laborers 12%
Aircraft & 044 Aerospace Engineers 51%
Space Vehicle 515 Aircraft Mechanics Except Engine 50%
Parts 636 Precision Assemblers, Metal 53%
714 Numerical Control Machine Operators 22%
Apparel & 659 Mise. Precision Woodworkers 20%
Other Textile 667 Tailors 50%
673 Apparel & Fabric Patternmakers 41%
744 Textile Sewing Machine Operators 79%
765 Folding Machine Operators 24%
769 Slicing & Cutting Machine Operators 8%
798 Production Samplers and Weighers 7%
Blast Furnace 045 Metallurgical 20%
Basic Steel 544 Millwrights 16%
707 Rolling Machine 52%
724 Heat Treating Equipment Operator 22%
766 Furnace, Kiln & Oven
Operators, Except Food 13%
849 Crane & Tower Operators 27%
873 Production Helpers 8%
81

82
Industry SOC Occupation Concentration
Bus 808 Bus Drivers 47%
Business 026 Management Analysts 48%
Services 064 Computer Systems 23%
069 Physicists 20%
184 Technical Writers 11%
229 Computer Programmers 20%
257 Sales Occupations, Other Business 27%
284 Auctioneers 52%
304 Supervisors-Computer Equipment 17%
345 Duplicating Machine Operator 13%
353 Communications Equipment
Operator nec 78%
415 Supervisors-Guards 28%
426 Guards & Police Except Public Serv. 31%
455 Pest Control Occupations 87%
505 Automobile Mechanics 40%
514 Automobile Body & Related Repairers 67%
523 Electronic Repairers Communications 29%
525 Data Processing Equipment Repairers 36%
526 Household Appliance and
Power Tool Repairer 31%
533 Mise. Electronic Equipment Repairer 26%
535 Camera, Watch & Musical
Instrument Repairers 42%
536 Locksmiths & Safe Repair 65%
547 Specified Mechanics & Repairers nec 12%
549 Not Specified Mechanics & Repairers 8%
668 Upholsterers 45%
759 Painting & Paint Spraying Machine 18%
774 Photographic Process Machine 34%
789 Hand Painting, Coating & Decorating 27%
793 Hand Engraving 26%
813 Parking Lot Attendants 51%
864 Helpers, Mechanics & Repairers 29%
887 Vehicle Washers & Equipment Cleaner 28%
Chemicals, 048 Chemical Engineers 37%
other 073 Chemists 17%
224 Chemical Engineering Technician 37%
756 Mixing & Blending Machine Operator 12%
757 Separating, Filtering & Clarifying 42%
Coal 046 Mining Engineers 34%
Mining 615 Explosive Workers 23%
616 Mining Machine Operators 62%
859 Mise. Material Moving Equipment 7%
867 Helpers, Extractive Occup. 52%
College 225 Science Technicians 21%
235 Technicians except Health & Science 20%

83
Industry SOC Occupation Concentration
Construction 053 Civil Engineers 40%
216 Engineering 18%
516 Heavy Equipment Mechanics 31%
519 Machinery Maintenance Occupations 11%
534 Heating, Air Conditioning &
Refrigeration Mechanics 29%
543 Elevator Installers & Repairers 51%
553 Supervisors, Brick & Stonemasons 90%
554 Supervisors, Carpenters & Related 83%
555 Supervisors, Electricians &
Power Transmission 47%
556 Supervisors, Painters,
Paperhangers & Plasterers 86%
557 Supervisors, Plumbers, Pipefitters 79%
558 Construction Supervisors nec 90%
563 Brickmasons & Stonemasons 87%
565 Tilesetters, Hard & Soft 85%
567 Carpenters 81%
573 Drywall Installers 97%
575 Electricians 47%
579 Painters, Construction & Maintenance 69%
583 Paperhangers 80%
584 Plasterers 90%
585 Plumbers, Pipefitters & Steamfitters 61%
588 Concrete & Terrazzo Finishers 95%
593 Insulation Workers 71%
594 Paving, Surfacing & Tamping 90%
595 Roofers 97%
596 Sheetmetal Duct Installers 62%
597 Structural Metal Workers 73%
598 Driller, Earth 84%
599 Construction Trades nec 66%
643 Boilermakers 26%
653 Sheet Metal Workers 30%
783 Welders and Cutters 12%
844 Operating Engineers 79%
853 Excavating & Loading Machine 60%
855 Grader, Dozer & Scraper Operators 65%
865 Helpers, Construction Trades 79%
869 Construction Laborers 91%
Crude 047 Petroleum Engineers 80%
Petroleum 075 Geologists 43%
& Natural 613 Supervisors, Extractive Occupations 53%
Gas 614 Drillers, Oil Well 96%
617 Mining Occupations nec 39%
848 Hoist & Winch Operators 55%
Drugs 223 Biological Technicians 22%
Durable Goods 645 Patternmakers & Model Makers, Metal 15%
other 647 Precious Stones & Metals (Jewelers) 53%

84
Industry SOC Occupation Concentration
656 Patternmakers & Model Makers, Wood 30%
676 Patternmakers, Layout Workers 21%
794 Hand Grinding 26%
Education 014 Administrators 60%
other 163 Counselors 50%
164 Librarians 62%
329 Library Clerks 62%
387 Teachers' Aides 88%
448 Supervisor Cleaning & Building 15%
453 Janitors & Cleaners 18%
468 Child Care Workers Except Private 39%
Electrical 049 Nuclear Engineers 21%
366 Meter Readers 58%
577 Elec. Power Installers & Repairers 78%
695 Power Plant Operators 72%
Electrical 055 Electrical Engineers 30%
other 056 Industrial 14%
213 Electrical 27%
363 Production Coordinators 8%
633 Supervisors, Production Occupations 6%
683 Electronic Equipment Assemblers 70%
689 Inspectors, Testers & Graders 31%
758 Compressing & Compacting Machine 8%
777 Mise. Machine Operators nec 9%
779 Machine Operators, Not Specified 7%
784 Solderers and Braziers 49%
785 Assemblers 19%
796 Production Inspectors, Checkers 12%
797 Production Testers 19%
Engineering 043 Engineers, Architects 15%
059 Engineer nec 24%
063 Surveyors 62%
217 Drafting Technicians 22%
218 Surveying Technicians 44%
866 Helpers, Surveyor 51%
Metal 655 Mise. Precision Metal Workers 11%
Fabricating 706 Punching and Stamping Press 22%
713 Forging Machine Operators 23%
717 Fabricating Machine Operators nec 15%
723 Metal Plating Machine Operators 32%
725 Mise. Metal & Plastic Processing 15%
Financial 007 Financial Managers 48%
Services, 016 Managers Properties 83%
Insurance, 024 Underwriters 95%
Real Estate 025 Other Financial Officers 67%
066 Actuaries 64%

85
Industry SOC Occupation Concentration
166 Economists 14%
253 Insurance 100%
254 Real Estate Sales 97%
255 Securities & Financial Sales 100%
285 Sales Support Occupations nec 22%
305 Supervisors, Financial Records 22%
308 Computer Operators 15%
309 Peripheral Equipment Operators 20%
326 Correspondence Clerks 33%
328 Personnel Clerks, Except Payroll 35%
335 File Clerks 22%
336 Records Clerks 28%
337 Bookkeepers, Accounting & Auditing
Clerks 14%
343 Cost & Rate Clerks 34%
344 Billing, Posting & Calculating 69%
347 Office Machine Operators nec 31%
356 Mail Clerks, Except Postal Service 17%
357 Messengers 20%
375 Insurance Adjusters 100%
378 Bill & Account Collectors 25%
383 Bank Tellers 100%
385 Data Entry Keyers 17%
454 Elevator Operators 31%
Food, other 688 Food Batchmakers 43%
754 Packaging & Filling Machine 25%
763 Roasting & Baking Machine Operators 55%
764 Washing, Cleaning & Pickling Machine 10%
888 Hand Packers & Packagers 11%
Furniture 657 Cabinet Makers & Bench Carpenters 43%
& Fixtures 658 Furniture & Wood Finishers 44%
Government 003 Legislators & Public Administration 100%
005 Administrators & Officials, Public 96%
006 Administrators, Protective Services 95%
008 Personnel & Labor Relations Manager 9%
027 Personnel Specialists 22%
033 Purchasing Agents nec 9%
035 Construction Inspectors 46%
036 Inspectors and Compliance 71%
037 Management Related 53%
065 Operations & Systems Researchers 20%
067 Statisticians 31%
068 Mathematical Scientists 36%
074 Atmospheric Scientists 42%
076 Physical Scientists nec 42%
077 Agricultural Scientists 27%
078 Biological Scientists 24%
079 Forestry Scientists 45%
168 Sociologists 34%

86
Industry
Grain Mill
Products
Hospitals
Hotels
Iron & Steel
Foundries
Leather
Logging
SOC Occupation Concentration
169 Social Scientists 38%
173 Urban Planners 79%
179 Judges 100%
227 Air Traffic Controllers 100%
228 Broadcast Equipment 58%
303 Supervisors, General Office 26%
314 Stenographers 38%
315 Typists 23%
316 Interviewers 34%
338 Payroll & Timekeeping Clerk 11%
376 Investigators, Except Insurance 23%
379 General Office 15%
386 Statistical Clerks 20%
389 Administrative Support nec 21%
413 Supervisors, Firefighting 93%
414 Supervisors, Police 100%
416 Fire Inspection & Prevention Occup. 43%
417 Firefighting 95%
418 Police & Detective, Private Service 100%
423 Sheriff, Bailiff, Other Law 100%
424 Correctional Institution 100%
425 Crossing Guards 92%
768 Crushing & Grinding Machine Operator 16%
015 Managers, Medicine 62%
083 Medical Scientists 39%
095 Registered Nurse 73%
097 Dieticians 60%
106 Physicians Assistants 32%
203 Clinical Laboratory Technologists 76%
205 Health Record Technologists 82%
206 Radiologic Technicians 79%
207 Licensed Practical Nurses 66%
208 Health Technologists 53%
339 Billing Clerks 13%
446 Health Aides, Except Nursing 47%
447 Nursing Aides, Orderlies 50%
696 Stationary Engineers 9%
317Hotel Clerks 100%
449 Maids & Housemen 32%
466 Baggage Porters 61%
675 Hand Molders & Shapers Except Jewel 21%
745 Shoe Machine Operators 93%
494 Supervisors 61%
496 Timber Cutting 78%

87
Industry
SOC
Occupation Concentration
Lumber, other
726
Wood Lathe, Routing & Planing
64%
727
Sawing Machine Operators
53%
728
Shaping & Joining Machine Operator
25%
729
Nailing & Tacking Machine Operator
51%
733
Mise. Woodworking Machine Operator
49%
Machinery,
054
Agricultural Engineers
53%
other
233
Tool Programmers
10%
637
Machinists
26%
644
Precision Grinder, Filer & Tool
15%
684
Mise. Precision Workers nec
58%
703
Lathe & Turning Machine Setup
20%
704
Lathe & Turning Machine Operator
28%
705
Milling & Planing Machine Operator
25%
708
Drilling and Boring
25%
709
Grinding, Abrading, Buffing
14%
Meat Products
786
Hand Cutting and Trimming
29%
Medical
084
Physicians
56%
other
085
Dentists
93%
087
Optometrists
86%
088
Podiatrists
90%
089
Health Diagnosing nec
95%
167
Psychologists
29%
204
Dental Hygienists
95%
319
Receptionists
25%
445
Dental Assistants
95%
678
Dental Lab & Medical Appliance Tech
86%
Metalworking
634
Tool & Die Makers
21%
Machinery
Motor
057
Mechanical Engineers
14%
Vehicles &
215
Mechanical Technicians
17%
Equipment
715
Mise. Metal, Plastic, Stone & Glass
30%
Newspapers
195
Editors
39%
278
News Vendors
78%
325
Classified Ad Clerks
46%
346
Mail Preparing & Paper Handling
17%
Paperboard
753
Cementing & Gluing Machine Operator
9%
Containers &
Boxes
Paper, other
214
Industrial
7%
369
Samplers
10%
Personal
018
Funeral Directors
95%
Services
189
Photographers
34%
275
Sales Counter Clerks
52%
457
Barbers
97%

88
Industry SOC Occupation Concentration
458 Hairdressers 96%
666 Dressmakers 27%
669 Shoe Repairers 51%
747 Pressing Machine Operators 55%
748 Laundering & Drycleaning Machine 54%
Pottery 787 Hand Molding, Casting and Forming 31%
& Related Products
Printing, 384 Proofreaders 40%
other 649 Engravers, Metal 27%
679 Bookbinders 90%
734 Printing Machine Operators 57%
735 Photoengravers and Lithographers 71%
736 Typesetters and Compositors 54%
737 Mise. Printing Machine Operators 79%
Radio & 198 Announcers 85%
Television Broadcasting
Railroad 349 Telegraphers 55%
Transport 823 Railroad Conductors & Yardmasters 93%
824 Locomotive Operating Occupations 82%
825 Railroad Brake, Signal & Switch 91%
826 Rail Vehicle Operators nec 88%
843 Supervisors Material Moving Equip. 15%
Retail 674 Mise. Precision Apparel & Fabric 33%
Apparel
Retail 503 Supervisors, Mechanics & Repairers 21%
Automotive 509 Small Engine Repairers 33%
Retail 009 Purchasing Managers 13%
Department 029 Buyers 24%
Stores 373 Expediters 10%
374 Material Recording & Scheduling 29%
Retail Drug 096 Pharmacists 69%
& Proprietary
Retail 019 Managers and Administrators nec 10%
Eating & 433 Supervisors, Food Preparation 64%
Drinking 434 Bartenders 81%
Places 435 Waiters & Waitresses 85%
436 Cooks, Except Short Order 62%
437 Short Order Cooks 89%
438 Food Counter 84%
439 Kitchen Workers 54%
443 Waiters' & Waitresses' Assistants 61%
444 Mise. Food Preparation 47%

89
Industry SOC Occupation Concentration
Retail 276 Cashiers 42%
Food Stores 686 Butchers & Meat Cutters 58%
687 Bakers 54%
795 Mise. Hand Working 11%
877 Stock Handlers & Baggers 69%
Retail 566 Carpet Installers 46%
Furniture
Retail 885 Garage & Service Station Related 75%
Gasoline Service Stations
Retail, other 185 Designers 22%
243 Supervisors & Proprietors, Sales 23%
277 Street & Door-to-door Sales 71%
283 Demonstrators, Promoters & Models 19%
589 Glaziers 39%
677 Optical Goods Workers 45%
Rubber 719 Molding & Casting Machine Operators 22%
755 Extruding & Forming Machine Operator 27%
Services, 023 Accountants 26%
other 034 Business and Promotion Agents 56%
155 Teachers, Pre-kindergarten 74%
165 Archivists 52%
174 Social Workers 44%
175 Recreation 40%
176 Clergy 96%
177 Religious workers 91%
178 Lawyers 77%
183 Authors 77%
186 Musicians and Composers 81%
187 Actors and Directors 53%
188 Painters, Sculptors, Craft Artists 34%
193 Dancers 71%
194 Artists 50%
197 Public Relations 14%
199 Athletes 49%
234 Legal Assistants 37%
313 Secretaries 14%
377 Eligibility Clerks 42%
427 Protective Service Occupations 34%
456 Supervisors Personal Service 36%
459 Attendants, Amusement 64%
463 Guides 29%
464 Ushers 81%
467 Welfare Service 64%
469 Personal Service Occupations nec 16%
773 Motion Picture Projectionists 84%

90
Industry SOC Occupation Concentration
Ship & Boat 646 Layout Workers 57%
Building
Taxicabs 809 Taxicab Drivers & Chauffeurs 48%
Telephone 306 Chief Communications 87%
Communication 323 Information Clerks nec 13%
327 Order Clerks 21%
348 Telephone Operators 46%
527 Telephone Line Installers & Repairer 86%
529 Telephone Installers & Repairers 86%
Textile, 518 Industrial Machinery Repairers 7%
other 738 Winding & Twisting Machine Oper. 76%
739 Knitting, Looping & Weaving Mach. 59%
743 Textile Cutting Machine Oper. 33%
749 Mise. Textile Machine Operators 50%
878 Machine Feeders & Offbearers 15%
Transport. 058 Marine Engineers 55%
Communication 539 Mechanical Controls & Valve Repairer 45%
& Public 694 Water & Sewage Treatment Plant 82%
Utilities 699 Mise. Plant & System Operators 23%
814 Motor Transportation Occup. nec 51%
828 Ship Captains & Mates Except Fishing 74%
829 Sailors & Deckhands 77%
833 Marine Engineers 53%
834 Bridge, Lock & Lighthouse Tenders 43%
845 Longshore Equipment Operators 91%
875 Garbage Collectors 80%
876 Stevedores 91%
Trucking 359 Dispatchers 24%
Service 507 Bus, Truck & Stationary Engine Mech. 29%
803 Supervisors, Motor Vehicle Operators 34%
804 Truck Drivers, Heavy 41%
805 Truck Drivers, Light 17%
883 Freight Stock & Material Handler nec 22%
U.S. Postal 017 Postmasters 100%
Service 307 Supervisors, Distributions 19%
354 Postal Clerks, Except Mail Carriers 100%
355 Mail Carriers, Postal Service 100%
Watches, 693 Adjusters & Calibrators 63%
Clocks, Watchcases & Parts
Wholesale 799 Graders and Sorters 20%
Grocery 806 Driver-Sales Workers 25%
Wholesale 013 Managers Marketing 14%
other 028 Purchasing Agents 68%

91
Industry SOC Occupation Concentration
258 Sales Engineers 24%
259 Sales Rep., Mining, Mfg. & Wholesale 49%
364 Traffic, Shipping 10%
365 Stock & Inventory 8%
368 Weighers & Measurers 9%
517 Farm Equipment Mechanics 58%
538 Office Machine Repairers 38%
856 Industrial Truck & Tractor Equipment 6%
889 Laborers, Except Construction 10%

APPENDIX C
RISK MEASURES FOR DETAILED OCCUPATIONS
SOC Three-digit Level Classification Dummy H
Managerial and Professional Specialty 0 0.07
Executive, Administrative & Managerial 0 0.05
003 Legislators & Public Administration 1 1.00
005 Administrators, Officials, Pub. Admin. 1 0.92
006 Administrators, Protective Services 1 0.91
007 Financial Managers 1 0.24
008 Personnel and Labor Relations 0 0.03
009 Purchasing 0 0.04
013 Managers Marketing 0 0.05
014 Administrators 1 0.45
015 Managers Medicine 1 0.51
016 Managers Properties 1 0.70
017 Postmasters 1 1.00
018 Funeral Directors 1 0.90
019 Managers and Administrators nec 0 0.04
023 Accountants 0 0.11
024 Underwriters 1 0.91
025 Other Financial Officers 1 0.47
026 Management Analysts 1 0.26
027 Personnel 0 0.09
028 Purchasing Agents 1 0.49
029 Buyers 0 0.16
033 Purchasing Agents nec 0 0.03
034 Business and Promotion Agents 1 0.34
035 Construction Inspectors 1 0.33
036 Inspectors and Compliance 1 0.50
037 Management Related 1 0.29
Professional Specialty 0 0.14
043 Architects 0 0.06
044 Aerospace Engineers 1 0.37
045 Metallurgical Engineers 0 0.08
046 Mining Engineers 0 0.19
047 Petroleum Engineers 1 0.64
048 Chemical Engineers 0 0.16
049 Nuclear Engineers 0 0.12
053 Civil Engineers 0 0.24
054 Agricultural Engineers 1 0.33
055 Electrical Engineers 0 0.13
056 Industrial Engineers 0 0.05
057 Mechanical Engineers 0 0.06
058 Marine Engineers 1 0.35
059 Engineer nec 0 0.09
063 Surveyors 1 0.41
92

93
soc
064
Computer Systems
Dummy
0
H
0.10
065
Operations and Systems Researchers
0
0.08
066
Actuaries
1
0.47
067
Statisticians
0
0.12
068
Mathematical Scientists
0
0.18
069
Physicists
0
0.12
073
Chemists
0
0.06
074
Atmospheric
0
0.21
075
Geologists
0
0.23
076
Physical Scientists nec
0
0.21
077
Agricultural
0
0.17
078
Biological
0
0.13
079
Forestry
0
0.32
083
Medical
0
0.21
084
Physicians
1
0.46
085
Dentists
1
0.87
086
Veterinarians
1
0.72
087
Optometrists
1
0.74
088
Podiatrists
1
0.82
089
Health Diagnosing nec
1
0.90
095
Registered Nurse
1
0.56
096
Pharmacists
1
0.53
097
Dieticians
1
0.40
106
Physicians Assistants
0
0.24
155
Teachers, Prekindergarten
1
0.60
163
Counselors
1
0.33
164
Librarians
1
0.44
165
Archivists
1
0.30
166
Economists
0
0.06
167
Psychologists
0
0.20
168
Sociologists
0
0.21
169
Social Scientists
0
0.23
173
Urban Planners
1
0.63
174
Social Workers
0
0.32
175
Recreation
0
0.29
176
Clergy
1
0.92
177
Religious
1
0.84
178
Lawyers
1
0.61
179
Judges
1
1.00
183
Authors
1
0.60
184
Technical Writers
0
0.06
185
Designers
0
0.09
186
Musicians and Composers
1
0.66
187
Actors and Directors
1
0.40
188
Painters, Sculptors, Craft Artists
0
0.17
189
Photographers
0
0.18
193
Dancers
1
0.56
194
Artists
1
0.27
195
Editors
0
0.21
197
Public Relations
0
0.07
198
Announcers
1
0.74
199
Athletes
1
0.32
nical Sales and Administrative
0
0.05

94
soc
Technicians
Dummy
0
H
0.08
203
Clinical Laboratory
1
0.61
204
Dental Hygienists
1
0.90
205
Health Record
1
0.68
206
Radiologic Technicians
1
0.66
207
Licensed Practical Nurses
1
0.51
208
Health Technologists
1
0.33
213
Electrical Technologists
0
0.11
214
Industrial Technologists
0
0.05
215
Mechanical Technologists
0
0.06
216
Engineering Technologists
0
0.06
217
Drafting Technologists
0
0.08
218
Surveying Technologists
0
0.25
223
Biological Technologists
0
0.10
224
Chemical Technologists
0
0.16
225
Science Technologists nec
0
0.07
226
Airplane Pilots
1
0.60
227
Air Traffic Controllers
1
1.00
228
Broadcast Equipment
1
0.38
229
Computer Programmers
0
0.08
233
Tool Programmers
0
0.05
234
Legal Assistants
0
0.24
235
Technicians nec
0
0.08
Sales
Occupations
0
0.09
243
Supervisors & Proprietors, Sales
0
0.12
253
Insurance
1
1.00
254
Real Estate Sales
1
0.94
255
Securities & Financial Services Sale
1
1.00
256
Advertising and Related Sales
0
0.22
257
Sales Occupations, Other Business
0
0.16
258
Sales Engineers
0
0.09
259
Sales Reps.
1
0.26
275
Sales Counter Clerks
1
0.33
276
Cashiers
0
0.22
277
Street and Door-to-door
1
0.51
278
News Vendors
1
0.63
283
Demonstrators, Promoters and Models
0
0.09
284
Auctioneers
1
0.34
285
Sales Support Occupations nec
0
0.11
Administrative Support
0
0.05
303
Supervisors General Office
0
0.12
304
Supervisors, Computer Equipment
0
0.08
305
Supervisors, Financial Records
0
0.07
306
Chief Communications
1
0.75
307
Supervisors, Distributions
0
0.05
308
Computer Operators
0
0.06
309
Peripheral Equipment Operators
0
0.06
313
Secretaries
0
0.07
314
Stenographers
0
0.18
315
Typists
0
0.10
316
Interviewers
0
0.19
317
Hotel Clerks
1
0.99
318
Transportation Ticket & Reservations
1
0.49

95
soc
319
Receptionists
Dummy
0
H
0.11
323
Information Clerks nec
0
0.07
325
Classified-ad Clerks
1
0.23
326
Correspondence Clerks
0
0.13
327
Order Clerks
0
0.08
328
Personnel Clerks, excl. Payroll
0
0.16
329
Library Clerks
1
0.48
335
File Clerks
0
0.08
336
Records Clerks
0
0.18
337
Bookkeepers, Accounting & Auditing
0
0.05
338
Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks
0
0.03
339
Billing Clerks
0
0.04
343
Cost and Rate Clerks
0
0.13
344
Billing, Posting & Calculating
1
0.48
345
Duplicating Machine Operators
0
0.07
346
Mail and Paper Handling Machine Oper.
0
0.07
347
Office Machine Operators nec
0
0.14
348
Telephone Operators
1
0.23
349
Telegraphers
1
0.34
353
Communications Equipment Operators nec
1
0.62
354
Postal Clerks, except Mail Carriers
1
1.00
355
Mail Carriers, Postal Service
1
1.00
356
Mail Clerks, except Postal Service
0
0.06
357
Messengers
0
0.08
359
Dispatchers
0
0.09
363
Production Coordinators
0
0.03
364
Traffic, Shippings
0
0.03
365
Stock and Inventory
0
0.04
366
Meter Readers
1
0.51
368
Weighers, Measurers
0
0.03
369
Samplers
0
0.04
373
Expediters
0
0.04
374
Material Recording, Scheduling
0
0.11
375
Insurance Adjusters
1
1.00
376
Investigators except Insurance
0
0.12
377
Eligibility Clerks
0
0.36
378
Bill and Account Collectors
0
0.11
379
General Office
0
0.06
383
Bank Tellers
1
1.00
384
Proof Readers
0
0.21
385
Data Entry Keyers
0
0.07
386
Statistical Clerks
0
0.08
387
Teachers' Aides
1
0.77
389
Administrative Support nec
0
0.10
Service
Occupations
0
0.11
Private Household Occupations
1
1.00
Protective Service
1
0.40
413
Supervisors, Firefighting
1
0.86
414
Supervisors, Police
1
1.00
415
Supervisors, Guards
0
0.11
416
Fire Inspection and Fire Prevention
0
0.30
417
Firefighting
1
0.90
418
Police and Detective, Private Service
1
1.00

96
SOC Dummy
423 Sheriff, Bailiffs 1
424 Correctional Institution 1
425 Crossing Guards 1
426 Guards and Police, except Public 0
427 Protective Service Occupations 0
Service, except Protective and Household 0
433 Supervisors, Food Preparation 1
434 Bartenders 1
435 Waiters and Waitresses 1
436 Cooks except Short Order 1
437 Short-Order Cooks 1
438 Food Counter 1
439 Kitchen Workers 1
443 Waiters and Waitresses Assistants 1
444 Miscellaneous Food Preparation 1
445 Dental Assistants 1
446 Health Aides except Nursing 1
447 Nursing Aides, Orderlies 1
448 Supervisors, Cleaning & Building 0
449 Maids and Housemen 0
453 Janitors and Cleaners 0
454 Elevator Operators 0
455 Pest Control Occupations 1
456 Supervisors 0
457 Barbers 1
458 Hairdressers 1
459 Attendants, Amusement 1
463 Guides 0
464 Ushers 1
465 Public Transportation 1
466 Baggage Porters 1
467 Welfare Service 1
468 Child Care Workers except Private House 0
469 Personal Service Occupations nec 0
Farming Forestry and Fishing Occupations 1
Farm Operators and Managers 473-476 1
Farm Occupations, except Managerial 477-484 1
Related Agricultural Occupations 485-489 1
485 Supervisors 0
486 Groundskeepers 0
487 Animal Caretakers 1
488 Graders and Sorters 1
489 Inspectors 0
Forestry and Logging Occupations 494-496 1
494 Supervisors 1
495 Forestry Workers 1
496 Timber Cutting 1
Fishers, Hunters & Trappers 497-499 1
497 Captains and Other Officers Fishing 1
498 Fishers 1
499 Hunters and Trappers 1
Precision Production, Craft & Repair 0
Mechanics and Repairers 503-549 0
H
1.00
1.00
0.86
0.12
0.22
0.14
0.43
0.67
0.72
0.41
0.80
0.72
0.32
0.40
0.27
0.90
0.38
0.42
0.09
0.19
0.07
0.12
0.75
0.22
0.94
0.92
0.43
0.16
0.66
0.83
0.43
0.46
0.30
0.10
0.76
1.00
0.98
0.26
0.24
0.24
0.41
1.00
0.17
0.44
0.46
0.71
0.62
0.74
0.51
0.81
0.25
0.08
0.07

97
SOC Dummy H
503 Supervisors, Mechanics and Repairers 0 0.08
505 Automobile Mechanics 0 0.23
507 Bus, Truck and Stationary Engine 0 0.15
508 Aircraft Engine Mechanics 1 0.37
509 Small Engine Repairers 0 0.19
514 Automobile Body and Related Repairers 1 0.50
515 Aircraft Mechanics except Engine 1 0.36
516 Heavy Equipment Mechanics 0 0.16
517 Farm Equipment Mechanics 1 0.38
518 Industrial Machinery Repairers 0 0.02
519 Machinery Maintenance Occupations 0 0.04
523 Electronic Repairers, Communications 0 0.12
525 Data Processing Equipment Repairers 0 0.21
526 Household Appliance and Power Tool 0 0.17
527 Telephone Line Installers and Repairer 1 0.74
529 Telephone Installers and Repairers 1 0.74
533 Miscellaneous Electrical & Electronic 0 0.10
534 Heating, Air Conditioning, Refriger 0 0.15
535 Camera, Watch and Musical Instruments 0 0.22
536 Locksmiths and Safe Repairers 1 0.43
538 Office Machine Repairers 0 0.23
539 Mechanical Controls and Valve Repairers 0 0.26
543 Elevator Installers and Repairers 1 0.30
544 Millwrights 0 0.07
547 Specified Mechanics and Repairers nec 0 0.04
549 Not Specified Mechanics and Repairers 0 0.03
Construction Trades 553-599 1 0.51
553 Supervisors, Brickmasons, Stonemasons 1 0.81
554 Supervisors, Carpenters and Related 1 0.70
555 Supervisors, Electricians 1 0.24
556 Supervisors, Painters, Paperhangers 1 0.75
557 Supervisors, Plumbers, Pipefitters 1 0.63
558 Supervisors nec 1 0.81
563 Brickmasons and Stonemasons 1 0.76
565 Tile Setters, Hard and Soft 1 0.72
566 Carpet Installers 1 0.40
567 Carpenters 1 0.65
573 Drywall Installers 1 0.93
575 Electricians 1 0.23
577 Electrical Power Installers 1 0.62
579 Painters, Construction and Maintenance 1 0.48
583 Paperhangers 1 0.66
584 Plasterers 1 0.82
585 Plumbers, Pipefitters and Steamfitters 1 0.38
588 Concrete and Terrazzo Finishers 1 0.90
589 Glaziers 0 0.28
593 Insulation Workers 1 0.52
594 Paving, Surfacing and Tamping Equipment 1 0.81
595 Roofers 1 0.94
596 Sheetmetal Duct Installers 1 0.41
597 Structural Metal Workers l 0.55
598 Driller, Earth 1 0.70
599 Construction Trades nec 1 0.45

98
SOC Dummy H
Extractive Occupations 613-617 1 0.33
613 Supervisors, Extractive Occupations 1 0.36
614 Driller, Oil Well 1 0.93
615 Explosive Workers 0 0.12
616 Mining Machine Operators 1 0.42
617 Mining Occupations nec 0 0.31
Precision Production Occupations 633-699 0 0.03
633 Supervisors, Production Occupations 0 0.02
634 Tool and Die Makers 0 0.11
636 Precision Assemblers, Metal 1 0.30
637 Machinists 0 0.09
643 Boilermakers 0 0.11
644 Precision Grinders, Filers, and Tool 0 0.08
645 Patternmakers and Model Makers, Metal 0 0.08
646 Lay-out Workers 1 0.34
647 Precious Stones and Metal Workers 1 0.35
649 Engravers, Metal 0 0.14
653 Sheet Metal Workers 0 0.14
655 Miscellaneous Precision Metal Workers 0 0.05
656 Patternmakers and Model Makers, Wood 0 0.15
657 Cabinet Makers and Bench Carpenters 0 0.27
658 Furniture and Wood Finishers 0 0.27
659 Miscellaneous Precision Woodworkers 0 0.10
666 Dressmakers 0 0.14
667 Tailors 1 0.33
668 Upholsterers 0 0.29
669 Shoe Repairers 1 0.40
673 Apparel and Fabric Patternmakers 0 0.18
674 Miscellaneous Precision Apparel 0 0.18
675 Hand Molders & Shapers except Jewelers 0 0.10
676 Pattern Makers, Lay-out Worker & Cutter 0 0.08
677 Optical Goods Workers 0 0.30
678 Dental Laboratory and Medical Appliance 1 0.75
679 Bookbinders 1 0.81
683 Electrical and Electronic Equipment 1 0.50
684 Miscellaneous Precision Workers nec 1 0.35
686 Butchers and Meat Cutters 1 0.41
687 Bakers 1 0.37
688 Food Batchmakers 0 0.29
689 Inspectors, Testers and Graders 0 0.12
693 Adjusters and Calibrators 1 0.41
694 Water and Sewage Treatment Plant 1 0.68
695 Power Plant Operators 1 0.52
696 Stationary Engineers 0 0.04
699 Miscellaneous Plant and System Operator 0 0.12
Operators, Fabricators and Laborers 0 0.03
Machine Operators, Assemblers and Inspectors 0 0.04
703 Lathe and Turning Machine Set-up 0 0.12
704 Lathe and Turning Machine Operators 0 0.11
705 Milling and Planing Machine Operators 0 0.10
706 Punching and Stamping Press 0 0.10
707 Rolling Machine 1 0.30
708 Drilling and Boring 0 0.10

soc
709
713
714
715
717
719
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
743
744
745
747
748
749
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
763
764
765
766
768
769
773
774
777
779
783
784
785
786
787
789
793
794
795
796
99
Dummy H
Grinding, Abrading, Buffing 0 0.06
Forging Machine Operators 0 0.09
Numerical Control Machine Operators 0 0.11
Miscellaneous Metal, Plastic, Stone 0 0.12
Fabricating Machine Operators nec 0 0.07
Molding and Casting Machine Operators 0 0.07
Metal Plating Machine Operators 0 0.15
Heat Treating Equipment Operators 0 0.10
Miscellaneous Metal and Plastic Process 0 0.07
Wood Lathe, Routing and Planing Machine 1 0.45
Sawing Machine Operators 1 0.31
Shaping and Joining Machine Operators 0 0.11
Nailing and Tacking Machine Operators 1 0.30
Miscellaneous Woodworking Machine 1 0.28
Printing Machine Operators 1 0.34
Photoengravers and Lithographers 1 0.51
Typesetters and Compositors 1 0.39
Miscellaneous Printing Machine Operator 1 0.62
Winding and Twisting Machine Operators 1 0.59
Knitting, Looping, Taping and Weaving 1 0.42
Textile Cutting Machine Operators 0 0.17
Textile Sewing Machine Operators 1 0.62
Shoe Machine Operator 1 0.87
Pressing Machine Operator 1 0.44
Laundering and Dry Cleaning Machine 1 0.34
Miscellaneous Textile Machine Operators 1 0.28
Cementing and Gluing Machine Operators 0 0.05
Packaging & Filling Machine Operators 0 0.10
Extruding and Forming Machine Operators 0 0.10
Mixing and Blending Machine Operator 0 0.04
Separating, Filtering and Clarifying 0 0.20
Compressing and Compacting Machine 0 0.04
Painting and Paint Spraying Machine 0 0.06
Roasting and Baking Machine Operators 1 0.32
Washing, Cleaning and Pickling Machine 0 0.05
Folding Machine Operators 0 0.10
Furnace Kiln & Oven Operators 0 0.05
Crushing and Grinding Machine Operators 0 0.05
Slicing and Cutting Machine Operators 0 0.04
Motion Picture Projectionists 1 0.71
Photographic Process Machine Operators 0 0.15
Miscellaneous Machine Operators nec 0 0.04
Machine Operators, not Specified 0 0.03
Welders and Cutters 0 0.06
Solderers & Braziers 1 0.27
Assemblers 0 0.08
Hand Cutting and Trimming 0 0.12
Hand Molding, Casting and Forming 0 0.13
Hand Painting, Coating and Decorating 0 0.10
Hand Engraving 0 0.12
Hand Grinding 0 0.09
Mise. Hand Working 0 0.05
Production Inspectors, Checkers 0 0.04

100
SOC Dummy H
797 Production Testers 0 0.08
798 Production Samplers and Weighers 0 0.03
799 Graders and Sorters 0 0.08
Transportation and Material Moving Occupation 0 0.06
803 Supervisors, Motor Vehicle Operators 0 0.14
804 Truck Drivers, Heavy 0 0.18
805 Truck Drivers, Light 0 0.08
806 Driver-Sales Workers 0 0.12
808 Bus Drivers 1 0.42
809 Taxicab Drivers and Chauffeurs 1 0.24
813 Parking Lot Attendants 0 0.28
814 Motor Transportation Occupations nec 1 0.29
823 Railroad Conductors and Yardmasters 1 0.87
824 Locomotive Operating Occupations 1 0.67
825 Railroad Brake, Signal and Switch 1 0.83
826 Rail Vehicle Operators nec 1 0.78
828 Ship Captains and Mates, except Fishing 1 0.56
829 Sailors and Deckhands 1 0.60
833 Marine Engineers 1 0.29
834 Bridge, Lock and Lighthouse Tenders 0 0.27
843 Supervisors, Material Moving Equipment 0 0.07
844 Operating Engineers 1 0.63
845 Longshore Equipment Operators 1 0.84
848 Hoist and Winch Operators 1 0.33
849 Crane and Tower Operators 0 0.12
853 Excavating and Loading Machine Operator 1 0.37
855 Grader, Dozer and Scraper Operators 1 0.44
856 Industrial Truck and Tractor Equipment 0 0.03
859 Miscellaneous Material Moving Equipment 0 0.03
Handlers, Equipment Cleaners, Helpers 0 0.06
863 Supervisors, Handlers, Equipment 0 0.05
864 Helpers, Mechanics and Repairers 0 0.11
865 Helpers, Construction Trades 1 0.63
866 Helpers, Surveyor 1 0.31
867 Helpers, Extractive Occupations 1 0.35
869 Construction Laborers 1 0.84
873 Production Helpers 0 0.03
875 Garbage Collectors 1 0.66
876 Stevedores 1 0.84
877 Stock Handlers and Baggers 1 0.48
878 Machine Feeders and Offbearers 0 0.06
883 Freight Stock & Material Handlers nec 0 0.07
885 Garage and Service Station Related 1 0.59
887 Vehicle Washers and Equipment Cleaners 0 0.12
888 Hand Packers and Packagers 0 0.04
889 Laborers, except Construction 0 0.03

APPENDIX D
VARIANCE RISK MEASURE BY DETAILED OCCUPATION
SOC Description Variance Covariance Total
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE AND MANAGERIAL
016
Managers Properties
0.00012
0.00001
0.00013
034
Business & Promotion Agent
0.00006
0.00008
0.00014
025
Other Financial Officers
0.00009
0.00006
0.00015
024
Underwriters
0.00015
0.00000
0.00015
037
Management Related
0.00008
0.00008
0.00016
036
Inspectors and Compliance
0.00013
0.00003
0.00017
028
Purchasing Agents
0.00014
0.00003
0.00017
023
Accountants
0.00003
0.00015
0.00017
007
Financial Managers
0.00005
0.00016
0.00020
006
Admin., Protective Services
0.00024
0.00001
0.00024
005
Admin., Public Admin.
0.00024
0.00000
0.00024
003
Legislators & Public Admin.
0.00026
0.00000
0.00026
027
Personnel
0.00005
0.00021
0.00026
029
Buyers
0.00008
0.00018
0.00026
019
Managers & Administrators
0.00002
0.00028
0.00030
008
Personnel & Labor Relations
0.00002
0.00028
0.00031
015
Managers Medicine
0.00024
0.00008
0.00031
013
Managers Marketing
0.00003
0.00036
0.00038
035
Construction Inspectors
0.00030
0.00009
0.00039
014
Administrators
0.00036
0.00003
0.00039
026
Management Analysts
0.00022
0.00020
0.00042
009
Purchasing
0.00005
0.00044
0.00049
018
Funeral Directors
0.00055
0.00001
0.00057
033
Purchasing Agents nec
0.00007
0.00060
0.00067
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY
077
Agricultural
0.00008
-0.00002
0.00006
174
Social Workers
0.00006
-0.00000
0.00006
175
Recreation
0.00007
-0.00001
0.00006
165
Archivists
0.00005
0.00002
0.00007
187
Actors and Directors
0.00008
-0.00001
0.00007
178
Lawyers
0.00008
0.00000
0.00008
183
Authors
0.00008
0.00001
0.00009
169
Social Scientists
0.00006
0.00003
0.00009
199
Athletes
0.00008
0.00002
0.00009
194
Artists
0.00004
0.00005
0.00010
078
Biological
0.00005
0.00005
0.00010
096
Pharmacists
0.00010
-0.00000
0.00010
168
Sociologists
0.00007
0.00003
0.00010
177
Religious
0.00010
-0.00000
0.00010
101

soc
186
193
176
195
167
066
155
106
079
074
197
076
083
173
188
067
097
179
189
084
163
069
198
095
166
087
073
065
088
068
058
089
085
164
049
184
086
185
064
048
063
059
053
017
043
055
054
056
057
075
045
046
102
Description
Variance
Covariance Total
Musicians and Composers
0.00008
0.00002
0.00011
Dancers
0.00008
0.00003
0.00011
Clergy
0.00011
-0.00000
0.00011
Editors
0.00004
0.00007
0.00012
Psychologists
0.00010
0.00002
0.00012
Actuaries
0.00008
0.00004
0.00012
Teachers Prekindergarten
0.00012
0.00001
0.00012
Physicians Assistants
0.00010
0.00002
0.00012
Forestry
0.00017
-0.00005
0.00012
Atmospheric
0.00006
0.00008
0.00014
Public Relations
0.00003
0.00011
0.00014
Physical Scientists nec
0.00007
0.00008
0.00015
Medical
0.00010
0.00006
0.00016
Urban Planners
0.00016
0.00002
0.00018
Painters, Sculptors, Craft
0.00005
0.00013
0.00018
Statisticians
0.00004
0.00014
0.00018
Dieticians
0.00019
0.00004
0.00023
Judges
0.00026
0.00000
0.00026
Photographers
0.00012
0.00015
0.00027
Physicians
0.00020
0.00007
0.00027
Counselors
0.00026
0.00003
0.00028
Physicists
0.00008
0.00021
0.00029
Announcers
0.00028
0.00001
0.00030
Registered Nurse
0.00026
0.00004
0.00031
Economists
0.00004
0.00027
0.00032
Optometrists
0.00031
0.00001
0.00032
Chemists
0.00005
0.00030
0.00035
Operations Research
0.00005
0.00030
0.00035
Podiatrists
0.00035
0.00001
0.00036
Mathematical Scientists
0.00014
0.00022
0.00036
Marine
0.00025
0.00011
0.00037
Health Diagnosing nec
0.00038
0.00000
0.00038
Dentists
0.00037
0.00001
0.00038
Librarians
0.00036
0.00004
0.00040
Nuclear
0.00011
0.00033
0.00043
Technical Writers
0.00008
0.00036
0.00044
Veterinarians
0.00049
-0.00005
0.00045
Designers
0.00006
0.00041
0.00046
Computer Systems
0.00011
0.00036
0.00048
Chemical
0.00014
0.00035
0.00049
Surveyors
0.00041
0.00019
0.00060
Engineer nec
0.00009
0.00053
0.00062
Civil
0.00040
0.00033
0.00073
Postmasters
0.00078
0.00000
0.00078
Architects
0.00011
0.00069
0.00080
Electrical
0.00037
0.00055
0.00092
Agricultural
0.00083
0.00026
0.00109
Industrial
0.00016
0.00113
0.00129
Mechanical
0.00025
0.00130
0.00155
Geologists
0.00145
0.00012
0.00158
Metallurgical
0.00030
0.00135
0.00165
Mining
0.00128
0.00040
0.00167

103
SOC Description
Variance Covariance Total
044
Aerospace
0.00203
0.00114
0.00317
047
Petroleum
0.00492
0.00024
0.00516
TECHNICIANS
234
Legal Assistants
0.00004
0.00003
0.00008
223
Biological
0.00004
0.00005
0.00008
228
Broadcast Equipment
0.00010
0.00002
0.00013
208
Health Technologists
0.00015
0.00002
0.00017
235
Technicians
0.00005
0.00017
0.00022
227
Air Traffic Controllers
0.00026
0.00000
0.00026
207
Licensed Practical Nurses
0.00024
0.00005
0.00029
203
Clinical Laboratory
0.00029
0.00005
0.00033
205
Health Record
0.00032
0.00003
0.00035
206
Radiologic Technicians
0.00031
0.00005
0.00036
225
Science Technicians nec
0.00011
0.00027
0.00038
204
Dental Hygienists
0.00038
0.00001
0.00039
229
Computer Programmers
0.00008
0.00033
0.00041
224
Chemical
0.00013
0.00030
0.00044
218
Surveying
0.00028
0.00027
0.00055
216
Engineering
0.00011
0.00056
0.00066
233
Tool Programmers
0.00009
0.00065
0.00074
214
Industrial
0.00006
0.00073
0.00079
217
Drafting
0.00011
0.00077
0.00089
213
Electrical
0.00030
0.00060
0.00091
226
Airplane Pilots
0.00092
0.00006
0.00098
215
Mechanical
0.00030
0.00109
0.00138
SALES
OCCUPATIONS
276
Cashiers
0.00004
0.00006
0.00010
254
Real Estate Sales
0.00015
0.00000
0.00015
278
News Vendors
0.00010
0.00006
0.00016
253
Insurance
0.00016
0.00000
0.00016
255
Securities and Financial
0.00016
0.00000
0.00016
256
Advertising and Related
0.00010
0.00008
0.00018
243
Supervisors & Proprietors
0.00005
0.00018
0.00023
285
Sales Support Occupations
0.00005
0.00018
0.00023
283
Demonstrators, Promoters
0.00005
0.00025
0.00030
257
Sales Occupations, Other
0.00013
0.00018
0.00031
277
Street and Door-to-door
0.00020
0.00012
0.00032
275
Sales Counter Clerks
0.00020
0.00016
0.00037
259
Sales Reps., Mining, Mfg.
0.00008
0.00033
0.00041
284
Auctioneers
0.00027
0.00020
0.00046
258
Sales Engineers
0.00011
0.00086
0.00097
377
Eligibility Clerks
0.00007
0.00000
0.00007
319
Receptionists
0.00004
0.00006
0.00010
336
Records Clerks
0.00006
0.00004
0.00010
315
Typists
0.00003
0.00009
0.00012
303
Supervisors General Office
0.00003
0.00010
0.00013
389
Administrative Support nec
0.00003
0.00010
0.00013
344
Billing, Posting Machine
0.00008
0.00006
0.00014

104
soc
Description
Variance
Covariance Total
316
Interviewers
0.00006
0.00008
0.00014
384
Proof Readers
0.00008
0.00007
0.00015
323
Information Clerks nec
0.00004
0.00011
0.00015
314
Stenographers
0.00006
0.00009
0.00015
386
Statistical Clerks
0.00003
0.00012
0.00015
328
Personnel Clerks
0.00004
0.00012
0.00016
379
General Office
0.00002
0.00014
0.00016
375
Insurance Adjusters
0.00016
0.00000
0.00016
383
Bank Tellers
0.00016
0.00000
0.00016
313
Secretaries
0.00002
0.00014
0.00016
356
Mail Clerks, except Carrier
0.00002
0.00014
0.00017
357
Messengers
0.00004
0.00013
0.00017
347
Office Machine Operators
0.00004
0.00013
0.00017
346
Mail Preparing and Paper
0.00003
0.00015
0.00018
325
Classified Ad Clerks
0.00004
0.00013
0.00018
378
Bill and Account Collectors
0.00005
0.00014
0.00019
376
Investigators except Insur
0.00004
0.00015
0.00019
335
File Clerks
0.00003
0.00017
0.00020
343
Cost and Rate Clerks
0.00003
0.00018
0.00021
337
Bookkeepers, Accounting
0.00002
0.00020
0.00023
305
Supervisors, Financial
0.00002
0.00021
0.00023
339
Billing Clerks
0.00003
0.00022
0.00024
326
Correspondence Clerks
0.00003
0.00021
0.00024
345
Duplicating Machine
0.00005
0.00021
0.00026
327
Order Clerks
0.00006
0.00020
0.00026
317
Hotel Clerks
0.00026
0.00000
0.00026
308
Computer Operators
0.00003
0.00023
0.00026
385
Data Entry Keyers
0.00003
0.00023
0.00026
309
Peripheral Equipment
0.00003
0.00024
0.00027
348
Telephone Operators
0.00020
0.00008
0.00028
374
Material Recording
0.00008
0.00021
0.00029
304
Supervisors, Computer
0.00005
0.00025
0.00030
369
Samplers
0.00004
0.00027
0.00030
366
Meter Readers
0.00021
0.00011
0.00032
368
Weighers, Measurers
0.00003
0.00032
0.00035
359
Dispatchers
0.00010
0.00025
0.00036
307
Supervisors, Distributions
0.00005
0.00034
0.00038
338
Payroll and Timekeeping
0.00003
0.00037
0.00040
365
Stock and Inventory
0.00003
0.00038
0.00041
329
Library Clerks
0.00038
0.00003
0.00042
349
Telegraphers
0.00031
0.00012
0.00043
364
Traffic, Shippings
0.00004
0.00059
0.00063
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT
373
Expediters
0.00006
0.00057
0.00063
353
Communications Equipment
0.00056
0.00008
0.00064
363
Production Coordinators
0.00006
0.00058
0.00064
387
Teachers' Aides
0.00066
0.00001
0.00067
306
Chief Communications
0.00068
0.00002
0.00070
355
Mail Carriers, Postal
0.00078
0.00000
0.00078
354
Postal Clerks, except Mail
0.00078
0.00000
0.00078

105
SOC Description Variance Covariance Total
318
Transportation Ticket
0.00074
0.00007
0.00081
PROTECTIVE SERVICE
427
Protective Service
0.00005
0.00002
0.00007
416
Fire Inspection and Fire
0.00013
-0.00004
0.00010
413
Supervisors, Firefighting
0.00022
0.00000
0.00023
425
Crossing Guards
0.00022
0.00001
0.00023
417
Firefighting
0.00023
-0.00000
0.00023
414
Supervisors, Police
0.00026
0.00000
0.00026
423
Sheriff, Bailiffs
0.00026
0.00000
0.00026
424
Correctional Institution
0.00026
0.00000
0.00026
418
Police & Detective Private
0.00026
0.00000
0.00026
415
Supervisors, Guards
0.00009
0.00023
0.00031
426
Guards and Police
0.00010
0.00025
0.00035
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS EXCLUDING PROTECTIVE &
HOUSEHOLD
467
Welfare Service
0.00007
-0.00001
0.00005
463
Guides
0.00005
0.00001
0.00006
449
Maids and Housemen
0.00007
0.00000
0.00007
459
Attendants, Amusement
0.00006
0.00003
0.00009
469
Personal Service
0.00004
0.00006
0.00010
464
Ushers
0.00008
0.00002
0.00010
444
Miscellaneous Food Prep
0.00013
-0.00000
0.00013
448
Supervisors, Cleaning
0.00006
0.00008
0.00014
456
Supervisors
0.00007
0.00008
0.00015
439
Kitchen Workers
0.00013
0.00002
0.00015
454
Elevator Operators
0.00003
0.00013
0.00016
443
Waiter & Waitress Assistant
0.00017
0.00000
0.00018
436
Cooks except Short Order
0.00018
-0.00000
0.00018
433
Supervisors Food Prep
0.00018
0.00001
0.00019
468
Childcare Workers
0.00017
0.00005
0.00022
453
Janitors and Cleaners
0.00005
0.00017
0.00022
446
Health Aides except Nursing
0.00017
0.00005
0.00023
466
Baggage Porters
0.00018
0.00006
0.00024
447
Nursing Aides, Orderlies
0.00019
0.00006
0.00025
434
Bartenders
0.00027
0.00003
0.00030
438
Food Counter
0.00030
0.00002
0.00032
435
Waiters and Waitresses
0.00030
0.00003
0.00032
437
Short-Order Cooks
0.00033
0.00002
0.00035
445
Dental Assistants
0.00038
0.00001
0.00039
458
Hairdressers
0.00056
0.00001
0.00057
457
Barbers
0.00058
0.00000
0.00058
455
Pest Control Occupations
0.00068
0.00004
0.00072
465
Public Transportation
0.00126
0.00002
0.00128
FARMING, FORESTRY & FISHING
485
Supervisors
0.00010
-0.00004
0.00006
486
Groundskeepers
0.00014
-0.00001
0.00012
489
Inspectors
0.00011
0.00003
0.00014

106
soc
Description Variance
Covariance Total
499
Hunters and Trappers
0.00018
0.00008
0.00026
487
Animal Caretakers
0.00027
-0.00000
0.00026
497
Captains & Other Officers
0.00034
0.00005
0.00039
495
Forestry Workers
0.00051
0.00002
0.00053
498
Fishers
0.00055
0.00001
0.00057
488
Graders and Sorters
0.00069
0.00000
0.00069
494
Supervisors
0.03013
0.00037
0.03051
496
Timber Cutting
0.04841
-0.00025
0.04816
MECHANICS & REPAIRERS
539
Mechanical Controls
0.00013
0.00014
0.00026
517
Farm Equipment Mechanics
0.00014
0.00016
0.00029
538
Office Machine Repairers
0.00013
0.00026
0.00039
503
Supervisors, Mechanics
0.00010
0.00030
0.00040
523
Electronic Repairers
0.00013
0.00029
0.00042
526
Household Appliance
0.00019
0.00033
0.00052
549
Not Specified Mechanics
0.00004
0.00048
0.00052
547
Specified Mechanics
0.00004
0.00050
0.00054
535
Camera, Watch & Musical
0.00020
0.00037
0.00057
507
Bus, Truck & Stationary
0.00017
0.00041
0.00058
536
Locksmiths and Safe Repair
0.00039
0.00021
0.00060
534
Heating, Air Conditioning
0.00023
0.00042
0.00065
509
Small Engine Repairers
0.00023
0.00042
0.00066
505
Automobile Mechanics
0.00024
0.00041
0.00066
533
Miscellaneous Electrical
0.00014
0.00053
0.00067
527
Telephone Line Installers
0.00067
0.00002
0.00069
519
Machinery Maintenance
0.00013
0.00057
0.00070
529
Telephone Installers
0.00068
0.00004
0.00072
525
Data Processing Equipment
0.00030
0.00046
0.00076
518
Industrial Machinery Repair
0.00005
0.00072
0.00077
516
Heavy Equipment Mechanics
0.00028
0.00049
0.00077
514
Automobile Body and Related
0.00049
0.00033
0.00082
508
Aircraft Engine Mechanics
0.00057
0.00026
0.00083
543
Elevator Installers
0.00063
0.00044
0.00108
544
Millwrights
0.00025
0.00143
0.00168
515
Aircraft Mechanics
0.00124
0.00050
0.00174
CONSTRUCTION TRADES
577
Electrical Power Installers
0.00023
0.00005
0.00029
555
Supervisors, Electricians
0.00049
0.00037
0.00085
589
Glaziers
0.00034
0.00053
0.00086
575
Electricians
0.00049
0.00056
0.00105
585
Plumbers, Pipefitters
0.00081
0.00039
0.00120
599
Construction Trades nec
0.00096
0.00029
0.00125
566
Carpet Installers
0.00060
0.00068
0.00128
579
Painters, Construction
0.00103
0.00030
0.00132
593
Insulation Workers
0.00111
0.00031
0.00142
596
Sheetmetal Duct Installers
0.00086
0.00059
0.00145
557
Supervisors, Plumbers
0.00135
0.00016
0.00151
583
Paperhangers
0.00140
0.00020
0.00160

107
SOC Description Variance Covariance Total
598
Driller, Earth
0.00152
0.00009
0.00162
567
Carpenters
0.00140
0.00027
0.00167
554
Supervisors, Carpenters
0.00150
0.00019
0.00168
556
Supervisors, Painters
0.00161
0.00014
0.00175
597
Structural Metal Workers
0.00119
0.00057
0.00176
558
Supervisors nec
0.00174
0.00007
0.00181
565
Tile Setters, Hard and Soft
0.00154
0.00028
0.00182
584
Plasterers
0.00176
0.00008
0.00184
563
Brickmasons and Stonemasons
0.00163
0.00022
0.00185
553
Supervisors, Brickmasons
0.00174
0.00019
0.00192
594
Paving, Surfacing & Tamping
0.00175
0.00018
0.00193
588
Concrete and Terrazzo
0.00194
0.00009
0.00202
595
Roofers
0.00201
0.00005
0.00207
573
Drywall Installers
0.00201
0.00006
0.00207
PRECISION PRODUCTION
687
Bakers
0.00005
0.00001
0.00006
686
Butchers and Meat Cutters
0.00006
0.00002
0.00008
688
Food Batchmakers
0.00006
0.00005
0.00011
695
Power Plant Operators
0.00019
0.00004
0.00023
696
Stationary Engineers
0.00005
0.00024
0.00029
679
Bookbinders
0.00033
0.00001
0.00034
694
Water and Sewage Treatment
0.00033
0.00002
0.00034
666
Dressmakers
0.00009
0.00026
0.00036
678
Dental Laboratory
0.00032
0.00003
0.00036
677
Optical Goods Workers
0.00020
0.00023
0.00044
649
Engravers, Metal
0.00009
0.00037
0.00046
699
Miscellaneous Plant
0.00021
0.00027
0.00048
667
Tailors
0.00033
0.00021
0.00054
674
Miscellaneous Precision
0.00013
0.00045
0.00058
643
Boilermakers
0.00021
0.00055
0.00076
669
Shoe Repairers
0.00066
0.00015
0.00082
673
Apparel and Fabric Pattern
0.00021
0.00061
0.00082
633
Supervisors, Production
0.00005
0.00077
0.00082
647
Precious Stones & Metals
0.00046
0.00044
0.00090
668
Upholsterers
0.00038
0.00065
0.00103
615
Explosive Workers
0.00063
0.00041
0.00105
653
Sheet Metal Workers
0.00033
0.00094
0.00127
676
Pattern Makers, Lay-out
0.00016
0.00111
0.00127
658
Furniture and Wood Finisher
0.00059
0.00077
0.00135
689
Inspectors, Testers
0.00040
0.00099
0.00139
659
Mise. Precision Woodworkers
0.00022
0.00119
0.00141
637
Machinists
0.00026
0.00137
0.00163
655
Mise. Precision Metal
0.00016
0.00156
0.00172
657
Cabinet Makers & Bench
0.00068
0.00114
0.00182
646
Lay-out Workers
0.00097
0.00091
0.00188
645
Patternmakers & Model Metal
0.00027
0.00163
0.00190
684
Mise. Precision nec
0.00101
0.00100
0.00200
644
Precision Grinders, Filers
0.00031
0.00171
0.00202
675
Hand Molders & Shapers
0.00034
0.00174
0.00207
656
Patternmaker & Model Wood
0.00045
0.00165
0.00210

108
SOC Description Variance Covariance Total
636
Precision Assemblers Metal
0.00127
0.00089
0.00216
634
Tool & Die Makers
0.00045
0.00207
0.00252
683
Electrical & Electronic
0.00174
0.00098
0.00272
617
Mining Occupations nec
0.00225
0.00093
0.00318
616
Mining Machine Operators
0.00292
0.00049
0.00341
693
Adjusters & Calibrators
0.00254
0.00092
0.00346
613
Supervisors, Extractive
0.00269
0.00090
0.00358
614
Driller, Oil Well
0.00721
0.00005
0.00726
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS & INSPECTORS
773
Motion Picture Projection
0.00009
0.00002
0.00011
748
Laundering & Dry Cleaning
0.00020
-0.00003
0.00017
763
Roasting & Baking Machine
0.00007
0.00014
0.00021
736
Typesetters & Compositors
0.00013
0.00008
0.00022
734
Printing Machine Operators
0.00013
0.00010
0.00024
754
Packaging & Filling Machine
0.00003
0.00021
0.00025
735
Photoengravers & Lithograph
0.00021
0.00006
0.00026
737
Miscellaneous Printing
0.00025
0.00006
0.00031
786
Hand Cutting & Trimming
0.00006
0.00029
0.00035
774
Photographic Process
0.00012
0.00022
0.00035
757
Separating, Filtering
0.00015
0.00024
0.00039
799
Graders and Sorters
0.00009
0.00033
0.00042
747
Pressing Machine Operator
0.00034
0.00013
0.00047
756
Mixing & Blending Machine
0.00004
0.00051
0.00055
798
Production Samplers
0.00007
0.00056
0.00063
795
Mise. Hand Working
0.00006
0.00062
0.00067
765
Folding Machine Operators
0.00011
0.00058
0.00069
789
Hand Painting, Coating
0.00011
0.00059
0.00071
768
Crushing and Grinding
0.00007
0.00064
0.00071
793
Hand Engraving
0.00013
0.00060
0.00073
764
Washing, Cleaning
0.00006
0.00070
0.00076
758
Compressing & Compacting
0.00006
0.00076
0.00082
743
Textile Cutting Machine
0.00027
0.00077
0.00103
769
Slicing & Cutting Machine
0.00007
0.00098
0.00105
787
Hand Molding, Casting
0.00022
0.00083
0.00105
766
Furnace, Kiln & Oven
0.00015
0.00093
0.00108
777
Miscellaneous Machine
0.00009
0.00102
0.00110
744
Textile Sewing Machine
0.00072
0.00040
0.00112
779
Machine Operators Not Spec
0.00009
0.00112
0.00121
749
Miscellaneous Textile Mach
0.00043
0.00079
0.00122
753
Cementing & Gluing Machine
0.00012
0.00112
0.00124
739
Knitting, Looping, Taping
0.00062
0.00064
0.00126
794
Hand Grinding
0.00016
0.00115
0.00131
759
Painting & Paint Spraying
0.00014
0.00122
0.00136
738
Winding & Twisting Machine
0.00088
0.00050
0.00138
783
Welders and Cutters
0.00017
0.00124
0.00141
796
Production Inspectors
0.00015
0.00127
0.00142
755
Extruding & Forming Machine
0.00026
0.00119
0.00145
719
Molding and Casting Machine
0.00020
0.00155
0.00175
723
Metal Plating Machine
0.00035
0.00141
0.00176
717
Fabricating Machine
0.00021
0.00155
0.00176

109
soc
Description Variance
Covariance
797
Production Testers
0.00027
0.00149
0
725
Mise. Metal & Plastic
0.00019
0.00161
0
714
Numerical Control Machine
0.00042
0.00146
0
705
Milling & Planing Machine
0.00034
0.00165
0
733
Mise. Woodworking Machine
0.00106
0.00098
0
785
Assemblers
0.00034
0.00171
0
728
Shaping & Joining Machine
0.00038
0.00167
0
709
Grinding, Abrading, Buffing
0.00023
0.00192
0
704
Lathe & Turning Machine
0.00035
0.00187
0
708
Drilling & Boring Machine
0.00034
0.00190
0
713
Forging Machine Operators
0.00029
0.00197
0
784
Solderers & Braziers
0.00090
0.00139
0
729
Nailing & Tacking Machine
0.00113
0.00119
0
724
Heat Treating Equipment
0.00036
0.00202
0
706
Punching & Stamping Press
0.00038
0.00201
0
727
Sawing Machine Operators
0.00132
0.00108
0
707
Rolling Machine
0.00115
0.00150
0
703
Lathe & Turning Machine
0.00044
0.00232
0
715
Miscellaneous Metal
0.00075
0.00206
0
726
Wood Lathe, Routing
0.00174
0.00108
0
745
Shoe Machine Operator
0.00307
0.00013
0
TRANSPORTATION AND MOVING OCCUPATIONS
806
Driver-Sales Workers
0.00003
0.00010
0
814
Motor Transportation
0.00015
0.00006
0
834
Bridge, Lock & Lighthouse
0.00018
0.00006
0
833
Marine Engineers
0.00015
0.00014
0
808
Bus Drivers
0.00027
0.00007
0
805
Truck Drivers, Light
0.00006
0.00029
0
803
Supervisors, Motor Vehicle
0.00016
0.00020
0
828
Ship Captains and Mates
0.00028
0.00009
0
813
Parking Lot Attendants
0.00024
0.00015
0
829
Sailors and Deckhands
0.00031
0.00009
0
845
Longshore Equipment
0.00040
0.00001
0
809
Taxicab Drivers & Chauffeur
0.00036
0.00016
0
843
Supervisors, Material
0.00007
0.00045
0
804
Truck Drivers, Heavy
0.00024
0.00042
0
859
Mise. Material Moving
0.00011
0.00059
0
826
Rail Vehicle Operators nec
0.00074
0.00004
0
824
Locomotive Operating
0.00065
0.00018
0
856
Industrial Truck & Tractor
0.00010
0.00077
0
823
Railroad Conductors
0.00083
0.00009
0
825
Railroad Brake, Signal
0.00079
0.00016
0
853
Excavating & Loading
0.00083
0.00013
0
855
Grader, Dozer and Scraper
0.00105
-0.00003
0
844
Operating Engineers
0.00136
0.00006
0
849
Crane & Tower Operators
0.00039
0.00109
0
848
Hoist & Winch Operators
0.00253
-0.00028
0
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS & LABORERS
Total
00177
00180
00188
00199
00204
00204
00205
00215
00222
00224
00226
00229
00232
00239
00240
00240
00265
00277
00281
00282
00320
00013
00021
00024
00030
00034
00035
00036
00037
00039
00040
00041
00052
00052
00066
00070
00078
00083
00086
00092
00095
00096
00102
00142
00148
00224

soc
877
863
875
876
888
889
864
883
887
873
866
885
878
865
869
867
110
Description Variance
Covariance Total
Stock Handlers & Baggers
0.00006
0.00005
0.00011
Supervisors, Handlers
0.00005
0.00027
0.00033
Garbage Collectors
0.00032
0.00002
0.00034
Stevedores
0.00040
0.00001
0.00041
Hand Packers & Packagers
0.00003
0.00040
0.00042
Laborer except Construction
0.00003
0.00042
0.00045
Helpers, Mechanics & Repair
0.00012
0.00038
0.00050
Freight Stock & Material
0.00009
0.00042
0.00050
Vehicle Washers
0.00013
0.00046
0.00059
Production Helpers
0.00006
0.00060
0.00066
Helpers, Surveyor
0.00040
0.00028
0.00068
Garage and Service Station
0.00057
0.00014
0.00070
Machine Feeders & Offbearer
0.00013
0.00091
0.00104
Helpers, Construction Trade
0.00135
0.00027
0.00162
Construction Laborers
0.00180
0.00007
0.00187
Helpers, Extractive
0.00238
0.00078
0.00316

APPENDIX E
ORDINARY LEAST SQUARES REGRESSIONS
Dependent Variable is Log Wage
Female Sample - Regression One
Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio
FRACTION NORTH -0.2839 0.12 -2.32
FRACTION SOUTH -0.
FRACTION WEST -0.
GROWTH DUMMY 0.
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE -1.
FRACTION FEMALE -0.
FRACTION AGRICULTURE -0.
FRACTION MINING 0.
FRACTION CONSTRUCTION 0.
FRACTION NONDURABLE -0.
FRACTION TRANSPORTATION 0.
FRACTION WHOLESALE 0.
FRACTION RETAIL -0.
FRACTION FIRE 0.
FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. -0.
FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. -0.
FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT 0.
FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. -0.
FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. -0.
EDUCATION 0.
EXPERIENCE 0.
EXPERIENCE SQUARED 0.
EXPERIENCE CUBED -0.
GED-REASONING 0.
GED-MATH 0.
GED-LANGUAGE 0.
SVP -0.
SVP * EDU 0.
DEXTERITY 0.
STRESS 0.
STRENGTH -0.
EXTREME COLD 0.
EXTREME HEAT 0.
EXTREME WET -0.
EXTREME NOISE 0.
VIBRATION 0.
ATMOSPHERIC 0.
MECHANICAL 0.
SHOCK 0.
HEAT -0.
RADIATION 0.
EXPLOSIVES 0.
6144
0.14
-4.34
2221
0.10
-2.25
0144
0.01
2.09
1291
0.23
-4.89
0985
0.03
-2.93
2858
0.10
-2.75
4146
0.06
6.68
2109
0.05
4.58
0120
0.05
-0.26
1957
0.04
5.35
0138
0.07
0.19
2470
0.03
-7.26
0414
0.03
1.31
1073
0.05
-2.11
2724
0.04
-7.42
0885
0.06
1.41
1372
0.03
-4.12
0041
0.04
-0.11
0151
0.00
5.33
0032
0.00
0.87
0001
0.00
0.45
0000
0.00
-1.84
0012
0.01
0.08
0474
0.01
5.70
0349
0.01
3.05
1577
0.02
-6.63
0129
0.00
7.40
0536
0.01
3.66
0735
0.03
2.19
0432
0.01
-3.72
0599
0.14
0.43
0241
0.05
0.46
0058
0.07
-0.09
0364
0.03
1.16
0341
0.04
0.87
0242
0.04
0.59
1791
0.28
0.64
3459
0.34
1.02
2453
0.33
-0.75
3048
0.13
2.38
2822
0.39
0.72
Ill

112
Variable
Coefficient
Std. Error
T-Ratio
TOXINS
-0.2475
0.32
-0.78
OTHER HAZARDS
0.1153
0.06
1.79
NONWHITE
0.0475
0.18
0.27
UNION REPRESENTATION
0.0152
0.04
0.40
CONSTANT
9.1854
0.11
82.61
Statistics:
R-SQUARE
0.2109
R-SQUARE ADJUSTED
0.2074
VARIANCE
0.2247
STANDARD ERROR
0.4740
SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS
2325
LOG LIKELIHOOD
-
6964

113
Male Sample - Regression One
Variable
Coefficient
Std. Error
T-Ratio
FRACTION NORTH
0.2088
0.08
2.73
FRACTION SOUTH
-0.1710
0.05
-3.16
FRACTION WEST
0.0108
0.06
0.17
GROWTH DUMMY
0.0055
0.00
1.51
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE
-0.3713
0.13
-2.93
FRACTION FEMALE
-0.2579
0.02
-11.24
FRACTION AGRICULTURE
-0.0775
0.04
-1.72
FRACTION MINING
0.2745
0.03
8.95
FRACTION CONSTRUCTION
0.1188
0.03
4.46
FRACTION NONDURABLE
0.0002
0.02
0.01
FRACTION TRANSPORTATION
0.1157
0.02
6.03
FRACTION WHOLESALE
0.1182
0.05
2.59
FRACTION RETAIL
-0.2120
0.02
-9.85
FRACTION FIRE
0.1121
0.02
4.71
FRACTION BUSINESS SERV.
-0.0972
0.03
-3.15
FRACTION PERSONAL SERV.
-0.2907
0.03
-10.46
FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT
0.0442
0.04
1.03
FRACTION PROFESS. SERV.
-0.1623
0.02
-6.88
FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN.
-0.1730
0.02
-8.50
EDUCATION
0.0337
0.00
21.64
EXPERIENCE
0.0312
0.00
17.98
EXPERIENCE SQUARED
-0.0007
0.00
-8.65
EXPERIENCE CUBED
0.0000
0.00
2.51
GED-REASONING
-0.0136
0.01
-1.80
GED-MATH
0.0196
0.01
3.10
GED-LANGUAGE
0.0518
0.01
7.04
SVP
-0.0277
0.01
-2.22
SVP * EDU
0.0047
0.00
5.39
DEXTERITY
0.0529
0.01
4.32
STRESS
0.1368
0.02
5.48
STRENGTH
-0.0430
0.01
-5.59
EXTREME COLD
-0.1707
0.11
-1.51
EXTREME HEAT
0.1107
0.03
3.52
EXTREME WET
0.1263
0.03
4.60
EXTREME NOISE
0.0100
0.02
0.59
VIBRATION
-0.0375
0.02
-2.10
ATMOSPHERIC
-0.0437
0.02
-1.95
MECHANICAL
0.0549
0.13
0.42
SHOCK
0.0449
0.17
0.26
HEAT
0.0047
0.13
0.04
RADIATION
0.3649
0.08
4.31
EXPLOSIVES
-0.1859
0.19
-0.96
TOXINS
-0.2439
0.20
-1.21
OTHER HAZARDS
-0.0856
0.06
-1.41
NONWHITE
-0.7436
0.09
-8.70
UNION REPRESENTATION
0.0709
0.02
3.69
CONSTANT
8.9606
0.07
125.89

114
Statistics:
R-SQUARE 0.3891
R-SQUARE ADJUSTED 0.3868
VARIANCE 0.0993
STANDARD ERROR 0.3151
SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS 1210
LOG LIKELIHOOD -3207

115
Female Sample - Regression Two
Variable
Coefficient
Std. Error
T-Ratio
FRACTION NORTH
-0.2697
0.12
-2.18
FRACTION SOUTH
-0.6025
0.14
-4.18
FRACTION WEST
-0.2138
0.10
-2.15
GROWTH DUMMY
0.0178
0.01
2.06
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE
-1.0823
0.23
-4.72
FRACTION FEMALE
-0.1058
0.03
-3.16
FRACTION AGRICULTURE
-0.2784
0.10
-2.67
FRACTION MINING
0.4186
0.06
6.72
FRACTION CONSTRUCTION
0.2172
0.05
4.77
FRACTION NONDURABLE
-0.0096
0.04
-0.21
FRACTION TRANSPORTATION
0.2102
0.04
5.76
FRACTION WHOLESALE
0.0094
0.07
0.13
FRACTION RETAIL
-0.2351
0.03
-6.73
FRACTION FIRE
0.0612
0.03
1.84
FRACTION BUSINESS SERV.
-0.1136
0.05
-2.24
FRACTION PERSONAL SERV.
-0.2566
0.04
-6.79
FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT
0.0960
0.06
1.53
FRACTION PROFESS. SERV.
-0.1185
0.03
-3.49
FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN.
0.0056
0.04
0.15
EDUCATION
0.0150
0.00
5.31
EXPERIENCE
0.0032
0.00
0.87
EXPERIENCE SQUARED
0.0001
0.00
0.45
EXPERIENCE CUBED
-0.0000
0.00
-1.83
GED-REASONING
0.0014
0.01
0.10
GED-MATH
0.0457
0.01
5.51
GED-LANGUAGE
0.0340
0.01
2.97
SVP
-0.1559
0.02
-6.54
SVP * EDU
0.0129
0.00
7.43
DEXTERITY
0.0544
0.01
3.75
STRESS
0.0788
0.03
2.36
STRENGTH
-0.0399
0.01
-3.33
EXTREME COLD
0.0419
0.14
0.30
EXTREME HEAT
0.0249
0.05
0.48
EXTREME WET
-0.0100
0.07
-0.15
EXTREME NOISE
0.0363
0.03
1.17
VIBRATION
0.0385
0.04
0.98
ATMOSPHERIC
0.0223
0.04
0.54
MECHANICAL
0.2078
0.28
0.75
SHOCK
0.2596
0.34
0.76
HEAT
-0.2480
0.33
-0.76
RADIATION
0.3263
0.13
2.55
EXPLOSIVES
0.2237
0.39
0.57
TOXINS
-0.2472
0.32
-0.78
OTHER HAZARDS
0.1107
0.07
1.69
NONWHITE
-0.0038
0.17
-0.02
UNION REPRESENTATION
0.0138
0.04
0.37
RISK DUMMY
-0.0150
0.01
-1.17
GROWTH * DUMMY
-0.0098
0.01
-0.86
CONSTANT
9.1737
0.11
80.99

116
Statistics:
R-SQUARE 0.2112
R-SQUARE ADJUSTED 0.2075
VARIANCE 0.2247
STANDARD ERROR 0.4740
SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS 2324
LOG LIKELIHOOD -6962

117
Male Sample - Regression Two
Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio
FRACTION NORTH 0.
FRACTION SOUTH -0.
FRACTION WEST 0.
GROWTH DUMMY -0.
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE -0.
FRACTION FEMALE -0.
FRACTION AGRICULTURE -0.
FRACTION MINING 0.
FRACTION CONSTRUCTION 0.
FRACTION NONDURABLE 0.
FRACTION TRANSPORTATION 0.
FRACTION WHOLESALE 0.
FRACTION RETAIL -0.
FRACTION FIRE 0.
FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. -0.
FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. -0.
FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT 0.
FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. -0.
FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. -0.
EDUCATION 0.
EXPERIENCE 0.
EXPERIENCE SQUARED -0.
EXPERIENCE CUBED 0.
GED-REASONING -0.
GED-MATH 0.
GED-LANGUAGE 0.
SVP -0.
SVP * EDU 0.
DEXTERITY 0.
STRESS 0.
STRENGTH -0.
EXTREME COLD -0.
EXTREME HEAT 0.
EXTREME WET 0.
EXTREME NOISE 0.
VIBRATION -0.
ATMOSPHERIC -0.
MECHANICAL 0.
SHOCK 0.
HEAT 0.
RADIATION 0.
EXPLOSIVES -0.
TOXINS -0.
OTHER HAZARDS -0.
NONWHITE -0.
UNION REPRESENTATION 0.
RISK DUMMY -0.
GROWTH * DUMMY 0.
CONSTANT 8.
2196
0.08
2.86
1564
0.06
-2.84
0379
0.06
0.59
0043
0.00
-0.93
3968
0.13
-3.11
2543
0.02
-10.99
0776
0.04
-1.74
2720
0.03
8.85
1314
0.03
5.00
0066
0.02
0.32
1211
0.02
6.22
1219
0.05
2.67
2083
0.02
-9.55
1111
0.02
4.54
0960
0.03
-3.09
2792
0.03
-9.83
0562
0.04
1.32
1654
0.02
-7.09
1684
0.02
-8.17
0337
0.00
21.64
0312
0.00
18.00
0007
0.00
-8.66
0000
0.00
2.52
0116
0.01
-1.53
0189
0.01
2.97
0514
0.01
7.01
0279
0.01
-2.24
0047
0.00
5.38
0516
0.01
4.20
1316
0.03
5.25
0453
0.01
-5.81
1505
0.11
-1.33
1032
0.03
3.25
1354
0.03
4.88
0161
0.02
0.94
0435
0.02
-2.44
0370
0.02
-1.63
0612
0.13
0.46
0400
0.17
0.23
0203
0.13
0.15
3673
0.09
4.32
0793
0.20
-0.40
1961
0.20
-0.98
0608
0.06
-0.99
7337
0.09
-8.52
0742
0.02
3.86
0130
0.01
-1.75
0223
0.01
3.34
9545
0.07
125.33

118
Statistics:
R-SQUARE 0.3897
R-SQUARE ADJUSTED 0.3873
VARIANCE 0.0992
STANDARD ERROR 0.3150
SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS 1209
LOG LIKELIHOOD -3201

119
Female Sample - Regression Three
Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio
FRACTION NORTH -0.
FRACTION SOUTH -0.
FRACTION WEST -0.
GROWTH DUMMY 0.
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE -1.
FRACTION FEMALE -0.
FRACTION AGRICULTURE -0.
FRACTION MINING 0.
FRACTION CONSTRUCTION 0.
FRACTION NONDURABLE 0.
FRACTION TRANSPORTATION 0.
FRACTION WHOLESALE -0.
FRACTION RETAIL -0.
FRACTION FIRE 0.
FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. -0.
FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. -0.
FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT 0.
FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. -0.
FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. 0.
EDUCATION 0.
EXPERIENCE 0.
EXPERIENCE SQUARED 0.
EXPERIENCE CUBED -0.
GED-REASONING 0.
GED-MATH 0.
GED-LANGUAGE 0.
SVP -0.
SVP * EDU 0.
DEXTERITY 0.
STRESS 0.
STRENGTH -0.
EXTREME COLD 0.
EXTREME HEAT 0.
EXTREME WET -0.
EXTREME NOISE 0.
VIBRATION 0.
ATMOSPHERIC 0.
MECHANICAL 0.
SHOCK 0.
HEAT -0.
RADIATION 0.
EXPLOSIVES 0.
TOXINS -0.
OTHER HAZARDS 0.
NONWHITE -0.
UNION REPRESENTATION 0.
H -0.
GROWTH * DUMMY -0.
CONSTANT 9.
2948
0.12
-2.38
6100
0.14
-4.29
2202
0.10
-2.22
0244
0.01
2.56
0026
0.23
-4.31
1228
0.03
-3.65
2689
0.11
-2.56
4175
0.06
6.75
2252
0.04
5.04
0003
0.04
0.01
2286
0.04
6.00
0154
0.07
-0.21
2223
0.04
-6.27
1067
0.04
2.98
1181
0.05
-2.33
2184
0.04
-5.48
0908
0.06
1.46
0981
0.03
-2.88
0416
0.04
1.04
0149
0.00
5.27
0032
0.00
0.88
0001
0.00
0.43
0000
0.00
-1.81
0045
0.01
0.31
0419
0.01
4.97
0364
0.01
3.17
1578
0.02
-6.63
0130
0.00
7.46
0516
0.01
3.56
0858
0.03
2.55
0345
0.01
-2.89
0114
0.14
0.08
0179
0.05
0.35
0160
0.07
-0.24
0349
0.03
1.11
0384
0.04
0.97
0289
0.04
0.70
1743
0.28
0.62
2330
0.34
0.68
2792
0.32
-0.86
3441
0.13
2.69
1351
0.39
0.34
1996
0.32
-0.63
1050
0.07
1.55
0829
0.17
-0.48
0108
0.04
0.29
0531
0.03
-2.02
0387
0.02
-1.76
1855
0.11
82.74

120
Statistics:
R-SQUARE 0.2120
R-SQUARE ADJUSTED 0.2083
VARIANCE 0.2245
STANDARD ERROR 0.4738
SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS 2321
LOG LIKELIHOOD -6957

121
Male Sample - Regression Three
Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio
FRACTION NORTH 0.
FRACTION SOUTH -0.
FRACTION WEST 0.
GROWTH DUMMY -0.
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE -0.
FRACTION FEMALE -0.
FRACTION AGRICULTURE -0.
FRACTION MINING 0.
FRACTION CONSTRUCTION 0.
FRACTION NONDURABLE 0.
FRACTION TRANSPORTATION 0.
FRACTION WHOLESALE 0.
FRACTION RETAIL -0.
FRACTION FIRE 0.
FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. -0.
FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. -0.
FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT 0.
FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. -0.
FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. -0.
EDUCATION 0.
EXPERIENCE 0.
EXPERIENCE SQUARED -0.
EXPERIENCE CUBED 0.
GED-REASONING -0.
GED-MATH 0.
GED-LANGUAGE 0.
SVP -0.
SVP * EDU 0.
DEXTERITY 0.
STRESS 0.
STRENGTH -0.
EXTREME COLD -0.
EXTREME HEAT 0.
EXTREME WET 0.
EXTREME NOISE 0.
VIBRATION -0.
ATMOSPHERIC -0.
MECHANICAL 0.
SHOCK 0.
HEAT 0.
RADIATION 0.
EXPLOSIVES -0.
TOXINS -0.
OTHER HAZARDS -0.
NONWHITE -0.
UNION REPRESENTATION 0.
H -0.
GROWTH * DUMMY 0.
CONSTANT 8.
2123
0.08
2.78
1733
0.05
-3.20
0362
0.06
0.58
0078
0.00
-1.59
3621
0.13
-2.81
2605
0.02
-11.08
0576
0.04
-1.28
2854
0.03
9.28
1507
0.03
5.65
0155
0.02
0.75
1476
0.02
7.12
1148
0.05
2.51
1925
0.02
-8.61
1338
0.03
4.99
0982
0.03
-3.17
2576
0.03
-8.58
0662
0.04
1.56
1492
0.02
-6.47
1456
0.02
-6.43
0337
0.00
21.65
0312
0.00
18.00
0007
0.00
-8.67
0000
0.00
2.53
0111
0.01
-1.45
0161
0.01
2.50
0525
0.01
7.15
0258
0.01
-2.07
0047
0.00
5.39
0514
0.01
4.21
1345
0.03
5.34
0423
0.01
-5.41
1881
0.11
-1.67
0974
0.03
3.08
1381
0.03
4.99
0145
0.02
0.85
0469
0.02
-2.62
0305
0.02
-1.34
0560
0.13
0.42
0088
0.17
0.05
0093
0.13
0.07
3908
0.09
4.53
1209
0.20
-0.61
2400
0.20
-1.19
0511
0.06
-0.83
7645
0.09
-8.75
0739
0.02
3.84
05681
0.02
-3.727
03998
0.01
3.503
9588
0.07
125.31

122
Statistics:
R-SQUARE 0.3902
R-SQUARE ADJUSTED 0.3878
VARIANCE 0.0992
STANDARD ERROR 0.3149
SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS 1208
LOG LIKELIHOOD -3196

123
Female Sample - Regression Four
Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio
FRACTION NORTH -0.2945 0.12 -2.38
FRACTION SOUTH -0.
FRACTION WEST -0.
GROWTH DUMMY 0.
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE -1.
FRACTION FEMALE -0.
FRACTION AGRICULTURE -0.
FRACTION MINING 0.
FRACTION CONSTRUCTION 0.
FRACTION NONDURABLE -0.
FRACTION TRANSPORTATION 0.
FRACTION WHOLESALE 0.
FRACTION RETAIL -0.
FRACTION FIRE 0.
FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. -0.
FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. -0.
FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT 0.
FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. -0.
FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. 0.
EDUCATION 0.
EXPERIENCE 0.
EXPERIENCE SQUARED 0.
EXPERIENCE CUBED -0.
GED-REASONING 0.
GED-MATH 0.
GED-LANGUAGE 0.
SVP -0.
SVP * EDU 0.
DEXTERITY 0.
STRESS 0.
STRENGTH -0.
EXTREME COLD 0.
EXTREME HEAT 0.
EXTREME WET -0.
EXTREME NOISE 0.
VIBRATION 0.
ATMOSPHERIC 0.
MECHANICAL 0.
SHOCK 0.
HEAT -0.
RADIATION 0.
EXPLOSIVES 0.
TOXINS -0.
OTHER HAZARDS 0.
NONWHITE 0.
UNION REPRESENTATION 0.
VARIANCE 2.
CONSTANT 9.
6341
0.15
-4.36
2445
0.10
-2.43
0143
0.01
2.07
1610
0.23
-4.97
0960
0.03
-2.85
2748
0.10
-2.66
4206
0.06
6.73
2213
0.05
4.68
0048
0.05
-0.10
2011
0.04
5.47
0221
0.08
0.29
2402
0.03
-6.95
0467
0.03
1.47
0978
0.05
-1.90
2670
0.04
-7.17
1016
0.06
1.60
1319
0.03
-3.93
0038
0.04
0.10
0151
0.00
5.34
0032
0.00
0.88
0001
0.00
0.45
0000
0.00
-1.83
0005
0.01
0.03
0480
0.01
5.76
0350
0.01
3.06
1575
0.02
-6.62
0129
0.00
7.40
0531
0.01
3.62
0683
0.03
2.04
0439
0.01
-3.77
0699
0.14
0.50
0275
0.05
0.53
0069
0.07
-0.11
0361
0.03
1.15
0308
0.04
0.79
0296
0.04
0.71
1913
0.28
0.69
3415
0.34
1.01
2464
0.33
-0.76
3094
0.13
2.42
2931
0.39
0.75
2292
0.32
-0.72
1214
0.06
1.89
0554
0.18
0.31
0177
0.04
0.47
5643
2.36
1.085
1951
0.11
81.879

124
Statistics:
R-SQUARE 0.2110
R-SQUARE ADJUSTED 0.2075
VARIANCE 0.2247
STANDARD ERROR 0.4740
SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS 2324
LOG LIKELIHOOD -6963

125
Male Sample - Regression Four
Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio
FRACTION NORTH 0.
FRACTION SOUTH -0.
FRACTION WEST -0.
GROWTH DUMMY 0.
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE -0.
FRACTION FEMALE -0.
FRACTION AGRICULTURE -0.
FRACTION MINING 0.
FRACTION CONSTRUCTION 0.
FRACTION NONDURABLE 0.
FRACTION TRANSPORTATION 0.
FRACTION WHOLESALE 0.
FRACTION RETAIL -0.
FRACTION FIRE 0.
FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. -0.
FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. -0.
FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT 0.
FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. -0.
FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. -0.
EDUCATION 0.
EXPERIENCE 0.
EXPERIENCE SQUARED -0.
EXPERIENCE CUBED 0.
GED-REASONING -0.
GED-MATH 0.
GED-LANGUAGE 0.
SVP -0.
SVP * EDU 0.
DEXTERITY 0.
STRESS 0.
STRENGTH -0.
EXTREME COLD -0.
EXTREME HEAT 0.
EXTREME WET 0.
EXTREME NOISE 0.
VIBRATION -0.
ATMOSPHERIC -0.
MECHANICAL 0.
SHOCK 0.
HEAT 0.
RADIATION 0.
EXPLOSIVES -0.
TOXINS -0.
OTHER HAZARDS -0.
NONWHITE -0.
UNION REPRESENTATION 0.
VARIANCE 1.
CONSTANT 8.
2037
0.08
2.66
1841
0.06
-3.32
0067
0.06
-0.10
0055
0.00
1.51
3887
0.13
-3.03
2558
0.02
-11.10
0702
0.05
-1.54
2792
0.03
8.97
1256
0.03
4.55
0053
0.02
0.25
1201
0.02
6.17
1242
0.05
2.70
2072
0.02
-9.47
1161
0.02
4.82
0902
0.03
-2.87
2868
0.03
-10.27
0533
0.04
1.22
1586
0.02
-6.68
1668
0.02
-7.95
0337
0.00
21.63
0312
0.00
17.98
0007
0.00
-8.65
0000
0.00
2.51
0142
0.01
-1.88
0201
0.01
3.17
0520
0.01
7.08
0276
0.01
-2.22
0047
0.00
5.39
0523
0.01
4.26
1321
0.03
5.25
0432
0.01
-5.62
1655
0.11
-1.46
1128
0.03
3.58
1263
0.03
4.60
0096
0.02
0.56
0393
0.02
-2.19
0401
0.02
-1.79
0606
0.13
0.46
0422
0.17
0.25
0027
0.13
0.02
3675
0.08
4.34
1764
0.19
-0.92
2305
0.20
-1.14
0812
0.06
-1.33
7390
0.09
-8.62
0727
0.02
3.78
5882
0.92
1.72
9673
0.07
125.12

126
Statistics:
R-SQUARE 0.3892
R-SQUARE ADJUSTED 0.3869
VARIANCE 0.0993
STANDARD ERROR 0.3151
SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS 1209
LOG LIKELIHOOD -3206

127
Female Sample - Regression Five
Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio
FRACTION NORTH -0.2525 0.13 -1.92
FRACTION SOUTH -0.
FRACTION WEST -0.
GROWTH DUMMY 0.
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE -1.
FRACTION FEMALE -0.
FRACTION AGRICULTURE -0.
FRACTION MINING 0.
FRACTION CONSTRUCTION 0.
FRACTION NONDURABLE 0.
FRACTION TRANSPORTATION 0.
FRACTION WHOLESALE 0.
FRACTION RETAIL -0.
FRACTION FIRE 0.
FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. -0.
FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. -0.
FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT 0.
FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. -0.
FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. 0.
EDUCATION 0.
EXPERIENCE 0.
EXPERIENCE SQUARED 0.
EXPERIENCE CUBED -4.
GED-REASONING 0.
GED-MATH 0.
GED-LANGUAGE 0.
SVP -0.
SVP * EDU 0.
DEXTERITY 0.
STRESS 0.
STRENGTH -0.
EXTREME COLD 0.
EXTREME HEAT 0.
EXTREME WET -0.
EXTREME NOISE 0.
VIBRATION 0.
ATMOSPHERIC 0.
MECHANICAL 0.
SHOCK 0.
HEAT -0.
RADIATION 0.
EXPLOSIVES 0.
TOXINS -0.
OTHER HAZARDS 0.
NONWHITE 0.
UNION REPRESENTATION 0.
VARIANCE 4.
COVARIANCE 67.
GROWTH * TOTAL VARIANCE 29.
CONSTANT 9.
6191
0.15
-4.19
1726
0.11
-1.51
0113
0.01
1.53
1555
0.23
-4.95
1012
0.03
-3.00
1865
0.11
-1.71
4798
0.07
7.11
3102
0.07
4.72
0858
0.07
1.32
3027
0.06
4.67
1173
0.10
1.21
1381
0.07
-2.12
1482
0.06
2.50
0119
0.06
-0.18
1671
0.06
-2.61
1920
0.08
2.40
0293
0.06
-0.49
1093
0.06
1.72
0151
0.00
5.32
0032
0.00
0.88
0001
0.00
0.45
00 X 10"6
0.00
-1.83
0025
0.01
0.17
0479
0.01
5.74
0323
0.01
2.86
1581
0.02
-6.64
0129
0.00
7.41
0526
0.01
3.59
0649
0.03
1.94
0455
0.01
-3.90
0712
0.14
0.51
0130
0.05
0.25
0011
0.07
-0.02
0272
0.03
0.87
0330
0.04
0.84
0409
0.04
0.97
1379
0.28
0.50
4180
0.34
1.23
2935
0.33
-0.90
3039
0.13
2.37
2185
0.39
0.56
2883
0.32
-0.91
1271
0.07
1.95
0419
0.18
0.24
0156
0.04
0.41
0155
2.58
1.5557
0110
34.71
1.9304
2530
14.46
2.0232
0766
0.14
65.42

128
Statistics:
R-SQUARE 0.2115
R-SQUARE ADJUSTED 0.2078
VARIANCE 0.2246
STANDARD ERROR 0.4739
SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS 2323
LOG LIKELIHOOD -6961

129
Male Sample - Regression Five
Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio
FRACTION NORTH 0.2085 0.08 2.66
FRACTION SOUTH -0.
FRACTION WEST -0.
GROWTH DUMMY 0.
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE -0.
FRACTION FEMALE -0.
FRACTION AGRICULTURE -0.
FRACTION MINING 0.
FRACTION CONSTRUCTION 0.
FRACTION NONDURABLE 0.
FRACTION TRANSPORTATION 0.
FRACTION WHOLESALE 0.
FRACTION RETAIL -0.
FRACTION FIRE 0.
FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. -0.
FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. -0.
FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT 0.
FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. -0.
FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. -0.
EDUCATION 0.
EXPERIENCE 0.
EXPERIENCE SQUARED -0.
EXPERIENCE CUBED 3.
GED-REASONING -0.
GED-MATH 0.
GED-LANGUAGE 0.
SVP -0.
SVP * EDU 0.
DEXTERITY 0.
STRESS 0.
STRENGTH -0.
EXTREME COLD -0.
EXTREME HEAT 0.
EXTREME WET 0.
EXTREME NOISE 0.
VIBRATION -0.
ATMOSPHERIC -0.
MECHANICAL 0.
SHOCK 0.
HEAT -0.
RADIATION 0.
EXPLOSIVES -0.
TOXINS -0.
OTHER HAZARDS -0.
NONWHITE -0.
UNION REPRESENTATION 0.
VARIANCE 1.
COVARIANCE 18.
GROWTH * TOTAL VARIANCE 29.
CONSTANT 8.
1847
0.06
-3.27
0067
0.07
-0.09
0024
0.00
0.63
3523
0.13
-2.71
2597
0.02
-11.23
0517
0.05
-1.01
2898
0.04
8.12
1456
0.04
4.09
0255
0.03
0.77
1443
0.03
4.14
1410
0.05
2.60
1811
0.04
-5.06
1425
0.04
3.83
0657
0.04
-1.68
2626
0.04
-6.54
0741
0.05
1.48
1323
0.04
-3.48
1382
0.04
-3.85
0337
0.00
21.64
0312
0.00
17.99
0007
0.00
-8.65
00 X 10-6
0.00
2.51
0139
0.01
-1.82
0204
0.01
3.22
0516
0.01
6.98
0279
0.01
-2.24
0047
0.00
5.40
0519
0.01
4.23
1292
0.03
5.14
0435
0.01
-5.63
1678
0.11
-1.48
1016
0.03
3.26
1276
0.03
4.66
0067
0.02
0.39
0403
0.02
-2.23
0357
0.02
-1.59
0362
0.13
0.27
0928
0.17
0.55
0169
0.13
-0.13
3692
0.08
4.35
2282
0.19
-1.18
2635
0.20
-1.30
0699
0.06
-1.14
7503
0.09
-8.74
0743
0.02
3.86
1198
1.07
1.04
2070
17.90
1.02
7330
10.16
2.93
9453
0.08
110.24

130
Statistics:
R-SQUARE 0.3897
R-SQUARE ADJUSTED 0.3872
VARIANCE 0.0992
STANDARD ERROR 0.3150
SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS 1209
LOG LIKELIHOOD -3201

131
Female Sample - Regression Six
Variable
Coefficient
Std. Error
T-Ratio
FRACTION NORTH
-0.1273
0.12
-1.03
FRACTION SOUTH
-0.2782
0.13
-2.16
FRACTION WEST
-0.1202
0.11
-1.11
GROWTH DUMMY
0.0097
0.01
1.32
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE
-0.9771
0.19
-5.06
FRACTION FEMALE
-0.2462
0.03
-9.13
EDUCATION
0.0141
0.00
4.94
EXPERIENCE
0.0028
0.00
0.75
EXPERIENCE SQUARED
0.0001
0.00
0.54
EXPERIENCE CUBED
-0.0000
0.00
-1.91
GED-REASONING
0.0196
0.01
1.40
GED-MATH
0.0363
0.01
4.20
GED-LANGUAGE
0.0353
0.01
3.02
SVP
-0.1766
0.02
-7.32
SVP * EDU
0.0133
0.00
7.65
DEXTERITY
0.0604
0.01
4.14
STRESS
0.0502
0.03
1.62
STRENGTH
-0.0928
0.01
-8.26
EXTREME COLD
0.0353
0.14
0.25
EXTREME HEAT
-0.1513
0.05
-2.87
EXTREME WET
-0.1066
0.07
-1.55
EXTREME NOISE
0.0858
0.03
2.64
VIBRATION
0.1419
0.04
3.67
ATMOSPHERIC
0.0729
0.04
1.69
MECHANICAL
-0.0666
0.27
-0.24
SHOCK
0.2947
0.34
0.88
HEAT
0.3011
0.31
0.97
RADIATION
-0.0481
0.12
-0.39
EXPLOSIVES
-0.6582
0.37
-1.78
TOXINS
-0.1487
0.31
-0.47
OTHER HAZARDS
0.0770
0.07
1.10
NONWHITE
-0.0421
0.16
-0.26
UNION REPRESENTATION
0.1737
0.03
5.43
VARIANCE
1.9188
2.32
0.83
COVARIANCE
28.7080
15.25
1.88
GROWTH * TOTAL VARIANCE
48.9170
14.81
3.30
CONSTANT
9.0733
0.12
73.24
Statistics:
R-SQUARE 0.1892
R-SQUARE ADJUSTED 0.1863
VARIANCE 0.2307
STANDARD ERROR 0.4803
SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS 2389
LOG LIKELIHOOD -7106

132
Male Sample - Regression Six
Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio
FRACTION NORTH 0.
FRACTION SOUTH 0.
FRACTION WEST 0.
GROWTH DUMMY -0.
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE -0.
FRACTION FEMALE -0.
EDUCATION 0.
EXPERIENCE 0.
EXPERIENCE SQUARED -0.
EXPERIENCE CUBED 2.
GED-REASONING 0.
GED-MATH 0.
GED-LANGUAGE 0.
SVP -0.
SVP * EDU 0.
DEXTERITY 0.
STRESS 0.
STRENGTH -0.
EXTREME COLD -0.
EXTREME HEAT -0.
EXTREME WET 0.
EXTREME NOISE 0.
VIBRATION 0.
ATMOSPHERIC -0.
MECHANICAL -0.
SHOCK 0.
HEAT 0.
RADIATION 0.
EXPLOSIVES -1.
TOXINS -0.
OTHER HAZARDS -0.
NONWHITE -0.
UNION REPRESENTATION 0.
RISK DUMMY 0.
GROWTH * DUMMY 34.
H 49.
GROWTH * DUMMY 8.
Statistics:
R-SQUARE
R-SQUARE ADJUSTED
VARIANCE
STANDARD ERROR
SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS
LOG LIKELIHOOD
3173
0.08
3.99
0679
0.05
1.27
0638
0.07
0.96
0003
0.00
-0.08
1130
0.11
-1.07
3946
0.02
-18.78
033529
0.00
21.104
03117
0.00
17.375
00071
0.00
-8.382
7E-06
0.00
2.4479
001642
0.01
0.2146
018923
0.01
2.8663
039418
0.01
5.3407
04237
0.01
-3.403
004824
0.00
5.4747
054047
0.01
4.4818
049952
0.02
2.2247
07759
0.01
-9.718
23848
0.11
-2.138
0772
0.03
-2.48
1204
0.03
4.72
0518
0.02
2.99
0182
0.02
1.08
0027
0.02
-0.11
1164
0.13
-0.87
0612
0.16
0.37
3250
0.13
2.59
1367
0.08
1.69
0635
0.16
-6.46
3078
0.20
-1.52
0771
0.06
-1.23
9223
0.08
-10.96
1607
0.02
9.49
6616
0.91
0.73
1660
8.22
4.16
6210
10.44
4.75
8987
0.08
115.64
0.3580
0.3561
0.1043
0.3229
1271
-3511

APPENDIX F
GED SCORE - REASONING
SOC
Occupation Title
065
069
075
077
078
083
084
085
176
178
005
007
014
015
023
024
043
044
045
046
047
048
049
053
054
055
056
057
058
059
063
066
067
068
OPERATIONS AND SYSTEMS
RESEARCHERS AND ANALYSTS
PHYSICISTS AND ASTRONOMERS
GEOLOGISTS AND GEODESISTS
AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD
SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL AND LIFE
SCIENTISTS
MEDICAL SCIENTISTS
PHYSICIANS
DENTISTS
CLERGY
LAWYERS
ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS,
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
FINANCIAL MANAGERS
ADMINISTRATORS, EDUCATION AND
RELATED FIELDS
MANAGERS, MEDICINE AND HEALTH
ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS
UNDERWRITERS
ARCHITECTS
AEROSPACE ENGINEERS
METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS
ENGINEERS
MINING ENGINEERS
PETROLEUM ENGINEERS
CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
NUCLEAR ENGINEERS
CIVIL ENGINEERS
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
ENGINEERS
INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS
MARINE AND NAVAL ARCHITECTS
ENGINEERS, N.E.C.
SURVEYORS AND MAPPING
SCIENTISTS
ACTUARIES
STATISTICIANS
MATHEMATICAL SCIENTISTS,
N.E.C.
Variable
6
133
vo vo vo vo vo vo vo vo vo in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in

134
soc
Occupation Title
073
CHEMISTS, EXCEPT BIOCHEMISTS
074
ATMOSPHERIC AND SPACE
SCIENTISTS
076
PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C.
079
FORESTRY AND CONSERVATION
SCIENTISTS
086
VETERINARIANS
087
OPTOMETRISTS
088
PODIATRISTS
095
REGISTERED NURSES
096
PHARMACISTS
097
DIETITIANS
106
PHYSICIANS ASSISTANTS
163
COUNSELORS, EDUCATIONAL AND
VOCATIONAL
166
ECONOMISTS
167
PSYCHOLOGISTS
168
SOCIOLOGISTS
169
SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C.
173
URBAN PLANNERS
179
JUDGES
183
AUTHORS
184
TECHNICAL WRITERS
186
MUSICIANS AND COMPOSERS
195
EDITORS AND REPORTERS
197
PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALISTS
203
CLINICAL LABORATORY
TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS
205
HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGISTS
AND TECHNICIANS
206
RADIOLOGIC TECHNICIANS
214
INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
TECHNICIANS
215
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
TECHNICIANS
258
SALES ENGINEERS
006
ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE
SERVICES
008
PERSONNEL AND LABOR RELATIONS
MANAGERS
009
PURCHASING MANAGERS
013
MANAGERS, MARKETING,
ADVERTISING, AND PUBLIC
RELATIONS
016
MANAGERS, PROPERTIES AND REAL
ESTATE
017
POSTMASTERS AND MAIL
SUPERINTENDENTS
018
FUNERAL DIRECTORS
025
OTHER FINANCIAL OFFICERS
026
MANAGEMENT ANALYSTS
027
PERSONNEL, TRAINING, AND
LABOR RELATIONS SPECIALISTS
Variable
4
4
4
4
4
4
in in min tnininminininin inininininininininininin in mm m m^t ■«a* ^

135
soc
Occupation Title
028
PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS,
FARM PRODUCTS
029
BUYERS, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
TRADE EXCEPT FARM PRODUCTS
033
PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS,
N.E.C.
034
BUSINESS AND PROMOTION AGENTS
035
CONSTRUCTION INSPECTORS
036
INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE
OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
037
MANAGEMENT RELATED
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
064
COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS AND
SCIENTISTS
089
HEALTH DIAGNOSING
PRACTITIONERS, N.E.C.
155
TEACHERS, PREKINDERGARTEN AND
KINDERGARTEN
164
LIBRARIANS
165
ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS
174
SOCIAL WORKERS
175
RECREATION WORKERS
177
RELIGIOUS WORKERS, N.E.C.
185
DESIGNERS
187
ACTORS AND DIRECTORS
188
PAINTERS, SCULPTORS,
CRAFT-ARTISTS, AND ARTIST
PRINTMAKERS
189
PHOTOGRAPHERS
193
DANCERS
198
ANNOUNCERS
204
DENTAL HYGIENISTS
208
HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
213
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
TECHNICIANS
216
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS,
N.E.C.
217
DRAFTING OCCUPATIONS
218
SURVEYING AND MAPPING
TECHNICIANS
224
CHEMICAL TECHNICIANS
225
SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
226
AIRPLANE PILOTS AND
NAVIGATORS
227
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS
228
BROADCAST EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
229
COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS
233
TOOL PROGRAMMERS, NUMERICAL
CONTROL
234
LEGAL ASSISTANTS
235
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
253
INSURANCE SALES OCCUPATIONS
Variable
4
4
4
4* 4^ 4* 4^ 4^ 4* 4* 4* 4* 4>* 4^ 4* 4* 4* 4* 4* 4^* 4*- 4^4^4^4^4^4^4^4* 4^ 4* 4* 4* 4* 4* 4*

136
SOC
254
255
256
257
259
304
305
306
308
313
375
377
383
413
445
497
507
527
529
543
553
554
555
556
557
584
637
653
657
Occupation Title
REAL ESTATE SALES OCCUPATIONS
SECURITIES AND FINANCIAL
SERVICES SALES OCCUPATIONS
ADVERTISING AND RELATED SALES
OCCUPATIONS
SALES OCCUPATIONS, OTHER
BUSINESS SERVICES
SALES REPRESENTATIVES,
MINING, MANUFACTURING, AND
WHOLESALE
SUPERVISORS, COMPUTER
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
SUPERVISORS, FINANCIAL
RECORDS PROCESSING
CHIEF COMMUNICATIONS
OPERATORS
COMPUTER OPERATORS
SECRETARIES
INSURANCE ADJUSTERS,
EXAMINERS, AND INVESTIGATORS
ELIGIBILITY CLERKS, SOCIAL
WELFARE
BANK TELLERS
SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND
FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
DENTAL ASSISTANTS
CAPTAINS AND OTHER OFFICERS,
FISHING VESSELS
BUS, TRUCK, AND STATIONARY
ENGINE MECHANICS
TELEPHONE LINE INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRERS
TELEPHONE INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRERS
ELEVATOR INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRER
SUPERVISORS, BRICKMASONS,
STONEMASONS, AND TILE SETTERS
SUPERVISORS, CARPENTERS AND
RELATED WORKERS
SUPERVISORS, ELECTRICIANS AND
POWER TRANSMISSION INSTALLERS
SUPERVISORS, PAINTERS,
PAPERHANGERS AND PLASTERERS
SUPERVISORS, PLUMBERS,
PIPEFITTERS AND STEAMFITTERS
PLASTERERS
MACHINISTS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
SHEET METAL WORKERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
CABINET MAKERS AND BENCH
CARPENTERS
Variable
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4* 4* 4* 4* 4^ 4^ 4* 4*- 4^ 4* 4* 4^ 4* 4^ 4^ 4*> 4* 4* 4*

137
soc
Occupation Title
658
FURNITURE AND WOOD FINISHERS
667
TAILORS
773
MOTION PICTURE PROJECTIONISTS
844
OPERATING ENGINEERS
194
ARTISTS, PERFORMERS, AND
RELATED WORKERS, N.E.C.
199
ATHLETES
207
LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES
223
BIOLOGICAL TECHNICIANS
276
CASHIERS
277
STREET AND DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES
WORKERS
283
DEMONSTRATORS, PROMOTERS AND
MODELS, SALES
284
AUCTIONEERS
285
SALES SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS,
N.E.C.
303
SUPERVISORS, GENERAL OFFICE
307
SUPERVISORS, DISTRIBUTION,
SCHEDULING AND ADJUSTING
CLERKS
314
STENOGRAPHERS
315
TYPISTS
316
INTERVIEWERS
317
HOTEL CLERKS
318
TRANSPORTATION TICKET AND
RESERVATION AGENTS
319
RECEPTIONISTS
323
INFORMATION CLERKS, N.E.C.
325
CLASSIFIED-AD CLERKS
326
CORRESPONDENCE CLERKS
327
ORDER CLERKS
328
PERSONNEL CLERKS, EXCEPT
PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING
335
FILE CLERKS
336
RECORDS CLERKS
337
BOOKKEEPERS, ACCOUNTING AND
AUDITING CLERKS
338
PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING
CLERKS
339
BILLING CLERKS
343
COST AND RATE CLERKS
344
BILLING, POSTING, AND
CALCULATING MACHINE OPERATORS
348
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
349
TELEGRAPHERS
353
COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
354
POSTAL CLERKS, EXC. MAIL
CARRIERS
355
MAIL CARRIERS, POSTAL SERVICE
359
DISPATCHERS
363
PRODUCTION COORDINATORS
Variable
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
moo moo o moo moo o moo

138
SOC
366
369
373
376
378
379
384
385
386
387
389
414
415
416
417
418
423
424
426
427
433
436
437
446
447
448
456
457
458
463
465
467
468
485
494
Occupation Title
METER READERS
SAMPLERS
EXPEDITERS
INVESTIGATORS AND ADJUSTERS,
EXCEPT INSURANCE
BILL AND ACCOUNT COLLECTORS
GENERAL OFFICE CLERKS
PROOFREADERS
DATA-ENTRY KEYERS
STATISTICAL CLERKS
TEACHERS AIDES
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
SUPERVISORS, POLICE AND
DETECTIVES
SUPERVISORS, GUARDS
FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE
PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS
POLICE AND DETECTIVES, PUBLIC
SERVICE
SHERIFFS, BAILIFFS, AND OTHER
LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS
CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION
OFFICERS
GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC.
PUBLIC SERVICE
PROTECTIVE SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
SUPERVISORS, FOOD PREPARATION
AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS
COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER
SHORT-ORDER COOKS
HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING
NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND
ATTENDANTS
SUPERVISORS, CLEANING AND
BUILDING SERVICE WORKERS
SUPERVISORS, PERSONAL SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS
BARBERS
HAIRDRESSERS AND
COSMETOLOGISTS
GUIDES
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
ATTENDANTS
WELFARE SERVICE AIDES
CHILD CARE WORKERS, EXCEPT
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD
SUPERVISORS, RELATED
AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS
SUPERVISORS, FORESTRY AND
LOGGING WORKERS
Variable
3
3
m ro m m n co ro co co n co co coco coco co co ro co co cocococo co co coco coco coco

139
SOC
499
503
505
508
509
514
516
517
518
523
525
526
533
534
535
536
538
539
544
558
563
565
566
567
573
575
577
583
585
588
589
595
597
598
613
Occupation Title Variable
HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS
SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS, EXC.
APPRENTICES
AIRCRAFT ENGINE MECHANICS
SMALL ENGINE REPAIRERS
AUTOMOBILE BODY AND RELATED
REPAIRERS
HEAVY EQUIPMENT MECHANICS
FARM EQUIPMENT MECHANICS
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY
REPAIRERS
ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS,
COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL
EQUIPMENT
DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT
REPAIR
HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCE AND POWER
TOOL REPAIRERS
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND
ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
REPAIRERS
HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING,
AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS
CAMERA, WATCH, AND MUSICAL
INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS
LOCKSMITHS AND SAFE REPAIRERS
OFFICE MACHINE REPAIRERS
MECHANICAL CONTROLS AND VALVE
REPAIRERS
MILLWRIGHTS
SUPERVISORS, N.E.C.
BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS,
EXCEPT APPRENTICES
TILE SETTERS, HARD AND SOFT
CARPET INSTALLERS
CARPENTERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
DRYWALL INSTALLERS
ELECTRICIANS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
ELECTRICAL POWER INSTALLERS
AND REPAIRERS
PAPERHANGERS
PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES
CONCRETE AND TERRAZZO
FINISHERS
GLAZIERS 3
ROOFERS 3
STRUCTURAL METAL WORKERS 3
DRILLERS, EARTH 3
SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS 3
n n n comm neon n n n n n n nnn nnn nnn nn n nnn

140
soc
Occupation Title
614
DRILLERS, OIL WELL
615
EXPLOSIVES WORKERS
633
SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION
OCCUPATIONS
634
TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
636
PRECISION ASSEMBLERS, METAL
643
BOILERMAKERS
644
PRECISION GRINDERS, FITTERS,
AND TOOL SHARPENERS
645
PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL
MAKERS, METAL
646
LAY-OUT WORKERS
647
PRECIOUS STONES AND METALS
WORKERS(JEWELERS)
649
ENGRAVERS, METAL
655
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL
WORKERS
656
PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL
MAKERS, WOOD
659
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
WOODWORKERS
666
DRESSMAKERS
668
UPHOLSTERERS
669
SHOE REPAIRERS
673
APPAREL AND FABRIC
PATTERNMAKERS
675
HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS,
EXCEPT JEWELERS
676
PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT
WORKERS, AND CUTTERS
677
OPTICAL GOODS WORKERS
678
DENTAL LABORATORY AND MEDICAL
APPLIANCE TECHNICIAN
683
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLERS
684
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
WORKERS, N.E.C.
686
BUTCHERS AND MEAT CUTTERS
687
BAKERS
688
FOOD BATCHMAKERS
689
INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND
GRADERS
693
ADJUSTERS AND CALIBRATORS
694
WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT
PLANT OPERATORS
695
POWER PLANT OPERATORS
696
STATIONARY ENGINEERS
699
MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND
SYSTEM OPERATORS
703
LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE
SET-UP OPERATORS
707
ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS
Variable
3
3
r> r> co n o r> n n nn n ro n n nnnn co n on n n noon on non

141
soc
Occupation Title
714
NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE
OPERATOR
735
PHOTOENGRAVERS AND
LITHOGRAPHERS
736
TYPESETTERS AND COMPOSITORS
737
MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING
MACHINE OPERATORS
739
KNITTING, LOOPING, TAPING,
AND WEAVING MACHINE OPERATORS
774
PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE
OPERATORS
783
WELDERS AND CUTTERS
803
SUPERVISORS, MOTOR VEHICLE
OPERATORS
808
BUS DRIVERS
823
RAILROAD CONDUCTORS AND
YARDMASTER
824
LOCOMOTIVE OPERATING
OCCUPATIONS
826
RAIL VEHICLE OPERATORS,
N.E.C.
828
SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES,
EXCEPT FISHING BOATS
833
MARINE ENGINEERS
834
BRIDGE, LOCK, AND LIGHTHOUSE
TENDERS
843
SUPERVISORS, MATERIAL MOVING
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
845
LONGSHORE EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
863
SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS,
EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, AND
LABORERS,
866
HELPERS, SURVEYOR
275
SALES COUNTER CLERKS
278
NEWS VENDORS
309
PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS
329
LIBRARY CLERKS
345
DUPLICATING MACHINE OPERATORS
346
MAIL PREPARING AND PAPER
HANDLING MACHINE OPERATORS
347
OFFICE MACHINE OPERATORS,
N.E.C.
356
MAIL CLERKS, EXC. POSTAL
SERVICE
357
MESSENGERS
364
TRAFFIC, SHIPPING, AND
RECEIVING CLERKS
365
STOCK AND INVENTORY CLERKS
368
WEIGHERS, MEASURERS, AND
CHECKERS
374
MATERIAL RECORDING, SCHEDULING
AND DISTRIBUTING CLERKS, N.E.C
Variable
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
com ro mn n n n n cmcnjpj cn
142
SOC
425
434
435
438
439
443
444
454
455
459
464
466
469
486
487
488
489
496
498
519
547
579
593
594
599
616
617
674
679
704
705
706
708
709
Occupation Title
CROSSING GUARDS
BARTENDERS
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES
FOOD COUNTER, FOUNTAIN & RELATED
KITCHEN WORKERS, FOOD
PREPARATION
WAITERS/WAITRESSES ASSISTANTS
MISCELLANEOUS FOOD
PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS
ELEVATOR OPERATORS
PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS
ATTENDANTS, AMUSEMENT AND
RECREATION FACILITIES
USHERS
BAGGAGE PORTERS AND BELLHOPS
PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.
GROUNDSKEEPERS AND GARDENERS,
EXCEPT FARM
ANIMAL CARETAKERS, EXCEPT
FARM
GRADERS AND SORTERS,
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS
INSPECTORS, AGRICULTURAL
PRODUCTS
TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING
OCCUPATIONS
FISHERS
MACHINERY MAINTENANCE
OCCUPATIONS
SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS, N.E.C.
PAINTERS, CONSTRUCTION AND
MAINTENANCE
INSULATION WORKERS
PAVING, SURFACING, AND
TAMPING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C.
MINING MACHINE OPERATORS
MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
APPAREL AND FABRIC WORKERS
BOOKBINDERS
LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE
OPERATORS
MILLING AND PLANING MACHINE
OPERATORS
PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS
MACHINE OPERATORS
DRILLING AND BORING MACHINE
OPERATORS
GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING,
AND POLISHING MACHINE
OPERATORS
Variable
2
2
2
2
2
.C.
2
2
2
2
to tO to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to

143
soc
Occupation Title
713
FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS
715
MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC,
STONE AND GLASS WORKING
MACHINE OPERATOR
717
FABRICATING MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
719
MOLDING AND CASTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
723
METAL PLATING MACHINE
OPERATORS
724
HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS
725
MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND
PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE
OPERATORS
726
WOOD LATHE, ROUTING, AND
PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS
727
SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS
728
SHAPING AND JOINING MACHINE
OPERATORS
729
NAILING AND TACKING MACHINE
OPERATORS
733
MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING
MACHINE OPERATORS
734
PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS
738
WINDING AND TWISTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
743
TEXTILE CUTTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
744
TEXTILE SEWING MACHINE
OPERATORS
745
SHOE MACHINE OPERATORS
747
PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS
748
LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING
MACHINE OPERATORS
749
MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE
OPERATORS
753
CEMENTING AND GLUING MACHINE
OPERATORS
754
PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE
OPERATORS
755
EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE
OPERATORS
756
MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE
OPERATORS
757
SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND
CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS
758
COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING
MACHINE OPERATORS
759
PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING
MACHINE OPERATORS
763
ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE
OPERATORS, FOOD
Variable
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
to NJ NJ tO tO tO tO tO tO tO tO tO to tO tO tO tO [O tO

144
soc
Occupation Title
764
WASHING, CLEANING, AND
PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS
765
FOLDING MACHINE OPERATORS
766
FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN
OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD
768
CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE
OPERATORS
769
SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
777
MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
784
SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS
785
ASSEMBLERS
786
HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING
OCCUPATIONS
787
HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND
FORMING OCCUPATIONS
789
HAND PAINTING, COATING, AND
DECORATING OCCUPATIONS
793
HAND ENGRAVING AND PRINTING
OCCUPATIONS
794
HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING
OCCUPATIONS
795
MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING
OCCUPATIONS
796
PRODUCTION INSPECTORS,
CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS
797
PRODUCTION TESTERS
798
PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND
WEIGHERS
799
GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC.
AGRICULTURAL
804
TRUCK DRIVERS, HEAVY
805
TRUCK DRIVERS, LIGHT
806
DRIVER-SALES WORKERS
809
TAXICAB DRIVERS AND
CHAUFFEURS
813
PARKING LOT ATTENDANTS
814
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
825
RAILROAD BRAKE, SIGNAL, AND
SWITCH OPERATORS
829
SAILORS AND DECKHANDS
848
HOIST AND WINCH OPERATORS
849
CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS
853
EXCAVATING AND LOADING
MACHINE OPERATORS
855
GRADER, DOZER, AND SCRAPER
OPERATORS
856
INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND TRACTOR
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
859
MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
Variable
2
2
2
2
NJ NJ tO NJ to to to to to to to tO tO tO tO to tO to to tO tO tO tO to tO to to to

145
soc
Occupation Title
864
HELPERS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
865
HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES
867
HELPERS, EXTRACTIVE
OCCUPATIONS
869
CONSTRUCTION LABORERS
876
STEVEDORES
885
GARAGE AND SERVICE STATION
RELATED OCCUPATIONS
449
MAIDS AND HOUSEMEN
453
JANITORS AND CLEANERS
495
FORESTRY WORKERS, EXCEPT
LOGGING
873
PRODUCTION HELPERS
875
GARBAGE COLLECTORS
877
STOCK HANDLERS AND BAGGERS
878
MACHINE FEEDERS AND
OFFBEARERS
883
FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL
HANDLERS, N.E.C.
887
VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT
CLEANERS
888
HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS
889
LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
Variable
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
ÍN (N CN (N
APPENDIX G
GED SCORE - MATH
soc
Occupation Title
065
OPERATIONS AND SYSTEMS
RESEARCHERS AND ANALYSTS
078
BIOLOGICAL AND LIFE
SCIENTISTS
023
ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS
043
ARCHITECTS
044
AEROSPACE ENGINEERS
045
METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS
ENGINEERS
046
MINING ENGINEERS
047
PETROLEUM ENGINEERS
048
CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
049
NUCLEAR ENGINEERS
053
CIVIL ENGINEERS
054
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS
055
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
ENGINEERS
056
INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS
059
ENGINEERS, N.E.C.
066
ACTUARIES
067
STATISTICIANS
068
MATHEMATICAL SCIENTISTS,
N.E.C.
069
PHYSICISTS AND ASTRONOMERS
073
CHEMISTS, EXCEPT BIOCHEMISTS
074
ATMOSPHERIC AND SPACE
SCIENTISTS
075
GEOLOGISTS AND GEODESISTS
076
PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C.
077
AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD
SCIENTISTS
079
FORESTRY AND CONSERVATION
SCIENTISTS
083
MEDICAL SCIENTISTS
084
PHYSICIANS
085
DENTISTS
087
OPTOMETRISTS
096
PHARMACISTS
166
ECONOMISTS
167
PSYCHOLOGISTS
214
INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
TECHNICIANS
258
SALES ENGINEERS
Variable
6
6
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
146
in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in m in in in in

147
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
005
ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS,
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
4
007
FINANCIAL MANAGERS
4
008
PERSONNEL AND LABOR RELATIONS
MANAGERS
4
015
MANAGERS, MEDICINE AND HEALTH
4
018
FUNERAL DIRECTORS
4
024
UNDERWRITERS
4
025
OTHER FINANCIAL OFFICERS
4
057
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS
4
058
MARINE AND NAVAL ARCHITECTS
4
063
SURVEYORS AND MAPPING
SCIENTISTS
4
064
COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS AND
SCIENTISTS
4
086
VETERINARIANS
4
088
PODIATRISTS
4
095
REGISTERED NURSES
4
097
DIETITIANS
4
106
PHYSICIANS ASSISTANTS
4
163
COUNSELORS, EDUCATIONAL AND
VOCATIONAL
4
168
SOCIOLOGISTS
4
173
URBAN PLANNERS
4
176
CLERGY
4
178
LAWYERS
4
203
CLINICAL LABORATORY
TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS
4
205
HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGISTS
AND TECHNICIANS
4
206
RADIOLOGIC TECHNICIANS
4
213
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
TECHNICIANS
4
215
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
TECHNICIANS
4
217
DRAFTING OCCUPATIONS
4
218
SURVEYING AND MAPPING
TECHNICIANS
4
224
CHEMICAL TECHNICIANS
4
226
AIRPLANE PILOTS AND
NAVIGATORS
4
229
COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS
4
233
TOOL PROGRAMMERS, NUMERICAL
CONTROL
4
304
SUPERVISORS, COMPUTER
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
4
497
CAPTAINS AND OTHER OFFICERS,
FISHING VESSELS
4
529
TELEPHONE INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRERS
4
653
SHEET METAL WORKERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
4
006
ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE SERVICES
3

148
soc
Occupation Title
009
PURCHASING MANAGERS
013
MANAGERS, MARKETING,
ADVERTISING, AND PUBLIC
RELATIONS
014
ADMINISTRATORS, EDUCATION AND
RELATED FIELDS
016
MANAGERS, PROPERTIES AND REAL
ESTATE
017
POSTMASTERS AND MAIL
SUPERINTENDENTS
026
MANAGEMENT ANALYSTS
027
PERSONNEL, TRAINING, AND
LABOR RELATIONS SPECIALISTS
028
PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS,
FARM PRODUCTS
029
BUYERS, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
TRADE EXCEPT FARM PRODUCTS
033
PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS,
034
BUSINESS AND PROMOTION AGENTS
035
CONSTRUCTION INSPECTORS
036
INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE
OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
037
MANAGEMENT RELATED
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
089
HEALTH DIAGNOSING
PRACTITIONERS, N.E.C.
165
ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS
169
SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C.
174
SOCIAL WORKERS
179
JUDGES
184
TECHNICAL WRITERS
185
DESIGNERS
186
MUSICIANS AND COMPOSERS
187
ACTORS AND DIRECTORS
197
PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALISTS
204
DENTAL HYGIENISTS
208
HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
216
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS,
N.E.C.
223
BIOLOGICAL TECHNICIANS
225
SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
227
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS
228
BROADCAST EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
235
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
253
INSURANCE SALES OCCUPATIONS
254
REAL ESTATE SALES OCCUPATIONS
255
SECURITIES AND FINANCIAL
SERVICES SALES OCCUPATIONS
257
SALES OCCUPATIONS, OTHER
BUSINESS SERVICES
259
SALES REPRESENTATIVES, MINING
MANUFACTURING & WHOLESALE
Variable
N.E.C.
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
U) U) U) U> U) La) La) U> La) La) La) La) La) La) La) La) La) La) La)

149
SOC
305
317
337
338
377
383
413
445
485
503
507
508
523
525
527
536
543
544
553
554
555
557
558
575
577
634
637
643
645
656
Occupation Title
SUPERVISORS, FINANCIAL
RECORDS PROCESSING
HOTEL CLERKS
BOOKKEEPERS, ACCOUNTING AND
AUDITING CLERKS
PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING
CLERKS
ELIGIBILITY CLERKS, SOCIAL
WELFARE
BANK TELLERS
SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND
FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
DENTAL ASSISTANTS
SUPERVISORS, RELATED
AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS
SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
BUS, TRUCK, AND STATIONARY
ENGINE MECHANICS
AIRCRAFT ENGINE MECHANICS
ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS,
COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL
EQUIPMENT
DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT
REPAIR
TELEPHONE LINE INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRERS
LOCKSMITHS AND SAFE REPAIRERS
ELEVATOR INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRER
MILLWRIGHTS
SUPERVISORS, BRICKMASONS,
STONEMASONS, AND TILE SETTERS
SUPERVISORS, CARPENTERS AND
RELATED WORKERS
SUPERVISORS, ELECTRICIANS AND
POWER TRANSMISSION INSTALLERS
SUPERVISORS, PLUMBERS,
PIPEFITTERS AND STEAMFITTERS
SUPERVISORS, N.E.C.
ELECTRICIANS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
ELECTRICAL POWER INSTALLERS
AND REPAIRERS
TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
MACHINISTS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
BOILERMAKERS
PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL
MAKERS, METAL
PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL
MAKERS, WOOD
Variable
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
m m

soc
657
659
667
673
694
695
703
714
803
828
155
164
175
177
183
188
189
193
194
195
198
199
207
234
256
275
276
277
278
283
284
285
303
306
307
150
Occupation Title Variable
CABINET MAKERS AND BENCH 3
CARPENTERS
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION 3
WOODWORKERS
TAILORS 3
APPAREL AND FABRIC 3
PATTERNMAKERS
WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT 3
PLANT OPERATORS
POWER PLANT OPERATORS 3
LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE 3
SET-UP OPERATORS
NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE 3
OPERATOR
SUPERVISORS, MOTOR VEHICLE 3
OPERATORS
SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES, 3
EXCEPT FISHING BOATS
TEACHERS, PREKINDERGARTEN AND 2
KINDERGARTEN
LIBRARIANS
RECREATION WORKERS
RELIGIOUS WORKERS, N.E.C.
AUTHORS
PAINTERS, SCULPTORS,
CRAFT-ARTISTS, AND ARTIST
PRINTMAKERS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
DANCERS
ARTISTS, PERFORMERS, AND
RELATED WORKERS, N.E.C.
EDITORS AND REPORTERS
ANNOUNCERS
ATHLETES
LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES
LEGAL ASSISTANTS
ADVERTISING AND RELATED SALES
OCCUPATIONS
SALES COUNTER CLERKS
CASHIERS
STREET AND DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES
WORKERS
NEWS VENDORS
DEMONSTRATORS, PROMOTERS AND
MODELS, SALES
AUCTIONEERS
SALES SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
SUPERVISORS, GENERAL OFFICE
CHIEF COMMUNICATIONS
OPERATORS
SUPERVISORS, DISTRIBUTION, 2
SCHEDULING AND ADJUSTING
CLERKS
to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to tototo to to to to to

151
soc
Occupation Title
308
COMPUTER OPERATORS
313
SECRETARIES
316
INTERVIEWERS
318
TRANSPORTATION TICKET AND
RESERVATION AGENTS
319
RECEPTIONISTS
323
INFORMATION CLERKS, N.E.C.
325
CLASSIFIED-AD CLERKS
327
ORDER CLERKS
336
RECORDS CLERKS
339
BILLING CLERKS
343
COST AND RATE CLERKS
344
BILLING, POSTING, AND
CALCULATING MACHINE OPERATORS
349
TELEGRAPHERS
353
COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
354
POSTAL CLERKS, EXC. MAIL
CARRIERS
355
MAIL CARRIERS, POSTAL SERVICE
359
DISPATCHERS
363
PRODUCTION COORDINATORS
364
TRAFFIC, SHIPPING, AND
RECEIVING CLERKS
365
STOCK AND INVENTORY CLERKS
366
METER READERS
368
WEIGHERS, MEASURERS, AND
CHECKERS
369
SAMPLERS
373
EXPEDITERS
375
INSURANCE ADJUSTERS,
EXAMINERS, AND INVESTIGATORS
376
INVESTIGATORS AND ADJUSTERS,
EXCEPT INSURANCE
378
BILL AND ACCOUNT COLLECTORS
379
GENERAL OFFICE CLERKS
385
DATA-ENTRY KEYERS
386
STATISTICAL CLERKS
387
TEACHERS AIDES
389
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
414
SUPERVISORS, POLICE AND
DETECTIVES
415
SUPERVISORS, GUARDS
416
FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE
PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
417
FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS
418
POLICE AND DETECTIVES, PUBLIC
SERVICE
423
SHERIFFS, BAILIFFS, AND OTHER
LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS
426
GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC.
PUBLIC SERVICE
Variable
2
2
to tO to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to totototototototo to to to to

152
soc
Occupation Title
433
SUPERVISORS, FOOD PREPARATION
AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS
436
COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER
437
SHORT-ORDER COOKS
446
HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING
448
SUPERVISORS, CLEANING AND
BUILDING SERVICE WORKERS
456
SUPERVISORS, PERSONAL SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS
457
BARBERS
458
HAIRDRESSERS AND
COSMETOLOGISTS
459
ATTENDANTS, AMUSEMENT AND
RECREATION FACILITIES
463
GUIDES
467
WELFARE SERVICE AIDES
468
CHILD CARE WORKERS, EXCEPT
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD
489
INSPECTORS, AGRICULTURAL
PRODUCTS
494
SUPERVISORS, FORESTRY AND
LOGGING WORKERS
499
HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS
505
AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS, EXC.
APPRENTICES
509
SMALL ENGINE REPAIRERS
514
AUTOMOBILE BODY AND RELATED
REPAIRERS
516
HEAVY EQUIPMENT MECHANICS
517
FARM EQUIPMENT MECHANICS
518
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY
REPAIRERS
526
HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCE AND POWER
TOOL REPAIRERS
533
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND
ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
REPAIRERS
534
HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING,
AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS
535
CAMERA, WATCH, AND MUSICAL
INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS
538
OFFICE MACHINE REPAIRERS
539
MECHANICAL CONTROLS AND VALVE
REPAIRERS
556
SUPERVISORS, PAINTERS,
PAPERHANGERS AND PLASTERERS
563
BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS,
EXCEPT APPRENTICES
565
TILE SETTERS, HARD AND SOFT
566
CARPET INSTALLERS
567
CARPENTERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
573
DRYWALL INSTALLERS
Variable
2
2
CM Ol PM OI CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM

153
soc
Occupation Title
584
PLASTERERS
585
PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES
588
CONCRETE AND TERRAZZO
FINISHERS
589
GLAZIERS
598
DRILLERS, EARTH
613
SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE
OCCUPATIONS
614
DRILLERS, OIL WELL
615
EXPLOSIVES WORKERS
633
SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION
OCCUPATIONS
636
PRECISION ASSEMBLERS, METAL
644
PRECISION GRINDERS, FITTERS,
AND TOOL SHARPENERS
646
LAY-OUT WORKERS
647
PRECIOUS STONES AND METALS
WORKERS(JEWELERS)
649
ENGRAVERS, METAL
655
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL
WORKERS
658
FURNITURE AND WOOD FINISHERS
666
DRESSMAKERS
668
UPHOLSTERERS
669
SHOE REPAIRERS
675
HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS,
EXCEPT JEWELERS
676
PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT
WORKERS, AND CUTTERS
677
OPTICAL GOODS WORKERS
678
DENTAL LABORATORY AND MEDICAL
APPLIANCE TECHNICIAN
683
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLERS
684
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
WORKERS, N.E.C.
686
BUTCHERS AND MEAT CUTTERS
687
BAKERS
688
FOOD BATCHMAKERS
689
INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND
GRADERS
693
ADJUSTERS AND CALIBRATORS
696
STATIONARY ENGINEERS
699
MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND
SYSTEM OPERATORS
705
MILLING AND PLANING MACHINE
OPERATORS
707
ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS
708
DRILLING AND BORING MACHINE
OPERATORS
713
FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS
724
HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS
Variable
to to toro to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to

154
soc
Occupation Title
773
MOTION PICTURE PROJECTIONISTS
774
PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE
OPERATORS
783
WELDERS AND CUTTERS
784
SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS
797
PRODUCTION TESTERS
806
DRIVER-SALES WORKERS
808
BUS DRIVERS
823
RAILROAD CONDUCTORS AND
YARDMASTER
829
SAILORS AND DECKHANDS
833
MARINE ENGINEERS
843
SUPERVISORS, MATERIAL MOVING
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
844
OPERATING ENGINEERS
845
LONGSHORE EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
863
SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS,
EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, AND
LABORERS,
309
PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS
314
STENOGRAPHERS
315
TYPISTS
326
CORRESPONDENCE CLERKS
328
PERSONNEL CLERKS, EXCEPT
PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING
329
LIBRARY CLERKS
335
FILE CLERKS
345
DUPLICATING MACHINE OPERATORS
346
MAIL PREPARING AND PAPER
HANDLING MACHINE OPERATORS
347
OFFICE MACHINE OPERATORS,
N.E.C.
348
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
356
MAIL CLERKS, EXC. POSTAL
SERVICE
357
MESSENGERS
374
MATERIAL RECORDING,
SCHEDULING, AND DISTRIBUTING
CLERKS, N.E.C.
384
PROOFREADERS
424
CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION
OFFICERS
425
CROSSING GUARDS
427
PROTECTIVE SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
434
BARTENDERS
435
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES
438
FOOD COUNTER, FOUNTAIN AND
RELATED OCCUPATIONS
439
KITCHEN WORKERS, FOOD
PREPARATION
443
WAITERS/WAITRESSES ASSISTANTS
Variable
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
N) N M to to to to to to to to to to to

155
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
444
MISCELLANEOUS FOOD
PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS
1
447
NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND
ATTENDANTS
1
449
MAIDS AND HOUSEMEN
1
453
JANITORS AND CLEANERS
1
454
ELEVATOR OPERATORS
1
455
PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS
1
464
USHERS
1
465
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
ATTENDANTS
1
466
BAGGAGE PORTERS AND BELLHOPS
1
469
PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS,
N.E.C.
1
486
GROUNDSKEEPERS AND GARDENERS,
EXCEPT FARM
1
487
ANIMAL CARETAKERS, EXCEPT
FARM
1
488
GRADERS AND SORTERS,
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS
1
495
FORESTRY WORKERS, EXCEPT
LOGGING
1
496
TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING
OCCUPATIONS
1
498
FISHERS
1
519
MACHINERY MAINTENANCE
OCCUPATIONS
1
547
SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS, N.E.C.
1
579
PAINTERS, CONSTRUCTION AND
MAINTENANCE
1
583
PAPERHANGERS
1
593
INSULATION WORKERS
1
594
PAVING, SURFACING, AND
TAMPING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
1
595
ROOFERS
1
597
STRUCTURAL METAL WORKERS
1
599
CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C.
1
616
MINING MACHINE OPERATORS
1
617
MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
1
674
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
APPAREL AND FABRIC WORKERS
1
679
BOOKBINDERS
1
704
LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
706
PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS
MACHINE OPERATORS
1
709
GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING,
AND POLISHING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
715
MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC,
STONE AND GLASS WORKING
MACHINE OPERATORS
1

soc
717
719
723
725
726
727
728
729
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
743
744
745
747
748
749
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
763
764
156
Occupation Title Variable
FABRICATING MACHINE 1
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
MOLDING AND CASTING MACHINE 1
OPERATORS
METAL PLATING MACHINE OPERATORS 1
MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND 1
PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE
OPERATORS
WOOD LATHE, ROUTING, AND 1
PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS
SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS 1
SHAPING AND JOINING MACHINE 1
OPERATORS
NAILING AND TACKING MACHINE 1
OPERATORS
MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING 1
MACHINE OPERATORS
PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS 1
PHOTOENGRAVERS AND 1
LITHOGRAPHERS
TYPESETTERS AND COMPOSITORS 1
MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING 1
MACHINE OPERATORS
WINDING AND TWISTING MACHINE 1
OPERATORS
KNITTING, LOOPING, TAPING, 1
AND WEAVING MACHINE OPERATORS
TEXTILE CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS 1
TEXTILE SEWING MACHINE OPERATORS 1
SHOE MACHINE OPERATORS 1
PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS 1
LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING 1
MACHINE OPERATORS
MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE 1
OPERATORS
CEMENTING AND GLUING MACHINE 1
OPERATORS
PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE 1
OPERATORS
EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE 1
OPERATORS
MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE 1
OPERATORS
SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND 1
CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS
COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING 1
MACHINE OPERATORS
PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING 1
MACHINE OPERATORS
ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE 1
OPERATORS, FOOD
WASHING, CLEANING, AND 1
PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS

157
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
765
FOLDING MACHINE OPERATORS
1
766
FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN
OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD
1
768
CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
769
SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
111
MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
1
785
ASSEMBLERS
1
786
HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING
OCCUPATIONS
1
787
HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND
FORMING OCCUPATIONS
1
789
HAND PAINTING, COATING, AND
DECORATING OCCUPATIONS
1
793
HAND ENGRAVING AND PRINTING
OCCUPATIONS
1
794
HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING
OCCUPATIONS
1
795
MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING
OCCUPATIONS
1
796
PRODUCTION INSPECTORS,
CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS
1
798
PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND
WEIGHERS
1
799
GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC.
AGRICULTURAL
1
804
TRUCK DRIVERS, HEAVY
1
805
TRUCK DRIVERS, LIGHT
1
809
TAXICAB DRIVERS AND
CHAUFFEURS
1
813
PARKING LOT ATTENDANTS
1
814
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
1
824
LOCOMOTIVE OPERATING
OCCUPATIONS
1
825
RAILROAD BRAKE, SIGNAL, AND
SWITCH OPERATORS
1
826
RAIL VEHICLE OPERATORS,
N.E.C.
1
834
BRIDGE, LOCK, AND LIGHTHOUSE
TENDERS
1
848
HOIST AND WINCH OPERATORS
1
849
CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS
1
853
EXCAVATING AND LOADING
MACHINE OPERATORS
1
855
GRADER, DOZER, AND SCRAPER
OPERATORS
1
856
INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND TRACTOR
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
1
859
MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
1

158
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
864
HELPERS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
1
865
HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES
1
866
HELPERS, SURVEYOR
1
867
HELPERS, EXTRACTIVE
OCCUPATIONS
1
869
CONSTRUCTION LABORERS
1
873
PRODUCTION HELPERS
1
875
GARBAGE COLLECTORS
1
876
STEVEDORES
1
877
STOCK HANDLERS AND BAGGERS
1
878
MACHINE FEEDERS AND
OFFBEARERS
1
883
FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL
HANDLERS, N.E.C.
1
885
GARAGE AND SERVICE STATION
RELATED OCCUPATIONS
1
887
VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT
CLEANERS
1
888
HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS
1
889
LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
1

APPENDIX H
GED SCORE - LANGUAGE
SOC
Occupation Title
Variable
065
083
084
176
178
015
023
024
043
044
045
046
047
048
049
054
055
056
059
066
068
069
073
074
075
076
077
078
079
085
087
088
096
097
106
OPERATIONS AND SYSTEMS 6
RESEARCHERS AND ANALYSTS
MEDICAL SCIENTISTS 6
PHYSICIANS 6
CLERGY 6
LAWYERS 6
MANAGERS, MEDICINE AND HEALTH 5
ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS 5
UNDERWRITERS 5
ARCHITECTS 5
AEROSPACE ENGINEERS 5
METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS 5
ENGINEERS
MINING ENGINEERS 5
PETROLEUM ENGINEERS 5
CHEMICAL ENGINEERS 5
NUCLEAR ENGINEERS 5
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS 5
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC 5
ENGINEERS
INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS, N.E.C.
ACTUARIES
MATHEMATICAL SCIENTISTS,
N.E.C.
PHYSICISTS AND ASTRONOMERS
CHEMISTS, EXCEPT BIOCHEMISTS
ATMOSPHERIC AND SPACE
SCIENTISTS
GEOLOGISTS AND GEODESISTS
PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C.
AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD
SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL AND LIFE 5
SCIENTISTS
FORESTRY AND CONSERVATION 5
SCIENTISTS
DENTISTS 5
OPTOMETRISTS 5
PODIATRISTS 5
PHARMACISTS 5
DIETITIANS 5
PHYSICIANS ASSISTANTS 5
159
Ul Ul Ul Ul Ul Ul Ul Ul Ul Ul

160
soc
Occupation Title
163
COUNSELORS, EDUCATIONAL AND
VOCATIONAL
166
ECONOMISTS
167
PSYCHOLOGISTS
168
SOCIOLOGISTS
173
URBAN PLANNERS
179
JUDGES
183
AUTHORS
184
TECHNICAL WRITERS
195
EDITORS AND REPORTERS
205
HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGISTS
AND TECHNICIANS
258
SALES ENGINEERS
005
ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS,
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
006
ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE
SERVICES
007
FINANCIAL MANAGERS
008
PERSONNEL AND LABOR RELATIONS
MANAGERS
009
PURCHASING MANAGERS
013
MANAGERS, MARKETING,
ADVERTISING, AND PUBLIC
RELATIONS
014
ADMINISTRATORS, EDUCATION AND
RELATED FIELDS
016
MANAGERS, PROPERTIES AND REAL
ESTATE
017
POSTMASTERS AND MAIL
SUPERINTENDENTS
018
FUNERAL DIRECTORS
025
OTHER FINANCIAL OFFICERS
026
MANAGEMENT ANALYSTS
027
PERSONNEL, TRAINING, AND
LABOR RELATIONS SPECIALISTS
028
PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS,
FARM PRODUCTS
033
PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS,
N.E.C.
034
BUSINESS AND PROMOTION AGENTS
036
INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE
OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
037
MANAGEMENT RELATED
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
053
CIVIL ENGINEERS
057
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS
058
MARINE AND NAVAL ARCHITECTS
063
SURVEYORS AND MAPPING
SCIENTISTS
064
COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS AND
SCIENTISTS
067
STATISTICIANS
086
VETERINARIANS
Variable
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
4» 4» 4» 4» it» 4» 4» 4» 4» 4» 4» 4» 4» 4» 4» 4» it» it» it» it» it» 4» 4» U1

161
soc
Occupation Title
089
HEALTH DIAGNOSING
PRACTITIONERS, N.E.C.
095
REGISTERED NURSES
164
LIBRARIANS
165
ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS
169
SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C.
174
SOCIAL WORKERS
175
RECREATION WORKERS
177
RELIGIOUS WORKERS, N.E.C.
185
DESIGNERS
186
MUSICIANS AND COMPOSERS
187
ACTORS AND DIRECTORS
193
DANCERS
197
PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALISTS
198
ANNOUNCERS
203
CLINICAL LABORATORY
TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS
204
DENTAL HYGIENISTS
206
RADIOLOGIC TECHNICIANS
214
INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
TECHNICIANS
215
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
TECHNICIANS
217
DRAFTING OCCUPATIONS
218
SURVEYING AND MAPPING
TECHNICIANS
226
AIRPLANE PILOTS AND
NAVIGATORS
227
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS
228
BROADCAST EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
229
COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS
233
TOOL PROGRAMMERS, NUMERICAL
CONTROL
234
LEGAL ASSISTANTS
253
INSURANCE SALES OCCUPATIONS
254
REAL ESTATE SALES OCCUPATIONS
255
SECURITIES AND FINANCIAL
SERVICES SALES OCCUPATIONS
257
SALES OCCUPATIONS, OTHER
BUSINESS SERVICES
304
SUPERVISORS, COMPUTER
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
313
SECRETARIES
377
ELIGIBILITY CLERKS, SOCIAL
WELFARE
445
DENTAL ASSISTANTS
497
CAPTAINS AND OTHER OFFICERS,
FISHING VESSELS
029
BUYERS, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
TRADE EXCEPT FARM PRODUCTS
035
CONSTRUCTION INSPECTORS
155
TEACHERS, PREKINDERGARTEN AND
KINDERGARTEN
Variable
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
3
3

soc
188
189
194
199
207
208
213
216
223
224
225
235
256
259
284
303
305
306
307
308
314
315
316
317
318
319
323
326
327
328
349
353
354
359
373
375
162
Occupation Title
PAINTERS, SCULPTORS
Variable
3
CRAFT-ARTISTS, AND ARTIST
PRINTMAKERS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
ARTISTS, PERFORMERS, AND
3
3
RELATED WORKERS, N.E.C.
ATHLETES
LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES
HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
TECHNICIANS
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS,
N.E.C.
BIOLOGICAL TECHNICIANS
CHEMICAL TECHNICIANS
SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
ADVERTISING AND RELATED SALES
OCCUPATIONS
SALES REPRESENTATIVES,
MINING, MANUFACTURING, AND
WHOLESALE
AUCTIONEERS
SUPERVISORS, GENERAL OFFICE
SUPERVISORS, FINANCIAL
RECORDS PROCESSING
CHIEF COMMUNICATIONS
OPERATORS
SUPERVISORS, DISTRIBUTION,
SCHEDULING AND ADJUSTING CLERKS
COMPUTER OPERATORS
STENOGRAPHERS
TYPISTS
INTERVIEWERS
HOTEL CLERKS
TRANSPORTATION TICKET AND
RESERVATION AGENTS
RECEPTIONISTS
INFORMATION CLERKS, N.E.C.
CORRESPONDENCE CLERKS
ORDER CLERKS
PERSONNEL CLERKS, EXCEPT
PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING
TELEGRAPHERS
COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
POSTAL CLERKS, EXC. MAIL
CARRIERS
DISPATCHERS
EXPEDITERS
INSURANCE ADJUSTERS,
EXAMINERS, AND INVESTIGATORS
Ul U U LJ LO LO U U U U U U U U U U U LO LO LOCOLO LO LO LO LO LO LO LO LO COLOLO

soc
376
378
379
383
384
385
387
413
414
415
416
418
423
433
437
446
456
457
467
468
485
503
507
508
527
529
534
536
543
544
554
555
556
557
163
Occupation Title
Variable
INVESTIGATORS AND ADJUSTERS, 3
EXCEPT INSURANCE
BILL AND ACCOUNT COLLECTORS 3
GENERAL OFFICE CLERKS 3
BANK TELLERS 3
PROOFREADERS 3
DATA-ENTRY KEYERS 3
TEACHERS AIDES 3
SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND 3
FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
SUPERVISORS, POLICE AND 3
DETECTIVES
SUPERVISORS, GUARDS 3
FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE 3
PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
POLICE & DETECTIVES, PUBLIC SERVICE 3
SHERIFFS, BAILIFFS, AND OTHER 3
LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS
SUPERVISORS, FOOD PREPARATION 3
AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS
SHORT-ORDER COOKS
HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING
SUPERVISORS, PERSONAL SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS
BARBERS
WELFARE SERVICE AIDES
CHILD CARE WORKERS, EXCEPT
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD
SUPERVISORS, RELATED
AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS
SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
BUS, TRUCK, AND STATIONARY
ENGINE MECHANICS
AIRCRAFT ENGINE MECHANICS
TELEPHONE LINE INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRERS
TELEPHONE INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRERS
HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING,
AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS
LOCKSMITHS AND SAFE REPAIRERS
ELEVATOR INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRER
MILLWRIGHTS
SUPERVISORS, CARPENTERS AND
RELATED WORKERS
SUPERVISORS, ELECTRICIANS AND 3
POWER TRANSMISSION INSTALLERS
SUPERVISORS, PAINTERS, 3
PAPERHANGERS AND PLASTERERS
SUPERVISORS, PLUMBERS,
PIPEFITTERS AND STEAMFITTERS
3
romeo rococo ro co co coro co ro coro coco

164
soc
Occupation Title
558
SUPERVISORS, N.E.C.
584
PLASTERERS
613
SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE
OCCUPATIONS
633
SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION
OCCUPATIONS
634
TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
637
MACHINISTS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
645
PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL
MAKERS, METAL
653
SHEET METAL WORKERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
656
PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL
MAKERS, WOOD
657
CABINET MAKERS AND BENCH
CARPENTERS
667
TAILORS
668
UPHOLSTERERS
673
APPAREL AND FABRIC
PATTERNMAKERS
678
DENTAL LABORATORY AND MEDICAL
APPLIANCE TECHNICIAN
694
WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT
PLANT OPERATORS
703
LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE
SET-UP OPERATORS
803
SUPERVISORS, MOTOR VEHICLE
OPERATORS
823
RAILROAD CONDUCTORS AND
YARDMASTER
828
SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES,
EXCEPT FISHING BOATS
843
SUPERVISORS, MATERIAL MOVING
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
275
SALES COUNTER CLERKS
276
CASHIERS
277
STREET AND DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES
WORKERS
278
NEWS VENDORS
283
DEMONSTRATORS, PROMOTERS AND
MODELS, SALES
285
SALES SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS,
N.E.C.
309
PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS
325
CLASSIFIED-AD CLERKS
329
LIBRARY CLERKS
335
FILE CLERKS
336
RECORDS CLERKS
337
BOOKKEEPERS, ACCOUNTING AND
AUDITING CLERKS
Variable
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
n n n r> m co m m m m n n n m m m r> r> m co r\j r\i cm ojcnj

165
soc
Occupation Title
338
PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING
CLERKS
339
BILLING CLERKS
343
COST AND RATE CLERKS
344
BILLING, POSTING, AND
CALCULATING MACHINE OPERATORS
348
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
355
MAIL CARRIERS, POSTAL SERVICE
356
MAIL CLERKS, EXC. POSTAL
SERVICE
357
MESSENGERS
363
PRODUCTION COORDINATORS
364
TRAFFIC, SHIPPING, AND
RECEIVING CLERKS
365
STOCK AND INVENTORY CLERKS
366
METER READERS
368
WEIGHERS, MEASURERS, AND
CHECKERS
369
SAMPLERS
374
MATERIAL RECORDING,
SCHEDULING, AND DISTRIBUTING
CLERKS, N.E.C.
386
STATISTICAL CLERKS
389
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
417
FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS
424
CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION
OFFICERS
425
CROSSING GUARDS
426
GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC.
PUBLIC SERVICE
427
PROTECTIVE SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
435
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES
436
COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER
438
FOOD COUNTER, FOUNTAIN AND
RELATED OCCUPATIONS
439
KITCHEN WORKERS, FOOD
PREPARATION
447
NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND
ATTENDANTS
448
SUPERVISORS, CLEANING AND
BUILDING SERVICE WORKERS
458
HAIRDRESSERS AND
COSMETOLOGISTS
459
ATTENDANTS, AMUSEMENT AND
RECREATION FACILITIES
463
GUIDES
465
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
ATTENDANTS
466
BAGGAGE PORTERS AND BELLHOPS
469
PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS,
N.E.C.
Variable
2
MM CON) CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO to CO CO

166
soc
Occupation Title
486
GROUNDSKEEPERS AND GARDENERS,
EXCEPT FARM
488
GRADERS AND SORTERS,
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS
489
INSPECTORS, AGRICULTURAL
PRODUCTS
494
SUPERVISORS, FORESTRY AND
LOGGING WORKERS
499
HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS
505
AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS, EXC.
APPRENTICES
509
SMALL ENGINE REPAIRERS
514
AUTOMOBILE BODY AND RELATED
REPAIRERS
516
HEAVY EQUIPMENT MECHANICS
517
FARM EQUIPMENT MECHANICS
518
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY
REPAIRERS
523
ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS,
COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL
EQUIPMENT
525
DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT
REPAIR
526
HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCE AND POWER
TOOL REPAIRERS
533
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND
ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
REPAIRERS
535
CAMERA, WATCH, AND MUSICAL
INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS
538
OFFICE MACHINE REPAIRERS
539
MECHANICAL CONTROLS AND VALVE
REPAIRERS
553
SUPERVISORS, BRICKMASONS,
STONEMASONS, AND TILE SETTERS
563
BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS,
EXCEPT APPRENTICES
565
TILE SETTERS, HARD AND SOFT
566
CARPET INSTALLERS
567
CARPENTERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
573
DRYWALL INSTALLERS
575
ELECTRICIANS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
577
ELECTRICAL POWER INSTALLERS
AND REPAIRERS
585
PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES
588
CONCRETE AND TERRAZZO
FINISHERS
589
GLAZIERS
593
INSULATION WORKERS
595
ROOFERS
597
STRUCTURAL METAL WORKERS
Variable
2
2
2
2
to NJ to fo to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to

167
soc
Occupation Title
598
DRILLERS, EARTH
614
DRILLERS, OIL WELL
615
EXPLOSIVES WORKERS
636
PRECISION ASSEMBLERS, METAL
643
BOILERMAKERS
644
PRECISION GRINDERS, FITTERS,
AND TOOL SHARPENERS
646
LAY-OUT WORKERS
647
PRECIOUS STONES AND METALS
WORKERS (JEWELERS)
649
ENGRAVERS, METAL
655
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL
WORKERS
658
FURNITURE AND WOOD FINISHERS
659
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
WOODWORKERS
666
DRESSMAKERS
669
SHOE REPAIRERS
674
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
APPAREL AND FABRIC WORKERS
675
HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS,
EXCEPT JEWELERS
676
PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT
WORKERS, AND CUTTERS
677
OPTICAL GOODS WORKERS
683
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLERS
684
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
WORKERS, N.E.C.
686
BUTCHERS AND MEAT CUTTERS
687
BAKERS
688
FOOD BATCHMAKERS
689
INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND
GRADERS
693
ADJUSTERS AND CALIBRATORS
695
POWER PLANT OPERATORS
696
STATIONARY ENGINEERS
699
MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND
SYSTEM OPERATORS
705
MILLING AND PLANING MACHINE
OPERATORS
708
DRILLING AND BORING MACHINE
OPERATORS
714
NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE
OPERATOR
724
HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS
735
PHOTOENGRAVERS AND
LITHOGRAPHERS
736
TYPESETTERS AND COMPOSITORS
739
KNITTING, LOOPING, TAPING,
AND WEAVING MACHINE OPERATORS
773
MOTION PICTURE PROJECTIONISTS
Variable
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to

168
soc
Occupation Title
774
PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE
OPERATORS
783
WELDERS AND CUTTERS
784
SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS
797
PRODUCTION TESTERS
806
DRIVER-SALES WORKERS
808
BUS DRIVERS
824
LOCOMOTIVE OPERATING
OCCUPATIONS
825
RAILROAD BRAKE, SIGNAL, AND
SWITCH OPERATORS
826
RAIL VEHICLE OPERATORS,
N.E.C.
829
SAILORS AND DECKHANDS
833
MARINE ENGINEERS
834
BRIDGE, LOCK, AND LIGHTHOUSE
TENDERS
844
OPERATING ENGINEERS
845
LONGSHORE EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
863
SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS,
EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, AND
LABORERS,
866
HELPERS, SURVEYOR
345
DUPLICATING MACHINE OPERATORS
346
MAIL PREPARING AND PAPER
HANDLING MACHINE OPERATORS
347
OFFICE MACHINE OPERATORS,
N.E.C.
434
BARTENDERS
443
WAITERS/WAITRESSES ASSISTANTS
444
MISCELLANEOUS FOOD
PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS
449
MAIDS AND HOUSEMEN
453
JANITORS AND CLEANERS
454
ELEVATOR OPERATORS
455
PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS
464
USHERS
487
ANIMAL CARETAKERS, EXCEPT
FARM
495
FORESTRY WORKERS, EXCEPT
LOGGING
496
TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING
OCCUPATIONS
498
FISHERS
519
MACHINERY MAINTENANCE
OCCUPATIONS
547
SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS, N.E.C.
579
PAINTERS, CONSTRUCTION AND
MAINTENANCE
583
PAPERHANGERS
594
PAVING, SURFACING, AND
TAMPING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
Variable
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
CM
169
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
599
CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C.
1
616
MINING MACHINE OPERATORS
1
617
MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
1
679
BOOKBINDERS
1
704
LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
706
PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS
MACHINE OPERATORS
1
707
ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS
1
709
GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING,
AND POLISHING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
713
FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS
1
715
MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC,
STONE AND GLASS WORKING
MACHINE OPERATOR
1
717
FABRICATING MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
1
719
MOLDING AND CASTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
723
METAL PLATING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
725
MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND
PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
726
WOOD LATHE, ROUTING, AND
PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS
1
727
SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS
1
728
SHAPING AND JOINING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
729
NAILING AND TACKING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
733
MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING
MACHINE OPERATORS
1
734
PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS
1
737
MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING
MACHINE OPERATORS
1
738
WINDING AND TWISTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
743
TEXTILE CUTTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
744
TEXTILE SEWING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
745
SHOE MACHINE OPERATORS
1
747
PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS
1
748
LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING
MACHINE OPERATORS
1
749
MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
753
CEMENTING AND GLUING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
754
PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1

170
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
755
EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
756
MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
757
SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND
CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS
1
758
COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING
MACHINE OPERATORS
1
759
PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING
MACHINE OPERATORS
1
763
ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE
OPERATORS, FOOD
1
764
WASHING, CLEANING, AND
PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS
1
765
FOLDING MACHINE OPERATORS
1
766
FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN
OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD
1
768
CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
769
SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
1
111
MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
1
785
ASSEMBLERS
1
786
HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING
OCCUPATIONS
1
787
HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND
FORMING OCCUPATIONS
1
789
HAND PAINTING, COATING, AND
DECORATING OCCUPATIONS
1
793
HAND ENGRAVING AND PRINTING
OCCUPATIONS
1
794
HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING
OCCUPATIONS
1
795
MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING
OCCUPATIONS
1
796
PRODUCTION INSPECTORS,
CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS
1
798
PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND
WEIGHERS
1
799
GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC.
AGRICULTURAL
1
804
TRUCK DRIVERS, HEAVY
1
805
TRUCK DRIVERS, LIGHT
1
809
TAXICAB DRIVERS AND
CHAUFFEURS
1
813
PARKING LOT ATTENDANTS
1
814
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
1
848
HOIST AND WINCH OPERATORS
1
849
CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS
1
853
EXCAVATING AND LOADING
MACHINE OPERATORS
1

171
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
855
GRADER, DOZER, AND SCRAPER
OPERATORS
1
856
INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND TRACTOR
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
1
859
MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
1
864
HELPERS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
1
865
HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES
1
867
HELPERS, EXTRACTIVE
OCCUPATIONS
1
869
CONSTRUCTION LABORERS
1
873
PRODUCTION HELPERS
1
875
GARBAGE COLLECTORS
1
876
STEVEDORES
1
Sil
STOCK HANDLERS AND BAGGERS
1
878
MACHINE FEEDERS AND
OFFBEARERS
1
883
FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL
HANDLERS, N.E.C.
1
885
GARAGE AND SERVICE STATION
RELATED OCCUPATIONS
1
887
VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT
CLEANERS
1
888
HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS
1
889
LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
1

soc
179
186
007
047
058
014
083
084
044
075
053
045
046
048
054
066
069
078
085
176
178
258
553
555
055
059
077
049
015
167
023
195
557
086
006
APPENDIX I
SVP SCORE
Occupation Title
Variable
JUDGES
6.86
MUSICIANS AND COMPOSERS
5.82
FINANCIAL MANAGERS
5.25
PETROLEUM ENGINEERS
5.00
MARINE AND NAVAL ARCHITECTS
4.86
ADMINISTRATORS, EDUCATION AND
4.67
RELATED FIELDS
MEDICAL SCIENTISTS
4.67
PHYSICIANS
4.60
AEROSPACE ENGINEERS
4.44
GEOLOGISTS AND GEODESISTS
4.31
CIVIL ENGINEERS
4.15
METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS
4.00
ENGINEERS
MINING ENGINEERS
4.00
CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
4.00
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS
4.00
ACTUARIES
4.00
PHYSICISTS AND ASTRONOMERS
4.00
BIOLOGICAL AND LIFE
4.00
SCIENTISTS
DENTISTS
4.00
CLERGY
4.00
LAWYERS
4.00
SALES ENGINEERS
4.00
SUPERVISORS, BRICKMASONS,
4.00
STONEMASONS, AND TILE SETTERS
SUPERVISORS, ELECTRICIANS AND
4.00
POWER TRANSMISSION INSTALLERS
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
3.87
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS, N.E.C.
3.82
AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SCIENTISTS
3.82
NUCLEAR ENGINEERS
3.80
MANAGERS, MEDICINE AND HEALTH
3.78
PSYCHOLOGISTS
3.64
ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS
3.62
EDITORS AND REPORTERS
3.62
SUPERVISORS, PLUMBERS,
3.60
PIPEFITTERS AND STEAMFITTERS
VETERINARIANS
3.56
ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE
3.50
SERVICES
172

173
soc
Occupation
Variable
056
INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS
3.50
013
MANAGERS, MARKETING,
ADVERTISING, AND PUBLIC
RELATIONS
3.39
005
ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS,
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
3.38
007
DIETITIANS
3.38
057
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS
3.34
068
MATHEMATICAL SCIENTISTS,
N.E.C.
3.33
079
FORESTRY AND CONSERVATION
SCIENTISTS
3.25
227
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS
3.20
413
SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND
FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
3.20
008
PERSONNEL AND LABOR RELATIONS
MANAGERS
3.17
554
SUPERVISORS, CARPENTERS AND
RELATED WORKERS
3.13
017
POSTMASTERS AND MAIL
SUPERINTENDENTS
3.00
043
ARCHITECTS
3.00
073
CHEMISTS, EXCEPT BIOCHEMISTS
3.00
173
URBAN PLANNERS
3.00
193
DANCERS
3.00
215
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
TECHNICIANS
3.00
226
AIRPLANE PILOTS AND
NAVIGATORS
3.00
503
SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
2.98
163
COUNSELORS, EDUCATIONAL AND
VOCATIONAL
2.88
026
MANAGEMENT ANALYSTS
2.80
076
PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C.
2.80
556
SUPERVISORS, PAINTERS,
PAPERHANGERS AND PLASTERERS
2.75
025
OTHER FINANCIAL OFFICERS
2.71
414
SUPERVISORS, POLICE AND
DETECTIVES
2.68
009
PURCHASING MANAGERS
2.67
067
STATISTICIANS
2.67
096
PHARMACISTS
2.67
169
SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C.
2.65
185
DESIGNERS
2.61
063
SURVEYORS AND MAPPING
SCIENTISTS
2.60
016
MANAGERS, PROPERTIES AND REAL
ESTATE
2.59
187
ACTORS AND DIRECTORS
2.59
037
MANAGEMENT RELATED
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
2.50
558
SUPERVISORS, N.E.C.
2.50

174
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
637
MACHINISTS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
2.44
213
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
TECHNICIANS
2.43
028
PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS,
FARM PRODUCTS
2.40
613
SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE
OCCUPATIONS
2.39
183
AUTHORS
2.38
544
MILLWRIGHTS
2.38
656
PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL
MAKERS, WOOD
2.38
823
RAILROAD CONDUCTORS AND
YARDMASTER
2.38
165
ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS
2.32
027
PERSONNEL, TRAINING, AND
LABOR RELATIONS SPECIALISTS
2.29
188
PAINTERS, SCULPTORS,
CRAFT-ARTISTS, AND ARTIST
PRINTMAKERS
2.29
095
REGISTERED NURSES
2.27
645
PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL
MAKERS, METAL
2.26
177
RELIGIOUS WORKERS, N.E.C.
2.25
633
SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION
OCCUPATIONS
2.23
033
PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS,
N.E.C.
2.22
634
TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
2.22
255
SECURITIES AND FINANCIAL
SERVICES SALES OCCUPATIONS
2.21
646
LAY-OUT WORKERS
2.21
577
ELECTRICAL POWER INSTALLERS
AND REPAIRERS
2.20
229
COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS
2.17
233
TOOL PROGRAMMERS, NUMERICAL
CONTROL
2.17
678
DENTAL LABORATORY AND MEDICAL
APPLIANCE TECHNICIAN
2.17
695
POWER PLANT OPERATORS
2.17
675
HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS,
EXCEPT JEWELERS
2.15
217
DRAFTING OCCUPATIONS
2.13
305
SUPERVISORS, FINANCIAL
RECORDS PROCESSING
2.13
833
MARINE ENGINEERS
2.13
218
SURVEYING & MAPPING TECHNICIANS
2.09
828
SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES,
EXCEPT FISHING BOATS
2.07
234
LEGAL ASSISTANTS
2.05
534
HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING,
AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS
2.03

soc
575
018
024
064
065
074
087
088
106
155
166
184
206
214
304
497
507
508
527
529
543
566
584
643
653
667
735
036
164
433
228
216
423
199
649
175
Occupation Title
ELECTRICIANS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
FUNERAL DIRECTORS
UNDERWRITERS
COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS AND
SCIENTISTS
OPERATIONS AND SYSTEMS
RESEARCHERS AND ANALYSTS
ATMOSPHERIC AND SPACE
SCIENTISTS
OPTOMETRISTS
PODIATRISTS
PHYSICIANS ASSISTANTS
TEACHERS, PREKINDERGARTEN AND
KINDERGARTEN
ECONOMISTS
TECHNICAL WRITERS
RADIOLOGIC TECHNICIANS
INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
TECHNICIANS
SUPERVISORS, COMPUTER
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
CAPTAINS AND OTHER OFFICERS,
FISHING VESSELS
BUS, TRUCK, AND STATIONARY
ENGINE MECHANICS
AIRCRAFT ENGINE MECHANICS
TELEPHONE LINE INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRERS
TELEPHONE INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRERS
ELEVATOR INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRER
CARPET INSTALLERS
PLASTERERS
BOILERMAKERS
SHEET METAL WORKERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
TAILORS
PHOTOENGRAVERS AND
LITHOGRAPHERS
INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE
OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
LIBRARIANS
SUPERVISORS, FOOD PREPARATION
AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS
BROADCAST EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS,
N.E.C.
SHERIFFS, BAILIFFS, AND OTHER
LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS
ATHLETES
ENGRAVERS, METAL
Variable
2.03
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
1.99
1.94
1.91
1.89
1.88
1.87
1.87
1.87
1.86

176
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
736
TYPESETTERS AND COMPOSITORS
1.86
659
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
WOODWORKERS
1.86
174
SOCIAL WORKERS
1.83
563
BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS,
EXCEPT APPRENTICES
1.83
523
ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS,
COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL
EQUIPMENT
1.82
089
HEALTH DIAGNOSING
PRACTITIONERS, N.E.C.
1.80
415
SUPERVISORS, GUARDS
1.80
535
CAMERA, WATCH, AND MUSICAL
INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS
1.80
666
DRESSMAKERS
1.79
189
PHOTOGRAPHERS
1.76
197
PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALISTS
1.75
579
PAINTERS, CONSTRUCTION AND
MAINTENANCE
1.75
588
CONCRETE AND TERRAZZO
FINISHERS
1.75
676
PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT
WORKERS, AND CUTTERS
1.73
034
BUSINESS AND PROMOTION AGENTS
1.72
585
PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES
1.71
516
HEAVY EQUIPMENT MECHANICS
1.71
843
SUPERVISORS, MATERIAL MOVING
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
1.70
168
SOCIOLOGISTS
1.67
589
GLAZIERS
1.67
595
ROOFERS
1.67
658
FURNITURE AND WOOD FINISHERS
1.67
687
BAKERS
1.67
035
CONSTRUCTION INSPECTORS
1.67
203
CLINICAL LABORATORY
TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS
1.63
688
FOOD BATCHMAKERS
1.63
303
SUPERVISORS, GENERAL OFFICE
1.59
669
SHOE REPAIRERS
1.59
208
HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
1.58
418
POLICE AND DETECTIVES, PUBLIC
SERVICE
1.57
647
PRECIOUS STONES AND METALS
WORKERS(JEWELERS)
1.56
224
CHEMICAL TECHNICIANS
1.54
538
OFFICE MACHINE REPAIRERS
1.53
689
INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND
GRADERS
1.52
494
SUPERVISORS, FORESTRY AND
LOGGING WORKERS
1.50
657
CABINET MAKERS AND BENCH
CARPENTERS
1.50

177
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
Sil
OPTICAL GOODS WORKERS
1.48
644
PRECISION GRINDERS, FITTERS,
AND TOOL SHARPENERS
1.46
518
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY
REPAIRERS
1.46
679
BOOKBINDERS
1.42
673
APPAREL AND FABRIC
PATTERNMAKERS
1.41
737
MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING
MACHINE OPERATORS
1.41
223
BIOLOGICAL TECHNICIANS
1.39
565
TILE SETTERS, HARD AND SOFT
1.38
703
LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE
SET-UP OPERATORS
1.37
668
UPHOLSTERERS
1.36
655
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL
WORKERS
1.36
567
CARPENTERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
1.35
597
STRUCTURAL METAL WORKERS
1.35
863
SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS,
EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, AND
LABORERS,
1.34
436
COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER
1.34
536
LOCKSMITHS AND SAFE REPAIRERS
1.33
533
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND
ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
REPAIRERS
1.33
235
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
1.33
307
SUPERVISORS, DISTRIBUTION,
SCHEDULING AND ADJUSTING
CLERKS
1.31
175
RECREATION WORKERS
1.31
306
CHIEF COMMUNICATIONS
OPERATORS
1.30
448
SUPERVISORS, CLEANING AND
BUILDING SERVICE WORKERS
1.30
509
SMALL ENGINE REPAIRERS
1.29
636
PRECISION ASSEMBLERS, METAL
1.29
593
INSULATION WORKERS
1.29
225
SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
1.26
539
MECHANICAL CONTROLS AND VALVE
REPAIRERS
1.25
517
FARM EQUIPMENT MECHANICS
1.25
526
HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCE AND POWER
TOOL REPAIRERS
1.24
194
ARTISTS, PERFORMERS, AND
RELATED WORKERS, N.E.C.
1.23
456
SUPERVISORS, PERSONAL SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS
1.23
485
SUPERVISORS, RELATED
AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS
1.21
615
EXPLOSIVES WORKERS
1.19

soc
416
614
683
684
505
803
254
375
514
696
313
583
029
204
205
284
308
445
457
525
714
773
844
674
774
693
573
256
257
686
285
198
326
694
699
178
Occupation Title
FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE
PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
DRILLERS, OIL WELL
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLERS
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
WORKERS, N.E.C.
AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS, EXC.
APPRENTICES
SUPERVISORS, MOTOR VEHICLE
OPERATORS
REAL ESTATE SALES OCCUPATIONS
INSURANCE ADJUSTERS,
EXAMINERS, AND INVESTIGATORS
AUTOMOBILE BODY AND RELATED
REPAIRERS
STATIONARY ENGINEERS
SECRETARIES
PAPERHANGERS
BUYERS, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
TRADE EXCEPT FARM PRODUCTS
DENTAL HYGIENISTS
HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGISTS
AND TECHNICIANS
AUCTIONEERS
COMPUTER OPERATORS
DENTAL ASSISTANTS
BARBERS
DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT
REPAIR
NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE
OPERATOR
MOTION PICTURE PROJECTIONISTS
OPERATING ENGINEERS
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
APPAREL AND FABRIC WORKERS
PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE
OPERATORS
ADJUSTERS AND CALIBRATORS
DRYWALL INSTALLERS
ADVERTISING AND RELATED SALES
OCCUPATIONS
SALES OCCUPATIONS, OTHER
BUSINESS SERVICES
BUTCHERS AND MEAT CUTTERS
SALES SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS,
N.E.C.
ANNOUNCERS
CORRESPONDENCE CLERKS
WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT
PLANT OPERATORS
MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND
SYSTEM OPERATORS
Variable
1.19
1.17
1.17
1.16
1.14
1.13
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.09
1.01
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.99
0.94
0.93
0.90
0.88
0.88
0.84
0.83
0.83
0.81
0.81

179
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
427
PROTECTIVE SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
0.81
598
DRILLERS, EARTH
0.79
359
DISPATCHERS
0.78
458
HAIRDRESSERS AND
COSMETOLOGISTS
0.77
259
SALES REPRESENTATIVES,
MINING, MANUFACTURING, AND
WHOLESALE
0.76
783
WELDERS AND CUTTERS
0.76
207
LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES
0.75
253
INSURANCE SALES OCCUPATIONS
0.75
707
ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.74
417
FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS
0.70
547
SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS, N.E.C.
0.69
713
FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.68
739
KNITTING, LOOPING, TAPING,
AND WEAVING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.67
377
ELIGIBILITY CLERKS, SOCIAL
WELFARE
0.67
705
MILLING AND PLANING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.66
834
BRIDGE, LOCK, AND LIGHTHOUSE
TENDERS
0.65
373
EXPEDITERS
0.64
734
PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.63
363
PRODUCTION COORDINATORS
0.61
599
CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C.
0.61
717
FABRICATING MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
0.60
724
HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS
0.59
463
GUIDES
0.59
489
INSPECTORS, AGRICULTURAL
PRODUCTS
0.57
314
STENOGRAPHERS
0.55
824
LOCOMOTIVE OPERATING
OCCUPATIONS
0.55
488
GRADERS AND SORTERS,
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS
0.54
499
HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS
0.54
829
SAILORS AND DECKHANDS
0.51
715
MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC,
STONE AND GLASS WORKING
MACHINE OPERA
0.51
318
TRANSPORTATION TICKET AND
RESERVATION AGENTS
0.51
446
HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING
0.51
376
INVESTIGATORS AND ADJUSTERS,
EXCEPT INSURANCE
0.50
325
CLASSIFIED-AD CLERKS
0.50
616
MINING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.50

180
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
845
LONGSHORE EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
0.50
323
INFORMATION CLERKS, N.E.C.
0.49
426
GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC.
PUBLIC SERVICE
0.48
748
LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.47
353
COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
0.47
383
BANK TELLERS
0.45
709
GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING,
AND POLISHING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.45
343
COST AND RATE CLERKS
0.45
389
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
0.43
855
GRADER, DOZER, AND SCRAPER
OPERATORS
0.43
337
BOOKKEEPERS, ACCOUNTING AND
AUDITING CLERKS
0.42
849
CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS
0.42
793
HAND ENGRAVING AND PRINTING
OCCUPATIONS
0.42
385
DATA-ENTRY KEYERS
0.40
708
DRILLING AND BORING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.39
455
PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS
0.39
424
CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION
OFFICERS
0.39
853
EXCAVATING AND LOADING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.38
384
PROOFREADERS
0.38
316
INTERVIEWERS
0.37
327
ORDER CLERKS
0.35
859
MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
0.34
379
GENERAL OFFICE CLERKS
0.33
354
POSTAL CLERKS, EXC. MAIL
CARRIERS
0.33
826
RAIL VEHICLE OPERATORS,
N.E.C.
0.33
344
BILLING, POSTING, AND
CALCULATING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.33
706
PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.33
704
LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.33
723
METAL PLATING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.33
796
PRODUCTION INSPECTORS,
CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS
0.32
617
MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
0.32
339
BILLING CLERKS
0.31
336
RECORDS CLERKS
0.31

soc
349
727
315
797
335
468
719
364
467
386
726
309
319
328
594
439
763
369
338
784
848
757
498
487
317
366
365
496
768
787
756
348
766
755
808
181
Occupation Title
TELEGRAPHERS
SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS
TYPISTS
PRODUCTION TESTERS
FILE CLERKS
CHILD CARE WORKERS, EXCEPT
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD
MOLDING AND CASTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
TRAFFIC, SHIPPING, AND
RECEIVING CLERKS
WELFARE SERVICE AIDES
STATISTICAL CLERKS
WOOD LATHE, ROUTING, AND
PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS
PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS
RECEPTIONISTS
PERSONNEL CLERKS, EXCEPT
PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING
PAVING, SURFACING, AND
TAMPING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
KITCHEN WORKERS, FOOD
PREPARATION
ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE
OPERATORS, FOOD
SAMPLERS
PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING
CLERKS
SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS
HOIST AND WINCH OPERATORS
SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND
CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS
FISHERS
ANIMAL CARETAKERS, EXCEPT
FARM
HOTEL CLERKS
METER READERS
STOCK AND INVENTORY CLERKS
TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING
OCCUPATIONS
CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE
OPERATORS
HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND
FORMING OCCUPATIONS
MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE
OPERATORS
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN
OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD
EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE
OPERATORS
BUS DRIVERS
Variable
0.31
0.31
0.31
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.29
0.29
0.29
0.28
0.28
0.28
0.27
0.27
0.27
0.27
0.27
0.27
0.27
0.26
0.26
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.24
0.24
0.24
0.23
0.23
0.23
0.22
0.22
0.22

soc
765
733
283
277
111
725
864
378
374
759
486
329
435
345
447
519
459
275
786
865
276
437
794
356
789
825
769
469
347
745
804
182
Occupation Title
FOLDING MACHINE OPERATORS
MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING
MACHINE OPERATORS
DEMONSTRATORS, PROMOTERS AND
MODELS, SALES
STREET AND DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES
WORKERS
MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND
PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE
OPERATORS
HELPERS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
BILL AND ACCOUNT COLLECTORS
MATERIAL RECORDING,
SCHEDULING, AND DISTRIBUTING
CLERKS, N.E.C.
PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING
MACHINE OPERATORS
GROUNDSKEEPERS AND GARDENERS,
EXCEPT FARM
LIBRARY CLERKS
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES
DUPLICATING MACHINE OPERATORS
NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND
ATTENDANTS
MACHINERY MAINTENANCE
OCCUPATIONS
ATTENDANTS, AMUSEMENT AND
RECREATION FACILITIES
SALES COUNTER CLERKS
HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING
OCCUPATIONS
HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES
CASHIERS
SHORT-ORDER COOKS
HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING
OCCUPATIONS
MAIL CLERKS, EXC. POSTAL
SERVICE
HAND PAINTING, COATING, AND
DECORATING OCCUPATIONS
RAILROAD BRAKE, SIGNAL, AND
SWITCH OPERATORS
SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS,
N.E.C.
OFFICE MACHINE OPERATORS,
N.E.C.
SHOE MACHINE OPERATORS
TRUCK DRIVERS, HEAVY
Variable
0.22
0.22
0.21
0.21
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.16
0.16
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.14

soc
368
795
728
744
799
346
355
866
495
738
743
785
814
809
749
867
465
885
764
856
754
869
758
806
387
798
753
805
873
883
747
183
Occupation Title Variable
WEIGHERS, MEASURERS, AND 0.14
CHECKERS
MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING 0.13
OCCUPATIONS
SHAPING AND JOINING MACHINE 0.13
OPERATORS
TEXTILE SEWING MACHINE 0.13
OPERATORS
GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC. 0.13
AGRICULTURAL
MAIL PREPARING AND PAPER 0.13
HANDLING MACHINE OPERATORS
MAIL CARRIERS, POSTAL SERVICE 0.13
HELPERS, SURVEYOR 0.13
FORESTRY WORKERS, EXCEPT 0.12
LOGGING
WINDING AND TWISTING MACHINE 0.12
OPERATORS
TEXTILE CUTTING MACHINE 0.12
OPERATORS
ASSEMBLERS 0.11
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION 0.11
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
TAXICAB DRIVERS AND 0.11
CHAUFFEURS
MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE 0.11
OPERATORS
HELPERS, EXTRACTIVE 0.10
OCCUPATIONS
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION 0.10
ATTENDANTS
GARAGE AND SERVICE STATION 0.10
RELATED OCCUPATIONS
WASHING, CLEANING, AND 0.09
PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS
INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND TRACTOR 0.09
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE 0.09
OPERATORS
CONSTRUCTION LABORERS 0.09
COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING 0.08
MACHINE OPERATORS
DRIVER-SALES WORKERS 0.08
TEACHERS AIDES 0.08
PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND 0.08
WEIGHERS
CEMENTING AND GLUING MACHINE 0.07
OPERATORS
TRUCK DRIVERS, LIGHT 0.07
PRODUCTION HELPERS 0.07
FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL 0.05
HANDLERS, N.E.C.
PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS 0.05

soc
357
438
444
425
434
813
453
466
449
888
887
889
878
278
443
454
464
729
876
877
875
184
Occupation Title
MESSENGERS
FOOD COUNTER, FOUNTAIN AND
RELATED OCCUPATIONS
MISCELLANEOUS FOOD
PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS
CROSSING GUARDS
BARTENDERS
PARKING LOT ATTENDANTS
JANITORS AND CLEANERS
BAGGAGE PORTERS AND BELLHOPS
MAIDS AND HOUSEMEN
HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS
VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT
CLEANERS
LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
MACHINE FEEDERS AND
OFFBEARERS
NEWS VENDORS
WAITERS/WAITRESSES ASSISTANTS
ELEVATOR OPERATORS
USHERS
NAILING AND TACKING MACHINE
OPERATORS
STEVEDORES
STOCK HANDLERS AND BAGGERS
GARBAGE COLLECTORS
Variable
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

APPENDIX J
DEXTERITY
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
366
METER READERS
5.00
026
MANAGEMENT ANALYSTS
4.88
008
PERSONNEL AND LABOR RELATIONS
MANAGERS
4.63
179
JUDGES
4.50
197
PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALISTS
4.38
255
SECURITIES AND FINANCIAL
SERVICES SALES OCCUPATIONS
4.36
027
PERSONNEL, TRAINING, AND
LABOR RELATIONS SPECIALISTS
4.35
163
COUNSELORS, EDUCATIONAL AND
VOCATIONAL
4.31
025
OTHER FINANCIAL OFFICERS
4.30
111
RELIGIOUS WORKERS, N.E.C.
4.28
007
FINANCIAL MANAGERS
4.25
009
PURCHASING MANAGERS
4.25
017
POSTMASTERS AND MAIL
SUPERINTENDENTS
4.25
018
FUNERAL DIRECTORS
4.25
023
ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS
4.25
024
UNDERWRITERS
4.25
028
PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS,
FARM PRODUCTS
4.25
029
BUYERS, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
TRADE EXCEPT FARM PRODUCTS
4.25
033
PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS,
N.E.C.
4.25
034
BUSINESS AND PROMOTION AGENTS
4.25
037
MANAGEMENT RELATED
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
4.25
066
ACTUARIES
4.25
067
STATISTICIANS
4.25
166
ECONOMISTS
4.25
168
SOCIOLOGISTS
4.25
176
CLERGY
4.25
178
LAWYERS
4.25
183
AUTHORS
4.25
184
TECHNICAL WRITERS
4.25
198
ANNOUNCERS
4.25
205
HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGISTS
AND TECHNICIANS
4.25
254
REAL ESTATE SALES OCCUPATIONS
4.25
284
AUCTIONEERS
4.25
185

186
soc
Occupation
Variable
387
TEACHERS AIDES
4.25
415
SUPERVISORS, GUARDS
4.25
464
USHERS
4.25
013
MANAGERS, MARKETING,
ADVERTISING, AND PUBLIC
RELATIONS
4.24
014
ADMINISTRATORS, EDUCATION AND
RELATED FIELDS
4.22
257
SALES OCCUPATIONS, OTHER
BUSINESS SERVICES
4.21
174
SOCIAL WORKERS
4.20
005
ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS,
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
4.20
327
ORDER CLERKS
4.20
016
MANAGERS, PROPERTIES AND REAL
4.19

soc
207
308
417
226
424
413
427
426
577
418
615
227
447
423
497
494
095
353
553
597
199
496
414
416
617
828
APPENDIX K
STRESS
Occupation Title
Variable
LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES
1.00
COMPUTER OPERATORS
1.00
FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS
1.00
AIRPLANE PILOTS AND
NAVIGATORS
0.93
CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION
OFFICERS
0.83
SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND
FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
0.80
PROTECTIVE SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
0.80
GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC.
PUBLIC SERVICE
0.65
ELECTRICAL POWER INSTALLERS
AND REPAIRERS
0.64
POLICE AND DETECTIVES, PUBLIC
SERVICE
0.63
EXPLOSIVES WORKERS
0.63
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS
0.60
NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND
ATTENDANTS
0.57
SHERIFFS, BAILIFFS, AND OTHER
LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS
0.54
CAPTAINS AND OTHER OFFICERS,
FISHING VESSELS
0.50
SUPERVISORS, FORESTRY AND
LOGGING WORKERS
0.40
REGISTERED NURSES
0.33
COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
0.33
SUPERVISORS, BRICKMASONS,
STONEMASONS, AND TILE SETTERS
0.33
STRUCTURAL METAL WORKERS
0.33
ATHLETES
0.31
TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING
OCCUPATIONS
0.28
SUPERVISORS, POLICE AND
DETECTIVES
0.26
FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE
PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
0.25
MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
0.25
SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES,
EXCEPT FISHING BOATS
0.21
187

188
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
194
ARTISTS, PERFORMERS, AND
RELATED WORKERS, N.E.C.
0.20
208
HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
0.20
314
STENOGRAPHERS
0.20
465
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
ATTENDANTS
0.20
359
DISPATCHERS
0.18
499
HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS
0.14
177
RELIGIOUS WORKERS, N.E.C.
0.13
348
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
0.13
804
TRUCK DRIVERS, HEAVY
0.13
015
MANAGERS, MEDICINE AND HEALTH
0.11
613
SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE
OCCUPATIONS
0.11
446
HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING
0.11
498
FISHERS
0.11
463
GUIDES
0.10
567
CARPENTERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
0.10
558
SUPERVISORS, N.E.C.
0.09
616
MINING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.09
027
PERSONNEL, TRAINING, AND
LABOR RELATIONS SPECIALISTS
0.08
187
ACTORS AND DIRECTORS
0.08
849
CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS
0.08
006
ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE
SERVICES
0.07
563
BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS,
EXCEPT APPRENTICES
0.07
695
POWER PLANT OPERATORS
0.07
036
INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE
OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
0.06
086
VETERINARIANS
0.06
453
JANITORS AND CLEANERS
0.06
307
SUPERVISORS, DISTRIBUTION,
SCHEDULING AND ADJUSTING
CLERKS
0.05
276
CASHIERS
0.05
303
SUPERVISORS, GENERAL OFFICE
0.04
195
EDITORS AND REPORTERS
0.04
005
ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS,
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
0.04
084
PHYSICIANS
0.03
699
MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND
SYSTEM OPERATORS
0.03
533
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND
ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
REPAIRERS
0.03
754
PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.03
225
SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
0.03

189
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
547
SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS, N.E.C.
0.03
365
STOCK AND INVENTORY CLERKS
0.02
737
MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.02
523
ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS,
COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL
EQUIPMENT
0.02
599
CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C.
0.02
756
MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.01
859
MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
0.01
717
FABRICATING MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
0.01
766
FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN
OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD
0.01
689
INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND
GRADERS
0.01
715
MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC,
STONE AND GLASS WORKING
MACHINE OPERA
0.01
795
MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING
OCCUPATIONS
0.01
889
LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
0.01

soc
875
876
417
499
566
496
865
617
883
597
544
867
643
599
577
516
686
869
486
534
585
864
498
455
543
573
589
687
877
567
713
507
517
APPENDIX L
STRENGTH
Occupation Title
GARBAGE COLLECTORS
STEVEDORES
FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS
HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS
CARPET INSTALLERS
TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING
OCCUPATIONS
HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES
MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL
HANDLERS, N.E.C.
STRUCTURAL METAL WORKERS
MILLWRIGHTS
HELPERS, EXTRACTIVE
OCCUPATIONS
BOILERMAKERS
CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C.
ELECTRICAL POWER INSTALLERS
AND REPAIRERS
HEAVY EQUIPMENT MECHANICS
BUTCHERS AND MEAT CUTTERS
CONSTRUCTION LABORERS
GROUNDSKEEPERS AND GARDENERS,
EXCEPT FARM
HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING,
AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS
PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES
HELPERS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
FISHERS
PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS
ELEVATOR INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRER
DRYWALL INSTALLERS
GLAZIERS
BAKERS
STOCK HANDLERS AND BAGGERS
CARPENTERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS
BUS, TRUCK, AND STATIONARY
ENGINE MECHANICS
FARM EQUIPMENT MECHANICS
Variable
5.00
5.00
4.60
4.00
4.00
3.76
3.70
3.69
3.68
3.67
3.63
3.63
3.60
3.55
3.55
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.44
3.44
3.44
3.38
3.37
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.30
3.29
3.29
3.29
190

191
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
615
EXPLOSIVES WORKERS
3.25
495
FORESTRY WORKERS, EXCEPT
LOGGING
3.22
514
AUTOMOBILE BODY AND RELATED
REPAIRERS
3.21
873
PRODUCTION HELPERS
3.19
509
SMALL ENGINE REPAIRERS
3.17
563
BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS,
EXCEPT APPRENTICES
3.14
829
SAILORS AND DECKHANDS
3.14
848
HOIST AND WINCH OPERATORS
3.14
453
JANITORS AND CLEANERS
3.13
554
SUPERVISORS, CARPENTERS AND
RELATED WORKERS
3.13
756
MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE
OPERATORS
3.09
703
LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE
SET-UP OPERATORS
3.07
804
TRUCK DRIVERS, HEAVY
3.06
783
WELDERS AND CUTTERS
3.05
518
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY
REPAIRERS
3.05
193
DANCERS
3.00
207
LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES
3.00
355
MAIL CARRIERS, POSTAL SERVICE
3.00
413
SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND
FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
3.00
427
PROTECTIVE SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
3.00
447
NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND
ATTENDANTS
3.00
449
MAIDS AND HOUSEMEN
3.00
454
ELEVATOR OPERATORS
3.00
487
ANIMAL CARETAKERS, EXCEPT
FARM
3.00
508
AIRCRAFT ENGINE MECHANICS
3.00
526
HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCE AND POWER
TOOL REPAIRERS
3.00
584
PLASTERERS
3.00
588
CONCRETE AND TERRAZZO
FINISHERS
3.00
616 •
MINING MACHINE OPERATORS
3.00
634
TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
3.00
636
PRECISION ASSEMBLERS, METAL
3.00
637
MACHINISTS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
3.00
653
SHEET METAL WORKERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
3.00
657
CABINET MAKERS AND BENCH
CARPENTERS
3.00
773
MOTION PICTURE PROJECTIONISTS
3.00
806
DRIVER-SALES WORKERS
3.00

soc
833
844
845
866
719
724
887
706
519
436
505
446
575
856
547
565
655
668
725
878
553
598
466
885
644
768
859
855
733
726
766
192
Occupation Title
MARINE ENGINEERS
OPERATING ENGINEERS
LONGSHORE EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
HELPERS, SURVEYOR
MOLDING AND CASTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS
VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT
CLEANERS
PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS
MACHINE OPERATORS
MACHINERY MAINTENANCE
OCCUPATIONS
COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER
AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS, EXC.
APPRENTICES
HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING
ELECTRICIANS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND TRACTOR
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS, N.E.C.
TILE SETTERS, HARD AND SOFT
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL
WORKERS
UPHOLSTERERS
MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND
PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE
OPERATORS
MACHINE FEEDERS AND
OFFBEARERS
SUPERVISORS, BRICKMASONS,
STONEMASONS, AND TILE SETTERS
DRILLERS, EARTH
BAGGAGE PORTERS AND BELLHOPS
GARAGE AND SERVICE STATION
RELATED OCCUPATIONS
PRECISION GRINDERS, FITTERS,
AND TOOL SHARPENERS
CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE
OPERATORS
MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
GRADER, DOZER, AND SCRAPER
OPERATORS
MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING
MACHINE OPERATORS
WOOD LATHE, ROUTING, AND
PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS
FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN
OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD
Variable
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.98
2.96
2.96
2.94
2.92
2.92
2.91
2.89
2.89
2.89
2.88
2.88
2.87
2.86
2.85
2.84
2.83
2.83
2.80
2.80
2.79
2.79
2.78
2.78
2.78
2.78
2.78

193
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
707
ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS
2.77
675
HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS,
EXCEPT JEWELERS
2.76
727
SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS
2.75
443
WAITERS/WAITRESSES ASSISTANTS
2.75
646
LAY-OUT WORKERS
2.75
656
PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL
MAKERS, WOOD
2.75
728
SHAPING AND JOINING MACHINE
OPERATORS
2.75
758
COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING
MACHINE OPERATORS
2.74
715
MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC,
STONE AND GLASS WORKING
MACHINE OPERA
2.73
723
METAL PLATING MACHINE
OPERATORS
2.73
593
INSULATION WORKERS
2.71
743
TEXTILE CUTTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
2.68
738
WINDING AND TWISTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
2.67
485
SUPERVISORS, RELATED
AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS
2.67
527
TELEPHONE LINE INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRERS
2.67
536
LOCKSMITHS AND SAFE REPAIRERS
2.67
579
PAINTERS, CONSTRUCTION AND
MAINTENANCE
2.67
595
ROOFERS
2.67
614
DRILLERS, OIL WELL
2.67
696
STATIONARY ENGINEERS
2.67
808
BUS DRIVERS
2.67
809
TAXICAB DRIVERS AND
CHAUFFEURS
2.67
814
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
2.67
825
RAILROAD BRAKE, SIGNAL, AND
SWITCH OPERATORS
2.67
853
EXCAVATING AND LOADING
MACHINE OPERATORS
2.64
888
HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS
2.63
759
PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING
MACHINE OPERATORS
2.63
717
FABRICATING MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
2.61
523
ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS,
COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL
EQUIPMENT
2.61
889
LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
2.61
463
GUIDES
2.60
557
SUPERVISORS, PLUMBERS,
PIPEFITTERS AND STEAMFITTERS
2.60

soc
757
763
705
787
765
769
539
594
659
777
749
684
533
669
764
754
755
786
175
437
444
448
488
497
555
583
714
805
645
194
Occupation Title
Variable
SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND
CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS
2.60
ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE
OPERATORS, FOOD
2.60
MILLING AND PLANING MACHINE
OPERATORS
2.58
HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND
FORMING OCCUPATIONS
2.58
FOLDING MACHINE OPERATORS
2.58
SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
2.58
MECHANICAL CONTROLS AND VALVE
REPAIRERS
2.57
PAVING, SURFACING, AND
TAMPING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
2.57
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
WOODWORKERS
2.57
MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
2.56
MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE
OPERATORS
2.56
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
WORKERS, N.E.C.
2.55
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND
ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
REPAIRERS
2.55
SHOE REPAIRERS
2.55
WASHING, CLEANING, AND
PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS
2.54
PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE
OPERATORS
2.54
EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE
OPERATORS
2.53
HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING
OCCUPATIONS
2.51
RECREATION WORKERS
2.50
SHORT-ORDER COOKS
2.50
MISCELLANEOUS FOOD
PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS
2.50
SUPERVISORS, CLEANING AND
BUILDING SERVICE WORKERS
2.50
GRADERS AND SORTERS,
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS
2.50
CAPTAINS AND OTHER OFFICERS,
FISHING VESSELS
2.50
SUPERVISORS, ELECTRICIANS AND
POWER TRANSMISSION INSTALLERS
2.50
PAPERHANGERS
2.50
NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE
OPERATOR
2.50
TRUCK DRIVERS, LIGHT
2.50
PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL
MAKERS, METAL
2.47

195
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
676
PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT
WORKERS, AND CUTTERS
2.47
849
CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS
2.46
748
LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING
MACHINE OPERATORS
2.46
794
HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING
OCCUPATIONS
2.46
753
CEMENTING AND GLUING MACHINE
OPERATORS
2.45
784
SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS
2.44
737
MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING
MACHINE OPERATORS
2.43
734
PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS
2.43
795
MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING
OCCUPATIONS
2.42
708
DRILLING AND BORING MACHINE
OPERATORS
2.42
683
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLERS
2.42
558
SUPERVISORS, N.E.C.
2.41
235
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
2.40
095
REGISTERED NURSES
2.40
468
CHILD CARE WORKERS, EXCEPT
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD
2.40
489
INSPECTORS, AGRICULTURAL
PRODUCTS
2.40
695
POWER PLANT OPERATORS
2.40
416
FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE
PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
2.38
538
OFFICE MACHINE REPAIRERS
2.38
688
FOOD BATCHMAKERS
2.38
699
MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND
SYSTEM OPERATORS
2.38
739
KNITTING, LOOPING, TAPING,
AND WEAVING MACHINE OPERATORS
2.37
828
SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES,
EXCEPT FISHING BOATS
2.37
709
GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING,
AND POLISHING MACHINE
OPERATORS
2.36
439
KITCHEN WORKERS, FOOD
PREPARATION
2.36
223
BIOLOGICAL TECHNICIANS
2.33
345
DUPLICATING MACHINE OPERATORS
2.33
378
BILL AND ACCOUNT COLLECTORS
2.33
418
POLICE AND DETECTIVES, PUBLIC
SERVICE
2.33
613
SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE
OCCUPATIONS
2.33
785
ASSEMBLERS
2.32
199
ATHLETES
2.31
843
SUPERVISORS, MATERIAL MOVING
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
2.30

soc
503
704
863
433
694
736
535
798
469
208
459
689
674
089
206
435
465
729
834
633
086
747
789
673
346
424
735
797
079
196
Occupation Title
SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE
OPERATORS
SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS,
EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, AND
LABORERS,
SUPERVISORS, FOOD PREPARATION
AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS
WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT
PLANT OPERATORS
TYPESETTERS AND COMPOSITORS
CAMERA, WATCH, AND MUSICAL
INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS
PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND
WEIGHERS
PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS,
N.E.C.
HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
ATTENDANTS, AMUSEMENT AND
RECREATION FACILITIES
INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND
GRADERS
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
APPAREL AND FABRIC WORKERS
HEALTH DIAGNOSING
PRACTITIONERS, N.E.C.
RADIOLOGIC TECHNICIANS
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
ATTENDANTS
NAILING AND TACKING MACHINE
OPERATORS
BRIDGE, LOCK, AND LIGHTHOUSE
TENDERS
SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION
OCCUPATIONS
VETERINARIANS
PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS
HAND PAINTING, COATING, AND
DECORATING OCCUPATIONS
APPAREL AND FABRIC
PATTERNMAKERS
MAIL PREPARING AND PAPER
HANDLING MACHINE OPERATORS
CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION
OFFICERS
PHOTOENGRAVERS AND
LITHOGRAPHERS
PRODUCTION TESTERS
FORESTRY AND CONSERVATION
SCIENTISTS
Variable
2.30
2.28
2.27
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.24
2.24
2.24
2.23
2.23
2.22
2.21
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.19
2.19
2.18
2.18
2.17
2.17
2.15
2.14
2.13

197
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
369
SAMPLERS
2.13
347
OFFICE MACHINE OPERATORS,
N.E.C.
2.11
438
FOOD COUNTER, FOUNTAIN AND
RELATED OCCUPATIONS
2.11
824
LOCOMOTIVE OPERATING
OCCUPATIONS
2.11
365
STOCK AND INVENTORY CLERKS
2.10
077
AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD
SCIENTISTS
2.09
277
STREET AND DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES
WORKERS
2.08
368
WEIGHERS, MEASURERS, AND
CHECKERS
2.08
677
OPTICAL GOODS WORKERS
2.08
456
SUPERVISORS, PERSONAL SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS
2.07
084
PHYSICIANS
2.07
275
SALES COUNTER CLERKS
2.05
194
ARTISTS, PERFORMERS, AND
RELATED WORKERS, N.E.C.
2.05
364
TRAFFIC, SHIPPING, AND
RECEIVING CLERKS
2.03
744
TEXTILE SEWING MACHINE
OPERATORS
2.03
796
PRODUCTION INSPECTORS,
CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS
2.02
799
GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC.
AGRICULTURAL
2.02
018
FUNERAL DIRECTORS
2.00
029
BUYERS, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
TRADE EXCEPT FARM PRODUCTS
2.00
035
CONSTRUCTION INSPECTORS
2.00
046
MINING ENGINEERS
2.00
054
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS
2.00
063
SURVEYORS AND MAPPING
SCIENTISTS
2.00
073
CHEMISTS, EXCEPT BIOCHEMISTS
2.00
074
ATMOSPHERIC AND SPACE
SCIENTISTS
2.00
075
GEOLOGISTS AND GEODESISTS
2.00
085
DENTISTS
2.00
087
OPTOMETRISTS
2.00
088
PODIATRISTS
2.00
096
PHARMACISTS
2.00
106
PHYSICIANS ASSISTANTS
2.00
155
TEACHERS, PREKINDERGARTEN AND
KINDERGARTEN
2.00
176
CLERGY
2.00
189
PHOTOGRAPHERS
2.00
204
DENTAL HYGIENISTS
2.00
205
HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGISTS
AND TECHNICIANS
2.00

198
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
213
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
TECHNICIANS
2.00
214
INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
TECHNICIANS
2.00
215
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
TECHNICIANS
2.00
224
CHEMICAL TECHNICIANS
2.00
225
SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
2.00
254
REAL ESTATE SALES OCCUPATIONS
2.00
256
ADVERTISING AND RELATED SALES
OCCUPATIONS
2.00
257
SALES OCCUPATIONS, OTHER
BUSINESS SERVICES
2.00
258
SALES ENGINEERS
2.00
259
SALES REPRESENTATIVES,
MINING, MANUFACTURING, AND
WHOLESALE
2.00
278
NEWS VENDORS
2.00
284
AUCTIONEERS
2.00
304
SUPERVISORS, COMPUTER
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
2.00
308
COMPUTER OPERATORS
2.00
317
HOTEL CLERKS
2.00
329
LIBRARY CLERKS
2.00
356
MAIL CLERKS, EXC. POSTAL
SERVICE
2.00
366
METER READERS
2.00
373
EXPEDITERS
2.00
423
SHERIFFS, BAILIFFS, AND OTHER
LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS
2.00
425
CROSSING GUARDS
2.00
434
BARTENDERS
2.00
445
DENTAL ASSISTANTS
2.00
457
BARBERS
2.00
464
USHERS
2.00
467
WELFARE SERVICE AIDES
2.00
494
SUPERVISORS, FORESTRY AND
LOGGING WORKERS
2.00
525
DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT
REPAIR
2.00
529
TELEPHONE INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRERS
2.00
556
SUPERVISORS, PAINTERS,
PAPERHANGERS AND PLASTERERS
2.00
658
FURNITURE AND WOOD FINISHERS
2.00
666
DRESSMAKERS
2.00
667
TAILORS
2.00
679
BOOKBINDERS
2.00
745
SHOE MACHINE OPERATORS
2.00
813
PARKING LOT ATTENDANTS
2.00
826
RAIL VEHICLE OPERATORS, N.E.C.
2.00
426
GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC.
PUBLIC SERVICE
1.96

199
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
036
INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE
OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
1.94
078
BIOLOGICAL AND LIFE
SCIENTISTS
1.93
458
HAIRDRESSERS AND
COSMETOLOGISTS
1.91
649
ENGRAVERS, METAL
1.91
793
HAND ENGRAVING AND PRINTING
OCCUPATIONS
1.90
285
SALES SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS,
N.E.C.
1.88
693
ADJUSTERS AND CALIBRATORS
1.88
097
DIETITIANS
1.88
203
CLINICAL LABORATORY
TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS
1.88
335
FILE CLERKS
1.88
283
DEMONSTRATORS, PROMOTERS AND
MODELS, SALES
1.87
058
MARINE AND NAVAL ARCHITECTS
1.86
226
AIRPLANE PILOTS AND
NAVIGATORS
1.86
053
CIVIL ENGINEERS
1.85
083
MEDICAL SCIENTISTS
1.83
045
METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS
ENGINEERS
1.82
049
NUCLEAR ENGINEERS
1.80
076
PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C.
1.80
306
CHIEF COMMUNICATIONS
OPERATORS
1.80
309
PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS
1.80
415
SUPERVISORS, GUARDS
1.80
414
SUPERVISORS, POLICE AND
DETECTIVES
1.79
165
ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS
1.78
216
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
1.78
357
MESSENGERS
1.78
164
LIBRARIANS
1.76
774
PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE
OPERATORS
1.76
187
ACTORS AND DIRECTORS
1.75
803
SUPERVISORS, MOTOR VEHICLE
OPERATORS
1.75
823
RAILROAD CONDUCTORS AND
YARDMASTER
1.75
647
PRECIOUS STONES AND METALS
WORKERS(JEWELERS)
1.74
188
PAINTERS, SCULPTORS,
CRAFT-ARTISTS, AND ARTIST
PRINTMAKERS
1.74
374
MATERIAL RECORDING,
SCHEDULING, AND DISTRIBUTING
CLERKS, N.E.C.
1.74

200
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
307
SUPERVISORS, DISTRIBUTION,
SCHEDULING AND ADJUSTING
CLERKS
1.72
048
CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
1.71
016
MANAGERS, PROPERTIES AND REAL
ESTATE
1.71
043
ARCHITECTS
1.67
068
MATHEMATICAL SCIENTISTS,
N.E.C.
1.67
198
ANNOUNCERS
1.67
354
POSTAL CLERKS, EXC. MAIL
CARRIERS
1.67
055
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
ENGINEERS
1.65
186
MUSICIANS AND COMPOSERS
1.64
276
CASHIERS
1.64
028
PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS,
FARM PRODUCTS
1.60
383
BANK TELLERS
1.60
363
PRODUCTION COORDINATORS
1.56
044
AEROSPACE ENGINEERS
1.56
303
SUPERVISORS, GENERAL OFFICE
1.52
006
ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE
SERVICES
1.50
057
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS
1.50
069
PHYSICISTS AND ASTRONOMERS
1.50
173
URBAN PLANNERS
1.50
177
RELIGIOUS WORKERS, N.E.C.
1.50
197
PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALISTS
1.50
253
INSURANCE SALES OCCUPATIONS
1.50
678
DENTAL LABORATORY AND MEDICAL
APPLIANCE TECHNICIAN
1.50
185
DESIGNERS
1.46
174
SOCIAL WORKERS
1.46
379
GENERAL OFFICE CLERKS
1.44
255
SECURITIES AND FINANCIAL
SERVICES SALES OCCUPATIONS
1.43
005
ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS,
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
1.42
228
BROADCAST EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
1.41
389
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
1.41
227
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS
1.40
319
RECEPTIONISTS
1.40
375
INSURANCE ADJUSTERS,
EXAMINERS, AND INVESTIGATORS
1.40
047
PETROLEUM ENGINEERS
1.38
167
PSYCHOLOGISTS
1.36
218
SURVEYING AND MAPPING
TECHNICIANS
1.36
327
ORDER CLERKS
1.36
376
INVESTIGATORS AND ADJUSTERS,
EXCEPT INSURANCE
1.36

201
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
169
SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C.
1.35
013
MANAGERS, MARKETING,
ADVERTISING, AND PUBLIC
RELATIONS
1.33
015
MANAGERS, MEDICINE AND HEALTH
1.33
027
PERSONNEL, TRAINING, AND
LABOR RELATIONS SPECIALISTS
1.33
034
BUSINESS AND PROMOTION AGENTS
1.33
064
COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS AND
SCIENTISTS
1.33
229
COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS
1.33
326
CORRESPONDENCE CLERKS
1.33
377
ELIGIBILITY CLERKS, SOCIAL
WELFARE
1.33
386
STATISTICAL CLERKS
1.33
387
TEACHERS AIDES
1.33
056
INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS
1.29
059
ENGINEERS, N.E.C.
1.27
163
COUNSELORS, EDUCATIONAL AND
VOCATIONAL
1.25
305
SUPERVISORS, FINANCIAL
RECORDS PROCESSING
1.25
336
RECORDS CLERKS
1.25
348
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
1.25
384
PROOFREADERS
1.25
217
DRAFTING OCCUPATIONS
1.23
033
PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS,
NEC 1.22
318
TRANSPORTATION TICKET AND
RESERVATION AGENTS
1.22
316
INTERVIEWERS
1.20
359
DISPATCHERS
1.18
344
BILLING, POSTING, AND
CALCULATING MACHINE OPERATORS
1.17
353
COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
1.17
323
INFORMATION CLERKS, N.E.C.
1.15
014
ADMINISTRATORS, EDUCATION AND
RELATED FIELDS
1.15
313
SECRETARIES
1.14
037
MANAGEMENT RELATED
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
1.13
343
COST AND RATE CLERKS
1.13
337
BOOKKEEPERS, ACCOUNTING AND
AUDITING CLERKS
1.12
026
MANAGEMENT ANALYSTS
1.10
234
LEGAL ASSISTANTS
1.10
178
LAWYERS
1.08
023
ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS
1.08
385
DATA-ENTRY KEYERS
1.06
025
OTHER FINANCIAL OFFICERS
1.05
007
FINANCIAL MANAGERS
1.00
008
PERSONNEL AND LABOR RELATIONS
MANAGERS
1.00

soc
009
017
024
065
066
067
166
168
179
183
184
195
233
314
315
325
328
338
339
349
202
Occupation Title
PURCHASING MANAGERS
POSTMASTERS AND MAIL
SUPERINTENDENTS
UNDERWRITERS
OPERATIONS AND SYSTEMS
RESEARCHERS AND ANALYSTS
ACTUARIES
STATISTICIANS
ECONOMISTS
SOCIOLOGISTS
JUDGES
AUTHORS
TECHNICAL WRITERS
EDITORS AND REPORTERS
TOOL PROGRAMMERS, NUMERICAL
CONTROL
STENOGRAPHERS
TYPISTS
CLASSIFIED-AD CLERKS
PERSONNEL CLERKS, EXCEPT
PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING
PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING
CLERKS
BILLING CLERKS
TELEGRAPHERS
Variable
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

APPENDIX M
EXTREME COLD
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
439
KITCHEN WORKERS, FOOD
PREPARATION
0.2727
686
BUTCHERS AND MEAT CUTTERS
0.2500
076
PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C.
0.2000
416
FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE
PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
0.1250
867
HELPERS, EXTRACTIVE
OCCUPATIONS
0.1250
534
HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING,
AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS
0.1111
463
GUIDES
0.1000
883
FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL
HANDLERS, N.E.C.
0.0909
436
COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER
0.0800
075
GEOLOGISTS AND GEODESISTS
0.0769
713
FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.0588
498
FISHERS
0.0526
828
SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES,
EXCEPT FISHING BOATS
0.0526
798
PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND
WEIGHERS
0.0400
887
VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT
CLEANERS
0.0370
185
DESIGNERS
0.0357
888
HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS
0.0323
225
SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
0.0256
757
SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND
CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.0247
786
HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING
OCCUPATIONS
0.0235
864
HELPERS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
0.0200
005
ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS,
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
0.0175
889
LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
0.0129
518
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY
REPAIRERS
0.0122
756
MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.0094
633
SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION
OCCUPATIONS
0.0088
547
SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS, N.E.C.
0.0085
203

204
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
797
PRODUCTION TESTERS
0.0081
689
INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND
GRADERS
0.0079
111
MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
0.0078
769
SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.0068
795
MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING
OCCUPATIONS
0.0056
873
PRODUCTION HELPERS
0.0049
796
PRODUCTION INSPECTORS,
CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS
0.0048
878
MACHINE FEEDERS AND
OFFBEARERS
0.0034
785
ASSEMBLERS
0.0014

APPENDIX N
EXTREME HEAT
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
417
FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS
1.0000
724
HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS
0.6429
696
STATIONARY ENGINEERS
0.5833
436
COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER
0.5600
713
FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.5294
437
SHORT-ORDER COOKS
0.5000
833
MARINE ENGINEERS
0.5000
763
ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE
OPERATORS, FOOD
0.4286
413
SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND
FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
0.4000
719
MOLDING AND CASTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.3846
766
FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN
OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD
0.3417
455
PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS
0.3333
856
INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND TRACTOR
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
0.3333
563
BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS,
EXCEPT APPRENTICES
0.2857
707
ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.2581
748
LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.2500
747
PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.2222
699
MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND
SYSTEM OPERATORS
0.2188
076
PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C.
0.2000
444
MISCELLANEOUS FOOD
PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS
0.2000
643
BOILERMAKERS
0.2000
723
METAL PLATING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.2000
433
SUPERVISORS, FOOD PREPARATION
AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS
0.1786
873
PRODUCTION HELPERS
0.1765
784
SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS
0.1667
755
EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.1545
593
INSULATION WORKERS
0.1429
655
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL
WORKERS
0.1333
676
PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT
WORKERS, AND CUTTERS
0.1333
205

206
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
519
MACHINERY MAINTENANCE
OCCUPATIONS
0.1316
758
COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.1304
787
HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND
FORMING OCCUPATIONS
0.1279
416
FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE
PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
0.1250
675
HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS,
EXCEPT JEWELERS
0.1212
783
WELDERS AND CUTTERS
0.1053
427
PROTECTIVE SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
0.1000
463
GUIDES
0.1000
759
PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.0938
439
KITCHEN WORKERS, FOOD
PREPARATION
0.0909
725
MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND
PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.0909
863
SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS,
EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, AND
LABORERS,
0.0909
469
PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS,
N.E.C.
0.0870
865
HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES
0.0870
777
MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
0.0816
795
MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING
OCCUPATIONS
0.0791
075
GEOLOGISTS AND GEODESISTS
0.0769
006
ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE
SERVICES
0.0714
715
MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC,
STONE AND GLASS WORKING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.0714
633
SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION
OCCUPATIONS
0.0682
883
FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL
HANDLERS, N.E.C.
0.0682
757
SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND
CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.0671
749
MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.0660
518
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY REPAIRERS
0.0610
533
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND
ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
REPAIRERS
0.0606
645
PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL
MAKERS, METAL
0.0588
739
KNITTING, LOOPING, TAPING,
AND WEAVING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.0571

soc
878
374
503
756
889
426
764
728
798
864
887
199
717
689
733
796
797
235
647
753
794
706
768
363
005
599
547
036
738
207
Occupation Title
Variable
MACHINE FEEDERS AND
0.0537
OFFBEARERS
MATERIAL RECORDING,
0.0526
SCHEDULING, AND DISTRIBUTING
CLERKS, N.E.C.
SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND
0.0526
REPAIRERS
MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE
0.0516
OPERATORS
LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
0.0515
GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC.
0.0435
PUBLIC SERVICE
WASHING, CLEANING, AND
0.0435
PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS
SHAPING AND JOINING MACHINE
0.0417
OPERATORS
PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND
0.0400
WEIGHERS
HELPERS, MECHANICS AND
0.0400
REPAIRERS
VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT
0.0370
CLEANERS
ATHLETES
0.0345
FABRICATING MACHINE
0.0323
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND
0.0317
GRADERS
MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING
0.0306
MACHINE OPERATORS
PRODUCTION INSPECTORS,
0.0266
CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS
PRODUCTION TESTERS
0.0242
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
0.0238
PRECIOUS STONES AND METALS
0.0238
WORKERS(JEWELERS)
CEMENTING AND GLUING MACHINE
0.0238
OPERATORS
HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING
0.0217
OCCUPATIONS
PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS
0.0213
MACHINE OPERATORS
CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE
0.0201
OPERATORS
PRODUCTION COORDINATORS
0.0182
ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS,
0.0175
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C.
0.0172
SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND
0.0169
REPAIRERS, N.E.C.
INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE
0.0156
OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
WINDING AND TWISTING MACHINE
0.0156
OPERATORS

208
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
859
MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
0.0137
259
SALES REPRESENTATIVES,
MINING, MANUFACTURING, AND
WHOLESALE
0.0120
709
GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING,
AND POLISHING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.0118
785
ASSEMBLERS
0.0114
799
GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC.
AGRICULTURAL
0.0095
769
SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.0068

APPENDIX O
EXTREME WET
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
497
CAPTAINS AND OTHER OFFICERS,
FISHING VESSELS
1.0000
498
FISHERS
0.9474
588
CONCRETE AND TERRAZZO
FINISHERS
0.8333
417
FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS
0.8000
584
PLASTERERS
0.7500
686
BUTCHERS AND MEAT CUTTERS
0.7500
495
FORESTRY WORKERS, EXCEPT
LOGGING
0.6667
748
LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.5833
437
SHORT-ORDER COOKS
0.5000
833
MARINE ENGINEERS
0.5000
887
VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT
CLEANERS
0.4815
499
HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS
0.4286
696
STATIONARY ENGINEERS
0.4167
046
MINING ENGINEERS
0.4000
764
WASHING, CLEANING, AND
PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.3913
453
JANITORS AND CLEANERS
0.3750
488
GRADERS AND SORTERS,
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS
0.3750
694
WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT
PLANT OPERATORS
0.3750
598
DRILLERS, EARTH
0.3333
747
PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.3333
517
FARM EQUIPMENT MECHANICS
0.2857
829
SAILORS AND DECKHANDS
0.2857
863
SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS,
EQUIPMENT CLEANERS & LABORERS
0.2727
828
SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES,
EXCEPT FISHING BOATS
0.2632
175
RECREATION WORKERS
0.2500
867
HELPERS, EXTRACTIVE
OCCUPATIONS
0.2500
613
SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE
OCCUPATIONS
0.2222
723
METAL PLATING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.2182
076
PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C.
0.2000
413
SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND
FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
0.2000
209

soc
468
494
557
834
757
749
853
449
455
585
786
436
496
725
787
889
447
507
539
563
768
223
865
111
735
544
615
617
688
873
756
438
210
Occupation Title
CHILD CARE WORKERS, EXCEPT
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD
SUPERVISORS, FORESTRY AND
LOGGING WORKERS
SUPERVISORS, PLUMBERS,
PIPEFITTERS AND STEAMFITTERS
BRIDGE, LOCK, AND LIGHTHOUSE
TENDERS
SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND
CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS
MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE
OPERATORS
EXCAVATING AND LOADING
MACHINE OPERATORS
MAIDS AND HOUSEMEN
PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS
PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES
HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING
OCCUPATIONS
COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER
TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING
OCCUPATIONS
MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND
PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE
OPERATORS
HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND
FORMING OCCUPATIONS
LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND
ATTENDANTS
BUS, TRUCK, AND STATIONARY
ENGINE MECHANICS
MECHANICAL CONTROLS AND VALVE
REPAIRERS
BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS,
EXCEPT APPRENTICES
CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE
OPERATORS
BIOLOGICAL TECHNICIANS
HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES
MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
PHOTOENGRAVERS AND
LITHOGRAPHERS
MILLWRIGHTS
EXPLOSIVES WORKERS
MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
FOOD BATCHMAKERS
PRODUCTION HELPERS
MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE
OPERATORS
FOOD COUNTER, FOUNTAIN AND
RELATED OCCUPATIONS
Variable
0.2000
0.2000
0.2000
0.2000
0.1979
0.1887
0.1818
0.1667
0.1667
0.1667
0.1647
0.1600
0.1600
0.1515
0.1512
0.1469
0.1429
0.1429
0.1429
0.1429
0.1342
0.1333
0.1304
0.1282
0.1277
0.1250
0.1250
0.1250
0.1250
0.1176
0.1174
0.1111

soc
487
433
446
519
599
758
427
444
463
676
859
763
878
616
469
799
795
755
864
075
849
194
594
774
364
883
754
655
737
707
888
211
Occupation Title
Variable
ANIMAL CARETAKERS, EXCEPT
O.llll
FARM
SUPERVISORS, FOOD PREPARATION
0.1071
AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS
HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING
0.1053
MACHINERY MAINTENANCE
0.1053
OCCUPATIONS
CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C.
0.1034
COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING
0.1014
MACHINE OPERATORS
PROTECTIVE SERVICE
0.1000
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
MISCELLANEOUS FOOD
0.1000
PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS
GUIDES
0.1000
PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT
0.1000
WORKERS, AND CUTTERS
MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING
0.0959
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE
0.0952
OPERATORS, FOOD
MACHINE FEEDERS AND
0.0940
OFFBEARERS
MINING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.0909
PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS,
NEC 0.0870
GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC.
0.0857
AGRICULTURAL
MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING
0.0847
OCCUPATIONS
EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE
0.0818
OPERATORS
HELPERS, MECHANICS AND
0.0800
REPAIRERS
GEOLOGISTS AND GEODESISTS
0.0769
CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS
0.0769
ARTISTS, PERFORMERS, AND
0.0750
RELATED WORKERS, N.E.C.
PAVING, SURFACING, AND
0.0714
TAMPING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE
0.0694
OPERATORS
TRAFFIC, SHIPPING, AND
0.0690
RECEIVING CLERKS
FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL
0.0682
HANDLERS, N.E.C.
PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE
0.0676
OPERATORS
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL
0.0667
WORKERS
MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING
0.0652
MACHINE OPERATORS
ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.0645
HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS
0.0645

212
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
699
MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND
SYSTEM OPERATORS
0.0625
759
PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.0625
769
SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.0616
518
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY
REPAIRERS
0.0610
633
SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION
OCCUPATIONS
0.0606
798
PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND
WEIGHERS
0.0600
693
ADJUSTERS AND CALIBRATORS
0.0588
713
FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.0588
739
KNITTING, LOOPING, TAPING,
AND WEAVING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.0571
784
SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS
0.0556
275
SALES COUNTER CLERKS
0.0526
225
SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
0.0513
547
SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS, N.E.C.
0.0508
235
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
0.0476
558
SUPERVISORS, N.E.C.
0.0455
459
ATTENDANTS, AMUSEMENT AND
RECREATION FACILITIES
0.0385
789
HAND PAINTING, COATING, AND
DECORATING OCCUPATIONS
0.0366
185
DESIGNERS
0.0357
724
HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS
0.0357
709
GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING,
AND POLISHING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.0353
503
SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
0.0351
084
PHYSICIANS
0.0333
567
CARPENTERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
0.0333
766
FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN
OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD
0.0333
797
PRODUCTION TESTERS
0.0323
036
INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE
OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
0.0313
675
HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS,
EXCEPT JEWELERS
0.0303
783
WELDERS AND CUTTERS
0.0263
365
STOCK AND INVENTORY CLERKS
0.0244
689
INSPECTORS, TESTERS & GRADERS
0.0238
794
HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING
OCCUPATIONS
0.0217
303
SUPERVISORS, GENERAL OFFICE
0.0208
005
ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS,
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
0.0175

213
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
796
PRODUCTION INSPECTORS,
CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS
0.0169
785
ASSEMBLERS
0.0157
715
MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC,
STONE AND GLASS WORKING
MACHINE OPERA
0.0130
259
SALES REPRESENTATIVES,
MINING, MANUFACTURING, AND
WHOLESALE
0.0120
733
MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.0102

APPENDIX P
EXTREME NOISE
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
226
AIRPLANE PILOTS & NAVIGATORS
1.00
417
FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS
1.00
598
DRILLERS, EARTH
1.00
643
BOILERMAKERS
1.00
653
SHEET METAL WORKERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
1.00
667
TAILORS
1.00
844
OPERATING ENGINEERS
1.00
616
MINING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.91
824
LOCOMOTIVE OPERATING
OCCUPATIONS
0.89
713
FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.88
707
ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.84
614
DRILLERS, OIL WELL
0.83
853
EXCAVATING AND LOADING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.82
613
SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE
OCCUPATIONS
0.78
855
GRADER, DOZER, AND SCRAPER
OPERATORS
0.78
739
KNITTING, LOOPING, TAPING,
AND WEAVING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.77
849
CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS
0.77
727
SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.75
544
MILLWRIGHTS
0.75
696
STATIONARY ENGINEERS
0.75
714
NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE
OPERATOR
0.75
745
SHOE MACHINE OPERATORS
0.75
519
MACHINERY MAINTENANCE
OCCUPATIONS
0.74
744
TEXTILE SEWING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.73
738
WINDING AND TWISTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.72
728
SHAPING AND JOINING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.71
726
WOOD LATHE, ROUTING, AND
PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.70
589
GLAZIERS
0.67
856
INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND TRACTOR
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
0.67
869
CONSTRUCTION LABORERS
0.67
214

soc
877
594
717
783
615
518
706
557
729
558
848
768
509
733
765
517
749
743
496
715
304
508
554
555
634
656
657
694
708
823
825
215
Occupation Title
Variable
STOCK HANDLERS AND BAGGERS 0.67
PAVING, SURFACING, AND 0.64
TAMPING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
FABRICATING MACHINE 0.63
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
WELDERS AND CUTTERS 0.63
EXPLOSIVES WORKERS 0.63
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY 0.62
REPAIRERS
PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS 0.62
MACHINE OPERATORS
SUPERVISORS, PLUMBERS, 0.60
PIPEFITTERS AND STEAMFITTERS
NAILING AND TACKING MACHINE 0.60
OPERATORS
SUPERVISORS, N.E.C. 0.59
HOIST AND WINCH OPERATORS 0.59
CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE 0.58
OPERATORS
SMALL ENGINE REPAIRERS 0.58
MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING 0.58
MACHINE OPERATORS
FOLDING MACHINE OPERATORS 0.58
FARM EQUIPMENT MECHANICS 0.57
MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE 0.56
OPERATORS
TEXTILE CUTTING MACHINE 0.55
OPERATORS
TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING 0.52
OCCUPATIONS
MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC, 0.51
STONE AND GLASS WORKING
MACHINE OPERA
SUPERVISORS, COMPUTER 0.50
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
AIRCRAFT ENGINE MECHANICS 0.50
SUPERVISORS, CARPENTERS AND 0.50
RELATED WORKERS
SUPERVISORS, ELECTRICIANS AND 0.50
POWER TRANSMISSION INSTALLERS
TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT 0.50
APPRENTICES
PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL 0.50
MAKERS, WOOD
CABINET MAKERS & BENCH CARPENTERS 0.50
WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT 0.50
PLANT OPERATORS
DRILLING AND BORING MACHINE 0.50
OPERATORS
RAILROAD CONDUCTORS AND 0.50
YARDMASTER
RAILROAD BRAKE, SIGNAL, AND 0.50
SWITCH OPERATORS

soc
833
843
859
737
699
567
655
695
703
486
585
666
503
617
804
769
873
599
734
507
514
563
593
644
633
645
413
465
466
468
494
516
719
216
Occupation Title
MARINE ENGINEERS
SUPERVISORS, MATERIAL MOVING
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING
MACHINE OPERATORS
MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND
SYSTEM OPERATORS
CARPENTERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL
WORKERS
POWER PLANT OPERATORS
LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE
SET-UP OPERATORS
GROUNDSKEEPERS AND GARDENERS,
EXCEPT FARM
PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES
DRESSMAKERS
SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
TRUCK DRIVERS, HEAVY
SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
PRODUCTION HELPERS
CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C.
PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS
BUS, TRUCK, AND STATIONARY
ENGINE MECHANICS
AUTOMOBILE BODY AND RELATED
REPAIRERS
BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS,
EXCEPT APPRENTICES
INSULATION WORKERS
PRECISION GRINDERS, FITTERS,
AND TOOL SHARPENERS
SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION
OCCUPATIONS
PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL
MAKERS, METAL
SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND
FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
ATTENDANTS
BAGGAGE PORTERS AND BELLHOPS
CHILD CARE WORKERS, EXCEPT
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD
SUPERVISORS, FORESTRY AND
LOGGING WORKERS
HEAVY EQUIPMENT MECHANICS
MOLDING AND CASTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
Variable
0.50
0.50
0.48
0.48
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.41
0.41
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40

soc
675
883
755
864
704
867
777
887
878
705
753
756
636
865
757
425
543
553
573
588
597
637
646
658
679
808
814
794
505
747
723
758
217
Occupation Title
HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS,
EXCEPT JEWELERS
FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL
HANDLERS, N.E.C.
EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE
OPERATORS
HELPERS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE
OPERATORS
HELPERS, EXTRACTIVE
OCCUPATIONS
MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT
CLEANERS
MACHINE FEEDERS AND
OFFBEARERS
MILLING AND PLANING MACHINE
OPERATORS
CEMENTING AND GLUING MACHINE
OPERATORS
MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE
OPERATORS
PRECISION ASSEMBLERS, METAL
HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES
SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND
CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS
CROSSING GUARDS
ELEVATOR INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRER
SUPERVISORS, BRICKMASONS,
STONEMASONS, AND TILE SETTERS
DRYWALL INSTALLERS
CONCRETE AND TERRAZZO
FINISHERS
STRUCTURAL METAL WORKERS
MACHINISTS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES
LAY-OUT WORKERS
FURNITURE AND WOOD FINISHERS
BOOKBINDERS
BUS DRIVERS
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING
OCCUPATIONS
AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS, EXC.
APPRENTICES
PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS
METAL PLATING MACHINE
OPERATORS
COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING
MACHINE OPERATORS
Variable
0.39
0.39
0.38
0.38
0.38
0.38
0.37
0.37
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.35
0.35
0.34
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.30
0.30
0.29
0.29

soc
724
754
709
035
676
766
736
748
759
826
689
798
763
534
764
456
659
797
834
885
795
889
547
669
673
725
799
796
218
Occupation Title
HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS
PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE
OPERATORS
GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING,
AND POLISHING MACHINE
OPERATORS
CONSTRUCTION INSPECTORS
PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT
WORKERS, AND CUTTERS
FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN
OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD
TYPESETTERS AND COMPOSITORS
LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING
MACHINE OPERATORS
PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING
MACHINE OPERATORS
RAIL VEHICLE OPERATORS,
N.E.C.
INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND
GRADERS
PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND
WEIGHERS
ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE
OPERATORS, FOOD
HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING,
AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS
WASHING, CLEANING, AND
PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS
SUPERVISORS, PERSONAL SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
WOODWORKERS
PRODUCTION TESTERS
BRIDGE, LOCK, AND LIGHTHOUSE
TENDERS
GARAGE AND SERVICE STATION
RELATED OCCUPATIONS
MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING
OCCUPATIONS
LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS, N.E.C.
SHOE REPAIRERS
APPAREL AND FABRIC
PATTERNMAKERS
MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND
PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE
OPERATORS
GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC.
AGRICULTURAL
PRODUCTION INSPECTORS,
CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS
Variable
0.29
0.28
0.28
0.27
0.27
0.27
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.24
0.24
0.22
0.22
0.21
0.21
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18

219
soc
Occupation Title
Variabl
787
HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND
FORMING OCCUPATIONS
0.17
346
MAIL PREPARING AND PAPER
HANDLING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.17
455
PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS
0.17
784
SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS
0.17
805
TRUCK DRIVERS, LIGHT
0.17
785
ASSEMBLERS
0.16
006
ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE
SERVICES
0.14
213
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
TECHNICIANS
0.14
255
SECURITIES AND FINANCIAL
SERVICES SALES OCCUPATIONS
0.14
433
SUPERVISORS, FOOD PREPARATION
AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS
0.14
668
UPHOLSTERERS
0.14
829
SAILORS AND DECKHANDS
0.14
786
HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING
OCCUPATIONS
0.13
225
SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
0.13
047
PETROLEUM ENGINEERS
0.13
348
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
0.13
369
SAMPLERS
0.13
416
FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE
PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
0.13
453
JANITORS AND CLEANERS
0.13
488
GRADERS AND SORTERS,
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS
0.13
565
TILE SETTERS, HARD AND SOFT
0.13
688
FOOD BATCHMAKERS
0.13
436
COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER
0.12
165
ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS
0.11
318
TRANSPORTATION TICKET AND
RESERVATION AGENTS
0.11
347
OFFICE MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C.
0.11
438
FOOD COUNTER, FOUNTAIN AND
RELATED OCCUPATIONS
0.11
495
FORESTRY WORKERS, EXCEPT LOGGING
0.11
535
CAMERA, WATCH, AND MUSICAL
INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS
0.11
575
ELECTRICIANS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
0.11
363
PRODUCTION COORDINATORS
0.11
735
PHOTOENGRAVERS & LITHOGRAPHERS
0.11
684
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
WORKERS, N.E.C.
0.11
828
SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES,
EXCEPT FISHING BOATS
0.11
199
ATHLETES
0.10
523
ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS,
COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL
EQUIPMENT
0.10

220
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
208
HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
0.10
258
SALES ENGINEERS
0.10
356
MAIL CLERKS, EXC. POSTAL
SERVICE
0.10
373
EXPEDITERS
0.10
427
PROTECTIVE SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
0.10
435
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES
0.10
444
MISCELLANEOUS FOOD
PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS
0.10
793
HAND ENGRAVING AND PRINTING
OCCUPATIONS
0.10
539
MECHANICAL CONTROLS AND VALVE
REPAIRERS
0.10
674
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
APPAREL AND FABRIC WORKERS
0.09
059
ENGINEERS, N.E.C.
0.09
186
MUSICIANS AND COMPOSERS
0.09
439
KITCHEN WORKERS, FOOD
PREPARATION
0.09
863
SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS,
EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, AND
LABORERS,
0.09
469
PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS,
N.E.C.
0.09
189
PHOTOGRAPHERS
0.08
277
STREET AND DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES
WORKERS
0.08
368
WEIGHERS, MEASURERS, AND
CHECKERS
0.08
485
SUPERVISORS, RELATED
AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS
0.08
683
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLERS
0.08
036
INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE
OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
0.08
459
ATTENDANTS, AMUSEMENT AND
RECREATION FACILITIES
0.08
235
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
0.07
789
HAND PAINTING, COATING, AND
DECORATING OCCUPATIONS
0.06
533
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND
ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
REPAIRERS
0.06
344
BILLING, POSTING, AND
CALCULATING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.06
374
MATERIAL RECORDING,
SCHEDULING, AND DISTRIBUTING
CLERKS, N.E.C.
0.05
446
HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING
0.05
498
FISHERS
0.05
365
STOCK AND INVENTORY CLERKS
0.05

221
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
888
HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS
0.05
647
PRECIOUS STONES AND METALS
WORKERS(JEWELERS)
0.05
359
DISPATCHERS
0.05
426
GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC.
PUBLIC SERVICE
0.04
303
SUPERVISORS, GENERAL OFFICE
0.04
418
POLICE AND DETECTIVES, PUBLIC
SERVICE
0.04
lili
PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.04
677
OPTICAL GOODS WORKERS
0.04
364
TRAFFIC, SHIPPING, AND
RECEIVING CLERKS
0.03
389
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
0.03
194
ARTISTS, PERFORMERS, AND
RELATED WORKERS, N.E.C.
0.03
259
SALES REPRESENTATIVES,
0.01

APPENDIX Q
VIBRATION
soc
Occupation Title Variable
206
RADIOLOGIC TECHNICIANS
1.00
413
SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND
FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
1.00
417
FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS
1.00
497
CAPTAINS AND OTHER OFFICERS,
FISHING VESSELS
1.00
508
AIRCRAFT ENGINE MECHANICS
1.00
543
ELEVATOR INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRER
1.00
555
SUPERVISORS, ELECTRICIANS AND
POWER TRANSMISSION INSTALLERS
1.00
583
PAPERHANGERS
1.00
584
PLASTERERS
1.00
589
GLAZIERS
1.00
595
ROOFERS
1.00
597
STRUCTURAL METAL WORKERS
1.00
615
EXPLOSIVES WORKERS
1.00
653
SHEET METAL WORKERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
1.00
844
OPERATING ENGINEERS
1.00
577
ELECTRICAL POWER INSTALLERS
AND REPAIRERS
0.91
226
AIRPLANE PILOTS AND
NAVIGATORS
0.86
424
CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION
OFFICERS
0.83
573
DRYWALL INSTALLERS
0.83
614
DRILLERS, OIL WELL
0.83
783
WELDERS AND CUTTERS
0.82
575
ELECTRICIANS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
0.78
696
STATIONARY ENGINEERS
0.75
593
INSULATION WORKERS
0.71
207
LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES
0.67
527
TELEPHONE LINE INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRERS
0.67
534
HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING,
AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS
0.67
579
PAINTERS, CONSTRUCTION AND
MAINTENANCE
0.67
713
FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.65
724
HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS
0.64
222

223
soc
Occupation Title Variabl
439
KITCHEN WORKERS, FOOD
PREPARATION
0.64
616
MINING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.64
418
POLICE AND DETECTIVES, PUBLIC
SERVICE
0.63
694
WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT
PLANT OPERATORS
0.63
427
PROTECTIVE SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
0.60
496
TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING
OCCUPATIONS
0.60
643
BOILERMAKERS
0.60
499
HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS
0.57
517
FARM EQUIPMENT MECHANICS
0.57
829
SAILORS AND DECKHANDS
0.57
784
SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS
0.56
423
SHERIFFS, BAILIFFS, AND OTHER
LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS
0.54
498
FISHERS
0.53
599
CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C.
0.52
355
MAIL CARRIERS, POSTAL SERVICE
0.50
437
SHORT-ORDER COOKS
0.50
544
MILLWRIGHTS
0.50
553
SUPERVISORS, BRICKMASONS,
STONEMASONS, AND TILE SETTERS
0.50
554
SUPERVISORS, CARPENTERS AND
RELATED WORKERS
0.50
556
SUPERVISORS, PAINTERS,
PAPERHANGERS AND PLASTERERS
0.50
558
SUPERVISORS, N.E.C.
0.50
567
CARPENTERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
0.50
598
DRILLERS, EARTH
0.50
617
MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
0.50
657
CABINET MAKERS AND BENCH
CARPENTERS
0.50
833
MARINE ENGINEERS
0.50
867
HELPERS, EXTRACTIVE
OCCUPATIONS
0.50
869
CONSTRUCTION LABORERS
0.50
699
MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND
SYSTEM OPERATORS
0.47
706
PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.47
848
HOIST AND WINCH OPERATORS
0.45
487
ANIMAL CARETAKERS, EXCEPT
FARM
0.44
585
PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES
0.44
865
HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES
0.43
213
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
TECHNICIANS
0.43
563
BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS,
EXCEPT APPRENTICES
0.43

224
soc
Occupation Title Variable
864
HELPERS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
0.42
046
MINING ENGINEERS
0.40
415
SUPERVISORS, GUARDS
0.40
494
SUPERVISORS, FORESTRY AND
LOGGING WORKERS
0.40
557
SUPERVISORS, PLUMBERS,
PIPEFITTERS AND STEAMFITTERS
0.40
655
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL
WORKERS
0.40
843
SUPERVISORS, MATERIAL MOVING
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
0.40
707
ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.39
727
SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.38
416
FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE
PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
0.38
719
MOLDING AND CASTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.37
723
METAL PLATING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.36
725
MISCELLANEOUS METAL & PLASTIC
PROCESSING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.36
853
EXCAVATING AND LOADING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.36
518
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY
REPAIRERS
0.34
883
FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL
HANDLERS, N.E.C.
0.34
096
PHARMACISTS
0.33
425
CROSSING GUARDS
0.33
485
SUPERVISORS, RELATED
AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS
0.33
588
CONCRETE AND TERRAZZO
FINISHERS
0.33
613
SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE
OCCUPATIONS
0.33
695
POWER PLANT OPERATORS
0.33
813
PARKING LOT ATTENDANTS
0.33
814
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
0.33
825
RAILROAD BRAKE, SIGNAL, AND
SWITCH OPERATORS
0.33
855
GRADER, DOZER, AND SCRAPER
OPERATORS
0.33
856
INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND TRACTOR
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
0.33
523
ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS,
COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL
EQUIPMENT
0.33
726
WOOD LATHE, ROUTING, AND
PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.33
414
SUPERVISORS, POLICE AND
DETECTIVES
0.32

225
soc
Occupation Title Variable
426
GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC.
PUBLIC SERVICE
0.30
049
NUCLEAR ENGINEERS
0.30
516
HEAVY EQUIPMENT MECHANICS
0.30
859
MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
0.29
447
NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND
ATTENDANTS
0.29
503
SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
0.28
887
VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT
CLEANERS
0.28
766
FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN
OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD
0.28
035
CONSTRUCTION INSPECTORS
0.27
873
PRODUCTION HELPERS
0.27
223
BIOLOGICAL TECHNICIANS
0.27
636
PRECISION ASSEMBLERS, METAL
0.26
446
HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING
0.26
747
PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.26
717
FABRICATING MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
0.26
715
MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC,
STONE AND GLASS WORKING
MACHINE OPERA
0.25
453
JANITORS AND CLEANERS
0.25
686
BUTCHERS AND MEAT CUTTERS
0.25
714
NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE
OPERATOR
0.25
728
SHAPING AND JOINING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.25
199
ATHLETES
0.24
794
HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING
OCCUPATIONS
0.24
684
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
WORKERS, N.E.C.
0.24
756
MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.23
733
MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.23
225
SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
0.23
769
SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.23
486
GROUNDSKEEPERS AND GARDENERS,
EXCEPT FARM
0.22
637
MACHINISTS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
0.22
235
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
0.21
659
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
WOODWORKERS
0.21
533
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND
ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
REPAIRERS
0.21

226
SOC Occupation Title Variable
675
HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS,
EXCEPT JEWELERS
0.21
786
HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING
OCCUPATIONS
0.21
828
SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES,
EXCEPT FISHING BOATS
0.21
436
COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER
0.20
676
PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT
WORKERS, AND CUTTERS
0.20
885
GARAGE AND SERVICE STATION
RELATED OCCUPATIONS
0.20
036
INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE
OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
0.19
804
TRUCK DRIVERS, HEAVY
0.19
547
SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS, N.E.C.
0.19
519
MACHINERY MAINTENANCE
OCCUPATIONS
0.18
768
CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.18
645
PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL
MAKERS, METAL
0.18
194
ARTISTS, PERFORMERS, AND
RELATED WORKERS, N.E.C.
0.18
111
MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
0.17
069
PHYSICISTS AND ASTRONOMERS
0.17
208
HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
0.17
449
MAIDS AND HOUSEMEN
0.17
455
PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS
0.17
634
TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
0.17
646
LAY-OUT WORKERS
0.17
689
INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND
GRADERS
0.17
705
MILLING AND PLANING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.17
757
SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND
CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.17
758
COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.16
849
CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS
0.15
764
WASHING, CLEANING, AND
PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.15
633
SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION
OCCUPATIONS
0.15
754
PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.15
507
BUS, TRUCK, AND STATIONARY
ENGINE MECHANICS
0.14
539
MECHANICAL CONTROLS AND VALVE
REPAIRERS
0.14

227
soc
Occupation Title
Variabl
594
PAVING, SURFACING, AND
TAMPING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
0.14
878
MACHINE FEEDERS AND
OFFBEARERS
0.14
488
GRADERS AND SORTERS,
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS
0.13
656
PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL
MAKERS, WOOD
0.13
688
FOOD BATCHMAKERS
0.13
748
LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.13
795
MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING
OCCUPATIONS
0.12
734
PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.12
798
PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND
WEIGHERS
0.12
044
AEROSPACE ENGINEERS
0.11
165
ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS
0.11
438
FOOD COUNTER, FOUNTAIN AND
RELATED OCCUPATIONS
0.11
824
LOCOMOTIVE OPERATING
OCCUPATIONS
0.11
759
PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.11
737
MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.11
735
PHOTOENGRAVERS AND
LITHOGRAPHERS
0.11
765
FOLDING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.11
704
LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.10
084
PHYSICIANS
0.10
444
MISCELLANEOUS FOOD
PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS
0.10
448
SUPERVISORS, CLEANING AND
BUILDING SERVICE WORKERS
0.10
463
GUIDES
0.10
465
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
ATTENDANTS
0.10
889
LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
0.09
045
METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS
ENGINEERS
0.09
059
ENGINEERS, N.E.C.
0.09
458
HAIRDRESSERS & COSMETOLOGISTS
0.09
669
SHOE REPAIRERS
0.09
863
SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS,
EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, AND
LABORERS,
0.09
749
MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.09
189
PHOTOGRAPHERS
0.08
368
WEIGHERS, MEASURERS, AND
CHECKERS
0.08

228
soc
Occupation Title
Variabl
683
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLERS
0.08
774
PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.08
755
EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.08
787
HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND
FORMING OCCUPATIONS
0.08
053
CIVIL ENGINEERS
0.08
708
DRILLING AND BORING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.08
743
TEXTILE CUTTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.08
216
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS,
N.E.C.
0.07
006
ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE
SERVICES
0.07
514
AUTOMOBILE BODY AND RELATED
REPAIRERS
0.07
644
PRECISION GRINDERS, FITTERS,
AND TOOL SHARPENERS
0.07
785
ASSEMBLERS
0.07
078
BIOLOGICAL AND LIFE
SCIENTISTS
0.07
535
CAMERA, WATCH, AND MUSICAL
INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS
0.07
796
PRODUCTION INSPECTORS,
CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS
0.06
057
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS
0.06
086
VETERINARIANS
0.06
738
WINDING AND TWISTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.06
164
LIBRARIANS
0.06
228
BROADCAST EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
0.06
709
GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING,
AND POLISHING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.06
005
ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS,
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
0.05
789
HAND PAINTING, COATING, AND
DECORATING OCCUPATIONS
0.05
797
PRODUCTION TESTERS
0.05
888
HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS
0.05
753
CEMENTING AND GLUING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.05
505
AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS, EXC.
APPRENTICES
0.04
677
OPTICAL GOODS WORKERS
0.04
459
ATTENDANTS, AMUSEMENT AND
RECREATION FACILITIES
0.04
799
GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC.
AGRICULTURAL
0.04
185
DESIGNERS
0.04

229
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
433
SUPERVISORS, FOOD PREPARATION
AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS
0.04
364
TRAFFIC, SHIPPING, AND
RECEIVING CLERKS
0.03
055
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
ENGINEERS
0.03
365
STOCK AND INVENTORY CLERKS
0.02
259
SALES REPRESENTATIVES,
MINING, MANUFACTURING, AND
WHOLESALE
0.02
763
ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE
OPERATORS, FOOD
0.02
674
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
APPAREL AND FABRIC WORKERS
0.02
363
PRODUCTION COORDINATORS
0.02
744
TEXTILE SEWING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.01

APPENDIX R
ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
413
SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND
FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
' 1.00
417
FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS
1.00
658
FURNITURE AND WOOD FINISHERS
1.00
875
GARBAGE COLLECTORS
1.00
455
PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS
0.83
593
INSULATION WORKERS
0.71
595
ROOFERS
0.67
855
GRADER, DOZER, AND SCRAPER
OPERATORS
0.67
724
HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS
0.57
616
MINING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.55
437
SHORT-ORDER COOKS
0.50
556
SUPERVISORS, PAINTERS,
PAPERHANGERS AND PLASTERERS
0.50
579
PAINTERS, CONSTRUCTION AND
MAINTENANCE
0.50
657
CABINET MAKERS AND BENCH
CARPENTERS
0.50
833
MARINE ENGINEERS
0.50
856
INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND TRACTOR
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
0.44
563
BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS,
EXCEPT APPRENTICES
0.43
224
CHEMICAL TECHNICIANS
0.42
046
MINING ENGINEERS
0.40
726
WOOD LATHE, ROUTING, AND
PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.40
885
GARAGE AND SERVICE STATION
RELATED OCCUPATIONS
0.40
086
VETERINARIANS
0.38
416
FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE
PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS
0.38
488
GRADERS AND SORTERS,
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS
0.38
615
EXPLOSIVES WORKERS
0.38
617
MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
0.38
694
WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT
PLANT OPERATORS
0.38
699
MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND
SYSTEM OPERATORS
0.38
783
WELDERS AND CUTTERS
0.37
230

231
soc
Occupation Title Variable
766
FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN
OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD
0.37
887
VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT
CLEANERS
0.35
207
LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES
0.33
553
SUPERVISORS, BRICKMASONS,
STONEMASONS, AND TILE SETTERS
0.33
573
DRYWALL INSTALLERS
0.33
598
DRILLERS, EARTH
0.33
784
SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS
0.33
723
METAL PLATING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.33
756
MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.32
757
SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND
CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.30
768
CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.29
447
NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND
ATTENDANTS
0.29
594
PAVING, SURFACING, AND
TAMPING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
0.29
798
PRODUCTION SAMPLERS & WEIGHERS
0.28
558
SUPERVISORS, N.E.C.
0.27
853
EXCAVATING AND LOADING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.27
223
BIOLOGICAL TECHNICIANS
0.27
764
WASHING, CLEANING, AND
PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.26
203
CLINICAL LABORATORY
TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS
0.25
485
SUPERVISORS, RELATED
AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS
0.25
584
PLASTERERS
0.25
728
SHAPING AND JOINING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.25
859
MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
0.25
727
SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.25
518
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY
REPAIRERS
0.23
849
CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS
0.23
534
HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING,
AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS
0.22
794
HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING
OCCUPATIONS
0.22
659
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
WOODWORKERS
0.21
873
PRODUCTION HELPERS
0.21
446
HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING
0.21
599
CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C.
0.21
883
FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL
HANDLERS, N.E.C.
0.20

232
soc
Occupation Title Variable
733
MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.20
028
PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS,
FARM PRODUCTS
0.20
076
PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C.
0.20
655
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL
WORKERS
0.20
834
BRIDGE, LOCK, AND LIGHTHOUSE
TENDERS
0.20
878
MACHINE FEEDERS AND
OFFBEARERS
0.19
453
JANITORS AND CLEANERS
0.19
719
MOLDING AND CASTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.18
519
MACHINERY MAINTENANCE
OCCUPATIONS
0.18
789
HAND PAINTING, COATING, AND
DECORATING OCCUPATIONS
0.18
739
KNITTING, LOOPING, TAPING,
AND WEAVING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.17
585
PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES
0.17
748
LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.17
805
TRUCK DRIVERS, LIGHT
0.17
869
CONSTRUCTION LABORERS
0.17
864
HELPERS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
0.16
759
PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.16
633
SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION
OCCUPATIONS
0.15
725
MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND
PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.15
793
HAND ENGRAVING AND PRINTING
OCCUPATIONS
0.15
213
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
TECHNICIANS
0.14
235
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
0.14
499
HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS
0.14
848
HOIST AND WINCH OPERATORS
0.14
865
HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES
0.13
786
HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING
OCCUPATIONS
0.13
735
PHOTOENGRAVERS & LITHOGRAPHERS
0.13
369
SAMPLERS
0.13
544
MILLWRIGHTS
0.13
554
SUPERVISORS, CARPENTERS AND
RELATED WORKERS
0.13
795
MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING
OCCUPATIONS
0.12
533
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND
ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT REPAIRERS
0.12

233
soc
Occupation Title Variable
675
HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS,
EXCEPT JEWELERS
0.12
889
LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
0.12
709
GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING,
AND POLISHING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.12
749
MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.12
111
MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
0.11
487
ANIMAL CARETAKERS, EXCEPT
FARM
0.11
495
FORESTRY WORKERS, EXCEPT
LOGGING
0.11
613
SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE
OCCUPATIONS
0.11
747
PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.11
738
WINDING AND TWISTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.11
684
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
WORKERS, N.E.C.
0.11
049
NUCLEAR ENGINEERS
0.10
208
HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
0.10
427
PROTECTIVE SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
0.10
448
SUPERVISORS, CLEANING AND
BUILDING SERVICE WORKERS
0.10
463
GUIDES
0.10
516
HEAVY EQUIPMENT MECHANICS
0.10
743
TEXTILE CUTTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.10
843
SUPERVISORS, MATERIAL MOVING
EQUIPMENT OPERATORS
0.10
707
ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.10
888
HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS
0.10
763
ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE
OPERATORS, FOOD
0.10
754
PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.09
035
CONSTRUCTION INSPECTORS
0.09
059
ENGINEERS, N.E.C.
0.09
458
HAIRDRESSERS AND
COSMETOLOGISTS
0.09
863
SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS,
EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, AND
LABORERS,
0.09
505
AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS, EXC.
APPRENTICES
0.09
758
COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.09
706
PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.09

234
SOC Occupation Title Variable
509
SMALL ENGINE REPAIRERS
0.08
769
SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.08
075
GEOLOGISTS AND GEODESISTS
0.08
423
SHERIFFS, BAILIFFS, AND OTHER
LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS
0.08
755
EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.07
006
ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE
SERVICES
0.07
226
AIRPLANE PILOTS AND
NAVIGATORS
0.07
514
AUTOMOBILE BODY AND RELATED
REPAIRERS
0.07
644
PRECISION GRINDERS, FITTERS,
AND TOOL SHARPENERS
0.07
715
MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC,
STONE AND GLASS WORKING
MACHINE OPERA
0.07
547
SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS, N.E.C.
0.07
095
REGISTERED NURSES
0.07
567
CARPENTERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
0.07
737
MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.07
689
INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND
GRADERS
0.06
036
INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE
OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
0.06
693
ADJUSTERS AND CALIBRATORS
0.06
713
FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.06
787
HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND
FORMING OCCUPATIONS
0.06
799
GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC.
AGRICULTURAL
0.06
634
TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
0.06
498
FISHERS
0.05
765
FOLDING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.05
225
SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
0.05
539
MECHANICAL CONTROLS AND VALVE
REPAIRERS
0.05
674
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION
APPAREL AND FABRIC WORKERS
0.05
426
GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC.
PUBLIC SERVICE
0.04
717
FABRICATING MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
0.04
368
WEIGHERS, MEASURERS, AND
CHECKERS
0.04
774
PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.04

235
soc
Occupation Title
Variabl
797
PRODUCTION TESTERS
0.04
677
OPTICAL GOODS WORKERS
0.04
796
PRODUCTION INSPECTORS,
CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS
0.04
216
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS,
N.E.C.
0.04
503
SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
0.04
199
ATHLETES
0.03
364
TRAFFIC, SHIPPING, AND
RECEIVING CLERKS
0.03
734
PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.03
084
PHYSICIANS
0.03
785
ASSEMBLERS
0.03
636
PRECISION ASSEMBLERS, METAL
0.03
753
CEMENTING AND GLUING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.02
469
PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS,
N.E.C.
0.02
303
SUPERVISORS, GENERAL OFFICE
0.02
523
ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS,
COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL
EQUIPMENT
0.02

APPENDIX S
MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
814
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
0.33
544
MILLWRIGHTS
0.25
656
PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL
MAKERS, WOOD
0.13
713
FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.12
534
HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING,
AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS
0.11
599
CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C.
0.09
518
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY
REPAIRERS
0.07
514
AUTOMOBILE BODY AND RELATED
REPAIRERS
0.07
644
PRECISION GRINDERS, FITTERS,
AND TOOL SHARPENERS
0.07
655
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL
WORKERS
0.06
057
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS
0.06
725
MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND
PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.06
585
PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES
0.06
634
TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
0.06
733
MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.04
727
SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS
0.04
676
PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT
WORKERS, AND CUTTERS
0.03
636
PRECISION ASSEMBLERS, METAL
0.03
705
MILLING AND PLANING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.03
737
MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.02
706
PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.02
523
ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS,
COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL
EQUIPMENT
0.02
503
SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
0.02
769
SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.01
236

237
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
786
HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING
OCCUPATIONS
0.01
111
MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
0.01
547
SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS, N.E.C.
0.01
795
MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING
OCCUPATIONS
0.01
633
SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION
OCCUPATIONS
0.01

APPENDIX T
SHOCK
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
544
MILLWRIGHTS
0.25
213
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
TECHNICIANS
0.14
534
HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING,
AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS
0.11
427
PROTECTIVE SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
0.10
585
PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES
0.06
634
TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT
APPRENTICES
0.06
503
SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
0.05
518
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY
REPAIRERS
0.05
558
SUPERVISORS, N.E.C.
0.05
533
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND
ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
REPAIRERS
0.03
523
ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS,
COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL
EQUIPMENT
0.02
599
CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C.
0.02
547
SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS, N.E.C.
0.01
238

soc
556
579
593
544
534
427
577
599
558
235
036
518
259
APPENDIX U
HEIGHTS
Occupation Title
SUPERVISORS, PAINTERS,
PAPERHANGERS AND PLASTERERS
PAINTERS, CONSTRUCTION AND
MAINTENANCE
INSULATION WORKERS
MILLWRIGHTS
HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING,
AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS
PROTECTIVE SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
ELECTRICAL POWER INSTALLERS
AND REPAIRERS
CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C.
SUPERVISORS, N.E.C.
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE
OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY
REPAIRERS
SALES REPRESENTATIVES,
MINING, MANUFACTURING, AND
WHOLESALE
Variable
0.25
0.17
0.14
0.13
0.11
0.10
0.09
0.05
0.05
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
239

APPENDIX V
RADIATION
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
206
RADIOLOGIC TECHNICIANS
0.40
096
PHARMACISTS
0.33
049
NUCLEAR ENGINEERS
0.30
044
AEROSPACE ENGINEERS
0.11
084
PHYSICIANS
0.07
235
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
0.02
240

APPENDIX W
EXPLOSIVES
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
885
GARAGE AND SERVICE STATION
RELATED OCCUPATIONS
0.20
427
PROTECTIVE SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
0.10
36
INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE
OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
0.02
241

soc
213
784
053
723
078
725
533
774
519
764
735
887
777
787
717
547
766
878
APPENDIX X
TOXINS
Occupation Title
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
TECHNICIANS
SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS
CIVIL ENGINEERS
METAL PLATING MACHINE
OPERATORS
BIOLOGICAL AND LIFE
SCIENTISTS
MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND
PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE
OPERATORS
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND
ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
REPAIRERS
PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE
OPERATORS
MACHINERY MAINTENANCE
OCCUPATIONS
WASHING, CLEANING, AND
PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS
PHOTOENGRAVERS AND
LITHOGRAPHERS
VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT
CLEANERS
MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND
FORMING OCCUPATIONS
FABRICATING MACHINE
OPERATORS, N.E.C.
SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS, N.E.C.
FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN
OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD
MACHINE FEEDERS AND
OFFBEARERS
Variable
0.14
0.11
0.08
0.07
0.07
0.06
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
242

soc
207
355
589
813
427
424
447
534
446
577
616
696
423
724
503
208
655
086
498
418
599
675
794
727
887
766
036
APPENDIX Y
OTHER HAZARDS
Occupation Title
LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES
MAIL CARRIERS, POSTAL SERVICE
GLAZIERS
PARKING LOT ATTENDANTS
PROTECTIVE SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.
CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION
OFFICERS
NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND
ATTENDANTS
HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING,
AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS
HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING
ELECTRICAL POWER INSTALLERS
AND REPAIRERS
MINING MACHINE OPERATORS
STATIONARY ENGINEERS
SHERIFFS, BAILIFFS, AND OTHER
LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS
HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT
OPERATORS
SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND
REPAIRERS
HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND
TECHNICIANS, N.E.C.
MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL
WORKERS
VETERINARIANS
FISHERS
POLICE AND DETECTIVES, PUBLIC
SERVICE
CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C.
HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS,
EXCEPT JEWELERS
HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING
OCCUPATIONS
SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS
VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT
CLEANERS
FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN
OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD
INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE
OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION
Variable
0.67
0.50
0.33
0.33
0.20
0.17
0.14
0.11
0.11
0.09
0.09
0.08
0.08
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
243

244
soc
Occupation Title
Variable
758
COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING
MACHINE OPERATORS
0.01
768
CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE
OPERATORS
0.01
795
MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING
OCCUPATIONS
0.01

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National Crosswalk Service Center/Iowa SOICC. NOICC
Master Crosswalk. Vers. 3.4. Des Moines, IA:
National Crosswalk Service Center, 1990.
Shaw, Kathryn L. "A Formulation of the Earnings Function
Using the Concept of Occupational Investment."
Journal of Human Resources 19.3 1984: 319-340.
Thaler, Richard and Sherwin Rosen. "The Value of Saving a
Life: Evidence from the Labor Market." Household
Production and Consumption 40 1975: p. 264-301.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Ms. Stephens received her Bachelor of Arts with an
emphasis in economics and political science from the
University of Michigan in 1977. She received an M.B.A. from
the University of California at Berkeley in 1983.
Ms. Stephens has extensive work experience as a financial
analyst and economic consultant. She is currently president
of Deiter Consulting Group, Inc., in Tampa, Florida.
248

I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Lkwrence Kenny, Chairman
Professor of Economics
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully^adequate, iiv.scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the /Úegijée IJdctor of Philosophy.
fobert Emerson
Professor of Food and Resource
Economics
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
David Denslow
Professor of Economics
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
H'i' -sLto
Douglas Waldo
Associate Professor of Economics
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty
of the Department of Economics in the College of Business
Administration and to the Graduate School and was accepted
as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
August, 1992
Dean, Graduate School

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08553 5028



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OCCUPATIONS AND COMPENSATING WAGES FOR UNEMPLOYMENT RISK By Cynthia D. Stephens A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1992

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Copyright 1992 by Cynthia D. Stephens

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported in this paper was sponsored by the firm of Deiter, Stephens and Durham. The author thanks Lawrence Kenny, David Denslow, Douglas Waldo, Stephen Donald, Robert Emerson, John Deiter, Stephen Durham and the participants in the Micro-Macro Empirical Economics Workshop for their valuable comments and suggestions. In addition, most sincere thanks go to Elizabeth Fortier for editorial assistance and to my parents and family for their support. iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii ABSTRACT vi CHAPTERS 1 UNEMPLOYMENT RISK. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 OCCUPATIONAL WAGE ............................ 9 Long-Run Equilibrium ........ Short-Run Equilibrium ...... Industry Wage Differentials .. Evidence of Occupational Wage 9 Differentials .. Conclusions .......... ..................... .14 17 21 22 3 OCCUPATIONAL RISK MEASURES .................... 23 4 EMPIRICAL STUDY ........................... 51 5 TEST RESULTS ........................... 59 Risk Measures ...... Growth Rates ........ Unemployment Rates. Geographic Location .. Fraction Female ... Fraction Employed in Education and SVP .. Experience ...... GED Industry .. Physical Demands. Environmental Conditions . Hazards .......... Unionization .... Fraction Nonwhite. Heteroskedasticity .. Conclusions ........ APPENDICES .. 61 64 .67 .67 .68 .. 68 ........ 7 0 70 .71 .71 72 72 . 73 7 3 .73 . 76 A INDUSTRY CLASSIFICATIONS .................. 79 iv

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B OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRY OF LARGEST CONCENTRATION ....................... 81 C RISK MEASURES FOR DETAILED OCCUPATIONS ........ 92 D VARIANCE RISK MEASURE BY DETAILED OCCUPATION ........................ 101 E ORDINARY LEAST SQUARES REGRESSIONS ........... 111 F GED SCORE REASONING ........................ 13 3 G GED SCORE MATH 14 6 H GED SCORE LANGUAGE ......................... 159 I SVP SCORE ................................... 172 J DEXTERITY .................................... 18 5 K STRESS ...................................... 187 L STRENGTH ................................... 19 0 M EXTREME COLD ................................. 203 N EXTREME HEAT ................................. 2 05 0 EXTREME WET .................................. 2 09 P EXTREME NOISE ................................ 214 Q VIBRATION .................................... 222 R ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS ....................... 230 S MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ......................... 236 T SHOCK 2 3 8 U HEIGHTS ..................................... 239 V RADIATION .................................... 240 W EXP LOS IVES ................................... 2 41 X TOXINS ................................... 2 4 2 Y OTHER HAZARDS ................................ 2 4 3 BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................... 2 4 5 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................... 248 V

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy OCCUPATIONS AND COMPENSATING WAGES FOR UNEMPLOYMENT RISK By Cynthia D. Stephens August 1992 Chairman: Dr. Lawrence Kenny Major Department: Economics The study tests the theory that occupations with employment opportunities concentrated in an industry (or similar industries) require a compensating wage relative to occupations with diversified opportunities across many industries. An occupational risk measure was constructed that accounts for the variance and covariance of industry employment. This risk measure was tested and earnings were found to be positively related to occupational employment risk. vi

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CHAPTER 1 UNEMPLOYMENT RISK Most studies of the effect of unemployment risk on wages do not control for differences between occupations. Since individuals choose education and training for an occupation rather than an industry, this study will explore compensating wage effects from an occupational standpoint. The observed wage paid to an occupation reflects its contribution to the employer's revenues, in addition to the preferences of the individual providing the labor services. In equilibrium, the wage is simultaneously determined by these demand and supply factors. If all occupations were identical in skill requirements, enjoyment and risk, wages would not vary between occupations, but clearly these features do differ. Individual preference is a factor. Consider, for example, differences between occupations in exposure to hazards. Occupations which are more hazardous are compensated at a higher rate than those lacking such risks. The increased wage level reflects individual preference for safer occupations and the resulting demand for a compensating wage in a riskier environment. Wages also reflect unemployment risk, a factor which differs between occupations. To see this, suppose that utility is a function of consumption and leisure, as 1

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2 r::: 0 -~ I 0. I (I) r::: 0 I CJ I u MU II I I I 0 TL T Leisure Time Figure (1-1)

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3 depicted in Figure 1-1. Competition among firms will make a worker indifferent between occupations offering the combinations of consumption and leisure depicted by the indifference curve "U." This individual would be indifferent in selecting between an occupation offering TL) hours of work each week which provided consumption at the level of Me and one with some unemployment if it yielded consumption at the level of Mu when unemployed (and enjoying T hours of leisure) and Me when employed. If wages are paid only during employment weeks and the number of weeks unemployed is equal to the number of weeks employed, the occupation with unemployment must have Mu higher wages than the occupation with no unemployment risk for the individual to be indifferent between the occupations. The formula which represents this relationship is described by Equation 1-1. The occupation with no unemployment risk is denoted by superscript "A" and the occupation with unemployment risk is denoted by superscript "B." Equation 1-1 As the unemployment period (u) lengthens, compensation for occupation B (MBe) must be higher in order for an individual to be indifferent between occupations A and B. Others have estimated the effect of risk on wages. King (1974) examines the relationship between occupational choice and risk aversion. He defines two types of earnings risk: How an individual will fare relative to others in

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4 the same occupation and how the occupation fares in response to structural and business cycle risk. King tests for wage differentials due to the first type of risk. He finds that riskier occupations offer higher mean incomes and that individuals from wealthier families choose the riskier occupations. King's measure of risk is the variance of earnings within an occupational classification. In exploring wage differentials for unemployment risk, Adams (1985) tests for compensating wage differentials based on geographic and industry unemployment differences. The regression model tested is outlined in Table 1-1. Table 1-1 Adam's Risk Model Log Hourly Wage= f(U,R,C,S,E,H,M,O,R,X,T,L,D,N,Y,G) Variable Definitions: u State Unemployment Rate 0 Union Membership R State Unemployment Insurance R Race Replacement Ratio (UI X sex Benefits/Employed Earnings) T city Size C Current Industry L Climate Unemployment Rate D Durable Goods s Years of Schooling N Nondurable Goods E Years of Experience y Industry Sensitivity H Health Limitation G Industry Growth Rate M Marital Status Differentials are divided into permanent and transitory components by controlling for state unemployment insurance benefits. The data comes from Waves 4-10 of the Panel study of Income Dynamics, which contain industry identifiers for seventeen industries. The calculation of

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5 the growth rate begins with a regression of log GNP on Time, defining the predicted value as Trend and the residual value as Deviation. Adams calculates regressions of log Industry Value Added on the Trend and Deviation values. The coefficient on Trend is the industry growth variable, and the coefficient on Deviation is a variable measuring the industry's sensitivity to the business cycle. The results show that wage differentials are related to long-run unemployment differences between industries. Wages are also found to be higher in industries which are cyclically sensitive. Adams does not measure the effects of any risk unrelated to the business cycle. Li (1986) also measures the effect of unemployment risk on the wage differential between industries. Li tests whether wages are a function of both the systematic (cyclical or market) unemployment risk and the nonsystematic (industry-specific) risk. Li uses the Panel study of Income Dynamics covering white male heads of household over the period 1969-1973. To measure the systematic risk, individuals are grouped into fourteen two digit level industries. Those in the same industry are assumed to face the same systematic and nonsystematic risk. The hours worked value is regressed on the prior period's hours and on the rate of change in real GNP. A pooled industry regression and a full sample regression are calculated. The predicted hours value from the industry

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6 regression is the industry employment norm, and the predicted value from the full sample is the economy-wide norm. The residual variances (MSE) from the industry regressions are the estimate of the industry-specific, noncyclical risk of unemployment. The cyclical risk (COV) is estimated by the residual variance derived from a regression of the difference between industry predicted hours and economy-wide predicted hours on the rate of change in real GNP. Both MSE and COV are divided by the mean number of hours in the industry for the empirical measures of risk. Li's test of compensating wages is outlined in Table 1-2. Table 1-2 Li's Risk Model Log Wage= f(E,D,PCOV,PMSE,EX,R,O) Variable Definitions: E-Education PMSE-Noncyclical D-Difference in Hours from Unemployment Risk Average Economy Hours EX-Experience PCOV-Industry Cyclical Systematic R-Regional Dummies Unemployment Risk a-Occupational Dummies Positive compensating wage differentials are found for both measures of risk. Differences in industry unemployment risks can explain 14-41% of the observed differences in wages. The noncyclical risk compensating wage differentials are much higher than the cyclical risk compensating wage differentials. Li's study has two main deficiencies: It is concerned with the industry of employment, yet only fourteen

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7 industries are isolated, and the control for occupational differences is broadly classified at six occupational groupings. If the sample of occupations in the Current Population Survey (CPS) data was as large as the sample of industries of employment, Li's model could be reestimated with occupations. However, observations for three-digit or four-digit classification of occupations are too infrequent for consistent estimates with the annual CPS database. Both studies document wage differentials for unemployment risk with measures based on the cyclical behavior of the industry in which the individual is employed. The industry data approach is used because annual data are reported by industry rather than by occupation. However, specific occupational risk appears more relevant to an individual's human capital decision and is therefore worthy of study. An occupation's unemployment risk should reflect the combined unemployment risk of all industries in which the occupation is employed. If individuals require a compensating wage for unemployment risk and occupations differ in their exposure to this risk, then the wage differential between occupations should be measurable. If an occupation is closely linked to an industry, the cyclical and long-run unemployment risks of that occupation reflect the risks of the industry. If an occupation has employment opportunities in many industries, the unemployment risk should be diversified.

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8 Since occupations differ in employment opportunities between industries, occupations may be considered as having varying degrees of diversification. The data indicate that industry-diversified occupations, such as that of secretary or accountant, are relatively low-paying occupations. For example, in 1979, 35-year-old males with college degrees working full-time in securities and financial services sales occupations earned an average of $20.25 per hour. Similar males employed as accountants and auditors earned $13.16 per hour. This differential could be considered a compensating wage for the concentration of security sales occupations in the finance industry; economic theory would suggest that stockbrokers require a wage premium to cover future downturns in the finance industry which would expose them to a period of unemployment. This study provides documentation of the importance of an occupational perspective in the analysis of wage differentials, especially the effect of compensation for unemployment risk. The method of calculation of industry risk used by Li and Adams defines risk based on variances in industry employment. Building on their methodology, this study adds an occupational employment variance measure and includes factors such as skill requirements and hazard features in order to comprehensively analyze wage differentials between occupations.

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CHAPTER 2 OCCUPATIONAL WAGE The primary determinants of an occupation's wage must be identified before any compensating wage effect due to risk can be studied. Wages paid to an occupation are fundamentally determined by supply and demand factors; wage levels fluctuate in response to changes in the number of qualified people who are seeking employment and changes in industry demand for such skills. The wage paid to an occupation is thus determined simultaneously by the forces of supply and demand. Long-Run Equilibrium Long-run occupational wage differences are defined as differentials which have no tendency to change unless there is a change in the long-run demand or supply. In equilibrium, if the wage paid to one occupation exceeds the wage paid to another, the difference exists due to differing supply and demand characteristics for the occupation. In general, the labor supply for all occupations is determined by individual preferences for work versus leisure and the availability of nonwage income. The labor supply to a particular occupation, however, is influenced by the cost of acquiring the necessary skills to enter that 9

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10 occupation. These costs include required education and specific vocational preparation. If there is an initial investment cost to train for a profession, that occupation's wage would be higher than an occupation with little or no initial training cost in order to generate a return on the skill investment. The nonwage aspects of the occupation, such as prestige, health or safety risks and income variability, also influence the supply of individuals to an occupation. In long-run equilibrium, wages adjust to levels that enable individuals to be indifferent in selecting occupations. The resulting wage differentials are defined as compensating wages for nonwage features. In addition, market imperfections which restrict the supply of workers to an occupation will result in wage differentials. Barriers to entry into an occupation can be established by licensing or certification requirements and union control of job placements. The long-run demand for labor in an occupation is determined by the forces which affect the profit maximizing combination of a firm's capital and labor. Therefore, changes in the demand for a firm's product, in the cost of other production resources, or in the firm's production technology will influence the demand for a particular occupation. The long-run supply and demand relationship is illustrated in Figure 2-1. If individuals have identical

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11 preferences, then the long-run equilibrium wage for an occupation, denoted by w*, reflects characteristics of this occupation relative to other occupations. For each of the L* employed in the occupation, the wage compensates for human capital brought into the occupation in addition to any characteristics of the occupation which require a compensating wage. Thus, the equilibrium wage includes any compensation for the probability of cyclical or seasonal unemployment. Numerous studies of equilibrium wage differentials primarily assume that the current wage is the long-run equilibrium wage. These studies measure wage differentials between individuals based on differences in skill levels and educational accomplishments, commonly referred to as human capital stocks, and in nonwage features of their current industry or employer. As Gary Becker (1975} argues, human capital is an important determinant of wages. Human capital theory proposes measuring an individual's stocks of human capital, categorized as general and firm-specific skills. These stocks can be considered capital on which individuals earn a return. When an individual changes employer, firm specific skills do not transfer and the new wage rate is determined by general skills transferred by the individual which are applicable to the new employer. Individuals can be envisioned as possessing other classes of human capital skill stocks. Skills may be

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Wage I I I L* 12 Figure (2-1) Quantity of Labor

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13 sorted by employer, occupation, or industry. An individual facing a human capital investment decision, such as the choice of a college major or a change of employer, is evaluating an additional investment in the occupation or an employer skill investment. Individuals do not typically evaluate an investment of human capital in an industry independent of an investment in an occupation or employer. More commonly, individuals invest in education or training specific to an occupation. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of wage differentials between occupations requires information about differences between occupations. In considering skills from the perspective of individual investment, the relevant analysis concerns human capital investments in occupations and the expected return. A similar analysis was done by Shaw (1984). Using the National Longitudinal Survey of men aged 14-24 over the period 1966-1975, Shaw studies wages as a return on occupational investment at a three-digit level of occupational classification. Shaw calculates the total occupational investment as the sum of stocks of specific occupational investment weighted by the transferability of skills between occupations. As a first approximation of specific occupational skills, Shaw employs information from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The Standard Vocational Preparation (SVP) score is derived from a nine-level scale

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14 which indicates the amount of time necessary to acquire the skills necessary to perform the job at an average level. The second measure of specific occupational skill is the TQ measure from the Michigan Panel study of Income Dynamics. This is the scored response to the question "How long would it take an average person to become qualified in a job like yours?" Transferability is measured by similarity of occupational mobility patterns. Shaw finds that an occupational investment measure that takes into account the level of investment brought from previous occupations is a stronger determinant of income than work force experience. Short-Run Equilibrium The relationship between short-run supply and demand is depicted in Figure 2-2. A new level of long-run demand for an occupation, which is represented by the shift of the demand curve, denoted by o 1 LR, may result in an increase in wages if no trained, unemployed individuals are available to meet the excess demand. In the short-run, the labor supply curve is steeper than in the long-run. Labor markets are not as efficient as goods markets. If one has both the skills to compete in an occupation that is in great demand and the ability to move to the job site, one will earn rents as an early adapter until others relocate and drive the wage down. Additionally, a higher wage is required to motivate established workers in other occupations to forgo the return on human capital specific to the occupation and enter an alternative occupation.

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15 Similarly, a higher wage is required to motivate established workers in other firms to forgo the return on human capital specific to a firm and seek employment with a new firm. If time is required for individuals to acquire the skills necessary to perform an occupation and there is an insufficient number of qualified unemployed individuals, the short-run supply curve would be vertical for any wage greater than w. The dynamic effects of changes in demand for an occupation are evident in unemployment rates for the occupation. Current unemployment rates should be lower than average in occupations which have experienced a recent increase in demand, since the existing unemployed move to fill the vacancies. over time, individuals receive the required training and enter the profession. The short-run supply then shifts to the right over time, driving the wage down toward w In order to induce individuals to leave an occupation, the wage must fall below w*. In Figure 2-2, the decrease in long-run demand for an occupation is depicted by a downward shift in the demand curve to o 2 LR The equilibrium wage falls, the number of individuals employed decreases, and the unemployment rate in the profession is higher than average. Individuals in this occupation will experience unemployment while they change occupations. In summary, there is a positive relationship between wages and the number of employed individuals. A growing

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Wage I I I I L* 16 Figure (2-2) Quantity of Labor

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17 occupation will command a higher wage. This is necessary to bring about an unusually high rate of entry into an occupation. The relationship between unemployment rates and wages is inverse, however. The wage rate decreases as unemployment increases. Unemployed individuals must relocate in order to find alternative employment or be retrained. Wage levels and short-run demand shifts due to a business cycle or seasonal demand are not necessarily correlated. If the long-run wage w already reflects compensation for the probability of short-run unemployment, there is no need to further adjust the wage level to induce individuals to enter or leave the profession. If an occupation is expanding in the long-run and has high seasonal unemployment, fluctuations in employment are absorbed through changes in the rate of new hiring and layoffs. If the occupation is contracting in the long-run, the occupation will have a slower rate of new entry. Industry Wage Differentials Research on wage differentials between industries includes studies compiled by Krueger and Summers (1988) and Katz and Summers (1989). These studies use the CPS data to test for wage differentials between industries. The findings include the observation that some industries (e.g., mining and petroleum) consistently pay higher wages than other industries (e.g., food and beverage establishments and household services). This ranking of

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18 industry wage differentials holds over time and between large classes of occupations, even with controls for unions, education, and experience. The results hold even between countries. The inclusion of fringe benefits increases rather than decreases the industry wage differential. Krueger and Summers attribute these industry differentials to efficiency wage practices in some industries. Efficiency wage practices should be examined, because they account for involuntary unemployment. The literature defines "efficiency wages" as the payment of a wage higher than the value of marginal product (VMP). The firm benefits because the higher wage discourages shirking, excessive turnover or malfeasance, all of which increase the firm's costs. Firms "share rents" with workers; employees are motivated to perform in the firm's best interest due to the risk of unemployment if their behavior results in dismissal. Current unemployment must exist in order to make dismissal an effective deterrent. Without current unemployment, the employee would have the option of finding a position at another firm. Current unemployment is not required in other compensation schemes in which the wage paid differs from the VMP. Lazear (1976) proposes an age-dependent wage profile in which an implicit wage contract exists between the firm and the employee. The employee is paid a wage lower than the VMP early in his or her career and is paid a

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19 wage in excess of the VMP at the end of his or her career. Essentially, employees post a performance bond with the firm while working for a wage lower than the VMP. The employee is repaid in the form of higher wages at the end of his or her career only if job performance is satisfactory to the firm. Otherwise, the employee is dismissed and the bond is forfeited. The loss of the bond is the deterring force in this case, rather than the risk of unemployment. Becker and Stigler (1974) also describe a model in which wages are paid in excess of VMP. If the opportunity for undetected malfeasance is high, as in the case of a police officer accepting a bribe, the employee should be compensated at a wage higher than the potential earnings in an alternative position. The loss of the higher earnings stream reduces the expected benefits from malfeasance after weighting for the probability of detection resulting in dismissal. In this model, unemployment is not preventing the malfeasance; it is prevented by the risk of losing the higher earnings stream. These wage theories are not easily tested, since data on both the firm and the employee are required to compare wages and costs of shirking, malfeasance and turnover, and comprehensive data sets of both firms and employees have not been constructed. However, the main implication of the efficiency wage theory is that higher wages are paid in industries with higher levels of unemployment. Indeed, the

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20 theory is specifically designed to explain higher unemployment. The effects of efficiency wages are not easily isolated from the effects of compensating wages for expected unemployment discussed in this study, since both theories relate wages and unemployment. However, the distinction is found in the difference between levels and variability. For example, if a normal unemployment level generated by efficiency wages is assumed to exist in an industry, compensating wages for unemployment risk could still be required if cyclical volatility is higher in the industry. Differences in wage levels between industries documented by Krueger and Summers could also be attributed to any factors that differ between industries, such as risk characteristics. For example, many occupations in the mining industry are not found in any other industry, therefore, different levels of unemployment risk exist for mining occupations than for industry-diversified occupations. Thus, the efficiency wages attributed to the mining industry are expected to be correlated with occupational risk premiums. A test of efficiency wage theory would exploit the relationship between wages and unemployment rates. The expected negative short-run relationship between wages and unemployment rates would be tempered by the positive relationship between wages and unemployment when efficiency wages are paid. The positive relationship between wages

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21 and unemployment proposed by efficiency wage theory can be indirectly tested by estimating the coefficients on unemployment rates in a wage model which concurrently isolates compensating wages for unemployment risk. If efficiency wages are paid, the coefficient on unemployment would be biased positive when industry controls are not included. A more negative coefficient on the unemployment rate would be expected in the model with the industry controls when efficiency wages are paid. Again, significant coefficients on industry control regressors could account for anything that differs between industries, and the behavior of the coefficient on the unemployment rate is a more precise test of the theory. The association between industry and wages provides indirect evidence in favor of efficiency wages only if controls are in place for all differences in human capital and job conditions. Murphy and Topel (1987) find that individual characteristics may explain this industry wage differential, i.e., the efficiency wage studies were unable to adequately control for differences in human capital. Evidence of Occupational Wage Differentials Thaler and Rosen (1976) measure compensating wage differentials between occupations associated with differences in safety. Wages are found to be positively related to the mortality rate within the occupation. Many other wage studies control for occupation by using large occupation classification dummies, usually

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22 finding significant occupational wage differentials. For the most part, no theory is proffered for, or tested by, this approach. Conclusions In order to measure long-run wage differentials between occupations which are caused by exposure to employment risk, controls for other factors which would also cause wage differentials between occupations are required. These factors include controls for differences in occupational skill levels, exposure to health and safety risks, potential industry efficiency wages, and short-run supply and demand fluctuations for the occupation.

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CHAPTER 3 OCCUPATIONAL RISK MEASURES In order to test the effect of employment diversification on wages, a measure of employment risk must be designed that takes into account the mobility of the occupation between industries. Employment offers to recent four-year college graduates by industry classification are examined for evidence of occupational mobility between industries over time. Of the nontechnical degree graduates, those with General Business majors are recruited by virtually all industries. Offers to graduates in Accounting are primarily from the Public Accounting Industry. Humanities and Marketing majors receive 40-50% of their offers from the Merchandising Industry. Among the Technical majors, Civil Engineers and Agricultural Sciences majors are the most widely recruited. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering majors are primarily recruited by the Chemical and Petroleum Industries. Offers to Computer Science, Industrial and Mechanical Engineering and Math majors are 40-50% concentrated in the industry classification which includes Aerospace, Electrical Machinery and Computer Manufacturing. The majority of offers to Civil Engineers are from the Construction and Government Industries. 23

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24 As an example of the effects of diversification on employment opportunities, Civil Engineering majors were exposed to a significant decline in offers from the Government in 1981; however, increased offers from the Construction Industry offset the reduction, producing no net effect on the total number of job offers. In contrast, Chemical Engineering majors are repeatedly exposed to fluctuations in the Petroleum and Chemical Industries. Between 1981 and 1983, total offers to Chemical Engineers declined by 85%. This was driven by an 87% decline in offers from the two primary industries. A summary of the percentage of offers by industry classification is presented in Table 3-1. Table 3-2 presents ten-year averages and variances of the number of offers per graduate and a Herfindahl-Hirschmann (H) concentration statistic for each curriculum category. The H statistic is calculated as the sum of square values of the industry shares of an occupation's total employment, enabling the measurement of the degree of concentration of an occupation on a o to 1 scale. Among the engineering fields, there is some evidence that when a curriculum is less industry diversified, as represented by a high H statistic, the employment opportunities are more volatile over time, as represented by a higher variance in offers per graduate. The correlation between Hand the variance is .04 overall. The correlation is much stronger (.97) for the engineering fields.

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25 Table 3-1 Percentage of Total Job Offers by Industry to Bachelor Degree Candidates by Curriculum 1978-1988 CURRICULUM Computer Marketing & General Accounting Science Distribution Business INDUSTRY Public Accounting 76% Banking, Finance, & Insurance 3% Merchandising 2% Aerospace, Electronic & Computers 3% Automotive & Mechanical Equipment 1% Construction & Building Materials 1% Chemical, Drugs & Allied 1% Food & Beverage Processing 1% Glass, Paper & Packaging 1% Metals & Metal Products 0% Petroleum & Allied Products 6% Research & Consulting 0% Tire & Rubber 0% Public Utilities & Transportation 2% Government 3% Nonprofit & Education 0% 3% 5% 5% 53% 2% 1% 4% 1% 1% 1% 8% 5% 0% 6% 4% 1% 1% 8% 47% 12% 3% 2% 7% 7% 3% 2% 3% 1% 0% 4% 1% 1% 4% 23% 28% 13% 2% 2% 4% 5% 2% 2% 5% 2% 0% 4% 3% 1%

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26 Table 3-1--continued CURRICULUM Chemical Mechanical Industrial Civil Engineers Engineers INDUSTRY Public Accounting 0% 0% 4% 1% Banking, Finance & Insurance 0% 0% 1% 1% Merchandising 0% 0% 2% 0% Aerospace, Electronic & Computers 8% 39% 39% 9% Automotive & Mechanical Equipment 2% 11% 8% 2% Construction & Building Materials 2% 3% 4% 25% Chemical, Drugs & Allied 43% 8% 10% 2% Food & Beverage Processing 4% 2% 4% 0% Glass, Paper & Packaging 6% 2% 4% 1% Metals & Metal Products 2% 6% 7% 4% Petroleum & Allied Products 27% 10% 2% 9% Research & Consulting 2% 3% 4% 10% Tire & Rubber 1% 1% 0% 0% Public Utilities & Transportation 2% 8% 6% 10% Government 2% 6% 5% 25% Nonprofit & Education 0% 0% 0% 0%

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27 Table 3-1--continued CURRICULUM INDUSTRY Agricultural Chemistry Humanities Mathematics Sciences Public Accounting 1% 2% 4% 1% Banking, Finance & Insurance 2% 18% 28% 13% Merchandising 3% 42% 3% 15% Aerospace, Electronic & & Computers 8% 6% 35% 2% Automotive & Mechanical Equipment 1% 1% 2% 2% Construction & Building Materials 1% 1% 1% 2% Chemical, Drugs & Allied 49% 3% 3% 12% Food & Beverage Processing 3% 3% 0% 26% Glass, Paper & Packaging 3% 2% 0% 2% Metals & Metal Products 1% 1% 1% 0% Petroleum & Allied Products 7% 1% 3% 3% Research & Consulting 7% 3% 7% 3% Tire & Rubber 4% 0% 0% 0% Public Utilities & Transportation 2% 2% 4% 1% Government 3% 7% 7% 15% Nonprofit & Education 4% 8% 1% 5%

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28 Table 3-2 Job Offers per Bachelor Degree Candidate 1978-1988 Offers/Grads Curriculum Average Variance H Statistic Accounting 0.16 0.0013 0.58 Agricultural Sciences 0.02 0.0001 0.15 Business General 0.09 0.0017 0.16 Chemistry 0.02 0.0001 0.27 Computer Science 0.14 0.0061 0.08 Humanities 0.24 0.0053 0.23 Marketing 0.08 0.0005 0.25 Mathematics 0.05 0.0003 0.22 Civil Engineering 0.24 0.0207 0.17 Chemical Engineering 0.60 0.1726 0.27 Industrial Engineering 0.39 0.0326 0.19 Mechanical Engineering 0.51 0.1000 0.20 The analysis of wages in Chapter 4 utilizes the three digit level of detail for occupations in 1980. In order to perform a quantitative identification and ranking of occupations by degree of exposure to unemployment risk and to later test for compensating wage effects, three measures of unemployment risk are calculated. To compute these measures, data referring to occupational employment by industry were obtained from the Commerce Department's 1980 Census Subject Reports. Responses to questions regarding occupation and industry of current employment are compiled in these reports. Occupations are identified by the 1980 detailed classification system consisting of 434 three digit level specific occupational categories describing the nature of the occupation. The industry classification of the employer, or the nature of the employer's business, is also identified from

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29 this data source. This industry classification consists of 231 categories based on the Standard Industrial Classification Manual. The industry variance and covariance measures, however, are derived from the Labor Department's Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) annual employment estimates for 100 industries from 1968-1990, as reported in Employment and Earnings. Although the Census reports the industry of employment at a three-digit level, in some cases the three-digit level industries were not available for the full 32-year period. These industries were regrouped to the two-digit level. Similarly, because the BLS uses one-digit level reporting in the industries of Agriculture, Construction and Finance, Insurance and Real Estate (FIRE), employment in these industry classes was grouped to maintain compatibility between the two sources. The resulting industry classifications are presented in Appendix A. The first two measures test whether employment risk is lower in occupations that are diversified between industries. The first measure calculated is a simple dummy variable. If greater than 50% employment is found in any one industry, an occupation is defined as high-risk. The industry with the largest concentration of employment for each occupation is presented in Appendix B. Table 3-3 presents the dummy and H risk measures at a three-digit occupational level ranked from highest to lowest concentration.

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30 The third, more sophisticated, risk measure is calculated based on employment variability over time. Since time series data on employment at a three-digit occupation level have not been compiled for more than a few large occupational classifications, the study must rely on time series data on industry employment, similar to the studies by Adams and Li, together with the industry-by occupation matrix of employment to make inferences about the time series of occupational employment. A regression was computed using the annual industry employment growth rates for each industry for the years 1960-1990 as the dependent variable and the average of the three prior years' U.S. employment growth rate as the independent variable. This method controls for labor force changes due to varying labor force participation rates (e.g., for women) and fluctuations in demographic patterns, which should not be included in a measure of unemployment risk. The residual will embody changes in employment due to business cycle fluctuations and shifting demand for industry products, which should be included in an employment risk measure. The variance of industry deviations from the predicted values is considered the unemployment risk for the industry, or the industry variance. The covariances of industry deviations from predicted values are also calculated. The unemployment risk of each occupation is

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31 Table 3-3 Risk Measures for Detailed Occupations SOC TITLE DUMMY 227 383 424 488 253 375 179 003 355 418 354 017 255 423 414 317 457 254 595 614 573 005 176 458 006 024 588 445 204 417 018 089 085 823 745 425 413 869 845 177 876 465 825 584 088 679 498 594 553 Air Traffic Controllers Bank Tellers Correctional Institution Graders and Sorters Insurance Insurance Adjusters Judges Legislators & Public Administration Mail Carriers, Postal Service Police and Detective, Private Service Postal Clerks, except Mail Carriers Postmasters Securities and Financial Services Sales Sheriff, Bailiffs and Other Law Enforce Supervisors, Police Hotel Clerks Barbers Real Estate Sales Roofers Driller, Oil Well Drywall Installers Administrators, Officials, Pub. Admin. Clergy Hairdressers Administrators, Protective Services Underwriters Concrete and Terrazzo Finishers Dental Assistants Dental Hygienists Firefighting Funeral Directors Health Diagnosing nee Dentists Railroad Conductors and Yardmasters Shoe Machine Operator Crossing Guards Supervisors, Firefighting Construction Laborers Longshore Equipment Operators Religious Stevedores Public Transportation Railroad Brake, Signal & Switch Operator Plasterers Podiatrists Bookbinders Fishers Paving, Surfacing and Tamping Equipment Supervisors, Brickmasons, Stonemasons 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 H 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.93 0.93 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.91 0.91 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.87 0.87 0.87 0.86 0.86 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.83 0.83 0.82 0.82 0.81 0.81 0.81 0.81

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32 Table 3-3--Continued soc TITLE DUMMY H 558 Supervisors, nee 1 0.81 437 Short-Order Cooks 1 0.80 826 Rail Vehicle Operators, nee 1 0.78 387 Teachers' Aides 1 0.77 563 Brickmasons and Stonemasons 1 0.76 306 Chief Communications 1 0.75 678 Dental Laboratory and Medical Appliance 1 0.75 455 Pest Control Occupations 1 0.75 556 Supervisors, Painters, Paperhangers 1 0.75 198 Announcers 1 0.74 087 Optometrists 1 0.74 529 Telephone Installers and Repairers 1 0.74 527 Telephone Line Installers and Repairers 1 0.74 438 Food Counter 1 0.72 565 Tile Setters, Hard and Soft 1 0.72 086 Veterinarians 1 0.72 435 Waiters and Waitresses 1 0.72 495 Forestry Workers 1 0.71 773 Motion Picture Projectionists 1 0.71 598 Driller, Earth 1 0.70 016 Managers Properties 1 0.70 554 Supervisors, Carpenters and Related 1 0.70 205 Health Record 1 0.68 694 Water & Sewage Treatment Plant Operators 1 0.68 434 Bartenders 1 0.67 824 Locomotive Operating Occupations 1 0.67 875 Garbage Collectors 1 0.66 186 Musicians and Composers 1 0.66 583 Paperhangers 1 0.66 206 Radiologic Technicians 1 0.66 464 Ushers 1 0.66 567 Carpenters 1 0.65 047 Petroleum Engineers 1 0.64 865 Helpers, Construction Trades 1 0.63 278 News Vendors 1 0.63 844 Operating Engineers 1 0.63 557 Supervisors, Plumbers, Pipefitters 1 0.63 173 Urban Planners 1 0.63 353 Communications Equipment Operators, nee 1 0.62 577 Electrical Power Installers and Repair 1 0.62 737 Miscellaneous Printing Machine Operators 1 0.62 744 Textile Sewing Machine Operators 1 0.62 496 Timber Cutting 1 0.62 203 Clinical Laboratory 1 0.61 178 Lawyers 1 0.61 226 Airplane Pilots 1 0.60 183 Authors 1 0.60 829 Sailors and Deckhands 1 0.60 155 Teachers, Prekindergarten 1 0.60 885 Garage and Service Station Related 1 0.59 738 Winding and Twisting Machine Operators 1 0.59

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33 Table 3-3--Continued soc 193 095 828 597 096 593 695 497 207 015 366 735 277 514 683 036 028 318 344 329 579 877 066 025 084 494 467 014 599 726 855 164 747 459 466 536 433 808 739 616 447 693 487 686 436 596 063 187 566 097 669 TITLE Dancers Registered Nurse Ship Captains and Mates, except Fishing Structural Metal Workers Pharmacists Insulation Workers Power Plant Operators DUMMY 1 1 1 1 1 1 Captains & Other Officers Fishing Vessel Licensed Practical Nurses 1 1 1 Managers Medicine Meter Readers Photoengravers and Lithographers Street and Door-to-door Automobile Body and Related Repairers Electrical and Electronic Equipment Inspectors and Compliance Purchasing Agents Transportation Ticket & Reservations Billing, Posting and Calculating Oper. Library Clerks Painters, Construction and Maintenance Stock Handlers and Baggers Actuaries Other Financial Officers Physicians Supervisors Welfare Service Administrators Construction Trades, nee. Wood Lathe, Routing and Planing Machine Grader, Dozer and Scraper Operators Librarians Pressing Machine Operator Attendants, Amusement Baggage Porters Locksmiths and Safe Repairers Supervisors, Food Preparation Bus Drivers Knitting, Looping, Taping and Weaving Mining Machine Operators Nursing Aides, Orderlies Adjusters and Calibrators Animal Caretakers Butchers and Meat Cutters Cooks except Short Order Sheetmetal Duct Installers Surveyors Actors and Directors Carpet Installers Dieticians Shoe Repairers 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 H 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.55 0.53 0.52 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.49 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40

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34 Table 3-3--Continued soc 443 736 228 517 446 585 044 508 687 853 515 377 613 867 058 684 647 284 034 748 646 734 349 054 035 163 208 848 275 667 199 079 439 763 174 866 617 727 165 468 543 416 729 677 636 707 688 037 833 814 175 TITLE Waiters and Waitresses Assistants Typesetters and Compositors Broadcast Equipment Farm Equipment Mechanics Health Aides except Nursing Plumbers, Pipefitters and Steamfitters Aerospace Engineers Aircraft Engine Mechanics Bakers DUMMY 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Excavating and Loading Machine Operators Aircraft Mechanics except Engine Eligibility Clerks 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 Supervisors, Extractive Occupations Helpers, Extractive Occupations Marine Engineers Miscellaneous Precision Workers, nee Precious Stones & Metal Workers-Jewelers Auctioneers Business and Promotion Agents Laundering and Dry Cleaning Machine Lay-out Workers Printing Machine Operators Telegraphers Agricultural Engineers Construction Inspectors Counselors Health Technologists Hoist and Winch Operators Sales Counter Clerks Tailors Athletes Forestry Kitchen Workers Roasting and Baking Machine Operators Social Workers Helpers, Surveyor Mining Occupations, nee. Sawing Machine Operators Archivists Child Care Workers except Private Elevator Installers and Repairers Fire Inspection and Fire Prevention Nailing and Tacking Machine Operators Optical Goods Workers Precision Assemblers, Metal Rolling Machine Food Batchmakers Management Related Marine Engineers Motor Transportation Occupations nee Recreation 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 H 0.40 0.39 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29

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35 Table 3-3--Continued soc 668 589 749 733 813 194 834 657 658 444 784 026 539 259 499 218 053 007 486 234 106 485 555 809 505 325 575 075 538 169 348 256 535 276 427 456 074 525 195 083 076 384 168 167 757 316 449 046 509 673 068 TITLE Upholsterers Glaziers Miscellaneous Textile Machine Operator Misc. Woodworking Machine Operator Parking Lot Attendants Artists Bridge, Lock and Lighthouse Tenders Cabinet Makers and Bench Carpenters Furniture and Wood Finishers Miscellaneous Food Preparation Solderers & Braziers Management Analysts Mechanical Controls and Valve Repairer Sales Reps. Hunters and Trappers surveying Technologists Civil Engineers Financial Managers Groundskeepers Legal Assistants Physicians Assistants Supervisors Supervisors, Electricians & Power Taxicab Drivers and Chauffeurs Automobile Mechanics Classified-ad Clerks Electricians Geologists Office Machine Repairers Social Scientists Telephone Operators Advertising and Related Sales Camera, Watch and Musical Instruments Cashiers Protective Service Occupations Supervisors Atmospheric Data Processing Equipment Repairers Editors Medical Physical Scientists nee Proof Readers Sociologists Psychologists Separating, Filtering and Clarifying Interviewers Maids and Housemen Mining Engineers Small Engine Repairers Apparel and Fabric Patternmakers Mathematical Scientists DUMMY 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 H 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.18

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36 Table 3-3--Continued soc 674 189 336 314 804 077 526 489 188 743 029 048 224 463 516 328 257 507 534 723 656 774 666 649 347 653 803 078 326 343 055 787 849 806 523 454 615 426 786 793 689 376 703 715 699 049 069 067 303 243 887 TITLE Misc. Precision Apparel & Fabric Photographers Records Clerks Stenographers Truck Drivers, Heavy Agricultural Household Appliance & Power Tool Repair Inspectors Painters, Sculptors, Craft Artists Textile Cutting Machine Operators Buyers Chemical Engineers Chemical Technologists Guides Heavy Equipment Mechanics Personnel Clerks except Payroll Sales Occupations, Other Business DUMMY 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bus, Truck & Stationary Engine Mechanic Heating, Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Metal Plating Machine Operators Patternmakers and Model Makers, Wood Photographic Process Machine Operators Dressmakers 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Engravers, Metal Office Machine Operators, nee Sheet Metal Workers Supervisors, Motor Vehicle Operators Biological Correspondence Clerks Cost and Rate Clerks Electrical Engineers Hand Molding, Casting and Forming Crane and Tower Operators Driver-Sales Workers Electronic Repairers, Communications Elevator Operators Explosive Workers Guards and Police, except Public Service Hand Cutting and Trimming Hand Engraving Inspectors, Testers and Graders Investigators except Insurance Lathe and Turning Machine Set-up Operator Miscellaneous Metal, Plastic, Stone Miscellaneous Plant and System Operator Nuclear Engineers Physicists Statisticians Supervisors General Office Supervisors & Proprietors, Sales Vehicle Washers and Equipment Cleaners 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 H 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12

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37 Table 3-3--Continued soc 023 378 643 213 864 704 374 714 319 285 728 415 634 389 223 064 708 755 765 675 789 724 705 533 659 754 469 706 315 283 185 359 059 713 794 637 027 258 448 785 229 217 335 799 357 045 065 327 676 645 644 TITLE Accountants Bill and Account Collectors Boilermakers Electrical Technologists Helpers, Mechanics and Repairers Lathe and Turning Machine Operators Material Recording, Scheduling Numerical Control Machine Operators Receptionists Sales Support Occupations nee Shaping and Joining Machine Operators Supervisors, Guards Tool and Die Makers Administrative Support nee Biological Technologists Computer Systems Drilling and Boring Extruding and Forming Machine Operator Folding Machine Operators DUMMY 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Hand Molders & Shapers except Jewelers Hand Painting, Coating and Decorating Heat Treating Equipment Operators Milling and Planing Machine Operators Miscellaneous Electrical and Electronics Miscellaneous Precision Woodworkers Packaging & Filling Machine Operators Personal Service Occupations, nee Punching and Stamping Press 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Typists Demonstrators, Promoters and Models Designers Dispatchers Engineer, nee. Forging Machine Operators Hand Grinding Machinists Personnel Sales Engineers Supervisors, Cleaning & Building Services Assemblers Computer Programmers Drafting Technologists File Clerks Graders and Sorters Messengers Metallurgical Engineers Operations and Systems Researchers Order Clerks Pattern Makers, Lay-out Workers & Cutters Patternmakers and Model Makers, Metal Precision Grinders, Filers, and Tool 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 H 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08

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38 Table 3-3--Continued soc 797 386 304 503 235 805 385 345 717 883 323 453 346 544 725 719 197 225 313 305 843 043 073 308 166 216 379 709 878 356 057 215 759 309 184 783 337 753 768 766 056 214 013 655 795 307 863 233 764 339 758 TITLE Production Testers Statistical Clerks Supervisors, Computer Equipment Supervisors, Mechanics and Repairers Technicians nee Truck Drivers, Light Data Entry Keyers Duplicating Machine Operators Fabricating Machine Operators, nee Freight Stock & Material Handlers, nee Information Clerks nee Janitors and Cleaners Mail & Paper Handling Machine Operators Millwrights DUMMY 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Miscellaneous Metal & Plastic Processors Molding and Casting Machine Operators Public Relations 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Science Technologists nee Secretaries Supervisors, Financial Records Supervisors, Material Moving Equipment Architects Chemists Computer Operators Economists Engineering Technologists General Office Grinding, Abrading, Buffing and Polish Machine Feeders and Offbearers Mail Clerks, except Postal Service Mechanical Engineers Mechanical Technologists Painting and Paint Spraying Machine Peripheral Equipment Operators Technical Writers Welders and Cutters Bookkeepers, Accounting & Auditing Cementing and Gluing Machine Operators Crushing and Grinding Machine Operator Furnace Kiln & Oven Operators except Food Industrial Engineers Industrial Technologists Managers Marketing Miscellaneous Precision Metal Workers Misc. Hand Working Supervisors, Distributions Supervisors, Handlers, Equipment Cleaners Tool Programmers Washing, Cleaning and Pickling Machine Billing Clerks Compressing and Compacting Machine 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 H 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04

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39 Table 3-3--Continued soc 373 888 519 019 777 756 796 009 369 769 547 696 365 856 889 779 859 549 338 008 363 873 798 033 364 368 518 633 TITLE Expediters Hand Packers and Packagers Machinery Maintenance Occupations Managers and Administrators nee Miscellaneous Machine Operators, nee Mixing and Blending Machine Operator Production Inspectors, Checkers Purchasing Samplers Slicing and cutting Machine Operators Specified Mechanics and Repairers, nee Stationary Engineers Stock and Inventory Industrial Truck and Tractor Equipment Laborers, except Construction Machine Operators, not Specified Miscellaneous Material Moving Equipment Not Specified Mechanics and Repairers Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks Personnel and Labor Relations Production Coordinators Production Helpers Production Samplers and Weighers Purchasing Agents nee Traffic, Shippings Weighers, Measurers Industrial Machinery Repairers Supervisors, Production Occupations DUMMY 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 H 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 estimated by the sum of the weighted industry variance and covariances. The weights are the frequencies of the occupation's employment in industries in 1980. If an occupation is employed exclusively in one industry, the occupation's risk measure is equivalent to that industry's risk measure. If the occupation is employed in many industries, the covariance of the industries is also included. For example, an occupation with 80% employment in Industry One and 20% employment in Industry Two in 1980, would have its occupational variance calculated as in Equation 3-1.

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40 Var=80% 2 (Var 1 )+20% 2 (Var2)+2*80%*20%(Cov1,2) Eq. 3-1 This procedure downweights the risk of an occupation if its opportunities are in industries which are negatively correlated. The risk measure of an occupation is increased if the industries are positively correlated. In contrast to Adams' and Li's measures of risk, the occupational measure will capture the combined industry unemployment risk as measured by the covariance terms, and not just the risk of the industry as measured by the variance terms. Occupation variance measures ranked from highest to lowest volatility are presented in Table 3-4, which reports the sum of weighted industry variances as the occupation's variance. The sum of weighted industry covariances is reported as the occupation's covariance. The total is the sum of the variance and covariance, representing the total occupational variance. For 21 of 434 total occupations, the weighted sum of the industry covariances has a negative sign, thereby reducing the total variance for the occupation. Among the occupations with negative industry covariances are timber cutters, hoist and winch operators, veterinarians, groundskeepers and actors and directors. These occupations appear to have little in common. The inclusion of the covariance in the total variance significantly changes the risk ranking of occupations. For example, purchasing agents are found in industries which have a relatively low

PAGE 47

41 variance, but the high positive industry covariance makes it a riskier occupation. Based on the total risk measure, mining, lumber and petroleum occupations rank highest, due to high industry employment volatility. These occupations are found primarily in the same industries which purportedly pay efficiency wages. Low-risk occupations include government, administrative, retail and service positions. Performers, artists and athletes also have a low ranking. The correlation between the risk measures Dummy and H is very high at .81. Both measure the concentration of an occupation in industries. The correlation between the total occupational variance and His .06; with the Dummy, it is .09. The correlations with total occupational variance are expected to be low, since the variance measure is measuring risk by the employment volatility of the relevant industries instead of the dependence of an occupation's employment on the industry. Appendix c presents the Dummy and H measures, and Appendix D presents the occupational variance measures. Occupations are ranked from lowest to highest risk within each two-digit classification. The risk measures are very small for most classes at the one and two-digit levels, with the exception of construction, extractive and farming occupations which have high risk measures. The variation in risk measures within the two-digit classes from the weighted average of the

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42 Table 3-4 Occupation Variance Measures SOC Title Variance Covariance Total 496 Timber Cutting 494 Supervisors, Forestry 614 Driller, Oil Well 047 Petroleum Engineer 613 Supervisors, Extractive 693 Adjusters & Calibrators 616 Mining Machine Operators 745 Shoe Machine Operator 617 Mining Occupations, nee 044 Aerospace Engineers 867 Helpers, Extractive 726 Wood Lathe, Routing 715 Miscellaneous Metal 703 Lathe & Turning Machine 683 Electrical 707 Rolling Machine 634 Tool and Die Makers 727 Sawing Machine Operator 706 Punching & Stamping 724 Heat Treating Equipment 729 Nailing & Tacking 784 Solderers and Braziers 713 Forging Machine 848 Hoist & Winch 708 Drilling and Boring 704 Lathe and Turning 636 Precision Assemblers 709 Grinding, Abrading 656 Patternmakers and Model 595 Roofers 573 Drywall Installers 675 Hand Molders & Shapers 728 Shaping and Joining 733 Misc. Woodworking 785 Assemblers 588 Concrete and Terrazzo 644 Precision Grinders 684 Miscellaneous Precision 705 Milling and Planing 594 Paving, Surfacing 553 Supervisors, Brickmason 645 Patternmakers and Model 646 Lay-out Workers 714 Numerical Control 869 Construction Laborers 563 Brickmasons 584 Plasterers 565 Tile Setters 657 Cabinet Makers & Bench 0.04841 0.03013 0.00721 0.00492 0.00269 0.00254 0.00292 0.00307 0.00225 0.00203 0.00238 0.00174 0.00075 0.00044 0.00174 0.00115 0.00045 0.00132 0.00038 0.00036 0.00113 0.00090 0.00029 0.00253 0.00034 0.00035 0.00127 0.00023 0.00045 0.00201 0.00201 0.00034 0.00038 0.00106 0.00034 0.00194 0.00031 0.00101 0.00034 0.00175 0.00174 0.00027 0.00097 0.00042 0.00180 0.00163 0.00176 0.00154 0.00068 -0.00025 0.00037 0.00005 0.00024 0.00090 0.00092 0.00049 0.00013 0.00093 0.00114 0.00078 0.00108 0.00206 0.00232 0.00098 0.00150 0.00207 0.00108 0.00201 0.00202 0.00119 0.00139 0.00197 -0.00028 0.00190 0.00187 0.00089 0.00192 0.00165 0.00005 0.00006 0.00174 0.00167 0.00098 0.00171 0.00009 0.00171 0.00100 0.00165 0.00018 0.00019 0.00163 0.00091 0.00146 0.00007 0.00022 0.00008 0.00028 0.00114 0.04816 0.03051 0.00726 0.00516 0.00358 0.00346 0.00341 0.00320 0.00318 0.00317 0.00316 0.00282 0.00281 0.00277 0.00272 0.00265 0.00252 0.00240 0.00240 0.00239 0.00232 0.00229 0.00226 0.00224 0.00224 0.00222 0.00216 0.00215 0.00210 0.00207 0.00207 0.00207 0.00205 0.00204 0.00204 0.00202 0.00202 0.00200 0.00199 0.00193 0.00192 0.00190 0.00188 0.00188 0.00187 0.00185 0.00184 0.00182 0.00182

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Table 3-4--continued SOC Title 558 Supervisors, nee 43 725 Misc. Metal & Plastic 797 Production Testers 597 Structural Metal Worker 723 Metal Plating Machine 717 Fabricating Machine 556 Supervisors, Painters 719 Molding & Casting 515 Aircraft Mechanics 655 Misc. Precision Metal 554 Supervisors, Carpenters 544 Millwrights 567 Carpenters 046 Mining Engineers 045 Metallurgical Engineers 637 Machinists 598 Driller, Earth 865 Helpers, Construction 583 Paperhangers 075 Geologists 057 Mechanical Engineers 557 Supervisors, Plumbers 849 Crane and Tower 596 Sheetmetal Duct 755 Extruding & Forming 844 Operating Engineers 593 Insulation Workers 796 Production Inspectors 659 Misc. Precision Wood 783 Welders and Cutters 689 Inspectors, Testers 738 Winding & Twisting 215 Mechanical Engin. Tech 759 Painting & Paint 658 Furniture & Wood 579 Painters, Construction 794 Hand Grinding 056 Industrial Engineer 465 Public Transportation 566 Carpet Installers 653 Sheet Metal Workers 676 Pattern Makers, Lay-out 739 Knitting, Looping 599 Construction Trades nee 753 Cementing & Gluing 749 Miscellaneous Textile 779 Machine Operators 585 Plumbers, Pipefitters 744 Textile Sewing Machine 777 Misc. Machine Operator Variance Covariance Total 0.00174 0.00019 0.00027 0.00119 0.00035 0.00021 0.00161 0.00020 0.00124 0.00016 0.00150 0.00025 0.00140 0.00128 0.00030 0.00026 0.00152 0.00135 0.00140 0.00145 0.00025 0.00135 0.00039 0.00086 0.00026 0.00136 0.00111 0.00015 0.00022 0.00017 0.00040 0.00088 0.00030 0.00014 0.00059 0.00103 0.00016 0.00016 0.00126 0.00060 0.00033 0.00016 0.00062 0.00096 0.00012 0.00043 0.00009 0.00081 0.00072 0.00009 0.00007 0.00161 0.00149 0.00057 0.00141 0.00155 0.00014 0.00155 0.00050 0.00156 0.00019 0.00143 0.00027 0.00040 0.00135 0.00137 0.00009 0.00027 0.00020 0.00012 0.00130 0.00016 0.00109 0.00059 0.00119 0.00006 0.00031 0.00127 0.00119 0.00124 0.00099 0.00050 0.00109 0.00122 0.00077 0.00030 0.00115 0.00113 0.00002 0.00068 0.00094 0.00111 0.00064 0.00029 0.00112 0.00079 0.00112 0.00039 0.00040 0.00102 0.00181 0.00180 0.00177 0.00176 0.00176 0.00176 0.00175 0.00175 0.00174 0.00172 0.00168 0.00168 0.00167 0.00167 0.00165 0.00163 0.00162 0.00162 0.00160 0.00158 0.00155 0.00151 0.00148 0.00145 0.00145 0.00142 0.00142 0.00142 0.00141 0.00141 0.00139 0.00138 0.00138 0.00136 0.00135 0.00132 0.00131 0.00129 0.00128 0.00128 0.00127 0.00127 0.00126 0.00125 0.00124 0.00122 0.00121 0.00120 0.00112 0.00110

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Table 3-4--continued SOC Title 44 054 Agricultural Engineer 543 Elevator Installers 766 Furnace Kiln & Oven 615 Explosive Workers 575 Electricians 787 Hand Molding, Casting 769 Slicing & cutting 878 Machine Feeders 668 Upholsterers 743 Textile Cutting Machine 855 Grader, Dozer & Scraper 226 Airplane Pilots 258 Sales Engineers 853 Excavating & Loading 825 Railroad Brake, Signal 823 Railroad Conductors 055 Electrical Engineer 213 Electrical Technician 647 Precious Stones & Metal 217 Drafting 589 Glaziers 856 Industrial Truck 555 Supervisors, Electrician 824 Locomotive Operating 508 Aircraft Engine Mechanic 669 Shoe Repairers 514 Automobile Body 673 Apparel & Fabric Pattern 758 Compressing & Compacting 633 Supervisors, Production 318 Transport Ticket Agent 043 Engineers, Architects 214 Industrial Engin. Tech 354 Postal Clerks 355 Mail Carriers, Postal 017 Postmasters 826 Rail Vehicle Operators 516 Heavy Equipment 518 Industrial Machinery 525 Data Processing Equip 643 Boilermakers 764 Washing, Cleaning 233 Tool Programmers 053 Civil Engineer 793 Hand Engraving 529 Telephone Installers 455 Pest Control Occupation 789 Hand Painting, Coating 768 Crushing, Grinding 306 Chief Communications Variance Covariance Total 0.00083 0.00063 0.00015 0.00063 0.00049 0.00022 0.00007 0.00013 0.00038 0.00027 0.00105 0.00092 0.00011 0.00083 0.00079 0.00083 0.00037 0.00030 0.00046 0.00011 0.00034 0.00010 0.00049 0.00065 0.00057 0.00066 0.00049 0.00021 0.00006 0.00005 0.00074 0.00011 0.00006 0.00078 0.00078 0.00078 0.00074 0.00028 0.00005 0.00030 0.00021 0.00006 0.00009 0.00040 0.00013 0.00068 0.00068 0.00011 0.00007 0.00068 0.00026 0.00044 0.00093 0.00041 0.00056 0.00083 0.00098 0.00091 0.00065 0.00077 -0.00003 0.00006 0.00086 0.00013 0.00016 0.00009 0.00055 0.00060 0.00044 0.00077 0.00053 0.00077 0.00037 0.00018 0.00026 0.00015 0.00033 0.00061 0.00076 0.00077 0.00007 0.00069 0.00073 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00004 0.00049 0.00072 0.00046 0.00055 0.00070 0.00065 0.00033 0.00060 0.00004 0.00004 0.00059 0.00064 0.00002 0.00109 0.00108 0.00108 0.00105 0.00105 0.00105 0.00105 0.00104 0.00103 0.00103 0.00102 0.00098 0.00097 0.00096 0.00095 0.00092 0.00092 0.00091 0.00090 0.00089 0.00086 0.00086 0.00085 0.00083 0.00083 0.00082 0.00082 0.00082 0.00082 0.00082 0.00081 0.00080 0.00079 0.00078 0.00078 0.00078 0.00078 0.00077 0.00077 0.00076 0.00076 0.00076 0.00074 0.00073 0.00073 0.00072 0.00072 0.00071 0.00071 0.00070

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Table 3-4--continued SOC Title 45 885 Garage & Service station 519 Machinery Maintenance 859 Misc. Material Moving 488 Graders and Sorters 527 Telephone Line Installer 765 Folding Machine Operator 866 Helpers, Surveyor 387 Teachers' Aides 533 Misc. Electrical Repair 033 Purchasing Agents nee 795 Misc. Hand Working 804 Truck Drivers, Heavy 505 Automobile Mechanics 509 Small Engine Repairers 216 Engineering Tech, nee 873 Production Helpers 534 Heating, Air Condition 353 Communications Equipment 363 Production Coordinators 798 Production Samplers 373 Expediters 364 Traffic, Shippings 059 Engineer, nee. 063 Surveyors 536 Locksmiths & Safe Repair 887 Vehicle Washers 457 Barbers 507 Bus, Truck & Stationary 674 Misc. Precision Apparel 458 Hairdressers 498 Fishers 018 Funeral Directors 535 camera, Watch Repair 218 Surveying 756 Mixing & Blending 667 Tailors 547 Specified Mechanics 495 Forestry Workers 809 Taxicab Drivers 526 Household Appliance 843 Supervisors Material 549 Not Specified Mechanics 864 Helpers, Mechanics 883 Freight Stock & Material 048 Chemical Engineer 009 Purchasing Manager 699 Misc. Plant Operator 064 Computer Systems Analyst 747 Pressing Machine 284 Auctioneers Variance Covariance Total 0.00057 0.00013 0.00011 0.00069 0.00067 0.00011 0.00040 0.00066 0.00014 0.00007 0.00006 0.00024 0.00024 0.00023 0.00011 0.00006 0.00023 0.00056 0.00006 0.00007 0.00006 0.00004 0.00009 0.00041 0.00039 0.00013 0.00058 0.00017 0.00013 0.00056 0.00055 0.00055 0.00020 0.00028 0.00004 0.00033 0.00004 0.00051 0.00036 0.00019 0.00007 0.00004 0.00012 0.00009 0.00014 0.00005 0.00021 0.00011 0.00034 0.00027 0.00014 0.00057 0.00059 0.00000 0.00002 0.00058 0.00028 0.00001 0.00053 0.00060 0.00062 0.00042 0.00041 0.00042 0.00056 0.00060 0.00042 0.00008 0.00058 0.00056 0.00057 0.00059 0.00053 0.00019 0.00021 0.00046 0.00000 0.00041 0.00045 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.00037 0.00027 0.00051 0.00021 0.00050 0.00002 0.00016 0.00033 0.00045 0.00048 0.00038 0.00042 0.00035 0.00044 0.00027 0.00036 0.00013 0.00020 0.00070 0.00070 0.00070 0.00069 0.00069 0.00069 0.00068 0.00067 0.00067 0.00067 0.00067 0.00066 0.00066 0.00066 0.00066 0.00066 0.00065 0.00064 0.00064 0.00063 0.00063 0.00063 0.00062 0.00060 0.00060 0.00059 0.00058 0.00058 0.00058 0.00057 0.00057 0.00057 0.00057 0.00055 0.00055 0.00054 0.00054 0.00053 0.00052 0.00052 0.00052 0.00052 0.00050 0.00050 0.00049 0.00049 0.00048 0.00048 0.00047 0.00046

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46 Table 3-4--continued soc Title Variance Covariance Total 649 Engravers, Metal 0.00009 0.00037 0.00046 185 Designers 0.00006 0.00041 0.00046 086 Veterinarians 0.00049 -0.00005 0.00045 889 Laborers, except Const 0.00003 0.00042 0.00045 677 Optical Goods Workers 0.00020 0.00023 0.00044 224 Chemical 0.00013 0.00030 0.00044 184 Technical Writers 0.00008 0.00036 0.00044 349 Telegraphers 0.00031 0.00012 0.00043 049 Nuclear Engineers 0.00011 0.00033 0.00043 329 Library Clerks 0.00038 0.00003 0.00042 026 Management Analysts 0.00022 0.00020 0.00042 523 Electronic Repairers 0.00013 0.00029 0.00042 799 Graders and Sorters 0.00009 0.00033 0.00042 888 Hand Packers & Packager 0.00003 0.00040 0.00042 845 Longshore Equipment 0.00040 0.00001 0.00041 876 Stevedores 0.00040 0.00001 0.00041 229 Computer Programmers 0.00008 0.00033 0.00041 259 Sales Reps., Mining 0.00008 0.00033 0.00041 365 Stock & Inventory Clerk 0.00003 0.00038 0.00041 164 Librarians 0.00036 0.00004 0.00040 829 Sailors and Deckhands 0.00031 0.00009 0.00040 503 Supervisors, Mechanics 0.00010 0.00030 0.00040 338 Payroll and Timekeeping 0.00003 0.00037 0.00040 445 Dental Assistants 0.00038 0.00001 0.00039 204 Dental Hygienists 0.00038 0.00001 0.00039 014 Administrators, Educ 0.00036 0.00003 0.00039 497 Captains & Other Officer 0.00034 0.00005 0.00039 035 Construction Inspectors 0.00030 0.00009 0.00039 813 Parking Lot Attendants 0.00024 0.00015 0.00039 757 Separating, Filtering 0.00015 0.00024 0.00039 538 Office Machine Repairers 0.00013 0.00026 0.00039 089 Health Diagnosing nee 0.00038 0.00000 0.00038 085 Dentists 0.00037 0.00001 0.00038 225 Science Tech, nee 0.00011 0.00027 0.00038 307 Supervisors Distribution 0.00005 0.00034 0.00038 013 Managers Marketing 0.00003 0.00036 0.00038 828 Ship Captains and Mates 0.00028 0.00009 0.00037 058 Marine Engineer, Naval 0.00025 0.00011 0.00037 275 Sales Counter Clerks 0.00020 0.00016 0.00037 088 Podiatrists 0.00035 0.00001 0.00036 678 Dental Lab Tech 0.00032 0.00003 0.00036 206 Radiologic Technicians 0.00031 0.00005 0.00036 803 Supervisors, Motor 0.00016 0.00020 0.00036 068 Mathematical Scientists 0.00014 0.00022 0.00036 359 Dispatchers 0.00010 0.00025 0.00036 666 Dressmakers 0.00009 0.00026 0.00036 437 Short-Order Cooks 0.00033 0.00002 0.00035 205 Health Record Tech 0.00032 0.00003 0.00035 774 Photographic Process 0.00012 0.00022 0.00035 426 Guards and Police 0.00010 0.00025 0.00035

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47 Table 3-4--continued soc Title Variance Covariance Total 786 Hand Cutting & Trimming 0.00006 0.00029 0.00035 805 Truck Drivers, Light 0.00006 0.00029 0.00035 073 Chemists 0.00005 0.00030 0.00035 065 Operations, System 0.00005 0.00030 0.00035 368 Weighers, Measurers 0.00003 0.00032 0.00035 694 Water and Sewage 0.00033 0.00002 0.00034 679 Bookbinders 0.00033 0.00001 0.00034 875 Garbage Collectors 0.00032 0.00002 0.00034 808 Bus Drivers 0.00027 0.00007 0.00034 203 Clinical Laboratory 0.00029 0.00005 0.00033 863 Supervisors, Handlers 0.00005 0.00027 0.00033 087 Optometrists 0.00031 0.00001 0.00032 438 Food Counter 0.00030 0.00002 0.00032 435 Waiters and Waitresses 0.00030 0.00003 0.00032 366 Meter Readers 0.00021 0.00011 0.00032 277 Street & Door-to-door 0.00020 0.00012 0.00032 166 Economists 0.00004 0.00027 0.00032 095 Registered Nurse 0.00026 0.00004 0.00031 737 Misc. Printing Machine 0.00025 0.00006 0.00031 015 Managers Medicine 0.00024 0.00008 0.00031 257 Sales Occupations, Other 0.00013 0.00018 0.00031 415 Supervisors, Guards 0.00009 0.00023 0.00031 008 Personnel & Labor 0.00002 0.00028 0.00031 198 Announcers 0.00028 0.00001 0.00030 434 Bartenders 0.00027 0.00003 0.00030 833 Marine Engineers 0.00015 0.00014 0.00030 304 Supervisors, Computer 0.00005 0.00025 0.00030 283 Demonstrators, Promoters 0.00005 0.00025 0.00030 369 Samplers 0.00004 0.00027 0.00030 019 Managers, Administrator 0.00002 0.00028 0.00030 207 LPN 0.00024 0.00005 0.00029 577 Electrical Power 0.00023 0.00005 0.00029 517 Farm Equipment Mechanics 0.00014 0.00016 0.00029 374 Material Recording 0.00008 0.00021 0.00029 069 Physicists 0.00008 0.00021 0.00029 696 Stationary Engineers 0.00005 0.00024 0.00029 163 Counselors 0.00026 0.00003 0.00028 348 Telephone Operators 0.00020 0.00008 0.00028 084 Physicians 0.00020 0.00007 0.00027 189 Photographers 0.00012 0.00015 0.00027 309 Peripheral Equipment 0.00003 0.00024 0.00027 487 Animal Caretakers 0.00027 0.00000 0.00026 414 Supervisors, Police 0.00026 0.00000 0.00026 227 Air Traffic Controllers 0.00026 0.00000 0.00026 423 Sheriff, Bailiffs 0.00026 0.00000 0.00026 424 Correctional Institution 0.00026 0.00000 0.00026 418 Police & Detective 0.00026 0.00000 0.00026 179 Judges 0.00026 0.00000 0.00026 003 Legislators & Public 0.00026 0.00000 0.00026 317 Hotel Clerks 0.00026 0.00000 0.00026

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Table 3-4--continued SOC Title 735 Photoengravers 499 Hunters and Trappers 539 Mechanical Control 029 Buyers 327 Order Clerks 345 Duplicating Machine 027 Personnel Specialist 308 Computer Operators 385 Data Entry Keyers 48 447 Nursing Aides, Orderlies 754 Packaging & Filling 006 Admin., Protective 005 Admin., Public Admin. 466 Baggage Porters 834 Bridge, Lock, Lighthouse 734 Printing Machine 339 Billing Clerks 326 Correspondence Clerks 417 Firefighting 425 Crossing Guards 413 Supervisors, Fire 097 Dieticians 695 Power Plant Operators 446 Health Aides 243 Supervisor Proprietor 285 Sales Support Occupation 337 Bookkeepers, Accounting 305 Supervisors, Financial 468 Childcare Worker 736 Typesetters & Compositor 235 Technicians 453 Janitors and Cleaners 814 Motor Transportation 763 Roasting & Baking 343 Cost and Rate Clerks 007 Financial Managers 335 File Clerks 433 Supervisors, Food Prep 378 Bill & Account Collect 376 Investigator 436 Cooks except Short Order 443 Waiters Assistant 173 Urban Planners 256 Advertising and Related 188 Painters, Sculptors 325 Classified-ad Clerks 067 statisticians 346 Mail Preparing 748 Laundering 208 Health Technologists Variance Covariance Total 0.00021 0.00018 0.00013 0.00008 0.00006 0.00005 0.00005 0.00003 0.00003 0.00019 0.00003 0.00024 0.00024 0.00018 0.00018 0.00013 0.00003 0.00003 0.00023 0.00022 0.00022 0.00019 0.00019 0.00017 0.00005 0.00005 0.00002 0.00002 0.00017 0.00013 0.00005 0.00005 0.00015 0.00007 0.00003 0.00005 0.00003 0.00018 0.00005 0.00004 0.00018 0.00017 0.00016 0.00010 0.00005 0.00004 0.00004 0.00003 0.00020 0.00015 0.00006 0.00008 0.00014 0.00018 0.00020 0.00021 0.00021 0.00023 0.00023 0.00006 0.00021 0.00001 0.00000 0.00006 0.00006 0.00010 0.00022 0.00021 0.00000 0.00001 0.00000 0.00004 0.00004 0.00005 0.00018 0.00018 0.00020 0.00021 0.00005 0.00008 0.00017 0.00017 0.00006 0.00014 0.00018 0.00016 0.00017 0.00001 0.00014 0.00015 0.00000 0.00000 0.00002 0.00008 0.00013 0.00013 0.00014 0.00015 -0.00003 0.00002 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00025 0.00025 0.00024 0.00024 0.00024 0.00024 0.00024 0.00024 0.00024 0.00023 0.00023 0.00023 0.00023 0.00023 0.00023 0.00023 0.00023 0.00023 0.00023 0.00022 0.00022 0.00022 0.00022 0.00021 0.00021 0.00021 0.00020 0.00020 0.00019 0.00019 0.00019 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018 0.00017 0.00017

PAGE 55

49 Table 3-4--continued soc Title Variance Covariance Total 028 Purchasing Agents 0.00014 0.00003 0.00017 036 Inspectors 0.00013 0.00003 0.00017 357 Messengers 0.00004 0.00013 0.00017 347 Office Machine Operators 0.00004 0.00013 0.00017 023 Accountants 0.00003 0.00015 0.00017 356 Mail Clerks 0.00002 0.00014 0.00017 253 Insurance 0.00016 0.00000 0.00016 375 Insurance Adjusters 0.00016 0.00000 0.00016 383 Bank Tellers 0.00016 0.00000 0.00016 255 Securities & Financial 0.00016 0.00000 0.00016 278 News Vendors 0.00010 0.00006 0.00016 083 Medical Scientists 0.00010 0.00006 0.00016 037 Management Related 0.00008 0.00008 0.00016 328 Personnel Clerks 0.00004 0.00012 0.00016 454 Elevator Operators 0.00003 0.00013 0.00016 379 General Office 0.00002 0.00014 0.00016 313 Secretaries 0.00002 0.00014 0.00016 254 Real Estate Sales 0.00015 0.00000 0.00015 024 Underwriters 0.00015 0.00000 0.00015 439 Kitchen Workers 0.00013 0.00002 0.00015 025 Other Financial Officers 0.00009 0.00006 0.00015 384 Proof Readers 0.00008 0.00007 0.00015 076 Physical Scientists nee 0.00007 0.00008 0.00015 456 Supervisors 0.00007 0.00008 0.00015 314 Stenographers 0.00006 0.00009 0.00015 323 Information Clerks nee 0.00004 0.00011 0.00015 386 Statistical Clerks 0.00003 0.00012 0.00015 489 Inspectors, Agricultural 0.00011 0.00003 0.00014 344 Billing, Posting 0.00008 0.00006 0.00014 316 Interviewers 0.00006 0.00008 0.00014 074 Atmospheric & Space 0.00006 0.00008 0.00014 448 Supervisors, Cleaning 0.00006 0.00008 0.00014 034 Business Agent 0.00006 0.00008 0.00014 197 Public Relations 0.00003 0.00011 0.00014 444 Miscellaneous Food Prep 0.00013 0.00000 0.00013 016 Managers Properties 0.00012 0.00001 0.00013 228 Broadcast Equipment 0.00010 0.00002 0.00013 806 Driver-Sales Workers 0.00003 0.00010 0.00013 303 Supervisors Office 0.00003 0.00010 0.00013 389 Administrative Support 0.00003 0.00010 0.00013 079 Forestry Scientists 0.00017 -0.00005 0.00012 486 Groundskeepers 0.00014 -0.00001 0.00012 155 Teachers Prekindergarten 0.00012 0.00001 0.00012 106 Physicians Assistants 0.00010 0.00002 0.00012 167 Psychologists 0.00010 0.00002 0.00012 066 Actuaries 0.00008 0.00004 0.00012 195 Editors 0.00004 0.00007 0.00012 315 Typists 0.00003 0.00009 0.00012 176 Clergy 0.00011 0.00000 0.00011 773 Motion Picture Project 0.00009 0.00002 0.00011

PAGE 56

Table 3-4--continued SOC Title 193 Dancers 50 186 Musicians & Composers 877 Stock Handlers 688 Food Batchmakers 416 Fire Inspection 177 Religious 096 Pharmacists 464 Ushers 168 Sociologists 336 Records Clerks 078 Biological Scientist 469 Personal Service Occup 276 Cashiers 319 Receptionists 194 Artists 183 Authors 199 Athletes 169 Social Scientists 459 Attendants, Amusement 178 Lawyers 686 Butchers & Meat Cutters 223 Biological Tech 234 Legal Assistants 187 Actors and Directors 449 Maids and Housemen 377 Eligibility Clerks 165 Archivists 427 Protective Service 485 Supervisors, Agriculture 077 Agricultural Scientist 175 Recreation Workers 174 Social Workers 463 Guides 687 Bakers 467 Welfare Service Variance Covariance Total 0.00008 0.00008 0.00006 0.00006 0.00013 0.00010 0.00010 0.00008 0.00007 0.00006 0.00005 0.00004 0.00004 0.00004 0.00004 0.00008 0.00008 0.00006 0.00006 0.00008 0.00006 0.00004 0.00004 0.00008 0.00007 0.00007 0.00005 0.00005 0.00010 0.00008 0.00007 0.00006 0.00005 0.00005 0.00007 0.00003 0.00002 0.00005 0.00005 -0.00004 0.00000 0.00000 0.00002 0.00003 0.00004 0.00005 0.00006 0.00006 0.00006 0.00005 0.00001 0.00002 0.00003 0.00003 0.00000 0.00002 0.00005 0.00003 -0.00001 0.00000 0.00000 0.00002 0.00002 -0.00004 -0.00002 -0.00001 0.00000 0.00001 0.00001 -0.00001 0.00011 0.00011 0.00011 0.00011 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00009 0.00009 0.00009 0.00009 0.00008 0.00008 0.00008 0.00008 0.00007 0.00007 0.00007 0.00007 0.00007 0.00006 0.00006 0.00006 0.00006 0.00006 0.00006 0.00005 combined class warrants the analysis of risk at the three digit level. There is much variation in industrial concentration and risk at the three-digit level which is not captured at the two-digit level, much less the one digit level. This is evidence of how control for differences between occupations using one and two-digit level classifications will lead to distorted results.

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CHAPTER 4 EMPIRICAL STUDY The empirical study employs data from the Department of Commerce's 1980 Census Subject Reports. The Subject Report Earnings by Occupation and Education is the source of the wage data. The Decennial Census was selected as the data source because alternative panel data sources, such as the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Current Population Survey, contain too few observations at the three-digit occupational level for reliable estimates of occupational differences. To regroup the three-digit occupational categories at the two-digit or one-digit classification level for increased observations would misrepresent the level of exposure to industry concentration experienced by most occupations as shown in Appendices C and D. Although earnings are reported by occupation for men and women in earlier Censuses, comparability between years is reduced by the emergence or disappearance of certain occupational classifications. If 1970 data were added and the study restricted to occupations consistently defined in each Census, the number of occupations deleted from the study would be greater than the number of 1970 observations added. Therefore, the study uses only 1980 data. 51

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52 The Census data report the mean annual earnings for males and females employed full-time, year-round in 1979. This sample includes persons who usually worked 35 hours or more per week for 50-52 weeks in 1979, compiled by the three-digit level Standard Occupational Classification code. If the occupation changed during the course of the year, the occupation of longest duration is specified. Earnings observations are delineated for age groups 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65+, and by education levels 0-8, 9-11, 12, 13-15, 16, and 17+ years. Earnings are defined as the algebraic sum of wage or salary income, nonfarm self-employment income and farm net self-employment income. This earnings figure represents income before deductions for personal income taxes, Social Security, bond purchases, union dues, Medicare and the like. Mean earnings is defined as the aggregate earnings of a particular occupation's wage and education class divided by the number of observations included in that cell. Given the age and education groupings, 30 potential earnings observations exist for each occupation for each sex. For males, a total of 12,229 mean earnings observations are available and for females, 10,391 observations are available. The means and standard deviations for the male and female samples are presented in Table 4-1. Years of education and potential work experience are used to measure human capital. Potential work experience

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53 Table 4-1 Full Sample Means & Standard Deviations Males Females Variable: MEAN STD.DEV MEAN STD.DEV LOG WAGE 9.7725 0.4024 9.3207 0.5325 EDUCATION 12.7760 3.1600 12.5840 3.0957 EXPERIENCE 25.6430 14.4060 24.6430 14.2430 GED REASONING 3.1892 1.1022 3.1985 1.1136 GED MATH 2.2863 1.2132 2.2841 1.2107 GED LANGUAGE 2.6133 1.2929 2.6498 1.3057 SVP 1.3703 1.2416 1. 3312 1.2274 DEXTERITY 3.6758 0.3747 3.7028 0.3775 STRESS 0.0425 0.1491 0.0392 0.1431 STRENGTH 2.2335 0.7167 2.1644 0.7000 EXTREME COLD 0.0046 0.0246 0.0046 0.0251 EXTREME HEAT 0.0300 0.0981 0.0275 0.0905 EXTREME WET 0.0526 0.1331 0.0454 0.1182 EXTREME NOISE 0.1890 0.2525 0.1709 0.2416 VIBRATION 0.1745 0.2548 0.1520 0.2363 ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS 0.0822 0.1599 0.0727 0.1446 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT 0.0041 0.0234 0.0032 0.0187 SHOCK 0.0023 0.0167 0.0022 0.0162 HEIGHTS 0.0027 0.0191 0.0022 0.0161 RADIATION 0.0029 0.0297 0.0029 0.0297 EXPLOSIVES 0.0008 0.0111 0.0008 0.0109 TOXINS 0.0017 0.0113 0.0018 0.0118 OTHER HAZARDS 0.0085 0.0508 0.0087 0.0525 FRACTION NORTH 0.2233 0.0645 0.2283 0.0626 FRACTION NORTH CENTRAL 0.2498 0.0796 0.2509 0.0743 FRACTION SOUTH 0.3216 0.0915 0.3174 0.0882 FRACTION WEST 0.2053 0.0686 0.2033 0.0659 GROWTH DUMMY 0.3867 0.9223 0.4214 0.9069 FRACTION UNEMPLOYED 0.0614 0.0457 0.0591 0.0431 FRACTION FEMALE 0.3135 0.2850 0.3540 0.2892 FRACTION AGRICULTURE 0.0212 0.1060 0.0182 0.0981 FRACTION MINING 0.0274 0.1264 0.0210 0.1074 FRACTION CONSTRUCTION 0.0701 0.1956 0.0530 0.1658 FRACTION DURABLE 0.1777 0.2599 0.1717 0.2531 FRACTION NONDURABLE 0.1101 0.1995 0.1175 0.2062 FRACTION TRANSPORTATION 0.1070 0.2221 0.0973 0.2071 FRACTION WHOLESALE 0.0313 0.0737 0.0313 0.0713 FRACTION RETAIL 0.0794 0.1641 0.0861 0.1722 FRACTION FIRE 0.0461 0.1453 0.0530 0.1564 FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. 0.0543 0.1080 0.0546 0.1050 FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. 0.0279 0.1194 0.0305 0.1244 FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT 0.0188 0.0873 0.0187 0.0842 FRACTION PROFESSIONAL 0.1434 0.2514 0.1604 0.2663 FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. 0.0781 0.1770 0.0796 0.1758 FRACTION UNION COVERAGE 0.2643 0.2334 0.2469 0.2134 FRACTION NONWHITE 0.0866 0.0591 0.0826 0.0552 DUMMY RISK 0.4785 0.4996 0.4588 0.4983 H 0.3416 0.2860 0.3314 0.2860 VARIANCE 0.0006 0.0028 0.0005 0.0025 COVARIANCE 0.0004 0.0005 0.0003 0.0005

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54 is measured as the age less years of education less six. Since labor force participation rates differ between sexes, the total sample is separated into male and female samples for estimation. The U.S. Government's Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) was originally developed in 1939 by the Department of Labor to assist in providing occupational guidance in local employment service offices. The DOT comprehensively identifies and defines virtually all civilian sector occupations. It is now widely used in career guidance counseling to assist in making occupational choices. The DOT data are based on more detailed definitions of occupations than those used by the Standard Occupational Coding (SOC) of the Census. The DOT codes have fortunately been associated with their respective soc code by the National Crosswalk Service. To aggregate the DOT data to the SOC level, the average value of a job characteristic for the corresponding DOT observation is used to represent the score for the soc. The data available from the DOT include measures of skill requirements, such as the level of general educational development (GED) and the years of SVP for each occupation. The GED scores reasoning, math and language skill requirements separately on a scale of 1-6. The GED scores for reasoning, math and language skills for each soc are listed in Appendices F, G, and H. The SVP ordinal

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55 scale from 1-9 was transformed to a time-based scale ranging from 0-10 years. The SVP score for each occupation is listed in Appendix I. Occupational complexity is also reported in the DOT data. Worker function ratings measure the dexterity and eye-foot coordination requirements on a scale of 1-5 for each variable. Higher wages should be observable for occupations requiring these skills if they are scarce in the labor force. Scores for each occupation requiring dexterity are listed in Appendix J. Information regarding working conditions by occupation is also extracted from the DOT information, since adverse working conditions should also result in higher wages. Extreme physical demands and adverse working conditions such as exposure to hazards, weather, vibration, noise and stress, are coded with a zero or one dummy variable which denotes the existence of adverse conditions in an occupation. Appendix K contains a listing of stressful occupations by SOC code. Appendix L lists occupations by order of strength requirements. Occupations that are exposed to extreme heat, cold, wet noise and vibration are listed in Appendices M, N, o, P and Q. Occupations exposed to hazards such as atmospheric conditions, mechanical devices, shock, heights, radiation, explosives, toxins and other hazards are listed by order of exposure in Appendices R, S, T, U, V, W, X and Y.

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56 Further data have been accumulated from the Census reports. Each occupation's location is reported for the South, West, North Central and Northeast United States. Wages vary between regions to compensate for differences in amenities and in the cost of living. Current unemployment rates and the fraction employed in major industry classes are also available from the Census reports. These data are included to test for efficiency wages and industry wage differentials. Additionally, percentages female and nonwhite in an occupation are also reported by the Census. These are included to measure any wage discrimination practices. Higher wages may be required to lure workers into growing occupations. Occupations which experienced growth in employment from 1970 to 1980 are coded one, denoting a growth occupation. If an occupation appears for the first time in the 1980 Census, it is considered a growth occupation. Any occupation experiencing negative growth from 1970 to 1980 is coded -1. In 1980, 31% of the occupations experienced no increase in employment from 1970 employment levels. A growing occupation with high employment volatility should not command as high a level of compensating wage for risk of unemployment as a no-growth occupation with volatility. Employment fluctuation in a high-growth occupation can be absorbed by reducing new hires rather than by laying off employees. This hypothesis can be

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57 tested with an interaction variable which equals the product of the long-run growth and the occupational variance measure. A +1/-1 dummy is employed instead of a 0/1 dummy so that interaction of the risk variables with the growth variable retains information on the sign of the risk variable. Unionization rates are available from curme, Hirsch and Macpherson (1990), who have calculated union coverage and membership rates by occupation. Their rates are based on the Current Population Survey for the years 1983-1985. This study utilizes the union coverage rate, which is defined as the fraction of workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, since wages should be more closely associated with it than with union membership. This variable will be used to test whether unions raise wages. To test the hypothesis that increased employment risk commands a compensating wage, an empirical study using an ordinary least squares regression is performed as specified by the model presented in Table 4-2. Transformation of the wage to the log of the wage is the specification that others have found provides the best fit when wage is the dependent variable and traditional human capital measures are the independent variables.

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58 Table 4-2 Occup~tion Based Risk Model Ois=f(F,E,x,x 2 ,x ,S,Q,Dp,Hz,Ec,U,GL,T,Z,Ir,RJ,L) Variable Definitions: 0 = Log Occupation i's Mean Hourly Earnings F = Fraction Female of Total Occupational Employment E = Median Years Education for Cell X = Experience= Age less Education less 6 s = Years Specific Vocational Preparation (SVP) Q = SVP Education Op= Physical Demands Indicator Vector P = Dexterity, Stress, Strength Indicator Hz= Hazardous Working Conditions Indicator Vector Z = Atmospheric Conditions, Mechanical Parts, Shock, Heights, Radiation, Toxins, Other Hazards Ee= Environmental Conditions Indicator Vector C = Cold, Heat, Noise, Other U = Unionization Rate of Occupation GL = Fraction of Occupation in Geographic Location L = North Central, North, South, West T = Long Run Occupational Employment Growth Indicator Z = Current Unemployment Rate for Occupation Ir= Fraction of Occupation Employed in Industry I I= Agriculture, Mining, Construction, Durable Goods, Transportation, Wholesale, Retail, FIRE, Business Services, Personal Services, Entertainment, Professional Services & Public Administration RJ = Unemployment Risk Measure J = Crude, Herfindahl, or Occupational Variance Measures of Risk L = Interaction of Long-run Growth and Variance Measure

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CHAPTER 5 TEST RESULTS In order to test for the effect of unemployment risk on wages, an ordinary least squares regression model was estimated. Tests of the residuals found heteroskedasticity, so White's (1980) correction was employed for significance tests of the ordinary least squares regression coefficients. Since additional information could be obtained if the heteroskedasticity was corrected, many modifications of the model were tested, but no reduction in heteroskedasticity resulted. These results are discussed at the end of this chapter. Regressions were run in six passes. The first regression pass was the base wage model with no risk measure. Regressions two through five included one of the four risk measures described in Chapter 3. The sixth regression estimated the model with no industry control variables. Detailed regression results for all models and both samples are presented in Appendix E. Due to differences between the male and female labor force attachment rates, the calculated experience measure may misrepresent work experience for males relative to females. Separate regressions were calculated for each sex to allow for this and to determine the sensitivity of the regression results to sex. 59

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60 The models which include industry controls are preferable, since the hypothesis that the industry control regressors are jointly equal to zero can be rejected. However, this does not indicate conclusively that efficiency wages are the cause. Table 5-1 reports the estimates of the coefficient for unemployment in models five and six, which differ only by the inclusion of industry control variables. If efficiency wages are the cause of the industry wage differentials, the unemployment coefficient should be more negative when industry controls are included. This is indeed the case in both the male and female samples. However, the unemployment rate coefficients in these two specifications are not more than two standard deviations from each other and therefore do not appear to be significantly different. Thus, these regressions provide no support for this implication of efficiency wages. Table 5-1 OLS Unemployment Rate Coefficients and Corrected t-statistics (in Parenthesis) Model 5 With industry controls Model 6 No industry controls Males -0.35 (-2.71) -0.11 (-1.07) Females -1.16 (-4.95) .98 (-5.06) A Hausman specification test can be performed to test the efficiency wage hypothesis based on the difference in the coefficients from each model. The estimate of the

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61 coefficient of the unemployment rate is asymptotically efficient under the null hypothesis, which is a condition for this test. The null hypothesis that no efficiency wage exists is rejected with the male sample, but it is not rejected with the female sample. Risk Measures It was expected that compensating wages would be required for increased unemployment risk. The occupation variance measure was expected to fit the data more closely than when an industry variance alone is included, as in the Adams and Li studies, since the occupational variance would better account for the mobility of certain occupations between industries. Table 5-2 presents the coefficient estimates and correlated t-statistics for both samples and all risk variables. Model four includes a variance measure alone which is positive and significant at the 90% level in the male sample only. When the covariance and its interaction with growth is added to the model, the coefficient on the variance variable increases in significance with the female sample, but decreases in significance with the male sample. The coefficients with the covariance measure and its interaction with growth are jointly significant in both samples. In the female sample it is significant at a 95% level. In the male sample the joint test is significantly different from zero at a 99% level.

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62 Table 5-2 OLS Risk Variables Coefficients and Corrected t-statistics (in Parenthesis) by Model and Sex of Sample MODEL 2 Male Female Dummy -.013 -.015 (-1. 75) (-1.17) Dummy*Growth .022 -.010 (3.34) (-0.86) MODEL 3 H -.057 -.053 (-3.73) (-2.02) H*Growth .040 -.039 (3.50) (-1. 76) MODEL 4 Variance 1.588 2.564 (1. 72) (1. 09) MODEL 5 Variance 1.120 4.016 (1. 04) (1. 56) Covariance 18.207 67.01 (1. 02) ( 1. 93) 0cc. Var. Growth 29.733 29.253 (2.93) (2.02) Thus, taking account of the covariance of employment across industries provides a better fit, as predicted. The magnitude of the effect of covariance risk on wages is the combined effect of the covariance and the interaction of total variance and growth. Based on the estimates computed with the female sample, if the covariance increases by one standard deviation and the occupation is scored one for growth, a compensating wage increase of 5% is measured. If the occupation is scored as a no-growth occupation, the compensating wage differential is increased by 2%. Based on the estimates computed with the male sample, if the covariance increases by one standard deviation and the occupation is scored one for growth, a compensating wage increase of 2.4% is measured. If the occupation is scored

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63 as a no-growth occupation, wages are estimated to be decreased by .58%. These results generally support the hypothesis that earnings are higher in occupations with greater employment risk, but do not support the theory that growing occupations would require smaller compensating wages for employment risk than declining occupations. Regression model two tests the risk dummy variable (Dummy), which denotes whether an occupation's concentration in an industry is 50% or greater. Using the male sample this model specification finds that wages are .9% higher in concentrated growth occupations, and 3.5% lower in concentrated no-growth occupations. Using the female sample, the effect of concentration is a 2.5% decrease for positive growth occupations and a .5% decrease for negative growth occupations. Thus, industry concentration is associated with higher wages in only one of these four cases. The joint significance test of the dummy variable and the growth interaction is significant at the 99% and 85% level with the male and female samples respectively. The H measure is a risk variable which measures the degree of concentration of an occupation in all industries on a scale from 0-1. This measure is employed in model three. The hypothesis that concentrated occupations require positive compensating wages is not supported with this definition of risk. Negative differentials are

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64 estimated as the H measure increases whether or not the occupation is growing. Regression model five, which contains the covariance risk measure and industry variables, is presented in Table 5-3. Since the dependent variable is the log wage, a coefficient less than or equal to 10% can be interpreted as the percentage change in the wage due to a change in the independent variable. For coefficients greater than 10%, the wage is calculated for a one-unit change in the independent variable. The effect of the independent variable is then calculated based on the percentage change of this wage from the mean sample wage. The following detailed discussion of the coefficients is based on regression model which includes the covariance risk measure and industry dummies. Growth Rates The growth rate is a -1 or +1 dummy variable which measures whether an occupation experienced increased or decreased employment from 1970 to 1980. The model estimated also includes the interaction of growth and the occupation variance risk measure. The combined effect of these growth variables on wages is significant at 99.5% in both samples. If the mean occupational variance measure of .001 is employed, earnings in growing occupations are estimated to be 2% and 6.4% than in declining occupations in the female and male samples respectively. This supports the hypothesis that earnings in rapidly growing occupations

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65 Table 5-3 Model Five Regression Results Log Wage is Dependent Variable Males Females Coefficient Coefficient (t-statistic) (t-statistic) FRACTION NORTH 0.2085 ( 2. 66) FRACTION SOUTH -0.1847 (-3.27) FRACTION WEST -0.0067 (-0.09) GROWTH DUMMY -0.0024 (0.63) UNEMPLOYMENT RATE -0.3523 (-2.71) FRACTION FEMALE -0.2597 (-11.23) FRACTION AGRICULTURE -0.0517 (-1.01) FRACTION MINING 0.2898 ( 8. 12) FRACTION CONSTRUCTION 0.1456 (4.09) FRACTION NONDURABLE 0.0255 (0.77) FRACTION TRANSPORTATION 0.1443 (4.14) FRACTION WHOLESALE 0.1410 (2.60) FRACTION RETAIL -0.1811 (-5.06) FRACTION FIRE 0.1424 (3.83) FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. -0.0657 (-1. 68) FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. -0.2626 (-6.54) FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT 0.0741 (1.48) FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. -0.1323 (-3.48) FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. -0.1382 (-3.85) EDUCATION 0.0337 (21. 64) EXPERIENCE 0.0312 (17.99) EXPERIENCE SQUARED -0.0007 (-8.65) EXPERIENCE CUBED 3.00 x 106 ( 2. 51) -0.2525 (-1. 92) -0.6191 (-4.19) -0.1726 (-1.51) 0.0113 1.53 -1.1555 (-4.95) -0.1012 (-3.00) -0.1865 (-1.71) 0.4798 (7.11) 0.3102 (4.72) 0.0858 (1. 32) 0.3027 (4.67) 0.1173 (1. 21) -0.1381 (-2.12) 0.1482 ( 2. 50) -0.0119 (-0.18) -0.1671 (-2.61) 0.1919 (2.40) -0.0293 (-0.49) 0.1093 (1. 72) 0.0151 (5.32) 0.0032 (0.88) 0.0001 (0.45) -4.00 X 106 (-1.83)

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66 Table 5-3--continued Males Females Coefficient Coefficient (t-statistic) (t-statistic) GED-REASONING -0.0139 0.0025 (-1.82) (0.17) GED-MATH 0.0204 -0.0479 (3.22) (-5.74) GED-LANGUAGE 0.0516 0.0325 (6.98) (2.86) SVP -0.0279 -0.1581 (-2.24) (-6.64) SVP EDU 0.0047 0.0129 (5.40) (7.41) DEXTERITY 0.0519 0.0526 (4.23) (3.59) STRESS 0.1292 0.0649 (5.14) (1. 94) STRENGTH -0.0435 -0.0455 (-5.63) (-3.90) EXTREME COLD -0.1678 0.0712 (-1.48) (0.51) EXTREME HEAT 0.1016 0.0130 (3.26) (0.25) EXTREME WET 0.1276 -0.0011 (4.66) (-0.02) EXTREME NOISE 0.0067 0.0272 (0.39) (0.87) VIBRATION 0.0403 0.0330 (-2.23) (0.84) ATMOSPHERIC -0.0357 0.0409 (-1.59) (0.97) MECHANICAL 0.0362 0.1379 (0.27) (0.50) SHOCK 0.0928 0.4180 (0.55) (1. 23) HEIGHTS -0.0169 -0.2935 (-0.13) (-0.90) RADIATION 0.3692 0.3039 (4.35) (2.37) EXPLOSIVES -0.2282 0.2185 (-1. 18) (0.56) TOXINS -0.2635 -0.2883 (-1.30) (-0.91) OTHER HAZARDS -0.0699 0.1271 (-1.14) (1. 95) NONWHITE -0.7503 0.0419 (-8.74) (0.24) UNION REPRESENTATION 0.0743 0.0156 (3.86) (0.41) VARIANCE 1.1198 4.0155 (1. 04) (1. 56)

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67 Table 5-3--continued Males Females Coefficient Coefficient (t-statistic) (t-statistic) COVARIANCE 18.2070 67.0110 (1. 02) (1.93) GROWTH* TOTAL VARIANCE 29.7330 29.2530 (2.93) (2.02) CONSTANT 8.9453 9.0766 (110.24) (65.42) Statistics: R-SQUARE .3897 .2115 ADJ. R-SQUARE .3872 .2078 VARIANCE .0992 .2246 STANDARD ERROR .3150 .4739 SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS 1209 2323 LOG LIKELIHOOD -3201 -6961 are driven up in order to draw workers from other occupations. Unemployment Rates The current unemployment rate is expected to be negatively related to wages. Lower wages help to induce workers to leave an occupation that has recently experienced a fall in long-run demand. In both samples, the current unemployment rate has a significant negative coefficient. Based on the male sample, if the unemployment rate increases by 1% wages will drop by .3%. Based on the results from the female sample, as the unemployment rate increases by 1%, wages decrease by .7%. Geographic Location The coefficient on geographic regions is expected to be higher in urban areas to reflect higher costs of living and lower in geographic areas with positive amenities.

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68 The test results differ greatly in the two samples. Using the male sample, the regression estimates a 23% higher wage for employment in the Northeastern states relative to the omitted variable, the North Central states. Wages are estimated to be 17% lower for employment in the South. For the female sample, the differential for wages in the South is -46%. At a reduced level of statistical significance, wages are estimated to be 22% lower in the North and 16% lower in the West, relative to wages in the North Central States. Fraction Female The coefficient on fraction female is expected to be negative due to the combination of differing labor force participation rates and discrimination. In the male sample, as the fraction female increases from o to 100% in an occupation, wages drop 23%. With the female sample, wages are estimated to drop 10% as the fraction female increases by 100%. Fraction Employed in Industry This variable controls for efficiency wages as well as any omitted variable which systematically differ by industry, such as percent self-employed, benefit packages, hours of work and safety. Positive wage differentials are found with the male sample for the Mining, Construction, Transportation, Wholesale and FIRE Industries. Negative wage differentials are found for the male sample for the Retail, Personal Services, Professional Services and Public

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69 Administration Industries. These results differ for the female sample, however. Relative to the Durable Goods Manufacturing Industry, positive wage differentials are found with the female sample for the Mining, Construction, Transportation, FIRE and Entertainment Industries. Negative wage differentials are found for the Retail and Personal Services Industries. A comparison of regression models one and five shows the effect of including risk measures in a model measuring industry differentials. A simple correlation between the set of industry coefficients from models one and five is .999 for males and .989 for females. The standard deviation of the sets of coefficients is reduced from .159 to .156 with the male sample and from .198 to .194 with the female sample. For the full set of coefficients, the effect of including a risk measure does not measure a notable difference. The importance of the risk measures is demonstrated for specific industries when they are isolated from the full set. For example, the Business Services Industry differential is 10% lower and significant when risk measures are excluded. The differential is not significantly different from zero when the risk measures are included. In six of the thirteen industries, the coefficients estimated with the male sample move closer to zero when the risk measure is included. In seven of the industries, the coefficients move further away from zero

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70 when the risk measure is included. In the female sample, seven industry coefficients moved closer to and six coefficients moved further away from zero when risk measures were included. Education and SVP It is expected that education and wages are significantly and positively related. The effect of an additional year of education is estimated to increase earnings by 4%, using the male sample and a score of 1.37 for the mean years of SVP. The corresponding effect of an additional year of education for the female sample is 3.2%, based on a mean SVP of 1.33 years. The positive coefficient on the interaction variable indicates that education is more valuable in an occupation that requires more training. Experience The coefficient for experience is expected to be positively related to earnings. As expected, the estimated return on the experience variable differs for the male and female samples. This could be explained as the result of differing labor force attachment rates between the sexes, rather than the result of the effect of sex on the return on experience. Using the male sample, the regression estimates that wages increase until 27 years of experience and decline thereafter. Employing the female sample, wages are estimated to increase until 24 years of experience, and decline thereafter. These estimates were derived by taking

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71 the derivative with respect to experience and solving the quadratic derivative for the positive root. GED The coefficient on the educational requirements of the occupation is expected to be large and positive for math skills, which are relatively scarce, but lower for language and reasoning skills, which are relatively common. However, the estimated coefficients for the skill variables differ by sex. Math skills are associated with 2% higher wages in the male sample and 5% lower wages in the female sample. Language skills also earn a premium in both samples. Based on the male sample, a 5% premium is assessed for language skills. The comparable coefficient measured with the female sample is 3%. The results for reasoning skills are puzzling. Reasoning skills are associated with significantly lower wages in the male sample, but this is not significant at a 95% level. No discernible wage differential is estimated with the female sample. Physical Demands It is expected that higher physical demands in an occupation will be associated with higher wages. This differential reflects the relative scarcity of these skills in addition to compensating wages required for physically demanding jobs. Employing the male sample, the regression estimates a differential of 12% higher compensation for

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72 stressful occupations. The wage differential for the female sample is estimated at 6.5%, but at a lower level of significance. Strength requirements in the male sample are estimated to reduce earnings by 4.3%. Similarly, for the female sample, the model estimates a -4.5% wage differential for strength requirements. Dexterity requirements increase wages by 5% in both samples. Environmental Conditions It is expected that the environmental conditions variables will have positive coefficients which reflect compensating wages for discomfort. The coefficient for exposure to extreme heat estimated with the male sample indicates 10% greater compensation for this discomfort. No discernible differential is found with the female sample. Exposure to extreme wetness for the male sample is estimated to command 14% higher wages. Again, the female sample does not estimate any wage differential due to exposure to wetness. Exposure to cold, noise or vibration was not associated with a wage differential in either sample. Hazards Significant positive wage differentials are expected for exposure to hazards as compensation for increased health and safety risks. Exposure to radiation is estimated by the regression to require a 36% wage

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73 differential in the female sample and a 45% differential in the male sample. Exposure to atmospheric conditions, risk of shock, heights, mechanical equipment, explosives and toxins were not estimated to require any significant wage differential by either sample. Exposure to other hazards was reported to increase wages by 14% in the female sample, but this is estimated at a slightly reduced level of significance. Unionization Representation by unions is expected to be positively related to wages. by sex of sample. However, the regression results differ The regression for males estimated 7% higher wages at a high level of significance. The presence of unions does not indicate any improvement in earnings for females, however. Fraction Nonwhite It is expected that the fraction nonwhite will be negatively related to wages due to the combined effect of low-quality schools and the practice of discrimination against nonwhites. The regression estimates a negative earnings effect of 5.3% for a 10% increase in percent nonwhite. No effect is indicated with the female sample. Heteroskedasticity Heteroskedasticity was discerned when residuals from the OLS regression of this model failed three tests of homoskedasticity. The first of the three tests which failed was the Breusch-Pagan-Godfrey Test; this is a

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74 regression of the squared residuals on the independent variables. Similarly, the two other tests, the Harvey Test and the Glejser Test, are regressions of the log of the squared residuals and the absolute residual on the independent variables. With heteroskedasticity, the coefficients are not efficiently estimated. To correct for heteroskedasticity, interpretations of coefficients are based on t-statistics constructed with White's (1980) consistent variance covariance matrix. This correction is asymptotically efficient in large samples, which is the case in this study. Elimination of the heteroskedasticity can sometimes provide more information; therefore, further investigation of the source is warranted. Tests of the OLS residuals indicated that the squared OLS errors were positively related to the level of SVP and years of education. Based on this information, the sample was divided into two groups: Those with more than one year of SVP and those with less than one year of SVP. This division of the sample did not reduce the heteroskedasticity. The model was reestimated with additional variables for each level of education and SVP. Each level became a dummy variable. Again, this did not reduce the heteroskedasticity problem. In order to reduce the heteroskedasticity, weights were constructed and weighted least squares regressions

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75 were employed. Weights based on the number of individuals representing the wage cell, both relative to the total individuals in the sample and to the total in the occupation, did not reduce the heteroskedasticity. In fact, these weights and their inverses increased the tested heteroskedasticity of the residuals. Two weights were found to individually reduce the heteroskedasticity of the errors in the male sample only. First, a weight was constructed in which all occupations were represented with the 30 possible wage observations. Since some occupations had less than 30 actual observations, each occupations' observations were weighted by the fraction 30 divided by the number of wage observations for the occupation. Secondly, the weight which was found to most reduce the heteroskedasticity of the errors was the inverse of the ratio of the number of individuals in the occupation to the number of individuals in the sample. This procedure essentially downweights the largest occupations. In another procedure, the inverses of the squared OLS residuals were used as weights. This procedure downweights the observations with the largest errors. The weighting procedure failed due to the presence of residuals with no error which implied division by zero. A constant was then added to each squared residual and the model was reestimated. The heteroskedasticity was not reduced by as

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76 much as by the model where larger occupations were given less weight. Further research in this area should capitalize on the work of King regarding earnings differences between occupations. He found that the variance of earnings within occupations differs across occupations. This may be the cause of the heteroskedasticity problem in this study. Correcting for this form of heteroskedasticity and reestimating the model would result in more efficient estimates. Conclusions Data from the United States Government Departments on industries and occupations have become more standardized through the use of standard industrial classification and occupation coding systems. This facilitates creation of large data sets from multiple sources, such as the Bureaus of Census and Labor Statistics. In this study, the standard occupation code was used to link the data from multiple sources. The premise that occupations exposed to higher employment volatility require compensating wage differentials was tested, and some evidence supporting the theory was found. The results are sensitive to the specification of the risk measure. Based on the unemployment risk measure which accounts for the covariance of employment opportunities across industries, both males

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77 and females were found to require compensating wages for unemployment risk. Other factors which were found to increase wages include higher occupational growth rates, education, experience, the occupation's skill requirements, dexterity requirements and exposure to radiation. Unemployment, high percentage female and strength requirements were found to be negatively related to wages. Nonwhite males were found to have lower wages than white males, and no differential was found for the female sample. Occupations exposed to stress, heat, or wetness require differentials in the male sample only. Additionally, the coefficients of the regional dummies differed by sex. Collinearity between percent nonwhite and geographic region dummies was tested and rejected as the source of the differences in estimates between males and females. The inconsistencies in the results between the male and female samples may reflect omitted variable problems. Further research could include pooling the samples and adding the 1990 Census data as it becomes available. Potential omitted variables include a measure of the degree of transferability between occupations, better measures of occupational earnings which would include fringe benefits and geographic concentration of employment. Despite these issues, it is worthwhile to study wages from an occupational perspective. Measures of unemployment

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78 risk differ across occupations as compiled in this study. Others have found that compensating wages are required for exposure to unemployment risk as measured by industry employment variance alone. This study improves the risk measure by incorporating the covariance between industries' employment.

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APPENDIX A INDUSTRY CLASSIFICATIONS Agriculture Metal Mining Coal Mining crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Mining Nonmetallic Minerals Except Fuels Mining Construction Meat Products Manufacturing Dairy Products Manufacturing Grain Mill Products Manufacturing Beverages Manufacturing Other Food Manufacturing Tobacco Manufacturing Knitting Mills Manufacturing Textile Finishing, Except Wool Manufacturing Floor Coverings Manufacturing Miscellaneous Textile Goods Manufacturing Other Textile Manufacturing Apparel and Other Textile Products Manufacturing Paperboard Containers and Boxes Manufacturing Other Paper Manufacturing Newspapers Manufacturing Other Printing Manufacturing Plastics Manufacturing Drugs Manufacturing Soap, Cleaners and Toilet Goods Manufacturing Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Other Chemicals Manufacturing Petroleum Refining Manufacturing Other Petroleum Manufacturing Rubber Manufacturing Leather Tanning and Finishing Manufacturing Other Leather Manufacturing Other Nondurable Goods Manufacturing Logging Manufacturing Other Lumber Manufacturing Furniture and Fixtures Manufacturing Cement, Concrete, Gypsum & Plaster Manufacturing Structural Clay Products Manufacturing Pottery and Related Products Manufacturing Other Stone Manufacturing Blast Furnace & Basic Steel Production Manufacturing Iron and Steel Foundries Other Metal Manufacturing Cutlery, Handtools, and Hardware Manufacturing 79

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80 Screw Machine Products, Bolts, etc. Manufacturing Other Metal Fabrication Manufacturing Engines and Turbines Manufacturing Construction and Related Machinery Manufacturing Metalworking Machinery Manufacturing Other Office Machinery Manufacturing Household Appliances Manufacturing Other Electronic Equipment Manufacturing Motor Vehicles and Equipment Manufacturing Aircraft Space Vehicles and Parts Manufacturing Ship and Boat Building and Repairing Railroad Equipment Manufacturing Other Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Watches, Clocks, Watchcases and Parts Manufacturing Other Durable Goods Manufacturing Railroad Transportation Bus Taxicabs Trucking Service Public Warehousing and Storage U.S. Postal Service Airline Pipelines, Except Natural Gas Radio and Television Broadcasting Telephone Communications Other Transportation and Public Utilities Wholesale Electrical Goods Apparel, Piece Goods and Notions Wholesale Wholesale Groceries and Related Products Other Wholesale Retail Department Stores Retail Food Stores Retail Gasoline Service Stations Other Automotive Retail Shoe stores Other Apparel Furniture and Homefurnishings Stores Other Retail Furniture Eating and Drinking Places Drug Stores and Proprietary Stores Other Retail Hotels Advertising Other Business Services Hospitals Other Medical College Other Education Engineering Other Services

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APPENDIX B OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRY OF LARGEST CONCENTRATION Industry Advertising Agriculture Airline Aircraft & Space Vehicle Parts soc Occupation Concentration 256 Advertising & Related Sales 35% 086 Veterinarians 485 Supervisors 486 Groundskeepers 487 Animal Caretakers 488 Graders and Sorters 489 Inspectors 495 Forestry Workers 497 Captains & Other Officers Fishing 498 Fishers 499 Hunters and Trappers 226 Airplane Pilots 318 Transportation Ticket & Reservation Agents 465 Public Transportation 508 Aircraft Engine Mechanics 863 Supervisors, Handlers, Equipment Cleaners & Laborers 044 Aerospace Engineers 515 Aircraft Mechanics Except Engine 636 Precision Assemblers, Metal 714 Numerical Control Machine Operators 84% 31% 43% 61% 100% 37% 84% 70% 90% 47% 78% 69% 91% 55% 12% 51% 50% 53% 22% Apparel & 659 Misc. Precision Woodworkers 20% Other Textile 667 Tailors 50% 673 Apparel & Fabric Patternmakers 41% 744 Textile Sewing Machine Operators 79% 765 Folding Machine Operators 24% 769 Slicing & Cutting Machine Operators 8% 798 Production Samplers and Weighers 7% Blast Furnace 045 Metallurgical 20% Basic Steel 544 Millwrights 16% 707 Rolling Machine 52% 724 Heat Treating Equipment Operator 22% 766 Furnace, Kiln & Oven Operators, Except Food 13% 849 Crane & Tower Operators 27% 873 Production Helpers 8% 81

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Industry Bus Business Services Chemicals, other Coal Mining College 82 SOC Occupation 808 Bus Drivers Concentration 47% 026 Management Analysts 48% 064 Computer Systems 23% 069 Physicists 20% 184 Technical Writers 11% 229 Computer Programmers 20% 257 Sales Occupations, Other Business 27% 284 Auctioneers 52% 304 Supervisors-Computer Equipment 17% 345 Duplicating Machine Operator 13% 353 Communications Equipment Operator nee 78% 415 Supervisors-Guards 28% 426 Guards & Police Except Public Serv. 31% 455 Pest Control Occupations 87% 505 Automobile Mechanics 40% 514 Automobile Body & Related Repairers 67% 523 Electronic Repairers Communications 29% 525 Data Processing Equipment Repairers 36% 526 Household Appliance and Power Tool Repairer 31% 533 Misc. Electronic Equipment Repairer 26% 535 camera, Watch & Musical Instrument Repairers 42% 536 Locksmiths & Safe Repair 65% 547 Specified Mechanics & Repairers nee 12% 549 Not Specified Mechanics & Repairers 8% 668 Upholsterers 45% 759 Painting & Paint Spraying Machine 18% 774 Photographic Process Machine 34% 789 Hand Painting, Coating & Decorating 27% 793 Hand Engraving 26% 813 Parking Lot Attendants 51% 864 Helpers, Mechanics & Repairers 29% 887 Vehicle Washers & Equipment Cleaner 28% 048 Chemical Engineers 37% 073 Chemists 17% 224 Chemical Engineering Technician 37% 756 Mixing & Blending Machine Operator 12% 757 Separating, Filtering & Clarifying 42% 046 Mining Engineers 34% 615 Explosive Workers 23% 616 Mining Machine Operators 62% 859 Misc. Material Moving Equipment 7% 867 Helpers, Extractive Occup. 52% 225 Science Technicians 21% 235 Technicians except Health & Science 20%

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Industry Construction crude Petroleum & Natural Gas Drugs 83 soc Occupation Concentration 053 Civil Engineers 216 Engineering 516 Heavy Equipment Mechanics 519 Machinery Maintenance Occupations 534 Heating, Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Mechanics 543 Elevator Installers & Repairers 553 Supervisors, Brick & Stonemasons 554 Supervisors, Carpenters & Related 555 Supervisors, Electricians & Power Transmission 556 Supervisors, Painters, Paperhangers & Plasterers 557 Supervisors, Plumbers, Pipefitters 558 Construction Supervisors nee 563 Brickmasons & Stonemasons 565 Tilesetters, Hard & Soft 567 Carpenters 573 Drywall Installers 575 Electricians 579 Painters, Construction & Maintenance 583 Paperhangers 584 Plasterers 585 Plumbers, Pipefitters & Steamfitters 588 Concrete & Terrazzo Finishers 593 Insulation Workers 594 Paving, Surfacing & Tamping 595 Roofers 596 Sheetmetal Duct Installers 597 Structural Metal Workers 598 Driller, Earth 599 Construction Trades nee 643 Boilermakers 653 Sheet Metal Workers 783 Welders and Cutters 844 Operating Engineers 853 Excavating & Loading Machine 855 Grader, Dozer & Scraper Operators 865 Helpers, Construction Trades 869 Construction Laborers 047 Petroleum Engineers 075 Geologists 613 Supervisors, Extractive Occupations 614 Drillers, Oil Well 617 Mining Occupations nee 848 Hoist & Winch Operators 223 Biological Technicians 40% 18% 31% 11% 29% 51% 90% 83% 47% 86% 79% 90% 87% 85% 81% 97% 47% 69% 80% 90% 61% 95% 71% 90% 97% 62% 73% 84% 66% 26% 30% 12% 79% 60% 65% 79% 91% 80% 43% 53% 96% 39% 55% 22% Durable Goods 645 Patternmakers & Model Makers, Metal 15% other 647 Precious Stones & Metals (Jewelers) 53%

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Industry Education other Electrical Electrical other Engineering Metal Fabricating Financial Services, Insurance, Real Estate 84 soc Occupation Concentration 656 Patternmakers & Model Makers, Wood 30% 676 Patternmakers, Layout Workers 21% 794 Hand Grinding 26% 014 Administrators 163 Counselors 164 Librarians 329 Library Clerks 387 Teachers' Aides 448 Supervisor Cleaning & Building 453 Janitors & Cleaners 468 Child Care Workers Except Private 049 Nuclear Engineers 366 Meter Readers 577 Elec. Power Installers & Repairers 695 Power Plant Operators 60% 50% 62% 62% 88% 15% 18% 39% 21% 58% 78% 72% 055 Electrical Engineers 30% 056 Industrial 14% 213 Electrical 27% 363 Production Coordinators 8% 633 Supervisors, Production Occupations 6% 683 Electronic Equipment Assemblers 70% 689 Inspectors, Testers & Graders 31% 758 Compressing & Compacting Machine 8% 777 Misc. Machine Operators nee 9% 779 Machine Operators, Not Specified 7% 784 Solderers and Braziers 49% 785 Assemblers 19% 796 Production Inspectors, Checkers 12% 797 Production Testers 19% 043 Engineers, Architects 15% 059 Engineer nee 24% 063 Surveyors 62% 217 Drafting Technicians 22% 218 Surveying Technicians 44% 866 Helpers, Surveyor 51% 655 Misc. Precision Metal Workers 11% 706 Punching and Stamping Press 22% 713 Forging Machine Operators 23% 717 Fabricating Machine Operators nee 15% 723 Metal Plating Machine Operators 32% 725 Misc. Metal & Plastic Processing 15% 007 Financial Managers 48% 016 Managers Properties 83% 024 Underwriters 95% 025 Other Financial Officers 67% 066 Actuaries 64%

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Industry Food, other Furniture & Fixtures Government 85 SOC Occupation Concentration 166 Economists 253 Insurance 254 Real Estate Sales 255 Securities & Financial Sales 285 Sales Support Occupations nee 305 Supervisors, Financial Records 308 Computer Operators 309 Peripheral Equipment Operators 326 Correspondence Clerks 328 Personnel Clerks, Except Payroll 335 File Clerks 336 Records Clerks 337 Bookkeepers, Accounting & Auditing Clerks 343 Cost & Rate Clerks 344 Billing, Posting & Calculating 347 Office Machine Operators nee 356 Mail Clerks, Except Postal Service 357 Messengers 375 Insurance Adjusters 378 Bill & Account Collectors 383 Bank Tellers 385 Data Entry Keyers 454 Elevator Operators 14% 100% 97% 100% 22% 22% 15% 20% 33% 35% 22% 28% 14% 34% 69% 31% 17% 20% 100% 25% 100% 17% 31% 688 Food Batchmakers 43% 754 Packaging & Filling Machine 25% 763 Roasting & Baking Machine Operators 55% 764 Washing, Cleaning & Pickling Machine 10% 888 Hand Packers & Packagers 11% 657 Cabinet Makers & Bench Carpenters 658 Furniture & Wood Finishers 003 Legislators & Public Administration 005 Administrators & Officials, Public 006 Administrators, Protective Services 008 Personnel & Labor Relations Manager 027 Personnel Specialists 033 Purchasing Agents nee 035 Construction Inspectors 036 Inspectors and Compliance 037 Management Related 065 Operations & Systems Researchers 067 statisticians 068 Mathematical Scientists 074 Atmospheric Scientists 076 Physical Scientists nee 077 Agricultural Scientists 078 Biological Scientists 079 Forestry Scientists 168 Sociologists 43% 44% 100% 96% 95% 9% 22% 9% 46% 71% 53% 20% 31% 36% 42% 42% 27% 24% 45% 34%

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Industry Grain Mill Products Hospitals Hotels Iron & Steel Foundries Leather Logging 86 soc Occupation Concentration 169 Social Scientists 173 Urban Planners 179 Judges 227 Air Traffic Controllers 228 Broadcast Equipment 303 Supervisors, General Office 314 Stenographers 315 Typists 316 Interviewers 338 Payroll & Timekeeping Clerk 376 Investigators, Except Insurance 379 General Office 386 Statistical Clerks 389 Administrative Support nee 413 Supervisors, Firefighting 414 Supervisors, Police 416 Fire Inspection & Prevention Occup. 417 Firefighting 418 Police & Detective, Private Service 423 Sheriff, Bailiff, Other Law 424 Correctional Institution 425 Crossing Guards 38% 79% 100% 100% 58% 26% 38% 23% 34% 11% 23% 15% 20% 21% 93% 100% 43% 95% 100% 100% 100% 92% 768 Crushing & Grinding Machine Operator 16% 015 Managers, Medicine 083 Medical Scientists 095 Registered Nurse 097 Dieticians 106 Physicians Assistants 203 Clinical Laboratory Technologists 205 Health Record Technologists 206 Radiologic Technicians 207 Licensed Practical Nurses 208 Health Technologists 339 Billing Clerks 446 Health Aides, Except Nursing 447 Nursing Aides, Orderlies 696 Stationary Engineers 317 Hotel Clerks 449 Maids & Housemen 466 Baggage Porters 675 Hand Molders & Shapers Except Jewel 745 Shoe Machine Operators 494 Supervisors 496 Timber Cutting 62% 39% 73% 60% 32% 76% 82% 79% 66% 53% 13% 47% 50% 9% 100% 32% 61% 21% 93% 61% 78%

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Industry Lumber, other Machinery, other 87 soc Occupation Concentration 726 Wood Lathe, Routing & Planing 727 Sawing Machine Operators 728 Shaping & Joining Machine Operator 729 Nailing & Tacking Machine Operator 733 Misc. Woodworking Machine Operator 054 Agricultural Engineers 233 Tool Programmers 637 Machinists 644 Precision Grinder, Filer & Tool 684 Misc. Precision Workers nee 703 Lathe & Turning Machine Setup 704 Lathe & Turning Machine Operator 705 Milling & Planing Machine Operator 708 Drilling and Boring 709 Grinding, Abrading, Buffing 64% 53% 25% 51% 49% 53% 10% 26% 15% 58% 20% 28% 25% 25% 14% Meat Products 786 Hand Cutting and Trimming 29% Medical other Metalworking Machinery Motor Vehicles & Equipment Newspapers 084 Physicians 56% 085 Dentists 93% 087 Optometrists 86% 088 Podiatrists 90% 089 Health Diagnosing nee 95% 167 Psychologists 29% 204 Dental Hygienists 95% 319 Receptionists 25% 445 Dental Assistants 95% 678 Dental Lab & Medical Appliance Tech 86% 634 Tool & Die Makers 057 Mechanical Engineers 215 Mechanical Technicians 715 Misc. Metal, Plastic, Stone & Glass 195 Editors 278 News Vendors 325 Classified Ad Clerks 346 Mail Preparing & Paper Handling 21% 14% 17% 30% 39% 78% 46% 17% Paperboard 753 Cementing & Gluing Machine Operator 9% Containers & Boxes Paper, other 214 Industrial 369 Samplers Personal Services 018 Funeral Directors 189 Photographers 275 Sales Counter Clerks 457 Barbers 7% 10% 95% 34% 52% 97%

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88 Industry soc Occupation Concentration 458 Hairdressers 96% 666 Dressmakers 27% 669 Shoe Repairers 51% 747 Pressing Machine Operators 55% 748 Laundering & Drycleaning Machine 54% Pottery 787 Hand Molding, Casting and Forming 31% & Related Products Printing, other 384 Proofreaders 649 Engravers, Metal 679 Bookbinders 734 Printing Machine Operators 735 Photoengravers and Lithographers 736 Typesetters and Compositors 737 Misc. Printing Machine Operators Radio & 198 Announcers Television Broadcasting Railroad Transport Retail Apparel Retail Automotive Retail Department Stores 349 Telegraphers 823 Railroad Conductors & Yardmasters 824 Locomotive Operating Occupations 825 Railroad Brake, Signal & switch 826 Rail Vehicle Operators nee 843 Supervisors Material Moving Equip. 674 Misc. Precision Apparel & Fabric 503 Supervisors, Mechanics & Repairers 509 Small Engine Repairers 009 Purchasing Managers 029 Buyers 373 Expediters 374 Material Recording & Scheduling Retail Drug 096 Pharmacists & Proprietary Retail Eating & Drinking Places 019 Managers and Administrators nee 433 Supervisors, Food Preparation 434 Bartenders 435 Waiters & Waitresses 436 Cooks, Except Short Order 437 Short Order Cooks 438 Food Counter 439 Kitchen Workers 443 Waiters' & Waitresses' Assistants 444 Misc. Food Preparation 40% 27% 90% 57% 71% 54% 79% 85% 55% 93% 82% 91% 88% 15% 33% 21% 33% 13% 24% 10% 29% 69% 10% 64% 81% 85% 62% 89% 84% 54% 61% 47%

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Industry Retail Food Stores Retail Furniture SOC Occupation 276 Cashiers 89 686 Butchers & Meat Cutters 687 Bakers 795 Misc. Hand Working 877 Stock Handlers & Baggers 566 Carpet Installers Concentration 42% 58% 54% 11% 69% 46% Retail 885 Garage & Service Station Related 75% Gasoline Service Stations Retail, other 185 Designers 22% Rubber Services, other 243 Supervisors & Proprietors, Sales 23% 277 Street & Door-to-door Sales 71% 283 Demonstrators, Promoters & Models 19% 589 Glaziers 39% 677 Optical Goods Workers 45% 719 Molding & Casting Machine Operators 22% 755 Extruding & Forming Machine Operator 27% 023 Accountants 034 Business and Promotion Agents 155 Teachers, Pre-kindergarten 165 Archivists 174 Social Workers 175 Recreation 176 Clergy 177 Religious workers 178 Lawyers 183 Authors 186 Musicians and Composers 187 Actors and Directors 188 Painters, Sculptors, Craft Artists 193 Dancers 194 Artists 197 Public Relations 199 Athletes 234 Legal Assistants 313 Secretaries 377 Eligibility Clerks 427 Protective Service Occupations 456 Supervisors Personal Service 459 Attendants, Amusement 463 Guides 464 Ushers 467 Welfare Service 469 Personal Service Occupations nee 773 Motion Picture Projectionists 26% 56% 74% 52% 44% 40% 96% 91% 77% 77% 81% 53% 34% 71% 50% 14% 49% 37% 14% 42% 34% 36% 64% 29% 81% 64% 16% 84%

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90 Industry soc Occupation Concentration Ship & Boat Building Taxicabs Telephone Communication Textile, other Transport. Communication & Public Utilities Trucking Service U.S. Postal Service 646 Layout Workers 809 Taxicab Drivers & Chauffeurs 306 323 327 348 527 529 518 738 739 743 749 878 058 539 694 699 814 828 829 833 834 845 875 876 359 507 803 804 805 883 017 307 354 355 Chief Communications Information Clerks nee Order Clerks Telephone Operators Telephone Line Installers & Repairer Telephone Installers & Repairers Industrial Machinery Repairers Winding & Twisting Machine Oper. Knitting, Looping & Weaving Mach. Textile Cutting Machine Oper. Misc. Textile Machine Operators Machine Feeders & Offbearers Marine Engineers Mechanical Controls & Valve Repairer Water & Sewage Treatment Plant Misc. Plant & System Operators Motor Transportation Occup. nee Ship Captains & Mates Except Fishing Sailors & Deckhands Marine Engineers Bridge, Lock & Lighthouse Tenders Longshore Equipment Operators Garbage Collectors Stevedores Dispatchers Bus, Truck & Stationary Engine Mech. Supervisors, Motor Vehicle Operators Truck Drivers, Heavy Truck Drivers, Light Freight Stock & Material Handler nee Postmasters Supervisors, Distributions Postal Clerks, Except Mail Carriers Mail Carriers, Postal Service Watches, 693 Adjusters & Calibrators Clocks, Watchcases & Parts Wholesale Grocery Wholesale other 799 Graders and Sorters 806 Driver-Sales Workers 013 Managers Marketing 028 Purchasing Agents 57% 48% 87% 13% 21% 46% 86% 86% 7% 76% 59% 33% 50% 15% 55% 45% 82% 23% 51% 74% 77% 53% 43% 91% 80% 91% 24% 29% 34% 41% 17% 22% 100% 19% 100% 100% 63% 20% 25% 14% 68%

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Industry 91 SOC Occupation Concentration 258 Sales Engineers 24% 259 Sales Rep., Mining, Mfg. & Wholesale 49% 364 Traffic, Shipping 10% 365 Stock & Inventory 8% 368 Weighers & Measurers 9% 517 Farm Equipment Mechanics 58% 538 Office Machine Repairers 38% 856 Industrial Truck & Tractor Equipment 6% 889 Laborers, Except Construction 10%

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APPENDIX C RISK MEASURES FOR DETAILED OCCUPATIONS soc Three-digit Level Classification Dummy Managerial and Professional Specialty o Executive, Administrative & Managerial O 003 Legislators & Public Administration 1 005 Administrators, Officials, Pub. Admin. 1 006 Administrators, Protective Services 1 007 Financial Managers 1 008 Personnel and Labor Relations O 009 Purchasing o 013 Managers Marketing O 014 Administrators 1 015 Managers Medicine 1 016 Managers Properties 1 017 Postmasters 1 018 Funeral Directors 1 019 Managers and Administrators nee o 023 Accountants o 024 Underwriters 1 025 Other Financial Officers 1 026 Management Analysts 1 027 Personnel o 028 Purchasing Agents 1 029 Buyers o 033 Purchasing Agents nee o 034 Business and Promotion Agents 1 035 Construction Inspectors 1 036 Inspectors and Compliance 1 037 Management Related 1 Professional Specialty o 043 Architects o 044 Aerospace Engineers 1 045 Metallurgical Engineers o 046 Mining Engineers o 047 Petroleum Engineers 1 048 Chemical Engineers O 049 Nuclear Engineers O 053 Civil Engineers O 054 Agricultural Engineers 1 055 Electrical Engineers o 056 Industrial Engineers o 057 Mechanical Engineers o 058 Marine Engineers 1 059 Engineer nee O 063 Surveyors 1 92 H 0.07 0.05 1.00 0.92 0.91 0.24 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.45 0.51 0.70 1.00 0.90 0.04 0.11 0.91 0.47 0.26 0.09 0.49 0.16 0.03 0.34 0.33 0.50 0.29 0.14 0.06 0.37 0.08 0.19 0.64 0.16 0.12 0.24 0.33 0.13 0.05 0.06 0.35 0.09 0.41

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93 soc 064 Computer Systems 065 Operations and Systems Researchers 066 Actuaries 067 Statisticians 068 Mathematical scientists 069 Physicists 073 Chemists 074 Atmospheric 075 Geologists 076 Physical Scientists nee 077 Agricultural 078 Biological 079 Forestry 083 Medical 084 Physicians 085 Dentists 086 Veterinarians 087 Optometrists 088 Podiatrists 089 Health Diagnosing nee 095 Registered Nurse 096 Pharmacists 097 Dieticians 106 Physicians Assistants 155 Teachers, Prekindergarten 163 Counselors 164 Librarians 165 Archivists 166 Economists 167 Psychologists 168 Sociologists 169 Social Scientists 173 Urban Planners 174 Social Workers 175 Recreation 176 Clergy 177 Religious 178 Lawyers 179 Judges 183 Authors 184 Technical Writers 185 Designers 186 Musicians and Composers 187 Actors and Directors 188 Painters, Sculptors, Craft Artists 189 Photographers 193 Dancers 194 Artists 195 Editors 197 Public Relations 198 Announcers 199 Athletes Technical Sales and Administrative Dummy 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 H 0.10 0.08 0.47 0.12 0.18 0.12 0.06 0.21 0.23 0.21 0.17 0.13 0.32 0.21 0.46 0.87 0.72 0.74 0.82 0.90 0.56 0.53 0.40 0.24 0.60 0.33 0.44 0.30 0.06 0.20 0.21 0.23 0.63 0.32 0.29 0.92 0.84 0.61 1.00 0.60 0.06 0.09 0.66 0.40 0.17 0.18 0.56 0.27 0.21 0.07 0.74 0.32 0.05

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soc Technicians 203 Clinical Laboratory 204 Dental Hygienists 205 Health Record 94 206 Radiologic Technicians 207 Licensed Practical Nurses 208 Health Technologists 213 Electrical Technologists 214 Industrial Technologists 215 Mechanical Technologists 216 Engineering Technologists 217 Drafting Technologists 218 Surveying Technologists 223 Biological Technologists 224 Chemical Technologists 225 Science Technologists nee 226 Airplane Pilots 227 Air Traffic Controllers 228 Broadcast Equipment 229 Computer Programmers 233 Tool Programmers 234 Legal Assistants 235 Technicians nee Sales Occupations 243 Supervisors & Proprietors, Sales 253 Insurance 254 Real Estate Sales 255 Securities & Financial Services Sale 256 Advertising and Related Sales 257 Sales Occupations, Other Business 258 Sales Engineers 259 Sales Reps. 275 Sales Counter Clerks 276 Cashiers 277 Street and Door-to-door 278 News Vendors 283 Demonstrators, Promoters and Models 284 Auctioneers 285 Sales Support Occupations nee Administrative Support 303 Supervisors General Office 304 Supervisors, Computer Equipment 305 Supervisors, Financial Records 306 Chief Communications 307 Supervisors, Distributions 308 Computer Operators 309 Peripheral Equipment Operators 313 Secretaries 314 Stenographers 315 Typists 316 Interviewers 317 Hotel Clerks 318 Transportation Ticket & Reservations Dummy 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 H 0.08 0.61 0.90 0.68 0.66 0.51 0.33 0.11 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.25 0.10 0.16 0.07 0.60 1.00 0.38 0.08 0.05 0.24 0.08 0.09 0.12 1.00 0.94 1.00 0.22 0.16 0.09 0.26 0.33 0.22 0.51 0.63 0.09 0.34 0.11 0.05 0.12 0.08 0.07 0.75 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.18 0.10 0.19 0.99 0.49

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95 soc 319 Receptionists 323 Information Clerks nee 325 Classified-ad Clerks 326 Correspondence Clerks 327 Order Clerks 328 Personnel Clerks, excl. Payroll 329 Library Clerks 335 File Clerks 336 Records Clerks 337 Bookkeepers, Accounting & Auditing 338 Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks 339 Billing Clerks 343 Cost and Rate Clerks 344 Billing, Posting & Calculating 345 Duplicating Machine Operators 346 Mail and Paper Handling Machine Oper. 347 Office Machine Operators nee 348 Telephone Operators 349 Telegraphers 353 Communications Equipment Operators nee 354 Postal Clerks, except Mail Carriers 355 Mail Carriers, Postal Service 356 Mail Clerks, except Postal Service 357 Messengers 359 Dispatchers 363 Production Coordinators 364 Traffic, Shippings 365 Stock and Inventory 366 Meter Readers 368 Weighers, Measurers 369 Samplers 373 Expediters 374 Material Recording, Scheduling 375 Insurance Adjusters 376 Investigators except Insurance 377 Eligibility Clerks 378 Bill and Account Collectors 379 General Office 383 Bank Tellers 384 Proof Readers 385 Data Entry Keyers 386 Statistical Clerks 387 Teachers' Aides 389 Administrative Support nee Service Occupations Private Household Occupations Protective Service 413 Supervisors, Firefighting 414 Supervisors, Police 415 Supervisors, Guards 416 Fire Inspection and Fire Prevention 417 Firefighting 418 Police and Detective, Private Service Dummy 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 H 0.11 0.07 0.23 0.13 0.08 0.16 0.48 0.08 0.18 0.05 0.03 0.04 0.13 0.48 0.07 0.07 0.14 0.23 0.34 0.62 1.00 1.00 0.06 0.08 0.09 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.51 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.11 1.00 0.12 0.36 0.11 0.06 1.00 0.21 0.07 0.08 0.77 0.10 0.11 1.00 0.40 0.86 1.00 0.11 0.30 0.90 1.00

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96 soc 423 Sheriff, Bailiffs 424 Correctional Institution 425 Crossing Guards 426 Guards and Police, except Public 427 Protective Service Occupations Service, except Protective and Household 433 Supervisors, Food Preparation 434 Bartenders 435 Waiters and Waitresses 436 Cooks except Short Order 437 Short-Order Cooks 438 Food Counter 439 Kitchen Workers 443 Waiters and Waitresses Assistants 444 Miscellaneous Food Preparation 445 Dental Assistants 446 Health Aides except Nursing 447 Nursing Aides, Orderlies 448 Supervisors, Cleaning & Building 449 Maids and Housemen 453 Janitors and Cleaners 454 Elevator Operators 455 Pest Control Occupations 456 Supervisors 457 Barbers 458 Hairdressers 459 Attendants, Amusement 463 Guides 464 Ushers 465 Public Transportation 466 Baggage Porters 467 Welfare Service 468 Child Care Workers except Private House 469 Personal Service Occupations nee Farming Forestry and Fishing Occupations Farm Operators and Managers 473-476 Farm Occupations, except Managerial 477-484 Related Agricultural Occupations 485-489 485 Supervisors 486 Groundskeepers 487 Animal Caretakers 488 Graders and Sorters 489 Inspectors Forestry and Logging Occupations 494-496 494 Supervisors 495 Forestry Workers 496 Timber Cutting Fishers, Hunters & Trappers 497-499 497 Captains and Other Officers Fishing 498 Fishers 499 Hunters and Trappers Precision Production, Craft & Repair Mechanics and Repairers 503-549 Dummy 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 H 1.00 1.00 0.86 0.12 0.22 0.14 0.43 0.67 0.72 0.41 0.80 0.72 0.32 0.40 0.27 0.90 0.38 0.42 0.09 0.19 0.07 0.12 0.75 0.22 0.94 0.92 0.43 0.16 0.66 0.83 0.43 0.46 0.30 0.10 0.76 1.00 0.98 0.26 0.24 0.24 0.41 1.00 0.17 0.44 0.46 0.71 0.62 0.74 0.51 0.81 0.25 0.08 0.07

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97 soc 503 Supervisors, Mechanics and Repairers 505 Automobile Mechanics 507 Bus, Truck and Stationary Engine 508 Aircraft Engine Mechanics 509 Small Engine Repairers 514 Automobile Body and Related Repairers 515 Aircraft Mechanics except Engine 516 Heavy Equipment Mechanics 517 Farm Equipment Mechanics 518 Industrial Machinery Repairers 519 Machinery Maintenance Occupations 523 Electronic Repairers, Communications 525 Data Processing Equipment Repairers 526 Household Appliance and Power Tool 527 Telephone Line Installers and Repairer 529 Telephone Installers and Repairers 533 Miscellaneous Electrical & Electronic 534 Heating, Air Conditioning, Refriger 535 Camera, Watch and Musical Instruments 536 Locksmiths and Safe Repairers 538 Office Machine Repairers 539 Mechanical Controls and Valve Repairers 543 Elevator Installers and Repairers 544 Millwrights 547 Specified Mechanics and Repairers nee 549 Not Specified Mechanics and Repairers Construction Trades 553-599 553 Supervisors, Brickmasons, Stonemasons 554 Supervisors, Carpenters and Related 555 Supervisors, Electricians 556 Supervisors, Painters, Paperhangers 557 Supervisors, Plumbers, Pipefitters 558 Supervisors nee 563 Brickmasons and Stonemasons 565 Tile Setters, Hard and Soft 566 Carpet Installers 567 Carpenters 573 Drywall Installers 575 Electricians 577 Electrical Power Installers 579 Painters, Construction and Maintenance 583 Paperhangers Dummy 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 584 Plasterers 1 585 Plumbers, Pipefitters and Steamfitters 1 588 Concrete and Terrazzo Finishers 1 589 Glaziers o 593 Insulation Workers 1 594 Paving, Surfacing and Tamping Equipment 1 595 Roofers 1 596 Sheetmetal Duct Installers 1 597 Structural Metal Workers 1 598 Driller, Earth 1 599 Construction Trades nee 1 H 0.08 0.23 0.15 0.37 0.19 0.50 0.36 0.16 0.38 0.02 0.04 0.12 0.21 0.17 0.74 0.74 0.10 0.15 0.22 0.43 0.23 0.26 0.30 0.07 0.04 0.03 0.51 0.81 0.70 0.24 0.75 0.63 0.81 0.76 0.72 0.40 0.65 0.93 0.23 0.62 0.48 0.66 0.82 0.38 0.90 0.28 0.52 0.81 0.94 0.41 0.55 0.70 0.45

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98 soc Extractive Occupations 613-617 613 Supervisors, Extractive Occupations 614 Driller, Oil Well 615 Explosive Workers 616 Mining Machine Operators 617 Mining Occupations nee Precision Production Occupations 633-699 633 Supervisors, Production Occupations 634 Tool and Die Makers 636 Precision Assemblers, Metal 637 Machinists 643 Boilermakers 644 Precision Grinders, Filers, and Tool 645 Patternmakers and Model Makers, Metal 646 Lay-out Workers 647 Precious Stones and Metal Workers 649 Engravers, Metal 653 Sheet Metal Workers 655 Miscellaneous Precision Metal Workers 656 Patternmakers and Model Makers, Wood Dummy 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 657 Cabinet Makers and Bench Carpenters o 658 Furniture and Wood Finishers O 659 Miscellaneous Precision Woodworkers O 666 Dressmakers o 667 Tailors 1 668 Upholsterers o 669 Shoe Repairers 1 673 Apparel and Fabric Patternmakers o 674 Miscellaneous Precision Apparel o 675 Hand Molders & Shapers except Jewelers O 676 Pattern Makers, Lay-out Worker & cutter o 677 Optical Goods Workers o 678 Dental Laboratory and Medical Appliance 1 679 Bookbinders 1 683 Electrical and Electronic Equipment 1 684 Miscellaneous Precision Workers nee 686 Butchers and Meat Cutters 687 Bakers 688 Food Batchmakers 689 Inspectors, Testers and Graders 693 Adjusters and Calibrators 694 Water and Sewage Treatment Plant 695 Power Plant Operators 696 Stationary Engineers 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 699 Miscellaneous Plant and System Operator o Operators, Fabricators and Laborers o Machine Operators, Assemblers and Inspectors O 703 Lathe and Turning Machine Set-up o 704 Lathe and Turning Machine Operators o 705 Milling and Planing Machine Operators O 706 Punching and Stamping Press o 707 Rolling Machine 1 708 Drilling and Boring o H 0.33 0.36 0.93 0.12 0.42 0.31 0.03 0.02 0.11 0.30 0.09 0.11 0.08 0.08 0.34 0.35 0.14 0.14 0.05 0.15 0.27 0.27 0.10 0.14 0.33 0.29 0.40 0.18 0.18 0.10 0.08 0.30 0.75 0.81 0.50 0.35 0.41 0.37 0.29 0.12 0.41 0.68 0.52 0.04 0.12 0.03 0.04 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.30 0.10

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soc 709 713 714 715 717 719 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 743 744 745 747 748 749 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 763 764 765 766 768 769 773 774 777 779 783 784 785 786 787 789 793 794 795 796 99 Grinding, Abrading, Buffing Forging Machine Operators Numerical Control Machine Operators Miscellaneous Metal, Plastic, Stone Fabricating Machine Operators nee Molding and Casting Machine Operators Metal Plating Machine Operators Heat Treating Equipment Operators Miscellaneous Metal and Plastic Process Wood Lathe, Routing and Planing Machine Sawing Machine Operators Shaping and Joining Machine Operators Nailing and Tacking Machine Operators Miscellaneous Woodworking Machine Printing Machine Operators Photoengravers and Lithographers Typesetters and Compositors Miscellaneous Printing Machine Operator Winding and Twisting Machine Operators Knitting, Looping, Taping and Weaving Textile Cutting Machine Operators Textile Sewing Machine Operators Shoe Machine Operator Pressing Machine Operator Dummy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 Laundering and Dry Cleaning Machine Miscellaneous Textile Machine Operators Cementing and Gluing Machine Operators Packaging & Filling Machine Operators Extruding and Forming Machine Operators Mixing and Blending Machine Operator Separating, Filtering and Clarifying Compressing and Compacting Machine Painting and Paint Spraying Machine o Roasting and Baking Machine Operators 1 Washing, Cleaning and Pickling Machine o 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Folding Machine Operators o Furnace Kiln & Oven Operators 0 crushing and Grinding Machine Operators 0 Slicing and Cutting Machine Operators 0 Motion Picture Projectionists 1 Photographic Process Machine Operators o Miscellaneous Machine Operators nee 0 Machine Operators, not Specified Welders and cutters Solderers & Braziers Assemblers Hand Cutting and Trimming Hand Molding, Casting and Forming Hand Painting, Coating and Decorating Hand Engraving Hand Grinding Misc. Hand Working Production Inspectors, Checkers 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 H 0.06 0.09 0.11 0.12 0.07 0.07 0.15 0.10 0.07 0.45 0.31 0.11 0.30 0.28 0.34 0.51 0.39 0.62 0.59 0.42 0.17 0.62 0.87 0.44 0.34 0.28 0.05 0.10 0.10 0.04 0.20 0.04 0.06 0.32 0.05 0.10 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.71 0.15 0.04 0.03 0.06 0.27 0.08 0.12 0.13 0.10 0.12 0.09 0.05 0.04

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100 soc 797 Production Testers 798 Production Samplers and Weighers 799 Graders and Sorters Transportation and Material Moving Occupation 803 Supervisors, Motor Vehicle Operators 804 Truck Drivers, Heavy 805 Truck Drivers, Light 806 Driver-Sales Workers 808 Bus Drivers 809 Taxicab Drivers and Chauffeurs 813 Parking Lot Attendants 814 Motor Transportation Occupations nee 823 Railroad Conductors and Yardmasters 824 Locomotive Operating Occupations 825 Railroad Brake, Signal and Switch 826 Rail Vehicle Operators nee 828 Ship Captains and Mates, except Fishing 829 Sailors and Deckhands 833 Marine Engineers 834 Bridge, Lock and Lighthouse Tenders 843 Supervisors, Material Moving Equipment 844 Operating Engineers 845 Longshore Equipment Operators 848 Hoist and Winch Operators 849 Crane and Tower Operators 853 Excavating and Loading Machine Operator 855 Grader, Dozer and Scraper Operators 856 Industrial Truck and Tractor Equipment 859 Miscellaneous Material Moving Equipment Handlers, Equipment Cleaners, Helpers 863 Supervisors, Handlers, Equipment 864 Helpers, Mechanics and Repairers 865 Helpers, Construction Trades 866 Helpers, Surveyor 867 Helpers, Extractive Occupations 869 Construction Laborers 873 Production Helpers 875 Garbage Collectors 876 Stevedores 877 Stock Handlers and Baggers 878 Machine Feeders and Offbearers 883 Freight Stock & Material Handlers nee 885 Garage and Service Station Related 887 Vehicle Washers and Equipment Cleaners 888 Hand Packers and Packagers 889 Laborers, except Construction Dummy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 H 0.08 0.03 0.08 0.06 0.14 0.18 0.08 0.12 0.42 0.24 0.28 0.29 0.87 0.67 0.83 0.78 0.56 0.60 0.29 0.27 0.07 0.63 0.84 0.33 0.12 0.37 0.44 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.05 0.11 0.63 0.31 0.35 0.84 0.03 0.66 0.84 0.48 0.06 0.07 0.59 0.12 0.04 0.03

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APPENDIX D VARIANCE RISK MEASURE BY DETAILED OCCUPATION soc Description Variance Covariance Total EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE AND MANAGERIAL 016 Managers Properties 034 Business & Promotion Agent 025 Other Financial Officers 024 Underwriters 037 Management Related 036 Inspectors and Compliance 028 Purchasing Agents 023 Accountants 007 Financial Managers 006 Admin., Protective Services 005 Admin., Public Admin. 003 Legislators & Public Admin. 027 Personnel 029 Buyers 019 Managers & Administrators 008 Personnel & Labor Relations 015 Managers Medicine 013 Managers Marketing 035 Construction Inspectors 014 Administrators 026 Management Analysts 009 Purchasing 018 Funeral Directors 033 Purchasing Agents nee PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY 077 Agricultural 174 Social Workers 175 Recreation 165 Archivists 187 Actors and Directors 178 Lawyers 183 Authors 169 Social Scientists 199 Athletes 194 Artists 078 Biological 096 Pharmacists 168 Sociologists 177 Religious 101 0.00012 0.00006 0.00009 0.00015 0.00008 0.00013 0.00014 0.00003 0.00005 0.00024 0.00024 0.00026 0.00005 0.00008 0.00002 0.00002 0.00024 0.00003 0.00030 0.00036 0.00022 0.00005 0.00055 0.00007 0.00008 0.00006 0.00007 0.00005 0.00008 0.00008 0.00008 0.00006 0.00008 0.00004 0.00005 0.00010 0.00007 0.00010 0.00001 0.00008 0.00006 0.00000 0.00008 0.00003 0.00003 0.00015 0.00016 0.00001 0.00000 0.00000 0.00021 0.00018 0.00028 0.00028 0.00008 0.00036 0.00009 0.00003 0.00020 0.00044 0.00001 0.00060 0.00013 0.00014 0.00015 0.00015 0.00016 0.00017 0.00017 0.00017 0.00020 0.00024 0.00024 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00030 0.00031 0.00031 0.00038 0.00039 0.00039 0.00042 0.00049 0.00057 0.00067 -0.00002 0.00006 -0.00000 0.00006 -0.00001 0.00006 0.00002 0.00007 -0.00001 0.00007 0.00000 0.00008 0.00001 0.00009 0.00003 0.00009 0.00002 0.00009 0.00005 0.00010 0.00005 0.00010 -0.00000 0.00010 0.00003 0.00010 -0.00000 0.00010

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102 soc Description Variance Covariance Total 186 Musicians and Composers 0.00008 0.00002 0.00011 193 Dancers 0.00008 0.00003 0.00011 176 Clergy 0.00011 -0.00000 0.00011 195 Editors 0.00004 0.00007 0.00012 167 Psychologists 0.00010 0.00002 0.00012 066 Actuaries 0.00008 0.00004 0.00012 155 Teachers Prekindergarten 0.00012 0.00001 0.00012 106 Physicians Assistants 0.00010 0.00002 0.00012 079 Forestry 0.00017 -0.00005 0.00012 074 Atmospheric 0.00006 0.00008 0.00014 197 Public Relations 0.00003 0.00011 0.00014 076 Physical Scientists nee 0.00007 0.00008 0.00015 083 Medical 0.00010 0.00006 0.00016 173 Urban Planners 0.00016 0.00002 0.00018 188 Painters, Sculptors, Craft 0.00005 0.00013 0.00018 067 Statisticians 0.00004 0.00014 0.00018 097 Dieticians 0.00019 0.00004 0.00023 179 Judges 0.00026 0.00000 0.00026 189 Photographers 0.00012 0.00015 0.00027 084 Physicians 0.00020 0.00007 0.00027 163 Counselors 0.00026 0.00003 0.00028 069 Physicists 0.00008 0.00021 0.00029 198 Announcers 0.00028 0.00001 0.00030 095 Registered Nurse 0.00026 0.00004 0.00031 166 Economists 0.00004 0.00027 0.00032 087 Optometrists 0.00031 0.00001 0.00032 073 Chemists 0.00005 0.00030 0.00035 065 Operations Research 0.00005 0.00030 0.00035 088 Podiatrists 0.00035 0.00001 0.00036 068 Mathematical Scientists 0.00014 0.00022 0.00036 058 Marine 0.00025 0.00011 0.00037 089 Health Diagnosing nee 0.00038 0.00000 0.00038 085 Dentists 0.00037 0.00001 0.00038 164 Librarians 0.00036 0.00004 0.00040 049 Nuclear 0.00011 0.00033 0.00043 184 Technical Writers 0.00008 0.00036 0.00044 086 Veterinarians 0.00049 -0.00005 0.00045 185 Designers 0.00006 0.00041 0.00046 064 Computer Systems 0.00011 0.00036 0.00048 048 Chemical 0.00014 0.00035 0.00049 063 Surveyors 0.00041 0.00019 0.00060 059 Engineer nee 0.00009 0.00053 0.00062 053 Civil 0.00040 0.00033 0.00073 017 Postmasters 0.00078 0.00000 0.00078 043 Architects 0.00011 0.00069 0.00080 055 Electrical 0.00037 0.00055 0.00092 054 Agricultural 0.00083 0.00026 0.00109 056 Industrial 0.00016 0.00113 0.00129 057 Mechanical 0.00025 0.00130 0.00155 075 Geologists 0.00145 0.00012 0.00158 045 Metallurgical 0.00030 0.00135 0.00165 046 Mining 0.00128 0.00040 0.00167

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soc Description 044 Aerospace 047 Petroleum TECHNICIANS 234 Legal Assistants 223 Biological 228 Broadcast Equipment 208 Health Technologists 235 Technicians 103 227 Air Traffic Controllers 207 Licensed Practical Nurses 203 Clinical Laboratory 205 Health Record 206 Radiologic Technicians 225 Science Technicians nee 204 Dental Hygienists 229 Computer Programmers 224 Chemical 218 Surveying 216 Engineering 233 Tool Programmers 214 Industrial 217 Drafting 213 Electrical 226 Airplane Pilots 215 Mechanical SALES OCCUPATIONS 276 Cashiers 254 Real Estate Sales 278 News Vendors 253 Insurance 255 Securities and Financial 256 Advertising and Related 243 Supervisors & Proprietors 285 Sales Support Occupations 283 Demonstrators, Promoters 257 Sales Occupations, Other 277 Street and Door-to-door 275 Sales Counter Clerks 259 Sales Reps., Mining, Mfg. 284 Auctioneers 258 Sales Engineers 377 Eligibility Clerks 319 Receptionists 336 Records Clerks 315 Typists 303 Supervisors General Office 389 Administrative Support nee 344 Billing, Posting Machine Variance covariance Total 0.00203 0.00114 0.00317 0.00492 0.00024 0.00516 0.00004 0.00004 0.00010 0.00015 0.00005 0.00026 0.00024 0.00029 0.00032 0.00031 0.00011 0.00038 0.00008 0.00013 0.00028 0.00011 0.00009 0.00006 0.00011 0.00030 0.00092 0.00030 0.00004 0.00015 0.00010 0.00016 0.00016 0.00010 0.00005 0.00005 0.00005 0.00013 0.00020 0.00020 0.00008 0.00027 0.00011 0.00007 0.00004 0.00006 0.00003 0.00003 0.00003 0.00008 0.00003 0.00008 0.00005 0.00008 0.00002 0.00013 0.00002 0.00017 0.00017 0.00022 0.00000 0.00026 0.00005 0.00029 0.00005 0.00033 0.00003 0.00035 0.00005 0.00036 0.00027 0.00038 0.00001 0.00039 0.00033 0.00041 0.00030 0.00044 0.00027 0.00055 0.00056 0.00066 0.00065 0.00074 0.00073 0.00079 0.00077 0.00089 0.00060 0.00091 0.00006 0.00098 0.00109 0.00138 0.00006 0.00010 0.00000 0.00015 0.00006 0.00016 0.00000 0.00016 0.00000 0.00016 0.00008 0.00018 0.00018 0.00023 0.00018 0.00023 0.00025 0.00030 0.00018 0.00031 0.00012 0.00032 0.00016 0.00037 0.00033 0.00041 0.00020 0.00046 0.00086 0.00097 0.00000 0.00007 0.00006 0.00010 0.00004 0.00010 0.00009 0.00012 0.00010 0.00013 0.00010 0.00013 0.00006 0.00014

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SOC Description 316 Interviewers 384 Proof Readers 104 323 Information Clerks nee 314 Stenographers 386 Statistical Clerks 328 Personnel Clerks 379 General Office 375 Insurance Adjusters 383 Bank Tellers 313 Secretaries 356 Mail Clerks, except Carrier 357 Messengers 347 Office Machine Operators 346 Mail Preparing and Paper 325 Classified Ad Clerks 378 Bill and Account Collectors 376 Investigators except Insur 335 File Clerks 343 Cost and Rate Clerks 337 Bookkeepers, Accounting 305 Supervisors, Financial 339 Billing Clerks 326 Correspondence Clerks 345 Duplicating Machine 327 Order Clerks 317 Hotel Clerks 308 Computer Operators 385 Data Entry Keyers 309 Peripheral Equipment 348 Telephone Operators 374 Material Recording 304 Supervisors, Computer 369 Samplers 366 Meter Readers 368 Weighers, Measurers 359 Dispatchers 307 Supervisors, Distributions 338 Payroll and Timekeeping 365 Stock and Inventory 329 Library Clerks 349 Telegraphers 364 Traffic, Shippings ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT 373 Expediters 353 Communications Equipment 363 Production Coordinators 387 Teachers' Aides 306 Chief Communications 355 Mail Carriers, Postal 354 Postal Clerks, except Mail Variance Covariance Total 0.00006 0.00008 0.00004 0.00006 0.00003 0.00004 0.00002 0.00016 0.00016 0.00002 0.00002 0.00004 0.00004 0.00003 0.00004 0.00005 0.00004 0.00003 0.00003 0.00002 0.00002 0.00003 0.00003 0.00005 0.00006 0.00026 0.00003 0.00003 0.00003 0.00020 0.00008 0.00005 0.00004 0.00021 0.00003 0.00010 0.00005 0.00003 0.00003 0.00038 0.00031 0.00004 0.00006 0.00056 0.00006 0.00066 0.00068 0.00078 0.00078 0.00008 0.00007 0.00011 0.00009 0.00012 0.00012 0.00014 0.00000 0.00000 0.00014 0.00014 0.00013 0.00013 0.00015 0.00013 0.00014 0.00015 0.00017 0.00018 0.00020 0.00021 0.00022 0.00021 0.00021 0.00020 0.00000 0.00023 0.00023 0.00024 0.00008 0.00021 0.00025 0.00027 0.00011 0.00032 0.00025 0.00034 0.00037 0.00038 0.00003 0.00012 0.00059 0.00014 0.00015 0.00015 0.00015 0.00015 0.00016 0.00016 0.00016 0.00016 0.00016 0.00017 0.00017 0.00017 0.00018 0.00018 0.00019 0.00019 0.00020 0.00021 0.00023 0.00023 0.00024 0.00024 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00027 0.00028 0.00029 0.00030 0.00030 0.00032 0.00035 0.00036 0.00038 0.00040 0.00041 0.00042 0.00043 0.00063 0.00057 0.00063 0.00008 0.00064 0.00058 0.00064 0.00001 0.00067 0.00002 0.00070 0.00000 0.00078 0.00000 0.00078

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105 SOC Description 318 Transportation Ticket PROTECTIVE SERVICE 427 Protective Service 416 Fire Inspection and Fire 413 Supervisors, Firefighting 425 Crossing Guards 417 Firefighting 414 Supervisors, Police 423 Sheriff, Bailiffs 424 Correctional Institution 418 Police & Detective Private 415 Supervisors, Guards 426 Guards and Police Variance Covariance Total 0.00074 0.00007 0.00081 0.00005 0.00013 0.00022 0.00022 0.00023 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00009 0.00010 0.00002 -0.00004 0.00000 0.00001 -0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00023 0.00025 0.00007 0.00010 0.00023 0.00023 0.00023 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00026 0.00031 0.00035 SERVICE OCCUPATIONS EXCLUDING PROTECTIVE & HOUSEHOLD 467 Welfare Service 463 Guides 449 Maids and Housemen 459 Attendants, Amusement 469 Personal Service 464 Ushers 444 Miscellaneous Food Prep 448 Supervisors, Cleaning 456 Supervisors 439 Kitchen Workers 454 Elevator Operators 443 Waiter & Waitress Assistant 436 Cooks except Short Order 433 Supervisors Food Prep 468 Childcare Workers 453 Janitors and Cleaners 446 Health Aides except Nursing 466 Baggage Porters 447 Nursing Aides, Orderlies 434 Bartenders 438 Food Counter 435 Waiters and Waitresses 437 Short-Order Cooks 445 Dental Assistants 458 Hairdressers 457 Barbers 455 Pest Control Occupations 465 Public Transportation FARMING, FORESTRY & FISHING 485 Supervisors 486 Groundskeepers 489 Inspectors 0.00007 0.00005 0.00007 0.00006 0.00004 0.00008 0.00013 0.00006 0.00007 0.00013 0.00003 0.00017 0.00018 0.00018 0.00017 0.00005 0.00017 0.00018 0.00019 0.00027 0.00030 0.00030 0.00033 0.00038 0.00056 0.00058 0.00068 0.00126 -0.00001 0.00001 0.00000 0.00003 0.00006 0.00002 -0.00000 0.00008 0.00008 0.00002 0.00013 0.00000 -0.00000 0.00001 0.00005 0.00017 0.00005 0.00006 0.00006 0.00003 0.00002 0.00003 0.00002 0.00001 0.00001 0.00000 0.00004 0.00002 0.00005 0.00006 0.00007 0.00009 0.00010 0.00010 0.00013 0.00014 0.00015 0.00015 0.00016 0.00018 0.00018 0.00019 0.00022 0.00022 0.00023 0.00024 0.00025 0.00030 0.00032 0.00032 0.00035 0.00039 0.00057 0.00058 0.00072 0.00128 0.00010 -0.00004 0.00006 0.00014 -0.00001 0.00012 0.00011 0.00003 0.00014

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106 SOC Description Variance Covariance Total 499 Hunters and Trappers 487 Animal Caretakers 497 Captains & Other Officers 495 Forestry Workers 498 Fishers 488 Graders and Sorters 494 supervisors 496 Timber Cutting MECHANICS & REPAIRERS 539 Mechanical Controls 517 Farm Equipment Mechanics 538 Office Machine Repairers 503 Supervisors, Mechanics 523 Electronic Repairers 526 Household Appliance 549 Not Specified Mechanics 547 Specified Mechanics 535 Camera, Watch & Musical 507 Bus, Truck & Stationary 536 Locksmiths and Safe Repair 534 Heating, Air Conditioning 509 Small Engine Repairers 505 Automobile Mechanics 533 Miscellaneous Electrical 527 Telephone Line Installers 519 Machinery Maintenance 529 Telephone Installers 525 Data Processing Equipment 518 Industrial Machinery Repair 516 Heavy Equipment Mechanics 514 Automobile Body and Related 508 Aircraft Engine Mechanics 543 Elevator Installers 544 Millwrights 515 Aircraft Mechanics CONSTRUCTION TRADES 577 Electrical Power Installers 555 Supervisors, Electricians 589 Glaziers 575 Electricians 585 Plumbers, Pipefitters 599 Construction Trades nee 566 Carpet Installers 579 Painters, Construction 593 Insulation Workers 596 Sheetmetal Duct Installers 557 Supervisors, Plumbers 583 Paperhangers 0.00018 0.00027 0.00034 0.00051 0.00055 0.00069 0.03013 0.04841 0.00013 0.00014 0.00013 0.00010 0.00013 0.00019 0.00004 0.00004 0.00020 0.00017 0.00039 0.00023 0.00023 0.00024 0.00014 0.00067 0.00013 0.00068 0.00030 0.00005 0.00028 0.00049 0.00057 0.00063 0.00025 0.00124 0.00023 0.00049 0.00034 0.00049 0.00081 0.00096 0.00060 0.00103 0.00111 0.00086 0.00135 0.00140 0.00008 -0.00000 0.00005 0.00002 0.00001 0.00000 0.00037 -0.00025 0.00014 0.00016 0.00026 0.00030 0.00029 0.00033 0.00048 0.00050 0.00037 0.00041 0.00021 0.00042 0.00042 0.00041 0.00053 0.00002 0.00057 0.00004 0.00046 0.00072 0.00049 0.00033 0.00026 0.00044 0.00143 0.00050 0.00005 0.00037 0.00053 0.00056 0.00039 0.00029 0.00068 0.00030 0.00031 0.00059 0.00016 0.00020 0.00026 0.00026 0.00039 0.00053 0.00057 0.00069 0.03051 0.04816 0.00026 0.00029 0.00039 0.00040 0.00042 0.00052 0.00052 0.00054 0.00057 0.00058 0.00060 0.00065 0.00066 0.00066 0.00067 0.00069 0.00070 0.00072 0.00076 0.00077 0.00077 0.00082 0.00083 0.00108 0.00168 0.00174 0.00029 0.00085 0.00086 0.00105 0.00120 0.00125 0.00128 0.00132 0.00142 0.00145 0.00151 0.00160

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soc Description 598 Driller, Earth 567 Carpenters 107 554 Supervisors, Carpenters 556 Supervisors, Painters 597 Structural Metal Workers 558 Supervisors nee 565 Tile Setters, Hard and Soft 584 Plasterers 563 Brickmasons and Stonemasons 553 Supervisors, Brickmasons 594 Paving, Surfacing & Tamping 588 Concrete and Terrazzo 595 Roofers 573 Drywall Installers PRECISION PRODUCTION 687 Bakers 686 Butchers and Meat Cutters 688 Food Batchmakers 695 Power Plant Operators 696 Stationary Engineers 679 Bookbinders 694 Water and Sewage Treatment 666 Dressmakers 678 Dental Laboratory 677 Optical Goods Workers 649 Engravers, Metal 699 Miscellaneous Plant 667 Tailors 674 Miscellaneous Precision 643 Boilermakers 669 Shoe Repairers 673 Apparel and Fabric Pattern 633 Supervisors, Production 647 Precious Stones & Metals 668 Upholsterers 615 Explosive Workers 653 Sheet Metal Workers 676 Pattern Makers, Lay-out 658 Furniture and Wood Finisher 689 Inspectors, Testers 659 Misc. Precision Woodworkers 637 Machinists 655 Misc. Precision Metal 657 Cabinet Makers & Bench 646 Lay-out Workers 645 Patternmakers & Model Metal 684 Misc. Precision nee 644 Precision Grinders, Filers 675 Hand Molders & Shapers 656 Patternmaker & Model Wood Variance Covariance Total 0.00152 0.00140 0.00150 0.00161 0.00119 0.00174 0.00154 0.00176 0.00163 0.00174 0.00175 0.00194 0.00201 0.00201 0.00005 0.00006 0.00006 0.00019 0.00005 0.00033 0.00033 0.00009 0.00032 0.00020 0.00009 0.00021 0.00033 0.00013 0.00021 0.00066 0.00021 0.00005 0.00046 0.00038 0.00063 0.00033 0.00016 0.00059 0.00040 0.00022 0.00026 0.00016 0.00068 0.00097 0.00027 0.00101 0.00031 0.00034 0.00045 0.00009 0.00027 0.00019 0.00014 0.00057 0.00007 0.00028 0.00008 0.00022 0.00019 0.00018 0.00009 0.00005 0.00006 0.00001 0.00002 0.00005 0.00004 0.00024 0.00001 0.00002 0.00026 0.00003 0.00023 0.00037 0.00027 0.00021 0.00045 0.00055 0.00015 0.00061 0.00077 0.00044 0.00065 0.00041 0.00094 0.00111 0.00077 0.00099 0.00119 0.00137 0.00156 0.00114 0.00091 0.00163 0.00100 0.00171 0.00174 0.00165 0.00162 0.00167 0.00168 0.00175 0.00176 0.00181 0.00182 0.00184 0.00185 0.00192 0.00193 0.00202 0.00207 0.00207 0.00006 0.00008 0.00011 0.00023 0.00029 0.00034 0.00034 0.00036 0.00036 0.00044 0.00046 0.00048 0.00054 0.00058 0.00076 0.00082 0.00082 0.00082 0.00090 0.00103 0.00105 0.00127 0.00127 0.00135 0.00139 0.00141 0.00163 0.00172 0.00182 0.00188 0.00190 0.00200 0.00202 0.00207 0.00210

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108 soc Description 636 Precision Assemblers Metal 634 Tool & Die Makers 683 Electrical & Electronic 617 Mining Occupations nee 616 Mining Machine Operators 693 Adjusters & Calibrators 613 Supervisors, Extractive 614 Driller, Oil Well Variance Covariance Total 0.00127 0.00045 0.00174 0.00225 0.00292 0.00254 0.00269 0.00721 0.00089 0.00216 0.00207 0.00252 0.00098 0.00272 0.00093 0.00318 0.00049 0.00341 0.00092 0.00346 0.00090 0.00358 0.00005 0.00726 MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS & INSPECTORS 773 Motion Picture Projection 748 Laundering & Dry Cleaning 763 Roasting & Baking Machine 736 Typesetters & Compositors 734 Printing Machine Operators 754 Packaging & Filling Machine 735 Photoengravers & Lithograph 737 Miscellaneous Printing 786 Hand Cutting & Trimming 774 Photographic Process 757 Separating, Filtering 799 Graders and Sorters 747 Pressing Machine Operator 756 Mixing & Blending Machine 798 Production Samplers 795 Misc. Hand Working 765 Folding Machine Operators 789 Hand Painting, Coating 768 Crushing and Grinding 793 Hand Engraving 764 Washing, Cleaning 758 Compressing & Compacting 743 Textile cutting Machine 769 Slicing & Cutting Machine 787 Hand Molding, Casting 766 Furnace, Kiln & Oven 777 Miscellaneous Machine 744 Textile Sewing Machine 779 Machine Operators Not Spec 749 Miscellaneous Textile Mach 753 Cementing & Gluing Machine 739 Knitting, Looping, Taping 794 Hand Grinding 759 Painting & Paint Spraying 738 Winding & Twisting Machine 783 Welders and Cutters 796 Production Inspectors 755 Extruding & Forming Machine 719 Molding and Casting Machine 723 Metal Plating Machine 717 Fabricating Machine 0.00009 0.00020 0.00007 0.00013 0.00013 0.00003 0.00021 0.00025 0.00006 0.00012 0.00015 0.00009 0.00034 0.00004 0.00007 0.00006 0.00011 0.00011 0.00007 0.00013 0.00006 0.00006 0.00027 0.00007 0.00022 0.00015 0.00009 0.00072 0.00009 0.00043 0.00012 0.00062 0.00016 0.00014 0.00088 0.00017 0.00015 0.00026 0.00020 0.00035 0.00021 0.00002 -0.00003 0.00014 0.00008 0.00010 0.00021 0.00006 0.00006 0.00029 0.00022 0.00024 0.00033 0.00013 0.00051 0.00056 0.00062 0.00058 0.00059 0.00064 0.00060 0.00070 0.00076 0.00077 0.00098 0.00083 0.00093 0.00102 0.00040 0.00112 0.00079 0.00112 0.00064 0.00115 0.00122 0.00050 0.00124 0.00127 0.00119 0.00155 0.00141 0.00155 0.00011 0.00017 0.00021 0.00022 0.00024 0.00025 0.00026 0.00031 0.00035 0.00035 0.00039 0.00042 0.00047 0.00055 0.00063 0.00067 0.00069 0.00071 0.00071 0.00073 0.00076 0.00082 0.00103 0.00105 0.00105 0.00108 0.00110 0.00112 0.00121 0.00122 0.00124 0.00126 0.00131 0.00136 0.00138 0.00141 0.00142 0.00145 0.00175 0.00176 0.00176

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109 SOC Description Variance Covariance Total 797 Production Testers 725 Misc. Metal & Plastic 714 Numerical Control Machine 705 Milling & Planing Machine 733 Misc. Woodworking Machine 785 Assemblers 728 Shaping & Joining Machine 709 Grinding, Abrading, Buffing 704 Lathe & Turning Machine 708 Drilling & Boring Machine 713 Forging Machine Operators 784 Solderers & Braziers 729 Nailing & Tacking Machine 724 Heat Treating Equipment 706 Punching & Stamping Press 727 Sawing Machine Operators 707 Rolling Machine 703 Lathe & Turning Machine 715 Miscellaneous Metal 726 Wood Lathe, Routing 745 Shoe Machine Operator 0.00027 0.00019 0.00042 0.00034 0.00106 0.00034 0.00038 0.00023 0.00035 0.00034 0.00029 0.00090 0.00113 0.00036 0.00038 0.00132 0.00115 0.00044 0.00075 0.00174 0.00307 TRANSPORTATION AND MOVING OCCUPATIONS 806 Driver-Sales Workers 814 Motor Transportation 834 Bridge, Lock & Lighthouse 833 Marine Engineers 808 Bus Drivers 805 Truck Drivers, Light 803 Supervisors, Motor Vehicle 828 Ship Captains and Mates 813 Parking Lot Attendants 829 Sailors and Deckhands 845 Longshore Equipment 809 Taxicab Drivers & Chauffeur 843 Supervisors, Material 804 Truck Drivers, Heavy 859 Misc. Material Moving 826 Rail Vehicle Operators nee 824 Locomotive Operating 856 Industrial Truck & Tractor 823 Railroad Conductors 825 Railroad Brake, Signal 853 Excavating & Loading 855 Grader, Dozer and Scraper 844 Operating Engineers 849 Crane & Tower Operators 848 Hoist & Winch Operators 0.00003 0.00015 0.00018 0.00015 0.00027 0.00006 0.00016 0.00028 0.00024 0.00031 0.00040 0.00036 0.00007 0.00024 0.00011 0.00074 0.00065 0.00010 0.00083 0.00079 0.00083 0.00105 0.00136 0.00039 0.00253 HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS & LABORERS 0.00149 0.00161 0.00146 0.00165 0.00098 0.00171 0.00167 0.00192 0.00187 0.00190 0.00197 0.00139 0.00119 0.00202 0.00201 0.00108 0.00150 0.00232 0.00206 0.00108 0.00013 0.00010 0.00006 0.00006 0.00014 0.00007 0.00029 0.00020 0.00009 0.00015 0.00009 0.00001 0.00016 0.00045 0.00042 0.00059 0.00004 0.00018 0.00077 0.00009 0.00016 0.00013 -0.00003 0.00006 0.00109 -0.00028 0.00177 0.00180 0.00188 0.00199 0.00204 0.00204 0.00205 0.00215 0.00222 0.00224 0.00226 0.00229 0.00232 0.00239 0.00240 0.00240 0.00265 0.00277 0.00281 0.00282 0.00320 0.00013 0.00021 0.00024 0.00030 0.00034 0.00035 0.00036 0.00037 0.00039 0.00040 0.00041 0.00052 0.00052 0.00066 0.00070 0.00078 0.00083 0.00086 0.00092 0.00095 0.00096 0.00102 0.00142 0.00148 0.00224

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110 soc Description Variance Covariance Total 877 Stock Handlers & Baggers 0.00006 0.00005 0.00011 863 Supervisors, Handlers 0.00005 0.00027 0.00033 875 Garbage Collectors 0.00032 0.00002 0.00034 876 Stevedores 0.00040 0.00001 0.00041 888 Hand Packers & Packagers 0.00003 0.00040 0.00042 889 Laborer except Construction 0.00003 0.00042 0.00045 864 Helpers, Mechanics & Repair 0.00012 0.00038 0.00050 883 Freight Stock & Material 0.00009 0.00042 0.00050 887 Vehicle Washers 0.00013 0.00046 0.00059 873 Production Helpers 0.00006 0.00060 0.00066 866 Helpers, Surveyor 0.00040 0.00028 0.00068 885 Garage and Service Station 0.00057 0.00014 0.00070 878 Machine Feeders & Offbearer 0.00013 0.00091 0.00104 865 Helpers, Construction Trade 0.00135 0.00027 0.00162 869 Construction Laborers 0.00180 0.00007 0.00187 867 Helpers, Extractive 0.00238 0.00078 0.00316

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APPENDIX E ORDINARY LEAST SQUARES REGRESSIONS Dependent Variable is Log Wage Female Sample Regression One Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio FRACTION NORTH FRACTION SOUTH FRACTION WEST GROWTH DUMMY UNEMPLOYMENT RATE FRACTION FEMALE FRACTION AGRICULTURE FRACTION MINING FRACTION CONSTRUCTION FRACTION NONDURABLE FRACTION TRANSPORTATION FRACTION WHOLESALE FRACTION RETAIL FRACTION FIRE FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. EDUCATION EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCE SQUARED EXPERIENCE CUBED GED-REASONING GED-MATH GED-LANGUAGE SVP SVP EDU DEXTERITY STRESS STRENGTH EXTREME COLD EXTREME HEAT EXTREME WET EXTREME NOISE VIBRATION ATMOSPHERIC MECHANICAL SHOCK HEAT RADIATION EXPLOSIVES -0.2839 -0.6144 -0.2221 0.0144 -1. 1291 -0.0985 -0.2858 0.4146 0.2109 -0.0120 0.1957 0.0138 -0.2470 0.0414 -0.1073 -0.2724 0.0885 -0.1372 -0.0041 0.0151 0.0032 0.0001 -0.0000 0.0012 0.0474 0.0349 -0.1577 0.0129 0.0536 0.0735 -0.0432 0.0599 0.0241 -0.0058 0.0364 0.0341 0.0242 0.1791 0.3459 -0.2453 0.3048 0.2822 111 0.12 0.14 0.10 0.01 0.23 0.03 0.10 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.07 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.00 0.00 o.oo 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.14 0.05 0.07 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.28 0.34 0.33 0.13 0.39 -2.32 -4.34 -2.25 2.09 -4.89 -2.93 -2.75 6.68 4.58 -0.26 5.35 0.19 -7.26 1.31 -2.11 -7.42 1.41 -4.12 -0.11 5.33 0.87 0.45 -1.84 0.08 5.70 3.05 -6.63 7.40 3.66 2.19 -3.72 0.43 0.46 -0.09 1.16 0.87 0.59 0.64 1.02 -0.75 2.38 0.72

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Variable TOXINS OTHER HAZARDS NONWHITE UNION REPRESENTATION CONSTANT Statistics: R-SQUARE R-SQUARE ADJUSTED VARIANCE STANDARD ERROR SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS LOG LIKELIHOOD 112 Coefficient -0.2475 0.1153 0.0475 0.0152 9.1854 Std. Error T-Ratio 0.32 0.06 0.18 0.04 0.11 -0.78 1.79 0.27 0.40 82.61 0.2109 0.2074 0.2247 0.4740 2325 -6964

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113 Male Sample Regression One Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio FRACTION NORTH FRACTION SOUTH FRACTION WEST GROWTH DUMMY UNEMPLOYMENT RATE FRACTION FEMALE FRACTION AGRICULTURE FRACTION MINING FRACTION CONSTRUCTION FRACTION NONDURABLE FRACTION TRANSPORTATION FRACTION WHOLESALE FRACTION RETAIL FRACTION FIRE FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. EDUCATION EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCE SQUARED EXPERIENCE CUBED GED-REASONING GED-MATH GED-LANGUAGE SVP SVP EDU DEXTERITY STRESS STRENGTH EXTREME COLD EXTREME HEAT EXTREME WET EXTREME NOISE VIBRATION ATMOSPHERIC MECHANICAL SHOCK HEAT RADIATION EXPLOSIVES TOXINS OTHER HAZARDS NONWHITE UNION REPRESENTATION CONSTANT 0.2088 -0.1710 0.0108 0.0055 -0.3713 -0.2579 -0.0775 0.2745 0.1188 0.0002 0.1157 0.1182 -0.2120 0.1121 -0.0972 -0.2907 0.0442 -0.1623 -0.1730 0.0337 0.0312 -0.0007 0.0000 -0.0136 0.0196 0.0518 -0.0277 0.0047 0.0529 0.1368 -0.0430 -0.1707 0.1107 0.1263 0.0100 -0.0375 -0.0437 0.0549 0.0449 0.0047 0.3649 -0.1859 -0.2439 -0.0856 -0.7436 0.0709 8.9606 0.08 0.05 0.06 0.00 0.13 0.02 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.11 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.13 0.17 0.13 0.08 0.19 0.20 0.06 0.09 0.02 0.07 2.73 -3.16 0.17 1.51 -2.93 -11.24 -1.72 8.95 4.46 0.01 6.03 2.59 -9.85 4.71 -3.15 -10.46 1.03 -6.88 -8.50 21.64 17.98 -8.65 2.51 -1.80 3.10 7.04 -2.22 5.39 4.32 5.48 -5.59 -1.51 3.52 4.60 0.59 -2.10 -1.95 0.42 0.26 0.04 4.31 -0.96 -1.21 -1.41 -8.70 3.69 125.89

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Statistics: R-SQUARE R-SQUARE ADJUSTED VARIANCE STANDARD ERROR SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS LOG LIKELIHOOD 114 0.3891 0.3868 0.0993 0.3151 1210 -3207

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115 Female Sample Regression Two Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio FRACTION NORTH FRACTION SOUTH FRACTION WEST GROWTH DUMMY UNEMPLOYMENT RATE FRACTION FEMALE FRACTION AGRICULTURE FRACTION MINING FRACTION CONSTRUCTION FRACTION NONDURABLE FRACTION TRANSPORTATION FRACTION WHOLESALE FRACTION RETAIL FRACTION FIRE FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. EDUCATION EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCE SQUARED EXPERIENCE CUBED GED-REASONING GED-MATH GED-LANGUAGE SVP SVP EDU DEXTERITY STRESS STRENGTH EXTREME COLD EXTREME HEAT EXTREME WET EXTREME NOISE VIBRATION ATMOSPHERIC MECHANICAL SHOCK HEAT RADIATION EXPLOSIVES TOXINS OTHER HAZARDS NONWHITE UNION REPRESENTATION RISK DUMMY GROWTH* DUMMY CONSTANT -0.2697 -0.6025 -0.2138 0.0178 -1.0823 -0.1058 -0.2784 0.4186 0.2172 -0.0096 0.2102 0.0094 -0.2351 0.0612 -0.1136 -0.2566 0.0960 -0.1185 0.0056 0.0150 0.0032 0.0001 -0.0000 0.0014 0.0457 0.0340 -0.1559 0.0129 0.0544 0.0788 -0.0399 0.0419 0.0249 -0.0100 0.0363 0.0385 0.0223 0.2078 0.2596 -0.2480 0.3263 0.2237 -0.2472 0.1107 -0.0038 0.0138 -0.0150 -0.0098 9.1737 0.12 0.14 0.10 0.01 0.23 0.03 0.10 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.07 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.14 0.05 0.07 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.28 0.34 0.33 0.13 0.39 0.32 0.07 0.17 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.11 -2.18 -4.18 -2.15 2.06 -4.72 -3.16 -2.67 6.72 4.77 -0.21 5.76 0.13 -6.73 1.84 -2.24 -6.79 1.53 -3.49 0.15 5.31 0.87 0.45 -1.83 0.10 5.51 2.97 -6.54 7.43 3.75 2.36 -3.33 0.30 0.48 -0.15 1.17 0.98 0.54 0.75 0.76 -0.76 2.55 0.57 -0.78 1.69 -0.02 0.37 -1.17 -0.86 80.99

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Statistics: R-SQUARE R-SQUARE ADJUSTED VARIANCE STANDARD ERROR SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS LOG LIKELIHOOD 116 0.2112 0.2075 0.2247 0.4740 2324 -6962

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117 Male Sample Regression Two Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio FRACTION NORTH FRACTION SOUTH FRACTION WEST GROWTH DUMMY UNEMPLOYMENT RATE FRACTION FEMALE FRACTION AGRICULTURE FRACTION MINING FRACTION CONSTRUCTION FRACTION NONDURABLE FRACTION TRANSPORTATION FRACTION WHOLESALE FRACTION RETAIL FRACTION FIRE FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. EDUCATION EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCE SQUARED EXPERIENCE CUBED GED-REASONING GED-MATH GED-LANGUAGE SVP SVP EDU DEXTERITY STRESS STRENGTH EXTREME COLD EXTREME HEAT EXTREME WET EXTREME NOISE VIBRATION ATMOSPHERIC MECHANICAL SHOCK HEAT RADIATION EXPLOSIVES TOXINS OTHER HAZARDS NONWHITE UNION REPRESENTATION RISK DUMMY GROWTH* DUMMY CONSTANT 0.2196 -0.1564 0.0379 -0.0043 -0.3968 -0.2543 -0.0776 0.2720 0.1314 0.0066 0.1211 0.1219 -0.2083 0.1111 -0.0960 -0.2792 0.0562 -0.1654 -0.1684 0.0337 0.0312 -0.0007 0.0000 -0.0116 0.0189 0.0514 -0.0279 0.0047 0.0516 0.1316 -0.0453 -0.1505 0.1032 0.1354 0.0161 -0.0435 -0.0370 0.0612 0.0400 0.0203 0.3673 -0.0793 -0.1961 -0.0608 -0.7337 0.0742 -0.0130 0.0223 8.9545 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.00 0.13 0.02 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.11 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.13 0.17 0.13 0.09 0.20 0.20 0.06 0.09 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.07 2.86 -2.84 0.59 -0.93 -3.11 -10.99 -1.74 8.85 5.00 0.32 6.22 2.67 -9.55 4.54 -3.09 -9.83 1. 32 -7.09 -8.17 21.64 18.00 -8.66 2.52 -1.53 2.97 7.01 -2.24 5.38 4.20 5.25 -5.81 -1.33 3.25 4.88 0.94 -2.44 -1.63 0.46 0.23 0.15 4.32 -0.40 -0.98 -0.99 -8.52 3.86 -1. 75 3.34 125.33

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Statistics: R-SQUARE R-SQUARE ADJUSTED VARIANCE STANDARD ERROR SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS LOG LIKELIHOOD 118 0.3897 0.3873 0.0992 0.3150 1209 -3201

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119 Female Sample Regression Three Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio FRACTION NORTH FRACTION SOUTH FRACTION WEST GROWTH DUMMY UNEMPLOYMENT RATE FRACTION FEMALE FRACTION AGRICULTURE FRACTION MINING FRACTION CONSTRUCTION FRACTION NONDURABLE FRACTION TRANSPORTATION FRACTION WHOLESALE FRACTION RETAIL FRACTION FIRE FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. EDUCATION EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCE SQUARED EXPERIENCE CUBED GED-REASONING GED-MATH GED-LANGUAGE SVP SVP EDU DEXTERITY STRESS STRENGTH EXTREME COLD EXTREME HEAT EXTREME WET EXTREME NOISE VIBRATION ATMOSPHERIC MECHANICAL SHOCK HEAT RADIATION EXPLOSIVES TOXINS OTHER HAZARDS NONWHITE UNION REPRESENTATION H GROWTH* DUMMY CONSTANT -0.2948 -0.6100 -0.2202 0.0244 -1. 0026 -0.1228 -0.2689 0.4175 0.2252 0.0003 0.2286 -0.0154 -0.2223 0.1067 -0.1181 -0.2184 0.0908 -0.0981 0.0416 0.0149 0.0032 0.0001 -0.0000 0.0045 0.0419 0.0364 -0.1578 0.0130 0.0516 0.0858 -0.0345 0.0114 0.0179 -0.0160 0.0349 0.0384 0.0289 0.1743 0.2330 -0.2792 0.3441 0.1351 -0.1996 0.1050 -0.0829 0.0108 -0.0531 -0.0387 9.1855 0.12 0.14 0.10 0.01 0.23 0.03 0.11 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.07 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.14 0.05 0.07 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.28 0.34 0.32 0.13 0.39 0.32 0.07 0.17 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.11 -2.38 -4.29 -2.22 2.56 -4.31 -3.65 -2.56 6.75 5.04 0.01 6.00 -0.21 -6.27 2.98 -2.33 -5.48 1.46 -2.88 1.04 5.27 0.88 0.43 -1.81 0.31 4.97 3.17 -6.63 7.46 3.56 2.55 -2.89 0.08 0.35 -0.24 1.11 0.97 0.70 0.62 0.68 -0.86 2.69 0.34 -0.63 1.55 -0.48 0.29 -2.02 -1.76 82.74

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Statistics: R-SQUARE R-SQUARE ADJUSTED VARIANCE STANDARD ERROR SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS LOG LIKELIHOOD 120 0.2120 0.2083 0.2245 0.4738 2321 -6957

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121 Male Sample Regression Three Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio FRACTION NORTH FRACTION SOUTH FRACTION WEST GROWTH DUMMY UNEMPLOYMENT RATE FRACTION FEMALE FRACTION AGRICULTURE FRACTION MINING FRACTION CONSTRUCTION FRACTION NONDURABLE FRACTION TRANSPORTATION FRACTION WHOLESALE FRACTION RETAIL FRACTION FIRE FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. EDUCATION EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCE SQUARED EXPERIENCE CUBED GED-REASONING GED-MATH GED-LANGUAGE SVP SVP EDU DEXTERITY STRESS STRENGTH EXTREME COLD EXTREME HEAT EXTREME WET EXTREME NOISE VIBRATION ATMOSPHERIC MECHANICAL SHOCK HEAT RADIATION EXPLOSIVES TOXINS OTHER HAZARDS NONWHITE UNION REPRESENTATION H GROWTH* DUMMY CONSTANT 0.2123 -0.1733 0.0362 -0.0078 -0.3621 -0.2605 -0.0576 0.2854 0.1507 0.0155 0.1476 0.1148 -0.1925 0.1338 -0.0982 -0.2576 0.0662 -0.1492 -0.1456 0.0337 0.0312 -0.0007 0.0000 -0.0111 0.0161 0.0525 -0.0258 0.0047 0.0514 0.1345 -0.0423 -0.1881 0.0974 0.1381 0.0145 -0.0469 -0.0305 0.0560 0.0088 0.0093 0.3908 -0.1209 -0.2400 -0.0511 -0.7645 0.0739 -0.05681 0.03998 8.9588 0.08 0.05 0.06 0.00 0.13 0.02 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.11 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.13 0.17 0.13 0.09 0.20 0.20 0.06 0.09 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.07 2.78 -3.20 0.58 -1.59 -2.81 -11.08 -1.28 9.28 5.65 0.75 7.12 2.51 -8.61 4.99 -3.17 -8.58 1.56 -6.47 -6.43 21. 65 18.00 -8.67 2.53 -1.45 2.50 7.15 -2.07 5.39 4.21 5.34 -5. 41 -1.67 3.08 4.99 0.85 -2.62 -1.34 0.42 0.05 0.07 4.53 -0.61 -1.19 -0.83 -8.75 3.84 -3.727 3.5036 125.31

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Statistics: R-SQUARE R-SQUARE ADJUSTED VARIANCE STANDARD ERROR SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS LOG LIKELIHOOD 122 0.3902 0.3878 0.0992 0.3149 1208 -3196

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123 Female Sample Regression Four Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio FRACTION NORTH FRACTION SOUTH FRACTION WEST GROWTH DUMMY UNEMPLOYMENT RATE FRACTION FEMALE FRACTION AGRICULTURE FRACTION MINING FRACTION CONSTRUCTION FRACTION NONDURABLE FRACTION TRANSPORTATION FRACTION WHOLESALE FRACTION RETAIL FRACTION FIRE FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. EDUCATION EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCE SQUARED EXPERIENCE CUBED GED-REASONING GED-MATH GED-LANGUAGE SVP SVP EDU DEXTERITY STRESS STRENGTH EXTREME COLD EXTREME HEAT EXTREME WET EXTREME NOISE VIBRATION ATMOSPHERIC MECHANICAL SHOCK HEAT RADIATION EXPLOSIVES TOXINS OTHER HAZARDS NONWHITE UNION REPRESENTATION VARIANCE CONSTANT -0.2945 -0.6341 -0.2445 0.0143 -1.1610 -0.0960 -0.2748 0.4206 0.2213 -0.0048 0.2011 0.0221 -0.2402 0.0467 -0.0978 -0.2670 0.1016 -0.1319 0.0038 0.0151 0.0032 0.0001 -0.0000 0.0005 0.0480 0.0350 -0.1575 0.0129 0.0531 0.0683 -0.0439 0.0699 0.0275 -0.0069 0.0361 0.0308 0.0296 0.1913 0.3415 -0.2464 0.3094 0.2931 -0.2292 0.1214 0.0554 0.0177 2.5643 9.1951 0.12 0.15 0.10 0.01 0.23 0.03 0.10 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.08 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.14 0.05 0.07 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.28 0.34 0.33 0.13 0.39 0.32 0.06 0.18 0.04 2.36 0.11 -2.38 -4.36 -2.43 2.07 -4.97 -2.85 -2.66 6.73 4.68 -0.10 5.47 0.29 -6.95 1.47 -1.90 -7.17 1.60 -3.93 0.10 5.34 0.88 0.45 -1.83 0.03 5.76 3.06 -6.62 7.40 3.62 2.04 -3.77 0.50 0.53 -0.11 1.15 0.79 0.71 0.69 1.01 -0.76 2.42 0.75 -0.72 1.89 0.31 0.47 1.085 81.879

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Statistics: R-SQUARE R-SQUARE ADJUSTED VARIANCE STANDARD ERROR SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS LOG LIKELIHOOD 124 0.2110 0.2075 0.2247 0.4740 2324 -6963

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125 Male Sample Regression Four Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio FRACTION NORTH 0.2037 0.08 2.66 FRACTION SOUTH -0.1841 0.06 -3.32 FRACTION WEST -0.0067 0.06 -0.10 GROWTH DUMMY 0.0055 0.00 1.51 UNEMPLOYMENT RATE -0.3887 0.13 -3.03 FRACTION FEMALE -0.2558 0.02 -11.10 FRACTION AGRICULTURE -0.0702 0.05 -1.54 FRACTION MINING 0.2792 0.03 8.97 FRACTION CONSTRUCTION 0.1256 0.03 4.55 FRACTION NONDURABLE 0.0053 0.02 0.25 FRACTION TRANSPORTATION 0.1201 0.02 6.17 FRACTION WHOLESALE 0.1242 0.05 2.70 FRACTION RETAIL -0.2072 0.02 -9.47 FRACTION FIRE 0.1161 0.02 4.82 FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. -0.0902 0.03 -2.87 FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. -0.2868 0.03 -10.27 FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT 0.0533 0.04 1.22 FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. -0.1586 0.02 -6.68 FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. -0.1668 0.02 -7.95 EDUCATION 0.0337 0.00 21.63 EXPERIENCE 0.0312 0.00 17.98 EXPERIENCE SQUARED -0.0007 0.00 -8.65 EXPERIENCE CUBED 0.0000 o.oo 2.51 GED-REASONING -0.0142 0.01 -1.88 GED-MATH 0.0201 0.01 3.17 GED-LANGUAGE 0.0520 0.01 7.08 SVP -0.0276 0.01 -2.22 SVP EDU 0.0047 0.00 5.39 DEXTERITY 0.0523 0.01 4.26 STRESS 0.1321 0.03 5.25 STRENGTH -0.0432 0.01 -5.62 EXTREME COLD -0.1655 0.11 -1.46 EXTREME HEAT 0.1128 0.03 3.58 EXTREME WET 0.1263 0.03 4.60 EXTREME NOISE 0.0096 0.02 0.56 VIBRATION -0.0393 0.02 -2.19 ATMOSPHERIC -0.0401 0.02 -1.79 MECHANICAL 0.0606 0.13 0.46 SHOCK 0.0422 0.17 0.25 HEAT 0.0027 0.13 0.02 RADIATION 0.3675 0.08 4.34 EXPLOSIVES -0.1764 0.19 -0.92 TOXINS -0.2305 0.20 -1.14 OTHER HAZARDS -0.0812 0.06 -1.33 NONWHITE -0.7390 0.09 -8.62 UNION REPRESENTATION 0.0727 0.02 3.78 VARIANCE 1.5882 0.92 1.72 CONSTANT 8.9673 0.07 125.12

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Statistics: R-SQUARE R-SQUARE ADJUSTED VARIANCE STANDARD ERROR SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS LOG LIKELIHOOD 126 0.3892 0.3869 0.0993 0.3151 1209 -3206

PAGE 133

127 Female Sample Regression Five Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio FRACTION NORTH FRACTION SOUTH FRACTION WEST GROWTH DUMMY UNEMPLOYMENT RATE FRACTION FEMALE FRACTION AGRICULTURE FRACTION MINING FRACTION CONSTRUCTION FRACTION NONDURABLE FRACTION TRANSPORTATION FRACTION WHOLESALE FRACTION RETAIL FRACTION FIRE FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. EDUCATION EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCE SQUARED EXPERIENCE CUBED GED-REASONING GED-MATH GED-LANGUAGE SVP SVP EDU DEXTERITY STRESS STRENGTH EXTREME COLD EXTREME HEAT EXTREME WET EXTREME NOISE VIBRATION ATMOSPHERIC MECHANICAL SHOCK HEAT RADIATION EXPLOSIVES TOXINS OTHER HAZARDS NONWHITE UNION REPRESENTATION VARIANCE COVARIANCE GROWTH* TOTAL VARIANCE CONSTANT -0.2525 -0.6191 -0.1726 0.0113 -1.1555 -0.1012 -0.1865 0.4798 0.3102 0.0858 0.3027 0.1173 -0.1381 0.1482 -0.0119 -0.1671 0.1920 -0.0293 0.1093 0.0151 0.0032 0.0001 -4.00 X 106 0.0025 0.0479 0.0323 -0.1581 0.0129 0.0526 0.0649 -0.0455 0.0712 0.0130 -0.0011 0.0272 0.0330 0.0409 0.1379 0.4180 -0.2935 0.3039 0.2185 -0.2883 0.1271 0.0419 0.0156 4.0155 67.0110 29.2530 9.0766 0.13 0.15 0.11 0.01 0.23 0.03 0.11 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.10 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.06 0.06 o.oo 0.00 o.oo 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.14 0.05 0.07 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.28 0.34 0.33 0.13 0.39 0.32 0.07 0.18 0.04 2.58 34.71 14.46 0.14 -1.92 -4.19 -1.51 1.53 -4.95 -3.00 -1. 71 7.11 4.72 1.32 4.67 1.21 -2.12 2.50 -0.18 -2.61 2.40 -0.49 1.72 5.32 0.88 0.45 -1.83 0.17 5.74 2.86 -6.64 7.41 3.59 1.94 -3.90 0.51 0.25 -0.02 0.87 0.84 0.97 0.50 1.23 -0.90 2.37 0.56 -0.91 1.95 0.24 0.41 1.5557 1.9304 2.0232 65.42

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Statistics: R-SQUARE R-SQUARE ADJUSTED VARIANCE STANDARD ERROR SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS LOG LIKELIHOOD 128 0.2115 0.2078 0.2246 0.4739 2323 -6961

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129 Male Sample Regression Five Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio FRACTION NORTH FRACTION SOUTH FRACTION WEST GROWTH DUMMY UNEMPLOYMENT RATE FRACTION FEMALE FRACTION AGRICULTURE FRACTION MINING FRACTION CONSTRUCTION FRACTION NONDURABLE FRACTION TRANSPORTATION FRACTION WHOLESALE FRACTION RETAIL FRACTION FIRE FRACTION BUSINESS SERV. FRACTION PERSONAL SERV. FRACTION ENTERTAINMENT FRACTION PROFESS. SERV. FRACTION PUBLIC ADMIN. EDUCATION EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCE SQUARED EXPERIENCE CUBED GED-REASONING GED-MATH GED-LANGUAGE SVP SVP EDU DEXTERITY STRESS STRENGTH EXTREME COLD EXTREME HEAT EXTREME WET EXTREME NOISE VIBRATION ATMOSPHERIC MECHANICAL SHOCK HEAT RADIATION EXPLOSIVES TOXINS OTHER HAZARDS NONWHITE UNION REPRESENTATION VARIANCE COVARIANCE GROWTH* TOTAL VARIANCE CONSTANT 0.2085 -0.1847 -0.0067 0.0024 -0.3523 -0.2597 -0.0517 0.2898 0.1456 0.0255 0.1443 0.1410 -0.1811 0.1425 -0.0657 -0.2626 0.0741 -0.1323 -0.1382 0.0337 0.0312 -0.0007 3.00 X 106 -0.0139 0.0204 0.0516 -0.0279 0.0047 0.0519 0.1292 -0.0435 -0.1678 0.1016 0.1276 0.0067 -0.0403 -0.0357 0.0362 0.0928 -0.0169 0.3692 -0.2282 -0.2635 -0.0699 -0.7503 0.0743 1.1198 18.2070 29.7330 8.9453 0.08 0.06 0.07 o.oo 0.13 0.02 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.04 o.oo 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.11 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.13 0.17 0.13 0.08 0.19 0.20 0.06 0.09 0.02 1.07 17.90 10.16 0.08 2.66 -3.27 -0.09 0.63 -2.71 -11.23 -1.01 8.12 4.09 0.77 4.14 2.60 -5.06 3.83 -1.68 -6.54 1.48 -3.48 -3.85 21.64 17.99 -8.65 2.51 -1.82 3.22 6.98 -2.24 5.40 4.23 5.14 -5.63 -1.48 3.26 4.66 0.39 -2.23 -1.59 0.27 0.55 -0.13 4.35 -1.18 -1.30 -1.14 -8.74 3.86 1.04 1.02 2.93 110.24

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Statistics: R-SQUARE R-SQUARE ADJUSTED VARIANCE STANDARD ERROR SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS LOG LIKELIHOOD 130 0.3897 0.3872 0.0992 0.3150 1209 -3201

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131 Female Sample Regression Six Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio FRACTION NORTH FRACTION SOUTH FRACTION WEST GROWTH DUMMY UNEMPLOYMENT RATE FRACTION FEMALE EDUCATION EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCE SQUARED EXPERIENCE CUBED GED-REASONING GED-MATH GED-LANGUAGE SVP SVP EDU DEXTERITY STRESS STRENGTH EXTREME COLD EXTREME HEAT EXTREME WET EXTREME NOISE VIBRATION ATMOSPHERIC MECHANICAL SHOCK HEAT RADIATION EXPLOSIVES TOXINS OTHER HAZARDS NONWHITE UNION REPRESENTATION VARIANCE COVARIANCE GROWTH* TOTAL VARIANCE CONSTANT Statistics: R-SQUARE R-SQUARE ADJUSTED VARIANCE STANDARD ERROR SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS LOG LIKELIHOOD -0.1273 -0.2782 -0.1202 0.0097 -0.9771 -0.2462 0.0141 0.0028 0.0001 -0.0000 0.0196 0.0363 0.0353 -0.1766 0.0133 0.0604 0.0502 -0.0928 0.0353 -0.1513 -0.1066 0.0858 0.1419 0.0729 -0.0666 0.2947 0.3011 -0.0481 -0.6582 -0.1487 0.0770 -0.0421 0.1737 1.9188 28.7080 48.9170 9.0733 0.12 0.13 0.11 0.01 0.19 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.14 0.05 0.07 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.27 0.34 0.31 0.12 0.37 0.31 0.07 0.16 0.03 2.32 15.25 14.81 0.12 -1.03 -2.16 -1.11 1.32 -5.06 -9.13 4.94 0.75 0.54 -1.91 1.40 4.20 3.02 -7.32 7.65 4.14 1. 62 -8.26 0.25 -2.87 -1.55 2.64 3.67 1.69 -0.24 0.88 0.97 -0.39 -1.78 -0.47 1.10 -0.26 5.43 0.83 1.88 3.30 73.24 0.1892 0.1863 0.2307 0.4803 2389 -7106

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132 Male Sample Regression six Variable Coefficient Std. Error T-Ratio FRACTION NORTH FRACTION SOUTH FRACTION WEST GROWTH DUMMY UNEMPLOYMENT RATE FRACTION FEMALE EDUCATION EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCE SQUARED EXPERIENCE CUBED GED-REASONING GED-MATH GED-LANGUAGE SVP SVP EDU DEXTERITY STRESS STRENGTH EXTREME COLD EXTREME HEAT EXTREME WET EXTREME NOISE VIBRATION ATMOSPHERIC MECHANICAL SHOCK HEAT RADIATION EXPLOSIVES TOXINS OTHER HAZARDS NONWHITE UNION REPRESENTATION RISK DUMMY GROWTH* DUMMY H GROWTH* DUMMY Statistics: R-SQUARE R-SQUARE ADJUSTED VARIANCE STANDARD ERROR SUM OF SQUARED ERRORS LOG LIKELIHOOD 0.3173 0.0679 0.0638 -0.0003 -0.1130 -0.3946 0.033529 0.03117 -0.00071 2.7E-06 0.001642 0.018923 0.039418 -0.04237 0.004824 0.054047 0.049952 -0.07759 -0.23848 -0.0772 0.1204 0.0518 0.0182 -0.0027 -0.1164 0.0612 0.3250 0.1367 -1. 0635 -0.3078 -0.0771 -0.9223 0.1607 0.6616 34.1660 49.6210 8.8987 0.08 0.05 0.07 o.oo 0.11 0.02 0.00 o.oo 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.11 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.13 0.16 0.13 0.08 0.16 0.20 0.06 0.08 0.02 0.91 8.22 10.44 0.08 3.99 1.27 0.96 -0.08 -1.07 -18.78 21.104 17.375 -8.382 2.4479 0.2146 2.8663 5.3407 -3.403 5.4747 4.4818 2.2247 -9.718 -2.138 -2.48 4.72 2.99 1.08 -0.11 -0.87 0.37 2.59 1.69 -6.46 -1.52 -1.23 -10.96 9.49 0.73 4.16 4.75 115.64 0.3580 0.3561 0.1043 0.3229 1271 -3511

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soc 065 069 075 077 078 083 084 085 176 178 005 007 014 015 023 024 043 044 045 046 047 048 049 053 054 055 056 057 058 059 063 066 067 068 APPENDIX F GED SCORE REASONING Occupation Title OPERATIONS AND SYSTEMS RESEARCHERS AND ANALYSTS PHYSICISTS AND ASTRONOMERS GEOLOGISTS AND GEODESISTS AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SCIENTISTS BIOLOGICAL AND LIFE SCIENTISTS MEDICAL SCIENTISTS PHYSICIANS DENTISTS CLERGY LAWYERS ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION FINANCIAL MANAGERS ADMINISTRATORS, EDUCATION AND RELATED FIELDS MANAGERS, MEDICINE AND HEALTH ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS UNDERWRITERS ARCHITECTS AEROSPACE ENGINEERS METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERS MINING ENGINEERS PETROLEUM ENGINEERS CHEMICAL ENGINEERS NUCLEAR ENGINEERS CIVIL ENGINEERS AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERS INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS MECHANICAL ENGINEERS MARINE AND NAVAL ARCHITECTS ENGINEERS, N.E.C. SURVEYORS AND MAPPING SCIENTISTS ACTUARIES STATISTICIANS MATHEMATICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. 133 Variable 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

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soc 073 074 076 079 086 087 088 095 096 097 106 163 166 167 168 169 173 179 183 184 186 195 197 203 205 206 214 215 258 006 008 009 013 016 017 018 025 026 027 134 Occupation Title CHEMISTS, EXCEPT BIOCHEMISTS ATMOSPHERIC AND SPACE SCIENTISTS PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. FORESTRY AND CONSERVATION SCIENTISTS VETERINARIANS OPTOMETRISTS PODIATRISTS REGISTERED NURSES PHARMACISTS DIETITIANS PHYSICIANS ASSISTANTS COUNSELORS, EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL ECONOMISTS PSYCHOLOGISTS SOCIOLOGISTS SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. URBAN PLANNERS JUDGES AUTHORS TECHNICAL WRITERS MUSICIANS AND COMPOSERS EDITORS AND REPORTERS PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALISTS CLINICAL LABORATORY TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS RADIOLOGIC TECHNICIANS INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS SALES ENGINEERS ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE SERVICES PERSONNEL AND LABOR RELATIONS MANAGERS PURCHASING MANAGERS MANAGERS, MARKETING, ADVERTISING, AND PUBLIC RELATIONS MANAGERS, PROPERTIES AND REAL ESTATE POSTMASTERS AND MAIL SUPERINTENDENTS FUNERAL DIRECTORS OTHER FINANCIAL OFFICERS MANAGEMENT ANALYSTS PERSONNEL, TRAINING, AND LABOR RELATIONS SPECIALISTS Variable 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

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soc 028 029 033 034 035 036 037 064 089 155 164 165 174 175 177 185 187 188 189 193 198 204 208 213 216 217 218 224 225 226 227 228 229 233 234 235 253 135 Occupation Title PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS, FARM PRODUCTS BUYERS, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE EXCEPT FARM PRODUCTS PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS, N.E.C. BUSINESS AND PROMOTION AGENTS CONSTRUCTION INSPECTORS INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS AND SCIENTISTS HEALTH DIAGNOSING PRACTITIONERS, N.E.C. TEACHERS, PREKINDERGARTEN AND KINDERGARTEN LIBRARIANS ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS SOCIAL WORKERS RECREATION WORKERS RELIGIOUS WORKERS, N.E.C. DESIGNERS ACTORS AND DIRECTORS PAINTERS, SCULPTORS, CRAFT-ARTISTS, AND ARTIST PRINTMAKERS PHOTOGRAPHERS DANCERS ANNOUNCERS DENTAL HYGIENISTS HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNICIANS ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. DRAFTING OCCUPATIONS SURVEYING AND MAPPING TECHNICIANS CHEMICAL TECHNICIANS SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. AIRPLANE PILOTS AND NAVIGATORS AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS BROADCAST EQUIPMENT OPERATORS COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS TOOL PROGRAMMERS, NUMERICAL CONTROL LEGAL ASSISTANTS TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. INSURANCE SALES OCCUPATIONS Variable 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

PAGE 142

soc 254 255 256 257 259 304 305 306 308 313 375 377 383 413 445 497 507 527 529 543 553 554 555 556 557 584 637 653 657 136 Occupation Title REAL ESTATE SALES OCCUPATIONS SECURITIES AND FINANCIAL SERVICES SALES OCCUPATIONS ADVERTISING AND RELATED SALES OCCUPATIONS SALES OCCUPATIONS, OTHER BUSINESS SERVICES SALES REPRESENTATIVES, MINING, MANUFACTURING, AND WHOLESALE SUPERVISORS, COMPUTER EQUIPMENT OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, FINANCIAL RECORDS PROCESSING CHIEF COMMUNICATIONS OPERATORS COMPUTER OPERATORS SECRETARIES INSURANCE ADJUSTERS, EXAMINERS, AND INVESTIGATORS ELIGIBILITY CLERKS, SOCIAL WELFARE BANK TELLERS SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS DENTAL ASSISTANTS CAPTAINS AND OTHER OFFICERS, FISHING VESSELS BUS, TRUCK, AND STATIONARY ENGINE MECHANICS TELEPHONE LINE INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS TELEPHONE INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS ELEVATOR INSTALLERS AND REPAIRER SUPERVISORS, BRICKMASONS, STONEMASONS, AND TILE SETTERS SUPERVISORS, CARPENTERS AND RELATED WORKERS SUPERVISORS, ELECTRICIANS AND POWER TRANSMISSION INSTALLERS SUPERVISORS, PAINTERS, PAPERHANGERS AND PLASTERERS SUPERVISORS, PLUMBERS, PIPEFITTERS AND STEAMFITTERS PLASTERERS MACHINISTS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES SHEET METAL WORKERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES CABINET MAKERS AND BENCH CARPENTERS Variable 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

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soc 658 667 773 844 194 199 207 223 276 277 283 284 285 303 307 314 315 316 317 318 319 323 325 326 327 328 335 336 337 338 339 343 344 348 349 353 354 355 359 363 137 Occupation Title FURNITURE AND WOOD FINISHERS TAILORS MOTION PICTURE PROJECTIONISTS OPERATING ENGINEERS ARTISTS, PERFORMERS, AND RELATED WORKERS, N.E.C. ATHLETES LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES BIOLOGICAL TECHNICIANS CASHIERS STREET AND DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES WORKERS DEMONSTRATORS, PROMOTERS AND MODELS, SALES AUCTIONEERS SALES SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. SUPERVISORS, GENERAL OFFICE SUPERVISORS, DISTRIBUTION, SCHEDULING AND ADJUSTING CLERKS STENOGRAPHERS TYPISTS INTERVIEWERS HOTEL CLERKS TRANSPORTATION TICKET AND RESERVATION AGENTS RECEPTIONISTS INFORMATION CLERKS, N.E.C. CLASSIFIED-AD CLERKS CORRESPONDENCE CLERKS ORDER CLERKS PERSONNEL CLERKS, EXCEPT PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING FILE CLERKS RECORDS CLERKS BOOKKEEPERS, ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING CLERKS PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING CLERKS BILLING CLERKS COST AND RATE CLERKS BILLING, POSTING, AND CALCULATING MACHINE OPERATORS TELEPHONE OPERATORS TELEGRAPHERS COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT OPERATORS, N.E.C. POSTAL CLERKS, EXC. MAIL CARRIERS MAIL CARRIERS, POSTAL SERVICE DISPATCHERS PRODUCTION COORDINATORS Variable 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

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soc 366 369 373 376 378 379 384 385 386 387 389 414 415 416 417 418 423 424 426 427 433 436 437 446 447 448 456 457 458 463 465 467 468 485 494 138 Occupation Title METER READERS SAMPLERS EXPEDITERS INVESTIGATORS AND ADJUSTERS, EXCEPT INSURANCE BILL AND ACCOUNT COLLECTORS GENERAL OFFICE CLERKS PROOFREADERS DATA-ENTRY KEYERS STATISTICAL CLERKS TEACHERS AIDES ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. SUPERVISORS, POLICE AND DETECTIVES SUPERVISORS, GUARDS FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS POLICE AND DETECTIVES, PUBLIC SERVICE SHERIFFS, BAILIFFS, AND OTHER LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION OFFICERS GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC. PUBLIC SERVICE PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. SUPERVISORS, FOOD PREPARATION AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER SHORT-ORDER COOKS HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND ATTENDANTS SUPERVISORS, CLEANING AND BUILDING SERVICE WORKERS SUPERVISORS, PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS BARBERS HAIRDRESSERS AND COSMETOLOGISTS GUIDES PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ATTENDANTS WELFARE SERVICE AIDES CHILD CARE WORKERS, EXCEPT PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD SUPERVISORS, RELATED AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS SUPERVISORS, FORESTRY AND LOGGING WORKERS Variable 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

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soc 499 503 505 508 509 514 516 517 518 523 525 526 533 534 535 536 538 539 544 558 563 565 566 567 573 575 577 583 585 588 589 595 597 598 613 139 Occupation Title HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS, EXC. APPRENTICES AIRCRAFT ENGINE MECHANICS SMALL ENGINE REPAIRERS AUTOMOBILE BODY AND RELATED REPAIRERS HEAVY EQUIPMENT MECHANICS FARM EQUIPMENT MECHANICS INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY REPAIRERS ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS, COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT REPAIR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCE AND POWER TOOL REPAIRERS MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT REPAIRERS HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING, AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS CAMERA, WATCH, AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS LOCKSMITHS AND SAFE REPAIRERS OFFICE MACHINE REPAIRERS MECHANICAL CONTROLS AND VALVE REPAIRERS MILLWRIGHTS SUPERVISORS, N.E.C. BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES TILE SETTERS, HARD AND SOFT CARPET INSTALLERS CARPENTERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES DRYWALL INSTALLERS ELECTRICIANS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES ELECTRICAL POWER INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS PAPERHANGERS PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES CONCRETE AND TERRAZZO FINISHERS GLAZIERS ROOFERS STRUCTURAL METAL WORKERS DRILLERS, EARTH Variable 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS 3 3 3 3 3

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soc 614 615 633 634 636 643 644 645 646 647 649 655 656 659 666 668 669 673 675 676 677 678 683 684 686 687 688 689 693 694 695 696 699 703 707 140 Occupation Title DRILLERS, OIL WELL EXPLOSIVES WORKERS SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES PRECISION ASSEMBLERS, METAL BOILERMAKERS PRECISION GRINDERS, FITTERS, AND TOOL SHARPENERS PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL MAKERS, METAL LAY-OUT WORKERS PRECIOUS STONES AND METALS WORKERS(JEWELERS) ENGRAVERS, METAL MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL WORKERS PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL MAKERS, WOOD MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION WOODWORKERS DRESSMAKERS UPHOLSTERERS SHOE REPAIRERS APPAREL AND FABRIC PATTERNMAKERS HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS, EXCEPT JEWELERS PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT WORKERS, AND CUTTERS OPTICAL GOODS WORKERS DENTAL LABORATORY AND MEDICAL APPLIANCE TECHNICIAN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLERS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION WORKERS, N.E.C. BUTCHERS AND MEAT CUTTERS BAKERS FOOD BATCHMAKERS INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND GRADERS ADJUSTERS AND CALIBRATORS WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS POWER PLANT OPERATORS STATIONARY ENGINEERS MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND SYSTEM OPERATORS LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE SET-UP OPERATORS ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS Variable 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

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soc 714 735 736 737 739 774 783 803 808 823 824 826 828 833 834 843 845 863 866 275 278 309 329 345 346 347 356 357 364 365 368 374 141 Occupation Title NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE OPERATOR PHOTOENGRAVERS AND LITHOGRAPHERS TYPESETTERS AND COMPOSITORS MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS KNITTING, LOOPING, TAPING, AND WEAVING MACHINE OPERATORS PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE OPERATORS WELDERS AND CUTTERS SUPERVISORS, MOTOR VEHICLE OPERATORS BUS DRIVERS RAILROAD CONDUCTORS AND YARDMASTER LOCOMOTIVE OPERATING OCCUPATIONS RAIL VEHICLE OPERATORS, N.E.C. SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES, EXCEPT FISHING BOATS MARINE ENGINEERS BRIDGE, LOCK, AND LIGHTHOUSE TENDERS SUPERVISORS, MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS LONGSHORE EQUIPMENT OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, AND LABORERS, HELPERS, SURVEYOR SALES COUNTER CLERKS NEWS VENDORS PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT OPERATORS LIBRARY CLERKS DUPLICATING MACHINE OPERATORS MAIL PREPARING AND PAPER HANDLING MACHINE OPERATORS OFFICE MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. MAIL CLERKS, EXC. POSTAL SERVICE MESSENGERS TRAFFIC, SHIPPING, AND RECEIVING CLERKS STOCK AND INVENTORY CLERKS WEIGHERS, MEASURERS, AND CHECKERS MATERIAL RECORDING, SCHEDULING AND DISTRIBUTING CLERKS, N.E.C. Variable 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

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soc 425 434 435 438 439 443 444 454 455 459 464 466 469 486 487 488 489 496 498 519 547 579 593 594 599 616 617 674 679 704 705 706 708 709 142 Occupation Title Variable CROSSING GUARDS 2 BARTENDERS 2 WAITERS AND WAITRESSES 2 FOOD COUNTER, FOUNTAIN & RELATED 2 KITCHEN WORKERS, FOOD 2 PREPARATION WAITERS/WAITRESSES ASSISTANTS 2 MISCELLANEOUS FOOD 2 PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS ELEVATOR OPERATORS 2 PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS 2 ATTENDANTS, AMUSEMENT AND 2 RECREATION FACILITIES USHERS 2 BAGGAGE PORTERS AND BELLHOPS 2 PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. 2 GROUNDSKEEPERS AND GARDENERS, 2 EXCEPT FARM ANIMAL CARETAKERS, EXCEPT 2 FARM GRADERS AND SORTERS, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS INSPECTORS, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING OCCUPATIONS FISHERS MACHINERY MAINTENANCE OCCUPATIONS SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS, N.E.C. PAINTERS, CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE INSULATION WORKERS PAVING, SURFACING, AND TAMPING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C. MINING MACHINE OPERATORS MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION APPAREL AND FABRIC WORKERS BOOKBINDERS LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE OPERATORS MILLING AND PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS MACHINE OPERATORS DRILLING AND BORING MACHINE OPERATORS GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING, AND POLISHING MACHINE OPERATORS 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

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soc 713 715 717 719 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 733 734 738 743 744 745 747 748 749 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 763 143 Occupation Title FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC, STONE AND GLASS WORKING MACHINE OPERATOR FABRICATING MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. MOLDING AND CASTING MACHINE OPERATORS METAL PLATING MACHINE OPERATORS HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE OPERATORS WOOD LATHE, ROUTING, AND PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS SHAPING AND JOINING MACHINE OPERATORS NAILING AND TACKING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING MACHINE OPERATORS PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS WINDING AND TWISTING MACHINE OPERATORS TEXTILE CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS TEXTILE SEWING MACHINE OPERATORS SHOE MACHINE OPERATORS PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE OPERATORS CEMENTING AND GLUING MACHINE OPERATORS PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE OPERATORS EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE OPERATORS MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE OPERATORS SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING MACHINE OPERATORS PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING MACHINE OPERATORS ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE OPERATORS, FOOD Variable 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

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soc 764 765 766 768 769 777 784 785 786 787 789 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 804 805 806 809 813 814 825 829 848 849 853 855 856 859 144 Occupation Title WASHING, CLEANING, AND PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS FOLDING MACHINE OPERATORS FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE OPERATORS SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS ASSEMBLERS HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING OCCUPATIONS HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND FORMING OCCUPATIONS HAND PAINTING, COATING, AND DECORATING OCCUPATIONS HAND ENGRAVING AND PRINTING OCCUPATIONS HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING OCCUPATIONS MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING OCCUPATIONS PRODUCTION INSPECTORS, CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS PRODUCTION TESTERS PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND WEIGHERS GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC. AGRICULTURAL TRUCK DRIVERS, HEAVY TRUCK DRIVERS, LIGHT DRIVER-SALES WORKERS TAXICAB DRIVERS AND CHAUFFEURS PARKING LOT ATTENDANTS MOTOR TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. RAILROAD BRAKE, SIGNAL, AND SWITCH OPERATORS SAILORS AND DECKHANDS HOIST AND WINCH OPERATORS CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS EXCAVATING AND LOADING MACHINE OPERATORS GRADER, DOZER, AND SCRAPER OPERATORS INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND TRACTOR EQUIPMENT OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS Variable 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

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soc 864 865 867 869 876 885 449 453 495 873 875 877 878 883 887 888 889 145 Occupation Title HELPERS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES HELPERS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS CONSTRUCTION LABORERS STEVEDORES GARAGE AND SERVICE STATION RELATED OCCUPATIONS MAIDS AND HOUSEMEN JANITORS AND CLEANERS FORESTRY WORKERS, EXCEPT LOGGING PRODUCTION HELPERS GARBAGE COLLECTORS STOCK HANDLERS AND BAGGERS MACHINE FEEDERS AND OFFBEARERS FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL HANDLERS, N.E.C. VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT CLEANERS HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION Variable 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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APPENDIX G GED SCORE MATH soc Occupation Title Variable 065 OPERATIONS AND SYSTEMS 6 RESEARCHERS AND ANALYSTS 078 BIOLOGICAL AND LIFE 6 SCIENTISTS 023 ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS 5 043 ARCHITECTS 5 044 AEROSPACE ENGINEERS 5 045 METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS 5 ENGINEERS 046 MINING ENGINEERS 5 047 PETROLEUM ENGINEERS 5 048 CHEMICAL ENGINEERS 5 049 NUCLEAR ENGINEERS 5 053 CIVIL ENGINEERS 5 054 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS 5 055 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC 5 ENGINEERS 056 INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS 5 059 ENGINEERS, N.E.C. 5 066 ACTUARIES 5 067 STATISTICIANS 5 068 MATHEMATICAL SCIENTISTS, 5 N.E.C. 069 PHYSICISTS AND ASTRONOMERS 5 073 CHEMISTS, EXCEPT BIOCHEMISTS 5 074 ATMOSPHERIC AND SPACE 5 SCIENTISTS 075 GEOLOGISTS AND GEODESISTS 5 076 PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. 5 077 AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD 5 SCIENTISTS 079 FORESTRY AND CONSERVATION 5 SCIENTISTS 083 MEDICAL SCIENTISTS 5 084 PHYSICIANS 5 085 DENTISTS 5 087 OPTOMETRISTS 5 096 PHARMACISTS 5 166 ECONOMISTS 5 167 PSYCHOLOGISTS 5 214 INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING 5 TECHNICIANS 258 SALES ENGINEERS 5 146

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soc 005 007 008 015 018 024 025 057 058 063 064 086 088 095 097 106 163 168 173 176 178 203 205 206 213 215 217 218 224 226 229 233 304 497 529 653 006 147 Occupation Title ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION FINANCIAL MANAGERS PERSONNEL AND LABOR RELATIONS MANAGERS MANAGERS, MEDICINE AND HEALTH FUNERAL DIRECTORS UNDERWRITERS OTHER FINANCIAL OFFICERS MECHANICAL ENGINEERS MARINE AND NAVAL ARCHITECTS SURVEYORS AND MAPPING SCIENTISTS COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS AND SCIENTISTS VETERINARIANS PODIATRISTS REGISTERED NURSES DIETITIANS PHYSICIANS ASSISTANTS COUNSELORS, EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL SOCIOLOGISTS URBAN PLANNERS CLERGY LAWYERS CLINICAL LABORATORY TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS RADIOLOGIC TECHNICIANS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNICIANS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS DRAFTING OCCUPATIONS SURVEYING AND MAPPING TECHNICIANS CHEMICAL TECHNICIANS AIRPLANE PILOTS AND NAVIGATORS COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS TOOL PROGRAMMERS, NUMERICAL CONTROL SUPERVISORS, COMPUTER EQUIPMENT OPERATORS CAPTAINS AND OTHER OFFICERS, FISHING VESSELS TELEPHONE INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS SHEET METAL WORKERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES Variable 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE SERVICES 4 4 4 4 3

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soc 009 013 014 016 017 026 027 028 029 033 034 035 036 037 089 165 169 174 179 184 185 186 187 197 204 208 216 223 225 227 228 235 253 254 255 257 259 148 Occupation Title PURCHASING MANAGERS MANAGERS, MARKETING, ADVERTISING, AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ADMINISTRATORS, EDUCATION AND RELATED FIELDS MANAGERS, PROPERTIES AND REAL ESTATE POSTMASTERS AND MAIL SUPERINTENDENTS MANAGEMENT ANALYSTS PERSONNEL, TRAINING, AND LABOR RELATIONS SPECIALISTS PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS, FARM PRODUCTS BUYERS, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE EXCEPT FARM PRODUCTS PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS, BUSINESS AND PROMOTION AGENTS CONSTRUCTION INSPECTORS INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. HEALTH DIAGNOSING PRACTITIONERS, N.E.C. ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. SOCIAL WORKERS JUDGES TECHNICAL WRITERS DESIGNERS MUSICIANS AND COMPOSERS ACTORS AND DIRECTORS PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALISTS DENTAL HYGIENISTS HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. BIOLOGICAL TECHNICIANS SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS BROADCAST EQUIPMENT OPERATORS TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. INSURANCE SALES OCCUPATIONS REAL ESTATE SALES OCCUPATIONS SECURITIES AND FINANCIAL SERVICES SALES OCCUPATIONS SALES OCCUPATIONS, OTHER BUSINESS SERVICES SALES REPRESENTATIVES, MINING MANUFACTURING & WHOLESALE Variable 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 N.E.C. 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

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soc 305 317 337 338 377 383 413 445 485 503 507 508 523 525 527 536 543 544 553 554 555 557 558 575 577 634 637 643 645 656 149 Occupation Title SUPERVISORS, FINANCIAL RECORDS PROCESSING HOTEL CLERKS BOOKKEEPERS, ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING CLERKS PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING CLERKS ELIGIBILITY CLERKS, SOCIAL WELFARE BANK TELLERS SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS DENTAL ASSISTANTS SUPERVISORS, RELATED AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS BUS, TRUCK, AND STATIONARY ENGINE MECHANICS AIRCRAFT ENGINE MECHANICS ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS, COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT REPAIR TELEPHONE LINE INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS LOCKSMITHS AND SAFE REPAIRERS ELEVATOR INSTALLERS AND REPAIRER MILLWRIGHTS SUPERVISORS, BRICKMASONS, STONEMASONS, AND TILE SETTERS SUPERVISORS, CARPENTERS AND RELATED WORKERS SUPERVISORS, ELECTRICIANS AND POWER TRANSMISSION INSTALLERS SUPERVISORS, PLUMBERS, PIPEFITTERS AND STEAMFITTERS SUPERVISORS, N.E.C. ELECTRICIANS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES ELECTRICAL POWER INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES MACHINISTS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES BOILERMAKERS PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL MAKERS, METAL PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL MAKERS, WOOD Variable 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

PAGE 156

soc 657 659 667 673 694 695 703 714 803 828 155 164 175 177 183 188 189 193 194 195 198 199 207 234 256 275 276 277 278 283 284 285 303 306 307 150 Occupation Title Variable CABINET MAKERS AND BENCH 3 CARPENTERS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION 3 WOODWORKERS TAILORS 3 APPAREL AND FABRIC 3 PATTERNMAKERS WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT 3 PLANT OPERATORS POWER PLANT OPERATORS 3 LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE 3 SET-UP OPERATORS NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE 3 OPERATOR SUPERVISORS, MOTOR VEHICLE 3 OPERATORS SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES, 3 EXCEPT FISHING BOATS TEACHERS, PREKINDERGARTEN AND 2 KINDERGARTEN LIBRARIANS 2 RECREATION WORKERS 2 RELIGIOUS WORKERS, N.E.C. 2 AUTHORS 2 PAINTERS, SCULPTORS, 2 CRAFT-ARTISTS, AND ARTIST PRINTMAKERS PHOTOGRAPHERS 2 DANCERS 2 ARTISTS, PERFORMERS, AND 2 RELATED WORKERS, N.E.C. EDITORS AND REPORTERS 2 ANNOUNCERS 2 ATHLETES 2 LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES 2 LEGAL ASSISTANTS 2 ADVERTISING AND RELATED SALES 2 OCCUPATIONS SALES COUNTER CLERKS 2 CASHIERS 2 STREET AND DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES 2 WORKERS NEWS VENDORS 2 DEMONSTRATORS, PROMOTERS AND 2 MODELS, SALES AUCTIONEERS 2 SALES SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. 2 SUPERVISORS, GENERAL OFFICE 2 CHIEF COMMUNICATIONS 2 OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, DISTRIBUTION, 2 SCHEDULING AND ADJUSTING CLERKS

PAGE 157

soc 308 313 316 318 319 323 325 327 336 339 343 344 349 353 354 355 359 363 364 365 366 368 369 373 375 376 378 379 385 386 387 389 414 415 416 417 418 423 426 151 Occupation Title COMPUTER OPERATORS SECRETARIES INTERVIEWERS TRANSPORTATION TICKET AND RESERVATION AGENTS RECEPTIONISTS INFORMATION CLERKS, N.E.C. CLASSIFIED-AD CLERKS ORDER CLERKS RECORDS CLERKS BILLING CLERKS COST AND RATE CLERKS BILLING, POSTING, AND CALCULATING MACHINE OPERATORS TELEGRAPHERS COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT OPERATORS, N.E.C. POSTAL CLERKS, EXC. MAIL CARRIERS MAIL CARRIERS, POSTAL SERVICE DISPATCHERS PRODUCTION COORDINATORS TRAFFIC, SHIPPING, AND RECEIVING CLERKS STOCK AND INVENTORY CLERKS METER READERS WEIGHERS, MEASURERS, AND CHECKERS SAMPLERS EXPEDITERS INSURANCE ADJUSTERS, EXAMINERS, AND INVESTIGATORS INVESTIGATORS AND ADJUSTERS, EXCEPT INSURANCE BILL AND ACCOUNT COLLECTORS GENERAL OFFICE CLERKS DATA-ENTRY KEYERS STATISTICAL CLERKS TEACHERS AIDES ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. SUPERVISORS, POLICE AND DETECTIVES SUPERVISORS, GUARDS FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS POLICE AND DETECTIVES, PUBLIC SERVICE SHERIFFS, BAILIFFS, AND OTHER LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC. PUBLIC SERVICE Variable 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

PAGE 158

soc 433 436 437 446 448 456 457 458 459 463 467 468 489 494 499 505 509 514 516 517 518 526 533 534 535 538 539 556 563 565 566 567 573 152 Occupation Title SUPERVISORS, FOOD PREPARATION AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER SHORT-ORDER COOKS HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING SUPERVISORS, CLEANING AND BUILDING SERVICE WORKERS SUPERVISORS, PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS BARBERS HAIRDRESSERS AND COSMETOLOGISTS ATTENDANTS, AMUSEMENT AND RECREATION FACILITIES GUIDES WELFARE SERVICE AIDES CHILD CARE WORKERS, EXCEPT PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD INSPECTORS, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS SUPERVISORS, FORESTRY AND LOGGING WORKERS HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS, EXC. APPRENTICES SMALL ENGINE REPAIRERS AUTOMOBILE BODY AND RELATED REPAIRERS HEAVY EQUIPMENT MECHANICS FARM EQUIPMENT MECHANICS INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY REPAIRERS HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCE AND POWER TOOL REPAIRERS MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT REPAIRERS HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING, AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS CAMERA, WATCH, AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS OFFICE MACHINE REPAIRERS MECHANICAL CONTROLS AND VALVE REPAIRERS SUPERVISORS, PAINTERS, PAPERHANGERS AND PLASTERERS BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES TILE SETTERS, HARD AND SOFT CARPET INSTALLERS CARPENTERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES DRYWALL INSTALLERS Variable 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

PAGE 159

soc 584 585 588 589 598 613 614 615 633 636 644 646 647 649 655 658 666 668 669 675 676 677 678 683 684 686 687 688 689 693 696 699 705 707 708 713 724 153 Occupation Title PLASTERERS PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES CONCRETE AND TERRAZZO FINISHERS GLAZIERS DRILLERS, EARTH SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS DRILLERS, OIL WELL EXPLOSIVES WORKERS SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS PRECISION ASSEMBLERS, METAL PRECISION GRINDERS, FITTERS, AND TOOL SHARPENERS LAY-OUT WORKERS PRECIOUS STONES AND METALS WORKERS(JEWELERS) ENGRAVERS, METAL MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL WORKERS FURNITURE AND WOOD FINISHERS DRESSMAKERS UPHOLSTERERS SHOE REPAIRERS HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS, EXCEPT JEWELERS PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT WORKERS, AND CUTTERS OPTICAL GOODS WORKERS DENTAL LABORATORY AND MEDICAL APPLIANCE TECHNICIAN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLERS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION WORKERS, N.E.C. BUTCHERS AND MEAT CUTTERS BAKERS FOOD BATCHMAKERS INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND GRADERS ADJUSTERS AND CALIBRATORS STATIONARY ENGINEERS MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND SYSTEM OPERATORS MILLING AND PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS DRILLING AND BORING MACHINE OPERATORS FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS Variable 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

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soc 773 774 783 784 797 806 808 823 829 833 843 844 845 863 309 314 315 326 328 329 335 345 346 347 348 356 357 374 384 424 425 427 434 435 438 439 443 154 Occupation Title MOTION PICTURE PROJECTIONISTS PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE OPERATORS WELDERS AND CUTTERS SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS PRODUCTION TESTERS DRIVER-SALES WORKERS BUS DRIVERS RAILROAD CONDUCTORS AND YARDMASTER SAILORS AND DECKHANDS MARINE ENGINEERS SUPERVISORS, MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS OPERATING ENGINEERS LONGSHORE EQUIPMENT OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, AND LABORERS, PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT OPERATORS STENOGRAPHERS TYPISTS CORRESPONDENCE CLERKS PERSONNEL CLERKS, EXCEPT PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING LIBRARY CLERKS FILE CLERKS DUPLICATING MACHINE OPERATORS MAIL PREPARING AND PAPER HANDLING MACHINE OPERATORS OFFICE MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. TELEPHONE OPERATORS MAIL CLERKS, EXC. POSTAL SERVICE MESSENGERS MATERIAL RECORDING, SCHEDULING, AND DISTRIBUTING CLERKS, N.E.C. PROOFREADERS CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION OFFICERS CROSSING GUARDS PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. BARTENDERS WAITERS AND WAITRESSES FOOD COUNTER, FOUNTAIN AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS KITCHEN WORKERS, FOOD PREPARATION WAITERS/WAITRESSES ASSISTANTS Variable 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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soc 444 447 449 453 454 455 464 465 466 469 486 487 488 495 496 498 519 547 579 583 593 594 595 597 599 616 617 674 679 704 706 709 715 155 Occupation Title MISCELLANEOUS FOOD PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND ATTENDANTS MAIDS AND HOUSEMEN JANITORS AND CLEANERS ELEVATOR OPERATORS PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS USHERS PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ATTENDANTS BAGGAGE PORTERS AND BELLHOPS PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. GROUNDSKEEPERS AND GARDENERS, EXCEPT FARM ANIMAL CARETAKERS, EXCEPT FARM GRADERS AND SORTERS, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS FORESTRY WORKERS, EXCEPT LOGGING TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING OCCUPATIONS FISHERS MACHINERY MAINTENANCE OCCUPATIONS SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS, N.E.C. PAINTERS, CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE PAPERHANGERS INSULATION WORKERS PAVING, SURFACING, AND TAMPING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS ROOFERS STRUCTURAL METAL WORKERS CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C. MINING MACHINE OPERATORS MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION APPAREL AND FABRIC WORKERS BOOKBINDERS LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE OPERATORS PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS MACHINE OPERATORS GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING, AND POLISHING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC, STONE AND GLASS WORKING MACHINE OPERATORS Variable 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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soc 717 719 723 725 726 727 728 729 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 743 744 745 747 748 749 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 763 764 156 Occupation Title Variable FABRICATING MACHINE 1 OPERATORS, N.E.C. MOLDING AND CASTING MACHINE 1 OPERATORS METAL PLATING MACHINE OPERATORS 1 MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND 1 PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE OPERATORS WOOD LATHE, ROUTING, AND 1 PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS 1 SHAPING AND JOINING MACHINE 1 OPERATORS NAILING AND TACKING MACHINE 1 OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING 1 MACHINE OPERATORS PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS 1 PHOTOENGRAVERS AND 1 LITHOGRAPHERS TYPESETTERS AND COMPOSITORS 1 MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING 1 MACHINE OPERATORS WINDING AND TWISTING MACHINE 1 OPERATORS KNITTING, LOOPING, TAPING, 1 AND WEAVING MACHINE OPERATORS TEXTILE CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS 1 TEXTILE SEWING MACHINE OPERATORS 1 SHOE MACHINE OPERATORS 1 PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS 1 LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING 1 MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE 1 OPERATORS CEMENTING AND GLUING MACHINE 1 OPERATORS PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE 1 OPERATORS EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE 1 OPERATORS MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE 1 OPERATORS SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND 1 CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING 1 MACHINE OPERATORS PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING 1 MACHINE OPERATORS ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE 1 OPERATORS, FOOD WASHING, CLEANING, AND 1 PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS

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soc 765 766 768 769 777 785 786 787 789 793 794 795 796 798 799 804 805 809 813 814 824 825 826 834 848 849 853 855 856 859 157 Occupation Title FOLDING MACHINE OPERATORS FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE OPERATORS SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. ASSEMBLERS HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING OCCUPATIONS HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND FORMING OCCUPATIONS HAND PAINTING, COATING, AND DECORATING OCCUPATIONS HAND ENGRAVING AND PRINTING OCCUPATIONS HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING OCCUPATIONS MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING OCCUPATIONS PRODUCTION INSPECTORS, CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND WEIGHERS GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC. AGRICULTURAL TRUCK DRIVERS, HEAVY TRUCK DRIVERS, LIGHT TAXICAB DRIVERS AND CHAUFFEURS PARKING LOT ATTENDANTS MOTOR TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. LOCOMOTIVE OPERATING OCCUPATIONS RAILROAD BRAKE, SIGNAL, AND SWITCH OPERATORS RAIL VEHICLE OPERATORS, N.E.C. BRIDGE, LOCK, AND LIGHTHOUSE TENDERS HOIST AND WINCH OPERATORS CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS EXCAVATING AND LOADING MACHINE OPERATORS GRADER, DOZER, AND SCRAPER OPERATORS INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND TRACTOR EQUIPMENT OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS Variable 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

PAGE 164

soc 864 865 866 867 869 873 875 876 877 878 883 885 887 888 889 158 Occupation Title HELPERS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES HELPERS, SURVEYOR HELPERS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS CONSTRUCTION LABORERS PRODUCTION HELPERS GARBAGE COLLECTORS STEVEDORES STOCK HANDLERS AND BAGGERS MACHINE FEEDERS AND OFFBEARERS FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL HANDLERS, N.E.C. GARAGE AND SERVICE STATION RELATED OCCUPATIONS VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT CLEANERS HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION Variable 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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soc 065 083 084 176 178 015 023 024 043 044 045 046 047 048 049 054 055 056 059 066 068 069 073 074 075 076 077 078 079 085 087 088 096 097 106 APPENDIX H GED SCORE LANGUAGE Occupation Title OPERATIONS AND SYSTEMS RESEARCHERS AND ANALYSTS MEDICAL SCIENTISTS PHYSICIANS CLERGY LAWYERS MANAGERS, MEDICINE AND HEALTH ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS UNDERWRITERS ARCHITECTS AEROSPACE ENGINEERS METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERS MINING ENGINEERS PETROLEUM ENGINEERS CHEMICAL ENGINEERS NUCLEAR ENGINEERS AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERS INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS ENGINEERS, N.E.C. ACTUARIES MATHEMATICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. PHYSICISTS AND ASTRONOMERS CHEMISTS, EXCEPT BIOCHEMISTS ATMOSPHERIC AND SPACE SCIENTISTS GEOLOGISTS AND GEODESISTS PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SCIENTISTS BIOLOGICAL AND LIFE SCIENTISTS FORESTRY AND CONSERVATION SCIENTISTS DENTISTS OPTOMETRISTS PODIATRISTS PHARMACISTS DIETITIANS PHYSICIANS ASSISTANTS 159 Variable 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

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soc 163 166 167 168 173 179 183 184 195 205 258 005 006 007 008 009 013 014 016 017 018 025 026 027 028 033 034 036 037 053 057 058 063 064 067 086 160 Occupation Title COUNSELORS, EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL ECONOMISTS PSYCHOLOGISTS SOCIOLOGISTS URBAN PLANNERS JUDGES AUTHORS TECHNICAL WRITERS EDITORS AND REPORTERS HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS SALES ENGINEERS ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE SERVICES FINANCIAL MANAGERS PERSONNEL AND LABOR RELATIONS MANAGERS PURCHASING MANAGERS MANAGERS, MARKETING, ADVERTISING, AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ADMINISTRATORS, EDUCATION AND RELATED FIELDS MANAGERS, PROPERTIES AND REAL ESTATE POSTMASTERS AND MAIL SUPERINTENDENTS FUNERAL DIRECTORS OTHER FINANCIAL OFFICERS MANAGEMENT ANALYSTS PERSONNEL, TRAINING, AND LABOR RELATIONS SPECIALISTS PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS, FARM PRODUCTS PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS, N.E.C. BUSINESS AND PROMOTION AGENTS INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. CIVIL ENGINEERS MECHANICAL ENGINEERS MARINE AND NAVAL ARCHITECTS SURVEYORS AND MAPPING SCIENTISTS COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS AND SCIENTISTS STATISTICIANS VETERINARIANS Variable 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

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soc 089 095 164 165 169 174 175 177 185 186 187 193 197 198 203 204 206 214 215 217 218 226 227 228 229 233 234 253 254 255 257 304 313 377 445 497 029 035 155 161 Occupation Title HEALTH DIAGNOSING PRACTITIONERS, N.E.C. REGISTERED NURSES LIBRARIANS ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. SOCIAL WORKERS RECREATION WORKERS RELIGIOUS WORKERS, N.E.C. DESIGNERS MUSICIANS AND COMPOSERS ACTORS AND DIRECTORS DANCERS PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALISTS ANNOUNCERS CLINICAL LABORATORY TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS DENTAL HYGIENISTS RADIOLOGIC TECHNICIANS INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS DRAFTING OCCUPATIONS SURVEYING AND MAPPING TECHNICIANS AIRPLANE PILOTS AND NAVIGATORS AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS BROADCAST EQUIPMENT OPERATORS COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS TOOL PROGRAMMERS, NUMERICAL CONTROL LEGAL ASSISTANTS INSURANCE SALES OCCUPATIONS REAL ESTATE SALES OCCUPATIONS SECURITIES AND FINANCIAL SERVICES SALES OCCUPATIONS SALES OCCUPATIONS, OTHER BUSINESS SERVICES SUPERVISORS, COMPUTER EQUIPMENT OPERATORS SECRETARIES ELIGIBILITY CLERKS, SOCIAL WELFARE DENTAL ASSISTANTS CAPTAINS AND OTHER OFFICERS, FISHING VESSELS BUYERS, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE EXCEPT FARM PRODUCTS CONSTRUCTION INSPECTORS TEACHERS, PREKINDERGARTEN AND KINDERGARTEN Variable 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3

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soc 188 189 194 199 207 208 213 216 223 224 225 235 256 259 284 303 305 306 307 308 314 315 316 317 318 319 323 326 327 328 349 353 354 359 373 375 162 Occupation Title Variable PAINTERS, SCULPTORS, 3 CRAFT-ARTISTS, AND ARTIST PRINTMAKERS PHOTOGRAPHERS 3 ARTISTS, PERFORMERS, AND 3 RELATED WORKERS, N.E.C. ATHLETES 3 LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES 3 HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND 3 TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC 3 TECHNICIANS ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS, 3 N.E.C. BIOLOGICAL TECHNICIANS 3 CHEMICAL TECHNICIANS 3 SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. 3 TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. 3 ADVERTISING AND RELATED SALES 3 OCCUPATIONS SALES REPRESENTATIVES, 3 MINING, MANUFACTURING, AND WHOLESALE AUCTIONEERS 3 SUPERVISORS, GENERAL OFFICE 3 SUPERVISORS, FINANCIAL 3 RECORDS PROCESSING CHIEF COMMUNICATIONS 3 OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, DISTRIBUTION, 3 SCHEDULING AND ADJUSTING CLERKS COMPUTER OPERATORS 3 STENOGRAPHERS 3 TYPISTS 3 INTERVIEWERS 3 HOTEL CLERKS 3 TRANSPORTATION TICKET AND 3 RESERVATION AGENTS RECEPTIONISTS 3 INFORMATION CLERKS, N.E.C. 3 CORRESPONDENCE CLERKS 3 ORDER CLERKS 3 PERSONNEL CLERKS, EXCEPT 3 PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING TELEGRAPHERS 3 COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT 3 OPERATORS, N.E.C. POSTAL CLERKS, EXC. MAIL 3 CARRIERS DISPATCHERS 3 EXPEDITERS 3 INSURANCE ADJUSTERS, 3 EXAMINERS, AND INVESTIGATORS

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soc 376 378 379 383 384 385 387 413 414 415 416 418 423 433 437 446 456 457 467 468 485 503 507 508 527 529 534 536 543 544 554 555 556 557 163 Occupation Title INVESTIGATORS AND ADJUSTERS, EXCEPT INSURANCE BILL AND ACCOUNT COLLECTORS GENERAL OFFICE CLERKS BANK TELLERS PROOFREADERS DATA-ENTRY KEYERS TEACHERS AIDES SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS SUPERVISORS, POLICE AND DETECTIVES SUPERVISORS, GUARDS FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS Variable 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 POLICE & DETECTIVES, PUBLIC SERVICE SHERIFFS, BAILIFFS, AND OTHER 3 3 LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS SUPERVISORS, FOOD PREPARATION AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS SHORT-ORDER COOKS HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING SUPERVISORS, PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS BARBERS WELFARE SERVICE AIDES CHILD CARE WORKERS, EXCEPT PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD SUPERVISORS, RELATED AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS BUS, TRUCK, AND STATIONARY ENGINE MECHANICS AIRCRAFT ENGINE MECHANICS TELEPHONE LINE INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS TELEPHONE INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING, AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS LOCKSMITHS AND SAFE REPAIRERS ELEVATOR INSTALLERS AND REPAIRER MILLWRIGHTS SUPERVISORS, CARPENTERS AND RELATED WORKERS SUPERVISORS, ELECTRICIANS AND POWER TRANSMISSION INSTALLERS SUPERVISORS, PAINTERS, PAPERHANGERS AND PLASTERERS SUPERVISORS, PLUMBERS, PIPEFITTERS AND STEAMFITTERS 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

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soc 558 584 613 633 634 637 645 653 656 657 667 668 673 678 694 703 803 823 828 843 275 276 277 278 283 285 309 325 329 335 336 337 164 Occupation Title SUPERVISORS, N.E.C. PLASTERERS SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES MACHINISTS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL MAKERS, METAL SHEET METAL WORKERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL MAKERS, WOOD CABINET MAKERS AND BENCH CARPENTERS TAILORS UPHOLSTERERS APPAREL AND FABRIC PATTERNMAKERS DENTAL LABORATORY AND MEDICAL APPLIANCE TECHNICIAN WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE SET-UP OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, MOTOR VEHICLE OPERATORS RAILROAD CONDUCTORS AND YARDMASTER SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES, EXCEPT FISHING BOATS SUPERVISORS, MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS SALES COUNTER CLERKS CASHIERS STREET AND DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES WORKERS NEWS VENDORS DEMONSTRATORS, PROMOTERS AND MODELS, SALES SALES SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT OPERATORS CLASSIFIED-AD CLERKS LIBRARY CLERKS FILE CLERKS RECORDS CLERKS BOOKKEEPERS, ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING CLERKS Variable 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

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soc 338 339 343 344 348 355 356 357 363 364 365 366 368 369 374 386 389 417 424 425 426 427 435 436 438 439 447 448 458 459 463 465 466 469 165 Occupation Title PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING CLERKS BILLING CLERKS COST AND RATE CLERKS BILLING, POSTING, AND CALCULATING MACHINE OPERATORS TELEPHONE OPERATORS MAIL CARRIERS, POSTAL SERVICE MAIL CLERKS, EXC. POSTAL SERVICE MESSENGERS PRODUCTION COORDINATORS TRAFFIC, SHIPPING, AND RECEIVING CLERKS STOCK AND INVENTORY CLERKS METER READERS WEIGHERS, MEASURERS, AND CHECKERS SAMPLERS MATERIAL RECORDING, SCHEDULING, AND DISTRIBUTING CLERKS, N.E.C. STATISTICAL CLERKS ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION OFFICERS CROSSING GUARDS GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC. PUBLIC SERVICE PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. WAITERS AND WAITRESSES COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER FOOD COUNTER, FOUNTAIN AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS KITCHEN WORKERS, FOOD PREPARATION NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND ATTENDANTS SUPERVISORS, CLEANING AND BUILDING SERVICE WORKERS HAIRDRESSERS AND COSMETOLOGISTS ATTENDANTS, AMUSEMENT AND RECREATION FACILITIES GUIDES PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ATTENDANTS BAGGAGE PORTERS AND BELLHOPS PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. Variable 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

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soc 486 488 489 494 499 505 509 514 516 517 518 523 525 526 533 535 538 539 553 563 565 566 567 573 575 577 585 588 589 593 595 597 166 Occupation Title GROUNDSKEEPERS AND GARDENERS, EXCEPT FARM GRADERS AND SORTERS, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS INSPECTORS, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS SUPERVISORS, FORESTRY AND LOGGING WORKERS HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS, EXC. APPRENTICES SMALL ENGINE REPAIRERS AUTOMOBILE BODY AND RELATED REPAIRERS HEAVY EQUIPMENT MECHANICS FARM EQUIPMENT MECHANICS INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY REPAIRERS ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS, COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT REPAIR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCE AND POWER TOOL REPAIRERS MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT REPAIRERS CAMERA, WATCH, AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS OFFICE MACHINE REPAIRERS MECHANICAL CONTROLS AND VALVE REPAIRERS SUPERVISORS, BRICKMASONS, STONEMASONS, AND TILE SETTERS BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES TILE SETTERS, HARD AND SOFT CARPET INSTALLERS CARPENTERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES DRYWALL INSTALLERS ELECTRICIANS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES ELECTRICAL POWER INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES CONCRETE AND TERRAZZO FINISHERS GLAZIERS INSULATION WORKERS ROOFERS STRUCTURAL METAL WORKERS Variable 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

PAGE 173

soc 598 614 615 636 643 644 646 647 649 655 658 659 666 669 674 675 676 677 683 684 686 687 688 689 693 695 696 699 705 708 714 724 735 736 739 773 167 Occupation Title DRILLERS, EARTH DRILLERS, OIL WELL EXPLOSIVES WORKERS PRECISION ASSEMBLERS, METAL BOILERMAKERS PRECISION GRINDERS, FITTERS, AND TOOL SHARPENERS LAY-OUT WORKERS PRECIOUS STONES AND METALS WORKERS (JEWELERS) ENGRAVERS, METAL MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL WORKERS FURNITURE AND WOOD FINISHERS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION WOODWORKERS DRESSMAKERS SHOE REPAIRERS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION APPAREL AND FABRIC WORKERS HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS, EXCEPT JEWELERS PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT WORKERS, AND CUTTERS OPTICAL GOODS WORKERS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLERS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION WORKERS, N.E.C. BUTCHERS AND MEAT CUTTERS BAKERS FOOD BATCHMAKERS INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND GRADERS ADJUSTERS AND CALIBRATORS POWER PLANT OPERATORS STATIONARY ENGINEERS MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND SYSTEM OPERATORS MILLING AND PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS DRILLING AND BORING MACHINE OPERATORS NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE OPERATOR HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS PHOTOENGRAVERS AND LITHOGRAPHERS TYPESETTERS AND COMPOSITORS KNITTING, LOOPING, TAPING, AND WEAVING MACHINE OPERATORS MOTION PICTURE PROJECTIONISTS Variable 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

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soc 774 783 784 797 806 808 824 825 826 829 833 834 844 845 863 866 345 346 347 434 443 444 449 453 454 455 464 487 495 496 498 519 547 579 583 594 168 Occupation Title PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE OPERATORS WELDERS AND CUTTERS SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS PRODUCTION TESTERS DRIVER-SALES WORKERS BUS DRIVERS LOCOMOTIVE OPERATING OCCUPATIONS RAILROAD BRAKE, SIGNAL, AND SWITCH OPERATORS RAIL VEHICLE OPERATORS, N.E.C. SAILORS AND DECKHANDS MARINE ENGINEERS BRIDGE, LOCK, AND LIGHTHOUSE TENDERS OPERATING ENGINEERS LONGSHORE EQUIPMENT OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, AND LABORERS, HELPERS, SURVEYOR DUPLICATING MACHINE OPERATORS MAIL PREPARING AND PAPER HANDLING MACHINE OPERATORS OFFICE MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. BARTENDERS WAITERS/WAITRESSES ASSISTANTS MISCELLANEOUS FOOD PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS MAIDS AND HOUSEMEN JANITORS AND CLEANERS ELEVATOR OPERATORS PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS USHERS ANIMAL CARETAKERS, EXCEPT FARM FORESTRY WORKERS, EXCEPT LOGGING TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING OCCUPATIONS FISHERS MACHINERY MAINTENANCE OCCUPATIONS SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS, N.E.C. PAINTERS, CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE PAPERHANGERS PAVING, SURFACING, AND TAMPING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS Variable 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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soc 599 616 617 679 704 706 707 709 713 715 717 719 723 725 726 727 728 729 733 734 737 738 743 744 745 747 748 749 753 754 169 Occupation Title CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C. MINING MACHINE OPERATORS MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. BOOKBINDERS LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE OPERATORS PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS MACHINE OPERATORS ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING, AND POLISHING MACHINE OPERATORS FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC, STONE AND GLASS WORKING MACHINE OPERATOR FABRICATING MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. MOLDING AND CASTING MACHINE OPERATORS METAL PLATING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE OPERATORS WOOD LATHE, ROUTING, AND PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS SHAPING AND JOINING MACHINE OPERATORS NAILING AND TACKING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING MACHINE OPERATORS PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS WINDING AND TWISTING MACHINE OPERATORS TEXTILE CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS TEXTILE SEWING MACHINE OPERATORS SHOE MACHINE OPERATORS PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE OPERATORS CEMENTING AND GLUING MACHINE OPERATORS PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE OPERATORS Variable 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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soc 755 756 757 758 759 763 764 765 766 768 769 777 785 786 787 789 793 794 795 796 798 799 804 805 809 813 814 848 849 853 170 Occupation Title EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE OPERATORS MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE OPERATORS SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING MACHINE OPERATORS PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING MACHINE OPERATORS ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE OPERATORS, FOOD WASHING, CLEANING, AND PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS FOLDING MACHINE OPERATORS FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE OPERATORS SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. ASSEMBLERS HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING OCCUPATIONS HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND FORMING OCCUPATIONS HAND PAINTING, COATING, AND DECORATING OCCUPATIONS HAND ENGRAVING AND PRINTING OCCUPATIONS HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING OCCUPATIONS MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING OCCUPATIONS PRODUCTION INSPECTORS, CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND WEIGHERS GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC. AGRICULTURAL TRUCK DRIVERS, HEAVY TRUCK DRIVERS, LIGHT TAXICAB DRIVERS AND CHAUFFEURS PARKING LOT ATTENDANTS MOTOR TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. HOIST AND WINCH OPERATORS CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS EXCAVATING AND LOADING MACHINE OPERATORS Variable 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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171 soc Occupation Title Variable 855 GRADER, DOZER, AND SCRAPER 1 OPERATORS 856 INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND TRACTOR 1 EQUIPMENT OPERATORS 859 MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING 1 EQUIPMENT OPERATORS 864 HELPERS, MECHANICS AND 1 REPAIRERS 865 HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES 1 867 HELPERS, EXTRACTIVE 1 OCCUPATIONS 869 CONSTRUCTION LABORERS 1 873 PRODUCTION HELPERS 1 875 GARBAGE COLLECTORS 1 876 STEVEDORES 1 877 STOCK HANDLERS AND BAGGERS 1 878 MACHINE FEEDERS AND 1 OFFBEARERS 883 FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL 1 HANDLERS, N.E.C. 885 GARAGE AND SERVICE STATION 1 RELATED OCCUPATIONS 887 VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT 1 CLEANERS 888 HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS 1 889 LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION 1

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soc 179 186 007 047 058 014 083 084 044 075 053 045 046 048 054 066 069 078 085 176 178 258 553 555 055 059 077 049 015 167 023 195 557 086 006 APPENDIX I SVP SCORE Occupation Title JUDGES MUSICIANS AND COMPOSERS FINANCIAL MANAGERS PETROLEUM ENGINEERS MARINE AND NAVAL ARCHITECTS ADMINISTRATORS, EDUCATION AND RELATED FIELDS MEDICAL SCIENTISTS PHYSICIANS AEROSPACE ENGINEERS GEOLOGISTS AND GEODESISTS CIVIL ENGINEERS METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERS MINING ENGINEERS CHEMICAL ENGINEERS AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS ACTUARIES PHYSICISTS AND ASTRONOMERS BIOLOGICAL AND LIFE SCIENTISTS DENTISTS CLERGY LAWYERS SALES ENGINEERS SUPERVISORS, BRICKMASONS, STONEMASONS, AND TILE SETTERS SUPERVISORS, ELECTRICIANS AND POWER TRANSMISSION INSTALLERS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERS ENGINEERS, N.E.C. AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SCIENTISTS NUCLEAR ENGINEERS MANAGERS, MEDICINE AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGISTS ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS EDITORS AND REPORTERS SUPERVISORS, PLUMBERS, PIPEFITTERS AND STEAMFITTERS VETERINARIANS ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE SERVICES 172 Variable 6.86 5.82 5.25 5.00 4.86 4.67 4.67 4.60 4.44 4.31 4.15 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.87 3.82 3.82 3.80 3.78 3.64 3.62 3.62 3.60 3.56 3.50

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soc 056 013 005 007 057 068 079 227 413 008 554 017 043 073 173 193 215 226 503 163 026 076 556 025 414 009 067 096 169 185 063 016 187 037 558 173 Occupation INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS MANAGERS, MARKETING, ADVERTISING, AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DIETITIANS MECHANICAL ENGINEERS MATHEMATICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. FORESTRY AND CONSERVATION SCIENTISTS AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS PERSONNEL AND LABOR RELATIONS MANAGERS SUPERVISORS, CARPENTERS AND RELATED WORKERS POSTMASTERS AND MAIL SUPERINTENDENTS ARCHITECTS CHEMISTS, EXCEPT BIOCHEMISTS URBAN PLANNERS DANCERS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS AIRPLANE PILOTS AND NAVIGATORS SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS COUNSELORS, EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL MANAGEMENT ANALYSTS PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. SUPERVISORS, PAINTERS, PAPERHANGERS AND PLASTERERS OTHER FINANCIAL OFFICERS SUPERVISORS, POLICE AND DETECTIVES PURCHASING MANAGERS STATISTICIANS PHARMACISTS SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. DESIGNERS SURVEYORS AND MAPPING SCIENTISTS MANAGERS, PROPERTIES AND REAL ESTATE ACTORS AND DIRECTORS MANAGEMENT RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. SUPERVISORS, N.E.C. Variable 3.50 3.39 3.38 3.38 3.34 3.33 3.25 3.20 3.20 3 .17 3.13 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 2.98 2.88 2.80 2.80 2.75 2.71 2.68 2.67 2.67 2.67 2.65 2.61 2.60 2.59 2.59 2.50 2.50

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soc 637 213 028 613 183 544 656 823 165 027 188 095 645 177 633 033 634 255 646 577 229 233 678 695 675 217 305 833 218 828 234 534 174 Occupation Title MACHINISTS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNICIANS PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS, FARM PRODUCTS SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS AUTHORS MILLWRIGHTS PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL MAKERS, WOOD RAILROAD CONDUCTORS AND YARDMASTER ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS PERSONNEL, TRAINING, AND LABOR RELATIONS SPECIALISTS PAINTERS, SCULPTORS, CRAFT-ARTISTS, AND ARTIST PRINTMAKERS REGISTERED NURSES PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL MAKERS, METAL RELIGIOUS WORKERS, N.E.C. SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS, N.E.C. TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES SECURITIES AND FINANCIAL SERVICES SALES OCCUPATIONS LAY-OUT WORKERS ELECTRICAL POWER INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS TOOL PROGRAMMERS, NUMERICAL CONTROL DENTAL LABORATORY AND MEDICAL APPLIANCE TECHNICIAN POWER PLANT OPERATORS HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS, EXCEPT JEWELERS DRAFTING OCCUPATIONS SUPERVISORS, FINANCIAL RECORDS PROCESSING MARINE ENGINEERS SURVEYING & MAPPING TECHNICIANS SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES, EXCEPT FISHING BOATS LEGAL ASSISTANTS HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING, AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS Variable 2.44 2.43 2.40 2.39 2.38 2.38 2.38 2.38 2.32 2.29 2.29 2.27 2.26 2.25 2.23 2.22 2.22 2.21 2.21 2.20 2.17 2.17 2.17 2.17 2.15 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.09 2.07 2.05 2.03

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soc 575 018 024 064 065 074 087 088 106 155 166 184 206 214 304 497 507 508 527 529 543 566 584 643 653 667 735 036 164 433 228 216 423 199 649 175 Occupation Title ELECTRICIANS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES FUNERAL DIRECTORS UNDERWRITERS COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS AND SCIENTISTS OPERATIONS AND SYSTEMS RESEARCHERS AND ANALYSTS ATMOSPHERIC AND SPACE SCIENTISTS OPTOMETRISTS PODIATRISTS PHYSICIANS ASSISTANTS TEACHERS, PREKINDERGARTEN AND KINDERGARTEN ECONOMISTS TECHNICAL WRITERS RADIOLOGIC TECHNICIANS INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS SUPERVISORS, COMPUTER EQUIPMENT OPERATORS CAPTAINS AND OTHER OFFICERS, FISHING VESSELS BUS, TRUCK, AND STATIONARY ENGINE MECHANICS AIRCRAFT ENGINE MECHANICS TELEPHONE LINE INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS TELEPHONE INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS ELEVATOR INSTALLERS AND REPAIRER CARPET INSTALLERS PLASTERERS BOILERMAKERS SHEET METAL WORKERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES TAILORS PHOTOENGRAVERS AND LITHOGRAPHERS INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION LIBRARIANS SUPERVISORS, FOOD PREPARATION AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS BROADCAST EQUIPMENT OPERATORS ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. SHERIFFS, BAILIFFS, AND OTHER LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS ATHLETES ENGRAVERS, METAL Variable 2.03 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.99 1.94 1.91 1.89 1.88 1.87 1.87 1.87 1.86

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soc 736 659 174 563 523 089 415 535 666 189 197 579 588 676 034 585 516 843 168 589 595 658 687 035 203 688 303 669 208 418 647 224 538 689 494 657 176 Occupation Title TYPESETTERS AND COMPOSITORS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION WOODWORKERS SOCIAL WORKERS BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS, COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT HEALTH DIAGNOSING PRACTITIONERS, N.E.C. SUPERVISORS, GUARDS CAMERA, WATCH, AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS DRESSMAKERS PHOTOGRAPHERS PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALISTS PAINTERS, CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE CONCRETE AND TERRAZZO FINISHERS PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT WORKERS, AND CUTTERS BUSINESS AND PROMOTION AGENTS PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES HEAVY EQUIPMENT MECHANICS SUPERVISORS, MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS SOCIOLOGISTS GLAZIERS ROOFERS FURNITURE AND WOOD FINISHERS BAKERS CONSTRUCTION INSPECTORS CLINICAL LABORATORY TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS FOOD BATCHMAKERS SUPERVISORS, GENERAL OFFICE SHOE REPAIRERS HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. POLICE AND DETECTIVES, PUBLIC SERVICE PRECIOUS STONES AND METALS WORKERS(JEWELERS) CHEMICAL TECHNICIANS OFFICE MACHINE REPAIRERS INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND GRADERS SUPERVISORS, FORESTRY AND LOGGING WORKERS CABINET MAKERS AND BENCH CARPENTERS Variable 1.86 1.86 1.83 1.83 1.82 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.79 1.76 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.73 1.72 1.71 1.71 1.70 1.67 1.67 1.67 1. 67 1.67 1.67 1.63 1.63 1.59 1. 59 1.58 1.57 1.56 1.54 1. 53 1. 52 1.50 1.50

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soc 677 644 518 679 673 737 223 565 703 668 655 567 597 863 436 536 533 235 307 175 306 448 509 636 593 225 539 517 526 194 456 485 615 177 Occupation Title OPTICAL GOODS WORKERS PRECISION GRINDERS, FITTERS, AND TOOL SHARPENERS INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY REPAIRERS BOOKBINDERS APPAREL AND FABRIC PATTERNMAKERS MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS BIOLOGICAL TECHNICIANS TILE SETTERS, HARD AND SOFT LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE SET-UP OPERATORS UPHOLSTERERS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL WORKERS CARPENTERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES STRUCTURAL METAL WORKERS SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, AND LABORERS, COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER LOCKSMITHS AND SAFE REPAIRERS MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT REPAIRERS TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. SUPERVISORS, DISTRIBUTION, SCHEDULING AND ADJUSTING CLERKS RECREATION WORKERS CHIEF COMMUNICATIONS OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, CLEANING AND BUILDING SERVICE WORKERS SMALL ENGINE REPAIRERS PRECISION ASSEMBLERS, METAL INSULATION WORKERS SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. MECHANICAL CONTROLS AND VALVE REPAIRERS FARM EQUIPMENT MECHANICS HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCE AND POWER TOOL REPAIRERS ARTISTS, PERFORMERS, AND RELATED WORKERS, N.E.C. SUPERVISORS, PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS SUPERVISORS, RELATED AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS EXPLOSIVES WORKERS Variable 1.48 1.46 1.46 1.42 1.41 1.41 1. 39 1. 38 1.37 1.36 1.36 1.35 1.35 1.34 1.34 1. 33 1.33 1. 33 1. 31 1.31 1.30 1.30 1.29 1.29 1.29 1.26 1.25 1.25 1.24 1.23 1.23 1.21 1.19

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soc 416 614 683 684 505 803 254 375 514 696 313 583 029 204 205 284 308 445 457 525 714 773 844 674 774 693 573 256 257 686 285 198 326 694 699 178 Occupation Title FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS DRILLERS, OIL WELL ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLERS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION WORKERS, N.E.C. AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS, EXC. APPRENTICES SUPERVISORS, MOTOR VEHICLE OPERATORS REAL ESTATE SALES OCCUPATIONS INSURANCE ADJUSTERS, EXAMINERS, AND INVESTIGATORS AUTOMOBILE BODY AND RELATED REPAIRERS STATIONARY ENGINEERS SECRETARIES PAPERHANGERS BUYERS, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE EXCEPT FARM PRODUCTS DENTAL HYGIENISTS HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS AUCTIONEERS COMPUTER OPERATORS DENTAL ASSISTANTS BARBERS DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT REPAIR NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE OPERATOR MOTION PICTURE PROJECTIONISTS OPERATING ENGINEERS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION APPAREL AND FABRIC WORKERS PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE OPERATORS ADJUSTERS AND CALIBRATORS DRYWALL INSTALLERS ADVERTISING AND RELATED SALES OCCUPATIONS SALES OCCUPATIONS, OTHER BUSINESS SERVICES BUTCHERS AND MEAT CUTTERS SALES SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. ANNOUNCERS CORRESPONDENCE CLERKS WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND SYSTEM OPERATORS Variable 1.19 1.17 1.17 1.16 1.14 1.13 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.09 1.01 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.94 0.93 0.90 0.88 0.88 0.84 0.83 0.83 0.81 0.81

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soc 427 598 359 458 259 783 207 253 707 417 547 713 739 377 705 834 373 734 363 599 717 724 463 489 314 824 488 499 829 715 318 446 376 325 616 179 Occupation Title PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. DRILLERS, EARTH DISPATCHERS HAIRDRESSERS AND COSMETOLOGISTS SALES REPRESENTATIVES, MINING, MANUFACTURING, AND WHOLESALE WELDERS AND CUTTERS LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES INSURANCE SALES OCCUPATIONS ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS, N.E.C. FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS KNITTING, LOOPING, TAPING, AND WEAVING MACHINE OPERATORS ELIGIBILITY CLERKS, SOCIAL WELFARE MILLING AND PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS BRIDGE, LOCK, AND LIGHTHOUSE TENDERS EXPEDITERS PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS PRODUCTION COORDINATORS CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C. FABRICATING MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS GUIDES INSPECTORS, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS STENOGRAPHERS LOCOMOTIVE OPERATING OCCUPATIONS GRADERS AND SORTERS, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS SAILORS AND DECKHANDS MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC, STONE AND GLASS WORKING MACHINE OPERA TRANSPORTATION TICKET AND RESERVATION AGENTS HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING INVESTIGATORS AND ADJUSTERS, EXCEPT INSURANCE CLASSIFIED-AD CLERKS MINING MACHINE OPERATORS Variable 0.81 0.79 0.78 0.77 0.76 0.76 0.75 0.75 0.74 0.70 0.69 0.68 0.67 0.67 0.66 0.65 0.64 0.63 0.61 0.61 0.60 0.59 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.50 0.50 0.50

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soc 845 323 426 748 353 383 709 343 389 855 337 849 793 385 708 455 424 853 384 316 327 859 379 354 826 344 706 704 723 796 617 339 336 180 Occupation Title LONGSHORE EQUIPMENT OPERATORS INFORMATION CLERKS, N.E.C. GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC. PUBLIC SERVICE LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING MACHINE OPERATORS COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT OPERATORS, N.E.C. BANK TELLERS GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING, AND POLISHING MACHINE OPERATORS COST AND RATE CLERKS ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. GRADER, DOZER, AND SCRAPER OPERATORS BOOKKEEPERS, ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING CLERKS CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS HAND ENGRAVING AND PRINTING OCCUPATIONS DATA-ENTRY KEYERS DRILLING AND BORING MACHINE OPERATORS PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION OFFICERS EXCAVATING AND LOADING MACHINE OPERATORS PROOFREADERS INTERVIEWERS ORDER CLERKS MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS GENERAL OFFICE CLERKS POSTAL CLERKS, EXC. MAIL CARRIERS RAIL VEHICLE OPERATORS, N.E.C. BILLING, POSTING, AND CALCULATING MACHINE OPERATORS PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS MACHINE OPERATORS LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE OPERATORS METAL PLATING MACHINE OPERATORS PRODUCTION INSPECTORS, CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. BILLING CLERKS RECORDS CLERKS Variable 0.50 0.49 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.43 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.40 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.35 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.31 0.31

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soc 349 727 315 797 335 468 719 364 467 386 726 309 319 328 594 439 763 369 338 784 848 757 498 487 317 366 365 496 768 787 756 348 766 755 808 181 Occupation Title TELEGRAPHERS SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS TYPISTS PRODUCTION TESTERS FILE CLERKS CHILD CARE WORKERS, EXCEPT PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD MOLDING AND CASTING MACHINE OPERATORS TRAFFIC, SHIPPING, AND RECEIVING CLERKS WELFARE SERVICE AIDES STATISTICAL CLERKS WOOD LATHE, ROUTING, AND PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT OPERATORS RECEPTIONISTS PERSONNEL CLERKS, EXCEPT PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING PAVING, SURFACING, AND TAMPING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS KITCHEN WORKERS, FOOD PREPARATION ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE OPERATORS, FOOD SAMPLERS PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING CLERKS SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS HOIST AND WINCH OPERATORS SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS FISHERS ANIMAL CARETAKERS, EXCEPT FARM HOTEL CLERKS METER READERS STOCK AND INVENTORY CLERKS TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING OCCUPATIONS CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE OPERATORS HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND FORMING OCCUPATIONS MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE OPERATORS TELEPHONE OPERATORS FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE OPERATORS BUS DRIVERS Variable 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.22

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soc 765 733 283 277 777 725 864 378 374 759 486 329 435 345 447 519 459 275 786 865 276 437 794 356 789 825 769 469 347 745 804 182 Occupation Title FOLDING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING MACHINE OPERATORS DEMONSTRATORS, PROMOTERS AND MODELS, SALES STREET AND DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES WORKERS MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE OPERATORS HELPERS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS BILL AND ACCOUNT COLLECTORS MATERIAL RECORDING, SCHEDULING, AND DISTRIBUTING CLERKS, N E.C. PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING MACHINE OPERATORS GROUNDSKEEPERS AND GARDENERS, EXCEPT FARM LIBRARY CLERKS WAITERS AND WAITRESSES DUPLICATING MACHINE OPERATORS NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND ATTENDANTS MACHINERY MAINTENANCE OCCUPATIONS ATTENDANTS, AMUSEMENT AND RECREATION FACILITIES SALES COUNTER CLERKS HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING OCCUPATIONS HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES CASHIERS SHORT-ORDER COOKS HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING OCCUPATIONS MAIL CLERKS, EXC. POSTAL SERVICE HAND PAINTING, COATING, AND DECORATING OCCUPATIONS RAILROAD BRAKE, SIGNAL, AND SWITCH OPERATORS SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. OFFICE MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. SHOE MACHINE OPERATORS TRUCK DRIVERS, HEAVY Variable 0.22 0.22 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.16 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.14

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soc 368 795 728 744 799 346 355 866 495 738 743 785 814 809 749 867 465 885 764 856 754 869 758 806 387 798 753 805 873 883 747 183 occupation Title WEIGHERS, MEASURERS, AND CHECKERS MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING OCCUPATIONS SHAPING AND JOINING MACHINE OPERATORS TEXTILE SEWING MACHINE OPERATORS GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC. AGRICULTURAL MAIL PREPARING AND PAPER HANDLING MACHINE OPERATORS MAIL CARRIERS, POSTAL SERVICE HELPERS, SURVEYOR FORESTRY WORKERS, EXCEPT LOGGING WINDING AND TWISTING MACHINE OPERATORS TEXTILE CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS ASSEMBLERS MOTOR TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. TAXICAB DRIVERS AND CHAUFFEURS MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE OPERATORS HELPERS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ATTENDANTS GARAGE AND SERVICE STATION RELATED OCCUPATIONS WASHING, CLEANING, AND PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND TRACTOR EQUIPMENT OPERATORS PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE OPERATORS CONSTRUCTION LABORERS COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING MACHINE OPERATORS DRIVER-SALES WORKERS TEACHERS AIDES PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND WEIGHERS CEMENTING AND GLUING MACHINE OPERATORS TRUCK DRIVERS, LIGHT PRODUCTION HELPERS FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL HANDLERS, N.E.C. PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS Variable 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.00 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.05 0.05

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soc 357 438 444 425 434 813 453 466 449 888 887 889 878 278 443 454 464 729 876 877 875 184 Occupation Title MESSENGERS FOOD COUNTER, FOUNTAIN AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS MISCELLANEOUS FOOD PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS CROSSING GUARDS BARTENDERS PARKING LOT ATTENDANTS JANITORS AND CLEANERS BAGGAGE PORTERS AND BELLHOPS MAIDS AND HOUSEMEN HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT CLEANERS LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION MACHINE FEEDERS AND OFFBEARERS NEWS VENDORS WAITERS/WAITRESSES ASSISTANTS ELEVATOR OPERATORS USHERS NAILING AND TACKING MACHINE OPERATORS STEVEDORES STOCK HANDLERS AND BAGGERS GARBAGE COLLECTORS Variable 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 o.oo 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

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soc 366 026 008 179 197 255 027 163 025 177 007 009 017 018 023 024 028 029 033 034 037 066 067 166 168 176 178 183 184 198 205 254 284 APPENDIX J DEXTERITY Occupation Title METER READERS MANAGEMENT ANALYSTS PERSONNEL AND LABOR RELATIONS MANAGERS JUDGES PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALISTS SECURITIES AND FINANCIAL SERVICES SALES OCCUPATIONS PERSONNEL, TRAINING, AND LABOR RELATIONS SPECIALISTS COUNSELORS, EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL OTHER FINANCIAL OFFICERS RELIGIOUS WORKERS, N.E.C. FINANCIAL MANAGERS PURCHASING MANAGERS POSTMASTERS AND MAIL SUPERINTENDENTS FUNERAL DIRECTORS ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS UNDERWRITERS PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS, FARM PRODUCTS BUYERS, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE EXCEPT FARM PRODUCTS PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS, N.E.C. BUSINESS AND PROMOTION AGENTS MANAGEMENT RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. ACTUARIES STATISTICIANS ECONOMISTS SOCIOLOGISTS CLERGY LAWYERS AUTHORS TECHNICAL WRITERS ANNOUNCERS HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS REAL ESTATE SALES OCCUPATIONS AUCTIONEERS 185 Variable 5.00 4.88 4.63 4.50 4.38 4.36 4.35 4.31 4.30 4.28 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25

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soc 387 415 464 013 014 257 174 005 327 016 186 Occupation TEACHERS AIDES SUPERVISORS, GUARDS USHERS MANAGERS, MARKETING, ADVERTISING, AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ADMINISTRATORS, EDUCATION AND RELATED FIELDS SALES OCCUPATIONS, OTHER BUSINESS SERVICES SOCIAL WORKERS ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION ORDER CLERKS MANAGERS, PROPERTIES AND REAL Variable 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.24 4.22 4.21 4.20 4.20 4.20 4.19

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SOC Code 207 308 417 226 424 413 427 426 577 418 615 227 447 423 497 494 095 353 553 597 199 496 414 416 617 828 APPENDIX K STRESS Occupation Title LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES COMPUTER OPERATORS FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS AIRPLANE PILOTS AND NAVIGATORS CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION OFFICERS SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC. PUBLIC SERVICE ELECTRICAL POWER INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS POLICE AND DETECTIVES, PUBLIC SERVICE EXPLOSIVES WORKERS AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND ATTENDANTS SHERIFFS, BAILIFFS, AND OTHER LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS CAPTAINS AND OTHER OFFICERS, FISHING VESSELS SUPERVISORS, FORESTRY AND LOGGING WORKERS REGISTERED NURSES COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT OPERATORS, N.E.C. SUPERVISORS, BRICKMASONS, STONEMASONS, AND TILE SETTERS STRUCTURAL METAL WORKERS ATHLETES TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING OCCUPATIONS SUPERVISORS, POLICE AND DETECTIVES FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES, EXCEPT FISHING BOATS 187 Variable 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.93 0.83 0.80 0.80 0.65 0.64 0.63 0.63 0.60 0.57 0.54 0.50 0.40 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.31 0.28 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.21

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soc 194 208 314 465 359 499 177 348 804 015 613 446 498 463 567 558 616 027 187 849 006 563 695 036 086 453 307 276 303 195 005 084 699 533 754 225 188 Occupation Title ARTISTS, PERFORMERS, AND RELATED WORKERS, N.E.C. HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. STENOGRAPHERS PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ATTENDANTS DISPATCHERS HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS RELIGIOUS WORKERS, N.E.C. TELEPHONE OPERATORS TRUCK DRIVERS, HEAVY MANAGERS, MEDICINE AND HEALTH SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING FISHERS GUIDES CARPENTERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES SUPERVISORS, N.E.C. MINING MACHINE OPERATORS PERSONNEL, TRAINING, AND LABOR RELATIONS SPECIALISTS ACTORS AND DIRECTORS CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE SERVICES BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES POWER PLANT OPERATORS INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION VETERINARIANS JANITORS AND CLEANERS SUPERVISORS, DISTRIBUTION, SCHEDULING AND ADJUSTING CLERKS CASHIERS SUPERVISORS, GENERAL OFFICE EDITORS AND REPORTERS ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PHYSICIANS MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND SYSTEM OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT REPAIRERS PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE OPERATORS SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. Variable 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.18 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03

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soc 547 365 737 523 599 756 859 717 766 689 715 795 889 189 Occupation Title SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS, N.E.C. STOCK AND INVENTORY CLERKS MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS, COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C. MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS FABRICATING MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND GRADERS MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC, STONE AND GLASS WORKING MACHINE OPERA MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING OCCUPATIONS LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION Variable 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01

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soc 875 876 417 499 566 496 865 617 883 597 544 867 643 599 577 516 686 869 486 534 585 864 498 455 543 573 589 687 877 567 713 507 517 APPENDIX L STRENGTH Occupation Title GARBAGE COLLECTORS STEVEDORES FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS CARPET INSTALLERS TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING OCCUPATIONS HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL HANDLERS, N.E.C. STRUCTURAL METAL WORKERS MILLWRIGHTS HELPERS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS BOILERMAKERS CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C. ELECTRICAL POWER INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS HEAVY EQUIPMENT MECHANICS BUTCHERS AND MEAT CUTTERS CONSTRUCTION LABORERS GROUNDSKEEPERS AND GARDENERS, EXCEPT FARM HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING, AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES HELPERS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS FISHERS PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS ELEVATOR INSTALLERS AND REPAIRER DRYWALL INSTALLERS GLAZIERS BAKERS STOCK HANDLERS AND BAGGERS CARPENTERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS BUS, TRUCK, AND STATIONARY ENGINE MECHANICS FARM EQUIPMENT MECHANICS 190 Variable 5.00 5.00 4.60 4.00 4.00 3.76 3.70 3.69 3.68 3.67 3.63 3.63 3.60 3.55 3.55 3.50 3.50 3.50 3.44 3.44 3.44 3.38 3.37 3.33 3.33 3.33 3.33 3.33 3.33 3.30 3.29 3.29 3.29

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soc 615 495 514 873 509 563 829 848 453 554 756 703 804 783 518 193 207 355 413 427 447 449 454 487 508 526 584 588 616 634 636 637 653 657 773 806 191 Occupation Title EXPLOSIVES WORKERS FORESTRY WORKERS, EXCEPT LOGGING AUTOMOBILE BODY AND RELATED REPAIRERS PRODUCTION HELPERS SMALL ENGINE REPAIRERS BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES SAILORS AND DECKHANDS HOIST AND WINCH OPERATORS JANITORS AND CLEANERS SUPERVISORS, CARPENTERS AND RELATED WORKERS MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE OPERATORS LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE SET-UP OPERATORS TRUCK DRIVERS, HEAVY WELDERS AND CUTTERS INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY REPAIRERS DANCERS LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES MAIL CARRIERS, POSTAL SERVICE SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND ATTENDANTS MAIDS AND HOUSEMEN ELEVATOR OPERATORS ANIMAL CARETAKERS, EXCEPT FARM AIRCRAFT ENGINE MECHANICS HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCE AND POWER TOOL REPAIRERS PLASTERERS CONCRETE AND TERRAZZO FINISHERS MINING MACHINE OPERATORS TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES PRECISION ASSEMBLERS, METAL MACHINISTS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES SHEET METAL WORKERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES CABINET MAKERS AND BENCH CARPENTERS MOTION PICTURE PROJECTIONISTS DRIVER-SALES WORKERS Variable 3.25 3.22 3.21 3 .19 3.17 3.14 3.14 3.14 3.13 3.13 3.09 3.07 3.06 3.05 3.05 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00

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soc 833 844 845 866 719 724 887 706 519 436 505 446 575 856 547 565 655 668 725 878 553 598 466 885 644 768 859 855 733 726 766 192 Occupation Title MARINE ENGINEERS OPERATING ENGINEERS LONGSHORE EQUIPMENT OPERATORS HELPERS, SURVEYOR MOLDING AND CASTING MACHINE OPERATORS HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT CLEANERS PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS MACHINE OPERATORS MACHINERY MAINTENANCE OCCUPATIONS COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS, EXC. APPRENTICES HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING ELECTRICIANS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND TRACTOR EQUIPMENT OPERATORS SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS, N.E.C. TILE SETTERS, HARD AND SOFT MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL WORKERS UPHOLSTERERS MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE OPERATORS MACHINE FEEDERS AND OFFBEARERS SUPERVISORS, BRICKMASONS, STONEMASONS, AND TILE SETTERS DRILLERS, EARTH BAGGAGE PORTERS AND BELLHOPS GARAGE AND SERVICE STATION RELATED OCCUPATIONS PRECISION GRINDERS, FITTERS, AND TOOL SHARPENERS CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS GRADER, DOZER, AND SCRAPER OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING MACHINE OPERATORS WOOD LATHE, ROUTING, AND PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD Variable 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 2.98 2.96 2.96 2.94 2.92 2.92 2.91 2.89 2.89 2.89 2.88 2.88 2.87 2.86 2.85 2.84 2.83 2.83 2.80 2.80 2.79 2.79 2.78 2.78 2.78 2.78 2.78

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soc 707 675 727 443 646 656 728 758 715 723 593 743 738 485 527 536 579 595 614 696 808 809 814 825 853 888 759 717 523 889 463 557 193 Occupation Title ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS, EXCEPT JEWELERS SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS WAITERS/WAITRESSES ASSISTANTS LAY-OUT WORKERS PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL MAKERS, WOOD SHAPING AND JOINING MACHINE OPERATORS COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC, STONE AND GLASS WORKING MACHINE OPERA METAL PLATING MACHINE OPERATORS INSULATION WORKERS TEXTILE CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS WINDING AND TWISTING MACHINE OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, RELATED AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS TELEPHONE LINE INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS LOCKSMITHS AND SAFE REPAIRERS PAINTERS, CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE ROOFERS DRILLERS, OIL WELL STATIONARY ENGINEERS BUS DRIVERS TAXICAB DRIVERS AND CHAUFFEURS MOTOR TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. RAILROAD BRAKE, SIGNAL, AND SWITCH OPERATORS EXCAVATING AND LOADING MACHINE OPERATORS HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING MACHINE OPERATORS FABRICATING MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS, COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION GUIDES SUPERVISORS, PLUMBERS, PIPEFITTERS AND STEAMFITTERS Variable 2.77 2.76 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.74 2.73 2.73 2.71 2.68 2.67 2.67 2.67 2.67 2.67 2.67 2.67 2.67 2.67 2.67 2.67 2.67 2.64 2.63 2.63 2.61 2.61 2.61 2.60 2.60

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soc 757 763 705 787 765 769 539 594 659 777 749 684 533 669 764 754 755 786 175 437 444 448 488 497 555 583 714 805 645 194 Occupation Title SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE OPERATORS, FOOD MILLING AND PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND FORMING OCCUPATIONS FOLDING MACHINE OPERATORS SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS MECHANICAL CONTROLS AND VALVE REPAIRERS PAVING, SURFACING, AND TAMPING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION WOODWORKERS MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION WORKERS, N.E.C. MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT REPAIRERS SHOE REPAIRERS WASHING, CLEANING, AND PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE OPERATORS EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE OPERATORS HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING OCCUPATIONS RECREATION WORKERS SHORT-ORDER COOKS MISCELLANEOUS FOOD PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS SUPERVISORS, CLEANING AND BUILDING SERVICE WORKERS GRADERS AND SORTERS, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS CAPTAINS AND OTHER OFFICERS, FISHING VESSELS SUPERVISORS, ELECTRICIANS AND POWER TRANSMISSION INSTALLERS PAPERHANGERS NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE OPERATOR TRUCK DRIVERS, LIGHT PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL MAKERS, METAL Variable 2.60 2.60 2.58 2.58 2.58 2.58 2.57 2.57 2.57 2.56 2.56 2.55 2.55 2.55 2.54 2.54 2.53 2.51 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.47

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soc 676 849 748 794 753 784 737 734 795 708 683 558 235 095 468 489 695 416 538 688 699 739 828 709 439 223 345 378 418 613 785 199 843 195 Occupation Title PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT WORKERS, AND CUTTERS CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING MACHINE OPERATORS HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING OCCUPATIONS CEMENTING AND GLUING MACHINE OPERATORS SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING OCCUPATIONS DRILLING AND BORING MACHINE OPERATORS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLERS SUPERVISORS, N.E.C. TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. REGISTERED NURSES CHILD CARE WORKERS, EXCEPT PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD INSPECTORS, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS POWER PLANT OPERATORS FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS OFFICE MACHINE REPAIRERS FOOD BATCHMAKERS MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND SYSTEM OPERATORS KNITTING, LOOPING, TAPING, AND WEAVING MACHINE OPERATORS SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES, EXCEPT FISHING BOATS GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING, AND POLISHING MACHINE OPERATORS KITCHEN WORKERS, FOOD PREPARATION BIOLOGICAL TECHNICIANS DUPLICATING MACHINE OPERATORS BILL AND ACCOUNT COLLECTORS POLICE AND DETECTIVES, PUBLIC SERVICE SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS ASSEMBLERS ATHLETES SUPERVISORS, MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS Variable 2.47 2.46 2.46 2.46 2.45 2.44 2.43 2.43 2.42 2.42 2.42 2.41 2.40 2.40 2.40 2.40 2.40 2.38 2.38 2.38 2.38 2.37 2.37 2.36 2.36 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.32 2.31 2.30

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soc 503 704 863 433 694 736 535 798 469 208 459 689 674 089 206 435 465 729 834 633 086 747 789 673 346 424 735 797 079 196 Occupation Title SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, AND LABORERS, SUPERVISORS, FOOD PREPARATION AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS TYPESETTERS AND COMPOSITORS CAMERA, WATCH, AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND WEIGHERS PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. ATTENDANTS, AMUSEMENT AND RECREATION FACILITIES INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND GRADERS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION APPAREL AND FABRIC WORKERS HEALTH DIAGNOSING PRACTITIONERS, N.E.C. RADIOLOGIC TECHNICIANS WAITERS AND WAITRESSES PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ATTENDANTS NAILING AND TACKING MACHINE OPERATORS BRIDGE, LOCK, AND LIGHTHOUSE TENDERS SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS VETERINARIANS PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS HAND PAINTING, COATING, AND DECORATING OCCUPATIONS APPAREL AND FABRIC PATTERNMAKERS MAIL PREPARING AND PAPER HANDLING MACHINE OPERATORS CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION OFFICERS PHOTOENGRAVERS AND LITHOGRAPHERS PRODUCTION TESTERS FORESTRY AND CONSERVATION SCIENTISTS Variable 2.30 2.28 2.27 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.24 2.24 2.24 2.23 2.23 2.22 2.21 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.19 2.19 2.18 2.18 2.17 2.17 2.15 2.14 2.13

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soc 369 347 438 824 365 077 277 368 677 456 084 275 194 364 744 796 799 018 029 035 046 054 063 073 074 075 085 087 088 096 106 155 176 189 204 205 197 Occupation Title SAMPLERS OFFICE MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. FOOD COUNTER, FOUNTAIN AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS LOCOMOTIVE OPERATING OCCUPATIONS STOCK AND INVENTORY CLERKS AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SCIENTISTS STREET AND DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES WORKERS WEIGHERS, MEASURERS, AND CHECKERS OPTICAL GOODS WORKERS SUPERVISORS, PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS PHYSICIANS SALES COUNTER CLERKS ARTISTS, PERFORMERS, AND RELATED WORKERS, N.E.C. TRAFFIC, SHIPPING, AND RECEIVING CLERKS TEXTILE SEWING MACHINE OPERATORS PRODUCTION INSPECTORS, CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC. AGRICULTURAL FUNERAL DIRECTORS BUYERS, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE EXCEPT FARM PRODUCTS CONSTRUCTION INSPECTORS MINING ENGINEERS AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS SURVEYORS AND MAPPING SCIENTISTS CHEMISTS, EXCEPT BIOCHEMISTS ATMOSPHERIC AND SPACE SCIENTISTS GEOLOGISTS AND GEODESISTS DENTISTS OPTOMETRISTS PODIATRISTS PHARMACISTS PHYSICIANS ASSISTANTS TEACHERS, PREKINDERGARTEN AND KINDERGARTEN CLERGY PHOTOGRAPHERS DENTAL HYGIENISTS HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS Variable 2.13 2.11 2.11 2.11 2.10 2.09 2.08 2.08 2.08 2.07 2.07 2.05 2.05 2.03 2.03 2.02 2.02 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00

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soc 213 214 215 224 225 254 256 257 258 259 278 284 304 308 317 329 356 366 373 423 425 434 445 457 464 467 494 525 529 556 658 666 667 679 745 813 826 426 198 Occupation Title ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNICIANS INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS CHEMICAL TECHNICIANS SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. REAL ESTATE SALES OCCUPATIONS ADVERTISING AND RELATED SALES OCCUPATIONS SALES OCCUPATIONS, OTHER BUSINESS SERVICES SALES ENGINEERS SALES REPRESENTATIVES, MINING, MANUFACTURING, AND WHOLESALE NEWS VENDORS AUCTIONEERS SUPERVISORS, COMPUTER EQUIPMENT OPERATORS COMPUTER OPERATORS HOTEL CLERKS LIBRARY CLERKS MAIL CLERKS, EXC. POSTAL SERVICE METER READERS EXPEDITERS SHERIFFS, BAILIFFS, AND OTHER LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS CROSSING GUARDS BARTENDERS DENTAL ASSISTANTS BARBERS USHERS WELFARE SERVICE AIDES SUPERVISORS, FORESTRY AND LOGGING WORKERS DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT REPAIR TELEPHONE INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS SUPERVISORS, PAINTERS, PAPERHANGERS AND PLASTERERS FURNITURE AND WOOD FINISHERS DRESSMAKERS TAILORS BOOKBINDERS SHOE MACHINE OPERATORS PARKING LOT ATTENDANTS RAIL VEHICLE OPERATORS, N.E.C. GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC. PUBLIC SERVICE Variable 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.96

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soc 036 078 458 649 793 285 693 097 203 335 283 058 226 053 083 045 049 076 306 309 415 414 165 216 357 164 774 187 803 823 647 188 374 199 Occupation Title INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION BIOLOGICAL AND LIFE SCIENTISTS HAIRDRESSERS AND COSMETOLOGISTS ENGRAVERS, METAL HAND ENGRAVING AND PRINTING OCCUPATIONS SALES SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. ADJUSTERS AND CALIBRATORS DIETITIANS CLINICAL LABORATORY TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS FILE CLERKS DEMONSTRATORS, PROMOTERS AND MODELS, SALES MARINE AND NAVAL ARCHITECTS AIRPLANE PILOTS AND NAVIGATORS CIVIL ENGINEERS MEDICAL SCIENTISTS METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERS NUCLEAR ENGINEERS PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. CHIEF COMMUNICATIONS OPERATORS PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, GUARDS SUPERVISORS, POLICE AND DETECTIVES ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. MESSENGERS LIBRARIANS PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE OPERATORS ACTORS AND DIRECTORS SUPERVISORS, MOTOR VEHICLE OPERATORS RAILROAD CONDUCTORS AND YARDMASTER PRECIOUS STONES AND METALS WORKERS(JEWELERS) PAINTERS, SCULPTORS, CRAFT-ARTISTS, AND ARTIST PRINTMAKERS MATERIAL RECORDING, SCHEDULING, AND DISTRIBUTING CLERKS, N.E.C. Variable 1.94 1.93 1.91 1.91 1.90 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.87 1.86 1.86 1.85 1.83 1.82 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.79 1.78 1.78 1.78 1.76 1.76 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.74 1.74 1.74

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soc 307 048 016 043 068 198 354 055 186 276 028 383 363 044 303 006 057 069 173 177 197 253 678 185 174 379 255 005 228 389 227 319 375 047 167 218 327 376 200 Occupation Title SUPERVISORS, DISTRIBUTION, SCHEDULING AND ADJUSTING CLERKS CHEMICAL ENGINEERS MANAGERS, PROPERTIES AND REAL ESTATE ARCHITECTS MATHEMATICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. ANNOUNCERS POSTAL CLERKS, EXC. MAIL CARRIERS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERS MUSICIANS AND COMPOSERS CASHIERS PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS, FARM PRODUCTS BANK TELLERS PRODUCTION COORDINATORS AEROSPACE ENGINEERS SUPERVISORS, GENERAL OFFICE ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE SERVICES MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PHYSICISTS AND ASTRONOMERS URBAN PLANNERS RELIGIOUS WORKERS, N.E.C. PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALISTS INSURANCE SALES OCCUPATIONS DENTAL LABORATORY AND MEDICAL APPLIANCE TECHNICIAN DESIGNERS SOCIAL WORKERS GENERAL OFFICE CLERKS SECURITIES AND FINANCIAL SERVICES SALES OCCUPATIONS ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION BROADCAST EQUIPMENT OPERATORS ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS RECEPTIONISTS INSURANCE ADJUSTERS, EXAMINERS, AND INVESTIGATORS PETROLEUM ENGINEERS PSYCHOLOGISTS SURVEYING AND MAPPING TECHNICIANS ORDER CLERKS INVESTIGATORS AND ADJUSTERS, EXCEPT INSURANCE Variable 1.72 1.71 1. 71 1.67 1.67 1.67 1.67 1.65 1.64 1.64 1.60 1.60 1.56 1.56 1.52 1. 50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.46 1.46 1.44 1.43 1.42 1.41 1.41 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.38 1.36 1.36 1. 36 1.36

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soc 169 013 015 027 034 064 229 326 377 386 387 056 059 163 305 336 348 384 217 033 318 316 359 344 353 323 014 313 037 343 337 026 234 178 023 385 025 007 008 201 Occupation Title SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. MANAGERS, MARKETING, ADVERTISING, AND PUBLIC RELATIONS MANAGERS, MEDICINE AND HEALTH PERSONNEL, TRAINING, AND LABOR RELATIONS SPECIALISTS BUSINESS AND PROMOTION AGENTS COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS AND SCIENTISTS COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS CORRESPONDENCE CLERKS ELIGIBILITY CLERKS, SOCIAL WELFARE STATISTICAL CLERKS TEACHERS AIDES INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS ENGINEERS, N.E.C. COUNSELORS, EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL SUPERVISORS, FINANCIAL RECORDS PROCESSING RECORDS CLERKS TELEPHONE OPERATORS PROOFREADERS DRAFTING OCCUPATIONS PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS, NEC TRANSPORTATION TICKET AND RESERVATION AGENTS INTERVIEWERS DISPATCHERS BILLING, POSTING, AND CALCULATING MACHINE OPERATORS COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT OPERATORS, N.E.C. INFORMATION CLERKS, N.E.C. ADMINISTRATORS, EDUCATION AND RELATED FIELDS SECRETARIES MANAGEMENT RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. COST AND RATE CLERKS BOOKKEEPERS, ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING CLERKS MANAGEMENT ANALYSTS LEGAL ASSISTANTS LAWYERS ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS DATA-ENTRY KEYERS OTHER FINANCIAL OFFICERS FINANCIAL MANAGERS PERSONNEL AND LABOR RELATIONS MANAGERS Variable 1.35 1.33 1.33 1.33 1.33 1.33 1.33 1.33 1.33 1.33 1.33 1.29 1.27 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.23 1.22 1.22 1.20 1.18 1.17 1.17 1.15 1.15 1.14 1.13 1.13 1.12 1.10 1.10 1.08 1.08 1.06 1.05 1.00 1.00

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202 soc Occupation Title Variable 009 PURCHASING MANAGERS 1.00 017 POSTMASTERS AND MAIL 1.00 SUPERINTENDENTS 024 UNDERWRITERS 1.00 065 OPERATIONS AND SYSTEMS 1.00 RESEARCHERS AND ANALYSTS 066 ACTUARIES 1.00 067 STATISTICIANS 1.00 166 ECONOMISTS 1.00 168 SOCIOLOGISTS 1.00 179 JUDGES 1.00 183 AUTHORS 1.00 184 TECHNICAL WRITERS 1.00 195 EDITORS AND REPORTERS 1.00 233 TOOL PROGRAMMERS, NUMERICAL 1.00 CONTROL 314 STENOGRAPHERS 1.00 315 TYPISTS 1.00 325 CLASSIFIED-AD CLERKS 1.00 328 PERSONNEL CLERKS, EXCEPT 1.00 PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING 338 PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING 1.00 CLERKS 339 BILLING CLERKS 1.00 349 TELEGRAPHERS 1.00

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soc 439 686 076 416 867 534 463 883 436 075 713 498 828 798 887 185 888 225 757 786 864 005 889 518 756 633 547 APPENDIX M EXTREME COLD Occupation Title KITCHEN WORKERS, FOOD PREPARATION BUTCHERS AND MEAT CUTTERS PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS HELPERS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING, AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS GUIDES FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL HANDLERS, N.E.C. COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER GEOLOGISTS AND GEODESISTS FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS FISHERS SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES, EXCEPT FISHING BOATS PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND WEIGHERS VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT CLEANERS DESIGNERS HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING OCCUPATIONS HELPERS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY REPAIRERS MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS, N.E.C. 203 Variable 0.2727 0.2500 0.2000 0.1250 0.1250 0.1111 0.1000 0.0909 0.0800 0.0769 0.0588 0.0526 0.0526 0.0400 0.0370 0.0357 0.0323 0.0256 0.0247 0.0235 0.0200 0.0175 0.0129 0.0122 0.0094 0.0088 0.0085

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204 soc Occupation Title Variable 797 PRODUCTION TESTERS 0.0081 689 INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND 0.0079 GRADERS 777 MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE 0.0078 OPERATORS, N.E.C. 769 SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE 0.0068 OPERATORS 795 MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING 0.0056 OCCUPATIONS 873 PRODUCTION HELPERS 0.0049 796 PRODUCTION INSPECTORS, 0.0048 CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS 878 MACHINE FEEDERS AND 0.0034 OFFBEARERS 785 ASSEMBLERS 0.0014

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soc 417 724 696 436 713 437 833 763 413 719 766 455 856 563 707 748 747 699 076 444 643 723 433 873 784 755 593 655 676 APPENDIX N EXTREME HEAT Occupation Title FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS STATIONARY ENGINEERS COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS SHORT-ORDER COOKS MARINE ENGINEERS ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE OPERATORS, FOOD SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS MOLDING AND CASTING MACHINE OPERATORS FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND TRACTOR EQUIPMENT OPERATORS BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING MACHINE OPERATORS PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND SYSTEM OPERATORS PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. MISCELLANEOUS FOOD PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS BOILERMAKERS METAL PLATING MACHINE OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, FOOD PREPARATION AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS PRODUCTION HELPERS SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE OPERATORS INSULATION WORKERS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL WORKERS PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT WORKERS, AND CUTTERS 205 Variable 1.0000 0.6429 0.5833 0.5600 0.5294 0.5000 0.5000 0.4286 0.4000 0.3846 0.3417 0.3333 0.3333 0.2857 0.2581 0.2500 0.2222 0.2188 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.1786 0.1765 0.1667 0.1545 0.1429 0.1333 0.1333

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soc 519 758 787 416 675 783 427 463 759 439 725 863 469 865 777 795 075 006 715 633 883 757 749 518 533 645 739 206 Occupation Title MACHINERY MAINTENANCE OCCUPATIONS COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING MACHINE OPERATORS HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND FORMING OCCUPATIONS FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS, EXCEPT JEWELERS WELDERS AND CUTTERS PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. GUIDES PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING MACHINE OPERATORS KITCHEN WORKERS, FOOD PREPARATION MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, AND LABORERS, PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING OCCUPATIONS GEOLOGISTS AND GEODESISTS ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC, STONE AND GLASS WORKING MACHINE OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL HANDLERS, N.E.C. SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE OPERATORS INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY REPAIRERS MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT REPAIRERS PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL MAKERS, METAL KNITTING, LOOPING, TAPING, AND WEAVING MACHINE OPERATORS Variable 0.1316 0.1304 0.1279 0.1250 0.1212 0.1053 0.1000 0.1000 0.0938 0.0909 0.0909 0.0909 0.0870 0.0870 0.0816 0.0791 0.0769 0.0714 0.0714 0.0682 0.0682 0.0671 0.0660 0.0610 0.0606 0.0588 0.0571

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soc 878 374 503 756 889 426 764 728 798 864 887 199 717 689 733 796 797 235 647 753 794 706 768 363 005 599 547 036 738 207 Occupation Title MACHINE FEEDERS AND OFFBEARERS MATERIAL RECORDING, SCHEDULING, AND DISTRIBUTING CLERKS, N.E.C. SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE OPERATORS LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC. PUBLIC SERVICE WASHING, CLEANING, AND PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS SHAPING AND JOINING MACHINE OPERATORS PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND WEIGHERS HELPERS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT CLEANERS ATHLETES FABRICATING MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND GRADERS MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING MACHINE OPERATORS PRODUCTION INSPECTORS, CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS PRODUCTION TESTERS TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. PRECIOUS STONES AND METALS WORKERS(JEWELERS) CEMENTING AND GLUING MACHINE OPERATORS HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING OCCUPATIONS PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS MACHINE OPERATORS CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE OPERATORS PRODUCTION COORDINATORS ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C. SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS, N.E.C. INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION WINDING AND TWISTING MACHINE OPERATORS Variable 0.0537 0.0526 0.0526 0.0516 0.0515 0.0435 0.0435 0.0417 0.0400 0.0400 0.0370 0.0345 0.0323 0.0317 0.0306 0.0266 0.0242 0.0238 0.0238 0.0238 0.0217 0.0213 0.0201 0.0182 0.0175 0.0172 0.0169 0.0156 0.0156

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soc 859 259 709 785 799 769 208 Occupation Title MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS SALES REPRESENTATIVES, MINING, MANUFACTURING, AND WHOLESALE GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING, AND POLISHING MACHINE OPERATORS ASSEMBLERS GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC. AGRICULTURAL SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS Variable 0.0137 0.0120 0.0118 0.0114 0.0095 0.0068

PAGE 215

soc 497 498 588 417 584 686 495 748 437 833 887 499 696 046 764 453 488 694 598 747 517 829 863 828 175 867 613 723 076 413 APPENDIX 0 EXTREME WET Occupation Title CAPTAINS AND OTHER OFFICERS, FISHING VESSELS FISHERS CONCRETE AND TERRAZZO FINISHERS FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS PLASTERERS BUTCHERS AND MEAT CUTTERS FORESTRY WORKERS, EXCEPT LOGGING LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING MACHINE OPERATORS SHORT-ORDER COOKS MARINE ENGINEERS VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT CLEANERS HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS STATIONARY ENGINEERS MINING ENGINEERS WASHING, CLEANING, AND PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS JANITORS AND CLEANERS GRADERS AND SORTERS, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS DRILLERS, EARTH PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS FARM EQUIPMENT MECHANICS SAILORS AND DECKHANDS SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS & LABORERS SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES, EXCEPT FISHING BOATS RECREATION WORKERS HELPERS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS METAL PLATING MACHINE OPERATORS PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS 209 Variable 1.0000 0.9474 0.8333 0.8000 0.7500 0.7500 0.6667 0.5833 0.5000 0.5000 0.4815 0.4286 0.4167 0.4000 0.3913 0.3750 0.3750 0.3750 0.3333 0.3333 0.2857 0.2857 0.2727 0.2632 0.2500 0.2500 0.2222 0.2182 0.2000 0.2000

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soc 468 494 557 834 757 749 853 449 455 585 786 436 496 725 787 889 447 507 539 563 768 223 865 777 735 544 615 617 688 873 756 438 210 Occupation Title CHILD CARE WORKERS, EXCEPT PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD SUPERVISORS, FORESTRY AND LOGGING WORKERS SUPERVISORS, PLUMBERS, PIPEFITTERS AND STEAMFITTERS BRIDGE, LOCK, AND LIGHTHOUSE TENDERS SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE OPERATORS EXCAVATING AND LOADING MACHINE OPERATORS MAIDS AND HOUSEMEN PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING OCCUPATIONS COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING OCCUPATIONS MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE OPERATORS HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND FORMING OCCUPATIONS LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND ATTENDANTS BUS, TRUCK, AND STATIONARY ENGINE MECHANICS MECHANICAL CONTROLS AND VALVE REPAIRERS BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE OPERATORS BIOLOGICAL TECHNICIANS HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. PHOTOENGRAVERS AND LITHOGRAPHERS MILLWRIGHTS EXPLOSIVES WORKERS MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. FOOD BATCHMAKERS PRODUCTION HELPERS MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE OPERATORS FOOD COUNTER, FOUNTAIN AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS variable 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.1979 0.1887 0.1818 0.1667 0.1667 0.1667 0.1647 0.1600 0.1600 0.1515 0.1512 0.1469 0.1429 0.1429 0.1429 0.1429 0.1342 0.1333 0.1304 0.1282 0.1277 0.1250 0.1250 0.1250 0.1250 0.1176 0.1174 0.1111

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soc 487 433 446 519 599 758 427 444 463 676 859 763 878 616 469 799 795 755 864 075 849 194 594 774 364 883 754 655 737 707 888 211 Occupation Title ANIMAL CARETAKERS, EXCEPT FARM SUPERVISORS, FOOD PREPARATION AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING MACHINERY MAINTENANCE OCCUPATIONS CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C. COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING MACHINE OPERATORS PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. MISCELLANEOUS FOOD PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS GUIDES PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT WORKERS, AND CUTTERS MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE OPERATORS, FOOD MACHINE FEEDERS AND OFFBEARERS MINING MACHINE OPERATORS PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC. AGRICULTURAL MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING OCCUPATIONS EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE OPERATORS HELPERS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS GEOLOGISTS AND GEODESISTS CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS ARTISTS, PERFORMERS, AND RELATED WORKERS, N.E.C. PAVING, SURFACING, AND TAMPING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE OPERATORS TRAFFIC, SHIPPING, AND RECEIVING CLERKS FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL HANDLERS, N.E.C. PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL WORKERS MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS Variable 0.1111 0.1071 0.1053 0.1053 0.1034 0.1014 0.1000 0.1000 0.1000 0.1000 0.0959 0.0952 0.0940 0.0909 NEC 0.0870 0.0857 0.0847 0.0818 0.0800 0.0769 0.0769 0.0750 0.0714 0.0694 0.0690 0.0682 0.0676 0.0667 0.0652 0.0645 0.0645

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soc 699 759 769 518 633 798 693 713 739 784 275 225 547 235 558 459 789 185 724 709 503 084 567 766 797 036 675 783 365 689 794 303 005 212 Occupation Title MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND SYSTEM OPERATORS PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING MACHINE OPERATORS SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY REPAIRERS SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND WEIGHERS ADJUSTERS AND CALIBRATORS FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS KNITTING, LOOPING, TAPING, AND WEAVING MACHINE OPERATORS SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS SALES COUNTER CLERKS SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS, N.E.C. TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. SUPERVISORS, N.E.C. ATTENDANTS, AMUSEMENT AND RECREATION FACILITIES HAND PAINTING, COATING, AND DECORATING OCCUPATIONS DESIGNERS HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING, AND POLISHING MACHINE OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS PHYSICIANS CARPENTERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD PRODUCTION TESTERS INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS, EXCEPT JEWELERS WELDERS AND CUTTERS STOCK AND INVENTORY CLERKS INSPECTORS, TESTERS & GRADERS HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING OCCUPATIONS SUPERVISORS, GENERAL OFFICE ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Variable 0.0625 0.0625 0.0616 0.0610 0.0606 0.0600 0.0588 0.0588 0.0571 0.0556 0.0526 0.0513 0.0508 0.0476 0.0455 0.0385 0.0366 0.0357 0.0357 0.0353 0.0351 0.0333 0.0333 0.0333 0.0323 0.0313 0.0303 0.0263 0.0244 0.0238 0.0217 0.0208 0.0175

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soc 796 785 715 259 733 213 Occupation Title PRODUCTION INSPECTORS, CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS ASSEMBLERS MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC, STONE AND GLASS WORKING MACHINE OPERA SALES REPRESENTATIVES, MINING, MANUFACTURING, AND WHOLESALE MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING MACHINE OPERATORS Variable 0.0169 0.0157 0.0130 0.0120 0.0102

PAGE 220

soc 226 417 598 643 653 667 844 616 824 713 707 614 853 613 855 739 849 727 544 696 714 745 519 744 738 728 726 589 856 869 APPENDIX P EXTREME NOISE Occupation Title AIRPLANE PILOTS & NAVIGATORS FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS DRILLERS, EARTH BOILERMAKERS SHEET METAL WORKERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES TAILORS OPERATING ENGINEERS MINING MACHINE OPERATORS LOCOMOTIVE OPERATING OCCUPATIONS FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS DRILLERS, OIL WELL EXCAVATING AND LOADING MACHINE OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS GRADER, DOZER, AND SCRAPER OPERATORS KNITTING, LOOPING, TAPING, AND WEAVING MACHINE OPERATORS CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS MILLWRIGHTS STATIONARY ENGINEERS NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE OPERATOR SHOE MACHINE OPERATORS MACHINERY MAINTENANCE OCCUPATIONS TEXTILE SEWING MACHINE OPERATORS WINDING AND TWISTING MACHINE OPERATORS SHAPING AND JOINING MACHINE OPERATORS WOOD LATHE, ROUTING, AND PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS GLAZIERS INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND TRACTOR EQUIPMENT OPERATORS CONSTRUCTION LABORERS 214 Variable 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.91 0.89 0.88 0.84 0.83 0.82 0.78 0.78 0.77 0.77 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.74 0.73 0.72 0.71 0.70 0.67 0.67 0.67

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soc 877 594 717 783 615 518 706 557 729 558 848 768 509 733 765 517 749 743 496 715 304 508 554 555 634 656 657 694 708 823 825 215 Occupation Title STOCK HANDLERS AND BAGGERS PAVING, SURFACING, AND TAMPING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS FABRICATING MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. WELDERS AND CUTTERS EXPLOSIVES WORKERS INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY REPAIRERS PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS MACHINE OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, PLUMBERS, PIPEFITTERS AND STEAMFITTERS NAILING AND TACKING MACHINE OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, N.E.C. HOIST AND WINCH OPERATORS CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE OPERATORS SMALL ENGINE REPAIRERS MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING MACHINE OPERATORS FOLDING MACHINE OPERATORS FARM EQUIPMENT MECHANICS MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE OPERATORS TEXTILE CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING OCCUPATIONS MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC, STONE AND GLASS WORKING MACHINE OPERA SUPERVISORS, COMPUTER EQUIPMENT OPERATORS AIRCRAFT ENGINE MECHANICS SUPERVISORS, CARPENTERS AND RELATED WORKERS SUPERVISORS, ELECTRICIANS AND POWER TRANSMISSION INSTALLERS TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL MAKERS, WOOD Variable 0.67 0.64 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.62 0.62 0.60 0.60 0.59 0.59 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.52 0.51 0.50 0.50 0.50 CABINET MAKERS & BENCH CARPENTERS WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 PLANT OPERATORS DRILLING AND BORING MACHINE OPERATORS RAILROAD CONDUCTORS AND YARDMASTER RAILROAD BRAKE, SIGNAL, AND SWITCH OPERATORS 0.50 0.50 0.50

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soc 833 843 859 737 699 567 655 695 703 486 585 666 503 617 804 769 873 599 734 507 514 563 593 644 633 645 413 465 466 468 494 516 719 216 Occupation Title MARINE ENGINEERS SUPERVISORS, MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND SYSTEM OPERATORS CARPENTERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL WORKERS POWER PLANT OPERATORS LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE SET-UP OPERATORS GROUNDSKEEPERS AND GARDENERS, EXCEPT FARM PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES DRESSMAKERS SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. TRUCK DRIVERS, HEAVY SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS PRODUCTION HELPERS CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C. PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS BUS, TRUCK, AND STATIONARY ENGINE MECHANICS AUTOMOBILE BODY AND RELATED REPAIRERS BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES INSULATION WORKERS PRECISION GRINDERS, FITTERS, AND TOOL SHARPENERS SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL MAKERS, METAL SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ATTENDANTS BAGGAGE PORTERS AND BELLHOPS CHILD CARE WORKERS, EXCEPT PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD SUPERVISORS, FORESTRY AND LOGGING WORKERS HEAVY EQUIPMENT MECHANICS MOLDING AND CASTING MACHINE OPERATORS Variable 0.50 0.50 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.41 0.41 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40

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soc 675 883 755 864 704 867 777 887 878 705 753 756 636 865 757 425 543 553 573 588 597 637 646 658 679 808 814 794 505 747 723 758 217 Occupation Title HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS, EXCEPT JEWELERS FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL HANDLERS, N.E.C. EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE OPERATORS HELPERS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE OPERATORS HELPERS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT CLEANERS MACHINE FEEDERS AND OFFBEARERS MILLING AND PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS CEMENTING AND GLUING MACHINE OPERATORS MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE OPERATORS PRECISION ASSEMBLERS, METAL HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS CROSSING GUARDS ELEVATOR INSTALLERS AND REPAIRER SUPERVISORS, BRICKMASONS, STONEMASONS, AND TILE SETTERS DRYWALL INSTALLERS CONCRETE AND TERRAZZO FINISHERS STRUCTURAL METAL WORKERS MACHINISTS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES LAY-OUT WORKERS FURNITURE AND WOOD FINISHERS BOOKBINDERS BUS DRIVERS MOTOR TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING OCCUPATIONS AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS, EXC. APPRENTICES PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS METAL PLATING MACHINE OPERATORS COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING MACHINE OPERATORS Variable 0.39 0.39 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.35 0.35 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.30 0.30 0.29 0.29

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soc 724 754 709 035 676 766 736 748 759 826 689 798 763 534 764 456 659 797 834 885 795 889 547 669 673 725 799 796 218 Occupation Title HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE OPERATORS GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING, AND POLISHING MACHINE OPERATORS CONSTRUCTION INSPECTORS PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT WORKERS, AND CUTTERS FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD TYPESETTERS AND COMPOSITORS LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING MACHINE OPERATORS PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING MACHINE OPERATORS RAIL VEHICLE OPERATORS, N.E.C. INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND GRADERS PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND WEIGHERS ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE OPERATORS, FOOD HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING, AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS WASHING, CLEANING, AND PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION WOODWORKERS PRODUCTION TESTERS BRIDGE, LOCK, AND LIGHTHOUSE TENDERS GARAGE AND SERVICE STATION RELATED OCCUPATIONS MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING OCCUPATIONS LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS, N.E.C. SHOE REPAIRERS APPAREL AND FABRIC PATTERNMAKERS MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE OPERATORS GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION INSPECTORS, CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS Variable 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.24 0.24 0.22 0.22 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18

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soc 787 346 455 784 805 785 006 213 255 433 668 829 786 225 047 348 369 416 453 488 565 688 436 165 318 347 438 495 535 575 363 735 684 828 199 523 219 Occupation Title HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND FORMING OCCUPATIONS MAIL PREPARING AND PAPER HANDLING MACHINE OPERATORS PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS TRUCK DRIVERS, LIGHT ASSEMBLERS ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE SERVICES ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNICIANS SECURITIES AND FINANCIAL SERVICES SALES OCCUPATIONS SUPERVISORS, FOOD PREPARATION AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS UPHOLSTERERS SAILORS AND DECKHANDS HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING OCCUPATIONS SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. PETROLEUM ENGINEERS TELEPHONE OPERATORS SAMPLERS FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS JANITORS AND CLEANERS GRADERS AND SORTERS, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS TILE SETTERS, HARD AND SOFT FOOD BATCHMAKERS COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS TRANSPORTATION TICKET AND RESERVATION AGENTS OFFICE MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. FOOD COUNTER, FOUNTAIN AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS FORESTRY WORKERS, EXCEPT LOGGING CAMERA, WATCH, AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS ELECTRICIANS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES PRODUCTION COORDINATORS PHOTOENGRAVERS & LITHOGRAPHERS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION WORKERS, N.E.C. SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES, EXCEPT FISHING BOATS ATHLETES ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS, COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Variable 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.10

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soc 208 258 356 373 427 435 444 793 539 674 059 186 439 863 469 189 277 368 485 683 036 459 235 789 533 344 374 446 498 365 220 Occupation Title HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. SALES ENGINEERS MAIL CLERKS, EXC. POSTAL SERVICE EXPEDITERS PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. WAITERS AND WAITRESSES MISCELLANEOUS FOOD PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS HAND ENGRAVING AND PRINTING OCCUPATIONS MECHANICAL CONTROLS AND VALVE REPAIRERS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION APPAREL AND FABRIC WORKERS ENGINEERS, N.E.C. MUSICIANS AND COMPOSERS KITCHEN WORKERS, FOOD PREPARATION SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, AND LABORERS, PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. PHOTOGRAPHERS STREET AND DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES WORKERS WEIGHERS, MEASURERS, AND CHECKERS SUPERVISORS, RELATED AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLERS INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION ATTENDANTS, AMUSEMENT AND RECREATION FACILITIES TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. HAND PAINTING, COATING, AND DECORATING OCCUPATIONS MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT REPAIRERS BILLING, POSTING, AND CALCULATING MACHINE OPERATORS MATERIAL RECORDING, SCHEDULING, AND DISTRIBUTING CLERKS, N.E.C. HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING FISHERS STOCK AND INVENTORY CLERKS Variable 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05

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soc 888 647 359 426 303 418 774 677 364 389 194 259 221 Occupation Title HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS PRECIOUS STONES AND METALS WORKERS(JEWELERS) DISPATCHERS GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC. PUBLIC SERVICE SUPERVISORS, GENERAL OFFICE POLICE AND DETECTIVES, PUBLIC SERVICE PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE OPERATORS OPTICAL GOODS WORKERS TRAFFIC, SHIPPING, AND RECEIVING CLERKS ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. ARTISTS, PERFORMERS, AND RELATED WORKERS, N.E.C. SALES REPRESENTATIVES, variable 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.01

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soc 206 413 417 497 508 543 555 583 584 589 595 597 615 653 844 577 226 424 573 614 783 575 696 593 207 527 534 579 713 724 APPENDIX Q VIBRATION Occupation Title Variable RADIOLOGIC TECHNICIANS SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS CAPTAINS AND OTHER OFFICERS, FISHING VESSELS AIRCRAFT ENGINE MECHANICS ELEVATOR INSTALLERS AND REPAIRER SUPERVISORS, ELECTRICIANS AND POWER TRANSMISSION INSTALLERS PAPERHANGERS PLASTERERS GLAZIERS ROOFERS STRUCTURAL METAL WORKERS EXPLOSIVES WORKERS SHEET METAL WORKERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES OPERATING ENGINEERS ELECTRICAL POWER INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS AIRPLANE PILOTS AND NAVIGATORS CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION OFFICERS DRYWALL INSTALLERS DRILLERS, OIL WELL WELDERS AND CUTTERS ELECTRICIANS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES STATIONARY ENGINEERS INSULATION WORKERS LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES TELEPHONE LINE INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING, AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS PAINTERS, CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS 222 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.91 0.86 0.83 0.83 0.83 0.82 0.78 0.75 0.71 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.65 0.64

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soc 439 616 418 694 427 496 643 499 517 829 784 423 498 599 355 437 544 553 554 556 558 567 598 617 657 833 867 869 699 706 848 487 585 865 213 563 223 Occupation Title KITCHEN WORKERS, FOOD PREPARATION MINING MACHINE OPERATORS POLICE AND DETECTIVES, PUBLIC SERVICE WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING OCCUPATIONS BOILERMAKERS HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS FARM EQUIPMENT MECHANICS SAILORS AND DECKHANDS SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS SHERIFFS, BAILIFFS, AND OTHER LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS FISHERS CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C. MAIL CARRIERS, POSTAL SERVICE SHORT-ORDER COOKS MILLWRIGHTS SUPERVISORS, BRICKMASONS, STONEMASONS, AND TILE SETTERS SUPERVISORS, CARPENTERS AND RELATED WORKERS SUPERVISORS, PAINTERS, PAPERHANGERS AND PLASTERERS SUPERVISORS, N.E.C. CARPENTERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES DRILLERS, EARTH MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. CABINET MAKERS AND BENCH CARPENTERS MARINE ENGINEERS HELPERS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS CONSTRUCTION LABORERS MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND SYSTEM OPERATORS PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS MACHINE OPERATORS HOIST AND WINCH OPERATORS ANIMAL CARETAKERS, EXCEPT FARM PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNICIANS BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES Variable 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.63 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.57 0.57 0.57 0.56 0.54 0.53 0.52 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.47 0.47 0.45 0.44 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.43

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soc 864 046 415 494 557 655 843 707 727 416 719 723 725 853 518 883 096 425 485 588 613 695 813 814 825 855 856 523 726 414 224 Occupation Title HELPERS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS Variable 0.42 MINING ENGINEERS SUPERVISORS, GUARDS SUPERVISORS, FORESTRY AND LOGGING WORKERS SUPERVISORS, PLUMBERS, PIPEFITTERS AND STEAMFITTERS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL WORKERS SUPERVISORS, MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS MOLDING AND CASTING MACHINE OPERATORS METAL PLATING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS METAL & PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE OPERATORS EXCAVATING AND LOADING MACHINE OPERATORS INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY REPAIRERS FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL HANDLERS, N.E.C. PHARMACISTS CROSSING GUARDS SUPERVISORS, RELATED AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS CONCRETE AND TERRAZZO FINISHERS SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS POWER PLANT OPERATORS PARKING LOT ATTENDANTS MOTOR TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. RAILROAD BRAKE, SIGNAL, AND SWITCH OPERATORS GRADER, DOZER, AND SCRAPER OPERATORS INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND TRACTOR EQUIPMENT OPERATORS ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS, COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT WOOD LATHE, ROUTING, AND PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, POLICE AND DETECTIVES 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.39 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.34 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.32

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soc 426 049 516 859 447 503 887 766 035 873 223 636 446 747 717 715 453 686 714 728 199 794 684 756 733 225 769 486 637 235 659 533 225 Occupation Title GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC. PUBLIC SERVICE NUCLEAR ENGINEERS HEAVY EQUIPMENT MECHANICS MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND ATTENDANTS SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT CLEANERS FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD CONSTRUCTION INSPECTORS PRODUCTION HELPERS BIOLOGICAL TECHNICIANS PRECISION ASSEMBLERS, METAL HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS FABRICATING MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC, STONE AND GLASS WORKING MACHINE OPERA JANITORS AND CLEANERS BUTCHERS AND MEAT CUTTERS NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE OPERATOR SHAPING AND JOINING MACHINE OPERATORS ATHLETES HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING OCCUPATIONS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION WORKERS, N.E.C. MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING MACHINE OPERATORS SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS GROUNDSKEEPERS AND GARDENERS, EXCEPT FARM MACHINISTS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION WOODWORKERS MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT REPAIRERS Variable 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.29 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.21 0.21 0.21

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soc 675 786 828 436 676 885 036 804 547 519 768 645 194 777 069 208 449 455 634 646 689 705 757 758 849 764 633 754 507 539 226 Occupation Title HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS, EXCEPT JEWELERS Variable 0.21 HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING OCCUPATIONS SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES, EXCEPT FISHING BOATS COOKS, EXCEPT SHORT ORDER PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT WORKERS, AND CUTTERS GARAGE AND SERVICE STATION RELATED OCCUPATIONS INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION TRUCK DRIVERS, HEAVY SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS, N.E.C. MACHINERY MAINTENANCE OCCUPATIONS CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE OPERATORS PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL MAKERS, METAL ARTISTS, PERFORMERS, AND RELATED WORKERS, N.E.C. MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. PHYSICISTS AND ASTRONOMERS HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. MAIDS AND HOUSEMEN PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES LAY-OUT WORKERS INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND GRADERS MILLING AND PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING MACHINE OPERATORS CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS WASHING, CLEANING, AND PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE OPERATORS BUS, TRUCK, AND STATIONARY ENGINE MECHANICS MECHANICAL CONTROLS AND VALVE REPAIRERS 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.14

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soc 594 878 488 656 688 748 795 734 798 044 165 438 824 759 737 735 765 704 084 444 448 463 465 889 045 059 458 669 863 749 189 368 227 Occupation Title PAVING, SURFACING, AND TAMPING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS MACHINE FEEDERS AND OFFBEARERS GRADERS AND SORTERS, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL MAKERS, WOOD FOOD BATCHMA.KERS LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING OCCUPATIONS PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND WEIGHERS AEROSPACE ENGINEERS ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS FOOD COUNTER, FOUNTAIN AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS LOCOMOTIVE OPERATING OCCUPATIONS PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS PHOTOENGRAVERS AND LITHOGRAPHERS FOLDING MACHINE OPERATORS LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE OPERATORS PHYSICIANS MISCELLANEOUS FOOD PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS SUPERVISORS, CLEANING AND BUILDING SERVICE WORKERS GUIDES PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ATTENDANTS LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERS ENGINEERS, N.E.C. HAIRDRESSERS & COSMETOLOGISTS SHOE REPAIRERS SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, AND LABORERS, MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE OPERATORS PHOTOGRAPHERS WEIGHERS, MEASURERS, AND CHECKERS Variable 0.14 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0 .12 0.12 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.08

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soc 683 774 755 787 053 708 743 216 006 514 644 785 078 535 796 057 086 738 164 228 709 005 789 797 888 753 505 677 459 799 185 228 Occupation Title ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLERS PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE OPERATORS Variable 0.08 EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE OPERATORS 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND FORMING OCCUPATIONS CIVIL ENGINEERS DRILLING AND BORING MACHINE OPERATORS TEXTILE CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE SERVICES AUTOMOBILE BODY AND RELATED REPAIRERS PRECISION GRINDERS, FITTERS, AND TOOL SHARPENERS ASSEMBLERS BIOLOGICAL AND LIFE SCIENTISTS CAMERA, WATCH, AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS PRODUCTION INSPECTORS, CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS MECHANICAL ENGINEERS VETERINARIANS WINDING AND TWISTING MACHINE OPERATORS LIBRARIANS BROADCAST EQUIPMENT OPERATORS GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING, AND POLISHING MACHINE OPERATORS ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION HAND PAINTING, COATING, AND DECORATING OCCUPATIONS PRODUCTION TESTERS HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS CEMENTING AND GLUING MACHINE OPERATORS AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS, EXC. APPRENTICES OPTICAL GOODS WORKERS ATTENDANTS, AMUSEMENT AND RECREATION FACILITIES GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC. AGRICULTURAL DESIGNERS 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04

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soc 433 364 055 365 259 763 674 363 744 229 Occupation Title Variable SUPERVISORS, FOOD PREPARATION 0.04 AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS TRAFFIC, SHIPPING, AND 0.03 RECEIVING CLERKS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC 0.03 ENGINEERS STOCK AND INVENTORY CLERKS 0.02 SALES REPRESENTATIVES, 0.02 MINING, MANUFACTURING, AND WHOLESALE ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE 0.02 OPERATORS, FOOD MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION 0.02 APPAREL AND FABRIC WORKERS PRODUCTION COORDINATORS 0.02 TEXTILE SEWING MACHINE 0.01 OPERATORS

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soc 413 417 658 875 455 593 595 855 724 616 437 556 579 657 833 856 563 224 046 726 885 086 416 488 615 617 694 699 783 APPENDIX R ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS Occupation Title SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS FURNITURE AND WOOD FINISHERS GARBAGE COLLECTORS PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS INSULATION WORKERS ROOFERS GRADER, DOZER, AND SCRAPER OPERATORS HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS MINING MACHINE OPERATORS SHORT-ORDER COOKS SUPERVISORS, PAINTERS, PAPERHANGERS AND PLASTERERS PAINTERS, CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE CABINET MAKERS AND BENCH CARPENTERS MARINE ENGINEERS INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND TRACTOR EQUIPMENT OPERATORS BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES CHEMICAL TECHNICIANS MINING ENGINEERS WOOD LATHE, ROUTING, AND PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS GARAGE AND SERVICE STATION RELATED OCCUPATIONS VETERINARIANS FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS GRADERS AND SORTERS, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS EXPLOSIVES WORKERS MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND SYSTEM OPERATORS WELDERS AND CUTTERS 230 Variable 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.83 0.71 0.67 0.67 0.57 0.55 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.44 0.43 0.42 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.37

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soc 766 887 207 553 573 598 784 723 756 757 768 447 594 798 558 853 223 764 203 485 584 728 859 727 518 849 534 794 659 873 446 599 883 231 Occupation Title FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD Variable 0.37 VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT CLEANERS LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES SUPERVISORS, BRICKMASONS, STONEMASONS, AND TILE SETTERS DRYWALL INSTALLERS DRILLERS, EARTH SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS METAL PLATING MACHINE OPERATORS MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE OPERATORS SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE OPERATORS NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND ATTENDANTS PAVING, SURFACING, AND TAMPING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS PRODUCTION SAMPLERS & WEIGHERS SUPERVISORS, N.E.C. EXCAVATING AND LOADING MACHINE OPERATORS BIOLOGICAL TECHNICIANS WASHING, CLEANING, AND PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS CLINICAL LABORATORY TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS SUPERVISORS, RELATED AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS PLASTERERS SHAPING AND JOINING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY REPAIRERS CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING, AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS HAND GRINDING AND POLISHING OCCUPATIONS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION WOODWORKERS PRODUCTION HELPERS HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C. FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL HANDLERS, N.E.C. 0.35 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.30 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.20

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soc 733 028 076 655 834 878 453 719 519 789 739 585 748 805 869 864 759 633 725 793 213 235 499 848 865 786 735 369 544 554 795 533 232 Occupation Title MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING MACHINE OPERATORS Variable 0.20 PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS, FARM PRODUCTS PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL WORKERS BRIDGE, LOCK, AND LIGHTHOUSE TENDERS MACHINE FEEDERS AND OFFBEARERS JANITORS AND CLEANERS MOLDING AND CASTING MACHINE OPERATORS MACHINERY MAINTENANCE OCCUPATIONS HAND PAINTING, COATING, AND DECORATING OCCUPATIONS KNITTING, LOOPING, TAPING, AND WEAVING MACHINE OPERATORS PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING MACHINE OPERATORS TRUCK DRIVERS, LIGHT CONSTRUCTION LABORERS HELPERS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING MACHINE OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE OPERATORS HAND ENGRAVING AND PRINTING OCCUPATIONS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNICIANS TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS HOIST AND WINCH OPERATORS HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING OCCUPATIONS PHOTOENGRAVERS & LITHOGRAPHERS SAMPLERS MILLWRIGHTS SUPERVISORS, CARPENTERS AND RELATED WORKERS MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING OCCUPATIONS MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT REPAIRERS 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.16 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.12

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soc 675 889 709 749 777 487 495 613 747 738 684 049 208 427 448 463 516 743 843 707 888 763 754 035 059 458 863 505 758 706 233 Occupation Title HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS, EXCEPT JEWELERS LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING, AND POLISHING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. ANIMAL CARETAKERS, EXCEPT FARM FORESTRY WORKERS, EXCEPT LOGGING SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS WINDING AND TWISTING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION WORKERS, N.E.C. NUCLEAR ENGINEERS HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. SUPERVISORS, CLEANING AND BUILDING SERVICE WORKERS GUIDES HEAVY EQUIPMENT MECHANICS TEXTILE CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS SUPERVISORS, MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE OPERATORS, FOOD PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE OPERATORS CONSTRUCTION INSPECTORS ENGINEERS, N.E.C. HAIRDRESSERS AND COSMETOLOGISTS SUPERVISORS, HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, AND LABORERS, AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS, EXC. APPRENTICES COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING MACHINE OPERATORS PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS MACHINE OPERATORS Variable 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09

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soc 509 769 075 423 755 006 226 514 644 715 547 095 567 737 689 036 693 713 787 799 634 498 765 225 539 674 426 717 368 774 234 Occupation Title SMALL ENGINE REPAIRERS SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS GEOLOGISTS AND GEODESISTS SHERIFFS, BAILIFFS, AND OTHER LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE OPERATORS ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE SERVICES AIRPLANE PILOTS AND NAVIGATORS AUTOMOBILE BODY AND RELATED REPAIRERS PRECISION GRINDERS, FITTERS, AND TOOL SHARPENERS MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC, STONE AND GLASS WORKING MACHINE OPERA SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS, N.E.C. REGISTERED NURSES CARPENTERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND GRADERS INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE OFFICERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION ADJUSTERS AND CALIBRATORS FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND FORMING OCCUPATIONS GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXC. AGRICULTURAL TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES FISHERS Variable 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 FOLDING MACHINE OPERATORS SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. MECHANICAL CONTROLS AND VALVE 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 REPAIRERS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION APPAREL AND FABRIC WORKERS GUARDS AND POLICE, EXC. PUBLIC SERVICE FABRICATING MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. WEIGHERS, MEASURERS, AND CHECKERS PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE OPERATORS 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04

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soc 797 677 796 216 503 199 364 734 084 785 636 753 469 303 523 235 Occupation Title PRODUCTION TESTERS OPTICAL GOODS WORKERS PRODUCTION INSPECTORS, CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS ATHLETES TRAFFIC, SHIPPING, AND RECEIVING CLERKS PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS PHYSICIANS ASSEMBLERS PRECISION ASSEMBLERS, METAL CEMENTING AND GLUING MACHINE OPERATORS PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. Variable 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 SUPERVISORS, GENERAL OFFICE ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS, COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT 0.02 0.02 0.02

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soc 814 544 656 713 534 599 518 514 644 655 057 725 585 634 733 727 676 636 705 737 706 523 503 769 APPENDIX S MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT Occupation Title MOTOR TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. MILLWRIGHTS PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL MAKERS, WOOD FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING, AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C. INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY REPAIRERS AUTOMOBILE BODY AND RELATED REPAIRERS PRECISION GRINDERS, FITTERS, AND TOOL SHARPENERS MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL WORKERS MECHANICAL ENGINEERS MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE OPERATORS PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING MACHINE OPERATORS SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT WORKERS, AND CUTTERS PRECISION ASSEMBLERS, METAL MILLING AND PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS MACHINE OPERATORS ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS, COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS 236 Variable 0.33 0.25 0.13 0.12 0.11 0.09 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01

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237 soc Occupation Title Variable 786 HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING 0.01 OCCUPATIONS 777 MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE 0.01 OPERATORS, N.E.C. 547 SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND 0.01 REPAIRERS, N.E.C. 795 MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING 0.01 OCCUPATIONS 633 SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION 0.01 OCCUPATIONS

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soc 544 213 534 427 585 634 503 518 558 533 523 599 547 APPENDIX T SHOCK Occupation Title MILLWRIGHTS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNICIANS HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING, AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. PLUMBERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES TOOL AND DIE MAKERS, EXCEPT APPRENTICES SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY REPAIRERS SUPERVISORS, N.E.C. MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT REPAIRERS ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS, COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C. SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS, N.E.C. 238 Variable 0.25 0.14 0.11 0.10 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01

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soc 556 579 593 544 534 427 577 599 558 235 036 518 259 APPENDIX U HEIGHTS Occupation Title SUPERVISORS, PAINTERS, PAPERHANGERS AND PLASTERERS PAINTERS, CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE INSULATION WORKERS MILLWRIGHTS HEATING, AIR CONDIT