Group Title: Circular ;
Title: External parasites of poultry /
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: External parasites of poultry /
Series Title: Circular ;
Physical Description: 1 folded sheet : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Strayer, John
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: 1969?
Copyright Date: 1969
Subject: Poultry -- Parasites -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: John Strayer.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00102059
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 81343401

Full Text


Circular 302




Agricultural Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville

1. Read the label on each pesticide container before each
use. Heed all cautions and warnings.

2. Store pesticides in their original labeled containers. Keep
them out of reach of children and irresponsible people.

3. Apply pesticides only as directed.

4. Dispose of empty containers promptly and safely.


the feathers and skin. Birds become restless and
do not feed or digest their food properly.
Among the mites that attack poultry are the
chicken mite (or roost mite), the northern fowl
mite, the scaly-leg mite, the depluming mite, and
the tropical fowl mite (or feather mite). Infes-
tations of certain mites are often first noticed on
the eggs. The chicken mite (Figure 3) is an
intermittent feeder that lives in cracks about the
roosts, floors, walls, or ceiling of the houses in
the daytime and crawls upon the birds to feed at

Figure 1.-Body louse, approx. 50X

Figure 5.-Fowl Tick, 8X
The ticks are especially active at night
and sometimes move in great numbers from their
hiding places to the roosting birds. After feed-
ing, the ticks leave the birds and return to their
hiding places. The fowl tick can live for extended
periods of time without a blood meal. Conse-
quently, leaving a house vacant for a period of
time is no assurance the ticks will be destroyed.
A well cleaned house and a thorough spray ap-
plication with a recommended material is better
The poultry farm cannot be kept entirely free
of house flies. In caged poultry operations where

they are brought under control. Be sure to mix
the insecticide thoroughly in the water and shake
the sprayer occasionally while spraying to keep it
uniformly mixed.
Baits.-Ready prepared granular type dry baits
containing trichlorfon (Dipterex), dichlorvos
(DDVP, Vapona) and Bomyl are commercially
available. Other materials such as ronnel (Korlan)
and naled (Dibrom) can be used in preparing
baits. Most poultry operators find it more con-
venient and satisfactory to purchase the com-
mercially formulated granular baits; however,
baits can be mixed at home with sugar and a
suitable insecticide. Dry baits should be applied
to fairly dry, hard surfaces including floors,
aisles, window sills, feed rooms and similar places
Sso the,bait will not dissolve and become in-
ResidUal and Space Sprays.-The length of
effectiveness of insecticide applied as a surface
or resi dal spray is relatively short. Space sprays
do not eave satisfactory residues but will kill
flies wli which they come in contact.
Tho~ some resistance has been shown to
organic phosphate insecticides such as malathion,
diazinon, Dipterex, ronnel (Korlan) and others,
these materials are still useful in house fly con-
trol. Several of the organic phosphates may have
some effectiveness against house flies as residual
or surface sprays; however, tests indicate that


Figure 2.-Wing louse, approx 25X
night or when they are on the nest. The northern
fowl mite (Figure 4 ) usually stays on the bird
all the time but on occasion is found on eggs and
in litter. They congregate near the vent, tail and
neck where they suck blood. The tropical fowl
mite (or feather mite), which is very similar to
the northern fowl mite, congregates about the
vent where it may cause bloody scabs to form.
In Florida it has been observed most commonly
in caged plants. The depluming mite burrows into
the skin at the base of the feathers and causes
severe irritation. In trying to relieve the irrita-
tion, birds may pull out feathers. Scaly-leg mites
burrow under the scales of the birds' feet and low-

conditions for house fly development are ideal,
it is extremely difficult to prevent breeding. How-
ever, by good management practices and the
proper use of the more effective insecticides, the
flies can be restrained to a lower level than is now
found in many poultry operations.
Several kinds of flies have been found to breed
in poultry manure, but the house fly is the most
troublesome. Under favorable conditions of tem-
perature, moisture and breeding media, its life
cycle may be completed in less than a week. The
climate and weather in Florida contribute to the
development of many generations of flies annual-
ly, particularly in the southern half of the state.

Dispose of or store collected manure wisely
Control moisture
Use insecticides properly
Remove Droppings Regularly
Good sanitation is the first step in controlling
house flies. This means getting rid of the breed-
ing places. An effective way to do this is to
remove and dispose of manure every 4 or 5 days
in summer and less frequently in cooler weather.
Spreading the manure on land where it can be
disked or plowed under is the ideal method. If
the manure must be stored, then a screened stor-

dimethoate (Cygon) is currently the most ef-
Poultrymen should guard against the use of
materials such as sodium arsenite on poultry
droppings. Though sodium arsenite does contain
an amount of metallic arsenic comparable to cal-
cium arsenate, it is in a soluble form and may
kill or damage vegetation should droppings con-
taining it be used as fertilizer. Sodium arsenite
is widely used as a weed killer, whereas calcium
arsenate, which is practically insoluble, has a 3.5
ppm tolerance on many fruits and vegetables,
and is registered for use on poultry droppings
for house fly control.
Insecticides are poisonous to man, animals and
birds. Do not contaminate feed or water. Wash
off any insecticide spilled on the skin. Launder
clothes that may become contaminated. Store
insecticide in the original container out of reach
of children, pets and livestock. Always read the
insecticide label carefully and completely before
opening the container and observe all precautions.
Dispose of empty containers promptly and safely.
The use of insecticides not recommended or in
concentrations greater than those listed in this
circular may result in injury to poultry or insecti-
cide residues in excess of legal tolerances.

er legs, and this results in itching and irritation.
The scales are pushed up and scabs or crusts
form around them giving the legs a scaly or
roughened appearance. Mites reduce egg produc-
tion, cause the birds to lose flesh and in heavy
infestations may kill newly hatched chicks. Re-
duced vitality makes the birds susceptible to
0 11

Figure 3.-Chicken mite, approx. 75X

age house should be provided.

Control Moisture
Under Florida's humid conditions it is virtually
impossible to keep poultry manure dry enough to
prevent fly breeding completely; however, steps
can be taken that will aid considerably.
Water Founts.-The spillage of water is im-
portant in conventional brooding and laying
houses where fly breeding spots can develop, but
is a much more serious problem where the birds
are kept in cages and the manure is allowed to
accumulate beneath them. The poultryman should
make every effort to install watering equipment
properly and see that it is cleaned at regular
intervals to prevent overflows. In some cases,
catch troughs are installed below the water sys-
tem to prevent overflow water from falling on
the manure.
Use of Dry Sawdust or Sand.-Some cage oper-
ators make a practice of placing dry sawdust or
sand under the cages immediately after droppings
have been cleaned out. The purpose of this is to
aid in drying of the first few inches of new drop-
pings which ordinarily do not dry rapidly. Rak-
ing or stirring of the droppings at this stage will
also aid in drying. If the first droppings can be
kept dry, they will usually build up in a cone
shape which presents a much larger area for air
to move across and help in the drying process.

The chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT, chlordane,
dieldrin, aldrin and others) have a zero tolerance
in poultry meat and eggs and are not recom-
mended on poultry or in poultry houses. Poultry
producers are cautioned against the use of any-
thing but recommended materials for insect
Remember, to avoid excessive residues, use the
insecticides recommended at the time recom-
mended and in the amounts recommended. The
following are FDA insecticide tolerances for




Days between
Tolerance treatment and
ppm slaughter

3 E

Figure 4.-Northern fowl mite, approx. 80X

The fowl tick, (Figure 5) also called bluebug,
injures poultry by sucking blood, causing loss in
weight, lowered egg production and blemishes
which reduce market value. This pest gets on
and off birds and hides in cracks and crevices
when not feeding.

Use of Drying Agents.-It has been a practice
for many years for poultrymen to use lime or
superphosphate to reduce fly breeding. In tests
at Auburn University, it was found that basic
slag, ground limestone and superphosphate were
helpful in producing dryness; however, they did
not prevent breeding and adult flies emerged from
droppings during the first few weeks after clean-
ing. In other tests of several months' duration,
these compounds were of little value under laying
cages where leaky drip valves added moisture.

Chemical Control of House Flies
House fly control with chemicals can be divided
into several groups. These are larvicides, baits,
surface (residual) sprays and space sprays.
Larvicides.-House fly maggots in poultry
droppings can be reduced with the use of dime-
thoate (Cygon), diazinon, calcium arsenate
(Kilmag) or dichlorvos (DDVP, Vapona) when
sprayed on the droppings in a thorough manner.
Calcium arsenate if used, should be applied to
the droppings on a preventative program. It
should be applied evenly at the rate of one pound
in two gallons of water per 500 square feet of
droppings. Applications should be made every 7
days or less during the summer, and less fre-
quently during cooler weather. If at any time,
maggots begin to build up, calcium arsenate
should be applied at 3 to 4 day intervals until

Appreciation is expressed to workers of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, Florida
Agricultural Extension Service and the Insects
Affecting Man and Animals Research Branch,
ARS, USDA for helpful information and sugges-
tions used in this circular. Appreciation is also
given to Dr. J. S. Simco, Department of Entomol-
ogy, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, and to
Mr. Lewis S. Maxwell, Tampa, for use of their
The use of trade names in this publication is
solely for the purpose of providing specific in-
formation. It is not a guarantee or warranty of
the products named and does not signify that
they are approved to the exclusion of' others of
suitable composition.

meat and fat 5 7

eggs 0
coumaphos meat, fat and
(Co-ral) meat by- 1 0
eggs 0


meat and meat

eggs u

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida.
United States Department of Agriculture. Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director

N *


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-- '--" -- .




A 3~l

Assistant Extension Entomologist
Lice and mites are the most important external
parasites of poultry in Florida. Infested birds
may lose weight and egg production may drop
10 to 20 percent. Birds and houses should be
inspected frequently so infestations can be con-
trolled before they become severe.
Though not a parasite of poultry, the house
fly is a major concern to poultrymen, especially
in caged operations.

Several kinds of lice attack poultry, the body
louse is the most common (Figure 1). Others
that may be found include the shaft louse, the
fluff louse, the wing louse (Figure 2) and the
head louse. All kinds of lice on poultry have
chewing mouthparts. They feed on the feathers
and scales of the skin and spend their entire life
on the bird. Injury is due to irritation or itching
caused by the crawling lice and their gnawing at





fouIrry Insect Lonrrol Uuiae

Fowl Mite
Fowl Mite

0.5% Coumaphos
(Co-Ral) Dust
25% Coumaphos
(Co-Ral) W.P.

5% Carbaryl
(Sevin) Dust

50% Carbaryl
(Sevin) W.P.

80% Carbaryl
(Sevin) Sprayable

1 lb. per 70 sq. ft. of surface
or 20 sq. ft. of litter.
1 lb. per 100 birds.
3-6 ozs. in 5 gals. for 500 birds.
6 ozs. in 5 gals. for 5000 sq. ft.
of area.

1 lb. per 100 birds.
1 lb. per 40 sq. ft.
21/2 lbs. in box per 50 birds.

6 ozs. in 5 gals. per 500 birds.

4 ozs. in 5 gals. per 500 birds.

Dust birds thoroughly especially
under wings and around vent. DO
NOT use Co-Ral dust or spray on
birds within 10 days of vaccination
or other type stress. DO NOT use
other organic phosphate at the
same time you are using Co-Ral.
DO NOT use more than once a

DO NOT treat birds within 7 days
of slaughter. DO NOT apply spray
to nest litter or eggs. DO NOT use
more often than every 4 weeks. DO
NOT allow spray to get on or in




5% Carbaryl
(Sevin) Dust
50% Carbaryl
(Sevin) W.P.

80% Carbaryl
(Sevin) Sprayable
4% Malathion Dust
25% Malathion W.P.
57% Malathion EC
1% Rotenone Dust



Same as for mites

Same as for mites

Same as for mites

Same as for mites

Same as for mites

Same as for mites

1 lb. per 100 birds

Same as for mites.

Apply directly to birds. Dust roosts
and nests.

4% Malathion Dust

25% Malathion W.P.

57% Malathion EC

40 % Nicotine sulfate

1 lb. per 100 birds.
1 lb. per 40 sq. ft.
1 lb. per box for 30 birds.
121/2 ozs. in 5 gals. for 500
25 ozs. in 5 gals. for 5000 sq. ft.
5 ozs. in 5 gals. for 500 birds.
10 ozs. in 5 gals. for 5000 sq. ft.
81/2 ozs. in 15 gals. as dip/400
2 ozs. in 1 gal.-paint roosts 1
pint per 150 ft.
1 pt. per 150 200 ft.

DO NOT allow sprays and dusts
to get into feed, feeding troughs
and water fountains.

Paint roosts only.

Scaly-leg Crude oil or Apply to feet and lower legs DO NOT get oil on feathers.
Mite crank case oil or by dipping.
15 % sulphur in lard Apply to feet and lower legs
after scales have been loosened
by soaking in warm soapy

Depluming Sulfur 2 ozs. sulfur (325 mesh) and Dip on warm days only.
Mite 1 oz. soap per gal. dip. Repeat in 3-4 weeks if necessary.

Fowl Tick 50% Carbaryl 1 lb. per 3 gals. for 3000 sq. ft. DO NOT APPLY TO NEST LIT-
or Cover walk, ceilings, and floors
80% Carbaryl 1 lb. per 5 gals. for 5000 sq. ft. thoroughly. Force into all cracks.
(Sevin) Sprayable DO NOT get spray on feed and
or water.
57% Malathion EC 30 ozs. per 5 gal. for 5000 sq. ft.

Lice 25% Coumaphos 6 ozs. per 5 gals. of spray per Dust birds thoroughly especially
(Co-Ral) W.P. 500 birds. under wings and around vent.
or 1 lb. per 20 sq. ft. of litter or
0.5% Coumaphos 70 sq. ft. of house.
(Co-Ral) Dust
or 1 lb. per 100 birds.
25 % Malathion W.P. Same as for mites Same as for mites.
57% Malathion EC Same as for mites
4% Malathion Dust Same as for mites
5% Carbaryl Same as for mites
(Sevin) Dust
50% Carbaryl Same as for mites Same as for mites.
(Sevin) W.P.
80% Carbaryl Same as for mites
(Sevin) Sprayable
or Apply directly to birds. Dust roosts
1% Rotenone Dust 1 lb. per 100 birds and nests.

House Fly

Residual Spray
(Cygon) 4E
24% Ronnel
(Korlan) EC

8 ozs. in 3 gals. per 1500 sq. ft.

8 ozs. in 3 gals. per 1500 sq. ft.

DO NOT apply with birds in house.
DO NOT apply to birds. Avoid get-
ting spray on feed or water.
Apply sprays to the point of run-

Space Spray
25% Dichlorvos 1 pt. in 31/2 gals. of oil or water. Apply as a fog or mist 1 pt. per
(DDVP, Vapona) 8000 cu. ft.

1% Trichlorfon Dry-4 ozs. per 1000 sq. ft. DO NOT apply to birds. Keep away
(Dipterex) Wet-1 lb. per 1 gal. plus 1 from drinking water and feed
or lb. sugar or 2 cups corn trough. Sprinkle baits on surfaces
syrup. where flies congregate.
0.5% Dichlorvos Dry-4 ozs. per 1000 sq. ft. Keep away from feed. NO NOT
(DDVP, Vapona) Wet-1 lb. per 1/2 gal. per 500 apply to birds. DO NOT scatter
or sq. ft. where poultry or animals can eat
dry bait.
37 % Naled Dry-1 teaspoon per 1 lb. sugar Avoid contact with feed, foodstuffs
(Dibrom) EC on 1000 sq. ft. or drinking water. Add food color-
or Wet-2 tablespoons per 21/2 ing to homemade dry bait mixtures
gals. plus and clearly label. Apply wet baits
1 lb. sugar or 1/2 pint as a coarse spray to droppings
corn syrup as a coarse beneath cages.
spray per 1000 sq. ft.
24% Ronnel Wet-1 qt. in 3 gals. plus 1/ lb.
(Korlan) EC sugar per 1000 sq. ft.
0.5% Bomyl Dry-4 ozs. per 1000 sq. ft. Use only for caged poultry. DO
NOT apply to birds or treat areas
accessible to livestock or poultry.

(Cygon) 4E
25% Diazinon EC
(2 lb./gal.)
48% Diazinon EC
(4 lb./gal.)

83% Calcium
arsenate (Kilmag)
25% Dichlorvos,
(DDVP, Vapona)

8 ozs. in 21/2 gals. per 1000 sq.
ft. of droppings.

1 pt. in 3 gals. per 1000 sq. ft.
of droppings.

8 ozs. in 3 gals. per 1000 sq. ft.
of droppings.

Apply as coarse spray to droppings
or manure piles on a preventative
schedule. Repeat as manure is
added. Use only on droppings
where poultry cannot come in con-
tact with the material. DO NOT
spray directly on poultry or feed
and water. Repeat as necessary on
5-7 day intervals.

1 lb. in 2 gals. for 500 sq. ft.
of droppings.

5 tbsp. in 1 gal. for 200 sq. ft.
of droppings.

EC = emulsifiable concentrate W.P. = wettable powder


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