Group Title: Forum (Conservation & Development Forum)
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Title: Forum the newsletter of the Conservation & Development Forum
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Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Conservation & Development Forum
Conservation & Development Forum
Publisher: Conservation & Development Forum, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: 1998
Copyright Date: 1998
Subject: Conservation of natural resources -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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Full Text

The Newsletter of the

Conservation & Development Forum

Gainesville, Florida USA

Issue Number 3

the long-term economic and ecological viability initially understood by th~e term "sustainable
development," common wisdom has come to add conservation of cultural and linzguistic
diver-sity, pr-eservation of indigenous knowliedge and tradition, social transformation through
the re~vitaization of community and the empowerment of the disadvantaged and

continued on page 3

Issue N~umrber



r ~:
:j,:~, ~,~esf~:

"Sweetii Bets from~ P~)lke" tlycal tls heleo
young Missii~ I Betsy~i firom P~ikel~i Couny, issour.'i, whol~lli
crosse the h~ligh mountaII( ins, the Rockll~i~~ies, wi\ith her love

,Lla irge~, yello dog, a r ta )l~illl t Shangh i rooster, and one spo

thaet gatere force7 wtht. Ite esrc~1tablshmetllt of"No
Eouropeis" arondthe worPld. Itasnoty, hsowevr, wonl
thsedte human culurtal xnsio ofe urophes wth hrog con-
qurest colonizaton, commerce, anda Cristiranity Ite wsp

tpe bioloical and ecological expansion of Europe a
well,90 andapu the greates upending of atreandculue"
tuogeth ar ind the plntshsoryd. IThis was, alo ther firs

wave of globalization.
Europeans, it turns out, first mastered the great ocean
cunrents and winds, and were thus the ones to cross the
seams of Pangaea in such a way as to stitch them shut.
(Pangaea, you will recall-if you're a billion years
old--was the great land mass of Earth, a single conti-
nent, before a serious case of drift set in. Nature
evolved differently in different places, even at the same
latitudes and climes, as a consequence of continents
riding tectonic plates to new places. And it was coarse,
bawdy sailors traversing the great oceans in the 15th,
16th, and 1 7th centuries who crossed the seams of old
Pangaea, stitched th~em tightly, and began the process
of globalizing the economy and upen~ding nature and
culture rlop rll r) But let Cr-osby tell it:
The seams of Pangaea were closing, drawn togeth-
er by the sailmaker's needle. Chickens met kiwis,
cattle met kangaroos, Irish met potatoes,
Comanches met horses, Incas met smallpox-all
for the first time. The countdown to the extinction
of the passenger pigeon and the native peoples of
the Greater Antilles and of Tasmania had begun. A
vast expansion in the numbers of certain other
species on this planet began, led off by pigs and
cattle, by certain weeds and pathogens, and by the

.s~ ~

' I

Ethics, continued on page 4


;!: *"'~'':
: c' r


Ethics ,

Global zation and

Larr yRasmussen
Union Theological Seminary, New York City
The following essay is adapted from the author's plenary presentation at Forum '97: New
Linkages in Conzservationl and Developmtent, Istanbul, Turkey, November 16--21, 1997


In 1718 ind 1 hidi of the 19th century, progressive social theorists in the WNest joined
poyual GTmoW17167tS Of ff fOT17, CSpecially workers' movements, to voice what some
called simoE "the social question" or "the modern social problem"': the results o
th TC C,2oitarti e Cha-racter of r-apidly developing industrial society. In addressing
t310 SOCia'l cIlk*110??, aCcznen1C StudentS Of Society, reform-mindcecl clergy,2 an
laborer)s developed an extensive critique~c of the cap2italist order, and of political aS
WC2 GS 4CONOTiC c fOlNS to Kovn wzt1 W 711 ey envisioned, ill various ways, as a
?10710' _llSt ai ?ll ane 7211C71' Vilitation..

Message, continued from page 1

marginalized, individual transformation
through dialogue and understanding, and inte-
gration of religion and spirituality into the
search for 'sustainability.'
This issue of Forurn explores many of these
qualitative dimensions of conservation and
development. The initial concept for this
newsletter issue was 'Spirituaity,' a theme
somewhat mischievously selected precisely
because of the discomfort that it generates in
many modern, Western societies, and particu-
Zarly in the United states, where the traditions
of objective science, separation of church and
state, and secular society have all but elimi-
nated the Spiritual and the religious from inte'l-
lectual and public conversation. Perhaps the
tendency among Wrestern conservationists to
look to indigenous societies and culltures for the
value of the spiritual arises not only from the
decline of such values in modern worldviews,
but also from the tension inherent in linking
spirituality and religion to project-oriented
and scienti~fically-based resource management.
The benefits as well as the challenge involved
in such a linkage are expl2icit in the essay
"Sacredness as a Means to Conservation and
Development" by James Enote, as well as in
the yresenntaions by Darrvell Posey, Tirso
Gonzles~l, jan~ Slikkrcer't'; and James Enote at
thle conferen~l Ce Forum1 '97i: New~~ Linkages in
Conservation and Devlelopment, summa-
r-ized here. These aucthor-s dlescrib a deeplyv
personal understanding of nature that many oJ
us haVE lOSt Or more likely, never known. Yet,
as Darrell Posey points out, much of the move-
ment to re-incorp~orate indigenous knowledge
continues the problematic search for at'techno-
logical fix,' in which knowledge is extracted
almost surgically by separating it from the cul-
tural and spiritual context from which it arose.
Thus bioprospecting misses the point, indige-
nous societies continue to distrust the founda-
tions and proponents of 'sustainable develop-
ment,' and conservation comes to resemble
familiar patterns of exploitation.
The disconnect between human societies and
the world around them that has become so
common within modern Western culture
underlies yet another tendency within the field
of conservation and development, evident in
the essay by Larry Rasmussen, "'Ethics,
Globarlization, and Community". That is, in
many places, social and ecological fabrics have
unraveled to such an extent that any effort to
rebuild a personal or spiritual: relationships~ to
the earth must begin with our relationships
with each other. Perhaps 'Community' is at
present the best reflection of the West's search
for meaning and respect. We have therefore
changed the title of this issue to 'Spirituality
and Community.'

-- The Staff

by James Enote, zuni conservation Project

A young farmer leans on at shovel and gazes across a parched land-
sca e to distant mountains. T-he anxiety of the dry season and the
sight of clouds over the mountains makes him jealous. He thinks to
himself, why can't the rain fazl on my fields? Seeing the veils of ra~in faing on the
mounntains, he takes a deep breath and understarnds that the rain, for the time
being, is onlyfor the mountains.
The dry heat has drained his energy, and with difficulty, he walks to one of the nearby village springs for a drink of
water He kneels at the spring, sprinkles droplets over his head and then takes a drink. At this moment he feels the
droplets as rain and is satisfied, and the envy goes away. The spring is surrounded by signs from ancestors. Etchings
and drawings on nearby rock walls testify to the long use of the spring. Staring into the pond he sees himself and visions
of his ancestry. He leaves a portion of his small meal for his ancestors; the water will be a conduit for his offering.
Later in the day he asks his mother if the spring has always brought water to the village. The mountains, he is told, is
the place where cloud beings live, and if the people of the village are deserving, they will be blessed with clouds and
rain and ultimately water to the springs. For now, he should not fear the future, but lmakeiL accept what may be. If the
mountains and the springs are cared for and prayed to in the correct way, they will serve the people for as long as the
people remain in this place. This spring and
the waterways and all the trails that lead to
and from this spring and other sacred areas
are umbilical cords connecting our people to
the womb of earth and our ancestral voices.
If you talk to other people, invariably you
will find that they have certain beliefs and
rituals associated with sites and areas. These
"sacred" areas have been perceived as inci-
denltal to the conjervation andl deve~tlopm~nt
process . some places are special or saclred i
cand certain places have been protected and
conserved by local people. However: some
workers within conservation and develop-

as a mea~ins to connect humoanzity more fuuly .
wvith gove nzmental a nd norngoviern mental-,i.
institutions. The task nzow is to accept an
understanding of anzd pr-omote "sacredness"
as a cooperative means to conservation and
Cultures~ around the world, whether they are
long-tenured and place-based or nomadic
and migratory, are constantly checking the
pulse of the universe and their place in their
own way. In one way, sacred sites can be
checkpoints that people have used to gain
knowledge of and to monitor the world
around them. The personifications of these
areas and the natural elements that are pre-
sent there define these elements in familiar
terms and emp~hasize their importance to
daily life. For indigenous people, we regard
sacred places in our own context and on our own terms. As such, Ition must be taken to respect anld understand the
unique aspect in which people view sacredness. What is their repr?,esentationz of sacrednzess? Many place-based people
nurture and revere this seamless connection between a people's culture. and their- env~ironment fostere~d by an under-
standing that this connection is fundamental to maintaining the health of their- place anzd ensuring4 survival.
Many place-based people think that most visitors ~from western societies have alter-nativ\e :r. nteI ri; punio of the uni-
verse. The scientists and engineers are generally n:-p. 1. ci.l the ideas of biodiversity, conlseration, and participatory
development are understood; but the sacred cultural experience of the local people is a story that is told and retold.
The stories are notes on survival. By necessity, place-based cultur-es car-e for- and enhance thzeir. natural I-esowr~es to
ensure the continued existence of their people. Sacred spt-rigs, mzountatins, salt clakes, grovles, and other sacred places
have an I eniarl~ l life of their- own which is expressed inz ritual and cerlemolny, and wrlitten ol runwrlittenl inz the language,
prayers, and songs of the people,
Western societies with religions far- moved from i li i I place of or-igin also include preferences to sacred places of holy
lands in prayers, stories, and naiona~lill holidays. In m~anyi western1 societies and countries, cemeteries and historic bat-
tiefields are meaningful monuments considered sacrecd and arec often sanzctioned as pro~tected areazs.
With good intentions,rr conservation and development initiatives have beenI wakZIing to the mzeaninzg atnd value of in~dige-
nous knowledge, and more I1ntlr, to sacredness and saclzrd places as a means to effective anld consensual conserva-
tion and development. To many place-based peoples, the environment is a7 very familiar- place wyithouct many secr-ets.
In their own I. resented in its sacredness. The story is held in the collective un~dertanzding and1 memtory of iln drama?7 of their- owvn gen-
esis. For example, the Grand Canyon National Parkh and sulrroundingl mountainl peaks in the Southwest United States
Sacrednness, continued on page 5

Essa y

Fjldc' ivol epe th rtbnfte rmcn

farming, and whereas it must be pointed out that
her oxen were castrated and the other animals
without mates, Betsy's party was not the only one
to cross the mountains; wagon trains had bulls and
cows, plus hens and dogs and pigs of genders
opposite to those of her animals. (Betsy herself had
the foresight to bring Ike.) Rapid propagation of
the colonizing species would be the rule on the far
side of the mountains. Betsy came not as an indi-
vidual immigrant but as part of a grunting, lowmng,
neighing, crowing, chirpmng, snarling, buzzmng,
self-replicating and world-altering avalanche.*
Now to a citation from Profil de la Jornada, Mexico
City, January 27, 1994. The date is important. The
North American Free Trade Agreement went into effect
at midnight, January 1 of that year: That very day, and
by design, a hitherto unknown movement emerged
from the forests of the state of Chiapas to challenge the
Mexican government. But not only the " gov-
ernment; it intended--and still intends--to challenge
thei ablj pr cestii stij..ukh-j Earhij nSIOn unlrjifie. The
leader, subc~ommandante M~arcos, w~rote a latter to the
editor: It begins as follows:
Suppose y;ou~ want to travel to the South East of the
country, and suppose you find yourse~lf on one of
the three roads which lead to the state of Chiapas.
.. Our wealth leaves this land not just on these
three roads. Chiapas is bleeding to death in a thou-
sand ways: through oil and gas pipelines, power
supply lines, railway cars, banking accounts,
trucks, ships and air planes, clandestine paths and
paved roads. This land continues to pay its tribute
to the empire: oil, electricity, cattle, coffee, maize,
honey, tobacco. .. Primary resources, several bil-
lion tonnes with various destinations, flow out to .
.the USA, Canada, H-olland, Germany, Italy,
Japan, but always with the same destination: the
The citation from Profil de la Jornada moves us from
the first wave of globalization (colonization) to the sec_
ond (development). The message from Chiapas was a
call, says Gustavo Esteva, for an end "to 500 years of
oppression and 40 years of development."6 An end to
"40 years of development"? What's behind that Indian
Once, the commonplace meaning of "development"
was simply "evolution from within." Development was
"synonymous with evolution as self-organization,"7 a
process in the hands of those who were developing. It
was thus internally rather than externally guided. But
since President Harry Truman's inaugural address of
1949, development has come to mean something df-
ferent. In Truman's words: development is a "bold new
program for- making the benefits of our scientific
advances and industrial progress available for the
improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas."a
The criterion was stated clearly by Truman: "Greater
production is the key to prosperity and peace," and
"the key to greater- production is a wider and more vig-
orous application of modern scientific and technical
knowledge." "The United States" he wen~t on, "is pre_
eminent among nothI; ms~ in the development of industry
al and scientific techniques."9

These developments are closely related to the fact that
information and knowledge itself are increasingly ren-
dered commodities in what is a kind of enclosure of the
intellectual commons. Intellectual property rights have
become private rights rather than common rights as
international trade talks pushed by corporate interests
and their governmental allies proceed. In short, the
vertical reach of global free tr-ade capitalism into
nature, psyche, and society matches its intensified and
extended horizontal one.

A Proposed Framework
Given these thr-ee waves of globalization, the task of
addressing the social question (social justice) and the
ecological question (sustainability) simultaneously
requires far-reaching changes. These changes are those
that move us fr-om a presenttly unsustainable Earth to a
sustainable one. These changes include seven transt-
t1rans. rln iiconomlli Ic transition that Iles oj[ nattacsi
''inircm Instead ofi its "'caprtal" andi bluilds inito all ecio-

increased opportunities for sustaining and sustainable
livelihoods for all; an institutional transition that com-
bines greater cross-national cooperation in order to
address global problems with greater attention to what
makes for sustainable local and regional communities;
an informational transition in which research, educa-
tion, and global monitoring allow large numbers of
people to understand the problems they face and offer
them the means to address these problems; a demo-
graphic transition from an unprecedented population
explosion to a roughly stable world population; a tech-
nologicarl transition which effectively means minimal
environmental impact per person; a moral transition to
a framework that includes the societal, the biophysical
fn th e golntao a-tphoes itol ; mmur ity of
transition to ear~thkeeping as a religious calling and
vocation common to all the world's religions.15
This transition to sustainability requires its own frame-
work. That framework should not be that of "sustain-
able development" if by that you mzean what most peo-
ple do--namely, how to "green" the global economy so
as to make it environmentally sustainable. That leaves
powerful forces of globalization in command and it will
likely mean a hard, brownz world tinged with soft green
eges dfot etheo rh.coTmy in to arap the en ironment

The wyay to go is "sustainable community" with its basic
question of how we wrap both economy and enzvir~on-
ment around healthy local and regional communities.
This r-equires a considerable devolution of economic
and ;Io.litical power- as well as a !, te li ngil ii of inter-
nation~al networks and some ;11I:I Ijlionl'rl institutions.
It r~equir-es as well a heightened status and respect for-
all life. In the phrase of onze ad..*~ ~, this is "cosmopoli-
tan localism." It r-efer~s to "new ways of revitalizing and

iEthics, continued on page 9

Development thus came to mean the way of life of cap-
italist democracies as defined by modern economic
progress and advanced science and technology. In the
words of Wolfgang Sachs: "The degree of civilization in
a country could from now on be measured by its level
of production. This new concept allowed the thousands
of cultures to be separated into the two simple cate-
gories of 'developed' and 'underdeveloped.' (Or, modu-
lated, 'developed' and 'developing.') Diverse societies
were placed on a single progressive track, more or less
advancing according to the criteria of production."lo
Developing countries were aspiring junior versions of
developed ones, and developed ones were affluent
industrialized democracies ready, to recall Truman's
words, to make "the benefits of our scientific advances
and industrial progress availab~lefor the improvement"
of others in' a process exported from rich to poor and
froml educated to needy. So on one winter day in 1949,
two-thil-ds of the planet's space and two billion of its
peopics .became '.undede:~veyilod and ati~ nec ofii J
another wray ql' Ilvymg, whetherr theyl had consltdered ~
them~selves sc or, not

tory," 1 globalizartion is efjcected less by nation states,
including those developing nations of the South, than
by global economic powers mastering global markets. I
mention one characteristic only, the extension and
intensification of market society in a capitalist mode.
Th2e market is not only the place of economic exchange;
it is a model of society itself, a determiner of relation-
ships of all kinds. In that form it continues to do what
colonization and development did; namely, further
modernity's assault on intact local community and
transformation of the land. Thus are people shorn of
"their self-organizing, self-governing, and self-provi-
sioning capacities" in the places they live, on the terms
and with te resources in igenous to t ose p aces, peo-
ples, and traditions.l For many, this includes control
of the land and even the genetic pool of local agricul-
ture. But beyond this expanded reach there is corporate
capitalism's deeper reach into nature, to natur-e's fun-
damental building blocks themselves, and into the psy-
che, into human consciousness and basic relationships.
There is also the sp~ectacular growth of global jfri rciail
markets in which vast sums of financial capital change
hands-presently US$1.4 trillion daily--not in the
interests of development or any real exchange of goods
and services, but in the search for speculative profits.13
Nature itself is inzcreasingly colonized by capital.
Life-forms are more and more the organic plastic of
engineering and patents as rights to nature a-e favor-ed
over the rights of nature, if indeed the rights of naturle
get at hearing at all. And biodiversity, the source of all
future ;'l)jri'lll-h..-, is under assault most every-
where--by bioprospecting, biotechnology, the spread of
global mzonocultur-e, and mass pr-oduction and con-
sumption, not to mention the habitat intrusions of an
expanding human economy. Agriculture in the Thizd
World as wYell as the First Wor-ld is dr-awn in~to the orb2it
of colossal agribusiness firms. Farm)ers may in fact lose
to commercial capitalism and gover-nmental allies the
right to pr-oduce and use their- own seeds.14

Sacr-edness is often protected, and the means to
bridging the sacred and the secular is unclear
Protocols are being drawn, but the authority by
which the sacred may be accepted can be Lcirboi
weak or overdone. We should remember- that the
development of authority involves shifts in power
and that preparedness for- new secular power by
religious leadership means new r-oles that could
easily be misinterpreted by religious leadership,
especially where language Allencel~rS exist. I was
once accused in my community of being amirchl-
gious when I suggested several nelg,.loricuin points for a
parcel of land which a religious gr-oup wanted the trib-
al government to purchase. I pointed out shortcomings
of the particular pr-oposed lands in order- to negotiate a
lower purchase price, but this was inzterpreted by some
religious leaders as blasphemous and labeled me as
against the pm chase because they wanted the lands nzo
matter what the cost and without /I(. \ilon. The truth
is that mzy life's effort has been dedicated toward
str-engthening and integrating mzy people's religion for
inclusion in the blueprint of our conservation and
development agenda. In my own example, I have
found that sanctioning greater levels of secular- author-
ity for- religious leadership hars had mixed results for
mzy people, although overall the Zunt religious leader-
ship even at its most conser-vative is never environ-
mentally destructive.
The drama of sacr-ed and secular has been expected,
but the drama gives the cause substance and character
Sacred wetlands and springs of my people are now
being restored and protect-ed because religious leader -
ship and conservation workers are overcoming the
awkwardness of newly instituted power
The conservation and development action agenda
attempts to conserve natural resources to allow people
to meet the needs of today ,without compromising
opprtuL~rnities for future generations to do the same,
adullle simultaneuly i lesl! tsjninig unnecessary burdens.
The w~orship. pr~otet~iion, and usje of sacred places in
rany\ respects[ complements the agenda of conserva-
li,,n and-2?c11oymn 77/ nd for-ms the basis fl;;col- r60o-
rutio~n. I am tpleased to say tial sacred ar~aS Of place-
batsed p~eople are finally being recognzized, and the nzeed
for- aleating link~ages with sacr~edness and indigenous
environmental knowledge is becoming a priority policy
area for- progressive facilitators, policy makers, and
modern societies.

Environmental knowledge gleaned IIo..=ughI thousands
of years of human experience inz a pmi r i, lar I place has
cr-eated unique patterns in society, and has also cr~eat
ed respective patterns on the physical environment.
Accepting and even supporting or- ngl the
beliefs of people within the institutions of cousr~. nta\lr;..n
and development b~reak~s new ground for development
worker-s and creates a familiar landscape for cooper
tion for riilan ,i of people living with the sacredness of
P aces.
Some cultures preserve sacr-ed places within a theo-
cratic structur-e n ithi a body of r-eligious leader-ship.
Others exist through local folklore and \1uper stit~ioi;
To varying degrees these ralignl-p lliti,.,l and social
structures support and ensur-e the L.ontllinue..lj protection
of sacred places at both the societal and individual
level. Oftentimes, however these social structmles can
be hindered by restrictions on cultur-al homelands and
..;rin poitialjuriditi..o The IL,1.4 FI II'0 of Zuni
sacred sites in the Grand Canyon, for example, is lim-
ited by National Park1 Service policy that curtails the
extent of Zunt religious and spiritual in~fluence.
The inclusion of sacredness in consi L I utiini and devel-
opment as an .I-l(s~inanonl standard is ultimately nec-
essary, but will require preparatory dialogue. My expe~
rience has been that the wifel., Ii u inertia of belief ean-
not be ignored, and that the bridge between the secular
and the religious warrant careful consideration. The
re~ic;lgiou jiicalsipjl~ dlih gmdei~S lh.. SlpentS Ii pei..ale l

and development initiativeLs thr~oughl secular auth[~orit.
Howevler, opportunities exist that may be available to

nical antli sartisly If sc~iialJ and1 inlStitutionalL1 arrange1S-
onli~s mei clle~quate to, ireate ani aicceptabll e all coop _
cratuli ve en vi rocnm entl for conse rvat ion anzd de velop~cmn I

Hearing the subtle sounds and voices of the sace-d
requires special ears, eyes, and mind to understand
and accept them. Consultation with religious leader-
ship in many instances is a sensitive undertaking.


Sacredness, continued from page 3

are important sacred areas which serve as monuments
in the oral history of the creation stories of the Zuni
and Hopi people. Great hardships such as droughts,
famines, and migaii onsl,lr as well as social history such
as the creation of clans, are par-tially or wholly
described by these physical landmarks. These and
many other sacred places (I1lle..t. ial. I~Create a pattern
upon the landscape, a geographic map, of environmen-
tal and cultur-al pressure points. From these patterns,
events can be better unzder-stood maybe not so much in
scientific terms, but as a visceral landscape vocabu-
lary. These places may appear unimportant from mod-
ern western standa,-ds, but they are vital to the con~tin-
ued survival and religious spirit of the people.
Some sacred places have obvious value in their practi-
cal use, such as places of watel: Spr-ings, lakes, geysers,
and waterfalls are sacr~ed in their roles as vital soutres
of fresh water; water-dependent lIfe forms, and wate-
based therapies. Famous mountains such as Mt. Fuji,
Mt. Sinai, Mt. Olympus, Mt. Kalish, and Mt. Everest
are~ also sacred places. Sacred mountains comprise ver-
tical complexes of sacred sites and resowr-es that are
valued by both the people living on the mountains as
well as the people living on the plains. Mountains are
valued by both those who receive water from theml and
those who participate in ;il;ilgrinages to the mountains
for- spiritual sustenance.
Time is occasionally a perspective that can be a barri _
er to understanding sacred places. Modern societies
often misinterpret meanings of sacred places because
they are unable to relate to the relatively long local his-
tories of these places. Many of the sacred places have
developed their status through many generations of
experience. Modern stories and today's history are told
in snapshots of news\' andl sournd bite'S wi'th a liner tir
causc-and-ejpea with shor~t-termn emphlasis. Thle pe -
specovet anld benfijt of long-term expenence aret mtss-

been pr-acticed fo,- ar vo~y lonzg time.. The pra~cctice alnd
meanling of these r-ituals are known only through prviv-
ileged esoteric knowledge and are intended only for the
Zunt people. T~he knowledge itself is sacked, and these
spiritual activities are not merely adhered to by a few
in the society but are community-wide accepted norms

and enforced standards. Likewise, blessings ar-e made
and respect given to other areas of important commu-
nal resources such as springs. Around the world, reli-
gious followers almost always use paiI i-ti ulr environ-
mental sites or~ events as loci for spiritual grounding.
These places are imbued with stories of partliclal~r
events; they are holy places with revered descriptions of
the people's history.

impro0ved livelihoods for local populations and compat-
ibility between human activity and ecosystem conzser-
vation. In its next stages, PRODESCOT will seek to
integrate the program' results and actions with sus-
tainable development initiatives through the creation of
a coordinating committee incorporating various state
and civil organizations.

Development of Regional Ecotourism Policies
Cl-Peru is working with the Inka Region Government
to foster a participatory process to develop policies for-
regulation of and investment in community-based eco-

Ongoing Investigations on the Relation between
Gender and Natural Resource Use
Since 1994 Cl-Peru has been working with a consor-
tium to develop research methodology and applied
training tools for the study of the relation between gen-
der and natural resource use. CI-Peru's contribution to
this effort has been the study of gender aspects in a
river turtle conservation project, Andean migration to
the lowlands, and wood extraction. Cl has also trained
dozens of local professionals in gender analysis meth-
Evaluation of Social and Environmental Impacts
of Petroleum Exploration in Block 78 (EISA)
EISA is CI-Peru's response to the Peruvian govern-
ment's decision to give an oil exploration concession
within the Tambopata-Candamo Reserve Zone (ZRTQ)
to a consortium led by the Mobil Corporation. A pro-
gram of studies focusing on biodiversity, relative abun-
dance of species, erosion factors, participatory rapid
rural appraisals of social factors, implementation of a
local monitoring system by rural residents, economic
surveys, anzd other studies has been implemented to
provide baseline data to measur'efuture changes an~d to
pr-edict ll. ;ril1, impacts with the hope of influencing

Rapid B iodi vers i t A~ppraisal (RAP) and
Soioeconom~ic Sulrvey of thle 1-ilcabambaib

Program (RAP) of CI's Conservation Biology
Department, carried out biodiversity and socioeco-
nomic surveys in this little known region. A report is
being developed to provide input for conservation plan-
ning in the region.
Vilcabamba Healthy Communities Initiative.
Some 2,500 indigenous Machiguenga live in the
Vilcabamba Cordillera. This group has experienced lit-
tle acculturation, maintaining a vast store of cultural
knowledge about the ecology of the region. CI-Peru is
working with community leaders to implement a
health and conservation project based on~ western and
indigenous knowledge that will also be usefud for- eco-
logical and c-.l*ns.: s.ilW.*o zoning inz the Il.~.,unll~ri ju

In mid-1990, the local NGO Centro Eori, in coordina-
tion with r-epresentatives of regional government, the
Peruvian National Parks Program, the Departmental
Agrarian Federation of Madre de Dios (FAD~EMAD)'
the Native Federation of Rio Madre de Dios and
Tributaries (FENAMAD), and other local organiza-
tions began to convene a series of meetings to discuss
the problems of the ZRTC. These meetings began a
process of widespread participation in discussions
regarding regional development and conservation. In
1991, the Ministry of Productive and Extractive
Affairs of the Inka Region orgatni~zed the forum The
Future of the ZRTC, during which the state pledged
to remove the prohibition on harvest of castafda. For
the first time, rural communities began to view the
ZRTC as a tool for economic development. Following
the first forum Future of the ZRTC, a Technical Team
was assembled to carry out the Pre-Feasibility Study
for the Conservation and Development of the ZRTC.
r. 'ii*l* *q; a literatur-e reviewu and meetings wyith local

Team~ pr-oposed a syseinr of zoning fo rthe! estabitsh-
mcnt of~ a Nationall Park and v'ariousr buffer and mu~l-
tiple use stones, followmg~n the U.NESCO? Blosphe~re
Re~se~i~rve odel. Tills [1rop~osail wasrl alpproved at a~ sec-
andltlomnc, Future of1 the ZRTC he~lllld ~in n-1993_. TheL
Bahuala National Park was established in 1996, rep-
resenting the first and only instance in which the cre.
ation of a national park occurred with the approval of
the local populations directly affected.
CI's PRODESCOT program was created in 1995 with
funding from USAID and the MacArthur Foundation.
The program's objectives are to elaborate and imple-
ment a strategy to improve the quality of life of the
population of the Rio Tambopata basin and to achieve
effective conservation of the region's biological diverst-
ty with the full participation of local populations-
PRODESCOT works in the following areas:

* Land Tenure and Computerized Cardastre
* Vegetation Mapping
* Participatory Land~ Use Capability
Ecological Monitoring of Hunting and
Fishing Activities
Management Plan Design for Wildlife and
Forest Resources
Forest Invenztories
Design and Implementation of Forest
Industries Based on Sustainable
Management of Palms
Improvement of Brazil Nut Management
and Production Systems
Promotion of Organic Coffee Production
Training in Participatory Community Plannin~g

The pr-ogram has been I:..-latiink' successful, and the
results of applied r-esear-ch will soon be available to
giuide investment in fllroduil. f itL livitie5 leading to

L Pima, Pru
Conservation International (CI) is at private, non-prof-
it organization created in 1987 to promote the conser-
vation of natural ecosystems and the sustainable use of
biological diversity. CI works in 22 high biodiversity
countries and in a variety of ecosystems, including
marine, desert, dry forest, and especially rain forest.
Their program combines the protection of natural
ecosystems with the social and economic development
of local populations.
CI-Peru was created in 1989; in 1992, the program
office moved to Peru. CI-Peru is a decentralized office,
responsible for the development of its programs and
activities in key ecosystems in Peru. Program growth
has been ranpid; CI-Peru now employs a full-time staff
of some 45 natural r-esour-ce professionals, technzicianzs,
community promzoter-s, and administrative personnel.

r-egions for biodiv~er~szty conserv~ation: Tamnbopara,
Vilcabamlba, and Condor: Additionally thle program
works in thematic areas wubll broader geograpillnal
imnpacts, includiing plrotected arria plolicy, hydr~ocar~bon

vation-based enterprise development, local capacity-
building, and communications.
CI-Peru Mission
CI-Peru uses an interdisciplinary approach to work in
high biodiversity areas with local populations in asso-
ciation with other organizations and institutions to
generate economic development based on the conser-
vation of natural resources. This effort has the goal of
contributing to the construction of a society that has as
one of its fundamental bases the conservation of nat-
ural ecosystems.

PRODESCOT is an integrated conservation and devel-
opment program that was created out of the conclu-
sions of a Cl-Peru-aided pIo tici, *l conservation
planning process carrlied out in Tambopata between
1990 and 1994.
The Tambopata Can~damo Reserved Zon~e (ZRTC) was
created by m~inister-ial decree in January 1990, with
transitional protected status pending the studies neces-
sa-y .for the determination of its permanent status
under~ territor-ial ?oning. Imlpetus for the r-esolution
came fr-om at Peruvian cwell \Ivir;lin oSrgaization in
woui~llsi ion with ecolourism inter-ests, generantin~g neg-
ative reactions among the local populations, non-gov.
ernmecntal or-ganizatlions, and governmental agencies
that wer.e not consulted. Local n~ rl;iti il.*, werefur~therI
ofG. m.1, J, by a prohibition on the extr-actionz of wild
fauna and ~flora, ,;r,,,iularuly of Brazil nuts
(Bertholletia excelsa), locally known as castaria, one
of the area's fw economic activities that was econzomi-
cally pr-ofittable as well as ecologi,,Il!.' sustainable.


small graturs program for 1998 deslggned to Jacditater
cross-regional and cross-cultural exchange and to
encourage experimentation with nontraditional forms
of information, communication, and conflict manage-
ment. The program supports travel and related
expenses incurred for participation in workshops, con-
ferences, seminars, planning meetings, training ses-
sions, working group consultations, and policy consul-
tations, or exchange among individuals, groups, or
organizations for the purpose of training, project- or
case-related dialogue, information exchange, and
mutual learning. Grants made to date under the CDF
Small Grants Program are as follows:
African Conservation Centre (Kenya), to support
travel and related expenses for exchange and training
in GIS mapping. African Conservation Centre (ACQ)
employs GIS technology to address various ecological
and environmental issues affecting biodiversity conser-
vation. For example, ACC has mapped current
land-use patterns in the Maasai Mara ecosystem to
inform discussions with landowners on sustainable
land-use options vis-a-vis area tourism. Currently,
ACC is embarking on a project that specifically
addresses conflict between elephants and humans in
Amboself, Laikipia, and Aberdares. GIS is used to map
areas and intensity of conflict, and other parameters
that catalyze this conflict, in order to measure the
effectiveness of current intervention methods and rec~
Ianonendr~, str~ategesj fr Impr~ovedl con~irce avoidance
mnethods in these and other reglans of Keny\a.
American For~esrs (u~nired states), to sulppOY ln tr-
cl andl- relatedl expenses for. commuturyl~ leaders and
conservation and development~ practitioners inl the~
workhshop Understanding and Exploring
Community-based Approaches to Ecosystem
Management in the United States, held in Bend,
Oregon on June 23--28, 1998. The objectives of the
workshop were to establish communication linkages
between community groups and practitioners, national
interest groups, federal and state agencies, scientists,
and policy makers, and to produce information that
will help create a framework for the currently scattered
and underdeveloped concepts on community-based
ecosystem management in the United States. Among
the products of the workshop will be a book, to be pub~
wished by the Journal of Sustainable Forestry, to
include each of the overview, workz group, and invited
papers from the workshop. Workshop papers and other
information from the workshop will be posted on the
American F~orests website at http://www~amfororg.
Climate and Development Initiatives (Uganda), to
support multisectoral participation in the Training
and Consultative Workshop on Sustainable
Management around Budongo Forest Reserve.
Climate and Development Initiatives (CDI), in consul-
tation with representatives of Joint Energy and
Environment Projects, Makerere University, and
Uganda Wildhife Authority, will convene the workshop
for the purpose of strengthening local community insti-
tutions for natural resource management, fostering a
bottom-up approach in community problem and solu-
tion identification, and coordinating the roles and
responsibilities of resource user groups and other inter-
ests. Participants will represent local resource user

CDF Small Grantlls, COmIinnlct on1 pageC 10

CDF Working Groups

Working Group on Gender and Natural Resource Management
On November 12-13, 1998, a planning workshop? for the formation of a CDF-sponsored
Working Group on Gender and Natural Resource Management was convened in Limaz, Peru
by the Seminario Permanente parva Investigacian Agraria (the Permanent Seminar for-
Agrarian Research, or SEPIA). The working group followed a number of previous initiatives
on gender and natural resource use in the region, including the convening of a special session
on gender issues at the conference SEPIA VII in August 1997, and workshop and panel pre-
sentations organized on gender issues at the CDF conference Forum '97. The workshop built
on this experience by promoting further interchange and networking among researchers and
practitioners in the field while advancing a consewrvtion and development agenda with a gen-
der focus. The initial planning workshop for the working group was hosted by the Gender
Department of the Catholic University in Lima. SEPIA will promote another Working Group
meeting during its next forum SEPIA VIII, scheduled for August 1999.

Core Working Gr-oup on Small-Scale Irrigation in South aii~d Sbifif~Tt~isl-`Zsici
CDF Board members M. 2 Vasimalai has initiated the creation of a CDF working group on
small-scale irrigation in South and Southeast Asia, to be hosted by the DHAN Foundation of
Malcduvrai, India. The focus of the working group will be on the mechanisms and processes that
sustain small irrigation works and their human institutions. Applied research on local man-
agement institutions and organizations of these systems, the possibility of their replication
outside their context, and the dissemination of comparative research to a wider audience are
the principal objectives of the group?, which will consist of specialists from Nepal, Pakistan,
Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, the Phili~ppines, Indonesia, and Thaziland. Planning meetings for the
working group began in August, 1998, with future activities to include the development of
theme papers, workshops and seminars, exchange visits among specialists from different
areas and countries, and the publication of significant works on the subject.

Mainland Southeast Asian Working Group7 on Community-based Forest Resources Management
CDF Board member Dr: Xu Jianchu of the Kunming Institute of Botany and the Center for
Indigenous Knowledge and Biodiversity, China, hars initiated planning meetings for the cre-
ation of a Mainland Southeast Asia Workiing Group on Community-based Forest Resource
Management. This working group~ will promote regional co~llaboration on biodiversity conser-
valtion, community-based forest resource management and sustainable development in
Mainland Southeast Asian countries including China, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand
and Myanmazr Its activities will focus on collarborative development of participartory
approaches, methods, skills and actions for participatory research; multi-stak~eholder analy-
sis; land use planning and management; and conflict resolution.

The Forurn'97 panel "Cultural and Spiritual Values
of Biodiversity" addressed the linkages between biodi-
versity conservation and indigenous cultural and spir-
itual traditions relating to biotic resources.
Participating on the panel were Dr: Darrell Posey of
Oxford University (UK), acting as organizer and mod-
erator of the panel; Dr. Tirso Gonzales of the
University of California-Davis (USA) and coordinator
of the Indigenous Knowledge Program for the
Indigenous People's Biodiversity Network; Professor
Jan Slikkerveer, Director of the Leiden Ethnosystems
and Development Program of the University of Leiden
(Holland); and James Enote, head of Zuni Department
of Natural Resources at the Pueblo of Zunt, where he
leads the Zuni Conservation Project, and Senior
Advisor for Mountain Cultures for The Mountain
Institute (USA).
Dr: Posey introduced the panel session by r-aising two
questions for panelists to consider: First, what can
conservationists learn from the cultur-al and spiritual
- Ie halonshlps of itlndigeos onnties ::to .,the

Dr Posey elaborated on these question by pointing
out that in many cases, resources or techniques used by
indigenous communities are 'borrowed' for the purpos-
es of Western conservation or modern agricultural sys-
tems, but the cultural and spiritual rituals and beliefs
associated with them are often misunderstood, ignored
or rejected. Instead, interaction between Western sci-
entists and technicians with indigenous communities
has been primarily as a part of the continuous search
for the 'technological fix' to address the technical prob-
lems of the moment. As Posey explained, "...the real
question sometimes is, it seems, how can those local
and indigenous communities be useful to us. It's not
really about what I began with, a shift of power to the
communities themselves. It's not really about a respect
for local values. It's not really about cultural and spir-
itual issues. It's really about how to find a technologi-
cal fix to solve our problems, whatever- they may be."
Failure by Wiestern researchers to acknowledge the
cultural and spiritual values in which such knowledge
is embedded further- render the cultures of scientific
and indigenous communities mutually incomprehensi-
ble. Said Posey, "I remember when I was working with
one of my mentors, a Kayapo shaman in the Br-azilian
Amaz~on with whom I studied for manly years, and I
asked him about the biopr~ospecting of a company that
was makhing soap out of one of the local plants ...Azd
his concern wyas about the spirits of the plants azd
what happened when~ so mauny plants werel harv\ested,
and so much energy from those plants, the essence or
spirit, was concentr-ated into something, and if that
wasn't dangerous for the peoplle who used it, as well as
being dangerous for- the plant itself. And his conce-n
was, why it is that the peoplle who deal wvith medicines
and alter-native pr-oducts never- askz the plants. It's kind
of inconceivablle that such a conzcept would or-ient set-
ent~fc concerns, but in fact if we're going to be serious
in our- par-tnerships wyith indigenous peoples, those al-r
exactly the kinds of issues we have to deal with. "

Such a clash of values and rights is not limited to bio-
prospecting, but is characteristic of the contact
between conservationists and indigenous communities,
As Posey goes on to say, "By doing botanical collections
and medicinal plant collections, by establishing data
banks, and by publishing, we continue to put things
that are sacred, that are private, of indigenous peoples
into the public domain, and in the process become the
agents that guarantee that the community of origin
has no control over these materials. No rights of pro-
tection and no benefit-sharing."
A similar conflict of cultures was reported by
Professor Slikkerveer from his work in Indonesia,
where studies in the Mount Heileman area "have
shown very clearly that local farmers not only expert
iment, adapt and transform their knowledge, but also
that their knowledge is based on a very complex per-
ception and explanation of the relationship with the
natural and the spir-itucal wor~ld...In their increasing
contacts with these im7por~ted agricultural systems,

develpmen series in which th under1;ely~ingsirt-
al: base is completely lacking. And moreover, many of
these messengers of modern methods, messengers of
agribusiness, tend to belittle or ignore local practices,
regarding them still as traditional or old-fashioned. "
The consequences of loss of traditional knowledge
and practices have long been apparent. As Dr
Gonzalez explains, "The West gave us a common reli
gion, a language, and a number of common proce-
dures to dominate nature. All that was the product of
a millenarian process of experimentation with very
successful outcomes for survival and welfare. In this
way, the West became the paradigm of our acts, and
we decided not to invest neither time nor resources to
develop or reproduce the life options that the indige-
nous world already had. That world was converted
progressively and forcefully into the antithesis of
development and modern~iation."
As the search for alternatives to 'moderniz-ation'
continues, understanding of the past becomes increas-
inzgly impor-tant. Gonzales continues, "Inl Lake
Titicaca in Bolivia, an Aymara Indian told me that
everything one does in life involves looking forward
while going backward simultaneously. This I didn't
understand. I said, whatt do you mean, going black-
wal-d?' And he said, 'well it's very simple. For us, for
the Aymzara, the path is in front of us. It is in fwnlt of
us because we know the path and we canz look at it,
And the futwr- is behind, because we don't know what
it brings, so we move into the future, but we move
b~ackwards'... this idea of moving into the future while
looking clear-ly into the past is something that is lack-
ing in all these consider-ationzs about development and
alternatives to development, and about what is goilg
to happen, and fr-omn wherCe w2e canl create an altern1a-
tive to deveclopmecnt. This lack~ of histor-ical depth is
what is going to pr-event us from thinkling of r-eal alter-
nativies to development. "
As a metaphor ~for these azlternanctives, Gonz;ales
described the culturers of the com~mercial seed anld of
the native seed, one leading to petr-oleum~-based pr-o

duction, decision making by science, development of
labor-saving technologies, the collapse of family farms in
the developed countries, and ultimately to genetic engi-
neering, the other to a diversity of native crops in areas
such as the Andes that are produced with. diverse tech-
nologies in the context of diverse cosmologies. The cul-
ture of the native seed was further described by panelist
James Enote: "Well the seeds of course have that
magic...everything has the seeds. It can be the human
beings, it can be different animals, plants--everything
starts from some magic point, some little thing. It's
incredible, isn't it? That little thing you have can grow
to be something alive and big and conscious. It reacts to
the weather you nourish it and it grows, but it's still a
little seed. What is that between holding that in your
hand, what is that fulcr-um, somehow it becomes some-
thing else. It's incredible. So that ther-e are some times
where some of our leaders they go, at a certain time of
the year; and they collect every seed. They save every
seed in the world, grass seeds, tr~ee seeds, seeds from the
springs, -seeds from muddy -areas; seedfro the moun-

because ~ ~ 5 th eesa e s rious, the most important
As Gonzales points out, "The seed doesn't mean the
same in different languages. Diversity is in danger; as
Edward O. Wilson tells us, but what is diversity accord-
ing to him? Basically biological diversity is not cultural
diversity. And what I suggest here is that cultural diver-
sity and biological diversity are highly interconnected,
Panelists suggested that the lessons offered by indige-
nous cultures, as well as contributions by conservation-
ists to indigenous efforts to preserve their own cultures
and resources, will depend in large par-t on "the attitude
and the behavior and interests of the outsider expert vis-
a-vis indigenous perceptions, philosophies and values,"
in the words of Professor Slikk~erveel: Furthermore,
notes Slikkerveer, "...if we would try to disengage from
what's generally referred to as the scientific bases, I
think we could make a major step forward. "
Such a step may in fact be necessary to future dialogue
between cultures. As James Enote explained, "...the rea-
son why we consult with our religious leaders in the pro-
ject that I head up is that we ask ourselves, well, we have
a large conservation and development project,... let's ask
ourselves, what are the elements that have allowed us to
be at the same place for such a long time. Anzd we said
well, basically the religion, because it's a religion of sur-
vival. So it's a practical r-eligion ...the fulcrum between
thought and actions is belief, and so if that's going to be
the fudcrum, then that's what we should base our work
on is our beliefs... So our- project essentially, whether it's
in wildlife or- agriculture or forestry, h~as elements of Zunt
beliefs in it, because it is also the one thing that is uni-
ver-sal in every houtsehold..." As an example, Enote
explained the policy o~f the Zunti Conservation Project
r-egarding native seed varieties. "We have atseed bank of
folk varieties, but our policy nowY is that the seed is not
allowed to leave Zunzi, because our religious leader said
it's like selling your- children. You can sell these other
hybrids if you h~ave those, but you can't sell these. And
so we have the trust of the community, and it has worked
very well for us so far"

Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity

-- I;r

joinedforces toconvene workshop that combined
a substantive focus on conservation and develop-
ment in West Vir~ginia and throughout the
Appalarchiarns, with the development and
exchange of tools, strategies, and experiences by
innovative programs and organizations through-
out the United States.

The themes of the workshop are reflected in its
title. Engaging Community explored strategies for
engaging community participation in conservation
and development, and confronted common
challenges in implementation of com~munity-based
programs: how are communities defined? How
do we communicate across br~oad ethnic, cultur-al,
and class differences within communities? How
do we engage communities that are isolated,
dispersed, or marginalizred? Empowering
Communities examined mechanisms for strength-
ening the capacity of communities to decide their
own conservation and development futures and to
participate effectively in resource decisions.
Mechanisms for empz2owering communities may
include such tools as participatory research or
improved access to information, local strategies
for financing conservation and resource manage-
ment initiatives, or networkhing for collective
action. Finally, Negotiating Community addressed
the need for cooperative approaches to conflict
management, both within communities and
between communities and outside interests. It also
examined the constraints on effective conflict
resolution, including communication gaps,
conflicting cultures and ideologies, and unequal
power relationships.

of costs and benefits resulting from natural
resource management and conservation pro-
grams. Yet they face difficult challenges involved
in fnlly engaging communities in conservation and
development decisions: overcoming barriers to
cross-cultural communication, enhancing the
equitable distribution of information and
resources,acndfinding ways to cope with inevitable
The workshop Engaging, Empowering, and
Negotiating Community, held at WVest Virginia
University on october 8--10, 1998, aimed to
encourage exchange and mutual learning among
the communities, academic researchers and exten-
sionists, non-governmental conservation and
development organizations, government agencies,
and representatives of the private sector that are
engaged in these effor~ts. West Virginia University
(WVU) offers a long history of involvement in
r-esearch and extension on natural resource use
and management, rural development, and
community engagement through its College of
Agriculture, Forestry, and Consumer Sciences and
other programs. The Center for Economic Options
(CEO) is a nonprofit statewide organization
committed to promoting equity and improving the
economic position of rural West Virginians. It
supports development of employment oppor0tuni-
ties through microenterprises such as home and/or
community-based industries, launches and
facilitates networks of producers of forest and
agricultural products, and provides training and
information to build community capacity for self-
reliance and sustainability. WVU, C~EO and CDF

Ethics, continued from page 4

protat"ing locaLL Com112nuaitieS awhile participating in
wider- associations to check th~e gr-owinzg domination of
economic globalization"l6 and offer- politically accept-
able means to ensure the social protection of land,
labon; local capital and culture.
I close with the moral norms of sustainable community
ty/cosmopolitan localism:
Participation as the optimal inclusion of all involved
voiCCS ill SOCidy'S dediSIONS and in obtaining and enjoy-
ing the benefits of society and nature, together with
sharing their burdens.
Sufficiency as the commitment to meet the basic mate-
rial needs of all life possible.
Equity as basic fairness. Equity includes global equity
among nations and societies, biotic equity among
SpeCICS, equity GCTOSS geYLerTCOnS StretC ling {?110 the
future, and equity between women and men.
Accountability as the structuring of responsibility
toward one another and the Earth itself, carried out in
ways that prize openness or "transparency."
Material simplicity and spiritual richness as markeTS
of a quality of hife that includes bread for all (sufficien-
cy) but is more than bread alone.
Responsibility on a scale people can handle; that is,
actions commensurate with workable community. ThiS
includes the creation of technologies whose conse-
quences are more apparent rather than less, are small-
er in their- range of impact rather than larger and are
subject to arltr ation and correction without vast dis-
Subsidiarity as the means of participation most
attuned to sustainable community and responsibility.
Subsidiarityv states that problems should be resolved at
the closeSt leVCI at W 11Cl decisions can be made an~d
imp CmOntId ii;.rib l. One should nzot withdraw
Trom persons and their- communities and commit to
larger- CntitieS that Whicl thoSe peTSORzS and commnuni-
ties canz accomplish by their- ownz enterpr-ise and
meanS. l..Gger institutionS 5 10Mid nOt pa Ofmnl and
pTovidC t101 W lic1 can be accomplished in the smaller
solidarities in which we live.

1 See fo~r exam~pl c thle discussion winich launrches Ernst Truellachsi massive situb:~ The
jel Tcachllng of the Chrisuian Churches. 2 vol (Cilucago andl Lolndon::
Unriverulyv of( C'. Prss, 1960. trans. By Ob~ve H~von~rom the German~o e~dition,,
19,1) a reocusch s second scntenice is this, In explanuli onr q/ "lL moduern somea pnrom
iem-": "Tnese social contracts are due in part to the groweth or large renuoan unglica
States, with their democratic tendencies and their party struggles. Thety are also thle
oufcomte of modern induslrialiuatlon, the development of tile proterlaiut, and the
emancipation of the masses in many lands." (23)
2. My reference is to the Social Gospel Movement in the U S. and Canada.
3. Alfred Wi Crosby, Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe,
900-1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 131.
4. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism, 193-94.
5. Cited from Wolfgang Sachs, The Political Anatomy of "Sustainable Dcyclopment,"
Wuppertal Papers, No 35, May 1995:23. The translation is Sachs'.
6. Gustavo Esteva, "Bastal" The Ecologist 24, 3 (Miay/June 1994):83.
7. I draw here from Vandana Shiva, Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and
Knowledge (Toronto: Between the Lines Press, 1997), 107.
8. Cited by J. Ronald Engel, "Sustainable Development: A New Global Ethic?" in~ The
Egg: An Eco-Justice Quarterly 12, no. 1 (Winter 1991-92):5.
9. Cited by Engel, The Egg:5.
10. Wolfgang Sachs as cited by Wesley Granberg-Michaelson, Redeeming the
Creaton. the Ri Earth Summit: Challenge to the Churches (Genera: WCC

11. The reference is to Francis Fukuyama' s The End of History and the Last Man
(Ncw York: Free Press, 1992) in which Fukuyama argues that ideological struggles air
over and what remains is for the world to adjust to liberal capitalist modernity as thle
shape of permanent arrangeme nts.
12. Shiva, Blopiracy, 115.
13. David Korten, "Economic Globaltration: The War Against Markects, Demlocralcy.
Peopic and Nature," A World That Works: Building Blacks for a just and
.Sustainable Society, ed. Tre~nl Sdovyer (New York: The Bootstraclp PreSS, 1997), 232.
a nHans Lcttdnacs, former secn-tairy General of the later-national Associanion of Plant l
Drzcdirslor the ftrotection of Planrl wo-ictics. argues for- this. "Even thiough it hase beeni
a tradition itin ost courntrics that a farmer can saver seed fmmn his owsn rop, ut is under-
the illalgne iirounslances not cyunlablc thai fommers can uisr ths se~ci andi Syou ii
coimer,.ial onp our e a was ilour paymEnt~ ora royaitv; tile seea ilidnrl? wcin ilavel Ie
fighl lard jfor a hetzr kind o/prolectionl.- cied fromn Siiva, Riopiracy, iS
15 Anl adaptatioln frvm the dlistusslan in M. Muichcil I~ldiddrp, Complexuy! The
Enunging Science at the Edge of Chaos (Newv Ibh: Simonir &- Silhustar lgY~

16 Tre~nt SwyRTVI "inltrOdu(Ci(tio: RlhlbringA[~ltenat\L ivesf a \\(lrid thI(t worik. mA i
World That Workis: Buildmg Bilocks for a just and Sustainable Solclriiety cl nru



Engaging, Empoeving, and
Negotiartig COMmRnitq;

Strategies for Conservation and

A Workshop? Sponsored by The
Conservation & Development
Forum, West Virginia U.niversity,
and the Center for Economic


I/iorgantown, West Virginia,
October 8--I0, 1998

A number of efforts are being made within the
United States to develop multi-faceted, commune
ty-based programs to reconcile environmental and
livelihood concerns by incorporating broad, multi
sectoral participation in natural resource manage _
ment. These efforts seek to renegotiate the very
basis of conservation and development in a con-
text commonly characterized by polarization,
;3onfict, unevent'l acceLSS to informj~atiOnj and1 deciSicon
mahmng mechanisms, and inequitable dirtributrion

CDF; Small Grants, continued from page 7

Ecological Services Centre (Nepal), to support a
joint program with the Community Development
Organisation (Nepal) to foster intercultural
exchange between indigenous communities of Nepal
and India. In this project, Ecological Services Centre
and the Community Development Organisation have
formed a partnership to establish dialogue between
indigenous communities of the Narwalp~arasi and
Chitwan Districts of Nepal and to coordinate the
actions of both communities and development
activists in these regions. In addition, representatives
of each of these communities will travel to the Eastern
Ghat Region of Karnataka, India to share persp~ec-
tives on local knowledge and technology, community
based natural resource management, and biodiversi-
ty conservation. These intercultural exchange visits
will represent an initial step in the development of a
multi-sectoral regional network to influence natural
resource policy.
Popular Resistance Communities of the Peten
(CPR-P) (Guatemala) to bring experts from the
Permaculture Institute of Guanajuato, Mexico to the
new relocation site of the internal refugee community
known as the "Popular Resistance Communities of the
Peten" (CPR-P) for a one-week training workshop in
permaculture. To escape civil strife, four communities
with over 135 families of both indigenous q ekchi and
ladino descent have lived hidden in the jungle of the
Ma/ya Biosphere Reserve of Peten, Guatemala, for 1 7
years. Following the peace accord of late 1996,
CPR-P in conjunction with the Guatemalan
Government is finalizing negotiations to acquire an
area of land approximately 3000 ha in size and to
construct a permanent village for the four separate
communities. The Llillnourlitil .I see the jungle as hav-
ing been the source of shelter; food an~d safety during
thl 41980ml'stuN990's. lnIns~~1terejor specificJlr ~In t
land negonanons~l~ that~ [the new 'jresttrlement area
Should retainl a large area~ of forest covecr The CPR-P
hope to protect and enhance this area for the benefit
of the wildlife, and at the same time find methods of
income and production that will not compromise the
integrity of the site. Thne training in permaculture is
intended to assist them to establish productive envi-
ronments providing for food, energy, shelter; material
and non-material needs, as well as the social and eco-
nomic infrastructures that support them.
Rural Initiatives for Sustainable Development
(Kenya), to support community meetings in the
North Nandi Forest in order to enhance the partici-
pation of local communities in forest management
and conservation. Rural Initiatives for Sustainable
Development will convene two public meetings in
order to create opportunities to discuss and shar-e
the present status of forests and threats to forest
ce.,, a-I-- ,irn on, identify local priorities in development;
identify community actions in support of for-est
conservation; organize inter-cl nuitiicll exchanges,
and promote impr-oved collaboration bletween
communities, NGOs, and government agencies.

The Third Meeting of the CDF Board of Directors
was held in Vancouver, Canada on June 7-9. CDF
offers special thanks to the Vancouver Aquarium,
which hosted the opening day of the meeting; to lan
Gill, President of Ecotrust-Canada, for his presenta-
tion to the Board on British Columbia conservation
and development issues and projects; to lan and all at
Ecotrust for jointly hosting a reception for members
of the BC conservation and development community;
and to Rose Guerin of the Musqueam Indian Band for
her words of welcome to the gathering.

CDF announces the publication of the following
papers and proceedings, available upon request from

The CDF Discussion Paper Community in
Conservation: Beyond Enchantment and
Disenchantment, authored by Arun Agrawal of Yale
University with comments by Tania Murray Li of
Dalhousie University and Richard Chase Smith of
Oxfam America, offers a review of shifting notions of
community, from the romantic to the disillusioned,
and analyzes the implications of these concepts of
community for conservation and development.

The CDF Discussion Paper Governance Issues in
Conservation and Development, edited by Dr
Goran Hyden of the University of Florida with con-
tributions from Herron R. Mogaka and Godber UV
Tumushabe, Ann Grodzins Gold, and Ronald J.
Herring, brings together four separ-ate contributions
on conceptual and practical issues of governance in
conservation and development. The papers weret ini-
tLiaprsne at the CDF conference Forum '9.7.-
New Linkages in Conservation and Development
in November 1997.

A third CDF Discussion Paper, Emerging
Innovations in Small-Scale Resource
Development: Cases from India, addresses issues
surrounding the development and restoration of tra-
ditionarl water management methods in India and
includes papers by Anil Agrawal and Sunita Narain,
C. R. Shanmugham and M. P Vasimalai, Annasakeb
Hazare, and M. P Vasimalai and Ujjwal Pradhan,
given at Forum '97: New Linkages in
Conservation and Development in November

The Proceedings of the Workshop on
Conservation and Development of Tank
Irrigation for Livelihood Promotion, held in
Madurai, Tramil Nadu in june 1996, have been joint~
ly published with Professional Assistance ~for
Development Action (PRADAN) of India.
Complimentary copies ar~e available fr-om CDF and

News and Notes

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