Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Rationale of the gender information...
 Gender analysis map
 Gender considerations guide
 Summary of guidelines for document...

Group Title: gender information framework
Title: The gender information framework
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Title: The gender information framework
Physical Description: iii, 90 p. : ; ..cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hubbs, V
Rollins, A
Grosz, R
Publisher: USAID
Place of Publication: Washington, DC
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Table of Contents
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    Table of Contents
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    Rationale of the gender information framework
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    Gender analysis map
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    Gender considerations guide
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    Summary of guidelines for document review
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Full Text


Virginia Hubbs
Al Rollins
Ron Grosz:

The M~ayaTech Corporation
Silver Spring, MD

Prepared for:
Office of Women in Development
Bureau for Research and Development
U.S. Agency for International Development
Washington, DC

October, 1992

MayaTech Corporation



Virginia Hubbs
Al Rollins
Ron Grosz

The MayaTech Corporation
Silver Spring, MD

Prepared for:
Omfee of Women in Development
Bureau for Research and Development
U.S. Agency for International Development
Washington, DC

October, 1992


FOREW'ORD .............. ............. ........li~~~~~
ACKNOW~~LEDGE MENE~TS .......... ............ ...... nii

L.INTRODUCT TION ................. ......... .............. I
1.1 Purpose of the Gender Information Framework ..........2
1.2 How the GlF was Developed . . ..... .. ... .. ...... . . . 2
1.3 WomenandGender ............................. .. ......... 3
1.4 Why Gender Considerations are Important . ........ .. .. .. .. .. . 3

2.1 Key Assumptions of the GP ................... ...... ............ ........
2.2 Design Process in the GIF ................... ......... ..... .. ......... 5

3. GENDER ANALYSIS MAP.................... ................. .. .. ......._. 6
3.1 Description of the "Map" ................... ................... ........... 6
3.2 Steps in Gender Analysis ................... ................... ........... 7

TABLE: 1: SAMPLE ANALYSIS .................................. ................, 16

4. GENDER CONSIDERATIONS GUIDE ................... ......... ...... ..... 17
4.1 Overview................... ................. ............ ..... ... 17
4.2 Gender Considerations: The Country Development
Strategy Statement................... ................. ............... 17
4.3 Gender Considerations: The Action Plan ............... .................. 30
4.4 Gender Considerations: Project Identification Document ... .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. 35
4.5 Gender Considerations: Project Paper ................... .................... 43

5. SUMMARY OF GUIDELINES FOR DOCUMENT REVIEW ................... ........ 52


1. Resource Documents ................... ................... .................. 54

II. Additional Information on Gender Analysis
II-A Sma~llScale Enterprise Development ................... ................... .. 60
II-B Agricultural Projects .............................................. 64

III. Information on Data Collection Methods ................... ................... ... 65

IV. Project Adaptation ................... ..................... . ........... 68

V. Executive Summary ................................................ 74


The Gender Information Framework was created for the Office of Women in Development to address the need
for practical, realistic guidance on how to integrate gender issues into A.I.D. programming. It was also to serve
as a companion piece for women in development training programs.

The Gender Information Framework, abbreviated as "the GIF," was first developed in 1988. Since that time,
its content has been updated and revised as the body of knowledge about gender issues in development
programming has grown. The GIF has also been adapted to two other forms: 1) an Executive Summary,
included in this document, which is used as a stand-alone piece; and 2) a six-panel brochure, called "The Gender
Information Framework Pocket Guide." These alternate versions were designed to increase the GIFs utility to
its primary audience: A.I.D. staff, contractors, and consultants. It is hoped, however, that it will also be useful
to development practitioners from non-governmental organizations, host country governments, and other donors.

Revisions will continue to be made to the framework as our understanding of information needs about and
effective approaches to incorporating gender issues into development activities increases. The reader is
encouraged to adapt, revise, and borrow whatever is useful from the Gender Information Framework It is our
hope that it will strengthen and enhance international development programs.


The Gender Information Framework reflects the contributions of many people:

*the staff of the Office of Women in Development, who have the mission and
the mandate to institutionalize the systematic inclusion of women in A.I.D.'s
development policies, goals, and processes. Special appreciation is due the
PPC/WID staff, especially Ms. Kay Davies, former Director of PPC/WID, and
Mr. Ron Grosz, Project Officer, who provided continual encouragement,
support, and challenge in the development of this framework.

*the many A.I.D. staff persons, both in the Washington office and in the
Missions outside the United States, who gave generously of their time, insights,
and suggestions.

*the training team members who graciously put this framework through its "try-
outs": Dr. Rosalie Norem (PPC/WID), Mr. Donald Spears, Ms. Barbara
Howald, and Dr. Bettye Harrison-Burns. Their suggestions were invaluable
in shaping the Gender Information Framework's current content and format.
Also, Mr. ~Timothy Frankenburger, who was instrumental in the development
of the original concept.

*Women in Development professionals from other agencies, private voluntary
organizations, foundations, and independent consultants/trainers who were
most helpful in sharing their experience and vision as we were gathering data
to develop this framework.

*the women in developing countries who refuse to be invisible.

Staff of The MayaTech Corporation prepared this document, which updates the Gender Information Framework.
The Gender Information Framework was initially developed by Ms. Virginia Hubbs and Mr. Al Rollins, in
collaboration with Mr. Ron Grosz (PPC/WID), under a separate contract with the Office of Women in
Development. Ms. Hubbs, Mr. Rollins, and Mr. Grosz provided the technical expertise for this document as
well, with additional assistance from Ms. Barbara Howald. Ms. Cheryle Buggs blended knowledge, styles, and
graphics. Ms. Kettly Paul and her word processing staff skillfully and willingly responded to requests for
additions and changes.

While we are thankful to all who contributed to this manual, responsibility for its accuracy and tenor rests with
The MayaTech Corporation.

Jean-Marie B. Mayas, Ph.D.
Project Director




The Gender Information Framework is a set of guidelines with supporting information developed to assist A.I.D.
in incorporating gender considerations into program and project design, review, adaptation, and evaluation. The
Gender Information Framework (GIF) provides a three-step framework for this process. Its core elements are:

*Gender Analysi Map: as its name implies, the "map" guides the user through
a process, suggesting where to look. In Step One it helps the use to identify
important gender factors in the baseline situation: that is, the differences in
men's and women's roles in the situation the project wants to affect. In Step
Twoe, it helps the use to take a look at the gender-specific constraints and
opportunities identified in the baseline situation. These first two steps
described in the Gender Analysis Map are not specific to A.I.D. and may be
applicable to other development organizations.

Gender Coasiderationg Guidq* findings gleaned from the gender analysis
undertaken in Steps One and Two can be incorporated into programs and
projects with guidance found in Sacp Tllarc, Gcader Considerratons Guide
These Gender Considerations have been designed primarily for A.I.D. use,
presenting guidelines for key A.I.D. documents including the Country
Development Strategy Statement (CDSS), Action Plan, Project Identification
Document (PID), and Project Paper (PP). Even though these documents are
specific to A.I.D., they parallel documents in other development agencies'
overall programming cycles, thus making the GPF adaptable for wider

The GIF also includes a Summary of Guideliacs for Docuacat Review, which briefly summarizes where to
include gender issues in A.I.D.'s documentation processes.

A.I.D. evaluation findings, as well as those of other development and research institutions, provide considerable
evidence that incorporating gender issues into programs can be an important factor in achieving success.
Although increasingly aware of these findings, development practitioners continue to seek information on how
this should be done. The GF was designed to asist in this process by synthesizing A.I.D.'s methodologies for
effective development planning with tools to expand awareness of gender concerns. 'Thus, the GPF:

is based on A.ID.'s programming cycle, from the Country Development
Strategy Statement through the Project Paper;

presents guidelines for program documents that generally follow the format for
A.I.D. programming documcats;


*addresses both analytical and action aspects of the process of effective
development; and

*provides the basis for a common understanding between program designers
and reviewers about gender issues.

1.1 Purpose of tbc Ocador Informatica Framewrork

The purposes of the GIF are:

to strengthen the analysis of development issues in such a way
that gender becomes an automatic consideration in the
programming process; and

a to provide tools that assist A.I.D. staff to incorporate
information yielded by gender analysis into program design,
review, adaptation, and evaluation.

The GPF is designed to accompany a training program on gender issues and will serve as a
post-training resource guide. Its potential audience includes A.I.D. personnel, contract staff,
consultants, and training professionals involved in project/program design and adaptation,
monitoring, and evaluation, as well as training program design and implementation.

12 How the GPF was Deyloped

The GIF was first conceived as a way to provide guidelines for incorporating gender into the
key stages of A.I.D.'s programming process. TIhe initial form of the GIF was presented at a
training workshop held in Nairobi in September, 1987, for A.I.D. Agricultural Development
Officers and Project Officers working in sub-Saharan Afica. Since that workshop, the GlF has
evolved through several different forms. This process has involved exicasive discussions
concerning gender issues and review of the GIF by A.I.D. personnel, representatives of other
international donor agencies, academic institutions, and private voluntary organizations, as well
as knowledgeable individuals from the United States and developing nations.

The GPF has strong links with the efforts of the many individuals and organizations who have
contributed to the work of the Office of Women in Development to increase awareness of and
skills in dealing with gender issues. Ideas and methodologies from the international Center for


Research on Women, regional A.I.D. bureaus and the Center for Development Information and
Evaluation, the Harvard Institute of International Development, the U'niversity of Arizona, the
Farming Systems Support Project at the U'niversity of Florida. The Population Council. and
other institutions have been incorporated into the GIF.

Finally, it should be noted that the GIF is a dynamicc document." It has evolved through usage
in technical assistance consultancies and training, and it will continue to evolve as the body of
knowledge about gender considerations and experience with the issue grows. Thus, the GIF is,
in many respects, still a "draft"; it is hoped, however, that it will be a "working draft."

13 Womca and Geader

Initial "Women in Development" efforts focused on achieving equity for women in access to and
control of project resources and benefits. This was the result of early literature which
documented the adverse impact of some development projects on women. However, as
evidence has accumulated demonstrating that gender-related differences, (i.e., differences in
roles, responsibilities, and opportunities of men and women) affect the achievement of project
purposes and goals, the term 'gender" has begun to replace Iwomen in development In
Women in Development: A.I.D.'s Experience. 1973-1985, Volume I. Synthesis Paper. the Center
for Development Information and Evaluation (CDIE) notes 'Gender is a broader analytical
concept which not only encompasses concern with women but also highlights women's roles and
responsibilities in relation to those of men." (1987:4) It combines effectiveness with equity.

"Gender variable," then, in the GIF, is used to denote relevant aspects of social organization
that "vary" because of the roles, responsibilities, and opportunity differences attributable to

1.4 Why Ocader Considerations ae Important

Much has been written about why gender considerations are important in development
programming. A few points will be cited here, and further information can be found in the
publications listed in the bibliography.

1.4. 1 The previously cited report on A.ID.'s experince with women in development (1987)
found that projects are more likely to achieve their purpose and/or long-term goal when
gender variables are taken into account Incorporation of gender considerations
contributes to effective development.


1.4.2 A.I.D.'s official pglicy has for some time acknowledged the need for incorporating
gender issues into programming. The Women in Development Policy Paper published
in 1982 describes official policy, which includes the following for all A.I.D. program and
project documents: disaggregation of data by sex, gender distinctions in terminology,
inclusion of explicit strategies to involve women, and use of gender-disaggregated
benchmarks in monitoring and evaluation.

1.4.3 Most A.I.D. project goals relate to improving the economic and/or social well-being of
families. Research to date suggests that in many areas women contribute a larger
percentage (nearly all) of their income to family welfare than men. Research also
suggests that increases in women's incomes are more likely to translate into improved
family welfare for children (and themselves) than increases to men's income. Thus,
activities to increase women's Productivity and income have a very positive and direct
impact on family welfare.

1.4.4 Congress continues to D8V cl054 atICntiQB to A,1,D.'s success in inorporating women
into its programming, Legislation passed in 1988 that earmarked funds for Women in
Development (WID) also put into law the aforementioned Agency policies (e.g., sex-
disaggregated data, use of gender-disaggregated benchmarks, explicit strategies to involve
women). It also mandated involvement of senior staff in decision-making activities
related to women in development, discussion of benefits and impediments to women's
participation in all documents and programs, training for A.I.D. staff, and annual reports
to Congress on progress toward full integration of gender issues into A.I.D.'s
programming. New legislation increasing funding for and expanding Agency
requirements on inclusion of women is expected this year (1991).

Summarizing the above, the reasons for fully incorporating gender issues into A.ID.'s activities
include the potential contributions of women to project and program success, concern for
equity, alignment of A.ID. activities with official policy, and legislative influences.


2.1 Key Asavaptions of the GIF

Several important assumptions about development design undergird the GPF.

2.1.1 Gender is a variable in the development equation, because gender differences in roics
and responsibilities affect ability and incentive to participate in development projects.
This affects project effectiveness. Gender factors may also lead to differential project
impacts for men and women.



are key words for this document.

2.1.2 Understanding development issues at both the macro and micro levels, and the linkages
between these levels, is important for effective programming. Program and project
analyses need to balance information at the sectoral, regional, or national level with
information from the household level to define problems, identify solutions, and assess

2.1.3 Sustainable development is more likely to occur when a balance is achieved in
consideration of socio-cultural and economic factors in project and program planning.
Further, inclusion of the men and women who benefit from and participate in
development programming, from problem definition through evaluation, contributes to
sustainable development.

2.2 Design Procecss in the GIF

The GIF is based roughly on the process for incorporating
programming recommended in the CDIE Synthesis Paper cited
recommendations, the process involves:

identifying gender variables: clarifying how male
and female roles and responsibilities might affect
development activities to be undertaken;

identifying programming opportunities and
constraints resulting from gender-based

incorporating information about gender
considerations into program/project design and
adaptation; and

gender considerations into
earlier. Summarizing those


*developing, monitoring, and evaluation systems
that provide sex-disaggregated data to assess
project impact and inform the development

Building on this process, the three components of the GIF -- the Gender Analysis Map, the
Gender Considerations Guides, and the Summary of Guidelines for Document Review --
provide a step-by-step approach to incorporating gender considerations into A.I.D.
programming. The Map shows how to identify where gender might be a variable in the
situation to be addressed; the Gender Considerations Guides show how to factor that
information into the micro and macro level analyses to design or adapt development activities.
The Summary of Guidelines can then be used for a quick review of the programming document.

Data Needs: A word on the data for gender analysis needs iri the GIF is in order. It may
appear that extensive data collection is required to address gender issues effectively. However,
the data recommendations in the GIF are indicators of data needs rather than requirements.
They suggest the kinds of information that will strengthen the design process. Data needs are
project and program specific; not all those listed in the GPF will be appropriate for all
situations. In addition, although information may appear to be unavailable, it often can be
found in project documents, consultants' reports, and anthropological studies within the
Mission. Other sources are national university sociology departments, government women's
bureaus and national women's organizations that frequently have "fugitive literature,' literature
that is not publicly distributed but very useful. Host country national Mission staff can be a
valuable resource as well.

Finally, because gender-disaggregated information is needed for effective development, projects
and programs should build in its collection from the start to save time and expense.


3.1 Descriptioa of the 'Map'

Incorporating gender considerations into development program design begins with analysis to
determine where gender intervenes in the situation to be affected. The Gender Analysis Map
provides a tool for initial assessment of important gender differences that can affect people's
ability to participate in and benefit from a development activity.

Step One involves information gathering on four key socio-economic factors in the baseline
situation -- allocation of labor, income, expenditure patterns, and access to/control of resources
-- in order to identify male/female roles and responsibilities. These four key factors are called
Exploratory Factors.


In Step Thog, the Geader Analysis Map guides the analysis of identified roles and
responsibilities to infer differences in men's and women's constraints to participating in,
contributing to, and/or benefiting from a development intervention. Conclusions are also drawn
about opportunities for increasing project effectiveness by recognizing and building on gender-
based roles, responsibilities, skill, and knowledge. Opportunities and constraints are called
Conclusion-Drawing Fators.

This process has been designed to indicate where development practitioners should first look
to see how gender could affect a project or program's success. It supplements macro level data
and helps to identify linkages between national policies and household level situations. Of
course not all factors in this framework will be equally important for all kinds of projects.
Neither will the Gender Analysis Map always yield complete information; however, it will very
often provide clues that suggest where further information or examination of gender issues is

Identifying where gender intervenes is important at every stage in the programming process.
Although, typically, identification of gender variables happens only in project design, it is
important in the Mission overall program level as well. At that level, understanding gender
roles enables the Mission to refine its process of setting objectives and targeting resources. The
Map has been designed to identify gender variables primarily at the household level, but it can
be useful for the larger process of overall program design.

The level of analysis -- the breadth and depth of issues to be considered -- depends on the
stage of the programming process. At the CDSS level, a limited analysis would be sufficient
to provide the broad overview of living patterns needed to anchor the macro-economic data
usually found in a CDSS.

At the project level, analysis should be more detailed. Because consideration of the factors
described in the Map may not provide the level of detail needed for some project
design/adaptation situations, additional information on resource materials for gender analysis
in agriculture and small-scale enterprise projects has been provided in Appendix II.

312 Steps in Goodor Analsis

In the step-by-step analytical process that follows, the four key socio-economic factors are
examined in more detail, and key issues and specific questions to address for each Exrploratory
Factor are listed. Examples of kinds of programs and projects where each factor is likely to
be important are also indicated. As noted above, all the issues of women in development are


not condensed within this Map. Rather, the Map suggests where planners should first look to
see if gender is an issue. It should also be noted that the Map is not a checklist to be filled out.
It is a preliminary analytical process for identifying where gender intervenes in development


Use the four EXPLORATDRY FACIORS below to identify where gender could intervene in
social and emanomic production systems to be affected by development activities.

FACTOR* ALLOCA'ION OF IABOR; Important for agriculture, natural resource
management, education, health-related projects. Must look at both household tasks and tasks
contributing to family income production.

* Who is responsible for which aspects of boaschold maintenance (fuel/water provision,
building maintenance, family health, child care, food preparation, etc.)?

In many countries, the division of labor between men and women for tasks to maintain
the family unit is very sharp. Women usually carry a double load of both domestic and
economically productive activities.

* What is time allocation by gcader and age? How do time and labor allocations vary
with ecmaomic class or position is the hosesold?

* What activities of male and female hoorschold members mantribute to crop and livestock

Who plows, plants, weeds, harvests, selects seeds, processes and markets crops? Who
is responsible for which aspects of livestock raising? (Analyze by crop and/or livestock

Men's and women's agricultural and other productive labor tasks may be interchangeable
but often are not More frequently, men and women have very specific responsibilities
by crop or for different animals. Development programs should explore which tasks,
which crops, which animals would yield the most gain with provision of technical
assistance and other resources (consistent with program goals). Similarly, planners need
to be aware of howr proposed changes in production patterns would affect men's and
women's tasks and resulting workload. Increasing one member's work affects his/her
ability to fulfill traditional responsibilitics.


Agri-business and agricultural policy efforts'that promote expansion of production of
non-traditional export crops can affect the division of labor. In many instances, these
projects and/or policy interventions are targeted at a male household head, who will
respond to incentives for non-traditional crops with both his own labor and that of his
spouse. The spoue must still meet traditional responsibilities for food production.
Such potential changes in the division of labor --and the ultimate effect on family well-
being -- need to be factored into the decision making process.

*How does allocation of labor in household, caterprise, and agricultural activities vary
by season?

Seasonality and its relationship to gender-based division of labor is important to
consider in agriculture and natural resource management projects. Projects that have
injected additional labor requirements at a time whco there is already a labor bottleneck
have resulted in decreased productivity from both the traditional and project activities.


In the Kenya Arid and Semi-Arid Lands project, women's self-help labor was expected
for soil and water conservation worke The women in the area are the principal
farmers because of male migration and would not be available during the peak
agricultural season. "Tlle original project design ignored the recommendation [of the
Social Soundness Analysis regarding labor bottlenecks]. Targets were set on the
assumption that work could be carried on throughout the entire year.
Ultimately...project management...suspended work during the peak season so that
women could finish their ploughing and planting." (AID, CDIE; 1987:17)

For caterprise development activities is family labor included in caterprise accounts?
Howa do famly members contribute labor? Who is responsible for bookkeeping, for
chaasing nd repairs, for product fi~ihin rand packging, for product sakles

FACI~OR- INCOME*- Important for enterprise development, agriculture, health; projects
counting on user fees.

Awareness of gender differences in sources of income is important both to identify ways to
increase productivity and also to avoid adverse impacts by inadvertently changing the use or
form of existing resources.


* What is makle/fmal labor force participation in the sector to be affected?

Women's labor force participation is often undercounted in country strategic
assessments. This occurs for several reasons, including lack of macro level review of
sectors where women predominate, use of survey methodologies that identify occupations
of all household members through interviews with male household heads, and survey
question design. For example, in countries or regions where greater status is accorded
women without outside employment, women will often state their occupation as
"housewife," despite considerable income-earning responsibilities. Understanding
participation of males and females in both formal and informal labor sectors is
important to understanding how national economies are driven.

* What are primary soarcesa of incoome for ment and Iwoma is rural and/or urban
households (wage labor, small-scale enterprise, etc)?

Thius question approaches the issue of income from the household perspective. Income
(cash, in kind, consumable items provided by family food provisioning, and transfers) in
most developing countries is provided to the family by both men and women. Among
the very poor, female income is as important as male income and is not supplemental.
Similarly, in areas of heavy male migration, women's income meets daily subsistence

Wage labor is a significant source of cash income for more than two thirds of the
women in developing nations. However, typically, women's incomes are derived from
multiple sources, including wage labor, trading, agricultural production, sales of
prepared foods, and craft production.

* For farm-reltatd income, hw much is gcacrated by mea/mwoes fla caops, livestock,
crop/livelstck by-prodpcrs (eg., milk, manare) and asop biomass (stalks, husks)? What
perccatage of famly laanne does self-provisioning represcat?

Men and womca may derive their incomes from the same resources. Knowledge of the
various uses of resources is important to avoid disrupting an income source. For
example, livestock may provide income or a source of savings to men while milk from
the same animals may provide income to women. In a related example, men and
women may use the same field for different crops during the year-, the Sield thus provides
income to different household members in different seasons.


* Howr do incomes vary by season?

Women's income is, by virtue of its diversity, often generated throughout the year. And
because it is derived from many sources, it may be less subject to crises (e.g., drought,
blight. currency devaluation, etc.) Sometimes it is the only family income available
during the pre-harvest "hungry" season.

* To what cztent are technical assistant, credit, purchased raw materials, and other
'inputs' currently used by male/feimae family members to increase productivity?

Women are less likely to use commercial sources of credit and frequently have less
training for income-earning activities. They also use agricultural inputs on a much
smaller scale. Therefore, the addition of a few inputs to their economic activities might
be a mechanism to significantly increase productivity, as it has for men.

FACTOR: EXPENDTITURE PATTERNS: Important for projects that directly or indirectly
change allocations of labor and access to resources such as natural resource management and
agricultural production projects, contract growing schemes, or projects that will change fee
structures for services.

Awareness of patterns of expenditure and provisioning responsibilities within the family -- who
is responsible for which expenses -- is necessary to understand the importance of individual
members' incomes to family well-being.

* Who is responsible for which elements of family ~C~pC5 and provisioning (e.g., staple
foods, vegetables, school fees, ceremonies, medical expenses, housing, clothing)?

* How could changes to family member inComes affec ability to meet family fiacial

Men and women may have different financial responsibilities in supporting the family.
For example, men may be responsible for providing staple grains, while women provide
vegetabics. Men may undertake or pay for building maintenance while women's income
pays for school fees, health care, and/or clothing. Each person's income is important to
maii~taining the totality of family welfare.

Studies in Asia, Latin America, and Africa suggest women are more likely to spend a
larger share of the income under their control on food, especially their children's
nutrition and well-being, than men. These studies indicate men spend larger portions
of their income on personal consumption items -- watches, guns, entertainment
(Blumberg: 4).



In India a study of the very poor showed that as women's incomes increased,
child nutrition improved. Where mothers were not working but the father's
income increased, child nutrition did not improve (ib;.9).

Knowledge of financial responsibilities is especially important for programs in A\fnca,
where women are heavily involved in food production -- in some cases the primary
farmer. In planning projects that will affect income distribution, development
practitioners should consider how gender affects the utilization of that income -- the
consumption and expenditure patterns.

FACTOR: ACCESS 'ID AND CONTROL OF RESOURCES: Important for all projects.

For the unit of ranlysis, what resoarms (c~g. credit, labor, land, time, training) are
required for activities affected by the project?

* How are yracc to and control of project resoarac and resulting project benefits
differcat for men and womeat How doe that affect ability to increase ema~omic
productivity or improe family well-being?

The extent of women's access to and control of key resources such as land, labor, income, and
credit varies significantly within and among societies, but in most instances it is limited.
Women are legally minors in some countries. They may also be unable to inherit land or own
cattle, thus eliminating standard forms of collateral for loans. Information and information
networks may also be less accessible to women because of restricted mobility, social mores that
limit interaction between unmarried or unrelated men and women, and because they do not
have time to access these networks.

Analysis of access to and control of resources will indicate how the stakes in a development
activity differ for men and women. Such knowledge will suggest how men and women might
respond to incentives to participate in projects and the extent to which benefits from
development activities may be distributed differentially among males and females.



* What other factors, outside labor, income, C~pediture patterns, and resources, are basic
to analysis of YOUR situation?

* Decide what questions should be answered is order to help determine whether there are
or may be gcader-related di~rcramsa to cack of these other factors.

Time availability and decision-making may be of special importance in many situations. And
because all development situations are different, planners should be alert for other, situation-
specific key factors requiring attention.


Use the CONCLUSION-DRAWYING FACIORS below to arrive at significant gooder
differences which aned to be takes into accoast is planning or adapting the project under


* For the unit of analysis and the projec/program ander consideration, what are the key
differenas betweca mean's and rwoes's constraints (as, labor, time, raccs to credit,
education, training, otthe)t

* How do thace affect ability to contribute to or beatt from a program? What are the
implications for incetive to participse?

It is important to know in the areas of A.I.D. programming, from the CDSS to specific projects,
how constraints to improving a situation vary by gender. Constraints can affect project
implementation and result in differential impacts on men and womca. Further, often major
changes in programming are not required.



Women heads of households constituted approximately one-fourth of applicants to
a low-income housing project in Ecuador. Only 26%e had incomes high enough to
qualify them for project-financed housing, and only 15% of women with qualifying
incomes had enough savings to make the 10% housing downpayment. After a survey
revealed these problems, the project was redesigned to require only 5%
downpayment with low initial monthly payments based on an adjustable rate of
interest. These changes meant that over 30% of income-eligible women heads of
households who had applied to the project could meet the project's selection criteria.

It should be noted that causal links between access to and control of resources and constraints
are difficult to establish, but relational patterns do erist. Appendix IV provides some
suggestions on project adaptations to deal with common constraints.


*For the unit of analysis and the project/program ander conrsideration, what are the
opportunities for increasing effei~ctieace by remg~nizig land building on gender rolca,
responsibilitics, skilaland knowledge?

Gender roles affecting factors of labor, income, expenditures, access to and control of
resources, and constraints can present opportunities for more effective development.
Maternal and child health programs, for example, which incorporate women's family
caretaking roles, draw on the skills of female traditional birth attendants to disseminate
information and provide services to womca. Women's economic roles, on the other
hand, are both less well understood and also less utilized to stimulate economic

Credit programs would be strengthened by keeping sex-disaggregated records to identify
characteristics of successful borrowers (often women have better repayment rates);
agroforestry projects would benefit by directing resources to persons responsible for
planting, maintaining, and cutting trees; and family planning projects could be enhanced
by knowledge of gender-specific information networks and designinS Sender-specific
promotion methods.


A simplified example of the kinds of information gender analysis would vield in a
project to increase sorghum production follows in Table 1. Information to be gleaned
from this very brief analysis includes:

* Women and men both produce sorghum; men work their
own fields, while women work in both the family and
their own individual fields.

* Women and men both receive income from sorghum
production, men from sales and ultimately from livestockt
grazing on harvested Sields. Women's income from
sorghum production is derived from brewing beer, wage
labor in transforming the sorghum, and sale of the
surplus from their own fields. It appears that both
produce for family consumption.

* Women use few inputs in their production and have little
access to extension advice.

* Women, as the family members responsible for seed
selection and storage, will have good information on
seed and varietal characteristics.

If a project were under consideration to improve sorghum production, this analysis
would provide insight on how proposed project activities would affect both men's and
women's income and labor. For example, introduction of labor-saving devices for
weeding would relieve labor bottlenecks, enable increased acreage and hence production;
or it could free up time for other economic activities.

A seed breeding program should, first, access women's information about seeds; and
second, consider in their varietal assessments, the use of sorghum for brewing beer.

Given womea's extensive involvement in sorghum production, extending the outreach
of agricultural technical assistance programs to include women might yield significant

'This very abbreviated analysis has easily identified both gender-specific constraints and
also opportunities for more effective project design.



Crop: Sorghum




Labor Land clearing-all Fields
Plowing-all fields
Seeding-family fields
Transporting grain from family
field to market cooperative

Income Sale of surplus sorghum (family
*Use of harvested fields to graze

Expend.(for Sorghum)
Sorghum seeds (new strains)
bags, fertilizer
Sorghum-family consumption

Resources: Access to and control of
*Labor: male household head
allocates all family members

Land: new land allocated by
local government; males inherit
most use rights

* Seeding own/family fields
* Weeding
* Scaring the birds
* Harvesting
* Storage
* Selecting seed

* Sale of surplus sorghum (individual Fields)
* Beer derived from sorghum
* Pounding sorghum for others

* Sorgham-family consumption

* Access to shared labor; control head allocates all
access to male labor to plow on individual fields
after family felds plowed.

* Can obtain land from local government; can
inherit usufruct rights but most land controlled
by male household head.

*Income: separate budgets but
male controls income from sale
of family field harvest

*Access to labor at peak periods,

*Work with coops on improved
transport systems

* Access to labor and extension assistance,
* Access to plowing, especially in female-
headed households

* Work with women on seed research; extend
technical assistance to women



4.1 Overview,

Step Tllree in the GIF process provides guidance on where to incorporate information about
significant gender differences in four A.I.D. documents: the Country Development Strategy
Statement (CDSS), the Action Plan, the Project Identification Document (PID), and the Project
Paper (PP).

Guidelines for incorporating gender issues into these A.I.D.'s documents follow. The discussion
is organized by programming document. Each discussion is divided into three sub-sections: a
very brief description of the document, a review of why gender is important in the document
under discussion, and an explanation of the specific Gender Considerations. Key questions and
comments are provided and indicate additional detail needed. The questions are meant to
stimulate thinking about what needs to be considered in a particular situation. The user should
select from the questions presented those that are most relevant to the specific development

It is recognized that within A.I.D. variations exist in the emphasis given to steps in the program
design process. Some Missions rely heavily on the CDSS for planning while others (usually the
smaller ones) do not prepare a CDSS at all. Some regions are using a Country Program
Strategic Plan (CPSP), which combines the CDSS and the Action Plan. In addition,
recommended content and format of the documents are regularly updated by guidance cables
which can be world-wide or bureau-specific. Further, A.I.D. assistance crosses many sectors.

Tllerefore, this section on document-specific Gender Considerations should be viewed as
providing general guidance on how gender issues can be addressed. Application will by
necessity vary with the regional bureau, individual Mission, and specific project.

4.2 Ocader Coasiderations: The CotnainDevlopmaot Strategr.Statemant

4.2.1 Description of the Country Developmeat Strategy Statemeat

The Country Development Strategy Statement (CDSS) is the document that provides the
framework for A.ID.'s strategy in its host country. Major sections of the CDSS are:
country development performance and strategy, opportunities and constraints for
programming, political economy of reforms and institutional change, and a review of the
A.I.D. assistance strategy. Although some variation is found in frequency of preparation
of the CDSS among missions, in principle a CDSS is (re)written every Sive years.


..2Why Geodet Coasiderations are important in the CDSS

The CDSS lays the groundwork for A.I.D.'s programming in the host country. Its
analysis defines the problem and the situation. Suggestions for new projects are assessed
against the problem analysis and strategy described in the CDSS.

As noted earlier, differences in men's and women's labor, incomes, expenditures and
other variables affect participation in programs and access to benefits. Projects and
programs need to understand fully the relationship between gender and these factors,
both to use opportunities presented by the gender-based roles and responsibilities and
also to mitigate against potential negative impacts. As the stage-setting document for
U.S. development assistance in a country, the CDSS itself, then, needs to take into
account gender issues that affect and will be affected by the Mission's strategy.

4.2.3 Gender Coasiderations in the CDSS

Including gender considerations in the CDSS begins with an understanding of gender-
based roles and responsibilities: use the Gender Analysis Map (or an alternate analytical
framework) to clarify gender variables. In countries having multiple ethnic groups, use
the Map to analyze two to three representative groups to indicate the areas where
gender might be an issue and what additional data are needed.

In many CDSS documents, the problem analysis and description depend almost entirely
on the use of macro level data. Analysis of the situation at the household level is
infrequent at best. Combining information about how money is made and spent within
the household with information about national economic trends, resources, and policies
will enhance the analysis that leads to problem and project selection. Thus, where
women's income is important to family well-being, their ability to earn that income
becomes an important variable in the development picture and should be included in the
economic analysis.

For example, when planners are considering strategies to increase production of a
specific commodity, information about who (men and/or women) produces that crop
both for consumption and sale, how much income results from production, and how the
income is spent should be factored into the situational analysis and strategic planning
processes. Without this information, influences on the ability and inclination to respond
to policy or project incentives will not be well understood.

It is not necessary that the analysis be in great detail; however, it should provide
sufficient information to indicate how gender affects key areas discussed in the CDSS,
including economic productivity, income, hunger, and education.


it should also be noted here that in many CDSS reviews of current and planned projects,
analysis of gender issues is found only in the discussion of "women's projects,' rather
than integrated throughout program/project analysis. Although gender will not be a
significant variable in all areas of programming, its importance can only be ascertained
if it is considered in a systematic way.

Finally, it should be noted that some overlap in gender considerations can be found
among different sections of the Gender Considerations Guide for the CDSS. This is
intentional and designed to take into account the fact that often different individuals in
a Mission or consulting team are responsible for preparing different sections of the

Gender considerations for the major sections of the CDSS follow.


A. Basic Characteristics of the Economy

A.1 ideatify signi6mat gender differeacts is participation is the economy, including rates
of prtic~ipation, loation, and skills la the raral and artma labor forme, in both formal
and informal sector caployacaL Where data are insufficient, include specific strategies
to obtain.

Disaggregated data, especially gender differences in productivity and income, are basic
to understanding how gender will intervene iA the development situation. For example,
the participation of women in agricultural production and post-harvest handling is well
documented. However, little data are available on their use of inputs, acreage planted,
yields, or other farm management data. Lack of data results in part from the fact that
in most instances male extension agents collect household level information from the
(male) household head. "Loss in data quality caused by under-counting women's
activities may seriously undermine the ability of decision makers to track developments
in the agricultural sectors." (Bremer-Fox. 1988: IV-151.

More specifically, collection of data for a household as a whole rather than for men's
and women's individual felds and production can result in systematic distortion of
national data in two ways:

** The total area and production estimates may be
too low, particularly for traditional grains,
because women's production is excluded, albeit
unintentionally-, and


** Yield estimates are probably too high, because
they are derived from men's plots, which can be
assumed to have higher levels of input use, and
therefore to achieve higher yields. (Ibd

Similarly, enterprise development programs that do not take into account both men's
and women's roles in production, bookkeeping, product finishing, and marketing operate
with an incomplete picture and potentially false assumptions.


A CDSS discussion of informal sector employment in some countries in West
Africa might include women's traditional involvement in trading and the
impact on these enterprises of government policies that regulate prices or

B. Record of Developmeat Performance

B.1 Disaggregate by grader chnane within the past five year in poverty, caployment, and
access to resources contributing to increased productivity (e.g., labor force mobility,
land, credit, training, technical assistance).

Many A.I.D.-assisted countries have implemented structural adjustment programs.
Structural adjustment programs affect and are affected by gender issues. To the extent
that data are available, the discussion of development performance and indicators should
be disaggregated by gender. For example, the economic contraction that occurs during
the stabilization phase of adjustment programs may impact women and female-headed
households disproportionately. Frequently poorer to start with, women are more
affected by reduced living standards. Also, lack of skills and family responsibilities often
restrict their capacity to move among sectors of employment. And with fewer economic
resources than men, women are less able to take advantage directly of policy incentives.
On the other hand, new less capital-intensive industries and export processing zones are
expanding opportunities for women in formal sector employment

B.2 Famine diffrence is participation by men and omca is private, political, and social


83 Examine differcatial effects of the development of dmcwratic political and economic
institutions on mal/fmle~ participation is and contribution to national economics.

B.4 Describe gcader differences is key area of social well-being, including health, nutrition
(ecg. education: arollmeat and cmmpletion rates at all levels, adult literacy rates; or
family planning- male and female aoccptors; gender differecace is knowledge, atitudes,
and practice).

Consider how gender-based constraints to education and training, and employment affect
achievement of national development goals. Do men and women face different cultural
and/or legal constraints to protecting themselves from AIDS?

B.5 Examine relative depeadcoac of the sass o n vrious cicacals of public spending lad

Women and members of female-headed households often act as 'shock absorbers' during
adjustment, reducing consumption and seeking more paid employment to compensate
for household income losses. Further, because of their responsibilities for children,
women often are more affected by reductions in social services and/or introduction of
user fees. To the extent that women are more highly represented in the public sector,
they also may be disproportionately affected by civil service cutbacks.

B.6 Examine the impac of differeams is wacc to education and other resources on
mak/femals ability to raepod to oaoomic adjustment policies Consider the
impliastion for sational development strategies

B.7 Dscribe mals and feale in(terna and caernal rlat of migration, corresponding
poverty;~~ iniestritio, dec.

B.8 Coasider how g laderifrsatiratd role and responsibilities maotribue to current treads
is deforesatnios deertification sad oth r apects of cavironacatal descrioration.

C. Spmmaryo dMacrnonoom~ic Analysis

C.1 Considear constrait toopportaities for incacaing probducivityr resulting from gender
differece is skills and knowledge, is agricltare and aterprise acivitics


D. Summary of Sector and Key Suhbecctor Asacas~ment

D.1 Disagcgrate statistical data by sea where approprite.

D.2 In sectors where men and romca are both economically a~ctive, discuss geader-related
constraints to and opportunities for progress is tht economic activity.

For example, where women are actively involved in formal or informal sector trading,
the CDSS should define that involvement, including important women-specific
constraints to increased profits such as barriers to obtaining credit, management advice,
and/or licensing permits without a spouse or male family member's signature.

The analysis of the agricultural sector should include a brief discussion about staple food
crops, including who is responsible for production; access to and control of land, credit
and other resources affecting production; and constraints to increasing that production.
it should be noted that emphasis on agricultural production for export carn put pressure
on women to reallocate their time. In some instances, their work is increased towards
production of men's crops without an increase in benefits or compensation. Export
crop incentives can also reduce the land available to women for producing their own
(usually food) crops for home consumption and sale. Following is an illustration of how
this information could be presented in a CDSS.


The agriculture sector is the most important sector of the economy, with
agriculture/1ivestock/forestry comprising 28.7% of GDP. The bulk of agricultural
production comes from small farm families which account for 79% of the population.
That traditional sector (i.e., small farm households with less than two hectares per
plot, growing food crops and cash crops, relying mainly on family labor) produces
nearly all of the nation's food (mainly plantain, roots/tubers and cereals).

Women are the primary producers of food crops, working their own fields, providing
the bulk of the labor for planting, weeding, and harvesting. They also provide unpaid
family labor on their husbands' cash crop fields for weeding and harvesting. Women
face significant constraints to increasing food, including labor bottlenecks at key
periods during the growing season and lack of access to technical information from
extension agents. A poor road network also constrains the transport of food from
farm to markets. This affects the individual's ability to sell surplus crops and the
national ability to move foods from food surplus to food dcficit areas.

Data on yields and value of women's food crops is not yet available. However, the
Ministry of Agriculture is taking steps to collect scx- disaggregated data in its next
agricultural census.

E lastitutionarl lad Hamas Resounrc Bas for Development

El Dscribe key gender differnce is the souic~trral and institational context for
development for example, how do social and cultural patterns, migration,
urbanization, public and private institutional systems differentially affect men's
and womca's contribution to social and economic development?

F. Heat Coastr Developmat Strategy and Policy Oricatation

F.1 Daesrbe govmeram policies toward fall participation of wom is economic
developmeat (cbg, legal sadfo r sualtory barriers to obtaining credit subsidies
for saetors is which aen/ralsn predomisae particularly is thoes sector is
which AI.D. is intereted



A. Key Economic Opportunities for the Cooatry: munsider how astapped or underutilized
capacities of men and womea might be used for economic progress.

For example, in West Africa, consideration might be given to how the skills and funds of
women traders could be tapped for commodity distribution and thus speed privatization of
parastatal marketing boards.

B. Key C~oastraints to Development

B.1 Consider how omstitutional civil, and customary laws affect mean's and woaca's ability
to respond to development opportasities

Constitutional, legal, customary, and policy frameworks often pose differential
constraints to men and women to participating in economic development, and therefore,
slow the pace of economic growth. For czample, inheritance and divorce laws that
restrict women's access to productive resources may act as a constraint to women's
investing labor or funds in family enterprises.

B.Z FamiH. what categories of peopic (disagregate by gender) have aazess to public
goods, sad as those directed towad infrastrucure, education preventive health,
nutrition, the caviroamcat, scicacend techaolog, and sataral res)Oorces



Another vehicle for education and training in agriculture has been the
Manpower Development Project....A serious gap in agricultural technical
expertise exists at the point of contact with farmers, both in research
capability and ability to communicate technical knowledge effectively. The
problem is especially severe in terms of efforts to communicate with women
farmers. Cultural mores constrain the contact between individual men and
women, thereby reducing the opportunities for women to obtain technical
assistance. Anthropological studies suggest that the best way to extend
information to women would be through female extension agents. Currently,
women comprise about 10% of the graduates of the agricultural colleges.

The Mission will propose that a carefully delimited agricultural personnel
analysis be done by a joint government/A.I.D. study team to determine
precise levels and fields in which staff are needed....Among their
responsibilities will be the identification of how to increase the percentage of
female agricultural personnel to 25% within the next 5ive years.


A. Supporting Coalition for Carrmat Policies

Consider the long-term vs. short-term gains and losses resulting from any current policies that
constrain women's contributions to economic development.

B. Nooded Policy Reforms

B.1 Consider if and how proposed policy adorms wea~ld*

** hav a difcreatial impact by scader
** seed lo-iracom fema headed h oeshlds

As noted earlier, policy reform proposals should be carefully reviewed to assess
potential gender~ifferentiated impacts and ability to respond to policy incentives.
Mechanisms should be established to carefully monitor implementation of policy reforms
through the use of small sample surveys, focus groups, or other low-cost methods.


B.2 If lanalss of mastraints to development indicated government policies impede the
matribution of wromca to economic deveclopmeto, what policies would be most
appropriate for dialogue with host country goernacat?

C. Institutional Channac and Sustainbility ot Reformed Policisa

Consider what institurtional chains are aaded to sustain host country commitment to
mantianing cmsideration of gcader issac related to economic and civil freedoms in their
development policies


A. Consider how a donor WID Committac might strengths the effort to more fully incorporate
gender issacs into the boat corntryr's development planaiag activities

A donor WID committee can be a useful mechanism to identify information sources, coordinate
on (and reduce expenditures for) baseline surveys, and increase knowledge of other initiatives
related to women in development.


A. Where wromen are e~onomically active la a sector, consider ho the Mission strategy assists
womca directly and indirectly to increae economic productivityr is that sector.

To understand how the Mission portfolio of projects assists women's productive activities, begin
by considering how men and women earn income and how this income is used to support the
family. If women provide a significant portion of the income (food, other in-kind, or cash)
throughout the year, or sustain the family during key periods such as just before harvest, an
assessment of how A.ID. interventions affect their economic roles is indicated. Gender analysis
as presented in the "Map" will identify important areas of economic contribution by women
among representative ethnic groups.

B. Esamiac how goader difference is ability to responrd to democratic plaralism, policy reform,
and/or structural adjustmeat initiatives have bean takes into acmant in the design of the
Mission strategy.


C. Consider what proporton of projects assists wromca's economic activitics compared to those
that provide health or other servxas How does this compare with assistance to men in these

Review the IMission portfolio of programs and projects to assess which women's economic
activities are supported and how. For a preliminary assessment on whether the current
portfolio has the potcatial of reaching women, planners can review:

percentages of projects providing assistance in the areas where
women are involved,

budgetary allocations to areas likely to benefit women, and

*a representative sample of consultants' and contractors' scopes
of work to assess the number that explicitly require
consideration of gender in their work

Some programs are likely to provide resources to women without a specific attempt to do so.
For example, in miacnroaerprise projects, analysis of certain features of the project, such as
the target group, average loan size, collateral requirements, and financing mechanism can give
a fair indication of the extent to which women are being reached." (White, Otero, et al,
1986:37). Thbis is based on research results indicating that projects targeting very low-income
beneficiaries are most effective in reaching womca.

Finally, as the need to demonstrate impact grows, A.I.D. assistance programs are likely to
become more concentrated, as is occurring in the Development Fund for Africa. Resources
will be distributed among fewer sectors. Given the sex-typing of family and economic
responsibilities in many countries, the possibility eists for most direct program beneficiaries
to be either male or female. Programs with heavy emphasis on health and family planning, for
example, may have woman as their primary direct beneficiaries, as might export processing
promotion programs. On the other hand, a program emphasis on agricultural non-traditional
exports, where woman often provide unpaid family labor, may provide income to male
household heads almost exclusively. Research indicates that women do not necessarily reap
beacfits of increased income commensurate with their labor input. The assumption that,
ultimately, benefits will accrue to all members of society, therefore needs to be carefully
checked through the CDSS 8ve-year period. Further, planners need to be aware of the trade-
offs of various kinds of programming emphases.


For a more detailed examination of the extent to which gender issues have been included in a
Mission's program, for sectors or subsectors where women are involved, look for:

assessment of gender considerations in project descriptions,
implementation plans, and project analyses,

indications of how the Mission will make project adaptations
where appropriate to incorporate gender considerations in
mainstream projects;

*established objectives, achievements, impacts, and benchmarks
disaggregated by gender for projects in sectors where women
are active.

D. What ste ps re included is the Mission stnt~rat to institutionalize consideration of gender issacs
in Mission programming What beachmark have beca established and what indicators of

The Congressional legislation of 1988 called for the development of new measures to ensure
inclusion of women in A.I.D.'s development programs. These measures included
implementation of systems and procedures to ensure collection of sex-disaggregated data,
description of explicit strategies for including women in development programs, and training
for and involvement of A.ID. senior staff in addressing gender issues in programming.

Actiitis ad bnchark fo mesurnn nsttutonaizaionmight include:

established indicators and a timetable for review of progress in
institutionalizing gender issues.

*a review of scopes of work and programming documents on a regular
basis to assess to what extent gender issues have been addressed.

assessment of Mission technical assistance needs in this area, if any.

established linkages with representatives of women's organizations to
facilitate regular consultation on sources of information, emerging
issues, and potential impact of programs and projects. This will be
useful where Mission personnel deal only with male host country


*inclusion of gender issues in dialogue with host country officials in
sectors where A.I.D. will be active. Dialogue might also be initiated
about mechanisms to enhance the host country government's ability to
collect sex-disaggregated data.

E Where data himavet bean availabic to adequately define gender issacs in sector assessments
and the Mission strategy, indicate what samps will be takca within the strategy under
development to obtain aceded data.

These steps should address data needs in program and project design, implementation,
monitoring, and evaluation and should include the following:

identification of specific gaps in data and information regarding women
which must be addressed before determining how to integrate women.

preparation of a specific plan with desired outcomes, timetable,
assignment of persons responsible for specific taskrs. Data to be
gathered should enable measurement of people level impact of Mission
programs. Also, it should be coordinated to "Sit" with other Mission
data needs, and it should allow comparison between men and women,
boys and girls. Data on women only does not indicate how womca fit
into the picture as a whole.

establishment of project monitoring and tracking systems that
disaggregate information by sex. Disaggregated data collection will be
less expensive and time consuming when planned from the start.

contact with the national university, non-governmental organizations,
and other donors to identify data available.

F. Consider if both wemac and mea participated is the dilogas that leads to problem
idtatifiastion, program and project deIgn,~ and evaletioa

G. Diaggregass objecive, baemars, sad indictors of DSS goal achievemat by gender where
appropriate and feasible.


43 Ocader Considerationll Tbei Actioa Plas

431Description of the Actica Plas

The Action Plan is a strategic planning and monitoring document that is written every
year or every two years. Prepared on a more frequent basis than the CDSS, it provides
background information on the sectors of A.I.D. activity and reviews impacts from the
CDSS strategy. TIhe Action Plan also presents new activities, and establishes objectives,
targets, and benchmarks for the Mission strategy and individual projects.

Level of detail in an Action Plan and extent of its utilization as a programming
document vary considerably among A.I.D. bureaus. In some bureaus it essentially fills
the overall assessment and planning functions of a CDSS. In others, the Action Plan
is folded into the CDSS to become the Country Program Strategic Plan. In such cases,
please refer to the CDSS sections of this document for more information.

431 Why Ocadc Coamideratina.lAm Imporutaint the Action Plan

As a working document with updated strategies and benchmarks for achieving and
measuring project/program success, the Action Plan is often the focal point for Mission
activities. Because gender-based roles and responsibilities affect and are affected by
project/program activities, consideration of gender issues should be integral to Action
Plan development. Also, the precise targets and benchmarks included in an Action Plan
provide an opportunity for on-going assessment of the extent to which gender issues are
institutionalized in Mission programming.

433 Ocador Coasidentions is the Action Pla

Incorporation of gender considerations into the Action Plan begins with an
understanding of gender-based roles and responsibilities: use the Gender Analysis Map
(or an alternate analytical framework) to clarify gender variables. Pay particular
attention to key factors such as gender differences in income, allocation of labor,
productivity, and acccas to education and other important resources. In countries having
multiple ethnic groups, use the Map to analyze two to three representative groups to
indicate the areas where gender might be an issue and what additional data are needed.

In many Action Plans, the country description and program impact analyses depend
almost entirely on the use of macro level data. Information about household level
variables is rarely incorporated into the analytical process. However, household level
data are helpful to provide the situational context for the macro level information.


It Is not necessary that the gender analysis be carried to great detail at the level of the
Action Plan. Rather it should identify key areas where gender considerations are most
Important, as well as additional data needs. Key Gender Considerations for the Action
Plan follow.


A. Disaggregate data by sox wherevr possible is program impac assessment

A\.1 In sectors of A.I.D. activity, for males and females in both urban and rural areas,
describe changes in labor force participation, primary sources of income, including
family enterprises, farm enterprises, and wage labor.

A.2 Consider trends in male/female division of labor for major agricultural activities (e.g.,
production responsibilities by crop or animal, marketing, post-harvest activities) in
countries where it is a major focus of the Mission program.

A.3 Identify percentage and rate of change in female-headed households.

A.4 Identify available data and additional data needed to support impact assessment.

Gender-disaggregated impact assessments are, with the exception of the health and
family planning arenas, fairly recent phenomena. People level impacts are difficult to
measure with many traditional assessment techniques, and disaggregating measurement
by gender adds still another requirement. However, they are important to understanding
program impacts.

For example, agriculture projects have traditionally measured such achievements as
increased yields, use of fertilizers, and commodity exports. However useful these
measurements are, they assume but do not actually assess how the well-being of men,
women, and children has improved. Similarly, increases in per capital income through
industrial development do not "prove" a higher standard of living for most people.

It is increasingly recognized that program success should be assessed by measuring such
things as increases in incomes for both men and women, as well as improvements in
health, nutrition and education levels, or proxies of these measurements.


B. Incorporate Acader considerations into backgreand information lad review of crrent

As with the overall program assessment, individual project and program assessments should be
disaggregated by gender.

B.1 Consider how constraints to participation in economic development differ for men and
women, with emphasis on sectors of A.I.D. activity.

8.2 Examine differential impacts, if any, of Mission programs on men and women.

** Do non-traditional export promotion programs assist
both men and women farmers and entrepreneurs? is
women's unpaid labor on farms and in family businesses
increased or eased through Mission programs?

B.3 Consider how opportunities presented by gender-based differences in skills and
knowledge have been incorporated into design of program strategies.

** In countries where woman are traditionally traders, have
their entrepreneurial skills been used in export
promotion programs? Have men been encouraged to
consider their financial responsibilities (perceived and
real) in family planning promotion messages?

B.4 Consider which projects/programs assist women directly to increase earning and/or food
production and which assist indirectly. Compare the proportion of projects that assist
women's economic activities to those that provide health or other social services.

8.5 Assess availability of sex-disaggregated data.

B.5.1 Assess implications of the appropriateness of the information base for gender
analysis of current, mainstream projects, identify data gaps, and indicate how
needed data will be collected.

The analysis of current project impacts should indicate where insufficient
information is available to measure participation and project/program impact by
gender. Here, too, the Gender Analysis Map can assist in identifying
information needs.



A. Describe modifiations planned for cristing) programs to addrcas gender considerations, where

Where analysis of the program indicates that gender Is a factor warranting project/program
revision, possible approaches c~an be found in both the GIF (e.g., Gender Considerations:
Project Paper) or the ten-step process for project adaptation described in Appendix IV.


In this section of the Action Plan, specific objectives to meet long-term development strategies are
defined and objectives are broken down into short-term targets. In sectors or areas of program activity
where gender is a factor, gender should be incorporated into the analysis. Specific gender considerations

A. Describe how goader-related rates and responsibilities affect long-term development strategies

B. Disaggregate by gender short-term targets to meen objectives, as well as indicators on progress
toward meeting objectives.

As noted earlier, increasingly A.ID. is asked to measure people level impacts of its
development programs. Therefore, as new strategic objectives are defined, they need to be
expressed in measurable terms, as do short-term targets, and the indicators that measure them.
This is true for both policy and project objectives.

In the policy arena, for example, an objective to improve the climate for private sector
investment should be measured by indicators that assess the degree of improvement for both
men and women, since barriers to increased investment might be very different for them. A
gender-specific barrier would be a policy that requires male signatures on loan applications.
Removal of this requirement would be a key indicator that the investment climate has improved
for women.



Objectives: Promote Private Sector/DIcrease Exports

The Management and Productivity Center (MPC) will continue to take special actions
to encourage participation of women in training courses provided by the Center. Given
that the Haitian woman carries a disproportionate workload and financial
responsibilities..., and given that she finds herself with little time during the day to
take training courses, the 25% female participation rate registered in 1987 is
encouraging. To increase this participation, MPC will continue to arrange the courses
at a reduced price and flexible timetable. MPC offers two levels of modular training:
one for the small to micro-entreprencur and one for the larger entrepreneur. At the
first level, there has been a 50%6 increase in female participation over prior years and,
at the other level, a 42% increase. In its mandate to respond to market demands, the
MPC will continue to develop offerings geared to the largest pool of bene~ciaries:
female small entrepreneurs. Projects are to increase women's participation by another
5% over the next two years.

(USAID/Haiti, Action Plan 1989-1990)


A. Dscribe current progrcess and futrue steps to cahuan Mission capability to incorporate gcader
considerations into programming including

benchmarks for reviewing progress in institutionalization of gender issues into Mission
programming process,

strategy for collection of data needed for adaptation of current and planned future

Other steps to enhance Mission capability might include:

establishing project monitoring and tracking systems that disaggregate information by

identifying Mission technical assistance needs in this area,


identlfying areas where dialogue can begin between the Mission and host country
officials concerning gender issues in sectors where A.I.D. will be active, and

establishing linkages with representatives of women's organizations for regular
consultation on sources of information, emerging issues, and potential impact of A.I.D.

An example of how this might be included in an Action Plan follows.


...we have begun to explore several avenues to further strengthen the implementation
of our WID strategy. We plan to conduct a portfolio review.... We plan to look for
assistance to gather, analyze and compare the existing studies on women in order to
arrive at a cohesive analysis which will suggest the best approaches to address
identified problems....We plan to encourage more active integration of WID concerns
in development activities implemented by ... non-governmental organizations in
Haiti....we recently met with representatives of the [Haitian Association of Voluntary
Agencies] women's committee and plan further discussions with them. (USAID/Haiti,

4.4 Ocader Coasjideratinas: Proiect Identification.Documten

4.4.1 Deacriptisof dthe roject Identifiation Documant

The Project Idcatification Document (PID) is a project concept paper that defines the
problem to be addressed and presents in general terms a recommended approach or
potential approaches to the defined problem. It also lays out the strategy for additional
data collection and detailed project design.

..2Why Ocador is Importan is the PID

The PID begins the project development process. Problem definition should include
assessment of gender-based roles and responsibilities in the baseline situation to enable
greater understanding of who and what the project will affect. The PID also lays out


the design strategy: it identifies what data are needed; suggests what issues should be
considered in the design. and who should participate in project design. If gender is not
considered at the PID stage, experience suggests that it will be omitted in the ultimate
project design.

4.43 Geader Considerations in the PID

Incorporating gender considerations into a PID begins with analysis of how gender
affects key variables in the situation to be addressed. Use the Gender Analysis Map (or
an alternate analytical framework) to identify how gender might intervene in labor
allocation, income and expenditure patterns, access to and control of resources, and
constraints to participation in economic development. Consider also how these factors
present opportunities for enhancing project effectiveness. Evaluation of A.I.D.'s
experience with women in development indicates that projects are more likely to achieve
their goals when there is a match between project activities and the division of labor.
Gender differences in some or all of the key variables are likely to affect project
implementation and eventual impact. For agriculture, agri-business, and other projects
that affect labor allocation, identifying division of labor by gender will be especially

The following represent key gender issues for project development at the PID stage. It
is important to note that resolution may not be possible for all issues raised. However,
the PID should identify them as issues for further exploration in the project design.


A. Problem Statement: Consider how gender affects the social and economic aspects of the
problem to be addressed.

How do men and women participate in activities the project will affect?

How do gender-based patterns related to division of labor, income,
expenditure, or other key factors affect the problem?

Using the information provided by the gender analysis, determine if the problem is different for
men and women, based on their roles and responsibilities. Imoking at the situation this way
may indicate new strategies and approaches. For example, in a proposed agroforestry project,


men s responsibility for livestock feed may lead them to prefer fodder trees In crop lands or live
fencing. In the same situation, women may be interested in boundary and cropland planting
because of their responsibility for fuelwood provision and domestic chores that require them
to stay closer to home.

How do gender-based constraints to access to or control of resources
affect the situation?

How do both men and women participate in defining the problem?

Where A.I.D. program personnel interact primarily with male host government staff. formation
of focus groups of women entrepreneurs, women farmers, and/or women's social service
organizations may be a useful technique for obtaining the information needed to fully
understand the project baseline situation.

B. Statement of Expected Project Achievements- Consider to what extent the participation of both
men and women will affect achievement of project goal and purposes. Consider also if expected
project achievements are consistent with gender-based roles and responsibilities.

The PID will indicate in general terms what achievements are expected at the end of the
project. It is important to assess the consistency between the problem definition, inputs,
outputs, and social considerations. In some projects where women have been active in
activities the project will affect, gender issues have been well addressed in the discussion of
social considerations. However, the social considerations have not been translated into project
inputs and outputs.

Note that in the description of project purposes and achievements, gender distinctions in
terminology (e.g., men and women entrepreneurs, men and women farmers) should be used to
define more specifically A.ID.'s work in the situation.


A. Project Elemeas

A.1 Identify project strategies that target project/program resources according to men's and
women's patterns of income, expenditures, allocation of labor, and resource control.

*How will constraints to participation and/or benefits
from the project be different for men and women?


information about differences in men's and women's activities in a project slluation
should be factored into project/program strategies, as should information on gender-
specific constraints to project participation. It should not be assumed that the same
delivery system or promotion strategies, for example, will be effective for both men and
women. This is particularly true for training programs. Lack of time, child rearing
responsibilities, and cultural restrictions often affect women's ability to attend training
programs. While extended residential training may be appropriate for men, women
may only be able to attend training sessions when they are in their home village or town.

** How can the project use the unique skills of men
and women, based on gender-based roles and
responsibilities to solve the problem?

Development assistance often works on assumptions about men's and women's roles.
Typically, this has resulted in social programs (health, nutrition, family planning
projects) for women and economic development projects for men. Men's roles in
childrearing are often ignored. The resource fathers represent for transmitting
information and values related to important aspects of life -- education, sexually
transmitted diseases, including AIDS, participation in community self-help programs-
-is infrequently utilized. Similarly, women's economic roles, and their potential
contribution to development, are an under-utilized resource.

Consideration of gender issues in a project or program often challenges traditional
assumptions and leads to more effective programs.

A.2 Identify technical issulca in the project design that may aced special attcation to gender

** Whose (male/female) income, labor, ability to meet
financial responsibilities will the technical assistance or
project technology affect?

** Will the project's technical resources be targeted
appropriately, given gender-based roles and

Technical packages can increase productivity of one household member while decreasing
the productivity of another. For example, in an agricultural project to develop new
strains of rice, researchers should consider how men and women use the total plant.
While men may control the harvested grain, women may have access to the residues to


make mats for sale or to use as animal fodder. Research to increase rice vields may
decrease its utility to produce income in other ways. Thus, there is little net gain for the

Also, women's technology needs may be different from those of men. It is important
that the technology needs assessment process and feedback loops provide a mechanism
for systematic input by both men and women.

A.3 Review project compoacals for consistcacy with what is knowsn about the organization
of activities the project will affect and manstraints posed by that organization.

A.4 Include strategies to obtain scrdisaggregated data about and feedbac from both men
and wromca is project monitoring and evaluation systems, where their activities will be
affected by the projct.

Sex-disaggregated data are more easily and less expensively obtained when the systems
to collect it are built into a project or program from the beginning.


A. Social Considerations

A.1 Include kwnow information about key goader variables is analysis of factors ~taffcing
project activities

The Social Considerations section discusses what information is available and what is
needed for gender analysis. This section should specify:

** Male/female labor force participation overall; labor
force mobility betwcca sectors; tntr-houschold division
and seasonality of labor as appropriate to the project.

** Primary sources of income for males/ females; intra
household incomes and expenditures and their control;
seasonal variations in income and expenditures.

** Differential access for men and women in access to and
control of resources in the legal, socio-cultural, and
economic cavironment affecting the project.


** Asymmetric rights and obligations among men and
women governing allocation of labor and decision-
making authority.

It is in the Social Considerations section that gender issues have been housed
traditionally in PID documents. Unfortunately, the social analysis of gender issues is
less frequently reflected in project design. It is important, therefore, to continually
assess the consistency between the social analysis and project strategies (as well as other
sections of the project document, including the technical and economic analyses, budget.
logframe, etc.

A.2 Consider who beadfits from the project and how; disagregateC beac6ciaries by gender.

To assess the socio-cultural feasibility, examine project inputs and which household
member should receive them, given the differences in roles and responsibilities of men
and women. Carefully consider who benefits, in what form benefits are received, and
how they affect willingness to participate.

** Are beneficiaries appropriate, given the social
organization of activities the project will affect?

** Will project benefits and their distribution
provide sufficient incentive to encourage

Evaluations indicate that projects increasing family labor without increasing benefits to
the family worker may experience difficulties in maintaining desired levels of labor
inputs. Agriculture, natural resource management, community labor projects and others
need to consider how gender differences in access to project bene~ts might affect
incentive to participate.

A3 Identify gcader mansiderations related to ability to participate la a project.

** What are prerequisites to participation and how
do these affect men's and women's ability to
participate and beneft?t

Formal and informal eligibility requirements should be identified. For example, a
training project may not overtly restrict acces by women; however, entry requirements
that are beyond women's typical education levels may shrink the pool of eligible w~omen.


Credit program collateral requirements may restrict access to project participation by
women, since women are less likely to own land or livestock, which are the usual forms
of collateral required.

A.4 Asses~s differeatial impact of project by gender.

** Will the project have differential short- or long-term impact on men and women?

B. Economic Considerations: Examine how the proposed approach will affect men's and women's
economic roles and improve family well-being.

Are economic benefits consistent with income and expenditure patterns
of women and men?

How will project interventions affect these patterns?

Where men's and women's income and expenditure streams are
separate, the family may be an inappropriate unit of analysis.
The economic analysis should assess how the project increases
individual family members' productivity and ability to meet
Financial responsibilities and how this affects family well-being.

What additional information is needed to fully consider these

C. Technical Considerations: Assess the technical expertise and experience of the proposed
implementing agencies (host country and U.S.) in reaching women; consider developing such
capacity as part of the project, if aceded.

What is the experience of the implementing agencies in reaching
women and men in their separate and joint economic roles?

e What linkages exist to ensure feedback on technological interventions
from both men and women to project implementers, including advisors,
extensionists, researchers, and others?


D. Budget Considerations: Examine budget estimates for consistency with issues discussed in social.
economic, and technical considerations.

*Where gender is a factor in activities to be affected by the
project. does the budget include funds necessary for appropriate
staffing; outreach to both men and women; and collection of
sex-disaggregated data for project refinement, monitoring, and

This 'consistency check" is important because, as noted earlier, in many previous projects.
proposed strategies to facilitate participation of both women and men in the project have not
been reflected in the budget.

E Design Strategy

E.1 Summairia aced for sesiisaggreatd data for Projec Paper (PP) or pre-PP study-
indicate how such data will be colleced

E2 Recommead Project Paper team composition assassary to casarc that gender issacs are
effectively addressed

E3 Include cosideration of gender issacs is PP team members' Scopes of Work

E.4 Recommead that gcader criteria be included is any Request for Proposals resulting
from the Project Paper.

F. Project Laogical Framewsork (lagfrme): Diaggregate by gender purpose, outputs, inputs,
indicators where appropriate.


4.5 Geoder Considerations: Project Paper

4.5.1i Descriptioq of the Project Paper

The Project Paper is the document that drives and describes the project design process.
It builds on the Project Identification Document (PID), in which the problem to be
addressed and the approach to solving that problem have been presented. The Project
Paper is usually written by a team that includes both Mission staff and consultants. It
typically includes extensive reading and interviewing in the host country by design team
members to produce detailed technical, economic, administrative, Sinancial, and social
analyses that are required for project design.

4.5. Why Gender Iasses are Important in the Projec Paper

TIhe Project Paper is the basic document used to implement a project. Although written
with varying levels of detail and specificity, these documents always include
recommended project goals, major project elements, staffing, and budget. The Project
Paper also establishes the processes of data collection, monitoring, and evaluation that
shape how success will be measured. In essence, the Project Paper guides A.I.D.'s work
in a specific area. Therefore, gender considerations should be included both in the
process of project design and in the design itself.

4.53 Ocador Coasiderations in the Projec P1ape

Incorporating gender considerations into the Project Paper begins with analysis of how
gender affects key variables in the project baseline situation.

Use the Gender Analysis Map (or an alternate analytical framcwrk) to clarify where
gender roles and responsibilities intervene in the activities the project will affect. (The
gender analysis in the PID should indicate what information is available and what is
needed for the project design.) Where a project will be undertaken with multiple ethnic
groups, or where geography has led to very distinct cultural patterns, gender roles should
be analyzed for two to three representatives groups.

For agricultural projects, understanding of the allocation of labor will be especially
important. Clarification of gender-based differences in allocation of labor, income, and
access to/control of resources will be important for enterprise development projects.
Information about division of labor, income, expenditure patterns, and access to control
of resources will always deepen understanding of the factors affecting family economic


The Map within the GIF is a tool for a very broad analysis to indicate the important
areas for exploration of gender issues. Information on other frameworks providing a
more detailed gender analysis can be found in the Appendices for a more detailed
gender analysis.


A. Problem* Consider hw goader affeces the probica to be addrceaed

How do men and women participate in the activities the project will affect,
directly or indirectly? How is the problem different for men and women? Have
both men and women participated in defining the problem and identifying

The period betwcca approval of the Project Identification Document
(PID) and Project Paper preparation provides an opportunity to involve
both men and women in the project design, if this did not occur before
preparation of the PID. Focus groups can be established without
excessive expenditures of time and energy to identify men's and
women's perceptions of the problem the PP addresses and proposed

Use gender distinctions in terminology (e.g., male and female farmers,
rural men and womea) in Project Purpose statement. This will define
more precisely the social context and impact of A.I.D.'s wort

B. Projcct Elemets

B.1 Develop strategies to incorporate wromn and men is project, based on technical,
financial, economic, social soundness, and administrative analyses.

** Where women play a major role in project-related
activities, how do proposed strategies utilize and expand
women's economic productive capacity?



A microenterprise credit project in Latin America was successful in reaching women
microentrepreneurs and vendors as a result of design features that reflect
understanding of gender differences in constraints and opportunities. Eighty percent
of the beneficiaries of the group credit componcat were women; 27% of these were
the sole adults earning an income in their households. Women receiving loans from
the program had a 25%6 average increase in income. Procedures to obtain credit
involved few office visits, no collateral was required, and information about the
program was disseminated through informal networks. This project included strategies
to address constraints women face regarding time availability, crossing class barriers
to seek assistance in banks, lack of collateral, and access to information. Although
not a "women's project' its credit procedures, designed for low-income entrepreneurs,
facilitated women's participation.

Bl Howr could policy dialogue on scador issacs important to this project/program's
implemenation be cileted?

B.3 Aaces the coasisteacy betweca project dometsb, purpoaC, iapass oaltpass the social,
economic, flareil and tr*rrh* I feabilityl.

** Are gender issues incorporated throughout, and are they
consistcat with gender-based roles and responsibilities in
the baseline situation?

** What strategies address the constraints to participation
that result from gender differences in roles and
responsibilities? For example, are gender differences in
mobility, education, access to resources taken into
account? Will outreach strategies, timing and location,
scope, and scale of project elements (e.g., size of loans,
kind of training, type of equipment) enable the
participation of both men and women?


A "consistency check" is important in project design,
because consideration of gender issues in the Social
Soundness Analysis has in many instances stayed in the
analysis and not been reflected in project
implementation plans and strategies.

B.4 Include strategies to collec se~isagr~egated data and kcd~back from mea and womca
participants/bteneciarkes s part of monitoring and evaluation systems.

Collection of sex-disaggregated data is less time consuming and less expensive when
provision is made for its collection during project preparation. The project design
should indicate what information is needed and how it will be collected.

C. Cost Estimates* Include in cost estimates funds ceded for collection of sex-disaggregated data
for project refinement, monitoring, and evaluation; also funds to enable the participation of
both men and women (e.g., for training, materials development project personnel).

D. Implementation Plas

D.1 Specify target numbers and/or prasantyag of male and femain training participants;
also, consider gender differences in the design of eligibility criteria for training and
recruitment strategic.

D.2 Include appropriate project/program persoonad to casare projess acivities rteflc
gender-based rolsad responsibilitics Inclusion of a social scientist can be 'an effective
mechanism for ensuring appropriate consideration of gender issues (as well as those
related to ethnicity, class, age, etc.) in project implementation.

Ushe social scientist can work with other technical staff to develop baseline studies,
monitoring and evaluation systems, methods of outreach to women, etc. Also, where
information will be disseminated to women, provisions should be made to provide
training to male extension agents on working with women; or female extensionists
should be included on the project staff.

D3 Include decision points to adjust project elements and timing as additional information
is availabi from baseline data colicction and monitoring activitica



A. Technical Asscssment: Include gender as a variable in technology needs assessment, analysis
of cultural suitability, and potential impact.

Because technical packages can increase productivity of one household member while
decreasing the productivity of another, the technical assessment should include an examination
of gender-differentiated impact.


A project to increase palm oil production introduced mechanical presses to
community cooperatives and displaced the micro scale processing that provided
income to rural women. Few women belonged to the cooperatives, and their opinion
was not sought out in the design of the project

An alternative strategy might have been to work with women's groups to enable them to
establish their own oil press businesses or to introduce a more productive technology to
individual womca.

A.1 Needs Assessment: What provisions are made for local men's and women's participation
in selecting technical approach and technologies?

Women's technology needs may be different from those of men. It is important that the
technology needs assessment process and feedback loops provide a mechanism for
systematic input by both men and women. The issues here are complex, and some
trade-offs between incomes may be involved. However, these decisions should be made
with full information about the likely outcome and potential impact to the various
members of the household.

A.2 AcssE: Does the project approach (technology, information, credit, etc.) take into
account gender and class differences in access to cash, land, labor, or other resources
that might affect ability to participate in the project?

A.3 Suitability: Where women play a major role in project-related activities, how will the
project determine whether proposed technical innovations or assistance is appropriate
and acceptable to them?


A.4 Jmlac.J: Given allocation of tasks by gender:

** Will the technical approach or package increase labor differentially for men and

** Will if affect relative access to resources?

** How will changes from the technology affect both men's and women's domestic
responsibilities and their ability to provide income or food for their families?

B. Financial Analysis: Review intra-houseold differences in incomes and expenditures; examine
ability to obtain and benefit from project resources.

Are there gender-based constraints to ability to pay for project services and
inputs or otherwise participate in the project? If yes, what are the implications
for overall impact and achievement of project goals?

How can the project/program build on existing revenue-generating, expenditure,
and savings patterns to promote increased financial well-being among both men
and women?

How will the project affect incomes of both male and female family members?

Female-headed households are increasing in number and percentage around the world. In
addition, in many ethnic groups, women maintain their own household budgets and often have
fewer financial resources. The financial analysis should consider these elements to determine
if the proposed activity will be accessible and profitable to the full pool of potential
participants, or if constraints based on gender will significantly foster both men's and women's
participation. The financial analysis should address the questions, "Who will participate?" and
"Whose finances?" Where both male and female family members participate, often only
undifferentiated household finances are analyzed. In households where incomes and
expenditures are kept separate, this may be inappropriate.

C. Boonomic Asalysis Specify costs and benefits for males and females in terms of opportunity
costs of labor, access to productive resources, status, and ability to meet family expenses.

Because in many countries men and women have different income and expenditure streams,
increased incomes to men may not translate into improved family welfare. This can occur for
many reasons. Examples follow.


Increased income for one family member may be derived from
additional labor required of another family member. This decreases
the amount of time for that laborer's own income- generating activities.

Projects that pay husbands for all family members' labor, or projects
that change land allocation patterns from those of usufruct rights to
titled land, may decrease women's ability to earn or control their
income. Because women usually contribute a larger share of their
income to family expenses, eliminating or reducing their income can
have a negative effect on family welfare. Studies suggest that when
women's incomes increase, child nutrition and other indicators of well-
being improve. Increases in men's incomes do not appear to result in
corresponding improvements.

D. Social Soundacss Amnalsi

D.1 Examine mean's and woaca's roles is acivities the project will affect, and assess whether
project inputs are appropriate according to the social and economic organization of

** What is the division of labor/time/decision-making
authority in project-related activities? How will the
project affect/be affected by gender differences in those

** What opportunities for increasing productivity and/or
socio-conomic well-being are offered by male/female
roles and responsibilities?

D.2 Examiac prreqaisities for participation is project and how gender-based constraints will
affect ability of household members to participate.

** What are the formcal/informal prerequisites to
participation (c.g., literacy, collateral, labor mobility)?

To assess the socio-cultural feasibility, examine project
inputs and which household member should receive
them, gives the differences in roles and responsibilities
of men and women. Formal and informal eligibility


requirements should be identified. For example, a
training project may not overtly restrict access by
women; however, entry requirements that are above
women's typical education Icycls may restrict the
eligibility pool. In credit programs, collateral
requirements may restrict access to project participation.

** How does gender affect access to and control of
resources (land, labor, capital, etc.) related to project

D3 Examiac the distribation of beadits to men and women and how beactits affect
incentives to participate.

** Which household members bencfit and how? Who are
the beneficiaries? Who decides bencht allocation?

** Do benefit to individual household members provide
sufficient incentive to participate? Do they offset any
additional workr that might be required?

D.4 Asaca ipact, short- and long-term, direct and indirect on men's and women's roles and

** How will the project affect patterns of
employment, consumption, resource allocation,
and status?


In Nepal, women are traditionally responsible for watering trees and, at least near the
homestead, protecting them against foraging livestock. In a village with a tree nursery,
where women were not specially targeted to receive extension, mostly men took
seedlings for planting around their homesteads. Most of the trees died -- because the
women were not aware of the planting program.



.Managers of a raidfed agriculture project in Thailand assumed that men were the
principal farmers and trained them to carry out crop trials. Women, who performed
most of the tasks, received no training. Crops were planted incorrectly and did not
grow; a nitrogen-fixing crop intended to fertilize rice was not planted; and other
project activities were not implemented. Some trials fell a year behind schedule. In
some instances, women, who had not been consulted about the project, pressured their
husbands to drop out.

** What are the implications of these changes for project
sustainability and long-term development goals?

E Administrative Analysis

E1 Describe the impicacating institution's ability and aspieriac in reaching both men and
women; examine the implications for project strategies.

E2 Indicate what steps might be necessary, if any, to improve the implementing agency's
ability to provide technical assistance to women.

Institutional selection is important Technical czperience of an implementing agency
is not synonymous with outreach to poor people and women. Lack of experience may
require some specific resources targeted to improve their capability such as in
collection of disaggregated data in development of new methodologies to reach women,
employment of womca staff members.

E.3 Consider additional or alternative institations for projc unaditnisrtion, if appropriate,
to ensure both men and women have access to project resources.

Ingjica Framework* disagregtrre by pader- purpose, inputs outpats, indicators, where



These Guidelines are a summary of recommendations for the incorporation of gender considerations
into A.I.D.'s programming documents. "Dicy have been culled from a variety of sources, both within and
external to A.I.D. The Guidelines are most useful as a tool to review program or project design
documents to ensure that gender issues have been included appropriately.


*Disaggregate data by sex wherever possible; where data are needed but not available, indicate
how they will be found and how incorporated.

*Use gender distinctions in terminology (e.g., men and women farmers, male and female
entrepreneurs) in order to define more precisely the social context and impact of A.I.D.'s work.

*In Proiect Assistance

** Disaggregate by gender:

*** project objectives where appropriate
*** benchmarks for project monitoring and evaluation
*** beneficiaries
*** logframe (objectives, monitoriaL, etc.)

** Incorporate gender considerations throughout the project design document; in project
implementation, technical analysis, financial, and economic analysis sections as well as
in social soundness analysis.

** Describe in explicit terms in country strategy, project identification, and project design

*** strategies to involve women where gender analysis indicates women are active in
program or project sectors;
*** benefits to women and men.

** Include decision points in the project implementation schedule that allow project
modification or redirection to incorporate gender considerations as baseline or project
monitoring data become available.


*In N~on-Project Assistapce Programs

** Disaggregate by gender:

*** objectives where potential beneficiaries are described;
*** impact assessment;
*** benchmarks for project monitoring and evaluation;
*** logframe (objectives, monitoring, etc.)

** Include gender considerations in technical, institutional capability, and economic
analyses sections, as well as in social feasibility section.

** Include impact monitoring at the household level; collect sex-disaggregated data.

** Include decision points when the program can be modified or mitigating activities can
be initiated to offset short-term adverse impacts on men and women.

*Proiect/Program Design and Evaluation Teams

** Include gender considerations in scopes of work for technical, institutional, economic
and financial analyses in project and non-project assistance design documents.

** Include gender issues analysis in scopes of work for evaluation team members.

** Include in design and evaluation team leaders' scope of work the responsibility for
ensuring that gender considerations are adequately addressed.

*Requests for Proposals

** Include a requirement that gender considerations be addressed.

** Include gender coasiderations among criteria for selection of proposals.

** Include assessment of how gender issues are addressed in criteria for proposal selection.




Ageency for Internatlonal Development. (1991). Gender and Adjustment (draft). Ron Hood, Mary Altomare.
L\wrnc~e HadJdad and .Martha Starr-McCluer, The MIayaTech Corporation.

Agency for International Development. (1990). 'A.I.D. Program for Women in Development A User's Guide
to the Office of Women in Development."

Agency for International Development. (1988-89). Action Plan USAID Haiti.

Agency for International Development. (1988). Africa Bureau Action Plan for Women in Development.

Agency for International Development. (ad.). Agricultural Education Project Cameroon. Project Paper, n.p.

Agency for International Development. (1988). ANE Bureau Action Plan for Women in Development.

Agency for International Development. (1988). Bureau Action Plan for Implementing the Women in
Development Policy. SAA/S&T, USAID. March.

Agency for international Development. (1988-90). Cameroon FY 1988-1990 Action Plan. Cameroon.

Agency for International Development. (1989). Country Development Strategy Statement Cameroon, A
Compilation of the 1986 Country Development Strategy Statement. Prepared in 1984 and the 1989
CDSS Update.

Agency for International Development. (1988). LAC Action Plan for Women in Development.

Agency for International Development: (1988). Towanda Natural Resource Management Program. Project
Identification Document. Office of the AID Representative. Kigali, Rwanda. March.

Agency for International Development. (1988). WID Action Plan. Bureau for Private Enterprise. USAID.

Agency for International Deve~lopment. (1988). WID Action Plan. PPC/CDIE. USAID.

Agency for International Development (1988). WID Action Plan. PPC/DC/DAC. USAID.

Agency for International Development. (1988). WID Action Plan. PPC/DC/UN. USAID.

Agency for International Development (1988). WID Action Plan. PPC/MFL.

Agency for International Development. (1988). WID Action Plan. PPC/Offices of Economic Affairs. L'SAID

Agency for International Development. (1988). WID Action Plan. PPC/'PB. L'SAID. March.

Agency for International Development. Concepts, Terms and Definitions, PPC/'WID, 1989.

Agency for International Development, Center for Development Information and Evaluation, 1987. Women in
Development: A.I.D.'s Experience, 1973-1985, by Alice Carioni.

Agency for International Development. (1987). Gender Issues Framework. Office of Women in Development
for Farming Systems Research Symposium. October 18-21.

Agency for International Development. (1986). Senegal Agricultural Production Support Project. Project
Identification Document. March.

Agency for International Development. (1986). Encouraging Female Participation in Irrigation Projects.
Summary of Experience. Washington. January.

Agency for international Development. (1985). Mali Country Development Strategy Statement FY 1985.

Agency for International Development. (1985). Project Identification Document for Agricultural Production
Support Dakrar, Senegal. September.

Agency for International Development. (1982). Project Development, Analysis and Presentation. Chapter 3
of AID Handbook 3. September.

Agency for International Development. (1982). Project Identifiction: The Project Identification Document.
Chapter 2 of AID Handbook 3. September.

Agency for International Development. (1982). A.I.D. Policy Paper Women in Development.

Agency for International Development. (1981). Ipyisibly Farplqrs: Worpen and the Crisis in Aericulture.
Office of Women in Development edited by Barbara lewis. Washington. April.

Agency for International Development. (1975). Non Project Assistance. Chapters 1, 2 and 3, A.I.D.
Handbook 4.
Agency for International Development. (n.d.). Gender Framework Probes Evaluation. Office of Women in
Development Washington.

Aiken, S.; Anderson, IC; Dinnerstein, M.; Lensinkt, J.; and Macorquodale, P. (1987). Journal of Women in
Culture and Society, Vol. 12, No. 21. University of Chicago.

Alloo, F.; and Glarke, A. (n.d.). Feasibility Study for a Women's Centre in Dar Es Salaam. Report of African
Participatory Research Network. Tanzania.

A~nker, R. (n.d.). The Statistical Visibility of Women's Work. INUSTRAW News, n.p.

Blumberg. R. (1988). `Income U~nder Female vs. Male Control: Differential Spending Patterns and the
Consequences When Women Lose Control of Returns to Labor." Working Paper Prepared for the
World Bank.

Blumberg, R. L. (1989). .Making the Case for the Gender Variable: Women and the Wealth and Well-Being
of Nations, U'niversity of California, San Diego, January.

Bremer-Fox, J.; Mehra, R.; and Graig, L. (1987). "The Policy inventory: A Manual for Rapid Appraisal of
Policies Affecting the Agricultural Sector with Disaggregation of Impacts by Gender." Office of Women
in Development, A.I.D.

Bryson, J., et al. (1988). "Project Food Aid--Guidelines for Program and Project Development.' Prepared for
USAID's Bureau for Food for Peace and Voluntary Assistance. January.

Caye-Hubbs, Virginia, and Al Rollins. (1989). "The Gender Information Framework", prepared for the Office
of Women in Development, Agency for International Development.

Collier, P. (1987). "Women in Development: Defining the Issues.' Institute of Economics and Statistics paper.
Oxford. October.

Consultants in Development. (ad.). "Crittres d'Evaluation Pour les Projects de D~veloppement Concernant
les Femmes." Washington, D.C.

Davies, IC (1988). Statement of WID Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination Agency for International
Development Before the House Select Committee on Hunger. May.

Demery, L.; and Addison, T. (1987). The Alleviation of Poverty Under Structural Adiustment. World Bank.

Development Associates, Inc. (1987). "Evaluation of the International Center for Research on Women: Country
Visit Reports." Prepared for Office of Women in Development, Agency for International Development.

Diaw, D. (1986). "Country Assessment Profile, Republic of Senegal." Draft Report Prepared for the African
Development Foundation. March.

Eide, I. (1987). "Women as a Development Issue: A Presentation of UNDP Policy and Procedures."
UNDP/ISSAS Development Policy Seminar. Hague. November.

Feldstein, H.; and Poats, S.V. (n.d.). "Report on Gender and Agriculture Project to ICRW Rountable on WID
Guidelines.' The Population Council. New Yort

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (1983). Follow-up to WCARRD: The Role of
Women in Agricultural Production. Paper Presented at the Seventh Session of the Commatree on
Agriculture. Rome. Italy. 21-30 March.

Ford Foundation. (1986). Created Equal: A Report on Ford Foundation Women's Programs. New York.

Ford Foundation. (1987). "A Foundation Poliev Restated." Ford Foundation LETTER. June.

Ford Foundation. (1987). 1987 Annual Report. New York.

Ford Foundation. (1988). Ford Foundatiqq: Curreqt Iqterests 1988 and 1989, New York. January.

Ford Foundation, Women's Programme Forum. (1988). Expandine (Acome Earninn Opportunities for W'omen
in Poverty: A Cross Regional Dialogue.

Frankenberger, T. (1985). "Adding a Food Consumption Perspective to Farming Systems Research." USDA
Report. June.

Grosz, R. (1988). "Conceptual Framework and Terms of Reference for a Pilot Case Study: To Analyze and
Monitor the Impact of Tanzania's Economic Recovery Program on Women: Establishing a Baseline and
Tracking System." PPC/WID. April.

Grosz, R. (1988). Trip Report, TDY Mission to Tanzania. April 4-16, 1988, n.p.

Hahn-Rollins, D.; and Surles, J. (1986). Women in Development: A Manual for Leadership Training. A
Project of Kenya Rural Area Women's Project. Church of the Province of Kenya and Overseas
Development, The Episcopal Church in the USA.

Hall, R.; with Sandler, B. (1982). 'The Classroom Glimate: A Chilly One for Women." Paper for Project on
Status and Education of Women. Association of American Colleges.

Herz, 8.; and Measham, A. (1987). 11se Safe Motherhood Initiative: Proposals for Action." World Bank
Discussion Paper 9. May.

Jiggins, J. (1988). "Conceptual Overview: How Poor Women Earn Income in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa and
What Prevents Them from Doing So." Paper Presented to Ford Foundation.

Jiggins, J. (1984). "Farming Systems Research: Do Any of the 'FSR' Models Offer a Positive Capacity for
Addressing Women's Agricultural Needs?" CGlAR Working Paper. May.

Jiggins, J. (1986). Gender-Related Impact and the Work of the International Agricultural Research Centers.
Consultative Group on international Agricultural Research Study Paper No. 19. World Bank.
Washington, D.C.

Jiggins. J. (1986). 'Women and Seasonality: Coping with Crisis and Calamity.' Seasonality and Poverty.
Institute of Development Studies. July.

Jokes, S. (1988). "Gender and Macro-Economic Policy." Prepared for AWID Colloquium on Gender and
Development Cooperation. April 11-12.

Jokes. S., et al. (1988). "Women and Structural Adjustment Part 1: A Summary of Issues." Prepared for the
.Meeting of Women in Development Expert Group of the OECD Development Assistance Committee.
Paris. April 18.

Johnson B.; Hoben, A.; Dijkerman, D.; and Jaeger, W. (1987). Ap Assessmeqt of A.I.D. Activities to
Promote Aericultural and Rural Development in Sub-Salippep Africa. A.I.D. Evaluation Special Study
No. 54. April.

Kean, J.; Turner, A.; Wood, D.; and Wood, J. (1988). Syathsia of .AI.DEv~a.1.alion L.Lports..EY.1985 and
FY18. A.I.D. Evaluation Occasional Paper No. 16. March.

Kibonde, F. (1987). "Small Scale Industry Lending in Tanzania." Paper Presented to ESAMI Regional
Seminar on Small Scale Enterprise Development Held at Nairobi, Kenya, 1-5 December. The National
Bank of Commerce. Tanzania.

Kumar, K. (1987). ConductinP Group Interviews in Developing Countries. A.I.D. Program Design and
Evaluation Methodology Report No. 8. Washington, D.C. April.

Kumar, K. (1987). Rapid Low Cost Data Collection Methods for A.I.D. A.I.D. Program Design and
Evaluation Methodology Report No. 10. Washington, D.C. December.

,McCraken, R. (n.d.). "Indicators for Assessing Changes in Natural Resources in Developing Countries.'
Paper Submitted to USAID.

M~cGowan, Lisa. (1988). "Makring Adjustment Work: A Gender Perspective," International Center for Research
on Women, prepared for the Office of Women in Development, Agency for international Development.

Ministry of Community Development, Culture, Youth and Sports. (1988). Women and Technology
Conference for Ministers Responsible for Women Affairs in SADAC Region to be Held in Arusha.

Molnar, A. (1988). "Women and Forestry Guidelines". (Draft). Washington.

Morgan, R. (1984). The Anatomy of Freedom. Doubleday. NewYork

Morris, J. (1988). Statement to the United Nations Development Program Governing Council, High-Level
Segment, Geneva, Switzerland. 13 June.

Mwa~sa,. J. (19Fu8). 'Gender Issues In Private Enterprise Development". Paper Delivered to Women mn
Development WCorkshop, NVairobi. June 3.

Overholt, C., Anderson. M.. Cloud ICand Austin, J., (1985). Gender in Development Proiccts, West Hartford,
Conn., Kumanan Press.

UNIFEM. (n.d.). 'Profile of Women Agricultural Producers in Western Sudan: Durfur and Kordofan
Regions." Productivity Profiles. New York.

United Nations. (1982). Women and Development: Guideliges for Programme and Proiect Planning.
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. Santiago, Chile.

United Nations Children's Fund. (1987). 'Implementation Strategy for U'NICEF Policy on Women in
Development." Policy Review of Executive Board.

United Nations Development Fund for Women. (n.d.). UNIFEM Project Manual.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (n.d.). "Some Basic Facts for the Trainer.' Prepared by the International
Training Division Office of International Cooperation and Development.

Vondal, P. (1988). "Improving Non-Project Assistance IThrough Better Social and Institutional Analysis.
Suggestions from Africa Bureau Experience." Social/Institutional Analysis Working Paper No. 1. Office
of Development Planning, Bureau for Africa. March.

White, IC; Otero, M.; Lycette, M.; and Buvinic, M. (1986). Gender Issues iq Ustin America and the Caribbean.
International Center for Research on Women, prepared for the Office of Women in Development.

World Bank Food Security in Africa. (n.d.). Report Summary, n.p.

Young, M.; Berenbach, S.: Holmes, P.; Pulley, T.; and Romashko, T. (1987). "Evaluation of the International
Center for Research on Women Cooperative Agreement Program with AID PPC/WID.' Final Report.





The following represent the factors that should be considered for an in-depth assessment of gender differences
In small scale enterprises (SSEs). Information would be collected about enterprises by 1) management and
orga~nization, including personnel, production, marketing, and finance and 2) enterprise size and type of goods
or service produced. Thus the analysis would yield how women are involved/contribute to enterprises according
to their size and/or the kinds of goods produced and marketed. Such an analysis could identify correlations
between gender of the owner and kind of business, size, level of education, products, markets, and other
important factors.

Included here as "thought simulators," this analytical process has been excerpted from:

"Small Scale Enterprise and Women," by Maryanne Dulansey and James Austin in Gede
Roles in development Projects, edited by Catherine Overholt, Mary B. Anderson, Kathleen
Cloud, and James E. Austin, Kumarian Press, 1985.

Number of Workers Per Unit
1 2-5 6-10 11-20 21-50
1. Number of Units
-Male owned
-Female owned
2.Number of Workers
3. Legal Status (number)
-Sole Proprictorships

4. Levels of Literacy, Training
Formal Education

5. MIarital Status
-Head of Household
6. Household Size & Female
Economic Contribution (%/)
7. Age:
8. Time Commitment:
-Full Time

9. Geographical Location
-Regional Concentration
10. Operation Lx-ations
-Donated LUoale
-Rented/Purchased Loxale

11. Technrology
-Semi -M~odern
-Mode rn
12. Productive Activity:
-Physical Production

13. Marketing Destination


14. Sales Value:
-Male SSEs
-Female SSEs

15. Capital
16. Financing Sources
-Personal, Family, Friends
-Savings Association
-Money Isaders
17. Financial Management
18. Earnings



Resource documents on frameworks for in-depth gender analysis in agricultural projects are listed below.

Feldstein, H.D., with S.V. Poats, IC Cloud, and R. Norem. (1987). "Intra-Household Dynamics and Farming
Systems Research and Extension Conceptual Frameworkt and Worksheets," March.

Overholt, C., et al. (1984). Instructors Manual to Qender Roles in Development Projects. U.S. Agency for
International Development. Office of Women in Development. December.

Overholt, C., et al. (n.d.). Women in Development: A Framework for Project Analysis. Office of Women
in Development.

Russo, S.; Bremer-Fox, J.; and Graig, L. (1988). Gender Issues ip Agericulture and Nature Resources
Management Guidelines for Projeqt Desinp, Robert R. Nathan Associates. Prepared for Bureau for
Program and Policy Coordination. WID/USAID.

Steady, F. (1983). Research Methodology and Investigative Framework for Social Change: The Case for
African Women. Seminar of Reanarclum. African Women: What Type of Methodology?

The Rockefeller Foundation and the International service for Agricultural Service for National Agricultural
Research. (1985). Women and Aericultural Technoloev: Relevance for Research. Volume 1 Analyses
and Conclusions. Report of a Seminar on Women and Agricultural Technology. The Hague Netherlands

The Rockefeller Foundation and the International Service for Agricultural Service for National Research
Agricultural. (1985). Women and Agricultural .Technology: Relevance for Research. Volume 2 -
Experiences in International and National Roscarch. July. The Hague Netherlands

The Southwest Institute for Research on Women. (1986). Idcas. and Resources for Integrating Women's
Studies into the Currievium. Edited by Myra Dinnerstein and Betty Schmitz.



Lack of information is a frequently-cited explanation for why women have not been included in project and
program design. Thus appendix presents five rapid data collection methods that may be useful to planners
seeking to expand their developments data base to include more sex-dissaggregated data.

The information was condensed from Rapid, ow-Cost Data Collection Methods for A.I.D., A.I.D. Program
Design and Evaluation Methodology Repqrt, No. 10, published by the Center for Development Information and
Evaluation in 1987.

A.I.D.'s publication entitled Rapid. Low-Cost Data Collection Methods for A.I.D. presents five major types of
rapid, low-cost methods that deliver relatively accurate information on a wide range of subjects. Although they
do not allow precise measurement, they are appropriate for understanding a phenomenon or process with a
modest investment of time and resources.

The reasons for using these methods are:

-they economize resources;
they provide timely information;
-the information is relevant; and
-they allow more flexible supervision.

The five rapid, low cost methods are presented below.

1. Key Informant laterviews

Key informant interviews involve interviewing a select group of individuals who are likely to provide the needed
information, ideas, and insights on a particular subject. The researcher identifies appropriate sources (various
occupational groups, socioeconomic strata, and organizations) from which key informants can be drawn and then
selects a few from each group.

Although the atmosphere is informal, the interviews are conducted using an interview guide that lists the topics
and issues to be covered. The interviewer takes detailed notes and often supplements the informant's
information with other data, preferably from existing records, documents, and other literature.

These interviews are particularly appropriate when general, descriptive information is needed for decision
making or when further questions, hypotheses, and propositions are needed for testing and refinement. Key
informant interviews are also helpful in the interpretation of a study and to generate suggestions and

In general, interviewing knowledgeable persons is less costly in terms of time and money than other interviewing
methods. Often informants reveal confidential information that a more formal setting would preclude. Also,
there is the opportunity for flexibility if the investigator uncovers an unexpected issue.

2.Focus Group~ Interviews

Focus group Interviews involve assembling 8 to 12 carefully selected participants to discuss a specific topic.
Group members are free to comment, criticize, or elaborate on the views expressed by others. The moderator
stimulates conversation by introducing the subject and probing to keep discussion moving. It is also the
moderator's responsibility to keep the discussion focused and to prevent a few participants from dominating the

The focus group method generates ideas and hypotheses for designing a development intervention. It is also
good for determining reactions to recommended innovations and explanations for behavior. Furthermore, focus
group interviewing can be very useful for gathering recommendations and suggestions when an implementation
problem arises.

Thus group technique can often generate fresh insights because the participants simulate each other. A sense
of security may develop and thereby reduce inhibitions so that an individual will provide more information in
the group setting.

3. Community Interviews

Community interviews take the form of public meetings (more than 15 people) where the main interactions are
between the interviewers) and the participants rather than among participants. Often more than one interviewer
is required to preside, ask questions and record answers and tallies. Moreover, moderators with different
disciplines can complement each other in probing respondents. IA order to obtain quantifiable community-level
data, the interviewer needs to phrase questions that elicit a yes-or-no type, countable response.

This data collection method is very useful for gathering various kinds of data about the surroundings,
composition of the population, occupational patterns, and the like. It is also very helpful for assessing the
support for a specific initiative or for assisting the needs of a community.

4.Direct Observation

Direct observation involves systematically observing a phenomenon, process, or physical object. The data
gathering is not casual or informal. It requires well-designed questionnaires and observation record forms. It
may involve individual or group interviews. However, it is not to be confused with the ethnographic method of
participant observation where observers try to capathize with the people to gain an insider's perspective.
Usually a team of experts strive to gain a comprehensive, bias-free picture. Often they focus on physical objects
such as roads, dams, or agricultural production.

This method is particularly useful when trying to understand an ongoing behavior or an unfolding event such as
how the farmers are using new tools. It is also useful for collecting information about physical infrastructure
or evaluating delivery systems. It is invaluable when collecting preliminary, descriptive information.

Direct observation is rapid and economical. Outside observers are often able to pinpoint problems that those
observed were unable to articulate. Observing a phenomenon in its natural setting provides a richer
understanding than relying on documents or key informants.

Informal survevs are small-scale surveys concentrating on only a few variables and using non-probability
sampling procedures to save time and resources. These surveys do use structured questionnaires administered
by trained enumerators to generate quanititive data. The sample size is usually between 30 and 50. The number
of questions asked is between 10 and 20. Informal surveying techniques are very useful when quantitative
Information is needed about a relatively homogeneous population or when there is not time or resources for
constructing a probability sample. Informal surveys provide relevant quantitative data within a short time and
with limited personnel and economic resources. They are, however, susceptible to sampling biases and should
not be used as the basis for complex statistical analysis.

5. Informal Surveys




This appendix provides Information on project adaptation. it dectibes an alternative framework for gender
anatlysis of agricultural projects, followed by discussion of strategies to overcome commonly identified barriers
to women's participation In development activities. The information is condensed from Women in Development:
A.I.D.'s Experience 1973-1985 (1987).


Step 1: Clarifv leader roles and their implications for Drmicot strategies.

The starting point should be to clarify the project strategy. For example, what does the project propose
do to improve agriculture? What activities will be affected by project interventions? What is the existing
division of labor in these activities? How do these activities fit in with the total pattern of household
productive and domestic activities? What innovations are being proposed? What are their behavioral
implications for different household members?

Step, 2- Analyze eligibility to receive projct imepet

Start by examining what inputs the project intends to provide, and identify which household member should
receive them, in light of the existing division of labor. For example, if livestockr is women's responsibility
and grain is men's, inputs for livestockr should go to women and inputs for grain to men. If women are
responsible for an activity slated for project intervention, can they qualify to receive inputs in their own
name? What are the prerequisites for eligibility, and how many households in the target group can meet
those criteria?

Step 3: Define prrrequisites for partjiciption is pricct activitics.

In light of the division of labor, which household member should participate in activities such as soil
conservation, water user groups, training, and extension? Does the proportion of women in the pool of
eligible participants match the division of labor?

Step 4: Examine optscach capabilitics of insdtittions and deliver sys~tems.

If analysis of the division of labor showrs that an activity slated for project intervention is women's
responsibility among smallholders, to what extent do existing institutions and delivery systems have direct
contact with female smallholders, or with any women (c.g., the well-to-do)?

Step, 5: Assess the appropriateness of proposed technical packages.

Are the technical packages applicable to all households or only to those with certain types of resources,
such as irrigated land, several head of cattle, or a labor surplus? How many households in the target group
have the right kind of land? How many, given the sex-typing of tasks and male migration, can meet the
additional labor requirements? How many can raise the necessary cash? What implications do gender
differences have for the spread of technical innovations to poor households?

Step 6: Examine the distribution of btoactts and its effect on incntives.

Given the gender division of labor and the control of income from different crops by men and women, w~hat
interest would women have in intensifying production? Do the direct returns to women outweigh the
additional effort? If the project affects marketing, are women likely to lose an independent source of

Step 7: Consider the reliability _QfJecdhack machanisms

If women play a major role in project-related activities such as farming vegetables, how will the project
find out whether the proposed technical innovations are acceptable to them? What provisions are made
for local women and men's participation in monitoring and reporting systems distinguish male and female

Step 8: Anticipate likely changes in the roles and sntats of womca.

How will the project affect women's access to and control over land, labor, capital, and expertise? Wl
women's workload increase or decrease? What will happen to their independent income, to their control
of crops and the income from their sale, and to their voice in household decision-making on expenditures
and other issues?

Step 9- Link changes in the roces and status ot wemca with the crDeced project impact

How will changes in women's access and control of land and productive resources affect food availability?
How will changes in women's ability to earn an independent income affect household cash flow? How will
it affect their ability to provide for their families? How will women's workload affect such things as child
care and family nutrition?

Step 10: Identify needed adaptations

Using the previous steps as a guide, specify what changes are needed in institutions, delivery systems,
technical packages, and feedback mechanisms to overcome the barriers to women's access to project inputs
and their ability and incentive to participate.



Analysis of gender differences alone has little effect on project outcomes unless Institutional and other barriers
to participation are identified and overcome. The following are ways to increase women's participation in
projects and programs.

1. Womea-Only, Women's Compnonet and 14tegrated Aproaches

One way of overcoming barriers to women's access to development assistance is to design a women's
project. Another alternative is to insert a component for women in mainstream projects. A third
alternative is to integrate women throughout mainstream projects. Since the Percy Amendment, A.I.D.
has learned a great deal about the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches, and each is discussed
in detail below.

a) Womea-calv proicas*: projects designed exclusively for womca participants
and beneficiaries. Tne main advantage of women-only projects is that they
are highly visible efforts to explicitly improve the social and economic well-
being of women. The main disadvantage is that their development impact,
with few exceptions, tends to be minimal. Some of the reasons for low impact
are institutional: tiny budgets, low government priority, and lack of leverage
(especially when projects are located in under-funded social welfare ministries
or private voluntary organizations). Other reasons are technical: women-only
projects are often administered by people with inappropriate technical skills,
their design is management-intcasive, and their backstopping tends to be
disproportionately costly in staff time.

b) Womoa's compoacat* a women-focused activity within a larger project. As
part of a larger project, women's components have access to greater resources
and are able to borrow technical expertise. Nevertheless, the budgets of these
components tend to be smaller (usually no more than 5 percent of a project's
total budget), and like women-only projects they have positive and negative

c) lategrated prdoict: by A.ID.'s definition, a mainstream project that
'integrates' women without a women-only design or a women's component

2. Targeting Resoorces to Woman

Targeting is one approach to trying to ensure that some of the resources of integrated projects actually
reach women. The basic strategy is to earmark a share of such project inputs as commodities, training,
credit, and employment "for women." Another is to establish quotas for women's participation in project
activities. The underlying premise is that such earmarking will make project management accountable for
delivering resources to women.

Yret, in general, earmarking resources for women alone may not affect project outcomes when technical
andi institutional constraints to female participation are not identified and removed. For example, If there
are no women in the pool of eligible participants, funds earmarked for women can not be utilized. Tius,
earmarking resources for women cannot be considered a substitute for gender-sensitive adaptations in
projects as a whole.

There is also a need to distinguish between resources such as grassroots training and credit earmarked for
village women and resources such as personnel slots, vehicles, and overseas training earmarked for female


It is possible to adapt mainstream projects to gender without designing a women-only project or a women's
component or earmarking a share of the project budget. This can be done by adjusting such things as the focus
of project activities and their location, timing, and support services. This section examines some of the gender-
responsive design adaptations that can improve projects by improving their outreach to women.

1. Change in the Focus of Proicct Activitics

To a large extent, women's participation in mainstream projects is influenced by the focus of project
activities. One way of increasing women's participation in development projects has been to add on a small
component focused on women's household and family roles.

2. Change in the Number of Woman in the Pool of Eigibl Participants

Although in such cases it might appear that women's participation is outside the control of project planners,
this is rarely true. When there are few women in the pool of eligible people, three adaptations are
possible: (1) eligibility criteria or institutional procedures can be changed so that women qualify; (2)
special programs can be launched to work with village women; and 3) male staff can be trained to work
with village women in the absence of female staff.

3.Adaptation of Credit Compoacals

Whether in agriculture, nonfarm production, or urban informal sector enterprises, the main determinants
of women's participation in credit components are as follows:

** The focus of leading (microenterprises versus larger firms and male- versus
female-dominated sectors)

** Minimum size of loans (the smaller the minimum, the higher the female
participation rate)

** Collateral requirements (group liability can remove the obstacle of women's
lack of land title and fixed assets)

** The hidden costs of borrowing (reducing the cost in time and money of trips
to credit outlets for application and repayment increases participation)

** incentives to banks to service small loans (innovations such as group lending
can increase outreach to women by reducing overhead costs to the bank)

When the terms of lending are conducive, women will constitute a high proportion of loan recipients.
When lending terms are adverse, few women will receive loans, regardless of efforts to target them. Thus,
analysis and adaptation of eligibility criteria and delivery systems are the key to increasing women's
participation in credit programs and the productive activities that those programs support.

4. Outreach of Existing Delivery Systems

The outreach of existing delivery systems strongly affects projects' ability to reach and benefit women.
When ceilings on government expenditure make it difficult for the project to recruit additional staff to work
with women, the program's outreach depends on their ability to utilize whatever village-level staff (male
or female) is already in the area.

5. Location of Proiccas Actividies and Services

The location of training facilities influences womca's participation in training of all types: because of their
family responsibilities, women are less likely to participate in out-of-country than in-country training and
are more likely to prefer day training to residential training.

6. Timing and Duration of Acdvitics

Because women's time constraints differ from those of men, the timing and duration of project activities
affect women's participation differently from men's.

* Women may be unable to participate fully in training courses because the timing of the program
conflicts with family responsibilities.

* Adaptation to women's seasonal time constraints can also be crucial in securing women's
participation in projects.

7. Facilities for Slooping and Child Care

When training requires women's absence from home for extended periods, the availability of facilities for
sleeping and child care greatly influences women's ability to participate.

8. Choice of laneuane and Coommnication Net~work

The choice of language and communication network also influences outreach to women. Because of their
greater contact with the world beyond the village, men are more likely than women to speak the national
language. The solution is to recruit bilingual extension agents directly in the local area. Communication
networks among village women also differ from those of men. Outreach to women can be improved by
identifying the times and places where different groups of women get together and then using these settings
as entry points.





The Gender Information Framewrork (GlF) is a set of guidelines for incorporating gender considerations into
the development programming cylcle of the Agency for International Development (A.I.D.). Commissioned by
A.I.D.'s Office of Women in Development (PPC/WID), the GIF is a step-by-step process for addressing gender
issues in both project/program design and document review activities. It also provides information on other
analytic tools and resources for considering gender in development.

A.I.D. evaluation findings provide strong evidence that gcader is as important variable in the development
process; that is, projects matching resources to the roles and responsibilities of men and women are more
effective than are projects that do not. Therefore, to ensure more positive project and program outcomes,
planners need to identify kecy differences in male/female roles and responsibilities, analyze the implications of
these differences for programming, and incorporate that information into development activities.

The GIF provides a three-step framework for this process. Its core elements are:

Gender Analysis Map: As its name implies, the "map' guides the user through
a process, suggesting where to look In Stp One it helps the user to identify
important gender factors in the baseline situation: the differences in men's and
women's roles and responsibilities. In Step Two it helps the user to take a
look at the gender-specific constraints and opportunities identified in the
baseline situation. These first two steps described in the Gender Analysis Map
are not specific to A.ID. and may be applicable to other development

Ocader Consideratioas Guide: Findings gleaned from the gender analysis
undertaken in Steps One and Two can be incorporated into programs and
projects with guidance found in Step 'Iree, Ocader Considerations Gaide.
The "Gender Considerations' sections have beca designed primarily for A.ID.
use, presenting guidelines for key A.I.D. documents including the Country
Development Strategy Statement (CDSS), Action Plan, Project Identification
Document (PID), and Project Paper (PP). Even though these documents are
specific to A.ID., they parallel documents used in the overall programming
cycles of other development agencies, thus making the GIF adaptable for wider

The GIF also includes a Summary of Guidelines for Docoacats Review, which briefly summarizes how and
where to include gender considerations in A.I.D.'s documentation processing, including planning, administrative,
and evaluation documents.



The Gender Analysis Map (GAM) provides a tool for initial assessment of important gender differences
that can affect peoples' ability to participate in and benefit from a development activity. The two-step
analytical process is described below.

Step One involves information-gathering on four key socio-economic factors -- allocation of labor,
income, expenditure patterns, and access to/control of resources -- in order to identify male/female roles
and responsibilities. These are called Exploratory Factors

In Step Two, the Gender Analysis Map guides the analysis of identified gender roles and responslbilities
to infer differences in men's and women's copstraiqts to participating in, contributing to, andsor
obtaining benefits from development programs and projects. Conclusions are also drawn about
opportunities for increasing project effectiveness by recognizing and building on differences in gender
roles, responsibilities, skills, and knowledge.

This process has been designed to indicate where development practitioners must first look to see how
gender could affect the success of a project or program. Of course, not all factors in this framework
will be equally important for all kinds of projects. Neither will the Gender Analysis Map always yield
complete information; however, it will very often provide clues that suggest where further information
is needed.


In the step-by-step analytical process that follows, the four key socio-economic factors noted above are
examined in more detail, and key issues and specific questions to address for each Exploratory Factor
are listed. Examples of kinds of programs and projects where each factor is likely to be important are
also indicated.


Use the four EXPL~ORATORY FACT`ORS below to identify where goader could intervene in social
and economic production systcas to be affected by development ac~tivities.

FACTOR: ALLOCATION OF LABOR: Important for agriculture, natural resource management,
education, health-related projects. .Must look at both household tasks and tasks contributing to family
income production.

Who is responsible for which aspects of household maintenance
(fuellwater provision, building maintenance, family health, child care,
food preparation, etc.)?

What is time allocation by gendct and age? How do time and labor
allocations vary with economic class or position in the household?

What activities of male and female household members contribute to
agriculture production and livestock production? (Analyze by crop
and/or by livestock animal.) How do these activities vary by season?

For enterprise development activities, is family labor included in
enterprise accounts? How do family members contribute labor? Who
is responsible for bookkeeping, for cleaning and repairs, for product
finishing and packaging, for product sales?

FACTOR; INCOME*~ Important for enterprise development, agriculture, health; projects counting on
user fees.

What is male/female labor force participation by sector, both formal and informal?

What are primary sources of income for men and women in rural and/or urban
households (wage labor, small-scale enterprise)? How much income does each of
these activities provide? How, and where do men and women market goods and
services? What is the source of their raw materials?

For farm-related income, how much is generated by men/women from crops, livestock,
crop/livestock by-products (c.g., milk, manure) and crop biomass (stalks, husks)? What
percentage of family income does self-provisioning represent?

How do incomes vary by season?

To what extent are technical assistance, credit, purchased raw
materials, and other "inputs' currently used by male/female
family members to increase productivity?

FACK)R: EXPENDTIURE PATIERS: Important for projects that directly or indirectly change
allocation of labor and access to resources, such as agricultural projects, contract growing schemes,
natural resource management projects, or projects that will change fee structure for services.

*Who is responsible for which elements of family expenses and provisioning (e g., staple
foods, vegetables, school fees, ceremonies, medical expenses, clothing)?

*How could changes to family member incomes affect ability to meet
family financial obligations?

FACIOR: RESOURCES: Access to and control over all types of resources assumed to be important
to the success of the project (important for all projects).

*For the unit of analysis, what resources (c.g., credit, labor, time, land,
training) are required for activities affected by the project?

*How is access to and control of these resources different for men and
women? How does that affect ability to increase economic
productivity or improve family well-being?


*What other factors, outside labor, income, expenditure patterns and
resources, are basic to analysis of YOUR situation?

*Decide what questions should be answered in order to help determine whether there
are or may be gender-related differences to each of these other factors.

Use the CONCLUSION-DRAWING FACIORS below to arrive at signifcant gender differences which
need to be taken into accoast is plpaning or adapting the project under c~onsideration.


*For the unit of analysis and the project/program under consideration,
what are the key differences between men's and women's constraints
(e.g., labor, time, access to credit, education, training, other)?

*How do these affect ability to contribute to or benefit from a
program? What are the implications for incentive to participate?


*For the unit of analysis and the project/program under consideration,
what are the opportunities for increasing project effectiveness by
recognizing and building on gender-based roles, responsibilities, skills,
and knowledge?

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