Half Title
 Title Page

Group Title: gender information framework executive summary
Title: The gender information framework executive summary
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102049/00001
 Material Information
Title: The gender information framework executive summary
Physical Description: ii, 18 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hubbs, Virginia
Rollins, Al
Grosz, Ron
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
MayaTech Corporation
Publisher: Mayatech Corp.
Place of Publication: Silver Spring, Md
Silver Spring, Md
Subject: Women in development -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Women in development -- Government policy -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Virginia Hubbs, Al Rollins, Ron Grosz.
General Note: Prepared for: Office of Women in Development ... U.S. Agency for International Development.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00102049
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 222117608

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Full Text

MayaTech Corporation


Virginia Hubbs
Al Rollins
Ron Grosz

The MayaTech Corporation
Silver Spring, MD

Prepared for:
Office of Wornen in Development
Bureau for Research and Development
U.S. Agency for International Development
Washington, DC

October, 1992


This document was preparal by Ibe MayaTech Corporatio nunder Contract Numina PDC-0108-C4090)21-00) with the U.S
Agency for International Development Bureau for Progam and Poliqy Coordination, Ollce of Women in Develpmntn The
views and iontepretaions in this publication should not be attributed to the Ageog for Internatioanl Develpment or to any
individual rating on its behalf.

I~II~B~L~P(~OPPP~C~~~~ IPILSIP~ID~~~~ ICI ~ --r ---- --- ---x ---

Note: The United States Agency for International Development was reorganized in 1991. The Offee of
Women in Development is now in the Burearu for Research and Development (R&D/WID), rather than
in the Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination.

IPs~PBBBPI~~ rlli~~~l~' I ~^~P9 1

-Pls~ -I --- -r ---


Virginia Hubbs
Al Rollins
Ron Grosz

'Ihe MayaTech Corporation
Silver Spring, MD

Prepared for:
Oflce of Women in Development
Bureau for Research and Development
U.S. Agency for International Development
Washington, DC

October, 1992

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The Gender Information Framework was created for the Office of Women in Development to address the need
for practical, realistic guida nce on how to integrate gender issues into A.I.D. programming. It was also to snerv
as a companion piece for women in development training programs.

The Gender Information Framework, abbreviated as *the GIF," was first developed in 1988. Since that time,
its content has been updated and revised as the body of knowledge about gender issues in development
programming has grown. The GIF has also been adapted to two other forms: 1) an Executive Summary, which
is used as a stand-alone piece; and 2) a six-panel brochure, called "The Gender Information Framework Pocket
Guide." These alternate versions were designed to increase the GIFs utility to its primary audience: A.I.D. staff,
contractors, and consultants. It is hoped, however, that it will also be useful to development practitioners from
non-governmental organizations, host country governments, and other donors.

Revisions will continue to be made to the framework as our understanding of information needs about and
effective approaches to incorporating gender issues into development activities increases. The reader is
encouraged to adapt, revise, and borrow whatever is useful from the Gender Information Framework. It is our
hope that it will strengthen and enhance international development programs.

_ _1 __ I LII ~~~~~_


The Gender information Framework reflects the contributions of many people:

the staff of the Office of Women in Development, who have the mission and the mandate to
institutionalize the systematic inclusion of women in A.I.D.'s development policies, goals, and
processes. Special appreciation is due the PPC/WID staff, especially Ms. Kay Davies, former
Director of PPC/WID, and Mr. Ron Grosz, Project Officer, who provided continual
encouragement, support, and challenge in the development of this framework.

the many A.I.D. staff persons, both in the Washington office and in the Missions outside the
United States, who gave generously of their time, insights, and suggestions.

the training team members who graciously put this framework through its "try-outs": Dr.
Rosalie Norem (PPC/WID), Mr. Donald Spears, Ms. Barbara Howald, and Dr. Bettye
Harrison-Burns. Their suggestions were invaluable in shaping the Gender Information
Framework's current content and format. Also, Mr. Timothy Frankenburger, who was
instrumental in the development of the original concept.

Women in Development professionals from other agencies, private voluntary organizations,
foundations, and independent consultants/trainers who were most helpful in sharing their
experience and vision as we were gathering data to develop this framework.

the women in developing countries who refuse to be invisible.

Staff of The MayaTech Corporation prepared this document, which updates the Gender Information Framework.
The Gender Information Framework was initially developed by Ms. Virginia Hubbs and Mr. Al Rollins, in
collaboration with Mr. Ron Grosz (PPC/WID), under a separate contract with the Office of Women in
Development. Ms. Hubbs, Mr. Rollins, and Mr. Grosz provided the technical expertise for this document as
w~ell, with additional assistance from Ms. Barbara Howald. Ms. Cheryle Buggs blended knowledge, styles, and
graphics. Ms. Kettly Paul and her word processing staff skillfully and willingly responded to requests for
additions and changes.

While we are thankful to all who contributed to this manual, responsibility for its accuracy and tenor rests with
The MayaTech Corporation.

Jean-Marie B. Mayas, Ph.D.
Project Director




The Gcader Information Framework (GIF) is a set of guidelines for incorporating gender considerations into
the development programming cycle of the Agency for International Development (A.I.D.). Commissioned by
A.I.D.'s Office of Women in Development (PPC/WID), the GIF is a step-by-step process for addressing gender
issues in both project/program design and document review activities. It also provides information on other
analytic tools and resources for considering gender in development.

A.I.D. evaluation findings provide strong evidence that gender is an important variable in the development
process; that is, projects matching resources to the roles and responsibilities of men and women are more
effective than are projects that do not. Therefore, to ensure more positive project and program outcomes,
planners need to identify key differences in male/female roles and responsibilities, analyze the implications of
these differences for programming, and incorporate that information into development activities.

The GIF provides a three-step framework for this process. Its core elements are:

Gender Analysis Map: As its name implies, the "map" guides the user through a process,
suggesting where to look. In Step One it helps the user to identify important gender factors in
the baseline situation: the differences in men's and women's roles and responsibilities. In Step
Two, it helps the user to take a look at the gender-specific constraints and opportunities
identified in the baseline situation. These first two steps described in the Gender Analysis Map
are not specific to A.I.D. and may be applicable to other development organizations.

Ocoder Considerations Guide: Findings gleaned from the gender analysis undertaken in Steps
One and Two can be incorporated into programs and projects with guidance found in Step
Three, Gender Considerations Guide. The "Gender Considerations" sections have been
designed primarily for A.I.D. use, presenting guidelines for key A.I.D. documents including the
Country Development Strategy Statement (CDSS), Action Plan (AP), Project Identification
Document (PID), and Project Paper (PP). Even though these documents are specific to A.I.D.,
they parallel documents used in the overall programming cycles of other development agencies,
thus making the GIF adaptable for wider application.

The GIF also includes a Summary of Guidelinca for Documents Review, which briefly summarizes how and
where to include gender considerations in A.I.D.'s documentation processing, including planning, administrative,
and evaluation documents.


This Executive Summary is drawn from a larger work, "The Gender Information Framework: Gender
Considerations in Development," which is available in its entirety on request from the Office of Women in



The Gender Analysis Map (GAM) provides a tool for initial assessment of important gender differences
that can affect peoples' ability to participate in and benefit from a development activity. The two-step
analytical process is described below.

Step One involves information-gathering on four key socio-economic factors -- allocation of labor,
income, expenditure patterns, and access to/control of resources -- in order to identify male/female roles
and responsibilities. These are called Exploratory Factors.

In Step Two, the Gender Analysis Map guides the analysis of identified gender roles and responsibilities
to infer differences in men's and women's constraints to participating in, contributing to, and/or
obtaining benefits from development programs and projects. Conclusions are also drawn about
opportunities for increasing project effectiveness by recognizing and building on differences in gender
roles, responsibilities, skills, and knowledge.

This process has been designed to indicate where development practitioners must first look to see how
gender could affect the success of a project or program. Of course, not all factors in this framework
will be equally important for all kinds of projects. Neither will the Gender Analysis Map always yield
complete information; however, it will very often provide clues that suggest where further information
is needed.


In the step-by-step analytical process that follows, the four key socio-economic factors noted above are
examined in more detail, and key issues and specific questions to address for each Exploratory Factor
are listed. Examples of kinds of programs and projects where each factor is likely to be important are
also indicated.



Use: the four EXPLORA'IORY FACIORS below to identify where gender could intervcoe in social
and economic production systems to be affected by development activities.

FACIOR: ALLOCATION OF LABOR: Important for agriculture, natural resource management,
education, health-related projects. Must look at both household tasks and tasks contributing to family
income production.

Who is responsible for which aspects of household maintenance (fuel/water provision,
building maintenance, family health, child care, food preparation, etc.)?

What is time allocation by gender and age? How do time and labor allocations vary
with economic class or position in the household?

What activities of male and female household members contribute to agriculture
production and livestock production? (Analyze by crop and/or by livestock animal.)
How do these activities vary by season?

For enterprise development activities, is family labor included in enterprise accounts?
How do family members contribute labor? Who is responsible for bookkeeping, for
cleaning and repairs, for product finishing and packaging, for product sales?

FAC'IOR: INCOME: Important for enterprise development, agriculture, health; projects counting on
user fees.

What is male/female labor force participation by sector, both formal and informal?

What are primary sources of income for men and women in rural and/or urban
households (wage labor, small-scale enterprise)? How much income does each of these
activities provide? How, and where do men and women market goods and services?
What is the source of their raw materials?

For farm-related income, how much is generated by men/women from crops, livestock,
crop/livestock by-products (e.g., milk, manure) and crop biomass (stalks, husks)? What
percentage of family income does self-provisioning represent?

How do incomes vary by season?

To what extent are technical assistance, credit, purchased raw materials, and other
"inputs" currently used by male/female family members to increase productivity?


FACTOR: EXPENDITUIRE PATTERNS: Important for projects that directly or indirectly change
allocation of labor and access to resources, such as agricultural projects, contract growing schemes,
natural resource management projects, or projects that will change fee structure for services.

Who is responsible for which elements of family expenses and provisioning (e.g., staple
foods, vegetables, school fees, ceremonies, medical expenses, clothing)?

How could changes to family member incomes affect ability to meet family financial

FACT~OR: RESOURCES: Access to and control over all types of resources assumed to be important
to the success of the project (important for all projects).

For the unit of analysis, what resources (e.g., credit, labor, time, land, training) are
required for activities affected by the project?

How is access to and control of these resources different for men and women? How
does that affect ability to increase economic productivity or improve family well-being?


What other factors, outside labor, income, expenditure patterns and resources, are basic
to analysis of YOUR situation?

Decide what questions should be answered in order to help determine whether there are
or may be gender-related differences to each of these other factors.


Use the CONCLUSION-DRAWING FACIORS below to arrive at significant gender diff~erences which
need to be taken into aanopns la planning or adapting the project under consideration.


For the unit of analysis and the project/program under consideration, what are the key
differences between men's and women's constraints (e.g., labor, time, access to credit,
education, training, other)?

How do these affect ability to contribute to or benefit from a program? What are the
implications for incentive to participate?



*For the unit of analysis and the project/program under consideration, what are the
opportunities for increasing project effectiveness by recognizing and building on gender-
based roles, responsibilities, skills, and knowledge?


Step Three in the GIF process provides guidance on where to incorporate information about significant gender
differences into four A.I.D. documents: the Country Development Strategy Statement (CDSS), the Action Plan
(AP), the Project identification Document (PID), and the Project Paper (PP). To the extent possible, the
guidelines for incorporating gender considerations into each document follow the format for document
preparation presented in the relevant A.I.D. handbooks and guidance cables. Key comments and questions are
provided and indicate additional detail needed. These questions are meant to stimulate thinking about what
needs to be considered in a particular situation. The user should select from the questions presented those that
are most relevant to the specific development setting.



A. Basic Characteristics of the Economy

A.1 Identify significant gender differences in participation in the economy, including rates
of participation, location, and skills in the rural and urban labor force, in both formal
and informal sector employment; also income distribution by gender within these

B. Record of Development Performance

B.1 Disaggregate by gender changes within the past five years in poverty, employment, and
access to resources contributing to increased productivity (e.g., labor force mobility,
land, credit, training, technical assistance, etc.).

B.2 Examine male/female differences in participation in private, political, and social


B.3 Examine differential effects of the development of democratic political and economic
institutions on male/female participation in and contribution to national economies.

8.4 Describe gender differences in key areas of social well-being, including health, nutrition,
education (e.g., education: enrollment and completion rates at all levels, adult literacy
rates; or family planning: male and female acceptors, gender differences in knowledge,
attitudes, practices).

B.5 Examine relative dependence of the sexes on various elements of public spending and

B.6 Examine the impact of differences in access to education and other resources on
male/female ability to respond to economic adjustment policies. Consider the
implications for national development strategies.

B.7 Describe male and female internal and external rates of migration, corresponding
poverty indices, nutrition, etc.

8.8 Consider how gender-differentiated roles and responsibilities contribute to current trends
in deforestation, desertification, and other aspects of environmental deterioration.

C. Summary of Macroeconomic Analysis

C.1 Consider constraints to/opportunities for increasing productivity resulting from gender
differences in skills and knowledge in agriculture and enterprise development activities.

D. Summary of Sector and Key Subsector Assessments

D.1 Disaggregate statistical data by sex where available.

D.2 In sectors where men and women are both economically active, discuss gender-related
constraints to and opportunities for progress in that economic activity.

E. Institutional and Human Resource Base for Development

E.1 Describe key gender differences in the socio-cultural and institutional context for
development; for example, how do social systems and cultural patterns, migration,
urbanization, public and private institutional systems differentially affect men's and
women's contribution to social and economic development?


F. Host Country Development Strategy and Policy Orientation

F. 1 Describe government policies toward full participation of women in economic
development, particularly in those sectors in which A.I.D. is interested (e.g., legal and'or
regulatory barriers to obtaining credit; subsidies for sectors in which males/'females


A. Key Economic Opportunities for the Country

A.1 Consider how untapped or underutilized economic productive capacities among women
and men might be utilized for progress.

B. Key Constraints to Development

8.1 Consider how constitutional, civil, and customary laws affect men's and women's ability
to respond to development opportunities.

B.2 Examine what categories of people have access to public goods, such as those directed
toward infrastructure, education, preventive health, nutrition, the environment, science
and technology, and natural resources. How do gender differences in access inhibit
growth and development?


A. Supporting Coalition for Current Policies

A.1 Consider the long-term vs. short-term gains and losses resulting from current policies
that constrain women.

B. Needed Policy Reforms

B.1 Consider if and how anticipated benefits from proposed policy reforms would:

** have a differential impact by gender
** reach low-income female-headed households


B.2 If analysis of constraints to development indicates government policies impede
contribution of women to national economic development, what policies would be most
appropriate for dialogue with host country government?

C. Institutional Changes and the Sustainability of Reformed Policies

C.1 Consider what institutional changes are needed to sustain host country commitment to
continuing considerations of gender issues related to economic and civil freedoms in
their development policies.


Consider how a donor WID Committee might strengthen the effort to more fully incorporate gender
issues into the host country's development planning activities.


A. Where women are economically active in a sector, consider how Mission strategy assists women
directly and indirectly to increase their productivity in that sector?

B. Examine how gender differences in ability to respond to democratic pluralism, policy reform,
and/or structural adjustment initiatives have been taken into account in the design of the
Mission strategy.

C. Consider what proportion of projects assist women's productive activities compared to those that
provide health or other services? How does this compare with assistance to men in these areas?

D. What steps are included in the Mission strategy to institutionalize consideration of gender issues
in Mission programming? What benchmarks have been established and what indicators of

E. Where data have not been available to adequately define gender issues in sector assessments
and the mission strategy, indicate what steps will be taken within the strategy under development
to obtain needed data.

F. Consider if both women and men participated in the dialogue that leads to problem
identification, selection, program and project design, and evaluation.


G. Disaggregate objectives, benchmarks, and indicators of goal achievement by gender where
appropriate and feasible.



A. Disaggregate data by sex wherever possible in program impact assessment.

A.1 In sectors of A.I.D. activity, for males and females in both urban and rural areas,
describe changes in: labor force participation rates; also primary sources of income,
including family enterprises, farm enterprises and wage labor in the formal and informal

A.2 Consider trends in male/female division of labor for major agricultural activities (e.g.,
production responsibilities by crop or animal, marketing, post-harvest activities).

A.3 Identify percentage of female-headed households.

A.4 Identify available data and additional data needed.

B. Incorporate gender considerations into background information and review of current

B.1 Consider how constraints to participation in economic development differ for men and
women, with emphasis on sectors of A.ID. activity.

8.2 Examine if and how gender-based roles and responsibilities pose different constraints
to men's and women's ability to participate in and contribute to A.I.D. programs.

B.3 Examine differential impacts, if any, of Mission programs on men and women.

8.4 Consider how opportunities presented by gender-based differences in skills and
knowledge have been incorporated into design of program strategies.

B.5 Consider which projects/programs assist women directly to increase earnings and/or food
production and which assist indirectly. Compare the proportion of projects that assist
women's economic activities to those that provide health or other social services.



B.6 Assess availability of sex-disaggregated data; also, extent to which data available enable
monitoring and adaptation of current mainstream projects to take into account
important gender-based differences.


Describe modifications planned for existing programs to address gender considerations, as appropriate.


A. Describe how gender-based roles and responsibilities affect long-term Mission sector
development strategies.

B. Disaggregate by gender short-term targets to meet objectives, as well as benchmarks on progress
toward meeting objectives.


A. Describe current progress and future steps to enhance Mission capability to incorporate gender
considerations into programming, including:

benchmarks for measuring institutionalization of gender considerations into the
programming process,

strategy for collection of data needed for monitoring and adaptation of current and
planned projects.



A. Problem Statement: Consider how gender affects the social and economic aspects of the
problem to be addressed.

*How do men and women participate in activities the project will affect?


How do gender-based patterns related to division of labor, income, expenditure, or other
key factors affect the problem?

How do gender-based constraints to access to or control of resources affect the

How do both men and women participate in defining the problem?

B. Statement of Exrpected Project Achievements: Consider to what extent the participation of both
men and women will affect achievement of project goal and purposes.

*Does the project design enable and encourage participation of and benefits to both men
and women?


A. Project Elements

A.1 Identify project strategies that target project/program resources according to men's and
women's patterns of income, expenditures, allocation of labor, and resource control.

** How will constraints to participation and/or benefits from the project be
different for males and females?

** How can the project use the unique skills of men and women, based on
gender-based roles and responsibilities, to solve the problem?

A.2 Identify technical issues in the project design that may need special attention to gender

** Whose (male/female) income, labor, ability to meet financial responsibilities
will the technical assistance or project technology affect?

** Will the project's technical resources be targeted appropriately, given gender-
based roles and responsibilities?

_ _


** How does the project design take into account gender-specific constraints in
access to resources?

** Have host country men and women both participated in designing strategies
to address project constraints?

A.3 Review proposed project components for consistency with the social and economic
organization of activities the project will affect, as well as constraints and opportunities
entailed in that organization.

A.4 Include strategies to obtain sex-disaggregated data and feedback from both men and
women in project monitoring and evaluation systems where their activities will be
affected by the project or program.


A. Social Considerations

A.1 Include known information about key gender variables in analysis of factors affecting
project activities

** What information is available and what is needed on gender differences in key
socio-cultural factors including:

*** Labor force participation overall; labor force mobility between
sectors; intra-household division and seasonality of labor as
appropriate to the project.

*** Major sources of income for males/females; intra-household incomes
and expenditures and their control; seasonal variations in income and

*** Access to and control of resources in the legal, socio-cultural, and
economic environment affecting the project.

*** Asymmetric rights and obligations within the household governing
allocation of labor and decision-making authority.


A.2 Consider who benefits from the project, and how they benefit

** Are beneficiaries appropriate, giveri the social organization of activities the
project will affect?

** Will project benefits and their distribution provide sufficient incentive to
encourage participation?

A.3 Identify gender considerations related to ability to participate in project.

** What are prerequisites to participation (e.g., literacy, collateral, mobility,
land), and how do these affect men's and women's ability to participate and

** How do differences in access to education, credit, etc., affect ab~ility to
participate and/or contribute?

A.4 Assess differential impact of project by gender.

** Will the project have differential short- or long-term impact on women and

** How might this affect project sustainability?

B. Economic Considerations: Examine how the proposed approach will affect men's and women's
economic roles and improve family well-being.

Are economic benefits consistent with income and expenditure patterns of women and

How will project interventions affect these patterns?

What additional information is needed to fully consider these questions?

C. Technical Considerations: Assess the technical expertise and experience of proposed
implementing agencies (host country and U.S.) in reaching women; consider developing such
capacity as part of project, if needed.


What is the experience of implementing agencies in reaching women and men in their
separate and joint economic roles?

What linkages exist to ensure feedback from both men and women to project
implementers, including advisors, extensionists, researchers, and others?

D. Budget Considerations: Examine budget estimates for consistency w~ith issues discussed in
social, economic, and technical considerations.

*Where gender is a factor in activities to be affected by the project, does the budget
include funds necessary for appropriate staffing; outreach to both men and women; and
collection of sex-disaggregated data for project refinement, monitoring, and evaluation?'

E. Design Strategy

E. 1 Summarize need for sex-disaggregated data for Project Paper (PP) or pre-PP study;
indicate how such data will be collected and analyzed.

E.2 Recommend PP team composition necessary to ensure that gender issues aire
effectively addressed.

E.3 Include considerations of gender issues in PP team members' Scopes of Work.

E.4 Recommend inclusion of gender criteria in PP discussion of Request for Proposals.



A. Problem: Consider how gender affects the problem to be addressed.

*How do men and women participate in the activities the project will affect, directly or
indirectly? How is the problem different for men and women? Have both men and
women participated in defining the problem and identifying solutions?

1 r. --



8. Project Ekements

8. 1 Develop strategies to incorporate women and men in project, as indicated from
technical, financial, economic, social soundness, and administrative analyses.

** Where women play a major role in project-related activities, how do proposed
strategies utilize and expand women's economic productivity?

** What strategies address the constraints to participation that result from
gender differences in roles and responsibilities? For example, are gender
differences in mobility, education, access to resources taken into account?
Will outreach strategies, timing and location, scope and scale of project
elements (e.g., size of loans, kind of training, type of equipment) enable the
participation of both men and women?

B.2 How could policy dialogue on gender issues important to this project's.:program's
implementation be effected?

B.3 Assess the consistency between project elements, goal and purpose, inputs and outputs,
and analyses.

** Are gender issues incorporated throughout, and are they consistent with
gender-based roles and responsibilities in the baseline situation?!

8.4 Indicate strategies to collect sex-disaggregated baseline data where data are

C. Cost Estimates: Include in cost estimates funds needed for collection of sex-disaggregated data
for project refinement, monitoring and evaluation; also funds to enable the participation of both
men and women (e.g., for training, materials development, project personnel).

D. Implementation Plan

D.1 Identify male and female training participants; consider gender differences in the
design of eligibility criteria for training and recruitment strategies.

D.2 Include appropriate project/program personnel to enable matching project activities
with gender-based roles and responsibilities.



A. Technical Assessment: Include gender as a variable in technology needs assessment, analysis
of cultural suitability, and potential impacts.

A. 1 Needs Assessment: What provisions are made for local men's and women's
participation in selecting technical approach and technologies?

A.2 Access: Does the project approach (technology, information, credit, etc.) take into
account gender and class differences in access to cash, land, labor, or other resources
that might affect access?

A.3 Suitability: Where women play a major role in project-related activities, how will the
project determine whether proposed technical innovations or assistance is appropriate
and acceptable to them?

A.4 Impact: Given allocation of tasks by gender:

** Will the technical approach or package increase labor differentially for men
and women?

** Will it affect relative access to resources of men and women?

** How will changes from the technology affect both men's and women's
domestic responsibilities and their ability to provide income or food for their

8. Financial Analysis: Review intra-household differences in incomes and expenditures.

Are there gender-based constraints to ability to pay for project services and inputs or
otherwise participate in project? If yes, what are the implications for overall impact
and achievement of goals?

How can the project/program build on existing revenue-generating, expenditure, and
savings patterns to promote increased financial well-being among both men and

How will the project affect incomes of both male and female family members?


C. Economic Analysis: Specify costs and benefits for males and females in terms of opportunity
costs of labor, access to productive resources, status, and ability to meet family expenses.

D. Social Soundness Analysis

D.1 Examine men's and women's roles in activities the project will affect, and assess
whether project inputs are appropriate according to the social and economic
organization of activities.

a ** What is the division of labor/time/decision-making authority in project-related
activities? How will the project affect/be affected by gender differences in
these areas?

** What opportunities for increasing productivity and/or socio-economic well-
being are offered by male/female roles and responsibilities?

D.2 Examine prerequisites for participation in project and how gender-based constraints
will affect ability of household members to participate.

** What are the formal/informal prerequisites to participation (e.g., literacy,
collateral, labor mobility)?

** How does gender affect access to and control of resources (land, labor,
capital, decision-making) affecting project participation?

D.3 Examinc the distribution of benefits to women and men and how benefits affect
incentives to participate.

** Which household members benefit and how? Who decides benefit allocation?

** Do benefits to individual household members provide sufficient incentive to
participate? Do they offset any additional work that might be required?

D.4 Assess impact, short- and long-term, direct and indirect on key gender differences in
roles and responsibilities.

** How will the project affect patterns of employment, consumption, resource
allocation, and status?

** What are the implications of these changes for project sustainability and long-
term development goals?



E. Administrative Analysis

E.1 Describe the implementing institution's ability and experience in reaching both men
and women; examine implications for project strategies.

E.2 Indicate what steps might be necessary, if any, to improve implementing agency's
ability to provide technical assistance to women.

E.3 Consider additional or alternative institutions for project administration, if appropriate,
to ensure both men and women have access to project resources.

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