Table of Contents
 Annotations and related refere...
 Alphabetical listing of references...

Title: Gender research methodology and analysis handbook
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102048/00001
 Material Information
Title: Gender research methodology and analysis handbook draft
Physical Description: 82 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Caro, Deborah A
Stormer, Amé
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
Publisher: GENESYS
Place of Publication: S.l
Publication Date: 1994
Subject: Gender identity -- Research   ( lcsh )
Sex role -- Research   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by Deborah Caro and Amé Stormer under the GENESYS Project for USAID/G/R & D Office of Women in Development.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00102048
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 53006426

Table of Contents
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    Annotations and related references
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Full Text




Prepared by Dr. Deborah Caro and Ame Stormer
Under the GENESYS Project for
USAID/G/R&D Office of Women in Development




A. Checklists 5

B. Farming Systems Research 13

C. Gender Analysis, Planning, and Training 19

D. Guidelines 34

E. Monitoring And Evaluation 44

F. Participatory Research 51

G. Time Allocation 59


A. Agriculture 63

B. Environment And Natural Resource Management 68


Development Policy: Multilateral And Bilateral Development Organizations 73

List of Contacts for Resources 77

There comes a point in the maturation of any field of study when it becomes necessary
to take stock of where it has come from and where it is going. Two general trends in
the literature indicate that the field of WID and gender analysis currently is at just such
a juncture. The first trend is towards a focus on reviewing the historical development of
theory and practice. Much of this literature traces changes in development approaches
that have characterized the evolution of thinking from Women and Development to
Gender and Development over the last 20 years. A second trend is increasing attention
to the development of research and planning methods and tools for gathering,
analyzing, and operationalizing information on gender differences for development

The first trend addresses the desire of many WIDIGender specialists to reconcile
political, ethical, and scientific concerns and to grapple with the diversity of
perspectives that now characterize the field in both approach and theory. The second
trend responds to demand from outside the field, from a growing number of
development professionals who are both gender aware and knowledgeable.
Increasingly, they are demanding to know howu to identifyl and respond to gender
differences in the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of development policies,
programs, and projects.

This handbook attempts to address the growing demand by people working in the
agricultural and environment and natural resource management sectors for how-to
methods by reviewing existing published and unpublished gender analysis, planning,
and research methodologies and tools. The handbook includes annotations of roughly
30 methods and provides references for nearly 100 additional sources. It critically
reviews what is available, in what form, and for whom. Each annotation presents the
stated objectives of the method, a description of the approach, and an assessment of
what the method is useful for, what kind of skills and knowledge are required to use it
successfully, whether it is appropriate for policy, program, or project analysis, and if it
is useful for WID (i.e. focused on women) or gender focusedd on men and women)

The annotations are organized under seven methodogical categories: checklists,
farming systems research, gender analysis, guidelines, monitoring and evaluation,
participatory research, and time allocation. These categories follow the denominations
established by the authors of the methods. The number of sources reviewed in each
section roughly correspond to the preponderance and availability of materials.
Therefore, we reviewed more sources in the categories of gender analysis, guidelines



and checklists than time allocation or monitoring and evaluation methods, simply due
to their greater numbers and accessibility.

We used a number of somewhat arbitrary criteria to select which references to
annotate. We reviewed methods that we considered to be classics or pathbreaking such
as a number of the farming systems research and extension approaches, gender analysis
and training manuals, and guidelines. We selected others because of their subsectoral
specificity, such as the checklists focused on fisheries, forestry, and guidelines on
livestock projects. We chose still others for their innovative qualities, such as many of
the participatory research tools, and some of the gender analysis training materials.
Finally, we tried to make sure that we provided a crosssection from different
institutions and parts of the world.

In addition to the annotations, the handbook lists related references at the end of each
section, and provides two comprehensive sectoral bibliographies on agriculture and
environment and natural resource management. A final bibliography includes references
of WID/Gender policy statements and guidelines from multilateral and bilateral lending
agencies. We included these to complement the methodologies to give users access to
the donor policies which many of these methods address.




A. Checklists

Directorate General for Development Co-operation (DGIS) Ministry of
Foreign Affairs,, Netherlands.

a 1989. Women and Agriculture: Policy on an Operadional Footing: Main
Points and Chtecklist. Sector Papers Women and Development No.1.

1989. Women, Water and Sanitadion: Policy on an Operadional Footing:
Main Points and Chrecklist. Sector Papers Women and Development No.2.

1990. Women, Energy, Forestry and Environment: Policy on an
Operational Footing:Main Points and Checklist. Sector Papers Women
and Development No.4.

These sector papers are each one of several instruments designed to increase and
improve the implementation of the Netherlands' women and development policy. They
are intended to serve as field guides for members of short-term technical assistance
missions; as operational guides for project staf f, and as outlines for drawing up terms of
reference. The objectives of all of the papers are to help project technical staff
managers, and advisors to: 1) improve women's access to and control over production
factors, services and infrastmectural facilities; 2) reduce women's workload; 3) improve
the enforcement of laws which lay down equal rights for women; 4) increase the
involvement of women in decision-making at domestic, local, national and international
levels; 5) improve the organization of women at all levels; 6) encourage the exchange
of information and communication between women and women's groups; 7) improve
women's knowledge and self-awareness; and 8) combat physical violence and sexual

Each paper provides a framework for identifying critical gender issues and their
consequences for development interventions in a particular sector. The standard
format combines a core overview chapter, organized around a series of substantive
issues, and a corresponding checklist of guide questions. The Women, Water and
Sanitation core chapter reviews the general situation of women in this sector. It also
examines specific topics such as entry points for women's involvement; constmection,
maintenance, management, and use of infastructure; steps toward women's
involvement; and preconditions, benefits and incentives. The checklist, arranged around



these general issues, lists questions regarding the views of those in power, whether
gender discaggregated data is gathered; women's participation and consultation-
women's time constraints; and the effects of the project on women. The Women.
Forestry and the Environment core chapter and checklist are organized around a
different set of issues, including a general overview of the sector, women, environment
and trees; the biomass crisis and women's workload; the energy crisis; participation of
women in forestry; and women's access to resources and opportunities. The Women
and Agriculture core chapter and checklist cover similar topics. These include a general
overview; workload and division of labor, access to and control of the means of
production, services, and facilities; participation in decision-making; and benefits and

The Women and Development Sector Papers are extremely accessible and useful
guides for understanding and identifying sector-specific issues affecting women. They
are a helpful tool for developing scopes of work for project design and evaluation as
well as for monitoring project activities. The core overview chapters add a contextual
and explanatory dimension often absent from gender analysis checklists. For people
interested in gender issues more broadly, the questions can be used for both women
and men and supplemented with an analysis of how gender differences condition,
impinge, or support development opportunities and impacts. In order to maximize the
benefits of the checklists, as the introductions to the papers point out, users should
consult other sources for additional background information and make use of other
data collection and analytical tools.


is FAO. 1989. Women in Community Forestry: A Field Guide for Project
Design and Implementation. Rome: FAO.

This field guide translates an earlier FAO publication, Restoring the Balance: Women
and Forest Resources, into an operational manual for designing and implementing
forestry projects. It is intended as a practical tool for facilitating the integration of
women into forestry projects. The objective of this method is to enhance the design
and implementation of community forestry projects by more actively considering
women. It assumes that the reader is familiar with data gathering tools and project
design. It is not a manual of rapid appraisal or project formulation techniques.

The guide is divided into five sections. The first addresses the questions of what is
community forestry and why include women. Community forestry is described as a
systems approach that is multidisciplinary and focuses on the interaction of people,
trees, and forests. It advocates for a community forestry approach and activities which
recognize and build upon local women's and men's knowledge, needs, uses and benefits
from forest resources. In answer to why women's needs require special consideration,
the authors respond that: 1) women are active users and managers of forests and trees
but their roles are often invisible to project designers and policy makers; 2) women and
men often make use of forest resources differently; 3) women experience unique
constraints with regard to land and natural resources that may impede their active
participation in project activities.

The second section addresses how to make women's concerns and activities more
visible. It presents a series of questions designed to elicit information on women's roles,
responsibilities, and rights at the town, village, community, and household levels with
regard to livestock, wildlife, crops, and natural vegetation and trees. It also summarizes
how the perspectives of anthropology, nutrition, education, and law can help foresters
to make women more visible.

The third section "Asking Women the Right Questions" provides a contextual
framework for eliciting women's knowledge. It describes a number of examples of
what women from different countries and environments know about forest resources.
It also identifies a number of common constraints which women face, such as time,
mobility, customs, and land .

The fourth section sketches an eight step process for including women: 1) explore
gender issues; 2) investigate customs, taboos and time constraints, 3) promote the role
that women do and can play; 4) exchange information with individuals at every level; 5)
support women's groups; 6)work together to provide access to land and trees; 7)
consult with women before introducing new technologies; 8) collaborate to make
credit and income available to women either individually or through women's groups.


The fmnal section contains two annexes. The first Annex lists suggestions for gaining the
support of women, and then another list for gaining the support of men. The second
annex interrelates gender-based planning issues with gender-specific information needs
and gender-responsive design features. These issues are arranged by subsectoral
concerns, such as tree planting and agroforestry, community woodlots and forest
plantations, watershed and wasteland management, extension, and improved wood
burning devices. It also features a matrix which provides guidance on how to obtain the
necessary information, by subsector, through existing data sources, quick surveys, or
special studies.

The FAO Field Guide is a usefu introduction for planners and field staff involved in the
design and implementation of forestry projects. The guidelines provide a series of
concerns and questions but do not give instructions on how to gather and analyze data,
or design projects. The most innovative section is Annex II which attempts to link
gender-based questions, answers, and design elements. This helps the user translate
knowledge about women's and men's differential constraints and opportunities into
strategy to promote a gender-balanced and equitable use of resources.

SFAO. 1988. Women in Fishing Communities. Rome: Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

The purpose of this set of guidelines is to ensure that FAO fisheries projects and
programs fully recognize and support women's roles and activities and help them to
realize their economic and human potential. They are also designed to be used by other
international and national organizations concerned with fisheries development.

The guidelines are divided into three chapters. The first discusses the purpose,
application, and organization of the guidelines. The second reviews policy objectives
and principles. It lists a number of actions necessary for achieving the goal of making
women in fisheries "equal partners, and productive and self reliant participants." The
actions include: providing education and literacy; easing the burden of domestic chores;
improving food preparation methods; improving technologies supportive of women's
economic activities; making women direct beneficiaries of training and extension
activities; increasing the number of women trainers and extensionists; guaranteeing
women equal legal rights in property and assets; ensuring their equitable access to
credit; diversifying economic opportunities; including women project planning,
implementation, monitoring and evaluation; and encouraging women to be more active
participants and decision-makers in community organizations. The remainder of the
chapter describes each area of activity and prescribes which checklist is most
appropriate to each.

The third chapter presents a summary checklist and 18 targeted checklists organized
under nine activity domains: fish production processing; marketing; non-fisheries
activities; community activities and social services; organizational ,technical and
financial support; household food security; population activities. The summary
checklist is intended for cursory assessments when the use of more specific checklists is
precluded due to lack of resources, time, and information. Two checklists are provided
for each activity domain, one that elicits criteria for assessing the current situation, and
another that focuses on project design elements.

The major value of this checklist is its specificity to fisheries programs and projects.
The questions in the current situation checklists are more useful than the questions on
project design. For the most part the questions on project design are diagnostic yes/no
questions rather than questions that help project designers to translate information
elicited through the current situation checklist into formulating projects that are
responsive to the differential needs of men and women. The questions are focused
almost exclusively on women's activities. Therefore, it does not provide the user with
an understanding of how women's activities and needs relate to men's, nor of how
women's and men's activities, rights, and responsibilities vary by other socioeconomic
characteristics such as age, location, ethnicity, class, household structure, etc.
Generically, checklists do not instruct users on how to analyze or collect data. Thus


they are most useful to project managers as guides for developing scopes of work and
monitoring and evaluation systems. For social scientists, who are trained to translate
the descriptive checklists into questions that elicit information from project participants,
they provide a reference guide of gender differentiated categories.


SODA. Checklist for the Participation of Women in Development Projects.

This checklist was designed to help staff of the ODA when they prepare, monitor and
evaluate projects. The purpose of the tool is to aid ODA staff in assessing the extent to
which projects address the strategic and practical needs of women.

Part I provides an illustrative list of activities which address practical needs (e.g.,
reducing women's workload, improving their health, obtaining improved services for
their families, and increasing incomes) and strategic needs (equlalizing opportunities for
education, employment, and control over resources and decision-making). It also lists a
number of ways that projects might affect women adversely if their needs are not
adequately considered.

Part II outlines a series of women-specific questions to be considered when designing
projects. A second set of questions refers to the type of information about both
women's and men's roles and relations that is necessary for addressing the first set of
questions. Part 3 is a checklist of yes/no questions designed to assist ODA in reporting
to the OECD/DAC on how well it is meeting its policy to integrate women into project
design and implementation.

The list is of extremely limited utility. It is too general to provide any real guidance for
people actually engaged in project design or implementation. The short paper provides
a number of general checklists but does not adequately discuss who is equipped to
collect and analyze the information, how to evaluate the information, or how to make
the necessary changes in project design and implementation. It also fails to provide
sufficient rationale for linking the women-specific questions to concerns about gender
roles and relations.



Institute de la Mujer. 1989. Mujeres, Te~chnologia y Desarollo. Madrid, Spain:
Institute de la Mujer.

B. Farming Systems Research

SFeldstein, Hilary Sims and Susan V. Poats. 1989. Working Together
Gender Analysis in Agriculture Vol I, II. West Hartford, Connecticut:

The objectives of this two volume book are to provide agricultural researchers,
planners, and extensionists with: a conceptual framework for analyzing gender issues in
farming systems; case studies to facilitate application of the framework; and
concomitant teaching notes for facilitators or self-study. The conceptual framework
provides guidelines by which information on gender roles and intra-and interhousehold
roles and decision-making can be analyzed and applied to improving agricultural
technologies. The authors argue that understanding the "cross-culturally variable social
roles of men and women" requires more than simple checklists of questions to guide
data collection. Rather, it demands an gender-focussed analytical framework to
enhance Farming Systems Research/Extension's (FSR/E) capacity to: specify~ desirable
characteristics of new varieties and technologies; screen for compatibility of proposed
changes with existing practices and incentives; identify~ farmers that will benefit from
the experimentation; and assess the relative advantages of alternative solutions.

Working Together is divided into three sections. The first volume contains the
conceptual framework, which ties together the logic of FSR/E and gender analysis;
worksheets for conducting gender analysis in on-farm research; an introduction to the
case study method; and 7 case studies. Volume 2 provides teaching notes to guide the
use of each case.

According to the authors, the conceptual framework provides "categories for inquiry
and analysis which help agricultural researchers identify~ relevant information on who
does what and factors underlying farmers' decisions." The framework is based on four
areas of analysis: labor or activities, resources, benefits and incentives, and inclusion.
Activities analysis examines how the tasks that are undertaken by men, women and
children contribute to farm production, to household production, to child bearing and
rearing, and to other productive enterprises. The "Resources Analysis" provides
guidance on how to gather information disaggregating by gender and age (and other
social variables) who has access to and control of critical resources. "Benefits analysis"
examines who has access to or control of the output of production. "Incentive
analysis" provides the analytical context for assessing preferences which underlie
farmers' incentives to continue or change what they do. A final stage of the analytical
framework, inclusion analysis, investigates who is included at each stage of farming
systems research, by what criteria, and how.

Farming Syvstems Research

The methodological chapter is followed by worksheets that correspond to each stage
of the analysis and a short chapter on how to use the case studies to effectively learn
how to apply the analytical framework. The remainder of the book presents case
studies from Botswana, Burkina Faso, Colombia, Indonesia, Kenya, Philippines and

The major strength of this approach is that it provides a systematic process for
integrating gender analysis, the examination of the socially constructed roles of men
and women, into agricultural research. It is most usefu for social scientists who are
members of farming systems teams but who are not versed in how to formulate a
gender informed research agenda. As a training methodology, Working Together
provides non-social scientists with concepts and tools for understanding how gender
relations impinge on their research objectives. It does not, however, instruct non-social
scientists on how to translate analytical questions into data gathering instruments. The
authors assume that users are familiar with a variety of research methods, such as
surveys, participant observation, and rapid appraisal techniques which they can use to
gather and analyze information. The case studies are particularly useful in pointing out
that researchers must adapt their information gathering techniques to the local context.
The self study notes help non-specialists to understand the limitations of gender-blind
research as well as the opportunities provided by the inclusion of gender considerations
in research design and implementation.

Farming Syvstems Research

SPonts, Susan V. Marianne Schmink and Anita Spring. 1989. Gender
Issures in Farming Systems Research and Extension. Boulder, Colorado:
Westview Press.

This book is a collection of selected papers presented at an International Conference on
Intra-household dynamics in farming system research and extension (FSR/E) at the
University of Florida in 1986. Its objective is to present different points of view on
how to conceptualize and carry out gender-inclusive farming systems research. The
authors argue that rather than presenting a recipe for action, the papers demonstrate
that "it is both possible and practical to use gender analysis as a tool in the work of
agricultural development. "

Part I of the book covers a wide range of theoretical and methodological topics
including, the whole farming system; intra-household dynamics; institutional and policy
concerns; definition of research domains; on-farm research and extension; and
monitoring and evaluation. Papers were selected based on the extent to which they
presented new methodological approaches to integrating gender into farming systems
research. They suggest specific changes to the farming systems research protocol and
address methodological issues that are specific to research design, implementation,
evaluation, and improving communication with and participation of both women and
men farmers. In addition, there are several chapters which examine policy and
institutional factors that affect gender issues in FSR/E. In parts II, II, and IV, the
methodological chapters are complemented by a collection of case studies from Latin
America, Asia, and Africa. The regional chapters apply many of the theoretical and
methodological issues discussed in part one to specific sociocultural contexts. These
chapters demonstrate how including gender considerations affects both the FSR/E
process and outcomes.

Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extension is valuable background
reading for anyone interested in incorporating gender analysis into agricultural
development projects. It is especially useful for agricultural researchers and social
science members of FSR/E teams. It is not a "how to" manual, but is essential for
contextualizing the appropriate use of other gender analysis methods.

Farming .5vstems Research

SPoats, Susan, Hilary Sims, Cornelia Butler Flora. 1988. 77te Gender
Viniable in Agricultural Research. International Development Research

This report suggests how to incorporate gender analysis into agricultural research. It
provides research questions and matrices designed to collect and analyze gender
disaggregated information throughout the planning, design, and testing of agricultural
research. The authors give guidelines and examples of different types of data-
collection methods, as well as discuss the potential implications and applications of the
findings to agricultural policy and program formulation and design.

Part one of the document describes the rationale for gender analysis and calls for a
reorientation in the focus of agricultural research from one that is technology driven to
one that is user driven. Another key element of Part I is a description of 5 general
patterns of gender responsibility (male and female separate crops, separate fields,
separate tasks, shared tasks, and women-managed farms) and their implications for
agricultural research.

Part II provides an overview of gender analysis tools that are applicable to farming
systems research. The authors describe and summarize in tabular form several tools for
examining on and off-farm activities by crop and season, access and control over
resources for farm production, and who receives both incentives and benefits. The
second section of Pant II discusses how to apply the results of gender analysis. The
authors assert that frequently gender analysis ends in diagnosis by simply describing
men's and women's tasks. They argue that "the utility of gender analysis comes with its
application to the design and evaluation of on-farm research" and that those responsible
for conducting gender analysis should be involved from the beginning to the end of the
research effort. A third section of the chapter on tools provides illustrative criteria for
choosing the appropriate methods for gender analysis. A fourth section presents some
possible strategies for ensuring that women are integrated into and benefit from on-
farm trials. A final section examines the implications of agricultural research in the
wider political and institutional context. It raises questions about institutional
constraints to adopting technology, that might be gender specific, such as access to
credit or land. Additionally it focuses on staffing and training as important vehicles for
promoting attention to gender in agricultural research. An appendix provides a list of
training and bibliographic resources.

This is a methodical and focused set of guidelines which can be of great use to teams of
agricultural researchers. It is most appropriate as a guide for social scientists on
farming system teams who have good data collection and analytical skills but lack
knowledge of how to integrate gender considerations into research identification,
planning, design, and evaluation. It is also useful for educating agriculturalists and
development planners about the type of gender-specific information that is necessary to

Farming Systems Research

collect and analyze in order to identify~ appropriate solutions to both men's and
women's most critical agricultural constraints and opportunities. Its strength is that it
speaks to a targeted audience agricultural researchers through a process and
language that is familiar.

Farming Systems Research

(Farming Systems Research)

Falch, Marianne. I 99 I. Cameroon:Specific Problems and Constraints of Women
Farmers Towards The Permanent Farming System. Bameda: GTZ.

Flora, Comnelia Butler. 1987. Intra-Household Dynamics: The Need for Whole Farm
Monitoring in Farming Systems Research. Thre Rural Sociologist 7, no.3.

Henderson, Helen K. 1989. Book Review-Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research
and Extension. Applied Anthropology 91.

International Rice Research Institute. 1987. Women in Rice Farming Systems: An
Operational Research and Training Program. Manila, Philippines: The Intemnational
Rice Research Institute.

Moock, Joyce L. 1986. Unldersrataning A~ica's Rural Households and Farming
Systems. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Paris, Thelma R. I990. hilcorporatintg Women's Concerns inl Crqp- Animal Farming
Systems Research Methodology. No. 90-30. Manila, Philippines: Intemnational Rice
Research Institute.

Poats, S. Gearing, J. I 989. Er~cutive Summary of Gender Issues inl Farming Systems
Research and Extension: a Survey of Current Projects. Washington D.C.: US AID.

Rocheleau, Diane. I 985. Criteria for Re-Appraisal and Re-Design: haltra-household
~and Between Household Aspects of FSRE in~ Three Kenyan Agroforestry Projects.

Saunders, Janice. 1991. Book Review- Poats, Schmink and Spring book "Gender
Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extension". Rural Sociology 56, no. 1.

Staudt, Kathleen. I981. Women and Household ssues in Farming Systems Research.
Kansas: Kansas State University.

C. Gender Analysis, Planning, and Training

Caye, Virginia M. The Gender Information Framework: Gendler
Considerations in Design. Washington D.C.: USAID.

Mayatech Corporation. 1991. The Gender Information Framewuork. Silver
Spring MD. (prepared for the Ofice of Women in Development, USAID).

USAID Offce of Women in Development. 7Tie Gender Information
Framewuork: Pocket Guide

The Gender Information Framework (GIF;) is a methodology designed to assist
USAID in incorporating gender considerations into program and project design,
adaptation, evaluation, and review. It is a set of tools, information and guidelines
developed as a reference and training resource guide. The framework contains three
components: 1) Gender Variable Matrix, 2) Gender Considerations in Design, and 3)
Summary of Guidelines for Document Review. It was designed to accompany a
training program on gender issues and to serve as a post-training reference manual on
how to include gender issues in USAID's project and program design and reporting
documents. The framework has a two part purpose: 1) to strengthen the analysis of
development issues in such a way that gender becomes an automatic consideration in
the programming process and 2) to provide tools that assist USAID to incorporate
information yielded by analysis into program design, adaptation, evaluation and review.

The GIF is available from the USAID Office of Women in Development in two
different formats. It exists both as a pocket guide (in pamphlet form) and as a more in
depth reference manual. The pocket guide is really two guides, a gender analysis guide
which summarizes the two step gender variable matrix and a document review guide.
Step one of the gender analysis guide lists four factors where gender might be a
variable (allocation of time, sources of income, financial responsibilities, and access to
and control over resources) and a set of key questions under each factor. Step two is
designed to analyze the implications of significant gender differences for project or
program activity design or adaptation. It queries the user to identify and compare the
constraints and opportunities to women's and men's participation in development
activities. The Document Review Guide presents a series of actions necessary for
incorporating gender issues in A.I.D. project and non-project assistance. It includes
four separate cards specifying tailored actions for the Country Development Strategy
Statement (CDSS), the Action Plan (AP), the Project Identification Document (PID),
and the Project Paper.

Gender Planning, Analysis, and Training

The GIF reference manual presents both guides in a more detailed format with
accompanying explanations and examples. It includes a fuller description of the gender
variable matrix (also called the gender analysis map). The matrix is a three column
matrix with the first matrix listing factors where gender might be a variable. The second
column presents questions on whether and how gender affects the factors listed in
column 1. The third column provides space for the user to chart information from the
analysis. The Document Review Guidelines, which follow the standard stages of the
CDSS, AP, PID, and PP, describe and chart actions for including gender issues in these
key documents. The charts are divided into two columns. The left column is titled
"gender considerations", which are a series of steps to be taken at the each stage in the
design and document preparation process. The right column lists "key questions" to
indicate in more detail how the consideration might be examined. The reference manual
also includes appendices which provide profiles of small scale enterprise and farming
systems research and extension projects.

An abbreviated form of the GIF has been used extensively in Gender Considerations in
Development training within USAID. The GIF reference manual has not received as
wide exposure due to its bulk the executive summary alone is 18 pages. The
alternative, the short pocket guide, is composed of questions that are too general to
serve as anything more than a menomic device for those who have been exposed to the
methodology through training. The pamphlet outlines components of the matrix and
gender considerations charts, but does not provide sufficient information on how to
collect and analyze the data gathered. The real value of the GIF is for USAID staff
engaged in reviewing key reporting documents. It is less useful for those writing them.

Gender Planning, Analysis, and Training

SCoady International Institute. A Handbook for Social/Gender Analysis.

The purpose of this handbook is to introduce CIDA staff and consultants to the
principles of social/gender analysis (SGA). It presents a framework for implementing
CIDA's development objectives of directing the benefits of development to the
disadvantaged and ensuring that the benefits are technically, economically, and socially
sustainable. It aims to combine SGA with participatory development approaches. This
approach is based on the rationale that SGA helps to identify the disadvantaged in a
society, explain the structural causes of their disadvantage, and that women are often
disadvantaged differently than men. The handbook suggests that a panticipatory
process which empowers the disadvantaged is necessary for sustaining changes
instigated through development efforts.

The handbook is organized into four chapters: 1) "Introduction," 2) "Conceptual
Framework," "Application to the Project Development Process," and 4) "Research
Tools." The introduction outlines the purpose and intended audience of the handbook,
as well as the relationship between CIDA's development strategy and SGA.

The second chapter defines SGA, lays out its assumptions and rationale, and presents
an analytical framework for SGA. The analytical framework is guided by 4 key
questions that help to identify~ who the disadvantaged are: 1) What is the nature of their
disadvantage; 2) what are the social relations (structures and organizations) which
maintain their disadvantage; 3) what are the historical patterns and trends in social
relations; and 4) what are the relationships between the local, national, and international
levels in creating and perpetuating poverty? The authors advocate looking at the
answers to these questions in light of change over-time and disaggregating the
information by both gender and class.

A key element of this chapter is its focus on participation, including discussions of
levels, indicators, and how to mobilize people. Finally it discusses CIDA's
methodological principles of moving toward an iterative process for project design,
implementation and management; learning at each step what works and making
adjustments; and adopting an internal/external approach which combines the
knowledge of participants and local consultants with the analysis and observations of
outside development professionals.

The third chapter applies the SGA framework to project identification, planning,
approval, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. It provides sets of key
questions designed specifically for each stage.

The final chapter is a research tool kit. It presents and reviews a number of different
research methods. It provides information on when, where and how to use each

Gender Planning, Alnalysis, and Training

method. This is an extremely detailed and useful handbook. Although it was designed
for CIDA, it is equally applicable to other bilateral, multilateral, national, and non-
governmental institutions. It has a number of advantages over similar guidelines and
checklists. First, it addresses both the concerns of planners/managers and operational
field staff Second, the chapter on research tools goes beyond descriptive presentation
by critically assessing how, when and where the method can be applied most optimally.
Third it interweaves gender and social analysis with participatory action research, thus
incorporating social science analysis with local knowledge and decision-making. Thus
it reveals a more dynamic picture of gendered social relations than other approaches.
At every state of the development process, this form of analysis requires discussion,
interviews and knowledge of the project area, as well as active and honest participation
by target groups.

Gender Planning, Analysis, and Training

B Hnnan-Andersson, Carolyn. 1992. Gender Planning Methodology Three
Papers on Incorporating thte Gender Approach in Development
Cooperation Programmes. Lund, Sweden: SIDA.

This report is a collection of three papers which weave together a gender-informed
approach to development planning. The methodology attempts to go beyond most
gender analyses by addressing the question of "how to integrate gender planning
methodology within a donor organization." The objective of this methodology is to
ensure that women as well as men are integrated into development processes. To
achieve this, the author states that a social groups analysis is needed where gender is
only one of the variables required. Other variables include age, ethnic group, class and
religious group affiliation. This gender approach attempts to develop a planning
methodology which can apply the insights gained through research to policy
formulation and programming in mainstream development.

The first paper introduces and examines the concept of gender and development,
compares it to the WID approach, and addresses some of the criticisms and reluctance
to adopt a gender approach by WID specialists and development agencies. The author
argues that a gender approach goes beyond dealing with the symptoms of women's
problems to deal with the causes. This entails grappling with the social relationships
between men and women which condition their differential access to power and
resources.,She concludes that a gender approach requires "a rethinking of the whole
[development] planning methodology."

The second paper addresses how to institutionalize and operationalize a gender
approach in development organizations. This paper is stmectured around three essential
elements which include development of: 1)a gender policy (the ideological framework;
2) a gender-based strategy and methodology (linked to normal planning processes); 3)
gender-sensitive tools and instruments. Effective development of all three of these is
dependent on high level institutional support and political pressure. In this paper,
Hannan-Anderson highlights the specific requirements for developing each one of these
key elements so that men and women can be successfully incorporated as actors and
decision-makers. She also critically reviews why some earlier approaches have not been
very effective. For instance, she points out that much of the material written on women
in development is gender-blind because by omitting information on men, it fails to
provide the necessary information on gender roles and relationships. Similarly,
checklists, seen as an expedient route to achieving WID goals were often of little value
because they were too vague and inflexible to apply to the broad spectrum of
development contexts. She advocates, instead, for tools and methods that are
participatory, context specific, and inclusive of all members of target and participating

Gender Planning, Analysis, and Training

In the fmnal paper Hannan-Anderson discusses the potential of the gender perspective
for improving development planning. Firstly it heightens awareness of both women's
and men's roles as actors in development. Secondly, it focuses attention on
participation of local groups and the need and potential for their involvement in
development planning. The major focus of this paper is a critique of the inadequacies
in standard approaches to development planning, many of which are impediments to
integrating a gender perspective.

These three papers provide a thought provoking frmework for incorporating a gender
perspective into development planning. While it does not meet its aims of presenting a
"how to" methodology, it does provide the conceptual architecture for developing such
an approach. Such an endeavor would require additional knowledge and skills in
collection and analysis of gender disaggregated data, in reaching and involving both
men and women in development planning, incorporating research findings and local
concerns and knowledge into project design and implementation, and training staff
effectively in gender skills. Hannan-Anderson provides a strong rationale for
development agencies to invest in the process.

The Ecogen Tools (see page ) cand the sectoral checklists, developed by the
Netherlands Minristry of Foreign Affairs (see page ), complement Hannan-
Andcerson 's framework by providing more targeted "how to methods.

Gender Planning. Analysis, and Training

SKabira, Wanjiku Mukabi and Mashed Masinjila. 1993. Gender and
Development.* 77te Femnet Model for Gender Responrsive Planning,
19ogramming Advocacy and Sensitization. Nairobi, Kenya: Afirican
Women's Development and Communication Network.

"Gender and Development" is a participatory model developed by the Kenyan
organization Femnet for training development professionals to conduct gender
responsive planning, programming, advocacy and sensitization." The model translates
Femnet's philosophy of advancing "the equal position of women and men in society and
as equal participants in the development process" into a five-step training methodology.

The five sections of the model include modules on: 1) the concepts of gender and
development; 2) presentation of data differentiated by gender; 3) the social
construction of gender; 4) identification of gender concerns; 5) application to project
analysis. The first section places the concept of Gender and Development in a historical
context by helping trainees to understand the differences between sex and gender and
Women in Development (WID) and Gender and Development (GAD). It explains that
the value of GAD is that it examines the root causes of women's subordination in
different sociocultural settings.

Section two discusses the premise that unequal and often exploitative relations between
men and women are based on sociocultural and historical factors which are perpetuated
by gender-based ideologies. By using the Harvard case study methodology this section
of the training requires participants to analyze data on men's, women's, boy's, and girl's
activities, and to examine the allocation of tasks in relation to the distribution of
benefits. During this section, the facilitators encourage participants to question the
legitimacy of these disparities in order to analyze and understand how gender-based
power relations influence the design and implementation of development projects.

Section three addresses the importance of culture and society as shapers of gender
roles, rights, and responsibilities. It confronts head on the notion that gender relations
are not immutable. It draws out the distinction between sex and gender in greater detail
and discusses the role of ideology in perpetuating unequal distribution of wealth and
power. The major objective of this section is to help the participants understand that
gender roles are not permanent and that "they can be and are changing." The purpose
of section four is to provide a framework for more systematically identifying and
analyzing gender-based disparities in activities, and resource access and control. It is
also a bridging exercise which links the identification of these disparities to an
assessment of how to design projects to overcome them. Section 5 completes this
process by engaging the participants in applying their newly acquired analytical skills to
their own projects.

Gender Planning, Analysis. and Training

The Femnet method presents an extremely useful training sequence for developing
gender awareness and analysis skills in development planning. This publication,
however, is only an outline of a methodological tool,' not a step by step set of
instructional materials. Thus, its optimal application requires trainers who are highly
skilled in gender and development theory and gender analysis methods. Its focus on
gender as an unequal relation of power and control sets it apart from most gender
training methodologies.

Gender Planning, Analysis, and Training

5 Moffat, Linda, Yande Gendah, and Rieky Stuart. 1991. Twuo Halves Make
a Whole: Balancing Gender Relations in Development Ottawa: Canadian
Council for International Cooperation.

This handbook is a kit composed of three interrelated manuals: an overview of gender
and development and gender analysis tools; a training manual; and two sets of case
studies. It was developed by the Canadian Council for International Cooperation, with
funding from CIDA, to help Canadian NGOs design and implement more effective and
equitable development programs. Written from a feminist perspective, it aims to
identify the "potential in development initiatives to transform unequal social/gender
relations and to empower women" in order to achieve the long-term goal of developing
an "equal partnership of women and men in determining and directing their own
future. "

Section I, "Gender and Development" includes three chapters on theory, tools, and
implications. The first chapter, "Gender and Development: an alternative approach,"
explores why most development approaches have not been very successful at
improving women's lives. It focuses on four issues, equality vs. equity; gender as a
social constmection; power; and the limits of development. The discussion of equality
vs. equity contrasts equality of opportunity with equity of impact, arguing that the two
issues are not synonymous and that equality of opportunity (the objective of WID
efforts) did not by and large result in equity of impact for men and women.

A piece on the social construction of gender emphasizes cross-cultural variability and
the potential of change in gender relations over time. The discussion of power raises
issues about how women experience subordination differently, depending on their age,
class, ethnicity, race, or sexual orientation. It challenges the assumption that all women
will have singular or unified interests and recognizes that development actions may
increase divisions and conflict. The section on the limits of development is a sobering
caution to development planners that they can not defmne or solve development
problems in isolation of the people whose lives they affect. It also challenges the
development community to broaden their concept of development beyond a solely
economic perspective emphasizing growth and redistribution.

Chapter 2, "GAD Analytical Tools: Program, Project and Policy Applications,"
presents 8 gender analysis tools designed to increase attention to gender issues in
development. The first four tools, based on the Harvard Analytical Framework (see
Rao below), are intended for analyzing gender relations within a community. These
include: 1) Sexual/ Gender Divisiont of Labor; 2) Types of Work, 3) Access to and
Control Over Resources; 4) ht~fluencing Factors. The second set of four tools are
designed to help development workers analyze the implications of gender
disaggregated data. They provide a series of questions focused on: 1) improved
conditions of men and women and changes in their relative positions in society (tool

Gender Planning, AInalysis, and Training

#5); the extent to which development activities address men's and women's practical
and strategic needs (tool #6); the nature, degree, and benefits of participation by
women and men (tool #7); programs contribute to the transformation of gender
relations and between the advantaged and disadvantaged (tool # 8). Chapter 3,
"Implications and Strategies for NGOs," discusses the limitations of GAD training to
real institutional changes, without a parallel commitment to stnictural and conceptual
changes within an organization.

Section II "Gender and Development Training," is a manual for developing a GAD
training program. The training manual guides trainers on how to present the GAD
approach and to train participants in the use of the gender analysis tools. Section II,
supplemented by an addendum published in 1992, provides short and long case study
material to use in training. The case studies provide a range of analytical material for
people with varying degrees of expertise in gender considerations.

Two Halves Make a Whole brings an entirely new dimension to gender analysis and
training. It focuses on the relative position and power of women and men to effect
structural changes in their lives. Optimum use of the handbook requires both time and
study on the part of the user, but it is time and effort that is well invested. The
handbook's treatment of power and the limits of development, are among the most
innovative discussions of these issues in any gender analysis framework. The tools
provided a focused set of questions for pursuing the theoretical issues raised by the
authors. They help development planners go beyond the "add women and stir" model
advocated by many other WID and gender analysis approaches to begin a process of
gendered development.

Gender Planning, Analysis, and Training

SPoats, Susan V. 1989. Invisible Women: Gendler andl Household Analysis
in Agricultural Research and Extension. Gainesville, Florida: Tropical
Research and Development Program.

This is a scripted slide presentation prepared to assist agricultural researchers.
extension workers, and managers of research and extension projects to learn about
gender issues in agriculture. Its other purpose is to develop an understanding of how to
use gender analysis as a descriptive and analytical tool in agriculture projects. It does
not present a research methodology per se, but articulates a coherent set of gender
issues relevant to agricultural research, extension, and development planning. The
presentation argues that "learning to 'see' women in agriculture will assist research and
development workers to better understand the different roles that men and women play
in production and to improve the design and delivery of technology meant to assist
farmers-both male and female."

The slide presentation raises a number of specific issues which have prevented
researchers and planners from considering women's roles in agriculture to the same
degree as men's. These include: 1) omitting female farmers who may perform
agricultural tasks and control resources from information gathering intentiews; 2)
researchers' stereotypical notions about gender work roles which prevent them from
seeing women's production roles; 3) communications barriers and sociocultural
conventions that limit interaction between male researchers and female farmers; 4)
economic models that do not easily accommodate information on different members of
households or extended or polygynous households where females manage their own
income; 5) inadequate attention to the need of women of different ages -- i.e., young
women with small children that may have different agricultural needs and limitations
than older women with adult children.

The presentation also notes recent changes that facilitate the inclusion of gender issues
in agricultural research and development: 1) research teams with males and females
that proactively interview male and female farmers; 2) male field team members better
versed in techniques for interviewing females; 3) diagnosis conducted all along the food
chain in order to include women's post-harvest and marketing activities; 4) women's
collectives participating in on-farm experiments; 5) females being taught how to use
non-traditional techniques to expand their involvement in production.

Although many of the issues raised in this presentation are no longer as novel as they
were at the time of its publication, it is still useful for stimulating discussion in gender
training courses. Women in Development officers and advisors within development and
agricultural research organizations will also find it useful for reaching technical
audiences that are not yet attuned to how to include gender considerations in their
work. It needs to be paired, however, with more rigorous gender analysis
methodologies, such as the Ecogen Tools (see page ) or the Methodological Chapter

Gender Planning, Analysis, and Training

of Working Together (see page ), in order for viewers to be able to act on the
presentation's suggestions in their research, extension and project management work.
The script is also available in Spanish and French.

Gender Planning, Analysis, and Training

SRao, Aruna, Mary B. Anderson and C. Overholt 1991. Ge~nder Analysis
in Development Planning: A Case Book. West Hartford, Connecticut:
Kumarian Press.

This case book is intended primarily for national development planners and
practitioners as well as staff of international development agencies. It is intended as a
pedagogical tool for those interested in a set of concepts and analytical techniques to
deal with gender issues in a variety of development interventions. The first chapter is an
analytical framework aimed at "building a gender-differentiated data base on activities
and access and control over resources. The remaining chapters, which are case studies
of various Asian development projects, provide raw material for analysis by training

The gender analysis framework, reproduced from Gender Roles in Development
Projects (Overholt et al, 1985), is designed to facilitate the integration of women into
project analysis. The framework has four components: 1) activity profile, 2) access and
control profile, 3) analysis of factors influencing activities, access, and control; and 4)
project cycle analysis. The activity profie is designed to delineate the economic
activities of the population in the project area by age and gender, ethnicity, social class
and other socioeconomic variables. The purpose of the access and control profile is to
discern who controls what resources and to examine who benefits from a particular set
of activities. The analysis of the influencing factors and resources focuses on the
broader economic and cultural factors that condition the gender division of labor and
gender-related control over resources and benefits. The project cycle analysis examines
the implications of data obtained from the initial three analyses for the different phases
of the project cycle.

The remaining chapters of the book are case studies on projects in Asia, ranging from
irrigation education, to employment schemes. They do not systematically follow the
gender analysis framework, but rather offer raw data for training participants to
practice applying the framework.

This was one of the first gender analysis frameworks to be developed. It has since been
surpassed by others that are more user friendly and sectorally focused. Many of the
subsequent methodologies, however, owe their intellectual roots to this approach. It is
most useful for trainers who desire case study material on Asia. The case studies offer
raw material which can be used to practice a broad range of analytical tools.

Gender Planning, Analysis, and Training

(Gender Analysis, Planning, and Training)

African Development Bank. 1990. Symposium on Household Food Security and the Role
of Women: Collected papers. Washington D.C.: ADB.

Alberti, Amalia M. I 979. Metodologia apropiada para el studio de la mujer rural en
los Andes del Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador: CEPLAES/ Ford Foundation.

Aulette. Judy. 1991. Women and Social Welfare: A Feminist Analysis. Rural Sociology
56, no. 1.

Australian International Development Assistance Bureau. 1992. Women in Development:
A Resource Handbook. Australia: AIDAB.

Boonsue, Kornvipa. I 992. Women 's Development Models and Gender Analysis A Review.
Bangkok: Asian Institute of Technology.

Eichler. Magrit. I988. Non-Sexist Research Methods: A Practical Guide. Boston: Unwin

Evans, Alison. I989. WYomen: Rural Development Gender Issues in Rural Household
Economics. Sussex: IDS.

Gittinger, J. Price. 1990. Household Food Security and the Role of Women. World Bank
Discussion Papers 96. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

Hannan-Andersson. C. I 992. Experiences with Gender Training: How did it work and
How was it used: Some Experience from the Swedish International Development
Authority 1988-1991. Lund. Sweden: SIDA.

Howard-Borjas. P. Karl M. I99I. Gender Analysis Workshop for Professional Staff~:
FAO's Mid-Term Review of Lessons Learned. Working Papers Series No.7. Rome: FAO.

INSTRAW. 1988. Modular Training Package for Women in Development. Dominican
Republic: INSTRAW.

Kabeer. Naila. I 99 I. Gender, Production and Well-Being: Rethinking the Household
Economy. Discussion Paper 288. Sussex: IDS.

Continued. ,..

Loudivi, Dounia and Alison Meares. I 992. Women in Conservation: Tools for Analysis
and a F~ramework for A ctions An Annotated Bibliography. IUCN.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Netherlands. 1990. Collected Papers. Symposium on
Household Food Security and the Role of Women. Harare, Zimbabwe.

Molnar, Augusta. I981. The Dynamics of Traditional Systems of Forest Management in
Nepal: Implications for the Community Forestry Development and Training Project.
Washington D.C.; The World Bank.

Moser, Caroline O. I 993. Gender Planning and Development Theory, Practice and
Training. New York: Routledge.

Overholt, C. M. Anderson. K. Cloud and J. Austin. 1985. Gender Roles in Development
Projects: A Casebook. West Hartford. Connecticut: Kumarian Press.

Parker, J. Kathy. I989. Integrating Gender Concerns into the Asia and Near East
Environmental and Natural Resource Strategy in the 1990s. Gainesville, Florida:
Tropical Research and Development Inc.

Parker, Rani. 1993. Another Point of View: A Manual on Gender Analysis Training for
Grassroots Workers. New York: UNIFEM.

Poats, Susan and S. Russo. I989. Training in WID/gender Analysis in Agricultural
Development: a Review of Experiences and Lessons Learned. Working Paper Series No.
5 Rome: FAO.

UNIFEM. 1991. Gender Training: Exuperiences. Lessons and Future Directions. New

UNIFEM. 1990. Drawing Lesson. Vol. I.II.III. Washington D.C.: UNIFEM.

USAID. Intrahousehold Allocation of Resources and Roles: An Annotated Bibliography
of the Methodological and Empirical Literature. Washington D.C.: US AID.

Van Herpern, Dorien. 1991. Gender Analysis in Agricultural Research. Palmira.
Colombia: CIAT.

D. Guidelines

SClones, Julia Panourgia. 1993. Gender and the Environment in Subdaharan
Africa:= Guidelines for Integrating Gender Issues into Bank Group Projects
with Sigmyijcant Environmental Implications. Washington D.C.: The World

These guidelines stress the need "to make development a process of change which
safeguards the natural resource base, enables women's empowerment and balances social
and economic objectives." They are designed as a gender and environment training module
for management and staff in the World Bank's Africa region and to assist task managers to
design projects that are more responsive to the natural and human environments.

The Guidelines, intended for use by a variety of audiences, are organized to meet the needs
of the different users working in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The chapter "Gender and the
Environment in SSA: Conceptual Underpinnings A" is intended as a short version for top
managers. It presents a conceptual and policy framework and lays out specific links
between gender and environmental issues. Chapter 3, "Conceptual Underpinnings B"
advocates for an expanded notion of sustainable development that accounts for gender
differences which affect "the human presence in the ecosystem." This section is intended
for non-specialists. It lays out the principles of gender and development concepts and
provides examples of constraints and consequences women often face in managing the
environments in which they live. Chapter 4, "Conceptual Underpinnings C (Summary of
Key Links)," lists a number of key gender differences that the author believes are
characteristic of the region.

Chapter 5, presents a set of guidelines for integrating gender issues into projects with
significant environmental implications. The guidelines follow the World Bank's project
development cycle. The project identification guidelines call for collecting information on
pre-project gender roles and relations, and access to and control over resources. The author
also prompts the project identification teams to examine the potential effects of the project
on women's and men's roles, responsibilities, access to and control over resources. and
participation (also differentiated by class. ethnicity, and other relevant characteristics). At
the project preparation level, the guidelines state the need for collecting information on
gender and the project area. The project component level guidelines focus on formulating
gender inclusive strategies, on ascertaining whether women have participated or been
consulted in planning this project, and examnining whether women have equal access to
training opportunities. The project appraisal level's suggestions include providing summary
information on how women's needs have been taken into account in the project, the
project's potential direct and indirect impacts on women, and women's participation in the
implementation of the project. At the project implementation/supervision and gender
impact monitoring level, the guidelines suggest discussing with member governments
issues of women's employment, management, staffing, and opportunities to bid on
procurement contracts. Following USAID guidelines, the author advocates for complete
disaggregation of information for monitoring and evaluation.


The final~ section of the report offers several case studies of gender-responsive
environmental projects based on presentations at the Global Assembly of Women and at
UNCED. A checklist is also provided as an appendix. It provides a series of what the
author terms "indicative questions" under the categories of gender a) division of labor: b)
aspects of investment and control of resources: c) aspects of providing for family needs,
and d) gender aspects of control over output and income. The checklist also includes
questions for specific types of projects such as food crop projects, irrigation projects,
livestock projects, agricultural research activities, agricultural extension activities,
fisheries (within traditional fishing communities and fish farming). A second appendix
provides summaries of World Bank environmental projects in Sub-Saharan Africa that
address gender issues.

The main value of this method is that it is specific to World Bank Operations. Thus it
provides World Bank staff and consultants with an accessible guide to key gender and
environmental issues relevant to each stage of the project cycle. It is not, however, either
original nor a hands-on guide to collecting and analyzing gender information. Although it's
author calls it a training module, it is lacking in both content and process when compared
to some of the other training approaches reviewed above.


SGaesing, Karin and Carola V. Morstein. 1991. Women in Development and
Animal Production How to Go About It. Eschborn, Germany: GTZ.

These guidelines present criteria for assessing women's inclusion in animal production
projects. Their purpose is to help project managers ensure that women participate in and
benefit from animal production and veterinary projects. The guidelines provide illustrative
lists of issues to be considered when planning, appraising and implementing projects. The
authors state that they do not provide either exhaustive or focused sets of questions,
therefore users must chose the ones that are relevant to a given situation and amend or
supplement where necessary.

The guidelines are organized in three sections to coincide with the project cycle. The first
section focuses on different types of analyses appropriate for gathering information during
the project identification and design phases. The analyses presented in this section focus
specifically on roles, interests, responsibilities, and concerns of women with regard to
livestock production.

The second section provides gender-specific criteria for developing terms of reference for a
project appraisal team. The authors assent that it is necessary to collect all data and
information by gender in order to adequately meet the problems and needs of the entire
population. They organize the questions under seven categories: 1) demography and
household structure; 2) access to and control over resources; 3) socio-economic patterns;
4) women's work and responsibility; 5) form's of women's organizations: 6) needs and
expectations of women, 7) existing approaches to women's promotion.

The third section establishes terms of reference and questions for monitoring and
evaluating progress and impact of incorporating women into animal production projects.
The questions are arranged under five conceptual categories: 1) division of labor and
workload: 2) economic impacts: 3) social, cultural and legal status: 4) extension services;
and 5) participation in planning, implementation and benefits.

Women and Development and Animal Production provides a ready set of criteria for
project managers to use in developing terms of reference for project design, appraisal, and
evaluation. Its major contribution is that it provides a set of gender-based questions
specific to animal production. It is not, however, a research method for collecting and
analyzing information.. It assumes that project managers or members of the project design
and evaluation teams have the skills to evaluate gender integration, to gather and analyze
gender-disaggregalted darta and to suggest how proposed changes can be made. The title is
somewhat misleading since the guidelines do not describe "how to go about it" as much as
they describe what issues to consider. It is specifically a WID approach and therefore
lacks questions that focus on comparisons between women and men across different
socioeconomic strata. age-groups, ethnicity, and marital status.


SMurphy, Josette. I989. Women and Agriculture in Africa:= A Guide to Bank
Policy and Programs for Operations Staff. Washington D.C.: The World

This paper was prepared for the Agricultural Divisions in the World Bank's Africa Region
(AFR). The stated objectives of the paper "are to provide AFR agricultural staff with a
summary of current Bank policy and programs on Women in Development, and with a
brief review of gender-related issues which task managers may need to take into
consideration when appraising and supervising agriculture operations."

The guidelines are presented in 4 sections: 1) Introduction, 2) Section II: a summary of
World Bank policy on women in development, 3) Section III: a review of key issues faced
by African women farmers, and 4) Section IV: an outline of steps AFR agricultural staff
need to consider in the appraisal and supervision of sectoral lending and projects. A list of
Bank publications on gender issues in agriculture is provided in the appendix. Section II
summarizes Bank WID policy and the institutional support available to Bank staff for
incorporating gender concerns into Bank lending.

Section III discusses obstacles faced by women farmers in Africa because of their limited
access to productive resources, including land, capital, credit, marketing channels, time,
and appropriate equipment and technology. It also discusses restrictive Land tenure
legislation which both precludes women's land ownership and access to agricultural credit.
The final section lists areas that should be improved or changed in order to reform
agricultural projects. They are: legal formalization of women's access to land tenure,
labor saving technology on all types of household and farmzing work: research taking
women's role in the farming system into account; access to agricultural training; access to
external services; access to credit: encouragement and support of female groups for
information dissemination and credit, access to basic education, disaggregation of
statistical data and development analysis by gender.

This report is a useful shorthand guide for those involved in planning agricultural programs
in Afi-ica especially for World Bank staff and consultants. The guidelines provide helpful
information on how to rethink the role of women farmers in light of their multiple roles and
responsibilities in agricultural production, and in other types of productive and
reproductive activities. The paper makes an important contribution by highlighting that the
general information needs for project design, appraisal, supervision, and evaluation "
should not be seen as a list of 'what we need to kn~ow about women,' but of the information
on the local population without which strategies are selected or a project is designed in a
vacuum." It emphasizes the importance of understanding the technology and resources
used by thrms within the local sociocultural and economic context, without providing
guidance on how to collect or analyze the data.


SRusso, Sandra, Susan Poats and Jennifer Bremer-Fox. 1989. Gender Issues in
Agriculture and Natural Resource Management. Washington D.C.: US AID.

The objective of this manual is to provide methods, guidelines and examples for facilitating
the integration of women into agriculture and natural resource development projects. The
manual makes use of lists and question guide sheets to highlight key gender issues. It
reviews several evaluation and monitoring techniques and discusses their relative
advantages and disadvantages.

The first chapter is an introduction and overview of how to use the manual. In the second
chapter, the authors provide guidelines for integrating gender issues into USAID's
principal reporting documents, including the Country Development Strategy Statement
(CDSS), Action Plan (AP), Project Identification Document (PID), and Project Paper
(PP). Additionally, a section of the chapter focuses on non-project assistance such as
policy reform initiatives. The manual lists ten suggested steps in the gender analysis
process: 1) clarify gender roles and their implications for project strategies; 2) analyze
eligibility to receive project inputs; 3) define prerequisites for participation in project
activities: 4) examine outreach capabilities of institutions and delivery systems: 5) assess
the appropriateness of proposed technical packages; 6) examine the distribution of benefits
and its effect on incentives; 7) consider the reliability of the feedback mechanisms; 8)
anticipate probable changes in the roles and status of women; 9) link changes in the roles
and status of women with the expected project impact; and 10) identify needed
adaptations. It also lists issues for gender considerations in non-project assistance. The
third chapter delineates elements to include in a gender-informed scope of work for a
project design team.

The guidelines follow each step of the standard USAID project paper process. They lay
out specific issues and questions for different technical analyses, subsectors, and
components. including questions relating to credit, research, extension, farmer
organization. lnd reform and tenure, livestock, irrigation, marketing, project management,
post-harvest storage and processing, agroforestry, and natural resource management.

The manual's final chapter provides guidance on how to incorporate gender considerations
into project implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. This chapter includes criteria for
selecting gender-informed implementing organizations, technical staff and delivery
systems. It also suggests several techniques for evaluating women's participation in
agricultural development projects, including direct observation, community interviews,
informal surveys, consumption-focused surveys, household record keeping, and purposive
sampling. Each method is described in a paragraph. The purposive sampling overview is
supplemented by a descriptive list of sampling strategies. The appendices include a list of
other USAID WID Office resources and a bibliography.

The manual provides detailed guidelines for identifying gender-based issues. It is well
targeted to USAID procedures and is written in a language that is accessible to Bureau and
Mission management and technical staff. Similarly to other guidelines, however, it


provides little direction on how to actually analyze and apply the results of targeted
research and evaluation.


SSaidu, Sharif. 1992. Report on Advancement of Women and Livestock
Production: Proceedlings from an International Seminar November 23 1991.
Bonn: GTZ.

These proceedings are the outcome of an international seminar on linking women in
development with livestock production and veterinary issues. The main objectives of this
conference for animal production and veterinary project field staff were to: 1) sensitize
participants to the importance of women in animal production; 2) highlight implications of
women's roles in animal production for livestock projects: and 3) expose participants to
gender sensitive data collection methodologies.

The most useful sections of this document are an introductory chapter that summarizes the
results of the conference, project summaries which present lessons learned, and a section
featuring topical and methodological papers. The topical and methodological section
contains two papers on gender analysis and data collection. a case study, and a fourth that
reviews progress on integrating WID into GTZ. The first paper by Carola von Morstein
advocates for viewing the household as a survival community where each individual
manages his/her affairs for both individual and common purposes rather than as a
resource pooling, consensus, and joint decision-making entity. It argues furthermore for the
need for a "gender-specific analysis [that] takes into account the unequal relationships
between men and women, their different starting situations, specific interests, problems
and needs." It applies this perspective to an examination of the division of labor, decision-
making, access to the means of production, and the special situation of female-headed
households in communities engaged in animal production.

The methodological chapter by Christine Martins presents an overview of how to collect
and apply gender disaggregated data in animal production and veterinary projects. It
addresses how to use datat. how to collect information, and why it should be gender-
specific. Additionally the paper reviews the pros and cons of formal surveys, rapid rural
appraisal techniques, and action or participatory methods. The author recommends non-
formal methods of data collection because they demand fewer resources-and are flexible
enough to allow for greater community participation. The report suggests that information
be obtained from both men and women from different social classes, different age groups,
(married and unmarried) and different ethnic groups.

The GTZ conference proceedings provides some interesting guidelines for tailoring gender
disaggregated data collection and analysis to livestock production, husbandry and health
projects. This is not a step by step how-to manual, but rather a list of recommended
categories and methods. Although it is not operational, it provides interesting background
reading for livestock specialists looking for suggestions on how to integrate gender
considerations into projects.


WWhite, Karen, Maria Otero and Margaret A. Lycette. 1986. Integrating
Women into Development Programs: A Guide for Implementation for Latin
America and the Caribbean. Washington D.C.: ICRW.

This report critiques USAID's efforts in complying with the requirements of the Percy
Amendment. It notes where USAID has not been successful in targeting women in
development projects and offers suggestions on how to better integrate gender issues into
development. The purpose of the report is to help mission staff integrate concerns
regarding women's economic participation into project design, implementation and
evaluation. The authors argue that by implementing the report's suggestions, USAID
programs and projects will be more effective in reaching and benefiting women.

The guide is arranged in four discrete sections. The first section lists statistical data
regarding the situation of women in Latin America and the Caribbean. The second section
lists constraints to women's participation and suggests how women can be integrated into
USAID's policies and operational procedures. It provides specific suggestions on how to
overcome policy-level, institutional (structural and procedural) and technical and
informational constraints. The third section of the report offers general guidelines for
integrating women into all phases of the project cycle. The guidelines consist of a set of
general principles and factors that should be considered in project design, implementation
and evaluation. The fourth section is a set of sector specific guidelines for integrating
women into microenterprise development, agriculture, vocational and participant training
and housing projects. This section presents a much more detailed set of constraints and
solutions. A project design and implementation matrix for wea sector outlines possible
project features and women-sensitive alternatives and rationales for the change.

The guide is useful for USAID policy makers and project and program managers who are
interested in answering "why" it is important to consider gender issues in development and
"what" issues might be relevant for people working in Latin America. The report does not
provide adequate guidance on how to implement the changes suggested, nor does it
adequately discuss how to deal with sociocultural constraints, as opposed to economic and
legalistic limitations. Although the guide provides specific recommendations and
suggestions for reaching women in every stage of the project cycle, it rarely suggests
involving the participants (women and men) in working with development professionals.
and host country governmental and non-governmental organizations to develop their own



African Development Bank/GENESY S. 1992. Guidelines for Integrating Gender Issues
into Bank Group Agricultural Sector Projects. Washington D.C.: Genesys.

CIDA. I986. Guidelines for Integrating W;ID into Project Design and Evaluation.
Ottawa: CIDA.

FAO. 1982. Participation de la Mujer en la Comercializacion Agricola en Guatemala.
New York: U.N.

FAO. I984. Women in Agricultural Production. Women in Agricultural Production and
Rural Development Services. Rome: U.N.

FAO. 1989. Women's Role in Forest Resource Management: a Reader. Regional Wood
Energy Development Program in Asia. Rome: U.N.

FINNIDA. 1991. Guidelines for Project Preparation and Design. Helsinki: FINNIDA.

Harvard Institute for International Development. Techniques for a Better Analysis and
Incorporation of the Women Component in Development Projects. Massachusetts:
African Development Bank.

Mehra, Rekha, David Burns. Paul Carlson, and Geeta Rao Gupta. 1991. Integrating
Women Into Development Policies and Programs: A Guide for the Asia and Ncear East
Regions. Washington D.C.: ICRW.

Millard, Ann V. I 990. Scopes of` Work, MUCIAL/WID Women in development Program in
Technical Assistance:Cameroon. Guatemala, Indonesia. thruguay. Colombus, Ohio:

Ministry of Agriculture. 1983. Reaching Female Farmers Through Male Extension
Workers. Extension Aids Circular No. 2.

Molnar, Augusta. I989. Women and Forestry: Operational Issues. Washington D.C.: The
World Bank. I84.

Navia-Melbourn, O. and J. MacKenzie. Women in Development and the Project Cycle: a
Workbook. Ottawa: CIDA.

Continued. .

Rivera, William M. and Susan L. Corning. 1991. Empowering Women through
Agriculture Extension: a Global Perspective. Maryland: University of Maryland, College

Rojas, Mary. I 993. Looking at Gender and Forestry: Operational Issues for Project
Planners, Implementors and Administrators. Helsinki: WIDAGRI Consultants Ltd. for

Saidu, Sharif. I 99 1. Advancement of Women and Livestock Production. Pakistan: GTZ.

Saito, Katrine A. and Daphne Spurling. 1992. Developing Agricultural Extension for
Women Farmers. World Bank Discussion Papers 156. Washington D.C.: The World

Schneider, Regina Maria and Winfried Schneider. 1991. Women and Rural Development:
Guiding Principles. Eschborn: GTZ.

Sheehan, Nancy. 1991. Workshop Proceedings for Gender and Natural Tenure Research
October 3, 1991. Madison, Wisconsin: Land Tenure Center.

The World Bank. Designing and Implementing Agricultural Extension for Women
Farmers: Technical Note. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

UNEP. 1993. Arid and Semi-Arid Lands. Advancing Women in Ecosystem Management
Seminar. October 4 1991. Washington D.C.

UNEP. 1993. The Greenbook: A Manual to Support Organizing a National Assembly of
Women and the Environment. Washington D.C.; UNEP.

UNFPA. 1992. Manual Sobre el Metodo y el Proceso de Planeamiento Participativo en
Proyectos de Desarrollo Rural con Mujeres Rurales. UNFPA.

World Wildlife Fund. Integrating Women in WHNP Projects. Planning Papers No.6.

E,. Montorig An Evaluation

81 Abt Associates, Inc. 1989. Agricultural Policy Anarlysis: A Manual for AID
Agricultural and Rural Development Off icers. Washington D.C.: US AID.

Bremer-Fox, Jennifer. 1987. Poh'cy and Paogramming for Women in Agriculture
AID Nairobi Conference on Women in African Agriculture September 1987.
Nairobi, Kenya: Robert Nathan Associates.

This manual discusses the impact of USAID policies and policy reform on women in
the agricultural sector. The objective of the method is to outline a strategy for rapid
appraisal of agricultural policies to detennine whether or not policies benefit or harm
women farmers differently than men. The method states that women can be viewed as
a proxy for low-resource farmers and small entrepreneurs, as most women farmers are
low resource farmers and most women entrepreneurs are small entrepreneurs. The
approach suggests disaggregating all project or survey data by sex, so that planners can
gain information not only on differences between men and women, but also on
program and policy impacts. By reaching women farmers and entrepreneurs, who serve
as a proxy for low resource fanners and small entrepreneurs, it is expected that policies
that impact favorably on women will also benefit low resource farmers and small rural
entrepreneurs in general. The authors also contend that policy makers must consider
seriously the impact of agricultural policies on women because they are important
producers of food and other products.

In evaluating policy, the authors cite several essential questions: 1) What is the policy;
2) What is the main purpose of the policy; 3) What institutions are responsible for
deciding on and implementing policy; 4) What is the impact of the policy on key
variables of interest; 5) What are the' explanations of main policies and primary
mechanisms which affect the economic variables of interest; 6) What are lists of
alternatives that might be considered in designing and implementing a reform program?
They also note that women's income and production is a category to be added to the
five areas that are almost always studied: agriculture, producer and consumer incomes,
trade and government budget.

The policy assessment framework sketches the impact on women involving a three step
process to evaluate the impact of policies on women: a description of their activities,
definition of the policies that affect these activities and determination of the impact of
these policies on women's activities and income. The method examines women's
participation in agriculture from the perspective of four basic roles, as: farm managers,
laborers, traders and consumers. The authors caution that currently, successful

MWonitoring and Evaluation

application of the framework is limited by a general lack of economic data on women's
agricultural production and other economic activities.

The authors contend that reforms have not yet addressed the main constraints to
women and low resource farmers, including poor access to credit due to lack of formal
land title and limited access to inputs and technology. Sources of possible data to
rectifyl this problem include anthropological studies providing data on the relative
importance of plots managed by men and women, area surveys conducted as a part of
project design or for other purposes, extension reports, and informal judgements by
extension agents and researchers. The authors discuss the implications of such
information for programming agricultural activities for women, as well as for data
collection and analysis, agricultural sector projects, project design, project evaluation,
monitoring, and implementation and programming.

The manual includes a sample scope of work for developing an inventory of gender-
relevant policies. The presentation by Bremer-Fox is useful as a training module for
those interested in learning the methodology.

This manual, is designed to encourage USAID policy makers and agricultural sector
planners to better assess the impact of agricultural policies on women farmers. It is
meant as a bridge between the project and policy level, however, it is not wholly
effective at linking intra-household impact assessments to the effects of policy reforms.
The presentation by Bremer-Fox is useful for raising policy makers' awareness for the
need to measure the effects of policy reforms on different segments of the population
but neither the presentation nor the manual describes a specific methodology for
assessing impact. There is still a need, which remains unfulfilled by the policy manual,
for a sequenced method for measuring how agricultural policies affect the differential
conditions, opportunities, and constraints faced by men and women farmers.

Monitoring and Evaluation

SBaster, Nancy. 1981. The Measurement of Women's Participation in
Development: rthe Use of Census Data. Sussex: IDS.

This discussion paper, divided into three parts, discusses how census data can be used
for measuring women's participation in development. The objective of the method is to
asses women's participation in development activities. An additional objective is to
examine the socioeconomic status of women in a country through the analysis of
census data.

The first section discusses how to analyze long term changes in the employment
stature, migration patterns, and population growth and structure. This section lists
the measures and indicators of women's participation in development that are readily
available from census data.

The second section of the paper discusses patterns and trends in women's participation.
This section highlights studies using census data to track changes in women's
participation in national social and economic development. The paper also suggests
ways of disaggregating indicators according to socioeconomic variables such as age,
sex, social and family status, education, employment and occupation, income, place of
residence, and class.

The approach offered in the paper is most useful for analyzing national and regional
trends. The author correctly argues that census data is most appropriate for analysis of
long term structural changes affecting women's participation and for developing a few
key monitoring indicators of women's participation. The census data provides an
overview of broad trends by sex. To understand real gendr differences, however, a
contextual analysis is needed as a complement. A second use of census data suggested
by the author is to provide indicators of changes in women's participation over time and
for interregional comparisons. The use of census data discussed by Baster assumes that
a reliable and complete data set is available for analysis. That is rarely the case in most
developing countries. Nevertheless, this anticle provides the user of census data with a
number of good suggestions on how to analyze sex-linked differences in socio-
economic status and participation in development. In conjunction with other gender
analysis tools, it can also help development planners to formulate gender-specific
questions and needs to guide policy and program formulation and to measure
development impacts.

M monitoring and Evaluation

Wt Collette, Marilyn Elizabeth. 1986. The Conununity Interaction Model in
the Evaluation of the Integration of Women in Development. Canada:
Carleton University.

This methodology adapts the Community Interaction Model developed by the
Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND) in Canada for
measuring the impact of rural development projects on women. The objective of the
DIAND model is to measure the impact of development projects on community
institutions with particular attention to "economic viability, social vitality, and political
efficacy." Collette modifies the approach to assess overall changes in women's status
and their ability to arbitrate for greater control over community resources and political
decisions. It differs from most evaluation methodologies which collect and analyze data
to assess whether a series of independent objectives have been met, without looking at
the overall impact on communities as viable organizations that can sustain development
efforts. By advocating for evaluation criteria that measure whether a project
contributes to women's collective abilities to improve their position within their
communities as leaders and resource managers, Collette attempts to link improvements
in women's status to more effective and sustainable development.

The model provides guidelines for collecting critical information on the aggregate
benefits and non-benefits which acemue to women as a group from project
interventions. The author outlines 10 steps in data collection and provides a detailed
description of the DIAND model and her adaptation. In addition she presents a detailed
list of indicators for assessing economic viability, social vitality, and political efficacy.
The model incorporates ethnographic information, collected from women community
members and from project officials, on the economic and political positions of women,
their perceptions of improvements in their whole social environment and a historical
perspective on project interventions. The author presents a case study, that applies the
model to an evaluation of the World Bank's ZAPI project in Cameroon.

Collette's model is an innovative first step in developing a methodology to measure,
systematically, changes in women's status. It would be an even more powerful tool if it
provided the means to examine changes in women's status relative to men and made
clearer how status is affected by differential socioeconomic variables such as class,
ethnicity, and age. As a method, it is most accessible to professionals trained in the
behavioral social sciences since it assumes knowledge of ethnographic and survey
research methodologies. It is, however, an extremely useful conceptual framework for
designing and conducting baseline studies and evaluations. It is also a useful
perspective for project designers and managers who desire a framework for measuring
both project impact and sustainability.

Monitoring and Evaluation

*Hannan-Andersson, Carolyn. 1990. The Challenge of Measuring Gender
Issues in Water and Santataion. Workshop on Goal and Indicators for
Monitoring and Evaluation for Water Supply and Sanitation June 25 1990 .
Geneva: SIDA.

This is an application of Hannan-Anderson's gender planning methodology to
measuring the impact on gender relations of water and sanitation projects. The
objective of this paper is to help development planners integrate women as actors and
decision-makers into water and sanitation projects.

In the first section, the author specifies that "integration" means the "involvement of
women alongside men in mainstream development programmes/projects..as actors...,
rather than as simply passive beneficiaries." The basic elements of the approach, as
outlined in her earlier publication Gender Planning Methodology (see review of
Hannan-Andersson 1992, p. ), are: a) integration of women into mainstream
development projects; b) a gender rather than a WID approach; c) identification of who
within an organization is responsible for gender integration; d) routine integration of
gender concerns into planning procedures; e) requiring all personnel, not just gender
specialists, to develop gender awareness and skills. In the second section, Hannan-
Andersson relates the need for gender integration to how one goes about achieving it
through the development of gender-informed strategies and tools.

The third section focuses on monitoring and evaluation as a process which is linked to
the overall project and program planning and implementation and policy formulation.
In her attempt to make standard indicators used by WHO and UNDP for measuring
the impact of water and sanitation projects, Hannan-Andersson emphasizes three key
factors: effective use, sustainability, and replicability. But she argues, that developing
such indicators is probably not sufficient for encouraging development'professionals to
actually use gender disaggregated information. Therefore, she advocates for gender
awareness and skills building training programs and development of other gender
specific indicators that track long term strategic impacts on women at the household,
community and project levels. Her method identifies three types of information:
baseline information on gender issues at the household and community levels,
information on strategy/methodological approach to integrating women in project
implementation, and gender-specific indicators to be included in on-going monitoring
and evaluation. At all levels, the method specifies collecting information on access to
and control over resources, control over decision-making, human resources
development, stimulation of other development activities, and development of skills
and competence. The indicators suggested by this approach, also help to assess project
impact on changes in: gender status in the community, self-perception, work
situations, health, and the likelihood of the sustainability and replicability of project

Monitoring and Evaluation

The annexes provide supplementary guides. Annex 1 presents a matrix which contrasts
conventional approaches to integrating women with alternative approaches that
emphasize collecting information on women and men and focus on the more active
involvement of women as key actors and decision-makers. Annex 2 is a list of
illustrative questions for assess women's involvement, potential benefits, and their own
perceptions of the usefulness of water and sanitation projects. Annex 3 provides a list
of indicators for measuring sustainability, replicability, and effective utilization, along
with suggested gender aspects to be included when assessing these three factors.

This approach is most useful as an awareness raising tool. It is more of an outline of
topics and issues to consider when evaluating the gender impact of water and sanitation
projects than a handbook on how to evaluate such projects.The author assumes that
implementors know how to collect and analyze data, mun a monitoring system, and
train workers. Although the method focuses on water and sanitation projects, there is
very little in the approach that is specific to those projects.

MIonitoring and Evaluation

(Monitoring and Evaluation)

Bremer-Fox, Jennifer. 1987. Policy and Programmring for Women in Agriculture. AID
Nairobi Conference on Women in African Agriculture September 1987; Nairobi, Kenya.

FAO. 1991. Conceptual Framework for the Development of Statistics and Indicators on
Women in Agriculture and Rural Development. Rome: FAO.

FAO. I988. Guidelines on Socio-Economic Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluating
Agrarian Reform and Rural Development. Rome: FAO.

Jiggens. Janice. 1986. Gender-Related Impacts and the Work of the International
Agricultural Research Centers. Study Paper No.7. Washington D.C.: Consultative Group
on International Agricultural Research.

Johnston. Dennis. 1985. The Development of Social Statistics and Indicators on the Status
of Women. Social Indicators 16.

Narayan-Parker, Deepa. 1989. A Planning and Evaluation Framework in Partnership
with People. New York: UNDP.

Palmer. I. I985. The Impact ofAgrarian Reform on Women. Women's Roles and Gender
Differences in Development Cases for Planners. West Hartford. Connecticut: Kumarian

Perucci. Francesca. I 992. Collecting Gender-Specific Data Through Agricultural
Censuses-DRAFT. Rome: FAO.

Staats. John and Carl Eicher. 1990. Women in Agriculture: What Development Can Do:
Agricultural Development in the Third World. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins
University Press.

Stallings, James L. 1985. Data Collection in Subsistence Farming Systems A Handbook.
Alabama: Auburn University.

UNDP. 1980. Action Oriented Assessment of Rural Women's Participation in
Development. New York: UNDP.

von Harder. Gudrun Martius and Regina Maria Schneider. 1986. Women- Related Impact
Analysis of Rural Development Projects. Partial Report Sunimary of Findings. Eschborn:

F. Participatory Research

aBuenavista, Gladys and Cornelia Butler Flora. Participatrory
Methodologies for Analyting Household Activities, Resources, and Benefits.
Worcester MA: Clark University.

This brief article presents a sequenced application of several panticipatory research
methodologies for analyzing gender considerations in natural resource management.
The purpose of the approach is to distinguish the different productive and reproductive
roles and responsibilities of men, women and children in the household in order to
understand how gender influences access to and control over resources and labor. The
authors selected research methods which: 1) focused data collection and analysis on
gendered differences in the division of labor and control over resources, 2) were
participatory and interactive; 3) were fun, engaging, and useful for the participants.

The authors suggest a sequence of data collection which first relies on a wealth ranking
method developed by Barbara Grandin (1988) to define social categories according to
the perceptions of community members rather than by categories imposed by the
researchers. The article describes how the researchers applied this method in a
Philippine community. They complemented the wealth ranking analysis with in depth
studies of gendered differences in activities, resource access and control, and
distribution and control of benefits. The final stage of the research sequence entailed
trend analysis of resource conditions, community problem solving, and responses to
scarcity. The purpose of the sequenced use of these research tools is to determine the
different roles women and men play in managing and directing resource use. The
authors anticipate that research findings will aid in understanding how women and men
are differentially affected by resource decline and can contribute to developing
strategies for sustainable resource use.

The sequence of methodologies presented by Buenavista and Flora is a useful set of
tools for people engaged in community-level natural resource management projects. It
provides a wealth of information for planning, and has the added advantage of
involving community members from the very conception of a project in problem
identification and solving. The information in the article is adequate for designing a
project identification and planning process. Implementing the research, however,
requires people trained in the research methodologies, with adequate social analytical
skills to analyze the information, and with sufficient familiarity with the local cultural
context to interact comfortably with community participants. The five different
research methodologies described in the anticle can provide a wealth of information on
gender differences in resource allocation, use, and control. The authors also
acknowledge that gender experiences vary across households according to differences

Participatory Research

in class, age, ethnicity, race, and religion. Unfortunately, in this short article, the
authors are not able to follow through on this insight to providing more detailed
guidance on findings to gain a better understanding of how variations in gender across
other socioeconomic variables affect resource use.

Participatoryv Research

SCommonwealth Secretariat. 1992. Women, Conservation and Agriculture.
London: Commonwealth Secretariat

The purpose of this manual is to prepare trainers and extension workers with the skills
and techniques to train and involve women in conservation activities. It is designed to
provide users with a number of participatory research techniques which facilitate
learning between agriculturalists, conservationists, and rural women and men. The
book is organized so that it can be used either as a reference book by community
extension workers, or by trainers as a manual/workbook for workshops on gender and
natural resource management.

The manual is divided into 4 sections. The first section is an introduction and overview.
It sets out the objectives, aids, intended audience, and key issues and concepts. The
second section, titled "Learning from Rural Women," introduces users to participatory
research methods. It is structured around descriptions of the methods, case studies, and
exercises. It orients readers and trainers on how to elicit and understand information on
local women's and men's knowledge and perceptions of their environment, activities
and workload, and preferences for resource use. Additionally, it explores ways to learn
about conflicts of interest over resource use, environmental changes, and local
institutions. At the end of the chapter there are detailed notes for trainers and a list of
additional resources. The third section, titled "Women's Organizations for
Conservation," presents case studies that the authors consider to be successful attempts
to mobilize women for rural development. Each case study is followed by a list of
criteria or indicators of its success. Section IV is an overview of different conservation
techniques and illustrative examples of their application.

Women, Conservation, and Agriculture is a comprehensive guide to women and
community conservation planning and action. It has an African focus, although with
some adjustments for political, social, and cultural considerations it is equally useful for
other parts of the world. Its one shortcoming is that in trying to give guidance on the
"culturally appropriate" ways to conduct research and participatory activities, it over
generalizes. Users should recognize this limitation and attempt to tailor those
discussions to the cultural context in which they work. As a hands-on guide, the
manual is most useful for community workers, trainers, and project implementors. It is
also a valuable reference book for people engaged in project design and management.
One of the most unique features of this manual is that it provides methods for
collecting information on gendered perspectives about conflict over resource control
and use and on changes in environmental conditions over time.

Participatory Research

se Parker, Rani. 1990. A Gender Analysis Matrix for Development
Practitioners. Prazris, Somerville, MA: The Fletcher School, Tufts

SParker, Rant 1993. Another Point of View: A Manual on Gendler Analysis
Training for Grassroots Workers. New Y ork: UNIFEM.

This anticle and manual provide instruction on how to use the gender analysis matrix
(GAM), a quick, low-cost, and simple tool devised by the author for development
practitioners working at the community level. The purposes of the GAM are to: 1) to
assess differential development impacts resulting from differences in gender roles; 2)
initiate a critical, yet constructive, process within communities which identifies and
challenges assumptions about gender roles. It is intended to serve as a supplementary
tool for designing, monitoring and evaluating projects at the community level. A
Gender Analysis Matrix for Development Pracditioners is an over view of the method
and its applications. Another Point of V/iewu is a training manual which lays out a step
by step process for conducting a four day workshop to teach, apply, and evaluate the

The matrix has four levels of analysis and four categories of analysis. The four levels of
analysis are women, men, household and community. The four categories are potential
changes in Iabr, time, resources, and socio-cultural factors for each level of analysis. It
is designed for a field representative or community level worker to facilitate a
community meeting where both women and men use the matrix to review their
expectations of how development activities will affect them. After charting the
responses the facilitator elicits responses on whether the expected outcomes (and
subsequently real outcomes) are consistent with the goals of the project. The author
argues that successful application of the GAM requires the participation of both men
and women, as well as repetition of the GAM analysis over time. Therefore, she
recommends repeating the GAM analysis at least once a month for the first three
months of a project and every quarter thereafter. The purpose of repeating the GAM is
to clarifyl gender issues that appear to be unclear and to uncover erroneous assumptions
about gender roles.

The real value of this tool is to provide a standardized matrix for capturing community
members' -men's and women's- reactions to proposed and actual development
interventions. Its usefulness, however, is limited by two factors. First, it is only a
diagnostic tool, not a problem solving tool. The author provides little guidance on how
to evaluate the information contained in the matrix, especially when men and women
disagree. Secondly, it suffers from "unresolved subjectivity" i.e. it is unclear, at both
the household and community level whose opinions prevail. The author does not make
clear whose opinion determines whether the household or community benefits is it
the husband, wife, a joint opinion, or the facilitator's sense of the group? The author

Participatoryr Research

has cautioned that the GAM is still in the testing stage so many of these problems are
likely to be addressed in the future. At this point, it warrants testing by as wide an
audience as possible. It is one of the few interactive community-level diagnostic tools
that focuses on gender, which is also readily accessible to non-social scientists.

Participatoryr Research

Shields, M. Dale and Barbara Thomas Slayter. 1993. ECOGEN Case
Study Series Gendler, Class, Ecological Decline, ansd Livelihood Strategies:
a Case Study of Siquijor Islan4, The Philippines. Worchester, MA: Clark

a Thomas Slater, Barbara and Diane Rocheleau. 1993. Introducing the
Ecogen Approach to Gender, Natural Resource Management and
Sustainable Development. Worchester, MA: Clark University.

Thomas Slnter, Barbara, Andrea Lee Esser, and M. Dale Shields. 1993.
Tools of Gender Analysis A Guide to Field Methodlsfor Bringing Gender
into Sustainable Resource Management. Worchester, MA: Glark

Together these three papers present the concepts, tools, and applications of the
ECOGEN approach to gender analysis and natural resource management. The stated
objectives of the tools are to provide insight into local situations, provide a more
comprehensive understanding of the community's situation, and facilitate the creation
of more effective and equitable development programs. The authors contrast their
approach to other gender analysis approaches which have a single sector focus and
emphasized only those differences between men and women that are pertinent to
program and project planning. The ECOGEN approach focuses, instead, on the
interconnected aspects of gender and class relations, emphasizing how different
categories of people cooperate, complement, coexist, compete, and conflict with one

The first report is an overview of concepts, issues, and the theoretical framework
which highlights the interdependence of men, women, and the ecological and
institutional settings in which they live. It lays out a rationale for gender analysis in
natural resource management, and discusses the ecological framework and institutional
context within which ECOGEN researchers examine gender relations and natural
resource management. The ECOGEN framework for understanding gender in natural
resource management analyzes: interactive processes in gender, resource and
environmental issues; linkages between micro and macro stmectures in social and
ecological systems; diversity of ecosystems and communities; the relevance of strong
viable local institutions and organizations; and the ways in which local organizations
and their resource management activities are stmectured by gender.

The second paper on tools and gender analysis is a descriptive manual of data
collection methods used by ECOGEN researchers. Its primary purpose is to make
development specialists aware of a number of "simple and inexpensive tools to
incorporate gender concerns directly into development action." The tools discussed in
this publication offer ways of gathering data and analyzing gender as a variable in

Participatory Research

household and community organization for natural resource management. They include
methods for conducting individual and group interviews, ranking households by wealth
(see Buenavista and Flora above), resource mapping, elaborating seasonal calendars,
conducting resource activities, and benefits analysis, and conducting confirmation
surveys. Additionally, there is a brief discussion on how to apply these and other
techniques to project management and monitoring and evaluation.

The third report is a case study of two communities on Siquijor Island in the Philippines
which is based on data collected using a number of the ECOGEN tools.

The package of ECOGEN materials offer researchers and development planners
practical guidance on how to integrate gender concerns into natural resource program
and project planning. The distinction that the authors draw between their perspective
on gender relations and those of earlier approaches is an important one. Examining
these relations as linkages across class, ethnicity, ecological setting, etc. is fundamental
to understanding how people in particular development contexts act and make
decisions. Future materials promise to take this step further to involve local people in
project planning and implementation. Experienced researchers and community
development specialists will find these tools extremely useful. Others can benefit from
training sessions conducted by knowledgeable users.

Participatory Research

(Participatory Research)

Asamba. I. and B. Thomas Slayter. 1991. From Cattle to Cofjee: Transformation in Rural
Machakos. Ecogen Case Study Series. Worchester, MA: Clark University.

Byers, Elizabeth. 1993. Mountain Ecosystems and Women: Opportunities for Sustainable
Development and Conservation. Advancing Women in Ecosystem Management October 6 1993.
Washington D.C.

David. Rosalind. 1993. Integrating Women into Environmental Management: Some Proposals.
Advancing Women in Ecosystem Management; October 4 1993. Washington D.C.

Mehra. Rekha. 1993. Gender in Comnmuniht Development and Resource iManagement: An
Overview. Washington D.C.: ICRW.

Mehra. Rekha. Margaret Alcott and Nilda S. Baling. 1993. WYomen's Participation in the
Cogtong Bay Mlangrove Management Project: A Case Study. Washington D.C.: ICRW.

ODA. 1992. Women as Partners in Innovative Agriculture- an IBFEP Endeavor. Calcutta: ODA.

Potash. Betty. 1985. Female Farmers, Mothers-In-Law and Extension Agents: Development
Planning and a Rural Luro Comnmunity. Working Paper 50. Michigan : Michigan State

Rocheleau. Diane E. 1991. Gender Complementarity and Conflict in Sustainable Forest
Development: A M2ultiple Ulser Approach. Montreal. Canada: IUFRO.

Scherr. Sara J. 1991. Methods for Participatory On-Farm Agroforestry Research. Nairobi,
Kenya: ICRAF.

Shrestha. Rabindra Kumar and Meenu Shresta. 1992. Women Farmers: How to Involve Them in
Agricultural Research. 12th Annual Farming Systems Symposianv/Association of Farming
Systems Research and Extension. Michigan: Michigan State University.

Spens. Theresa. 1986. Studies on Agricultural Extension Involving Wtomen: Including a
Suggested Framework for the Analysis of Gender Issues in Agricultural Extension Programmes.
Occasional Paper No.3. New York: UNIFEM.

Thomas Slayter. Barbara and Diane E. Rocheleau. 1991. Concepts and Issues Linking Gender,
Natural Resources Management and Sustainable Development. Washington D.C.: ECOGEN and

G. Time Allocation

a olfer, Carol. Women, Men and Time in the Forests of East Kalimantan.
Honolulu, Hawaii: East-West Environment and Policy Institute.

This paper discusses the application of time allocation methodology for examining the
differential impact of men's, women's and children's (male and female) activities on
deforestation in East Kalimantan, Borneo. Golfer adapts a time use method developed
by Allen Johnson (1975). The approach relies on randomly scheduled visits (varying
according to time of day and year) to randomly selected households. Golfer argues
that the approach, based on randomly scheduled visits, provides better access to
people, their patterns of behavior and viewpoints than other time use methods based on
participant recall.

The method groups male and female community participants into 6 age categories
in order to look at sex and age specific variations in activities. By observing what
each household member was doing at the time of randomly scheduled visits, the
author was able to provide quantitative evidence that women, age 15 and older,
were more active in agricultural and garden production than men who divided their
time fairly equally between agriculture and wage labor activities. At the time of the
study, however, women were realizing decreasing access to the benefits of their
labor due to government resettlement schemes and policies that targeted men for
new agricultural technology and inputs, and increasing pressure from other ethnic
groups in the region to conform to their more hierarchical gender systems. It is
likely that these combined pressures have decreased women's decision-making and
management of agroforestry resources to the detriment of the environment.

Golfer presents a methodology that provides extremely useful data for analyzing
gender relations with regard to agroforestry use. It is particularly unusual in that it
disaggregates the data by both sex and age, demonstrating clear differences in
activities between men and women and across age groups. The richness of her
presentation is limited, however, by her failure to make explicit how the time use
data are linked to ethnographic, economic, and ecological research to understand
how she arrived at her analytical conclusions. The approach described by Colfer is
really only accessible to researchers who know how to conduct time use studies. It
neither provides adequate information to design such a study, nor a description of
the types of analytical questions that can be asked of the data. The real use of the
paper is to highlight that men's and women's roles as decision-makers, managers,
or benefactors of resources are not a simple function of time spent in particular

Timre AlIlocation

SKumar, Subh K. and David Hotchkiss. 1988. Consequences of
Deforestation for Women's Time Allocation Agricultural Ptoduction and
Nutridion in Hill Areas ofNepal. Washington D.C.: IFPRL

The purpose of this methodology is to measure the effects of deforestation on
competing demands for women's labor and its impact on the availability of household
labor for farming. The authors designed a time allocation methodology to test the
hypothesis that "deforestation reduces agricultural output from existing cultivated land
by increasing time spent in collecting essential forest products, which shifts time away
from agriculture." Information on women's, men's and children's labor time was
collected by designing a series of instruments for recalling specific types of activities
and analyzed by applying logarithmic formulas for measuring the magnitude of changes
in time spent collecting firewood and farming.

In their study on fuelwood gathering in Nepal, the authors conducted four quarterly
surveys to account for seasonal differences. The main drawback of the approach as
identified by the authors, is that the recall period for most of the routine collection and
food-processing activities (one week) did not match the recall period for agricultural
production tasks (one day disaggregated by tasks per crop). The recall data for both
sets of activities were then extrapolated to represent a period of three months. The
authors compared these results with those from a subsample of 12 households using a
more intensive direct observation and time-sampling method, and with results from an
in-depth study, The Status of Women in Nepal.

Descriptive analysis of the data revealed that both men and women's labor increased
correspondingly with household income, although income differentials affected
women's labor inputs less than men's. In order to understand the wider implications of
deforestation on labor, the researchers, through a regression analysis, examined
changes in fuel consumption patterns. They used a similar approach to examine the
ramifications of deforestation for time allocation of labor, production, and household
food consumption. Their final step in the analysis was to use the results to assess the
probable outcomes of several policy and program options.

This methodology, although highly technical, is a good example of how to cany
through a sequenced analysis of environmental change, its impact on intrahousehold
relations, and the policy implications. Application of the method assumes knowledge of
economics, participant observation and survey techniques, and ecology. The method
analyzes men's, women's and children's activities, and provides a quantitative
framework for examining how activities of one set of actors affect others. It would
benefit from disaggregating children's labor by sex and by including the elderly so as to
more fully understand the gender implications of deforestation across age groups. This
is a useful tool for collecting baseline information and evaluating periodic changes.

Timre AlIlocation

(Time Allocation)

Farouk, A. I 980. Time Use of Rural WYomen: A Six Village Survey of Bangladesh. Dacca,
Bangladesh: Bureau for Economic Research. USAID.

Kennedy, Eileen T. and Bruce Cogill. 1988. The Case of Sugarcane in Kenya: Part I Effects of
Cash Crop Production on Women's Income, Time Allocation, and Child Care Practices.
Working Paper 167. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

Kennedy, Eileen T., Deborah Rubin and David ALnwick. A Comparison of Time Allocation
rMethods and k~nplications for Child Nutrition. Washington D.C.: IFPRI.

King-Quizon. Elizabeth. 1978. Time Allocation and Home Production in Rural Philippine
Households. Philippine Economic Journal 17, no.36.

McSweency, B.G. 1979. Collection and Analysis of Data on Rural Women's Time Use. Studies in
Family Planning 10, no. 11/12.

Messer, Ellen and Marianne N. Bloch. 1983. Women's and Children's Activity Profiles in
Senegal and M-exico: A Comparison of Time Allocation and Time Allocation Methods. Working
Paper 42. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

Operations Research Group/SIDA. 1984. Case Study on Fuel Availability and it Impact on
WYomen's Time Disposition and Lifestyle. Orissa, India: SIDA.




A. Agriculture

Abt Associates, Inc. 1989. Agricultural Policy Analysis: A Memual for AID
Agricultural and Rural Development Officers. Washington D.C.: USAID.
[Monitoring and Evaluation]

African Development Bank/GENESYS. 1992. Guidelines for hiltegrating Gender
Issues into Bank Group Agricultural Sector Projects. Washington D.C.: Genesys
Library/ADB. [Guidelines]

African Development Bank. I990. Symposium on Household Food Security and the
Role of Women: Collected papers. Washington D.C.: ADB. [Gender Analysis,
Planning, and Training]

Alberti, Amalia M. i 979. Metodologia apropiada para el estucko de la mujer rural en
los Andres del Ecuadtor. Quito Ecuador: CEPLAES/ Ford Foundation. [Gender
Analysis, Planning, and Training].

Bremer-Fox, Jennifer. 1987. Policy and Programming for Women in Agriculture. AID
Nairobi Conference onl Women1 int African Agriculture September 1987. Nairobt
Kenya. (Monitoring and Evaluation]

Bremer-Fox, Jennifer, Rekha Mehra and Laurene Graig. 1987. The Policy Inventory:
A Mamual for Rapid Appraisal of Policies Affecting the Agricultural Sector with
Disaggregation oflmpacts by GendeJCr. Washington D.C.: WID, US AID. [ Monitoring
and Evaluation]

Collette, Marilyn Elizabeth. I 986. The Community htlteraction Model in the
Evaluation of the htregration of Women inl Development. Canada: Carleton University.
[Monitoring and Evaluation)

Directorate General for Development Co-operation (DGIS) Ministry of Foreign
Affairs, Netherlands. I989. Women and Agriculture: Policy on cm~ Operational
Footing: Main Points andl Checklist. Sector Papers Women and Development No. 1.
Netherlands: DGIS. [Checklists]


Evans, Alison. I989. Women: Rural Development Gender Issues in Rural Household
Economics. Sussex: IDS. [Gender Analysis, Planning, and Training]

Falch, Marianne. 1991. Cameroon: Specific Problems and Constraints of Women
Farmers Towards The Permanent Farming System. Bameda: GTZ. [Farming
Systems Research]

FAO. 1991. Conceptual Framework for the Development of Statistics and Inckcators
on Women in Agriculture and Rural Development. Rome: FAO, 1991. [ Monitoring
and Evaluation)

FAO. I988. Guidelines on Socio-Econ~omic Irubcators for Monitoring and Evaluating
Agrarian Reform and Rural Development. Rome: FAO. [ Monitoring and

FAO. 1982. Participationl de la Mujer ent la Comercializacion Agricola en
Guatemala. New York: U.N. [Guidelines]

FAO. 1984. Women in~ Agricultural Production. Women in Agricultural Production
and Rural Developme~~nt Services. Rome: FAO. [ Guidelines]

Farouk, A. I980. Time Use! of Rural Women: A Six Village Survey of Bangladesh.
Dacca, Bangladesh: Bureau for Economic Research, USAID. [Time Allocation]

Feldstein, Hilary Sims and Susan V. Poats. 1989. Working Together Gender Analysis
in Agriculture Vol I, II. West Hartford, Connecticut: Kumarian. [Farming Systems

Flora, Cornelia Butler. 1987. Intra-Household Dynamics: The Need for Whole Farm
Monitoring in Farming Systems Research. The Rural Sociologist 7, no 3. [Farming
Systems Research]

Gittinger, J. Price. I990. Household Food Security and the Role of Women. World
Bank Discussion Papers 96. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. [Gender Analysis,
Planning and Training]

Henderson, Helen K. 1989. Book Review-Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research
and Extension. Applied iAnthropology Vol 91. Washington D.C.: Genesys [Farming
Systems Researchj

Jiggens, Janice. I986. Gendier-Related Impacts and the Work of the international
Agricultural Research C~enters. Study Paper No.7. Washington D.C.: Consultative
Group on International Agricultural Research. [Monitoring and Evaluationl


King-Quizon, Elizabeth. 1978. Time Allocation and Home Production in Rural
Philippine Households. Philippine Economic Journal 17, no.36. [Time Allocationj

McSweeney, B. G. 1979. Collection and Analysis of Data on Rural Women's Time
Use. Studies in Family Planning 10, no. I 1/12. [Time Allocation)

Messer, Ellen and Marianne N. Bloch. 1983. Women's and Children's Activity Projiles
in Senegal and Mexico: A Comparisont of Time Allocation and Time Allocation
Methods. Working Paper 42. Washington D.C.; The World Bank. [Time Allocation]

Ministry of Agriculture. I 983. Reaching Female Farmers Through Male Extension
Workers. Extension Aids Circular No. 2. [Guidelines]

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Netherlands. 1990. Collected Papers. Symposium on
Household Food Security and the Role of Women. Harare, Zimbabwe. [Gender
Analysis, Planning, and Training]

Molnar, Augusta. 1989. Women7 and Forestry: Operational Issues. WPS 184
Washington D.C.: The World Bank. [Guidelinesj

Moock, Joyce L. I 986. Unlderstardung Africa's Rural Households and Farming
Systems. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. [Farming Systems Research]

Murphy, Josette. I989. Women and Agriculture in Afiica: A Guide to Bank Policy
and Programs for Ope~rationls Staff: Washington D.C.: The World Bank. [Guidelines)

ODA. 1992. Women as Patrtners in hmovative Agriculture- an IBPFEP Endeavor.
Calcutta: ODA. [Participatory Research)

Palmer, I. 1985. nThe Impact of Agrariran Reform on Women, Woment's Roles and
Gender Differences inr Developmentt Cases for Planners. West Hartford, Connecticut:
Kumarian Press. [Monitoring and Evaluation]

Paris, Thelma R. I990. hilcorporating Women's Concerns in Crop- Anlimal Farming
Systems Research Methodology. No. 90-30. Manila, Philippines: Intemnational Rice
Research Institute.
[Farming Systems Research]

Perucci, Francesca. I992. Collecting Gender-Specific Data Through Agricultural
Censuses-DRAFT Rome: FAO. [Monitoring and Evaluation)


Poats, S. and J. Gearing. 1989. Executive! Summary of Gender Issues in Farming
Systems Research and Extension: a Survey of Current Projects. Washington D.C.:
USAID. [Farming Systems Research]

Poats, Susan V. 1989. hwlisible Women: Gend~er and..Household Analysis in
Agricultural Research and Exrtension. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida.
[Gender Analysis, Planning, and Training]

Poats, Susan, Hilary Sims and Cornelia Butler Flora. 1988. The Gender Variable in
Agricultural Research. Ottawa: IDRC [Farming Systems Research)

Poats, Susan V., Marianne Schmink and Anita Spring. 1991. Gender Issues in Farming
Systems Research and Extension (Book Review). Rural Sociology 56, no. 1. [Farming
Systems Research]

Poats, Susan and S. Russo. 1989. Training in WID/gender Anlalysis in Agricultural
Development: a Review of Exeriences mrul Lessons Learned. Working Paper Series
No.5. Rome: FAO. [Gender Analysis, Planning, and Training]

Potash, Betty. I 985. Female Farmers, Mothers-htl-Law and Extension Agents:
Developmentt Plm~ming mul a Rural Luo Community. Working Paper 50. Michigan:
Michigan State University. [Participatory Research)

Rivera, William M. and Susan L. Corning. 1991. Empowering Women through
Agricultue Extension~: a Global Perspective. Maryland: University of Maryland,
College Park. (Guidelines]

Rocheleau, Diane. 1985. Criteria for Re-Appraisal an~d Re-Design: Intra-household
and Between Household Aspects of FSRE int Three Kenyan Agroforestry Projects.
[Farming Systems Research]

Russo, Sandra, Susan Poats and Jennifer Bremer-Fox. 1989. Gender Issues in
Agriculture and Natural Resource M~atagement. Washington D.C.: USAID.

Saito, Katrine A. and Daphne Spurling. 1992. Developing Agricultural Extension for
Women Farmers. World Bank Discussion Papers 156. Washington D.C.: The World
Bank. [Guidelines]

Saunders, Janice. 1991. Book Review "Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research
and Extension." Rural Sociology 56, no.1. [Farming Systems Research]


Scherr, Sara J. 1991. Metrhodsfor Participatory On-Farm Agroforestry Research.
Nairobi, Kenya: ICRAF. (Participatory Research)

Sch~neider, Regina Maria and Winfried Schneider. 1991. Women and Rural
Development: Guidn~g Principles. Eschborn: GTZ. (Guidelines]

Sheehan, Nancy. 1991. Workshop Proceediings for Gender and Natural Tenure
Research October 3 1991. Madison, Wisconsin: Land Tenure Center. [Guidelines]

Shrestha, Rabindra Kumar and Meenu Shresta. 1992. Women Farmers: How to
Involve Them in Agricultural Research. 12th Annual Farming Systems
Sym~posium/'Association of Farming Systems Research and Extension. Michigan:
Michigan State University. [Participatory Research]

Spens, Theresa. I986. Studies onl Agricultural Extension7 hwolving Women: Inlcludin~g
a Suggested Framework for the? Analysis of Genlder Issues in Agricultural Extension
UNIFEM Occasional Paper No.3. New York: UNIFEM. [Participatory Research]

Staats, John and Carl Eicher. 1990. Women in~ Agriculture: What Development Can
Do: Agricultural Developmenlt in the Third World. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns
Hopkins University Press. [Monitoring and Evaluation]

Stallings, James L. 1985. Data Collection in Subsistence Farming Systems A
Haandook. Alabama: Auburn University. [Monitoring and Evaluation]

Staudt, Kathleen. I 98 1. Women and House~hold Issues in Farming Systems Research.
Kansas: Kansas State University. [Farming Systems Research]

The World Bank. Designling antd Implementing Agricultural Exens~ion for Women
Farmers: Technlical Note. Washington D.C.: The World Bank

UNDP. I980. Actionr Orienrtedi Assessment of Rural Women's Participation in
Development. New York: UNDP. [Monitoring and Evaluation)

Van Herpern, Dorien. 1991. Gendcer Analysis in Agricultural Research. Palmira, Cali,
Colombia: CIAT. [Gender Analysis, Planning, and Training]

von Harder, Gudmun Mantius and Regina Maria Schneider. 1986. Women- Related
Impact Analysis of Rural Development Projects, Partial Report Summary ofFindinigs.
Eschborn: GTZ. (Monitoring and Evaluation]


B. Environment And Natural Resource Management

Asamba, I. and Thomas Slayter, B. 1991. From Cattle to Coffee:Trans~formation in
RuralMachakos. Ecogen Case Study Series. Worcester, MA: Clark University.
[Participatory Research)

Blockhus, Jill and Najma Siddiqiui, Najma. Temperate and Tropical Forests.
Advancing Women in Ecosystem Management; October 4 1993. Washington D.C.
[Natural Resource Management]

Buenavista, Gladys and Cornelia Butler Flora. Participatory Methodologies for
Analyzintg Houcsehold Activities, Re~sources, and BenefitsF. Worchester: Clark
University. [Participatory Research]

Byers, Elizabeth. 1993. Mountain Ecosystems and Women: Opportunities for
Sustainable Development and Conservation. Advancing Women in Ecosystem
Memageme~nt; October 6 1993. Washington D.C. [Participatory Research)

Clones, Julia Panourgia. 1993. Genderr mid the E~nvironment in Sub-Saharan Afica:
Guidelines for hate~gratring Gendier Issues into B~ank Group Projects with Sigmf~icant
Environmental Implications. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. [Guidelines]

Golfer, Carol. Women, Men mul Time in the Forests of East Kalimantan. Honolulu,
Hawaii: East-West Environment and Policy Institute. [Time Allocation]

Commonwealth Secretariat. 1992. Women, Conzservation and Agriculture. London:
Commonwealth Secretariat. [Participatory Research]

David, Rosalind. I 993. h~ttegrating Womenr into Entvironmentall Management: Some
Proposals. Adv~ancing Women inl Ecosystem Mamagement; October 4f 1993.
Washington D.C. [Participatory Research]

Directorate General for Development Co-operation, Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
Netherlands. I990. Women, Enlergy, Forestry and E~nironment: Policy on an
Qperationtal Footing:Main~ Points anld Checklist. Sector Papers Women and
Development No.4. The Hague: DGIS. [Checklistsj

Directorate General for Development Co-operation, Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
Netherlands. 1989. Women, Water and Sanitation: Policy on an Operational Footing:
Main Points and Checklist, Sector Papers Women and Development No.2. The
Hague: DGIS. [Checklists]

Environment and Natural Resources

FAO. 1988. Women inr Fishing Communities. Rome: FAO. [Guidelinesj

FAO. 1989. Women in Community Forestry: A Field Guide for Project Design and
Implementation. Rome: FAO. [Checklists]

FAO. I989. Women's Role in Forest Resource Mamagement: a Reader Regional
Wood E~nergy Developmentr Program in Asia. New York: U.N. [Guidelines]

Gaesing, Karin and Carola V. Morstein. 1991. Women in Development and Animal
Production How to Go About It. Eschborn, Germany: GTZ. [Guidelines]

Hannan-Andersson, Carolyn. I 990. The Challenge of Measuning Gender Issues in
Water mUl Sanitation. Workshop onr Goal and Imhicators for Monitoring and
Evaluation for Water Surpply andi Sanlitation. 25 Geneva: SIDA. [Monitoring and

Kennedy, Eileen T. and BIrice Cogill. 1988. The Case of Sugarcane in Kenya: Part I
Effects of Cash Crop Productionl on Women's ba~come, Time Allocation, and Child
Care Practices. Working Paper 1671. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. [Time

Kumar, Shubh and David Hotchkiss. 1988. Consequences of Deforestation for
Women~'s Time Allocationr, Agricultural Production and Nutrition in Hill Areas of
Nepal. Washington D.C.: IFPRI. [Time Allocation]

Loudivi, Dounia and Alison Meares. 1992. Women in Conservation:: Tools for
Analysis and a Framework for Actions AI Annlotatedi Bibliograp~hy. IUC. [Gender
Analysis, Planning, and Training]

Mehra, Rekha. I 993. Gemrie~r inl Communlity Development and Resource
Management: AnI Overview. Washington D.C.: ICRW. [Participatory Research]

Molnar, Augusta. 198 1. The Dynamics of Trcuhtionzal Systems of Forest Mamagement
in Nepal: Implicationzs for the Community Foresay Development and Training
Project. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. [Gender Analysis, Planning, and

Operations Research Group/SIDA. 1984. Case Study on Fuel Availability and it
Impact on Women's Time Disposition andl Lifestyle. Orissa, India: SIDA. [Time

Environment and Natural Resources

Parker, J. Kathy. 1989. hatregrating Gemider Concerns into the Asia and Near 10st
Environmental andu Natural Resource! St~raegy in the 1990s. Gainesville, Florida:
Tropical Research and Development Inc. [Gender Analysis, Planning, and

Rocheleau, Diane E. 1991. Gender Complementarity and Conflict in Sustainable
Forest Development: A Multiple User Approach. Montreal, Canada: IUFRO.
[Participatory Research]

Rojas, Dr Mary. I 993. Looking at Gendier and Forestry: Operational Issues for
Project Planners, Implementors and Administrators. Helsinki: W~IDAGRI Consultants
Ltd. [Guidelines]

Russo, Sandra, Jennifer Bremer-Fox and Susan Poats. 1989. Gender Issues in
Agriculture cand Natural Resource Mmnagement. Washington D.C.: USAID.

Saidu, Sharif. 1992. Report ont Advancement of Women and Livestock
from an International Seminar November 23, 1991. Bonn: GTZ. [Guidelinesj

Saidu, Sharif. 1991. Adv~ancement of Women and Livestock Production. Pakistan:
GTZ. [Guidelines]

Shields, M. Dale. and Barbara Thomas Slayter. 1993. Gender, Class, Ecological
Decline and Livelihood Strate~gies: A Case Study of Siquijor Islan' 3The Philippines.
Worchester, Massachusetts: Clark University. [Participatory Research]

Thomas Slayter, Barbara and Diane Rocheleau. 1993. httrodurcing the Ecogen
Approach to Genrder, Natural Resource Mmnagement and Sustainable Development.
Worchester, Massachusetts: Clark University. [Participatory Research]

Thomas Slayter, Barbara, Andrea Lee Esser and M. Dale Shields. 1993. Tools of
Gendeirr Anlalysis: a Guide to Field Methods for Brinrging Gender into Sustainable
Resource Mmargemenlt. Worchester, Massachusetts: Clark University/ECOGEN.
[Participatory Research]

Thomas Slayter, Barbara and Diane E. Rocheleau. 1991. Concepts andlssues Linking
Genlder, Natural Resources Manaugemenlt andu Sustainable Development-ECOGEN:
Washington D.C.: ECOGEN and AID/ WID. [Participatory Researchi

UNEP. 1993. Arid and Semi-Arid Lands. Advancing Women inl Ecosystem
Management October 4 1993. Washington D.C. [Guidelinesj

Environment and Natural Resources

UNEP. 1993. The Greenhook: A Manual to Support Orgamzring a National A~ssembly
of Women and the Environment. Washington D.C.: UNEP. [Guidelinesj

Environment and Natural Resources



Development Policy: Multilateral And Bilateral Development Organizations

Asian Development Bank. 1990. Women in Development.

Australian International Development Assistance Bureau. 1992. Admninistrative Notice
92-96, Women in Development and Gender Equity. Australia: AIDAB.

Australian International Development Assistance Bureau. 1992. Equal Partners
Gender Awareness and Australia7 Development Cooperation. Australia: AIDAB.

Australian International Development Assistance Bureau. 1992. Women Moving
Forward Executive Summary. Australia: AIDAB.

Blockhus, Jill aqnd Siddiqui, Najma. 1993 Temperate and Tropical Forests.
Advancinlg Women in Ecosystem Marlagement. Washington D.C.

CIDA. Renewing Our Commitment- CIDA andi Gender Equality.

CIDA. I 992. Women inl De~velopmetrr: A Policy Statement. CIDA.

Clones, Julia Panourgia. 1991. Women's Crucial Role in Managing the Environment
in~ Sub-Sahmara Afr~ica. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

Clones, Julia Panourgia. 1992. ~Th Links Between Gender Issues and the Fragile
Environments of Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

Commission of the European Communities. 1993. The htltegration and Participation
of Women madl Me~n inr Development: a Guide for the Mamagement of Gender in EC
Development Coqpe~rationl with Asian, Latin American and Mediterraneanl Countries.
Geneva: CEC.

Commission of the European Communities. 1991. Thematic Evaluation of the
haltegration of Women inl Rural Development. Synthesis Report. Geneva: CEC.

DANIDA. 992. From the Marginzs to the Core: Terms of Reference for DANIDA's
Strategy for Enlabling Womenl to Shape? Development and Share its Outcome.


Policy Statements

FAO. 1991. httregration of Women in Agriculture and Rural Development. Rome:

FAO. Rural Women and Sustainable! Development. Rome: FAO.

FAO. 1990. WYomen~ inl Agricultural De~velopmrent: FAO's Plan of Action. Rome:

FINNIDA. 1993. Looking at Gender and Forestry. Helsinki: FINNIDA.

Germain, Adrienne. 1976. Poor Rural Women: A Policy Perspective. Journal of
ht~ternational Afairs 3 0, no.2.

GTZ. 1993. T~c/mical Cooperationl and Women in Development. Eschborn, Germany:

Holden, Patricia M. I988. Con~straints to hilcreasing the Propontion of Women
Bene~fittin~g from ODA Fundled Trainring Awards. ODA.

ICRW. 1991. Women, Poverty and the Environment in Latin America. Washington

Horenstein, Nadine R. I987. Supporting Women's hwolvement in Af~can Agriculture:
An Assessment of Selected Agencies' Approaches. Washington D.C.: International
Center for Research on Women.

INSTRAW. htlformal Sector: Workinlg Group Conclusions~ and Policy
Recommendations. INSTRAW.

INSTRAW. 1992. Women, Enlvironmet~n and Sustainable Development: Towards a
Theoretical Synthesis. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: INSTRAW.

Inter-American Development Bank. 1987. Operating Policy on Women in
Development. Washington D.C.: IADB.

Inter-American Development Bank. 1991. Women in Development: A Strategy and
Phmn ofAction for Implemenrting Banrk Policy 1991- 1993. Washington D.C. :IADB.

Kardam, Nuket. I 989. Brinlgin~g Women in: Womens' Issues in htlternational
Development Programs. Boulder, Colorado: L. Rienner Publishers.

Lexow, Janne. I988. WID IssuesS inl Nordic Development Assistance. Norway:

Police Statemnents

Jahan, Rounaq. I 992. Mainstreaming Women in Norwegian Development Assistance.
Norway: NORAD.

JICA. I991. Study on Development Assistance for Women In Development. JICA.

Murphy, Josette. 1989. Women and Agriculture in Afilca: A Guide to Bank Policy
and Programs for Operations Staff. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

Narayan, Deepa. I993. Assessing Presen~t haltra-Agency Coqperation on Women and
Ecosystem Management. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

NORAD. I989. Norckc Seminlar onr Women in7 Development. Norway: NORAD.

NORAD. I985. Norway's Strategy for Assistance to Women in~ Development.
Norway: NORAD.

NORAD. I985. Women and Development, Women in Development, htltegration of
Women in7 Developmfenlt, Women's Perspectives on Development Gen~der Relations
and Development, New Development with Women. Norway: NORAD.

ODA. I992. Report onr Progress in Implemen~ting ODA's Policy on Women in
Development 1991/1992. Great Britain: ODA.

ODA. 1992. Women inr Development. Great Britain: ODA

Ostergaard, Lise. 1992. Genduer andl Development: A Practical Guide. New York:
Routledge Press.

Oxfam. htltroductory Remarks onl Gender Issues from GADU and an Outlinle of Our
Role in Oxfevn. Oxford, England: Oxfam.

Palmer, I. 1985. The knpact of Agrarian Relform on Women, Women's Roles and
Gende~r Differences inl Development Cases for Plarmers. West Hartford, Connecticut:
Kumarian Press.
Paolisso, Michael. Yudelman, Sally. 1991. Women, Poverty and the EInironment in
Latin America. Washington D.C.: ICRW.

Poats, Susan. 1991. The Role of Gende~ir in Agricultural Development. Washington
D.C.: Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research.

Sala, Maija. 1992. Practical Women in Development Programme. Helsinki:

Policy Statements

Serageldin, I. halter-Agenlcy Consultation on Promoting Women in Natural Resources

SIDA. I990. Striking a Balance: Gendier Awareness in Swedish Development
Cooperation. SIDA.

SIDA. 1985. The Women's Dimension in Development Assistance: SIDA's Plan of
Action. SIDA.
Staats, John and Carl Eicher. 1990. Women in Agriculture: What Development Can
Do: Agricultural Development in the Third World. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns
Hopkins University Press.

Tisch, Sarah J. 1990. Women inl Developmentt Calpabilities Statement. Washington
D.C.: Winrock International.

UNDP. 1991. Promotion of the Role! of Women in Water and Environmental
Sanitation Services. New York: UNDP.

UNEP. Women and the Environmrent: Anl Anlalytical Review.

United Nations Economic and Social Council Commission on Status of Women. 1992.
Development: htltegrationr of Women in the Process of Development. New Y ork:
United Nations.

Policy Statemnents

List of Contacts for Resources

African Development Bank (202) 429-5160

Asia Institute of Technology. G.P.O. Box 2754 Bangkok 10501, Thailand
Phone (66-2) 5160110-29, 5160130-44
Fax (66-2) 516-2126

Australian International Development Assistance Bureau
Peter Batten
GPO Box Canberra ACT 2601
Phone (06) 276 4000
Fax (06) 276 4880

CARE Phone: (404) 681-2552

CIDA Phone: (819) 997 1536
200 Promenade du Portage, HULL, Quk., Canada.

Coady International Institute
St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, N.S, Canada B2Glc
Phone (902) 867-3961
Fax (902) 867-3907

Commonwealth Secretariat
Malborough House, Pall Mall
London SW1Y5HX

Clark University. Program for International Development and Social Change. 950
Main Street Worcester, MA. 01610-1477
Phone (508) 793-7201
Fax (508) 793-8820

DANIDA Phone: 45 33 92 0000

1001 22nd St. N.W. 15th Floor
Washington D.C. 20036

Directorate General for Development Cooperation (DGIS) the Netherlands
Anita Veldkamp

List of Contacts and Ad~dresses

East-West Environment and Policy Institute
Phone (808) 944-7266

P.O.Box 54562
Nairobi, Kenya
Phone 254-2-440299
Fax 254-2-443868

Ministry ofForeign Affairs
Herbert Nyqvist
Katajanokanlaituri 3, FIN-00160 Helsinki
Phone: 358 0134 161
Fax 358 0622 2576

FAO. Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service, Human
Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reforms Division. Via delle Terme di Caracalla,
00100, Rome, Italy. Phone: 39-6- 57971
Fax: 39-6-57973152/57826 10

FEMNET P.O. Box 54562, Nairobi. Kenya
Phone: 254-2-440299
Fax: 254-2-443868

Ford Foundation
Phone (212) 573-5000

Ute Krahl
Postfach 5180, 65726 Eschborn, Germany
Phone 49 61 96 790

IDS The University of Sussex, Brighton. Sussex, BNI9RE, England.
Phone: (0273) 678420
Fax: (0273) 606261

Institute de la Mujer
Sta. Isabel Pastor
Phone 347-8000
Fax 319 9178

Phone: 31 70 348 4350

List of Contacts and Addresses

Gerry Dyer
Administrative Assistant
1717 Massachusetts Ave. N.W. #801
Washington D.C. 20036
Phone (202) 667-8227
Fax (202) 667-8236

International Center for Research on Women
Publications Department
1717 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Suite 302
Washington D.C. 20036
Phone (202) 797-0007

International Development Research Center
Eva Rathgeber
Phone (613) 236 6163

International Food Policy Research Institute
1200 17th St. N.W. Suite 200 Washington D.C. 20036
Tricia Klosky
Phone (202) 862-5600

International Labor Organization
CH- 1211, Geneva-22 Switzerland

Rue Mauvemney
CH-1196 Gland
Phone 4122-999-0001
Fax 4122-999-0002

Phone: (202) 457- 0412

Kansas State University
Dept. of Sociology
Phone 532-6011

Kumarian Press

List of Contacts and Addresses

630 Oakwood Avenue Suite I 19
West Hartford, CT. 06110-1529
Phone (203) 953-0214

Michigan State University
Office ofWomen in Development
202 International Center
Michigan State University
E. Lansing, MI 48824-1035

Norwegian Agency for Development (NORAD)
Phone: 47 22 31 4400

Overseas Development Administration
Elizabeth Murphy
Phone 44 71 9177000
Fax 44 355 84 4099

Overseas Development Group.
University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom
Alex Lake
Phone 44 603 592334
Fax 0603 505262

Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA)
Carolyn Hannan-Anderson
S-105-25 Stockholm, Sweden
Phone 46 8728 5377
Fax 46 8 612 4980

The Population Council
One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, New York 10017
Kirsten Moore
Phone (212) 339-0676

The World Bank Publications 1818 H Street, N.W. Washington D.C. 20433
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Fax: (202) 477-6391

The World Bank Sectoral Library
Phone (202) 623-7054

Tropical Research and Development Program

List of Contacts and Addresses

1889 F Street N.W.
Washington D.C. 20006
Phone 202 289-8456
Fax 202 289-4267

Mary Hendricks
George Lesser

University of Florida
Farming Systems Program/International Studies Program
123 Tiger T University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida

University of Illinois
Office of Women in Development
320 International Studies Building
910 Fifth Street
Champaign, Illinois
Phone (217) 333-1994
Fax (217) 333-6270

University of Wisconsin Land Tenure Center (608) 262-3657
1357 University Avenue
Madison, WI 53715

USAID JeffFrankin
Room 714-SA-18
Washington D.C. 20523-1816, U.S.A.
Phone 703- 875-4969

Virginia Tech
Cornelia Butler Flora Dept. of Sociology
BlacksburgVa 24061-0 137
Phone (703) 231-6878
Fax (703) 231-3860

Westview Press

Phone (904) 331-1886

List of Contacts and Addresses

5500 Central Ave
Boulder, CO 80301-2877
Phone (303) 444-3 54 1
FAX (303) 449-3356

Winrock International
1611 North Kent Street
ArlingtonVa. 22209-2134

World Resources Institute
1709 New York Avenue N.W. Washington D.C. 20006
Phone (202) 638-6300
Fax (202) 638-0036

World Wildlife Fund
Phone (202) 293-4800

List of Contacts and Addresses

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