Oceanography in Florida, 1970

Material Information

Oceanography in Florida, 1970
Florida Council of 100 -- Committee on Oceanography
Place of Publication:
Florida Council of 100


Subjects / Keywords:
City of Miami ( local )
City of Jacksonville ( local )
Oceans ( jstor )
Beach ( jstor )
Ports ( jstor )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
1273255 ( oclc )
74623821 ( lccn )

UFDC Membership

Sciences and Technologies
University of Florida


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The Grumman submersible Ben Franklin completed a 30 day submerged
operation in which more than 1400 nautical miles were covered at an average
depth of 650 feet. Drifting northward in the Gulf Stream from its home port at
S West Palm Beach, Ben Franklin made a total of 11 deep excursions to the
-. "-bottom between 1600 and 1800 feet, recording a vast amount of invaluable
oceanographic data. (Page 112)

In a reorganization of the State Government, the Florida Board of Conservation became the Florida Department of
Natural Resources. Included in this Department are the Division of Marine Resources: the Commission on Marine Science
and Technology: the Division of Interior Resources: the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission: and the Canal Authority of
Florida. (Page 200)

The number of ocean oriented firms in Florida has increased by more than 75 percent in the past
two years. Included are new organizations founded by such nationally recognized persons as Carl Holm
(page 149) and Athelstan Spilhaus (page 149). Typical of other new operations is Marine Resources,
Inc. (page 123), which manufactures submersibles. including the two man construction assistance
vehicle shown left, and also produces such electronic products as transducers and hydrophones.

In a landmark decision, the State Legislature this year enacted a bill authorizing the lease of submerged lands and the
water above to persons desiring to engage in aquaculture activities. First to apply for such a lease was \nrifldrmn. Inc.. a
Panama City firm engaged in raising shrimp. (Page 152)

This year has seen the appointment of two county oceanographers, believed
to be the first in the country. Palm Beach County (page 213) pioneered with
their appointment of Capt. Hal Gehman (far left), followed by Brevard County's
MB A appointment (page 196) of Mr. Robert Rotan (near left).
Money was appropriated from State funds in 1969 to implement the cooperative oceanographic teaching and research
program for the state universities of Florida. The initial budget of $90.000 is to be used for leasing ships and purchasing
equipment for the joint use of these state universities. (Page 4)

The Rosenstiel Foundation endowed the University of ihami with S8.8 million to be used for the
Institute of Marine Sciences. The Institute has been officially renamed the Dorothy H. and Lewis
Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences. (Page 9)

Two major programs for the training of professional oceanographic technicians have been established in Florida. The
Hydrospace Technical Institute (page 41) has been established at Melbourne in affiliation with the Florida Institute of
Technology. This institute offers a 2 year course to award an Associate in Science degree in oceanographic technology.
Miami-Dade Junior College offers an Associate in Science degree program in marine science technology (page 4).

U Florida State University's new shore facility at Turkey Point has been renamed the Edward Ball
Marine Laboratory, in apprc, ijiion of the donation by Mr. Ball of the land for this sea-side laboratory.
(Page 19)

Education 1

Oceanography in Florida



The Florida Council of 100
P. Scott Linder, Chairman




Committee on Oceanography
Judge Martin J. Roess, Chairman

in Cooperation with
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Florida Board of Regents
Florida Department of Commerce



Natural Resources

Assistant Editor:

Ronald E. Ring
Caroline Ruis

January 1970

Copies of this report may be obtained at $1 each by writing
E. Earl Donaldson, Executive Director, The Florida Council of 100,
P.O. Box 2192, 601 Twiggs Street, Tampa, Florida 33601
Telephone: 813-223-1681.




Index 259









The first comprehensive survey on oceanographic activities in Florida was published in
1967 by The Florida Council of 100 in cooperation with the Florida Board of Conservation,
Florida Board of Regents, and the Florida Development Commission. In 1968 a second, up-
dated edition was published, with the newly established Florida State Commission on Marine
Sciences and Technology joining the above groups.
Results of the third survey are contained in this issue, which brings together in one volume
the most complete description in existence of Florida organizations, facilities, and natural
resources related to the sea.
Significant strides have been made since 1968 at state and local levels. Educational pro-
grams related to marine sciences and technology have expanded rapidly at the college, junior
college, and secondary school levels. The number of marine-oriented companies has almost
doubled in two years. Increasing concern and action have been demonstrated for the effective
utilization of the environment.
Shown on the opposite page is a capsule view of oceanographic activities in Florida. More
detailed information is contained on maps to be found at the beginning of each chapter.
The northeastern section of the state, surrounding Jacksonville, faces the Blake Plateau and
the widest portion of the continental shelf existing off the Atlantic coast of Florida. A leading
mining, shipbuilding, and commercial fishing center, the area also benefits from outstanding
port facilities and Jacksonville University.
Located in the east-central section, stretching from Daytona Beach to Fort Pierce, and
westward to Orlando, are the Kennedy Space Center and a large number of electronic and
aerospace firms, many of which are becoming involved in oceanography. Two deep water ports,
degree programs in oceanography at Florida Institute of Technology and the University of
Florida, and oceanographic technician training at the Hydrospace Technical Institute strengthen
this region's oceanographic potential.
The southeastern sector of the state, from West Palm Beach to Key West, contains what is
probably the country's greatest concentration of universities, research organizations, business
firms, and major port facilities directly involved in oceanographic work. Included are strong
programs in ocean sciences and engineering at the University of Miami, Nova University, and
Florida Atlantic University. This area is the most convenient U.S. departure point for the
Bahamas, the Caribbean, and the central and south Atlantic, and its offshore waters contain an
unusual abundance of marine life, clear water, and varied bottom topography.
The Gulf Coast of Florida represents over one-third of the U.S. shoreline bordering the
Gulf of Mexico. Offshore, the continental shelf is up to 155 miles wide.
The west-central section of the state, from Ft. Myers northward to Cedar Key, has an
extremely varied coastline and extensive unpolluted estuarine waters. A strong complex of
educational institutions, state and Federal research laboratories, electronics firms, and port
facilities in the Tampa-St. Petersburg area includes the University of South Florida's Marine
Science Institute and the Florida Department of Natural Resources Marine Laboratory.
Extensive oceanographic operations in the Panhandle center about three well protected
deep water harbors, three Federal research laboratories, the main campus and shore stations of
Florida State University, and the University of West Florida at Pensacola.






Universities with degree programs in ocean sciences and engineering

Universities with strong orientation toward marine sciences

University oceanographic shore stations

-- Public deepwater ports

^ Non-university research facilities active in ocean sciences and technology

A Industrial firms active in oceanography




















oceanographic activities and supporting
services in Florida, contact the following
persons, the agencies listed in Chapter
VIII, or individual organizations described
in this report.

Bruce Johnson, Executive Director
State of Florida
Commission on Marine Sciences and Technology
615 SW Second Avenue
Miami, Fla. 33130 (Ph. 305-373-6686)
Judge Martin J. Roess
Chairman, Oceanography Committee
The Florida Council of 100
c/o E. Earl Donaldson, Executive Director
601 Twiggs Street, P.O. Box 2192
Tampa, Fla. 33601 (Ph. 813-223-1681)
James S. Cullison, II, Administrator
Marine Sciences and Technology Section
Florida Department of Commerce
107 West Gaines Street
Tallahassee, Fla. 32304 (Ph. 904-224-1215)
Dr. Robert E. Smith, Director
Florida Institute of Oceanography
Bayboro Harbor
830 First Street South
St. Petersburg, Fla. 33701 (Ph. 813-896-5197 or 5198)
Mr. George P. Russeli
Independent Colleges and Universities of Florida, Inc.
5013 Central Avenue
St. Petersburg, Fla. 33710 (Ph. 813-347-5111)
Dr. William R. Marsh
Director, Academic Affairs
Division of Community Junior Colleges
State Department of Education
Knott Building
Tallahassee, Fla. 32304 (Ph. 904-599-5794)
James A. Moore or Jack M. Hopper
State Department of Education
Tallahassee, Fla. 32304 (Ph. 904-599-5761)
Roger Bachman, Director
Bureau of Waterways
Florida Department of Natural Resources
107 West Gaines Street
Tallahassee, Fla. 32304 (Ph. 904-224-71411
Leo A. Furlong, Jr., Executive Secretary
Florida Waterways Association, Inc.
8120 SW 56th Street
Miami, Fla. 33155 (Ph. 305-221-9271)
Robert M. Ingle, Director of Research
Bureau of Marine Research and Technology
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Larson Building
Tallahassee, Fla. 32304 (Ph. 904-224-7141)
P.O. Drawer F
St. Petersburg, Fla. 33731 (Ph. 813-896-8626)
Dr. Robert 0. Vernon, Director
Bureau of Geology
Florida Department of Natural Resources
P.O. Drawer 631
Tallahassee, Fla. 32302 (Ph. 904-224-71411


Florida provides an outstanding natural and manmade environment for study of the marine
sciences and for exploitation of the resources of the sea. Some of its advantages are:
A state government strongly oriented toward marine affairs, as reflected in its organization
and recent legislation.
* Fourteen universities with educational and research programs in ocean sciences and engi-
neering, of which seven offer specific degrees. These programs are unusually well coordi-
nated through the activities of the Florida Institute of Oceanography and the Florida
Interinstitutional Committee on Oceanography.
* Over 20 Federal, state and private research organizations other than universities and in-
dustry which are conducting oceanographic studies or activities closely allied with ocean-
* A strong and rapidly growing nucleus of well known firms in the oceanographic field,
backed up by a large concentration of electronic and aerospace companies with allied skills
and a rapidly growing participation in oceanography.
* Sixteen deep water ports (27 feet or more) and 35 shallow water ports (8 to 27 feet), of
which 18 are customs ports of entry. All major ports are very close to open ocean waters.
* Extensive shipbuilding and modification centers, machine shops, electronic shops, and
other services commonly required to support oceanographic operations. Included are nine
large shipbuilding firms.
* Heavy concentrations of computer and data reduction centers.

* Unusually varied bottom topography and constituent materials, with a short trip to deep

* Continental Shelf as narrow as 3 miles and as wide as 155 miles, containing large mineral
deposits and presenting an excellent environment for mariculture.
* Nearness of the Tongue of the Ocean, the deepest and steepest submarine canyon known
and site of the Navy's AUTEC range.
* Closest U.S. departure point for the Puerto Rico Trench, deepest point in the Atlantic
* The Blake Plateau, which has been scoured clean of sediments and presents an excellent
source of geological information.

* Over 1300 miles of varied coastline which is excellent for studying wave action, beach
erosion, sand transport, and related subjects.
* Plentiful and varied marine life, both plant and animal.

* Nearness and concentration of the Gulf Stream and Counter Current.

* Hundreds of rivers, estuaries, bays, inlets, and other bodies of water which offer varied
mineral contents, natural and manmade contaminants, flow rates, and other characteristics.
The tidal coastline exceeds 9000 miles.
The only extensive live coral reefs in North America.

An ideal environment for studying air-sea interaction, including hurricanes and other types
of weather disturbances.

Weather and sea state which permit year-round operation.

Water clarity ranging up to more than 100 feet.

Varied but moderate tidal conditions.

Inland waterways, canals, and other navigable waterways for protected water travel.

Twenty-five conservation areas set aside as state aquatic preserves.

I. Education

A widespread interest in oceanography exists among Florida educational institutions at all
levels. Florida State University and the University of Miami have had extensive programs in
oceanography for a number of years, and both award PhD degrees. In recent years other
universities and colleges have developed programs in marine sciences and engineering, often in
specialty fields closely allied with other strong programs already in existence. At present, seven
universities offer degrees in oceanography, marine sciences, ocean engineering, or fields of
science with major emphasis on the marine environment (Figure 1). Several others have
significant marine teaching or research programs, but of less scope. Other Florida universities
and 4 year colleges are shown in Figure 2.

In 1962, a Task Force on Oceanography and Hydrographic Engineering was formed to
examine the needs, status, opportunities, and responsibilities of the state in these areas. A report
published in January 1963 by the Task Force highlighted the need for immediate action and
proposed a practical and workable plan to advance Florida's efforts in oceanography.

One of the first steps taken was the formation of an Interinstitutional Committee on
Oceanography, made up of representatives from public and private educational institutions with
programs in oceanography.

In September of 1966 the Florida Board of Regents, which governs the activities of the
State University System, accepted a plan prepared by the Committee for a coordinated program
of education and research in oceanography, marine technology, and related sciences designed to
capitalize on the assets of each educational institution involved and make the most productive
use possible of the facilities and funds which are available. The plan had also been approved by
the Council of Presidents, the Council for Academic Affairs, and the Curriculum Committee.

As proposed in the plan, an interinstitutional Florida Institute of Oceanography has been
established under the Board of Regents to coordinate activities within the State University
System and among those private educational institutions wishing to share facilities and engage in
cooperative programs with state universities. The Interinstitutional Committee on
Oceanography serves as an advisory board to the Institute.

The Institute is not viewed as a facility in itself, but rather as an administrative design to
coordinate programs and facilities beyond the scope of any single institution to attain or
maintain, collect and disseminate information about the activities and resources of its member

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40VA U.




Figure 1. Florida Universities with Programs in Marine Sciences and Ocean Engineering








Figure 2. Other Four-year Universities and Colleges in Florida

institutions, sponsor symposia, provide liaison with agencies outside of the Institute, and
coordinate ship time to ensure maximum utilization. It may also serve as a grant receiving
organization for projects involving two or more institutions and may administer funds for such
projects. The Institute is located at Bayboro Harbor in St. Petersburg.

The Board of Regents has appropriated $90,000 from its FY70 general fund to implement
the state university system's coordinated, cooperative oceanographic teaching and research
program. The allocation of the appropriation will be under the direction of the Board of
Regents' office, coordinated by the Florida Institute of Oceanography. It will be used in
support of teaching and research conducted in the eastern Gulf, Florida Straits, and northwestern
Atlantic waters contiguous to Florida.

The appropriation will be used:

1 To lease, or use on a cost-reimbursable basis, oceanographic vessels operated by
educational and commercial organizations;

2 To purchase oceanographic equipment to be shared for teaching and research
purposes by participating scientists and students in the program;

3 To transport personnel and equipment to and from vessels used in the program.

Details of the program and the expenditure of the appropriation have been documented in
a set of guidelines: "Board of Regents Office Oceanographic Teaching and Research
Appropriation for the Year Fiscal 1970."

Several junior colleges in Florida offer introductory courses in the areas of oceanography,
marine biology, or marine technology. Two approaches characterize the presentation of such
course work: 1) courses for persons not specializing in the sciences who need or want to know
more about the seas; 2) specialized course work for those who will enter upper division
institutions and need introductory courses.

Subject matter covered in the courses includes the beginnings of oceanography in America
and other parts of the world; the chemical nature of seawater; the physical properties of
seawater; seawater in motion; bottom deposits; modes of living and habitats of the sea;
plankton; nekton; life on the ocean bottoms; organism identification; laboratory research; and
field collecting methods. Some specialized sections include common marine organisms and their
ecology, as well as fishery methods.

Many of the biology courses offered at the community junior colleges have their emphasis
on marine science or biology. Some effort is being made in marine propulsion technology and
other technical programs.

Miami-Dade Junior College in Miami offers an Associate in Science degree program in
marine science technology. The program was instituted in the fall term of 1968-69, and










Figure 4. High Schools and Science Centers with Marine Science Programs

Figure 3. Junior Colleges in Florida

currently has an enrollment of approximately 50 students. Options in this program include
marine survey, marine electronics, and marine mechanics. The City Commission of Miami has
granted a 10 acre site on Virginia Key to the Junior College as a site for construction of facilities,
which will include a modest instructional building, laboratory, and boat handling facility.

SFigure 5. Miami-Dade Junior College Students
at Work Aboard the R V Gerda

Growing emphasis is being placed on cooperative efforts between junior colleges and some
of the upper division institutions. Palm Beach Junior College, Lake Worth, plans to offer a 2
year program to train marine technicians, granting an Associate in Science degree. Such a
program would be in marine science as a transfer program to Florida Atlantic University, where
the student would complete the Bachelor's degree in ocean engineering. A cooperative
arrangement between the two institutions is being developed on this basis. Institution of the
program would take place in the 1970-71 school year, with the first year of the program to be at
Palm Beach Junior College. Sessions between the staff of the junior college and Florida Atlantic
will be developed on a complementary basis, with some staff training being performed by the
university. Subject matter, laboratory techniques, resource materials, and media will be stressed
in workshops set up for the summer of 1971.

In August of 1969, Brevard Junior College in Cocoa instituted a program leading to the
degree of Associate of Science in ocean engineering technology, with strong emphasis on
electronics as related to marine sciences and ocean engineering. Enrollment in the program in its
initial semester was 72 students. The Port Canaveral Port Authority and the U.S. Coast Guard
have made facilities available at Port Canaveral for the use of the students.

Broward Junior College in Fort Lauderdale offers a curriculum to prepare students for
oceanographic studies. The college has an arrangement with the Rosenstiel School of Marine
Science at the University of Miami allowing the use of their boats for the introduction of
Broward students to the marine environment, and Nova University allows the use of their
facilities. Students graduating from Broward Junior College may be placed in the ocean
engineering program at Florida Atlantic University.

Florida Keys Junior College in Key West offers programs in marine biology and
invertebrate zoology, and has recently acquired a 95 ton study ship to serve as an instructional

platform. The college currently offers 2 year programs in marine propulsion and marine
electronics, and plans are presently being implemented for 2 year courses in the various
specialized fields of marine technology.

Figure 6. Florida Keys Junior College
L Study Ship Bush Key

Gulf Coast Junior College at Panama City has programs in both preoceanography and
marine technology, and in the summer of 1969 the college conducted a 3 week "Salty Summer
Seminar" for science teachers, college undergraduates, and high school seniors. The seminar was
attended by more than 50 persons from a dozen states.

Manatee Junior College in Bradenton and St. Petersburg Junior College in St. Petersburg
offer courses in marine biology which treat the physical and chemical background of marine
science, plant and animal phyla of the sea, marine ecology, and the interaction of man with the

Marine science courses as a part of the science curriculum of Florida's public elementary
and secondary schools began in 1963 when five schools initiated such programs. In the 1968-69
school year 25 schools offered some form of marine science. An additional 15 schools offered
courses for 1969-1970. The marine science programs being offered vary in form. Some are full
year courses, others are a semester in length. There are programs for advanced study as well as
survey and introductory courses, for elementary and secondary students and for adults.

The initial impetus given to marine science education came from a State Department of
Education sponsored meeting of science educators and university scientists at Tavares in 1965
to examine science program needs with respect to the sea. This meeting brought about the
initiation of a number of marine science programs. Another important outcome was the
formation of a writing team by the State Department of Education to create a source book to
be of assistance to teachers and students. The resulting State Department of Education
publication, "Source Book of Marine Sciences, 1968," was distributed free of charge to each
science teacher in Florida. It has proven to be extremely valuable and very popular nationally as
well as in Florida. It is now being reprinted, and a revision is in process.

The State Department of Education formed a steering committee comprised of
representatives of secondary education, the universities, industry, and research to organize a
conference to plan for the acceleration of the development of marine science education in
Florida. The resulting Marine Science Education Conference at Riviera Beach in May of 1969
was enthusiastically attended by 85 participants and guests. The program included persons
involved in marine science from industry, research, and education. The conference offered an
opportunity for formal and informal communication, investigation of problems by temporary
committees, and the formation of standing committees. The objectives of the conference as set
up by the steering committee were successfully accomplished and plans are now under way for a
second such conference.

Enhancing the programs offered by the public schools is the research capability offered by
three marine science centers in the state: the Marine Science Station at Crystal River; the Marine
Science Education Center of Duval County, at Mayport; and the Science Center of Pinellas
County, Inc., in St. Petersburg.

The facilities at the Marine Science Center at Crystal River are available to groups from
kindergarten age to adult, and are open the year round. Two dormitories and a dining hall house
the students, and facilities including an aquarium, a laboratory for indoor instruction, an
administration building which houses the reference library, a darkroom and wet laboratory, and
an observation platform are available. Docking space is provided for the large outboard boats
and the smaller boats and canoes, and the Center has a variety of collecting gear.

Figure 7. Marine Science Station at Crystal River; Laboratory (left), Classroom Building (right)

The Marine Science Education Center of Duval County is an adjunct to the county
elementary and secondary public school system, and provides daytime facilities for
supplemental study in the marine sciences. The Center has a large live specimen tank, a
laboratory, a library, and a museum; specimens are easily gathered from the adjoining beach.

The Science Center of Pinellas County provides facilities for research in more than 20
fields of science. The Center has its own marine biology laboratory with holding, exhibit, and
work tanks and with stations for up to 10 students at a time. Professorial guidance is available,
and a science library is provided.

University of Miami

Because of its location and community interests, the University of Miami has stressed the
biological and environmental sciences, and international studies with special reference to
Hispanic areas. Strong programs in biology, chemistry, geology, mathematics, physics, and
engineering are provided at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Enrollment in the University
now exceeds 17,000.

With the completion during the summer of 1969 of the new $15.7 million Rosenstiel
Medical Sciences Building, all departments of the University's School of Medicine are now
located in the UM-Jackson Memorial Hospital Center in Miami.

Figure 8. University of Miami's Dorothy H. and Lewis Rosenstiel
School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences

The Dorothy H. and Lewis Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences has a
6.38 acre waterfront campus on Virginia Key, 9 miles from the University's Main Campus. It
was officially established in 1943 as The Marine Laboratory and in 1961, because of its
expanding interests, was renamed Institute of Marine Sciences (IMS). Under the direction of
Dr. F. G. Walton Smith, its founder, IMS soon became one of the three leading oceanographic
laboratories of the United States. This growth in size and distinction, without endowment,
proceeded at a pace greater than any other institute of its kind.

In November 1968, the Rosenstiel Foundation gave the University of Miami $8.8 million
to be used as endowment for the IMS. On June 10, 1969, the IMS was officially renamed
Dorothy H. and Lewis Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences.

Dr. F. G. Walton Smith was appointed Dean of the Rosenstiel School, which has the central
responsibility for both academic and research functions. Academic activities are coordinated by
the Associate Dean for Graduate Studies, and research is carried out in the School's Institute of
Marine and Atmospheric Sciences (IMAS), formerly IMS.

Figure 9. Location of the Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences

The School trains graduate students for the MS and PhD degrees in all branches of
oceanography: marine biological science, fishery science, marine geology and geophysics,
physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, and atmospheric science. In addition, programs
offering the MS in ocean engineering, and the PhD in engineering with a minor in ocean
engineering, are joint undertakings with the University of Miami's School of Engineering. An
ocean law program, offering the LLM degree, was established in 1968 as a cooperative effort
with the University's School of Law.

In 1949, the first graduate degrees were awarded by the School, and as of the January
1969 graduation, a total of 188 degrees had been granted. Of this number, 34 PhD and 84 MS
degrees were in the field of marine biological science; 6 PhD and 34 MS degrees in fishery
science; and 13 PhD and 17 MS degrees in the physical sciences. In addition, 13 degrees have
been awarded by the School of Engineering to graduates in the cooperative ocean engineering
program, established in 1964.

The staff of the School numbered 473 members in April 1969. Of this number, 271
persons participate directly in research. A number of the faculty have joint appointments with

other departments of the University, and an additional 22 researchers from other institutions
have appointments as adjunct staff members.

Interdisciplinary effort in graduate study and research activities is encouraged and carried
out. Students pursing programs in any of the major fields commonly take courses in other
disciplines, and researchers in one area often work in conjunction with a colleague in another
field of science, not only at the University of Miami, but with scientists at other institutions
throughout the world. For administrative purposes, research activities at the IMAS are carried
out in seven divisions, as described below.

The work of the Division of Atmospheric Science is concentrated in three areas: tropical
meteorology, air-sea interaction, and dynamics of the upper ocean. Studies in tropical
meteorology involve numerical models of the tropical atmosphere and its perturbations, the
effect of heated islands on the air flow, and cumulus dynamics. Members of the Division also
have contracts for the systematic synoptic analysis of certain selected tropical regions and for
studies of the energy budget in the marine tropical atmosphere. Experimental work is directed
toward the investigation of cloud populations, cloud photogrammetry, and atmospheric
electricity. The air-sea interaction program is concerned mainly with the structure of the
planetary boundary layer in the ocean and in the atmosphere. An experimental program
involving an array of pressure sensors, wind measurements, and flux measurements is being
established on the Grand Bahama banks some 60 miles distant. Numerical studies of a two-fluid
system involving the meridional circulation between 30 northern and 30' southern latitudes
both in the air and in the ocean, as affected by their mutual interaction, involves new methods
and promises interesting results. The study is closely related to the investigations of
perturbations in the upper ocean and on the thermocline. The response of the oceans to
traveling storms, the generation of internal waves, and the mechanism by which heat and
momentum are being diffused downward from the ocean surface into the interior are being
studied analytically, numerically, and through experimental analogues in the Division's

The research of the Division of Biology is aimed at determination of the kinds, numbers,
and populations of organisms in the sea in relation to time and space, both geographically and
vertically, as well as the physical, chemical, and biological factors which control their
distribution. In addition, the life histories of the organisms and the factors involved in
speciation are of special interest. For a number of years, the rearing of crustaceans has been
carried out in the laboratory. In addition, in 1968 two graduate students were extremely
successful in developing techniques for rearing fishes and squids from the egg through the
juvenile and adult stages. The Division has also collected and is studying closely related animals
existing on both sides of Panama, prior to their possible intermingling if the new sea level canal
is constructed. At present, intensive ecological surveys are concentrated on zooplankton in the
Caribbean Sea; oceanic fishes, octocorals and brittlestars in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean;

cephalopods in the North Atlantic Ocean and Antarctica; and deep-sea animals from various
parts of the world. A major program is the marine resource and community survey of the
tropical Atlantic Ocean from the Gulf of Guinea to the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Panama.

The Division of Fishery Sciences continues its research on the pink shrimp, which is of
enormous economic importance to Florida. Having succeeded during the past 18 years in rearing
the pink shrimp from the egg through adult stage in the laboratory, the Division embarked on
mass rearing experiments in 1968. In a hatchery building and seven outdoor ponds, experiments
are being conducted on the conditions necessary and kinds and quantities of foods that are best
suited for the economical culture of pink shrimp. Other research involves the ecology and water
needs of animals in Everglades estuaries. The Fishery Technology Section is working on
irradiation preservation of frozen seafoods. The Division also acts as a consultant to Caribbean
governments on development of high-seas fisheries, conservation and management of marine
resources, and shellfish culture. The Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute was founded by the
IMAS in 1948 as an aid in furthering fisheries in this region, and its annual meetings have now
attracted worldwide interest.

The Division of Functional Biology is concerned with the mechanisms by which marine
organisms act in relation to the physical environment and one another in establishing and
maintaining the diverse configuration of living matter and energy in the sea. A wide range of
research programs is pursued. Studies are being made of the physiology and nutrition of the
marine microalgae, the relation between their photosynthetic and respiratory activities, and the
capacity of certain forms to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Extensive analyses have been made on the
environmental factors affecting phytoplankton distribution in the Caribbean Sea; others will
relate to the outflows of the Amazon and Mississippi Rivers. Activities extend far beyond the
tropics and subtropics to the shores of Antarctica, where IMAS researchers dive beneath the sea
ice to collect their materials to analyze productivity under extreme conditions. In the far south,
other programs devoted to microfungi have provided insight which will contribute to a
comprehension of the role of yeasts in tropical estuarine ecology. Estuarine pollution is a matter
of great concern in southern Florida, and the Division is cooperating in interdivisional studies of
this problem. The Division's well-established and sophisticated programs in this field pay close
attention to the sonic activities of reef fishes and sharks, the physiology of shark vision, and the
behavioral mechanisms governing the immigration of commercially important pink shrimp.

Research in the division of Marine Geology and Geophysics concerns the "solid earth"
problems of the oceans, such as the occurrence of submarine volcanism, the accumulation of
deep-sea sediments and shallow-water carbonates, and the structure and age of the oceanic crust.
In 1962, the Division initiated the first project to obtain long, continuous sections of sediments
from the sea floor. This work was advanced significantly in 1964 with the organization of
JOIDES (Joint Oceanographic Institutions Deep Earth Sampling) program, aimed at improved
drilling operations. In cooperation with four other institutions, IMAS researchers are

participating in the Deep Sea Drilling Project presently underway aboard the JOIDES drilling
vessel Glomar Challenger. In early 1969, surprisingly young sediments (ice age) were recovered
from deep inside the Vema Fracture Zone, a narrow, steeply-walled valley which cuts across the
Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Analyses of the rocks and sediments from the JOIDES cruises is only a
small part of the Division's work. Extensive dredging and coring is continually carried out
aboard the IMAS vessels Pillsbury and Gerda. These projects concern the petrology of rocks
from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge; mechanisms of basalt eruption in the deep sea; magnetic anomalies
over seamounts; the geochemistry of sediments on active oceanic ridges; and the climatic history
of the Pleistocene. Well-established capabilities for dating these samples exist in the IMAS
laboratories, including the carbon-14, protactinium/thorium, and potassium/argon methods.
Living benthonic micromollusks and both living and fossil foraminiferans are also being studied.
In addition, investigations are under way on the composition and structure of the limestones
that form the Florida Keys and the Bahamas; the sea-level changes for the past 120,000 years;
and the sequence of environmental changes in the Everglades over the past 100 years, as
indicated by rain gage records.

The Division of Physical and Chemical Oceanography develops its physical research
programs by recognizing a hierarchy of important problems suitable to its location and
resources. Theoretical models for oceanic transients suggest that western ocean boundaries and
equatorial regions are responsive to seasonal fluctuations in large-scale stress patterns at the
ocean-atmosphere boundary. An apparent degree of constancy of the transport in the Florida
Current, therefore, constitutes one of the major enigmas in present theories of Atlantic Ocean
circulation. The indications of constancy are, to some extent, contradicted by acoustic
propagation measurements between Miami and Bimini by the IMAS. As dynamic interpretation
of this evidence is still uncertain, however, an investigation of wind-driven ocean circulation is in
process, and several fundamental problems on the existence and propagation of internal waves
are being studied, using a new type of instrument a simple unattended pycnocline follower.
The Division has also developed a number of advanced techniques for tracing water masses and
studying the long-term mixing processes in the oceans. These involve counting the tritium in
seawater, measurement of underwater light attenuation, and analysis of small particles
suspended in seawater. For a number of years, the Division has used tritium as a tracer for
determining the source of water vapor in hurricanes, and its Radar Meteorological Laboratory
has been investigating the structure of tornadoes, intense rain, windstorms, and hurricanes.
Simultaneous measurements of the viscosity and compressibility of seawater are also being
made. Other projects concern the thermal properties of water near interfaces; the nature and
concentration of trace organic in seawater; the absorption, exchange and reactions of organic
materials on sedimenting mineral particles; and the potentials arising at the interface between an
advancing ice front and the supernatant, unfrozen solution. Also under study are the structure
and properties of water near a quartz surface, particularly the possible existence of anomalous

water with extremely high density, and the properties of water in biologic systems, with present
concentration on the giant alga Volonia. These studies are not only fundamentally important,
but many have direct and immediate applications to such problems as drag reduction, thermal
aspects of pollution, and ice formation at the sea surface and on vessels.

Figure 10. Underwater Television (left) and Underwater Sound Projector at the
Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami

The Division of Ocean Engineering is establishing a Center for the Study of Materials in the
Sea, as one of its major projects. Present research in this area concerns the electrochemical
behavior of metals and alloys in seawater from low to elevated temperatures; the effect of
biological slimes on rates of corrosion; the antifouling properties of several different materials;
and the performance of sacrificial anodes for the cathodic protection of offshore structures.

In addition, the IMAS has operated a fixed underwater sound range across the Straits of
Florida, between Miami and Bimini, for the past 5 years. Studies conducted on this range are
providing important information on periodicities of fluctuations in underwater acoustic
propagation (some as short as seconds and others as long as seasons), and on variations of
oceanographic parameters, such as temperature, density, and currents. Other projects underway
are studies of the forces generated when heavy blunt objects hit sea-floor sediments and the
development of instruments for precise measurements of currents, salinity, and temperature in
the sea. The Division also conducts various coastal engineering surveys prior to proposed beach
nourishment and shore protection projects.

As of March 1969, current grants and contracts awarded the School amounted to
approximately $6 million. Many government and private organizations support the research
projects, including the National Science Foundation, the Office of Naval Research, U.S. Atomic
Energy Commission, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Army, National Park
Service, Environmental Science Services Administration, Federal Water Pollution Control
Administration, Office of Saline Water, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, U.S. Navy,
Public Health Service, and Bureau of Commercial Fisheries.

Laboratory research and supporting activities are carried out in seven buildings at the
School's Virginia Key campus. The largest building the Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor Laboratory
- is three stories high and consists of three joined wings. Housed here are the greater part of the
research laboratories, lecture and laboratory classrooms, a small computer facility, and
administrative offices. Also in the Grosvenor Laboratory are the library, containing more than
24,000 catalogued materials and 20,000 reprints, and the biological reference collection of more
than 300,000 marine fishes, invertebrates, and plants.

The Alfred C. Glassell, Jr., building is a unique controlled environment laboratory in
which researchers can reproduce and maintain environments natural to the marine specimens
under study, or create artificial situations for physiological studies. The Agassiz and Collier
buildings house additional classrooms and research laboratories. Also on campus are facilities for
isotope storage, refrigeration of deep-sea sediments, glass blowing, radio communication with
research vessels, electronic and instrumentation work, various marine and service departments,
and a dormitory with twelve efficiency apartments.

Equipment in the Virginia Key laboratories includes three mass spectrometers, each
adapted for special studies; an X-ray diffraction unit; electron microscope; split-beam
spectrophotometer; various magnetometers; tritium and radioactive carbon counting systems;
magnetic float densitometer; and a large number of other apparatus designed for specific

In addition, the School has several off-campus stations. Located at the University's Main
Campus are the IMAS Division of Atmospheric Science and the Radar Meteorological
Laboratory, one of the few such stations in the world that is automated to continuously collect
several kinds of radar data with only occasional checks by laboratory personnel. The School's
Bimini video-acoustic installation constist of an underwater television with associated acoustic
projectors and environmental sensory equipment, located at a depth of 60 feet, a mile off shore.
This equipment is cable connected to a small observation and recording laboratory on Bimini,
which also serves as a receiving station for the underwater sound experiments conducted by the
Division of Ocean Engineering.

The University also operates a tropical marine station on Pigeon Key, in the line of the
lower Florida Keys, midway between the Straits of Florida and the Gulf of Mexico some 100

miles from Miami. Because of its location with respect to the line of the Keys and the
surrounding water bodies, the properties of the water mass around Pigeon Key are sometimes
oceanic and sometimes those of Florida Bay water. The land area has a base of Key Largo
limestone. In addition, Pigeon Key is situated in one of the richest areas of coral growth in the
continental United States. About 5 miles from Pigeon Key, the Florida Barrier Reef lies parallel
to the Gulf Stream, with extensive outcroppings of live coral lying inches below the surface at
low tide and dead patches protruding above. The eroded rock along the shore affords refuge to
most of the intertidal rock-dwelling invertebrates of the West Indian region. The facility is
available for research and teaching to the academic community at large on a reservation basis. A
similar facility is under development in the Everglades National Park.

Figure 11. Corrosion Laboratory (left) and Antenna System in the Radar Meteorological
Laboratory, University of Miami

A facility for atmospheric observations on Barbados, an experimental shrimp nursery at
the Florida Power and Light Company's Turkey Point plant, and a 14.9 acre site on Fisher
Island comprise the remaining off-campus stations. The Fisher Island property was given to the
University in 1968 by the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, and the existing
buildings are presently being renovated as research laboratories for the IMAS.

Two ocean-going vessels are maintained by the School. The R/V John Elliott Pillsbury is
176 feet in length and has steamed more than 175,000 miles on research voyages for the School
since her commissioning in 1963. Pillsbury carries 14 scientists and a crew of 22, and is
completely equipped for scientific exploration of the oceans. In addition, the R/V Gerda has
averaged 200 days at sea for the Rosenstiel School in the past 13 years. She is a 78-foot
wooden-hulled North Sea trawler and carries 8 scientists with a crew of 5. The Rosenstiel
School also operates a 54-foot landing craft (LCM) for installation and maintenance of ocean
engineering underwater systems, as well as a fleet of smaller craft for local collecting trips.

Figure 12. IMAS Research Vessels Pillsbury and Gerda (left); Lowering a Niskin Sampler
from the Pillsbury (right)

The fact that the Dorothy H. and Lewis Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric
Sciences is internationally recognized as a highly competent graduate school and research
institution was influential in the decision of other organizations to locate on Virginia Key. The
International Oceanographic Foundation (IOF) is headquartered at the School's campus, and
adjacent to it are the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries' Tropical Atlantic Biological Laboratory
and the Miami Seaquarium. Virginia Key was also selected as a site for the Environmental
Science Services Administration's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories, the
Miami-Dade Junior College Marine Technology Facility, and the IOF's Ocean Space Center.

In order to provide a focal point for the entire ocean-oriented community of South
Florida, the School will begin construction shortly of a $1.3 million three-story building the
Henry L. and Grace Doherty Marine Science Center on its Virginia Key campus. This
building will house the marine science library, the geological and biological reference
collections, an auditorium and smaller conference rooms, and dining facilities. It will be a
center for communication and idea interchange among local and visiting researchers, as well as
industrial and community leaders interested in marine science activities.

The University of Miami Law Center and the International Oceanographic Foundation
jointly sponsored the First Annual Institute of Ocean Law in Miami in December of 1969.
Entitled "Coastal Zone and Ocean Law: Problems of the User," the meeting dealt with specific
problems of those who use the ocean, such as land use and development at the edge of the sea,
tax aspects of ocean operations, pollution control, accommodation of conflicting uses, federal
organization, and problems and policies of the uses of the coastal region.

Florida State University

Oceanographic and marine science activities at Florida State University center around the
Departments of Oceanography, Chemistry, Biological Science, Geology, and Meteorology, and

the Institute of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. Oceanographic activities began at Florida State
University at the former Oceanographic Institute, which existed from 1949 to 1966 to train
students at the graduate level and to act as an interdisciplinary focal point for marine research.
The interdisciplinary philosophy has been continued to offer the graduate student a maximum
opportunity to learn the intricacies of the marine environment and its import on the earth's
systems. Oceanography and marine sciences are taught at the graduate and undergraduate levels
on an interdisciplinary basis by the departments mentioned above. Degrees in oceanography are
offered by the Department of Oceanography at the MS and PhD levels, with majors in chemical,
biological, geological and physical oceanography. MS and PhD degrees with an emphasis on
marine science are also offered in their major fields by the Departments of Biological Science,
Geology, and Meteorology, and in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. In addition to the full time
faculty of the Department of Oceanography, five Geology Department faculty, nine Geological
Science faculty, three Meteorology faculty, two Chemistry faculty, and one Mathematics
faculty member are engaged wholly or in part in marine science or related teaching and research.
Within the Institute of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics nine of the faculty are active in
interdisciplinary programs related to marine science.

The University is a member of the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies, the Highlands
Biological Station, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, and the Gulf
Universities Research Corporation. Enrollment on the 315 acre campus exceeds 16,000.

The University library contains nearly 1,000,000 volumes, including large research
collections in the physical and biological sciences. A major effort has been made in the past 4
years to increase oceanographic holdings. Laboratory facilities in the natural sciences are
extensive. Major items include a 3 MeV Van de Graaff electron accelerator, a 12 MeV Van de
Graaff heavy ion accelerator, and an isotope separator in the Institute of Nuclear Science;
computers including a CDC 6400 with remote consoles placed around the campus, an IBM
709-1401 system, and an IBM 1440; a complete electron microscope laboratory in the
Department of Biological Sciences; and fluid dynamics model systems in the Institute of
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. Other laboratories and extensive equipment exist in the
departments mentioned above, in the Institute of Molecular Biophysics, in the Hydrodynamics
Laboratory of the Institute of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, and in the electron microscope
laboratory with scanning scope.

The main campus laboratories and the offices of the Department of Oceanography are
located in 10 buildings totaling about 15,000 square feet. In addition, the National Science
Foundation Antarctic Marine Geology Research Facility for the ELTANIN Coring Program is
operated jointly with the Geology Department. It contains about 1100 square feet, half of
which is devoted to a core depository at sea floor temperatures where at present 4000 meters of
cores are stored.

A new oceanography building is being designed for construction during the 1971-1972
period. The building will have complete laboratory and teaching facilities in oceanography
including integration of the portable laboratories mentioned below when they are not being
used at sea. Initially, classroom space will be shared with the Departments of Biological Science
and Physics.

The Department of Oceanography manages a shore facility at the Edward Ball Marine
Laboratory available to all marine activities of the University. This facility at Turkey Point, 46
miles from campus, consists of 77 acres of high, wooded land and a harbor 180 feet by 180 feet
dredged to a minimum depth of 12 feet MLW, from which a channel 70 feet wide and 12 feet
deep leads seaward 3 miles to the natural 12 foot contour.


Figure 13. Florida State University's Edward Ball Marine Laboratory

Present facilities consist of an 8500 square foot air-conditioned laboratory building, service
shops, dormitory space for 16 students, the superintendent's residence, harbor bulkheading, a
180 foot wharf, and a circulating seawater supply system.

Present research vessels owned by the University include a 65 foot T-boat presently
undergoing extensive modification for use as a research vessel; a specially designed 22 foot fiber
glass inshore workboat powered by two gas engines; a 30 foot aluminum boat used for field
class work; and a number of small skiffs.

Four portable laboratories ranging in size from 17 by 8 by 8 feet to 35 by 8 1/2 by 8 feet
have been outfitted for use on leased vessels. Such vessels ranging in size from 85 to 165 feet
can operate out of Turkey Point. The portable laboratories are transported to other harbors for
use on larger vessels.

An Institute of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics was established in 1967 and an
Interdepartmental PhD degree program in this field was initiated in 1968. Presently the Institute
occupies 10,000 square feet in the Physics Building and has 15 members, most of whom are
members of the faculty of the science departments.

The Institute for Geophysical Fluid Dynamics is a center for interdisciplinary research in
dynamic meteorology, theoretical oceanography, geophysics, fluid dynamics, and applied
mathematics. Facilities include a laboratory for hydrodynamics experiments, an electronics
development laboratory, a photographic and illustrations laboratory, a calibrations laboratory, a
machine shop, a precision instrument-makers laboratory, and a library.

Research is being conducted in many phases of oceanography at Florida State University
under the sponsorship of such groups as the National Science Foundation, Federal Water
Pollution Control Administration, the Office of Naval Research, the U. S. Army Research
Office, the State of Florida, National Institute of Health, the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries,
The Sport Fishing Institute, Armour Company, United Fruit Company, and the Environmental
Science Services Administration.

Oceanographic research is being done at FSU in such areas as air-sea interaction and
interface problems; circulation and wave effects in the Gulf of Mexico; sediment transport and
diagenesis; terrain analysis of sea-land boundary zones; marine geomorphology; marine
chemistry; weathering; geochemical transformations by marine bacteria; shellfish biology
(including parasites of oysters, clam culture, and crossing behavior of clams and oysters);
comparative studies of adenosine deaminase in marine organisms; and fatty acids and lipids of
marine organisms.

Figure 14. FSU 16 Meter Instrumented Towers on Barbados (left); Subcloud Instrument
and Telemetry Package (right)

Also effects of electrical stimuli on invertebrate benthic fauna and fishes; primary
productivity of artificial reefs; commensalism of pea crabs in bivalves; Red Tide phenomena;
marine parasites; pollution; neurophysiology of marine organisms; physiology, behavior, and
ecology of high value food fishes; and studies of physical and chemical properties of copper
proteins and enzymes in marine forms.

The energy exchange at the air-water interface is being studied on time and space scales
ranging from planetary to molecular. Such studies have fundamental bearing upon oceanic and
atmospheric circulations; heat and energy budgets of the planet; generation, maintenance, and
dissipation of waves; and energetic of atmospheric disturbances, including hurricanes; as well as
relating to the distribution of living organisms and sediments in the oceans.

Sea surface temperature patterns are measured over a wide area simultaneously and
repeatedly by ship and airborne radiometers, and then related to energy transfer during the
passage of a major atmospheric disturbance.

Figure 15. R V Discoverer with FSU Meteorological System on Bow (left); FSU Students
Assembling the Buoy TRITON

The "zero-energy" environment between St. Marks and New Port Richey has been
carefully studied. Under the onslaught of a hurricane or other severe weather disturbances, this
normally quiet area is dramatically transformed, providing an excellent baseline for the study of
beach erosion and other oceanographic phenomena.

Recent research tracing the water masses and currents of the Gulf is being expanded to
include theoretical and physical models. Ultimately these models will include the complex
interaction between the ocean sediments and the atmosphere over the Gulf, leading not only to
accurate predictions of the state of the sea, atmosphere, and lithosphere, but also to the
possibility of man exercising some control over their behavior.

The sedimentary environments of the coast lines and adjacent waters are being catalogued
to show the transitions of the geological setting as affected by the total oceanographic
environment. Over the past 10 years every major bay and lagoon on the Gulf coast of Florida
has been investigated by marine geologists from Florida State University.

Microbiology and its effect on weathering and corrosion in the marine environment are
being studied. Research is being carried out on the microbial marine weathering of rocks and
sediments, including the formation of glauconite, weathering of silicates and aluminosilicates;
neuston biocenosis in salt and brackish waters and the study of bacteria adapted to neustonic
conditions and to the oxidation of hydrocarbons; experimental ecology and nutritional bioassay
studies of dinoflagellates and diatoms; and distribution of ultradiatoms in the ocean. Petroleum
oxidation and life of microorganisms in hydrocarbons is being studied.

Successful hybridization of the northern and southern species of clams has been achieved
to maintain the fast growth rate of the southern species while retaining the resistance of the
northern variety to spoilage. Experiments with the crossing of several species of oysters may
result in faster growing oysters which are also disease resistant. Similar results obtained with the
blue crab could lead to the establishment of a soft crab industry.

The physiology, behavior, and ecology of other high value food fishes are also being

Figure 16. FSU 112 Foot Buoy TRITON in an Experiment off the Island of Barbados

The general areas under study in the chemical oceanography and marine geochemistry
programs include mineral-water and organic-inorganic interactions in estuarine environments,
inorganic phosphate equilibria in the deep sea, biogeochemical cycles of several trace elements,
chemistry of the marine atmosphere, and development of specific-ion electrode techniques for
studies in marine chemistry. A program of studies concerned with problems resulting from
environmental modification and pollution and the development of forecast models to prevent
pollution has been established.

The Department of Oceanography has recently developed 3 notable oceanic vehicles. The
first is a 112 foot stable deep ocean buoy capable of serving as a platform for detailed air-sea
interface measurements of water vapor, heat, and momentum flux as well as 3 dimensional wave
spectra. The second is a 6 man submersible with diesel power for surface travel and electric
power for submerged operation. The third is a one man, battery powered submersible. The two
submersibles, being built under ESSA funding, will be used by the University in its research

Nova University
Fort Lauderdale

Nova University is located in an unusual educational complex, the South Florida Educa-
tion Center, a 550 acre development southwest of Fort Lauderdale where learning from kinder-
garten through graduate school will be offered in a combination of public and private institu-
tions. Nova Elementary School, Nova High School and the Junior College of Broward County
are all public; Nova University is privately endowed. The greatest emphasis of the university will
continue to be placed on graduate programs. At peak enrollment it will have only 1500
students, of which at least 1000 will be at the graduate level.

Nova University is not organized into colleges and schools in the traditional manner. Each
group of closely related subject-matter areas constitutes a Center, where the research professors,
their colleagues, and students have the advantage of overlapping interests and close association.

Presently under development are the Physical Sciences Center and an Educational Center
for advanced research in scientific education at all levels. As funds and competent faculty
become available, centers will be established in the earth and life sciences; management sciences;
applied science and engineering; behavioral and social sciences; and arts and humanities.

Development of the Physical Sciences Center is well advanced, with key faculty and
administrative positions filled and a $2.5 million building completed. Areas of emphasis initially
include chemistry, mathematics, and physical oceanography.

Present research programs in the Oceanographic Laboratory include studies in experi-
mental and theoretical geophysical fluid dynamics, with emphasis on the flow mechanisms of

major current systems and general problems in oceanic circulation, and studies in the character-
istics of environmental photosynthesis occurring in the Straits of Florida.

In the latter, specific emphasis is being placed on the rates of carbon fixation at different
light intensities and the spectral qualities of submarine illumination; also, the nature of photo-
synthetic pigments and their decomposition products is part of the long-term objectives of this

Four research contracts presently are in force: with the Office of Naval Research for
studies in physical oceanography; with the National Science Foundation for studies of the
fluctuation of the transport of the Florida Current and tidal motions on the Continental Shelf;
with the National Science Foundation and the Atomic Energy Commission for studies of
environmental photosynthesis in the Straits of Florida; and with the National Institute of
Health for virology and germ free life studies.

During 1967, the department completed a 6 month study on design criteria for the labora-
tories of future "sea colleges," funded by the Educational Facilities Laboratories of New York.
The concepts developed in this study, which was highlighted by a meeting of leading ocean-
ographic educators and researchers, will be utilized in the design of the University's permanent
Oceanographic Center to be built at Port Everglades.

Presently the department is housed in a 3600 square foot houseboat and 6 large house
trailers, containing laboratories, libraries, machine shops, offices, and radio navigation facilities.
It is anticipated that in the near future, activities will be moved into the proposed facility at
Port Everglades, which will provide additional space for the expanding staff as well as better
access to the sea. From this location, research vessels can be working in the Gulf Stream 20
minutes after leaving the dock.

Figure 17. Nova University Floating Oceanographic Laboratory (left) and Laboratory Aboard
Houseboat (right)

Off-shore work is carried out in the R/V Gulf Stream, a 56 foot Equity high-speed boat,
and the 63 foot R/V Bellows, specially constructed for oceanographic research.

The free-drop system of instrumentation, which has been very successful in physical ocean-
ography, is being adapted to some of the biological work and is producing good results.

Ten students now are at work on their doctoral degrees in the Oceanographic Laboratory
at Nova University; five of these are in physical oceanography, three in marine biology, and two
in chemical oceanography.

Figure 18. Nova R V Gulf Stream (left); Nova Researchers Lowering Dropsounde with
Oceanographic Measuring Instruments (right)

University of Florida

The University of Florida has an enrollment of over 19,000 on the 1800 acre main campus
in Gainesville. Among 151 American universities, only 19 top the University of Florida's volume
of research, presently $25 million and growing rapidly. The University libraries are among the
30 in the nation which contain more than 1,000,000 volumes, and include extensive holdings in
marine sciences and engineering. The University computer center includes IBM 709 and 1401
units, and an IBM 360 with time sharing terminals located strategically throughout the campus.

The University offers a broad spectrum of courses in the arts and sciences. Six areas of
education are strongly emphasized: the pure sciences of physics, chemistry, and life sciences
(zoology, botany, and bacteriology); and the applied sciences of engineering, agriculture, and

Graduate degrees are offered in 80 fields with 165 PhD degrees granted from August 1968
through June 1969. The University is one of two state universities in Florida offering PhD
degrees in engineering. An MS degree in coastal and oceanographic engineering is offered. MS
and PhD degrees are also offered in zoology, bacteriology, botany, and geology with a major
emphasis on marine science.

The College of Engineering, with educational and research programs in 13 disciplines, has
as its research arm the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station, supported chiefly
through contracts and grants from federal, state and industrial sources. Last year's expenditures
approached $3 million. The main purpose of the Station, aside from its educational contribu-
tion to the graduate programs, is to work toward the preservation and use of the state's natural
resources. In 1955, spurred by its concern over Florida's growing beach problems, the Station
established a Coastal Engineering Laboratory, which has since become the Department of
Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering.

This department emphasizes three main areas of education. The first is basic in nature,
covering fluid mechanics, hydraulics, wave mechanics, and sediment transport science. The
second area emphasizes the applied engineering sciences of coastal hydraulics, littoral drift, drift
science and technology, and coastal morphology. The third area stresses oceanographic engineer-
ing in such areas as physical oceanography, waves, tides, hydrographic surveying, and material

Since formation of the Coastal Engineering Laboratory, 40 major investigations of Florida
locations have been made where erosion and other problems exist. Over 1200 reports on
erosion, coastal protection, navigation, bay fill, and other bay problems have been submitted to
the Internal Improvement Fund, the Florida Department of Natural Resources, the Florida
State Road Department, and the Florida State Park Service. Seven other major studies have
been made on locations outside the state, including Hatteras; Chesapeake Bay; New York Bay;
Aruba, Dutch West Indies; Iceland; Macquarrie Harbour, Tasmania; Puerto Rico; and Deadman's
Cay and Sandy Cay, Bahamas.

Other important fields of research deal with sediment transport by waves and currents,
sand transport by wind, air-sea interaction, the tracing of littoral drift using fluorescent traces,
problems of beach protection, and other coastal protective measures.

The Department has performed research for many Federal Agencies, such as National
Science Foundation; Department of Interior, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration;
and Office of Naval Research, Coastal Engineering Research Center and Water Resources Re-
search Center.

Figure 19. Aerial View of Jupiter Inlet

Figure 20. Model of Jupiter Inlet

Present facilities of the Coastal Engineering Laboratory are unequalled in the United States
in the field of coastal engineering. They include a wind and wave facility, model slabs, 50-foot
wave generator, smaller wave generators, wind tunnels, automatic tide level generator, and
various special instruments.

The wind-wave facility consists of a 150 foot long channel with a wave generator and a
blower. The channel is 6 feet wide and 6 feet high. A partition wall is placed along channel

centerline to provide two 3 foot by 6 foot bays in which identical mechanically generated waves
can propagate. Wind is allowed to blow in one bay only. The facility offers a unique capability
for simultaneous measurements of waves with and without wind influence. The glass walls of
the channel allow for photographic documentation of waves and currents. Wind velocities up to
60 ft/s can be produced. The wave generator is controlled electronically by two servo-hydraulic
pistons. Simple and random waves can be generated by programmed electronic signals. Waves
can be generated with frequencies in the range 0.2 to 2.0 c/s and wave heights in the range 0 to
20 inches. Additional capabilities of the facility include water currents up to 1.0 knot in two
directions. The facility is ideally suitable for studies on air-sea interaction, wind and wave forces
on structures, wave runup on sloping beaches, and littoral drift due to waves and currents.

The facility is also suitable for applied research on coastal and offshore structures such as
seawalls, jetties, and breakwaters. The facility is being used presently for fundamental research
on air-sea interaction.

Figure 21. University of Florida Wind and Wave Facility (left) and Blower (right)

Because the use of scale models plays such an important role in the solution of complex
coastal engineering problems, the Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Department makes
extensive use of them in its laboratory studies. The model slab measures approximately
165 x 125 feet. Scale models of inlets, harbors, and other natural and man-made structures are
constructed on this base. A large snake-type wave generator is provided. It has 60 individual
paddle sections with a total length of 50 feet. Wave heights up to 8 inches and wave periods of
from 0.4 to 2.2 seconds can be generated.

The model slab and wave tank are enclosed by a 170 x 200 foot, open span, steel build-
ing. The necessary supporting shops are housed in a new 50 by 100 foot concrete block

Other facilities include a sand tracer laboratory and a 40 by 104 foot office building. The
Coastal Engineering Laboratory also maintains a considerable store of field equipment for its
survey activities. This includes a survey boat, trailer, survey truck for beach work, tide and wave
recorders, echo depth recorders, shortwave radios, diving gear, underwater movie and still
cameras, and fluorescent tracing equipment. The Coastal Engineering Laboratory is equipped
with modern electronic equipment for measuring air and water turbulence. A power spectrum
analyzer is available for analysis of random and harmonic signals related to the ocean surface
and ocean environment.

The total facilities now possessed by the Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Depart-
ment exceed $1 million in value, and are not duplicated in any educational institution in the
United States. This laboratory provides the hub around which the extension into oceanographic
engineering will occur.

Three other departments in the College of Engineering are very closely and directly con-
nected with the activities of the Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Department. The
Environmental Engineering Department conducts research on water resources and estuarine
pollution, involving studies in such fields as geomorphology, hydrology, sanitary chemistry and
biology, tidal hydraulics, diffusion phenomena, and the application of modern economic
analysis to determine the best means among various alternatives for assuring the most beneficial
uses of our coastal and nearshore water resources.

The Environmental Engineering Department conducts estuarine and near-shore water re-
search involving studies in organic and thermal pollution and primary production and decompo-
sition. Fields of study include hydrology, hydrography, water chemistry, aquatic biology, and
mathematical modeling of physical and biological processes. Other studies associated with
hydrological influences on the chemistry and biology of marine areas include the determination
of methods of predicting the intensity of solar and atmospheric radiation as a function of
weather station data. Such predictive methods are valuable in determining the radiation compo-
nents of the heat budget of streams and estuaries when direct measurements are unavailable.

The Civil Engineering Department directly supports coastal and oceanographic engineering
through its research and educational programs in rational hydraulics, soils, foundations, and
structures. The most direct connection between the two departments is through the Civil

Engineering program of research in rational hydraulics, which has evolved from the general
fields of fluid mechanics and classic hydrodynamics, and which is geared to a basic knowledge
of the physical behavior of flowing water and its influence on sediments. Additional research
activities are planned in the areas of ground water hydraulics, river hydraulics, sediment trans-
port, hydraulic structures, hydraulic model techniques, and hydrology and hydrometeorology.

The third department most closely connected with coastal engineering is the Engineering
Science and Mechanics Department, which conducts fundamental studies in fluid mechanics,
incompressible flow, sediment transport, and the mechanics of granular media. Incompressible
flow studies are focused on wave effects the formation and travel of surface and subsurface
waves, wave effects upon structures, and the effects of shock upon liquids. Studies are being
conducted on how the steady or unsteady flow of water can pick up particles at the bottom of
an ocean or lake.

Areas of related interested in the other engineering departments include:

1 Aerospace Engineering Fluid mechanics; design of hydrospace vehicles, including
propulsion and stabilization systems; meteorological processes as they relate to heat
transfer and fluid mechanics;

2 Agricultural Engineering Processes and equipment required for fish farming and
other forms of mariculture;

3 Chemical Engineering Desalinization, processing, and treatment of industrial wastes
and associated water pollution; chemical extraction from seawater; sedimentation

4 Electrical Engineering Undersea communication, weather research, detection and
navigational aids, and other oceanographic instrumentation;

5 Mechanical Engineering Design of equipment for use in the ocean environment,
particularly mining machinery; design of controlled environments for men and

6 Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Mineral recovery from the sea, including
design of extractive processes and determination of deposits;

7 Nuclear Engineering Radioactive waste disposal and its relation to currents, tides,
and ocean transport processes; application of tracer techniques in the study of cur-
rents and tides.

Through its off-campus Graduate Engineering Education Systems (GENESYS) the College
of Engineering operates a closed circuit TV instruction program with operating facilities at
Orlando, Cape Kennedy, Daytona Beach, and Gainesville. Courses in physical oceanography

leading to a Master's degree in coastal and oceanographic engineering will be offered over the
GENESYS system.

The Geology Department is conducting studies of the processes involved in the buildup of
beaches and the geological history of Florida beaches and ancient beach remnants.

The University's Division of Biological Sciences operates a Marine Biology Laboratory at
Seahorse Key, an island in the Gulf of Mexico 2 miles off Cedar Key, Florida. This teaching and
research facility, established in 1952, consists of a 10-room lighthouse which serves as living
quarters for the custodian and visiting staff and a 20 by 40 foot laboratory supplied with fresh
and salt water. The laboratory uses a 32 foot, twin engine research vessel equipped with echo
depth recorder, ship-to-shore radio, current meters, dredges, trawls, and other sampling gear.

The University of Florida recently purchased 41 acres on the mainland near Cedar Key for
construction of a $350,000 laboratory which will be oriented toward tropical marine biology.
New staff members with backgrounds in zoology and bacteriology are being added; and as
additional life science units are constructed at Gainesville, facilities will be included to permit
maintenance of a salt water environment to support biological studies.

The Marine Biology Laboratory is devoted principally to the study of the ecology of the
waters on the Continental Shelf. Currently, research on mullusca, ecology of fishes, chemical,
and sensory perception in fishes, and experimental work on fertilization of echinoderms are
being conducted. In addition, marine animals and other materials from the sea are being used by
investigators in the Departments of Biochemistry, Anatomy, Pathology, Microbiology, Geology,
Physiology, Pharmacology, and Bacteriology. Personnel from these departments therefore work
very closely with the staff of the Marine Biology Laboratory.

Cooperative studies have also been undertaken by faculty members with researchers from
such organizations as the Florida Department of Natural Resources, Duke University Marine
Laboratory, the University of Miami's Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Mote
Marine Laboratory, the Ocean Springs Marine Laboratory, Scripps Institute of Oceanography,
the U.S. Navy, Marineland of Florida, and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. In addi-
tion, faculty members have utilized the research facilities of the Lerner Marine Laboratory
(Bimini, Bahamas), Mt. Desert Island Biological Laboratory (Maine), and Marineland of Florida.

Although grants for much of this research are classed within the particular discipline
involved, such as bacteriology or pathology, the University of Florida has over $500,000 in
grants at present which are of an interdisciplinary character closely associated with the marine

The University's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is made up of 19 departments
plus a School of Forestry, and many of these departments are working in fields closely related
to the marine sciences.

Figure 22. Right, University of Florida Graduate Students Trawling for Marine
Specimens; Left, Peninsula of Land in Foreground and Adjacent Oyster Bars is Site Selected
for UF Marine Laboratory

The Agronomy Department is conducting studies on the metabolism of plants growing in
the swamp lands of the estuarine environment and is particularly interested in the nutrient
requirements necessary to produce plant food for fish and other marine animals which may in
turn provide a food resource for human use. The Department of Animal Science also has a
major interest in the nutrient requirements for producing fish in salt water and fresh water
ponds. In addition, it has carried on extensive studies along with the Poultry Department on the
use of products produced from the marine environment as protein supplements for animal and
poultry feeds.

Faculty members and graduate students have been studying the ecology, physiology, and
characterization of marine and estuarine bacteria for over 15 years. The salt desiderata in both
metabolism and membrane-envelope structure are being investigated. Unusual salt effects in the
metabolic control of enzyme pathways have been found. Anaerobic microorganisms, as well as
heterotrophic aerobic bacteria, are being characterized in the marine and littoral zones, where
little is known of the microbial ecology.

The Botany Department has studied the growth of marine plants and the use of algae as a
resource. The role of algae in the absorption of radiant energy from the sun and the effect this
has on the evaporation of water from marine ponds is also being investigated.

A project on Long Island, Bahamas, is concerned with exploring methods to increase solar
absorption by the brine of salt producing ponds, and to encourage the formation of an algal
bottom mat in these ponds, to prevent leakage of brine and infiltration of sea water. These
objectives have been accomplished by careful study of the living organisms within the ponds and
then by the addition of fertilizers and vitamins during certain parts of the growing season.

The Department of Entomology and Nematology is studying the nematodes which occur
in the marine environment and the place they have in the food chain of marine animals. The
great abundance of these small animals suggests that they may be a major food resource for
small marine animals and fishes.

The Department of Food Science is interested in all aspects of food preservation. Marine
products present many peculiar problems with respect to sanitation and preservation, both
because of the great variety of such products and because of their composition and properties.
The Food Science Department has a program under way with respect to the processing and
preservation of some marine products.

The Departments of Soils and Agronomy have major interests in fertilization programs
which may be necessary for the maximum productivity of salt water ponds used in aquaculture.
The Soils Department has been studying the composting of human and animal waste as a source
of nutrients for soil and water production.

The transmission of bacterial and parasitic marine animal diseases to humans and to
domestic animals is being studied by the Department of Veterinary Science.

The Departments of Agricultural Economics and Food Science have jointly been working
with some of the cooperatives of southern Florida on systems and management analyses of
commercial seafood cooperatives in an effort to gain a better understanding of where improve-
ment in management may take place and where efficiencies in operation are most needed.

The School of Forestry is interested in the management of ponds, lakes, rivers and estu-
aries for the production of fishes, other marine animals, and game and nongame wild animals
and birds for commercial, recreational, and aesthetic purposes. The School currently has exten-
sive subjective matter responsibilities in these fields and hopes to add a research and teaching
faculty member in fisheries biology and management to its wildlife ecology staff in the near

The Center for Tropical Agriculture is becoming increasingly concerned with agriculture in
both the fresh water and estuarine environments. More intensive utilization of aquatic resources
must complement the development of conventional agriculture if adequate protein is to be
produced for a growing human population.

Extremely efficient feed conversion and high productivity are technically feasible using
agricultural crops and byproducts for feeding fish and, conversely, by using fish wastes as
constituents in animal feeds and fertilizer. A concerted effort is needed to develop commercial
production systems adapted to local conditions in tropical countries. The Center is currently
providing fisheries technology in Guiana and Vietnam under agricultural assistance programs
through the Agency for International Development.

The Center has a 5000 acre tract and field facility fronting on Lake Izabal in the humid
lowlands of Guatemala. Analysis of the past ecology of the region has involved studies in
palynology and bioarcheology to determine early man's use of the terrestrial and aquatic envi-
ronment. The Center has been engaged in two environmental studies in which data from agricul-
tural and aquatic research were closely integrated. One was a bioenvironmental study of possible
sea level canal routes in Panama and Colombia, and the other a resource inventory of the Malaga
bay region on the Pacific Coast of Colombia.

Students at the University of Florida may receive graduate training in tropical marine
sciences through the Organization for Tropical Studies. The 1969 course deals with marine
environments of the Pacific Coast of Central America.

The information developed in these programs is distributed by the University's Agricultural
Extension Service.

The biomedical research conducted at the J. Hillis Miller Health Center also encompasses a
great deal of marine biology. Studies involving the nervous system and especially nerve regenera-
tion in fish are under way in the Department of Anatomical Sciences. The Pharmacology
Department is studying the distribution and excretion of drugs of divergent physiochemical
properties with particular attention to the excretion across the gill. Other studies concern the
secretion of special body fluids in fish, especially the chemistry of formation of cerebrospinal
fluid. In the Department of Microbiology, several investigators are interested in the molecular
structure and function of antibodies produced by sharks, fish, and other lower vertebrates,
while members of the Pathology Department are interested in the excretion and differentiation
of the cells of these lower vertebrates which produce these antibodies. There are also bio-
chemists interested in comparative aspects of marine biochemistry. Thus, interest in Marine
Biology is found in almost all the basic science departments of the College of Medicine.

Communication Sciences is a newly developing discipline whose central purpose is the
unified study of human communication. Included among the Communication Sciences Labora-
tory divisions at the University of Florida are Experimental Phonetics, Psychoacoustics, Audi-
tory Physiology, Psycholinguistics, Experimental Linguistics and Communication Factors Engi-
neering. One of the major efforts among the research (and scientific training) activities at the
laboratory focuses on diver communication. The critical need for effective underwater voice
communication is universally accepted, but until recently no comprehensive research program
directed toward solution of this problem has been instigated. However, in 1965 such a program
was initiated at CSL with the philosophy that, in order to answer fundamental questions about
diver communication, it is mandatory to acquire basic and practical knowledge about factors
that limit or allow man to converse underwater and about the systems that are designed to aid
him in this endeavor. The program being carried out at the University of Florida is supported by
the Office of Naval Research, the Navy's Deep Submergence Systems Program, and the National
Institutes of Health. These projects focus on a number of investigational areas.

The first relates to the study of man's ability to produce intelligible speech under the
constraints he encounters as a diver; the second is the study of man's auditory reception (acuity,
localization, etc.) under water. A third area concerns underwater speech propagation and the
various effects of bottom-surface (and thermocline) wave guide channels, distance, filtering,
masking, and other distorting underwater characteristics on speech intelligibility. The fourth
and somewhat applied investigational area focuses on the analysis and appraisal of various types

of underwater communicators and habitat communication systems. In the habitat, of course,
the emphasis is on the evaluation of electronic systems that reduce speech distortion resulting
from exotic gas breathing mixtures such as HeO2 (usually experienced in these diving condi-
tions). Another part of this fourth area is the analysis and appraisal of divers' voice communica-
tion systems. To date over 45 individual experiments have been carried out. Moreover, a number
of special methodologies and devices have been developed that allow the precision in under-
water research that one would ordinarily expect only in the laboratory.

Figure 23. UF Communication Sciences Students Setting Up and Positioning Equipment
for Experiments in Underwater Speech Communication

Figure 24. Experiments in Transmission and Reception of Underwater Sound Localization Stimuli



Other than at the laboratory itself, the major site of these projects is the field facility
(Bugg Springs at Leesburg, Florida) of the Naval Research Laboratory's Underwater Sound
Reference Division, Orlando, Florida. Other Navy laboratories that have provided facilities for a
number of the major investigations are the Naval Ships Research and Development Laboratory,
Panama City, Florida, and the Experimental Diving Unit at the Washington Navy Yard. Cooper-
ation also has been extended by the Navy Post-Graduate School, Monterey, California; by
Marineland, St. Augstine, Florida; and by Rainbow Springs, Dunnellon, Florida; a number of
studies have been carried out at each of these sites. Finally, experiments currently are being
conducted on the underwater communication systems, networks, and instrumentation being
utilized in the Sealab III experiments at San Clemente Island, California. In summary, CSL's
comprehensive research (and research training) program on diver communication problems is
both active and extensive; it is the only one of its kind in the United States.

University of South Florida

Enrollment on the 1734 acre campus of the University of South Florida, 8 miles northeast
of downtown Tampa, was nearly 15,600 in the fall of 1969, of whom about 1500 were graduate
students. Total enrollment is expected to reach 33,000 by 1980. The physical plant consist of
45 buildings valued at $50 million. There are separate buildings for chemistry, physics
(including astronomy, mathematics, and the planetarium), life sciences, and engineering. A
graduate research building costing $2.5 million was completed in the spring of 1968. The
university faculty now numbers over 600, of whom more than 55 percent hold the PhD degree.

The sciences have been emphasized at the University of South Florida with the
development of strong graduate programs in engineering, botany, zoology, geology, chemistry,
and physics. Master's degrees are offered in all science fields, including marine science. A PhD
program in biology, with an emphasis in marine biology, was inaugurated in October 1967
through the departments of botany and zoology. A medical school is in the planning and
development stage and will begin operation in 1971.

The Center for Continuing Education of the University of South Florida is offering a series
of conferences on the long range effects of bay dredge and fill. The first conference concerned
the ecology of bay dredge and fill, and the second covered the legal and economic aspects.
Tentative plans are being made for future conferences in this series, which is particularly
intended for public officials and professionals with an interest in the area of discussion.

The Marine Science Institute of the University of South Florida was organized in
September 1967, at the University's St. Petersburg Campus. The St. Petersburg Campus is an 11
acre peninsula of land extending into Bayboro Harbor, a small deep-water protected bay with a

ship channel into Tampa Bay. Originally constructed in 1940 by the federal government as a
Merchant Marine training center, the St. Petersburg Campus includes 15 buildings with about
200,860 square feet of floor space.






Figure 25. Left, Location of University of South Florida, Including St. Petersburg Campus;
Right, Aerial View of St. Petersburg Campus

The main building, in which most of the facilities of the Institute are presently located, is
two stories high, of reinforced poured concrete construction, and provides a floor space of
81,710 square feet. Renovation of a portion of the second floor of this building has provided
the Institute with five additional teaching laboratories for marine chemistry, marine geology,
physical oceanography, and marine ecology, plus six large research laboratories and other
facilities. On the first floor are a 400 seat auditorium, conference rooms, classrooms, and

The ideal location of this excellent and extensive physical plant not only provides for the
marine research and teaching program of the Institute, but also offers a fine seaside facility for
conferences and seminars, visiting investigators, and student groups. Downtown St. Petersburg is
within walking distance. Albert Whitted Airport is just across the street.

Portions of the St. Petersburg Campus have been made available to the Florida Institute of
Oceanography of the state university system (offices and conference rooms), and to the Florida
State Department of Natural Resources Marine Laboratory (three buildings).

Cooperative research projects are carried on between the Marine Science Institute and the
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Laboratory at St. Petersburg

The institute is under the jurisdiction of the Research and Development Center of the
University in the office of the Vice President of Academic Affairs. Within the Institute, in the

Department of Marine Science, are five faculty members who hold research appointments and
have their headquarters at the St. Petersburg Campus. Fifteen faculty members of the Institute
are Associate Scientists whose primary affiliation is with some other department of the
University but who hold adjunct appointments in the Institute and who are engaged in marine
research on a part time basis at the St. Petersburg Campus. Most Associate Scientists are also
involved in the teaching of marine science courses, either at the St. Petersburg Campus or at the
Tampa campus. All faculty members of the Institute hold the PhD degree. The Associate
Scientists represent the departments of botany, chemistry, geology, physics, and zoology, and
College of Engineering.

A wide variety of sponsored and unsponsored research is currently in progress in all major
areas of oceanography.

Eleven courses were offered during the two summer sessions of 1969 and additional
courses are planned for subsequent years. The offerings will probably include the following:
marine botany, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, marine geology, marine
invertebrate physiology, ichthyology, invertebrate zoology, physiology of fishes, plankton,
marine algae ecology, marine microbiology. With the graduate program at the St. Petersburg
Campus now under way, these courses are also offered during the regular school year.

Among the long range plans of the Marine Science Institute and the Florida Institute of
Oceanography, in cooperation with other state universities and state agencies, is the acquisition
and operation of a major oceanographic vessel to be based at the St. Petersburg Campus.
Facilities for docking and servicing oceanographic vessels at St. Petersburg Campus are excellent.
An 18 foot deep channel leads into Bayboro Harbor from the main ship channel of Tampa Bay.
The Harbor is exceptionally well protected and is 16 to 20 feet deep.

Along one side and across the end of the St. Petersburg Campus peninsula is a 3 foot thick
concrete sea wall, flanked by a wide paved road. The water is deep along the entire 1400 feet of
this dock area. Along the water side of the sea wall are 21 dolphins consisting of five pilings
each, spaced about 50 feet apart. An equal number of heavy duty mooring posts are located just
inside the wall. These dockside facilities, all within 100 feet of the main building, will permit
the mooring of at least five 200 foot vessels in an end-to-end position. There are a number of
110 and 220 volt electrical outlets at dockside so that ships can be connected and their
generators shut off if desired. Many city water outlets permit easy filling of fresh water tanks.
At night the entire length of the dock is lighted by 14 mercury vapor street lights about 75 feet
apart. A telephone cable extends the length of the dock, and vessels are easily connected.

Oceanographic vessels working in the Gulf of Mexico are invited to use these ship facilities
at any time. There is no docking charge.

Around the margin of Bayboro Harbor, within a few hundred yards of the docks, are a
variety of ship maintenance and construction firms including marine hardware, machine shops,
an electric motor shop,a forge, marine ways, a shipbuilding facility, and others.

Just across the street from the north end of the docks, Albert Whitted Airport provides
runways of 2800 and 3300 feet and an air traffic control tower operated by the Federal
Aviation Agency for 16 hours each day. Plans have been made to extend one of these runways.
The U.S. Coast Guard maintains an air station for helicopters in connection with the Whitted
Airport. About 200 yards across from the end of the Campus is the U.S. Coast Guard
aids-to-navigation station located at the south side of the entrance to Bayboro Harbor. Coast
Guard cutters and buoy tenders are docked there.

Along the opposite side of the Campus from the oceanographic vessel facilities described
above are wooden wharves and docks suitable for smaller vessels. The Hernan Cortez is berthed
on this side, as well as ships used by the 231st Transportation Company in a reserve training

Florida Institute of Technology

Current enrollment on the 100 acre campus at Florida Institute of Technology is 2200,
including 600 graduate students, 800 full time undergraduate students, 650 part time
undergraduate students, and 150 students in a special program benefiting local industry. Over
80 percent of the full time faculty hold PhD degrees, and the adjunct faculty includes 28 PhD, 2
MD, and 80 Masters Degrees. Few Institutions have a faculty with as many years of practical

A rapid expansion program is under way to meet the current needs of the area and the
growing number of students being attracted from all parts of the country. Nine buildings were
completed recently and a new science building is scheduled for early completion to house the
University's 10,000 curie cobalt facility, a 5 million volt linear accelerator, and a subcritical
nuclear reactor, as well as classrooms, labs, and faculty offices.

For several years, under a grant from the National Science Foundation, Florida Institute of
Technology has carried out a Cooperative School Science Program with Melbourne High, one of
the factors that has led to that school's reputation as one of the finest science-oriented high
schools in the United States. Five other local high schools have recently been added to the

Currently offered at the University are BS degrees in space technology, electrical
engineering, mathematics, physics, physical oceanography, and computer science. Masters
degrees are awarded in all the above fields except computer science, and in operations research.

The Masters program in physical oceanography was begun in the spring of 1966 and
graduated its first students in 1968. Enrollment in the graduate program in January of 1969 was

30. The degree of interest in oceanography in the Melbourne-Canaveral area is reflected in the
fact that these degree candidates represent 20 companies and government agencies in the area.
The University offers more than 20 courses in oceanography, in addition to the required
engineering and mathematics courses.

Areas of interest represented in student and faculty research include oceanographic
telemetry, data analysis, sound wave filtering, long range sound propagation, doppler sonar,
light transmission, physical properties of sediments, instrument design, and the measuring of
such physical properties as current, water temperatures, and salinity in the waters off
east-central Florida.

Figure 26. Aerial Photographs Taken at Cape Canaveral as Part of Sand Drift Study; Entrance
to Port Canaveral from A tlantic Ocean is Visible in Each View

The BS program in physical oceanography was instituted in the fall of 1967. There are 176
students enrolled in this program. In addition to a basic program in physics, undergraduate
students will take such courses as introduction to oceanography, instruments and
measurements, physical oceanography, marine meteorology, ocean waves, and hydroacoustics.
Considerable field work will be included and each student must write an undergraduate thesis.
In addition to the programs conducted on campus, FIT also conducts an annual underwater
photography course.

A laboratory for the program in physical oceanography will be included in the new science
building, as well as a soil mechanics lab to study sound transmission in sediments, an instrument
development lab, and a wet analysis chemistry lab. Currently in operation is an 18 foot
Fleetwing, FLIT, which is used in coastal surveys.

Within physical oceanography, the University plans to stress oceanographic
instrumentation because of its strength in this field and its proximity to the Cape. Close ties
already exist with the physics and electrical engineering departments of FIT. Active cooperation
with industry is being fostered, with emphasis on training physical oceanographers for industry.

A faculty member of the Oceanography Department is also presently coordinating a pollution
study of the Indian River by students of five high schools in Brevard County. This study, being
done by the University Center for Pollution Research, is in its fourth year and is funded by a
Federal grant.

Affiliated with Florida Institute of Technology is the Hydrospace Technical Institute,
which offers courses of instruction in oceanographic technology leading to an Associate of
Science Degree in Oceanographic Technology. The prime goal of the Institute is to prepare
young men and women as professional oceanographic technicians. Offering a full and complete
curriculum of technical instruction in all branches of scientific technology related to the field of
oceanography, the program is the most comprehensive course in hydrospace technology offered
in the country. Although operated separately from Florida Institute of Technology, the
Hydrospace Technical Institute is affiliated in that the full resources such as faculty, equipment,
and facilities of Florida Institute of Technology are utilized in the oceanographic technicians'
training. The Institute presently has a 32 foot river research vessel and a 50 foot ocean going
research vessel used for technician training and available for lease for oceanographic research
work. Addition of a 75 to 100 foot vessel is anticipated in the near future.

Florida Atlantic University
Boca Raton

Florida Atlantic University, the first "upper division" university in the country, has pro-
vided significant programs in marine biology since opening, and in 1965 established the
country's first undergraduate program in ocean engineering. Current enrollment is near 4200,
and a student body of 10,000 is anticipated by the early 1970's.

The University is located on a 1200 acre site in Boca Raton, with a total physical plant
valuation of $24 million. Buildings include a five-story library and two science laboratory

The organizational structure of the university is designed to make it possible for a student
to cross departmental lines in planning a program to best serve his special talents and interests.

Figure 27. Florida Atlantic University Campus

The College of Science, made up of Departments of Biological Sciences, Chemistry, Mathe-
matics, and Physics, incorporates two additional features aimed at individual development:
1) provision for early independent research at the undergraduate level, and 2) the option of
coalescing the junior and senior years with the first year of advanced study, leading to an
accelerated Master's degree.

The marine environment is being emphasized throughout the College of Science. The
faculty of the College includes several well qualified in various marine sciences. Consideration is
being given to early establishment of a Department of Marine Agronomy. Many courses in the
Department of Biological Sciences deal entirely or in part with the marine environment, and BS
and MS degrees in biology are offered with an emphasis in marine biology. In addition, Directed
Independent Study courses dealing with marine biology have been in heavy demand. Under this
program, the student undertakes a series of readings and research projects on a specific subject,
with frequent discussion sessions between the student and his supervising faculty member to
give direction to his work and to evaluate his progress.

Fields of specialization in marine biology represented by faculty of the Department of
Biological Sciences include marine invertebrate zoology, algology, marine mycology, marine
bacteriology, ichthyology, advanced general and cellular physiology, physiological animal
ecology, and viruses of marine organisms.

Current research includes investigations into nutrition and physiology of microscopic
marine organisms, examination of extracts of marine organisms for their biological effects,
investigation of the systematics and larval development of caridean shrimps, larval development
of gastropods and mollusks, cytology and ultrastructure of selected marine organisms and
marine viruses, effects of environmental contamination in inshore marine waters, studies on the
growth and development of macroscopic marine algae, and investigations of aerobic bacteria of
Atlantic surface waters.

Sponsored research includes a contract from the Office of Naval Research on the study of
aspected carbon metabolism in filamentous marine fungi, a contract from Marinus Laboratories
on the culture of significant aquatic invertebrates, and a grant from the National Science
Foundation on the phylogenetic significance of sound-producing mechanisms in ophidioid and
related fishes.

The five-story Biological Sciences Building, completed in 1967, provides 60,000 square
feet of teaching and research space. In addition, the Tropical Atlantic Biological Laboratory of
the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries in Miami has made available use of its facilities, including
participation in cruises conducted by their oceangoing vessel UNDAUNTED, which explores
large areas of the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Members of the staff of Tropical Atlantic Biological
Laboratories are appointed as Affiliate Faculty in the Department of Biological Sciences.

A 22 acre site for the construction of a small marine facility has been secured on Pine
Island Sound through cooperation of the Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation on Sanibel
Island, west of Fort Myers, on the Gulf coast. Graduate student research is presently under way
at this site.

The Ocean Engineering Department started the first undergraduate curriculum in that
discipline in September 1965 with 33 junior students. The enrollment in September 1969 had
increased to 180. Sixty-one students have graduated and received their BS degrees in the
program. These graduates are pursuing Master's degree programs at MIT, University of Rhode
Island, University of Hawaii, and the University of Washington; are in government laboratories,
ESSA, or military service; or are in ocean engineering industry at salaries averaging well above
the national average for engineers with baccalaureate degrees.

Since it is an upper division state university, students come to Florida Atlantic University
after 2 years in a junior college or the lower divisions of a 4 year college. Candidates for the
Ocean Engineering program must have passed a thorough preengineering course sequence such
as the preengineering and prephysics university parallel program in the state's junior colleges. In
the final 2 years at Florida Atlantic University, the student covers a strong core of basic
engineering and mathematics courses plus specific oceanography and ocean engineering courses
selected from a current total of 23 courses and course sequences.

In the summer quarter between the junior and senior years, a Summer Internship and
Independent Study program is conducted in cooperation with industry and other organizations.
Qualified students have worked with such organizations as the Westinghouse Undersea Division,
RCA at AUTEC, General Electric Company's Undersea Division, Pan American Petroleum Com-
pany, Southeast Drilling Company, Alpine Geophysical Associates, Woods Hole Institute of
Oceanography, and Institute of Marine Sciences at Miami, and with Mr. Ed Link on the Man-
in-the-Sea Program. This cooperative venture has been an outstanding success for students and
participating employers.

In 1968 the Ocean Engineering Department of Florida Atlantic University received one of
the first six Sea Grant Project Grants from the National Science Foundation to establish and
operate a cooperative work-study program with ocean engineering organizations for students
enrolled in the program. Nine companies now have these students working for them and many
more have contracted to participate in the program in the future. Students in the Coop program
alternate six-month study and work periods on campus and on the job during their junior and
senior years of the program.

A Master's degree program in Ocean Engineering has been submitted to the Florida Board
of Regents for approval. It is anticipated that a Master's program in Ocean Engineering will be
offered to students with a BS degree in an engineering discipline starting in 1970.

In the spring and summer of 1966, the Department of Ocean Engineering worked with
Mr. John Perry, President of Perry Publications and Perry Submarine Builders, Inc., on the
design, fabrication, equipping, and placement of a shallow water laboratory and classroom
called Hydro-Lab I. Mr. Perry donated funds, materials, equipment, and fabrication facilities
for the 8 foot diameter by 14 foot long structure, which was emplanted off West Palm Beach in
40 feet of water on July 14, 1966.


Figure 28. Left, FA U-Perry Hydro-Lab; Right, Hydro-Lab and Ocean Systems-Perry Deep Diver
During Dry Transfer Tests

The Hydro-Lab was subsequently removed from the water for modification and resub-
merged in 42 feet of water in December 1967. Modifications included a redesigned, rigid
support system and the addition of a dry transfer tube for mating with the Perry-Link DEEP
DIVER. The Hydro-Lab was removed from the water in October 1968 for refurbishing and
modification to a one atmosphere chamber in October 1968.

During the summer of 1967, facilities were made available to the Naval Research Labora-
tory, Washington, D. C., to conduct studies of solid dispersion in ocean waters and its effect on
radar performance. The laboratory also supported an off-shore current and wave study con-
ducted by the University.

Facilities for the Department of Ocean Engineering are under constant development. The
shore facility of Perry Submarine Builders, Inc., and the firm's oceanographic ship SEA
HUNTER were made available for the Hydro-Lab project and related research and development
work. A boat is being purchased for the department and other boats are borrowed or leased as
needed for sea operations.

Figure 29. FA U Ocean Engineering Students at Work on Submerged Equipment

Student laboratories are being equipped. These include the materials, electrical and elec-
tronic, and mechanical laboratories and a special laboratory to permit study of ocean processes.
The laboratories are oriented to study the ocean environment and its effect on men and

In June 1966, the Florida Ocean Sciences Institute was chartered as a nonprofit research
organization to help bridge the gap between university and industry applied research in ocean
science and engineering. While there is no official connection between Florida Atlantic Uni-
versity and the Institute, close cooperation in project work exists. The Institute is described in
more detail in Chapter VIII.

University of West Florida

The University of West Florida is an upper level state university designed for juniors,
seniors and graduate students only. It admitted its initial class of over 1300 students in
September 1967 and increased to about 2400 students in 1968. Graduate programs began in

The 1000 acre campus is located ten miles north of Pensacola on the Escambia River. It
contains some 6 miles of both fresh and brackish water shoreline, is in close proximity to
Escambia and Pensacola Bays, and is only a short run from the Gulf of Mexico. An auxiliary
campus of 125 acres is located on Santa Rosa island with more than a mile of frontage on the
Gulf of Mexico and another mile on Pensacola Bay.

The initial campus of newly constructed buildings represents an investment of approxi-
mately $17 million and includes a five-story library and a well equipped science complex. The

library opened with over 110,000 volumes and presently contains some 200,000 volumes. Its
holdings include a considerable collection on marine subjects. The University's IBM 360-40
computer can be used for a wide variety of marine research. A second $5.2 million building
program planned for this year will include additional science facilities.

Figure 30. University of West Florida Campus

Figure 31. UWF Dormitory (left) and Science Laboratories (right)

It was decided several years prior to opening the University that because of its proximity
to both salt and fresh water, and because of the rapidly growing interest in the aquatic environ-
ment, highly significant programs in the marine sciences would be developed. For the present,
the University will relate its undergraduate academic programs to the marine environment
mainly through the Faculty of Biology. The biology program is based on the suggestion of the
Interinstitutional Committee on Oceanography that The University of West Florida emphasize
work in estuarine and nearshore waters to a depth of 200 feet.

1~0~' ~"L~,

The undergraduate biology curriculum is organized around the use of local marine orga-
nisms and environments, and- is designed to prepare the student for postgraduate study in
marine biology and oceanography, or to serve as a terminal degree in certain areas of marine
science. Heavy emphasis has been placed on individually tailored educational programs through
the use of specially selected topics, seminars, and directed study after the core program in
biology has been completed.

Facilities available on the main campus for collecting and maintaining marine specimens
include a well equipped 23 foot boat, a 14 foot boat, a number of temperature controlled salt
water tanks, considerable SCUBA gear, and equipment to collect marine specimens. It is antici-
pated that a more extensive marine facility will be developed on the auxiliary campus at a later
date and will house undergraduate and graduate programs in the marine sciences.

An intensive SCUBA training program is being developed. It will be available not only to
undergraduate and graduate students of the University of West Florida, but also to students in
other Florida state universities.

Figure 32. Left, University of West Florida RV Argonaut; Right, Students Gathering
Laboratory Specimens

Jacksonville University

Enrollment at Jacksonville University now exceeds 2800. Twenty-one modern, air-
conditioned buildings, valued at more than $15 million, have been constructed since 1950.

The University's rapidly expanding science complex is comprised of three buildings in
which are located well equipped laboratories for the study of chemistry, biology, and physics.
The most recent addition to this complex, a $600,000 physics-mathematics classroom building,
was opened in September of 1968 and houses an instrumental analysis laboratory.

Strong and versatile programs in biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics are among
the 29 majors offered by the university at the undergraduate level. A Master of Arts in Teaching
degree can also be earned at Jacksonville University, with majors in mathematics, social sciences,
English, and elementary education. Under combined plans with Columbia University and the
University of Florida, a BS degree in engineering is available. Over 50 percent of the University's
fulltime faculty hold earned doctorates.

For a number of years the administration and the faculty of Jacksonville University have
recognized that the unique geographical location of this Institution provide an outstanding
potential for teaching and research in the marine and freshwater environments. The broad
continental shelf and Blake Plateau in the Atlantic Ocean, the numerous estuarine and brackish
water bays and coves, and the many freshwater rivers and lakes in this area all contribute to the
diversity of the research efforts under study by the University Estuarine Study Group.

The University Estuarine Study Group consists of two marine biologists, one specializing in
invertebrate animals and the other in ecology; a botanist expert in fresh water plants; an
ornithologist with research interests in marine and fresh water birds; a biochemist conducting
research in mariculture; and a physicist with active research in salinity gradients as related to

-.. l .i_ B - .--

Figure 33. Jacksonville University Students Gathering and Examining Marine Specimens

It is important to direct a major research effort toward the estuarine environment since at
least 65 percent of the commercial fish and shellfish and most of the highly prized marine sport
fish spend all or part of their life cycle in this environment. The Jacksonville University

scientists feel that it is vital to investigate and to relate the many transitional zones of the
estuarine environment to conservation and management programs.

Investigations currently being conducted by the Estuarine Study Group include a taxo-
nomical study of selected vertebrate and invertebrate forms found in the salt meadows, coastal
marshes, intertidal areas, and vital tidal freshwater habitats above the limit of salt water intru-
sion, which are so important as spawning and nursery areas for so many species. This taxonomi-
cal investigation has been going on for several years and is being conducted during all seasons
and at all times of the day and night.

Other important studies include continuing research on the spawning and rearing of
pompano in impounded areas and an investigation of the life cycle of salt and freshwater

Florida Presbyterian College
St. Petersburg

Florida Presbyterian College occupies 58 buildings on a 285 acre campus located on the
east shore of Boca Ciega Bay, just off the Gulf of Mexico in St. Petersburg. Total gross assets of
the College exceed $17 million, and include a three wing Science Complex housing a teaching
auditorium, a biology laboratory building, and a chemistry and physics laboratory building.
Over 1000 students are enrolled.

Figure 34. Florida Presbyterian College Campus

Undergraduate degrees are offered in a variety of arts and sciences, including mathematics,
biology, physics, and chemistry. The College has gained national recognition for the excellence
of its academic standards and its innovative programs which include:

1 The development of a 4 week winter term period in which each student engages in
intensive original study on a single problem. At the end of the period he presents his
work in the form of a research paper or other suitable end product.

2 The implementation of an integrated study in biology and other subjects in which
each student is projected directly into advanced study and project oriented laboratory
work. Extensive use is made of the marine resources adjacent to the campus. Seniors
engage in a seminar program, special courses developed for their specific needs, and,
in many cases, independent research which is reported in a thesis.

3 The development of other programs of independent and directed study. The newly
conceived "Jefferson House" program permits selected students to design their own
curriculum, often within interdisciplinary lines.

Currently two faculty members are doing research in the area of marine biology, including
methods of marine nutrition and nutrient transport, effects of light transmission on plant
growth and microscopic algae, zonation of animals on pilings, and homing patterns of marine
snails. They have published over 30 papers on marine ecology and the nutrition of marine
animals, and several texts, dealing in part with marine organisms and environments. One faculty
member is engaged in the study of the physics of underwater sound and has reported on this
subject. Student assistants are extensively employed in these projects.

Figure 35. FPC Location on Boca Ciega Bay (left); Experiments in Echinoderm Nutrition (right)

In addition to abundant natural resources, the teaching and research laboratories are well
equipped with such facilities as sea tables; culture chambers; radioisotope counting equipment;
analytical balances; a modern laboratory autoclave; pH meters; centrifuges; spectrophotometers;
respirometers; a variety of microscopes; chromatographic, histological, and autoradiographic
materials; and a computer hookup.

It is presently planned to build a wet lab with circulating seawater on the waterfront
campus. The College has two small skiffs and equipment for collecting bottom samples and
biological specimens.

Florida Technological University

Florida Technological University, a new state university located between Orlando and Cape
Canaveral, opened with freshman and junior classes in the fall of 1968. By 1978, it is antici-
pated that the 1227 acre campus will serve over 15,000 students and 3000 faculty.

FTU offers a broad range of programs in the arts and sciences through its Colleges of
Engineering and Technology, Natural Sciences, Humanities and Social Sciences, Education, and
Business Administration. Additional colleges will be added at a later date.

Figure 36. Florida Technological University Campus

The Department of Biological Sciences offers a program of studies emphasizing both the
descriptive and the experimental biology of marine organisms. These studies include micro-
biology, cellular and comparative physiology and biochemistry, physiological ecology, syste-
matics and life histories, genetics, and evolution. Students in marine biology will be encouraged
to supplement their training through course work in other departments such as chemistry,
physics, and engineering.

The University will also stress proper undergraudate preparation for other fields of ocean-
ography, and regular consultation with the oceanography staff.

Included in the first buildings are a $2.1 million library and a $1.8 million science center.
Additional construction now under way includes an administration building, a classroom and
office building, and a science and technology building.

Figure 37. Science Center at FTU

Florida A&M University

Florida A&M University offered its first course in marine biology in the spring of 1968.
Enrollment is limited to juniors and seniors of above average academic achievement. Its goals are
to provide background to advanced undergraduates in the various areas of study in marine
biology, as well as to introduce them to graduate opportunities.

Frequent field trips are made to Apalachee Bay areas to study littoral and intertidal marine
and shore organisms. More extensive field trips are occasionally taken to other areas of the

New College,

New College is located on a 125 acre site with a half mile of frontage on Sarasota Bay.
Present enrollment is 405, and this figure is expected to reach 800 within 4 years.

In addition to the usual laboratory equipment, the Marine Biology Department has a
Gilson differential respirometer, a chloridometer, a Pass bomb calorimeter, an oxygen meter,
and a plankton microscope with photomicrographic attachments. Major field gear includes an
18 foot scuba-cat, 3 skiffs, 4 canoes with a trailer, a mobile field laboratory, a surface air buoy,
dredges, bottom samplers, plankton nets, and a quantitative plankton sampler.

Although the college has no formal marine science program, studies in marine biology are
offered. The department maintains a flexible curriculum, some of the elements of which are:
1) work in environmental biology; 2) independent study projects; 3) senior thesis consisting of
an academic year's work on a research problem; 4) research assistantships; 5) extramural ecol-
ogical surveys; and 6) summer programs in cooperation with other institutions.

The Marine Biology Department plans for the future include: 1) inventory and map the
distribution of various species of marine plants and animals as well as shore birds; 2) explore the
feasibility of the use of artificial sea grasses in restoring the quality of the environment; 3) pro-
mote the development of marine parks; 4) explore the commercial aspects of latent fisheries;
and 5) study the autoecology of selected groups of organisms.

Stetson University

Stetson University, founded in 1883, is a church-affiliated but independent private institu-
tion located in DeLand, Florida. The enrollment on the main campus for the fall of 1969 was
1816 students.

Figure 38. Sage Science Center,
Stetson University

The sciences at Stetson University have been well supported. The Sage Science Center was
completed in 1967 at a cost of 1.2 million dollars and houses the departments of chemistry,
physics, and biology. Since 1963 more than $650,000 in grants have been funded for these

In recognition of the quality and potential of the sciences at Stetson University, the
National Science Foundation recently awarded the University a grant of $230,000 under the
College Science Improvement Program. In 1969 the Department of Mathematics received a
grant for $238,100 for the purpose of improving the teaching of mathematics in nine of central
Florida's junior colleges. Over 85 percent of the science faculty hold doctorate degrees and are
engaged in active research programs.

The University is exploring the possibility of developing a marine institute at New Smyrna
Beach, Florida, on property recently deeded for this purpose. The proposed institute will
specialize in estuarine and in-shore studies. It is hoped that a graduate program will be underway
by 1974. In the meantime, undergraduate courses in the marine sciences are being offered
starting with the spring semester of 1970.




BREEZE -I /' .












Figure 39. Oceanographic Research Organizations in Florida, Other than Universities and Industry



II. Research Organizations

In addition to research being conducted by industry and in the universities, over 20
Federal, state, and private research facilities related to oceanography exist in Florida. Many
operate in the classical fields of physical and biological oceanography. Others are more
concerned with the applied sciences, such as commercial fisheries research, conservation of
water resources, pollution, erosion, and insect control. Several are responsible for the design or
testing of equipment which is used in oceanography, even though the basic mission of the
organization may be more military in nature.

In complexity, this work ranges from the routine gathering of current, tide, wind, and
temperature gradient data to complex research programs on such subjects as air-sea energy
exchange, origin of the Red Tide, the artificial cultivation of phytoplankton, and the occurrence
and distribution of vitamins, dinoflagellates, and diatoms in seawater.

To aid in these varied studies, a vast amount of basic oceanographic and ecological data is
being collected, resulting in a growing knowledge and understanding of the waters and ocean
bottom off Florida and in adjacent areas.

The combined capabilities of these organizations and the complementary nature of their
programs result in a very significant potential for increasing our knowledge of the marine
environment and its uses.

A number of Federal, state, and private organizations with activities closely related to
oceanography are described in Chapter VIII of this report. Several of these conduct research as
one of their activities. However, only those with major, current research programs are described
in detail in this chapter.

Organizations in this chapter are presented in alphabetical order, with Federal agencies
first, state organizations second, and private groups last.


Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories (ESSA)

On April 24, 1967, it was announced by the U.S. Department of Commerce that a 12 acre
site on Virginia Key donated by Dade County had been chosen as the location of the Atlantic
Oceanographic Laboratories of the Department's Environmental Science Services Administra-
tion. This site, together with the ship berthing facility on Dodge Island in the new Port of
Miami, was selected from the 115 East Coast sites visited and evaluated by ESSA in late 1966
and early 1967. In July of 1969, ESSA's National Hurricane Research Laboratory and the
Experimental Meteorology Laboratory joined the three laboratories of AOL to form a broader
group now called the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories (AOML).

Figure 40. Artist's Conception of Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories

Engineering and design studies for ESSA's advanced laboratory building are complete, and
it will be built adjacent to the University of Miami's Institute of Marine and Atmospheric
Sciences, the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries' Tropical Atlantic Biological Laboratory, and the
Miami Seaquarium. These four organizations, along with the University's soon-to-be-constructed
Marine Science Center, will form the central core of the Virginia Key marine science complex, a
close-working group of organizations pursuing programs in the marine sciences and engineering.

The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories consists of five cooperating
research laboratories: the Physical Oceanography Laboratory, National Hurricane Research
Laboratory, Marine Geology and Geophysics Laboratory, Experimental Meteorology Labora-
tory, and the Sea-Air Interaction Laboratory. The three oceanographic laboratories are pres-
ently housed in temporary quarters in downtown Miami, while the two meteorological labor-
atories are on the main campus of the University of Miami in Coral Gables. All five groups will
occupy the new ESSA facility on Virginia Key when construction is completed.

The National Hurricane Research Laboratory is now located in the Computer Center
Building on the campus of the University of Miami, and works in close association with the

technical faculty and staff of the University. The Computing Center operates an IBM 360/65
electronic computer with a wide variety of associated equipment. The Laboratory, working
jointly with the University's Insitute of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, uses two high power
radar sets for gathering data on tropical storms.

Briefly stated, AOML's mission is to provide a basic understanding of the tropical
atmosphere and of the ocean, its containing basins, its dynamic processes, and its interactions
with the seafloor beneath and the atmosphere above. This is the knowledge required for the
prediction of the oceanic and atmospheric phenomena, for the effective utilization of marine
resources, and hopefully for the eventual limited control of our sea-air environment.

Figure 41. A OML Researchers Lowering a Niskin Bottle (left); Radar Meteorological
Laboratory (right)

With a nucleus of over 100 scientists, technicians, and supporting staff, ESSA's Atlantic
Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories are carrying out a wide range of oceanographic
and meteorological research ranging from theoretical studies of the origin of the continents and
ocean basins and the mathematical modeling of hurricanes and the other intricate interactions
between the atmosphere and the sea, to studies of storm surge and tide and current prediction,
experimental seeding of cumulus clouds, studies of the meanders of the Gulf Stream and of the
divergence and transport in the Florida Current, observational and theoretical work on hurri-
canes and other tropical weather phenomena, studies of the bottom topography in the Straits of
Florida, sub-bottom studies to reveal the nature of the structure of the earth's crust beneath the
sea, oceanic reactions to the passage of hurricanes, and mass physical properties of marine

The areas studied range from Florida, where a wide spectrum of weather, water, and
bottom characteristics are being investigated, to the Caribbean, the west African shelf where its
relationship to eastern South America is being investigated, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and the
storm-generating areas of the Tropical Atlantic and Caribbean.

Although the main areas of concentration are the Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico,
AOML oceanographers and meteorologists work wherever required to fulfill the Laboratories'

Figure 42. AOML Facilities Include (left) ESSA Research Aircraft, and (right) USC&GS

Facilities available to the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories include
the research aircraft of ESSA's Research Flight Facility based at Miami International Airport
and all of the ships of the ESSA Coast and Geodetic Survey. However, the USC&GS Ship
DISCOVERER based in Miami at Dodge Island is the first of several ESSA ships to have Miami
as their home port and to be primarily for the use of AOML. The DISCOVERER is 303 feet
long, has a full-load displacement of 3800 long tons, and was designed and built specifically for
the full range of environmental survey and research work at sea. She was built in Jacksonville,
commissioned in mid-1967, and came to Miami in July of that year. A second and slightly
smaller ship, RESEARCHER, is under construction with delivery anticipated in 1971. She too
will be based at Miami.


Figure 43. Buoys Used for AOML Research

In the years immediately ahead, ESSA's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological
Laboratories will continue concentrating heavily in the Caribbean, an effort that started with
the BOMEX program (Barbados Oceanographic and Meteorological Experiment) in 1968 and
1969 and is continuing through the 1970-1972 Cooperative Investigations of the Caribbean and
Adjacent Regions sponsored as an international project by the Intergovernmental Oceano-
graphic Commission of UNESCO. Closer to home, the Gulf of Mexico and the Florida offshore

areas will also be the object of studies by AOML scientists in cooperation with other scientists
from Virginia Key as well as from universities and research institutions throughout the country
and abroad. In particular, close ties are being developed with scientific groups throughout the
Caribbean and Latin American countries, and their scientists will routinely work with ESSA
scientists both in the Virginia Key laboratory and at sea.

The year 1968 saw ESSA's laboratories gain the additional support of the Coast and
Geodetic Survey's Engineering Development Laboratory which moved to Miami early that year.
A Miami office for the DISCOVERER was also opened in 1968 to provide the local administra-
tive support for that ship and the others to come. Plans for a cooperative ship base on Dodge
Island, Miami, for the oceanographic research ships of ESSA, the University of Miami, and the
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries are well along, and the base is due to be completed in 1970.
AOML's temporary quarters are not open to the general public, but special arrangements can be
made for interested persons to visit the facility.

Engineering Development Laboratory
Coast and Geodetic Survey (ESSA)

The Engineering Development Laboratory is a branch of the Office of Systems
Development Geodetic Survey whose mission in Miami is to provide engineering support to the
Coast and Geodetic Survey operations in the area, and more particularly to ESSA's Atlantic
Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories. Located temporarily in quarters at the Miami
Shipyard, the Engineering Development Laboratory will eventually occupy a new facility to be
built on Dodge Island in Biscayne Bay.

Biological Laboratory, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Fish and Wildlife Service
St. Petersburg Beach

The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory, St. Petersburg Beach, has
several major research programs dealing with the physical, chemical, and biological nature of
oceans and estuaries. The objectives of these programs are to determine:

1 The present capacity and value of the near-shore environment in terms of biological

2 The relation of this production to oceanic fisheries;

3 The effect of industrial and engineering activities on marine resources;

4 The conditions responsible for lethal concentrations of the Florida Red Tide organism
(Gymnodinium breve).

Figure 44. Scientists from BCF St. Petersburg Biological Laboratory Prepare to Inspect
Submerged Portion of Retaining Fence in a Sea Farm (left), and Examine Condition and
Productivity of Marine Organisms in Estuarine Zone of Florida (right)

Facilities consist of a main laboratory complex overlooking the Gulf of Mexico and two
dock-side sublaboratories on Boca Ciega Bay. Total space is more than 10,000 square feet. The
laboratory maintains a 43 foot, twin diesel engine vessel equipped with marine radio, radar, and
sleeping facilities for five persons. An array of electronic and oceanographic equipment is
maintained aboard for use in laboratory investigations. Four outboard motor boats are used for
inshore research.

Laboratory scientists are specialists in plankton, vertebrate and invertebrate zoology,
ichthyology, fish population dynamics, oceanography, and chemistry. The staff participates in
plans and activities of the Marine Fisheries Commissions of the Gulf and Atlantic States. The
laboratory is also affiliated with the Work-Study Cooperative Student Plan at the University of
South Florida.

A library of over 600 books and approximately 90 journals is open to cooperating
universities, other scientific agencies, and individual scientists. Interlibrary loans are available
and materials published by the laboratory are made available through the library.

Recent research by the laboratory has revealed specific cases of damage to natural
estuarine and coastal fish nurseries by dredging, filling, and contamination, and has led to the
rejection of several applications for estuarine engineering projects. Joint efforts of the
laboratory and other Federal and State agencies stimulated the Corps of Engineers to reject a
dredge-fill for the first time in Florida on the basis of fish and wildlife values. This is considered
a landmark precedent.

The biology of thread herring is now being investigated as part of this nation's goal to
increase food supplies from the sea. For several years researchers have known that thread
herring schools on the Florida Gulf coast were large enough to have great industrial potential.
Now a commercial fishery has begun for that species and it is in the interest of State and
Federal fishery agencies to have knowledge of its life history from the onset rather than after
the fishery has operated for several years.

A cooperative Gulf of Mexico Estuarine Inventory has been initiated by Alabama,
Mississippi, Louisiana, and BCF Laboratories at St. Petersburg Beach, Florida, and Galveston,
Texas, under auspices of the Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission. Major estuaries of the
Gulf will be described physically, biologically, hydrologically, and sedimentologically in
published atlases. The data will document present conditions and serve as guidelines for
managing estuaries and further increasing their capacity for the production of marine species.

Figure 45. Thread Herring for Biological Research Being
Brought Aboard R V Kingfish via Hydraulically
Operated Power Block

Biological Field Station, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Fish and Wildlife Service
Gulf Breeze

This research center deals primarily with estuaruine ecology, conducting a nation-wide
surveillance program of the effects of pesticide pollution in estuaries. Special emphasis is placed
on the cyclic changes in animal populations and the biology of commercial shellfish.

Nine buildings of approximately 9000 total square feet make up the laboratory's facilities,
located on a 15 acre ballast rock island on Santa Rosa Sound between Pensacola and the Gulf of
Mexico. Because several small rivers enter the area at this point, habitats vary from fresh-water
rivers to the open Gulf, and the fauna are extremely diverse.

Laboratory equipment available includes a fluorometer, a spectrophotometer, and facilities
for carbon-14 studies. A photographic darkroom, well equipped shop, and wet laboratory
enhance the standard laboratory facilities. A 36 foot diesel-powered work boat equipped for
trawling and dredging and several smaller collecting boats powered by outboard motors provide
great flexibility in the collecting of specimens.

The permanent staff consists of 25 persons, including the Resident Director. Four of these
staff members hold PhD degrees, and five hold Master's degrees.

The research program is devoted principally to learning how to preserve and improve the
aquatic environment so that the maximum sustained yield of fishery products may be obtained.

Investigation is being made of the effects of herbicides, pesticides, and agricultural chemicals on
the marine environment. The laboratory also engages in a cooperative program with the area
schools to provide lectures and demonstrations for school children and the general public.

Tropical Atlantic Biological Laboratory, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries
Fish and Wildlife Service

With an annual budget of $1,000,000, the Tropical Atlantic Biological Laboratory (TABL)
is carrying on an extensive research program between 20 degrees north and 20 degrees south in
the waters between Africa and South America. In addition, the entire Caribbean and the
western tropical Atlantic are being examined.

The mission of the laboratory is to assemble and interpret information on the distribution,
abundance, and migratory routes of commercially valuable marine animals, particularly tunas;
to support and increase efficiency of the total catch by the U.S. commercial fisheries; and to aid
underdeveloped nations bordering the tropical Atlantic, through cooperative international
efforts, to find more efficient means of harvesting the protein-rich food resources in their

There are approximately 60 employees stationed at TABL, of which 25 percent are
scientists. The remainder are crew members and administrative, technical, and clerical personnel.
The scientists perform a dual role part of their time is spent on scientific study and research in
their laboratories, and part is spent aboard the research vessel.

The laboratory is located on 5 acres of land on Virginia Key in Miami's Biscayne Bay,
directly across the road from the University of Miami's Institute of Marine Sciences and
adjacent to the site for ESSA's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories.

The main building is a three-story structure covering 48,300 square feet of floor space
which houses various offices and laboratories. In addition, there is a 2500 square foot building
adjacent to the main building used for the storage of fish specimens. A 3000 square foot
building for storage, offices, and machine and electric shops is also planned.

TABL operates the research vessel Undaunted, which is 143 feet long and is powered by
twin diesel engines. Its cruising range is about 6000 miles. This ship is equipped for
oceanographic observations at varying depths as well as for live-bait tuna fishing and for either
benthic (bottom) or pelagic (open ocean) trawling. She carries a salinity-temperature-depth
(STD) system for measuring characteristics of seawater, a 25-channel data acquisition system,
and an automatic picture-transmission receiver for working in conjunction with NASA satellites
on broad-scale oceanography. Also aboard the vessel are laboratories for chemical analysis and
general biology; electronic equipment; a live-bait tank which holds 2,000 pounds of fish; and

Figure 46. Tropical Atlantic Biological Laboratory and Research Vessel Undaunted

two single side-band radio transmitters for voice contact with the home laboratory's radio
station and for rapid transmission of data from the ship. The vessel can accommodate a crew of
15, along with a scientific party of 10 to 12. By 1970 the ship will have completed at least 15
surveys of the study area, including participation in the midsummer (1969) "BOMEX" surveys
near Barbados (W.I.) and an autumn (1969) cruise in West African waters.

In 1968, laboratory personnel carried out extensive research on tuna ecology and
population dynamics in major regions of the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean. The Undaunted
spent most of 1968 in the waters of western Africa on two research cruises, and will cruise in
the same area in late 1969. Commercial tuna fishing in the region is expanding rapidly in 1967,
three American tuna seiners caught about 1,500 tons of fish; in 1968, eight American vessels
caught more than 10,000 tons of tuna; and in 1969, a dozen or more tuna boats will fish in the

The laboratory is serving as a data repository for records of statistical and biological
sampling programs until the Atlantic Tuna Commission begins its work in 1970.

TABL scientists are engaged in the study of the food habits and population genetics of the
Atlantic tunas, and are participating in studies of the migrations of these tunas in cooperation
with France, Spain, and Japan.

As a result of the study of variations in the distribution and abundance of marine fishes
because of time and space variations in the physical, chemical, and biological factors of their
environment, an atlas of the mean monthly sea surface temperatures for the tropical Atlantic
area between the coasts of Africa and South America and between 20 degrees north and 20
degrees south latitudes has been prepared from approximately 3 million observations. This atlas
was published by the American Geographical Society. Atlases of oceanographic conditions,
including studies of the horizontal and vertical distribution of temperature, salinity, dissolved

oxygen, and phosphate, during cruises of the laboratory's research vessel in Atlantic areas have
been published. Manuscripts have been completed on primary organic production and
zooplankton standing stock in the tropical Atlantic Ocean, and further studies are in progress on
primary production and species associations of the tropical plankton communities.

Extensive research has centered on efforts to determine the survival requirements of fish
larvae. Data have been compiled from observations of specimens in the aquaria and tank
facilities in the laboratory, as well as during cruises in the Atlantic. Several species of fishes,
among them the commercially important thread herring, have been reared from the egg to the
adult form in the laboratory.

Major emphasis has been placed on the study of the systematics of fishes, especially
herrings, shads, and sardines. A new species the redtailed mackerel scad was discovered and
documented. Studies of fishes from other parts of the world have been carried out through the
research programs of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries and the Smithsonian Institution, and
reports and field guides on different species are in preparation. Limited attempts at mariculture
of the Florida pompano have been successful.

The collection of preserved juvenile and adult fishes at the laboratory has been appreciably
increased in the past year, with many specimens cleared and stained for osteological studies.
This collection is available to ichthyologists studying various groups of fishes from this area.

In 1969, a new program the biological study of calico scallops was assigned to TABL.
According to other BCF investigations, a large stock of calico scallops with an estimated
potential yield as high as 300 million pounds annually exists off the east coast of Florida.
TABL's Calico Scallop Program is investigating reproductive cycles, growth rates, mortality
rates, fishery statistics, and (in cooperation with other BCF laboratories) the distribution and
abundance of stocks of this potentially valuable marine food.

Laboratory scientists will have published 150 scientific manuscripts by the end of 1969.

Figure 47. TABL Technician Lowers Figure 48. Yellowfin Tuna About to be Landed by a
Niskin Bottle from R V Undaunted Fisherman Aboard the R V Undaunted

Eastern Gulf Marine Laboratory, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife
Panama City

The mission of the Eastern Gulf Marine Laboratory is to conduct and report scientific
investigations into the life history and ecology of the marine game fish found in the Gulf of
Mexico and Caribbean Sea. A large facility which includes a newly designed main laboratory
building and five supporting structures, a concrete boat basin, and a refined sea water intake and
storage system is being developed on a 13 acre site fronting St. Andrew Bay, near Panama City.
This facility will begin operations shortly with plans to utilize a staff of 20 to 30 technical
personnel and scientists with academic and practical experience in biological oceanography and
estuarine ecology.

The Laboratory is presently conducting research relative to the seasonal migration and
abundance of the major marine big game fishes and the oceanic habitat variations which govern
annual movements. A part of the Laboratory staff is working with the introduction of striped
bass into north Florida estuaries to develop new fisheries for sport anglers.

The overall research program to be implemented at this facility will include studies of
oceanic game fishes and the fisheries for them, the development of estuarine sport fisheries with
surveys of the resources available and the manipulation of fish stocks, the behavior and seasonal
habits of marine game fishes, habitat improvement and utilization, and the development of
artificial reef fisheries.

The completed complex will be the most modern and best equipped facilities devoted to
marine gamefish research in the world.

*II- n9W

Figure 49. Eastern Gulf Marine Laboratory
R V Rachel Carson

Figure 50. Eastern Gulf Marine Laboratory
Scientist Stocking Choctawhatchee Bay
with Subadult Striped Bass


Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC)
West Palm Beach

The Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) is a U. S. Navy developed
ocean test range located in the Tongue of the Ocean area of the Bahamas, which is 15 miles
wide, 1000 fathoms deep, and 100 miles long. Headquarters for AUTEC is located in West Palm
Beach, Florida, in the old terminal building of Palm Beach International Airport.

In addition to a military staff of 14 officers and 52 enlisted personnel, there are 72
professional and technical personnel engaged in systems analysis, maintenance, support,
management, and operations, as well as contractor staffs of 600 people.

The mission of AUTEC is to provide a deep water test and evaluation facility for making
underwater acoustics measurements, testing sonar, and providing accurate underwater surface
and air tracking data on ships and weapons in support of the U. S. Navy's antisubmarine and
undersea research and development programs.

AUTEC is equipped to conduct continuous oceanographic data gathering on and in the
range waters and to provide precision navigation aids to ships assigned to AUTEC programs. The
test facilities installed there provide the Navy (and the United Kingdom by signed agreement)
with the first truly deep water and fully instrumented means for acquiring data on the
performance of weapons (both in flight and underwater), sonar, and submarines.


o Sound
a .


1,000 Fathioms
.. .. ..

Figure 51. Atlantic Undersea Test and
Evaluation Center (A UTEC)


.. . .

. ,

The 100 million dollar Center includes three ranges: a Weapons Range, which is fully
operational; a Sonar Range, a 5 mile square instrumented area which became partially
operational in 1968; and an Acoustics Range, a 10 by 20 mile area which was completed in

The Weapons Range is the southernmost and largest of the three. It lies nearly parallel to
the east coast of Andros Island and is divided into two sections, including an underwater
portion with a launch area and a separate impact area. The depth of this range is some 6000
feet. An instrumented air corridor extends over the entire range.

The purpose of the Weapons Range is to provide data permitting the evaluation of
advanced undersea weapons system components. To achieve this purpose, three dimensional
tracking is provided in the water by groups of bottom-mounted hydrophones. Objects to be
tracked are equipped with acoustic signal sources whose signals are processed by electronic
equipment and time tagged in the AUTEC Data Processing Center. The location of the tracked
vehicle is computed and displayed in real time. Several means are available for accurate ship
positioning including radar fixes, hydrophone data, and a Decca navigation system, which can
coordinate air, surface, and subsurface positions. In-air weapons or aircraft are tracked optically
by theodolites and by radar, and these data also can be reduced and displayed in real time.
Tracking and position display is possible for multiple targets on a simultaneous basis.

All data received at the Data Processing Center are recorded on magnetic tape for
preservation and play-back.

Figure 52. A UTEC Tracking Station

The Acoustics Range is located slightly north of the Weapons Range. Its purpose is to
acquire data which will help the Navy build quieter, less easily detected ships by the isolation
and elimination of noise. Submerged within this range are noise measurement and tracking
arrays. The noise measurement array accommodates a number of hydrophones which pick up
signals sent out by a pinger located in the nose of the test vessel. Command Control can then
pinpoint the direction of the ship. It also receives and processes Acoustics Range information
through an Acoustic Data Processor.

The Sonar Range is situated between the Acoustics Range and the eastern shore of Andros
Island. Its purpose is to enable ships to check the accuracy of their means of determining the
distance and position of underwater objects. It is located closest to the main base because direct
optical tracking and positioning of ships must be done from fixed installations ashore or towers
by the reef. Since there are only limited deep water requirements for sonar calibration work, the
Sonar Range is placed closest to the shore to help increase the accuracy with which a ship's
position and heading can be determined. This also minimizes cable costs and facilitates
development of more economical fixed undersea sonar calibration arrays.

The Sonar Range eventually will have the capability of performing antisubmarine warfare
(ASW) sensor calibrations similar to those done by FORACS (Fleet Operational Readiness
Accuracy Check Sites). This range will include sonar transponders accurately located at fixed
bottom positions. Optical triangulation stations will be situated close to the range test site.

An improved version of the Woods Hole designed Alvin deep submersible which can
penetrate to 6500 feet is under construction for AUTEC. It is expected to be in service in 1969
for inspection of underwater instruments, as well as for retrieval of devices which may have to
be recovered.

A long range objective for AUTEC is to pursue undersea technology to the point that it
can meet specific requirements of the Navy and the nation. By applying a broad spectrum of
scientific and engineering skills to practical problems in a natural ocean environment, AUTEC
can contribute to attaining the elusive goal of understanding the sea.

Figure 53. Technicians Monitor Tracking Figure 54. A UTEC Radar Equipment Array
Equipment at A UTEC Range

Naval Ship Research and Development Laboratory
Panama City
(Formerly the U.S. Navy Mine Defense Laboratory)

The Naval Ship Research and Development Laboratory is the largest established center of
ocean technology in the State of Florida, and will add immeasurably to its capabilities when an

$8 million Ocean Simulation Laboratory is completed in 1971. Tying in the Ocean Simulation
Laboratory with a recently installed $6 million computer complex will put the northwest
Florida research laboratory in a position of major expansion in ocean technology.

The planned ocean research facility will be unique in its ability to test man and equipment
together under controlled conditions in a simulated ocean environment to depths in excess of
2000 feet. By interconnecting the ocean lab with the computer complex, it will be possible to
simulate complete missions in a real environment, all under laboratory control.

The Ocean Simulation Laboratory (OSL) will be composed of a pressure chamber complex
including a wet chamber, five dry chambers, and a life support system including gas supply and
atmosphere conditioning. This will allow simultaneous operation of a wide range of
experiments, from biomedical studies involving aquanauts and small equipment in either of the
two dry-chamber sections to equipment tests with complete submersibles in the wet chamber in
a SEALAB type of experiment with living space above and in-water work space below.

Figure 55. Artist's Conception of NSRDL Ocean Simulation Laboratory,
Scheduled for Completion in 1971

The cylindrical wet chamber is situated on the ground floor of the OSL building's high bay
area and measures 30 feet in length and 15 feet in diameter. The flange on the full-opening end
is designed to accept an additional cylindrical length of up to 30 feet. The dry chambers, all
with a diameter of 8 feet, are situated above the wet chamber and consist of a center lock (10
feet) and trunk (6.5 feet) into the wet chamber, a dry chamber on each side of the center lock
(11.5 feet) and an outer lock adjacent to each dry chamber (8 feet).

An important segment of the computer complex is a highly advanced hybrid computer
facility, identified as the Countermeasures Evaluator, and used primarily to support acoustic
and torpedo countermeasures research and development. It can simulate the interaction of
acoustic sources, sensors, and homing devices as they move about in a three dimensional ocean
environment. Tactical situations can be programmed in the computer to evaluate the
effectiveness of the various weapons and countermeasures systems in a simulated attack.

Formerly known as the U.S. Navy Mine Defense Laboratory, and originally established in
September 1945 as the U.S. Navy Mine Countermeasures Station, the Panama City Naval Ship
Research and Development Laboratory is an integral component of a comparatively new
complex the Naval Ship Research and Development Center with headquarters in Carderock,
Maryland. The laboratory also receives primary support from Headquarters Naval Ship Systems

The Florida laboratory is primarily warfare oriented and is the Navy's principal scientific
activity devoted to the study of mine, torpedo, and swimmer defense; inshore undersea warfare;
and swimmer-diver support equipment and techniques. In addition, the Navy's Man-in-the-Sea
program and various ocean technology projects are supported by the laboratory.

Four minesweepers and an air unit of helicopters are provided in support of the
Laboratory's at-sea testing programs.

Several underwater work tools have been developed at the Laboratory, including 1) diver's
observation board (now available commercially); 2) underwater tape reel and position markers;
3) controllable floatation bag for lifting, moving, and accurate positioning of heavy objects (up
to 2000 pounds) underwater; 4) diver's environment data kit; 5) diver-held sonar (for locating
objects beyond the range of visibility); and 6) underwater instrument mounts. The laboratory
has a highly experienced staff of swimmer-divers, including 23 civilian scientists and 15 military

NSRDL has played a prominent role in the Man-in-the-Sea program. The Laboratory
designed, constructed, and tested SEALAB I in which four Navy men lived for 10 days in 190
feet of water off Bermuda in the first open-sea phase of the program in 1964. During the
SEALAB II experiment conducted for 45 days in 210 feet of water off La Jolla, California, in
1965, NSRDL was assigned engineering, evaluation, equipment development, and data
collecting tasks; trained the aquanauts; and had four of its civilian scientists and four Navy men
participating as aquanauts. In SEALAB III, the third open-ocean phase of the Man-in-the-Sea
effort, which was begun early in 1969 and postponed to be resumed later, the laboratory is
again charged with important assignments, including civilian scientists participating for their
second time as aquanauts.

NSRDL is located about 100 miles east of Pensacola on the Bay of St. Andrew and on the
outskirts of Panama City and is ideally situated for ocean research with its accessibility to the
Gulf of Mexico, relative seclusion, and availability of sheltered anchorages. The Bay of St.
Andrew and the Gulf of Mexico serve as its testing grounds.

The Laboratory has a combined military-civilian population of about 1075, with about
630 of these civilian employees. Its plant value is near $25 million. Its 1969 operating budget
was $14.3 million.

Among the close to 100 buildings are 450,000 square feet of modern office and shop
buildings, including 160,000 square feet of laboratory space; ample industrial shops; supply
storage buildings; and 1490 feet of ship berthing space with a controlling depth of 22 feet, and
1400 feet with a controlling depth of 10 feet.

To effectively carry out its research operations, the laboratory has an impressive number of
specialized and unique facilities on its 650 acres and in the Bay and the Gulf.

Figure 56. Naval Ship Research and Development Laboratory

Included are two offshore instrumented research platforms of the Texas-tower type,
known as Stage I and Stage II. The two are well suited for oceanographic use. At present both
are being used in active oceanographic programs, with expanded use planned for the future.
Stage I, the larger of the two, is located in 104 feet of water about 11 miles off shore, is 105 by
105 feet, and has accommodations for about 30 people and ample facilities for research
functions. Stage II, located about 2 miles offshore in 60 feet of water, is 60 by 84 feet and also
has adequate accommodations for research purposes. There is available at these towers an
automated oceanographic data collection system which can measure and automatically record,
in computer compatible format, 50 channels of data each sampled once per second. Presently in
use are the following types of sensors: current speed and direction at 3 depths; temperature and
humidity at 4 locations; and barometric pressure. The remaining channels can be used for
special purposes, such as pressure wave records. Under suitable conditions, these tower facilities
can be made available to the scientific community.

Underwater time lapse cameras with suitable lighting have been used to study sediment
migration, movement of ridges, development of scour patterns, dynamics of object burial,
biological activity, and water transparency variations. Laboratory space and offices for
oceanographers exist in a dockside building.

Figure 57. Submerged Test Engineering Platform (STEP) is Placed Under Water (left)
at NSRDL Offshore Instrumented Tower (right)

Recent acquisitions include a special shallow water data collection system. This system,
which can be installed on practically any laboratory vessel, consists of a deck console (with
controls, meter readouts, and multichannel recorder), a sea unit (with various sensors and a
pump), and a section of interconnecting cable (with power leads, signal conductors, and a
hollow tube). With this system, not only is it possible to measure sea water temperature,
salinity, and electrical conductivity at any prescribed depth between the surface and 100 feet,
but water can be pumped up to the surface where its pH and 02 content can be measured and, if
desired, samples can be bottled for later analysis of suspended particulates and plankton. The
system is currently being employed to study acoustic-environmental interactions in local waters.

Other facilities include:

1 Magnetic Village A nonferrous area for the controlled production of magnetic

Figure 58. NSRDL Scientist
Engaged in Photographic

Figure 59. Laser Experiment at NSRDL

~JST~ 'Ip~-S~-~L~-.,


2 Recompression chambers A double-lock and a single-lock chamber used in
swimmer-diver operations.

3 Shore-based optical tracking range Four beach tracking towers are spaced at one
mile intervals facing the Gulf for tracking ships.

4 Underwater tracking range A fixed facility in the shallow water operating area in the
Gulf used for accurate positioning and tracking of various underwater towed and
self-propelled vehicles.

5 Radio tracking range An over-water range for two-dimensional radio-line-of-sight
range, all weather, fully automatic tracking system capable of providing positional
information for both moving and stationary targets.

6 Acoustic data analysis system Built around a one-third octave analysis system, for
frequency and sound level analysis.

7 Transducer test facility Outdoor, free-field fresh water test pool for testing
hydrophone assemblies and transducers.

8 Model towing basin Located in basement of the main laboratory building where
small scale models are tested.

9 Acoustic simulator Permits evaluation of mine reactions to sounds generated by
ships and underwater noise-makers without need for sea trials.

10 Pressure simulator Reproduces type of underwater pressure changes caused by
passage of ships, sweeps, and wave motions.

11 Submerged Test Engineering Platform (STEP) STEP is the original SEALAB I
habitat modified to accommodate and test future undersea habitat engineering and
life support systems. STEP is placed in the water at the base of one of the offshore
research stages in the Gulf during testing.

.,""0 -'

Figure 60. Two Man Swimmer Delivery Vehicle
Developed by NSRDL

Figure 61. NSRDL Scientists Study
a Mine Burial Problem

Naval Fleet Sonar School
Key West

Although this specialized Naval Training Center is not directly associated with
oceanography, several of the courses include oceanography, with an emphasis on sound
propagation, in their curricula. The staff includes an oceanography specialist.

The primary mission of the school is to conduct continuous training programs in the
operation and maintenance of up-to-date sonar equipment; and to train personnel in the tactical
aspects of antisubmarine warfare, the operational and tactical use of sonar, ASW weapons and
allied equipment, and the operational, preventive, and tactical maintenance of sonar and allied
equipment in order to provide for the most effective accomplishment of the antisubmarine and
submarine warfare tasks.

Naval Ordnance Laboratory Test Facility
Fort Lauderdale

The Naval Ordnance Laboratory Test Facility occupies 10 acres of leased land on the south
side of and adjacent to the Port Everglades Channel, with additional office space, shop areas,
and explosive magazines at Ft. Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport. There are 11
military personnel and 70 civilian employees, including one physicist, two mechanical engineers,
and one electronic engineer. Three of the military personnel are assigned for explosive ordnance
disposal/nuclear weapons disposal and are SCUBA divers.

The mission of the facility is to support underwater ordnance research and development
projects for various governmental organizations, principally the Naval Ordnance Laboratory,
White Oak, Maryland. Generally, all projects under test are classified; therefore, oceanographic

Figure 62. YDT-9, the Work Vessel of Naval Ordnance Lab (left); Underwater Television
Equipment Operated from YDT-9 (right)

data obtained in connection with these projects are not releasable. However, current and
bathythermograph profiles have been released to various organizations. The facility also tests
experimental or modified underwater instrumentation. Six vessels consisting of one 113 foot
converted LCU, one 64 foot Box L-boat (cable layer), and four 45 foot utility boats are
operated by the facility. The YDT-9 is capable of anchoring in water depths of 2500 feet in the
Gulf Stream. She has three anchors, allowing her to go into a three-point moor in up to 1200
feet of water. A 12 ton capacity crane is capable of lowering loads of up to 3 tons to the
bottom in water 2500 feet deep.

An optical plotting system provides precise surface location over 18 square miles of ocean
immediately south of Port Everglades, extending out to include depths to 700 feet. A Raydist
electronic plotting system provides surface location to 20 miles offshore and includes a
maximum depth of somewhat over 2500 feet of water. A submarine cable system is available for
shore monitoring of equipment planted at sea to a depth of 600 feet. In situ environmental tests
have been conducted at sea to a maximum depth of 2000 feet. All work conducted more than 3
miles offshore is subject to Gulf Stream currents varying from about one knot to a maximum of
a little over 5 knots.

U.S. Naval School, Underwater Swimmers
Key West

This Naval training activity, which functions under the military and management control of
the Chief of Naval Personnel, provides initial SCUBA diver training for the Navy's EOD and
UDT divers. Marine Reconnaissance personnel, plus a limited number of candidates from other
branches of the military services, selected foreign military services, and certain federal
organizations also receive training at this school. Approximately 700 people per year undergo
extensive training courses ranging in complexity from basic SCUBA to advanced mixed gas
diving and submarine medicine. The site location permits year-round operation of the school
under optimum favorable weather and sea conditions, offering the trainee a variety of sea
bottom and environmental conditions from mud and silt to crystal clear waters found offshore
among the coral reefs.

The school is staffed by Navy instructors and functions under the command of LCdr C.W.
Wehner, USN. In addition to the primary training mission, this command has supported
numerous special projects in the area of underwater equipment evaluation and has assisted in
the accumulation of oceanographic data.

Naval Training Device Center

The U.S. Naval Training Device Center is a major field activity of the Chief of Naval
Material. The mission of the Center is to contribute to the Navy's operational readiness by

improving the effectiveness of the naval training and training material support programs by
research, design, development, test, evaluation, procurement, fabrication, maintenance,
alteration, conversion, repair, overhaul, and logistic support of training devices. Thus, the Center
creates electronic and electromechanical devices that simulate, for training purposes, the
operational characteristics of weapons and weapons systems shipboard, submarine, airborne,
and land-based.

The Center presently occupies, on a tenant basis, approximately 350,000 square feet of
facilities at the Naval Training Center, which includes research facilities, experimental machine
and electronics shops, modification and overhaul shops, and specialized environmental test

The Center has 50 military and 1165 civilian personnel, of which 35 scientists and
engineers are involved directly with oceanography.

Figure 63. Naval Training Device Center Ocean Wave, Current, and Tide Generator Model (left);
Underwater Terrain Navigation and Reconnaissance Simulator (right)

Primary areas of concentrated research are antisubmarine warfare training requirements,
sonar trainers, and marine vehicle simulation. Research is also conducted into the human factors
aspects of human reaction to the marine environment. Other training device areas of interest
are marine geology; chemistry; acoustics; submersible navigation and reconnaissance;
man-in-the-sea programs; oceanographic instrumentation; and data acquisition, telemetering,
recording, storage, and transmission.

Research tasks of the Center during 1968 include:

1 Underwater terrain navigation and reconnaissance simulation

2 Investigation of oceanographic instrumentation simulation (navigation, transducers,
transponders, recorders, buoys, buoy array systems, and telemetering data acquisition

3 Investigations of acoustic velocity, sound and light transmission, bottom bounce,
thermal structure, and sound and light transmission studies.

During 1969 the Center will acquire a "Deep Submersible Research Tool" which may become
the basis for a new Navy trainer. Also during 1969 the Center expects to become involved in
studies for satellite navigation and meteorology trainers.

Underwater Sound Reference Division, Naval Research Laboratory

The Underwater Sound Reference Division (USRD) of the Naval Research Laboratory, an
activity of the Office of Naval Research, conducts three specialized scientific programs in
underwater acoustics:

1 Methods Performs research and development in acoustical measurement theory,
methods, and equipment

2 Standards Develops standard underwater sound sources and receivers for use by
naval activities and contractors in making precise underwater sound measurements

3 Measurement Services Provides facilities and services to calibrate, test, and evaluate
underwater sound devices over wide ranges of frequency, pressure (depth), temper-
ature, and electrical power for naval activities and contractors.

Located on Lake Gem Mary in Orlando, USRD uses a multipier system extending into the
lake for underwater sound measurements at depths to 20 feet. This capability is supplemented
by a deep-water system at the Leesburg facility, 50 miles northwest of Orlando, for special
measurements that require depth as great as 150 feet. Several tank systems are available for
measurements at simulated depths to about 4 1/4 miles over a wide range of temperature.

Figure 64. Underwater Sound Reference Division, Naval Research Laboratory

A large two-story building on the shore of Lake Gem Mary houses a staff of 100, of whom
about 55 are engaged in technical and scientific pursuits. Specialized laboratories and shops
design and build mechanical, electronic, and especially electroacoustic instrumentation for
underwater use. The staff also provides consultant services in the general field of underwater
sound and particularly in the special field of electroacoustic measurements in water to many
government agencies and research facilities. The measurement services are available to others for
a fee when the work will not interfere with Navy work and the required facilities are not
otherwise available. A "Services Schedule" is available on request.

The USRD interacts with other Florida organizations and naval activities such as AUTEC,
Naval Ship Research and Development Laboratory, Naval Base at Key West, the Institute of
Marine Sciences of the University of Miami, and the Communication Sciences Laboratory of the
University of Florida.

Figure 65. High Frequency Tank System for Figure 66. Tube System for Simulating
Measurements in the Frequency Range Deep Water Conditions
of 50 kHz to 3 MHz

Bureau of Beaches and Shores, Division of Marine Resources

The Bureau of Beaches and Shores is a part of the Division of Marine Resources of the
Florida Department of Natural Resources, created by the 1963 session of the State Legislature.
It conducts research into problems relating to beach erosion, shoreline deterioration, and
hurricane protection. Some of the areas of research covered by the Bureau of Beaches and
Shores in the execution of its duties include:

1 Artificial nourishment

2 Littoral drift transport

3 Storm and hurricane tides

4 Coastal protective structures

5 Beach and bottom materials

6 Beach and bottom profiles versus wave and current action

7 Nearshore pollution

8 Mapping, shore and underwater

9 Port structures and their influence on shorelines

10 Wave forces

11 Inlets, improved and unimproved.

Figure 67. Erosion Along Florida's Shoreline

The Bureau of Beaches and Shores is working with several dredging companies and
engineering designers in an effort to develop an economical method for transporting sand onto
the beaches from offshore as well as from inshore locations. Because of difficult operating
conditions, conventional dredges are not suitable to transport sand economically from offshore

From these studies, and from sand tracing studies and research projects undertaken in
other Florida areas, much will be learned about the total influence of inlets on the nearshore
littoral drift and on beach stability, and about practical and economical methods of bypassing
sand across these inlets, as well as transporting sand from offshore sources.

Figure 68. Offshore Drag Scraper Being Tested for Effectiveness in Artificial Nourishment
by Bureau of Beaches and Shores

Marine Research Laboratory, Division of Marine Resources
St. Petersburg

The Marine Research Laboratory of the Florida Department of Natural Resources is the
largest state laboratory of its type in the United States. The staff includes over 40 biologists and
technicians and an almost equal number of supporting employees. The total operating budget
exceeds $750,000 per year.

The main laboratory is located at Bayboro Harbor in St. Petersburg, with excellent
deepwater harbor facilities. Adjacent to the laboratory is Albert Whitted Airport. The U.S.
Coast Guard Air and Rescue Station, which operates helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft, and patrol
vessels, is also located in this complex.

The Laboratory occupies three two-story buildings and several smaller structures with a
combined floor area of almost 50,000 square feet. The Red Tide building houses the
administration and clerical sections, projects related to Red Tide and water chemistry, oyster
pathology and oyster nutrition studies, and a portion of the thermal addition research facilities.
The concrete Fisheries building is relatively fireproof and contains such irreplaceable assets as
the fish and invertebrate reference collections, library and reprint facilities, archives, plankton,
and other specimen collections.

The third building is used primarily for storage. However, it is now being remodeled so that
much needed additional laboratory and office space will be available.

In addition to these main buildings the Marine Laboratory has many smaller facilities. Two
large circular concrete saltwater tanks are located in a fenced, covered enclosure and are being
used for various studies generally relating to mariculture. Four large walk-in freezers are located
just south of the Fisheries building and provide freezing and refrigeration capacity for use by all
projects. A medium sized one-story concrete building located just north of the Red Tide
building will be renovated in the near future to serve as a wet lab. Other facilities include a
storage building for gasoline and other flammables, extensive dockage facilities for research
vessels, and staff and visitor parking areas.

The major research vessel of the Marine Laboratory is the R/V Hernan Cortez, a 72 foot
trawler. The laboratory also has a 68 foot hydraulic soft-shell clam dredge, the R/V Venus. In
addition, more than a half-dozen smaller boats (16 to 21 foot range) equipped with
inboard-outboard or outboard engines are used by laboratory personnel.

The Marine Laboratory has an extensive marine-oriented library and a large collection of
films, photographs, and 35 mm slides.

Project Hourglass, one of the most important research programs of the Marine Laboratory,
is a 28-month systematic sampling program conducted in the Gulf of Mexico between St.

Petersburg and Fort Myers. It is one of the most extensive systematic biological sampling
programs ever conducted in the Gulf of Mexico. Stations up to 100 miles off shore were
sampled with a variety of gear at least once a month using the R/V Hernan Cortez. Sampling
was completed in November 1967. Since that time, efforts have been directed toward the
sorting of samples and the analysis and correlation of data. This project has already provided
important data on many commercial species and has also uncovered other species with
commercial potential that are not currently being utilized. A new publication series entitled
"Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises" has been established to maintain the integrity of the results
of this program.

Figure 69. Florida Department of Natural Resources Research Vessel Hernan Cortez

The laboratory's cross-indexed, catalogued, invertebrate reference collection is one of the
finest in the southeastern United States, and requests for specimen loans are being received from
scientists all over the world.

The Marine Laboratory has initiated a study of growth rates and regenerative capabilities
of stone crabs of differing sizes. Federal funds have been available through the Bureau of
Commercial Fisheries for Federal-State matching programs to study the Portugese man-of-war
and related animals, and work is now under way. Extensive aerial surveys are being used to trace
the movements and seasonal occurrence of the man-of-war. Attempts will also be made to
determine growth rates, reproductive areas, and their biological parameters.

Much of the Marine Laboratory's research concerns ichthyology. The fish reference
collection is one of the finest in the State, and served as the model for the invertebrate reference

The fish collection has also received a large number of specimens from the Hourglass
sampling. Data analyses of approximately 300 different species (over 26,000 individuals) will
provide information on seasonality, abundance, growth rates, food habits, spawning, and other
important parameters on a majority of these species.

A major research effort of several years' duration on the red grouper Enpinephelus morio
has investigated the age, growth, and reproduction of this valuable sport and commercial fish.

A number of other projects are also being conducted by the ichthyology section. The
following are some major efforts: 1) studies on the age, growth, and reproduction of the black
sea bass and the red porgy; 2) compilation of spawning times of Florida's marine fishes; and 3)
monitoring the Florida landings of thread herring to obtain better information on the basic
biology of this species.

A major area of the larval fish research of the laboratory deals with leptocephalid forms.
These odd larvae are stages in the life history of the bonefish, ladyfish, tarpon, and eels, and
must be studied to understand reproduction and growth in these important sport fishes. Studies
on the larval flatfishes are currently being initiated. The remainder of the larval fish studies are
primarily involved with king and Spanish mackerels.

Detailed studies on biology, spawning, migrations, and life history of Spanish and king
mackerels are the major concern of the pelagic fish section. Length-frequency monitoring of the
commercial catches has been conducted throughout the State during the past year. In addition,
otolith and gonad samples were gathered and will be analyzed to obtain age and growth
evaluations of mackerel populations along the Florida coasts.

At the present time all permits for taking small wild pompano for stocking purposes are
issued through the Department of Natural Resources. These permits are designed to help the
potential mariculturist acquire sufficient stocks to test his pond facilities. A successful pompano
operation, however, will not be able to depend on "natural" stocks. Consequently, techniques
for rearing pompano from the egg are being established. Parent stocks of pompano and black sea
bass are presently being maintained. Black sea bass have been spawned successfully and work on
pompano is now in progress.

Several species of Florida clams have commercial possibilities, but lack of biological
knowledge and reliance on inefficient hand-harvesting techniques have prevented full utilization
of Florida's tremendous clam populations. Consequently, the Marine Laboratory is conducting
studies on mechanical harvesting equipment to determine its effectiveness and its effect on

bottom habitats. A Maryland soft-shell clam dredge (the R/V Venus), and a Nantucket dredge
placed on the R/V Hernan Cortez, are being used in these studies. On the basis of these studies,
it will be determined what restrictions, if any, should be applied to the use of such dredges so
that Florida's marine resources will not be damaged.

The Marine Research Laboratory currently has one of the most extensive oyster research
programs of any laboratory in the United States. The artificial oyster reef construction program,
described under the Apalachicola Field Laboratory, is only one of four major studies currently
in progress on this important mollusk. The laboratory is also providing prepared samples of
Florida oysters to the two federal laboratories to assist their efforts in pesticide and trace metal
content analyses of these animals.

The Marine Laboratory achieved a major success in oyster nutrition several years ago when
extensive laboratory tests proved that finely ground cornmeal (10 to 25p particle size) could be
used as a feed to fatten adult oysters. Since oysters could now be fattened at any time of the
year, the possibility of establishing year-round commercial oyster production was presented.

Studies to determine the optimal temperature for oyster fattening are being conducted in
temperature-controlled rooms; studies to determine optimal salinity for oyster fattening are
now in progress. When they are completed, these data and the temperature data will be analyzed
to show optimal oyster fattening under differing combinations of temperature and salinity.

Most commercial production in oyster reefs is restricted to the gaps (breaks in the reef
allowing tidal flow) where the oysters are in good current and under water most of the time.
Cedar Key, on Florida's upper west coast, is in such an area, and large, mature oyster reefs are
common. Artificial gaps were cut in Corrigan's reef (the largest of the Cedar Key oyster reefs) to
determine if such gaps would increase the productive oyster areas. After a period of six weeks
an average shell growth of 3/4 of an inch was characteristic of the oysters checked. The oysters
in these new gaps are now being commercially harvested and the cutting of additional gaps is

The research program on fungal parasites was expanded to study the species occurring in
Florida oysters. A major publication, now in preparation, presents the results of the first two
years of study. Approximately ten new species of these important fungi are being described in
this treatise.

Since its inception in 1955 the Marine Research Laboratory has studied Florida's
fish-killing Red Tide, which is caused by a toxic species of dinoflagellate called Gymnodinium
breve. This single-celled organism is present year-round in low numbers but when factors and
conditions are just right its numbers begin to increase tremendously. These are called Red Tide
"blooms." If one of the factors which enable the Red Tide blooms to occur could be controlled,
then the Red Tide itself could be controlled.

The laboratory is conducting studies to establish the importance of particular factors in
triggering Red Tide blooms.

Research has also shown that there are other species of toxic dinoflagellates responsible for
marine mortalities in Florida. Although they are relatively rare, further studies are being
conducted on these forms.

The dinoflagellates section was originally established to study Gymnodinium breve and
other dinoflagellates along the west coast of Florida, and many publications concerning these
important phytoplankters have been produced. Naturally occurring Red Tides continue to be
monitored and studied to increase our understanding of their formation and movements. Upon
the initiation of Project Hourglass, most of this section's efforts turned toward the continuing
and detailed analysis of more than 200 species of dinoflagellates taken in this major systematic
sampling program.

A similar study was conducted on the diatoms of the first twelve months of Hourglass
samples. Over 190 species of these important primary producers were identified and studied.

Oysters and other filter feeding shellfish are known to concentrate certain elements and
substances which occur in the water around them. One of these substances is the Red Tide
toxin. Tests are being conducted to assess the effects of Red Tide on oyster populations.

Since the Marine Laboratory was already in the process of developing tests for toxicity in
oysters, it was decided to expand these studies to include other marine toxins. Consequently,
preliminary studies on puffer toxins and ciguatera are being run concurrently with the Red Tide
toxin studies.

Figure 70. Monitoring and Analysis of Red Tide (left) and Spiny Lobster Postlarvae
Specimens (right)

The mass artificial culture of Gymnodinium breve for the toxicity studies is the major
effort of the cultures section. However, a significant number of other species of dinoflagellates
and diatoms are also being maintained in flask or tube culture to provide information on
morphological forms and nutrient requirements of different species.

A catalogued reference collection of Florida's macroscopic marine algae (wet and dry
specimens) was initiated several years ago and is still expanding as new algal studies bring more
specimens into the laboratory.

Since the completion of the algal survey along the west coast of Florida most of the
laboratory algal studies have been concerned with the algae taken in Hourglass samples. Volume
I, Part II of the "Memoirs" series entitled "Benthic Marine Algae" (in press) discusses the results
of these efforts.

The chemistry section is responsible for most of the chemical analyses required by other
laboratory projects. These have included trace metal analysis of seawater and soils, salinity
titrations, dissolved oxygen and Kjeldahl determinations, and many others.

A study is currently in progress to determine the amount of fluoride in fish protein
concentrate made from Florida trash fish. The amount of this particular element is considered
critical for USDA approval of any fish protein concentrate made from fish other than northern
hake. Additional studies will be conducted to determine the amount of this fluoride which is
chemically bound as insoluble calcium fluoride.

Research has shown that naturally occurring chelators such as humic acids are important
factors in the successful blooming of a Red Tide. These humates are carried from the swamps
and marshlands of Florida by the rivers to the estuarine and nearshore waters. Consequently, an
intensive study was initiated to determine the types and amounts of humic acids which are
found throughout the year in selected Florida rivers. Analysis for important trace metals was
also included.

The number of publications issued by the Marine Laboratory averages over 30 per year and
is increasing steadily. Most of the research results are published in one of the Laboratory's own
scientific series, although many appear in appropriate professional journals. The laboratory
publication series includes Special Scientific Reports, Scientific Leaflets, Educational Bulletins
and Leaflets, Technical Reports, Professional Papers, and the newly established Memoirs of the
Hourglass Cruises.

Through these various outlets all research results accomplished by the Marine Laboratory
are made available to scientists, who will build or improve their own studies through its use; to
legislators interested in formulating better regulations for protecting marine resources; to sport
and commercial fishermen interested in improving their catches; and to others who will benefit
from such information.

Figure 71. FDNR Marine Laboratory Invertebrate Reference Collection, One of
Largest in Southeastern U.S. (left), and Library (right)

Each year the Laboratory receives thousands of inquiries from all over the world. Civic
clubs, schools, and other organizations formed the estimated audience of over 10,000 people
addressed last year by laboratory biologists. Laboratory biologists have appeared on many
television shows, reaching audiences of several hundred thousand people. Additional public
contact is made through the large number of groups who visit the Laboratory for tours.

Key West Field Laboratory

Acceptance of artificial reefs as a means of increasing fishing success has been widespread.
However, little quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of various types of reefs as fish
harboring and attracting devices has been accomplished in Florida waters. Such studies will be
initiated in the near future at the Key West Field Laboratory. The colonization of new reefs will
be observed and comparison will be made of the effectiveness of different types of reefs.

Spiny lobster research is continuing at the Key West Field Laboratory with emphasis on
the tagging of adult lobsters to determine movement and migration patterns. Efforts are also
being made to determine the habitats occupied by postlarval lobsters up to about 4 to 5 inches
in total length.

Stuart Field Laboratory

Spiny lobster research still dominates the activities of this field laboratory. Previous
studies, recently published, have discussed the abundance and occurrence of postlarval lobsters
in Witham habitats (a collecting device) placed near the St. Lucie Inlet. Growth rates of
subadult and adult lobsters maintained in captivity were also discussed.

To determine where the late phyllosome larvae are undergoing metamorphosis into the
transparent puerulus, extensive plankton sampling between Florida and the Bahamas has been
initiated. Larval fish collected in these samples are retained for study at the main laboratory in
St. Petersburg. Research is also in progress to determine the best method for shipping live spiny

Sanford Field Laboratory

The State of Florida has obtained matching federal funds to study the life history and
biology of the American shad in the St. Johns River. This study was initiated in the spring of
1968 and is planned to continue for at least three years. Serious questions have arisen
concerning the future of this important sport and commercial species because of pollution and
other changes taking place in its environment. An increased knowledge of the spawning area,
their extent, and their relative importance will enable us to better protect this species.

Apalachicola Field Laboratory

A similar Federal-State matching program has been established to study the Alabama shad
in the Apalachicola and adjacent rivers. This species has a relatively good potential as a sport
fish in this area but little is known of its basic biology and life history.

Another Federal-State matching program is also in progress at Apalachicola. This project
provides for the construction of artificial oyster reefs to be built in potential oyster-growing
areas of Apalachicola Bay. Past research has shown that reefs constructed in this manner
become permanent oyster-producing areas, thus increasing the acreage where commercial
production can take place. Oysters settling on these new reefs generally begin reaching
commercial size in about two years. Over 150 acres of these reefs have been constructed since
this project was initiated.

Crystal River Field Laboratory

Extreme concern has arisen recently in regard to the heated effluents being added to the
natural environment from the cooling systems of power plants and other industries. Nuclear
power plants, because of the tremendous volumes of water needed for cooling, have been of
prime concern to worried conservationists. In reality, relatively little factual evidence is at hand
concerning the temperature tolerances of tropical and subtropical species. Consequently,
extensive research is now under way to determine these tolerances for selected species.

Ecological analysis of the outfall area will be made before and after the increase in heated
effluents from the Crystal River power plant. In addition, selected species occurring in the
Crystal River area will be maintained under high temperature conditions to determine tolerances
and biotic effects, using specially constructed temperature controlled rooms located at the St.
Petersburg Laboratory.

Fernandina Field Laboratory

In the past few years increasing concern has arisen over the reduction of blue crab catches,
especially in North and South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. This concern was heightened
considerably in the last two years after massive crab mortalities, apparently caused by an

unknown disease, were reported in South Carolina and Georgia, followed by extremely low blue
crab production. On this basis, federal disaster funds were recently approved for a four-state
cooperative program to study the blue crab and the apparent disease. Special emphasis is being
directed toward investigations of reported blue crab mortalities and basic population dynamics.
A new field laboratory has been established to house this project.


West Florida Arthropod Research Laboratory
Panama City

The West Florida Arthropod Research Laboratory is located on a 10 acre site on North
Bay, Panama City. The mission of this research arm of the Florida State Board of Health is to
conduct scientific investigations on the biology and control of salt-marsh mosquitoes, sand flies,
and the stable fly (dog fly), which propagate in shallow water areas of the sea.

The laboratory has a full-time staff of 12 personnel under the direction of Dr. A. J. Rogers.
The physical plant consists of three buildings and a boat house valued at approximately

liii i

1. '

Figure 72. West Florida Arthropod Research Laboratory Insectory (left); Boat House and
Dock (right)

The activities of this laboratory during 1968 and 1969 were largely devoted to the
development of new procedures and materials for control of medically important insect pests,
including development of low volume aerial sprays for control of mosquitoes and the stable fly.
A highlight of recent ecological studies of the stable fly was the finding of large numbers of
stable flies reproducing in deposits of eel grass on the shores of lakes.

Future plans include biological and control studies of deer flies and related blood-sucking
Diptera in addition to those biting flies already under investigation. A continuing project is the
surveillance of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations of Florida.


Chattem Marine Research Laboratory

This laboratory reflects the growing research interest of the parent company, Chattem
Drug and Chemical Company, in the field of oceanography. The basic research program is to
explore marine plants and animals as a source of possible drug products and/or information,
although a portion of the total effort is devoted to the study of mariculture.

An integral part of the drug research program is an attempt to develop meaningful
screening techniques using small sea creatures as test animals.

The laboratory is sufficiently equipped and staffed to carry out basic techniques in both
chemical and biological investigations.

Figure 73. Chattem Marine Research I I
Laboratory Specimen Tanks

Florida Marine Research Laboratory
Battelle Memorial Institute
Daytona Beach

The Florida Marine Research Laboratory of Battelle Memorial Institute is located on the
Atlantic coast approximately 12 miles south of Daytona Beach. The facility faces both the
Atlantic Ocean and the Halifax River (Intracoastal Waterway), thus providing for a variety of
environments. It has been operated by the Columbus Laboratories of Battelle since 1948 as an
applied research and engineering facility.

The Columbus Laboratories is one of four major research centers operated by Battelle
Memorial Institute, an independent, not-for-profit contract research institute which has a
worldwide staff of more than 7000.

Research activities at the Florida Marine Research Laboratories involve two primary areas:
aquaculture, and the study of materials and equipment in a variety of subtropical environments,
including marine exposure.

Figure 74. Battelle Memorial Institute Florida Marine Research Laboratory

Current studies in aquaculture involve raising salt water pompano in an experimental fish
farm. The farm consists of 6 ponds or raceways 6 feet deep. Four of the raceways are
rectangular, measuring 50 feet. Pumps continuously circulate seawater to the raceways from the
nearby Atlantic.
A major objective of the aquaculture research is to develop technical and economic aspects
of fish farming through pilot programs. In the pompano study, for instance, it has been
necessary to solve several challenging problems, including the design and construction of
suitable pools and raceways that will provide the most livable and efficient home for the fish;
foods, diets, and other factors that affect fish growth, such as water temperature, pond size,
water aeration, and water flow rate; and identification and control of diseases to which farm
fish are vulnerable. Initially, Battelle scientists were concerned about possible feeding problems
since the pompano, in their natural habitat, feed in the surf. Experience has shown, however,
that they can be conditioned to feed on the quiet surface of the ponds.


Figure 75. Battelle Scientists Investigate
Effects of Antifouling Paint Coatings
on Metal Surfaces

Figure 76. Baby Pompano Being Fed in Aquaculture
Studies at Battelle Florida Marine
Research Laboratory

The Battelle scientists anticipate that the pompano should reach the marketable size of 12
inches after about a year, the same time required for their growth in the ocean. Although the
research is directed toward production of the pompano, an expensive fish, the knowledge gained
may be applicable in raising other commercial species such as the mullet or red snapper.

In studies of the effects of the marine and subtropical environments on materials and
equipment, research has involved atmospheric exposure 3 miles inland, atmospheric exposure
near the oceanfront, alternate exposure to seawater and air under the influence of tides, and
submerged exposure in seawater.

Numerous materials, coatings, preservatives, and devices have been evaluated as an integral
part of Battelle's research in such areas as materials development and equipment.

For eight years, ending with completion of the program in 1964, Battelle also conducted
studies at the Florida laboratories on desalination of seawater through solar distillation. The
research, conducted for the United States Office of Saline Water, involved a variety of solar still
designs which led to improvement in terms of performance and economics. Some of these
designs have been the forerunners of commercial units that have been installed in such areas of
the world as Australia, Spain, Greece, and North Africa.

Florida Ocean Sciences Institute, Inc.
Deerfield Beach

The Florida Ocean Sciences Institute (FOSI), a non-profit research corporation, was
founded in 1966 to further knowledge in both basic and applied oceanography. The location of
the Institute is ideal for its research efforts. Directly adjacent to the main office is a marina for
the berthing of its 12-boat fleet, and 2 inlets enabling immediate access to its ocean operating

An additional $250,000 worth of scientific equipment and technical hardware is owned
by the Institute, including current meters, temperature recorders, fluorometers, a towed
submarine, and the Hydrolab, an underwater habitat.

The staff at Florida Ocean Sciences Institute consists of 30 full or part-time scientists and
technicians and is expanding. A broad spectrum of ocean science and engineering fields is
represented. In close proximity to FOSI is Florida Atlantic University which has many related
disciplines of study. Although no legal affiliation exists, the University and the Florida Ocean
Sciences Institute benefit by a close working association.

Gulf Atlantic Oceanographic Research Society, Inc.

The Gulf Atlantic Oceanographic Research Society is a nonprofit corporation which does
basic research in the field of marine biology with particular emphasis on the reproduction and

growth of marine organisms which inhabit the neritic zone. A further purpose of the Society is
to provide in the Pensacola area a science-aquarium facility available not only to local colleges
and secondary schools, but also to inland universities and schools and the general public. The
facility will include a modern biological laboratory located on the Gulf of Mexico. Construction
on the science-aquarium facility will begin during the summer of 1970.

Because the neritic zone of the Gulf of Mexico in the Escambia County area is principally
bare sand and mud and supports very little growth of algae, beds of artificial seagrass are being
used to provide a place of attachment for the algae and small invertebrates which serve as food
for the fish to be studied.

Mr. Peter M. Lutjens, Director of Ocean Engineering, has conceived and built a number of
underwater research vessels, two of which are in use by the Society. The smaller submersible, a
500 pound, 5 foot long, electrically powered one-man submersible designed for operating
depths of 200 meters, is light enough to be handled by conventional winches from medium
sized ships. The larger, a 20 ton, 32 foot long, diesel powered, 8-man submersible designed for
operating depths of 200 meters, has a 3000 mile surface range and can be navigated to any dive
location within its range. It has provisions for diver lockout, and was designed primarily as a
mobile undersea laboratory and work station.

Figure 77. Lut/ens Submersible, 20 Ton
Underwater R V in Use by GA ORS

St. Augustine

Marineland was designed primarily as an underwater photographic studio and scientific
research institution. Its appeal as a popular tourist attraction was a secondary consideration,
although this has provided the impetus for many of the scientific studies which have been

The function of the Marineland Research Laboratory is closely tied to the marine exhibits
and other displays; in order to maintain the specimens in good health and to promote water
clarity, much original research not necessarily related directly to the exhibits is conducted. An
extensive research library on marine sciences is maintained.

Figure 78. Marineland Researchers Removing Porpoise from Holding Tank (left) and Conducting
Hearing Experiment (right)

Numerous births have allowed scientists an opportunity to observe the nursing and
weaning of newborn porpoises, and to conduct research projects dealing with porpoise anatomy,
physiology, and behavior. Studies of the porpoise's life cycle are continuing at Marineland, and
additional studies are well under way in communication in several cetacean species. Joint
projects have been inaugurated with the University of Florida in sleep studies, sexual behavior,
reproductive cycle, health problems, drug research, systematics and distribution of cetaceans,
and systematics of fishes.

Three cetacean experimental tanks are in operation, in addition to two holding tanks
which are sometimes available. One has an underwater viewing port, built for the most
advantageous photography. It is planned that an addition to the present laboratory building will
be made which will be temperature and humidity controlled for housing the library and
electronic gear.

The marine biota of the waters adjacent to Marineland is generally warm-temperature in
character, though a number of the more eurythermal tropical forms are present. In its proximity
to several distinct marine and brackish water environments, the laboratory is favorably located.
The tidal zone of the coquina sand shoreline gives place a few hundred yards south of the
studios to extensive rock outcroppings made up primarily of coquina shell with pockets of
sandstone, which support more than half a dozen species of algae, as well as a number of

A mile north of Marineland, Matanzas Inlet connects the ocean with the Intracoastal
Waterway. Gorgonians are found in the inlet; and small bays, tide pools, and tidal creeks
constitute habitats for a wide variety of invertebrates and fishes.

Along the Intracoastal Waterway to the west of Marineland are numerous brackish water
habitats for diverse forms of aquatic life. Extensive oyster beds occur in these waters, and clams

(notably Venus and Pinna), crabs, shrimps, and fishes are abundant. Plankton samples may
conveniently be taken by suspending a net into the Waterway from the Marineland dock.

The St. Augustine Reef lies in 10 to 12 fathoms of water about 10 miles offshore from the
city of St. Augustine. It is frequently visited by the collecting crew and is a source of sponges,
corals, gorgonians, octopuses, crabs, and bottom fishes.

Qualified investigators who wish to undertake scientific research at Marineland are wel-
comed. No charge is made for use of the laboratory space or facilities when they are available.
The services of the collecting department are also at the disposal of scientists who require
specimens for study. Arrangements for the use of the facility must be made in advance in

Miami Seaquarium

The Miami Seaquarium, world's largest tropical marine aquarium, is located on 57 acres
within the Virginia Key marine science complex. In addition to conducting its own research in
connection with the maintenance of its collections, the Seaquarium cooperates in the research
of the neighboring Tropical Atlantic Biological Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Interior's
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, and the University of Miami's Institute of Marine and
Atmospheric Sciences. Scientists from these agencies working at the Seaquarium have pioneered
in numerous projects relating to marine biology, and specimens have been supplied to others
doing research throughout the nation.

Figure 79. Miami Seaquarium Figure 80. Seaquarium Vessel Used
to Collect Specimens

Research activities range from experimental fish-farming to blood studies of manatees.
Projects have included research in the field of water chemistry, and in the ultraviolet treatment
of infection in marine fishes. Working jointly with the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, the
Seaquarium laboratory staff is presently in the second year of a project to determine the
working parameters for raising pompano commercially and reseeding the sea at the same time.