Group Title: Circular ;
Title: Twenty-three poultry questions and answers /
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 Material Information
Title: Twenty-three poultry questions and answers /
Series Title: Circular ;
Physical Description: 7 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Sanborn, N. W ( Nathan Willard ), b. 1859
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: 1919
Copyright Date: 1919
Subject: Poultry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Poultry industry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Nathan W. Sanborn.
General Note: "September, 1919."
General Note: "Florida Cooperative Extension"--P. 2.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00102029
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 226301079

Full Text

September, 1919


P. H. ROLFS, Director


Is Florida soil fitted for good poultry work?
The rolling lands of the elevated sections and the lighter lands
t make up much of the State, are well suited to poultry keep-
It is well to avoid locations where water stands for days
er a rain. As a rule, the lighter lands are more suitable for
ultry, tho some good poultry work is being done in all parts of
State. Land that will grow good crops for feed and supply fine
ultry pasture, in sections that are healthy and near good
ighbors, can be bought for around $40 an acre. The best lo-
ions for poultry call for good drainage, slightly elevated sec-
ns, well away from centers known to breed mosquitoes, and
thin 50 miles of a good market. Do not buy land until it has
en seen. The county agent, found in nearly all counties of the
ate, should be consulted before buying, and his advice is gen-
lly to be trusted. The Poultry Department of the Agri-
ltural College, Gainesville, or the Experiment Station Staff,
y be called on for help and advice. Florida has its own prob-
s and these men will prove useful.

Are weather and other conditions favorable to poultry keep-
Weather conditions generally, will help win success with
ultry in Florida. Remember that the State is equal in size to
e six New England states, and varies much in local conditions.
ith no snow, few freezes, rare frosts, green succulent feeds can
had twelve months of the year. The greatest rainfall comes
ring the warm months, when these showers cool the air and
dlp grow the big farming crops of the State. The length of

eular 8

Florida Cooperative Extension

daylight runs from ten hours in winter to over 14 hours in st
mer. No need of lighting hen houses in Florida to get large
yields! Absence of stormy weather in winter gives all day
the stock to range out in grove or field. In fact the hens seld
spend much time at the feed hoppers in the morning, u
they have filled up on insects and green feed of the range,
the best laying hens are still out seeking for last stray bugs
weed seeds as night comes on. With the same good care tha
needed thru the northern states, Florida poultry keeping is
at all hard.

3. What home grown feeds are available for poultry?
The feeds to be had for poultry are corn, oats, rice, pean
chufas, and shallu sorghum. Pasture for poultry is easily
by using rye, rape, oats, Bermuda grass, cowpeas, sorghu
peanuts and beggarweed. Some of the waste products are av
able, such as cottonseed meal, peanut and peanut feed meal, a
velvet bean meal.

4. What is used for feed?
The scratch feeds in common use are corn, oats, kaffir coi
and wheat. Equal weights of corn and oats make up the ust
scratch feed, and some poultry have been giving good summer e:
yields on oats alone for scratch. The mashes have been largE
those to be had at stores and supply houses, but difficulty
getting these has led to various home-made mixtures. Mai
poultrymen are using some peanut feed meal in the mash, and
few are trying velvet bean feed meal. Green, succulent fee
and poultry pasture help reduce cost of feeding and mainta
better health in the flock.

5. Since the reported yield of corn is so small, why is corn su
gested in the ration?
While the yield of corn per acre is small, it must be remez
bered that on the same field with the corn and at the same tim
peanuts or velvet beans, perhaps both of these, are grown. Whi
the farmer is producing 15 bushels of corn on common unfe
tilized land, he is also raising 20 bushels of peanuts or 10 bushe
of velvet beans. A few hundred pounds of fertilizer will large
increase the yield of these crops. Poultry will help to grow far
crops, help to build up the land, and help to succeed with citri
or other crop;.

Twenty-Three Poultry Questions and Answers

Nhat about animal food for poultry?
animall foods have been scarce and high priced. With abun-
t pasture, and plenty of land to grow feed for cows, added
fits could be realized from the dairy cow by feeding waste
k products to poultry. With three thousand miles of shore
it should not be necessary for Florida to go to the slaughter
ses of the north for meat scrap and fish meal. Milk is the
Best, early feed for little chicks. Farmers who have surplus
k give it to their pigs, not realizing that it is worth more
the growing of small chicks.
Is it necessary to sprout oats for Florida hens?
their feeds are available for supplying succulent feed for
ltry. Rye, rape and oats make the best of winter pasture,
d beggarweed, peanuts, collards, cabbage and other crops can
easily raised thru the other months.

What size are the Florida flocks?
Backyard flocks, in towns and cities, average around a dozen
ing hens. The farm flocks vary, with perhaps 30 hens as the
erage. There are very few commercial poultry farms as yet,
there are some with a history of 25 years' successful work,
d the number is increasing yearly. Poultry farming has usually
en conducted in connection with some other profitable farm
p. This will change with the years, and the real poultryman,
e man who is willing to slowly build up a business, need not
r Florida's conditions.

What is the quality of poultry in Florida?
Just like that of other states. Possibly a third of the poultry
the State is standard bred, while nearly all the poultry we
e as we go about the State carry some of the blood of Leg-
rn, Rock, Wyandotte, or Rhode Island Red breeds in their
akeup. While we have no figures, the most popular seems to
Sthe Leghorns, with Rhode Island Reds and Plymouth Rocks
t far behind, and the Buff and White Wyandotte pushing to
e front. The boys and girls' clubs deserve much credit for the
production of purebred poultry.

What is the best breed for Florida conditions?
There is no best breed or variety for Florida. It is safe to
elect any of the popular breeds, say the American varieties and

Florida Cooperative Extension

the Leghorns, as suits fancy for size, shape and color. T
by care build up a strain, that will excel in egg product
Given the wide range of the citrus grove it is hard to fin
better layer than the Leghorn hen. Under confinement,
medium weight breeds seem to do better than either the sm
or large breeds. It is advised that an active type of fowl be br
one that is under standard weight rather than over. Such he
generally prove better layers.

11. Where is the best place to keep hens and raise chicks?
Full grown hens do well under most conditions. Chicks ne
wider range and better care than can be given in the back ya
or small lot. There is no place like the good farm to raise ni
chicks and get the "full egg basket". The time is coming wh
most of our chicks will be grown on the farm, the town poult
owner buying his pullets in the fall from the country produce
The farm flock, a small side issue at first, may in time beco
the main source of income on some farms. It is far safer
combine, at first, a few pigs and cows, with the poultry venture

12. What are the markets for eggs and poultry?
The very best market has been almost overlooked, and that
the home table. The poultry owner should first supply h
family needs, and then help out the local and state market
Next to the home market comes the demand for fresh eggs f
the winter tourists. Lastly is the call for poultry products froi
the few large cities, still growing, with a good Cuban market fo
such surplus as may be produced in the future. Young chich
sell for three times the prices of a few years ago, and good broi
ers or capons even more. Last June farmers were selling liv
chickens from their wagons and autos at the Miami curb for 5
cents a pound, and eggs for 60 cents a dozen. This was in th
dull season, not in the rush of tourist travel. Eggs sell for 3
to 90 cents a dozen, more at over 50 cents than below that price
Live hens are selling at 30 to 40 cents, and young chicks at 31
to 55 cents a pound.

13. When is the best time to hatch chicks in Florida?
There is no best time to hatch chicks in Florida. The earl
hatching campaign begins in south Florida in late December an(
closes in the northern counties in early May. Many farmers als<
hatch the chicks in September, thinking that a good time. Thesi

Twenty-Three Poultry Questions and Answers

te summer chicks avoid the heat and rains of midsummer, and
ten escape chicken pox, which usually appears in July and
ugust. Good chicks can be hatched any month of the year, pro-
ded proper care is given and insect pests kept down.

Shall hens or incubators be used to hatch chicks?
Artificial hatching can be done here and it is to be advised
here large numbers of chicks are required. Nine tenths of the
watching is done with hens, tho incubators are getting common,
d are more and more in use. Thousands of day old chicks
ere brought into the State the past season by express or parcel
ost, but this will not be necessary in the future as several com-
ercial hatcheries are being established.

5. What insects are harmful to poultry?
Fleas, mites and ticks are the special pests of poultry, also
e mosquito. All these can be kept under control, and there
re some sections of the State where they are rare.

6. What are the diseases to guard against?
Chicken pox soreheadd), ptomaine poisoning (limberneck),
oup, and canker.

7. What sort of buildings are needed for poultry in Florida?
Florida poultry houses should be simple and inexpensive. All
hat is required is protection from rains and winds. A water
eight roof, a closed wall on the side of prevailing cold winds,
ith wire netting to keep out "vermin" of the larger sort, is all
hat is needed. Fifty to seventy-five cents per hen should cover
1l cost of housing, and many flocks have been housed at even
ess expense. The house should be made dry and comfortable.
he hen spends most of her time out of doors.

8. When do the hens do their best laying?
The heaviest egg production is in March and April, but the
field is satisfactory in January and February, as well as May
to August.

19. When is the moulting period?
Hens moult in July, August and September, the best layers
moulting last of all. Eggs set from hens laying in August, giving

Florida Cooperative Extension

the much desired September chicks, are likely to give pulled
of high egg record production.

20. What general methods are practiced in raising chicks?
Chicks are raised every way-good and bad. Too many chic
are lost because of lack of care. The best method is where the
are given the range of garden or truck patch, with access t
plenty of green feed, good shade of trees at all times, and house
where filth and insects are absent. Where the range is that
the pecan or citrus grove, little animal feed need be given.
box of meat scrap within reach will make sure the feeding o
an abundance of animal food. Chicks will eat little meat so lon
as the supply of bugs holds out. Yarded chicks need constant
feeding of meat or fish scrap, or milk in some form. Many chic
are reared with no feed given by the owner, as they are expected
to pick up all they require in the field or around the farm build
ings. Such chicks seldom make satisfactory size, and usually
lay later than is expected.

21. What is the egg yield?
The uncared for farm hen seldom lays over eighty eggs
year. Well fed flocks, of several hundred hens, have records o
an average of over twelve dozen eggs per hen. One small, back
yard flock, well fed, let out on the lawn near night and not shu
in until eight the next morning, has averaged 175 eggs per hen
for the last nine months, and is still laying over 50% daily.
The egg yield is good in Florida, where proper care and feed is
given, and at the present prices of feed and poultry products,
hens return a fair profit.

22. What are the principal disadvantages under which poultry
is raised?
Taking life too easy works against poultry success in Florida,
as elsewhere. So many things are in favor of the work in Flor-
ida that some of the essentials in good poultry keeping are likely
to be neglected. Where insect pests are not kept under control
there is loss of vitality in the poultry, increasing cost of produc-
tion, and cutting seriously into profits.

23. What are the chances of failure in poultry keeping in
No more danger of failure here than elsewhere. No more

Twenty-Three Poultry Questions and Answers

ilures in poultry than in other lines of work. To play safe, the
pultry venture should be made on a small scale. Begin with a
ew hens, increase 50% yearly, reach the limit of your capacity,
nd stop. The best place for poultry is on the farm. The farm
ock is more sure to be profitable than either the village flock
r the commercial poultry farm. The farm flock is the most
promising poultry problem in this State, and should be carefully
worked out. All in all, conditions are favorable to profitable
oultry keeping in Florida.

Type of Fowl Doing Good Work in Florida

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