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Group Title: residences of Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio
Title: The Residences of Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102022/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Residences of Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Currais, Jorge L.
Publisher: College of Architecture, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1975
Copyright Date: 1975
Subject: Architecture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Architecture -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
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Bibliographic ID: UF00102022
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Full Text




SPRING, 1975


It was my intent in this project to study the residential

architecture of one small area of the country that being Euclid

Avenue in Cleveland, Ohio. I started out with an extremely narrow

topic so that I could do an in depth study of the evolution of that

architecture. Ideally, I wanted to search out several specific ex-

amp3les from each different period in. the history of Cleveland, ana-

lyze all the forces that shaved the structure, and study the finral

result and its characteristics. As I collected my sources, however,

I discovered that the diversity in the designs was too great and my

sources too limited in order to nroceed with ny project as I had

origina.lly intended. So, I broadened miy topic to include more examples

of the residences and tried. to create a "collageF" on the history of

the Avenue. In short, that is how the project stands now.

M~y project is a survey of the residences of E;uclid Avenue in

Cleveland from 1796 to 1900. It takes a look at each house and

explores the history of each and the history of its owners. In a

larger scope, the project traces the stylistic trends in the He-

sidjentiall Architecture of the city and analyzes the forces which

created those styles.

I. THEs PION~EER, SET~TLE~ iUTi 1796 1815

The city of Cleveland was designed to be the capital of the

Western Reserve of Connecticut. The origin and definition of this

area go back to 1776. At the end of the Revolutionary War, seven of

the thirteen original colonies claimed land extending westward to

the Mississippi Hiver or beyond, Connecticut's claim stemmed from

the charter granted by King Charles the second on April 23, 1662.,

The abandonment of these claims by several states was due to the

Articles of Confederation. In making her cession in 1786, Connecticut

reserved an extensive tract of land; 120 miles west from the Pennsyl-

va~nia border between 41 and 42 degrees north latitudes. Tihis tract

was then called the Western Heserve. Coninecticut gave up political

control of the area in 1800.

In 1786, steps were already being taken to dispose of th~e lasnds.

Commission of three ;?en was anointed to survey the land east of

the CuyvahoFga Hiver into the townships six miles square and sell it

for six shilling~s an acre. At the time, however, the ind~ian~s of then

a~rea were not pac~ified, and only one sale was made due to the h;igh

risk, The sale was that of 24,000 acres to general Samuel H.~ Parsons.

In Mlay, 1795, a new plan was devised to dispose of the lands.

A treatyr of the same year confined the indians of the lands west of

the Cuyahoga River and this encouraged buyers, By september of that

year the entire tract of land had been sold for $1,200,000 to the

Connecticut Land Convany.

In. the sprinf- of 1796, under the leadership of hoses Cleveland,

a party was organized to survey the Reserve and to locate and lay

out its principal town on an appropriate site. The site chosen was

on the shore~ of Lake Erie at the mouth of the Cuyahoga Hiver.

The original map of the city of Cleveland laid down a ten acre

public square bisected by two wide streets; Superior, 132 feet wide,

At this stage in the town's development, its inhabitants were

far to occupied with the back-breaking tasks of clearing the land

and maintaining themselves in the face of the rigors of the pioneer

life to be concerned with appearances. Their dwellings were those

which couzld7 be constructed most easily and with t~he least waste of

time. Log cabins which required considerably less work and also less

skill than the frame houses they had knownr in New England could be

quickly erected, using the logs thee builder had, in any case, to cut

in order to clear his land. Most of them were certainly very modest,

consisting of one or perhaps two rooms, and theyv were usually confined

to one floor. The logs used were some fifteen to eighteen feet in

length and were notched near the ends so as to lock together at the

corners. The cracks between logs were stuffed with moss, andrl windows

were frequently omitted. The door was na~lrrow and often closed by a

blanket. The chimney consisted of crossed logs, fire-proofed by clay,

Window glass was a luxury and the floor might well be packed earth

at first, though as soon as possible a "puncheon" floor would be laid,

The roof consisted of slit "'shakes", until time could be found for

the laborious ta5ske of splittingr out shingles. Only three framed d-well-

inPgs were found. in the town. All the structural members and siding

were built with hand tools. Few nails were required as most joists

were mortised and tenoned.

The only structure adequately described wsas the first Court House

erected in 1812-1814, by Levi Johnson, a ca~rpente~r. The Court House

was about twenty-five feet by fifty feet and two stories in height.

The exterior of the building was covered with clapboards and Dainted

red. It was a simple, oblong structure without adornment of any

kind. After almost two decades of existence, Cleveland was still a

very primitive place. Despite its frontier character, it was on the

brink of rapid development and increasing prosperity. (Please see

the following pagfe for a picture of the Court House.)

ran roughly east and west, and Ontario, 90 feet wide, ran north and

south, Using these as axes a large tract was described by four streets:

Lake street (lakeside avenue) on the north, Huron on the south, Water

(west 9th) on the west, and Erie (east 9th) on the east. Four shorter

streets served to extend the town east, south, and west: Bath street

(vacated), Federal (st, clair), Miami (east 6th), and Ohio (central


The tracts described by the main streets were divided into lots

of 2 x 10 chains. They were regular in shape and two acres in extent.

Two hundred and twenty-two lots were laid out on the map of the city.

The principal features of the working plan of Cleveland were then

completed. As the lots were purchased,. new streets were laid out along

the dividing lines between lots.

The town remained for several years little more than a chart drawn

from survey notes. On the site the only evidence of a settlement were

a scattering of log cabins and a woods road or two where the avenues

were planned. Many thincrs influenced the slow growth of the city,

First, the journeyy from the east was hard, since there were no roads,

Secondly, there was very little in Cleveland to attract new immigrants.

Third, the land was all virgin woods and every foot had to be cut,

burned, and grubbed. Lastly, a platrue almost depopulated the town by

1800, bu.t a much larger number lived in the outskirts.

The townm gorew slowly after 1800. The threat of the British on Lake

Erie frightened away many during the War of 1812. By 1815, the pop-

ulation of Cleveland had risen to 150. In the neighborhood of 1815,

CIPveland consisted of two main streets, Superior and Water. The

square was half-forested, and its cleared area filled with stumps,

The horses were scattered and separated by uncut forest. A few small

stores, a tannery, and several public houses constituted the commercial

activity of the town,

The first Court House in 1814

li*ah- .,-,~g
~ t-



View of Public Square in 1830


np-ii~~ ~ii5aF ~
a-Alf~4ij~f ~,c~~.


Due in large measure to improved transportation, the town in-

creased in size and population. The first stimulation was provided

by the construction of roads connecting Cleveland with the Ohio Hiver

in 1813. In 1821, two new routes connected both Pittsburghh and Bjuffalo

with Cleveland. Stage and mail coach routes were established. The first

bridge crossing the Cuyahoga Hiver was built before 1822.

The hazards of lake travel were also reduced. In 1818, the first

steamboat on Lake Erie reached the city. In 1825, the federal govern-

ment appropriated :;5,000 for w~ork on the Cleveland harbor and pier.

By 18~28, the project wqas a suLccess. An even more important water

route was constructed in 1827 with the opening of a canal from the

Ohio River to Cleveland.

In 1815, the town was incorporated. and new streets were added

(se~e rman). A7onP the new~ streets was the radical. departure from the

traditional gridiron plan in the construction of central hirrhway,

destined to be renamed Euclid Avenue. It was cut througj from its

terminus at Huron street to the southeast coener of the public square.

It was apparent that this road would become an important route from

the East and plans for its early development were laid out. Another

important addition w~as the layingr? of streets describing the ~periphery

of the public square.

The first actual enlargement of the city limits was made in 1829.

(see map ). All of this expansion was in response to the increasing

population. By 1830 there were 1,075 people in the town, while in

1820 there were only 150; an increase of seven times in a decade.

Along with the physical Drogress, there were numerous indications

that the Pioneer period was nearing its close. In 1818 the first news-

paper appeared "The Gazette and Commercial Reg~ister". The first

formal school was erected in 1817 on St. Clair street. A larger one

was built in 1821. In 1829 Trinity Church was built and established

the first house of worship in the town.

The construction of the first saw mill on HIill Creek occurred in

1800 and by 1830, there were 48 mills in existence in Cleveland an~d

the surrounding areas. 1814was the, first year that a brick structure

was erected. This was the residence of Alfred Kelley. Many others

followed and in 1828, the second Court House was built of brick with

stone and wood trim. Cut stone was the last material to be exploited

for building pilrcoses. No evidence of extensive u~se is found until

the building of the second Court House.

In the absence of any pictorial record, one may visualize the

town in 1530 a~s a mixture of log cabins of the earlier period, as

well as small frame houses of few rooms and a handful of more ambiitiou

buildings. The :Intter include the Alfred Kelley home, Trinity Chu~rch,

and of course, the Cou~rt House.

Chronolom:ically the earliest important luild?.ingr in Clevela~nd wras

the residence of Alfred Kelley~ which was built in 1817.

The Alfred Kelley Residence

It was the First residence of brick to be buiilt in the village, It

was a solid house consisting of a cubical central pavillion covered

byv a aable roof flanked by smaller winEgEs. The house had the good pro-

nortions of a professional design.

The second Court House was the nost important building of the


The Second Cuyahoma. County Court House

i s o:! a

Public Square in 1859

The building, a veryv ambitious nrojiect for the date, was brick with

woode.n floor and trim of stone. It was built by the firn of con~trac-

tors of Noble & Hill, and all the details of sash, poorfranes, and

floor finishes were hand worked. It was a simple building composed

of a square block raised on a low stone basement with an entablature

which encompasses all sides of the structure, also of stone. The prin-

cinal facade faced north on the square and was ornamented by six pi-

lasters, four of which support a perdiment. It has a flatened hipped

roof with two balustrates one at the eaves and one at the base of

the cupola.

The first Trinity Church dates from 1828-1829 and was a flimsy

frane structure in the so-called "Gothic" of that time.

The first Trinity Church

It bu.rned in the year 1853. It had a single entrance at the base

, 157 EacHd Avenie, bu~s to Jast.

of a square tower wh!-ich projects half its depth from the center of

the west facade. The roof ia s simple Rable and the tower is sur-

rmounted by four steenly pointed stirers. The Iain body of the7 church

was boarded horizon~tallyr, while the tower and pediment wjere boarded


Also at this tine, the first recorded house was built on Euclid

Avenue. In 1924, Nathan Perry, Jr. bought a NE;. corne-r lot of 100

acres which extended to the lake. There, the Perry Residence was built.

The center tortion of the house at 2157 Euclid Iwas the~ orif-nal house.

As the family rrrew, the house was expanded. Perry's house wtas isolated,

and he made his fortune by trading for furs from the indians, w~ho

often spent the nimht bundled in blankets before his fire. He came

to Cleveland in 1808, after snendiinfr four years in the cam~p of Chief

Red Jacket of the Senecas, while his father acquired lands in the

Reserve. His first house was on Superior and Water street. It also

doubled, as his store, which was an improvement over an early trading

nost. Perry became the first established merchant in Cleveland. Under

the Cleveland Charter of 1815, Perry was made one of the original

trustees, along with Samuel Williamson who also had a house on Euclid

Avenue. He went on the become a very influential person, so much

that he built a street from St. Clair to Euclid and gave it his name

in 1837.

The woods were beins nushed along unpaved and unliphted Euclid

Avenue. Amonir the 7en who emoloyed architects to buiLd rnew homes of

Classical and Colonial design were Samuel 'dilliamson, Sherlock J.,

Andrews,, George Hoadley, Harveyv Rice, AIhaz iierchant;, Lyman~ Kendall,

Sa~muel Cowles, and Truman P, Handy. Beyond Erie street lived Thomras

Kelley, Henry Dodge, and Nathan Perry, Jr. A virginia rail fence lined

the street from Bond to Erie street in 1832. The Euclid road, as it

w~as called, w~as increasing in importance, affordingr the nost popular

road from Cleveland to Buffalo,

A new era was making itself felt in Cleveland by 1830. The com-

cletion of the canal in 1827 created many chanrres in the fortune of

the townm, and made significant changes in its appearance.


As transportation from the East improved and fares were reduced,

the population of Cleveland g~rew. The established businesses crosoered

andJ new ones a~ppeaared i~n large numbers; producing a thriving mercan-

tile center. This quarter century molded the present characteristics

of the center of the city.

The 18306s and 1840's were the canal period in the history of

Cleveland, Until the advent of the railroads at mid-century, no single

influence had a more stimulating effect upon the city. The first seg-

nent of the canal was completed in 1827 and five years later the lake

was finally linked by water with the Ohio River. The increase in vol-

une of traffic that went through Cleveland is indicated by the tolls

collected :
1836 360,583,oo

1850 $90,874.00

Thereafter, the competition of the railroads made the canals de-

cline until the infinitesimal toll of $21.45 was collected in 1907.

PassenPger arrival by the cana.l was even more affected and by 1855

not a single passenger entered the town by canalboats.

The volume of shipninff on the lake rose simultaneously, and by

1841l there were 1,561 sailing$ vessels in Lake Erie, After mid-century,

the steam-Toropelled vessel gradually replaced the sailing ship. By

1839, over 30 paddle and side-wheelers were in operation, and by 1850

they were in the height of popularity. In the late 1850's, however,

they were replaced by propeller-driven ships. These have continued

until today, handling heavy bulk loads on the lake,

Hirrhwayr transportation also developed rapidly during these decades,

These improvements encouraged stage lines and Conestona weapons for

the transport of freight,

B3y all these means the' population was a~iugmented and the economy

of Cleveland stimulated. The population climbed from 1,075 in 1830

to 17,034 by mid-century. Byv 1853 thce -population alriost doubled in

3 years to 30,000. To meet the demands, lateral expansion of the

city was accelerated (see map). The period was climaxed by the union

of Cleveland with Ohio City west of the river in 1854. Many new streets

were added in the new and older quariiters of the city. Accoman~ying

this rapid lateral expansion of the town, important changes were made

in its character and anpearance. The center of the city became built

up in some sectors to the noint of overcrowding. The wholsale district

expanded and the residential areas spread~ outwards as the Tetail. con-

cerns took over the central areas. In 1833, w~e can see in the view

of public square that this was the retail district, bu;t private resi-

dences still exist between the store~s.

The commercial architecture succeeded in chemneSn the character

of l-?rRe areas. The characteristic new harilding wras a three or four

story brick building, and tl: first street to be- invadedi by It was



Sunerior Street in 1846

By 1846, the street had taken a wholly new appearance, similar to

Bank Street in 18h0. The buildings were erected adjacent to each other

with no open snaces available by the end of the canal days. By 1854

Superior, Ontario, Water, and Bank all had achieved the new commerciala

look. With the retail district moving northward towards the lake, the

old homes of the original residential area were pushed out until in

1854 only a. fringe of houses remained along the lakeshore. By the end

of the period, even the early houses of the 1830's around Public

Square had been torn down for commercial structures.

The years of expansion introduced for the first time the need for

public services and utilities. In 1833 dirt roads without sidewalks

served well enough. Lone before 1854, however, the crowded streets

and over-built lots made new dienands. M~ud and dirt were a nuisance

and street lightinff was imperative. In the 18401s the first attempt

at nlanking the main arteries of the city was tried. The wooden sur-

faces were: soon found to be inadequate they required constant, chan-

gSinR due to wheel we3arinp: and' rotting. It was not until the 1860's

that the wood?-blockt paying kncuown as Nicholson pavement ca7e into use

a~nd only in the 1870's did any modern payilng appear. Pedestrians were

treated better as the city council passed an ordinance in 1854 com-

pelline Dropertyr owners to pave their sidewalks. In 1853, th-e first

sewer drainage of streets wyas built. All water was: supplied by wells

at first, ~utt by 1n46 two small reservoirs were built insit7e the city,

In 1849 a much larger reservoir to supply the center of town with

running water was built. The first gas company also had its start

that same year. The first job of the company was to supply and in-

stall lighting to the main streets of the city. The lamps were placed

200 feet apart on Superior, Erie, Water, Merwin, Bank, and Public



It is at this tine thatt Euclid Avenue bep-an its career as an

avenue of fine holes. The man of 1846 47 shows an atlc:st unbroken

row of houses from the square to Muirson street, many of them con-

siderablyr pretentious. The move toward Euclid can be traced to the

Case residence and Lemnen house of the 1820's, -'hese were thei~ first

to occury Prublic Squvare. Thzis trend continued? Iwith thei Winslow:i andi

Crittenden houses, occupying the square where it intersectsi Euclid

Avenue in 1832, Shortly thereafter, Euclid Avonue b~came a favorite

locality. By the 180j's it was solidly built .ith -:esidences i-ell

FeyondC the line of Erie st leet, with a scatt -?ing oif houses s9-il

further east.

The character of the avenue can be seen In the photograph taker

near Erie street. Though it dates from the 1860's the houses in most

cases wreyrf built in th~e Ccanl? era.

Euclid Avenue in 1860

In contrast to the simple wooden-frame houses established in large

plots which characterized the earlier residential areas, a sophis-

ticated city district appears. The houses are all of masonry or brick

and two or more stories in height. They are set well back in the

street, providing a Renerous yard inside the iron fences, but they

are closely spaced at equal intervals front one another. The facades

form a single straight line, Biving the street an air of dign~ity.

Several innovations in architectural practice made these accom-

plishments possible. New material of finer and more durable quality

became practical by reason of the invention of new nower tools for

their shaping, Architecturally the western community was RrowinP up.

The most radical chance was the decline of the use of wood.

First, it was less abundant than in early days. Also, the influences

andl demaRnd. of fire-nroof construction arose, But still ?ore important:~

w~as the new taste for more monumental forms which deman7ded 'the so~liditY

and scale of mai~sonry. Sever~lal manufactured materials w~er-e introdul~cedd

during the canal period. Some iron was made available and glass from

Pittsburgch made windows increase in sizes. Along with the materials

came a number of technological improvements, such as the Ballon Prame.

At the same time new power-driven tools appeared. A typical one was

a Lath-cuttinR ma~chi~ne that could transform a rouaEh log into Lath at

the rate of 130 a minute. The most significant of the tools was a

stone dressing machine introduced in 1848. It made the use of stone,

marble, and others available to churches a~nd private residences, There

was even a partially synthetic material for ma2kinrS bricks called

"artificial sandstone". The material, which appears to have been the

forerunner of contem~porary concrete block, was promptly put to use.

In terms of architeoutral styles, the earlier residences were

either vernaculare wood framed houses or, in the early 1830's,

Georgian. By 1836, the Greek Revival was in full swing and reached

its most pretentious stateF with the Worthineton Hesidence in 1852.

As early as the 18lC0's examples of the Gothic appear and near the

mid-century the Italian forms become popular, especially those in

the A.J. DowEning book, "Cottage Residences". We shall now site some

examples of the Euclid Avenue Hesidences and trace the evolution of

the styles in more detail.


Built in 1832, at 6709 Euclid Avenue, it was a residence and

shortly thereafter it was turned into a stare stop, Dunham'Tavern

was the oldest structure in the central city.

Duinham Tavern in 1842

It is also the oldest structure left standing on Euclid Avenue, Rufus

and Jane Pratt Dunham, of Mansfield, Massachussetts, were the original

owners. Tlhey purchased 13 and /4 acres of land facing the Euclid

road for $147.00 in 1825. There, a small log home was built that same

year. By 1832, Dunbam owned 140 acres that stretched northward from

Eniclid to Houg~h. He replaced his original logf home with a newer log

structure called Dunham Tavern. The tavern was well outside of Cleve-

land's city limits in the earlier days and that is why it became a

stame stop, In 1842, the structure now standing was erected. It is

a two story frame buildingS with stout hewn timbers, fastened togret-

her with wooden pins and ha~nd-w~rought spikes. A number of luxuries

were installed in the new structure a lead bathtub, a water tank

filled from an,outside cistern by a force pump, and bedrooms that

were connected to the office by a call system, consisting of wires

that tinkled bells. Here, travellers going by stage found lodgingi

before going on to Cleveland. Traorers stored their furs in the stone

smokehouse and drivers sleet in the barn when the Inn was filled,

In 1853, the tavern was deeded to Ben and John Welch for $6,000.00.

As sta~e travel was outmoted by the railroads, Dunham Tavern ceased

to serve the public and became a private home. It was purchased in

1886 by Dr. James A. Stephens, serving as his residence until his

death in 1930. I~ 1936 a group called Dunham Tavern, Inc. was organized

to preserve the famous Inn, In the early 1930's,.An. Donald Gray, a

landscane architect leased thee tavern for offices and throurgh- his

persistence influenced others to save it from destruction. Among

those interested were I.T. Frary, L.H. Norton, and Abram Garfield.

Today, the Tavern is operated as a museum depictinP the early life

of the settlers and is onen to the public.

Forms of the Greek Revival can be seen in the front entrance and

in the recessed. porch in the far wing. The house can~ not be cited as

a convincing example of the style, since it is morel vernacular in

its plain and simple design and ornamentation,


Newton E. Crittenden moved to Cleveland in 1826 and opened the

first jewelry store in a small brick buildinF$ next to the Franklin

residence. His 9~500,00 stock of goods was obtained on credit and

he lived in the store, By the 1830's Crittenden was one of the richest

and leading merchants in Cleveland. He bought a site, on Public Square,

between Ontario street and Euclid avenue, for $6,000.00 and proceeded

to build the most ambitious home in Cleveland at that tine,

The a Crittende Residenc in 183

the itc ofthe Croof ndten rcessined doowa inict tebeini

of Greek Revival taste. This was a conservative building of a style

beinrr used in many parts of New England., In 1868 Crittenden moved

into a newer home further east on Euclid street. The house was de-

molished in 1888 to make way for the Society for Savings building

by Burnham and Root, still in existence today.


Hichard Winslow was a business man who camre to Cleveland in 1819.

In 1831, he opened a wholesale grocery store on Superior street and

w~ent on to 1ake a fortune in b~uildiinr lake vessels. He also 1-name

a. judge in the cit~y of Cleveland in 1836. The house it.;elf ?::s built

on Public Square, the southeast corner, in `1832 by Levi Johns-ion,

pioneer builder of the early days.

The Winslow Residence in 1832

The facade., is similar to that of the crittenden Riesidence, but the

details are Greeki Hevival, All the walls were smooth-finished anid

the roof wa~s flatened as to be completely hidden by a solid balus-

trate above the cornice, giving-? the facade a strong horizontal em-

phasis. The entablature is classical in proportions and the central

doorway is covered by a portico supported on Doric columns. The h-ouse

is neither traditional nor Greek Hevival, but a mixture of both.

It was destroyed in 1871 to make way for an ice-skatingf rink.


Erastus Gaylord camle to Cleveland in 1833. He was a banker who,

in 1846 became president of the Canal Bank of Cleveland. The house,

however, was built on Euclid Avenue by Dr. David Long, who sold it

to Gaylord in 1845, Long came to Cleveland in the 1810's and became

the first physician in the city. He was twenty-three years old aba

he came from Hebron, New York. He was enrolled in th~ college of

Physicians and Surgeons in New York City. In the 1830's, he moved

into a stone house on Superior street which doubled as a notions and

dry Roods store. Amone other things he ran for city commissioner,

was appointed to the Board of Health in 1832, and was president of

the Cleveland Anti-slavery Society in 1834.

The Erastus Gaylord Residence in 1836


The Anson Smith Residence in 1846

The house was a characteristic Greek Revival residence of the

1830's. It was a stone house and had a two story central pavilion

and single story wings which was a popular arrangement in the Greek

Revival style. A large portico dominates the facade and a full en-

tablatunre encircled thF entire central Davillion. This home is an

early example of the monumental effects executed in durable materials,

which na~rked the beginnings of a highly prosperous period in the life

of the town.


The beautiful Euclid Avenue home was a two story, brick mansion.

Orieinallv, the house wsas "'out in, the woods"; but, by 1872 it was

nestled in a deen lawn among other homes.

The Truman P. Handy Residence in 1842

The house was a Greek Revival. mansion dominated by a porti.co of rive

massive stone v~illars, A full entablature surrounds the house andl is

suirnounted by a. veryr low5 pitched roo0f, It wnas another example of the

"temple" form without lateral wings and raised on a higrh, stone base-


Trumlan P. Handy was a banker who made his fortune w9ith t7he Commer-

cial Baink of Lake Erie in 1832. He went on to become Dresident of the

State, Bank of Ohio in the late 1840's, the first president of the

Clearing House Agency in 1858, and one of the leadinff citizens of

Cleveland. He was also an incorporator of the Cleveland & Newburgh

Hailroad Comnany in 1834 and treasurer of the Cleveland, Columbus,

& Cincinnati Hailroad. Company, which beca7e part of the New York

Central System later on,

Handy sold the house to George B. Senter, who resided in it until

18;72, when it becane the Union Club Buildin%, one of the most im-

portant social organizations in the wrest. Senter sold the house for

$60,000.00. He made his fortune in various ways, and was involved

in politics, He served as mayor of Cleveland in. 1859 60.

(for photoeranh see "Erastus Gaylord Eesidence")

The Anson Smith house was two stories, built of brick and raised

on a low basement. The house was placed well back front the street

with a spacious yard on the sides. The dominant feature was a wooden

Doric portico of four monumental columns and a full entablatu~re

which enconnasses the entire house. The doorway beneath the portico

is also marked by pilasters abaj a full entablature. This was the first

example of the Temple form without the lateral wings in CleveLand.

No information on Anson snith was found.

The house adjacent to it in the nhotograph is the N.C. Baldwin

residence built in 18L47, Baldwhin joined Noble H. Nlerwin in the

connission business in the 1830's. He was also a m~ember of the firm

Giddinss, B'aldwin, and Company which owned the first regular steam-

ship lines on Lake Erie. In later years, Ealdwin turned to b~ankina

and real estate.

The house is atnoth~er example of the Greek R~evival style, this

tine with small, semi-circular one story pavillions on both sides.

The house has a large portico surmounted by a "ull entablature

around the whole house and a pedimented roof of low pitch.


During the 1840's, the Gothic style was introduced in cleveland.

The publications of D~owning, Willian Brown, and Edward Shaw popularize

the style and the practice of leading architects, Richard Upjohn

in particular, pave it authority. One of the earliest houses to

adopt the new fashion was the residence of tholas Bolton in 1846.

DIOP6~T~iii~b~~"~"r;~""-I;~': ~L11`

;.~l-la. .,h.r7

The Thomas Bolton Residence in 1846

It was a small cottao~e with lateral one story wings and~ a low spreadini

Rable in the Greek tradition, but the ornamental details were new.

The barene-board under t!?e vable roof was elaborately carved i~n a

series of slender arches resembling a decorative corbel table~, and.

the sinrrle window in the Rabl wJas a. Lancet under a pointed a-ch.

All1 three porches on the facad.e wuere decorated with Tudor archi'es in

wooded and crowned by crenellations, These fashio~nable Gothic details

had been added to a simple Greek Revival building in response to the

changcino_ fashions of the time. The sources ma~y have been DowninfT's

1842 edition the details of the porch closely resemble that of the

Bolton Residencs.

Thomas Bolton was one of the mrost successful lawyers in cleveland.

In 18?7, he formed a partnership with Moses Kelley, his Harvard class-

mate. Bolton cane to Cleveland in 1835, and both partners were prom -

Ment enough to serve as city councilmen and other official capacities.

He gained fame when in 18Lc1, he def~nde~d three runaway slaves who

The Thomas Bolton Residence in 1846

It was a small cottage with lateral one story wings and a l~ow spreading

gable in the Greek tradition, but the ornamental details were new.

The bar~e-board under the Rable roof was elaborately ca~ved iLn a

series of slender arches resembling a dcorative corbel table, and

the single window in the Rable wias a Lancet under a pointed arch.

All1 three porches on the facade were decoratedd with Tiudor arches in

wooded and crowned by crenellations, These fashzionable Gothic details

had been added to a simple Greek Revival building in response to the

chang~~in fashions of the time. The sources may have been Downrinp's

1842 edition the details of the porch closely resemble that of the

Bolton Residencs.

Thomas Bolton was one of the most successful lawyers in? cleveland.

In 18?7, he formed a partnership with Moses Kelley, his Harvard class-

mate, Bolton cane to Cleveland in 18j35, and both partners were prom -

n~ent enough to serve as city councilmen and other official capacities.

He g~aine-d famre when in 1841, he defended three runaway slaves who

were captured by their owners and brought to trial, against vicious

threats on his life and family, he secured their discharge. He was

also a prominent figure in the organizing of the Republican Farty

in Cleveland, and served as judge from 1856 to 1866. In 1851, he moved

to a. seventy acre farm~ on Euclid and East 71st, where he and his part-

ner built identical homes, He died in 1870, at the sre of 62 and his

partner, Moses Kelley passed on the following year.


Of the many Gothic Revival houses built during these years,

one of the finest and most completely documented was that; of Hienry

B. Payne. Unlike the Vernacular Bolton house, the mansion, on Euclid

and Perry Streets,. was a large, cut stone desiign in the miost fa-

shionable Gothic manner,.

Henry B. Payne Residence, 18O(9

The house lacks the picturesque silhoutte and irregular plan

often found in this style, but all the Gothic details are there:

the steep-pitched roof with carved barge boards, the wooden pin-

nacle and paired chimneys, the pointed window arches and the pro-

jectingf bays on brackets. It attracted the attention of "The

Daily Democrat" on March 10, 1849:

"Among the finest houses put up in this city for the

last few years, we think the house of H.B. Payne,Esq.,

on the corner of Euclid and Perry Streets, is the best.

Its outer proportions and appearance are admirable;

its style of architecture massive and enduring its

finish beautiful, and all interior arrangements, for

elegance, comfort, convenience and health, equal to

any residence we have ever seen. This house is well

worth looking at by those who intend to build fine

houses here this season; and there are a number.,..

Mr. CW, Heard is the architect of the house of Mr.


Henry B. Payne was a lawy~;er who came to Cleveland in the

1830's. He served in the City Commission and otherofficial ac-

tivities. In 1863, Henry Chisholm, Andros Stone, Jephtha H.

Wade and Payne incorporated the Cleveland Rolling Mill Com-

pany, later to be called American Steel and Wire Company. He

was president of the Citizens Savings and Loan Association;

founder of the Union Steel Screw Company in 1872 along with

the Stones and the Chisholms. Late in the 1880's the financier

became involved with the railroads, and in 1889 he built the

Perry-Payne building for $1,000,000,00. It was named after

himself and his wife's maiden name- daughter of Natchan Ferry

Jr. Payne died in 1896,.


The Gothic style was of short duration in Cleveland anid

it was abandoned in the 1840's, its place taken by the forms

of the Italian manner. The style was considered at the time

to be peculiarly American; in fact, the style was often called

"Tuscan or American Style",

These houses were built of brick or stone in cubic forms,

flattened hioped roofs with eaves, and round-headed windows.

The style seems to have been developed by Richard Upjohin.

Downing also published some Tuscan designs in his 1853 edition.

Chronologically, the first fine residence in this style was

the Henry B. Gaylord house on Euclid Avenue.

The Henry B. Gaylord Residence, 1849

It was large, brick structure with stone and wood trim. The

main block was two stories high and surmounted by a flattened

hipped roof. The heavy cornice was supported by brackets grouped

in pairs, which gave a massive character to the design. The

single-story wing to the left of the block had a similar cor-

nice above solid columns and a recessed doorway behind an en-

tablature decorated with Classical Revival motiffs. It was an

expensive and well designed residence which was solidly cons-


In the 3iew of Euclid Avenue in 1860 shown at the intro-

duction of this section, we see the Gaylord house situated

fourth from the right. From the other houses we can see that

the cubic house with the overhanging eaves and the hippedl roof

was very popular at the time, Note also the characteristic fea-

ture of a curved moulding over the windows and doors, carried

on a small bracket, No information on the owners of the houses

was found.

Henryr B. Gaylord was a relative of Erastus Gaylord, famous

banker and merchant, Nao information other than this was found

pertaining to Henry B, Gaylord's businesses or life.


Dne of the last and most elaborate of the residences in

the Greek Revival Style was the Worthington mansion at Euclid

Avenue and Forest St. (East ;37th).

The George wor~thington~esidence 1852

W1hen the house was built, it lay on a large lawn well beyond

the crowded center of the town at the outskirts of the residen-

tial district. It was the forerunnfer of a row of pretentious

houses which lined this part of Euclid Avenue in the 1860's

to the 1880's, Following its example, the residences were set

farther back from the street to take full advantage of the ridge

which lies North of Euclid, This area was fully developed by

1876 when it was described by Payne in his "Cleveland Illus-


"Other world-famous streets may have crrander architec-

ture for a short distance; single lawnms may be more

lavishly decorated with flowerbeds and. statuary; or

there may be other isolated beauties which surpass

anything this famous avenue can show, But no avenue

in the world can present to the delighted visitor

such a continuous succession of charming residences

and such uniformly beautiful grounds for so great a

distance. Each house has grounds mrore or less spa-

cious, stretching from the ridPge on which the house

stands down to the line of the street at some distance;

the turf of these lawns is almost invariably of vel-

vety softness and of a rich green, showingp watchful

care and liberal expenditure in its maintenance."

The Worthingfton house itself was of brick, built on a stone

basement. Both the main pavilion and the lower wings were orna-

mented by an elaborate Ionic order in wood surmounted by a

heavy balustrade. These were beautifully wrouPght and hand-

somely proportioned orders which vouched for the high quality

of taste and workmanship which had been attained by this time.

The plates of Asher Benjamin or Minard Lafever were available

as models for such a portico. One of the features of the late

Greek Revival house was the added height of the windows, which

reflected the higher ceilings of the interior. They indicate

the tendency towards greater interior spaciousness which was

to culminate in the residences of the next two decades.

George Worthington came to Cleveland in 1829. At this time

immigrants were arriving at the rate of 600 in a fortnight to

work on the canal. Worthington noticed how poorly equipped with

tools they were and saw his opportunity. He borrowed .1500 and~

purchased an assortment of implements in the East, shipping

his stock, The supply sold quickly, he doubled his money, and

bought more stock wi-th which he opened the first store of The

Geo. Worthington Company. In 1835, he bought out his competitor

and moved to the corner of Water Street. In 1849, worthington

formed the Cleveland Iron Company for the manufacturing of

cast and wrought iron. The bulk of the output from this com-

pany was sold through his retail stores, H~e died in 1871, but

his company continued a2nd today is one of cleveland's oldest

in Doint of continuous existence undijer its original naime.


The Perkins house is the first fully developed Italian

Villa type, brought to Cleveland by Richard Upjohn in 185,..

The Joseph Perkins House 15-185
In~~~~~~~~~~~~;; th intepojcigpaiin idct afei

bl neio ptalarnemn hch wa h cifadat

immigrants were arriving at the rate of 600 in a fortnight to

work on the canal. Worthington noticed how poorly equipped with

tools they were and saw his opportunity. He borrowed .500 and

purchased an assortment of implements in the East, shipping

his stock, The supply sold quickly, he doubled his money, and

bought more stock wi-th which he opened the first store of The

Geo. Worthington Company. In 1835j, he bought out his competitor

and moved to the corner of Water Street. In 1849, Wborthington-

formed the Cleveland Iron Company for the manufacturing of

cast and wrought iron. The bulk of the output from this com-

pany was sold through his retail stores. H3e died in 1871, but

his company continued a2nd today is one of cleveland's oldest

in point of continuous existence und'ler its origfinal name.


The Perkins house is the first fully developed Italia~n

Villa type, brought to Cleveland by Richard Upjohn, in 185,..

The Joseph Perkins House 1851-1853

In the design, the projecting pavilions indicate a flexi-

ble interior spatial arrangement which was the chief advantage

of this style. Also, by reason of its simple cubic forms, va-

riety was possible without the structural difficulties of the

Gothic style and at a much cheaper cost. The house is entirely

built of stone and sits on an elevated basement. It has the

characteristic overhanging eaves supported by brackets, and

a teardrop canopy made of metal over a low, first story bal-

cony. It has an open porch on two sides of the house and a

recessed doorway behind a simple entrance arch,

Having settled the vast estate of his father, Joseph Per-

kins came to Cleveland in 1852 at, the age of 33, He .immediately

occupied the house which was being built for him. He became

prominent in banking and business. In 1867, he developed a

reform plan, by which prisoners were classified and no longer

were thrown together in cells by lot. He also reformed the

infirmary system! of the State of Ohio. He became president of

The Bank of Commerce in the 1860's and died in 1885,.


This design was built adjacent to the Joseph Perkins house

when the "Tuscan Style" was quickly adopted by the local de-

The Jacob Perkins Residence, 1853

sig~ners. It is a slightly more elaborate house with a flat

roof supported by the characteristic brackets. The "freedom"

of the interior spaces can be seen by the varying heights and

shapes of the cubes. The central "tourette" incorporates a
stair and note the stone balcony with the teardrop hood made

of metal. The balcony helps emphasize the entranceway inside

a simple porch. The very wide, overhanging eaves were a much
favored detail at the time. The house sat on a raised stone

basement and was constructed of bricks with stone and wood


Jacob Perkins was the brother of Josep~h Perkins, He w~as

the president of the Cleveland and Mahoning Valley Railroad

Company, which later became the Erie Hailroad. The company
seemed impossible to finance at first, so Perkins invested

$160,000,00 of his inheritance in the venture. In 1857 the
railroad was open to the Mahoning Valley coal fields, which

dealt a mighty financial blow~ to the canal commerce, Just

before he died, Perkins remarked in jest, "If I die you may

inscribe on my tombstone,'Died of the Mahoning Valley Rail-

roads," He died at an early age in 1859.


Wherever the residential areas expanded to, the churches

and schools followed, In the 1830js, the logical choice for

a church was Public Square. In the 1850's Euclid and Superior

Streets were chosen as the residences moved East. Among the

important churches erected at the time were the original Old
Stone Church in 1832; st. Mary's Church, the first Roman- Ca-

tholic Church in Cleveland, in 1838; and the most sophistica-

ted Gothic designs among Cleveland's Churches, St. Paul's

Church at the corner of Sheriff and. Euclid Streets. The struc-

ture was designed by Heard and Porter and was built in 1848.

St. Paul's Church, 1848-1858

The beautiful structure was not completed until 1858 due

to a disastrous fire that occurred during its construction. In

exterior anpearance, St, Paul's is dependent on Richard Up-

john's desiFgn for Tr~inity Church in New York. The Church

was razed in 1876 to build a four-story music shop called.

Brainard's. It was one of the first commercial structures to

invade the famous avenue.

The canal days made other changes on Euclid Street. The

first paying of any kind came in 1834, It was planiked from

Public Square to Erie St. when Euclid was declared a state

road, A horse-pulled railway on wooden rails existed on the

street in the 1830's; but the project resulted in failure

after seven years. By the 1840's, the street was in awful con-

ditions, Normally, the streets were maintained by such labor

as the citizens provided, which usually was not very much.

By the 1850's,. residences lined Euclid Street and not a

single shop or store was there to be found, Street and side-

walk improvements finally came about during this decade. In

1859, "Lake Euclid" was drtined and naved with gravel. This

was the name given to the intersection of Euclid and Erie

Streets which was always muddy and rotted, A more common

name was the "frog pond", The gravel paying successfully re-

placed the wood block paying from Public Square to Erie St,

It was not until the start of the Industrial Period that

such commodities as sewers,stre~et draining, was licgchting and

garbage collecting appeared on Euclid, Omnibus services star-

ted at the same time, but were diverted off Euclid into

Prospect by the outraged citizens of upper Euclid.

As the Street gained favor and reputation as a fine re-

sidential area, the real estate value ;jumped to new highiis.

In the 1830!s, Euclid frontage property was selling at $2,00

per foot near the center of town. By the next decade, the

value had jumped to about $46,00 per foot-front, By the be-

ginnins of the Industrial Period, the value was up to an

incredible $500,00 per foot-front. An example of this was a

lot purchased by Joseph E, Sheffield in 18360, The lot was

east of 13th street aind-hadl a 100 foot frontage on Euclid

Avenue. The depth of the lot was 600 feet and the price was

an enormous $24,000.00- quite a sum to pay prior to the Civil


Yet, even at such hish prices, the street was filled with

homes. As far a~s W~illson Avenue, Euclid was "Prosperity Street"l

U,.S.A. Beyond Sheriff were the residences of Judge Cowles,

Truman P. Handy, Henry Chisholm, Henry Gaylord, M~artin Scott,

and Lemuel CrawFord, Beyond Erie Street, wealthy Clevelanders

had begun to build stately mansions in deep, spacious lawns.

The words of the editor of the "Zanesville Times" stated

it well. In a reprint in the "Cleveland Herald" on May 27,

1868, he said,
"The fine architectural taste of the mansions which

wealth has spared no pains in perfecting, the exten-

sive grounds, the velvet green lawns, rare flowers

and plants, the fountains that adorn each residen~e,

many of them costing their owners $100,000,00 before

completion, are alone worth a trip to the lake to see,"

We shall look at many of these mansions in the n;ext sectfon.,

At the end of the canal days one thing was certain, an~d that

was that the Golden Age of Euclid Street had begun.

View of Euclid Avenue c. 1860


After the turn of the century, Cleveland entered a second period

of ranid expansion and change. The impetus for that growth was provided

by inrtustryv and. the railroads. A new wave of innisration was fostered

and the city limits were extended. The most important single event of

this time was the extension to Cleveland of the railroads. By 1861,

the city led the nation in miles of railroads in active service. The

railroads increased the passenFger and freight traffic to Cleveland

mnpn-fold in the next decades. Transportation by water remained im-

portant and played a vital role in the expansion of industry.

As a terminus for both forms of transportration, cleveland attracted.,

new industries which descended on the abundance of raw materials. At

the head of this list was the Drocessina of iron-ore and the manufac-

ture of iron and steel, As early as 1834-, the first cast and wrought

iron manufacutring plant was established. By 18rc6 the number had in-

creasedl to 6, and. by thei 18801s inumemrable steel and iron Plants ex-

isted in the city, By 1890, the frontiers of industrial Cleveland

could be defined as the area between East 105th street and West 65th,

nre-empting the entire lake frontag~e.

When the capacity of the center of town to acco7adate industry

wI~as reached, the subulrban areas were invaded. Wholesale firms and

warehouses followed in the wake of manufacturing.

The interest, and activity caused by the development of industry

and transportation brought an upswing in the population. By 1860, the

population was close to 60,000 and in 1870 it stood at almost 93,000.

By the turn of the century, Cleveland had an incredible total of 381,786

inhabitants; an increase of more than fou~r times in 30 years. As the

Donulation increased, new streets and areas were added to the city to

keen up with thp demands.

The introduction of the railroads and the heavy industry on one

hand and the expansion of the retail districts on the other,,adversly

affected the livability of the town. The disintegration of the better

streets, such as Euclid Avenue, was slower. Even so, in the face of

the forces of industrialization i.ts fine character was difficult to

maintain. The first blow to the street was the DlacinP of the Cleveland

& Pittsburgh Line, crossing Wilson avenue at Euclid. The seeds of de-

cay were planted as soon as the railroad arrived. By the end of the

century its best days were over and today it is exclusively a commer-

cial street.

The civic problems attendant upon this development mounted pro-

Dortionately. Extension of the town a~nd the increase in traffic made

better surfacing of the streets imperative. Wood planking was no longer

adequate. The Nicholson naving tended to buckle from the effects of

frost. By 1871, coal, tar on stone foundations were tried and in the

next years macadanlized Davenent was first used. In 1872, the first

steam roller greatly facilitated the lavinP: of such surfaces. The ex-

Densive pavements were extended slowly, however, and until 1880 only

the streets in the center of the town were paved, while the residential

streets had. to be content with loose F-ravelled roads. In 1884, the

first electric street railroad anneared. Finally, towards the turn of

the centunry, the internal combustion engine and the automobile made

a revolutionary chance in transportation and in the search for better

road surfacinff.

With congestion in the city, came other problems: refuse disposal,

surface water drainage, and water supply. The first problem was effec-

tivelv solved by 1865 with the addition of 23,116 feet of sewer pipes.

Thereafter efforts were redoubled to Drovide a coordinated system, The

second nroblem was harder to solve. Garbage collection in the 18601s

was done by a private contract basis, Collection by the city failed

until regularized an2d aided by a disposal plant at the end of the cen-

tury. Water supnls was efficiently eased by a new intake system, pumps,

and. a larger engine house built in 1876.

The twin nuisances of water and air pollution were first getting

out of hand in the early 1870's, By the 1880's, they had reached the

proportions of a blight,at the center' of the town which spread with

the extension of the railroads and manufacturing. In 1881, the health

department lodrged formal protests against industrial waste disposal

D3ratices, burt these were disregarded, The problem had not been correctsd

by the turn of the century.

The architecture of Cleveland after 18n54 was an integral part of

the development of the city. The expansion of iron and steel provided

builders with new tools and materials. More efficient plumbinc and

heating systems were developed along with household couipment for

washine: and cleaninrr. The professionn" was also chan~ing. Though the

"naster-builder" such as C.W. Heard still held. firmly to his position,

there were now an increasinep number of professionally trained archi-


Stylistic changes accompanied these innovations. Provincialism

and. the Vernacular style began to disappear as early as 18340. Th~e rail-

road tied the mlidwest to thie architectural trnnd of the east. The car-

nenter's manual a7ndl other design books became less important as a

source for designs. B~y the 1860's, the formal art was to be dominated

by the Mansard roof and the "French" style. It was a style of high

ceilings and large windows. Wall thickness was increased sometimes to

as much as 24 inches. In the late 1870's the Victorian style invaded,

the city. Towards the close of the century, the strong Homanesque of

Richard~son was felt, along with the Shinsle style and the Pillared

Mansion style originated in Newport. An important architect in the

city at the end of the period was Charles F. Schweinfurth, who designed

many of the mansions of Euclid Avenue just before the turn of the cen-




The overall form of the Italian Villa style was still used

during the late 1850's, but significant changes were made in

its details. In 1855, Heard and Porter erected this 413,000.00

mansion for H.B. Hurlburt on Euclid Street.

The H. B. Hurlburt Residence, 1855

The house retained the square block form of the Italian

manner with its characteristic projections and a central cu-

lnola. To this familiar style, however, have now been added

a textured surface of colored brick and elaborate metalorna-

ments at the various roof lines, The result is a nore ornate

effect than the simple forms of the original style permitted.;

a clear indication of a change in taste. Such designs as this

one were often given the name of "Oriental Villa Style" at the

time. Several designs of this type are to be found in the pu-

blications of Samuel Sloan in this same period. In 1910,

Anthony Carlyn bought the Hurlburt house and tore it down to

build himself a "pillared mansion". No information on the new

structure was found in any of the sources, so the new resi-

dence was probably never carried out,.

Hinman B. Hurlburt was a banker, art patron and philan-

thropist. The Hurlburt house lawnz was once decorated with bronze

dogs, which gives one an idea of Hurlburt's eccentric tastes.

At the time of his death in 1884, Mr. Hurlburt left a sun of

money for a museum to be built in Cleveland, Finally, in 1916,

when the Cleveland Museum of Art was formally dedicated, his

dreams were realized. The Hinman B. Hurlburt Trust became an

endowment fund for the new museum.


Railroads and bridges were paramount in the life of Amassa

Stone. In his early days he was involved in the Newburgh B01-

ling Mill, which by 1861 was producing 50 tons of rairoad iron

a day. In 1872, the same owners founded the Steel Screw Com-

pazny, making the only wood screws from Bessemer Steel in the

country, Before he came to this country, Amassa Stone and his

brother-in-law William Howe, perfected the Howe Truss Bridge.

They erected hundreds of bridges, among them the first Pivot

Drawbridges of long span in the world. By the late 18501s,

bridges were being erected out of steel or iron and the Howe

Truss principle w~as not the best. still, Amassa stone h!eldl out;

for a 150-foot bridge erected on the Howe Truss principle to

be built across the Ashtabula Gorge. On the evening of Decem-

ber 29, 1876, the bridges main arch gave way causing a train to

plunge into the Gorge. Stone's health failed when he learned

of the Ashtabula Disaster, which supposedly hastened his un-

timely death in 1883..

Although the same overall arrangement of the Hurlburt house

is used in the Amassa Stone residence, the exterior effect of

this buildinrr is quite different. The architect, not known,

has succeeded in obliterating the simple shapes of the Italian

villa by his elaborate handling of the forms and surfers.

The Amassa Stone Hesidence, 1858

The facade of the house is divided into bold projecting

bays flanking the porch and covered balcony. The plain wall

surfaces have disappeared in the heavy window enframement an~d

the recessed niches at each floor level. The brackets sunpuorting

the widely projecting eaves have been doubled in size, and? the

silhouette of the building is complicated by heavy stone orna-

ments in the shape of vases. Within the limits of the Italian

form this is about as far as the architect could go toward or-

nate and massive design. The description of the house by the

"Cleveland Leader" on January 28, 1858 adds pertinent informa-

tion on this famous residence:

"The most prominent among the costly residences which

have made our city, particularly Euclid St., so famous

is that of Amassa stone, Jr. The exterior is a massive

structure, with over 700,000 brick being used.

The style of its architecture is regarded as an

American style. The main building is 50 xC 60 feet,

with two projections, one on each side. The height

of its stories is 15 and 13 fset respectively, The

wing of the building is 27 by 47 feet. The entire

partitions and walls are of brick, The exterior walls

are 23 inches in thickness, with a hollow space of

eight inches to protect the interior of the building

fron the constant changes of the atmosphere.

The ceilings of the parlor an~d library are of

recess, panel, and cornice work, and have a most hand-

some effect. The staircase in the hall is finished in

mahogany. The newel posts, balusters, andi railing,

and the doors of the parlor, reception room, and li-

brary are finished of rose wood; those of the other

apartments are of oak. From the hall door is the view

of the second hall floor, by means of an oval opening

in the ceiling. The roofs are of tin and thoroughly

painted. The furnace is fireproof, being solidly en-

cased in brick and stone work, designed to convey, by

means of requisite pipes, heated air over the entire


Attached to the furnace is a capacious boiler for

beating water. A supply of hot and cold water is

found in nearly every apartment. The portion of the

floor covering the furnace is of English encaustic

tiling. The entire basement is constructed of stone

and brick,. In the rear of the basement is the wing

basement which is fitted up as a model laundry and

fuel room. It is the finest, the most complete and

convenient residence west of Hudson."

To be noted in this contemporary description are the mas-

sively thick and insulated walls and the height and flexibility

of the roomS. Very few houses in town could equal the luxury of

this expensive mansion, but it is interesting to see what the

latest technical improvements could produce at this time when

the opportunity was presented.


A much more conservative style of house was built on Euiclid

Avenue in the next years and later occupied by Dr. H. W. Pitchers.,

The H. W. Kitchens Residence, 1860

It is characteristic of a large number of the hou~ses

d'7ting; from the 1860"s. One of it's diisting~uishingg features

is the addition of a half story under-the eaves which was

lighted by narrow horizontal windows within th~e architra~e.

The roof was made of tin and the house itself is made of

double brick walls over a sone basement.

Dr. H.W. kitchen was a Drominent physician in Cleveland

in theyear 1873. He was instrumental in developing a method

of recording the vital statistics of the city. No other infor-

mation was found regarding him.


The Rockefeller house is among the earliest Mansard Yoof

desian~s in the city. The roof allowed an entire additionally

story. It had most of the features of the Kitchen's House,

but each floor was higher than in the older building.

The John D. Rockefeller House, 1368

It is not ?ret a fully formed "French" Style which will

emerge in the 1F703s. When Rockefeller purchased the property

at the soulthwelFst corner of Euclid7 and Case, there were another

two ho~ses alreliv in existence on his plot. He ord~ered. One o~f

the houises torn dlowsn and theL other wats jacked un an:- noved to

Prospect and Case where it became a school. It was the first

attend to move a brick residence in Cleveland,

The Rockefeller mansion was a plain brick structure

relieved by arched windows and sat on a low stone basement.

It had a stone stable and carriage house which, ironically;

survived the house which was razed in the 1930's to make way

for a qRs station and narki.ns lot. The architrave treatment and

the brackets are very similar to the Kitchens Residence.

The walls were twenty-four inches thick and the interior parti-

tions were also of brick. Many types of fine woods were said

to have been used for the interior trims and finishes. All

exterior trim was of stone. The windows were very high and

narrow and the ceiling heights were fou~rteeni feet a2nd twelve

f et, resnectivelyi. High Victorian in detail, the house is

essentially a Tusca~n Villa with a Mansard roof on it.

John D. Rockefeller was born at Richford, New York, July 8,

1839, the son of thrifty and resourceful william A. Rockefeller,.

As a lad, young John D. learned the value of work, the wisdom of

saving money, and the importance of practical trading. The

family moved to cleveland in 1853, and he entered the High School

l,7ter calledC Central. At the age of fifteen, he became a member

of the Erie Street Baptist Church(later Euclid Avenue Baptist

Church), thuas formring a~n association that became deen-rooted

and claimed his earnest support. Young Rockefeller financed

a commercial course at E. G. Folsom's Commercial College (later

Snencerian School) in the House Block. Having graduated in

Aucust, 1855, he searched until laite fall for a. job, when Hewitt

a.nd Tuttle?, commission mecrchants, hireii him on trial as a zookeeper.

On the last day of Decenber he w~as rewarded w~ith the nricely

sum1 of fifty dollars for services to date, His business ex-

Derience, although difficult and ill-1-aying, was of ine~stimable

value to the yvoune ma7n who quickly demonstrated his a-bility and

learned to deal skillfully wsith ren. At the aReC of nineteen,

his father ordered him to build a house, John D. drew the plans,

fou~nd the materials and a builder, and the red- brick structure

on Chesire Street was the family house for nany years. The

Titusville oil rush in 1859 captured Rockefeller's interest, and

he turned. from7 the commission business to oi~l refininvg. Thi-rough

efficient manaqgement, wise investments, and careful se-~nding-s, he

and his associates eyr~ually bought upo struegling comnetitors

andl stabilized the business. In 1870 the crreaniza~ti:n a7d

his nolicy of strict econnny proved i~mmnsely profitable, and

soon the comnary was not only providing eP~loyment for thousands

of workerss, bu.t Cleveland had become the capital of petroleum;

Drodulcti -n. On, May 23, 1937, he di~ed at his lwinterY home~ "Thre

Casen~ents"', Ormond. Beach, Florida. His remains we~re brouabt to

Cleve~lean~d, Mlay 2,7, for quiet burial be~side his wi!fe andi his

another, Eliza Davison Rockefeller, in Lake Viewr Cenetery


The house, al Ite version of the Tuscan Villa Style, was

built on Euclid Aven~ue at Fortieth 'Street. A highli wrough-t- iron

fence e~ncloserd theF m.:nsion made of stone and tlatt of hisr sanlr'

Hlandall F:1joi0n5-v e hom'e.

The ephte H -Wae Huse,187

The ornate Rae villars rentedly cost athosn olr ah
Widely ~ ~ 2 seael ntespcosgonswrecta o h

coachmen -7nd Egardener. They remained lone after the Wade House

wass ra7.e~d. The house has the late Tuscan Style's overhancring:

eaves on borackrets and the elaborate architrave treatnent.;

The w~ind~ows however are not su~rmTounltedj by arches an-d thie Lentrancez

poorti~co is oeiven an. extra quality of magnificance~ by ai double stair,

The brackets a~re extremely lar~e and thes roof is flait and3 maRde of

ti~n. Thp cunola is not, overly ornate as in thet Sto~ne house, b!ut

it's presence ind~iica~tes the "Oriental Villa" influence. The

interiors Iweret all nanelled w~ith w~ood andC~ finelyCi c-:rv~ed colrnices

framedc the ceiline~rs. In 1P70, Wade entertained Prpsideitt

Ulysses S. Grant in this hoUse and presented him ~ithl flowie~rs :-nd

choice cgranes from his famous g~arden.

Jephtha Wsde began as a nortra~it painter a~t first, but sooni

tu~rndci into a businessman a~nd ind~stria~l magna-t~e becomingi one of

Clevelandis most influential nen. He became interested in the horse

teleqr~ah in the 1840's and undertook to build a line from

Detroit to Jackson, M'ichian. He installed and ina~~ueuatedi the

first telegaranhic service in that region. He went on to be

president of the Bacnk of Commerce after Parker Handy, Josenh

Perkins, Amasa Stonce and Sylvester T. Everett, all of w.:hom had

houses on Eucli~. Avenue, H-e w~as also instrumental in the

founding of the Cleveland Holling Mill Comrany on November 97, 1863,

alonp7 with Henry Chisholm, the Stones and H.B. Payne which

Droduced the first B~essemner Steel in the country. He was also

involved with the Clevelaniland Newburg~h Railroad Company andl

wave the city of Cleveland Wade Park and the New Zoo in 1890,

the same year he died.


The H.C. Ford House was possibly erected by one of the fol-

lowing individuals Horatio C. Ford or H. Clark Ford. It was

probably the latter of the tw~ojwh-o was an important bulsinessman

in Cleveland. In 1885, he built a rour stor-t commercial bulildingr

on Euclird and Public Squa~re and in 1895, he erected a skyscra--

Der on the same site. He went on to become the Dresident of

the 'illiat-son Conn3anyl in 1897 and a trustee of theP Clevel~and

Trust Compa~nY in 1894. Neither of the twho Fords Was annra'~-ntlyr

related. to Henzry Ford. H. Clark Ford was a resi~dent of Cleveland~

since 1824.

The Ford.HIouse was p~robrably one of the earliest pulre "Frec'1'h"

designs in Cleveland.

The H.C. Ford House, 187lC

Here thte vertical shanes of the windows and porch openings,

the h~ish tower and theit Mansand roof point to the Victorian

ilesisns tha.t weIFr" to come. The sir:nle surrf-ces of theic ea lier

de~simr n s ave wayT to t~he rllstica~tionl and quoins found in th!e Ford

House, It was constructed~ entirelyr of stonegas w~oo~ annd briPck

were less fa.vored :s theF~ nerriod ad~vanced. The -windows a~re

su~r'lountedC byr arches andi thle roof still has extrslplyr projecting

eaves sunnortedi by brscket.. Tile double?-sta~ir entrance of the

Wade: Hou~se, is reneatedi andC the towler to t:?e left Inri the lajrve stable

a~nd coach house on tho riciht eives us a smlall ind~icattion of the

vestness and layout of most residences at the tim~e.


The W~inslow House is the most; outstandinga exa ml~e of Hieh

Victorian that existed in Cleveland.

240 /C l) VNU

R. K. Winslow House, 1878

It was on a. snacious lot at Euclid sand Tw1entyi-Fourth~l

Street a~nd wats entirely built of stone,the upper stories being

ru!Stica~tei a~nd car~ryingl the characteristic quaiOns in the corners.

Note the use of the Gothic Style for the window details and the

da~rniers on the Man7sardr roof. The roof w-as constructed of tin

and is su3rmountedd byV ialustrarle of wroucrht iron. By this time,

the enves are no longer surnorted by brackets nor is the curious

architrave foundri The house is a cuirious rnixture of the

Victorian Three floor -nlan nd1? Gothic detailine_. The extension

on the left is a carrimee noritco where a side entrance was

n~rovided for n~oor weatherr conditions. The house wa.s torn drJown in

1937 to build a twenty-one s o y bu~ildinq for Fenn College.

The corner of Twlentyr-fourth and Euclid wais rewarded acs the -?ost

beau~tifu~l in the townm with the Winslow House in the north east

corner, the Devereux Houise west of the Samuel Mather Home, and

to the! east the L.C. Hannsiiouse, The Hickox House andi The Chir;hiolm

Rufus K. Winslow was an innortant businessman who was a

member of thep Clevela-nd~ Chamnber of CommeFrce~ Ind ownmer of the

Plazin Dea2l-r Pu;blishin-? Connany. He was also one of the founders

of the C~leveland 7iuseum.n of Na~tural History.

H. H AULADRW EIEC 1879-1882

The n-alatisl Homanesauei Anlirnrs Hom~e was brepgun in; 1879

a7n? it reauzired. th-rpe ?ears ~o Ferect the~ rnsion on Eurclid andl

East Thirtieth S'treet.,

Trhe S;auel Andrews Residen3?ce, 187?9-1882

Thet interior was all of nanel woodwasrk and waJ~s lavishily

dciCoratedC and?; furnish.4 d. Th!is chtra~cti-rizedi this -oeri~od of

Eucl~id Ave~nue., Shortlyr after its comnvetio~n, the owner found tha-t

it waJs toor la-rre for orac~tical ulse: andt too costl-r tor imaintac7in-

hence the nam~e of "Andrews Folly" w~as given to the estate. A

hundreds? servant~s w~ere renulliredi to take? careF of thelF house.ljF It was

closed for the 9reat-r nart of a7 auarter century; thnen the furniture

wa~s old a3ndJ the landnrerk wass tore dlown in 1923.

The house is desienpd in the Richardsonian~ Honanesque so

nonular in, the 170~r's. The architect is not kn1own a~s no so:rces

named hin., The walls of the massive? mansion were entirely built of

stone and covered ;aith ivy. It sat oneat rusticated stonie basement.

In the fall1 of 1862, Sanuel Anzdrewi~s formed an oil refiniina-

buxsi-ness knwn!r as A~nd? ~ws, Clark andrr Cornany. The C1lark brrother~s,

Mlaurice B., JameIs H.,, anri Rihchard E. renresorted theF "Cla~rk"

in th-~ c3nnany nlalF ,ndJ John D. Riockefeller ren~7-resen;ted~ the

"'Connan~v". Latn r, in 1865, Rockefe~ller brou.~ht out the Clark

Brothers' inrterrest andr w~ith Andjrews snt, on7 ti".r fiyrm of Boo0ke~feller

andf Andirews. They onerl-t~ed an oil refinePry, on the bankl of"

Ki~no^!e~ uRyun, synd their office wa~cc~s in? the Sext~on BurildJiri e at the.

foot of 'uner ror S;tre-t. Henryi E.: Flaclrc7-r are ilrto thl~e firm in

18367. On J~.Yanuryr 10. 1870, the sam~e th2rne men1, RloneVr w.iith

Stenohen V. Harkness Rnd. Willian Rockeifeller inlcornerated:l1~( tlle

.Stalnda~rd Oil C~onnarrny ulnd~r Ohio\ lawr~s. ~the connany's initial

canitsl ?imouint. ua to oYne rllion ilollars.


Svlvester T. Everett commissioned Cherles ". Schweinfurth,

notedl 7rch~itFat, to de~sien for his brid~e, the for7?er Alice Louisa

Wadel, rrranadal.utghter of Jenth H. wdaie, a brown-stone manilsion at

the no~rthoSt corner of Euclidl and Caise~ Avenues, Wdhpn comnnletedi

in 1883, it Iwas the costliest home erected in. Cleveland. Its

Romanesous architecture reflected the cos;7onolitan nersonality

of Colonel Everett, ra~ilroadrl maLn~ate fin--n~cier and~c Heniublican

leadern, wh~o entprtai~ned dijstin-guish-a visitors from many foreign

nations a~s we~-ll as Pr~sfidents Gra~nt, Hayies, M~cKinle~y anrd Taft,, and

catntsainY s of ininjlstry a~nd finance, such as And~rew: Cairnerie andlr J.

Piernont Morsan.

The Sylvester T. Everett House Fron~t Facade

The Sylvester T. Eve~rett Houzse side view

A grand staircase swent upn through the magnificent structure,

Pa.st exqulisitF, sta~inedi-glatss windowsS anci elesment fulrn1ishines.S

On the hostess balcony, d~olniminatin the top flight, Mirs. Everet-t

ereeted her Puests as they entered the elaborate, third-floor

ba.ll~room. The M~oorish roomn, lined with sandalwood: featurred a

beaurti~fully cr-rved wi~shii~n well and fountain.

Hostess Balceny Everett House

Enramed? when an an-artmeFnt hotel called Del Preado w--as

erected. on theF line of his front lawnm, Everett rout ul- a- suite

fence in retaliaition. In the fall. of 1938, the nalat~ial residence,

one of the lasst of Cle~velandi's million dollar homITes, w~as torn d3own.,

As a. Ind~ of tw~elve~, in 18n50, :;vlvester T. E~verett hadr come~

to Cleveland from7 his father's farm in TrumbSull County to live with

his brdth~er, Dr. Henry Evere~t~t His ba~nking career beearn as mess-

enreer boy an-d collection clerk in 1851 with the house of

Brockway, Mason, Everett and Company. In 1864, he became

superintendent of a f~ennsyvlvannia oil produicing concern, continuing

for fou~r veners, when he returned. to Cleveland as manager of the

basnkinD house of Everett, Weddlell and? Conna~ny. Aside from his

executive connections with leading Cleveland banks,and as an

orcfanizsr of the Union NuatiLonal Brank, he hadi masny and va-ried~

interests in thLle Clevelanci RollinP Mill Comna~nv a~nd as nromiotor

of street railw~ayrs a~nd railroads. He finsanced. the first successful

electric street railw~ay in the couintryr in Akron, and. crJenized

the Erie, Pennsyrlvania., Eilectric M~otor Connany. Eveprett had

mininel intnerests in North Carolina, Visconsin, nd Diichigsan, and

m~ini~ns andC ranch nronFertiss in Colorad.o. From 1869 to> 1883, he

served as citp trea~surerl sunnortsd by both nolitical narties,

Yet he, waJs ai staunich Renublican, and a narty~ lead nr in state ani,



The Brush residence was a massive rusticated stone mansion

on Euclid Avenue and 37th Street.

The Charle F, Brush Hesidence, 1884

The gable end, with its chimneys connected by a parapet

recalls the early WJestern Reserve brick architecture. No other

residences had attempted to capture some of the spirit of the

earlier Ohio architecture until this design. There is no true

"style" found in this house, but instead we find elements of

many of the styles that flourished earlier including a classical.

order in the entrance porch, the rutstication of the Romainesque,

and the free plan design of the Tuscan villas, Unique elements

such as the large rusticated bases on the columns in the entrance

porch and the small lantern cupola found in the rear of the house

pertain to no architectural style of those days, Unfortu~nately,

the architect of the Brush residence is unknown to me, as no

source mentioned him. At the back of the house, Brush built an~

extremely large windmill that was used to power his laboratory

experiments. The house was torn down in the earl 1930's,

Charles Francis Brush was born in Euclid townYshin on Mlarch

17, 184C9. He was educated in the public schools of Cleveland

and at the University of Nichigan from which he graduated in

1869 with the degree of mining; engineer. He began the study of

electricity from a practical stanavoint in 1873, invented a

dynamo, and then devoted himself to the development of electrical

lighting. In 1878 he made the arc lamp practical, the first pu-

blic demonstration given on April 29, 1879 over Cleveland's

Public Square, Even more important, however, was his development

of the central power station, which made possible the distri-

bution of light and power. For his outstanding work in science,

he became a Chevalier of the French Legion of Honor, and won

the Rumford Medal and the Franklin Medal. Brush died June 15,



The Chisholm house is another exanole of Schweinfurth's

Richardsonian manner but in a smaller and less elaborate mode

than the Everett mansion. Situated on Euclid Avenue and 28th

Street, the mansion sits on an elevated,basement made of rus-

ticated browjnstone as is the rest of~the house.

The William Chiisholm House, 1887

The large, arched entrance was a favorite motiff of the

architect's, as was the design element of grouping small win-

dows divided by colonettes and surround the whole with a sculp-

tured band, He uses this notiff on the front gable window of the

Chisholm house and on side elevation near the rear tower on the

Everett mansion. The varying tower and gable heights an~d the

different projections reveal a very open floor plan, well de-

signed to suit the needs of the client. In 1910, Dr. William

T. Corlett bought the house and. built to the West a. stone of-

fice, which he joined to the house by a glass-covered pa~ssge-

way which was heated to house his Brazilian Orchids. The origi-

nal house when built in the 1880's cost $125,000,00. Among its

interior features was an antique chandelier from India wood

panelled walls, and carved wood ceilings and cornices. The re-

sidence was serving as a studio-apartment in the 1940's.

William Chisholm was a financier involved with the Cleve-

land Rolling M~ill Conpany and the Newburgh Mill Company. By

1875, Chisholm's investments in the iron industry ammounted to

$10,000,000,00, In 1887, Chisholm, Wade and Wallace originated the

Cleveland Shipbuilding Company, forerunner of the American Ship-

building Company, In 1897, the conpan~y built the largest dry

docks in the state of Ohio.


The Devereux residence was built for Julius' E, French in

1890 and designed by Cleveland's favorite- Charles Schweinfurth.

Here, his Hichardsonian manner is again apparent in the rock-

faced ashlar, the massive roofs, the large entrance a.rch- for

the coaches and the windows, The front dormer has Goth.kic indi-

cations, but in it Schweinfurth repeats his ~colon~naded window

treatment only without the sculptured banrd. Instead~, he places

the windows in a, simple, undeccorated arch. The d~esign~ is very

refined in its window placement and in the accentuating of the

interior levels in the exterior. Note the similarity between

the treatment of the walkway from the port-cochere to the entrance

in this house and the Everett Residence.

The Devereux Hesincence,1690

Harry K. Devereux was the son of General JH, Devereux

from whom he inhereted a large sun of noney when the latter

died in 1890. The elder Devereux made his fortune as the milita.

ry railroad superintendent of the Union during? the Civil War.

Later, he became superintendent of the Cleveland and Pittsburgh

railroad in 1869 and at the same time, was elected president

of the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railroad. In 1876, he

became president of two more lines. He lived in a spatious

home at 3226 Euclid Aven~ue, which was later con-verted into the

Fine Arts Building. His son's only claim to fame was that he

posed as the drummer boy in Archibald M. Willard's "The Spirit

of "76", He was also a noted playboy and socialite in Cleveland

and was reputedly the best harness race driver in the stabe.


The Boardman house represents today a unique departure from

the Romanesque by architect Charles F, Schweinfurth.

The W, J. Boardman House,1893

The house at Euclid Avenue and 36th Street is a mixture of

classical elements, Richardsonian design and the Shingle Style

in the form most associated with the early work of IicKim,

Mead and White, The basement of the house and the tower on the

left of the front facade, are constructed of rusticated. browvn-

stone. The simple Doric colonnade was constructed of granite.

A unique, if not out of place detail is the strange double win-

dow which projects out in a triangular shape. T~e overall

placement of the windows is not as effective as in other of

Schweinfurth's designs, NJote the carriage house at the right

background of the photograph, It was this type of architecture

that was usually to endure while the residences were quickly


W. J. Boardman was a lawyer and businessman in Cleveland.

No other information was found pertaining to Mlr. Boardman.


Again in the Norton house we find the incredibly varied

talents of Charles Schweinfurth at work.

The David Z Norton House, 1897

By the time that Schweinfurth designed this structure, he

had begun to abandon the Romanesque in favor of the Tud~or idiom

which he would follow for the rest of his life. The house was

built of stone and the design was still dominated by the Roma-

nesque entranceway complete with recessed doorway, pointed

Gothic arch,surmounted by a cren~ellated balcony. The cren~ella-

tions are indication of the Tudor influences and they are re-

peated on a second balcony which sits on a hexagonal bay

which houses the stairs. The bay is further do-inated by a

unique Tudor dormer, complete with expcsed timbers and plaster.

The house was located at Euclid Avenue and 73rd Street..

D~avid Z. Norton, one of the founders of the O~lebay, Norton

and Compan~y, was born in Cleveland in 1851, the son of Washington

Adams N~orton, who came to western Reserve in 1845 anid built a blast

furnace in Clyde, Ohio. Young Norton was educated in Cleveland

schools. He strated his business career in 1368 with the Conmercial

National Bank, resianina as cashier in 1890 to join in founding the

cornrnony thatt bore his name. N~ort~on maintain-d his interest in banking,

haorsver, and became p~Tresiident of the Citizens Savings & Loan Associa-

tion; and, uoon consolidation with other institutions to form the

Citizens Savines & Trust Company in 1903, he became vice-president

and. later president. He gave generously of time and wealth to the

cultural and. educational life of the city. He ma~rried3 Fiaryr Castle,

daughter of William B. Castle, in 1867 and died in 1928, twelve hours

after her funeral.


The White residence on Euclid Avenue and 90th street is typical

of the residences built by properous Clevelanders at the turn of the

century.It is one of the few houses on Euclid Avenue which remains and

is in Rood repair. It is now used as a funeral home, T'^e design by

Frank B. N'eade is aFgain in the Richardsonian Homranesque with Gothic

details. Especially Gothic is the massive entrance Dorch surmlounted.

by a crenelated balcony, The corners have quoins made fron dlark brown-

stone, as is the rest of the house.

The Henry P. White Residence extericr

It has a steen cable roof with large dormers on the sides, Host of the

winrlow detailing is simple, linear, and straigh:t-forwar:d. PDrojectling

bars can be seen on the side facade under the domners.

The interior quality of the house can be seen in these two views.

The first floor hall is pa~nelledd with wood and the ceiling is of white

stucco and mnoldled in a pattern nuch favored in the English Stuart

and Tudor periods, I -

The Henry P. White Hesidence- interior

The upstairs study has an exposed wood beam ceilinp with stucco in

between. The window oriel on the left faced the stair landing, and

was a uniaue design innovation for the house.

The Henry P. White Residence interior

Henry P, Wjhite was a probate judge in Cleveland since the

1850's, He was very' much involved with the community's needs and was

a leading citizen at the time. He died in the early 1900's.


With this house, a Stanford White design, Euclid Avenue acquired

a mansion as pretentious a~s those in Newrport, R.I. The house is a two

story brick structure with white stone quoins and rusticated architraves

over the windows. The design is governed by a massive two story en-

trance colonnade with six corinthian columns, also of white stone. The

entire house is surrounded by a rich cornice surmounted by a stone

"alustradle. The hipped roof is also topped with a smaller balustrade.

The entire house was set on a raised stone basement which comes out

from the front of the house to form a platform bordered by railings

similar to those on the roof. The Stanford White DesigFn is pure class-

ical; heavily influenced by the buildings at the Wordlds Columbian

Exposition in Chicago.

The Leonard C, Hannra Residence

Leonard C, Hanna nade his fortune in the h.A. Hanna Company. The

Hanna Company was an outgrowth of the Rhodes & Card partnership in

Pig Iron & Iron Ore, initiated by M.A.Hanna and Daniel Rhodes'in the

1860's. In 1885, Hanna, Leonard C, Hanna, and Arnold Saunders took

over the firm andJ formed the Mi.A. Hanna & company, which continued

until 1922. The firmss interests were in iron ore, coal mines, and

blast, furnaces.


Perhan.s the final and grandest house built on Euclid Avenue was

the Sam~uel M~ather Residence. Built in 1907, at 2605 Euclid Avenue, the

residence was the last of its kind built on the famous avenue. It

was designed by Charles F. Schweinfurth and it was his last residential

commission. By then, he had totally abandoned the Romanesque for the

Tudor style. The house was very influential in many of the future

residential designs in other parts~of Cleveland.

The Sa?uel Hiather Residen~ce 1907

The house waJs e~xtremely nassive and contained 45 roo-ns, Unfortunately,

the larae size of the house took over most of the lot and the house

was dir c ly on Euclid Avenue. Hare woods, exquisite sculpture, and

the finest wyorkmnanshnip went into the house. It was occupied by the

Mather famila until 1940 when it becane the Cleveland Automobile

Club hpadqu~~arters. Today, it is a student center for the cleveland

State Urnivetrsityv.

Sam1ue1Fl ather was born in Clevelatnd in 1851, son of Sanuel L.

Na~tther, he w~as edu~catetd in the public schools and in St. Mark's School

of Southborouqh. He entered industry, continuing the leadership in the

iron-ore and' coal-mining businesses established by his father, and

became the senior member of Pickandls, Ma~ther, a.nd Company, Appreciating

that wealth presented an opportunity for practical sharing in Cleveland

social, cultural, and civic welfare, blather contributed generously and

quietly to worthy projects. He died on October 18, 1931,


Below is a list of many of the houses for which no other infor-

mation was found besides that Riven below and no chotoeranh was ob-


1) The Judg~e Rufus P. Rannvey Residence 1876

The residence was built on Euclid Avenue and 27th street. The

house .was a solidly built and Rabledi stone house. It was: torn dJowcn;

later for the Gray Hotel. The Judae died in 1891.

2) The Charles A. Otis Residence 1870

Built at 3123 Euclid Avenue, this house was a large brick res-

idence and it became the John Huntin~t~on Polytechnic Institute. Otis

was the founder of the Otis Steel Em-ire in 1853, He died in 1905.

3) The Georg~e Hall Hesidence 1870

The residence was built across the street fron th~e Otis Residenice,

at 31465 Euclidl Avenue, This was a plain, three story residence ownred

by Georg~e Hall, a piano merchant. In the 1940's the house was used as

the Cleveland Osteopathic Hospital.

4) The James Hoyt Hesidence 1877

The residence was situiat~ed at 2445 Euclid Aivenue, James H~oyt was

a distinguished lawyer, born in Cleveland in 1852. Apar-t from his law

practice, he rleveloned connections with industry, banking,~ railroads,

sinhvipbu.ivldi and steam.rshi-r lines,

5) The John Hay Residence 1875

The Hays lived in a fashionable residence erected for th~enn next

to the Stone mansion on Euclid near Browsnell, Hay was a famous author

and journalist,

6) The Timothy D. Crock;er Hesidence 1870

Adjacent to "Andrew's Folly", the house was described as an im-

oressive residence on Euclid and Sterling. Crocker was a business man

and art patron.

7) The Dan P, Eells Hesidence 1880

To the west of the Hurlbut residence, the Eells house was a stone

mansion, at 3201 Eulclid. It later became the spencerian College. Eells

was an industrial magnate and a railroad tycoon,

8) The Georee W. Stockley Residence

The original house was at Euclid and Oliver street. In the early

1890's, Tom L. Johnson purchased the house and built a white stone

addition, washing it with a soot solution so that it would harmonize

with the original structure. By 1913, the house was being used as a

boarding house and it wras razed in 1926. Johnson was a politician who

served in the House of Representatives and in the Senate.

9) The Andrew Squire Hesidence 1896

The house was designed for luxurious living with a large library,

a recreation room, a wine cellar, a~nd a gymnasium. In 1938, the 27

room mansion was made into a Red Cross headquarters. Squire was an

eminent lawyer in cleveland.

10) The Peter M. Wedell Residence 1832

Designed by Johna.than Goldsmith, the house was a stone country

house on Euclid Avenue, in the style of an Italian Villa. wedell was

the ownr2er of the most suiccessfurl early hotel in Cleveland The lWedell


11) The J.E., French Hesid7ence 1890

Another Honanesquie residence designed by Charles F, Schweinfurth.

Little is known about Julius E. French,

12) The John L. Severance Residen~ce 1891

Severance was a partner of John D. Hockefeller in the Standard

Oil Company, owner of the Cleveland Linseed Oil Company, and the

Colonial Salt Company, The mansion was designed by Charles F. Schwein-


13) The F.F. Prentiss Residence 1897

The house, on 8811 Euclid Avenue, was very large. Today, it is

still partly visible in the Ineleside Hospital camplex. Francis Fluery

Prentiss was an idustrialist and nhilanthropist. Born in 1858, he came

to Cleveland in 1880 and started the Cleveland Twist Drill Company, He

died on Anril 1st, 1937.

The expansion of the churches to the Drimary residential areas

continued through the Industrial Age on E~uclid A~venue.

The Old Stone Church was rebuilt in 1853 by a mason, N.J.Warner. The

svire of the east tower was finished a decade later and removed after

a fire in 1884.

The Old Stone Church 1853

The Euclid Avenue Presbyterian Church was begun in 1853 at the

corner of Brownell street. The style is related to the Upjiohnv types

found in the Canal Era. It has plain walls and a dominant square tower.

See photogfraph on the next page.

.. 44P~' L
-V Lci'

igtre 87. Eurclld Avenute Presbyterlan Church, 18.53-1859.

The Euclid Avenue Presbyterian

The Calvary Presbvterian Church was built in 1887 and was on

Euclid.A.vetnue and 79th street. This was a large, impressive structure

by Charles Schweinfurth, done in the Romanesque of his early days.

Note the round-headed openings, the great entrance archway, and the

massive crenellated towers. The church has a variety of window sizes,

gables, and ninna~cles. See photograph on the next page,

The Calvary Presbyterian Church 1887

The 'third Trinity Church was Schweinfurth' s crown~ing achieve-

ment in 1901., It is now known as Trinity Cathedral, He was still

working in his Romanesque with some Gothic inclination. The struc-

ture, considered the finest ecclesiastical architecture in Cleve-

land, was on Euclid Avenue and East 22nd Street.

Trinity Cathedral, 1901

One more interesting niece of a-chitecture rose on Euclid Avenue

in 1890, and that was the arcade by Smith ane Eisennann. It was a-d is

considered to be the most distinguished building of the city center.

Extendinr? 300 feet between Euclid and Superior, it waes conceived of

as a Preat complex of shops and offices. The structure cost ~876,000,00.

Outside, the influence of Hichardson is apparent in the entrance arch-

way and the aqueduct motif. The Euclid Avenue Entrance was remodeled

in the 19401s, but was the same as the Superio~r Etntance,

The Arcade in 1890 exterior

The, Arcade proper is an interior passage 60 feet wJide and 90

feet high, with a glass roof supported by iron trusses. Note the

ornate brass newell posts, the wrought-iron railings, and the lamp

posts. See Photomraph on next page.

r marl end of the Maen l. slass rentn ea11rurtur

The Euclid Avenue Arcade interior


No avenue in the world, it was claimed, presented such a contin-

uous succession of beautiful residences and uniform grounds for so

great a distance. In the 18701s, the peak of a Clevelander's ambition

was to have a mansion on the avenue beyond Erie street. In 1870, the

lonrr over due dianity of becoming an avenue was extended to Euclid.

The doom of lower Eucidd Avenue as a beautiful residential street

was sealed, however, when John Main opened a drug store and Thomas

O'Eourke opened his tailoring shop. Time erased most of the early re-

tailine business ventures; but three-quarters of a century later,

Burrows, book-and-office-supply-firm, pioneer on the avenue in 1871,

flourished several blocks east of the Public Sauare.

The entering wedEge of commercialism that darkened the horizon

of Euclid Avenue was the beginninR of a gradual buJ!t steady change that

continued decade after decade. In 1873 the Standard Bjlock, home office

of Standard oil was erected on the north side of Euclid. Across the

street, on the site of St. Paul's Church, at the southwest corner of

Sheriff, a four-story structure of the latest architecture wass erected

by the l~eadling music publisher and musical instrument dealer in 1876,

By the 1880's, the retail business trend was eastward on Euclid

and. not; on Superior, Still sone of the finest homes were bLuilt in this

decade eastward from Brownnell street and between Perry and Case avenues,

The increase of real estate value reflects the commercial trend

the avenue took after the 18709s, In the 1860's, the land was going

at approximately Iji50.00 per foot. As an interesting comparison, the

S.E. corner of Erie and Euclid was purchased. for $9,150.00 in 1865,

and by the turn of the century, the same lot was sold at @500,000.00.

By the 1890"s, the grandeur that was Eiiclid began to fade with

the DassinFe of the horse& buggSy and the coming; of the automobile.

Clevela7nd's bid for size and importance left its mark as commerce

and industry began to push eastward. Then, one by one there appeared

in the city directory, the nram~es of the "first"s families, located

in fine new suburban homes in the country side. On Euclid, the Erie

Street Streetcar Frontier fell as the right-of-way was granted for

extension of the tracks to Perry street, in 1890. Sadly, by the 1940's,

short-order diners, used. car lots, and filling stations spotted his-

toric Euclid Avenue. The mansions of massive architecture built by

influential families before the turn of the century were filled with

roofers who knew little,:if anything of about their homes glorious

past, Unner Euclid, by 1940 was thoroughly lined with commercial build-

inrrs well beyond east 30th street. The once beautiful avenue is now

completely devasted of its rich architectural bea~utyr and heritaSe.

Euclid Acenue North
between 24th & 30th
from left to right,
the homes of Bingham,
Devereux, M~ather,. L.C,.
Hanna & Hickox-Brown:


Euclid Avenue Ee-st
of 40th St., 1880
West of this aoint
streetcars were
diverted from the

Cutters racingf on the
Avenue- a favorite
Winter pastime of the
wealthy Clevelanders
during the 1880es

Catler1 enrino sm Erus*lF Arpnew In dwr IRBth

Notable Persons in Cleve-land from 1796 to the 1900"s





The Master-masons and Architects of Cleveland

Important Dates concerning Euclid Avenue

Maps of Cleveland




The Early Years 1796 1830

It is probable that a majority of the smaller buildings, private

houses, and stores, were built by amateur carpenters. Certainly there

was no difficulty entailed in the construction of log houses which

continued to be built in the 1820's and the framins of a small building

required only a rudimentary knowledge of tools, But for the more ela-

borate structures including pretentious houses anrd public buildings.,

a higher degree of professional skill was dem~ande3d. No accurate count

of the number of trained carpenters is available for these years, but

a few names aprnear in the records, Levi Johnson, the pioneer crafts-

man who produced the uniquie first Court House, was prat~icing both as

a carnenter and as a shipbuilder throughout the period. Phil soovill

was a trained carpenter andl contractor an~d clim~axedl a longl a~nd suiccess-

ful nractice in buzildin? by the construction in 1825 of his Franktlin

House and its l~t~er rebuildling and en7la~~rgementYi in 1845. Thie nam.es of

Henry: L, Noble as designer and both Noble and George C'. Hill as build-

ers are connected wjth the second Court House erected in 1826-1828 on

the Publijc Squiar~e. Undcoubte~dly many more made their livline by the

Dractilce of theF buildingr trades, though their names a-re not, found be,-

fore 18j30.

None of these, of course,' had formal arch-itectural. training. Levi

Johnson and? Phil Scovill were carpenters, builders, and contractors,

and while certainly competent at their trades, they as certainly were

artisans rather than professional designers. Henry L. Noble who is

credit~d. as the designerr"' of the most greten~tionss buildings of the

period, the second Court House, is listed in the directoryr of 1837,

as "joiner-and burilder.l'

The Canal Era 1830-1853

The Canal period was dominated by one architectural firm, that

existed well into the 1860's. To trace the firm of Sineon Porter and

Charles Wallace Heard, we lust go back to 1829 when Simeon's brother

Lemuel died, and Simeon was engasedd to cormalete his works. In 1834?

Sineon was awarded the contract for the West-rn Heserve College chapel,

which survives in a somewhat altered form, and b-r 180,3 hei had built

three other buildings for the college, which still exist: Noeth College

the Observatory, and the Althenaeium. During this time Porter was build-

ing outside the college too, .both in the towin_ of Hudson and elsewhere.

"The Elm~s,"l the Brewster house, is~certainly his work, and the ilutting

house is certainly good enough to be his. Two of his churches, a Greek

Revival one in Srecksville and a Gothic one in Hudson, have been lost

to fire, but it is Dossible that G1e was the diesiccner of the church~ at

Streetsboro, now at the Hale Homestead.

In 1848, Porter moved to Cleveland, and shortly thereafter joined

Charles Wallace lieard,, son-in-law of Joh~nathan Goldsnith, in an archi-

tectural partnership, In the first three years, Heard and Porter de-

sipgned three important churches, of which only one, the Honanesque

"Old Stone" church survives. This, however, is likely to be Heard's

desiarn, as Porter, un to this time, had almost consistently worked

in some form of classical id~iom,. Other works of the partnership were

the Hinman B. Hurlbu~t house of 1855 on ECuclid Avenue, a Tuscan man-

sion with a precociously High Victorian diaper pattern in its brick-

work; the old Central High School of 1856, a large Romanesque building

with cast-iron columns as part of its interior structure; and. the prin-

cinal buiildting for Lakte Erie Female Seminary, now the Lake Erie College

fon. Womnwn in 1859, probably th2e largest build.in~e the partnershipp de-


Heard and Porter was dissolved in 1860, and Porter set up a prac-

tice of his own. In 1861 he was at work on another Cleveland high

school, and. tha~t year also received a contract for College Hall, now

Chapman Hall, at Mount Union College in Alliance. The Congreational

church in Hudson, a Gothic building~ comTpletedi in 1865, was also his

work. His last recorded work was killer Hall at Mlount Union College.

He died in 1871 at the arre of 64.

The Industrial Ame 1854-1900

The most successful firm of th-e im~mediaite Dost-war period was

Heard and Blythe, whose partners were Charles Heard, now~ sseprated

from Porter, and Heard's son-in-law Walter Blythe. Their residential

work in Cleveland has virtually disappeared. Neitherr men, at any stag~fe

of their careers, had any professional training in architecture. Heard

was, by training, a carpenter. Their knowledge of materials and their

skill of construction were the product of lonEc years of eatual exper-

ience in the building trades.

By the 1880's, H.H. Richardson's Romanesque manner was highly

influential, and. no architect in Cleveland used it better tha~n Charles

F. Sch~weinfurth. H-e was born in Auburn, New* York~ in1 2856. After grad-

uatingr fromn bigh SChool in. 18i72 heF spe~nt twor years in technical study,

then entored tho office of a prominent New York architect. In 1875 te

became supervising architect of the U.S. Treasury Denartment, but "not

being in sympathy with the restraint and methods of gavernmental ar-

chitecture," left in 1881 to take charge of an architect's office. This

may have been the New York office of H.H. Richardson, although there

is no certainty on the natter.

In 1883 he received a commission to desigSn the Euclid Avenue man-

sion of Sylvester T. Everett, and it was this commission t-at brought

him, at the aRe of twenty-sevenr, to a practice in Clevelald.. For a

short while Schweinfurth entered into a partnership with his brother

Ju~lius, but thlis soon ended. The Everatt Hesidence, which the brothers

designed together, was the Rreatest home built in Cleveland up to that

time and one of the greatest ever built in the city. It was in a pure

Richardsonian style, and Richardson himself praised it highly.

Schweinfurth continued in the Ronanesque manner through the 1880's,

as his Chisholm house of 1887 shows. In 1887 too be b~ean the Calvary

Presxvterian Church with its nassive towers and areat entrance arch

and its complex side elevation. The round arches, rock-faced ashlar,

mountainous roofs, and towering chimneys of the Romanesque Revival

style appealed to him, althouffh to the Richardsonian features that he

used he often. added a massive corner tower. The interiors, of course,

contained richly carved woodwork. Schweinfurth became knownrt as a per-

fe~ctionist; he built expensively, but saw to it that materials a~nd

workmanshin were of the higShest qua~lity, and his clients appreciated


'In 1894 Sch~weinf~rtth built an intersting house, square and for-

tress-like, for himself. The crenellated street front shows, in an

austere way,. the transition he was m~akine: at that period to Goth~ic.

The entrance is charming, with i's bluntly pointed arc'?way, its ex-

qu~isitely w~roupght lantern, and its intricately worked door. In 1896

the architect turned to classicism for his Backus Law Sch-ool at Wdestern

Reserve U~niversity, He was to build other work for the university,

mainly in the Tudor manner that was to be his favorite in the latter

nart of his career. In 1900 he was commissioned to do a series of

nassive stone bridges to carry traffic over Liberty Boulevard, a road

thaRt winds through a. Cleveland pa~Rrk. These bridges are all. different,

but hnve a ruggqed quality that suits the wild setting beautifully.

Schweinfurth designed in a variety of styles, but his favorite

period, in his later years was the Late E-pglish Gothic. Nost of his

work at the western Reserve University was Tudor, and so was his de-

siffn for one of the greatest and latest of the Euclid. Avenue mansions,

still standing, the Samue~l Mlather residence. This last was perhaps

the most imposive and most expensive house ever built in Cleveland;

even today, stripped of its la~ndscapins and its great entrance marquee,

it is impressive. His greatest work is Trinity Cathedral, finished in

1907, an English Pernendicular work in Indiana limestone, with rich

detailinP inside and outside.

Of himself Scweinfurth said:

I hold my former master in deepest resnect, very often recaling

their fine words and sympathy, thereby receiving renewed enthusiasm

and a striving for higher ideals. I have always studied out my pro-

blems making my ownm designs, Roine over all the details and superin-

tend~inn my owan work, k-nowinrr what I wanti and recogn~izuing it ;;-!ln seen,

so youi miay knlow~ that mry life ha~s been a ha~ppyJ a-nd? buisy one, if at times

architscturally lonely,



1815 Euclid street laid out

1816 Euclid street surveyed

1820 Euclid street was only a narrow thoroughfare through the woods,

not cleared of woods yet.

1824 Perry house was built on Euclid, one of thve earliest d~ocumrented.

1530 There were over ten houses on Euclid st~reet.

1832 Euclid street was recognized as a public hi_5hway to buffalo.

1834 Euclid street waRs paved wsith? wood nlan~ks, fron Pe~rr street to

the city limits,

1834 Thne first street railway was built by Ahaz Merch-ant from K~enwa~rd

street to Public Square.

1842 Dunham Tavern was built. It's the oldest structures on Euclid

Avenue, today,

1850 ThrFie were no stores as yet onl Euc~lidi street.

1953 Omnibus service on Euclid street started by Ed Duty.

1859 A 25 foot gravel carriageway was laid from Public Square to

Euclid street, and the first sewer was laid to drain off water.

1Fh2 S~ent, 15, the city council authorized horse-car tracks to Erie.

1970 Euclid becomes an avenu~e.

11'70 WJillia-~m Taylor and Thoma~s Kilpatrick build the first commercial

structure on Euclid Avenue,

1873 Burrow's Booksellers and stationaries continue the commercial


1875 E~uclid Avenue surfaced w;ith? jbedina sand~stonee from P-ublic Square

to willson avenue.

1880 some of the finest houses were built on Euclid avenue, considered

the show lace of America. Sleiffh races became Docular on the


1886 The Euclid Avenue National Bank was built on Euclid Avenue.

1886 Euclid Avenue prepared with Medina sandstone to city limits.

1890 Grandeur fades on Euclid Avenue.

1890 Right-of-way granted for street car lines to Perry street. It

Was the doom of Euclid Avenue.

1895 Henryv chisholm residence razed. It was the residence left from

Bond to Erie street.

1900 The avenue is fully commercial from Public Square to Erie street

and new retail structures begin to appear past Erie street. The

death of the grandeur of Euclid Avenue has arrived.

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The First Map of ClevelaY1-d, 1796

-~--:;rL.AKE ERIE.--~,

--~~_~~L~~~=\\_~YI___ TR T~ iI II~
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a) tgl
6" r

Map of the city of Cleveland, 1853

01opveland Leadrer Printing Company.

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Figure 6. Phla of Clevelanld showcintg aninexations.


A Incorporated as Village of Cleveland 12/23/1814.
B Annexed to Village of Cleveland by act of General Assembly
C Annexed to Village of Cleveland by act of General Assembly
D Incorporated with A. B. and C. as City of Cleveland
E -Ten-acre lots annexed to City of Cleveland 3/22/1850.
F City of Ohio annexed 5/5/1854. F. was incorporated as City
of Ohio 3/3/1836.
G Part of Brooklyn Towvnship annexed 2/20/1867.
HI Parts of Brooklyn and N~ewburgh Townships annexed
K Part of Newburgh Township 100 A lot No. 333 annexed
L East Cleveland Village annexed 10/24/1872.
MNOT Prsh sf erokln ,11e gh, and East Cleveland
P Part of Newburgh Township annexed 9/16/1873.
R Part of Brooklyn Village annexed 11/10/1890.
S Part of East Cleveland Township annexed 6/27/1892.
T Part of Newburg Township, part of original lot 312 annexed
U West Cleveland Village annexed 3/5/1894.
V Brooklyn Village annexed 4/30/1894.
W Clenville Village annexed 9/26/1898.
X Glenville Village, second ward, annexed 12/20/1902.
Y Linndale Village annexed 4/11/1904.
Z Part of Brooklyn Village annexed 4/11/1904. Reconsidered
and lost, 6/31/1904.
AA Part of Brooklyn Township annexed 1/11/1904.
BB Part of Newburgh Heights Village annexed 9/25/1905.
C C City of Glenville annexed 6/19/1905.
DD Village of Saith Brooklyn annexed 12/11/1905.
E E Village of Corbett, annexed.
FF Village of Collinwood annexed January, 1910.


Sources obtained up to Macy 5,; 975::


1. Bohassek, Charles
"Gordon Hall, the House of Dan-R. Hanna; Cleveland, Ohio";
Jarvis Hunt, Architect.
The Architectural Record, vol. 15, pages 18-38, January, 1904.,

2. Benton, Elbert Ja~y
Cultural Story of an American City Cleveland;
Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, 1944.

3. Chapman, Edmund
Cleveland : Village to Metropolis;
Western Reserve University Press, Cleveland, 1964.

4. Frary, I.T.
"The Hebuilding of Longfwood, Residence of John L. Severance,
Esquiire; Cleveland"; Charles Shweinfurth, Architect.
The Architectural Record, vol, 41, pages 483-503, June 1917.

5. Frary, I.T.
"The Residence of F.E. Drury, Esquire; Cleveland"; Frank B.
Meade and James Hamilton, Architects.
The Architectural Record, vol. 38, pages 601-604, December, 1915.

6. Hatcher, Harlan
The Western Reserve : The Story of New Connecticut in Ohio;
Bobbs Merril Company, New York, 1966

7, "House of P.S. Jennines, Esquire; Cleveland"; F.S. Barnum,
Amlerican Architect and Building News, vol. 2, 416, December, 1877,

8, "House of Charles F. Brush, Esquire; Cleveland";
George H. Smith, Architect.
American Buildingfs Selections, vol. 1, plate 25.

9. "House of D.Z. Norton, Esquire; Cleveland";
Charles F. Schweinfurth, Architect.
American Architect and Building News, vol. 75, page 71, plate
1366, March, 1902.

10. "House of S.T. Everett, Cleveland";
Charles F, Schweinfurth, Architect.
American Buildings Selections, vol.1, plate 24,

11, "House of William G. Mather";
Cha~rles :Platt, Architect
The Architectural Record, vol. 26, page 313-320, November, 1909.

12. "Residence of G.W. Stockley, Cleveland";
Levr i" To Scofie~ld, Archlitect~.
American Buildings selections, vol. 1, plate 114.

13. "Residence of A.S. Ingalls, Cleveland";
Bohnard and Barsson, Architects
American Ardhltebt and Building News, vol. 99, no. 1847,
Miayv, 1911.

14. "Residence of Walter Flory, Esquire; Cleveland";
Howell and Thomas, Architects.
The Architectural Record, vol. 48, page 240-294, October, 1920.

li, "Residence of Warren Bicknell, Esquire; Cleveland";
Meade and Hamilton, Architects.
The Architectural Record, vol. 53, page 202, 213-214,
March, 1923.

16, "Residence of wailliam chisolm, cleveland";
Chables F. Schweinfurth, Architect.
American Buildings Selections, vol. 1, plate 110.

17. "Several Houses in Cleveland, Ohio, by Meade and Hamilton,
American Architect, vol. 123, plate 2417, April 11, 1923.

18. Frary, I.T.
"Euclid Avenue The Passing of a Famous Avenue";
The Architectural Record, vol.43, page 391-392, April 1918.

19. Kohn, Robert D.
"Architecture and Factories, Cleveland";
The Architectural Record, vol. 25, page 130-136, February, 1909.

20. "The United States Federb1 Building, Cleveland";
The Architectural Record, vol. 29, page 193-213, 1911.

21. "Office Building for the New Ennland Building Company, Cleveland~
Shepley, Rutan, and Coolidge, Architects,
American Architect and Building News, vol. 44, page 152,
plate 966, June 30, 1894.

22. "The Leader News Buildling, Cleveland";
Chairles A. Platt, Architect.
The Architectural Record, vol. 33, page 501-517, June, 1913.

23, "LThe United States Post Office Building, Cleveland";
The Architectural Record, vol. 29, page 193-213, M'arch, 1911

24. "Richman Brothers Factory" Dana Clarck, Architect.
American Architec, vol. 11 plate 2236, page 525-532,
October, 1918.

25. "city Hall of cleveland";
J. Milton Dyer, Architect.
American Architect, vol, 112, plate 2170, page 61-63, July, 1917.

26. "The Scofield Building";
L.T. Scofield, Architect.
American Architecture and Building News, vol. 87, page 16,
plate 15j16, January, 1905.

27, "Building for the Society for Savings, Cleveland"
Burnham and Root, Architects.
American Architect and Building News, vol. 24, page 159,
plate 667, October, 1888.

28. WWooltex Plant, Cleveland";
Robert D. Kohn, Architect
American Architect and Building News, vol. 94, plate 1851,
page 222, June, 1911.

29. "Calvary Presbyterian Church"
Charles F. Schweinfurth, Architect
American Building Selections, vol. 3, plate 35-36

30. nEuclid Avenue Presbyterian Church"
Cram, Goodhue, and Ferguson, Architects
The Architectural Review, vol. 2, plate 7-9, 1913

31. "The Mehtodist Episcopal Church, Cleveland",
Jr. Milton Dyer, Architect
American Architect, vol. 112, plate 2170, page 61-63, July, 1917.

32. "Trinity Cathedral#
Charles F. Schweinfurth, Architect
American Architect, vol.92, page 140-141, November, 1907.

,33, nThe Work of J. Milton Dyer"
The Architectural Record, vol. 20, page 385-403, November, 1906

34. Rose, William Ganson
Cleveland the Making of a City
The World Publishing Compnay, 1950

33. nThe Preservation News", vol, XIII, no, 8, August, 1973,
Positive Replies and sources obtained after May 5, 1975:

36. The Cleveland Museum of Art

37. The following issues of nThe Inland Architect and News Record":

vol, 2, December, 1877
vol. 13, July, 1889
vol. 14, October,' 1889
vol, 15, February 1890
vol, 17. March, 18 91
vol, 18, October, 1891
.vol. 20, September, 1892
vol. 21, June, 1893
vol. 75, March, 1902

38. Talk with Mr. Carl Feiss

Negative Replies:
The Western Reserve Historical Society

The Ohio Historic Preservation Office

Doctoral Dissertation on Charles P. Schweinfurth; Perry, Regina.
(inter-library-loan Cleveland Public Library)

Wilson, E11a Grant
Famous Old Euclid Avenue (2 vol's.)
The Evangelic Press, 1932
(inter-library loan Columbia University)

Correspondence with Mr. Edward A. Reich
Secretary to the Fine Arts
Committee of the City Planning Commission
Cleveland, Ohio

Correspondence with the Cleveland Public Library for photographs

"The Work of C.F. Schweinfurtha
The Architectural Review, vol. 1, page 81-115, 1897.

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