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Group Title: report on the methods, materials and uses of paper and paper-hanging
Title: A Report on the methods, materials and uses of paper and paper-hanging
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102021/00001
 Material Information
Title: A Report on the methods, materials and uses of paper and paper-hanging
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Hardy, Deirdre J.
Publisher: College of Architecture, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1976
Copyright Date: 1976
Subject: Architecture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Architecture -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
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Bibliographic ID: UF00102021
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Table of Contents
    Title Page
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    Slide list
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Full Text
A Report on the

Methods, Materials and Uses of



Deirdre J. Hardy.

AE~ 681.
M~r. P. Wisely
Fa~ll, 1976.



The Cbinese are believed to have made paper from bamboo

and rags as early as 20001B.C. Though they strove to

keep this process a secret, their knowledge spread

westward after several paper-makers were taken prisoner

during a Chinese attack on Turkestan in 751 A.D. These
#-1 skilled artisans were put to work in Seunar~kanld by their
Arabian captors and from there the craft spread to Baghdad,

Damascus, Egypt and eventually Christian E~urope via the

Moors in Spain and the Sicilians.

Until 1450, textile rags wbere the only source of pulp. Since

then wood has became and remained, the only source of pulp-

the basic ingredient of paper.

America imported all her paper requirements from Europe until

1690 when the first mill began production at Germantowyn, Pa.

Five more mills were in operation by 1'768, but the increased

use of paper during the Revoltionary War saw that number

grow to ninety by the war's end, and increase further to

200 by the year 1810. Continuous sheet paper was first

produced in 1801 and technological machine improvements

during the next thiry five years resulted in machine

printed paper which further stimulated demand and resulted

in ever increased production, until the Wo2rld Wars of the

Twentieth Century interrupted the spiral.3


Pulp-making is the preparation of fibres for uniformly
distributed suspension in water so that they form a sheet

of interlacingf fibres on a rolling screen through which

water om drain away. Pulpm~aking can be achieved tw8o ways,

mechanical and chemical.

'ife mechanical method involves wood being literally ground

to a pulp. After cleaning, screleri-ng and' thickening it

is ready for the final paprm~akingS process.

The chemicalprocess consists of adding sulphate or sulfite

to the finely chipped wood. In both these cases.(the sul-

fite, or "acid" method is used most often today) the mixture

is sealed in a container and cooked to temperatures as high

as 66i2oF. The pul#~ is then screened, blended and if destined

for a higher-grade paper use is bleached.

The next step is beating., The fibrous mixture is beaten .to

a mass of such consistency that in the paper machines the

fibres will bond together and the water will drain off

slowly and uniformly. This step is the controlling one for

the composition of the paper and addition of other materials

such as resin, olay, chalk etc. depends on the type of paper

being produced.

The rolling stage takes place next as the liquid mass passes

over wire rollers where excess water is expressed and a sheet

of continuous paper is formed. The top roller is the "dandy"

which contains the wire or rubber form which makes the

watermark. From the wire rollers the paper sheet, which

now contains 441 lb. of water for every pousnd of paper, passes

over suction:and pressing rollers until a moisture content

of 650 is obtained. Steam heated rollers now reduce the

moisture to 5-80~ and, the sheet passes through a series of

rollers which give it the final surface finish.


Paper can chemically be treated to be fire-resistant and
flamne-retardent and resistent to water, water vapour, insects

rodents, mould, fungi and bacterial It can also be made

tear-proof. Paper's important natural properties are

water absorption, density, tensile strength and porosity.

It can be given other important properties such as

compressive strength by lamination, acoustical properties

by impregnation and coating, and im~permeability by coating

with a thin film of metal such as copper which then makes

it useful where electrical conductance is important.


Paper's use in building ranges from asbestos saturated

felts for use in built-up roofs, as heat insulation for

light fixtures and oven lintags, through roof decking,

and. sheathing paper, to concrete form-work molds to

inexpensive fibre-board finishing material for interiors

and felt for carpet underlays, and the paper products

typically used daily in an architect's office.

A differing use of paper pulp is papier-m~chi, another

product wh~-ose origins lie in the Orient, where it is
known to have been used as a material for war helmet

which were toughened by laquering them* Althougqh the? team

papier-ma~ch6 seems tom owed of French wocrds it is not,

according to the xford Eng~lish Dictionary, of French origin.

It seems reasonable, considering that the term was first

used by French emighe workers in England during the Eight-

eenth Century to describe, with good reason, what was called

in Ekg2AClshn'chewede paper," for the French verb uto chew"t is

"mache2f- hence papier-mache. This term refers to products

made of mast~icated paper pulp saturated with water which

has been stiffened by the addition of a binder of vegetable

or animal glue. This mixture is then moulded into any desired

form, allowed to dry, and painted, coated or dyed any color.
It can be shaped mechanically in molds, by hand, or over a

supportitg framework.

Historically, paper in the form of papier-m~che has been .

used for a variety of architectural uses ranging from a

bath-tub, whicht was l~ight-weight, cheap and. servicable as

long as the waterproof finish lasted and the weight of the

bather was not so great as to cause structural failure)

through a variety of small products such as soap dishes,

Slides mirror frames and trays;, to being the sole component of
# 2&L7
a village of ten homes ranging in size from two rooms to

Slide a nine room villa which wtas prefabricated in England in
1n53 for erection in Australia. It is known that the

modular double walled structure of a waterproof fibrous

material patented by inventor Charles Bielefeld withstood

two feet of flood-water caused by heavy rains and poor

drainage while it was temporarily set up on the factory

grounds, so hopefully its unknown fate in Australia was

kind. It is known that a church of stailar. mat erial

erected in Bergen, Norway survived for 37 years before

being demolished.
As can be seen in the illustration of the papier-mtch6

villa, the mantel and cornice were alabanatb9y molded,

and th~is use seems to have been papier-m~oh6's principal

architectural use during the Eighteenth Century for many

important buildings, including Strawberry Hill and the
House of Lords which ~had ceiling and wall ornaments made

of this material. The firm of Jackson and Son, London,

founded by George Jackson, previously a carver of wooden

moulds for R~baigt Adan, is still in business and is ise poss-

ible today to have repaired from t~hB original -molds any

workC ever done by them.l Peter Fleeson conducted a

similar business in the UJnited State4 for an advertisement

which appeared in 1745 mentioned that he manufactured paper-

hangings and papier-michi moldings at the corner of 4 th.&

Chestnut Streets in Philadelphia. Today the use of papier-

ma~chi is greatly restricted, for plastics have disppa~dd

its use for wash-basins, and moldings have gone out of

style, leaving papier-machb's use to the craftsperson and
the builder of topographical models.


As mentioned earlier, the Chinese invented paper, and not

suprisingly they are thought to have been the first to use

painted w~all panels to decorate theik? homes. How early

this practice was begun is not knownm. -H.owerpr, Robert For-

tune, an English traveller noted a paper painted in the
style of the M~sing Dynasty in a Chinese home where he was
entertained during the early Ninaeteenth Century. Fortune

noted that this paper detailed a long pictorial story,

but other contemporary papers were typical indoor or out-

door scenes with a lightly indicated landscape background.

Possribly the most famous one to reach the Wbest, as part of

the Oriental influence brought back by the Dutch and English

East India Traders, showed all the processes of the tea

Slide industry. This hand painted paper was imported to America

about 1750 and was still in good condition in a house at
Dedham, Mlass. in 1905.

The earliest recorded use of paper as a wall covering was

in 1145 when the inhabitants of Fez covered the walls afa

vault with paper and then plasterled it over to conceal the
niche's fine carvingf from an attabking enemy. From

Arabia the use of paper spread slowlly to Europe and it was

not until the Fourteenth Century that the manufacture at

paper became a E'uropean industry and the use of the

watermark began. Paper as a wall decorating medium gained

popularity quickly- it was a product of necessity- for

same form of wall covering was required to make rough,

stone walls livable. The Greeks and Romans had covered

their bare polished marble walls with wool and linen hangings.

Woven tapestries, silk hangings, and wood, panelling wJere

also used, but these were the province of the rich. ThLE

invention of wallpaper gave the cannon man visual and

textural comfort and wrhen the wealthy recognized its decor-

ative:oposibilities, its popularity spread rapidly.14

The oldest remnants of European paper have been discovered

inlEtr;3and- one, a large scl~e damask design, probably

adapted from a contemporary fa~bric and dated from the

beginning of the Sixteenth~entury was found in the Master's

Lodge at Christ College, Cambridge. Two more samples
both found st .Barden Hiall in Kent are block printed papers.

The upper oneprobably dates from 158-0. Thp paper is thick

and tough and. was found nailed to the plaster between up-

rights. The ground color was a rich vermillion, with flowers

in bright turquoise and the design butlined in black. The

other Borden Hall paper dates from 1650. It ~was pasted to

the plaster in the modern manner and the design is printed
in black on a white ground with the flowers roughly colored

vermillion. This paper is inrferior to th;e other Borden Hall
wallpaper in design, coloring and paper quality.

In France in 1586t, evidence of a growing paper painting

industry is shown by the incorporation of paper painters

under the name of "'Corporation ofr~amino Miakers, Tapestry

Makers and Picture Makeran The term "'tapestry"l does not

refer to ~the woven material, because those artisans were

already organized under another name. The Domino M9akers

had been in the business of copying the marblepapers import-

ed into France from Persia and popular for lining book

covers and boxes. The small marble sheets were enlarged

with the same design technique for wallpapers. By 1599

t ~0e`9dusat~ry hald grpwh dufficiently~ fbr Repgrf IZV to grhi~t
a charter to the Guild of Paperhangers.

The earliest wallpaper designs were of flowers and cartouches

in diaper and stripe patterns that were printed by hand

with wooden blocks. The designs did not form a repeat,

the separate sheet were simply placed side by side on

the wall. t~fh;Es sheets were actually partly printed and

par~3y hand painted. The design was carved into very hard
wood block faces, the blocks laid side by side to complete

# 6

#e 6 (btm)


the motif and the paper sheet placed face down on the

inked blocks and a roller passed over them by hand. T~hus

the outline was printed. and the colours filled in by hald
lide or put on with the aid of a stencil.
7 A
England also had a Paper Stainer's Corporation inLjndon

which claims the invention of the flocking techniique in 1626.

The design is printed with glue and then heavily sprinkled

with finely chopped silk or wool so that the material adheres

to the pattern of glue. hien the glue is dry the excess

silk or wool is shaken off and the resulting napped pattern

outline imitates velvet or damask very well, This technique

came to be known in France as English paper.

During the latter part of the SeventeenthCe~ntury, Papillon

of France started the first widely reputed printing house

of:- wallpapers- he still used the block printing, hand touch-

Slides up methods but he designed. patterns that would join together
# 8&9
and be continuous when pasted on the wall.5ide by side.

This innovation made hi~m so successful t~hat; he was able

to open a shop for the sale of his papers instead of having

to peddle them on the streets. He also invented '"luster-paper"

the design was dusted with ground up paints over a glue consist-

ing of 2 ounces of fish glue,heated until luke warm and mixed

with 4 ounces of starch. Several different colors could be

incorporated into each design usihg this process by allow-

ing the glue an appropriate drying time between sequential


Slide By 1750 the English had perfected their technique of printing
with different colors on blocks on top of the paper, and

their papers gained a wide reputation. In 1754 Madame de
Pompadour imported ~n~glish ppper for use at Versailles and

the Chateau de Champs, and the popularity of E~nglishypapers

Slide became international and the time was ripe for taxation.
# 11
Sets of twenty five rolls of sheets each 4' x 12' were the

norm and a penny ta~x wras levied on each square yard necess-

itating the presence of an excise officer in the factory to

stamp each pieces This tax persisted until 1836 and, although

the English claimed it ensured the use of new material only

it is also reported to have financed several wars. Of course

it also caused the price of paper goods to rise and this

necessitated a change in the method of hanging. The usual

method in the early houses had been to tack the paper to a

wooden frame over the walls allowing a slight air space

between. However, by 1250 it had become the practice to

paste the paper on the bare wrfall, for it had been found

that if pasted onto canvas stretched over a frame the paper

tended to shrink from the Bdges. 2is~~ practice did however,

have a practical side because the paper could always move

homes with its owner, and so was frequently used. Several

reports exist of advertisements for the rental of luxury

apartments which had paper.wall~:veringsa the outgoing
tenant would like to sell to the newr lessee.

Although the Chinese papers were printed with insoluble

colors from an early date it was not until 1783 that they

were used in Burppe. Until that date the colors had tended

to run when the paper wYas applied to the walls and touch-u~p

was often necessary after hang~ing--correspondence exists

between Mr. and Mrs. Ben Franklin concerning uneven coloring.

'"If the paper is not equally coloured w~hen pasted on, let it

be brushed over again with the same colour, and let the

papier-mach'emusical. figures be t~acked to themileo


the ceiling. W~hen this is done, I think it will look: very

The advent of the::French Revolutiop saw a change in the

Slide designs, away from the pastoral and garden scenes
# 12
beloved of Mlarie Antoinette to the popularization of

Republican emblems and draped, fabrics. In 1797 Zuber

began his famous factory that was still in operation

just before World '#ar II. It was he who began to publish

Slide the great panorama papers such as "On the Bosporus"
#e 13
which became so popular and lead to the printing of

"story" papers such ass"The Adventures of Telemnachuan~

Slide produced by Dufour which like many other..populatk paper
# 1~4
told a story in sets of consecutive panels to be hung-
around the roon.

Architectural frames were a popular design motif and

were not only uosd in classical styled papers such as

Slide "Sacred to Waslhington" which was produced at the death
# 15
of that famous gentleman, but were adapted to aid in

perspective rendering~ by creating depth of field with
the inclusion of balustraldes and dadoes.

Slide By 1764 the engraved cylinder had been invented and this
# 16;
newer: method allowed far greater detail as well as faster

manufacture. Improved machinery available in 1986 allowed

for, and. increased, production rate 10 times, but it was
Slide not until 1801 that continuous sheet paper became available
#Y 17
and productions really picked up. 1840 saw the invention

of machine printed paper and the adaption of continuous

repeating designs from cotton and linen fabribs. In 1844

America imported its first color printing machine from


England. At this time the number of colors that cothd

be printed per sheet was fifty-four. By mid-century the

use of wood blocks and hand printing wass resiemred for

special designs and the great scenic and-co~nnemorative

papers had begun to fade from fashion to be replaced by
textile and conventional designs. The new technique of

this time was an adaptation of a Japanese technique to

simulate embossed leather. ESdbossed rollers were used

and the sheets were embellished with sheets of silver and

gold under the direction of the Bank Note Printing Office
of the Government.

In early Colonial Armerica, homes were of necessity

utilitarian, and it was not until the Seventeenth Century

as drawingg to a close that the colonists could afford

the importation of luxuries. Until then, whitewashed

walls embellished by stencilling satisfied the needs

of psychological comfort and cleanliness. Any extra

artistic ability and effort wgs expressed on the chimney
breast. By 1750 imported had become popular and retail

merchants in all the principal towns advertised their wares.

John Ruger began the first: factory in New York in 1765.

His lead was followed by John Walsh in Boston, however

bankruptcy caused him to sell to Moses Grant, w~bho soon
had canpetition from three other firms. MleanwPhile, Peter

Fleeson began his firm in Philadelphia which continued

without competition until Plunkett Keeson advertised his

wares in 1789. Speculation exists concerning the similar-
ity of these two names- were they father and son? Another

father and son firm was begun by two Englishman, John H~owell



# 20 E~;:


and his son John U. Howesll in 1790, It moved from N~ew

York to Baltimore, then Philadelphia and ended in Albany

where it still existed just prior to World Wdar II.r Fine

papers wrere still imphdrted though and these F'rench and
Byisih were in demand for the post-Revb~~ulutionar War
wealthy wtho paid 100 dollars a room for the paper and

forty for its hanging. Local papers ranged in price from
two to eighteen shillings a roll or sixty shillings for

a pictorial set. The fanciful variety of pictorig1 land-

soapes must have allo red a lot of "armehair'travelling"'
although the misconceptions about the subject matter of

same of the narrative papers suggest the owners were not

as well versed in the classics and myths as they thought

The turn of the centu y again witnessed a mirroring of

the prevailing tastes in art applied to interior decoration--

the flowingf forms of the Art Nouveau and the simplification

of forms and colors were reflected for the first time in

the attitude of the Bauhaus that all parts were integrative

pieces of a whole and should be designed accordingly.
Consequently, these forms lend themselves well to wall-

papcr design; a strong silhouette Chatanter, clean in out-
line and mass so that they look well balanced from a

distance and of a flattened form that is drawn in outline

rather than painted aid thus can be appropriately printed
by machine.

M~ore recent photographic technique improvements and inventive

production methods have produced the photographic mural and
silk screened papers and fabrics and the simulated marble

and wood veneer paper$ and panelling such that today walls

# 21

#22 &e 23

#Y 24

can be covered in any material which will enhance it or

return it to its appropriate period in history. For

restoration work careful removal of fragments 6lf any ri~riain-

ing paper is a must, for the fragmnents can be dated and

the design verified by research in the archives of the

Booper-Hlewitt M~useum 16 Newr York.~E

The physical methods of hanging wall-paper have not

changed appreciably except for the glue. Today a homo-

genized vinyl paste is available that is; certainly more
convenient to use that mixing atnd bbilitg, a paste of

winter wsheat flour, borax and alum, not to mention

straining it, The hand, tools needed.~for t;he job, however,

are much the same- cutting table, straight edg~Se,plumbline

and chalk, amzootning brush, sean roller or flat plastic

spatula, razor-blade cutter, step ladder, paste and wide
brush, and of course wall preparation and clean-up equip-

mont. 9echniques required involve knowledge of how to

check the paper for shading variations in dye color and

consequent use of each variant shade on separate walls,

beginning the hanging process on the wall that receives

the most incidental light and finally forming the approp-

riate joints between the panels of paper with the butt
joint being considered the most professional.

#~ 24
top left


Kate Sanborn, Old Time Wall P~apers,( Connecticut,
1905.),p. 4.

Caleb Horneastle, Materials for Architecture
( New Yodr,1963) p. 362. -

WallIpape r, Encycl opaedi at Bianni cai,1957 XX II,

Horhboatel, pp. 369-70.

Horaboatel, pp. 362 & 183.

Hor~nboatels 99* 363-66,

Shirley Spaulding DeVoe, Englishpapier-Muache
of the Georgian anmd Vict orian PerSiod ( onnectiout, 1-971 )

Hornboatel, p. 368.

DeVoe, pp. 30-31.

DeVoe, p. 29.

Horn p. 368.

Sanborn, p. 25
Sanborn, p.B.

Philli aAckerman, Wallpaper: ite Mistory Design
and U~se, ( New York, 19 3) pp. Thii-xiv.

Ackerman, pp. C&5 and Sanborn, Plates IX &c X.


Ackerman, p. 3.

Ackerman, p. 7.

Sanbor~n, pp. 35-36.

Sanborn, p. 65.

Ackerman, pp. 51-56.

Catherine Lynn Fragia~more, "The Stary Wa~lllpapers Tell':
Historic Preservation, (October-December, 1975) 27-35
Sanborn, p. 42.

Ackerman, p. 63.

Ackerman, p. 69.

Ackerman, pp., 91-93.

Frgagiamore, p. 30.
Thomas Audel, ed. Painting_ and Decorating_ MLanual and.
Textb~ook ( Newv York, 1943),~ p. 3b


Ackemnan, Phillis. Wallpaper: Its History, Des~ign and Use,
New YorEk: Tudor Publishing Co., 12

DeVoe,- Shirley Spaualding. Englih aPpier-~aohe of the
Georgian and _Vic_,l~rtoria PeriodJ Connrecti~cut: Wesleyan
University Press, 1971.

Diderot, Denis. AI Diderot Pictorial Encyclopedia of Trades
and I.n~dustry Ndew York: bo~ver AMtlSications, 199

Frangiamnore, Catherine Lynnar. "The Story Wallpa~pers Tell"
Historic Preservation, Vol., 27 No. 4, 00t/Dec. 1975. 27-;35

Halsey, Elizabeth T. Ladie's Home Journal Book of Interior
Decoration, New J7~?';3;iJ~TerseyTEETsFuFL~FET~`iZETEE~iB.,~19,

Hornboatel, Galeb, Materials For Architecture. Newr York:
Reinhold. PublishiZng Co., 1963.---

Painting and Decorating Contractors of America. Painting
and Decoratin Craftsman's Manual and Textbook. N~ew
York Thanas Audel &s Co., 1949.

Sanborn, Kate. _Old Time Wall Pa ers. Connecticut: E.P.
Dut~tonr &Co, 1905.

"W8allpaper" E~ncycloptedia Britannica, 1957, XXII.

Wright, Lawrnce. Clean an(~ Decent., Newr York:, The Viking
Press, 1980.

Kotur, SheiLa and Robert. "Togeth~er Wfe Transforned An Old
Count~ry Inn Ifnto A Weekend Holse"~ Hou;8se r Jdla y~ndGd
Vol.147 No. 7., July, 1975. 46-49


1. Map of Asia c.1294, locating Samarkand, from Wold Atlas
Rand MioNally, Newu York, 1968.,p. 213.

2. Papier-mache Trays, DeVoe, _English Papier-M~chi of the
Georg~ian ~and V~vict-orian Periods, Wea~leyran Unriversity Press,
Connecticut, 1971, p. 46,

3. Papi~er-mache furniture, DeVoe,Fig. 180.

4. Papier-ma~oh6 Villa and Interior, DeVoe, Fig. 23.

5. Cultiv~ation of Tea, Dedham, Mass. Kate Sanborn, Old Time
Wa~l~l Paer EaP.DUtton &,~;Co* 1905, Plate XIII.

6. Borden Hall Wallpapera, Sanborn, Plates IX &c X

7. Repeated patterns, 18" square hand colored, Three-~Pastoral.
Scenes, Sanborn, Plate XXIIl.
7a.Early Colonial stencilled paper, Nantucket, Sanborn. P1UXXVIII
8. Repeated. and joined patterns, Life of a C I9 Gallant,
Sanborn, Plate IV,

9. Detail of above in color. Plate V.

10. Wiatteau manner, French, 17 shades and colors on brown
background with black mesh -over all. Sanborn, Plate ZIII.

11. C IS English paper, 18n wide 16 sets of blocks used,
Sanborn, Plate I.

12. Commemorative Paper; Quiney WeddingS Sanborn, Plate XXIX

13. Scenic paper; "On the Bosporus", Hun~g in honor of Lafayette
wh~ken he visited Mbont~pel~ier, Vermont, 1825, Sa~nborn, Plate

14. "Adventures of Telemrlchus',' French ;?. 1820. Popular in t1e
United. Statesa hung ~in 4 plTacers; in NewI En'gland and at;
The Hermitage, Tenn. ~snborn,Plate..LXVLXIXX.

15. "Sacred to Wahingto~n", Commemorative Paper, Sanborn,

16. Manufacture of wallpaper, engraving: the cylinder, Ackermans

17. Manufacture of wallpaper, Ackerman.

18i. Emboossd leather-like paper, "The St~ory WYallpapers.Te~ll'
Gathering Lynne Frangiamore, Historic Preservation Vol.27
S., NO. 4,; Oct/De.ar 129*76.: p.3,,4.- .

19. Restored hand-stencill-yd wall design attributed to M~oses
Eaton, c. 1820. Ho~use ~and _Garden, Vol. 147 N~o. 7. p.48.

20. Imported European papers, HBistoric Preserv~ation, Oct. 75.

21. English Scenic paper, First Railroad run, Rainh~ill,
Sanborn, plate XXXII.

22. French Boulevard scene, Salem, Mas~s. Removed when found
to excite patients when house used as asylum. Sanborn,
Plate XXXII.

234. Commemorative paper, Olympic Gamles. Unhung set of thirty
rolls forming continuous scene. Block hand printed and
hand finished. Sanborn, Plate LXX[I.

24. Layers pf paper (13) requiring great care to remove
samples that will allow research and dating at Gooper-
Hewiltt MPuseum, New York.~
Art Nouveau design, 1900, Albert Ainsworth, New Jersey.
Historic Preservation, Oct. 75.

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