Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Back Cover

Title: Caribbean farming
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101460/00010
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean farming
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Mona, Jamaica
Publication Date: 1971
Copyright Date: 1969
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101460
Volume ID: VID00010
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 3116219

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Back Cover
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text

ean rmI!

Vol, 3 No. 3. 1971



I \1\II I~

I .~

- -I!


/ -
' ^ -




--. I -- .
eCS **r^

10 ~.




tofeed Purina
There are over 25 ingredients in
Purina chows, micro-mixed for
controlled quality, working
to make more profit for you.

The essential ingredients in Purina Chows can
help you produce the kind of livestock that
makes money for you. Layers that give you
240 or more eggs a year. Broilers that go to
market 7 days sooner. Sows that wean up to
10 pigs per litter. Hogs that reach market-
weight one month earlier with less feed. Cows .
that give you 1000 Ibs. more milk and steers
that produce more and better beef. That's
what makes profit for you. Check at the
checkerboard sign of your Jamaica Feeds
dealer for Purina, the feed that pays.


Working together in Jamaica to produce better food at lower cost.

Caribbean rmig

Published in association with the Faculty of Agriculture, University of the West Indies. Edited
by CAROL RECKORD. Caribbean Farming welcomes suggestions, articles. Address all
correspondence to CARIBBEAN FARMING, P.O. Box 174, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica, W.I.

Vol. 3 No. 3


The editor will be glad to hear from farmers, research workers, extension officers
and others who would like to offer articles or photographs for publication in
Preference is given to articles of a practical nature which will help to put the
results of research and experiment into the farmer's hands. Where possible, good
drawings or diagrams should accompany articles. Good quality photographs of not less
than 5" x 7" are welcome they should relate to farming in the region.
Payment will be made (on publication) for all material accepted.

Rates for 4 Issues
Jamaica $2.00 Eastern Caribbean E.C. $5.00, U. S.A. and other Countries US$3.00

To simplify technical terminology, com-
mercial names may be used. This is not in-
USEFUL ADVICE tended as an endorsement of products
FOR CARIBBEAN named, nor as criticism of similar products
FARMERS not named.
The opinions expressed in articles do not necessarily represent
the views of the publishers
Caribbean Farming 1971




protect your crops
against dangerous
with the use of their Aircraft, fitted with the
Micronair AU 3000 Rotary Atomiser multi-
purpose Aerial Spraying System, used in over
60 countries in applications of insecticides and
* Adjustable flow control for very high to
ultra-low volume spraying.
* Controlled droplet size from coarse to
ultra-fine. 2


The New

FORD DNT Tractor is here!

(It qualifies for Farm Loan)

This 60 pounds capacity Traneport
Cart an carry egatllna. imeplmnt*t
ead or rtnitilet sily Into the
fiids. It is attached to the
reactor by anal-It l drawbar
which gle. you a 4-whfl
vnlclia hu. *nabl you
d ride.

Handlebars Adjust
to Match Your Height
SSingle-Lever Clutch Control



Big 7 Horsepower Engine HA
Cast Iron Wheels for
Sure Traction
The new Ford D N T tractor can be yours at amazini
tests show the D N T does more work in an hour work
than traditional methods. The 7 horse-power gasoline ei
maximum dependablilty. Steel gears are encased in cast i
cast iron wheels will get you over the roughest terrain. T
stop-and-go lever makes the Ford DNT an easy machine
equipped with a wide choice of implements for ploo;ghin
weeding and hauling. Book your Ford D NT Tractor to
profitable farm tomorrow
109 Marcus Garvey Drive (Phone:933-7311)


gly low cost Field
s each acre faster
ngine is equipped for
ron for durability and
The single push-pull,
to drive and it is
ig, soil refining,
iday and have a more


Caribbean Farming 1971


As readers might expect, the CARIBBEAN FARMING office is a collecting point for a good deal of
agricultural literature from all over the world. Because of the editor's squirrel-like habits, not much material
is thrown away; classifying and proper filing are processes that are taking up more and more of our time as
our circle of correspondents grows.
This is an invitation to our readers to make use of our collection. Thanks to the photo-copying device, it is
a simple matter to send prints of documents (we may, of course, in some cases have to clear the legal
position on copyright). While we cannot undertake very big jobs of this sort, we will do our best provided
enquiries are accompanied by cash to cover the cost of copying and mailing.
It may be possible for us to begin soon to publish a list of material as it comes in for the time being we
can only suggest that you let us know your needs. If we don't have what you want, we'll try to get it for
you as long as it seems to be something that others might find interesting or useful.
For instance, during a recent visit to England and Wales, we collected (in addition to gallons of hospitality
- which is another story) copies of craft training schedules which the U.K. Agricultural Training Board has
developed for workers in milk production and in machinery operation and maintenance. These documents
leal with matters of considerable importance in the Caribbean and we are grateful to Mr. S.C. Alexander
,f the Agricultural Training Board for the time he spent with us explaining some of the details of his
board'ss work as well as for the schedules.
another useful contact was with Mr. E.A.J. Wiener, Finance Officer of the Central Council for Agricultural
ad Horticultural Co-operation. The work that this agency is doing must be as difficult in the U.K. as it is in
ie Caribbean; it is so important in our part of the world that their experience should be of tremendous
terest in these countries. Mr Wiener has sent us a copy of the Council's report for 1970-71; he has also
vited us to call on him for further help.
principal purpose of co-operation in agriculture is, of course, to give small farms access to the benefits
iat are normally enjoyed by large farms only. We visited Wales where the countryside is as beautiful and
e people as hospitable as a visitor could imagine and there we found impressive instances of
*operation between farmers, assisted by their advisory officers. In Wales, too, we found these advisory
ficers producing publications such as GLAMORGAN FARMER, a local monthly with a production style
ted to the farming community it serves. Government officers who produce extension literature in the
ribbean might be interested to look at what their Welsh counterparts are doing in this direction.
AMORGAN FARMER is only one of the extension publications other counties in Wales produce
r own and as they serve a readership comprised largely of farmers with smaller holdings, their
hodss should be of a special interest in the Caribbean.
ile we are inviting readers to make use of our collection, it should be a good time to extend another
station. Anyone who publishes regularly or occasionally anything that can be of use to farmers in
Caribbean is hereby invited to send material to us We cannot yet afford to buy on a large scale but
.is material is welcome and will be made available to those who ask for it.

Caribbean Farming 1971

*; AJ;' J


Whether your needs require
the 1200 72 hp,
the 990 55 hp, or the
880 46 hp Selectamatic-
HAULAGE, ive up to
the same super standards of
construction, movability,
comfort and safety.

That's W



Caribbean Farming 1971

= A

Horticulture in


F.W. Shepherd

The International Horticultural Congress in Tel
Aviv in 1970 gave foreign horticulturists a chance
of seeing something of the rapidly developing horti-
cultural industry in that country. This article gives
one English visitor's impressions of that industry.
Si 'ated at the eastern end of the Mediterranean,
fa her south than any European country, Israel has
a inly sub-tropical climate which allows the
ct Ovation of a very wide range of horticultural
ci s.
0 ie total population of nearly three million,
al :t sixty thousand are farmers or growers, in-
ch ng ten thousand part-timers. Another thirty-
fiN thousand are employed as seasonal workers for
ha sting or other urgent activities. These pro-
du s live and work in Kibbutzim, in Moshavim or
in ages similar to those in this and many other
cot ries.

Kii itzim and Moshavim
TI are 225 Kibbutzim in which all work is under-
tai communally. Much of their production is of
ex ive cropping or in large scale livestock units,
anm any of them have also developed secondary
ind ies to occupy the members no longer required
in t r increasingly mechanized methods of pro-
duc i.
The 0 Moshavim are very similar to the Land
Sett aent Association estates in this country.
The iallholdings are cultivated by the individual
prod ers, who buy their equipment and other re-
quisi. and sell their produce through a central
orga: ation. They are growers of high value crops
by iii: nsive methods and have the benefits of the
cheap: st available supplies of fertilizers and other
neces. ties as well as facilities for grading, packing
and marketing their produce in conditions most
acceptable to their customers, whether in Israel or
Some growers in the villages, which are more
similar to those in this country, specialize in the
production of high value crops for local sale or ex-
port where large scale marketing is not so import-
ant. Such enterprises as chrysanthemum and
carnation cuttings and cacti seedlings were among
those seen in such situations.

In all there are 420,000 hectares, just over 1 million

Israeli melons in Covent Gardens market
acres, of cultivated land in Israel and of this 425,000
acres are now irrigated.
In many parts of the country some of the water for
irrigation is pumped from wells near to the land to
be watered but most is fed through an under-
ground network. The main line of this grid is a pipe
some 3 metres in diameter and 220 kilometres in
length which starts north of the Sea of Galilee and
ends near Gaze in the Negev Desert. As a result of
this extensive use of water the flow into the Sea of
Galilee and thence south to the Dead Sea has been
so reduced as gradually to lower the level of the
Dead Sea, which is already 825 feet below sea level.
There is in fact very little water to spare in Israel
and it is strictly allocated according to the needs of
the various crops. Where tolerant crops will permit
some saline water is added to the fresh water, and
in other cases sewage water is also used. There is very
little furrow irrigation and much of the water is
still applied by overhead sprinklers. Various forms
of trickle irrigation are, however, being used and
more widely tried in order to reduce the water loss
which is inevitable with sprinkler irrigation in a very
dry climate.
Fruit. Of the nearly thirty kinds of fruit which are
grown, by far the most important are the various
kinds of citrus, which occupy 44,000 hectares of
land. Nearly 80 per cent of these are oranges, mostly
of the Shamouti variety. About 1 million tons of
fruit are produced each year of which 60 per cent
is exported, bringing in over 50 million a year.

Caribbean Farming 1971


About 30 per cent is processed to produce juices
and other products for human consumption. The
resulting 100,000 tons of peel are fed to cattle.
Compared with the 44,000 hectares of citrus, the
other fruits and nuts occupy relatively small areas
of land. The most important are:

Wine grapes
Table grapes


There are smaller quantities of apricots, pecans,
plums, dates, mangoes and other sub-tropical fruit.
The only temperate fruit which is exported to
Britain in any quantity is the strawberry. This crop
is produced under plastic tunnels from December to
April. American varieties Tioga and Fresno are
grown, with a few European varieties, and annual
cropping is practised. Some six hundred growers
were producing strawberries on just over four hund-
red hectares in 1970. It was estimated that over four
thousand tons would be produced of which about
half might be exported. Careful picking and pack-
ing and rigid grading ensures attractive looking
samples which are sent by air to the main European
capitals on most days during the cropping period.
Vegetables. The Israelis are able to have fresh home
grown vegetables and salads every day in the year
and claim to be among the largest consumers per
head of population of fresh vegetables in the world.
In the period since 1948 when these crops were in
very short supply the area cultivated and the yields
have both increased until some 10 per cent of
the produce is now exported.

About 24.000 hectares of land are used for
vegetable.- production. This includes strawberries
and melons which, being annual crops, are treated as
vegetables, and potatoes which are harvested in
different parts of the country almost throughout the
Half of the area under vegetables is in the Moshavim
or co-operative villages and nearly 40 per cent in
private villages in Jewish or Arab districts. There,
crops such as tomatoes, green peppers, aubergines,
artichokes, cucumbers and celery, as well as straw-

Mangoes are tropical fruit
but the Israelis are pro- -
ducing them commercially.

berries already referred to which require more
hand labour, are grown on the smaller holdings of
these villages. The remaining 12 per cent of land
used for vegetables is on the Kibbutzim and is main-
ly used for producing vegetables such as potatoes,
carrots, onions, peas and beans which can be grown
without very much hand labour.
More than forty kinds of vegetables are grown in
the open and under plastic tunnels. There has, in
fact, been a considerable increase in the use of
plastics and in 1970 more than 2,000 hectares of
tunnels were in use compared with about 100 hel t-
ares of glass or plastic houses.
Among the vegetables which are exported are ca.rots,
onions, lettuce, celery, melons of various kinds, ,reen
peppers, aubergines, artichokes and strawberries
Most of these are sent by sea in refrigerated shi-
taking at least 14 days to travel through the
Mediterranean and the eastern Atlantic. A few
crops, such as the strawberries, are sent by air s long
as prices will pay for higher freight charges.

Government services

The horticultural industry is served by free rese ch,
education and extension services which are obv usly
in very close touch with the growers. The free g tern-
ment extension service consists of just over 600 ro-
fessional staff stationed either at headquarters c n
one of the eleven districts. The majority are spe 1-
ists in crop or animal production, including beel -ping,
or in soils, plant protection, mechanization or ir 1-
agement. General agricultural or horticultural ad sers
hardly exist.
In each of the eleven districts the Director of the
Extension Service has an Advisory Council of te:
farmers and growers, and each of the main groul ,f
crops or livestock such as fruit, flowers, poultry d
so on have technical committees consisting of gr v-
ers or farmers and the extension officers concern L.

Caribbean Farming 1971

Sugar cane weeds and grasses!
You need the combined attack
of 'Actril'D and Asulox'40
To combat weeds and grasses in sugar cane all you need is the combined power of
AC TRI ILD which gives rapid knockdown of the toughest
broad-leaved weeds, and

'A SU LO X '40 the new hard-hitting killer for tough grasses.
Nothing could be simpler-a single combined application of these two power-packed
products at 4 to 6 weeks after planting or reaping not only kills all weeds and grasses
then present, but keeps the ground clear right through to crop "close-in"-
and makes pre-emergence treatment unnecessary!
'Actril' and 'Asulox' are trade marks of
MAY & BAKER LTD Dagenham Essex RM10 7XS England
Obtain full details from:
"' M&B brand products

Caribbean Farming 1971

The committees submit plans for their future activities
in visits, meetings, courses or research which are sub-
mitted through their Council to the central office.
Visits are planned in advance on the initiative of the
extension officer concerned within the overall plan
and are not made on request except in exceptional

Each specialist extension officer expects to visit each
Kibbutz, Moshav, or group of private growers in his
district five or six times a year and since very few of
these groups are specializing in or'e crop it means that
each group receives one or more visits each month
from a specialist adviser. Short conferences or two
to three day courses are organized locally but others
for periods of up to several months in special cases
are organized by a central specialist group who recruit
the specialists from the districts as their lecturers. It is
estimated that every officer spends some 15 per cent
of his time in authorized research work within his
district and up to 24 days a year in attending courses
or other periods of study.

Less than three weeks in any country, much of it
spent in a thriving modern town such as Tel Aviv, does
not entitle one to evaluate or criticize its horticultural
industry. The impression gained, however, is of a
people with a great knowledge of the condition of
their country and a strong desire to help its economy
and themselves. This is partly brought about by the
considerable involvement of everyone in the military
activities which were so ,obviously necessary at the
time of the visit, but is also a reflection of the deter-
mination of the Israelis to bring their country back to
the land flowing with milk and honey and to quote
the motto for the Congress to 'make the desert bloom'.
Within this environment the horticultural industry is
developing with considerable Government aid and very
active individual initiative and has become of great
importance to the nation. It sets out to provide ade-
quate supplies of all fruit, vegetables and ornamentals
required by the home population in order to provide
a complete diet and to reduce imports to the
absolute minimum. At the same time, they are
setting out to produce these same horticultural crops
at seasons of the year and of the quality and price
required for export to other countries in order to
obtain the maximum quantity of foreign currency.

All marketing for the country or for export is controlled
by a number of Boards such as The Citrus Marketing
Board of Israel. The Production and Marketing Board
for Flowers, Bulbs and Decorative Plants and The Fruit
Production and Marketing Board.
The Board consists of representatives of the producers,
wholesalers and the Government. The Citrus Board,
being concerned with one of the country's major
exports, has the Minister of Agriculture as Chairman
and representatives of the Ministers of Finance and of
Commerce and Industry together with a majority
membership of representatives of the citrus growers.
The remainder market their produce through Agrexco
(the Agricultural Export Marketing Company) which i
is jointly owned by the Israeli Government and the
various Marketing Boards.
The Boards organize production and encourage res arch
search on the Government Stations and control qu lity
and quantities being sent abroad. Agrexco organize
the transport and marketing through agents in the lain
countries receiving the various products from Israe
All citrus is marketed under the brand name JAFF
and all other produce under the CARMEL brand.
In order to ensure a high standard of produce
Agrexco employ specialists in the grading and pack
ing of all the main crops for export who make regi r
visits to growers during the marketing season.
This very considerable concentration of horticultui
advisers and marketing specialists appears to ensure he
rapid dissemination of information from research
stations in Israel and elsewhere and from growers ii
countries such as theUnitedStates of America whel
climatic conditions are similar. This leads to high
standards of production and rigid grading standard, nd
thus high quality for export.

The avocado is another
tropical fruit which Israeli 4
farmers are producing.

Caribbean Farming July/September 1971


Your programme may call for pasture improvement-
establishing improved varieties of grass, sub-divisions, or
providing continuous water supply to your dairy cattle to
increase milk production and earn you higher income.
Perhaps you wish to purchase additional cattle to
expand and improve your herd. Or you may wish to build
new stalls for your feedlot operations and grow more
choice meat for markets that pay premium prices for
highgrade beef.
You may even be thinking of getting into, or increas-

ing your acreage of citrus or coconuts to cash in later, on
stable domestic and export markets for these two crops.
Whatever your plans may be for Beef, Dairy, Citrus
or Coconut expansion, the JAMAICA DEVELOPMENT
BANK, with assistance from World Bank Loan Funds, is
now able to assist with long-term financing and expert
advice from our well trained staff.
We will be happy to work out a programme with you-
right out there on your farm.



Caribbean Farming 1971

Healthy crops-healthy profits

Shell Agricultural Chemicals keep your
crops healthy and free from disease.
The wise farmer takes no chances with his
crops. He cannot afford to waste his time,
money and effort. He has to make a
living, so his crops must be profitable. That's
why the successful farmer always uses Shell
Chemicals for a healthy, bountiful harvest.
Shell Pesticides offer protection against
nematodes and insect pests, including
fiddler beetles, banana root borers, bugs,
foliage pests, vegetable pests and termites.
Shell Herbicides are selective in destroying

weeds and grass quickly, without harming
your crops.
Albatros Fertilizers provide the soil with the
vital elements essential for healthy growth
of crops.
A good harvest means a healthy profit.
Successful farmers rely on Shell
Agricultural Chemicals to make every
harvest a good harvest.

Shell Pesticides
* Aldrin Dieldrin 50% W.P. Dieldrex 15
* Nemagon Vapona Malathion D.D. Soil

Fumigant Gardona Azodrin Phosdrin Shell
White Oil Shell Maneb Fungicide Shell Zineb
Shell Fertilizers
* Albatros Compounds Sulphate of Ammonia
" Urea Muriate of Potash Single & Triple
Shell Herbicides
* Brush-killers Gramevin Herbishell 2, 4 D-
* Bladex Planavin Prefix Industrial
Weed- killers
Shell Animal Health Products
" Atgard V Task Equigard Supona
* Purina Feeds.

Caribbe Farming 1971

Weed Control in the Tropics Publishers' Note

Specially commissioned by the Overseas Develop-
ment Administration this handbook is written for all
those involved in crop production in tropical regions.
It will be a constant reference source to agricultural
officers, extension workers, students, teachers, estate
managers, commercial representatives and large

Weed Control in the Tropics' is a practical and compre-
hensive guide to handling weed problems in tropical
art aS.

Ti introductory section briefly examines various as-
p, s of weeds and weed competition and gives a short
su y of the basic methods of weed control: pre-
vc yve, cultural, ecological, biological, chemical etc.

T second d section, on chemical weed control, is in-
te d to give the agronomist a background sufficient
to able him to take account of factors likely to be
inm ved in field work. To this end the section gives a
cla ication of herbicides (including a table of pro-
pe: s of the main herbicides) and discusses the mode of
act ; of herbicides, questions of formulation and
ap ation and the effect and persistence of herbicides
in soil and residues in plants. Precautions in use and
fir ,d measures are included.

TIb ird section is in two parts: the first discusses
me ds of carrying out field experiments with
her ides, while the second (by Dr. P. Walker of Roth-
am {i Experimental Station) considers, and gives de-
tail, exampless of, the statistical analysis of herbicide
exp nents.

Sec i four is concerned with special weed problems,
viz, rual and perennial grasses, broad-leaved weeds,
Cyp s spp., parasitic weeds, aquatic and woody weeds
and ed control on uncropped land.

The second half of the book consists of a collection of
detailed reviews of the effect of weeds on, and of weed
control in, some seventy of the most important
tropical crops. Numerous references are included at the
end of each topic and there is an extensive bibliography.

Selected bibliographies, research institutes carrying out
work on tropical weed problems, manufacturers of
herbicides and spraying equipment, herbicide residues
permitted in tropical plants in the U.S.A., and a
summary table of crop responses to herbicides are in-
cluded as appendices.

The author, Levon Kasasian, joined the Agricultural
Research Council Unit of Experimental Agronomy at
Oxford University under Professor G.E. Blackman,
FRS, in 1952. Later he became the first editor of
Weed Abstracts, which post he held until he left the
United Kingdom in 1962 to take charge of the Herbi-
cide Research Unit at the Imperial College of Tropical
Agriculture in Trinidad (later the Faculty of Agricul-
ture of the University of the West Indies). In 1965 the
Unit was expanded and Mr. Kasasian moved to
Jamaica to start a new section of the Unit. During the
time he was in the West Indies he travelled extensive-
ly throughout the Caribbean on experimental and
advisory work. In 1968 he returned to the U.K. on a
special Overseas Development Administration Fellow-
ship to write this book. In 1969 he made an extended
tour of the Far East, inter alia, to gather information
for this book.

320 pp.

9"x6" Illustrated 1971 Cloth Boards

Published by Leonard Hill Books:
A division of International Textbook Company Limited
158 Buckingham Palace Road, London SW1, England.

Farmers in the first half of this century jounced
and bounced along the furrows on a seat of cast
iron or steel more notable for decorative
ventilation than comfort. A better idea In the
design of tractor seating is the foenm-cuhioned,
spring-suspended seat that adjusts t the
operator's weight. Ford Desgn Center
Secretary Cathleen McCarthy shows the eon
trast between the kind of metal seat that serse
on Ford tractors back in 1907 and this vinyl-
molded seat which was introd ue f in 1990,

CGrpbbow, Farming 1971


:F :1

New disease-resistant watermelon

Dr. Gary W. Elmstrom (right), assistant professor (assistant horticulturist) at the Agricultural
Research Centre, Leesburg, helped Dr. Crall (centre) with the development of the new Smokylee
watermelon variety. With them is Jack A. Haddox, Lake County Extension Director.

Florida has always led the
rest of the nation in watermelon
production, and a new variety
released by University of Flor-
ida researchers should insure the
future dominant position of the
state's $20-million-a-year indus-
The new variety, dubbed
"Smokylee," was unveiled at a
recent field day at the Leesburg
Agricultural Research Center by
Dr. James M. Crall, plant path-
ologist and director of the Cen-
ter. He said the variety was de-
veloped in response to grower
demands for additional high
quality watermelon varieties with
disease resistance.
If Smokylee lives up to expec-
tations, it should take its place
alongside the industry's current
mainstay, "Charleston Gray," re-
leased in 1954. Smokylee should
also compete favorably with
"'Crimson Sweet" and "Jubilee,"
released in 1963, according to
the researcher.

Smokylee is resistant to an-
thracnose (Race 1) and is more
resistant to fusarium wilt than
Charleston Gray, Dr. Crall said.
In varietal trials at both Lees-
burg and Gainesville and in fer-
tilizer trials at Leesburg in 1969
and 1970, differences between
Smokylee and Charleston Gray
in total yields and mean melon
weight were minimal, but the
juice of Smokylee was higher in
soluble solids content. Smokylee
ranked first or second in total
yields in similar trials in Charles-
ton, South Carolina; Manhattan,
Kansas; and Fruitland, Iowa.
Dr. Crall said comparative
analyses of fruit characteristics
indicate that Smokylee melons
are slightly smaller, shorter, and
larger in diameter than Charles-
ton Gray and have a slightly
thicker rind. Using an arbitrary
scale of one to six, a taste panel
gave the new variety a slightly
higher flavor rating. Differences
in flesh color were minimal.

The vigorous growth habit of
Smokylee compares favorably
with that of Crimson Sweet, Sum-
mit, and other varieties highly
resistant to wilt. Evaluations on
the earliness of maturity of
Smokylee have not been conclu-
sive, but it is at least as early as
Charleston Gray.
Melons are medium long, v. ith
well rounded shoulders at both
ends. Rind color is emerald or
medium green, without strip ,es,
but with outlined leaf pattr-ms
Producers, Inc., Gainesvill in
of lighter green color whei, the
fruits have matured. It i: be-
cause of this unusual but lar-
acteristic "smoky" patten of
pigmentation of the rind th; the
varietal name was chosen. The
rest of the Smokylee nam( was
chosen because the research en-
ter is located in Leesburg.
Dr. Crall said average I ;lon
weight is 20 to 25 pouni in
most seasons, and. melon as
large as 40 pounds are rare. ike
Charleston Gray, Smokylet ias
the desirable characteristic< of
producing good quality I h,
though fruits of 20 pound or
more usually have better sh
When fully ripe the flesh i in
attractive, uniformly bright 'd
color with excellent texture id
flavor. Fruits are generally 'e
of white heart and hollow heu s.
Seeds are white to light tan, s< d
color, and large.
Seed should be available fr n
the Florida Foundation S, d
good supply for the 1972 seas n.
Dr. Crall added that tests n-
dicate the new variety is adap, d
throughout the state of Florida,
and reports indicate it might
have a fairly wide range of
adaptability elsewhere.

by the Agricultural Experiment Stations
University of Florida.

Caribbean Farming 1971







To destroy bacteria in the drinking SANZO
water supply for poultry and livestock S ANI-TIZOL

For treatment of sarcoptic mange, lice,
ticks, mites and foot-rot in cattle, CRESL-400
hogs, horses, dogs and other animals

For general disinfectant purposes SANI-SQUAD
needing a powerful chemical combination on .NAY

2 Torrington Avenue, Kingston. Phone 922-1060
Caribbean Farming 1971 1:



Since 1939 a group of research workers in twenty
states of the USA and in the U.S. Department of Agri-
culture have been collaborating in study of the sweet
potato. During World War II this crop became im-
portant as a dehydrated food for the armed forces of
the USA and since then research has helped to make
the sweet potato a valuable commercial product sold
in a number of forms, including chips and flakes.

The plant breeders have had a great deal to do with the
commercial development of the sweet potato. In the
early stages yield and adaptability to various localities
were main areas of the breeders' attention but they have
shown that factors other than yield have had a deciding
influence none of the varieties which were the big
yielders in 1942 are of any commercial importance in
today's industry. Processing qualities have become im-
portant the development of GOLDRUSH and
CENTENNIAL varieties increased the value of the
canned crop to more than $12 million in the State of
Louisiana. As it is, more than 50% of Louisiana's pro-
duction is processed.

In the USA planting material is the most costly element
of sweet potato growing. Slips or sprouts are taken
from nursery beds of tubers that have been set out and
covered with sand, soil or sawdust under warm con-
ditions (700 850F). Where soil diseases are a danger,
slips (without roots) are preferred to rooted sprouts.
The tubers selected are preferably small but not
less than about 1/2" diameter.
The scientists who have studied the nutrition of the
sweet potato recommend light well-drained soils as
being most suitable for growing this crop. They have
found that growing sweet potatoes for two successive
years on the same land reduces the production of No.
1 roots from 33% to 12% of total yield. Potash appli-
cation levels seem to have particularly significant
effects on this crop. Increasing amounts of potash had
the effect of reducing dry matter content and (in
another trial) of partially overcoming the tendency to-
ward excessive vine growth and long, slender tubers.
The value of irrigation water to increase sweet potato
yields has been reported by several workers. In one
series of tests, irrigated plots produced yields which
were on average 154 bushels higher than those from
non-irrigated plots. The range of increase was 62.1 to

--. . .

This European potato digger is one machine being considered fo use
as a sweet potato harvester.
315.8 bushels increase per acre. In the same report
that produced these figures the research workers
said that high soil moisture levels over a period of
several days 40 to 50 days after transplanting -
especially with good fertility, can cause sweet pot
plants to become excessively vegetative at the expt ;e
of storage root (tuber) formation and growth.

Weed Control
It is difficult to develop large-scale production of
sweet potatoes if farmers have to depend on worked
with hoes to keep the crop free of weeds. Since abc t
1950 research workers in Louisiana and other parts f
the USA have been studying the possibilities for
chemical weed control in sweet potatoes. The chem
cals that seem to be most popular are these which a
also recommended by the scientists who worked in
the Caribbean. For this part of the world, the most
recently-available guides suggest that for light soils 2
lb. Dacthal with 2 lb. Diphenamid should be appli 1
as an overall spray after slips are planted but before
weeds start to emerge. For heavy soils the combinat )n
is 4-8 pints of Amiben with 21/2 lb. Diphenamid. Wh:-
ever the means of weed control, it has been clearly
established that the first few weeks after planting are
the critical period if weeds are allowed to develop
during this time, the crop will be badly affected.

Storage and Processing
The big United States sweet potato industry has only
become what it is because storage and processing came
in for careful study. Sweet potatoes should be cured
at about 850 F. and a relative humidity of 85-90%
for approximately seven days. After curing the tem-
perature is lowered to 550 600 F. with a relative
humidity of 85-90%. It has been found necessary to

Caribbean Farming 1971

introduce fresh air into closed storage rooms to pre-
vent accumulation of carbon dioxide. Under favourable
conditions some varieties will remain sound after six
months in cold store. Growth-regulating chemicals
have been used to prevent sprouting of tubers in

Most of the sweet potatoes processed are packed in
cans with syrup or under vacuum. Several types of
frozen products are on the U.S. market and for the
past eight years a flaked product has been produced
commercially. Heat and chemical treatment (with
so. ium phosphates) have been used to achieve
de liable colour, texture and flavour.

Th RNILL Elevator Digger has been specially developed to suit the
smn grower. The machine will lift potatoes, red beet, carrots, onions
ani bs. It may be adaptable for lifting sweet potatoes.
Th, veet potato has its fair share of attention from
fun viruses, nematodes and miscellaneous beetles.
Res chers are seeking to develop varieties with a
higl vel of resistance to one or more of the disease-
crea e g conditions; farmers in the Caribbean will have
accc to local extension and research workers who
can vise on control methods for locally-occurring
pest. and diseases.

The-r has been a great deal of work in the devising
of tractor-powered equipment to prepare ridges, plant
slips and reap the sweet potato crop. According to re-
ports from the U.S., there is not yet commercially
available a mechanical harvester that will handle sweet
potatoes for the fresh market. Some acreage is being
harvested mechanically for processing, using modified
white potato harvesters. The workers in this area have
adapted a small rotary-type mower for cutting the
vines from the rows this mower is described as
the most popular machine now being used for this
purpose. Recent trials indicate that a commercial flail
harvester can be modified for harvesting vines for cattle
feed this method is now in use in North Carolina
and in the Eastern Shore area of Maryland.

Farmers in the Caribbean will be interested to know
that work is being done on a simple digger for lifting
sweet potatoes. This machine is tractor-mounted.
It was designed and built at the UWI campus at St.

The information in this summary was extracted from
a number of publications:-
Thirty Years of Co-operative Sweet Potato Research is
published by the National (U.S.) Sweet Potato Collab-
orators Group Dr. Teme P. Hernandez of Louisiana
State University headed the editorial group.

Irrigation to Increase Sweet Potato Production was the
title of a paper presented at the First International
Root Crops Symposium. The authors are Teme P.
Hernandez and Travis Hernandez.

Weedkillers for Caribbean Agriculture by L. Kas.i"n
and J. Seeyave has become a standard guide in the

Mulch equals Weed Control
Letter from D.H. Romney, Coco-
nut Industry Board Jamaica

On page 7 of your April- June issue, you
list "retention of soil moisture" and "weed
control" as two of the purposes served by mulch.
An experiment carried out in St. Mary,
Jamaica, from October 1964 to May 1965 using
black polythene mulch around young coconuts
showed that the effect on the growth of the plants
was approximately the same as 100% weed control
using chemicals.
Treatment Average Growth of
Young Coconuts

No mulch or weeding 37
Black polythene mulch
1,300 sq. in. 51 (+38%)
5,200 sq. in. 64 (+73%)
Chemical weed control
approx. 5,000 sq. in. 60 (+62%)

L.S.D. P= 0.01 12

The mulch was in squares, with a single slit to
the centre to allow it to be put round the tree.
It was weighted down at each corner with a stone.
The polythene was stabbed with a cutlass to allow
rain to penetrate, and fertilizer was thrown on
top of the polythene. Chemical weed control on
circles around young coconuts is becoming almost
standard in Jamaica, using 1V2 pints Gramoxone and
1 lb. Karmcx per sprayed acre. This costs approx.
1/2 J. cents per circle for materials and V2 J. cent
for labour a cost which is far less than polythene

Caribbean Farming 1971

New Sugar Cane Loader


Whitchurch, Shropshire, England have begun pro-
duction of this sugar cane loader. The machine is
based on a loader which has been used in the South
African sugar industry; the U.K. manufacturers have
made some modifications which they expect to improve

The new loader is powered by a German HATZ 30-HP
diesel engine. The two front wheels are independently
driven by hydraulic motors. This device has made a
slew boom unnecessary; a fixed boom directly over the
front wheels is said to provide maximum stability and
traction under all loading conditions. One sugar indus-
try engineer who has seen this type of machine at work
says that it will work on slopes which are not negoti-
able by the mechanical loaders at present in use in this
part of the world.

The makers say that the absence of a separate push-
piling manoeuvre improves the speed of operation and
almost eliminates the rolling of stones into the cane
during collection.

The boom allows loading at a height of 92 feet under
the grab, which can lift a 1200 lb. load. Work rate is
said to be 40 tons an hour and the machine can
travel on the road at 9V2 m.p.h. Ex-factory cost of
the machine is 4,300

The manufacturers have prepared an eight-millimeter
colour film showing the machine at work. They have
promised to send a print of the film to CARIBBEAN
FARMING for showing to groups of farmers in the

U.S. Trade in Flowers

WASHINGTON American are great admirers
flowers. This largely explains why the United S es
is rapidly increasing its imports of fresh cut
The value of such imports in 1969-70 nearly dot led
to more than $1.7 million over 1968-69, but the
increase over the 1963-64 total of only $97,000
has been an astonishing seventeen-fold.
In 1969-70, the United States imported cut flow. s
from 21 countries representing all continents exc pt
Africa, Canada replacing Ecuador as the leading
source, supplied nearly two-fifths of the total.
Ecuador, Colombia, Australia and the Netherland
furnished over half. Back in 1965-66, Australia w;
the biggest U.S. supplier of flowers.
As for imports of nursery and greenhouse stock,
they totalled $18.9 million in 1970, up 15
per cent from a year earlier. The Netherlands supp-
lied more than four-fifths of U.S. imports of bulbs,
roots and corms.
U.S. exports of cut flowers and bulbs fell abruptly
last year (1970), totalling $1.1 million as compared
to $2.1 million the year earlier. Canada, the principal
customer for all categories of U.S. nursery and
greenhouse stock except bulbs, has taken about half
of U.S. shipments in recent years.
* * * ** , *

Caribbean Farming 1971

Buy feed in bulk

A farmer can, while still adequately feeding his live-
stock, reduce the bite feed takes from his income.
That's one of the points made by USDA in a recent
analysis of differences in feed prices in 48 states.
Two facts appear again and again in the study that
purchase of feed in bulk is cheaper than its purchase in
bags and that each percent of protein adds significant-
ly to the cost of feed.
0 reason the cost differences among feeds is of great
in, rest to livestock producers is that feed costs
he gone up substantially since 1960 and account for
rc hly one-fifth of a farmer's production expenses.
T! USDA study, based on data from a 1966-67 general
fa survey, covers complete feeds, supplements and
sh ed corn. In brief, the economists found:...
F complete feeds, bulk purchases during the late
1' 's saved 6 to 72 cents a hundred-weight (cwt.) and
av ged 33 cents less than bagged purchases. For
su ements, bulk buying saved an average of 37 per
cw ind for shelled corn 25 cents.
h percent of protein increased the cost of
fe, significantly by 3 to 20 cents per cwt. Thus,
U; advises growers to carefully choose feeding formu-
las I avoid waste in feeding programmes.

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Caribbean Farming 1971


London, Leonard Hill, 1971. xxxiii + 901 pages,
9" x 6", 94 figures in text, 113 black and white
plates, 16

Each of the crops in the title is widely grown in
tropical and sub-tropical areas under both peasant
and large-scale substantially mechanised conditions
of agriculture. Each yields an oil which has a variety
of uses, the seeds and oils can be readily stored and
since the plants are familiar to cultivators in many
tropical countries, their increased production is
more readily accepted than is the case with com-
pletely new introductions. Mr. Weiss deals with
these crops in consecutive sections of the volume
particularly from the oilseeds aspect. However, the
treatment is very comprehensive and the growing of
the crops for other purposes (e.g. sesame seed for
confectionery applications and safflower as a source
of dye) is also covered.
Having spent 16 years in East Africa, mainly con-
cerned with agricultural research and development,
the author is well qualified to write on these three
crops which are grown not only in that region, but
also in other developing and developed
countries. The first and larger section of the book
is devoted to castor, since the author considers this
to be the most important crop of the group. It also
includes in the general introduction to each chapter
much that is also relevant to the other crops.
Sections dealing with each crop are divided more or
less into the same successive chapter headings start-
ing with a history of the crop, followed by world
production and consumption, general characteristics
of the plant, breeding and varieties, climate and soil,
fertilisers and manures, culture, harvesting, irrigation,
pests and diseases, uses and specifications. The
sections on the individual crops are followed by
two general chapters which apply to all three crops,
one concerning intercropping and rotation, and the
other dealing with general considerations relating
to oilseed processing, although the problems
peculiar to castor processing are also dealt with in
this chapter.
The author states in his preface that the book's
aim is not only for reference but to be of use to
those concerned with agricultural planning and
particularly for practical agriculturalists in the field
for whom economic aspects of crop production are

emphasized. He endeavoured to include inform-
ation he would have liked to have easily avail-
able to him when far from specialised equipment and
advice. In the reviewer's opinion, the author has
succeeded in his aim, and in this respect, the nin,
pages of conversion tables of weights and meast res
at the end of the book which are particularly
relevant to agriculture (mostly conversions front the
British to the metric systems and vice versa) wi! be
found particularly valuable. However, they
must be used with care since a few printing errm s
have been noted. On page 793, 10 acres should )e
4.047 ha not 4.407 ha and on page 794, 1m2 s would
be 1.19599 sq. yd. not 1.9599 sq. yd.
A few minor misprints have been noted in other
parts of the book Alkyd in the first paragraph
page 288 is usually spelt without an 'e'. The ge :ric
name of the caterpillar referred to in plates 41 nd
42 should be Achaea and the first generic nan
on page 484, line 10 should be Protoparce. Or age
298, the definition of acetyl value is incomple
since this figure should relate to the hydrolysis
Ig of the acetylated substance. On page 299, u er
iodine value, the author might have added the tor
(81.23) for ricinoleic acid in the formula for
computing iodine values from the fatty acid co
position. One page 766, the minimum through c
quoted for the minimum economic unit for sol at
extraction is 10 times too small, at least a throat 1-
put of 30 to 50 tons of oil seeds per 24 hour d
being normally quoted and some authorities co:
sider that it should be not less than 100 tons pe
day. No doubt these minor errors will be corre ed
in later editions.

This volume is clearly a major authoritative wor' on
these three crops and is to be strongly
recommended for all who are concerned with any
of them, particularly on the production and
processing side. It has an excellent bibliography
of 1,750 references. It would perhaps have been
handier if the three crops could have been dealt
with in separate volumes, since the book is some-
what bulky and expensive and there are many who
would be interested in only one of the three crops.
However, the book is good value in spite of it's high
price and it is well bound, printed and illustrated.

J.A, Cornelius
Tropical Products Institute

Caribbean Farming 1971

give high yields. You are not earning all you could.
And you are robbing your country of the opportunity to earn
substantial sums in foreign exchange so much needed to pur-
chase machinery and other equipment necessary for our con-
tinued economic growth.
REMEMBER that Coffee is our only Agricultural Industry, which
has, over the past Eight Years, maintained a steady increase
in price to growers. And we can sell Ten Times the present
production at equally attractive prices.
So why are you sitting there cheating yourself and your country.
Do something about it for your own sake.
Get in touch with your local Coffee Officer or write for full


Caribbean Farming 1971

How well does the

UWI Faculty of

Agriculture serve the

Caribbean's farming community?

The author of the article has confined his attention
to the training facilities available at the Faculty and
to a number of factors which are operating to restrict
their full exploitation by young people within the

I suspect that Dr. Ahmad has been unduly influenced
by those problems which appear at first glance to be
readily soluble; maybe a deeper look into the causes
of lack of appreciation of the facilities offered by
the Faculty is likely to prove more rewarding.

The appreciation and interest accorded to an institution
of higher learning and indeed its intrinsic worth as such
are very largely dependent upon the respect and
appreciation achieved by its research activities.
Tropical agriculture as a whole has suffered very
greatly from deficiencies of resource investment -
and our University is a glaring example of this. It
suffers also from lack of appreciation of the compara-
tively small base of fundamental knowledge upon
which its scientists can get to grips with the day-to-
day problems which beset farmers in a region where
the agriculture is highly diversified.

I am well aware of the magnificent contribution
which the U.W.I. and its predecessor The Imperial
College of Tropical Agriculture have made to the
general store of knowledge on tropical soils and
their behaviour and of the continuing useful research
which is being pursued in this area of work.

There are problems which confront our countries as a
result of the need to substitute in place of the old
plantation type agriculture, medium sized diversified
farms capable of producing an attractive level of
income for trained entrepreneurs. It seems that
these problems have not been fully recognized in our
approach to research programmes of the U.W.I. How
little do we yet know about the agronomic require-
ments of crops like pimento, ackee, guava, sour
sop! How scanty is the research proceeding at our
University on vegetable crops! What new varieties
of crops specially adapted to suit conditions in our
major producing or productive areas have been
developed? Are we not still devoting too much
attention to export-oriented crops and too little to
those like coconuts and fruit trees which are potential
sources of considerable savings of foreign exchange?
The fact that respected people can still seriously
suggest that "All we need to do is to extend the

Hugh Miller of the Jamaica Development Bank offers some comic ents
on an article by Professor Nazir Ahmad see our last issue.

knowledge we have already acquired" constitute a
strong condemnation of the level of sophisticatic
of our people and our failure to give proper supp rt
to the institution which has the greatest potential
for meaningful agricultural research in the region
It seems ridiculous that our University should be
starved of research funds while individual crop
associations in each of our several little islands ar
building up research departments a process wh h
inevitably involves wastage of scarce resources id
while individual departments of agriculture tinke
with problems for which they command neither i e
research expertise nor the conditions of services t
attract and retain such expertise.

So, Mr. Editor, while I greatly appreciate the very
lucid exposition of the immediate problems affec: ng
the entry of undergraduates to the Agriculture Fa ult
of the University of the West Indies, I think we sh dl
be missing the crux of the problem if we fail to
recognize the urgent need that exists to make of the
U.W.I. a research centre to which we can confidently
look for answers to the many diverse and complex
problems which confront our agriculture in the region.

We need to be assured that we can recruit from the
U.W.I. graduates who are stimulated by the ever-
expanding horizons of active research and who besides
being technologically competent have been kept in
close touch with the very serious problems which
are being increasingly presented as we move forward
into the agricultural revolution which is so necessary
to our economic survival.

Caribbean Farming 1971

J.F. Heath 'of-the Agricultu'il 'ifidService.;Cardiff,.
discusses the preservation of fMi neg posts and the
effect of modern techniques oi their usefullife and ap-

Preservation of Fencing Posts

By reason of the situations in which they are used
fencing posts are exposed to attack by a larger variety
of rot-producing organisms and boring insects which
can render them useless within a very few years; only
S.,the true heartwoods of certain timbers have a natural
V resistance to these attacks; untreated posts from the
softwoods and from the sapwoods of hardwoods can
be expected to have a useful life of less than five years,
many species failing to survive even this short period.


To combat the shortage of suitable heartwood timber,
and to enable use to be made of the increasing supply
of softwoods from the nation's forests, a variety of
treatments have been used, some more effective than
others. They involve the use of coal-tar derivatives,
for example, creosote, or one of the various water sol-
uble mineral preparations available commercially.

The effectiveness of these preservatives and of diff-
erent methods of application have beeniinvestigated by
a number of organizations on sites throughout the
country; some of these investigations have been in pro-
gress for periods of up to thirty years and in all cases
the durability of untreated posts has been compared
with that of posts treated by different methods. In
many fields trials, the posts have been subjected to a
standard test ( for instance a pull of 50 lb weight at
the top of the post) at annual intervals and records
have been kept of those failing the test at the end of
each year, to provide factual evidence of expectancy
of life with and without treatment. But only a
general account of the findings of these investigations
is possible in this article.

*, -3... ; PBoth the preservatives derived from coal-tar and the
water soluble mineral preparations can be regarded as
S.equally effective; any differences in this connection,
such as the degree of penetration into certain hard-
woods, being of little practical significance (with re-
gard to the resultant durability of the posts) compared
with the different methods of application of the preser-
Brush treatment is of little practical value since fungi
and other organisms invade the untreated interior of
the post through cracks produced by exposure to
7A1 varying climatic conditions. The treatment is labor-
ious and does not materially lengthen the life of the
post. Soaking in preservative even for long periods,
is only a little better than brush treatment, only shal-
low penetration being possible even though the out-
Cultivated woodland is becoming an important source of fencing posts. ward appearance may be impressive.
Caribbean Farming July/September 1971 21


P~ W s 'I
t ;-.-
S ;;IL

then make sureyoure properlyarme J

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Furthermore, you get the renowned 'Nilverm' worming
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of 'Nilverm' Injection (injected under the skin) controls
all important roundworms-including lungworm. Gone are

levamisole TRADE MARK

the problems of struggling (on the part of livestock and r .an)
to drench heavy animals. 'Nilverm' Injection is ideal f r
dosing range cattle. And savings in time and effort keep your
dosing costs down, not to mention improvements in the
growth rate and milk yield of efficiently wormed stock.
With the ICI Superjector and 'Nilverm' Injection your
armoury is complete-worms don't stand a chance!

Imperial Chemical Industries Limited
Pharmaceuticals Division
Alderley Park Macclesfield
Cheshire England

Caribbean Farming 1971

Recommended methods in ascending order of im-
portance are:

1. Open Tank (Hot and Cold) treatment. This
method can be carried out on the farm.
The posts are immersed in a tank of the pre-
servative (usually creosote), the temperature is
raised to 180-200 F (80-90' C) and held at
this level for a few hours, after which they
are left to cool in the preservative; during
this time sufficient impregnation should have
taken place. This method can be very effect-
ive if properly carried out but, on a farm
scale, it is hazardous owing to the risks of fire
and injury to the eyes and skin, and it is ex-
pensive since large quantities of preservative
have to be used. Less hazardous and more re-
liable methods involve treatment under pres-

Pressure (Full cell) treatment. This is an effect-
ive method but the plant required is costly and
limited to large firms and estates where much
timber is handled. It involves the use of a seal-
ed tank in which a vacuum may first be used to
draw the sap from the wood, followed by the
application of the preservative under sufficient
pressure to penetrate the whole thickness of
the post. This method tends to use rather large
quantities of preservative and is being replaced
by method three. Posts treated by this method
are, however, available at reasonable prices from
commercial processors.

Pressure (Empty cell) treatment.This is similar
to method two but it includes a final vacuum
stage to extract surplus preservative from the
cells within the wood to leave the cell walls
effectively coated. The increased capital cost of
the plant is offset by economy in the consump-
tion of preservatives.

Post createdd by these methods have survived tests im-
pose, for over twenty years with only a very small per-
cent. ;e of failures. Afterasuch treatment is has been
foun: that the life of softwood posts is at least equal
to thit of the traditional hardwoods. Species such as
pine and spruce can thus provide valuable and durable
fencing materials.

From the purely economic viewpoint the use of prop-
erly treated posts is clearly justified. During recent
years the costs of all fencing posts have risen steeply
and the current price of treated posts is now only a few
pence higher than that of some posts offered for sale
as heartwood. The savings in labour and materials in the
replacement of fences by means of effective preser-
vation can halve the cost of maintaining a fence over a
period of up to twenty years, provided that a suitable
gauge of wire is used to match the life of the posts.

The question of appearance is hardly one of fact 'since
beauty is altogether in the eye of the beholder'. The
town dweller may consider a generous cover of lichen
and fungal growth on a post to be charmingly picture-
sque; to the landowner and to the farmer they are sym-
bols of decay to be followed very quickly by an un-
tidy spectacle of sagging fences, tangled wires and stray-
ing stock. To the eye of the intelligent observer the
workmanlike appearance of a newly-erected fence is
pleasing, and any treatment which will preserve that
appearance is to be desired. Opinions may vary as to
the merits of the appearance of a recently applied
creosote treatment as compared with the lighter tints
conferred by the water soluble preservatives, but a
brief period of weathering mellows these treatments
until they blend harmoniously with the surrounding

This article summarizes the present state of knowledge
on wood preservation in so far as farm and estate fen-
cing is concerned. It is based on the results of investig-
ations and reports by various organizations including
the Ministry's Experimental Farms. More detailed in-
formation can be found in publications of the Forest
Products Research Laboratory and the British Wood
Preserving Association such as one listed in Fixed
Equipment of the Farm Leaflet No. 17, Preservation
of Timber and Metal, obtainable from H.M.S.O., by
post 4s. 4d. (21V2p).


The author wishes to thank Mr. P.V.P. Mellor of the
A.L.S for collating the latest technical information.

Caribbean Farming 1971



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N The Jamaica Livestock Association Limited
Newport East Kingston Phone: 932-0310-3

Branches & Depots:
88 West Street (Corner of Heywood St.)
Mandeville Central Area
May Pen 34 Manch Road
Montego Bay 6 Fustic Road
Savanna-la-Mar 1 Queen St.

Phone: 932-4147
Phone: 062-2489
Phone: 0986-2492
Phone: 0952-2279
Phone: 0964-2365
Phone: 0955-2821

Caribbean Farming 1971

Mangrove Oysters in

In a recent issue of TROPICAL SCIENCE, the quarter-
ly journal of the Tropical Products Institute, Peter
Bacon of the UWI Department of Biological Sciences
has reported on the biology and cultivation of the
Mangrove Oyster, which is found in the Caroni Swamp
and in some river estuaries in Trinidad.
The report suggests:-
1. The mangrove oyster,Crassostrea rhizophorae, is
.:i important commercial shellfish in Trinidad and
iher parts of the Caribbean, although little work has
en done on the cultivation and exploitation of
is species.

2. the Caroni Swamp, Trinidad, the present methods
harvesting natural stocks involve great loss of
mature oysters and damage to the mangrove.

3. 3 physical conditions appear suitable for rapid
c ter growth and reproduction during most of the
\ r, with small variations in temperature, available
c ium and pH, with salinity between 0.4 to 3 per
c t, a high standing crop of phytoplankton, strong
t I currents and a small vertical tidal range.

4.1 lators include fish, gastropods and crabs, but do
i cause such heavy loss as other organisms com-
I ag for space on the rhizophores.
5. 7 oyster can be cultivated comparatively easily
a' .:heaply using cut mangrove stakes. The open,
sI ow lagoons appear to be suitable areas for
as: nbling the stakes.

6. O0 ie stakes the oysters reach marketable size in
ab t four months so that up to five crops can be
tak 1 before the stakes need replacing.

7. Rc oving newly settled spat and competing
or- .iisms from established oysters allows them to
att, n greater sizes. Inspection of the oysters and
har ,sting are easier with the stake cultivation than
witl the living mangrove rhizophores.

Computer for Cattle

A method of recording and analysing statistics on the
breeding performance of cattle, by use of computers,
has been introduced to Jamaica for the first time.

This computer system, the first of its kind to become
available in a developing country, was designed by Mr.

Tony Clarke, Managing Director of one of the island's
leading cattle companies, Ferris Farmwork Limited,
and Mr. Donald Webb, a computer consultant of Webb
Terrelonge and Co. Ltd., a local computer consultancy.

The system is adapted from similar systems in use in
some of the developed countries of the world. It is de-
signed to relieve cattlemen of the difficult and time-
consuming job of recording statistics on the breeding
performance of their herds, and enable them to grade
cattle with greater accuracy and efficiency.

Ferris Farmwork Ltd. has set up a special division which
will offer this "Cattle Management Programme" to
cattlemen all over Jamaica. Mr. Webb will be responsible
for the technical aspects of this division.


Freeze-branding is a technique which has been developed during the
past few years. The irons used are copper or brass and they are
cooled in a solution of dry ice and alcohol (some authorities use liquid
nitrogen). The method is said to be painless and the brand stands out
on non-white animals as the hair which grows from the branded area is
pure white.


The Caribbean Veterinary Association plans to hold its
veterinary congress in Jamaica during the last week
of July, 1972. This will allow delegates to attend
the Denbigh Agricultural Show which will be held
the first week-end in August. The last congress was
held in Guyana with beef production being the
principal subject of discussion.
The congress is held in rotation between main areas
of the Caribbean and it is generally attended by
veterinarians from within the region as well as from
visitors from outside the region.

Caribbean Farming 1971


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Caribbean Farming 1971

Winban Notes

The 1970 Annual Report of the Windward Islands Banana
Research Scheme is full of interesting information some of
which is summarized here:-
Thc Morne Prosper substation was further developed.
Nc. fields were established for experiments. Eight
teti-ploids, Valery and Giant Cavendish have been es-
tab shed there in observation plots.
Tl: high fertilizer experiments gave second year
yi is ranging from 30 to 36 tons per acre. In the half
ye: from May 20th to November 20th when the
eft ts of the drought, followed by those of abnormal-
ly avy rain, were experienced,'production ranged from
10 ;o 19.2 tons per acre over various treatments inci-
cat that with intensive cultivation a small farmer can
obt i a very high revenue from bananas.

Fu! er pot experiments in the Windward Islands indi-
cat that sulphur deficiency is widespread in all four
isla Sulphur is now included in all the fertilizers
for aanas in the Windward Islands.

M ( ly leaf analyses at Roseau Experimental Farm
inu e a definite drop in nitrogen content of the
le, ring the dry season. It is considered that this may
ad\ ly affect bunch weight during the summer
me q. Experiments to verify this and correct the
sitL n will bp initiated.

St.' cent plant uptake studies indicate that magnes-
ium 'iciency is widespread in St. Vincent and growers
are ised to be very cautious about this problem and
to a; iy kieserite when in doubt.

Rou ;e analysis of leaf and soil samples for manganese
was -:roduced. The early results indicate great dif-
ferer ,s in availability of this micro-nutrient in Wind-
warc islands' soils.

A hypodermic syringe technique for micro-nutrient in-
ection was used at Morne Prosper, Dominica. Increased
growth of banana plants was recorded when iron, man-
ganese, boron or zinc were injected.

There was no indication of improved yield due to sul-
phur application or of detrimental effects due to high
chloride content of fertilizer in the plant crop in the
experiment at Balthazar in Grenada.

A planting material experiment in St. Vincent indicated
that, in the plant crop, bunches from bull heads with
a side shoot were heavier than those from sword
suckers and maidens with heart shoot. Maidens with

heart shoot gave reasonably sized bunches but they were
not as heavy as bunches from other planting materials.
They nevertheless produced the earliest, showing good
Interplanting of tannia and banana in St. Vincent did
not prove to be an economic venture under conditions
of an experiment at Union Estate.
DBCP phytotoxic symptoms were documented. This is
particularly prevalent when plants are injected immedi-
ately after planting or at planting.

New nematode control recommendations were publish-
ed One gallon Nemagon, Fumazone or Jebagon (75%
EC) applied every six months.

In experiments using five granular nematicides Nemacur
P gave the best results.

Dicamba (Banvel D) injected into the pseudostem
gave a complete kill of unwanted banana mats.

Caliper measurement of the bottom true hand can be
relied on in indicating the measurement of the second
top hand which is the one usually used, though incon-
venient in practice, for grading bunches. This method
will be standardized after the experiment is repeated
under different conditions.

The stalk percentage of a bunch harvested at grade 32
mm on the second hand, over the range of bunch
weights from 15 to 85 lb. is 81/2/9 percent.

Three promising varieties from the Banana Breeding
Research Scheme were introduced for preliminary
observations at Roseau.

Fruit Quality Research (a) A wooden box trial carried
out in St. Lucia showed that transport of hands of
bananas by this method from buying point to boxing
plant resulted in greatly reduced losses from transport
damage compared with carrying fruit on the stem. The
technique has been extended to St. Vincent where de-
handing is being done in the field. Trial commercial
shipments will shortly be started from all islands.

(b) Preliminary trials on the storage of green bananas
at ambient temperature indicated that fruits can be
held for two weeks at 750F to 800 F in polythene
bags with an ethylene absorbent.

(c) The use of padded trays for heading and of padded
trucks for transport helped to reduce mechanical

(d) In a shipping trial to the U.K., spray washed fruit
showed significantly greater freedom from dirt as com
pared with normal tank washed fruit. There was no
significant difference in latex staining, damage o

Caribbean Farming 1971

Field Kit for Testing Cattle Dip Strength

* b

The Supona Field Test Kit for on-site analysis of animal dips based on
Supona uses thin layer chromatography.
A small battery operated U.V. lamp is positioned over a slot (behind the
carrying handle) in the top of the black viewing box. The developed TLC
plate is placed inside the box and observed through the front window.
In the foreground: microsyringe, spotting template (containing Merck
precoated Silica Gel TLC plate), aluminium can of extraction solvent and
measuring cylinder.
Clipped inside the kit: pipette, bottles of tannic acid and lead acetate
solutions, bottle of standard Supona solution and solvent reservoir for
developing tank.
The Shell Co. (W.I.) Ltd. is now offering a field test
kit for the on-site analysis of sheep and cattle dips
based on its insecticide Supona. This is the first field
apparatus developed for the specific determination and
monitoring of the concentration of an organophosphorus
animal dip and the technique is capable of being adapted
for the analysis of any organophosphorus insecticide pro-
Supona is claimed to be effective for the control of
virtually all the economically important external para-
sites of sheep and cattle including many species which
have developed resistance to other insecticides.
Animal dips based on Supona are marketed in all the
major livestock-rearing areas of the world and Supona
is now the leading product for sheep dipping in the
The insecticide present in a dipping bath is gradually
removed by the animals in transit and must be re-
plenished at regular intervals to maintain the concen-
tration that the manufacturers recommend for effective
control of insect parasites. Optimum concentration is
critical if the organophosphorus insecticides are to
achieve the same level of residual protection given by
the traditional organochlorine products they are now
At present any checks on dip concentration have to be
carried out by analysis in laboratories often many
miles away from the site of the dipping operations and
the results take several weeks to reach farmers in the
remoter parts of a country. This is a problem in all
the major livestock producing regions of the world,
particularly in certain areas of Africa where cattle
have to be dipped as frequently as once a week.

With the new test kit the changing concentration
of insecticide in the dip can be readily determined in
the field, thus enabling it to be quickly corrected on
the spot. A guaranteed target concentration will, in
practice, optimise the immediate and residual protec-
tion afforded by organophosphorus dips and leads the
way to a significant improvement in the control of
livestock parasites and disease.
The field test kit is based on a thin layer chromato-
graphic method of analysis developed by Shell Research
Limited at Woodstock Agricultural Research Centre,
Sittingbourne, Kent. Analysis of dip samples can be
completed within 30 minutes by semi-skilled operators
with a precision comparable to that obtained with the
commonly used gas-liquid chromatographic or 'tot; i
phosphorus' laboratory methods.

International Poultry Show
Since it was first established in 1945, as a national I 2
the Poultry Show at Olympia, London, has steadily
grown in size and status. It has established itself as e
premier exhibition for commercial poultrymen in t
U.K. Through its appeal to exhibitors and visitors f i
overseas it soon acquired an International label, wh,
is well earned every year with about 20 percent of
visitors coming from abroad, from some 40 differed
countries last year. And most of the big names in
world-wide sales of stock, equipment and medicatio
are always to be found among the standholders.
Crowning more than a quarter of a century of succe ;-
ful shows will be the 1972 event on Tuesday,
Wednesday and Thursday, September 5th-7th when
the International Poultry Show will be run in con-
junction with the IV European Poultry Conference it
Olympia. With this dual attraction held under one
roof there is little doubt that all attendance records
will be broken, the number of exhibitors will top the
150 or so of recent years and more overseas visitors
than ever before will be welcomed.
The weekly journal Poultry World has sponsored the
show since its initiation and it has recently been
joined by the monthly Poultry Industry in joint

Caribbean Farming 1971

s p

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