Title Page
 Project research
 Design drawings for hotel

Title: Historic area hotel for St. Augustine, Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101453/00001
 Material Information
Title: Historic area hotel for St. Augustine, Florida
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: Myers, John H.
Publisher: John H. Myers
Place of Publication: Gainesville, FL
Copyright Date: 1975
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101453
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Table of Contents
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    Project research
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    Design drawings for hotel
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Full Text


AE 629




I. Introduction

A. statement of purpose

B. definition of purpose

C. location maps

II. Project Research

A. evaluative statement

B. zoning

C. climate data

D. soils

E. flooding

F. topography

G. recreation sites

H. existing and proposed land use

I. traffic circulation

J. population and tourist trends

K. existing accommodations

L. basic location factors

III. Proposals and program data for hotel

IV. Design drawings for hotel

V, Sketch proposal for St. George Street revitalizations

VI. Appendix

A. history of St. Augustine

B. historical and scenic preservation assessment

C. bibliography


The terminal project is an exercise in designing a

contemporary building in a fixed environment. This project

has as its environment the city of St. Augustine, Florida,

the oldest city in the nation. The significance is enhanced

by the location of the project site adjacent to the historical

interpretation area of the city. The building type selected

is the hotel and a part of the effort is the demonstration

that this facility is a necessary and desirable part of the

area's future.

The selection of this project followed discussions with

officials of the St. Augustine Preservation Board and St.

Augustine Restoration Foundation about the needs and goals of

the city, the feasibility of certain programs, and land

use possibilities. This project is intended to support the

primary goal of the community of St. Autgustine to preserve

their heritage as a living, functioning area, not a museum

community. It is pi~oposed that a hotel in the old city

will attract activity and people into the historical area,

providing a base from which most of the historical/cultural

assets of St. Augustine are in walking distance.

In addition, this project addresses, in a preliminary

manner, the concern of the officials for the future of St.

George Street between Hypolita Street and the Plaza. There is

a question of the viability of existing; businesses in light

of the transient nature of the traffic, and the congestion


St. Augustine is the nation's oldest city and in recogni-

tion of the fact the state of Florida created the St. Augustine

Preservation Board by legislative act in 1959. Citing the

city's "historical values, cultural traditions and elements

of unique beauty and charm, including historic sites of state

and national interest. ." the function of the board is

delcared to be the acquisition, restoration, preservation,

maintenance, reconstruction, reproduction and operation of

certain sites, remains, buildings, etc, for the "use, benefit,

education, recreation, enjoyment and general welfare of the

people of the state and nation."

A primary goal of the Preservation Board as stated in

the master plan submitted February 26, 1976, is the preservation

of the colonial city plan. While the old plan has undergone

some modifications, it remains largely intact and within it,-

has developed the central business district of St. Augustine. The

preservation of the livinglhistoric community which has

resulted from this juxtaposition of the commercial with the

historic, tied together by the plan, is the second major goal

of the Board. The desire to maintain St. Augustine as a

living city gives rise to problems which will be addressed

by this project as a two phased proposal to desigd'~iCcommo-

dations for historic area visitors and examine the potential

for revitalizing; the central business district.

Phase one of the project is the design of an inner city

hotel of relatively small size to accommodate visitors to.the

historic area. Projected needs for hotel space far exceed

supply and newer facilities have located on the beach. There

is a need for hotal accommodations to serve and attract

those visitors who are primarily interested in experiencing

the qualities of beauty and charm mentioned in the Board's

charter. This proposed hotel will be located on a site bounded

on the east by Spanish Street, the north by Tolomato Street,

and the west by Cordova Street and it will be within easy

walking distance of St. Augustine's historical and cultural

attractions. As the site is adjacent to the reconstructed

interpretation area of St. Gearge Street, it will be important

to consider questions of scale, materials, access, service,

landscaping, and parking so that the resulting-facility is

in both physical and functional harmony with the environment.

Further data regarding the hotel will be found in the program


Phase two deals with official concern for the future of

the central business district area on St. George from Hypolita

south to the Plaza. The transient nature of the traffic is

not conducive to business of the type which dominates the

street. The choice will be between converting to businesses

which will cater to the tourists, or to revitalize the area

to attract the local customers necessary to support existing

stores. The city prefers the latter alternative and phase two

is a preliminary examination of the potential for revitalizing

the street. Among the issues to be considered are exterior

building conditions, visual factors, pedestrian circulation,

traffic flow, parking, signs, landscaping and lighting, and

activities. It is anticipated that this sketch proposal

will serve as the basis for a later project to fully develop

a design scheme.

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An analysis of factors which must be considered in the siting

of a building strongly support the development of a hotel in

St. Augustine. One of the most important considerations is the

demand for accommodations and the ability of existing supplies

to handle these demands. Projections of increases in tourism

show continued strong increases in Florida and indicate the need

for a large number of rooms over the next few years. Based on

my observations and discussions with local officials, there is

little construction of these needed facilities. Most of the

recently constructed motels have located on the beach away from

the cultural and recreational amenities of St. Augustine. Existing

local facilities which have centered on the northern approach

to St. Augustine on U.S. 1 are falling on harder times as the

primary access routes to the city change. These facts indicate

that little is being done to prepare for future demand for lodging,

especially for consumers interested in the unique assets of St.

Augustine. The scale of the city is such that a properly located

facility could place the tourist within a 20 to 30 minute walk

of all St. Augustine's major historical and recreational attractions.

Vacant land exists near the reconstructed interpretation

area of St. Augustine which is properly moned and located so as

to be served by adequate streets, very near to the city's attractions

and suitable for development after considering the physical factors

of geology, topography, soils, drainage, and climate. Basically,

we are dealing with a site where a shallow layer of coarse, sandy

soiled exists over a layer of deep limestone and there is very

little slope. Climate is extremely moderate with an average high

temperature of degrees Fahrenheit, and although the altitude

of this area is low, it is out of the area subject to wave action

flooding. The raw data from researched sources concerning these

factors is included in this paper and each is discussed in detail.

Where information is reproduced from a published source, it will

be clearly identified as such at the beginning of the section.

Less tangible, but no less important, are the aspirations

of the community of St. Augustine and whether or not proposed

facilities fit into the plan for the future. Based on research

into the literature and in conversations with local officials,

it seems that one of the key goals of St. Augustine is to preserve

and encourage the living community concept. The tourist trade

is an important input into the local economy and there is concern

over the methods of promoting and accommodating tourism. One

problem is that the reconstructed area of St. George has much less

paying patronage than the Castillo across the street. Actions

which will support increased visitation will greatly aid the

financial position of this operation. Continued construction of

hotels and motels outside the city will not be the strongest

stimulus to pedestrian tourism in historical St. Augustine. An

attractive hotel adjacent to the area would be a desirable generator

of local tourism.

Phase II of this project, recommendations for revitalizing

the commercial strip on St. George between Hypolita and the Plaza,

will aid in suggesting alternatives which will comprise an additional

catalyst to promote tourism and increased local participation

in area activities. This section only examines the question in

a preliminary fashion, but will serve as an introduction to the

problems and a stimulus to future investigation.

source: Comprehensive Plan Elements,
St. John's County

E~'jxisting Zoning Ma~p and Ordinance

The problems with existing zoning have been

mentioned at various points throughout the text. The

existing zoning is shown on Map 36 By itself it

says very little. Two things are necessary to give the

reader an insight into the problems that it may contain.

First, an understanding must be gained of the clas-

sification system and the ordinance. Second, a map

indicating areas in conflict with existing uses, or

problene:, areas, must be developed. An explanation of

the ordinance is found below. It is followed by a map

of problem areas (Map 37 )

The zoning ordinance was developed and formally

adopted in 1973. It was initially developed for the

city by the Jacksonville Area~ Planning Board, and was

ammended by and adopted after some 28 public hearings.

The ordinance established the framework of the exist-

ing rezoning procedure, and gave the governing body the

guidelines for using the 20 classification systems.
The classifications are as follows:

RS-E Residential, Single Family Estate

RS-1,RS-2 Residential, Single Family

RG-1 (D) Residential, General Duplex

RG-1 Residential, General

RMH Residential, Mobile Home

HP-1,HP-2 Historic Preservation Districts

CPO Commercial, Professional Office

CN Commercial, Neighborhood

CTA Commercial, Tourist Attraction

CI Commercial, Intensive

CBD Commercial, Business District

IW Industrial, Warehousing

OR Open Rural District

GU Governmental Urse

PUD Planned Unit Development

There are a few problems with the existing ordinance

and map that should be discussed here. First, the

zoning ordinance established a PUD zone which has not

and, it appears, can not be utilized. PUD is most

often utilized on large undeveloped acreages which are

to be "planned and developed as a whole in a single or

programmed series of operations with uses and structures

substantially related to the character of the entire

development." This is a planned community with residences

and commercial, recreational and industrial endeavors

coordinated and integrated within it. While there are

areas with act~eages that could accommodate a PUD,

much of the acreage in these areas is in marshland which

is undevelopable. These areas are either zoned OR, GU,

or RS-E. (The RS-E area is on Anastasia and Fish Islands,

and the majority of it should never have been zoned

RS-E because of its environmental sensitivity.)

The PUD classification should be encouraged and

used in these areas where a carefully planned com-

munity (like Amelia Island) could be carefully

developed around the environmentally sensitive areas.

It should also be used in redeveloping areas of the

city to insure that these areas experienced high

quality, well-planned and coordinated redevelopment.

This classification can be very valuable to the city

if it is understood and used wisely.

Another problem with the existing ordinance is

that it integrates residential uses into all of its

commercial classifications. This was one of the am-

mendments which came out of the public hearing process,

but it is just not good planning. The negative im-

pacts of a carnival or circus (permitted under CI)

on surrounding residences need not be explained. The

blighted areas section discussed the transition of

areas with mixed uses (including residences) in 1960,

to solidly commercial or industrial in 1976. This

will invariably occur. The purpose of zoning is to

protect landowners, and how can this be done by an

ordinance which does not control the influx of residen-

tial uses into commercial areas. (The reverse is con-


'h~Y~ST~. fluGUSTINB


MAP 36

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JUNE 1977


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161CIID* ~OL O TU IYY~I*C ~LO O L))(. U

Perhaps one of the roots of the above problems

was the wholesale commercial rezoning by the or-

dinance of large areas that were previously

residential, simply because they were adjacent to

or between transportation arteries. The areas that

were residential in nature should have been given a

residential classification. The designation of com-

mercial at certain nodes or intersections would have

been justifiable,but rezoning the entire linear

frontage of a predominantly residential street is not.

The map of areas in conflict illustrates these areas

as areas in conflict, even though the ordinance allows

them. There is obviously entirely too much commercial-

ly zoned land since much of the areas so zoned are

either vacant of they heuse residential structures.

Another problem with the ordinance is that it

is void of any control of development along the main

thoroughfares of the city. Uses along San Marco,

Ponce De Leon and Anastasia Boulevard (those most

travelled by tourists) should be developed according

to approved site plans, to include buffering, land-

scaping, architectural and sign controls. Since these

are the areas that the visitors see the most of,

they should present the best possible image of the

nationss oldest city." An attractive image is most

desirable if the city wants the tourists to stay

longer and to return often.
The last problems with the existing zoning

ordinance and map to be pointed out here involve

the make-up of Historic Preservation Districts. First,

the housing structures of Victorian Origin that

were built in the late 1800's and early 1900's are

not protected under the existing HP guidelines.
Since they represent an important period in St.

Augustine history, they should be afforded the pro-
tection of the ordinance. Second, the conversion

of historically important houses to professional

offices should be allowed for in the ordinance;

however it should be strictly controlled in order

to protect surrounding houses. Third, the
ordinance should consider allowing craftsmen to

practice their trades in a limited capacity in their
homes, provided the practice does not disturb neighbor-

ing residents. Fourth, there are no adequate controls

governing texture, materials, space and landscaping
in HP districts. Fifth, the architecture review

board does not have any control over or voice in

zoning in those areas that it is charged with over-

seeing. The relationship between the city and its

historic areas should be reviewed in detail

that their is no formal advisory board for historic

interests in the city. Such a board, composed of

individuals from all history ically-related -bodies --

including individuals who own or operate uses in

the HP districts -- should be established.)- Finally

development and signing guidelines need to be estab-

lished and formally adopted for HP districts so

developers and their architects will be properly in-


Article 11. Historic
Preservation Committee
Sec 11-1


Section 11-1. Historic Preservation Committee Establishment

and Procedure.

1.1 Cre ati on A Historic Preservation Committee,

consisting of five (5) members appointed by the

city commission of the City of St. Augustine, has

been created and is hereby continued. The Director

of the Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board,

the President of St. Augustine Restoration, Inc.,

and the President of the St. Augustine Historical

Society, or their assigned designee shall be ex

officio members of the committee and shall serve in

an advisory capacity.

T.2 Tenure. Members of the original board as established

herein shall be appointed for terms as follows:

One for one year, two for two years and two for

three years, and there after members shall be

appointed for three year terms except appointments

to fill vacancies for unexpired terms in which

event the appointment shall be for the unexpired

term only. The members of the Historic Preservation

Committee at the time of this enactment shall serve

until they are reappointed or their successors are


Article 11. Historic
Preservation Committee
Sec 11-1

Representation. All members shall reside in and

be a qualified voter and property owner in the

city and shall hold no off ice under the city government

and shall not be a member of the Zoning Board or

Planning Commission. Each member shall be appointed

by the city commission of the City of St. Augustine

for .a term of three (3) years, except as noted in

section 1.2, page 153. and removable only for cause.

The chairman of the committee shall be named by the

members of the committee. Vacancies shall be filled

for the unexpired term of any member by the city


The committee shall adopt its own rules of procedure,

provided same are not in. conflict with the provisions
of this ordinance.

a. Three or more members shall constitute a

quorum.and shall be in power to act. An
affirmative vote of three or more members

shall be necessary in making any decision

of the committee.

b. The committee shall promptly notify the

building inspector, in writing, as to its

decision in regard to any matter referred

to- it.




Article 11. Historic
Preservation Committee
Sec 11-2

Section 11-2. Historic Preservation Committee Powers and Duties.

2.1 The functions, powers and duties of the Historic Preservation

Committee shall be, in general:

a. To serve as an adjustment committee on matters relating

to construction, reconstruction, demolition, erection,

re-erection, restoration or repair of any structure

located within historic preservation districts HP-1,

HP-2, HP-3, HP-4 and HP-5.

b. To review all applications for building permits within

the historical preservation districts (HP-1, HP-2, HP-3,

HP-4 and HP-5) and make a determination as to whether

or not the application warrants the issuance of a

certificate of appropriateness. Additionally the

committee shall review all applications for building

permits on property abutting or immediately facing

the (HP-17, HP-2, HP-3 or HP-4) historical districts

to insure reasonable compatibility with the authentic

restoration or preservation of the districts, and where

found to be reasonably compatible, issue a certificate

of appropriateness.

'c. To consider and act upon applications for certificates

of appropriateness as to the exterior architectural

Article 11. Historic
Preservation Committee
Sec 11-2

features of any building or other structures proposed for
erection, alteration, restoration or to be moved within a
historic district. Exterior architectural features shall
include the architectural style, general design, and

general arrangement of the exterior of a building or other
structure, including the color, the kind and texture of the
building material, and the type and style of all windows,
doors, light fixtures, signs and other appurtenant fixtures
The committee shall follow the definition of St. Augustine
architecture as described in Article 4, item 86, page 23.
However, structures within the historic districts erected
after the period of said St. Augustine architecture, but be

1900, may be considered for alteration or restoration to th

original architectural style, or may be moved to insure the
preservation. In the case of outdoor advertising signs
exterior architectural features shall be construed to mean
the style, material size, and location of all such signs.

Any building, structures and appurtenances there to, erected
prior to the year 1821 in Districts HP-1, HP-2, and HP-3
and any buildings, structures and appurtenances thereto,
erected prior to the year 1900 in District HP-4, may be
altered, repaired, erected, reerected, restored or recon-
structed on the original foundations or site thereof, as
nearly as possible and whenever practical according to its
ancient character and dimensions; provided however, that al
detailed plans and information required to determine

~Article 11. Historic
Preservation Committee
Sec 11-2

appropriateness are submitted to the historic

preservation committee for their review.

d. The committee shall not have the authority

to consider interior arrangement.

e. To review all applications for demolition

permits within the city limits of St. Augustine,

to include Historical Preservation Districts

HP-1, HP-2, HP-3, HP-4, and HP-5. No.building

or- structure within the city limits shall be
demolished or otherwise removed until the

owner thereof shall have given the Historic

Preservation Committee 90 days written notice

of his proposed action. During such ninety-day

period the Historic Preservation Committee may

negotiate with the owner and with any other

parties in an effort to find a means of pre-
serving the building if the building o'r

structure is deemed by the Historic Preservation

Committee to be of historic significance. If the

Historic Preservation Committee finds that the

building involved has no particular historic

significance or value toward maintaining the

character of the district, it may waive all or

part of such ninety-day period and authorize
earlier demolition or removal.

Article 11. Historic
Preservation Committee
Sec 11-3

Section 11-3. Administration and Records.

'3_1 Ce rt'i f i c ate 'of A pp'ro p r~iate ne s s. The buil1di ng

inspector shall not issue any necessary building

or demolition permit and/or certificate of occupancy

unless the Historic Preservation Committee approves

the application for a certificate of appropriateness.

Su-ch permit shall be subject to the terms of: such

approval as well as ~other necessary provisions of

the City Code of Ordinances.

3.2 Procedure for Fili'ng. Applications for certificates

of appropriateness shall be submitted through the

off ice of the building inspector and shall include,

in duplicate, all plans, elevations, and other

information necessary to determine the appropriateness

of the features to be passed upon.

3_3 Hearing. Prior to issuance or denial of a certi-
ficate of appropriateness, the Committee shall take

such action as may reasonably be required to inform

the owners of any property likely to be materially

affected by the application and shall give the

applicant and such owners an opportunity to be

heard. The Committee shall hold a public hearing

concerning each application.

Article 11.' Historic
Preservation Committee
Sec 11-3

3J.4 A 'pprodvaT of 'A'p 1fe'a t'ion Upon approval of an

application, the Historic Preservation Committee

shall transmit a report to the building inspector

stating the basis upon which such approval was

made, and cause a certificate of appropriateness

to be issued to the applicant. Upon failure of

the Committee to take final action upon any case

within 90 days after the application for a permit,

the case shall be deemed to be approved, except

when by mutual agreement the time limit has been

extended. When a certificate of appropriateness

has been issued, the building inspector shall

.from time to time inspect the construction or

alteration approved by such certificate, and take

appropriate action concerning any work not in

accordance with such certificate. The building

inspector shall report his findings to the

committee when such action is deemed necessary.

3.5 Disa proval of Aoolication. In case of disa proval

of an application for a certificate of appropriateness

the Historic Preservation Committee shall state

its reasons, therefore, in a written statement to

the building inspector and the applicant along

with any recommendations as it may deem appropriate

Article 11. Historic
Preservation Committee
Sec 11-3

concerning any exterior architectural features of

the proposed project which may be of guidance or

help to the applicant in revising his plans.

3.6 Appeal. An appeal may be taken by any aggrieved

person to the St. Augustine City Commission from the

committee's action in granting or denying a certificate

or appropriateness. The appeal shall be as prescribed

i n Article 10, Secti on 71.3, page 139.~ Any appeal from

the decision of the St. Augustine City Commission shall

be heard by the Circuit Court of St. Johns County,

on writ of certiorari, as in the case of any other

zoning decision from the City Commission.

3.7 Review by City Commission. The St. Augustine City

Commission may review and reverse the issuance or

denial of a certificate of appropriateness con-sidered

by the Historic Preservation Committee.

3_8 Record. The Historic Preservation Committee shall

keep minutes of its proceedings, showing the vote

of each member upon each question or, if absent or

failing to vote, indicating such fact, and shall keep

records of.all its official acti~ons. All meetings of

the Historic Preservation Committee shall be open to

the~ public.---l =`~r 295~

sources Comprehensive Plan Elements,
St. John's County


In climate, the moderating influence of the waters of

the Atlantic on maximum temperatures in summer and minimums

in winter is pronounced along the immediate coast but dimin-

ishes noticeably a few miles inland. Mean daily maximum

temperatures at the beach are about one degree lower in

winter and about two and one-half degrees lower in summer

than in the city. Mean daily minimuma temperatures are simi-

lar in summer but the beach averages nearly a degree warmer

in winter. Temperatures reach 90 degrees at the beach on

only about half as many days as in the city. Annual pre-

cipitation totals are somewhat greater in the city than at

the beach but the period of coincident records is too short

to establish comparative values.

Examination of the weather data available for the St.

Augustine area reveals the highest temperature ever recorded

here was 104 degrees in June 1944., The lowest was 13 degrees

in February 1899. Extremes for other months exhibit only

minor variations from those tabulated above. On the basis

of mean monthly temperatures, January 1940, with a mean of 46.6

degrees is the coldest and July 1827, with a mean of 84.4

degrees, is the warmest on record. The median dates of the

first and last freezing temperature are December 16 and

February 8 respectively. About one-third of the years have

experienced no freezing before December 31 and about one-fifth

of the years have experienced no freezing after January 1st.

On average, between 1951 and 1972, the annual maximum

temperature in St. Augustine was just under 80 degrees

Fahrenheit, with summer highs averaging just under 90 degrees

Fahrenheit and lows staying around 71 degrees Fahrenheit.

The winter averages range between 46 and 68 degrees. The

city annually receives an average of around 55 inches of

rainfall. 'Almost SQ% of that rainfall Occurs in the four

month period from June to September. Climate data is minimal

in St. Augustine since it is gathered by unpaid observers

working for the National Weather Service. Tbt National

Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration does, however, provide

a summary of the data from 1951 and 1972. This data is recorded

on the next page.

Air pollution sampling in the St. Augustine area has

been minimal. The only recorded sampling took place in

June of 1973. That included ten particulate samples taken

at sampling station number 10-3940. This is a state sampling

station established under the mandates of the Clean Air Act

of 1967 at the corner of Avenue A and State Road 16A,

northwest of St. Augustine.

As was mentioned above, the sample was taken only to

find the total suspended particulates. According to the

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), particulate matter in

the atmosphere consists of tiny particles small enough


FROM 1951 To 1972

Year Max. Temp. ( F) .-Min. Temp, ( F) Av. Temp. ( F) Total Precip. (in.)

19511 81.1 60.7 71.0 46.94

1952 80.3 60.6 70.4 48.48

1953 80.6 61571.1 79.91

1954 80.9 59.5 70.2 34.14

1955 80.6 58.9 69.8 47.55

1956 80.4 58.6 69.5 32.68

1957 80.7 60.8 .70.8 62.73

1958 78.2 58.6 68.4 55.44

1959 79.2 60.8 70.0 60.05

1960 78.8 58.4 68.7 58.08

1961 80.0 59.4 69.7 57.30

1962 79.6 58969.3 50.67

1963 79.1 57.8 68.4 63.31

1964 78.6 60.0 69.3 79.49

1965 79.4 59.9 69.7 44.04

1966 77.7 58.9 68*4 54.52

1967 80.2 58.7 69.5 44.28

1968 79.0 57.4 68.2 44.21~

1969 77.9 59.2 68.6 62.48

1970 79.0 57.8 68.4 55.10

1971 80.6 58.9 69.8 55.08

1422? 80.4 60.1 029t 23.61
Average 79.7 59*3 69.5 55.23

Hottest Month Junet Coldest Month January; and Wettest Month August

Sources National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Climatology of

to remain suspended in the air, often for hours or days, before

settling out due to their own weight, or raining out in snow or

rain storms. Industrial, transportation and heating sources all

contribute to the observed concentration of particulates. Total

suspended articulate concentrations are regulated by an annual

maximum, specified over a 24-hour period, and by an annual geometric

mean concentration. The concern here is for both long and short-

term exposure to the pollutant.

The standards for particulate matter state that the annual

geometric mean cannot exceed 60 micrograms per cubic meter and

that the maximum concentrations for a 24-hour period cannot exceed

150 micrograms per cubic meter. The highest count taken for a

24-hour period during the St. Augustine sampling was 98, and the

annual geometric mean for 1973 (though there were only 10 samples

taken just during the month of June) was 39. Clearly there was not

a serious pollution problem at that site and at that point in time.

Place sampling would be advisable in order to perceive a

possible problem before it occurs. Again, the sample taken was

just for particulates and it excluded a wide range of pollution

types. According to EPA, transportation activity is a source of

carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydro-carbons and photochemical

oxidants. Industrial activity is responsible for sulfur dioxide,

particulates, oxides of nitrogen, hydro-carbons and to a limited

extent, carbon monoxide. Other pollution sources offer a wide

variety of pollutants. Clearly, more data is needed for the St.

Augustine area if the situation is to be analyzed properly.

source: Comprehensive Plan Elements,
St. John's County

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geology and

ground-water study for Putnam, Flagler and St. Johns Counties

in 1963. This study has the most accurate information about

the geology and hydrology of the county to date. The following

is a quotation from that report.

Underlying Flagler, Putnam, and St..Johns Counties
are several thousand feet of limestone of Eocene
age which form the major artesian aquifer in the area.
The limestone formations are the Lake City Limestone,
Avon Park Limestone, Inglis Formation, Williston For-
mation, and Crystal River Formation. Overlying the
limestone are sediments of Miocene or Pliocene age.
These sediments are overlain by Pleistocene and Recent
deposits which blanket the area to a depth of 20 to
140 feet.
Ground water in the area occurs under both non-
artesian and artesian conditions. The nonartesian
aquifer extends from land surface to a depth of at
least 150 feet below land surface. It includes deposits
of Miocene or Pliocene age and of Pleistocene and Recent
age. The non artesian aquifer yields moderate to large
quantities of water in central and eastern Flagler and
St. Johns counties and generally yields small quantities
of water to domestic wells throughout the remainder
of the area. The nonartesian aquifer is recharged
locally by direct infiltration of rainfall and by
upward leakage from the underlying aquifers.
Secondary artesian aquifers are an important
source of water in parts of eastern Flagler and St.
Johns counties where water from other aquifers is
highly mineralized or diffielut to obtain. The sec-
ondary artesian aquifers are composed of lenses of sand,
shell, and limestone. The aquifers range in depth
from less than 10 feet to more than 300 feet below
sea level, and in thickness from less than 1 foot to
about 15 feet. These aquifers occur most often in the
area east of the St. Johns River and in the north-central
part of Putnam County. The secondary artesian aquifers
are recharged from the overlying nonartesian aquifer
and from the underlying Floridan aquifer.
The Floridan aquifer is the major source of ground
water in Flagler, Putnam, and St. Johns counties. It

consists of limestone formations of Eocene age and
permeable beds in the lower part of the Hawthorn
Formation of Miocene age which are hydrologically
connected to the limestone. The Floridan aquifer is
recharged in western and southeastern Putnam County,
in the area north of Elkton in central St. Johns County,
and probably in parts of Flagler County. In each of
these areas the water table is higher than the piezo-
metric surface and water probably enters the aquifer
through sinkholes or where the confining beds are thin.

This analysis sets down some of the basic information

needed to gain an understanding of the ground water system

in the area. The city of St. Augustine withdraws most

of its water supply from what is known as the water

table or semi-artesian aquifer, which is not discussed


The city recently had a Water Supply study prepared

to determine future demand and the supply of water and

wells needed to serve that demand. This study indicated

that over one-half of the existing water supply comes

from sixteen shallow wells. (There were 27 wells at

one time, however three were abandoned because they

adversely affected private wells and the other eight

were abandoned due to maintenance problems.) One-fourth

of the city's present water supply comes from an artesian

well; however, the water from this source is of very

poor quality. The final one-fourth of the city's supply

comes from an infiltration channel; however, this source

is not dependable because of a fluctuating groundwater

table and varying quality.

The plan for the future is to increase the number of

shallow wells and begin to use deep wells to supply

between one-fourth and one-third of the supply in the

future. This will make the city less dependent upon

the resources of the shallow aquifers. The deep wells

will be located north of St. Augustine, where the quality

and availability of water is better. The present supply

has a high total hardness, and high cloride and iron

content. The quality of the water from the water

table aquifer is better north of the city, therefore,

the plan proposes that the shallow wells be shifted

northward too.

source: Comprehensive klan Elements,
St. John's County


The surface water system is depicted in Map 1

This system is a part of the Florida East Coast River

Basin, which includes the coastal area from Ponte Vedra

south to the Volusia County line. The system in St. Augustine

includes the Tolomato ( or North) River and the Matanzas River

as parts of the Intercoastal Waterway system. It also includes

the San Sebastian River, Oyster Creek, Hospital Creek and Quarry

Creek; portions of Robinson Creek, Red House Branch and Salt

Run; the salt water marshlands associated with each water

body; and Maria Sanchez Lake. The Intercoastal Waterway

is maintained at a 121 project depth and a portion of the San

Sebastian River is maintained at 10 feet.

The natural drainage system that feeds these water bodies

is also depicted on Map 1 as are the areas where significant

drainage problems are experienced. Tteb city had a consultant

prepare a storm drainage plan for all areas except Davis

Shores as that area was developed with an adequate storm

drainage system. This plan had to consider the fact that

natural drainage flow is almost non-existent in the city

because of its generally flat terrain. Naturally, slopes

increase runoff or drainage and the only significant slopes

are found in the southwestern and southeastern portions of

the city. The sandy, highly permeable soils help get rid of

some of the water; however, many times the surface drainage

is a function of wind direction and vei~ecity. This fact


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Irol II
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11 1010 101Q1II~I1C IYT ~I 1II(U




Natural Drainage Flow

Drainage Problem Area

sors... wos.,

M1AP 1


creates extreme problems during rains, a point that will be

covered more fully in the flood hazard section.

The plan for the city describes the drainage system

required to transmit the runoff of a 10-year storm. The culvert

aind open channel portions are to handle a 25-year storm.

This system is being implemented.

The Department of Environmental Regulation completed

a preliminary report in 1975 which is to become a Water Quality

Management Plan for the Florida East Coast River Basin. This

basin includes St. Augustine. This study first lists municipal

dischargers in an area and then ranks them in order of need

for construction. (A high ranking means that a plant is performing

well when compared with other municipal dischargers.) The

two St. Augustine plants had the two highest rankings in the

basin. The segment itself ranks 100 out of the 115 in the


The study next classified water bodies according to the

State water quality standards. The Matanzas River received

a rating of Class II Waters, which means that it can support

recreational or commercial shellfish propagation and harvesting.

The Tolomato River and its tributaries were also classified

as Class II Waters. In spite of the fact that both rivers

are designed Class II, they have been closed to shellfish\

operations because of high coliform counts. The San

Sebastian River has been designated Class III, and as such

is acceptable for recreation and for propagation and management

of fish and wildlife.

The study also listed point sources of pollution, analyzed

non-point sources, and projected future wastewater flows

for the segment. It stated, however, that there was not

sufficient biological data available to allow a total water

quality evaluation of the Matansas River.

source: Comprehensive Plan Elements,
St. John's County


The soils inventory for St. Augustine, like the vege-

tation inventory, is very general and cursory. The information

was drawn from the Florida General Soils Atlas For Regional

Planning Districts III and IV, prepared in 1974 by the Division

of State Planning under the Florida Department of Administra-

tion. The U.S. Soil Conservation Service is presently developing

a survey for St-. Johns County under a mutual agreement with

the county governing bosy. The county has requested that the

area surrounding St. Augustine, including the coastal strand

south of the city to the Flagler County line, be given the

hgibest priority for surveying and mapping. The entire county

should be completed in three years, with the St. Augustine

area being mapped in the first three to six months of the

project. This information will be reviewed when it becomes

available .

The general map developed by the state indicates that

there are four soil types located within the city limits of

St. Augustine. Two of the soil types listed in the Sta~te

publications are slightly different in make-up than that

report indicated. These errors have been corrected for this

publication. These soils are mapped on Map 4 and detailed

soil profiles are in the appendix

The first soils listed for the St. Augustine area is the

PAOLA- POMELLO) ASSOCIATION. These sandy soils are found on

Anastasia Island generally south and west of A1A to the Quarry


Palm Beach- Canaveral Uu"L

Myakka.Promello- Placid F

Tisonia $*rl~es ~ II~


sooo o sooo 2ooo
s~LCal;E ts


Creek drainage basin and in West St. Augustine to the west of

the San Sebastian River. These are moderately well drained to

excessively drained soils. Because of their high permeability

drainage does not usually become a problem in Paola-Pomello

soils. They are, however, noted for their wetness, so shallow

excavations, basements, pond reservoirs, embankments, dikes,

and levees are severely limited; yet there is no flood hazard

associated with this soil type. They have a low shrink-swell

potential so damage to building foundations, roads and other

structures should be minimal. Slopes ini this soil association

range from 0 to 12 percent.

The second soil type is the St. Augustine area is the

PALM BEACH-CANAVERAL ASSOCIATION. These sandy soils are found

on Anastarsia Island north and east of A1A to SALT RUN. Like

the PAOLA-POMELLO ASSOCIATION, these too are moderately well

drained to excessively drained soils found on long, narrow

ridges generally paralelled to the coast. Because of the

seepage and wetness associated with this soil type, there

are severe limitations on sanitary landfills, sewage lagoon,

shallow excavations, pond reservoir areas, embankments,

dikes, levees, and in some areas, dwellings with or without

basements. The shrink-swell ptoential is low in this soil

type also. The slopes in areas where the PALM BEACH-CANAVERAL

ASSOCIATION is found are minimal, ranging from 0 to 5 percent.

Flooding is,.however, not common.
The third soil to be discussed is the MYAKKA- POMELLO-

PLACID ASSOCIATION. These are sandy soils, poorly to moderately

drained, and are located in the Old St. Augustine area east

of the marshes along the San Sebastian River, west of the

Matansas River and its marshes. These soils are found in

the flat coastal areas and generally have slopes running

between 0 and 2 percent. While flooding is not common in

this soil association, the fact that the areas are poorly

drained and have almost no slope presents problems involving

the duration of the flooding. Because of the poor drainage,

the extreme wetness, and the potential for flooding, these

soils offer severe limitations to most development; however,

if properly developed with a good drainage system (as has

been programmed and is being implemented in Old St. Augustine

and West St. Augustine) these limitations would be minimized.

The fourth and final soil found in the St. Augustine area

is the TISONIA soils, which are associated with tidal marshes.

These are very poorly drained organic soils with slopes of

less than 1 percent. There are severe flood hazards in these

areas due to their being highly organic soils (Humus) over-

lying clay soils which will produce strength and shrink-swell

problems to almost all types of development. Corrosion

problems are present due to the inundation of salt water.

It is necessary to be familiar with the limitations

associated with all soil types, because all; soils,:are developable,

if done properly with provisions made to overcome problems

inherent to the soil type. Some, however, are obviously

more costly to develop. These points must be considered if

it is possible, before development takes place. It is always

more costly to go back later and repair the damage caused

by neglect or misunderstanding.


Thc-.v isra rXCvZnitely :rrairsd S'ol*, that am. sandy throug!hoult. flypially :Ise Ii.ve- a thIn1 0.<~~:I r,; urface
horr iz.n nnl~ es 1, lih raly bub urfa~ce horizon ove:r n yrello,. .h b~rown it horl:ian. Soe ag r.*. o1

.SlliTcED PHYSICAL ANDI; Clsl;sA %? Tn1

I rl -n I

ifine sandl

25-0 sndSP A- 00 10 8-lOn! 1-4 p N i. 2".0 .02..00 .-:.5-5. lo

i.. i. .... ~ i.... .1_.. .... ._._L ~ ..... .........__. ...... L

D epthLI to, rrck~: Itcrs k trlee Hycai gop

Pl~ow. l In-s.: and: N~(l

Hrsee..l~: ExKcessIvely (Irainied

SUITAMI.1TY1 Ari r 1 F TRS FEC I 811 is)R


L'anl emb.o menlnts Severe; compatted~c~ permentalityy re islance to. Ii';in

Exc~LI.vl.rte post~l (.iqlutfor fe:d; IScvere: deth~ to wa\ter table

/Lorr.)Ivity Un oaited .tTl Low

urro:.Jvity Concrrete HIgh

I~uI1elln: Ir basecments 2 to W' .10pes::: Slightl 8e to 1L'F slrp ?: Modecrrate;
thweling:.w,*nobasemnts to tl: s~~Lopes Sligh t 2. lpe:Moeat; .

iSeptic Cbank rl~sorption 2 o8 lolns: Slight as to, 1L'' slopej :!jr~c Modrat; scq
lield *O all slopes p~ossiblle contamination of lounciwatefr suppliej.

Ye.tyr Ias:oons 2 to 7% sin~pes: Sover.,re:~b~ pemaiity ---
7 to 129 lOpos: SeVe:r(; IPermebility. blOpe

/L~call Troads and stroot:= 2 to (to& Sllaixs: .ilight
8_ to 12 slIn:Mduae lpe
Iaily Cover tur hands ill I'or too:.nd

bnnllowa excavationz S evere; too jandy

Trennc t.pe ~ I S.vorl*: permcibility, too sman~y

****man... m .0. FIV. 7-70 10~ l th 4 904KSHEET 12 -.*1 4-N-'7413 1 OF i
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L**:*eMFne 4-74


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sources Comprehensive Plan Elements,
St. John's County


When the settlement of St. Augustine was established

in 1565, a location was chosen that would facilitate the

Spanish defense of the sea lanes used by the Spanish treasure

fleets. The fort that was built had sea, walls and a moats

it, in fact, benefited from the flat lowland site. As the

city developed, in what we now know as a flood plain, or

flood prone area, the potential for flood damage increased.

Now the Old St. Augustine area, most of Davis Shores,

and part of West St. Augustine are located in areas classi-

fied as special flood hazard areas under the National Flood

Insurance (NFI) Program. Studies show these areas as being

inundated by the 100-year flood. Map 3 delineates flood hazard ri

zones (insurance rate zone) using the classification established

under the NFI program. These zones are defined as follows

Zone V 5-8's

Zone A 5-8's

Zone A 5-6*:

Zone Bs

Special Flood Hazard Areas along coasts
inundated by the 100-year flood and that
have additional hazards due to velocity
(wave action), having a FHKF of 23
feet, and a base-flood elevation of
8 feet.

Special Flood Hazard Areas inundated
by the 100-year flood, having a flood
hazard factor (FHF~)* of 21 feet, and
a base-flood evaluation** of 8 feet.

same as above except with base-flood
elevation of 6 feet.

Areas between the Special Flood Hazard
Area and the limits of the 500-year
flood, and areas that are protected




Area of Minimal Flood
C Hazards

JUNE 1977

Area of Special Flood
Huoards, with Velocity and i
V-5, 8' Bas Flood Elevoiion, that
are Inundored by Tidal Flood


2- aI-- ?1

I o

n ~4 ~looo a looo 2000
sct learI

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STE ~ II~ II. lrrrr~o l
i YIII~L II0 In( ~YL

st ~l a~D y*y* DUW

6' Area ofI C Specla FloodII
Hazards~Li~f=r~1~;L: wit Bas Flood~~n nle~E rL~(



from 100-year flood by dike, levee,
or other water control structure but
subject to inundation by a 500-year
flood; not subdivided according to FHF.

Zone Cs Areas not subject to flooding by the
500-year flood, and areas that are
protected from 500-year flood by dike, levee,
or other water control structure; not
subdivided according to FHF.

Flood Hazard Factor -- A three digit
code which defines the difference in
elevation between the 10-year flood and
the 100-year flood, and which is used
by FIA to correlate flood-frequency
information into insurance rate tables.

+*Base-Flood Elevation -- The water
surface elevation of the flood having
a 1 percent chance of annual occurrence
(the base flood).

The NFI Program was established by Congress in the National

Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and was expanded in the Flood

Disaster Protection Act of 1973. It is designed to provide

flood-insurance at rates made affordable through a Federal

subsidy. In return, the communities must adopt and administer

local measures that protect lives and new construction from

future flooding.

St. Augustine began this activity by adopting a flood

plain ordinance on October 31, 1974. This ordinance estab-

lished a coastal high flood hazard district (HFH) correlating

to Zone V 5-8*. It established a coastal general flood

hazard district (FHF) correlating to zones A 5-8* and A 5-6'.

The ordinance established development limits and/or guidelines

in both districts for uses below the base-flood elevation.

The ordinance is administered and enforced by the City

Building Inspector, with the City Commission left responsible

for any variances. (The NFI program is highly restrictive

with regard to variances by local government, but it can be

superseded by the laws of the state government.) The city's
insurability can be lost if the NFI Administration declares

that their issuance of a variance.is a violation of "any

Flood Plain law or ordinances."

The development limitations and guidelines established

by the city when complying with the NFI Program are very
obviously and very definitely physical planning considerations.

They will be handled as such in the plan and policy develop-

ment of this planning effort by the City of St. Augustine.

St. John's County


St. Augustine is located on the banks of the Matanzas

and San Sebastian Rivers. It is divided by the rivers into

three distinct parts. West St. Augustine is located west of

the San Sebastian River; Old St. Augustine is sandwiched

between the two rivers; and, Davis Shores (including the western

portion of Anastasia) is located east of the Matanzas River.

The topography of these areas shownn on Map 2 ) is distinctly

different, including elevations ranging from mean sea level

(MSL) to almost 25 feet above MSL.

The highest elevations and the most undulating landscape

are located in the southeast and southwest sections of the city.

Yest St. Augustine has one area that is over 25 feet above MSL.

That is the highpoint of the city. The higher areas of West

St. Augustine are located on either side of Oyster Creek and

the drainage from these areas flow into the creek. IThe-rest of

West St. Augustine forms a long, low ridge running parallel

to the San Sebastian River, and ranging in elevation from

15 feet to 20 feet above MSL at the western city limit line

to 0 feet to 5 feet above MSL along the river.

Old St. Augustine is for the most part flat with elevations

of less than 10 feet above MSL. The exceptions are two low,

parallel ridges of less than 15 feet above MSL located near

the northern city limit.

Davis Shores and Anastasia house a mix of undulating and

flat landscape. The western two-thirds of the area are flat


1000 0 1000 2000
scle testZ~;~
a sm Tel a m us 1 o 194

Elevotions Above
See Level
O' to 5'

to' to is'

IS' so to,
io +

JUNE 1977


with basically the same relief as Old St. Augustine. The

eastern one-third contains several long, low ridges like those

found in West St. Augustine with elevations reaching only

20 feet above MSL.

The surface geology of the St. Aug~ustine area gives the

foundation and reasoning for the topography discussed above.

It is composed of two main terraces Pamlico and Silver Bluff.

The Pamlico terrace is seen in the areas in West St.

Augustine and on Anastasia Island having ~elevations between

10 and 25 feet above MSL. The Silver Bluff terrace with

elevations between 0 and 10 feet is found in the rest of the

city. Both terraces form a relatively flat plain that slopes

generally toward the Atlantic Ocean.

To the west of the city and the Pamlico terrace is the

Talbot Terrace. It is similar in nature to the two above

except it is characterized by elevations of from 25 to 40

feet above MSL. It may be found in .the southwest portion

of the city at the highest points.

All three terraces, when seen as surface exposed geo-

logic formations, are as either recent deposits or as deposits

of the Pleistocene age. These deposits are underlain by

deposits of the late Miocene or Pliocene age. The underlying

geology is more important to and will be discussed in the

Hydrology section.

source: Comprehensive Plan Elements,
St. Jolut's County



The legend on Map 7 lisi~s the five basic sources of

and types of recreation or open space facilities (passive or

active) in the St. Augustine area. Public sources include the

city and county governmentsrthe school board, the state govern-

ment, and the Federal Government. Semi-public and private

facilities come from many sources. In St. Augustine .they

primarily come from private schools or colleges, church-owned

or privately-owned unique open space possessions and semi-public

organizations or associations. The map locates facilities by


MaP 8 and Table 2 list and describe recreation and open

space sites in the St. Augustine area. The sections that follow

describe each type of facility and each site listed by map number.

These descriptions will assist decision-makers in this planning

process in determining what the successes and failures are at

present and what the needs are for the future.





Map Number Park or Open SpaceArea/Location

1 Fullerwood Elementary Playground 10 Hildreth

2 St. Augustine North Entrance Flags and Fountain
near intersection of Ponce De Leon Boulevard and
San Marco Avenue

1000 0 1000 2000

so cael orlu asl rourr ct rl use asl


City and County Park and
Recreation Facilities

School- Related Recreation

Serwi-Public or Private
Recreation Facilities
Slole-Owned Rec~reation

F~.o a nl a.,,"

rl JUNE 1977

M-AP 7

1000 0 1000 2000
arle feet~~

no m m t Maarms a m A atts
a sLO le cr to est ru 1954, Mi


JUNE 1977


TABLE IV-1 (continued)

Park or Open Space Area/Location

City Gates and El Pueblo de Gracia Read de Santa
Teresa de Mose near the northern limits of the
city on Ponce De Leon Boulevard

Florida School for the Deaf and Blind Playgrounds
and Passive Park San Marco Boulevard and
Mecaris Street

Florida School for the Deaf and Blind Stadium and
Playfields school property near Hospital Creek

Vilano Beach Basin A1A at the Matanzas River

Fountain of Youth 155 Magnolia Avenue

Davenport Park and Playground between Ponce De
Leon Boulevard and San Marco Avenue at San Carlos

La Leche Shrine and Mission of Nobre de Dios-
27 Ocean Street

Francis Baseball Field Riberia Street at Castillo

San Marco Field Castillo Drive

Ketterlinus Junior High Gymnasium 75-78 Orange

Orange Street 5th Grade Center Playground Orange

Anita Yates Exceptional Child Center Play Area--
Orange Street

Castillo De San Marcos National Monument Castillo

Young Men's Christian Association Valencia Street

Avenida Menendez Waterfront Park Avenida Menendez
from Castillo Drive to St. Francis

Florida East Coast Railroad Park Malaga Street

Map Number
















TABLE IV-1 (continued)

Park or Open Space Area/Location

St. Augustine Market and Passive Park between
Cathedral Street and King Street

St. Augustine Municipal Pier and Carpet Golf -
Avenida Menendez

Oglethorpe Battery Park Arredondo Avenue

St. Francis Park St. Francis at St. George Street

Evelyn Hamblen Elementary Playground Sidney Street
at Isabel Street

Maria Sanchez Lake Front Passive Park Cordova street

Florida National Guard Parade Grounds Marine Street

Lighthouse Park Off Beach Road at Carter Street

R. B. Hunt Elementary Playground Magnolia Drive

Anastasia State Recreation Area Highway A1A

Little Links terminus of Riberia Street

St. Augustine High School Stadium and Playfield -
North Varella Avenue

Crookshank Elementary Playground North Whitney

Murray 7th Grade Center Playground Holmes Street

Webster 6th Grade Center Playground Orange Street
(West St. Augustine)

Leo C. Chase Junior Field King Street (West St.

St. Augustine Welcome Fountain (South Entrance)-
Ponce De Leon Boulevard

Cathedral Parrish School Play Area St. George

Flagler College Tennis Courts, Pool, and Gymnasium -
King Street at Sevilla and Granada streets

Map Number





23 -













City and County Recreation and Open Space' System

The St. Augustine and St. Johns County Recreation

Department maintains programs at 7 sites inside the city

limits. These sites have been located on Table 2 and Maps

7..- and .8 ., and they are listed and discussed here. Table .3

lists total acreage figures for these parks.

1. Leo C. Chase Junior Field (Map Number 33) -- 3.33

Thi's is a very small, run-down site in West St. Augus-

tine on the south side of King Street, east of the rail-

road tracks. It consists of a small softball field and

a basketball court, and it is dedicated to the first

St. Augustine resident to die in Vietnam. The softball

field includes a make-shift backstop and 5 rundown

bleachers. The outfield is cut short by thick vegetation

in the left field and railroad tracks and a basketball

court in right field. The basketball court is concrete,

it is lighted, and it has two backboards. The site also

contains a park bench and a trash can. Landscaping and

maintenance seem to be lacking; however there, is some

tree cover on the north and south edges of the park.

2. Davenport Park (Map Number 7) -- 3.33 Acres --

This site is located between Ponce De Leon Ave., and San

Marco Ave., just north of Carlos Ave. It contains a mixtu;

of active and passive recreation including 2 tennis courts

a basketball court, a playground and a picnic area. The

Table 3

Existing Public Recreation Acreage

St. Augustine, Florida



Chase Field

Davenport Park

Francis Field

Lighthouse Park

Little Links Park

San Marco Field

Vilano Beach Basin









Total Acreage


tennis courts are lighted, made of asphalt and are fenced

in. The basketball court is made of asphalt and has two

backboards. The play area has a swing set and monkey bars.

The picnic area consists of 8 picnic tables. There are

plenty of trash cans, and plenty of tree cover, and the

park is fairly well-maintained. The landscaping is fair.

3. Francis Field (Map Number 9) -- 7.31 Acres --

This baseball field is located at the southeast quadrant of

the 'intersection of Riberia Street and Castillo Drive. This

was an old minor league facility that has turned to little

league and pony league usage. It contains a concession'

stand, a public address booth, and drinking fountains. The

field itself has a clay infield and a grass outfield, and

large backstop, 2 dugouts, cement fencing all around, and

lighting for night games. There are also bleachers with a

seating capacity of 600. There is an adjacent lighted

softball field. While the facility is well-maintained,

the fencing appears deteriorated in areas. Also, there is-a

lack of landscaping on the edges of the field. Parking take

place in an area by the gym of Ketterlinus Junior High. The

adjacent streets are very busy.

4. Lighthouse Park (Map Number 25) -- 2.96 Acres --

This park is located on Anastasia Island southeast of Davis

Shores on property including and adjacent to the old St.

Augustine lighthouse. It contains a mixture of active and

passive recreation opportunities. There are 4 fenced-in,

asphalt tennis courts. Two are lit and one has bleachers.

There is also a large, well-landscaped picnic area with 2

shelters, 12 picnic tables and two grills. There is a

playground with one swing set, monkey bars and chin-up

bars, and two spring animals. Finally there is a boat

.ramp and fishing pier with a small store and parking lot.

There are ample trash receptacles and the park itself is

well-maintained. The lighthouse tenders building is still

standing but is deteriorated and needs reconstruction.

5. Little Links Park (Map Number 28) -- 12.05 Acres --

This is the largest park in the city and yet the least

accessible being located at the southern terminus of Riber.

Street. It is primarily an active recreation area with 2

tennis courts, a basketball court, a baseball field, a

volleyball court, softball field, a playground and a tot It

The two tennis courts are asphalt, are fenced-in and are 1:

The basketball court has two backboards and is programmned

for lighting. The volleyball courts have been destroyed ai

while there are no nets, they are lighted. The baseball

field has a clay infield, grass outfield, a backstop, side

and outfield fencing, lighting, dugouts, and three bleached

The softball field has a clay infield, grass outfield, and

a backstop. The playground area is a poorly maintained one

consisting of 2 swing sets, 2 slides, one seesaw set, monkey

bars and chin-up bars, a merry-go-round, and broken horizon

bars. The tot lot is fenced in, and it contains an obstac:

course, some timber form and four bridge bars. The

site has a drinking fountain, two portable rest rooms., and

ample trash recepta'cles. There is generally a problem

with maintenance and with landscaping, and there is no

adequate parking area.

6. San Marco Field (Map Number 10) -- 5.17 Acres --

This recreation area is located on Castillo Drive just

east of Francis Field, and it contains the recreation

department headquarters. The site houses 65 tennis courts,:

basketball courts, 2 volleyball courts, a softball field,

a football-soccer .field, and two restrooms. Of the two col

create basketball courts one is lighted, as are three of the

six tennis courts. Three of the tennis courts are concrete

and three are asphalt, while three are fenced and have nets

The volleyball courts are concrete and do not have nets.

The softball field has a clay infield, needs grass in the

outfield and has a backstop. This park also has a play-

ground area with three chin-up bars, 2 bridge bars, and a

horizontal ladder. The only landscaped area in this park

is the area adjacent to the train monument located on the.

eastern edge. The maintenance is good at this park. The

adjacent streets are very busy and present a potential

hazard without adequate protected crosswalks.

7. Vilano Beach Basin (Map Number 5) -- 10.00 Acres --

This is a very nice boat ramp and picnic facility that is

located on AIA just west of the bridge to Vilano Beach.

.Theile are .2 picnic shelters and table$y and a very

ni-ce 'Erat ramp. There i~s plenty of par~ki'pg. The land-

seaping is good and thre maintanence i's excellent.

Because the natural channel was destroyed by strai'ght-

li'ne dredging, there is a problem with getting inand

out at low tide, and the new channel requires constant.

maintanence dredging. There is also a problem with

vandalism at this facility.

Other than the seven sites discussed above, the city

itself maintains several passive parks. The sites too are

very valuable in meeting the recreation needs of the residents

of the old city. The sites are located on Table 2 and Maps 7

and ., andl are discussed belowJ.

1. St. Augustine North Entrance (Map Number 2) --

Acreage Undetermined -- This site is located just south

of the intersection of Ponce De Leon Blvd. and San Marco

Avenue, and it consists of a beautifully landscaped area

with flags and a fountain. It is relatively inaccessable

and is primarily a visual amenity.

2. City Gates and El Pueblo De Gracia Real de Santa

Teresa de Mose (Map Number 2a) -- Acreage Undetermined--

This passive recreation site is located just south of the

city's northern limits on Ponce De Leon Blvd. It is

basically a visual amenity consisting of two statues

and rock gates; however there is a picnic table and a

.trash can and room to pull off the road and parallel park.

It is well landscaped and maintained.

3. Avenida Menendez Water Front Park (Map Number 16)--

Acreage Undetermined -- This linear passive waterfront park

extends down Avenida Menendez from Castillo De San Marco to

the National Guard parking lot on St. Francis Street

(excluding the municipal putt-putt golf course and pier--

Map Number 19). It is beautifully landscaped and contains
about 10 park benches on the walkway north of King Street

and 5 or 6 on the walkway south of King Street.

4. St. Augustine Market and Passive Park (Map

Number 18) -- Acreage Undetermined -- This passive park

is located between King Street and Cathedral Street just

west of the Bridge of Lions. It includes a median strip

with a monument; a small traffic circle with a monument,

a cannon and cannon balls, and a flag pole; and a slave

market area with an associated possible park. The slave

market area has 55 park benches in the open, two bike racks

3 monuments, 4 cannons, a community building in the middle,

and a covered area with benches and checker tables. The

area is beautifully landscaped and well-maintained.

There are two other passive areas in the area. One is

across Cordova Avenue from Flagler College. The other one

is the grounds of Lightener Museum. Both are well land-

scaped and maintained, and the second has a beautiful
fountain in the center.

5. St. Augustine Municipal Pier and Carpet Golf (Map

Number 19) -- Acreage Undetermined-- This active and

passive recreation area is located on Avenida Menendez

just south of the Bri'dge of Lions. I~t includes an 18

hole putt-putt golf course, 3 shuffleboard courts, and

open air amphitheatre, a concrete pier with restrooms

and some commercial operations, and 15 benches, 8 of

which are uncovered. The dock has 22 regular docking

slips and four for visitors. There were more slips,

however because of an unstable bottom some of the float-

ing docks were washed out. This is a good facility for

tourists but is rather bad for permanent storage because

of strong currents. Yet there are minimal slips for

visitors. The area is well landscaped and well maintained.

6. Oglethorpe Battery Park; (Map NJumber 20) -- Acreage

Undetermined -- This passive recreation area is located

'in Davis Shores on Arredondo Avenue. It includes about

1 1/2 blocks of well landscaped open space along Arredondo,

with form benches and a monument.

7. St. Francis Park (Map Nlumber 21) -- Acreage Un-

determined -- This passive recreation area was develop-

ed and donated by the Altrusa Club of St. Augustine in

1976 as a bicentennial project. It is a beautifully

landscaped gardens-type park with a horse tie, a

fountain, benches and an arbor. This is one of the

nicest parks in the city.

8. Maria Sanchez Lakefront Passive Park (Map Number 23)--

Acreage Undetermined -- This park consists of grass and

palm trees lining the reservoir. It needs mowing and lacks


9. ''St'. Augusti'ne Whicome Fountain s~ South Entrance

Olap Number 341 --- Aclreage Undeterminled -- This passive

area is located at the northeast guadrant of the inter-

section of King Street and Ponce De Leon Blvd. It is

basically a visual amenity consisting of a fountain and

same landscaping. The large commercial sign behind it

detracts greatly from its appearance.

Another recreational amenity located in St. Johns County

that is available to all residents are its beaches. The

county beaches are broken physically into three portions.

The first is the South Ponte Vedra Vilano Beach, which

includes approximately 17.5 miles of beach, ten miles of

which remains undeveloped. The second area is

Anastasia Island. It includes 12.3 miles of beachfront,

of which 5.5 miles remains undeveloped. (Much of this

area includes a state park discussed later.) The final

area, Matanzas Beach, is 6.75 miles long, and has only

one mile of development along it.


Existing Land Use

in planning for the future development of St. Augustine

as in any other area, it is essential to consider the man-

nade development that has come into existence over the years.

Although past development trends and land uses need not dictate

the form of future growth, they do exert a strong influence.

Any plan for the future should recognize this fact by show-

ing a logical relationship between planned future growth and

past development.

This subelement provided the foundation necessary to

identify and interpret the distribution and general character

of existing land uses in St. Augustine. A field inventory

investigating every parcel of property within the incorporated

portions of the city formed the basis for these remarks. One

survey team composed of two people drove over every road in

St. Augustine identifying on base maps the types, locations and

structural conditions of all land uses observable from highways

or access drives. A colored land use map (1":800') prepared

for the entire city transmitted the information gathered by

the field survey. Field data for certain areas was supplement-

ed and checked by information depicted on Corps of Engineers '

aerials flown in 1974. Final land use maps are being pre-

pared at the scale of 2000 feet per inch which is the scale

utilized in this report.

The l1:800.' scale

map deVeloped from the field sheets is to be used in oral

presentations, while the field sheets (1": 200 scale

assessor's maps) will be kept in the office as a detailed

foundation and resource for all elements of the report.

Land use refers to the use conducted within a building

or on a given parcel of land. This activity may be residen-

tial, a commercial enterprise, the manufacture of goods or

the offering of various services. Land uses are so numerous

and activities so diversified that, for study purposes, they

are grouped into general classifications by related activity.

These general classifications are taken from a more definitive

code, developed, and adopted by the State of Florida, and

slightly modified for this report. Appendix il~of this sub-

element delineates this code.

* A separate map of the core area with a scale of
approximately 1":500' was developed because of the
detail required in that area. Map 16 is the exist-
---ing land use map for that area.




Commercllo &, Services
industril l
Communications A UtIilitie
Conlined Feeding Operatluin.


MAP 15


1000 0 1000 2000
Csto e ***;

ST. 80 0 USTIN8E
JUNE 1977

s T. au 6 0 8 tiN


carrancS Irts wa state or rseason Wesswmar
I Or camaarv aswases, as0 napanarsom or rate
MA#, Mad nU I*Is SALA.V AI IYD tw IM PacAL
ORlr all TO IneArFM OF WOusIn Amo IMBl
DBn;t in, stabf +r tamaTRCOMP asaln vW PLAN
Ahi se~manmar Asa~LsC )hoemsa AL~rmonIs
SW *BCTIO 1el CV tWA ActING AC OI 4954, A6


" O

i hJ


owrn~nrcial & Services


~onapor totion






:1 :


JUNE 1977

rth a,



Me thodolog

Once the land use survey is completed a series of

analyses must be run on the new land cover data. First,

it must be compared with any past land use data that is

available so that significant changes, areas in transition

or growth areas can be identified. Then the data is

analyzed on its own merit. That is, each use category

is evaluated in such a way that any existing problem areas

involving conflicting or intruding uses, blighted or run-

down areas, areas in need of renewal, or areas in need of

conservation, repair and reconstruction can be identified.

Finally, any existing regulatory systems, such as zoning

and building inspection, are evaluated as to their impact

on the land use patterns and the problems listed above.

They are also analyzed to discover any areas where existing

structures or uses are in conflict with the regulations.

This analysis phase will be completed in this section

of the land use element.

Comparison with 190CI rLand Use Pattern
The Comprehensive Plan for St. Augustine developed

for the city by George W. Simons, Jr., in 1960 is an

interesting and informative document. It detailed several

of the problems that exist even today, .as well as measures

that could have been taken to solve those problems. It

also included a generalized existing land use map. As that

is the most specific data available, it is used in this


MaPl7 depicts the generalized existing land use as

it was in 1960. While this data is extremely general

(for instance, neighborhood churches are shown as

residential uses), a comparison of it with that of 1976

yields some interesting findings. The findings are

illustrated on Mapl7.*

One of the major commercial changes occurring in

the last sixteen years has been the transition to strip

commercial uses all the way down Ponce de Leon Boulevard

(U.S 1).There has also been a tendency in the areas

where San Marco and Ponce de Leon are closest for the

commercial uses to grow up between the two. Commercial

strips have continued along Anastasia Boulevard and begun

adjacent to Masters Drive. Finally, there has been some

commercial growth in ,the area designated as CBD on the

zoning atlas. (The area bounded by King, Granada, Bridge

and Riberia streets.) This growth, however, has been

limited and residential uses still dominate.

Some of the changes occurring with respect to

industrial uses have mainly come from the fact that the

1960 map designates total parcels for industrial when in

actuality only part of the parcel is being used. This is

so in the railroad yard area north of the city, in the

area north of King Street in West Augustine, and in the

area on the west bank of the.San Sebastian River and south

of King Street. One industrial area located between Ponce

__ __ ___ __

I _

r; I-
l. 1
I ~, ic-r- ; .--l--r-i

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-? r--~;,\
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------~ ~~!...;-?1
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, Y.





~~~(~ **** Yul -rs~lYT LIITO )IITOIIO ...

Is so
es***s ) eases~a
4****.* seemsw~n

C- ' '
ar ..l l*

MAP 17

1000 0 000 2000
sole feet



Residensioi Development

Commercial Dovelopment

industrial or Transportation Development

Public Use Development

Land Made Vacant


ST. fl U 6 US TME
JUNE 1977

de Leon and the FEC Railroad tracks has transitioned to

commercial use. Industrial growth has taken place in

West Augustine and on the southwestern portion of the

peninsula. This growth evolves around boat-building

operations that have since become so much a part of the

city's economic base. While these areas are listed as

transportation -oriented uses on the 1976- land use maps,

they are also seen as industrial growth areas.

Public use areas, as listed on the 1960 map, do not

include all of the institutional uses shown on 1976 maps,

so a false picture is indicated by the changes map.

(Map 18). The old public areas classification did not

include churches and clubs which are a part of the

institutional use classification. These uses were just

illustrated as a part of the residential category. This

year they have been separated. They are, as such,

depicted as changes on Map 18 Other institutional use

changes have occurred in and around Flagler College, as

it was converted from commercial use to institutional.

As surrounding property was purchased by the college, it

too was converted to institutional.

The opening of a motor pool yard on King Street

brought about a conversion from commercial to public use,

as did the opening of the waterworks plant adjacent to it.

(~It is classified as utility on the new maps.) The

Southern Bell maintenance area on Spring Street and Masters

Drive was converted from residential to public use. Part

of the large public area adjacent to Old Deach Road is

vacant but was classified as public in 1960. It should

eventually be used as classified.

Residential changes are many but are also quite

scattered. The greatest increase in residential develop-

ment has been experienced on Davis Shores. The undeveloped

areas between Lighthouse Park and Anastasia State Park was

filled in with residential, as were some of the undeveloped

areas west of Anastasia Boulevard. These are an indication

that the island will continue to fill in residentially. A

residential area .on Arricola Avenue and one on Oce'an Way have

been vacated and razed.

Very little residential development has taken place on

the peninsula and that has primarily been in the undeveloped

edges of North City. Several residential areas there have,

however, been vacated and torn down to either make way for

commercial growth or to remain as undeveloped. land with

commercial potential. It was during the above activity that

several Victorian houses of the Flagler era were removed.

This took place before protection was afforded in the zoning

ordinance for such houses.

West Augustine experienced some in-filling of resi-

dential growth in partially developed areas, and some new

development on the undeveloped eastern edges near the

San Sebastian River. There were also some houses torn down

in the area north of the railroad tracks leaving vacant,

developable lots in their place. Residential in-filling

should continue here also. f

~~Analysis of Existing Land Use Situation
The analysis of the existing land use situation will

be carried out on a use-by-use basis. The reader can refer

to the existing land use maps in section (Sub-Element) A in

order to view the overall situation.


Maps 19 and 20 give the total residential picture in

St. Augustine as it was in October, 1976. The three

existing neighborhoods on the west side can be labeled

Northwest St. Augustine, Southwest St. Augustine, and the

King Street area. Generally speaking, in Northwest

Augustine, which runs north of the railroad tracks to the

city limits, the most unstable residential areas are south

of Pearl Street. This area contains a high percentage of

deteriorating and dilapidated housing. Masters Drive is

also experiencing residential stability problems. This is

for two reasons. One is that it is the major north-south

thoroughfare in West Augustine. And second, is the

existence of strip commercial zoning along its frontage.

Palmer Street, south of Evergreen is also experiencing this

problem. (Bots will be discussed later in this text.)

The best housing in this neighborhood is located in the

extreme northwest along Whitney Street and Spring Street, and

in the blocks between Julia Street and Pearl Street and

between Palmer and' Florida streets.

The King Street area runs from the railroad tracks

south to Oyster Creek. The residential area north of King

Street is quite unstable as it is located between the tracks

1000 0 t000 2000
scole set


M AP 19

and the main East-West thoroughfare in West City. The

area south of King Street is experiencing some problems

due to the commercial stripping of U. S. I and of King

Street. The area west of Leonardi has a high incidence

of deterioration, while the area to the east is deteri-

orating but is primarily a stable area.

The southwest St. Augustine area is quite similar

to the above in that there are some deteriorating

structures in what appears to be a stable neighborhood.

The nicest residential area is located between Anderson

Street and Oyster Creek. The strip commercial areas on

U. S. I and Old Dixie Highway and the large CI zone

appearing between the two in the extreme southwest do not

exactly present symbols of or incentives to neighborhood

stability. Very few dirt streets are located here that

would be deterrents to developments.

Limitations to residential development in West

Augustine are the marshes and river on the east and the

city limits to the north, west and south. There a.re no

known historically important sites in the area. There

are several dirt streets in the area which might inhibit

future residential growth.

There are very few multi-family structures in West

Augustine and those that do exist are almost exclusively


Davis Shores is the name given to the neighborhood

on Anastasia Island within the city limits. Here are

located the newest and perhaps most stable residential






e 'rr


CLIatUIr *IfW T IE STAT OF tIDA,. Lsuattrar
a1 t SECIO 101 O1f IS 1)OUBSM AC Of 019, AM~.I



areas. A major portion of the apartments in the city are

located here. There are very few deteriorating structures.

There are still some dirt roads southwest of Anastasia

Boulevard but they have not impeded development. A few

dirt roads are located in the area around the lighthouse

in the oldest developed area of the island. Drainage and

marshland appear to be the major deterrents to residential

growth in the undeveloped southwest portion of the island.

Anastasia Boulevard is commercially stripped, however, this

appears to have been allowed for as development took place.

The peninsula area of St. Augustine is where the bulk

of the residential development is located. It is also the

area with the oldest and the most deteriorated structures,

and some of the biggest problems. It contains five major

neighborhoods--San Marco, Fullerwood, Orange, Central and


Fullerwood is the northernmost neighborhood and it is

overall one o'f the nicest and most stable in the city.

There are only a few deteriorating houses in the entire area

north of May Street. The Florida State School for the Deaf

and Blind is a well-landscaped and a well-planned public

use which has a stabilizing effect on the surrounding

residential development. The commercial development along

San Marco should be encouraged to follow the lead of the

school and maintain landscaping and buffering, especially

where it is adjacent to residential uses, in order to

prevent the deterioration of this residential area. There

-are-a few dirt roads on the eastern edges of this

neighborhood, but few if any problems of deterioration are

found on these roads. Expansion of residential growth in

Fullerwood is limited due to the presence of vast acreages

of marshland.

The San Marco neighborhood is broken into four areas

by Ponce D~e Leon Boulevard, San Marco Avenue, May Street,

and Picolata Drive. There are a few residential structures

north of Picolata Drive and west of San Marco. While the

majority of these structures are sound, they are being

pressured out by the existence of three major thoroughfares

and the abundance of commercial uses. The area is all zoned

CI (Commercial Intensive) and IW (Industrial and Warehousing)

which deters residential growth and stability.

The area of San Marco south of Picolata Drive to Orange

Street and west of San Marco Avenue is much like the area

mentioned above.

It includes primarily sound residential structures but

it is suffering the effects of the fact that at least half

of the residential uses are zoned CI. There is .a small

strip of residentially zoned land between Institute Street

and Genovar Place, and a residentially-zoned area from

Grove Avenue to Hope Street. Most of the deterioration

occurs outside these areas. These areas could be stabilized

and commercial intrusion halted if such action is deemed

desirable. The housing along Grove Avenue should be revital-

ized as a protective measure for the entire neighborhood to

the north.

The two residential areas east of San Marco Avenue are

divided by May Street. The area north of May is a nice,

stable one. The area south of May is divided by the

Leche Shrine. The two areas are, however, quite similar.

They include a mixture of some of the finest homes in

St. Augustine and some that are quite deteriorated. The

area north of the shrine is suffering from commercial

intrusion from a motel and a tourist operation, including

souvenir shop. The roads are for the most part paved but

narrow. Both areas have some older deteriorating houses

that could and should be rehabilitated. Some in both areas

already have. Perhaps this will provide incentives to the

others to follow suit.

The neighborhood designated Orange is bounded by Orange

Street, Cordova Street, King Street and U. S. 1. This is a

stable area with a low percentage of deteriorating resi-

dential structures. Located here are several beautiful old

churches, the YMCA facilities and the campus of Flagler

College. The YMCA, the churches and the college can be

major stabilizing forces if they limit their growth to the

restoration of their own buildings and of older homes whose

interiors can be used for their purposes.

The intrusion of commercial ventures on Orange Street

and the threat of strip commercial growth along the other

three boundary streets could destroy the stability of this

neighborhood unless such development is directed. The

Florida Power and Light building is indicative of the type

of commercial or public development that should take place

in St. Augustine, especially in and around residential

neighborhoods. The other commercial uses should be

buffered or properly .landscaped and rehabilitated if

necessary in order to create a harmony between uses in

the city.

The old city or San Agustin Antiguo area houses

several residential structures. This area should have

special programs for the rehabilitation of older

residential structures as this is the core of the tourist

attraction area. There are several deteriorating structures

in this area and they do not give the visitor the impression

that the area is stable. Appearance is especially important

here, and all uses should be upgraded, coordinated and


The Central area, just south of King Street between

Cordova and the river, is a fine example of what the entire

city should be. The structures are for th~e most part in

excellent condition and the yards are well landscaped, the

commercial uses have been developed so that they are

compatible with the rest of the uses. The public uses--

the hospital, the geriatrics centers, the county court house,

the church, the school and the National Guard facility--all

appear to enhance the area rather than detract from it.

There are several structures in the Central area that

have been-converted to multi-family use, however, the

predominant use is still single-family. As mentioned above,

this area should provide an example (though there are a few

problems to be corrected here) for the other neighborhoods

in the city.

The last neighborhood to be discussed is the Riberia

area, located south of King Street and west of Cordova.

This area contains as many if not more deteriorated and

dilapidated residential structures than are found in West

Augustine. This is primarily a single-family, low-income

area (as are the King Street and Northwest Augustine areas).

The areas closest to King Street and Cordova Street are the

best off right now; however, no area is free of the blighting

influences. Many of the older structures here could be

rehabilitated or recycled, the yards could be improved and

street conditions upgraded if the destabilizing influences

are to be overcome. Neighborhood redevelopment is an

absolute necessity in this neighborhood. Community pride

should be developed and drawn upon to accomplish this

upgrading of the neighborhood. The churches, the geriatrics

center, and other public uses in the area could be used as

foundations for such a program.

The IW zoning between the San Sebastian River and

Riberia, if developed properly, can be an unobtrusive and

Visually appealing area. This would overcome the possible

negative impacts of industrial growth on residential

neighborhoods. The CBD zone, while it allows for residential

uses, has negative impacts on the area. It is a disincentive

to neighborhood upgrading when there is always a possibility

of the house next door becoming a gas station and store (as

was done on Central Avenue and Bridge Street).

If many of the.yards were manicured, landscaped and kept

free from_ trash_ or junk the entire_ area. would. benefit._

(This is true in all of the deteriorating residential areas
of the city.) If there were some program set up to assist

people in rehabilitating their homes before they become

dilapidated, the city's residential stability would be
ensured. New housing is very expensive and land costs are

soaring. There is a need for neighborhood revitalization

programs and neighborhood pride campaigns to bolster areas on
the verge of residential deterioration. Ohe of the prime

objectives of this plan addresses the above problems. These

points are discussed further in the Housing Element.


Maps' 2o and 23 depict those areas involving specifi-

cally commercial use. The first map depicts such areas outside

the city's historic core, while the second map depicts commercial

areas in the core. The maps indicate the tendency toward commer-

cial strippage of collector streets such as King Street, U.S. 1,

San Marco and Anastasia Boulevard. This tendency is natural as

such frontage offers visibility and accessibility to commercial

establishments. This is also the reason why the major thorough-

fares are dotted with large, unsightly signs.

The 1960 plan pointed out the occurrence of both of these

phenomena even then. The following quotes illustrate the


"Over the years St. Augustine has developed
an excessive amount of business along its high-
ways and main traffic arteries. These strip
commercial districts have been permitted to
wantonly penetrate residential areas on the
fallacious premise that 'all highway frontage
is business frontage."

"It would be to St. Augustine's credit and
advantage if the routes~ could be made more
attractive. It is demoralizing for the
visitor to anticipate something of unique
beauty and be greeted along the approaches
by the many garish signs and blatant busi-
nesses vying with each other for the tour-
ist dollar."

The predominant commercial uses on the peninsula and on

the island at present are, as might be expected in a tour-

ist oriented city, restaurants and motels. These range

from well-designed, well-landscaped and attractive develop-

ments to deteriorating and unsightly ones. This is true of

JUNE 1977


MAP 22


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1 01~ 11 O ~U IXIIIIC Ln Or 1))~ U

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ourancy I ~ LOwas I ~ noWar r usaa Isea
au, as1 ranCISczau assess tracu a useC
QLast Iauel Was ephrase o soussa Ae tunsr
DVS 1ensrt,. unce us CasU~InIanlv ~U*LQen
AUc .eAYdaar Mal~lJTQC Paineans herMass
BY tLTLas )I( 09 )1a$ 8UMMS Act est 104 M

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JUNE 1977


commercial uses in the city, with some of the most deterio-

rating and unsightly commercial located in West Augustine,

North City and south of King Street to the west of Cordova.

The majority (about two-thirds) of the commercial acre-

age in the city is located on the peninsula. Anastasia

Island and West Augustine have about equal amounts. The

apparent commercial growth area is southwest of the city

along U.S..1. This is unfortunate in one respect because it

represents a further erosion of the city's tax base. However,

commercial growth is of supreme importance to the entire county,

and city residents do derive benefits when such growth takes

place near its borders. It should by no means be discouraged.

Further, encouragement should be given to prime commercial develop-

ment to locate on vacant parcels within the city. There is plenty

of commercially-zoned land within the city, which, if developed

attractively and intelligently would have commercial appeal to

tourists and citizens alike.

In keeping with the general objectives established for this

plan, the new commercial growth in the city should be encouraged

to reflect designs utilized during important periods in St. Augus-

tine history. This is especially important along the city's main

thoroughfares, but it should be encouraged throughout an area

who's livelihood is derived through tourism. Design quality, how-

ever, is not the only desirable asset of new development. Good

landscaping, signage, parking areas and the overall site plan

are~also important. County commissioners should also consider

emphasizing these points when considering growth on major thorough-

fares leading to the oldest city.


Cultural development in St. Augustine is so closely

associated with its commercial development that it is in-

cluded as a sub-classification of commercial in the land-

use survey. All of the cultural uses take place on the

peninsula where the majority of the tourist-oriented

operations.are located. Maps 24 and ___jug give the

specific locations of such uses.

The predominant cultural use insidee) in the city is
the Fountain of Youth. (Were the Castillo de San Marco

considered cultural instead of as a recreation and open

space area, it would be the predominant cultural use.
It is considered the major cultural attraction, however,

despite its land-use classification.) The other major
cultural attraction is San Agustin Antiguo. This is the --

area of St. Augustine restored under state guidance by the

Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board to offer an

interpretive orientation for visitors. It offers a tour of

fifteen restored structures. Further discussion will be

contained in the historic element.

Other cultural sites in the city include Government House,

Lightner Museum, Llambias House, the Wooden Schoolhouse,
Marin-Hassatt House and the Hispanic Gardens, Zoryada Castle,

Potters Wax Museum, the community center (presently used as

an information center by the Chamber of Commerce and many

others. All of these uses offer a variety of experiences

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