Historical Association of Southern...
 Sailing craft of the Florida...
 Black Miamians in the Miami metropolis,...
 The map collection of the archives...
 Pioneering in suburbia
 Historical Association of Southern...

Title: Tequesta
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101446/00052
 Material Information
Title: Tequesta
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Historical Association of Southern Florida
Publisher: (multiple)
Publication Date: 1992
Copyright Date: 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101446
Volume ID: VID00052
Source Institution: Florida International University: Florida History and Heritage
Holding Location: Historical Museum of Southern Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 2096319
lccn - 42015131
issn - 0363-3705


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Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Historical Association of Southern Florida
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Sailing craft of the Florida Keys
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Black Miamians in the Miami metropolis, 1896-1900
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
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        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
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        Page 37
        Page 38
    The map collection of the archives and special collections department, Otto G. Richter library, University of Miami
        Page 39
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        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Pioneering in suburbia
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
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        Page 87
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        Page 89
        Page 90
    Historical Association of Southern Florida membership list
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
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        Page 96
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Full Text

Ir 4 es te

Arva Moore Parks

Managing Editor
Natalie Brown

Number LII



Sailing Craft of the Florida Keys .................................... 7
by John Viele

Black Miamians in the Miami Metropolis .................. 21
by Thomas F. Fleischmann

The Map Collection of the Archives and Special.......... 39
Collections Department, Otto G. Richter Library,
University of Miami
by Olga Espejo Beshers

Pioneering in Suburbia, Conclusion .......................... 51
by Nixon Smiley

List of Members


is published annually by the Historical Asso-
e,,estl : ciation of Southern Florida. Communications
should be addressed to the Managing Editor
of Tequesta, 101 W. Flagler Street, Miami,
Florida 33130. The Association does not assume responsibility for
statements of facts or opinions made by contributors.


Editors Emeriti
Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.
Thelma Peters, Ph.D.


On the cover:

African American laborers who came to Miami
in 1896 to help build the city.

Historical Association of Southern Florida, Inc.

George R. Harper
Ronni W. Bermont
Robert A. Hunter
John C. Harrison, Jr.
Fernando Garcia-Chacon
Hunting F. Deutsch
Randy F. Nimnicht
J. Andrew Brian
Arva Moore Parks
Chariton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.
Thelma Peters, Ph.D.
Stuart Mclver
Natalie Brown

First Vice President
Second Vice President
Past President
Executive Director
Museum Director
Editor, Tequesta
Editor Emeritus Tequesta
Editor Emeritus Tequesta
Editor, South Florida History Magazine
Editor, South Florida History Magazine


Wayman Adkins
Teo A. Babun, Jr.
Francisco Blanco
Ignacio Carrera-Justiz
Steven Goldberg
Priscilla M. Greenfield
Susan Johnson
Harry M. Lightsey
Rev. J. Kenneth Major
Joseph S. Mensch, M.D.
Charles P. Munroe
Anna Price, Ph.D.
Benjamine Reid
David P. Rowe
Michael B. Smith
Sandy Younts

Harris R. Anthony
Robert B. Battle
Miguel A. Bretos, Ph.D.
J. Allison DeFoor II
Matthew B. Gorson
Evelyn Guyton
Michael Lewis
Jack Lowell
Mary Stuart Mank
Lynn A. Monast
Susan P. Norton
Janice C. Pryor
Raul L. Rodriguez
Thomas G. Schultz
Alicia M. Tremols
Howard Zwibel, M.D.



Olga Espejo Beshers is assistant professor, librarian, at the Otto G.
Richter Library, University of Miami. She received her M.L.S. and M.A.
degrees from Kent State University, Ohio, and has authored several
scholarly articles. Currently she is working on a carto-bibliography of the
West Indies and Florida. Before joining the University of Miami in 1989,
she was with Ohio State University.

Thomas F.Fleischmann holds two Masters Degrees in History, one from
the University of Miami and the other from Indiana University of
Pennsylvania. He serves as an independent evaluator for the Florida
Humanities Council and is a member of the Naval Reserve. Presently he
is a project director with Jewish Vocational Service, Inc., a social service
agency. He lives in Miami with his wife and daughter.

Nixon Smiley, a well known newspaper reporter for The Miami Herald,
local historian, and environmentalist, died July 29, 1990. Aside from a
hitch in the U.S. Marines during World War II, Smiley worked for The
Herald from 1940 until he retired in 1973. His Knights of the Fourth
Estate, one of nine books that he wrote, is the definitive history of The
Miami Herald and an excellent history of Miami as well. Long The
Herald's horticulture expert, Smiley was also acting director at Fairchild
Tropical Garden from 1956-63. His interest in tropical plants was a
particularly rewarding part of his life.

John Viele is a retired naval officer, a former submarine commander and
marine engineer. Now living on Cudjoe Key, he writes a monthly column
on Keys history for the Island Navigator. His articles have also appeared
in Florida Keys Magazine. He was a member of the advisory committee
for the development of the Museum of Natural History of the Florida
Keys and was history editor for the Monroe County Environmental
Story, a resource textbook for public school teachers. He is a director of
the Key West Maritime History Society and a frequent lecturer on Keys


Sailing Craft of the Florida Keys 7

Sailing Craft of the Florida Keys

by John Viele

From the time of the first white settlement in 1822 until
the completion of the Overseas Railroad in 1912, Key West was
an isolated island community totally dependent on the sea for
communication with the outside world. Until the rise of the
cigar industry in the late 1800s, nearly all of the inhabitants
were also dependent on the sea, either directly or indirectly, for
their livelihoods.
Key West's deep-water harbor and its position astride a
major shipping lane also made it an important stop-over port for
passing vessels in need of water, supplies, medical aid, or re-
pairs. Until the early 1900s, Key West was the only port south
of Jacksonville and Pensacola capable of providing such services
to deep-draft vessels.
All of these factors lead to the development of a small but
important boatbuilding and ship-repair industry beginning in the
early 1830s. Unlike shipbuilding ports in the north which built
large oceangoing ships, Key West-built vessels were, with one
notable exception, medium and small size sloops and schooners
designed primarily for use in coastal and inshore waters.
Spurred by the need for vessels for the wrecking and
fishing fleets and, later, the sponging fleet, Key West soon
became the leading boatbuilding port in Florida. In 1884, 34
percent of all Florida-built commercial sailing craft were Key
West-built vessels. The next closest competitor, Pensacola, ac-
counted for only 18 percent.1 Key West-built sailing craft con-
tinued to outnumber those constructed in other Florida ports
through 1920.2 Key West shipwrights had two other claims to
fame. They built the first sailing vessel to be registered in the
Territory of Florida,3 and they launched the only clipper ship to
be built by native craftsmen south of the Chesapeake Bay.4
The design of Keys-built sailing craft was primarily deter-


mined by their intended employment as wreckers, fishermen,
spongers, freight carriers, etc. However, there were other signifi-
cant influences such as the backgrounds of their designers/build-
ers, the nature of Keys waters and the climate.
New England and Bahamian mariners had been coming to
the Keys to fish and salvage wrecks for many years before Key
West was settled. New Englanders were among the early settlers
and Bahamians immigrated to the Keys in large numbers after
they were excluded from salvaging wrecks in the Keys by an
act of congress in 1825.
The New England influence showed in the design of both
wrecking and deep-sea fishing vessels. These were relatively
deep-draft, sharp-lined vessels built for speed and ability to
operate in heavy weather.
The Bahamian influence was evident in the smaller vessels
which fished, sponged, or carried freight in inshore waters. Ba-
hamian design features included large leg-of-mutton mainsails,5
shallow drafts, wide beams, and heart-shaped transoms.6
The shoal waters of the Keys lead to the use of center-
boards, which could be raised, in place of fixed keels. The mild
weather allowed galleys in the form of cookhouses or cookboxes
(another Bahamian feature) to be installed topside instead of
below-decks. The moderate winds permitted greater sail areas
and simpler rigs for reducing sail in a blow.
The man most responsible for the birth and rapid growth
of Key West boatbuilding was a Bahamian named John Bartlum.
Bartlum came to Key West from Green Turtle Cay in the early
1830s as a young wrecking captain, but soon turned to building
sailing vessels.7 According to his biography,8 he never served a
day as an apprentice, but learned his shipwright skills from
books and practical application. Of one of his first vessels, a
10-ton sloop, the Mary McIntosh, built in 1835, the Key West
Enquirer had this to say: "a beautiful boat built on our own
'little isle.' She is said to be the first boat of her size which
has been built here, being about 32 feet keel. The model is
handsome and does honor to the gentlemen who built her. The
builders is [sic] Mr. Curry and Mr. Bartlum."9
It is likely that William Curry, a prominent Key West
businessman who became Florida's first millionaire,10 was more

Sailing Craft of the Florida Keys 9

involved in the financing than the actual construction of the
Mary McIntosh. In any event, the partnership between the two
men continued. When the firm of Bowne and Curry was orga-
nized in 1845, John Bartlum was engaged as master shipwright."
The first vessel Bartlum built for the firm, the G.L. Bowne,
was a 120-ton schooner designed to serve as a pilot vessel and
a wrecker.'2 Typical pilot-wreckers were built for speed. They
showed long, slender lines and were able to carry a large
amount of sail in order to be first alongside an incoming ship
or a wreck. They were also good sea boats, able to maneuver
alongside a wreck in heavy seas. According to the diary of a
local attorney, William Hackley, the Bowne "was built of native
wood, principally wild tamarind, with pitch pine planking, and
during construction, laid on the building ways 'Conch'3 fashion,'
bow out.""4
The launching of the Bowne in 1848 began a decade of
schooner construction in Key West which was never again
equaled. The following year, Bartlum completed another pilot-
wrecker, the 134-ton Euphemia." She proved to be such a fast
sailer that she was purchased by a slave trader who calculated
she would be able to outsail the naval patrol vessels attempting
to catch slavers.'6
Between 1848 and 1860, at least ten large schooners of

*'-. t [

Wrecking schooners and a sloop engaged in salvage operations are shown
in this sketch, "Wreckers on the Florida Keys," by S.G.W. Benjamin
published in Harpers Weekly, Oct. 19, 1878.


over 100 tons were launched at Key West."7 Of these, Bartlum
is known to have built at least five. When his 149-ton schooner
Gipsy visited Nassau in 1858, the local newspaper commented
that she was "one of the most beautiful specimens of mecha-
nism we have ever seen afloat in our harbor and has splendid
accommodations for passengers.""8
The largest schooner built in Key West was the 90-foot,
171-ton, pilot-wrecker, the Florida."9 Built by Bartlum and
launched in 1853, she soon aroused the envy of the other
wreckers because of her great speed. During one race, she col-
lided with the schooner Dart, doing considerable damage to her
rival.20 Her brief career came to an end in 1857. While along-
side a wreck, a lantern was knocked down setting fire to the
bales of salvaged cotton stacked on her deck and she burned to
the waterline.21
The 1850s were also the clipper ship era. The profits to be
made from these greyhounds of the sea were so great that
Bowne and Curry, confident of their master shipwright's skills,
directed him to build one. Named for the Florida senator from
Key West who was later to become the Secretary of the Con-
federate Navy, the Stephen R. Mallory was begun in late 1854
and launched on August 17th, 1856.22 At 959 tons, 164 feet,
with a 35-foot beam, she was a medium clipper, designed to
carry a third to a half more cargo than the narrow-beamed,
sharp-lined "extreme" clippers.23 As a result of the use of native
mahogany in her construction, she became known as the "ma-
hogany clipper," reportedly the only one in the world.24
Considering that her builders had no previous experience in
building a ship of her size and type, the successful completion
of the Mallory was a truly remarkable achievement. The only
other clipper ship built in the deep south, in South Carolina,
was built by shipwrights imported from Maine.25
The Mallory made two trips around Cape Horn under the
American flag. In a North Atlantic gale in October of 1859 she
was rolled on her beam ends and her ballast shifted. The crew
was forced to cut away her masts to save her from capsizing. A
passing vessel offered assistance but the Mallory's captain re-
fused and brought his ship safely into port at Key West under
jury rig.26 During the Civil War, she was used to transport

Sailing Craft of the Florida Keys 11

Federal troops and cargoes from captured prizes.27 Probably be-
cause of the high wartime insurance rates, she was sold to
British owners in 1863 and renamed the Ansel.2 Under the
British flag, she made another voyage to the Pacific, touching at
San Francisco and Manila.29 In 1870, fourteen years after her
launching, the Key West clipper sank off the Irish coast with
the loss of her captain and 12 crew members including two
Following the Civil War, as a result of lighthouses on the
reef, accurate navigation charts, and the more widespread use of
steam propulsion, wrecking declined in importance and vessels
were no longer built specifically for that purpose. There was,
however, a continuing demand for smaller vessels for the fish-
ing, turtling and sponging fleets. At Key West in 1880, there
were about 100 vessels of from five to 25 tons engaged in
sponging, about 25 deep-sea fishing vessels in the 35 to 50-ton
range, and about 300 small sponging or fishing vessels under
five tons. At the time, it was the largest working vessel fleet in
Florida.31 Regardless of their employment, every sailing craft of
any size had a wrecking license and engaged in that business
whenever the opportunity presented itself.
Hampered by the shortage of local wood and the need to
import manufactured items, Key West boatyards never grew large
enough to build all the vessels needed in the local fleets. For
example, at the turn of the century, Keys-built vessels made up
less than half of the working sailing craft registered out of Key
Despite the shortage, native woods continued to be used in
construction as much as possible. The most important of these
was a type of mahogany called "Madeira" by the Conchs, which
once grew abundantly in the Keys. Madeira was a light, tough,
long-lasting wood which was practically impervious to rot or
teredo worms and was used principally for framing." Other
native boat-building woods were Jamaican dogwood, mastic, and
wild tamarind. Keys-built boats, because of the use of these
native woods, were strong and long lasting. A life of 30 years
was not unusual34 and there are records of Keys sailing vessels
still in use 50 to 80 years after their construction.35
A good example of the strength and durability of native
Keys craft was the Louisa, a 43-foot schooner with native-


mahogany framing, built in Key West in 1870. During a hurri-
cane in 1874, she was anchored off Key Vaca (site of present-
day Marathon). A huge wind-driven wave snapped her anchor
lines, picked the vessel up and hurled it on to the shore. When
the wave receded, the Louisa was left high and dry, held up-
right in the forks of two dogwood trees, with only minor
damage. After the storm, the owner constructed ways under the
18-ton vessel, cut her free from the embrace of the dogwood
trees, and relaunched her. She was never rebuilt and, in 1936,
sixty-six years after her launching, she was still in sound condi-
tion and still working as a sponging vessel.36
There were two classes of Keys fishing vessels. The larger
ones, used for off-shore fishing and supplying the Havana mar-
ket, were called smacks and tended to follow New England
designs. The 61-foot, 43-ton, schooner, City of Havana built in
Key West in 1877, was typical of the larger smacks. She was
modeled after smack schooners built at Noank, Connecticut. The
entire amidships section was occupied by a large live well to
hold the catch. The well extended from the keel to the main
deck and from beam to beam. Holes in the bottom of the well
allowed sea water to flow in and out to keep the fish alive until
sold. With a flush deck, clipper lines and a fairly deep draft,
she was a fast sailer.37
The smaller fishing craft, called smackees, were manned by
one or two men and operated in nearby waters catching fish for
the Key West market. Ranging in length from 14 to 28 feet, the
smackees were shallow draft, sloop-rigged vessels. Smackees also
had built-in live wells amidships to keep the catch alive. The
Jeff Brown, a 25-foot, shoal-draft, skeg-keel sloop with a leg-of-
mutton mainsail was representative of the type. Topside arrange-
ments included a U-shaped cockpit for the helmsman, and a
small cuddy cabin forward of the live well.38
Sponge vessels differed from fishing vessels in several re-
spects. They were shallow draft, wide beamed and had no need
for a live well. The larger spongers were centerboard schooners
and carried a crew of seven to 13 men. The smaller spongers
were sloop-rigged with a centerboard or skeg keel and carried
from two to five men.39 Since sponge hooking could not be
performed when the wind was up, the vessels carried a large
sail area which could be used to get them to the sponge

Sailing Craft of the Florida Keys 13


City ofKey West 41-foot sponge schooner built in Key West in 1884. (Photo
by Don Pinder, courtesy of Monroe County Public Library.)

grounds and home again in a hurry.
Typical of the sponge schooners was the City of Key West
built in her namesake port in 1884. She was 41 feet in length,
13 tons burden, and with her centerboard up, drew only 3/2 feet
of water.40 With a crew of seven, she would carry three sponge
dinghies (one for each two men less the cook) either nested on
deck or towed astern. Instead of bunks, several men slept to-
gether on top of wide lockers in the cabin.
As the outlying Keys became more populated and as farm-
ing (particularly pineapple growing in the upper Keys) became
an important industry, there was a demand for vessels designed
to carry mail, passengers, and freight along the Keys and to
Biscayne Bay. In the 1880s, there were about 25 such vessels
of which at least 10 were built in Key West or the Keys.41
Before the railroad, these vessels were the lifeline of the Keys
settlers to Key West and the mainland. Their arrival at a settle-
ment dock was a major event. With the sound of the schooner's
conch shell horn, every man, woman and child within earshot
would race for the waterfront to hear the latest news, get their
mail, or greet a returning member of the family.


Typical of the mail-passenger-freight vessels was the 12-
ton, 39-foot, centerboard schooner Newport, built in Key West
in 1885. A passenger on the Newport described her accommoda-
tions as consisting of "a small trunk cabin aft in which possibly

The Newport, a 39-foot mail-freight-passenger schooner built in Key West
in 1885.

four persons could manage to sleep and a large hold with
hatches amidships in which [when there was no cargo] mat-
tresses could be placed with fair comfort. There were no conve-
niences [toilet facilities], food was prepared in a small galley on
deck and eaten off the cabin top."42
But there was another type of Keys cargo carrier, much
larger and faster than the inter-Keys freighters. Built along clip-
per lines, they were designed to deliver Keys produce such as
pineapples and tomatoes to northern markets before they spoiled.
The 68-foot schooner Lillie, built in Key West in 1873, was a
particularly fast freight carrier. In 1876, the newspaper Key to
the Gulf reported, "We learn by dispatch boat that the schooner

Sailing Craft of the Florida Keys 15

Lillie, Captain Russell, was only 6 days on her passage to New
York. This speaks well for the sailing qualities of our Key West
Not all the Keys sailing vessels were built in Key West. In
addition to the small sloops built by the early settlers to carry
their produce to market in Key West and bring back supplies, a
few larger sailing craft were constructed on some of the outly-
ing Keys. The earliest known of these were two schooners, the
13-ton Lavina and the 9-ton Jane Ann, built on Key Vaca in
1840 and 1841.44 From 1868 to 1875, a boatyard on tiny Indian
Key was busy launching three schooners and a sloop ranging in
size from 10 to 28 tons.45 Another small Key, Bamboo (located
three-fourths of a mile north of present-day Marathon), was the
construction site for two small sloops and a 10-ton schooner
between 1882 and 1899.46 Key Largo was an active boat-build-
ing site around the turn of the century when two sloops and
three schooners were built.47 Probably the largest sailing vessel
constructed outside of Key West was the 49-ton schooner Mount
Vernon built on Elliott Key, on Biscayne Bay, in 1901.48 Schoo-
ners of modest size were also built on Rhodes, Umbrella
(Windley), Matacumbe, and Big Pine Keys.49
In 1903, when sail was still the only means of transport in
the Keys, John "Bush" Pinder, a Plantation Key farmer, had the
schooner Island Home built to carry his pineapples to market
and to provide freight and passenger service to other settlements
along the Keys. The schooner was built on Plantation Key by a
part black, part Indian Bahamian known as "Old Whiskers"
Wilkerson. There were no formal plans for construction; Old
Whiskers designed and built the 60-foot schooner "by the eye."
She was framed with Madeira mahogany which, because the
Keys mahogany was all gone, had to be cut in the Everglades.
She had a flat bottom and a centerboard which enabled her to
sail right up to the shoal-water docks of the homesteaders. The
cargo hold was square in shape to accommodate the maximum
amount of cargo and facilitate stowage. Despite these features,
she was reported to be a fairly fast sailer.50
The completion of the Overseas Railroad in 1912 and the
advent of the gasoline marine engine in the early 1900s brought
an end to the age of sail in the Keys. Although the Island


Home continued to sail along the Keys until 1917, the need for
inter-Keys mail, freight, and passenger schooners had disap-
peared. Sail-driven fishing and sponging craft continued to be
seen into the 1930s, but there were few that were not equipped
with an auxiliary engine. Whereas between 1900 and 1909, 16
commercial sailing vessels were built in Key West, the next
decade saw only five launched, and in the 1920s, only one.1
The last commercial sailing vessel built in Key West, and,
in fact, the last true working coastal schooner built anywhere in
the United States, was the 130-foot, cable-laying schooner West-
ern Union constructed in 1939. By that time, neither the native
craftsmen nor the native woods needed to build such a vessel
were available in the Keys. Key West's final contribution to the
age of sail was built with imported mahogany and imported
shipwrights, both from the Cayman Islands.52



'c..r ZT.u Vy

The Island Home, a 60-foot mail-freight-passenger schooner built on
Plantation Key in 1903, and the last of the inter-Keys schooners.

Sailing Craft of the Florida Keys 17


1. Annual List of Merchant Vessels of the United States
(Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1884).
2. Ibid., 1884 through 1933.
3. Warren M. Dilsaver, "Chap. V Florida Ships of By-
Gone Days," Florida Merchant Marine Survey 0944-472 (1938):
4. William A. Fairburn, Merchant Sail (Center Lovell, Maine:
Fairburn Marine Educational Foundation Inc., 1945-1955), 2755.
5. A loose-footed sail with the foot nearly as long as the
luff and a large wooden headboard instead of a gaff.
6. William R. Johnson, Bahamian Sailing Craft (self-pub-
lished, no date).
7. Jefferson B. Browne, Key West The Old and The New,
(Gainesville: Facsimile Reproduction of the 1912 Edition, Uni-
versity of Florida Press, 1973), 183.
8. George M. Chapin, Florida 1513-1913, Past, Present
and Future, (Chicago: The S.J. Clark Publishing Co., 1914), 70.
9. Key West Enquirer, March 28, 1855.
10. May Hill Russell, "OIRF Pays Tribute to William
Curry," Key West Citizen, February 21, 1963.
11. Browne, Key West The Old and The New, 183-184.
12. Chapin, Florida 1513-1913, 83; Walter C. Maloney, A
Sketch of the History of Key West, Florida, (Gainesville: A
Facsimile Reproduction of the 1876 Edition, University of Florida
Press, 1968), 78.
13. "Conch"--a term for a Keys native of Bahamian ancestry.
14. Diary of William R. Hackley, Key West attorney, En-
try for March 31, 1848.
15. Maloney, A Sketch of the History of Key West, Florida, 78.
16. Browne, Key West The Old and The New, 184.
17. Certificates of Enrollment and Registration at Key West,
1825-1861, (National Archives, Record Group 41); Hackley di-
ary, Sept. 5, 1853; New York Marine Register 1858; American
Lloyds 1861.
18. Bahama Herald, June 30, 1858.
19. Certificate of Registration for schooner Florida, Key
West, 1853, (National Archives Record Group 41).


20. Hackley diary, August 17, 1854.
21. Ibid., June 28, 1857.
22. Ibid., August 17, 1856.
23. Fairburn, Merchant Sail, 2755.
24. Ibid.
25. Ibid.
26. Boston Shipping List, Dec. 10, 1859; Carl C. Cutler,
Greyhounds of the Sea, (Annapolis, Maryland: U.S. Naval Insti-
tute, 1930), 359; Key of the Gulf, December 3, 1859.
27. "Ship S.R. Mallory salvage, March 25, 1862," Admi-
ralty Final Record Book for the U.S. District Court for the
Southern District of Florida, Vol. 6, Jan. 1861-Nov. 1862, Mi-
crofilm Copy No. M-1360, Roll 7.; Official Records of the
Union and Confederate Navies in the War of Rebellion, Series
I-Vol.17, (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1903),
28. Record of Registers, (National Archives Record Group
29. Boston Shipping List, various dates in 1864 and 1865.
30. Lloyd's Loss Book, 1870; Lloyd's List, February 11
and 21, 1870; Daily Telegraph, St. John, New Brunswick, Feb.
17, 1870.
31. Henry Hall, "Ship-Building Industry," Tenth Census of
the U.S., (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1884),
32. Annual List of Merchant Vessels of the United States,
33. Henry Hall, "Ship-Building Industry," 39.
34. Ibid.
35. Historic American Merchant Marine Survey, Project
No. 6, Works Progress Administration, (Published by Ayer Co.,
Melvin H. Jackson, Editor, 1984), Vol. II.
36. Ibid., Vol. II, 28.
37. Howard I. Chapelle, National Watercraft Collection,
(Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institute Press and International
Marine Publishing Co., 1976), Second Edition, 213.
38. Ibid., 285.
39. U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the
Commissioner for 1885.

Sailing Craft of the Florida Keys 19

40. Chapelle, National Watercraft Collection, 223.
41. Henry Hall, "Ship-Building Industry," 38; Annual List
of Merchant Vessels of the United States, 1884 and 1898.
42. Ralph M. Munroe and Vincent Gilpin, The Commodore's
Story, (Ives Washburn Publisher, 1930), 163.
43. The Key of the Gulf, May 13, 1876.
44. Maloney, Sketch of the History of Key West, Florida,
45. Ibid.
46. Annual List of Merchant Vessels of the United States,
47. Ibid.
48. Ibid.
49. Ibid.
50. Historic Merchant Marine Survey, Vol. II, 191; Nikki
Beare, Pirates, Pineapples, and People, (Miami Beach: Atlantic
Publishing Co., 1961), 85.
51. Annual List of Merchant Vessels of the United States,
1902 through 1933.
52. "Caribbean Connections, The Western Union," Interview
with Hebert Elroy Archer, builder of the Western Union, Islands
Chronicle. Vol. II, No. 3, February-March, 1983. Renamed New
Way, the Western Union still sails the seas as a training ship
for troubled youth.


Black Miamians 21

Black Miamians in
The Miami Metropolis, 1896-1900

by Thomas F. Fleischmann

Before there was a city, there was The Miami Metropolis.1
Its purpose was simple and clear: to insure the survival of the
new settlement which rapidly sprung to life with the arrival of
Henry M. Flagler's Florida East Coast Railway in April 1896.2
Financed and encouraged by Flagler, the journal sought to at-
tract new settlers and developers by sketching a tropical paradise
and by focusing on civic, commercial, and social expansion?
Just as the Metropolis reflected the effervescence of this
new frontier city, it also mirrored racial attitudes present during
the settlement's beginnings.' Since most of the new town was
made up of Southerners, the newspaper's reporting implicitly
portrayed blacks in a stereotypical fashion. In this respect, the
Metropolis was not unique. Other newly established Miami insti-
tutions, saw blacks the same way.5 Nationally, many Northern
newspapers and literary magazines also displayed overt hostility
toward blacks.6
From its inception, The Miami Metropolis had an ambigu-
ous editorial policy toward blacks. Sometimes it espoused a
sympathetic, although paternalistic attitude. This sentiment was

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found in an article reprinted in the Metropolis from the Atlanta
Constitution, entitled "A Black Mammy." The "black mammy"
was an anonymous black woman who had been slave and ser-
vant to the Howard Family of Atlanta for her entire lifetime.7
The newspaper, however, also supported severe punishment
for recalcitrant blacks. The city was a little less than a year old,
on July 2, 1897, when the Metropolis carried news of a riot at
Key West. Sylvanus Johnson, a 19-year-old black male, alleg-
edly raped Mrs. Livington Atwell, a white woman, while she
and three of her friends were gathering flowers. She identified
Johnson as her assailant, and he was jailed. That night, 25-30
men gathered with the intention of lynching Johnson, but failed
because the jail keeper refused to cooperate. Key West blacks
were outraged, but their outcry did not prevent a second try. On
this occasion, the sheriff and an armed posse of black citizens
thwarted the attempt, but a white man was killed as he ap-
proached the jail.8
While assessing these incidents, the Metropolis noted that
the racial trouble was precipitated by C.B. Pendleton, founder,
owner, and editorial manager of two Key West newspapers, the
Democrat and the Equato Ecuador. Pendleton asked if there
were not enough white men present to lynch Johnson. The
Metropolis reported that this statement warned blacks of a pos-
sible lynching, giving them time to organize themselves to pre-
vent it. "If Pendleton had remained silent," the Metropolis mused,
"and a quiet meeting had been held in secret and arrangements
perfected for a necktie party, it might have been accomplished
with very little excitement."9
Realizing the potential destructiveness of such a confronta-
tion for Miami, the Metropolis called for a military company or
company of naval reservists to preserve order in case a similar
incident occurred in Miami. "There is no telling," it reported,
"at what moment some fiendish act similar to that perpetrated at
Key West last week may occur in this city or vicinity and
precipitate a race war."10
Though the newspaper hoped no such incident would occur,
it felt that there was a possibility, if not a probability, one
could happen. The newspaper theorized that a trained military
company would be more effective than a hastily gathered,
undisciplined posse. "The organization of a company of naval

Black Miamians 23

reserves at the Port of Miami would be a big advertisement for
the place," it concluded, "and splendid medicine in the case of a
race war or of a riot over quarantine or health regulations,
contingencies which should always be kept in mind.""
The Metropolis supported deportation as a solution to the
race problem. In a long editorial on September 1, 1899, Editor
William M. Featherly showed his sentiment by quoting at length
from a letter by Senator M.C. Butler of South Carolina."1 "It is
impossible," Butler wrote, "to unite in peace while they hold
equal rights as citizens people of the highest race of the world
and those of the lowest race, as in the case in the Caucassian[sic]
and the Negro."3
Butler reasoned that if the gradual and permanent separa-
tion of the races failed to take place, tension would mount and
atrocities would be committed. While Butler saw the black's fate
as pathetic and pitiful, he also saw working whites suffering
because of competition from cheap black labor. Butler suggested
that landowners throw off cheap labor and allow room, "for an
intelligent, thrifty class of white laborers who would intelligently
diversify agricultural, improve the land and make plenty and
prosperity where stagnation and degradation now hold sway.""4
Finally, Butler believed, with blacks gone and whites in control,
"The terrors which beset the females of their families would
give place to a feeling of security and composure; society would
adjust itself on lines of safety and enlightened progress.""5
The Metropolis also viewed blacks as humorous and harm-
less. Often, whites portrayed blacks in the popular black-face
minstrel shows. These presentations reflected negative themes
and stereotypes of blacks as shiftless and unintelligent people
who loved to sing and dance. Usually, the Metropolis com-
mented how well white players portrayed blacks. For example
on July 2, 1897, the newspaper observed that:
Atkinson, in our opinion, made the most natural look-
ing 'nigger,' and a lady in our hearing said he re-
minded her of an old darkey who used to live on the
farm where she was brought up in Georgia. His face
was perfectly blank, and evidence of intelligence was
conspicuous by its absence. His jokes were mostly
original and very dry, and he brought in many local


In the same column, it noted that "Moran made a nice,
chubby nigger and his well fed appearance indicated that he had
been raised in a section where hog and hominy are abundant.""17
The tabloid also remarked on all the participants's performances.
In reviewing the skit, "Fun in the Gambling-room," the Me-
tropolis wrote:

Wolfe as a tramp was good. Garthside as an African
dude was high strung. Castellano as Prof. Seven-
eleven was expert. Barker as Big Foot Sue of West
Palm Beach was gorgeous. Moran as Candy Jim was
sweet, and Townley, whose name was not down on
the programme, worked in his mouth for all it was
worth and made several hits.18

The Metropolis carried this so-called humorous theme in
other stories. For instance, it printed a story about an anony-
mous sign which read: "Notice to Negro Bicycle Riders. You
are not wanted east of this sign on a bicycle. Take warning and
save your head and wheel."19 The Metropolis interpreted this
threat as the work of a prankster who provided a humorous
diversion by alarming
~ black bicyclists. As
__ the newspaper con-
cluded, "No one con-
templates that any-
thing more serious
"than fun was contem-
plated by the author
of the above."20
In another ex-
ample, the newspaper
described how a black
"-".. man fell into a ten-
S' foot-deep sewer ditch
S' in front of the Me-
tropolis' office while
crossing Avenue D, a
A view of the sewer ditch; looking north on major artery. After he

managed to climb out,

Miami Avenue at today's S.E. 3rd Street.

Black Miamians 25

he discovered his hat missing. Leaning over to look for it, the
black man lost his balance and fell back into the ditch. While
no injury resulted, the Metropolis reported that the man wanted
to know, "Why dey done dug dese wells so many in du
In a third example, the newspaper related the story of an
unnamed black prisoner, held for petty larceny, who escaped
from the county jail while emptying slop buckets. The Metropo-
lis reported, "that in his flight he came across a running deer
and yelled to it to get out of the way as he was coming and
could not wait."22
Blacks were also depicted as violent, aggressive and un-
clean. On August 21, 1896, the Metropolis reported that George
Grandberry shot and killed Matthew Stevens in northwest Mi-
ami. The shooting resulted from a card game when Stevens,
who owed Grandberry $1.75, refused to pay the debt. Words
were exchanged until finally a fight broke out. Stevens beat up
Grandberry and threw him out. Grandberry returned a few min-
utes later and when Stevens attempted to hit him again,
Grandberry shot him in the neck. Stevens died a few days later
and Grandberry, who had initially escaped, was eventually caught
and charged with murder.23 The newspaper described Grandberry
as "a worthless negro who lives by gambling and robbing the
negroes who work at cards. He is not in very good odor in the
negro section of West Palm Beach and his presence was given
away as a result."24
When alcohol-related injuries occurred, it was deemed the
result of a drunken brawl." Other injuries were reported as
senseless. In its edition for September 2, 1898, the Metropolis

A lot of indiscriminate firing occurred Monday night
in the negro quarters, during which a negro by the
name of July Jenkins was shot in the knee. The
wound was not serious. As one negro (said) to the
writer when he went to investigate the shooting about
12 o'clock at night: 'The d d niggers were just
shooting because they had guns and all of them
ought to be arrested.'26


Domestic violence also attracted the attention of the Me-
tropolis. When Andrew Dorsey was shot twice by Jane Davis.
The newspaper noted:

It appears that Dorsey had not of late been paying
Jane all the attention she thought he should and she
set out to adjust matters between herself and Dorsey
to her satisfaction Monday night or adjust Dorsey to
a coffin if he did not appear to be of her tenor of
thought. To make things go her way Jane carried
along a .32 caliber revolver as a persuader.27

Davis was arrested and jailed; however she was later released
when Dorsey refused to press charges.
In another story, the Metropolis reported that jealousy caused
the knifing of a black man in the north end of the city.
Although the victim reported that he did not know who cut
him, the Metropolis surmised that, "he was paying too much
attention to one of the colored damsels when his best girl
thought it time to saw off his jugular vein with her 'razor', and
came near doing it."29
When blacks assaulted whites, even after whites provoked
or instigated the attack, the Metropolis thought that the whites'
actions were justifiable. For example, G.W. Nelson, a black
waiter, aroused considerable excitement when he assaulted Elbert
Froscher, a white watchman at the same hotel. Reportedly,
Froscher was eating supper with a lady friend one Sunday
evening when Nelson entered drunk and cursing. Froscher warned
Nelson to stop, but Nelson allegedly became more abusive. This
prompted Froscher to strike Nelson with a chair. Nelson was
sent to his room and told to stay there.29
Instead, Nelson armed himself with a razor and returned to
get Froscher. Again, Froscher knocked Nelson down. During this
altercation the Metropolis reported that, "the depravity in the
negro's nature asserted itself,"30 as Nelson pulled out the razor
and wildly slashed at Froscher, cutting him several times before
he ran away. Nelson was caught and detained at the city jail.
That evening the Metropolis wrote, "trouble might grow out of
the affair, but sound judgment prevailed and what apprehensions
existed along that line were unfounded, as everything was quiet

Black Miamians 27

during the night.""31 The next morning Nelson was arraigned on
the charge of assault with intent to murder and jailed in default
of a $1,000 bond.
A follow-up story a week later reported Froscher recovering
from his injuries and glad no injury came to his attacker be-
cause, "He did not think the negro bright and for that reason
had taken occasion to temporize with him more than he would
otherwise have done in handling him the day of the trouble.""
Still incarcerated eight months later, Nelson pleaded guilty to
aggravated assault and was sentenced to 30 days in jail.33
In another incident reported in the Metropolis, Milton, a
black man, injured Emmitt Turnage, a white waiter at the Hotel
Miami, because, "The negro was somewhat disposed to be im-
pudent when Tumage gave him a talking to."34 Milton allegedly
threw a heavy object at Turnage that hit him on the head. He
also cut his hand. Another white waiter came to Turnage's
defense with a meat cleaver. He chased Milton and struck him
in the back, but Milton managed to escape. The newspaper
predicted that "Had the negro not escaped he would have been
used up in short order."35
The Metropolis reported that a G.W. Lewys was accosted
by two black highway robbers who knocked him down from
behind and beat him about the face and head with a rock,
fracturing his skull in two places. One of the robbers then drew
a knife, and while the other one held Lewys, threaten to cut his
throat. Lewys was able to free one of his hand and grab hold
of the knife and snap the blade. At this point, realizing that he
could no longer battle the two, Lewys offered his money in
exchange for his life. Instead, as he reached for his money, he
pulled out a large pruning knife and slashed the highwaymen,
who managed to steal $18 anyway.36 The Metropolis, however,
gloated that Lewys took that much out of their hide. Comment-
ing at the speed at which Lewys was recovering from his
wounds, the newspaper remarked that Lewys only asked for an
opportunity to meet either one of his two assailants single-
handedly, "He says there will be no delay on his part in settling
accounts in full; but from what some of his friends say they
hope to have a hand in the matter. They claim the assailants are
in need of a necktie and they are prepared to furnish it.""37
In another incident that was ruled justifiable homicide, James


Barnes, a white, shot and killed Ben Watkins, a black. Watkins
allegedly entered Barnes' cabin while he slept and took his
wallet from his pants. "Barnes was not in a sound sleep" the
Metropolis reported, "and had a dim dreamy impression that
some one had entered the cabin.""38 Awakening, he arose and
went outside to confront Watkins. Here the newspaper reported
that, "The negro pretended to get very indignant and denied any
knowledge in the matter.""39 Barnes insisted on Watkins' guilt
and demanded his stolen pocketbook. The Metropolis reported
that Watkins suddenly grabbed a large pole while attempting to
hit Barnes over the head, when Barnes, "who had drawn his
revolver, shot him through the chest, killing him instantly."40
The Metropolis also reported stories of black arrests, con-
finements, and convictions on such crimes as gambling, liquor
smuggling, drunkenness, and disorderly conduct.41 Stolen goods
usually consisted of a few dollars, food, and articles like shoes
and hats.42
Sometimes, the Metropolis used black incidents as object
lessons to draw public attention to the need for stricter law
enforcement and emergency facilities. For instance, when an
inebriated black man was found tied to a pole, the newspaper
saw it as, "another forcible reminder that the city is badly in
need of a jail."43 After Lucius Harris and William Bownan were
shot by two other black men over a twenty-cent gambling debt,
the article ultimately used the shooting to make a pitch for, "a
good hospital with a well appointed surgical ward."44
When a controversy erupted between two white preachers
over jurisdiction of a congregation in Miami, the Metropolis
prefaced the article with a description of a similar incident in a
black West Palm Beach church. After the two ministers fought
to gain control of the congregation for two years, the courts
sold the church. During the litigation, the judge admonished the
two black minister's unseemly conduct by stating that, "they
should conduct their affairs in a peaceful and orderly manner the
same as white people conducted their churches."45
If the Metropolis generally viewed black Miamians as vio-
lent and disruptive, it also realized that Miami could not exist
without them. Four days before Miami incorporated on July 28,
1896, the Metropolis reported that there were 438 registered
male voters in the precinct of which 182 (41.5 percent) were

Black Miamians 29

black. Present, but not included, were over 100 potential voters
still eligible to register before the election and 200 more who
were ineligible because they did not fulfill the six months resi-
dency requirement. These figures were significant because under
Florida law in 1896, any municipality containing less than 300
registered voters was a town, while one with 300 or more was
a city.46 Blacks held the decisive balance of power on election
day. Three hundred forty-four, or nearly 80 percent, of the
registered voters cast their ballots for incorporation. Even if
every one of the 256 registered white males had voted for
incorporation, the number would have been 44 short for incorpo-
ration as a city.47
Less than three years later, on May 10, 1899, black votes
were again used to win the county seat back from Juno by a
count of 690 to 468. The Metropolis openly acknowledged the
importance of black voters in the southern half of Dade County:

Everything went off smooth from morning until night
and all worked in harmony for the general good, and
for once the color line was obliterated and every one
of the black and tan vote counted. White men were
riding through the streets with the colored fellows,
and there was a full determination that the colored
fellow should vote just as he wished, which fortunately
was for Miami, and that his vote should be counted.48

Miami's electorate cast 403 votes in this election; 398 were for
in support of Miami as county seat.
The northern end of the county also recognized the impor-
tance of Miami's black vote. When Sheriff Chillingworth at-
tempted to prohibit blacks from voting, the newspaper construed
his action as arbitrary. The Metropolis reported that the local
election board protested the sheriffs action and ordered him not
to come within fifteen feet of the polls unless requested by the
board. Guarding the city's interest, the Metropolis criticized the
sheriff's tactics of intimidation:

As a general thing the arbitrary action of Sheriff
Chillingworth at the polls and his abusive language
when remonstrated with is thought, to say the least,
to have been unwise, and certainly uncalled for. The


only reason he might have to be in the polling place
would be to keep order if there was any disorder.
There was never a more quiet election held in the
state, and never was there a more honest election

The Metropolis also reported that, "It was known that several
colored men would not go to the polls and vote while the
Sheriff was there."50
Occasionally, the Metropolis reported more positively and
announced gatherings of city and county blacks for local cel-
ebrations, picnics, boat, and train excursions, parades, festivals,
and bicycle races.5 The newspaper also reported church news
including baptisms, concerts and services as well as the arrival
and departure of ministers." When Reverend J.M. Trammell left
Miami in June, 1898, for a six month tour through Alabama,
Louisiana, and Texas, the Missionary Baptist Church of Coconut
Grove wrote a letter to the editor praising Trammell's pastoral
service: "He has served us with dignity and ability and has
established confidence in his moral, social, and intellectual worth.
We know nothing of him but as a Christian and a gentleman.""53
Black churches and their ministers were extremely impor-
tant to black Miamians. While churches were primarily houses
of worship, they were also places where blacks found dignity
and respect. Families looked to the church to reinforce indi-
vidual worth and help instill values in their children. The churches
also held events where young people could meet and socialize.
The ministers provided guidance and leadership and acted as
spokespersons for the black community in an effort to allay the
social inequities thrust on blacks by the white community.54
Education was also reported in a positive way. The hiring
and appointing of black teachers and principals in Miami and
Dade County schools was regularly reported.55 Requests from the
area's black communities for teachers, schools, and school equip-
ment was also noted. The petition from F. Henry and others
asking for a colored school in Linton appeared with a comment
that the superintendent was ordered to investigate and report.56
Several weeks later, the newspaper reported that the super-
intendent found that the Linton black settlement had 35 people
of which 15 were between the ages of six and 21. The superin-

Black Miamians 31

tendent added that the people owned their land and that they
were willing to provide a school house at no cost to the Board.
After the report, the Board voted to hire a teacher.57 At the next
meeting, the School Board announced that the Linton School
would open on October 8, 1898.11
The Metropolis praised the communities that exhibited con-
cern for their schools and education. For example, Coconut
Grove was singled out as exceptional.

That the Coconut Grove colored school should be the
leading one of its kind in the county is scarcely to
be wondered at, when it is remembered that the
parents of the children are a wide-awake, well-be-
haved class who are realizing more and more that
knowledge means power and power money, and that
knowledge is found best in the school room.9

The Metropolis also noted, however, that this recognition
and achievement could not have been obtained without the aid
of benevolent whites: "Then, too, the white people of the Grove
have taken such an interest in them that they are encouraged
and helped in very many ways."60 In reality, scarce resources,
underpaid teachers, and harsh conditions were difficult obstacles
for blacks to overcome. In 1900, given Miami's racial attitude,
school administrators considered an elementary education suffi-
cient for blacks who were expected to perform physical labor
and little else."6
Though the Metropolis did not print stories of black resis-
tance, it sometimes indirectly revealed blacks response to per-
ceived injustices. When a coroner's inquest acquitted Frank
McClelland, a white deck foreman, in the killing of William
Clare, a black deck hand, a group of dissatisfied blacks got a
warrant issued for McClelland's arrest. At a hearing, testimony
showed "that the negro had been surly, mean, and guilty of
trying to raise a difficulty for some days."''62 Clare allegedly
threatened to throw McClelland overboard once the ship left
Key West bound for Miami. McClelland reportedly learned of
this threat and kept on his guard. During the first day out,
McClelland reprimanded Clare after McClelland gave orders to
the men to perform a job with which Clare was supposedly


unhappy. Reportedly, "Clare continued to show an ugly spirit all
day, and had made repeated threats of breaking McClelland's
neck, smashing his head, etc."63 That evening McClelland, with
three or four other black men, encountered Clare. Clare allegedly
attacked McClelland who responded by striking and killing Clare
with an iron bar.64 Upon hearing this testimony, the judge re-
leased McClelland ruling there were no further grounds for hold-
ing him.65
When Charles Peacock and Son's store and Post Office
were robbed at Coconut Grove, the Metropolis reported that,
"Two strange negroes who had been in the store during the
evening were suspected and were captured the next day."66 After
first taking the prisoners to Miami to be tried by the Circuit
Court, the authorities decided to return the suspects to Coconut
Grove for hearing before the U.S. Commissioner. That night one
of the prisoners, Mose Tate, escaped. He was reportedly seen on
Sunday morning. By Monday afternoon, however, his body was
found floating in the Miami River. An inquest was held which
rendered a verdict of accidental death by drowning.67
Not satisfied with the findings, the dead man's friends
called for a physician of their own. After examining the body,
the doctor discovered that Tate's neck was broken which fueled
suspicions that he had been lynched and later thrown into the
river. The Metropolis questioned this allegation because Tate
was seen Sunday morning. The newspaper explained the broken
neck by stating, "There is a theory that as his body was
handled very roughly in taking it from the water, as it was
drawn out with a rope around the neck and that his neck, if it
was broken, was fractured after death."68 Oddly, the authorities
released the second prisoner two days later for lack of evidence.
When the County Commissioners granted a liquor license
to a black saloon, group of neighborhood residents protested the
action. A short time later, the saloon was burned down, and Ira
Minard, a black fireman at one of the city's electric light plants,
was arrested. The saloon's owner, who was also black, testified,
"that Minard had told him repeatedly that he would burn the
building, and burn them as fast as he (the owner) could put
them up for such purpose.""69 The Metropolis reported that the
authorities considered this testimony sufficient to hold Minard

Black Miamians 33

for grand jury action.70
Though the Metropolis posted largely negative stories which
inferred that blacks had little regard for work and family, sev-
eral articles contradicted these images and acknowledged that, at
times, blacks suffered considerably. In October 1899, Key West
blacks asked for state assistance when a large number were
unemployed due to a yellow fever epidemic. "The negroes of
Key West," the Metropolis reported, "have sent out an appeal
which has the endorsement of the mayor of the city asking the
people of the state for relief as they are suffering for food and
the necessaries of life."7' When yellow fever hit Miami a month
later, Miami's unemployed blacks petitioned city authorities for
work. Both the public and private sectors took up the request
by deciding to pave Avenue B from 10th Street to the train
depot. This move, the newspaper felt, would employ about 75
men for 30 days when the city hoped to return to its normal
Once, the Metropolis published a column entitled, "Among
the Colored People," by Rev. J.M. Trammell, which provided a
rare look into Miami's black community. Trammell commented
on the community activities of local and county blacks just as
"Miami Mince Meat" did for whites. He mentioned such social
events as marriages, engagements, organizational and church ser-
vices as well as celebrations and visitations. Trammell's column
also showed that some blacks were not immune to the rhetoric
of Miami boosterism so prevalent at the time. "Now is the
time," he wrote, "for the colored people as well as the white
people to begin purchasing lots to build neat homes upon. Let
us begin now. Don't wait. Miami is bound to stand among the
leading cities of Florida.""72
It is clear that at the turn of the twentieth century, Miami's
magic was not for everyone. Although the Metropolis did not
practice the extreme racism found in some other papers, the
newspaper's coverage did reflect a strong racial bias. While it
opposed lynching as an effrontery to decency and law and order,
when Key West experienced a near lynching, it expressed no
criticism. Although at times leaning toward a paternalistic point
of view, the newspaper saw no contradiction in supporting the
deportation of blacks as a solution to the South's racial prob-
lem. The paper portrayed blacks as either happy-go-lucky or


aggressive. Yet, it also recognized the city's need for their help
in incorporating and in winning back the county seat. The
Metropolis was clearly inconsistent. From 1896 to 1900, it cov-
ered a black community concerned with its neighborhood, its
church, education, and the treatment they received from authori-
ties, while practicing the racism in the society it reflected.

Black Miamians 35


1. The city of Miami incorporated July 28, 1896. See
"Miami Already a City," Miami Metropolis, 24 July 1896, and
"Miami Incorporated," Miami Metropolis, 31 July 1896.
2. Edward Nelson Akin, Flagler: Rockefeller Partner and
Florida Baron (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1988).
Sidney W. Martin, Florida's Flagler (Athens: University of Geor-
gia Press, 1949). David Leon Chandler, Henry Flagler: The
Astonishing Life and Times of the Visionary Robber Baron Who
Founded Florida (New York: Mac Millan Publishing Company,
1986). Edward Nelson Akin, "Southern Reflection of the Glided
Age: Henry Flagler's System, 1885-1913," (Ph.D. dissertation
University of Florida, Gainesville, 1975). Paul S. George, "Crimi-
nal Justice in Miami, 1896-1930" (Ph.D. diss., Florida State
University, 1975), 1-35.
3. "Salutatory," Miami Metropolis, 15 May 1896; Miami
Metropolis, 1 April 1898; "Again We Greet You," Miami Me-
tropolis, 2 September 1898.
4. Jerrell H. Shofner, "Custom, Law and History: The
Enduring Influence of Florida's 'Black Codes'," Florida Histori-
cal Quarterly LV (January 1977): 277-98.
5. Paul S. George, "Colored Town: Miami's Black Com-
munity, 1896-1930," Florida Historical Quarterly LVI (April
1978): 432-47; "Policing Miami's Black Community, 1896-1930,"
Florida Historical Quarterly LVII (April 1979): 434-50; "Crimi-
nal Justice in Miami, 1896-1930," Chapters 7 and 8.
6. Rayford W. Logan, The Betrayal of the Negro from
Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson, enlarged edition, 4th
printing (London: Collier-MacMillan Ltd., 1969), 165-275, 371-
392. This book originally appeared as The Negro in American
Life and Thought: The Nadir, 1877-1901 in 1954.
7. "A Black Mammy," Miami Metropolis, 19 March 1897.
8. "Riot at Key West," Miami Metropolis, 2 July 1897.
9. Ibid.
10. "A Military Company Needed," Miami Metropolis, 2
July 1897.
11. "Request for Military Organization and Presence in
Reserve Form," Miami Metropolis, 2 July 1897.


12. "Separate the Races," Miami Metropolis September 1,
13. Ibid.
14. Ibid.
15. Ibid.
16. Miami Metropolis, 2 July 1897.
17. Ibid.
18. Ibid. Also, Miami Metropolis, 5 January 1900 for other
19. "Work of the Funny Fellow," Miami Metropolis, 21
May 1897.
20. Ibid.
21. Miami Metropolis, 4 December 1896.
22. Miami Metropolis, 13 October 1899. For other ex-
amples of blacks used as objects of humor in the Metropolis,
see "Compliments for One Only," 26 May 1899; "Almost a
Suicide," 26 November 1897; and the issues for 10 September
1897; 24 August 1900; and 20 April 1900.
23. "He Got It In The Neck," Miami Metropolis, 21 Au-
gust 1896; "George Grandberry's Necktie," Miami Metropolis,
28 August 1896.
24. "Geo. Grandberry's Necktie," Miami Metropolis, 28
August 1896. For other shooting incidents/deaths stemming from
gambling debts, see "Shooting at North Miami," Miami Me-
tropolis, 9 July 1897; "Duckett Gets His Man," Miami Metropo-
lis, 16 October 1896; "Caught Up Into Glory," Miami Metropo-
lis, 21 October 1898.
25. Miami Metropolis, 23 December 1898; "Another Shoot-
ing in North Miami," Miami Metropolis, 20 November 1896;
"Avery Will Probably Pull Through," Miami Metropolis, 27
November 1896.
26. Miami Metropolis, 2 September 1898, See Miami Me-
tropolis, 23 June 1899 and Miami Metropolis, 24 November
1899 for other examples.
27. "Dorsey Catches Two Bullets," Miami Metropolis, 6
October 1899 and Miami Metropolis, 13 October 1899.
28. Miami Metropolis, 24 November 1899. See "A Bad
Cutting Scrape," Miami Metropolis, 3 July 1896; "A Brutal
Murder," Miami Metropolis, 29 July 1898; Miami Metropolis, 19
February 1897; "A Negro Murdered," Miami Metropolis 19 No-

Black Miamians 37

vember 1897; "Willie Sent Up," Miami Metropolis, 27 July
1900 and Miami Metropolis, 23 October 1896 for more ex-
amples of attacks as the outgrowth of quarrels.
29. "A Serious Cutting Affray," Miami Metropolis, 28 July
30. Ibid.
31. Ibid.
32. Miami Metropolis, 4 August 1899.
33. Miami Metropolis, 20 April 1900 and Miami Metropo-
lis, 4 May 1900.
34. Miami Metropolis, 5 March 1897.
35. Ibid.
36. "Worse than Sandbagging," Miami Metropolis, 15 May
37. Ibid.
38. "Negro Killed at Snake Creek," Miami Metropolis, 2
October 1896.
39. Ibid.
40. Ibid.
41. Miami Metropolis, 28 August 1896; 9 June 1899; 25
September 1896; and 23 April 1897.
42. Miami Metropolis, 22 September 1899; 8 June 1900; 5
May 1899; 19 November 1897; 21 May 1897; 27 July 1900; 28
May 1897; and 13 October 1899.
43. Miami Metropolis, 6 November 1896.
44. "Shooting at North Miami," Miami Metropolis, 9 July 1897.
45. "Division in Churches," Miami Metropolis, 21 May 1897.
46. "Miami Already a City," Miami Metropolis, 24 July 1896.
47. "Miami Incorporated," Miami Metropolis, 31 July 1896.
48. "It is Miami's," Miami Metropolis, 12 May 1899.
49. Ibid.
50. Ibid.
51. Miami Metropolis 31 July 1896; 18 September 1896;
27 November 1896; 25 December 1896; 7 January 1898; 24
June 1898; 10 March 1899; 19 May 1899; and 27 October 1899.
52. Miami Metropolis, 19 November 1897; 3 December
1897; 27 May 1898; 30 March 1900; 14 July 1899; 18 Septem-
ber 1896, and 1 January 1897.
53. "Colored Church Compliments Its Pastor," Miami Me-
tropolis, 17 June 1898.


54. Diane Dunbar, Marcia M. Hencinski and Raymond
Morris, "A Brief History of Black Churches in Miami, 1896-
1910," in Carlos Arias, et al, eds., Blacks in Miami, 1896-1990:
African Americans and Bahamian-Americans (Miami: Department
of History, Florida International University, 1990), 33-34.
55. "Dade County Schools," Miami Metropolis, 24 June
1898; "School Board Meeting," Miami Metropolis, 6 January
1899; Miami Metropolis, 23 June 1899; "School Board Min-
utes," Miami Metropolis, 18 September 1900; "School Board
Proceedings," Miami Metropolis, 7 August 1900; "Appointments
of School Teachers," Miami Metropolis, 25 June 1897; "More
School Teachers Appointed," Miami Metropolis, 23 July 1897;
and "Monthly School Board Meeting," Miami Metropolis, 9 De-
cember 1898.
56. "Dade County Schools," Miami Metropolis, 24 June
57. "Meeting of the County School Board," Miami Me-
tropolis, 5 August 1898.
58. "Monthly Meeting of School Board," Miami Metropo-
lis, 9 September 1898.
59. "The Colored School at Coconut Grove," Miami Me-
tropolis, 28 April 1899.
60. Ibid.
61. Maria Elena Ramirez, Arthur Biconamia, and Raul J.
Lopez, "History of Miami: Report on Education circa 1900," in
Carlos Arias et al eds., Blacks in Miami, 1896-1990, 68.
62. "Wm. Clare Killed," Miami Metropolis, 27 July 1900.
63. Ibid.
64. Ibid.
65. Ibid.
66. "Robbery at Coconut Grove," Miami Metropolis, 7 Au-
gust 1896.
67. Ibid.
68. Ibid.
69. "Colored Saloon Burned," Miami Metropolis, 28 Sep-
tember 1900.
70. Ibid.
71. Miami Metropolis, 13 October 1899.
72. "Among the Colored People," Miami Metropolis, 1
January 1897.

Map Collection at University of Miami 39

The Map Collection of the Archives
and Special Collections Department,
Otto G. Richter Library,
University of Miami

by Olga Espejo Beshers

On June 1, 1978, the Archives and Special Collections
Department of the Otto G. Richter Library at the University of
Miami was established. At that time, the library already owned
several collections and materials which became part of the newly
formed department. One such collection was the Map Collection.
It is comprised of 15 individual map collections acquired through
purchase or donation including the General Collection and the
Purdy Collection, which are still being developed.
The Collection consists of more than 3,000 maps, charts,
plans, and views including government publications and others
that have been originally published either separately or in books
and atlases and later removed by booksellers and sold individu-
ally. Along with the original maps, the collection includes blue-
prints, blue line maps, facsimile reprints and photostat maps
reproduced from originals located in the Library of Congress,
the British Museum and other libraries and museums throughout
the world.
The holdings cover nearly all areas of the world, with an
emphasis on what was then termed "the New World," especially
Florida, the Caribbean, Latin America, and the United States.
The period covered is from the sixteenth to the twentieth centu-
ries, and includes works of famous cartographers such as Sanson,
Jefferys, Mitchell, Tanner, Moll, Kitchin, and Blaeu. Subjects
include history, vegetation, meteorology, and roads, among oth-
ers, making this a valuable and extensive research collection,
ideal for historians, geographers, cartographers, Latin Americanists,
Floridiana specialists and others. Many are beautifully printed


maps with artistically decorated cartouches, detail, design, and
color-especially in some of the earlier works-giving them the
added dimension of true art pieces. The following synopsis of
the individual map collections provides a general overview.

The General Collection

This collection consists of more than 1,000 maps covering
a wide range of countries, primarily focusing on Florida, the
Caribbean, and Latin America. The Florida maps document all
areas of the state, with an emphasis on Miami, Miami Beach,
and Coral Gables. They cover a variety of subjects, including
vegetation, population, soil, fishing, county borders and other
topics. The Caribbean area is represented mostly by maps and
views of Cuba, numbering over 100.
The maps in this collection have been acquired through
purchases or donations. Examples of some of the more notable
maps include: "The Atlantic Coastal Highway," circa 1930, by
the Advertising Board of the Norfolk-Portsmouth Chamber of
Commerce, and covering New York to Jacksonville with an
inset of Florida and its highways; "A Map of South America
According to the Best Authorities," by C. Dilly & G. Robinson,
London, 1785; "Carte de La Terre Firme du Perou, du Bresil et
du Pays des Amazones . .," by Guillaume De l'Isle, Paris,
1703; "Le Bresil, don't la Coste est possedee par les Portugais et
divisee en Quatorze Capitanieries," by N. Sanson d'Abbeville,
Paris, 1656; "Carte reduite de L'Isle de Cube . .," by Bellin,
1762; the eighteenth century "Nouvelle Carte Marine de toute
Les Cotes de l'Amerique Montrant routes les Isles Bayes et
Rivieres . .," by Gerard van Keulen; and the recently donated
sixteenth century map, "Novae Insulae," by Sebastian Munster.

The Boyd Collection

Mark F. Boyd was a medical doctor who conducted exten-
sive research in the area of tropical medicine. He was also
interested in Florida history, especially in the Spanish settle-

Map Collection at University of Miami 41

I- -- ------- -- - -

At -r



i, w
i i

Map of Florida by H.S. Tanner improved
to 1825, from the Boyd Collection.

ments and Native Ameri-
can groups. After retire-
ment, Dr. Boyd contin-
ued to pursue his inter-
est in history, dedicat-
ing most of his time to
the study, research, and
writing of Florida his-
tory and to the acquisi-
tion of maps and mate-
rial to support these re-
search endeavors.
The library pur-
chased Boyd's personal
library which included
books, pamphlets, prints,
and more than 1,200
maps and charts. He
also bequeathed a num-
ber of other materials to
the library. The breadth
and depth of the col-

election reflect Boyd's interest in Florida history, early settle-
ments and discovery. Some of the maps are photostats of origi-
nals in the Archivo de Indias in Seville, Spain, the Library of
Congress in Washington, D.C., and from other sources. Among
the maps in this collection are surveys executed by the U.S.
Coast and Geodetic Survey which documented different areas of
the Florida peninsula, including the 1890 "St. Johns River from
its Entrance to Jacksonville, Florida," and the 1857 "Preliminary
Chart of the Entrance to Pensacola Bay, Florida." The Collec-
tion also contains several plans of forts built throughout Florida
such as a "Sketch of Fort Pickens, Florida," by Lt. Langdon,
1861; "Plano del Fuerte de Sn. Marcos de Apalache" by Juan
Maria Perchet, 1794; "Plan and Section of the Upper and Lower
Batteries Laid Out and Begun Building 5th March 1771, for
Protecting the Harbour of Pensacola," circa 1763. Other notable
holdings include William Faden's "A Chart of the Gulf of
Florida or New Bahama Channel Commonly Called the Gulf



I. C




Passage, Between Florida, the Isle of Cuba, & the Bahama
Islands," 1794; "Map of Florida," by H.S. Tanner, Philadelphia,
circa 1825; and "Phelps & Watson's Historical and Military
Map of the Border & Southern States," published by Phelps &
Watson in New York, 1864. The collection contains also many
state road maps and "working maps," which refer to maps
personally annotated by Boyd for research purposes.

The Roney Collection

N.B.T. Roney moved to Florida in 1918, and settled in
Miami Beach where he acquired extensive real estate holdings.
One of his most important holdings was the Roney Plaza Hotel
on Collins Ave., considered among the best hotels in the area.
In 1950, Roney donated 28 pre-twentieth century maps to
the library. With the exception of one, all are of the West
Indies or Florida, and include works by famous cartographers
Tit: I A GI 14.kAk'HII A MEXIC( L OR l.U WS k1 A


From the Roney Collection, Carte du Mexique et de la Floride des terres
Angloises et des Isles Antilles..., par Guillaume de l'lsle, Amsterdam,
Covens & Mortier, 1722.

Map Collection at University of Miami 43

such as Blaeu, Sanson, Popple, and Homanno. Some of the
more important pieces are: "A Map of the British Empire in
North America," by Samuel Dunn, London: printed for R. Sayer,
1774; "A New Map of the West India Isles, from the latest
authorities," by John Cary, London 1803; "North America from
the French of Mr. d'Anville, improved with the English Surveys
made since the Peace," London, printed for Robert Sayer & J.
Bennett, 1775; "Carte du Mexique et de la Floride des terres
Angloises et des Isles Antilles . .," par Guillaume de l'Isle,
Amsterdam, Covens & Mortier, 1722; and "A Map of the West-
Indies or the Islands of America in the North Sea With Ye
Adjacent Countries . According to Ye Newest and Most
Exact Observations," by Herman Moll, [London, 1715].

The Karpinski Collection

Dr. Louis C. Karpinski was a professor of mathematics at
the University of Michigan and author of several books and
articles including, Mapping of the Mississippi Valley and Bibli-
ography of the Printed Maps of Michigan.
The Karpinski collection, donated in 1952, consists of 42
maps. It focuses on the Eastern part of the United States,
Florida, and Latin America with most of the maps pre-dating
the twentieth century. Maps in the collection include: "Carte du
Golphe du Mexique et des isles Antilles, reduite de la grande
carte angloise de Popple" by Ph. Buache, Paris, 1780; "Chart of
the West Indies and Spanish dominions in North America," by
A. Arrowsmith, London, 1803; "Preliminary chart of Florida
Reefs from Key Biscayne to Pickles Reef," from a trigonometri-
cal survey under the direction of A.D. Bache, Superintendent of
the survey of the coast of the United States, 1856; and a
manuscript map of Key Biscayne, surveyed in the month of
February 1847 by John Jackson.

The Wilgus Collection

A. Curtis Wilgus was a professor of Latin American His-
tory at the University of Florida where he organized and di-


rected the School of Inter-American Studies. Prior to moving to
Florida, he taught at the University of South Carolina and at
George Washington University. Wilgus authored many books
and articles on Latin America and was appointed by President
John F. Kennedy to the board of foreign scholarships as coordi-
nator in the Office of Inter-American Affairs.
This collection of 215 maps, donated by Wilgus, includes
works of famous French, Dutch, and English cartographers cov-
ering the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Subjects include
national resources, roads, economic conditions, archaeological sites,
physical features, and many others. Among the maps included in
this collection are: "A Draught of the Harbours of Port Royal
and Kingston, in Jamaica with the Fortifications Correctly Laid
Down, Also All the Keys and Shoals Adjacent," London: J.
Bew, 1782; "Pan American Highway System, Routes Actual and
Projected," compiled from the latest official data furnished to
the Pan American Highway Confederation, Washington, D.C.,
1940; "The Pan American Railway Transportation Routes by
Railway, River and Ocean," drawn by G.F. Pohlers, Washington,
D.C. 1910 (Senate Doc. no. 744; 61st Cong. 3d Sess.); and
"Fortune's Map of South America in Globular Perspective," 1937.

The Eder Collection

Phanor James Eder, a well known international attorney,
donated a large number of books, pamphlets, personal papers,
magazine articles, and maps to the library in 1960. His family
had settled in the Cauca Valley, Colombia, and Eder was born
in Palmira in 1880. After graduation from Harvard Law School,
Eder specialized in international law with a special interest in
Latin America. He was author and translator of books and
articles dealing principally with legal and financial matters.
Eder's interests are reflected in his collection of 59 maps
which focus primarily on Latin American subjects such as a
plan of the city of Cali, a map published in 1857 representing
the line of the Panama railroad, and several maps depicting
grain and cattle production in Mexico and Central America.
Specific maps include: "Terra Firma et novum regnum Granatense

Map Collection at University of Miami 45

et Popayan," by Arnoldus Montanus, Amsterdam, 1671; "Insvlae
Americanae in Oceano Septentrionali cum Terris adiacentibus,"
by Blaeu, [Amsterdam, 1644]; and "Mapa del Departamento de
Antioquia, Republica de Colombia ...," Washington, Norris Pe-
ters Photo-Litho, 1900.

The Willson Collection

The Minnie Moore-Willson Collection was purchased from
the Elizabeth Aultman Cantrell Historical Museum in Kissimmee,
Florida. Willson and her husband, James Mallory Willson, who
was in real estate, were strong advocates of the Seminole Indi-
ans. Their support proved instrumental in the passage of the act
by the Florida Legislature in 1913, allocating land in southern
Florida for the use of the Seminoles. A long-time resident of
Kissimmee, Willson was active in the Audubon Society of
Kissimmee, the Kissimmee Women's Club, and the Friends of
the Florida Seminoles. She also wrote several books dealing
with the Seminoles including The Seminoles of Florida and
Osceola: Florida's Seminole War Chieftain.
The 186 maps in this collection are either manuscript or
published twentieth century maps primarily covering Florida and
the Kissimmee area. Among the collection are "Rand, McNally
& Co.'s Florida," Chicago: Rand, McNally & Co., 1883; "A
New Sectional Map of Florida," issued by the Department of
Agriculture, 1912; and "City of Kissimmee, Fla.," J.M. Willson
Jr. Real Estate and Insurance, five-acre farms in Kissimmee
Gardens, circa 1909.

The Purdy Collection

The late Helen C. Purdy, professor emeritus and former
head of the Archives and Special Collections Department, do-
nated different kinds of library material, which enhance the
strengths within the department. After her retirement in 1991,
Purdy started the map collection comprised at this time of five
pre-twentieth century maps which cover Florida and the West


p Ix

Port et Barre d'Amelia de la Floride
Orientale, by Jacob Blarney, Paris, 1778.
From the Purdy Collection.

founder of the famous van Keulen firm
makers which for over two centuries

Indies. The first dona-
tion was an eighteenth
century map published in
Amsterdam by Pierre
Mortier: "Le Golfe de
Mexique, et les Isles
Voisine . ." This was
followed by "Port et
Barre d'Amelia de la
Floride Orientale" by
Jacob Blarney, 1778;
"Plan de l'ile d'Amelia
a la c6te de la Floride
Orientale, tire de la carte
de la Georgie et de la
Caroline meridionale de
De Brahm . .," 1779;
"Pas kaart vande zuyd
kust van Cuba en van
geheel Yamaica .,"
published in Amster-
dam, circa 1695, by
Johannes van Keulen,
of Dutch map and chart
was one of the most

prestigious in Europe; and the Seller and Price chart: "Bahama
and Windward Passage," published in London in the eighteenth
Purdy established a foundation which will provide funds to
the department for the acquisition of a variety of materials,
including maps principally related to Florida.

The Tebeau Collection

Dr. Charlton W. Tebeau served 32 years as a professor of
history at the University of Miami, and 23 of those as chairman
of the History Department. He was one of the organizers of the
Historical Association of Southern Florida and editor of its jour-
nal, Tequesta, for many years. In 1990, the Charlton W. Tebeau

Map Collection at University of Miami 47

Chair in American History was established at the university in
his honor.
Tebeau has been a generous donor and supporter of the
library, and was instrumental in the acquisition of the Boyd
Collection. Most of the 12 items in the Tebeau Collection are
of Florida. They include: "Boundary Map, Big Cypress National
Fresh Water Reserve, Florida," [19-?]; "Florida," New York:
J.H. Colton & Co., 1855; and four photostat negatives of "Fort
Taylor, Advanced Towers, Key West Island, Plans, Sections,
Elevations & Details of Towers No. 1 & No. 2," 1863.

The Stoneman Douglas Collection

Marjory Stoneman Douglas has campaigned for many years
for the preservation and conservation of the Florida Everglades.
Her book, The Everglades River of Grass, published in 1947, is
a landmark volume. Douglas founded the Friends of the Library
and has close ties with the Friends of the Everglades, an organi-
zation working to promote public awareness and to gain state
support toward the preservation of the Everglades. Florida named
its Department of Natural Resources Building after Mrs. Douglas
several years ago.
Over the years Douglas has donated a number of materials
to the Library including personal papers. Most of the 19 maps
in this collection are of Florida and cover various subjects.
Among them are: "The Everglades Conservation Areas," by the
South Florida Water Management District, 1977; "Vegetation
map of Southern Florida," by John H. Davis Jr., 1943; "Map of
Florida," by J. Lee Williams, New York, lithographed by Greene
& McGowran, 1837; and "Central and Southern Florida Flood
Control Project," 1966 (D.O. file no. 400-24,979).

The Kelleher Collection

Joseph A. Kelleher donated a large number of items, in-
cluding books, promotional materials, and 148 maps in 1964. He
also made generous cash donations to the library for the purpose


of purchasing books and materials. Kelleher was a land devel-
oper and entrepreneur who owned large real estate holdings in
Florida and the Bahamas.
Most of the pieces in this collection are of Florida and the
Bahamas, and include a number of real estate development maps.
The following are some of the maps in this collection: "Springs
of Florida, map of Florida showing locations of selected springs,"
by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida
Geological Survey, Williams & Heintz Co., Washington, D.C.,
1940 ed. reprinted 1944; "Map of the Everglades Drainage Dis-
trict of Florida," West Palm Beach, Fla., 1948; "Apalachee Bay,
United States-Gulf Coast, Florida," hydrography and topography
by the Coast and Geodetic Survey, with additions and revisions
from the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 1952;
and "Florida Intracoastal Waterway, Miami to Elliott Key," hy-
drography and topography by the Coast and Geodetic Survey
with additions & revisions from the Corps of Engineers, U.S.
Dept. of Commerce, 1949.

The Spencer Collection

George S. Spencer, one time owner of an antiquarian book
shop in the Miami area, donated 17 maps to the library in
The maps in this collection are of Mexico, Central America,
South America, the West Indies, and the United States. Among
them are the following maps: "Colton's Central America," New
York: Johnson & Browning, 1855; "An Accurate Map of the
West Indies with the adjacent Coast of America," by J. Russell,
London: H.D. Symonds, 1794; "Johnson's Georgia and Ala-
bama," New York: Johnson and Ward, 1863; and "Colton's
Mexico," New York: Johnson & Browning, 1854.

The Levandowsky Collection

In 1987 Daniel Levandowsky donated a number of maps,
magazines, newspapers, posters, and pamphlets to the library,

Map Collection at University of Miami 49

largely collected by Levandowsky while living abroad.
This collection of 60 maps covers Africa, Asia, Mexico,
Central America, South America, and the Caribbean and such
subjects as meteorology, roads, city plans, aeronautical maps,
and many more. Notable maps include: "Carta General de la
Ciudad de Mexico," P.A.C.A.L., 1944; "Republique Islamique de
Mauritaine," 1977; "Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire," le service
geographique de I'A.O.F., 1938; "Carte des plantations d'Heveas,
1953;" and "Honduras, Regional Aeronautical Chart," U.S. Coast
and Geodetic Survey, 1942.

The Axelson Collection

Ivar Julius Axelson was an economist and teacher who
with his wife, Mary, moved to Florida, where they opened a
land office to sell acreage to the public. Mary McDougal Axelson
wrote poems, novels, articles, short stories, and plays, one of
which was made into a film.
This collection of 48 maps focusing on Florida was do-
nated in 1974, along with personal papers, correspondence and
miscellaneous items. It contains surveys of Dade and Monroe
counties, maps of the gulf coast and such items as: "Special
Road & Bridge District No. 1," Dade County and Cape Sable
District, Monroe County, compiled by P. Livingston, 1920; a
series of aerial photographic surveys of the Everglades area,
Florida, flown by Aero Service Corp. in 1940 for the U.S.
Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service; and aerial photo
surveys of Monroe County, Florida, flown by Park Aerial Sur-
veys in 1953 also for the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.

The Sanz Collection

Carlos Sanz was the author of several articles and books
dealing with cartography and the discovery of the new world, El
nombre de America, libros y mapas que lo impusieron being an
important contribution to this subject.
Sanz donated a number of books and this collection of 19


reproductions of maps and charts originally published between
1482 and 1598 by well known cartographers such as Mercator,
Juan de la Cosa, Contarini, and Ptolemy. These maps form part
of 50 items reproduced and published, with a commentary, by
Sanz in his two volume work entitled: Mapas antiguos del
mundo (siglos XV-XVI), published in Madrid in 1962.
In this work Sanz gives extensive information on the origi-
nals such as size, distinct peculiarities, particular history, loca-
tion, ownership, and background on the cartographers. Among
the reproductions are: "Orbis universalis description" by Robert
Thorne [1527], and "Americae sive nobi orbis" by Hernando de
Solis, [Valladolid, 1598].

Further Reading

M.H.S. "Special Collections of the Richter Library." The
Carrell 3, no. 1 (June 1962): 21-22.
Morgan, Charles L. "Accent on Area and Maker in Univer-
sity Map Collecting." The Carrell 2, no. 2 (December 1961):
Selle, Mildred H. "The Eder Collection." The Carrell 1,
no. 1 (June 1960): 9-12.
Tebeau, Charlton W. "Dr. Mark F. Boyd and Florida His-
torical Writing." The Carrell 2, no. 2 (December 1961): 13-19.

Pioneering in Suburbia 51

Pioneering in Suburbia

by Nixon Smiley

Friends and Visitors

I have regretted that we failed to keep a log of visitors at
Montgomery Drive. Many interesting people crossed our thresh-
old. It was the most active period of our lives, while I was
variously a reporter, farm and garden editor, feature writer, and
columnist for The Miami Herald, and for seven years, from
1956 until 1963, director of the Fairchild Tropical Garden.
Many of the people who visited us are dead: David and
Marian Fairchild, Gilbert and Elsie Grosvenor, Robert H. Mont-
gomery, William Lyman Phillips, John and Phyllis Storey, Isabelle
Krome, Philip Wylie, Steve and Dorothy Flynn, Thomas Brown
McClelland, Francisco (Chico) de Sola, John Goggin, Dan Beard,
Steve and Jane Trumbull, Ray Sheehan, Miriam Jones, George
Cooper, Sr., Rollin Rogers, Stan and Martha Wayman, Betty
Garnet, Harry James Smiley, Theodore Pratt, Harold E. Moore,
Jr., Doug Kennedy, William and Christine Robbins, Marguerite
Goggin, George H.M. Lawrence, Otto Churney, Lee and Mimi
Adams, Marston Bates, Don Correll, Bill Stapleton, Tom Thurs-
day, H.F. (Loo) Loomis, John and Irene Pennekamp, Mary George
Shaver, William Muir, Charlie Brown, Bob King, Vivian Clem-
ent, Dick Dijkman, Robert Swink, Harry Bralove, Phil De Graff,
Johnny Lynch, Jerry Bronstein, Kermit Gates, Bill Hutton,
Frederick Zaugg, Jack Bellows, Mack and Isabel Foster, Onie
Craig, Francis Lincoln, Jimmy Morris, Charlie Ward, Paul and
Dorothy Allen, John T. Bills, Casper Williams, Jack Corbin,

This article is the third part of the late Nixon Smiley's memoirs.
Part II is in the 1991 Tequesta, and Part I in the 1990 edition.


Marion Collier, John Denson, Melvin Andrews, Arthur Himbert,
Irma Bachelor, Alice Forbes Hawkes, Loxley Arch, Ned and
Marian Aitchison, John Reish, Luther Voltz, Irene Kirkland,
Stanley Fredriesky, Ralph and Happy Humes, Ray Ward, George
D. Ruehle, John Wesley, Gerard and Athene Pitt, Russell
Pancoast, Marie Anderson (Sr.), Henry Reno, Emil A. Roure,
Fred Shaw, Dorothy Muskat, Leonard Brass, Hoyt Frazure, Paul
and Betty Popenoe, Thomas (Scotty) Campbell, Annie Laurie
Beall, Mike and Camille Ross, Mae Kerry, Paul and Doris
Reno, Fred and Louise Fuchs, Sr., Bob and Charlotte Ross,
Wilson and Helen Popenoe, Larry and Penny Thompson, Gene
Otto, Adolph Jordahn, Jena and Denise Lowry, Ralph and Harriet
Wadsnorth, McGregor Smith, Sr., Bob and Aldine Spicer, Bob
Lettino, Jack Kassewitz, Ira J. Condit, Oliver Griswold, Catherine
Wilson, Leicester Hemingway, Jim Dance, Belle Scheffel, Martin
Zimmerman, Ann Wells, Harry Deutchbein, Robert Teitze, Eola
Seemann, Russel and Dallas Lee Havighorst, Dickie Knowles,
Dorothy Morris, Bob East, Everett Clay, Chick Waltman, Lelo
Muller, Dent Smith, F.B. "Bee" Tippins, Helen Dopson, Mary
Phillips, Dick Knight, Maria Adams, Henry Field, Dorothy
Galbreath, Gene Plowden, Helen Dopson, Yiannis Antoniadis,
Grace Bohne, Sara Manz, Eleanor Rogers, Wilson McGee, John
Caldwell, Douglas Barnes, Ruth Self, Bill Kuenzel, Charlie
Brookfield, Charlie Fernandez, Charlie Baker, Catherine Kelly
and Norbert Hansen.
Their fond memories linger, the only comfort we mortals
can offer the dead-we the temporary survivors.
Despite our failure to keep a log of visitors, we have no
trouble remembering those who came to help me mark my
fortieth birthday. In the middle of the afternoon on Sunday,
August 19, 1951, we saw a familiar car following the winding
driveway through the pines and palmettos from Montgomery
Drive. In it were George and Helen Beebe, Steve and Jane
Trumbull. We had been in our new house just a little longer
than a month.
As it turned out, this was a surprise party arranged by
Evelyn, Jane and Helen. I had marked my fortieth birthday that
Friday, and now, as I look back, it was the most difficult
birthday of my life. Up to that time I had accomplished very

Pioneering in Suburbia 53

little. My newspaper writing was mediocre, and I seemed to be
making no noticeable improvement. I feared I might have reached
the highest level of success I was to enjoy, and consequently
the future prospects for myself and for my family seemed bleak
George Beebe, who had just succeeded Lee Hills as man-
aging editor of The Herald, and who was my boss, got out of
the car carrying a fifth of bourbon. Trumbull followed with a
case of cold beer. The women carried boxes of food. And so
began our first party at Montgomery Drive, one we would not
forget, for we had a great time, drinking and eating and laugh-
ing at each other's stories. Only once did the party threaten to
get out of hand.
Karl and I had started digging a pond at the bottom of the
swale, scattering the spoil about a rocky area near the house
where we intended to plant grass. I recently had bought a dozen
sticks of dynamite that I was using to blow out stumps and to
dig holes in limestone for planting trees. Trumbull, who liked
big noises-especially after he'd had a few drinks-suggested
we tie half a dozen dynamite sticks together, sink them a couple
of feet underground where we wanted the pond and explode
them. Presto, we would have a pond.
"We'll make a hell of a hole-and one hell of a noise,"
said Trumbull. "Let's do it."
"It'll blow the dirt to hell and gone-and we'll have the
neighbors calling the police," I replied, refusing to go along.
If I had agreed, Trumbull would have set off the dynamite,
which would have jarred the neighborhood like the explosion of
a hundred-pound bomb. Our shaken neighbors would have called
the sheriff's office, and we would have faced possible arrest for
disturbing the peace-and possibly for property destruction. Al-
though Trumbull was aware of this, he thought the superlative
event would more than justify the risk. We settled for a quieter
celebration. My birthday didn't rate that kind of bang.
Among the fondest recollections of our early years at Mont-
gomery Drive were the visits of David and Marian Fairchild.
We had been unable to get a telephone, but the Fairchilds were
not people who telephoned before visiting anyway, believing that
in the afternoon after a certain hour your house should be open,


as was the Kampong. On a Saturday or Sunday afternoon, one
of us would look up to see a gray Ford coming up the drive-
way among the pines and palmettos. Marian always drove. I
don't recall ever seeing Fairchild behind a steering wheel. The
white-haired plantsman would slip from the car seat, steadying
himself by holding onto a shoulder-high staff as he looked
"What have you planted since we were here last?" he
would ask, or "What are you planting now?"
I believe Fairchild enjoyed catching us in our work clothes
and busy with some outdoors activity, something he could in-
spect and comment on. After a short stroll we would go into
the house. Although Evelyn sought to guide him to a comfort-
able chair, he always preferred a broad-bottomed straight chair.
He would sit upright, resting his arms and hands on the chair
arms. After his death, I introduced visitors to it as the "David
Fairchild Chair." After several years I noted, with dismay that
many visitors, newcomers to Florida, had never heard of David
I have wished many times that I had foresight to make
notes immediately after the Fairchild's visits, but I began taking
notes only after I started writing a column and was in constant
need of material. After Fairchild's death, Marian continued to
visit us. I was always attentive and eager to catch anything that
I could make a note of for some future use.
David Fairchild was always admonishing people to grow
plants as a hobby. "Plants never talk back to you," he said.
The implication was that plants, although living things,
were totally passive and never put your ego at a disadvantage. I
used to marvel at Fairchild saying a thing like that, because he
was himself so extroverted. He loved having people around him.
I don't recall ever seeing him at any gathering where he wasn't
a center of attention. Like John Gifford, he used to lecture me
whenever I called on him, especially if I found him in his
potting shed, planting seeds or potting plants to distribute to
anybody who would accept them with appreciation and promise
to grow them.
Perhaps he wanted to make a disciple of me-somebody to
follow in his footsteps. He seemed to sense that, despite my

Pioneering in Suburbia 55

age, I was still impressionable in a world that I sought to know
better and which I wanted to write about in a knowledgeable,
vivid and emotional way. Toward the end of his life Fairchild
worried to think that his days were nearly over, and he wanted
to impart to me a little of what he had learned in a lifetime of
observation and experience, inspiring me to look about myself
with curiosity and perception, exercising to the fullest my senses
of sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste. To enhance the quality
of his sight, he carried a ten-power pocket lens. He gave count-
less numbers of these lenses away, particularly to children. One
day I dropped by his study to see him after I had written an
article that pleased him. As a compliment he pulled out a
drawer of his desk and handed me a long-used lens.

L to R: Harold F. Loomis, Wilson Popenoe, Robert H. Montgomery and
David Fairchild, major supporters of Fairchild Tropical Garden showing
the Thomas Barbour Medal for "vision and unselfish devotion to the
preservation of that vanishing Eden, South Florida," and the Robert H.
Montgomery Medal, "for distinguished achievement in the world of
palms and cycads." Montgomery and Fairchild were awarded the Barbour
Medal in 1948.


"Always carry this with you," he said. "It will help you to
I carried the lens for several years after Fairchild's death.
Then one day I left it at home. That day burglars broke into
our house, and the lens was one of the many irreplaceable
valuables taken.
Marian was approaching 80 when her children convinced
her she should give up driving. After that she visited us with
the Grosvenors-Dr. Gilbert Grosvenor, editor of National Geo-
graphic, and his wife Elsie, Marian's sister. I remember one
Saturday afternoon, we saw a Cadillac creeping up the driveway
toward the house. Sitting beside the uniformed chauffeur was
Dr. Grosvenor, while in the back seat were the sisters-daugh-
ters of Alexander Graham Bell. Grosvenor and the Bell sisters
had been out for a drive and they decided to drop in. Grosvenor
was apologetic for the informality of the call. Very proper and
tending to be formal, he would never have dropped in without
telephoning ahead. But not the Bell sisters. They made no
apology nor did they care if we were not dressed to receive
them as might have been demanded by their reputation, age and
dignity. They came in, took the seats offered them on the
breezeway and made themselves very much at home.
Would they have a drink? Yes, thank you. Bourbon and
water. But nothing for Grosvenor, a teetotaler. From the kitchen,
where I went to prepare the drinks, I could hear the voices and
the laughter of the sisters. But if Grosvenor spoke, his voice
was lost in the distance. We sat and drank and talked, and the
sun was going down and our glasses were getting dry. The
sisters decided that one could hardly fly on one wing. Although
the idea was not original, it brought some laughter and got
quick action from the host, much to the concern of Grosvenor.
He felt they were imposing on Evelyn and me. He complained
to Mrs. Grosvenor that Evelyn might want to start supper or
that we might be planning to go out.
"Well, Evelyn's an honest person," said Elsie. "She'll tell
us to go if she must-and we'll depart gracefully."
Although she spoke with a certain firmness, there was a
tone of kindliness in her voice that seemed to put her nervous
husband at ease. He sat perfectly relaxed while the women

Pioneering in Suburbia 57

finished a second drink. By the time they were ready to go, he
had gotten into a talkative mood himself. I had asked him a
question about National Geographic: What was the circulation
of the magazine in 1899, the year Alexander Graham Bell, its
founder, turned the magazine over to him to edit?
"The first printing I took to the post office in my arms,"
he replied, "and that was no very great task."
"Gilbert, we must go," said Elsie, rising.
The famous editor shut off his conversation and got to his
"As you say, Elsie," he said, "but I could talk a little
As the sisters grew older, they took fewer drives into the
countryside until the trips stopped altogether. Marian Fairchild
died in 1962, surviving Dr. Fairchild by eight years. Elsie
Grosvenor followed her sister two years later. Dr. Grosvenor
survived his wife but a year. "His death was no surprise to
those who had known him," I wrote in his obituary, "for it was
not expected that he would long survive his wife Elsie."
Although Colonel Montgomery and Nell visited us at Mont-
gomery Drive, I can't remember any occasion when they came
together. Evelyn does, but she has been unable to mention
anything that strikes a familiar chord in my memory. I remem-
ber too clearly one time when Evelyn and I were invited to
lunch at the Montgomery home. It was a sunny spring day, and
we were to eat on the patio beneath a large banyan tree. Nell
and Evelyn were in the kitchen, helping the servants prepare
lunch. Colonel Montgomery and I waited in the patio, enjoying
the scenery and the extraordinarily fine weather that has made
Miami famous. Montgomery was not one to go out of his way
to keep a conversation going, and I, although no great hand at
making conversation myself, thought I should try.
"That rooster," I said, referring to a proud bronze cock that
stood on a pedestal on the edge of the patio, "seems to be
standing watch."
"Ralph Humes did that," said Montgomery. Humes was
noted for his animal sculpture. "Do you like it?"
"Yes, very much," I replied.
"What would you pay for that rooster?"


"What would I pay?" I was caught by surprise. At that
time I would have been hard pressed to raise 10 dollars to pay
for anything. When I did not reply immediately-I was trying
to think of an appropriate answer-Montgomery added:
"Would you pay 25 dollars?"
That was a lot of money to me in the early 1950s. "No," I
replied too honestly, "I don't think I could afford to pay that
"Nell paid five hundred," he said with a dry chuckle that
was characteristic of him.
A moment later Nell came out of the house accompanied
by a servant, and they began setting the glass-topped table
where we were to dine.
"Nell," said the Colonel, chuckling dryly again. "Nixon
says he wouldn't pay 25 dollars for Ralph Hume's rooster."
I was flabbergasted. Nell looked at me with a mixture of
surprise and (I thought) disapproval. Perhaps the way I looked
at that moment, with the agonizing pain of embarrassment spread
over my face, had something to do with the way Nell re-
sponded. I have never forgotten that moment.
It was typical of Colonel Montgomery's sense of humor,
He didn't care how much his wife had paid for Ralph Hume's
rooster. But he probably thought she had been "taken" and
wanted to kid her. Nell, who understood him, held nothing
against me for my stupid remark; she knew that her husband
had thrown out the bait and I had swallowed hook, line and
Around five o'clock Evelyn, Karl, and I drove into our
place from a trip to Homestead. A note addressed was stuck in
the kitchen door, which all our friends knew was the entrance
we used most.
"Colonel Montgomery died this afternoon," I read aloud.
"Nell hopes you will write the obituary.-Dickie Knowles."
Mrs. Knowles, the widow of a one time prominent Coco-
nut Grove physician, was a close friend of the Montgomerys.
Three years after Nell lost the Colonel, she married Alvin
R. Jennings who likewise had lost his spouse. Al had an impor-
tant position with Lybrand, Ross Bros. & Montgomery, now
Coopers & Lybrand, in which he soon rose to head. He and

Pioneering in Suburbia 59

Nell lived at Llewellyn Park, West Orange, New Jersey. They
came to Miami only on vacation, and Nell flew down for
meetings of the Fairchild Tropical Garden's board of trustees.
While the large Montgomery estate was maintained, the house
was closed and shuttered much of this period. It was during the
winters that Nell missed Florida most. Here is an excerpt from
a letter she wrote to us one Christmas.
"From where I am sitting I can look out the window
where everything is buried beneath the snow-and the storm is
still raging. How I long this morning to be back in sunny
Florida, among the tropical trees and palms. With all this snow
and cold weather, it doesn't seem at all like Christmas. . ."
Despite a long acquaintance with Nell, I have found her to
be one of the most difficult of all the persons I have known to
put on paper. It's too easy to write superficially of her viva-
cious and boundless energy. Although Nell generates countless
ideas while pursuing a project-some of them perhaps outlandish

L to R: Nixon and Evelyn Smiley, Al and Nell Jennings, at the Fairchild
Tropical Gardens 40th birthday celebration, 1978.


to others-she has a knack of discarding all but the best when
she's ready to make a final decision. I've thought that she
throws out ideas just to see what the reaction will be, perhaps
to shock others into thinking. After many years of living with
her, Al shakes his head in wonder. "I'm amazed," is about all
he can say,
I once tried to gain a better understanding of Nell by
talking with her mother, Isabel Foster. I learned that Nell was
graduated from Miami Senior High School and attended Sullins
College in Bristol, Virginia, for two years. (It had not occurred
to me that Nell ever attended school. What would they have
taught her?)
"Nell was bright in school," said her mother. "She always
had intelligence and understanding above her age. She won
awards in most of the contests she entered."
At Bristol her essay on the best way to raise money to
build a hospital won top prize.
"Nell's been trying to finance something ever since," said
During the Florida land boom of the 1920s, Nell went into
the real estate business and made money, but it was mostly on
"After the boom Nell had nothing but a new Chrysler.
We really had hard times for awhile. But Nell was never one to
get discouraged. If someone gave us a big fish, Nell would say,
'Let's invite somebody.' And we would invite two or three
friends although we might not know where the next meal was
coming from."
Nell had lots of friends, and she was always nice to
people. "After she grew up, Nell liked to give parties and to
attend other people's parties. If she saw people not having a
good time she took charge, introduced them around and tried to
make them feel at home even if it was not her own house. She
wanted everybody to be happy. Nell was quick to say yes when
she was asked to help somebody-too quick, I've always thought.
But she's kind-hearted. She could never say no. I'm not that
way. I say I'll think it over; I'll let you know."
Isabel could not remember ever seeing Nell relaxed.
"She was always driving. In school she was always a

Pioneering in Suburbia 61

leader. She led all other kids in selling tickets. She had a lot of
enthusiasm for whatever she was doing. Nell could sell milk to
a cow."
Nell's drive and selling ability have had enormous influ-
ence in the development of the Fairchild Tropical Garden-and,
I must add, she has greatly influenced the lives of my family.
Colonel Montgomery, founder of the Fairchild Tropical Gar-
den, died in 1953. The next year Dr. Fairchild died. Because no
one dared to step forward to fill the shoes of these men, the
garden plunged into a crisis. Just before his death, Montgomery
arranged to employ the garden's first paid director, Paul Allen.
Allen was a botanist who had been superbly trained at the
Missouri Botanical Garden and who had spent several years
working with tropical plants in Central America and Panama.
Nell went to Arthur Vining Davis, chairman of the Aluminum
Company of America, and convinced him to build a fine con-
temporary house. It was designed by Russell Pancoast. But the
botanical garden's finances were in poor shape, and none of its
wealthy trustees felt like putting up the funds to continue its
development in the way Montgomery had done.
Colonel Montgomery had enjoyed a sizeable income from
two professional firms-his law firm, with offices in New York
and Washington, and his auditing firm, which was international
in scope. Knowing that after his death his income would stop,
Montgomery left only $25,000 to the Fairchild garden. This,
together with other gifts the garden had received earlier, gave it
an endowment of under $200,000. Income from this fund was
insufficient to cover the garden's operating expenses, so it de-
pended on dues in the Fairchild Tropical Garden Association,
the sale of surplus plants, and on the Ramble, an annual rum-
mage sale that resembles a super flea market. Nell had started
the Ramble soon after the Garden's founding in 1938 to raise
money for special projects. By the 1950s, it had become the
best known benefit of its kind in the county-a major social
outing that attracted thousands of people to the garden to buy
last year's clothes cast away by the wealthy, second-hand books,
old furniture, antiques, plants, refreshments, a superb lunch and,
for a fee, a chance to ride over the grounds on the "Rambler,"
a small, open-sided bus similar to vehicles that had operated at


the 1938 World's Fair in New York.
While Paul Allen had a brilliant mind, his experiences in
administrative work and in dealing with people had been negli-
gible. Moreover, he knew nothing of finances nor had he any
knowledge about raising money, the garden's greatest need. His
responsibilities were much more than he had bargained for, and
so he grew frustrated and disillusioned. Although Nell induced
0. C. (Jack) Corbin, an astute executive of the National Cash
Register Company, to take over the presidency of the garden as
head of the board of trustees, he was unable to dispel Allen's
pessimistic attitude about the institution's future. After a year in
Florida, Allen resigned and returned to Honduras where, relieved
of administrative duties, he resumed his work in botany while
teaching a class at the Pan American Agricultural School.
In the meantime Allen and his wife Dorothy, a botanical
artist, had become our close friends. While we could sympathize
with Paul's multitude of problems, we had no worthwhile sug-
gestions, for we were equally baffled. However, our friendship
with the Allens, and hearing Paul's long discourses about his
problems, proved to be of enormous although unforeseeable ben-
efit. For in 1956 Nell and Jack Corbin asked me to become
acting director of the Fairchild Garden "for one year." My job:
to contact the directors of other botanical gardens, as well as
any plant scientists who might help, and come up with a list of
recommendations beneficial to the future of the Fairchild Tropi-
cal Garden. In the meantime I was to help Corbin find a
permanent director. My job, it seemed, would be to find out
how other botanical gardens "made it" and to see if some
practical and worthwhile program could be worked out for the
Fairchild Garden. The position was to be part-time as well as
temporary, and it was expected that I should retain my job with
The Miami Herald. This meant getting permission from someone
in authority at the newspaper. I was dubious, but Nell believed
in going to the top. She decided that she and Corbin should
call on John S. Knight, the publisher.
Jack Knight greeted their proposal with skepticism and lack
of enthusiasm. "I don't like having my staff raided," he said in
the brusque manner for which he was noted when anything
displeased him. Nell was not to be discouraged, and she and

Pioneering in Suburbia 63

Corbin left Knight's office, they had an agreement to let the
garden borrow one of his writers on a part-time basis for one
The part-time, temporary position lasted exactly seven years,
from July 1, 1956, until July 1, 1963. This was one of my
most productive periods. As I look back, I feel that I may have
contributed more to The Herald as well as to the Fairchild
Garden, during those years than at any other time in my life.
Metropolitan government was a necessity for rapidly grow-
ing Dade County, with its 26 scattered municipalities. It was
approved by the voters in 1956, but its first years were trying
ones. Thomas Jefferson was right: government is always an
enemy of the people, while too much government becomes a
tyranny. Experts on every conceivable governmental activity were
employed, most at high salaries, to plan what was thought best
for Dade County. Many good things came out of Metro; the
new form of government made many bitter enemies. The county
also wound up with a lot of departments, decisions and bureau-
crats that irritated, frustrated and stymied citizens.
One evening as I drove home from work, I noticed that
our street sign, "Montgomery Drive," had been taken down and
replaced with a number, "S.W. 120 Street." Upon arriving at
The Herald next morning, I called until I reached the person in
charge of the changes and asked him what was happening.
"We're simplifying," he replied. "All street names in Dade
County are coming down. Henceforth we will use only numbers.
For efficiency, you see. That's the trend in city planning."
"I see, I see," I said. "That means all the old names are
coming down-Krome Avenue, Kendall Drive, Silver Palm Drive,
Sunset Drive."
"Yes, where these streets are in the county," he said.
"Numbers are to be universal."
Usually whenever I encountered anything so disagreeable as
this name changing, I wrote a story that told what was happen-
ing and waited for public reaction. This usually brought the
desired results. But my interest in the street name changing was
so personal I hesitated to use columns of The Herald to fight it.
I decided to go to higher authority and find out who had
authorized the name changing. First I called Charles H. Crandon,


former county commission chairman and an enthusiastic sup-
porter of Metro-at least he had been before Metro became a
reality. Crandon was incensed.
"I was responsible for that name when I was commission
chairman," he said. "Let me make some calls."
In the meantime I called a couple of Metro commissioners
I looked upon as friendly. When I could not reach the Metro
commission chairman by phone, I wrote him a letter.
An hour after I had called Crandon, he called back.
"Well, Brother Smiley," he said, I think I've got every-
thing cleared up. I learned that the commission did authorize
putting numbers on all streets, but it was the commission's
intention that the names would remain as they are."
A few evenings later I returned home from work, I found
new signs along my street. The numbers had been replaced by
the name "Montgomery Drive," with smaller lettering, "S.W.
120 Street" underneath. Nobody since has tried to change the
street names.
Throughout our years at Montgomery Drive, Evelyn was
hostess and cook for countless visitors, and most of them were
interesting in one way or another-some of them extraordinarily
fascinating. Although neither of us is extroverted, we managed
to make our guests comfortable and their visits memorable by
inviting people who could entertain each other. Many who met
at our house became life-long friends. We were richly rewarded
by the human experiences. The setting of the house in the
landscape and the successful way we had decorated the interior,
especially the living room, was invariably a pleasant surprise to
persons visiting us for the first time. Evelyn was a first-rate
cook whose apparent relaxation in the kitchen and in the serving
of food gave others the deceiving impression she had gone to
negligible trouble. This was true whether she prepared dinner for
10 or a hamburger party for 40. What the guests didn't know
was that she had spent much of the day in the kitchen prepar-
ing for the evening. While I was director at the Fairchild
Garden, we often had guests for lunch. Florida lobster was
inexpensive then, and Evelyn made a salad that was popular
with everyone. On one occasion her lobster salad played a part
in the background scene of a sensational political story that

Pioneering in Suburbia 65

made nationwide headlines, created a minor crisis in the White
House and got me called out of bed far in the night by John S.
Among our luncheon guests one fall Saturday in 1956 was
Harry Bralove, owner of the Shoreham Hotel in Washington.
We had served drinks before lunch, and the guests were relaxed
when we sat down to eat-and very talkative. The conversation
got around to the presidential campaign, then going strong be-
tween President Eisenhower and Adlai Stevenson. Bralove re-
peated a disturbing conversation he had overheard between his
son, a physician, and another doctor. President Eisenhower, who
had undergone one operation, was to undergo another, but the
announcement was being withheld until after the election in
November. Bralove said he got the feeling from the conversation
that the operation would be serious. After our guests departed, I
called The Herald's news editor, related what I had heard and
suggested that the paper's Washington bureau check out the
report. The editor got in touch with Washington, but there was
nobody at the White House in a position to comment on Satur-
day. The editor decided to use the story anyway. It proved to
be a serious mistake as well as an awful embarrassment for The
Herald and for me. The story got nationwide circulation before
Eisenhower's doctor issued a statement declaring the report false.
Jack Knight, in Akron at that time, called me at midnight on
Sunday to learn where I got the story. I explained I had given
it to the editor with the suggestion that he check before using
it. I thought Bralove would be sore with me because his name
had been used in the story without his consent, but the blase'
hotel operator enjoyed "making the politicians squirm," as he
described the experience.
My connection with the Fairchild Garden brought many
visitors to Montgomery Drive whom we otherwise might never
have had the opportunity to know. Among our guests from time
to time was Dr. William J. Robbins and his wife Christine.
Robbins was director of the New York Botanical Garden. He
had lived a colorful life, which continued after his retirement in
1957. He served a term as president of the American Philo-
sophical Society. He was for a time assistant director of the
National Science Foundation, and he served for several years as


treasurer for the American Academy of Sciences. He was a
member of the boards of trustees of Rockefeller University and
the Fairchild Garden. He and Dr. George H. M. Lawrence of
Cornell University were instrumental in helping to launch the
Fairchild garden's research program. In 1962 he was influential
in convening at the Garden an international conference of plant
scientists to discuss the status of tropical botany at a time when
the population not only threatened to grow faster than the devel-
opment of new food supplies, but whose expansion threatened
the extinction of large numbers of plant species. The possible
role of botanical gardens in the solution of these problems was
a major topic of discussion. The meeting was attended by plant
scientists from all over the world. As a result the garden re-
ceived a sizeable grant from the National Science Foundation for
the development of a research center at the Montgomery Foun-
dation. This building, housing a technical library, herbarium, and
research facilities, bears Dr. Robbins name.
Bill Robbins was one of the most entertaining and enlight-
ening story tellers I have ever known. We looked forward to his
visits. He could take over at a dinner party and hold his
audience enthralled. He not only had a broad background of
experiences, but possessed an enormous fund of scientific knowl-
edge and a wide acquaintance among outstanding individuals.
Robbins not only was a dominant individual, who talked with a
dry, smileless sense of humor, he combined a vivid imagination
with the rare gift of the raconteur. I have tried to repeat his
stories without success; my audience lost interest. It was the
convincing way Robbins told a story or recounted an experience
that made it fascinating-or perhaps Robbins was as fascinating
as were his stories.
Robbins' great ambition was to make some important dis-
covery that would emblazon his name in the annals of science.
He did achieve an important breakthrough in soil sciences while
teaching botany at Auburn University a short time after winning
his Ph. D. degree from Cornell. He traced the poor showing of
crops in some soils to a deficiency of certain minerals. But
Robbins won no fame for his discoveries. His greatest achieve-
ment at Auburn may have been-with the help of his wife
Christine-the birth of son Frederick Robbins, who in 1954

Pioneering in Suburbia 67

shared the Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology with J. F.
Enders and T. H. Weller for their successful growth of polio
viruses in tissue culture and an improved method of polio detec-
Bill Robbins worked for years in his own special labora-
tory at Rockefeller University, where he sought to uncover the
secrets of how plants use sunlight and a combination of carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen to manufacture sugar. While his research-
ers led him off into a number of other interesting sideshows of
scientific mysteries, he never came close to cracking the big nut
that was his dream. He virtually died in his laboratory at the
age of 88.
As I have said, I could never retell a Robbins story and
make it interesting, but I recall one that is worth trying. While
Colonel Montgomery was making a collection of conifers (pines
and their relatives) for his estate at Cos Cob, Connecticut, he
and Robbins became close friends. Bill and Christine, and Bob
and Nell frequently played bridge together at the home of one
or the other. As a result of this friendship, Robbins made it
possible for the Colonel to collect rare conifers in other parts of
the world that would have been difficult without the help of the
head of a renowned botanical garden. Some years ago during
one of his visits to Florida, Robbins told me the following
One evening while Robbins and Montgomery were killing a
few moments in small talk before dinner at Cos Cob, the
subject of investments came up. It was during the Great Depres-
sion and Montgomery was buying stocks and bonds-especially
municipal bonds-at enormous discounts and holding them for
an expected return of prosperity when he hoped to see them
regain their full value. To Robbins this was a frightening kind
of speculation that required great knowledge of the securities
markets, an area where he himself felt abysmally ignorant.
"I'd be afraid to put a dime in any stock or bond now-
especially municipal bonds," said Robbins. "I know I'd lose my
Montgomery laughed at Robbins' lack of confidence. Then,
after a moment of reflection, he said, in a kidding way:
"Bill, if somebody gave you a bundle of these 'worthless'


securities, what would you do with them?"
"Colonel, if somebody whose knowledge of the market I
respected should make me a gift of such securities-which I'm
sure will never happen-I would hold onto them. For I don't
think a friend would give me anything that was worthless. And
if he had confidence in the securities, so would I."
A few days later Robbins received a "bundle" of securities
made out in his name-a gift from Montgomery. Although their
current market value was slight, their potential value was several
thousand dollars.
As he had promised, Robbins held onto them, spending
only the income. Over the years he saw the stocks that Mont-
gomery had paid "peanuts" for rise in value and split many
times, while bonds that Montgomery had bought for a tenth of
their value returned to par.
"Those securities made it possible for Christine and me to
travel and to enjoy life in a way we could never have done on
my income from other sources," said Robbins.
And that, I think, is the best of Robbins stories, although I
may be the only one-certainly one of the few-to whom he
ever told it.
Among the delegates to the 1962 conference on tropical
botany at the FTG was Sir George Taylor, director of Kew
Gardens in London. Sir George, a native of Scotland, bore a
striking resemblance to a farmer I had known in Crowder whose
name was Sands. Both possessed the same swarthy complexion
and the same dark brown eyes, with the same expression. Dur-
ing dinner conversation at our house, I was unable to resist
asking Taylor if there had been any Sands in his family back-
"Not that I know of," he replied, "although there could
have been because the name Sands if very common in Scotland.
But if your Mr. Sands had the same swarthy complexion that I
have I probably can give you an explanation."
During the heyday of Moorish power in the Mediterranean,
said Sir George, the Moors maintained colonies in the major
seaports of Scotland, mainly for the purpose of trade.
"Many of these Moors married local women, leaving their
bloodlines behind when they departed," he said. "I have Moorish

Pioneering in Suburbia 69

ancestors, and I venture to say that Mr. Sands did too."
Our most frequent out-of-town visitor for several years was
Dr. Harold E. Moore, Jr., botanist and palm authority of Cornell
University. Hal sometimes stayed with us, sometimes with other
friends. While in town he invariably visited Montgomery Drive
where he made himself at home. In the spring of 1954, we
planned a Sunday outing in Everglades National Park. Hal was
staying with friends. He arrived in a rain.
"You probably had given up the idea of going," he said,
raindrops flying from him as he entered the house.
"Looks bad," I said. "Maybe you don't like to go on
picnics in the rain."
"Me? I like the rain," replied Hal, laughing in a boyish
way. "I was afraid you folks didn't like rain."
"I don't like getting wet," I admitted, "but I'm willing to
risk it. Maybe it won't be raining in the park."
"It probably will be," said Evelyn, who, like most women,
tended to be more realistic about such things than her husband.
"But we can eat in the car if it's raining."
Before you could repeat Everglades National Park twice,
we were carrying the picnic supplies to the car-a gasoline
stove, wieners and buns, some vine-ripened tomatoes from our
garden to serve as a salad, oranges for dessert and coffee.
We arrived at the park in a steady drizzle. We saw only
two other cars. The people in them, we suspected, were as
loony as we were. Even the birds were grounded, and we saw
but one alligator. If anything was happy it was the frogs. We
stopped at a hammock then known as Paradise Key. At that
time, the road wound through the middle of the hammock, with
half a dozen picnic tables set up under spreading lysiloma trees.
We moved a picnic table into the open to avoid the heavy
dripping from tree branches. On it we set up our picnic stove.
While Karl held an umbrella over me, I lighted the stove. Soon
we had coffee perking and wieners roasting. We ate with as
hearty an appetite as if we had been normal people.
And what did we do after eating? We strolled the ham-
mock trails, admiring great live oaks whose branches were cov-
ered with dripping resurrection fern, bromelaids and orchids. At
other places we stopped to see if it was possible to identify a


tree by studying its trunk-perhaps a species of eugenia, mastic
or pigeon plum. Of foremost interest to Hal, of course, were the
very tall royal palms that had pushed their tops 30 to 40 feet
above the green hammock-so tall, in fact, that they could be
seen for many miles around, providing an unmistakable land-
mark for anyone who might become lost in the surrounding
Eventually we found an old road that took us along the
border between the evergreen hammock and the sawgrass. Inside
the hammock it had been dark. Outside there was more light
under a drizzly, gray overcast. Most things here were close at
hand, and Hal could nip a tiny flower and examine it under a
hand lens, making it reveal its relationship to plants he knew, if
not its specific identity.
Although the Everglades may appear to be mainly sawgrass,
a small patch can be a veritable botanical garden where count-
less species, including orchids, thrive. Having an incomplete
knowledge of South Florida's native flora, Hal saw many plants
with which he was unacquainted. But being a botanist, he knew
the family and usually the genus to which the unfamiliar plant
belonged. He just didn't know the species because he had never
seen it before.
Sure, we got a little moist, and we had to do some
wading. But it was a worthwhile experience, seeing the woods
on a rainy day. On an overcast, drizzly day there are no deep
shadows in which small things can hide; you see detail more
clearly than on a bright, sunshiny day.
Late in the day, we returned and built a fire to warm
ourselves. After we ate supper-Evelyn served us hamburgers, as
I recall-Hal lay down before the fireplace and dozed. It was
another day that we have never forgotten-a rainy day in the
Everglades, botanizing with Hal Moore.
Although Dr. Richard Howard of Harvard's Arnold Arbore-
tum never slept at Montgomery Drive, he and his family did
stay from time to time at the Fairchild Garden's guest house.
Like Moore, Howard enjoyed botanizing in southern Florida
wilds, and we tried to plan a trip to Everglades National Park
or to some other interesting area each time he was our guest.
On one trip, we fell into a conversation about the many kinds

Pioneering in Suburbia 71

of lichens we were encountering. This unusual plant, a fungus
growing in symbiotic union with an algae, is found on tree
trunks, rocks, old buildings and fence posts throughout the world.
The many colors found in southern Florida, including reds and
yellows, make the lichens visually interesting even to those who
may not know the plant by name.
"Very little is known about the lichens," said Howard in
answer to a question.
I thought this strange. A plant so interesting should have
attracted the attention of many scientists.
"Why hasn't somebody made a thorough study of the li-
chens?" I asked.
"The right kind of odd-ball hasn't come along to get inter-
ested in them," replied Howard.
I've thought of Dick Howard's statement many times since
and have wondered if the "right kind of odd-ball" ever came
along to devote his life to the study of the lichens. They should
offer some fascinating rewards-although perhaps not financial
I have told in On the Beat and Offbeat, under "A Bullish
Bear in Wall Street," how Dent Smith made his money, when
everybody else was either broke or going broke during the Great
Depression of the 1930s. Dent moved his family to Florida in
1949 and settled at Daytona Beach. Looking for a hobby, he
began collecting palms, as he had collected trees for his estate
in Ridgewood, N.J., where he had lived formerly. We met Dent
in 1956 while I was director of the Fairchild Garden. He be-
came our friend and remained so until his death in 1985 at the
age of 87.
A frequent visitor to the Fairchild Garden, Dent spent
much of each day studying and photographing palms. He had
recently organized the Palm Society and launched its quarterly
journal, Principes. He promoted these with the enthusiasm of a
used car salesman-which he had been before discovering Wall
Street. Although he could not be correctly called a "visiting
scientist," I invited him to stay at the Davis House while he
was in Miami. So appreciative was he for the opportunity of
being able to wake up among the Fairchild Garden's palms that,
besides paying expenses, he ordered a telephone installed and


paid the monthly bill. He also became a life member of the
garden, the cost of which at that time was $500.
Smith insisted on meeting all the people in Miami who
had palm collections, even if their collections amounted to no
more than four or five species. I introduced him to the people I
knew who had shown an interest in palms. I took him to the
Kampong to see Fairchild's collection, to Montgomery's Coconut
Grove Palmetum, and to the Plant Introduction Garden at
Chapman Field, which had a sizeable palm collection. Some of
the places he had seen, but he went nevertheless, without saying
he had been there. Evelyn gave dinner parties so Dent could
meet "palm people," as he called them. One day he remarked
that he had not met Mrs. W. J. Krome of Homestead, widow of
Henry M. Flagler's chief engineer in the building of the Over-
seas Railway to Key West.
"But she's no palm addict," I said. "She's a tropical fruit
"I'll bet she knows a lot about palms," replied Dent, "and
besides, I like to collect tropical fruits, too."
We invited Mrs. Krome to Sunday brunch. She and Dent
had a non-stop three-hour talk about palms and tropical fruits.
Dent Smith felt greatly deprived because he never had a chance
to meet Montgomery or Fairchild. He asked many questions
about them; and, after Marian Fairchild gave him a standing
invitation to visit the Kampong and its plant collections, he was
quick to take advantage of her hospitality. He wanted to learn
all he could about these two "palm collectors," as he thought of
them. He especially liked to stand before some interesting palm
he knew Fairchild had planted and admire it. But he was
painfully disappointed to learn that Montgomery, while a collec-
tor, never himself planted palms.
"The Colonel was a collector, not a horticulturist," I said.
"But I suppose he knew a lot about palms-their nomen-
clature, their history," he said.
"He read the books that were available," I replied, "but as
you know there were not many publications about palms while
he was collecting."
I then made a mistake. I recalled the time I asked the
Colonel the name of a palm in his collection from which the

Pioneering in Suburbia 73

name tag was missing. "I don't know," he replied. "If there's
no label you'll have to ask Mr. Jordahn. That's what I pay him
for-to know the names."
Mr. Jordahn was the superintendent of the Montgomery
estate. Montgomery made the arrangements with botanical gar-
dens and with individuals throughout the tropical world to send
palm seeds to Miami. Adolph Jordahn received the packages,
recorded names and sources in an accession book. Then Jordahn
planted the seeds, first in pots in the greenhouse, later at the
Palmetum (as the estate was called), or at the Fairchild Garden.
Dent was painfully disappointed to learn that Colonel Mont-
gomery was no dirty-handed gardener.
"Shucks, I wouldn't trust a gardener with palm seeds that
had come from some far distant place," said Smith. "I would
have taken charge of the seeds and planted them myself."
"But the Colonel was a busy man," I said. "He had other
things that demanded his time-his auditing firm and his law
"Well, I've got other things that demand my time-my
investments and my income tax returns, which I make out
myself," snapped Smith. "But I still have time to look after my
palms. And I know their names, every last one of them."
Because I had made no special effort to collect palms at
Montgomery Drive, Dent had little interest in walking over the
grounds. Then I told him of how when David Fairchild used to
visit us he always asked: "What are you planting now?" After
that Dent would always ask the same question and he would
walk the grounds, as he imagined Fairchild had done. Dent
discovered that I had planted a few interesting palms, including
some Fairchild himself had given me; and in time he discovered
that we had a fair-sized tropical fruit collection. Thus his inter-
est in our five acres grew, and on every visit he wanted to
walk over the property. But he found it impossible to appreciate
the open spaces and the vistas we had made, lamenting that
these areas contained no plantings except lawn grass and the
pines we left when we cleared the palmettos and underfoot
"I don't want to plant anything in the vistas," I said in
defense. "That would spoil the landscape."


"Landscape!" he exclaimed. "Shucks, I'd fill those areas
with palms."
After my retirement from The Miami Herald in 1973, we
built a camp on a friend's ranch in Big Cypress Swamp. Lo-
cated on an old Indian site, the camp overlooked an alligator
flag marsh partially ringed by a strand of cypress, willow and
red maple. A few hundred feet south, beyond a green pasture
vista bordered by live oaks, was a cabbage palm hammock that
was host to deer, wild turkeys and occasionally a visiting bear.
Tracks of panthers were sometimes seen in the area. We liked
the hammock. The moist ground was covered with a variety of
swamp ferns, while the palms themselves bore three or four
species of ferns, including a rich growth of shoestring fern on
their old trunks. We couldn't wait to invite Dent Smith to our
camp and show him this sumptuous wilderness, particularly the
cabbage palm hammock. Eventually we took him. It had re-
cently rained, and we had to make our way slowly in a pickup
truck over a wet dirt road in which there were many deep pot
holes. Dent complained. Who would ever think of building a
camp in a place so hard to reach? While Evelyn was preparing
lunch, I walked Dent to the palm hammock.
"Isn't this a beautiful collection of sabals?" I suggested as
we entered the cool hammock. "And look at the shoestring fern.
Some of those blades must be two feet long."
Dent stopped, looked about, then turned to me.
"I don't see anything so great about this hammock," he
said. "It's only a collection of Sabal palmetto. Nothing rare
about it. I've got the species in my collection."
We went no farther. Dent had no interest in this unique
setting of Sabal palmetto in the wilderness of Big Cypress
Swamp. Having the species represented in his collection was
We departed early to return to Miami. As the truck labored
over six miles of muddy road toward Alligator Alley, Dent said:
"What you need is a jeep-a four wheel drive vehicle. You
know what I'm gonna do? I'm gonna leave you my jeep in my
And he did, in the first paragraph.
Because of his wife Marta's poor health, Dent always came

Pioneering in Suburbia 75

to Miami alone. He never stayed away from home longer than a
few days. I sought to interest him in making trips to other parts
of the world to collect palm seeds. He did make a few short
trips with Stanley Kiem, then Fairchild Garden superintendent;
but he refused to take long journeys that would keep him out of
the country for longer than a few days.
Soon after I met Dent, I learned that he was a frustrated
writer. Many years before, he had attempted to write a novel
depicting his difficult life in Mexico. As a young man, he met
and married the vivacious Guadalupe (Marta) Hipper y Martinez.
Once while we were visiting him and Marta at Daytona Beach,
he brought out the long manuscript and asked me to read the
first chapter. It read more like a report by a social worker
depicting the hardships of Appalachia than a novel. Dent was
not interested in reading novels to see how others wrote; he was
interested only in writing one. Upon retiring from Wall Street,
his interest in writing led him to start a pocket-sized magazine
he named Encore. A digest of modem and ancient authors, it
was well done; and, for a time, Encore enjoyed some success.
The inflation ignited by the Second World War put Dent out of
business. He continued to talk of writing, though I sensed his
disappointment in failing to write a successful novel.
As we got to know him better, he began to tell us more
about his life. After he was born in Staunton, Va., in 1897, his
mother-a beautiful woman-was always on the go, and he
lived in many places before going out on his own at 18 and
enlisting in the military service. His descriptions of his mother
and her way of life made her so fascinating that one evening,
over dinner at Montgomery Drive, I suggested that he should
look into his early experiences for a worthwhile novel. "Your
mother would make a wonderful character in a novel," I added.
Dent looked at me wide-eyed, even shocked, I thought.
"My mother! Put my mother in a novel! My God, that
would be unthinkable," he said. "I would just as quickly go out
and cut my throat."
The years flew by. Marta died. Shortly thereafter he lost
his white-haired secretary, Miss Margueriete Martin, who had
stuck with him through the arduous Wall Street years, through
his experiences with Encore, helped him to keep his financial


records and finally helped him to organize and promote The
Palm Society. Then his daughter Jessie Clark died. He had lost
his son Darden in the Korean War. Except for grandchildren, he
was alone. Dent drove down to Miami and stayed with us for
several days. He was low in spirits. We went out to some of
his favorite restaurants. He was drinking more than usual. Out
of character, he asked us not to invite anybody for dinner; he
didn't want to talk. By the time he returned home, his spirits
seemed boosted. But when we talked to him on the telephone,
we knew he was still depressed. We began to fear he soon
would follow those he had lost. Dent's life changed when he
met a younger woman, Doris Murphy, during a trip through the
British Isles. Although in his early 80's, Dent found that much
life was left in the old frame. He and Doris soon were married
and Dent took a new lease on life and happiness. He lived for
several years, although he contracted a rare form of cancer that
affected the lining of his lungs. We called him on his 87th
"I feel lucky as hell," he said. We sense he was a happy
man. "Five years ago the doctors had me dying of cancer within
a year," he added, laughing. "You know what? I may fool
them. I may die of something else-old age, for instance."
He died in 1985 just short of his 88th birthday.
Although Dent was an expert on Wall Street, he was
reluctant to give tips or to make any suggestion that might
possibly be thought of as a tip.
"Nobody in the world knows what the stock market is
going to do," said Dent on one occasion. "It goes up and it
goes down. That's a fact. When it goes down, people who own
stocks get scared and fear they're gonna lose their shirts. The
only worthwhile market tip you can give anyone is to buy at
the bottom of the market and sell when it's highest. But who
can recognize the lowest low or the highest high. I've never
been able to. I always buy stocks during a bear market, when
the market is depressed. But invariably it goes lower still. I just
hold onto what I've got and buy more. I, of course, like to sell
when the market is bullish, when everybody's buying and push-
ing prices up. But it's an invariable rule that the market always
goes higher still after I sell. So what do I know about the stock

Pioneering in Suburbia 77

market? Nothing."
Dent did give us one tip that paid off. In the early 1960s
when Texasgulf was selling for a few dollars a share, he ad-
vised us to buy a hundred shares.
"Put the certificate in your safe deposit box and forget
about it for several years," he said. "This company's sound. It's
well managed, and it's growing. Buy a hundred shares every
time you have the money to spare, especially during a depressed
Texasgulf went up and down with the bulls and the bears
but we held on, buying more when we could afford it. For
several years Dent would call us and say:
"Hey, did you see what happened to Texasgulf today? The
bottom dropped out. Have you got enough in the bank to buy a
hundred shares?"
The call got action, and we would buy another hundred
shares. This continued for close to 20 years. Meanwhile the
shares were split two for one, giving us twice the number of
shares we originally had bought. Then, during a bull market, a
French company, Elf Aquitaine, stepped in, offering shareholders
a price they couldn't refuse and took over the company. We did
well, indeed; and, I hasten to add, he did well too, for he had
bought Texasgulf every time he called to advise us to buy.
Two long time Miami Herald friends whose faces were
familiar at Montgomery Drive were Steve Trumbull and Jeanne
Bellamy. Both were reporters on the old Miami Tribune, which
Jack Knight purchased in 1937 from Moses L. Annenberg and
closed down. After interviewing members of the Tribune staff,
John Pennekamp, Herald managing editor wound up hiring
three-Steve and Jeanne and photographer Bill Stapleton. Stapleton
moved on from The Herald to become an internationally known
news photographer. Steve and Jeanne remained on the paper
until they retired-and both made names for themselves. Steve,
who covered the state as "Mr. Florida," traveled, not only the
highways, but most of the rivers and man-made waterways in
his motor cruiser, Po Ho. His wife, Jane, went along as first
mate, cooking except when "O1' Steve" wanted to show off a
bit. Then he would take over the galley-especially if there was
company to witness his "prodigious feats" as a cook. He wrote


frequently of the "gourmet" dishes he prepared from fish or
game. Here is the way he started one story:
"Grab the smelling salts and start fanning yourselves, you
gourmets. The old swamp rat is about to do a piece on game
and freshwater fish cooking."
In succeeding paragraphs you could hear the speckled perch
sizzling in deep fat and smell the wild country-chicken aroma of
young rabbit frying in a black skillet resting on campfire coals,
I wrote in Knights of the Fourth Estate.
Trumbull was never encouraged to take over the kitchen at
Montgomery Drive because Evelyn, who likes order, couldn't
tolerate the mess he made. If he prepared a fish chowder (which
he was good at doing), he would have everything in the kitchen
strewn about-pots and pans, knives and stirring spoons, the
principal ingredients as well as the condiments. When unable to
put his hand on something essential to the success of his recipe,
he would turn the air blue with profanity. Usually the missing
ingredient was before his eyes; but by the time he found it, he
was unsure whether he already had added it to the chowder.
Most certainly he would wind up with one or more things
missing while doubling the amount of something else. But no
matter. By the time the chowder was served, everyone had had
so much to drink that Trumbull's delicacy might have been
prepared by Oscar of the Waldorf.
Trumbull was especially good at preparing bonefish for
broiling. This fish is usually thought of as being too bony to
eat, but Steve had learned how to overcome this fault. To
prepare a bonefish he first removed the head. Then he cut along
both sides of the dorsal fin, removing it along with the back-
bone and laying the fish open. Upon eviscerating, washing and
drying the fish, he put it on the broiler, skin side down. Once
cooked, the fish was removed from the broiler and the numer-
ous rib bones were lifted with the aid of a tablespoon and a
fork. These bones lie just beneath the surface of the inner side
of the bonefish. Once the fish is broiled, the bones are easily
rolled up and disposed of. To eat the delicious white meat, now
free of bones, lift it from the skin with a fork. The skin, of
course, is not eaten-unless you are a shark.
For 20 years Trumbull traveled the back country of Florida,

Pioneering in Suburbia 79

the rutted roads as well as the super highways and streams.
There was no worthwhile place he failed to visit or write about,
including Sopchoppy, Panacea, Hen Scratch and Two Egg. Gov-
ernor Fuller Warren gave him his nickname, "Mr. Florida." I
succeeded him on the road upon his retirement in 1963, but
never did I attempt to fill his shoes or follow his trail.
Jeanne Bellamy was born in Brooklyn of English parents.
She was graduated from Rollins College, where she received one
of the best backgrounds in the use of the English language of
anyone I knew in the newspaper business. Jeanne is the only
person I ever met who made her life plans so far in the future
that as a young woman she looked forward to the time when
she would be a wisened grandmotherly type with a silver-headed
cane. And she was by no means dismayed at the picture she
saw. She evidently had known matrons whom she admired, and
realized that if she were fortunate enough to live, she would
one day be one. Thus Jeanne sought early to prepare herself
psychologically for that age.
In her younger years, Jeanne married a fellow newspaper-
man, John T. Bills, a blustery, positive and very confident
Texan. Jack eventually left the newspaper business to become a
successful banker and land investor. Upon his death in 1967,
Jeanne found herself at a critical point in her life. Although
confident she would readjust, she knew it would take time. She
gathered up her little dog, a dachshund, and came out to stay
with us "in the pines," as she put it, for several days. How
much Jeanne's stay with us contributed to her readjustment we
have no way of knowing. But she soon picked up Jack's career,
in addition to her own as an editorial writer on The Herald, and
rose to chairman of the board of Midtown (Miami) Bank. After
retiring from The Herald in 1973, she was elected president of
the Greater Miami Chamber of Commerce. In 1977 she became
president of the Fairchild Tropical Garden Association, a posi-
tion she held until 1982 when she turned the presidency over to
Lloyd G. Kelly. In the meantime Jeanne realized another ambi-
tion, traveling over the world, including all the continents except
Antarctica-and going there probably is in her plans.
Thus Jeanne Bellamy realized her early plans of becoming
a wisened grandmotherly type with dignity and charm had a lot


more distinction than she could have dreamed when she was a
young and eager reporter in whom the fires of ambition and
enthusiasm flared inexhaustibly.
Dr. Wilson Popenoe was the builder and first director of
the Pan American Agricultural School at Zamarano, Honduras.
He flew to the United States on business a couple of times a
year, and he frequently stayed overnight with us, sometimes
several days. Prior to David Fairchild's death, he stayed at the
Kampong, but thereafter he began staying at Montgomery Drive.
He never failed to arrive loaded with gifts, particularly colorful
huipils, worn as blouses by the Indian women of Guatemala.
Wilson liked to buy huipils (pronounced we-peels) that had been
worn, rather than new ones. He frequently bought these striking
garments "off the backs" of the Indians, as he put it. He would
distribute the huipils among his friends, especially at whose
homes he stayed, in Gainesville, Washington, or Boston as well
as in Miami. He talked in a loud voice, and as we sat on the
breezeway you could hear his conversation beyond the limits of
our five acres. Wilson liked to be driven about Dade County to
see his friends, including Mrs. Fairchild and Mrs. W.J. Krome
of Homestead. If I happened to be working, the chauffeuring
fell to Evelyn, who drove her Volkswagen. On one occasion
Wilson accompanied me on an assignment to Lake Okeechobee.
He wanted to get a haircut, so we stopped at a barbershop in
Belle Glade. Wilson immediately got into conversation with the
barber. Upon discovering that Wilson lived in Central America,
the barber asked how much he had to pay for a haircut there.
"Fifteen cents," replied Popenoe.
"Fifteen cents!" exclaimed the barber. "How in the world
can a barber live if he charges only fifteen cents for a haircut?"
"How much do you charge for a haircut?" asked Wilson.
"A dollar," replied the barber.
"And how much do you pay for a pound of beefsteak?"
"About a dollar."
"Well, the barber who cuts my hair," said Wilson, "pays
fifteen cents for a pound of beefsteak. So, in a relative way,
you guys charge the same for a haircut and pay the same price
for beefsteak."
The barber was unconvinced.

Pioneering in Suburbia 81

John Harrell, Jacksonville lawyer, friend and sometimes ad-
viser, visited Montgomery Drive only once, while he was in
Miami to attend a lawyer's convention. He ate dinner with us,
and we drive him back to the Doral Country Club, where he
was staying. I had met Harrell in 1969 during a Pan Am flight
to London. Ed Ball, manager of the Alfred I. Du Pont estate
and chairman of the Florida East Coast Railway, had invited us
to visit his castle at Ballynahinch in western Ireland, and we
were more or less looking for each other.
"I thought you'd be riding in the first class compartment
with Mr. Ball," said Harrell, laughing after we shook hands.
"That's where I expected you to be," I replied.
During our conversation, while drinking Drambuie on the
rocks, I learned that Harrell planned to stop over in London for
a couple of days before going on to Dublin where he was to
join us for a cross-country drive to Ballynahinch in Connemara
District. This was Harrell's first trip aboard, and he intended to
visit the Inns of Court in London, Britain's famous resident
schools of law.
I knew little about the Inns of Court. But after hearing
Harrell describe it as the birthplace of English common law and
constitutional law, I wished I had made arrangements to stay
over in London myself. When we reached London, however,
Harrell and I discovered our luggage had continued on to Brus-
sels. We would have to wait about three hours, until the plane
returned, to claim it. So Ball, who always carried his own small
black suitcase, invariably containing a fifth of his favorite bour-
bon, continued on to Dublin while I remained in London with
Harrell was born on a farm near Gibson, Georgia, in 1893.
Upon graduation from high school, he read law under the tutor-
ship of a friendly judge and was admitted to the bar. He
eventually wound up in Jacksonville, where in time he devel-
oped a good practice. Ball was among his clients. He was still
going to his office in 1987 at the age of 94. Although he was
no longer able to work as fast as he had done at an earlier age,
his mind was still sharp and his knowledge of law-particularly
Florida property law and estate law-was unsurpassed. For the
past several years, Evelyn and I have tried to visit him regu-


larly, and he insists on taking us to lunch at the River Club,
atop Jacksonville's tallest skyscraper, overlooking the beautiful
St. Johns.
After registering at a hotel, we took a taxi to the Inns of
Court. Naturally I made notes, for I was always hungry for
material to fill my column. I think the column I wrote after our
visit to the Inns of Court equals any other I ever turned out,
and I present it here:
"In the heart of London, off the beaten tourist path, is a
gem of a little church, of Romanesque and Gothic design, that
was built by the Knights Templars in the twelfth and thirteenth
centuries. It is one of the few buildings that escaped the London
fire in 1666, and is today among the finest examples of Norman
architectural influence in England. I was shown this church not
by a buff on the antiquities of England, but by a Cracker
lawyer from Jacksonville, John Harrell, who had never been
abroad in his 76 years until his trip to London. To Harrell,
Temple Church stands on hallowed ground, not so much be-
cause of its religious connotation but because it occupies the
heartland of the Inns of Court, where was born and nurtured the
laws that today give English speaking people throughout the
world the safeguards of freedom.
"Harrell is a man with little formal education. He never
attended law school but made his way in the law through hard
study and with shrewd native intelligence. He, of course, liked
to read the history of law. Such reading brought him close to
the origins of English law, as well as close to the men who
wrote these laws. And in his reading he also became intimately
acquainted with the four resident law schools that constitute the
Inns of Court-Inner Temple, Middle Temple, Gray's Inn, and
Lincoln's Inn. Two of the greatest men in English law, Edward
Coke and William Blackstone, were products of Middle Temple.
Blackstone's Commentaries laid the foundation for American law
and justice, and for years after the Revolution served as the
American lawyer's bible.
"Although Harrell hadn't concerned himself with Temple
Church's architecture, he knew its history well. After the fall of
the Knights Templars, the church came into possession of an-
other Catholic order, the Knights Hospitallers. King Henry VIII
took possession of the church in the sixteenth century when he

Pioneering in Suburbia 83

closed Catholic institutions in England. And in 1608 James I
gave the church to the lawyers-the benchers of Inner Temple
and Middle Temple. Harrell was immensely impressed by Temple
Church, but he was more obviously affected when we visited
the elaborate, centuries-old hall of Middle Temple, half a block
distant. Here Harrell was standing in the same hall where Coke
and Blackstone studied, as did Sir Francis Drake and Sir Walter
Raleigh. So did those who helped write or influence the United
States Constitution and the Bill of Rights. So well acquainted
was Harrell with Middle Temple-a building he had never seen-
that he was able to point out immediately a table that had been
made during Queen Elizabeth I's time, of a tree cut from her
forest and floated down the Thames to the Inns of Court. And
Harrell's enthusiasm knew no bounds when he began reading
the names of hundreds of famous judges and lawyers that lined
the walls-names he had come across in the history of English
"Harrell and I left the Inns of Court with much to reflect
upon. Here was the cradle of constitutional law-freedom of
speech, equality under the law, the right of trial by jury, the
protection of the individual from the burden of guilt until he is
proven guilty. Here liberalism in the writing and interpretation
of laws governing human freedom was defended. And the men
who were graduated from these schools went out to fight the
powers of the English kings, and to win. The influence of the
Inns of Court on the world has been beyond measure. No
people with an English law background had ever tolerated dicta-
torship for any length of time; no English-speaking people have
let themselves become subjected to fascism or communism. And
Harrell and I agreed that if Karl Marx had been born in En-
gland, rather than in Germany, his political thinking would have
been influenced by the tradition of the Inns of Court-and
therefore the world would be much different from what it is
For several years, John D. Pennekamp wielded such power
and influence in Dade County that he became known as "Mr.
Miami Herald." He started on The Herald as city editor in 1925
and remained with the paper for more than half a century.
Although higher ranking editors came and went, Publisher Frank


B. Shutts looked upon Pennekamp as the one responsible for
getting out the paper. Shutts, with the backing of Henry M.
Flagler, had founded The Herald in 1910. A founder of the
prestigious law firm of Shutts & Bowen, he disavowed knowing
anything about newspapering. "I have Penny," he liked to say.
After John and James Knight bought The Herald from Shutts in
1937, Pennekamp was elevated to managing editor, but his re-
sponsibilities remained much the same until 1941, when he
became editorial page editor and the writer of a daily column,
"Behind the Front Page."
An editor and columnist of very positive opinion, Pennekamp
was ever ready to take on implacable opposition without fear of
consequences. He fought court-protected gambling operations in
Dade County and won. Not even threats of jail by an irate
judge stopped him. After a circuit judge found him and his
paper guilty of contempt, he took the case to the United States
Supreme Court and won. Everglades National Park became a
reality only as a result of his unrelenting battle against its bitter
critics. He conceived the idea of metropolitan government and
fought successfully for its approval by Dade County voters. For
a time he enjoyed more prestige than did the Knight brothers.
I was in my late 20s when I became a police reporter on
The Herald. With a grammar school education and little grass
roots experience, I had no easy time of it. I had come to Miami
in 1935 to take a minor job with the Associated Press, whose
night office was in The Herald building. Foreseeing a limited
future with the AP, and wanting very much to be a newspaper
reporter, I got permission in 1938 to work one day a week for
The Herald as a learner without pay. For nearly two years, I
worked variously as a reporter, copyreader and on the rewrite
desk. (On rewrite you take legmen's stories over the telephone.
Occasionally a reporter will dictate his stories in almost perfect
form so that little or no changes are necessary. Others may give
the rewrite man only notes, which he must turn into a readable
story.) On January 1, 1940, Pennekamp hired me-with reluc-
tance, I thought-as a regular paid employee of The Herald.
Several years later he admitted he had done so in a weak
"I doubted you could make it; you were too old," he said,

Pioneering in Suburbia 85

"but I could see that you were determined to try."
Pennekamp believed that the time to enter the newspaper
business was while you were in your teens, that you should
grow up working on the different beats and in the various
departments, gaining experience in turning out stories under the
pressure of deadline, or, when necessary, to be able to dictate
stories to a rewrite man in virtually perfect copy. Getting a job
with The Herald I look upon as being one of the three most
important events in my life, the others being my birth and my
marriage. The direction of my life was dramatically changed.
If I felt closer to Pennekamp than I did to any other
person for whom I ever worked it may have been because I
looked upon him as a father figure. Although I can't say I
idolized him, my respect for him, mixed with trepidation, was
enormous. Since he was the one who had hired me and to
whom I looked upon as my boss, I felt a personal loss when he
left the newsroom for the ivory tower of the editorial office.
After that I seldom saw him except as he passed through the
newsroom on his way to or from his office. The years passed.
Meanwhile I was drafted into the military during the Second
World War.
The 1950s arrived. One day I entered a downtown restau-
rant for lunch. No table was available. Although I saw John
Pennekamp eating alone, I dared not invite myself to sit with
him. I was about to leave and look for another restaurant when
he motioned for me to join him.
I recently had written a story about Corkscrew Swamp and
the National Audubon Society's efforts to save from timber
cutters that Collier County wilderness of 400-year-old cypress
trees and bird rookery. Pennekamp, having read it, said he had
talked with John Baker, Audubon president, who praised the
"You'll probably hear from him," said Pennekamp.
Next morning I found a note from Pennekamp in my
newsroom mailbox, asking me to see him. I bounded up the
stairs and went to his office. He was writing a column about
Corkscrew Swamp and wanted additional information. Fortunately
I could give him what he asked.
For the next several years, I was one of The Herald's


principal writers on conservation, as well as being farm and
garden editor, a general reporter and a feature writer. In 1956 I
became director of the Fairchild Tropical Garden. During the
next seven years, I gave "half" a day to The Herald and "half'
a day to the Fairchild Garden, which meant that I was working
12 to 14 hours a day much of the time. John Pennekamp and I
lunched together frequently; and he and his wife Irene were
from time to time dinner guests at Montgomery Drive. After
Irene's death John preferred to be invited for lunch. For many
years Evelyn and I were alone in the world; we had no close
adult relatives either of us felt like calling upon for assistance
or comfort in the event of a personal disaster. It was of enor-
mous consolation to Evelyn to know she could call on John
Pennekamp. She knew without any doubt that John was our
sincere friend, that no matter what happened, at what time of
the day or night, she could call on him and receive the comfort
and proper directions one needs in a personal crisis.
I don't recall that Pennekamp ever dialed my telephone to
invite me to go to lunch with him. He expected me to call him.
I learned that the hard way. One day I called Pennekamp about
some matter the subject of which I no longer remember. "I'm
busy now," he replied, rather brusquely. "Let's talk it over at
lunch-if you don't have other plans." We did go to lunch.
Afterward, he said:
"Let's do that again."
I replied that I would like to, and then, too timid to call
him, I waited for him to invite me. The invitation never came.
One day I met him on the stairs of the old Herald building on
South Miami Avenue.
"Say, I thought we were going to have lunch sometime,"
he said. "What happened?"
I saw he was serious. In fact, I sensed he was a bit
miffed-or was he hurt?
"I-I was waiting for your invitation," I replied, embar-
"Never wait for my invitation," he replied as he continued
on his way. "Give me a call."
A couple of days later, I worked up courage to call him;
and he accepted my invitation. From that time on I did the

Pioneering in Suburbia 87

calling, and he accepted my invitation when he had no other
plans, which he often did. We took turns paying the check. I
was to learn it was Pennekamp's practice to let friends invite
him to lunch. Enjoying a liberal expense account, he was quick
to grab the check. But John Pennekamp was always bossman.
You did the inviting. He was pleased to accept your invitation
if he had no better options.
Pennekamp was one of the few I have known who had
been a bossman all his adult years-in his case since he became
city editor of the Cincinnati Post at 22. He had very positive
views about his own life, about the world in which he moved
and of his spiritual future. He was one of the few-perhaps the
only one I ever knew-who would have liked to relive his life
without making any changes. He said this to Evelyn and me
once while the three of us were having lunch at Montgomery
Drive. He was unable to look back and see where he had made
any mistakes he would want to correct, nor had he done any-
thing in his life of which he was ashamed. He did admit he
would have liked to possess more wealth. On the other hand, he
always had enough for his family to live well. He was a
Catholic who never discussed religion, and I never heard anyone
discuss religion in his presence.
Virtually all his luncheon friends were Protestants, and I
don't recall any who did not like one or two drinks before
lunch. Pennekamp observed Lent by giving up his drink, an
enormous sacrifice. He gave every indication of being a person
who had no doubt of his own salvation.
Pennekamp was succeeded as editorial page editor in 1958
by Don Shoemaker, but he continued writing his column "Be-
hind the Front Page." Because Pennekamp was "elevated" to
associate editor, a large percentage of Herald readers continued
to look upon him as the one who made the decisions. His
prestige remained high, and he continued to receive honors,
among them having a park named after him-the John
Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park. Years passed. He reached his
70s I heard no mention of retirement. In 1973 I decided to
retire at 62. A few weeks before my retirement, Pennekamp and
I were having lunch at Hasta Mafiana, his favorite eating place
because of the special attention he received. Over drinks we


began talking about my upcoming retirement.
"I don't know why you want to retire," he said. "You're at
the peak of your writing career, and you've got a good follow-
ing. You have no reason to retire." (This was the only compli-
ment John Pennekamp ever paid my writing.)
"I want to retire while I'm on top of things while I still
have my health," I replied.
Knowing he was approaching 76, I asked him if he had no
plans to retire.
"No," he replied, "so long as I can drive to the office." He
usually got to his office at six in the morning and was through
for the day by 11.
Draining his glass, Pennekamp signaled our waiter to bring
another round of drinks-his usual bourbon, a martini for me.
Then, in a moment of what was for him an unusual personal
revelation, he proceeded to tell me why he had not retired and
why he had no plans to do so. His story began when he was
succeeded by Shoemaker.
"Although I was elevated to associate editor on The Herald's
masthead, there was no increase in my salary," he said. "For the
next several years my salary remained the same although infla-
tion soared after we became involved in the Vietnam War. One
day Jack Knight dropped into my office and sat down. He was
in one of his expansive moods, and he talked at length about
what he said were some of The Herald's accomplishments dur-
ing the time I was editor. He then added that he had looked
over salaries recently and was surprised to see how low mine
was. He apologized for 'the oversight,' as he called it, and
promised to make amends. Then he left."
Pennekamp paused to sip from the fresh drink that had
been placed before him.
"When I saw my next pay check I thought some mistake
had been made," he continued. "My pay had been virtually
This time he paused to drink deep from his glass.
"Up to that time I might have thought of retiring, but after
that big salary increase I couldn't. I have 10 grandchildren to be
educated, and I want to save enough to help them through

Pioneering in Suburbia 89

Pennekamp retired on his eightieth birthday, January 1,
1977. He lived only a few months afterwards. The story of
John Pennekamp's years on The Herald is told in my book,
Knights of the Fourth Estate, John was the first person to
whom I gave an autographed copy. I did so with fear and
trembling because, for while he was given more space than
anyone else in the 340-page book, he sometimes comes through
as a controversial figure. I thought he would be sore with me
about the uncomplimentary things I wrote, although they were
factual. For Pennekamp was dogmatic in his belief that newspa-
per people should maintain a united front and never criticize one
another publicly. Much of the critical material came from Jack
Knight who, although he admired Pennekamp as a "great editor
and fighter for what he thought was right," knew his faults all
too well. I was much relieved when Pennekamp thanked me for
the copy and tossed the book on his desk without opening it.


Recipients of the Thomas Barbour Medal for vision and unselfish devotion
to the preservation of that vanishing Eden, South Florida. L to R: John
Pennekamp with spouse Irene, Jeanne Bellamy, with spouse John T. Bills.


Although I was retired, we continued to have lunch to-
gether, and he continued to visit Montgomery Drive. John was
especially fond of the seafood salads Evelyn made of shrimp,
crabmeat or lobster stuffed in an avocado half. The book was
never mentioned. One day while lunching at Hasta Mafiana with
Pennekamp and three of his friends, including Mayor Bob Knight
of Coral Gables, Knights of the Fourth Estate was mentioned.
"What did you think of that book, John?" Pennekamp was
asked pointedly while we were having drinks.
"Haven't read it," replied Pennekamp flatly.
I couldn't have been more relieved. I knew his cronies,
who tolerated no criticism of Pennekamp, were looking for a
chance to give me a roasting.
One morning several days later, I opened The Herald to
Pennekamp's "Behind the Front Page" to discover he had de-
voted his column to a review of Knights of the Fourth Estate.
Never have I felt more uneasy. I was certain he had taken the
book apart, to say nothing of the author. But to my surprise,
Pennekamp was highly complimentary. He made no mention of
any of the critical things I had said about him.
Lest the reader get the idea that I wrote only critically of
John Pennekamp in my history of The Herald, most of what I
said was highly complimentary. What I did say in criticism was
true. Pennekamp was hard-headed and intolerant of opinions
differing from his. His friends could do no wrong, his enemies
no right. He was deeply suspicious of politicians, civic leaders
and, especially, do-gooders. To Jack and Jim Knight, he seemed
to go out of his way to make enemies for himself and for his
newspaper. Never reluctant to take a stand, once he did so he
was absolutely fearless. That takes nothing away from the fact
that Pennekamp was one of Miami's outstanding newspapermen.
I don't know of another person who had as much influence on
the area's future, unless it was Castro.

List of Members 91

Historical Association of Southern Florida

Membership List

Members of the Historical Association of Southern Florida
enjoy a wide variety of benefits. These include free admission
to the Museum; subscriptions to three museum periodicals: Te-
questa, South Florida History Magazine and Currents; invita-
tions to special events; use of the Research Center; discounts on
purchases at the museum store; and discounts on educational and
recreational programs.
Each membership category offers the benefits as outline
above, plus additional gifts and privileges for the higher levels
of support.
Membership revenues primarily cover the cost of the ben-
efits provided, educational programs, special exhibitions and daily
operations of the museum. The membership listing is made up
of those persons and organizations that have paid dues since
August 1991; those who joined after November 1, 1992, will be
published in the 1993 Tequesta.
Honorary Life Membership is voted on by the Board of
Trustees to recognize special service to the association. The *
symbol indicates Charter Member.

Life Members
Mr Maurice D. Alpert
Mr. Mitchell Franklin
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph B. Ryder, Jr

Honorary Life Members
Mr. Fred M. Waters, Jr.*
Mr. James G. Withers
Mr. and Mrs. Wayne E. Withers

Corporate Grand Benefactors
Southern Bell
SunBank/Miami N A
WTMI Radio

Fellow Humanitarian
Mr, Mitchell Wolfson, Jr.


Delaitte & Touche
Eagle Brands, Inc.
First Nationwide Bank
First Union National Bank

Consolidated Techniques, Inc.
Curtaside Florist & Gifts, Inc.
Expressway Toyota, Inc.
Florida Power & Light Co.

Corporate Benefactors

Greenberg, Traurig, Hoffman, Rosen,
Lipoff & Quentel
Johnathans Catering
Kloster Cruise Limited

Corporate Patrons

Gato Distributors
Holland & Knight
Keen, Battle, Mead & Co.
Lovables Catering
The Miami Herald

Miami Dolphins Ltd
Nations Bank
Paul, Landy, Beiley & Harper, P.A.
Ryder System Inc.

Parties By Pat
ReMax Group, Inc.
Turner Construction Company
Vortex Communications
WTVI Channel 4-NBC

Allied Plating Supplies
Allied Specialty Co.
Avensa Airlines, Inc.
Banco Exterior de los Andes
Bank of North America, NA.
Bankers Savings Bank
Bechtel Power Corporation
Bierman, Shohat, Loewy & Perry, PA.
Biscayne Engineering Co., Inc.
Caribbean Express Travel Inc.
Cellular One
Chalk's Intemational Airlines
Chase Manhattan Bank
Chicago Title Insurance Co.
City National Bank
Coastal Fuels Marketing Inc.
Coconut Grove Bank
Coustructa Properties/CocoWalk
Cordis Corporation
Corporate Advisors, Inc.

Aircraft Electric Motors, Inc.
Atlas Safety & Security Design
Christy's Restaurant
Easton-Babcock & Associates
Easy Comp Computer Education
Ernst & Young

The Allen Morris Foundation
Alma Jennings Foundation, Inc.
Deluxe Check Printers

Corporate Members

De Lara Travel
Edward I. DeBartolo Corp.
First American Title Ins. Co.
Harper Carreno Mateu, Inc.
Harrison Construction
Home Financing Center, Inc.
Hopkins-Carter Company
Suarez & Associates, Inc.
Intercontinental Bank
John Alden Life Insurance Co.
Just Catering
Kaufman, Rossin & Co., PA.
KPMG Peat Marwick
Lawyers Title Insurance Corp.
Lowell Dunn Company
Lowell Homes
Market Printing & Graphics
Martin W. Taplin Associates
Matson-Charlton Surety Group

Corporate Contributors

Farrey's Wholesale & Hardware
Greater Miami Convention &
Visitors Bureau
Hydrologic Associates
Inter-American Advertising, Inc
International Diecasting

Mercedes Electrical Supply Inc
Montmnay Power Corp.
Mount Sinai Medical Center
Plaza Bank of Miami
Post, Buckley, Schuh & Jernigan, Inc
Preve Liberatore Barton & Co.
Proenza, White, Huck & Roberts
Professional Translating
Ratiner & Glinn, PA.
Rosenberg, Reisman, Stein & Dennis
Shutts & Bowen
Southern Wine & Spirits
Smith Barney
Swanson Prnting, Inc.
Tessi Garcia & Associates
TOSV Construction, Inc.
The Wyatt Company
Warren E. Daniels Construction
Williams Island
Withers/Suddath United VanLine

John H Harland Company
Lima & Rios PA
Third Generation Commimication
Transatlantic Bank
Walton & Post


Dunspaugh-Dalton Foundation
Geiger Charity Foundation, Inc.
JN. McArthur Foundation

Kramer Memorial Fund
Leigh Foundation, Inc.

Mr. & Mrs. James K, Batten
Mr. & Mrs, Peter L. Bermont
Mr. & Mrs. Alvah H. Chapman, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Edward S. Corlett, III
Mr & Mrs. Allen Corson
Mr. & Mrs James L. Davis
Mr & Mrs. Douglas Erickson
Dr. & Mrs, Joseph H Fitzgerald
Mr. & Mrs, William A. Graham

Dr. & Mrs William Way Anderson
Mr & Mrs. Benjamin B. Battle, Jr,
Mr. & Mrs. Allen G. Caldwell
Miss Lamar Louise Curry
Mrs. Avis K. Goodlove
Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Hector
Mr & Mrs. James J. Kenny
Mr. & Mrs. Jay 1. Kislak
Mr. & Mrs C Frasuer Knight
Mr. Kenneth R. Laurence

Mr. Wayrman L. Adkins
Mr. & Mrs Too A. Babun, Jr,
Dr, & Mrs. Duane E Banks, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Robert B. Battle
Mr. & Mrs. Charles H Baumberger
Mr. Steve Becker
Mrs. Margaret F. Black
Mr. & Mrs Francisco Blanco
Dr. & Mrs. Michael P. Born
Ms. Betty Brody
Mr. Ignacio Carrsra-Justiz
Mr. & Mrs. Gregory M. Cesarano
Mr. & Mrs. Chuck Cobb
Mr. & Mrs, Carlton W. Cole
Mr. Lamarr Cooler
Mr. Robert H. Coords
Mrs Plato A. Cox
Mr. & Mrs. William 0 Cullom
Mr. & Mrs. Carlos de La Cruz, Sr.
Mr. Carlos M. de La Cruz, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Hunting F. Deutsch
Dr. & Mrs Albeit J. Ehlert
Mr & Mrs. H. Cordon Fales, Jr.
Mr. Walter R. Ferguson
Mr. & Mrs. Frank Fierro, Jr.
Mr, & Mrs. Arnold S Friedman
Mr. & Mrs. Juan A Galan
Mr. & Mrs. Fernmando T. Garcia-Chacon
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas S. Gerspacher
Mr. Stevm Goldberg
Mr & Mrs. Hans Golteus
Mr. & Mrs. Jerrold F. Goodman
Mr. Matthew B. iorson
Mr. & Mrs. Arnold L. Greenfield
Mr. F, W, Mort Guilford

Fellow Benefactors
Mr & Mrs. James E. Gray
Mrs. John C. Harrison
Mr. & Mrs. Lee Hills
Mr. & Mrs. Lewis M. Kanner
Mr & Mrs. Norman G. Lawrence
Mr. & Mrs, R. Layton Mank
Mrs. C. T. McCrinmon
Dr. & Mrs. Joseph S. Mensch
Mr. & Mrs. Ted J Pappas

Fellow Patrons
Mr. & Mrs. James W. McLamore
Mr & Mrs. David Mesnekoff
Dr. & Mrs. Glenn Morrison
Dr. & Mrs. John C. Nordt, Ill
Ms Lamar J. Noriega
Dr. & Mrs. Harold G. Norman
Mrs. Connie Pranty
Mr Edward J. Robinson
Dr. & Mrs. Karl Smiley
Dr. & Mrs. Franz H. Stewart, Jr.

Mr. & Mrs. John W. Hainli
Mr. & Mrs. George R. Harper
Mr. & Mrs. John C. Harrison, Jr.
Mr. David S, Harrison
Mr. & Mrs. Mark Hawkins
Mr. & Mrs. Edmund T Henry, IIl
Mr. William Ho
Mr. & Mrs. Sherrill W. Hudson
Mr. & Mrs. George N. Jenkins
Mr. & Mrs. Lester R. Johnson
Mr & Mrs. Ethan Whitcomb Johnson
Mr. & Mrs. Donald Kahn
Ms. Janet S. Katz
Ms. Sally M. Kennedy
Mr. & Mrs. Alexander W. Kent
Mr. & Mrs. A. Dan Killian, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Steven Krakow
Mr. Samuel D. La Roue, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph P, Lacher
Mr. & Mrs. David Lawrence
Mr Dao Le
Ms. Mary R. Lesko
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Lewis
Mr. & Mrs Richard M. Lobo
Mr & Mrs Jack Lowell
Mr. & Mrs Stephen A. Lynch, III
Mrs. Fay E. March
Mr. & Mrs, S. C Masson
Mr. & Mrs Finlay L Matheson
Mr. Arnold C. Matteson
Mr. Gerry McSwiggan
Mr. & Mrs. D. R. Mead, Jr.
Mr. Carlos A. Migoya
Dr, & Mrs. Robert L, Molinari
Ms Lynn A. Monast
Mr. & Mrs. William T. Muir

List of Members 93

Dr. & Mrs, Robert H. McCabe
Dr. & Mrs. T. Hunter Pryor, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. William D Soman
Dr. & Mrs Franz H. Stewart, Sr.
Mr. & Mrs. Robert H. Traurig
Mr. & Mrs, Malcolm B. Wischeart, Jr,
Mr. & Mrs. David Younts
Dr. & Mrs. Howard L. Zwibel

Dr. Charlton W. Tebeau*
Mr. & Mrs. Gerald E. Toms
Mr. Monty P. Trainer
Dr & Mrs. Jean A. Trochet
Dr. & Mrs. George L. Vergara
Mrs. Karl B. Voelter
Mrs. M. Leffler Warren
Ms, Jody M. Wolfe
Mrs. Robert J. Woodruff, Jr.

Mr & Mrs Paul Neidhart
Mr. & Mrs. Robert L, Norton
Dr. & Mrs Robert M. Oliver, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Paul
Ms. Elizabeth L Pearce
Mr. Jorge E. Perez-Rubio
Mr. & Mrs. Preston L. Prevatt
Mr. & Mrs Albert A Rayle, Ill
Mrs. Bess Burdine Read
Mr. & Mrs. R. Benjamme Reid
Mr. & Mrs. Charles E. Reynolds
Mr. & Mrs. Louis J. Risi, Jr.
Mr Daniel T. Robbie
Mr. & Mrs. Edward J Rosasco, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Herman J, Russomanno
Mr. & Mrs. Robert W Schmidt
Mr. & Mrs. Robert H Schwabe
Mr. Larry E Seitz
Mr & Mrs. Richard Shack
Mr. & Mrs. Charles D. Sloan
Mr. & Mrs. Frank Smathers
Mr. Michael B. Smith
Mr. & Mrs. David W Swetland
Mr. John W. Thatcher
Mr. & Mrs. Parker D. Thomson
Dr. Jeffrey Tobias
Mr. Joseph Traba, Jr
Dr. & Mrs. Joseph A. Traina
Mrs. Alicia M. Tremols
Mr, & Mrs. Edward E Walton, Jr.
Mr Thomas Weinkle &
Ms. Micki Speijers
Dr. Michael A, Weitz
Mr & Mrs. Calvin J. Winter
Mr. S.A. Younts


Mr. & Mrs. James W. Apthorp
Mr. Richard P. Cole
Mrs Robert Dickey
Mrs Tom Huston
Mr. & Mrs. Raymond A. Jones
Mr. & Mrs. Howard Kleinberg

Mr. & Mrs. Leonard L. Abess, Sr.
Mr. & Mrs. Jack G. Admire
Mrs. Selmna Alexander
Mr, & Mrs. Charles Allen
Mr. & Mrs. Geoff W. Anderson
Mr. & Mrs. Leslie J. August
Mr. Joseph Averill
Mr & Mrs. Leonard A. Baker
Mr & Mrs. Charles G. Barker
Dr. & Mrs. James W. Barrow
Mr Frank L Beam
Mr. & Mrs. James Benenati
Ms. Bernstein & Mr Bruce
Mr. & Mrs. Hugo L. Black, Jr.
Mr & Mrs. Bernard G. Blanck
Mr & Mrs. Luis J Botifoll
Mr. & Mrs. Erroll Boyette
Mr. Seth H. Bramson
Ms. Mary Bremnnan &
Mr. Glenn Janson
Mr & Mrs. Dennis W. Brown
Mr. & Mrs, Eric Buerrann
Dr. & Mrs. Robert J. Carbonell
Dr. & Mrs. Emilio J Carullo
Mr, & Mrs. William Cassidy
Ms. Virginia Chapman
Mr. & Mrs. William H Collins
Dr. & Mrs. Morton Cormn
Mr. & Mrs. Lot Worth Crow
Mr & Mrs. George P. Dane
Mrs. Beverly Danielson
Mr. & Mrs. Frank C. Davis
Mr. George H. De Carion
Mr. & Mrs. Gary Dellapa
Mr. & Mrs. J. Leonard Diamond
Dr. & Mrs. Leonidas W. Dowlen, Jr
Mr. & Mrs. James Doyle
Mr. & Mrs. George V.R. Dunan
Mr. & Mrs Atwood Dunwody
Mr. & Mrs. Chris Dunworthl
Judge & Mrs Joe Eaton
Mr. & Mrs. James C. Ellenburg
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Entenmann
Jean & Bill Evoy
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Finkelstein
Dr. & Mrs, Lawrence ML Fishmans
Dr. Rita M. Fojace
M.J. Freeman
Mr. & Mrs William Freeman
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Gallagher, Jr.

Ms. Marian Krutulis
Mr. & Mrs Luis R. Lasa
Mrs. Robert H. Levin
Dr. & Mrs. Michael Marmesh
Dr. & Mrs. Milton E. Martinez
Mr. & Mrs Charles W. Newcomb


Mr. & Mrs. Donald F. Gardner
Mr. David C Gibson
Mr. & Mrs. Franklyn B. Glinn
Mr. & Mrs. B.B. Goldstein
Mr. & Mrs. Martin B. Goodman
Mr. & Mrs. Reed Gordon
Mr. & Mrs Richard Gossett
Mr. & Mrs. Stanton Grease
Mr. & Mrs. Arnold M. Greenfield
Ms. Helen R. Grier
Mr. & Mrs. Phil Gueira
Mr. & Mrs Robert DL Giuthie
Mr. Edward Guttenmacher &
Ms. Cheryl Haywood
Mr. & Mrs. George K. Hals
Dr. Henry C- Hardin, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Charles M. Hartz
Mr. & Mrs. Tomn Hayes
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Hemmings
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur H. Hertz
Mrs. Margaret D. Hicks
Mr. & Mrs. L F. Hinds, Jr.
Dr. & Mrs. Ronald Hinds
Mrs. Barbara Hollinger
Mrs. Norene S. Hornstein
Dr. & Mrs. Burke M. Hunter
Dr & Mrs. Francisco Izaguirre
Mr. & Mrs- Larry Jacobson
Dr. Jonathan R. Jaffe
Mr. Juan Jimenez
Dr. & Mrs. J.R. Jude
Mr. & Mrs. Francis T. Kain
Mr. & Mrs. Brian E,. Keeley
Mrs. George H, Keen, Jr,
Ms. Patricia F. Keen
Mr. Neal S. Keys
Mr. Jefferson P, Knight
Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth F. Kniskemrn
Mr. & Mrs. Irvin Korach
Mr. & Mrs. James E. Korth
Dr. Susan Kramuer &
Dr Henry Venable
Mr. & Mrs. Irving Kreisberg
Mr. & Mrs. Ralph E. Lambrecht
Mr. & Mrs. Calvin I. Landau
Mr. & Mrs. John F. Lauer
Mr. & Mrs. Main Leake
Mr & Mrs. John M. Lewis
Mr. & Mrs. Robert L Lewis
Dr. & Mrs. William A. Little

Mr, Henry B. Peacock, Jr.
Mr & Mrs. Donald Rowell
Ms. Phyllis A. Shapiro
Dr. & Mrs. William M. Straight
Mr, & Mrs. Christopher G. Tyson
Dr. & Mrs Robert Zeppa

Mr. & Mrs Thomas S. Loane
Mr. & Mrs. I. Edward London
Ms. Joyce T. Long
Mr. & Mrs. Jay W. Lotspeich
Mr, James R. Lowry, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs Thomas D. Lumpkin, 11
Mr. & Mrs. Edwin C. Lunsfeord, Jr
Mr. & Mrs. Howard W Margoluis
Mr, & Mrs. Finlay B Matheson
Mr. Hardy Matheson
Mr. & Mrs. Frederick J Maxted, Jr.
Dr. Robert H. McCabe
Mr. & Mrs. David Melin
Mr. & Mrs. Howard A. Mesh
Mr. & Mrs Jack L. Meyer
Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Miller
Mr, Roger G Misleh
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Moses
Mrs Wirth M Munroe
Ms. Ruth D. Myers
Drs. Mervin & Elaine Needell
Mr Joseph C. Nemeti
Mr. Brian Norcross
Dr. Edward W. Norton
Dr. Jules Oaklander
Dr. & Mrs Mark E. Oren
Mr & Mrs. David Owen
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Pallot
Ms. Katherine F. Pancoast
Mr. & Mrs. Julius E. Pierce
Mr. & Mrs. Chnck Platt
Mr. & Mrs. Bernard Plotkin
Mrs. Mary C. Plumer
Mr. & Mrs. Stanley B. Price
Mr. & Mrs. Fred Radelhan
Mr. & Mrs. Edward K. Rawls, Jr.
Mr. Charles G Rebozo
Mr. & Mrs. Louis H. Richards
Dr. & Mrs. Thomas Righetti
Mr. & Mrs. Raul L. Rodriguez
Mre & Mrs. H.J. Ross
Dr, & Mrs. Joseph Rubini
Dr. & Mrs. Theodore Sarafoglu
Ms. Martha M Scott
Mr. Michael Paul Shienvold
Ms. Abbie H. Shouse
Mr & Mrs, Edwin 0O Simon
Mr. & Mrs. Murray Sisselman
Mrs. Lillian N. Smith
Mr, & Mrs. Samuel Smith

Mr & Mrs. Samuel L. Smith
Mr, & Mrs. Philip Snyder
Mr. & Mrs. Neal R. Sonnett
Mr. & Mrs. Theodore Spak
Mr. & Mrs David W. Steele
Mr Arthur Stein
Mr Alan W. Steinberg
Ms. Edeane W. Stirrup
Mrs. J. Sures
Mr, & Mrs. William Sutton
Mrs Edward C. Sweeney
Mr. & Mrs. Salomon Terner

Mr. John H Adair, III
Mr & Mrs Clive Baldwin
Mr. & Mrs. Ivan E. Ball
Mr. & Mrs Larry Balseiro
Mr. & Mrs Harry D. Bsvly
Mr. & Mrs. Vernon Corbitt
Mr. Roger B. Davis
Mr. Raymond de Castro
Ms. Diane M. Dorick
Mr. & Mrs. S.H. Dowdell
Dr. & Mrs. Robert Feltman
Mr. & Mrs Willard L, Fitzgerald, Jr.
Misses Bertha & Cecilia Fontaine
Mr. & Mrs. Philip Freidin
Mrs. George E. Gabler
Mr. & Mrs. Donald C Gaby
Mrs. Dick B. Gardner
Dr. & Mrs. Stanley G. Garner
Dr. & Mrs. Bruce Garrison
Dr & Mrs. Lloyd S, Goldman
Dr. & Mrs. Robert H. Ooldwyn
Mr. & Mrs. William Goodson, Jr.
Mr, & Mrs. Michael S. Greene
Mrs E, Stewart Guyton
Ms. Nancy K. Harrington
Ms. Marjery Hilliard
Mr. Michael Hiscano

Mr. & Mrs. James Abermian
Mr. & Mrs. Allan T. Abess, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Leonard L Abess, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Ken Abrams
Mr. & Mrs. John L. Adams
Mr. & Mrs. Dave Adams
Mrs, Samuel 1. Adler
Mrs. Harold Aibel
Ms. Lori Akdogan
Mr Manuel Albalate
Mr. & Mrs. Herbert E. Allenson
Mr & Mrs. Raphael Almonte
Mr & Mrs. George Alonso
Mr. & Mrs. Juan Alonso
Mr. & Mrs David Alter
Mr. & Mrs. Cesar Alvarez

Ms, Jean M Thorpe
Mr. & Mrs. James E. Tribhle
Dr. & Mrs. Michael B Troner
Mrs. Roberta H. Turner
Dr, & Mrs. Alfred H, Underwood
Mr. & Mrs. Edwin Underwood
Mr. lack Vallega
Mr. & Mrs. Herbert Van Denend
Mr. & Mrs. Clark Vernon
Ms Sandra Villa
Mrs Jean Waldberg
Mr. Joel Waldman


Mr & Mrs. James C. Hobbs, 1
Mrs Mary D. Jenkins
Mr. & Mrs. Ernest P. Jones
Mr. & Mrs. James R. Jorgenson
Mr. & Mrs. Ralph A. Juncosa
Mr. & Mrs. John E Junkin, III
Mr, & Mrs. Donald J. Kremer
Mr Marvin J. Krstal
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Lamphear
Mr. & Mrs. Allen L. Langer
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Leftwich
Ms Eleanor F. Levy
Mr & Mrs. Wallace L, Lewis, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Alan Lubitz
Dr. & Mrs. Thomas Mark
Mr. James F. Mathews, III
Mr John H. MeMinn
Mr. & Mrs. W.C. Merritt
Mr. & Mrs. Frank C. Meyers
Mr. & Mrs. David Miller
Mr. & Mrs. Daniel Millott
Ms. Nanci Mitchell &
Mr. Simon Taylor
Mr. & Mrs. Karlsson Mitchell
Mr. Alfred B. Mohr
Dr. Thomas A. Natiello
Mr. Paul Olingy

Mr. & Mrs. Jose Amador
Mr. & Mrs. Bob Ambridge
Mr. & Mrs John S. Ammarell, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Cromwell A. Anderson
Mr & Mrs, Duane Anderson
Mr. & Mrs. John Anderson
Mr. Larry Apple & Ms. Esther Perez
Mr. & Mrs. Ted Arch
Mr. Edward M. Archer
Mrs. Esther M. Armibrister
Mr. & Mrs. Make Arnold
Mr. Albert Aron
Mr. Augie Artiles
Mr. & Mrs. Peter Athan
Hon. & Mrs. C. Clyde Atkins
Mr. & Mrs. Alvin Atlass

List of Members 95

Mr & Mrs. Carl D. Ward
Mr & Mrs David Weston
Mr. & Mrs. Leonard Wien
Mr. & Mrs. William M. Williams
Mr. & Mrs. George M. Wilson
Mrs. Peyton L. Wilson
Mrs Warren C. Wood, Sr.
Mr. & Mrs. Otis 0. Wragg, III
Mr. & Mrs. James A. Wright, Ill
Mrr & Mrs. Stuart S Wyllie
Mr. Robert A. Zolten, M.D.

Mr. & Mrs. John Perez
Mr, Douglas J, Pracher
Ms. Judith Price & Mr. Charles Cohn
Mr, J. David Puga
Dr. & Ms. Philip J. Reckford
Mr. & Mrs Thomas C. Reed, Sr.
Mr & Mrs. Robert Reilly
Mr, & Mrs. Nonnman C. Ridgely
Mr. & Mrs. James BI Rose
Mr. & Mrs. Ronald Rosengarton
Mr. & Mrs. Nathaniel P, Rutter, Ill
Mr John C Seipp, Jr
Mrs. Genie Shayne &
Miss Cindy Shayne
Mr. & Mrs. Glen Simmons
Thomas B. Strozier, M.D.
Mr. Armando Tabemilla
Mr. & Mrs Thomas T. Taylor
Mr. & Mrs. James B. Tilghman, Jr
Mr. & Mrs. Harry Mark Viedr
Dr & Mrs, Brian Weiss
Mr. & Mrs. Michael I Whalin
Mr. & Mrs. Frank T. Williams
Mr. & Mrs. Jack B. Yaffa
Mrs. Eunice P. Yates
Mr. Chuck Zablocki

Mr. & Mrs, John L. Avant
Mr. & Mrs. Lons S. Bacher
Ms. Rosetta Bailey
Mrr & Mrs, David R. Baker
Mr. & Mrs. John W. Baker
Mr. Kaare Bakke
Mr. Frank X Baldino
Mr. Tom Bales & Mrs Connie Ryan
Ms. Orquidia Ball
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Ballard
Mr. & Mrs Michael Bander
Mr. & Mrs. A. Jeffrey Barash
Mr & Mrs. Charles W. Bare
Mr, & Mrs. James W. Barfield
Mr. & Mrs. John Barkett
Mr. & Mrs. Padul J. Barko


Reverend & Mrs. William Barnes
Mr. & Mrs. Lester R- Bamhill
Mr. & Mrs. Paul Barringer
Dr. & Mrs. Tcrrcnce J. Barry
Dr. & Mrs. Robert T. Bass
Ms. Maria C. Batista
Mr. & Mrs. Michael W. Battle
Mr. & Mrs. Timothy A. Battle
Mr. & Mrs. Gary L, Baumgartner
Mr & Mrs. Robert G. Beatty
Mr. E.N. Bechamps
Mr. & Mrs. Allen M. Beck
Mr. & Mrs. Fred Becker
Mr. Harold Becker
Mr. & Mrs. William G,. Bell
Mr. & Mrs. Oded Ben-Arie
Mr. & Mrs. Fred A. Bendler
Mr. & Mrs. Vic Beninate
MrA & Mrs. Daniel B. Benitez
Dr & Mrs. Paul Benjamin
Mr. & Mrs. Robert W. Bennett
Ms. Sharon Bennett
Mr. H. Allen Benowitz
Mr. & Mrs. Steve Benson
Mr. & Mrs Arthur Berger
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Berke
Msa Cyane H. Bemiing
Mr. & Mrs. Roger Bernstein
Mr, & Mrs. Ronald Bernstein
Mr. & Mrs. Ray Berrm
Mr. & Mrs. Ralph H, Bertelson
Ms, Mildred L Bethune
Mr. Donald Bierman
Mr. & Mrs. John Birch
Mr. & Mrs. Richard J. Bischoff
Dr & Mrs. Alan Bisno
Mr. & Mrs. Stephen Bittel
Mr. & Mrs. Marvin Lee Biver
Mr. William Bjorkman &
Ms. Pam Winter
Ms. Elsa Black
Mr. & Mrs. David M. Blackard
Mr. & Mrs. Ace J. Blackburn, ST.
Mr. & Mrs. Jose Blanco
Dr. & Mrs. Harvey Blank
Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey Block
Mr. & Mrs. Leonard Bloom
Mr. & Mrs. Philip F. Blumberg
Mr. & Mrs. Steven Bobes
Dr. & Mrs. John Bolton
Mr, Joseph D. Bolton
Ms. Susan Bonsor
Mr. Steve Boone &
Ms. Susan Peterson
Mr. & Mrs. William H. Bourne
Mrs. R Bowen
Mrs. A. Rush Bowles
Dr. & Mrs. Russell Boyd
Mr, Leonard Boymer &
Mr. Frankie Supple
Ms. Clara Boza & Mr. Phillip Carver

Mr. & Mrs. Robert F. Brack
Mr. & Mrs. Daniel T. Brady
Mr. & Mrs. Robert M. Brake
Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth E. Brandenburg
DrA & Mrs. Cesar Brea
Mr. & Mrs. Charles E. Breit
Mr. Frederick Brenner
Mr. Walter R. Brewer
Mr. Walter F. Brewer
Ms. Carol Brinson
Mr. & Mrs. John L. Britton
Mr. & Mrs. G. Brian Brodeur
Mr. & Mr. Douglas C. Broeker
Mr. & Mrs. Lester 1. Brookner
Mr. Teddy Brooks
Mr. A Mrs. Bert S. Brown
Mr. & Mrs, Bradford E. Brown
MrA & Mrs. Jack N. Brown
Mr. & Mrs. James K. Brown
Mr. & Mrs. Harvey Brown
Mr. & Mrs. John Brown
Mr. & Mrs. E, R. Brownell
Mr. & Mrs, John M, Brumbaugh
Mr. & Mrs Mark Buchbinder
Mr. & Mrs. Fred Buchsbaum
Mr. & Mrs Jim Buddi
Mr. & Mrs. Jean E. Buholer
Mr. & Mrs, Gordon Burke
Mr. & Mrs. LeLand Buirton, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs, George Busby
Mr. John T. Butler
Mr. Jack Butler
Mr. William L. Buxton
Ms. Lori Cadavid
Mr. & Mrs. Laurence W. Cahill
Mr. Lynn M. Cambest
Mr. A Mrs, Dennis M. Campbell
Mr & Mrs John W Campbell
Mr. Roland Camps &A
Mr. Rafael Camps
Mr. Fernando A, Capablanca
Mr. & Mrs. Philip Capman
Mrs. Grace C. Carbone
MrA & Mrs. Art Carlson
Ms Barbara J. Care
MrA & Mrs. Vance Carr
Mr. & Mrs. Alvaro C. Carreras
Ms. Loly Carrillo
Dr, & Mrs. Laurence T. Carroll
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Carskadon
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Carter
Mr. & Mrs Robert B. Cast
Dr Milton P Caster
Mrs. Graciela C. Catasus
Mr. & Mrs. Mark Caulder
Msa Patricia Charmess
Dr. & Mrs. Jose A. Chamorro
Dr. & Mrs. J.R. Chandler
Dr. & Mrs. Arthur E. Chapman
Mr. & Mrs. David Charles
Mr. JD, Charlesworth &

Ms S.M. Henteleff
Mr. John C. Charlton
Mr. Larry Chase
Mr Frank Chase
Mr. Robert Chiltty &
Dr. Karen Chitty
Mr & Mrs, John S. Chowning
Mr. Thomas A. Christensem
Ms. Karen Christie
Mr. & Mrs. David Church
Mr. & Mrs. James K. Clark
Mr, Terry W, Claus, Sr.
Mr Terry W. Claus, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. William P. Claypool
Mr. & Mrs. C.G. Clayton
Mr. & Mrs. William Coats
Ms. Jo Anne Coblentz
Mr. & Mrs. Armando Codina
Mr. & Mrs. George Cohen
Mr. & Mrs. William Cohen
Dr. & Mrs. Alvin Cohen
Dr, Leon F. Cohn
Mr. Stanley Coira
Mr. & Mrs. Ronald F. Cold
Mr. & Mrs. Philip Cole
Mr. & Mrs. Bob Collins
Dr. & Mrs. James Conley
Mr & Mrs. Alexander Conte
Mr. Robert D. Conway
Mr Clark Cook
Mr. & Mrs. Robert F. Cook
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas G. Cooney
Mr. & Mrs. Marc Cooper
Ms. Lynn Cordova
Mr. Thomas Cornish
Mr Hal Corson &
Ms Gerri Campbell
Rep. Jolm Cosgrove
Mr. & Mrs. Hyman Coverman
Mr, & Mrs. John W. Cowling
Mr. & Mrs. Alan Crockwell
Mr. & Mrs. Alfonso A. Cueto
Mrs, John E Culmer
Mr & Mrs. DeVere H Curtis
Mr. & Mrs. Guillemno Cutie
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Dabney
Mr. & Mrs. John Dacy
Mr & Mrs. Dan Danforth
Mr. & Mrs. Edward Daniel
Mr. & Mrs. Dale Davis
Mr. & Mrs. Richard A. De Aguero
Mr. Jorge L, de Cardenas
Mr. J. Allison De Foor, 11
Mr. Joseph De Nucci
Mr & Mrs. Jose Dearing
Mr. & Mrs. Robert W. Decker
Ms. Patricia Denike
Mr. & Mrs. Michael L. Dennis
Mr. & Mrs. Dou Deresz
Mr. & Mrs. Bruno M. Diaz
Mr Barry L Dick

Mr & Mrs. Ronald F. Diehl
Ms Shirley Diemar
Ms. Vicki DiPasquale
Ms Lizabeth Doebler
Mr. & Mrs Alan H. Dombrowsky
Mr. & Mrs. Dennis Donnell
Mr. Roger Doucha
Mrs, Dorothy M. Downs
Mr. & Mrs. Leonard Downs
Mr. Robert R. Drake
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Dreasden
Mr. & Mrs Stan Drillick
Mr. & Mrs. Don DuLaney
Mr, Ernest M. Dumas
Ms. Lin Dunigan
Dr. & Mrs. Charles A. Dunn
Mrr & Mrs, Lowell S. Dunn
Ms. Loretta S. Dunn
Ms. Debra Durant-Schoendorf
Mr. & Mrs. David J. Dutcher
Mr. Derrick Dyer
Mr. Andrew Dyer
Mr J.P. Dyson
Dr. & Mrs. William H. Eaglstein
Mr. Alexander Earnest
Mr. & Mrs. Vernon C. Eason
Mr. & Mrs. Joel D. Eaton
Ms. Nolly Ebert & Mr. Moshe Gorea
Mr. & Mrs. Eric R. Eckbtomn
Mr. & Mrs. James M. Eckhart
Mr. & Mrs. Lester Edelman
Mr, F H, Edwards
Ms. Anna Ehlert
Mr, & Mrs. Norman Einspruch
Mr. & Mrs. E. Otho Ellison
Dr, & Mrs. Richard P. Emerson
Mr. Leonard N. Enriquez
Mr. & Mrs. Henry B. Erikson
Mr & Mrs Alberto Espino
Mr. & Mrs. Robert L. Esteves
Mr. & Mrs. Cecil H. Evans
Mr. & Mrs. James D, Evans
Mr. & Mrs. Dan Eydt
Mr. & Mrs. Ralph J. Fairbaim
Ms. Barbara Falsey &
Mr. Sidney Reichman
Mr. & Mrs. Charles E. Fancher, Jr.
Mr. Robert Farr
Rep. & Mrs. Dante B. Fascell
Mrs. Robin Fay
Hon. & Mrs. Harold Featherstone
Mr. Fein & Ms, Westfall
Dr. & Mrs. Alfred Feingold
Dr. & Mrs. Jeffrey Feingold
Mr. & Mrs. Eric B. Feldman
Mr. & Mrs. Larry Feldman
Ms. Gail Fels & Mr. Adam Fels
Dr. & Mrs. Fred Felser
Mr. & Mrs. Paul Ferry
Dr. Ellen Fine & Mr. Ray Penland
Mr. & Mrs. Alfred Finkelstein

Mr. & Mrs. James N. Finlay
Mr & Mrs, W.J. Fitzgerald
Mr. & Mrs. Bob Fitzsimmons
Mr. & Mrs. John Fiasco
Mr, & Mrs. Michael Flattery, Jr,
Mr & Mrs. Martin Fleit
Ms. Oneida Fleitas
Mr, & Mrs. Harry D. Fleming
Ms Mary Flynn &
Mr. Patrick Toomey
Dr. Luis H. Fonseca
Mr. Thomas H, Ford, Jr.
Mrs. Ida E. Forer
Mr. & Mrs. Ken Forman
Mr. & Mrs. Hugh J. Fortlman
Mrs. Paul F. Foster
Mr & Mrs. Dwight E. Frazier
Mr. John Fredrick
Mr. & Mrs. Stephen Freeman
Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence Freshman
Mr. & Mrs. Richard E. Friberg
Dr. & Mrs, Evan Friedman
Ms. Muriel Friedman
Mr. Raymond M Frost
Mr. & Mrs. David Frum
Mr. Arthur J. Furia
Ms. Laurie Gach & Mr. Tony Prohias
Mr. & Mrs. Jorge Gallo
Mr. & Mrs. Tomas F. Gamba
Mr & Mrs. Joseph H. Ganguzza
Mr. & Mrs. Carlos Garcia
Mr. & Mrs. Rene Garcia
Mr. & Mrs. Rene Garcia
Mr. & Mrs. Andy Garcia
Ms. Dolores Garcia-Gutierrez
Mr. & Mrs. Donald Gardner, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Robert W Gardner
Mr. & Mrs. Peter B. Garvett
Mr. & Mrs. Glennr E. Garvett
Ms. Nancy Gaskins
Mr. & Mrs. Gerald Geffen
Ms. Joyce Geiger
Mr. Harold Gelber & Ms, Pat Mackin
Mr. Robert Gelberg
Mr. Martin J. Genauer, Esq.
Dr. & Mrs. Paul S. George
Mr, & Mrs. Michael George
Mrs. Sharon George
Mr Maher Ghafir
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Gilbert
Mr. & Mrs. John Gillan
Mr. & Mrs. Robert A. Dinsburg
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Giusto
Mr. & Mrs. John Gladstone
Mr. & Mrs. Hugh Oladwin
Ms. Susan Glass & Ms. Lisa Smith
Dr. & Mrs, Marshall Glasser
Dr. & Mrs. Jeffrey Glasser
Mr. & Mrs. Sig M. Glukstad
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Goeser
Mr. & Mrs. Brace Goldman

List of Members 97

Mr. Leroy Goldstein &
Ms. Lauren Gould
Mr. & Mrs Seymour Goldweber
Mr. & Mrs. Tito Gomez
Mr. Jesus M. Gomez
Mr. Al Gomez-Vidal
Mr. & Mrs. Jose A. Gonzalez
Mr & Mrs. Samuel Gonzalez
Mr. & Mrs B.F. Gooden, Jr.
Ms. Regina Goodfriend
Mr. & Mrs. Elliot Gordon
Mrs Carol-Jane Gottfried
Dr. & Mrs. Richard Gottlieb
Mr. & Mrs. Edward Grad
Mr. & Mrs. Henry A. Grady
Mrs. Edward G. Grafton
Ms. Dorothy W. Graham
Mr. & Mrs. Leslie L. Grant
Mr. & Mrs Bruce E. Grayson
Mr. & Mrs. Marvin R Green
Mr. & Mrs. Donald M. Green
Dr. & Mrs. Henry Green
Mr. & Mrs. Barry N. Greenberg
Mr. & Mrs. Ernest Greenblatt
Mr & Mrs. Burton D. Greenfield
Mr, & Mrs. Nathan Greenhouse
Mr. Robert L. Gregg
Mr. & Mrs Michael L. Gregory
Rev. & Mrs. Robb Grimm
Mr, & Mrs. John W, Grimsley
Mr William T. Grissom
Mr. & Mrs. Martin Grossman
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Grudzinski
Mr. & Mrs. George Gnmrwell
Mr. Arturo Guerrero
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas D. Guilfoyle
Mr. & Mrs. Peter J. Guthom
Mr. & Mrs. Richard M Gottman
Dr. & Mrs. Thomas B. Guyton
Mr. Thomas Habermas
Mr. & Mrs. John Hackland
Mr. Steven H. Hagen, Esq.
Mr. & Mrs. Jack D. Hahn
Mrs. & Mr, Doris Haldane
Mr. & Mrs. Jon Hales
Mr & Mrs. Monroe S. Hall
Mr. & Mrs. John Hall
Mr & Mrs, Richard Hallstrand
Mr. Thomas L. Hambright
Dr. & Mrs. C. Hamburg
Mr. & Mrs. Rex Hamilton
Mr & Mrs. William F. Hamilton
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Hammond
Dr. & Mrs. Gregory Han
Mr. & Ms. Bradley K. Hanafourde
Mr. & Mrs. Christian Hansen
Mr. & Mrs. Larry Hantman
Mr. John W. Harllee, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Jay T. Harris
Mr. M.R. Harrison, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. A.D. Harrison, Jr.


Mrs. Robin W. Hartman
Mr. & Mrs. Milton H. Hatfield
Mr. & Mrs. Fred Havenick
Mr. & Mrs. Maurice B. Hawa
Mr. & Mrs. W. Hamilton Hayes
Ms. Kristin M. Hebert
Mr. & Mrs. Dale A. Heckerling
Mr, & Mrs. Steve Heistand
Dr. & Mrs. Melvin Hellinger
Mr. & Mrs. Brent L. Helms
Mr. & Mrs. Charles R Helweick
Mr. & Mrs. Edward J. Hencinski
Dr. & Mrs Jeffrey Henkls
Mr. & Mrs. John E. Hennessy
Mr. & Mrs. William Henry
Mr. & Mrs. Ivan Hemandez
Ms. Marina Hemandez &
Ms. Virginia Hernandez
Mr. & Mrs. Bernard P. Herskowitz
Mr. & Mrs Hemnan Hert, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs Gerald Hester
Mr. & Mrs. W. Warfield Hester
Mr. & Mrs. Louis Hester
Mr. Daniel C Hickory
Mr. & Mrs. Robert A. Hicks
Dr. & Mrs. Frank J. Hildner
Mr. & Mrs. Gregg R. Hinckley
Mrs. T.F. Hipps
Mr. & Mrs. Sol Hirsch
Dr. & Mrs Andy Hirschl
Mr. & Mrs. Robert A. Hittel
Mr. & Mrs. Jack Hodus
Mrs. Kenneth M. Hoeffel
Mr. Thomlon Hoelle
Mr. & Mrs. Larry J. Hoffman
Dr. & Mrs. William Hoffman
Mr. & Mrs. Lyle D. Holcomb, Jr.
MrI & Mrs. Roy Hollenbeck
Mrs. J.M. Holsenbeck
Mr. Dennis Holthaus
Mr. Clifford Hope
Mr. & Mrs. James L. Horan
Mr. & Mrs. Neal Horanstein
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Horwitz
Mr, Peter Houghton
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph B. Hourihan
Mr. D.A. House
Mr. & Mrs. J. Edward Houston
Mr. & Mrs. Ralph Husls
Mr. & Mrs. Charles L. Hunt
Mr. Robert A. Hunter
Mr. Barry D. Hunter, Esq
Mr. & Mrs. Robert J. Hutchinson
Dr. & Mrs. James J. Hutson
Ms. Christine Hynes
Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth Hynes
Ms. Cindy Ingersoil
Mr. & Mrs. Robert J. Irvin
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Iselin
Ms. Linda C. Isenhour
Mr. & Mrs. David Issenberg

Mr. Julio Izquierdo
Mr. & Mrs. Robert M. Jackson
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Jacobs
Mr. Mickey Jacobs
Mr. & Mrs. TM. Jacobsen
Dr. & Mrs. Jed Jacobson
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Jacowitz
Mr. & Mrs. Harold Jaffer
Mr. Ken Jannen
Mr. & Mrs. Koos Jansonius-Boertial
Mr. & Ms. Mark Jawalir
Mr, & Mrs. James L, Jeffers
Mr. Frank Jenkins
Mr. & Mrs. John Jensen
Mr. Steve Johns
Mr. & Mrs, Eric W, Johnson
Ms. Jean Johnson &
Ms. Bety Priscak
Mr. & Mrs. Wallen A. Johnson
Mr. & Mrs. Lyle Johnson
Mr. & Mrs. David W. Johnson
Ms. Laura Johnson
Ms. Rose Anne Johnson
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Johnson
Dr. & Mrs. Stanley Jonas
Mr. & Mrs. Bardy Jones
Mr. & Mrs. Daniel C. Jones
Dr. & Mrs. Walter C. Jones, III
Mr. & Mrs. Richard A. Jones
Mr. & Mrs. Frank E. Jones
Mr. & Mrs. Curtis L. Jones, Jr,
Dr. & Mrs. Federico Justiniani
Mr, & Mrs. S.L. Kahn, III
Dr. & Mrs. Gerard A. Kaiser
Mr. & Mrs. Martin Kalb
Ms. Kane & Mr. Kuzmack
Mr. Joel J. Karp, Esq.
Mr. Konstantine Karras
Mr. & Mrs. Neisen Kasdin
Mr. & Mrs. Hy Katz
Mr. & Mrs. William Katzker
Mr. & Mrs. Howard Katzman
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Kaufman
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Kearin
Dr. & Mrs. Paul H. Keefe
Ms. Barbara Keller &
Ms Fanny Reid
Mr. & Mrs. Patrick Kelly
Mr. Harold E. Kendall
Mr. & Mrs Charles L. Kennon, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Edward C. Keony
Dr. & Mrs. Nonmn M. Kenyon
Mr. & Mrs. CM. Keppie
Dr. & Mrs. Wayne J Knmess
Dr. & Mrs. Kenneth Keusch
Mr. & Mrs. Norman Kevers, Jr.
Mrs. Lee Keyes
Ms. Erika King & Mr. Dennis Coyle
Mrs. Mary King
Mayor & Mrs. Mitchel Kiazer
Mr. & Mrs. N. Riley Kirby

Mr. & Mrs. Morris Kirschner
Mr. & Mrs. Jonathan 1I Kislak
Ms. Judy Kligler
Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth A. Knolhman
Mr. & Mrs. Tom Knotts
Mr. & Mrs. Homer W. Knowles
Mr & Mrs, Sid Koslovsky
Mr. & Mrs. Abe Koss
Mr. & Mrs. John Kozyak
Ms. Roberta Kressel
Mr. & Mrs. Franklin D. Kreutzer
Mr. & Mrs. David A. Kroner
Mr. & Mrs. Warren Krug
Mr. Gene Kubicki
Mr. Robert Lacey
Mr. & Mrs. David E. Lair
Mr. & Mrs. Peter Laird
Mr. John Lake
Mr. Daniel Lampert, Esq.
Ms. Donna A. Lancaster
Mr. Stephen G. Lane
Mr. & Mrs. Wright Langley
Mr. Chuck Langston
Mr. & Mrs. Martin J. Lain
Mr. Steve Laps
Mr. & Mrs. Victor J. Laporta
Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence LaRusse
Ms. Linda Lasch & Mr. L. Whildin
Mr. & Mrs. Murray L. Lazarus
Mr. & Mrs. David Leblang
Mr. & Mrs. Terry R. Lee
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Lee
Mr. Douglas K. Lehman
Mr. Richard L. Lehman
Mr. Michael S. Leone
Mr. & Mrs. Paul Lester
Mr. & Mrs. Robert B. Levin
Mr. & Mrs. Stanton G. Levin
Dr. Harold Levine
Dr. & Mrs. Richard Levitt
Mr. & Mrs. Harry D. Lewis
Mr. & Mrs. Marvin Lewis
Dr. & Mrs. Sylvan R. Lewis
Mr. Robert Libeman
Dr. & Mrs. John B. Liebler
Dr. & Mrs, Norman C. Liebman
Mr. & Mrs. Norman H. Lipoff
Mr. & Mrs. Nick Lirakis
Mr. & Mrs. Leigh Livesay
Mr. Don R Livingstone
Ira & Jackie Loewy
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas F. LohBman
Mr. & Mrs. Carlos J. Lopez
Dr. & Mrs. Edward Lores
Mr & Mrs. Rafael T. Lorie
Mr. & Mrs. John Losak
Mr. & Mrs. Stan Loth
Mr, & Mrs. Juan P. Loumiet
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Lowell
Mrs. Nereida Lowery
Mr & Mm Philip F. Ludovici

Dr. & Mrs. William Ludwig
Mr. & Mrs. R. Hugh Lumpkin
Mr. & Mrs. Rafael L. Lmtig
Mr. Michael L. Lynch
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph M. Lynch
Mr. & Mrs. Richard W. Lyons
Mr. & Mrs. Robert MacDonald
Mr. & Mrs. Dave Machleid, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs, Mark Machleid, Sr,
Mr. & Mrs. James L. Mack
Mr. Peter M. MacNamara
Mr. & Mrs. Kevin A. MacNaughton
Mr. & Mrs. David L. Magidson
Ms. Magolnick & Mr. Hustead
Mr. & Mrs. Richard M. Mahoney
Mr. & Mrs. Roy R. Mahoney
Dr. & Mrs, Anthony P. Maingot
Mr. & Mrs. Allan Maisel
Ms. Violeta M. Maldonado
Mr, & Mrs. Richard H. Maloy
Dr, & Mrs. Eugene Man
Mr. & Mrs. Philip J. Mank, Jr.
Mr. Horacio Manrique
Mr. & Mrs. Dimitrios Maartos
Mr. & Mrs. Bruce Marchette
Mr & Mrs. Ralph Marianii
Mr. Michael R. Marine
Mr. & Mrs Robert Mark
Mr. & Mrs, Robert Markowitz
Dr. & Mrs Clifford Marks
Dr. & Mrs. Michael E. Mannmesh
Ms. Mary Ann Marshall
Mr. & Mrs. James Martell
Mr, & Mrs. Frank C. Martin
Mr. & Mrs. Alberto Martinez-Ramos
Mr. & Mrs. Larry Marvet
Ms. Lee Masterson
Mr. & Mrs. Parks Masterson
Mrr & Mrs. John A. Matchette
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas J. Matkov
Mr. D.W. Matson, III
Mr. & Mrs. Edward Maxwell
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Maxwell
Mr. Thomas C. Maxwell
Mr. & Mrs. Carl Maynard
Ms. Pearl McAleer
Mr. Thomas F. McAuliffe, 111
Mr, & Mrs, C. Deering McCormick
Dr. & Mrs. Doenld McCorquodale, Jr.
Dr. James W. McCready
Mr. John E. McCulloch
Mr. & Mrs. Scott McDaniel
Mr. C.R. McDowell
Mr. & Mrs. Richard M. McGarry
Mr, Patrick McGee
Mr. & Mrs. Harry E. McGovern
Mr. & Mrs. Vincent J McHugh
Ir, & Mrs. Stuart B. McIver
Mr. Alfred McKnight
Mr. John H. McManus
Dr. & Mrs. Robert A. McNaughton

Mr. & Mrs. Jack McQuale
Mr. & Mrs. R.H. McTaguec
Mr. Carl Mentzer
Mr. & Mrs. Allen Merkur
Drs, George & Elizabeth Metcalf
Mr. & Mrs. Addison J. Meyers
Dr. & Mrs. Max Millard
Mr. & Mrs. Aristides I. Millas
Dr. & Mrs. Douglas Miller
Mr. & Mrs. William 1. Miller
Mr. & Mrs. H. Dale Miller, Jr.
Ms. Eleanor Miller &
Mr. Alan Smith
Mr. & Mrs. Edward Miller
Mr. Charles W. Milner, III
Mr. & Mrs. Sanford B. Miot
Mr, & Mrs, William Mitchell
Mr Larry Mizrach
Mr. & Mrs. Lloyd L. Moeller
Mr. & Mrs. Fawdrey A. Molt
Ms, Lana Monchek
Judge & Mrs. Joseph Monsanto
Mr. & Mrs. Charles B. Monson
Ms. Karen Montano
Mr, & Mrs. Mario E. Monteagudo
Mr & Mrs. Donald R. Moore
Mr. William Moore
Mr. & Mrs. Santiago D. Morales
Dr. & Mrs. Ramon Moran
Mr. & Mrs. George L. Morat
Mr. & Mrs. Barbaro R. Moreiras
Mr. & Mrs. Sergio Moreno
Mr. Sergio R. Moreno
Mr. & Mrs. Ernest Moritz
Mr. & Mrs David M. Morris
Mr. & Mrs. A. Melvin Morris
Mr, & Mrs. Theodore Morrison
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur L. Moses
Mr. Hans C. Mueller
Mrs. Irene D. Mulcahy
Mr. Muller & Mrs. Siskind-Muller
Mr. Donald Mulligan
Mr. & Mrs Charles P. Munroe
Mr. & Mrs. Roger J. Murphy
Mr. & Mrs. Timothy J. Murphy
Mr. & Mrs. O.C. Murray
Misses Margaret & Alice Mustard
Mrs. Martha Myers
Mr. & Mrs. R. M Nagy
Mr. & Mrs. Andrew Nathan
Mr. & Mrs. Burnham S. Neill
Mr. & Mrs. Denis Nerney
Ms. Nancy Newton
Ms. Brandi Newton-Montiel
Mr. & Mrs. Frank 0. Nichols
Mr, William R. Nielsen
Mr. Manuel Nogueir
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Nolan
Mr. & Mrs. Gaillard Nolan
Mr. & Mrs. Nils Nordh
Mr. & Mrs. Colgan Norman, Jr.

List of Members 99

Mr. & Mrs. Henry Norton
Mr. & Mrs Louis Nostro
Mr. Alfred Novak
Mr. & Mrs. George A. Nuche
Mr. & Mrs. RB.P. Nuckols, Jr,
Mr. & Mrs. Ronald Nuehring
Mr. & Mrs. Eugenio F. Nunez
Mr. & Mrs. Juan C. Nunez
Mr. & Mrs. Edward T. O'Donnell
Mr. & Mrs. William O'Toole
Mr. & Mrs. Cesar Odio
Mr. John Ogden &
Ms. Maryanne Biggar
Mr. & Mrs. Gene L. Olguin
Mr. & Mrs. Dennis L Olle-
Prof. & Mrs. George Onoprienko
Mr, & Mrs. Robert L. Oppenheimer
Mr. & Mrs. Samuel Oroshuik
Mr. & Mrs. W. James Orovitz
Mr. Ramiro Ortiz
Mr. & Mrs. Amado J. Ortiz
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Osbom
Mr. & Mrs. Jim E. Osteen
Mr. & Mrs. John W. Owens
Mr. & Mrs. Francis J. Owens
Mr. & Mrs. Bill Owens
Ms. Edwina Pace
Mr. & Mrs Arnold Paklla
Ms. Carla U. Palazic
Mr. & Mrs William P. Palow
Mr. & Mrs. Robert A. Pampe
Mr. & Mrs Lester C Pancoast
Dr. & Mrs. Emanuel M Papper
Mr. & Mrs. L.R. Paretta
Mr. & Mrs Robin Parker
Mr. Austin S, Parker
Mr. & Mrs. Garth R. Parker
Dr, & Mrs. Edmund 1. Pamnes
Mr. & Mrs. Harry F. Patterson
Mr. Patti & Ms. Gordon
Mr. & Mrs. Terry Paul
Mr. Jule Paulk
Ms. Marcia Pawley &
Ms. Anita Pawley
Dr. & Mrs. G.B. Paxton, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Larry Peacock
Dr. & Mrs. Donald Pearlman
Mr. & Mrs. Grant L. Peddle
Mr. & Mrs. Marvin S. Pehr
Mr, John D. Pemnekamp, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs, Tony Perez
Mr. & Mrs Jorge J, Perez
Mr. & Mrs. Felix D. Perez
Mr. & Mrs. Rafael Perez
Mr. & Mrs. Paul Pergakis
Mr. & Mrs. Jay Perkins
Mr. & Mrs. David Perman
Mrs. Jean Perwin
Mr. & Mrs, Roderick N. Petrey
Mr. & Mrs, David E. Pettigrew
Ms. Martha J. Pierson


Mr. & Mrs. Douglas Pilzer
Mr. & Mrs. John C. Pistorino
Mr. & Mrs. Paul Plotkin
Mr. Morton Pollack &
Ms. Mary Rodriguez
Suzette & Norelle Pope
Mr. & Mrs. Carlos Portela
Mr. & Mrs. Budd Post
Mr. & Mrs. James Post
Ms. Miriam Prado &
Ms. Miriam Olazabal
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Primak
Dr. & Mrs. Eugene F. Provenzo
Mr. Orville L Provost
Mr. Peter T. Pruitt
Mr. & Mrs. L. Scott Quackenbauch
Mr. & Mrs. Herbert S. Quartin
Mr. & Mrs. Albert D. Quertel
Mr. & Mrs. Victor Quinaz
Mr, & Mrs. Francisco J. Quintana
Ms. Shula Rabin
Ms. June C. Rabin
Mr. & Mrs. William J. Rabun
Mr, & Mrs Constantine Railey
Dr. Jerrome Raim & Ms. larn Jacks
Dr. & Mrs. Salvador M. Ramirez
Mr, Edward Ramos
Mr. & Mrs. John J. Randall
Mr, & Mrs. William W. Randolph
Mr. & Mrs. Stuart M Rapee
Mr. Ratliff & Mr. Gulfoy
Mr. Mark Ravenscraft
Mr. Peter C. Ray
Mr. W. Shelby Reaves
Mr. & Mrs. Barrie T. Reed
Mr, & Mrs. Sidney Reichlaman
Dr. & Mrs. Walter B. Reid
Mr. Steve Reininger &
Ms. Lynn Damnheisser
Mr. Stephen H. Reisman
Ms. Janet Reno, Esq.
Mr. & Mrs. Lewis M. Ress
Mr. & Mrs. Juan D, Reyes
Dr. L.J. Reyna
Mr. & Mrs. Patrick Reyna
Dr. & Mrs, Milton Rhodes
Dr. & Mrs. Maurice Rich
Mr. & Mrs. Michel Richard
Ms. Joann W. Richardson
Ms. Sally M. Richardson
Mr. & Mrs. Charles E. Richter
Ms. Anne Richter
Mrs. William D. Rieder
Mr & Mrs. Richard Riegler
Mr. Felix J. Riera
Mr. & Mrs. Karsten A. Rist
Mr. Mario Rivera
Mr. & Mrs. Manuel S. Rivero
Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Roache
Mr. Ross C. Roadman
Ms. Judy Roark-Mackey

Dr. & Mrs. James A. Robb
Mr. & Mrs. Fred Roberts
Dr. & Mrs. E.G. Robertson
Mr. & Mrs. Neil P. Robertson
Dr. & Mrs. Richard C. Robins
Honorable Steven D. Robinson
Mr. & Mrs Pedro L. Roca
Mr. & Mrs. Jose L. Rodriguez
Mr. Ramon Rodriguez
Mr. & Mrs. Victor Rodriguez
Mr. & Mrs. Manny Rodriguez
Mrs. Dorothy Rodwell
Mr. & Mrs. Neil J. Rohan
Mr. & Mrs. Keith Root
Mr. & Mrs, B.H, Ropeik
Mr. & Mrs. Marvin Rosen
Dr. & Mrs. Michael Rosenberg
Mr. & Mrs. Andrew Rosenblatt
Ms. Rosenbluth & Mr. Rigl
Mr. Gary E. Rosenthal
Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey Rosinek
Ms, Alta Renee Ross
Mr. & Mrs. Donald Routh
Dr. & Mrs, Richard Rubin
Dr. & Mrsm Howard A. Rubinson
Mr. & Mrs. Read S. Ruggles, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. John R. Ruppel
Ms, Rebecca Joy Rusnak &
Mr. Ed Leithi
Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth C. Russell
Mr & Mrs. Edwin F. Russell
Mr. & Mrs. Rubens Russowsky
Mr. & Mrs. William Ryder
Mr. & Mrs. Charles P. Sacher
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph A. Sackett
Mr. & Mrs. Herbert Saffir
Mr. & Mrs. Bert Sager
Mr. & Mrs. Louis Sager
Ms. Dosha Sainm & Ms. Allyne Orr
Mr. & Mrs. A.A. Sakhnovsky
Mr & Mrs. Aturo M. Salow
Mr. & Mrs. Mike Samberg
Mr. A Mrs, E. Philip Sanford, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs, Ed Santos
Mr. & Mrs. Stephen Sapp
Dr. Sylvan Sarasohn
Mr. Barth Satuloff & Ms. Gail Jaffe
Mr. & Mrs. Stanley H. Saulson
Mr. Frank Savoldy
Mr. & Mrs. Bill Sawyer
Mr. & Mrs. John W. Schachleiter
Ms. Norah K. Schaefer
Mr. Richard L. Schanerman, Esq.
Ms. Schechtman & Mr. Sill
Mr. & Mrs Leo Scherker
Dr. & Mrs William M. Schiff
Mr. & Mrs. Melvin D. Schiller
Mr. & Mrs Irvin Schindler
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Schtagel
Mr. & Mrs. Timothy F. Schmand
Mr. & Mrs. Roy E. Schoen

Mr. & Mrs. Sol Schreiber
Mr. & Mrs. David Schulson
Mr. Thomas J. Schulte
Mr. & Mrs. Edward A Schultz
Mr. & Mrs. Mark E. Schultz
Mr. & Mrs. Allan Schwartz
Mrs. Jay R. Schwartz
Mr. & Mrs. Warren S Schwartz
Mr. & Mrs. Robert M. Schwedel
Ms. Kathy Scott & Mr. Bill Swank
Mr, & Mrs. James H. Scott
Ms. Phyllis L. Segor
Mrs. Fran Sevcik
Ms. Linda N. Severyn
Mr. & Mrs. Murray Shear
Ms. Tamara Sheffman
Mr. A Mrs. Robert J. Shelley, Ill
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Shevin
Mr. & Mrs. Leo Shey
Mr. & Mrs, Vergil A. Shipley
Mr. & Mrs. David Shipley
Dr, & Mrs. Robert W. Shippee
Mr. & Mrs. David Shoaf
Mr. & Edward R. Shohat
Mr. & Mrs. Blair Sibley
Mr. & Mrs. Mark A. Siegel
Ms. Vickie Siegel
Dr. J. Siegmeister
Mr. L. Frances Siferd
Mr. & Mrs. Roger Silver
Mr. & Mrs. Gerald Silverman
Mr, & Mrs. Saul H. Silverman
Mr. A Mrs. Eli Silverman
Ms. Elizabeth Silverman
Ms. Susan Silverstein
Mr. & Mrs. Larry Simon
Mr. Joe Simon
Judge Jose Simonet A
Ms. Rema Comras
Mr. & Mrs. Ron Simpson
Mr. & Mrs. Howard W. Sims
Dr. & Mrs. Joseph A. Singer
Dr. & Mrs. Glen 0. Skaggs
Mr. & Mrs. William G. Slater
Mr. & Mrs. Donald Slesnick, II
Mr. John Stiman
Mr. & Mrs. Mike Sloan
Mr. & Mrs. Michaei C Slotnick
Mr. Robert C. Slover
Mr. & Mrs. Chesterfield Smith, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs McGregor Smith, Jr,
Mr. & Mrs Thomas W. Smith
Mr. & Mrs. William H. Smith, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Steven Smith
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur V. Smith
Mr. & Mrs. Jerry M Smith
Mr. & Mrs. James M. Snedigar
Dr. & Mrs. Seiig D. Snow
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph J. Sobodowski
Mr. & Mrs. Howard Socol
Mr. & Mrs. Lester Sob

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