Front Cover
 Historical Association of Southern...
 Diary of an unidentified land official,...
 My life in south Florida
 Newspaper pioneering on the Florida...
 Life in Palm Beach County, Florida,...
 List of members
 Back Cover

Title: Tequesta
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101446/00043
 Material Information
Title: Tequesta
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Historical Association of Southern Florida
Publisher: (multiple)
Publication Date: 1983
Copyright Date: 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101446
Volume ID: VID00043
Source Institution: Historical Museum of Southern Florida
Holding Location: Florida International University: Florida History and Heritage
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 2096319
lccn - 42015131
issn - 0363-3705


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Historical Association of Southern Florida
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Diary of an unidentified land official, 1855
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    My life in south Florida
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Newspaper pioneering on the Florida east coast, 1891-1895
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Life in Palm Beach County, Florida, 1918-1928
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    List of members
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Back Cover
        Page 93
        Page 94
Full Text


CharltonW. Tebeau
Associate Editors
Arva Moore Parks Dr. Thelma P Peters



Diary of an Unidentifed Land Official, 1855 5
Edited by Wright Langley and Arva Moore Parks

My Life in South Florida 25
By Edna Morris Harvey

Newspaper Pioneering on the Florida
East Coast, 1891-1895 51
By Ruby Andrews Myers

Life in Palm Beach County, Florida, 1918-1928 63
Part 1: Engineering and Farming

From Noah Kellum Williams' "Grandpop's Book"
Edited, with an introduction, by Charlton W Tebeau

List of Members 77


t(7~ is published annually by the Historical Association of Southern
Ire eitA Florida. Communications should be addressed to the Corresponding
I Secretary of the Society, 3280 South Miami Avenue, Miami, Florida
33129. The Association does not assume responsibility for statements of fact or opinions
made by contributors.

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document

Historical Association of Southern Florida, Inc.


James W Apthorp
Linda Sears D'Alemberte
First Vice President
Marcia J. Kanner
Second Vice President
Kathy Ezell
Joseph H. Pero, Jr.

Charlton W Tebeau, Ph.D.
Editor Tequesta
Arva Moore Parks
Associate Editor Tequesta
Thelma Peters, Ph.D.
Associate Editor Tequesta
Marie Anderson
Editor Update
Randy F Nimnicht
Executive Director


B.J. Amsparger
Dorothy J. Fields
Joseph H. Fitzgerald, M.D.
Ray Fleites
Ronald E. Frazier
Joseph R. Grassie
Marshall S. Harris
Robert C. Hector
E. Anthony Infante
Stephen A. Lynch, III
C.T. McCrimmon
R. Layton Mank

David Mesnekoff
Dana M. Moss
D. Alan Nichols
Tom Pennekamp
Raul Rodriguez
William E. Sadowski
Richard Simonet
Barbara E. Skigen
Samuel S. Smith
Sara Laxson Smith
Vivian P. Smith
Sandra Graham Younts

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document

Diary of an Unidentified

Land Official, 1855

Key West to Miami

Edited by Wright Langley
and Arva Moore Parks


In 1979, Wright Langley, Director of the Historic Key West Preservation
Board found a brief, longhand, 1855-56 diary among the William Henry
Wills Papers in the Southern Historical Collection, Library of the Univer-
sity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The unknown diarist wrote of his
visit to Key West, the Florida Keys, Miami and Tampa, and recorded his
impressions of the people he met and the events he observed. Realizing the
importance of the account, Mr. Langley contacted Miami historian, Arva
Moore Parks, and Tampa historian, Gary Mormino, to aid in the editing of
the diary. The Tampa section will be published in the 1984 Tequesta.
Unfortunately, the author remains unidentified. Yet from his account
we know that he was tall, proud, fastidious, poor but educated and came
from a cold climate-possibly from Great Britain. He disliked the military
establishment, was religious, liked to read and wrote well.
The author found Key West an exciting seaport in 1855. Shouts of
"Wreck Ashore" echoed along the waterfront-a ship had gone aground
on the nearby reef. Transplanted Bahamians sailed to save lives and remove
the valuable cargo which they brought to Key West for disposition by the
Federal Court that regulated the wrecking trade.
Between 1848 and 1859 at least 618 ships were salvaged from the
Florida Reef- wrecking was the major industry of the island. In between


salvaging wrecked vessels the crews fished, turtled and harvested sponge
from the rich ocean bottom.
For most of Key West's history, the military was also a part of island
life. In 1855, the yet unfinished Fort Taylor dominated the waterfront and
naval vessels made Key West a frequent port of call.
The year 1855 was also the peak year for salt production an
enterprise brought over from the Bahamas. Saltwater trapped in ponds
produced highly valuable salt as the sun evaporated the moisture. Produc-
tion ranged from 40,000 bushels to 75,000 bushels in 1855.
By 1860 Key West had grown to the largest and wealthiest city in
Florida with a population that had increased from 517 in 1830 to 2913 just
three decades later. It was truly South Florida'a gateway city, the first stop
for those wishing to go on to Miami.
There hardly was a Miami in 1855. The Miami post office was still a
year away and scarcely twenty-five people called Miami home. In fact,
only eleven heads of households were recorded in the 1850 Census and six
of these were of foreign birth.
The author of the diary arrived in Miami only 25 days after the Army
re-activated Fort Dallas after a five years absence. Florida's frontier settlers,
including those in Miami, had been pressuring the Government to deal
with what they called the "Indian menace" by either removing the Indians
to the West, or exterminating them.
The acknowledged leader of the small Miami settlement was former
New Yorker, George Washington Ferguson, who had lived in the area for
ten years and had attained some wealth from the large scale manufacture
of comptie starch. In 1855, the five electors unanimously elected him their
representative to the Legislature.
The author of the diary met most of the people who lived on or near
the Miami River. It is interesting to note, however, that within ten years
everyone except John Adams would be gone. Indian problems and the Civil
War ultimately drove the settlers who had options to other places. Ferguson
moved permanently to Key West where he attained both wealth and position
and lived out the rest of his life in comfort.

Diary of an Unidenfied Land Official 7

Key West to Miami

January 22. Morning and wind coming from Norwest. I walked out early
and the first news I heard was the steamship Isabel had gone ashore last
night near the lighthouse. The wreckers were going helter-skelter in every
direction as it was seen from the steeple that a ship was in distress. Such a
catastrophe appears to be the main spring of action among these people.
They live by it, and it is the first thing at sunrise and the last at sunset for
them to look out for a wreck. Salvage is what prompts them to go forward
with such zeal. Philanthropy or a spirit of benevolence has nothing what-
ever to do with it.
The mail was received by the Isabel' and every one seems interested
in it except those who are in pursuit of salvage on the steamer. The mail
does not come here but twice a month which is not often enough for a man
who has been accustomed to its daily visitations. Visitors suffer very much
on account of the isolated condition of the place as regard to mail.
Doctor Baradargue called to see me again this morning. He seems to
be determined to leave here and go to some place where he will not be
subjected to the caprices of ... this people. The Isabel got off about 12
o'clock and I hear she is not injured in the least will go on to Havana
tomorrow morning. Received an invitation to a Ball, to be given by the
officers of the Man of War Princeton by the citizens tomorrow evening.
After dinner I walked out to look at the town. It is situated on the
North end of the island which is oblong. The streets are narrow and the
buildings have an old antiquated appearance. Some residences are beautiful
and the grounds about them well laid out and set in evergreens, flowers and
rose bushes. The principal shade is the cocoa which is planted in groves
and circles around the residences and is upon the whole a luxuriant and
beautiful tree. The fruit is upon them now in various stages of growth and
the yield appears to be heavy. Large bunches come out together near the
top from which the leaves spring and it presents to the eyes of the beholder
a distinct species having peculiar characteristics. There are other ever-
greens growing on the island and many different kinds highly cultivated.
Among them the oleander ranks first in my estimation. The rose in full
bloom and various other flowers together with the appearance of vegetables
on the table causes me to feel like I am in the midst of summer, and yet I
know it is January. What a change would my mother and sisters experience
if they could only be here now a few days: where they [are] another rose
has lost all of its lovely characteristics its leaves and roses gone. The


trees [have lost] their foliage and all is dreary and cold; while here there is
every evidence to ones senses of the presence of summer, in fact it is
summer and is always so. Frost, snow and ice never can chill vegetation
here and cause it to put on its robes of mourning and thus fall to the ground.
Police regulations must be very defective here. Several fights occurred
today and yesterday among the sailors who have been permitted to come
ashore. One man was severely beaten for stealing this morning and I should
not be surprised at any time to hear of more mischief in that line and
perhaps burning the city will be resorted to. Several grog shops appear to
be liberally encouraged and almost every store has a supply in bottles
which can be vended without a license. With much provisions for the
manufacture of the degraded sot-the vogue. The seaman's... the ... and
... with sufficient material to operate on can anyone wonder at any outrages
that may be perpetrated in the town. Stayed in my room close all the
evening to avoid the chilling wind from the north. Conversed some with
Mr. Ferguson about Miami which he describes as an interesting country.
He is the most sensible man I've seen since I came to this place. Has lived
10 years on the coast in great seclusion surrounded only by a few laborers
and his family. Says the thermometer averages 72 degrees in winter and 76
in summer. The change has been sudden and severe in the weather.
Yesterday it was too hot today it is too cold.
January 23. Morning clear and cool and calm. Summer breeze from
Noreast. The heavy gales subsided during the night and now vessels go to
sea with safety and several sail vessels left early in the morning. After
breakfast I walked among the stores to look for shoes and bought two pair
of shoes, one for every day and one for special occasions and an Italian
scarf. The whole cost me $7.75 which is about 40 per cent more than it
ought to have been. My poverty ... conditions and resources were all
presented to my mind when I was buying, but I could not decide to dress
in accordance with my limited means. Pride has something to do with my
decisions and I fear I have too much of it remaining. Gentlemen ought to
appear decent on all occasions and when one's profession carries him as
mine does into respectable circles it is expected he should appear dressed
in accordance with his profession and not his means. Such vices have
operated on me for sometimes and I have often felt bad when I was not
dressed as one should be. While I was out a ticket of admission to the ball
was handed me which I suppose will be given to the door keeper. After
dinner I walked out to the wharf and met with Doctor Badaraque who
seemed to be always glad to see me. While there a government vessel
bound for Tortuguas, where the government is building a fort, hoisted sail

Diary of an Unidentified Land Official 9

and went out most beautifully We then took a walk along several streets on
the island, earnestly engaged in conversation about the power and influence
exercised by Mr. Adams2 (the Episcoplian minister of the place) in his
behalf. He honestly believes Mr. Adams has done all he can for him, which
may be true, but I assured him he could not do anything to remove the
prejudices of the Holy Alliance, as it is called, against him based as it was
on his infirmities. I told him the wealthy people of this island belonged to
his church and they are generally more unfeeling and unjust than the
middle class. The first rich has ... to be influenced by interest and never
suffer their sympathies or sense of justice to interfere with them, in the
least, in their conduct toward their fellow man, while on the other hand,
the middle class is interested so often by high and holy notions, they lose
sight in part of self and go forward to the support of a fellow being and will
administer all the consolation in their power in the time of affliction. We
walked and talked till night -saw many pretty things and many very tasty
residences. Some of the grounds have been laid off in circles, semi-circles,
triangles and quadrangles with little walks as hard and clean looking as a
floor. The houses are set in flowers, roses, evergreens and shrubs and the
whole shaded by cocoa trees. I returned to my room and saw in the street a
great... between the men of the Princeton and some of the citizens. Some
of them were taken to the Calaboose and the remainder left drinking and
carousing about the streets. They are like wild men running here and there
to see where they can get the most liquor. All of them appear to be young
Irishmen and seem to think "this is a free country": Some of them are still
beating the drum and making a noise after it. I was much amused at an
Irish sailor's prayers when he left the island this morning. "The Lord be
praised and I am leaving this place now, and I hope I shall never see it any
more." Suppose he had been an ... and was in some way unfortunate. The
ball opens at 9 o'clock and I have made up my mind to stay away.
24th. Morning clear and very pleasant. Wind E. Walked out after
breakfast and went to a wharf, where I found a sickly looking old man
fishing. He was all patience and seemed to be determined to wait till it
suited the fish to bite. Sometimes they bite rapidly when the tide and wind
is right but now they refused to take hold of the hook and the piece of
turtle's liver on it. I left the old man and returned to my room where I
amused myself reading a trashy novel Lamp Lighter It was evidently written
by some religious person who thinks it is just and proper to continue a holy
thing with an unholy aim in the shape of romance to maidens. The holy are
more acceptable to the mind of the reader. But this is a sad mistake and
should not be encouraged by Christian Churches. Religion and politics,


romance and religion should be kept for us separate because in this country
they are discordant materials and cannot be intermixed without injuring
both. Gertrude True Flint and Emily Graham are good characters and then
there is Willie Sullivan too good to appear natural-all of them guided by
Heavenly light along the true path. The book is not well written and
deficient in description of scenes, etc.
In the evening I walked out again and saw a vessel discharging just in
from New York. From there I sauntered along the coast, looked at some of
the Coral rock on which this island is said to be based and finally reached
an eminence where I could see the sunset. It was then almost 10 minutes
high and the nearer it approached the water the more distinct did its ring
become till at length it touched and then went slowly down leaving half,
one quarter and then a ball the ring never being lost was all that was left.
That soon left and then the reflection on the clouds was most beautiful. My
feelings became very romantic while I gazed on the scene and I almost
imagined myself really happy. The sun now gone shone on those I love but
a few short hours before had lighted up this pathway and would soon return
to them again. I strolled further on and saw more pretty flowers which
always exercise an influence over me. They soften the asperities of my
nature and in every way render me more comfortable. The sailors and Man
of War's men are drunk carousing and producing a general disturbance.
Understand the ball went off well last night and the officers have determined
to give the citizens a ball next week. Am told wine and eggs sell very high
namely eggs $1.25 per dozen.
25th. Morning pleasant and clear. Wind So. After breakfast I walked
down to see the mail boat which runs between this place and the Miami
River, on the east side of the peninsula. I found it a small schooner and
without any accommodations for a sick man, which caused me to think
strongly of declining my trip to Miami on her. I ascertained she would start
about 2 o'clock and went back to my room. She is called Charles and
Edward after sons of the deputy collector, Mr. Howe.3 1 staid about the
house all morning after my walk and was deeply pained by being asked by
my landlord to see his child, which was suffering most intensely from
convulsions. He informed me that the disorder is common on the island
and children rarely ever live through them. It was an aggravated form of
the disease in which part of the functions were suspended for several
minutes, during the convulsion and the convulsions were without the
intervals usual in our country. The poor child was lying on the lap of its
nurse apparently dead, when I went in, which condition lasted several
minutes, then a cold sweat came out, it revived, looked to be alive again a

Diary of an Unidentified Land Official 11

few short minutes and passed again into the same convulsive condition.
Doctor Jones,4 its medical attendant, intended using chloroform as a final
resort which must fail in affecting a cure because it is too far gone and
congestion is too extensive.
After dinner I packed my trunk paid my bill and sent my trunk to the
vessel. The Capt. seemed to be indisposed to start and argued many
objections to it which were combatted by Mr. Ferguson and after some
short talk from him he hoisted sail about 1/2 past 4 and we were driven by
the breeze away from the wharf at a rapid rate. The Isabel ran in just as we
started. As soon as everything got steady all hands went down below and
changed clothes which changed the appearance of the crowd very much.
They were fixed then for seafaring life and entered upon its duties with a
degree of smartness. About dark the Isabel passed us again on her way to
Charleston and now we were getting away from the city at a rapid rate and
each man looked around for the night to usher in her difficulties. I found
we had 5 passengers on board one of whom detained us some time to go
up town to get his kitten which caused me to have very little patience with
him. Supper came on, which was a rough one made up of tea, bread and
some boiled beef, ham and butter and a due proportion of dirt. At bed time
the two sailors commenced singing some hymns which I enjoyed very
much. They sang an old one "0 for a Closer Walk with God" which
seemed to be better than it ever was before. The Captain carried the bass
and the other two the tenor; and upon the whole the music was capital
improved perhaps by the circumstance roaring of the sea. About 10
o'clock the Captain cast anchor and I went down below to get some sleep.
My fellow passengers had been generous with me. They had taken the
floor and left me one of the bunks which was hard wood on which the flag
of U.S. was spread, then a hearth rug and blanket. This was my bed and I
prepared myself to use it by buttoning on my overcoast close around me
and then lying down just so for the night. Some of the passengers were
already snoring and there I laid tossed about by the vessel till a late hour
before sleep forced itself on me.
26th. About light Mr. Ferguson rose and took the liberty of starting
the Capt. and his hands. The anchor was raised, sails hoisted and we were
driven by a good breeze rapidly through the water. The morning was fair
- wind S.W. the Capt. took course outside of the Keys which was very
rough and before breakfast hour I was quite seasick. He threw out a large
hook for Kingfish which he said caught them as the vessel went along. The
little islands or Keys are very near each other the most of them small and
not suited to cultivations. Am informed they extend along the coast one


hundred fifty miles. My seasickness was too great for breakfast to be
endured in my sight or even thought of. At 11 o'clock the Capt. ran
between two Keys and passed in between the Keys and the mainland where
the water was smooth and the vessel glided along without much motion.
Before dinner my seasickness was all gone and I felt as though I could eat;
but oh, that man who cooked was so filthy in preparing it I could hardly
look at it. He stirred the hominy with a stick of wood, washed the dishes
with his black hand, wiped the knives and forks with a black dish cloth and
smoked a short chalk pipe, as long as a man's finger, all the time he was
cooking. The dinner was announced and each man came to his place out
on deck. The table was a huge board spread on the cabin lengthwise and
each side had two plates. Soup was first served made of boiled beef and
rice. Boiled beef was then passed around butter and bread and pepper
sauce. Some of the passengers made a hearty meal not withstanding the
filth, etc. During the evening I read Quinten Matays an old novel I found on
board. It was a good thing to kill the tedium of the afternoon and I stuck to
it close till we arrived at Indian Key. A boat came alongside and all hands
went ashore to walk around the island for exercise. It has been cleared up a
long time and was once the place of a bloody tragedy. The Indians murdered
nearly every man and woman and child on it, pillaged the stores and burnt
the houses. Only one or two escaped5 to tell the sad tale and since then the
place had never been inhabited by more than one or two families. It was
once quite a flourishing village and a depot for the wreckers, now it has
two young men connected with the Coast Survey6 who have been stationed
there to take the height of the tides every 1/2 hour during the day. The state
of the barometer, the thermometer and hydrometer is reported in connection
with the tides and the whole is expected to have a bearing on navigation
around the reefs. Suppose they must lead a lonesome life though sails may
be seen every hour in the 24 going north or south and the smaller class of
vessels stop in the harbor, particularly sponge getters and wreckers. Had
forgotten we passed a wreck during the day which excited our Capt. very
much and caused him to bear towards it and to calculate the salvage, etc. It
proved to be a vessel loaded with salt and it had been gotten off before we
saw her. The wreckers had discovered and claimed her early in the morning
and here one may say that man's avarice is turned to a good account. It
causes wreckers to lie all along the coast near the reefs ready to go to the
assistance of the distressed: but they had as well be a total as a partial
wreck. Salvage commissions costs, etc., takes nearly all the cargo. Our
little craft laid in the harbor all night and the wind blew very hard.
27th. Morning very cold-think it rained some last night. Wind N.W.

Diary of an Unidentified Land Official 13

We raised sail and anchor about eight and passed outside the Keys again
about two o'clock. Near Key Largo found the vessel in a calm which
continued till near midnight. No one knows how disagreeable a calm is till
he tries it. Learned that the island [Key Largo] is about 30 miles long, has
some good land on it and one settlement Believe it would be a good
place for sea island cotton. The Capt. concluded he would try and run all
night and didn't stop till about 3 o'clock in the morning. Anchored then in
Caesar's Creek.
28th. Morning clear and cold. Wind N.W. Another calm about 10
o'clock. The breeze blew up afresh from the S.W. and we sailed along at a
rapid rate until the vessel ran into Biscayne Bay which is beautiful and thro
it to the mouth of the river where the soldiers were stationed.7 Uncle Sam's
officers came aboard to get their mail and our men ... and very much
about the boat to go ashore. They are all Bahamians and Methodists and
do not like to do any sort of work on the Sabbath. Am told a large number
reside in Key West and that most of them were in the Methodist Church
and that they were the descendants of Tories who ran from the Carolinas
during the War of the Revolution. The river is very narrow and has about 4
ft. of water at its mouth. On one side is the military post formerly settled
by Mr. English" and the other side is an old residence formerly occupied
by Mr. Duke' of Tampa. On the right bank going in there are a large
number of cocoanut trees and the tents of the troops are scattered over
about 3 acres of ground a part of which has been cultivated in limes. Am
told several old places along the coast have an abundance of limes growing
and some bananas and sugar cane.
Mr. Ferguson got a boat and some ... to row his goods to his place
and he and I were soon off. The water soon became deep, the river wider
and the banks lower. The growth along the banks is the most singular one I
ever met with. Have seen it before but not so perfect as it is here. It is a tree
from 10 to 20 feet high with limbs like any other tree from which are sent
down a great number of feelers, they are called so here, or braces which
take hold on the bottom and grow in size as the tree advances. 'Tis by these
feelers the tree is supported but the strange and unaccountable feature
about the tree is the disposition of the limbs given off from the main limbs
to turn to feelers. Or if they turn up to assume all the characters of a limb.
The feelers have no leaves nor short twigs coming out from them whilst the
limbs coming out are on opposite sides of the same stem have leaves,
flowers and bear fruit. In a short time we landed at Mr. Ferguson's Cumpty
[sic] Mill which is built of palmettoes interwoven between a slender frame
work and situated on the west bank of the stream. There are several little


houses around his mill and on the hill side above covered with palmetto
leaf. The front of the house has a fine garden full of Irish potatoes and other
vegetables in the most luxuriant state of growth."' He carried me up to his
house and introduced me to his family composed of his wife and six
children- four girls and two boys--all healthy, fine looking children." In
fact the girls are pretty and rosy very rosy ladies and upon the whole it
appears to be the most interesting family I've met in East Florida.
29th. The morning calm and pleasant enough for summer clothes. I
walked before breakfast and found abundance of Coral Rock in every
direction through the woods in some places so abundant the earth could
not be seen. It is a singular rock [which] resembles in places large sponges
very coarse-in others looks like honey combs and in others has a indistinct
outline like an animal. Around the house it is so thick soil can scarcely be
obtained for cultivation. Mr. Ferguson has filled it up so as to make terraces
around the hill and thus prevent the soil from washing off. He has done an
immense deal of unprofitable work on his lot of ground, enough to have
fenced and reduced 80 acres of common land free of stones to cultivate.
He has enclosed at least 6 acres of this stony hammock land which must
have cost him at least $600.00 and his crops on it are not worth more then
a good interest on the money. His great industry deserves a better reward
but one cannot feel much for a man who works so hard when a little sober
reflection would teach him it would turn out badly. He needs someone to
direct his energies but thus he is so self conceited one cannot tell him
anything he did not know before, or had not thought of some thing better.
His house and his mill for grinding arrowroot show clearly what kind of
mind he has. On the side of the stream he has built a two story house for
his mill which is weather bound and covered with palmetto leaves and
adjoining he has another for a store house built of the same material. In the
first his machinery, constructed after his own ideas, is placed, which
exhibits originality and some mechanical skill, A master wheel, 7 feet
across propelled by the weight of a small horse on top of it, to which he is
carried and altered by a small inclined plane from the hillside, drives his
corn mill the rollers which crush the root-the buckets which elevate the
water and empties it into a cylinder in which the root is washed, and several
other small pieces of machinery difficult to describe. The whole appears to
have been constructed in great haste and is rough and wants durability.'2 In
the other house he has boxes for receiving the arrowroot and starch when it
is ground and now he is removing all these things to make a temporary
place for a few goods he bought to sell to the soldiers. His dwelling is
equally singular. It has one large room in the centre and around it several

Diary of an Unidentfied Land Official 15

Courtesy of Elsie Ferguson Arnold
George Washington Ferguson

sheds and porches built of palmetto. The kitchen stands just in the rear of
the dwelling-it is made of wood covered with shingles and has a chimney
-the only fire place on the premises. A smoke house, barn and stables and
shed and a fowl house are all built after the fashion of the mill. The fowl
house is enclosed by a good fence and they are kept in one place. A hog
house has also been erected at much expense as though it was necessary to


protect the hogs from snows, sleet, etc. All of the ground around the house
is laid off in squares and has walks made of rock leading in every direction
through it. Irish potatoes seem to be the principal crop though he has
turnips, radishes, bananas, sweet potatoes, cocoas and plantains growing
on it. Onions, potatoes, sweet, do not appear to do well in the climate and
from what I hear oranges and beans seem very uncertain. Limes and
lemons do very well. Everything I've seen about the premises cause me to
feel sorry for the man who has done so much labor for such a poor profit
and to feel curious to know more about him.'3 During the day, Mr. Ferguson
was busily engaged opening and fixing up his goods. I walked out morning
and evening and saw some hammock land which is too mucky for any use
and some prairies too poor for cultivation with a singular soil which looks
and feels much like soap. In the evening I killed a large bald eagle and the
good old dame stript it of its feathers to preserve for use. The daughters,
who had been engaged all day in housekeeping appeared in the evening as
neat as they did on Sunday and I find them quite interesting. After supper
we gathered around one table on which two oil lamps were burning part
sewing and part reading the late papers.
30th. Morning clear. Wind east which I am told is the prevailing one
here in the summer. Mr. Ferguson went to work among his potatoes and I
took a long walk. Mr. Bissell14 of Ohio called about 11 o'clock and they
went off to look at some land. Lieut. Morris'-' called in the morning which
caused the ladies to get on their Sundays in quick time. The appearance of
an officer appears to create quite a sensation in this quiet family. Wonder if
the ladies feel flattered by this attention. Will see more in a few days. In
the evening I wrote some letters and while engaged at it heard another
excitement among the ladies and in a short time heard some officers come
in and then a general merry laugh and that went on till they left. Did not
see any of them and do not desire their acquaintance. Am told they manifest
some curiosity about the tall gentleman, but I am determined not to gratify
them by becoming acquainted with them. Do not believe in making or
cultivating the acquaintance of any man or set of men unless I can associate
with them on terms of equality which is impossible with the arrogant, self
conceited, military men of the regular Army. They are generally dictatorial
and over bearing in their intercourse which may be the result of habit.
Hope it is. After my letter was closed I walked again but was driven back
by the clouds which looked very much like rain. A large number of letters
were put up and sent off by mail which leaves here North and South once a
month. Key West South and Indian River North. Indian River mail is
carried on foot along the sea beach. '

Diary of an Unidentified Land Official 17

31st. It rained some during the night and now it is raining in torrents.
Wind blowing a perfect gale from the noreast and thunder heard for such
cold weather. Breakfast was very late, and the rain increased, the wind too,
and the house commenced leaking, particularly the palmetto part. About
10 it held up raining and Mr. Ferguson went out to plant some cabbage
plants. Early ... do best. After 12 the wind blew a perfect gale all the
evening and it rained and turned very cold. I could not help feeling for the
tent holders at the mouth of the river and think of the dangers of the reefs
during such a gale, vessels couldn't keep off them if they are near, for they
couldn't live an hour among them. I felt the want of a fireplace all the
evening and was compelled to wrap up to keep warm. It cleared off alrnight
but the wind continued to blow. The Ferguson ladies drew around the fire
light and commence their sewing which was continued till bed time. Mr.
Ferguson and I chatted about the railroad to Femandina and the geography
of Fla. The wind whistled around the house as it does in our country in
March and nearly as cold.
Feb. 1st. Clear and cold wind noreast. Caught cold and find my cough
troublesome. Walked out with gun and went into Mr. Marshall's'7 hammock
where I saw some very rich alluvial soil but no game. Don't believe there
is anything larger than doves to shoot in this country. Returned about 11
o'clock. In the evening it clouded up again which caused me to walk around
the house in the hammocks and pine woods. The hammock growth differs
very much from any I've seen. Very little live oak-no magnolias. The air
plant grows in great abundance in the oak and other trees. During the
afternoon several officers called on the young ladies and their arrival
created quite a sensation in the family. When they left I heard the young
ladies giving an account of what they said in turn to their mother which
seemed to be very pleasing to all parties. Hope they will not have anything
to keep secret from their mother. After supper I ascertained the family has
not been living here but two years out of the ten and that they looked
forward to a removal with much pleasure. The females say they can't stand
such seclusions. About night the wind ceased.
Feb. 2nd. Morning clear and cold wind in same quarter said to be
unusual season in this country. The family took the boat and went down to
the mouth and I took my gun and walked out but didn't find anything to
shoot. I saw good lands and was in sight of Mr. Marshall's house who lived
above the forks of the river. His house is a wide palmetto structure and he
lives there as a bachelor. In afternoon Mr. Ferguson mounted his little
ponies and away we went to-the everglades. The country is so rocky I found
it difficult for the ponies to get along. We passed several little improvements


which had been deserted by the former occupants and length stopped at
Mr. John Adams'"' on the margin of the everglades. The gentlemen were
engaged grinding the cumpty root on a hand mill, which appeared to be
severe labor. Their houses are like all the rest, built of palmetto, and their
garden is without a fence. They carried me into the garden place where I
found a good variety of vegetables growing and the most luxuriant pumpkin
vines I ever saw, which, I am told bear a better pumpkin than common and
more of them. One of the gentlemen invited me into his kitchen which had
all the appearances of a bachelor life about it. The pork was hanging on a
nail over the fireplace, dish rags thrown about and everything else was
helter-skelter over the rooms. There are three brothers living together as
bachelors and they seem by hard work to get on tolerable well. They are
from Germany and speak poor English. One of them was educated for a
minister. I found they were doing a poor business in making cumpty and
that it yields now a greater amount of yellow refuse than usual which is
attributed to the excessive drought. Am told however, that 200 pounds can
be made a week which is worth $12. This will do well for a week's work of
one hand if they could continue all the year but in the summer they must
suspend operations. We rode off towards the everglades and were soon in
full view of them. My conceptions of the everglades were not correct and
I was completely surprised to see such beauty and extent of scenery as
open upon my eyes when I reached them. They are like an immense sea
with green grass growing over the surface of the water and islands covered
with hammock growth here and there as far as the eyes can see. The whole
field of vision then is filled by a large prairie with islands of different sizes
and shapes. At least it appears to be a prairie high and dry till you go into
it. Then it is found to be covered with water and here and there deep
enough to navigate with small boats. Some boats have gone into them 50
miles and might have gone further. The soil is said to be rich but I noticed
in some places that it was very poor and has a white sandy foundation.
Around the outside it is dry and sometimes nearly all the water dries off,
but during the rainy season it is overflowing and the water is very deep
which rises in the summer. Am told the islands are fertile and well adapted
to cocoa trees and other tropical fruits. The poor Indians have them in
possession and have succeeded in making their support off of them but
active preparations are going on to dispossess them of these little spots.
Where will they go then- time must show. After riding for some time I
discovered the general appearance was the same that the only variety in the
scenery is in the shape of the islands which caused me to propose our
return. We traveled over the same road back and at sunset were at home

Diary of an Unidentified Land Offcial 19

again. Mr. Duke and Dr. Barron'9 [sic] were on a visit to the ladies and I
received an introduction to the Doctor who is a grand looking man, though
his face is disfigured by his beard. After supper all hands wrapped up and
seated around the table commenced those usual evening tasks. The old
woman says she must have a stove.
3rd. Morning clear and calm. Wind rose about 9 o'clock and blew
from the Norwest. After breakfast we ran over to see Doctor Barron who
is a Virginian by birth. Found him in his garden at work with an old cloth
cap and very ragged pants made of cotton and a shirt of the same kind. He
apologized for his disahabille when he received us into his house. Mrs.
Barron came in a short time who I found to be a German lady of some
beauty, grace and dignity. Suppose she is an educated woman from what I
heard and saw. The Doctor and I soon got into a conversation about his
country. He said he thought settlements were 200 years in advance of the
country that certain great changes were going on and advancements made
every year towards the stage of perfection it must ultimately attain. That it
was of recent formation no one could doubt and consequently before it can
be perfected certain great natural changes have to take place. The heavy
coating of vegetable matter found in the hammocks now in the condition
of peat going as low down as the rocks. The character of the rocks and the
disintegration constantly going on in there, he mentioned as evidences of
the rapid advance going on in the country towards that perfection it must
attain. He believes that peninsular Fla. is the top of a mountain. That the
upheaving of the earth first formed it, then it was submerged, received its
coral covering, was again upheaved by some central submarine force which
is still going on and that ultimately it must become higher. That it is a
mountain he says is proved by the soundings made by the Coast Survey and
which go down the sides gradually till the water becomes an immeasurable
depth in the Gulf and Gulf Stream, then gradually goes off into plains
towards the island of Cuba. He says there are abundant evidences of great
heat in the earth around him that he has collected a number of facts to
prove it. Can show a great many evidences all around him which he found
since he came to the place. One of them he showed me near his door, which
is nothing more than a vein of crystalized lime rock in which he says the
heat has been greater than in the rock around it. The everglades he says
were formed by a submarine volcano. That he can find a thousand evi-
dences of it around the margin of them and doubts not that the process is
still going on. We then walked to see his grounds and first went to his
punch bowl, as he calls it, which is a large basin dug out underneath the
bluff of rock on which the house is located. It is filled by water from the


rock and supplies a large quantity. I drank some of it but did not like it, it is
too full of lime. The situation is the most romantic one I've seen and was
evidently selected by this singular man on that account. It is a high bluff of
coral rock some 20 feet above the bay which serves a view of the large bay,
its islands and coast and by the aid of glass a part of the Gulf Stream. Am
told it was originally settled by a Mr. Taylor20 who cultivated successfully
sea island cotton for several years. It was not occupied when he settled it
and now a good deal of it is grown up in limes and sour oranges. He has no
one to help him work and consequently the place is not adorned and
beautified by art. Saw a few rose bushes are growing about in the holes of
the rock and they are heaving down under the heavy burden of beautiful
roses rich in colour and fresh and fragrant more so than common.
Saw a few geraniums are doing well and look greener than is usual in our
country From the house we went to the garden where the Doctor was
engaged digging potatoes when we rode up, lemons, bananas, limes,
cabbage and potatoes are growing in the garden and everything seems to
be growing in a fissure or in holes in the rock. The Doctor showed me how
he got the potatoes out of the holes and assured me he frequently turned
out more than he could put back in the hole. This may seem untrue, but I
saw it and was satisfied.
Around the house seems to be all rock (Coral) with a level surface.
Thought disintegration has produced holes, cavities, fissures in the rock in
which there is a small quantity of very rich earth where potatoes and every
other plant appears to find the proper nutrients. In some instances these
holes are round and two feet in diameter which yield a large number of
potatoes. Am told 150 bushels can be raised to the acre in this rock. All the
rock in the country is of the same character and looks more like coarse
sponges than anything else I know in nature. It lies in places below the
surface and in others in a level and forms the surface and in others it juts
out above like stumps in new land.
I left this singular place and its more singular inhabitants feeling truly
sorry for Mrs. Barron whose life of seclusion appears to be weighing on
her mind and spirits so heavily One can see written in legible character in
her face. This is truly an example of love, self sacrificing for the promotion
of her husband's happiness and comfort. I fear, however, she does not get
the reward she is entitled to. Her husband is a hypochondriac, a misanthrope
and very whimsical-at least I think so; and to be confined to such a man
without seeing any other face for a year is sufficient to cause a social being
and person with keen sensibilities and faculties for society to shudder at its
contemplation much less. We got back at 12 o'clock.

Diary ofan Unidentified Land Official 21


1. The Isabel, owned by Messrs. Mordecai & Co., of Charleston was an eleven
hundred ton steamer that traveled between Charleston and Key West from 1848 until the
beginning of the Civil War. Jefferson B. Browne, in Key West the Old and The New, 1912,
p. 80-81, described the Isabel's impact on the community.
"The arrival of the Isabel in port was an important event. When she was sighted the
fact was made known by the ringing of a bell on a tower at the agent's wharf, She frequently
arrived at night and when that occurred nearly everybody sat up to await her arrival and hear
from distant relatives and friends, from whom they had been cut off for two weeks. No
family waited alone; those who did not have friends to eat midnight supper with them, went
out to the homes of others, and the occasions were ones of jollification and social gathering.
Happy, happy days, when all lived together in unity! When the Isabel neared the wharf, the
entire adult population would congregate there to get the first news of the outside world,
and greet returning relatives and friends."
2. Rev. C.C. Adams was assigned to the Key West Church in October, 1846. While he
was in route he learned that a hurricane had blown the church away! After arriving in Key
West the Rev. Adams decided to rebuild the church and left in January, 1847, to obtain funds
for the new building. He returned in December with $3,300. A new frame church was
erected and the first service was held on July 30, 1848.
3. Charles Howe moved to Key West after the destruction of Indian Key in 1840 and
was the collector of the port for many years. His sons, Charles and Edward, became large
landowners and successful businessmen.
4. In 1855, Dr. S.F Jones, a local physician, was employed as a physician at Fort Taylor
at a monthly salary of $150.
5. On August 7, 1840, Seminole Indians attacked Indian Key. destroyed thirty-eight
structures and killed seven of the forty-five inhabitants, including Dr. Henry Perrine, noted
6. The U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey had been actively involved in charting the
coast, the Keys and the Great Florida Reef since 1849.
7. Fort Dallas was re-activated on January 3. 1855, with 168 men. Previous occupations
included 1838-42 and 1849-50.
8. William F English built a stone home and slave quarters on the north bank of the
Miami River in the 1840's and platted the "Village of Miami" on the south bank. He left
Miami in 1849 and leased his property and unfinished buildings to the Army. He never
9. Reason Duke was an early resident of South Florida and keeper of the Cape Florida
Lighthouse between 1846-1852. He built a two story house on the point of the south bank
of the Miami River where the family resided.
10. The Ferguson house, or what locals called "Fergusons's Landing," was located on
the site of the Haley Sofge and Robert King High Towers, 800 N.W. 13 Avenue.
11. The Ferguson family consisted of George, 43; his wife, Hannah, 40; sons George,
II1, and Samuel. 7; daughters Georginna, 19. Cornelia, 17, Josephine. 13, and Ida, 3.
12. The comptic mill described in this diary was George W. Ferguson's second mill.
He built his first mill in 1845 near the "falls" of the Miami River, just west of N.W. 27th
Avenue. When Ferguson discovered that the land had been claimed by someone else, he
moved his operation to the 40 acre N.W. 12th Avenue site, which he purchased from the
government for $1.25 an acre. In 1860 he sold it to George Lewis and moved to Key West.
Union sailors burned the house and store during the Civil War because George Lewis was a
well known blockade runner for the Confederacy.
13. Apparently the writer was not cognizant of the fact that George W. Ferguson
reported a profit of $24,000 on his comptie operations in the 1850 Manufacturing Census.


He employed 25 men and produced 300,000 pounds of comptie starch which he sold all
over the United States.
14. Theodore Bissell represented Dade County in the legislature between 1858-1860.
15. 1st Lieutenant Lewis 0. Morris was second in command at Fort Dallas.
16. The "barefoot mailman" was instituted during the Second Seminole War (1838-
42) as a means of communication between Fort Dallas and Fort Capron. The practice
continued until 1892. George W. Ferguson was the postmaster in 1858 and the post office
was in his store.
17. George Marshall resided in Miami as early as 1828. He applied for an Armed
Occupation Act Grant in 1843 at the forks of the Miami River. It was patented to him in
1849. He left Miami suddenly in 1861 after killing a young member of the Wagner family
during a drunken spree in front of Lewis' (formerly Ferguson's) store. He was never heard
of again,
18. The Adams brothers, John, Nicholas and Poline, lived south of the south fork of
the Miami River on the rim of the Everglades. John Adams was the "barefoot mailman" in
19. Dr. Charles S. Baron, a medical doctor, was keeper of the Cape Florida Lighthouse
from 1855-1859. Between 1851-61, his family lived on the "Punch Bowl" property, which
is located between Rickenbacker Causeway and Vizcaya. After he moved to Key West in
1861, he continued to claim ownership of the property in the name of his wife, Wilhelmina.
He was well known in Key West and served as Judge of the Probate Court and as U.S.
Commissioner. In 1897 Mary Brickell successfully sued his estate to clear title to the land
that she bought in 1871 from the heirs of William F English.
20. The first owner of record was Jonathan Lewis who received title to the land from
the United States Government in 1824. The Taylor reference is intriguing, however, because
an Ephriam P Taylor was another early resident in the area along with Temple Pent who
unsuccessfully claimed the same property.


Browne, Jefferson B. Key West: The Old and The New. A facsimile reproduction of the
1912 edition. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida Press, 1973.
Hudson, FM. Beginnings in Dade County, Tequesta, I (1943) pp. 1-35.
Langley, Joan and Wright. Key West: Images of the Past, Key West, Florida: Belland &
Swift, 1982.
Parks, Arva Moore. "Key Biscayne Base Marker- 1855." Tequesta, XXXIII(1973).
pp. 3-16.
Parks. Arva Moore. "Miami in 1876." Tequesta, XXXV(1975), pp. 89-139.
Parks, Arva Moore. Miami: the Magic City. Tulsa. Oklahoma: Continental Heritage
Press, 1981.
Richards, Mrs. Adam (nee Rose Wagner) "Reminiscenses on the Early Days of Miami."
The Miami News, Series began October 1, 1903, (clippings).
Straight, William M. M.D. (unpublished material on medical history of Florida.)
Windhorn, Stan and Wright Langley Yesterdays Key West. Miami, Florida: E.A.
Seemann, 1973.

National Archives:
Armed Occupation Grants
Record Group 23: Records of the Coast and Geodetic Survey

Diary of an Unidentified Land Official 23

Record Group 94: Post Returns, "Fort Dallas." Microcopy 617, Roll 284.
Record Group 26: "Cape Florida Lighthouse"
Tract Book, Florida. TW 53S Range 41 and 42E.

Florida Archives:
Election Returns, Dade County, 1855.

Government Documents:
U.S. Department of Commerce, Census of the United States, 1850, 1860, Dade and Monroe
County Florida.
U.S. Department of Commerce, Seventh Census of the United States, 1850, Dade County,
Florida Manufacturing Schedule.

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document

My Life in South Florida

By Edna Morris Harvey*

We Move to Lake Okeechobee
My mother, Alton, Alice and I were visiting Aunt Nettie and family in Ft.
Lauderdale for one month. I was eleven, Alice a little more than a baby
and Alton was thirteen. Aunt Nettie's husband, Uncle John, was Mama's
brother and their family consisted of Earl fifteen, Bud about Alton's age
and Mabel who was six weeks older than I. Mabel was the life of both
families and many of our escapades and mischievous pranks were engi-
neered by her. Uncle John was not at home but was some place out on Lake
Okeechobee, going about in his boat from place to place fishing, pitching
his tent here and there where fishing was good and coming down the canal
for 50 miles that led home once a month. My Aunt made mention to us that
the last time she had seen John he spoke as if he would like to move his
family to Okeechobee and thought of doing so. Toward the end of our visit
it was nearing the time when he should be home again and the children
were much enthused over the fact that they might move to the unknown
land which seemed to invite adventure to them. One of the neighbors had
a Ouija board and we all went over there one night to ask Ouija some
questions. Three of us were seated around the board and Mabel asked "Are
we going to move to the Lake?" Slowly the Ouija spelled out the letters
"y-e-s." "How many days before Papa will be home?" Bud asked. The
answer was four. "How many days before we will move?" was asked and
the answer was six.
Sure enough Uncle John returned in four days and began immediately
to make preparations for moving his family to Lake Okeechobee. He said

For more than a half century Mrs. Harvey has lived in Miami and has long been known
in art circles. She was born in Sanford, the daughter of Claude Chester Morris and Mary
Jane Ingram Morris. This portion of her typescript Memoirs begins when she was eleven.


he was fascinated by the richness of the soil, especially on the east side of
the Lake and that he was going to give up fishing and buy a claim there and
farm it. They loaded up their launch very shortly with as many household
goods as could be carried and started westward down the canal towards the
Everglades, our family boarded a train back to our house in Sanford.
It was a year later that Uncle John began writing my father about the
possibilities of the new land and urging him to make a trip down there and
see for himself. No fertilizer was necessary and this appealed to my father
as he was paying large sums for fertilizer to grow his celery and lettuce.
Eventually he decided to make the trip to Lake Okeechobee to determine if
he too would like to move there. He was packing to go and I was designated
to heat the iron and press his only pair of Sunday trousers. Thinking more
about the possibility of our moving and not about ironing, I badly scorched
one leg of the trousers. A large brown print of the iron was made on them
and after calling my mother, in tears I went up stairs and hid behind the
bureau. A few minutes later my father came up to that particular room to
dress, while I sheepishly crouched behind the dresser hoping I wouldn't
sneeze or cough, unable to face him or say goodbye. He left unable to find
When my father returned he was much taken with the Everglades and
began talking of moving. My mother, however, was not desirous of pulling
up stakes until she visited the place, which resulted in her going there for a
few days, leaving me behind to do the cooking. My father had been
accustomed to having biscuits made daily and I endeavored to make some
for the first time. The first pan I made were so hard I took them out to the
pig pen and dumped them in, and the second pan were badly burnt and
could not be eaten. Thinking how glad I would be when my mother
returned, I stirred up a hoecake and fried it. My mother was carried away
with the Okeechobee region when she returned and I remember her
remarking "Money just grows on trees down there." I thought "grows on
trees, I would like to have a tree or two."
After talking with our close friends, the Walters family, they decided
to move to the Everglades with us. Their family consisted of Mr. and Mrs.
Walters and John, Jim and Leonard, boys in their teens. The two families
loaded our household goods into a box car which was to go by rail as far as
West Palm Beach and at that point it had to be unloaded and shipped in
installments by boat. Some of the men accompanied the furniture but the
rest of us went by train to West Palm Beach and then down to the slip where
we waited for the slow moving Harry L to get ready to shove off on its
weekly trip down the forty mile canal to the Lake region.

My Life in South Florida 27

Courtesy ot Edna Moms Harvey
The Claude Chester Morris family near Sanford shortly before they moved
to Lake Okeechobee. The children, left to right, are Edna (the author), Alton, and

The Lake, 1917-1920
Lake Okeechobee is a body of fresh water about 37 miles long and 34
miles wide. It is known as the largest body of fresh water in the United
States outside of the Great Lakes. For many miles back from the Lake are
thousands of acres of rich muck land. The setting of these memoirs is on
the East Beach of Lake Okeechobee. The time is 1917-1920. A more
beautiful spot could not have been found at that time. Along the lake back
about 100 yards ran what was called the ridge. It was sandy and slightly
rocky, and then it sloped off to the black and dark brown muck lands. The
scattering shacks or tents were built along the ridge. Huge rubber and
cypress trees were thick except where an opening had been made for a
shack or tent. In contrast, the muck lands were barren of trees except the


scrubby and cork-like custard apple trees and elderberry bushes. A trail
winded down the ridge, turning at some large trees or a stocky mass of
wild grapevines. In the spring, no spot was lovelier or nearer to nature
itself. It was indescribably beautiful, even a child would notice. The green,
fresh, shady foliage was a welcome retreat from any burdens or cares and
one felt nearer the Maker walking down the trail, where the birds sang so
merrily and peace and beauty reigned supreme. The path would emerge
into a clearing, going through the front yard of some shack or under the
ropes of some tent, only to lead on, winding through masses of twisted and
intermingled foliage.
Nearer the lake where there were fewer trees, was a wagon road, not
winding like the trail but following more the curvature of the water. The
lake itself was at times smooth as glass. Then in the space of a few minutes
a squall would come up and it would change to a mass of white caps, and
waves would roll in as if it were an ocean. The huge rubber trees would
rustle and sway in the strong breeze, dark clouds would form towards the
west and many times two or three waterspouts would be visible. Fishing
smacks would head for shore. The fishermen had great fear of a norwester
and bided their time when catfishing far from shore.
The east beach was 40 miles from a railroad, the nearest one being at
West Palm Beach due east and at an equal distance or less was the small
town of Okeechobee City, located catty-cornered across the lake. There
was no highway leading to the east beach of Lake Okeechobee City, located
catty-cornered across the lake. There was no highway leading to the east
beach of Lake Okeechobee and it was accessible only by water. The slow
moving boats came for 40 miles down the narrow Palm Beach Canal. It
was an all day trip of slow riding through never changing scenery of saw
grass, moonvines and black muck, with an occasional alligator sunning
sleepily near the bank.
This was government owned land and a settler could have a claim.
After a certain number of years he was given a deed to it. If a person moved
or left the lake country, he sold his claim, usually for about $500. Not all
settlers took out a claim. The land was extremely rich and no fertilizer was
needed. The fertility of the soil was thought to have been due to the lake
having overflowed at some time. Shells and other fragments in the texture
of the soil seemed to indicate that. The settlers engaged in what they call
truck fanning raising vegetables, chiefly eggplant, bell pepper, string
beans and tomatoes. Today they grow many more crops -potatoes, sweet
corn, celery, miles and miles of sugar cane and others.
They could have three crops a year, fall, winter and spring. There was

My Life in South Florida 29

no question that the crops could be grown in a shorter period of time than
elsewhere. They could harvest string beans within 45 days from the time
the seeds were sown and there was little work to be done, since no fertilizing
or cultivation was necessary. They grew so fast they were ready to be
harvested before the weeds took over. This indeed seemed to be the
Promised Land.

We lived in two houses, a board house that Mama, Papa and Alice
slept in and about 75 feet from there a tar paper shack with kitchen, my
room next to it and Alton's next to mine. Sometimes I would cook breakfast
and let my mother sleep. The large rubber trees shaded both houses.

To get our water we loaded two barrels in the wagon, put a tub over
each to keep the water from sloshing out and drove Old Kit, the mule, into
the lake until the water was level with the wagon bed and with buckets we
filled the barrels. Any of us kids could do this. Even Mabel and I did it
once and we took a swim at the same time. She didn't want Aunt Nettie to
see her wet clothes so she borrowed some from me and left hers to dry. The
water was placed in the shade under the rubber trees and it was always
cool. A gourd dipper hung alongside.

Boats entering the lake at Canal Point usually turned right to go to
Okeechobee City but the Harry L came along our shore. It was a courtesy
of Capt. Bass who owned the Harry L to bring our groceries from West
Palm Beach 40 miles away. This consisted only of basics: flour, meal,
sugar, lard, etc. We met the boat in a skiff, handing him the list for the next
trip in about two weeks.

We also had plenty of fresh fish out of Lake Okeechobee. Mr.
Galloway who lived next to us fished for catfish with trotlines. They had
hundreds of shorter lines with baited hooks hanging from them. Early each
morning he and his son Rufus would go out on the smooth glassy water to
get their catch and bring it to his skinning bench. He gave us all we wanted
at any time. All we had to do was go out on the dock and get them, all


ready for the pan. We never tired of catfish and hush puppies and like them
to this day.

We had the most flavorful fryers at that time, not comparable with any
since. They strutted around on their long yellow legs looking for insects.
We never had to feed them but occasionally the folks would broadcast an
area of millet seed for them to scratch in.

Papayas grew wild, we called them paw-paws as they resembled
something smaller that used to grow out in the woods at Sanford. We didn't
eat them but used the leaves to tenderize meat overnight when we had it. I
thought they tasted about like perfume would. Now I grow them and am
very fond of them when brushed with a little sugar and lime juice. A
neighbor from Puerto Rico told me to tie something red on the tree and
insects would not bother them. That works.

There were a lot of wild elderberry bushes and my mother often made
a cobbler with them another long lost pleasure. They also made elder-
berry wine with them.

Thousand Legs
The thousand legs were everywhere, with their many legs and hard
shells. They not only had a thousand legs but there were thousands of
them. When we got up in the morning we would shake our clothes and
they would fall hard to 'the floor and curl up in a round circle. My
grandfather (my mother's father) delighted in squashing them every time
he saw one. He would say "By the nation (his cuss word), the devilish
things." His fingers were purple like iodine from mashing them.

The mail, if anyone ever got any, was brought by some boat coming
from West Palm Beach, leaving it at Canal Point, then it was handed down
from one to another along the trail until it reached its destination. We might
see a newspaper two or three weeks old. That was all we knew about how
World War I was doing. The way we knew the war had ended was from a
passing boat. They were beating loudly on tin pans, their way of letting us

My Life in South Florida 31

Alton and I did the washing once a week under the guava trees. First,
we had to hitch up old Kit and drive into the lake to get the water. We then
built a fire under the large black iron pot and cut up Octagon soap to put
into the water. After the clothes boiled a while we took them out and rubbed
them on the rubbing board. By then they were sparkling clean. It was
always cool under the guava trees, getting breezes from the lake as there
was no dike there at that time.
Alice was too young to share in such duties as milking the cow,
washing, raking the yard and scrubbing the floors on Saturday getting
ready for church. She is blessed with beauty (no freckles) and a sweet
disposition, never an unkind word to anyone. In some ways she reminds
me of Aunt Oleeta. She was in Alton's class when he substituted at school
but she said he showed no favoritism to her. She had to toe the line even
more strictly. She fondly remembers our years on Lake Okeechobee and
wanted me to write these memoirs as a source of her children's roots.

Bob Sparkman
One time we found the body of a man floating in the water next door.
He was all swelled up. They brought him to our yard and placed him on a
plank laid across two wooden horses under the rubber trees. From a paper
in his pocket we learned his name was Bob Sparkman. The men made him
a wooden box and placed him in it and we said the 23rd Psalm. Alton
played "Nearer My God to Thee." They buried him in a little graveyard
that had been started further up the ridge.

Bill Writtenbury, one of the unsavory people on the ridge, was
standing in the doorway when he was gunned down by a shotgun blast. He
fell backwards holding his baby. For curiosity I attended the funeral and
such as it was I have never seen the likes of since. There were a- large
number of mourners of all ages. They surrounded the casket with their
arms stretched out across it, moaning and wailing. The minister kept trying
to begin the "eulogy" but the ladies started fainting and one by one were
carried outside and stretched out on the grass. The minister began again,
another fainting. I began to wonder if there would be a service and if I
should go home but the women were being revived and brought back into
the church and the minister was able to continue.
There were a lot of Writtenburys and there was a rival gang. We would
see one of them sometimes passing thru our yard carrying a shotgun across


his shoulder. Everyone passed through everyone's yard, it was part of the

1918 Flu -The Bartlett Baby
During the 1918 flu when people were dying with it up and down the
ridge and on both sides of us, we learned that nine of the Bartlett family at
Bacom Point about a mile from us, were down with the flu and gravely ill.
My mother went there to help and brought the baby home. She stayed up
all night trying to save it but it was too late. We stood by the cradle of this
beautiful baby as it left this world and went back to Heaven. My mother
had to go back and tell Mrs. Bartlett the baby had died.
I think the reason that none of us got the flu was that when my mother
came home after going to help the sick, she built a fire outdoors and threw
sulphur on it, turning herself slowly in the smoke.

Little Red Schoolhouse-Unpainted
We went to a little one room schoolhouse like in the olden days,
walking a mile down the ridge to get to it. Miss Margaret Jones was our
teacher. We didn't pay much attention to her but she did the best she could,
teaching all subjects and all grades in the one little room. One day at noon
we found a little skiff and went paddling in the lake with the water splashing
in on us. We heard the bell ringing but didn't want to go in wet, so we lay
in the grass a while to dry our clothes. We had to stay after school for doing
this and write a page in the large, wide, geography book. I think that was
-the most I ever learned about geography.

Our Fun
Uncle John made us a swing with a long heavy rope tied to a high
limb of a rubber tree and at the end of it he put a short log of cork-like
custard apple wood for a straddle. We would swing far out above the
moonvines, taking turns over and over again. They were called moonvines
because they bloomed only in the moonlight. There was a distinctive
eeriness about them at night, the large white flowers opening in the
moonlight with a permeating fragrance in the air intended only for the
Gods. The vines covered the custard apple trees and we would climb to
the top of them until they broke and then go tumbling down. That was
sheer fun.
Uncle John had an old open Ford which we would all pile in and go
joy riding down the wagon road. The boys let Mabel and me steer at times

My Life in South Florida 33

which wasn't hard to do, the car just seemed to turn with the ruts. At the
end of the day there was always a dip in the water in our clothes, as the sun
set in the west over the peaceful water, with the soft ripples lapping against
the shore.
We look back on our lives on Lake Okeechobee, called East Beach
before it was named Pahokee, as being the happiest times of our lives. How
many times do we remember those days? Like the song, "The answer, my
friend, is blowing in the wind-the answer's blowing in the wind."
We have a fond memory of walking down the winding trail even
though stumbling sometimes over the cypress knees in the pathway. And if
we smelled a ripe custard apple that had fallen, we would search for it until
we found it, we knew it was there. It had a plug that we pulled out and then
broke open the fruit. It had many seeds and the custard was around them
with more custard in the center.
In the early morning when I would go and look at the roses, I was
reminded of the song "I come to the garden alone, while the dew is still on
the roses." The pink and red Radiance roses were planted just where the
ridge slanted off into the rich mucklands. The beauty of them- the large
petals folding gracefully over the roses, the ruffled edges turning back to
receive the beautiful dewdrops that glistened in the early morning sun. The
Radiance roses are my favorite and I would have them now but have been
unable to learn where to buy them.
One Christmas, for nothing better to do, three couples of us went on
Uncle John's boat The Stonewall, to Kramer Island which was catty-
cornered across the lake. We walked around the island and looked in every
direction hoping to see an Indian, but none was in sight. We did come
across a vat of cane juice boiling away for making syrup or sugar. We saw
many large Indian burial mounds and at the water's edge there were human
bones and parts of skeletons. The water was dashing against them, taking
some with it and unearthing others.
On the way back we experienced some engine trouble and the sun had
gone down and the moon had risen when we reached shore. We were just
starved and my mother's chicken and dressing and pumpkin pie never tasted
so good.

My mother started the First Methodist Church at our house and most
of the time we had a minister to preach for us. The piano sat in the wide
doorway of the parlor that opened into a large shed where we had benches


on the dirt floor for services. Alton played the hymns but if for some reason
he could not play I had to substitute. They had to settle for "When the Roll
is Called Up Yonder" or "Love Lifted Me." They were both in four flats. I
only played four flats.
My dad was Superintendent of the Sunday School, my mother had a
class and if for some reason one of the teachers was absent, one of us
would try to teach. Even one of the boarders helped out at one time. We
were scattered about the yard under the rubber trees. My mother was
honored many years later when they had Pioneer's Day as having started
the Methodist Church. My Aunt Nettie started a Baptist Sunday School in
her home about that time.
On Friday nights we had singing, all of us standing around the piano,
each one trying to make himself heard. Sally Todd had a tremendous alto
voice, Mr. Rice was a high tenor and my dad had a beautiful bass.

Aunt Ella's Marriage
After church one Sunday Alton and I noticed Aunt Ella and Mr. Irish
walking around the bend in the road. They were not walking close together,
she on one side of the road and he on the other. We giggled, Aunt Ella
having a date. My mother said, "Now you all don't be looking." He was
60, she was 45. They came back in a short time engaged, not holding hands
and still not walking close together. She told Mama and Aunt Nettie they
were going to get married. He said later that he had come there from
Sanford after we had brought Aunt Ella with us. They had only seen each
other at church in Sanford. She admired him when he used to play and sing
"The Old Rocking Chair." Mama and Aunt Nettie had a conference, what
should she wear to West Palm Beach, where did they have to go to get the
license? About the scarcity of money, if they could marry before night they
would need only one room.
When they returned they were in his little tar paper shack and we
serenaded them, beating on pots and pans. It made him nervous and he
didn't immediately open the door. He had his head in his trunk and said:
"Ellie where did we put those cigars?"

My dad was Justice of the Peace and one day Alton and I knew there
would be court and we stayed home from school. It was held on the hard
ground between the two houses under the huge rubber trees. Mr. Galloway,
the Sheriff, came limping up with the prisoner dragging chains around his

My Life in South Florida 35

ankles. Surely he could not try to get away. He was found guilty and sent
to prison in West Palm Beach. What he did I don't remember, the most
vivid memory is the setting, holding court under the trees, the gentle
tingling of the leaves in the wind and the prisoner coming to trial.
My dad also performed weddings, standing in the double doorway
and the couple on the ground before him. When a colored couple came
one night to be married, Alton and I invited some of the kids at school to
come to the wedding. The couple seeing the crowd, lingered long in the
shadows, they didn't expect any people there. After Papa married them and
pronounced them man and wife they kept standing there. Finally, the man
said: "Boss, is we married?" I don't think Papa even charged them.

My first job was packing tomatoes at Hill Bros. Packing House. I
couldn't see how they quickly grabbed up the thin square piece of paper,
put the tomato into it, twisted the end and laid it neatly in the row beside
the other one. I got fired.
My next attempt at money making was picking beans. The rows were
close together and the beans hung heavily on all sides. We would grab them
with both hands, throw them into the hamper and turn to the other row, not
straightening up until we got to the end of the long row. Just when we
thought we had a full hamper the foreman would come along and shake it
down. We picked about thirteen hampers a day at 500 a hamper. That was
big money. When we got home we walked straight into the lake with our
clothes on to get refreshed and rid ourselves of the itchy muck dust. Then
to supper which always included hot biscuits that my mother cooked on a
wood stove. After supper I would look through the Sears catalog and
dream. The most expensive dress was eighteen dollars and I imagined I
would look as pretty in it as the girl wearing it. The dream never came true
though, the bean crop was over before I had accumulated enough to send
for it. This work didn't include Alice, she was too young.

Trip Down the Canal
Uncle John had a launch and he and Papa loaded a barge with some
of their produce and towed it down the Palm Beach Canal to West Palm
Beach. They permitted Mabel and me to go along. It was beautiful that
moonlit night going slowly down the canal. We enjoyed the wide open
spaces and the white moonvine flowers on each side.
About midnight we stopped and made coffee. Such a feeling of


mystery and isolation while standing on the bank waiting for the coffee to
boil. Half way down the 40 mile canal, away from civilization, amid
thousands of acres of saw grass and barren muck lands, with only the
sound of a croaking frog or the jump of a fish. This indeed was no man's
Then back to our boat towing the barge of vegetables, slowly making
our way toward West Palm Beach.
They let Mabel and me steer the boat some while they slept. When
we got to West Palm Beach they gave us each five dollars to spend. Mabel
got a pitcher and six glasses for her mother with part of the money. That
proved a bad choice later.
Coming back for some reason Mabel and I had to get off at Canal
Point, five miles from home, in the care of Dr. Laird. We followed him
with his lantern down the crooked path, stumbling on the many cypress
knees we couldn't see. Mabel hung on to her pitcher and glasses with all
her falls. When we got to Dr. Laird's house exhausted and with blistered
feet, we fell across his sofa and went fast asleep.

Connors Highway had been built to West Palm Beach alongside the
Palm Beach Canal. As the population grew a post office was provided, a
country store was opened, a new and larger school was built and there was
a slip for boats to dock. Also a large Methodist Church was built and then
we didn't need to have services at our house.
After school we went hurriedly to the new store and right for the
candy counter. We hadn't had any candy since we left Sanford except for a
candy pulling one night. The conversation of the settlers was about what
they had named the town: "Why Pahokee, what does it mean?" It is an
Indian name meaning "Grassy Water." They spelled in Pay-ha-o-kee, taken
from the Hitchiti Indian language.
Our Latin teacher was Mrs. Blake, old and stout. It made us sleepy as
she droned away about Caesar and Gaul. The only thing I think we
remember is: Gaul was divided into three parts; and amo, amas, amat: I
love, you love, he loves. If we laid our heads on the desk she would let us
sleep. She said we must need it or we wouldn't be doing it. I think she
believed a sleepy student was a good student.
When one of the teachers had to drop out, Alton was asked to finish
out the term. He took it very seriously but was embarrassed one time when
the School Board from West Palm Beach came unexpectedly to visit the

My Life in South Florida 37

school. He had the broom in his hand and was sweeping up the trash during
class. This teaching experience gave him his love for teaching and he taught
English at the University of Florida for 48 years, after earning his doctorate
at Chapel Hill, N. C.
Alton said he never got home from school but what he was told, "The
hogs are out." He used to give them cane skimmings that made them fat
and happy. They could be staggeringly drunk and bleary eyed and still try
to make their way back to the troughs to get more. One time he threw cold
water on a sow that weighed about 300 pounds to cool her off and it killed
her instantly to his great shock and surprise.

The Gospel Train
After the Methodist Church was built, Mr. York a store owner, had a
large truck with boarded sides. He placed benches in it to carry people to
church on Sundays and prayer meeting on Wednesday nights. Lloyd Hall
drove it and I sat up in the cab with him as we went down the ridge to
Bacom Point picking up people. We called it "The Gospel Train." I enjoyed
those rides and it was romantic, especially at night when the moon was
shining. As we came back to my house he would stop for a while.
One Sunday afternoon Lloyd and I were sitting leisurely on the grass
and along came Charlie in a nonchalant manner. He had a way of always
happening up. When the conversation drifted to me they began to fight. I
tried to get between them but couldn't and began to cry. I ran to the
neighbor for help but he wouldn't come. I didn't know what they were
fighting about and I don't think they knew. My mother came home about
that time and the fight stopped. Charlie went to tell her his side of the story
but she slammed the door in his face. That night at church, Lloyd and I
were sitting in the choir and Charlie came in and sat on the other side of
me. I didn't understand that because he had never been there before. He
couldn't sing, only hold the book.

Another Fight
There were a lot of long yellow chicken snakes and rats. Once we
witnessed above us, on a long limb, a fight between a snake and a rat,
wondering which one would win. Finally, the rat pushed the snake off the
limb. It fell across my father's neck. This prompted us to get thirteen kittens
and they were so cute to watch in their play.


Farmers Lenrose and Jensen
Out on the muck there lived a woman with nine children and the two
fathers of the children. They lived and did farming together and the mother
always worked in the fields. Someone asked her how she managed to feed
so many children and she said she put the food on the board and when they
finished eating she just washed it off.

Labor Day
The city of West Palm Beach honored the farmers of the Glades and
their families one Labor Day. We went on a large steamboat, The Lily. It
had an upper deck and I liked to watch the wheel turn as it moved the water,
leaving a path of white foam in its wake. Before it left the lake and entered
the canal, my prized new large-brim hat blew off and I had to watch it
slowly fill with water and sink.
In West Palm Beach they treated us royally, giving us free eats and
drinks. We kids went from one soda fountain to another. That was a rare
treat for us.

Robert Is Born
Robert was born in the wee hours of Sunday morning between
midnight and daybreak, March 8, 1920. I was awakened later and told to
come see my baby brother. I hurried to my mother's bedside and saw the
prettiest baby boy ever born. Dr. Spooner had no children and wanted him
on the spot for his own. There was no way. I had thought that at the time I
would play an important role in that event, thinking I would be hurrying
around heating water and carrying it between the two houses. I was sixteen
years old. They hadn't needed me but he arrived safely anyway
I never loved my mother more than at that moment, having been told
it was precarious to have a baby at age 42 and here was a beautiful baby
boy at her side. I said, "Mama how do you feel?" She said, "Not too bad."
I asked her what she wanted for breakfast and she said "Two pieces of toast
with a lot of butter on it." That lot of butter on it was a special treat as she
was always sparing with butter until we got a cow. I thought that was so
little for one who had done so much. She said to me, "You all are not going
to spank this baby." I thought that strange as she was always the one who
did the spanking.
(That was the luckiest day of my mother's life as this was the baby
who would become a Colonel and he and his devoted wife would look after
her with loving care the last eight years of her life. They even took her to

My Life in South Florida 39

Germany with them at age 84 when he was stationed there for four years. 1
hope they are rewarded, if not in this world, surely in the next.)
Robert was the joy of our lives. We would sit on the step, which was
more like a platform, and jostle him on our knee, his little fat neck rolling
back and forth with a happy face, smiling. We have a picture of him sitting
in a dishpan on the platform where we gave him his bath. Up until then
Alice was the baby but now she didn't get much attention and she seemed
to cry every day, we didn't know why. My dad offered her a nickel every
day she didn't cry and she would have to give it back if she did. She was
always in the hole and didn't make any money on that deal.
My mother always held a special place for me although I never.told
her. I could visualize the innumerable caravan, the procession of people
appearing and disappearing through the ages, and of all that procession she
was the one chosen to be my mother. When you think of the chain of events
that had to happen for you even to be born, it makes you thankful you are
even here. There seems to be a plan and a destiny for your life.
The old songs my mother loved still have a ringing sound in our
memories such as "Take Time to be Holy, Speak Oft with the Lord," and
"When the Saints Go Marching in, Lord I Want to be With that Number."
I am sure she is up near the front with the Saints of all time.
We were given a wonderful father for our lives. We continue to see
his smile. He was proud of us. His eyes used to fill up when he spoke of
Alice, he revered her so. He admired Alton with his accomplishments in
education and writing of books. He loved us all. People called him C.C.
because those were his initials -Claude Chester. After he became Justice
of the Peace people called him Judge. He and Uncle John were mentioned
in one of the books written about the Glades as being two of the six men
who walked up and down the ridge to select the site where the town of
Pahokee would be.

My dad took great pride in the large mirror-like purple eggplants and
the huge green bell peppers he grew. With a heavy stubby dark pencil and
a flourishing hand he wrote on top of the crates the word "FANCY." One
time when a frost was expected they packed them on the hard ground
between our two houses, using a gasoline lantern that made a bright light.
The biggest trouble was getting them to market. Connors Highway
hadn't yet been built along the Palm Beach Canal to West Palm Beach.
The commission men would come out by boat from Okeechobee City and
arrange shipment to the north. Weeks would go by and no word. Finally, a


small check would arrive, sometimes as little as two or three dollars. It was
disheartening. Farming was always hard.

Leaving the Glades (About 1921)
The cool breezes from the lake caused my father, who was a stout
man, to continually have a chest condition and hard coughing spells. My
mother said she had a vision one night. She was awakened and in the upper
comer of the room she saw my father's face illuminated by a bright light.
She took that to mean we should leave the lake. Uncle John had already
moved to West Palm Beach so we decided to follow. It was lucky for me
because I had two more years of high school and needed that to graduate
and also had the opportunity to take the business course at the same time,
giving me my vocation for years to come. It also benefited the other
children to get a better education.

Storm of 1928
It was lucky we left the lake as many people lost their lives there
during the storm of 1928, when the tidal wave covered the whole area.
Some were brought to West Palm Beach for burial. For others pyres were
used. A group of refugees were taken to the basement of the Methodist
Church in West Palm Beach. Mabel and I went there to see if there was
anyone we knew. All had the look of stark horror on their faces. So many
had lost their loved ones. Later a dike of sand was built along the lake and
there was no further danger of floods.

West Palm Beach
West Palm Beach was the most delightful place to live at that time.
Cool, uncrowded and close to the ocean. Palm Beach, across Lake Worth,
was a beautiful place with the tall and elegant royal palms, the fabulous
homes and well landscaped grounds, the large hotels such as The Breakers
and the popular Bradley's Gambling Casino. We often went swimming in
the ocean after work for relaxation as it was a short distance. Many times
at night we would take a ride to Palm Beach and drive along the ocean to
Lake Worth and circle back home on the highway. The first time we took
Robert to see the ocean when seeing the white caps he said, "Oh, look at
the soapsuds."
Once a year in West Palm Beach they had the Seminole Sun Dance.
The Seminole Indians would come in from the Glades in their colorful
dress and do the sun dance in the street. It was a colorful event and lasted
about three days. Everyone was sorry when it was discontinued.

My Life in South Florida 41

Driving by the jail one night in West Palm Beach we heard a high,
pure, beautiful voice singing to the high heavens from the top floor, pealing
out the pure notes in the darkness of the night. A chill would go through
us, it was so beautiful, surely the voice of a Jenny Lind. We often went by
there at night to drink in the beauty of her voice. We were glad she had
something to sing about, not knowing why she was there or from whence
she came, but she gave us moments of pure ecstasy.

School in West Palm Beach
Two in our high school got two diplomas, one for high school and one
in the commercial department, myself and another girl named Elma Jack-
son. It was lucky I could take both courses because that equipped me for
my life's work: shorthand, bookkeeping, business English, etc. I lacked
one session of having enough hours in the day and stayed after school to do
my typing assignment. Miss Butterfield, one of the commercial teachers,
told me one day to remain after school. I wondered what I had done wrong.
She said to me: "Edna, you don't really have to study so hard." I knew I
did though, my future was up to me.
Mr. Johnstad was our shorthand teacher. It was the first year he
changed to the Gregg system from the Pitman. I was glad because in the
Pitman they had to write above and below the line. Mr. Johnstad had a blue
eye and a brown eye and you could never tell who he was looking at and
sometimes we answered out of turn. Mabel, my cousin, was the maverick
of the class and did a lot of talking. He would say "Miss Ingraham," her
name was Ingram. She would say "Are you looking at me, I'm not the only
one talking." He was a cracker-jack teacher. His students held responsible
jobs with lawyers and high class executives after graduation.

Court House Job
While waiting at the dock to get on the boat to move to West Palm
Beach, Lula Barfield who wrote for the Palm Beach Post said to me: "Edna,
when you get to West Palm Beach go to see my sister, Myrtle Roberts, who
is the head girl in Mr. Fenno's office. He is the Clerk of the Circuit Court
and she may put you on for summer work."
I starched and ironed my best dress. It had a three inch-wide sewed-
in belt with a thin ruffle top and bottom. I had the ruffle real stiff and ironed
it carefully. I felt good in that dress walking up the many tiers of steps of
the Palm Beach County Courthouse. Those steps and the building seemed
mammoth to me. I was told to come to work the following Monday. A
group of lovely girls sat around a large table recording deeds and other


legal instruments in longhand in the huge legal books. At that time it was
done in handwriting before modem methods. I admired the girls' person-
alities and appreciated their friendliness. Sometimes Mr. Fenno would send
someone on an errand. He chose me and talked changing his cigar from
one end of his mouth to the other. I couldn't understand him and didn't
want to ask over. One of the girls told me what I was supposed to get and
where to go to get it. At one time, when work got slack, Mr. Fenno had to
let some of us go, but he told me out of the comer of his mouth that I could
come back in two weeks. When school started of course, I could not work.
Sheriff Bob Baker was often seen limping through the corridors. He
had a running feud with outlaw John Ashley and his gang. John had one
glass eye and sent word to Sheriff Baker to come and get the other eye.
They had many skirmishes with that gang going through swamps and other
places, but finally they met their Waterloo one lonely dark night. Sheriff
Baker had been tipped off that they would pass a certain place and he and
his men set up an ambush and opened fire on them as they approached,
killing all of them.
Laura Upthegrove was John Ashley's moll and stayed with the gang
somewhere in the Glades but wasn't with them that night. After John was
killed, I read in the paper she had been pumping gas out on Military Trail,
and in a fit of temper drank a can of potash. I decided to go to the funeral
home and see her. They had her in a double bed with a white sheet pulled
up to her chin. She was, no doubt, more peaceful than she had ever been
in life but her lips and all around her mouth were burnt fiery red from
drinking the lye.

Lloyd Hall
We were living in a little stucco house called "Rest-a-While." I loved
the name of it and loved the house. It had so much charm. Lloyd had come
to West Palm Beach to be near me he said, and was saving his money to go
back to Gainesville to study to be a doctor.
One night we were sitting in the car in the driveway and I broke up
with him because I was in high school and thought it fair to tell him I didn't
want to be serious and wanted him to go with other girls. Later, I wished I
had left things as they were. He was so sad about it I might have tried to
soften the words or take them back, but my mother was calling for me to
come in. She was always suspicious of people sitting in cars, even in the
driveway. She was more strict with me than she was with the younger ones,
such as going to picture shows on Sunday or to dance halls, etc. As we

My Life in South Florida 43

parted, Lloyd turned quickly on his heels and left, not looking back, never
having had the first kiss.
After I had gotten my first job with Clark and de Gottreau, a landscape
firm, before going to work one morning I saw in the paper that he had
drowned in Clearwater. At work, I lay my head across the desk for a long
time. Helen, the girl in charge, said nothing to me, she knew there was
something. Afterwards, Inez his sister, told me that when he was packing
to go to Clearwater, he had turned to her and said "Sis, do you think Edna
could ever learn to love me?" He was singing "If mine eyes should close
in death, tell her that I love her still."

Ernest Richmond
At the Methodist Church I met Ernest Richmond and when he told
me his name was Richmond, for fun, I said mine was Virginia (my middle
name). He asked me for a date and when he came to the house Robert
answered the door and he asked for Virginia. Robert knowing me as Edna
said "W-h-o?" I heard them and came and saved the situation. He would
pick me up in his new DeSoto car and we would go to Epworth League.
Some people told me we made a nice looking couple and my mother said
he would make a good husband for me. I told her "He's so dumb I would
have to show him what to do." When he would go back North all he would
write about was how many pheasants he had killed. I wasn't the least bit
interested in pheasants.

Alton's Music
We got our appreciation of music from Alton. He would come home
from choir practice at the Methodist Church and be so elated over the
anthem they would sing on Sunday. He admired Mrs. Effinger, the organist
so much, and the soloist who sang "How beautiful upon the mountain were
the feet of Him who bringeth good tidings." That one thrilled me too and I
can hear it now. We loved to hear him play, he put so much expression into
it. He could play anything by ear after hearing it one time. He went to the
church and practiced to learn the pipe organ.
He was asked to play for a church wedding and we were all there. As
the couple marched out he hold onto a single note a long time and then
followed with a staccato dum dum de dum dum. We thought he was
making a mistake and were quaking in our boots he should be playing
the recessional. Then he began playing "Here Comes the Bride" again.


He hadn't told us there were two weddings, wanting to surprise us and
everyone else.
It used to bring tears to my eyes when he would play "When You and
I Were Young Maggie." "I wandered today through the hills Maggie." It
was remindful of when we lived at Sanford and the folks would rent a
house at Coronado Beach in the summer for a month and we would romp
up and down the hills through the sea oats, ride the big waves and pick up
sea shells. My very earliest memory was on our first trip a boy asking me
where we were from. I called to Alton to find out and he said Sanford.

Trip to Key West
I took Robert to Key West when he was about five years old. We
stopped in Miami and got a room at a hotel not far from the station, had
supper and then went down Flagler Street to the Olympia Theatre, with its
bright blinking lights. He pulled away and said "That's the devil's place"
and he wasn't going in. I took his hand, bought the ticket and got him to
go in. It was so pretty to me, dark blue sky above with the twinkling stars
and clouds moving overhead. He began to enjoy it and said "Edna, what
will we do if it rains?"
The hotel was so hot we couldn't sleep. In those days they didn't have
air conditioning. I spent the night moistening him with a wet towel.
In the train Robert wanted to sit by the window and then went to sleep.
That was all right until he woke up and looked out and saw how high we
were above the water on the viaduct. That frightened him and he changed
places with me. It was beautiful, the sun coming up glistening on the water,
clear blue sky and soft moving clouds.
My dad and Uncle Ernest were down at Key West at the time and we
enjoyed it so much. Robert had a lot to talk about when we got home.
Robert was a precious boy, we all enjoyed him. Everyone he met was
told, "I was born at Pahokee," until he went there on a visit and got sore
eyes. He didn't like the place after that. He couldn't keep straight about
marriage and would say "Edna, will you marry me?" I said "No, you can't
marry me I'm your sister." He always had to have a dog named Jack. Once
when Aunt Oleeta took him to Orlando we thought he would miss us
terribly but he only wanted them to write back and tell us to send Jack.
Fagg's Mill was across the street and there was also a laundry. Mr.
Fagg never paid much attention to us but one day Jack got his leg broken
by the milk truck. Mr. Fagg came out and really bawled out the driver.
Robert went to the middle of the street and dragged Jack home with his leg
dangling. My dad fixed it up, tying it to a board and eventually it healed.

My Life in South Florida 45

Robert went around the house gathering up our old shoes and stood
out front with them as the colored women came out of the laundry for
lunch. He didn't bother to match them up. His price was ten cents a pair or
two for a quarter. It would pay you to buy only one pair at a time.
Surprisingly he made money.

Working for the Railroad
Mr. Story was Supervisor of Bridges and Buildings and he hired me
as secretary through the recommendation of Rev. Summers, pastor of the
Methodist Church. Rev. Summers didn't know me, but my mother had
known him in Sanford when he was pastor there. My mother was very fond
of him and gave Robert the name of Charnelle in honor of him. I was
nineteen years old and worked for them eight years.
Mr. Story was a good boss and a good man and he appreciated me.
He said I was the only one who could punctuate his letters with the meaning
he wanted to convey. That was important because he was always writing to
St. Augustine explaining why he did certain things concerning the A.F.E.
(Authority for Erection). He couldn't dictate until he fired up a cigarette
and then his mind just flowed. I knew to keep quiet and not interrupt his
thoughts. On vacation I could get passes anywhere in the U.S., even on
ships to New York. I got travelling out of my system and care nothing for
it now. After working for him six years in West Palm Beach the Florida
East Coast Railway closed our office and transferred us to Miami.
I lived at the Oaks Hotel near the railway station where there were
other young people and we paid seven dollars a week for a room and two
meals a day. It was nice there sitting on the porch, playing bridge or walking
through the park or taking pictures. It seemed each night as we came out
of the dining room and walked through the parlor as the sun was setting,
we would hear Bing Crosby on the radio singing "When the Gold of the
Day Meets the Blue of the Night, Someone Waits for Me." All through the
years I have enjoyed his singing, especially that song and "White Christ-
mas." This was about 1930.
Miami moved slowly in those days. You could pass by a juice stand
where they were grinding carrot and other juices and buy a glassful for ten
cents. Very little traffic, you seldom had to look to cross the street. Not
much crime and unusual when we heard the news man barking, "She shot
him in the back."
In the superintendent's office at times I took dictation from several
different men. One was Mr. Norwood, another cigar smoker, the Road
Foreman of Engines. He was hard to understand and the language unfamil-


iar to me such as "I gave her the sand, etc." I looked at that word sand in
my notes and wondered if it could be right.
Shealy, the office manager was a tough nut to crack. He wouldn't let
us use an eraser on that cheap yellow railroad paper. I never knew why it
was so important except for a way to show he was boss. In school in West
Palm Beach they had stressed accuracy but I still wasted some of their
paper. Grace, the other girl, was a fast typist with little patience. You could
hear her all day jerking out paper and putting it in the waste basket. We
each did about 35 letters a day.
Shealy wasn't as strict with the two male clerks. It didn't matter
whether they did any work or not, he was always playing the horses with
them, figuring out their pyramids. If their horse came in the next selection
had to win also or they couldn't collect. He would sit at his desk twirling
his pencil thinking up how mean he could be, I thought. He sent me in Mr.
Story's office to take his dictation. We liked that for old times sake, but one
time when I came back he asked me why I was in there so long-anything
to ruffle the waters.
The only time that Shealy ever showed any feeling for me was when
he selected me to go with a group of officials by train over the Overseas
Railroad to Pigeon Key to hold an investigation. He said to me: "You know,
Miss Morris, you can slow them down if they talk too fast." They didn't
talk too fast but they all talked at once. He was sending me out to do
something he couldn't do himself. They were investigating a paint gang
foreman who frequently left his gang of men to spend time with his new
young bride. He had my sympathy when he showed extreme nervousness
during the questioning. They were continuously painting the seven mile
Matecumbe steel bridge. Later, the Overseas Railroad was discontinued.
While we were waiting for the train to make the return trip, one of the
officials took me for a ride on a motor car over the viaduct, high above the
water, going fast over the rails, the wind blowing in our faces. It was
exciting as I always wanted to ride on one, until I looked ahead and saw the
bright headlights of a train approaching. I was quickly assured there was a
place we could pull off and let it pass. Then we had to hurry back and get
on the train.
Going back to Miami we had a delicious dinner in the diner, then I
took my seat and reviewed my shorthand notes to-make sure I could read
them after they got cold. Mr. Gaddis, the superintendent, later sent me a
letter of commendation.

My Life in South Florida 47

My Husband
It was a lucky day for me when the Lord made William Homer
Harvey and reserved him to be my husband. He came to get a room where
Mary and I had rented a house to keep roomers and enhance our earnings.
We were married 37 years with harmony and love and many laughs, even
in the morning when I got up feeling groggy. He had a unique kind of
humor that everyone relished. He didn't realize all the attributes he had;
people flocked to him like bees to honey It was an asset to our business.
Men would walk all the way to the back of the arcade just to jolly with
him. Here is a sample of his wit: he put lots of rich toppings on his ice
cream and then poured chocolate syrup over it. I said "Now you're gilding
the lily" He said "I'm going to eat it anyway I don't care if I have to eat
flowers with my ice cream."
After we had become engaged I went home to Hawthorne where my
parents lived at that time to tell them I was going to get married. Homer
was supposed to get a new navy blue suit. He had rented an apartment for
us for ten dollars a month. I had a key to it and when I returned I went to
the apartment thinking to myself, if he wants to back out of it, now is the
time. I quickly opened the closet door and there was the blue suit. We
could now get married as Mr. Howard of the Independent Life Insurance
Co. had given him a job.
We were married in the huge auditorium of the First Baptist Church.
Neither of us was Baptist, I was a Methodist and he was a Quaker,
belonging to the Friends Church in N.C. I was 31, he was 37. The benches
were all empty and the minister had to go out on the street and bring in a
couple of derelicts for witnesses. We were so happy when the minister
pronounced us husband and wife. Homer's face just glowed, nothing had
happened, we were actually married. That was Oct. 19, 1935. We went to
Miami Ave. for our nuptial dinner for twenty-five cents each. It was a small
rundown restaurant but it had a bright red checkerboard cloth on the small
square table. Later we ate at the Dinner Bell on First Street which was also
twenty-five cents but we got dessert with it.
I wanted to show him off and took him to see my friend lone.
Afterward she told me "Gee he's cute Edna, I wish I had him" -no way. I
was proud of him, he was so good looking, sparkling brown eyes, slender
and straight as a board, with a contagious laugh, always looking for a funny
side. On Sunday afternoon we put on our wedding clothes and went
strolling in Bayfront Park and got someone to take our picture. When we


returned Mr. Howard unexpectedly dropped by the apartment pretending
to give Homer instructions for Monday morning which he already knew.
Actually, I think he wanted to see what his bride looked like. I was glad I
had on my wedding dress.

Starting Our Business
The apartment went up from ten dollars to thirty-five dollars a month
and we had to take a room. I hadn't found a job yet but soon got one at the
Ace Letter Service with Mr. Orthner, addressing envelopes and cutting
stencils. That was where I learned the business. Mr. Orthner let me go
because he was taking his old girl back and she knew how to run the
mimeograph. He didn't tell me that though, I knew the girl and she told
me, but he said I wasn't suited for the work, after raising me every two
weeks. He said he didn't have to proof-read my stencils.
I rented a room in the Commercial Arcade next to Gesu Church for
ten dollars a month and started the A-1 Letter Shop with a rented typewriter
for three dollars and fifty cents a month, and later rented a mimeograph
On a cold day Mr. Orthner appeared dressed in a heavy overcoat and
proceeded to bawl me out for starting my own business. He jerked out a
penny post card I had sent out for advertising and asked me if I had sent it
out. Homer had joined me in the business and never had seen him but
realizing who he was, he ordered him out. (Surprisingly, 25 years later,
after Homer had retired he was the one who bought the business for $7,000,
being happy to get back into that business after having sold his shop and
losing the money by making poor investments.)
When we used to have Friday night singing at our house in the
Everglades one of the songs we sang was "Will the Circle be Unbroken,
by and by, yes by and by?" That thought bothered me. It came to pass for
me just after I got married. We were summoned to Hawthorne. My father
had pneumonia just before Christmas and they had nothing to fight it with,
the sulfa drug had not yet come in. At twelve o'clock noon, Friday the
thirteenth, he passed away. He was always superstitious about Friday the
thirteenth. When the clock struck twelve I had the urge to go to the fields
and call him to dinner, but the Maker had called him Home. The sun had
set for us all. He was only 57 and hadn't gotten to meet my husband of
whom I was so proud.
Through the years there have been other breaks in the circle: my
mother, my dear husband, my brother, Alton. But still living are my sister,
Alice (Mrs. Robert Whiteley) in California, and my brother Robert, the

My Life in South Florida 49

retired colonel, in Decatur, Georgia. Both have wonderful families. I have
my painting and recently have been studying Spanish, necessary if you are
going to live in Miami. So far, though, the Cubans don't seem to understand
my Spanish.
In the years of my life, it always seemed to me that my pathway was
laid out for me and that I was only following the gleam with the help of the
One who created it. Doors closed only for greater ones to open. I have
been lucky but I think we make our own luck, at least we lay the foundation
for it.
Lastly, I am thankful for having been given the privilege of life in this
great Celestial Universe. May God bless us all.

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document

Newspaper Pioneering on the

Florida East Coast, 1891-1895

By Ruby Andrews Myers*

By the late 'eighties the Indian River Steamboat Company had put on a
boat line from Titusville to Jupiter, and from that point had constructed a
narrow-gauge railroad over the eight-mile strip between Jupiter Inlet and
Lake Worth. The railroad terminal in Jupiter was on the south side of the
Loxahatchee River, the train connecting closely with incoming steamers.
This railway line was known as the Celestial Railroad inasmuch as Jupiter
was its northern terminus and at its southern end, at the head of Lake
Worth, was Juno, the county seat of Dade County, which then embraced all
the territory south of Brevard County. Somewhere between the terminus a
homesteader with a sense of local nomenclature had named his pineapple
farm Neptune.
It was quite unique that little road and while it lasted, about
seven years, was one of the most important links in Florida's transportation
system, conveying hundreds of tourists and prospectors every year who,
even at that early date, had heard of and were longing to reach Palm Beach.
The train carried two coaches for passengers and two or three freight cars.
The engine always remained at the same end of the train, running backward
one way.
The run across from inlet to lake filled hardly more than half an hour,
but that brief period was one of refreshing novelty. On the left the Atlantic
filled all the vista, waves washing over the beach and dunes almost onto

*Ruby Andrews Myers was an associate editor for Dade County's first newspaper, The
Tropical Sun. This account of her experiences with the Sun was contributed by her daughter,
Virginia Myers Hibbs of Boise, Idaho, herself a resident of Miami from 1942 to 1957.


the tracks of the road, while to the right rolled long miles of swelling dunes
topped here and there with a palmetto or a towering pine tree, the slopes
over-run with multi-colored convolvuli and sparce grasses of various hues.
Fresh air from the sea filled the open coaches and the train soon puffed to
a stop at the land end of the little wharf just over the water line of Lake
Worth, where mail and passenger launches and baggage scows awaited its
arrival. Juno, the southern terminus of the Celestial Railroad, was in
Judging from what you did not see as well as from what was visible
there was no great strain on the imagination to visualize the aspect of the
locality lying at the head of Lake Worth as it had appeared during the years
proceeding 1890 simply a continuation of that uninhabited strip just
passed over somewhat colorful as to natural hues but offering no
inducement to permanent residence. When the train slowed for Juno the
traveller had a glimpse of the small frame two-story courthouse situated a
few feet from the tracks and the little jail standing close by. A little farther
in was a long narrow one-story boarding house where courthouse visitors
were entertained at meals and where the clerk of the court had his residence
and wherein the post office had been located until very recently. Not far
from this, and across the track, was a shack where a human derelict essayed
to forget the world, visited occasionally by an intermittent wife. Then on
down to the wharf where there was a little baggage-freight-telegraph office,
about 20x20 ft. where the aforesaid derelict looked after telegrams, passen-
gers, tickets and transfers in an official capacity. Around the wharf was
usually a fleet of boats, some of them regularly in service such as the mail
boat, a twenty-foot motor launch which came up the lake daily, making the
return trip down after the train from Jupiter had come in. There was also a
number of private craft, sail and motor, belonging to folk having legal
business in the county seat.
Set back from the track some thirty feet and from the wharf about
fifty yards, amidst a fine clump of gumbo-limbos and oaks, was a large
two-story building, well-built and attractive, the lower floor of which
housed the first printing office in Dade County; the second floor affording
living quarters for the owner-editor and his family, the Guy Metcalfs. This
also housed the staff of The Tropical Sun, a weekly, which had been
established there March 18, 1891 and where, on that date this writer had
entered upon the duties of associate editor and special correspondent at
Palm Beach, ten miles down the lake. That was all there was at Juno in
The train came over twice a day, then backed to Jupiter. The boats

Newspaper Pioneering on the Florida East Coast 53

came up regularly once a day, lying over until the train had made the second
trip. The home on the second floor the Sun home was commodious
and comfortable, well furnished, with plenty of books, a piano and an
organ for the use and pleasure of the office family, numbering nine to
twelve. There was a common mess for family and staff and the numerous
visitors which the Sun family entertained-former acquaintances from the
Indian River country and new friends of the Lake Worth region. There was
a lot of good reading, music and social pleasure during the evenings when
the whole family participated in all that was to be enjoyed. There was also
a natty sailboat owned by the editor that took Sunday picnic parties to the
beach and down the lake almost every week. There were Sunday picnics at
Jupiter when the railroad agent would obligingly send over the hand-car to
transport the office family to the beach, as well as to dances at Jupiter given
by the life-saving crew; and there was always the fascination of the office
work itself, made doubly interesting by reason of its unique field, its locale
and the several interesting personalities making up the journalistic family
The county seat of Dade County had been located at Juno in 1889,
moved there from Miami after a vote by Dade County residents. Only the
courthouse and jail attested to the legal status of the settlement, supple-
mented in time by two resident attorneys. The surrounding country however
was filling up. Large areas were opened to homestead entry, numbers of
new people had come in and a mild sort of boom began to develop. The
Lake Worth folk decided a newspaper would help progress more than
anything else, pending a possible railroad invasion at some time in the
future. Offers were made and accepted with the result that a newspaper
soon followed the courthouse at Juno. The office was well-equipped in
every particular, good printers were hired, local correspondents were
attached, experienced writers employed and the paper made its first ap-
pearance during the season of 1891.
That newspaper venture was a unique enterprise a printer in the
woods. There at the head of the lake about three hundred miles south from
Jacksonville, the nearest printer's supply base, with a thrice-a-week mail
and ten miles from a store of any kind, and the same distance from the
Palm Beach and Lake Worth hotels, the center of the social and business
life, was the Sun office, located at the far end of the long, slow Indian River
traffic route which however beautiful, was tiresome when haste was imper-
Everybody connected with the office lived in apprehension of a break
in the machinery. If there was a little unusual sound from the big cylinder
press while running, there ensued a panic, for it might involve a delay of


possibly two weeks while an order was dispatched or somebody was sent
to Jacksonville, for the steamer was apt to go aground almost anywhere or
anytime in the Narrows. Then too, sometimes stock gave out; ink, paper,
job supplies; or maybe there would be a vacancy on the force due to a call
from somewhere or an illness. On such an occasion the entire staff and
family would be pressed into service in any capacity, for almost any
member could do anything the office required. The editors could make up
form, the job and ad men could read proof, any member of the family
could help with mailing. Type was all set by hand of course, and I was not
without some skill in the mechanical department inasmuch as I had been
initiated into the craft during my early childhood under the tutelage of my
father, who had entered upon his journalistic life when I was a very small
child. Hence my earliest recollections are of a country weekly office, and
while I could recall very little of the mechanical operations of those
infantile days, I retain a very distinct impression of the layout of the office,
the personnel and other important features of the trade and certainly then
and there was born my lifelong interest in, and love for, the craft of the
printer and the profession of the scribe.
During my adolescent years I had frequent opportunity to cultivate
and cement my acquaintance with the craft, so that when I reached Indian
River country on February 22, 1886 I found an established printer in
Cocoa. I almost immediately found employment therein and for several
ensuing years "held a case" in the local office. My father bought the paper
in 1888 and for the next several years I remained with him in a general
capacity, gradually enlarging my duties to include writing. In time I
established connections with outside papers that took all descriptive matter
I submitted from the Indian River country. This eventually led to my
connection with The Tropical Sun, where I could take a turn at the editor's
desk, stick to the reporter's job at Palm Beach or read proofs. In addition
to other responsibilities the editor had taken over the post office, it had
been installed in his private office, with a delivery window opening out on
the front .verandah. Not to be outdone in usefulness, I assumed the duties
of assistant postmaster and chief clerk.
The printer in the woods flourished. There was a good deal of job
work of various sorts and the advertising was excellent. This seemed a
marvel to some on the outside, but all that country was new, filling up with
new people, homesteaders and others wanting new things for new houses.
While there were no local supply houses, there were big houses in Jackson-
ville and Savannah eager for south Florida business. These dealers were
glad to advertise in the Sun and did so. Big ocean-going freight schooners

Newspaper Pioneering on the Florida East Coast 55

out of Jacksonville, and the Indian River steamers came into the section
loaded with goods furniture, building supplies, musical instruments,
cook stoves, fertilizer, machine supplies everything advertised in the
paper found a way into homes and hotels.
Many visitors came into the Sun home. Among the most interesting
was Mr. J. E. Ingraham of St. Augustine who lunched there the day he
completed his historic trip through the Everglades in March 1892. Weary
as he was after his march, he gave an enthralling talk on his experiences.
Of this trip by Mr. Ingraham the following is taken from "Florida Old and
New" by Frederick Dau: "In March 1892 the late Mr. James E. Ingraham
crossed the Everglades southeasterly from Fort Shackleford to Miami, with
23 men, and in traveling not much over seventy miles consumed about
three weeks' time. Such peril and hardship were suffered by him and his
party that they saved their lives by a narrow margin only, and had they been
out but two days more they would have undoubtedly starved to death and
never been heard of again."
That day at Juno, Mr. Ingraham showed every evidence of having
been through "peril and hardship." His was probably the first white party
that had penetrated the Everglades since the Indian wars. He was then on
his way to take the Indian River boat at Jupiter on his return up the coast.
Senators Wilkinson Call and Samuel Pasco, Congressman C. M.
Cooper, future Governor Gilchrist and Mrs. Julia Tuttle of Miami were
among visitors in 1892. The Sun played an important political role that year
in addition to its successful advocacy of a fine Florida exhibit at the Chicago
World's Fair in 1893.
At Juno all household supplies had to be brought from Palm Beach
stores or from Jupiter. Much was bought wholesale from Jacksonville and
brought in by freight schooner or by steamer down Indian River. There was
a good deal of game, much fish from lake and ocean and fresh fruit locally
grown; bananas, pineapples, custard apples, sapodillas. Surinam cherries
and other native fruits were not grown on Indian River at that time.
Not to be outdone in civility we sometimes obtained the use of the
jury room on the second floor of the court house and gave a Sun dance.
The dance was attended by Jupiter and Lake Worth friends and neighbors
and music was furnished by ourselves or by an old fiddler who had lived in
Jupiter many years. He and the Jupiter contingent, including some of the
life-saving boys from the House of Refuge, came over on the hand car.
The Seminole Indians made frequent trips to Lake Worth which had
been their old camping ground for many hundreds of years. One day they
came into the printing office, shyly and quietly looked the printing outfit


over, listened to the clock strike, watched the train come in and back out
and bought cigars at the office booth. They answered not a word to
questions asked, except one at the end of their visit. All of a certain party,
except one, had filed out and down to the wharf where their canoes were
moored. This one laggard lingered at the booth for another cigar. It
suddenly occurred to me that I had never heard an Indian pronounce the
Indian name of Indian River, moreover I had been told that it was a secret
with the tribes and forbidden to be divulged. I decided that Indian must
now pay for this cigar. Stepping forward in what I intended to be an
ingratiating manner I reached into the show-case and carelessly moved the
box of cigars just out of his reach. I asked him innocently enough if he
came from Indian River.
"No. Miami," he answered, waving his hand toward the southwest.
"What do Indians call Indian River?" I asked. Silence. I repeated the
question, to which no answer was vouchsafed and looking at him I saw he
was gazing at his companions outside. It occurred to me he was waiting for
an opportunity to answer me as soon as they would leave. I pushed the
cigars a little nearer to him, and as he reached for one, I repeated my
question while I again withdrew the box. He instantly realized he was
being bribed to tell. Then we played hide and seek for quite a little while
and I began to think I should never know. Then with a look out of his eye
that might have gone through the back of his head in the direction of the
Indians outside, so sly was it, he faced me without looking at me and spat
some word or words between his teeth and made a grab for the cigar box.
Not so, thought I, and pulling it toward me, I asked again. Again he said
something that I almost caught. By this time his friends had reached the
wharf and time was pressing. Over and over again I made my move, he
made his; each time we both looked out at the others moving around and at
last I caught the name, or thought I did. I said it after him. He repeated this
several times; he seeming to enjoy the experience and I certainly did.
Finally I attempted to write the words he had spoken, pronouncing each
syllable as I wrote. After many trials, I said what I had written and there it
was, nailed fast with his approval. "Ays-ta-chattee-hatchee."
"Uh-hum. Good. Ojus much!"And with a smile in his eyes but not
on his lips he slipped away to join his companions, bearing a whole handful
of the best cigars in the Sun show case. Leaving with me a long.treasured
reminder of an enjoyable experience.
"Ays-ta-chattee" means red man, "hatchee" means river and there
you are.
In his "Young Marooners" the author, Dr. Goulding, spells the name

Newspaper Pioneering on the Florida East Coast 57

"Ees-ta-chattee," red man; "Eesta-hodkee," white man; "Eesta-lustee,"
black man, but the Spaniards spelled it Ays-ta-chattee, and called Indian
River "Rio de Ays."
Juno was beautifully located at the head of Lake Worth. To the east
lay the rolling dune land, to the north and west fell away the pine and scrub
land lying between the lake and the winding waters of the Loxahatchee
several miles away. To the south, palm-bordered and pine-shadowed,
glistening in the brilliant sun of the semi-tropics lay the lovely sheet of
water named by the Indians "Hy-po-lux-o" or long water, dotting the maps
under the name of Lake Worth in honor of the United States Army officer
of the Seminole Wars. There was good land in abundance around Juno,
good for trucking and orange and other fruit growing. Several homesteads
were located within a few miles of the courthouse and railroad terminus.
Woods and beach were within a few yards of both.
On the east shore of the lake, about three miles south of Juno, lay
Lake Worth Inlet, the only opening in the lake. This afforded passage in
and out for large vessels. In the'eighties and previously, if one sailed down
Indian River expecting to proceed by boat into Lake Worth, one left the
Indian River at Jupiter Inlet, put to sea, sailed south along the coast for ten
or twelve miles and then sailed west through Lake Worth inlet. That was
the way the Lake Worth pioneers reached that little landlocked haven with
its one opening near the north end. Early homesteaders had come that way
in the early 'seventies; later homesteaders continued the same way, many
families accompanying their goods on the schooners. The same transpor-
tation methods continued even after the Celestial Route had opened a
quicker service. The lake was twenty-three miles long by half to three-
quarters of a mile wide. All along the shore, water traffic was the only way
in use.
From Juno southward the view was superb at all times of the day and
in every kind of weather. Pitts Island lay near the eastern shore about half
way down to Palm Beach. This was home to Mr. and Mrs. Pitts, a couple
who had improved on nature by planting flowers of every hue and of
numerous varieties, and who welcomed all visitors to their hospitable
abode and provided ideal picnic nooks for lovers of the outdoors. This
island had been their home for several years and under their care it had
been transformed into one of the most truly beautiful tropic spots anywhere
in Florida. There were only seventeen acres on the island but every square
foot was proof of what could be done with raw materials. Only a few feet
separated island and the lake shore to the east and a sea-wall encircled the
entire estate. Palms, poinsettias, poincianas, plumbagos and allamandas,


oleanders, hibiscus and bougainvillea growing in rich profusion made a
riot of color, while fruits and vegetables added their useful delights. Several
varieties of fish were to be had for the taking by anyone fishing from the
sea-wall or small dock.
To the westward, across the lake from Pitts Island and almost directly
opposite the inlet, commanding a grand view of the sea was Oak Lawn
hotel and post office. From these points of beginning stretched the loveli-
ness that has ever characterized this spot on the Florida East Coast.
Notwithstanding the great distance from lumber supply centers and
the transportation handicap, there were many handsome homes along the
eastern shore of Lake Worth. Plaster houses, well screened, comfortably
furnished and well equipped were the rule. Workmen had to be imported
as well as materials and this brought many who became permanent resi-
dents. There was one notable difference between the pioneers of the Indian
River country and those of Lake Worth. The former had come earlier but
they had come poor, stripped of nearly all they had by the fierce fingers of
war. They were seeing a new terrain, under new and untried conditions,
without money or other equipment save that of brawn, muscle and the will
to achieve. Their progress had been slow at first but by the middle 'eighties
they had begun to realize on their efforts and the young orange groves were
producing oranges of the finest quality. Whatever had been their fortunes
before the war they had come to Florida empty-handed. They had had to
work hard for their eventual success.
By contrast, practically all the Lake Worth pioneers came with money.
They entered homesteads, applying their cash to the construction of good
homes in the beginning. Most of them also had investment from which
they derived an income sufficient for living. Therefore, until well into the
'nineties there was no industry throughout the entire section. There were
boats to hire in the winter, boarding houses and hotels for guests and two
stores. These were about all that had preceded the Sun in that locality and
to that paper belongs the credit of establishing the first industrial plant on
Lake Worth. Truck growing was a possibility on adjacent lands, but of the
time I write, it had assumed no greater proportions than those of kitchen
gardens. The great wastes west of the lake were indeed terrae incognitae.
The aforementioned differences in the beginnings of the two sections
explain the difference in their apparent progress. While Indian River was a
long way in the lead industrially, of necessity, the Lake Worth country was
more intent on making itself comfortable and beautiful, hence Lake Worth
true to its beginning, found its fame early as a pleasure resort.
The cocoanut growth around Lake Worth is no more indigenous than

Newspaper Pioneering on the Florida East Coast 59

is the orange on Indian River. The former originated in nuts washed ashore
from a stranded vessel when they were thrown overboard to lighten the
ship. These were gathered and planted by the pioneers or grew where they
landed on the beaches, in time to form a distinctive feature of the landscape
all along the east coast of Florida. These came from the Providencia when
she was overtaken by a hurricane.
Sections of the old Lauderdale Trail, a relic of the Indian War days,
originally running from Fort Dallas (Miami) to Jupiter, lay between Lake
Worth and the Everglades, but this had not been wholly open in many
years. Portions of it, here and there, connected a few homesteads in that
section, but no continuous open road was in existence at that time on the
west side of the lake. The several homes on that side of the lake were a few
miles apart.
On the eastern side of the lake, from the inlet southward, lay a
compact, beautifully-developed settlement extending practically the entire
length of the lake. The northern half of this settlement bore the name of
Lake Worth, from which the post office also took its name. This was the
older portion of the east side community. The south half of the settlement
was the Village and post office of Palm Beach, settled in the middle
'seventies. Most of the residents had come from the middle states, only a
few from the east, and fewer still from the lower tier of the southern states.
These pioneers had blended their interests, pursuits, aspirations and hopes
to such an extent that the entire little strip of land made of that region the
perfect bijou de tropique.
There was a commodious hotel at Lake Worth bearing the name of
the locality, and at Palm Beach was the Cocoanut Grove House, both well
appointed and extremely inviting. There was a good general store at both
Lake Worth and Palm Beach, in which were also located the post offices of
the respective communities and there were accommodations for tourists as
the winter population increased. Nearly every property owner was the
fortunate possessor of a strip of land extending from lake to sea and
romantically beautiful trails afforded private walks to and from a surf bath.
There was a small Congregational church where year-round services were
held and about half-way down the east side was the beautiful Episcopal
church, Bethesda-by-the-Sea, where services were held only during the
winter season. A commodious and well-appointed rectory adjoined the
church. There was also a good public school conveniently located.
There were several outstandingly beautiful homes, among them Reve
d'Ete with its rose and cactus gardens and numerous varieties of plants and
shrubs from all over the world. The owners dispensed lovely hospitality.


There was also the magnificent McCormick home, one of the earliest fine
houses at Palm Beach; a creation of taste with marble floors, French
mirrors, imported carpets and objets dart. All the way down that side of
the lake were homes and gardens amid their wide lawns, with rustic trails
leading to the beach half a mile to the east. Most imposing at Palm Beach
was the hotel. The hotel family was charming, efficient in the extreme -
not only in hotel management-but to the entire neighborhood.
There was, at that time, no spectacular splurging, no extravagant
indulgence, no questionable companionships; but a delightful, family
feeling of peaceful informality; a democracy of the well-bred, the security
of culture, and a universal appreciation of the natural beauty of the locale.
There were boat trips to all points of the lake, usually wildwood picnic
grounds, moonrise parties to the beach, deep sea fishing with experienced
boatmen, neighborhood or hotel parlor dancing, musical evenings and
Sunday evening "sings" and cozy dinners among the cottages. There were
many unattached people who sketched, wrote, studied conchologists,
horticulturists and botanists who explored every nook and cranny of the
terrain. Life was simple and therefore very enjoyable.
To a special newspaper correspondent what an enjoyable field! There
were all sorts of delightful people to interview who submitted kindly to
interviewing. There were charming associations and enduring friendships
formed. There were many lovely phases of life for journalists interested in
Florida and the people who came there. Columns were written daily from
that little hamlet to appear in newspapers and magazines in the northeastern
states and mid-west. It seemed a sort of magic that transformed life for
everybody there. Those who had been staying there several successive
winters were as interesting as, if not more so, than new arrivals. Many
gifted people met and mingled there for the first time and came back again
and again to renew acquaintances.
Breakfast and luncheon were hurriedly gotten through to make ready
for the enterprises of the day; but dinner was rather more formal and the
tables were piled with locally produced fruits and vegetables. Fresh cocoa-
nuts were among the favorites, in cakes, puddings and used in biscuits for
shortening. It put cream to shame!
Practically all life centered on the east side, where were located the
hotels. Fronting west, from their western verandahs, there was little to be
seen but tall pines swaying over tufts of wire grass or saw palmetto. There
were few homes on the west side, most of them small and set back from
the lake shore and therefore unseen from the east side. Among them was
the modest home of Byrd Spillman Dewey, whose book Bruno later won

Newspaper Pioneering on the Florida East Coast 61

fame. She was doing a little work as her health would permit, but her
principal object in life then was to get well, which she was doing. She and
her husband, both invalids, had arrived on the lake sometime in the later
'eighties, acquired a home-site on the west shore of Lake Worth and built a
small two-story house under the pine trees. In a genial clime, under a
southern sun, they were fighting their way back to health. I was a delighted
visitor to their home where there were books and book talk. We were all
interested in the same things and there was much lively discourse on many
topics, but never a word about Bruno. Mrs. Dewey did most of the domestic
work which she loved, found time to write two or three columns a week
for the Sun, visited a little at the hotel principally for the music, I judged,
and was a most delightful hostess. There were many ingenious, original
contraptions about the house to save steps and fill needs, which she
designed and her husband executed. These included a kerosene-lamp-stove
arrangement by which her salt-rising bread turned out to perfection.
She had a rare critical faculty rare in that it was kind and her
bright, optimistic encouragement meant much to her fellow travellers along
the road of writing. Small of stature, clear-eyed, curly-haired, with quiet
manner, unobtrusive yet possessed of a striking personality, few who have
ever known her are likely to forget her. I have never done so and cherish
her friendship, satisfying and inspiring.
For many years, there was only one practicing physician in all of Dade
County, his practice extending from Jupiter and other south Indian River
points on the north to the Keys on the south and sometimes even to Key
West. His only means of transportation was the ubiquitous sailboat. The
hero of this itinerary was Dr. Richard Potter of New England who had
arrived in South Florida in the 'seventies and forthwith became one of the
pillars of progress and civilization in the section he claimed as his profes-
sional field. Skillful, kindly, courteous, a scholar and a gentleman in the
truest sense, he was indeed among the foremost of that goodly band who
entered the Lake Worth country as pioneers, lived and prospered there and
left it honored and beloved by all who knew him. Dr. Potter lived with his
mother and sister, his home was south of the Palm Beach hotels and post
office and between the sea and the lake. The family had given it the unusual
name of "Figulus."
Four miles out to sea from Lake Worth lay the purple ribbon of the
Gulf Stream flowing northward. Southbound ships hugged the shore to
keep out of its strong current, northbound vessels keeping farther out to
benefit by its stream and so hasten their progress. The trade-winds blew
and the palms nodded as from the beginning.


South of Palm Beach, residences were less frequently encountered
around the lake, though none of them were very far removed from each
other. There were several large cocoanut groves on the sand dunes over-
looking the sea and farther down toward the south end of the lakes was
Hypoluxo Island where the owners lived. They had been living there since
1873 and had made many beneficial and important advances in gardening
and truck growing and their palm trees won the admiration of all who saw
them. This island was regarded as having the most fertile soil in the lake
country. There were two or three homes around the narrow foot of the lake,
where trucking was becoming a good business on the moist, fertile land in
that vicinity and excellent returns were being realized.
From the hotel at Palm Beach, the old Cocoanut Grove House, this
correspondent made a foot journey around the entire circuit of Lake Worth
in the spring of 1891. There was not a house, not a home, a farm, a truck
garden nor a fine winter residence that was not visited afoot with notebook
and pencil for company. Everything was taken in; from the noted Fenian
exile, safely ensconced in his "Divinity Grove" to the cultured rector of
Bethesda and his lovely wife; from the exquisite charm of Reve d'Ete to
the primitive homesteads in the back country; from the erudite atmosphere
of Ben Trovato to serene Oak Lawn; from remote Lantana and Hypoluxo
to the edenic shades of Nux-a-choo; from the busy printer at Juno amid
the gumbo-limbos and maples to the swirling waters around the front door
of the Georgia cracker; from the marble floors of the McCormicks to the
palmetto thatch of the recluse of Manalapan; from the soft lights and
cultured voices of the Vanderbilt Barton house to the henneryy" of the
lady chicken fancier; from the social brilliance of the yacht club set to the
shack of the toper who had settled his family in the saw grass on the edge
of the Everglades; from the surging waves off the ocean beach to the sunset
trails among the homesteaders and it all went down in the little old note
book to be transcribed for the big papers throughout the country.
In the autumn of 1894, the Sun office was moved from Juno to the
newly developed village of West Palm Beach, where the paper continued
as the only one in Dade County. At a later date the former Sun home and
office at Juno was entirely destroyed by fire.
In February 1895, the Sun, from its new location, sent me as special
correspondent to Biscayne Bay.

Life in Palm Beach County,

Florida, 1918-1928

Part I: Engineering and Farming

From Noah Kellum Williams' Grandpop's Book
Edited, with an introduction, by Charlton W. Tebeau

Noah Kellum Williams was born near Parsons, Kansas, on June 12, 1879.
He was the third of seven children of Nathan Williams, a pioneer farmer
and school teacher, with a staunch Quaker heritage dating back seven
generations to one Robert Williams who had arrived in Philadelphia in
1682. Noah graduated from high school in 1897, and from Penn College,
Oskaloosa, Iowa, in 1902 with a B.S. Degree. He then taught one year in a
college maintained by the Friends in Central City, Nebraska. The following
year he went to Cuba as a non-salaried Quaker missionary, invited there by
Sylvester Jones who had been the head of the YMCA at Penn College and
had become the first Quaker missionary to Cuba. He turned to engineering
for employment, principally the building of railroads and sugar mills in
eastern Cuba.
At the end of the second year in Cuba, Birdie Fay Pickette, nineteen,
of Broken Bow and Scotia, Nebraska, came alone to marry him. In 1918
the Williams' family which now included five children came to Florida by
way of Key West where they spent the night in order to ride the train to
Miami in daylight the next day. Sadly for them, a child, Robert, came
down with diphtheria of unknown origin and died a few hours later, placing
the family under quarantine.


Noah readily found employment in Florida as an engineer in swamp
drainage and land development. He acquired a large house in West Palm
Beach and spent the most of the next ten years in that county. His longest
work project was as Chief Engineer in the building of Kelsey City, now
Lake Park, a few miles north of West Palm Beach. He tried a number of
other occupations, particularly farming near Pahokee and dairy farming
near Monet (now Palm Beach Gardens and Jupiter). Wiped out by the
collapse of the real estate boom in 1926 and the Hurricane of 1928, about
both of which he wrote at some length, he ended his Florida stay in 1928
and returned for a time to Cuba where he worked with Henry J. Kaisen in
the building of the Cuba Central Highway When hard times came to Cuba
he came back to Florida where his family had been living and moved them
to the American West. There he worked as an engineer in Mexico, and in
Nevada, Montana, Washington and Arizona. He retired at age seventy-two
from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation in 1951 and moved to Ft. Pierce,
Florida. The last eleven years of his life, after the death of his second wife,
he lived with his son Gordon in Miami. He died in Leesburg, Florida on
January 10, 1979, just short of the century mark.
Ethel, Mrs. Gordon Williams, worked with her father-in-law on the
story of his remarkably long and varied life. In 1981 Gordon published the
story privately for Noah's more than 100 descendants, titling it Grandpop's
Book. He placed a copy of the book in the Charlton W. Tebeau Florida
History Collection in the University of Miami's Richter Library.
Excerpts from the reminiscences are printed here with the permission
of Gordon L. Williams. For further information about the Williams family
and early Palm Beach County see Gordon L. Williams, "I Remember the
Everglades Mail Boat", Tequesta XXXVI, 1976, "The West Palm Beach
That I Remember," Tequesta XXXIX, 1979 and "The 1926 Hurricane
Meets the Jupiter Light," Update, August-October, 1978.

Life in Palm Beach County 65

Part I: Engineering and Farming
Jobwise I was lucky. The first day I was in town I wandered around looking
for a job and saw a sign "Wills and Sons and McCarthy, Contractors for
the Lake Worth Drainage District." I went up and interviewed them about
a job. They didn't need any engineers right then, but would bear me in
mind. Within about an hour after our quarantine was lifted, Jake Wagen,
Assistant Engineer of the Lake Worth Drainage District, came to see me.
The District needed an Engineer, and the contractor had told him about
me. He couldn't pay what I was used to getting, but I didn't expect that
much in the States, and considered myself very lucky to get a job at all on
such short notice, when I was a perfect stranger.
Then someone got the essence of a good idea. If they would build
dams with gates in them in their main canals, they could let the surplus
water run out and hold enough to keep the plant roots moist. They spent
several thousand dollars to build such a dam in the Boynton Canal, their
main outlet canal. It was not properly designed and lasted just eight minutes
after they turned the water against it. That dampened their spirits for some
The State Legislature passed a law authorizing landowners to form
drainage districts, elect trustees, float bonds to pay for construction works
and levy taxes to pay off the bonds. The Lake Worth Drainage District
extended from West Palm Beach on the north to Hillsboro River on the
south a distance of about forty miles and from the Coastal Ridge on
the East varying distances to the west six to ten miles and containing
some hundred and fifty thousand acres.
Our Boynton Canal was the only outlet direct into Lake Worth. It had
its origin in a canal running north and south on the west boundary line, and
intersected three more north and south canals on its way east to Lake
Worth. These four were called equalizing canals because they equalized
the water level all over the District. They all four discharged, with water
controls, into the Palm Beach Canal on the north and the Hillsboro River
on the south. Over the entire District there were smaller east and west
canals, called laterals, every half mile emptying into the equalizing canals.
In Cuba we did all our local traveling on horseback. When we got to
West Palm Beach there wasn't but one horse in the whole town and he
worked on the ice wagon. A few people had automobiles, but by far the
greater part rode bicycles. One of our neighbors said that West Palm Beach
was the bicycle-ridingest town in the whole United States. Maybe he took
in too much territory, but anyone watching the parade going to work in the
morning, or returning in the evening, would not have thought so.


My young horseback riders all wanted bicycles right now. The first
day I was out of quarantine, I went to town on an errand. Naturally, being
in a strange place and having been cooped up for nine days, all four of
them had to go along. I stopped at a bicycle shop and bought a second-
hand lady's wheel. I led it home and immediately Elizabeth and Gordon
both wanted to ride. To prevent quarreling, I told them they could take
turns a half hour each. Whichever one was riding, the other sat and
watched the clock to make sure the rider didn't ride too long. I had to get
up at four the next morning to go to my new job. That night Gordon begged
me to call him when I got up next morning, so he could get an early start
riding. I was gone the rest of the week, and when I came home Saturday
evening, I met all four of them coming down the street on the wheel. I
don't know how they ever got mounted, but Vera was riding on the handle
bar, Elizabeth was standing up on the pedals furnishing the motor power,
Gordon was sitting on the saddle, and Kenneth was astride the fender. I
thought that was quick learning.
When I left Cuba, it had not yet recovered from the Chambelona and
I couldn't sell my cane-plantation at any price. On account of the continued
European war and the high price of sugar, it made a pretty quick comeback;
and, in just about a year, I sold it to Bodley Anderson, my brother-in-law's
brother. Then I took stock and figured up to see how I had fared financially.
I went to Cuba alone and had nothing but the $400 I had invested in land
and enough cash to get me there. In fifteen years of hard work, I had
acquired a wife and five children, and had added $2,200 to my original
$400. Had I sold before the Chambelona, I would have received several
thousand dollars more. Had I waited fourteen months longer to sell, I
probably could not have sold at any price, as I will explain later. So, I think
I was lucky to get out so nearly at the psychological moment as I did. I
invested it all in the down payment on an $8,000 home. The house was big
enough so we rented rooms to tourists in winter to help make the payments.
While working with the Lake Worth Drainage District, I went before
the State Board of Engineering Examiners and got my license to practice
Professional Engineering in the State of Florida.
After the big Control was built, we built a smaller one farther up the
same canal. I worked all over the District, staking laterals; cross-sectioning
bigger canals; taking up the estimates behind the digging machines in
short, doing whatever needed doing any place-till late June, 1920.
Then I got another letter from Ames, in Cuba. That was during the
time of what the Cubans later called "The Dance of the Millions." He had
another sugar mill to build and offered me $350 a month and all expenses

Life in Pan Beach County 67

if I would return to Cuba as Chief Engineer and Superintendent of Con-
struction. That was a bigger salary than I had ever had; and, as it turned
out later, it was the biggest salary I ever did have. It was entirely too big to
turn down. I cabled acceptance; turned in my resignation; and left for Cuba
just as soon as I could close up my work and get a passport. I left the family
at home.
Then I heard the bad news. The heaviest stockholder in the Company
had just retired and had come to Florida to spend the winter. He wanted
something to do, so had volunteered to take over the construction of the
mill -gratis and save my salary. So he was paying me two weeks salary
in advance in lieu of two weeks notice, and I could consider my services as
no longer required. That was a jar. The man had made his money by
inventing, building, and operating coal washers in the north. He was amply
competent to do the job; and, being the biggest stockholder, he was saving
his own money as well as that of the other stockholders. It was a mighty
fine thing for the Company, for they didn't have any too much money
anyhow, but it sure hit me hard. I hadn't the slightest idea where to look for
another job.
The Everglades was being drained. A few thousand acres right near
the lake was dry enough to farm and some of it had been farmed in
vegetables for the last three or four years. Some of these farmers had made
big money, considering the small size of their farms and the amount of
money invested. I decided to try farming. I rented some land and planted
ten acres of beans. It didn't rain. My land was high and dry, so when my
beans were ready to harvest they were short and inferior. I scarcely got
enough out of them to pay expenses. I had already paid the rent for the
season on that land so planted it in tomatoes. Since that land was high and
dry, I decided to split my gamble, and rented some lower, wet land. I
planted more tomatoes and an acre of cabbage. It was a very dry year and
the water was the lowest in Lake Okeechobee it had been since they started
keeping records. It was so low it hampered navigation and the War Depart-
ment sent a man down there to see that all spillways out of the lake were
kept closed and that the gates were opened just long enough for the passage
of boats. The man did his duty all right, but he just couldn't stop evapora-
tion, and the lake went down to the lowest level in history up to that
My highland tomatoes just about dried up and didn't pay expenses.
My lowland tomatoes were fine, but the price was low. I never saw finer
cabbage anywhere. When it was ready to ship, I wrote to the Commission
house about shipping, and they wrote me that cabbage was still coming in


from farther north. Just hold till that got out of the way. They would advise
me when to ship.
When I got word to ship, I made arrangements with a sternwheel
steamboat to come to get it on a certain day and haul it to Okeechobee City.
I bought hampers; hired men to cut and pack it and a wagon to haul it to
the beach. There was no communication and the boat didn't come. I
camped right there on the beach with my cabbage for forty-eight hours
before the boat finally came. It had broken down out in the middle of the
lake and it had taken them that long to get it repaired. With two days out in
that boiling sun, my cabbage was pretty well wilted but I shipped it anyhow,
hoping to get something out of it. I did. After paying freight and commis-
sion, I got a check for just nine dollars, which didn't pay for the hampers I
shipped it in to say nothing of the labor of cutting and hauling it, land
rent, and a whole season's work tending it. I let the rest of it rot in the field.
My lowland tomatoes just about paid the losses on my highland tomatoes
and my cabbage. A whole season of hard work and my board while doing
it were gone down the drain.
As the land was being drained, new land was being cleared. It had
been a long time since the Government survey. Many of the comers were
lost. Many subdivisions had been made on paper but never put on the
ground. Many people had a little surveying they wanted done, but getting
a surveyor from West Palm Beach was such an expensive proposition for a
small job, that they hadn't had it done. I got me a set of instruments and
found enough work to keep me busy till I was rained out in the late summer.
The year I was in the Everglades (1922) was a year of extremes. The
water sank to the lowest level in history. When it began to rain, it never
stopped till the lake overflowed the whole country -just as it did before
drainage began. I stayed out there till the water got too deep to get around
and find comers. Seeing the extremes, I said when I left that I would never
again attempt farming in the Everglades until I had water control in both
Very soon after that the farmers around Belle Glade formed the Belle
Glade Conservancy District; built dikes all around it and installed big two-
way pumps. The same pumps that pump the water out of the fields when it
is too wet, when reversed will pump the water out of the canal back into
the fields. By far the larger part, if not all, the agricultural land in the
Everglades is now under two way pumps. It is by far the most fertile land
in Florida; and, because of its proximity to the warm water in Lake
Okeechobee, it has become the Winter Food Basket of the whole eastern
part of the United States and eastern Canada.

Life in Palm Beach County 69

My next job was at Hialeah where the horses and dogs run. Glenn H
Curtiss of aviation fame and a man named Bright were owners and
promoters and Daniel Clune was Chief Engineer. Clune was a fine man to
work for. I rarely saw either Curtiss or Bright, but my job there as a
whole- was more peeve than pleasure. In the first place, there was no one
boarding at my boarding house but a bunch of dog chauffeurs or would
"dog nurses" be a better term? Every morning you would see them out
leading about ten dogs each on leashes, giving them their morning walk.
Their business was to train those dogs to chase an electric rabbit.
My next job was for H.S. Kelsey and his East Coast Finance Com-
pany As a young man, Kelsey started in the restaurant business and made
more than a million at it in a very few years. He came to Florida on a
vacation; liked both the country and the climate; so bought a lot of land.
He incorporated under the name "East Coast Finance Corporation"; hired
a famous city planner to design a city for him; named it "Kelsey City" for
himself and set out to develop both the city and his other land. He wanted
several sections of his other land surveyed and I got the job. One day, in
conversation with Gordon Ware, one of Kelsey's salesmen, I was telling
some of my experiences in Cuba and mentioned Ames. He said, "Why, I
have met him."
"Well, I worked for him off and on for several years, and have a fine
letter of recommendation from him."
"Would you mind letting me read it?"
"Not at all. I will bring it out tomorrow."
After he read it, he said, "That's a very nice letter. Do you mind if I
show it to Mr. Kelsey."
"Not at all."
A few days later, Kelsey waited for me to come from work and told
me he was going to be doing a lot of construction work there. He could use
a man with the qualifications Ames had mentioned I had. Right then and
there, he offered me the combined job of Chief Engineer and Superinten-
dent of Construction. I hadn't anything else in sight, so 1, as promptly,
accepted it. Along with his land, he had bought a big beautiful house
fronting on Lake Worth. A few days later he invited me to move into that
so I would be on the job.
There were several small houses scattered around over his land. He
didn't think they would look very well next to the nice houses he hoped his
patrons would build. Every town in the South has its Negro Quarters. The
first job Kelsey assigned me was to lay out a Negro Quarters just southwest
of his white town; assemble the necessary equipment and move all those


houses there to sell to Negroes. I must say those houses, at a reasonable
price and on easy terms, sold much faster than the lots in the white part of
With my house-moving and other activities, I didn't have much time
for running survey instruments, so hired Harlan Kimball as my assistant.
He had been two years a Lieutenant in the Philippine Constabulary, then
for a time in Ceylon with an oil company. He had just returned home and
was looking for a job. He was not a full-fledged engineer, but could run the
instruments. He was a splendid draftsman, which I was not, so we made a
very tood team. For the most part, he ran the survey crew and did the
drafting and I did the computing and supervising.
The town had been laid out and every lot staked before I went there,
but that is flat country and the city had a few ponds in it. Kelsey told me
that storm sewers cost a lot of money and asked me if we could drain the
streets without them. I dug one open ditch from Lake Worth to the biggest
pond, which I figured could be tiled later, then laid street grades that by
just a little grading would drain the whole town into this ditch and Lake
Worth. One day Kelsey told me he was having the town incorporated and
was putting me down as Commissioner of Public Works. I was elected to
succeed myself two years later, and held the office as long as I lived in the
town. Naturally, I resigned when I moved away.
After I had been with Kelsey about a year and a half, I got a chance to
trade my house in West Palm Beach for a dairy farm at Monet, about three
miles north of Kelsey City. There were only forty acres of the farm but
there were two or three hundred acres more fenced in that I could pasture
rent free. It had a fair two-story house, two tenant houses, and a dairy barn
plus sixty head of milk cows that went with the deal. It was close enough
to Kelsey City that by hiring a dairy foreman I could live at the farm; do
my supervising night and morning; and still hold my job down at Kel-
sey City.
The year 1924 has gone down in Florida history as the wettest year
since the development of South Florida began. That was, also, one of the
peak years of the Florida Boom. People were flocking into South Florida,
literally, by the thousands. There was only one sixteen-foot road leading
into southeastern Florida and no way to go across the state south of
Melbourne. I was just getting my new dairy well started when the weath-
erman began making me trouble and he followed up by making trouble for
all of southeastern Florida. My dairy and home were on an east-west, dirt
road about a quarter of a mile east of the Dixie Highway. There was some
very low land between the farm and the highway which became impassable

Life in Palm Beach County 71

very soon after it began to rain. A very little investigation convinced me
that that had happened before. There was a gate into the pasture just west
of the house and another out of the pasture into the highway about a quarter
of a mile north of our road with a winding car trail on the high ground
between the two.
Originally, there was a sawgrass swamp of a few thousand acres
between Monet, where my farm was, and the present site of Kelsey City
where I worked. The swamp collected the rainfall of many thousands of
acres of what is known as Flat Woods, which lay to the west. There is a
ridge all around the west side of Lake Worth and on up the ocean front to
the Jupiter Inlet. So the swamp swung around in a wide arc to the northeast
and slowly emptied its water into the Loxahatchee River, just west of the
Jupiter Inlet. The Inlet is some twelve or fourteen miles north of Kelsey
City. For the Florida East Coast Canal, the engineers were looking for low
ground so dug it through the east side of the north-south part of the swamp,
automatically draining a part of it. When The Florida East Coast Railroad
was built, the engineers searched out a narrow place and crossed it with a
high fill and a pile bridge. Later when the Dixie Highway was built, they
built it just west of the railroad and with similar construction. Later still, a
bunch of enterprising capitalists bought all that part of the swamp which
lay east of the railroad; drained it; sub-divided it and sold it to settlers under
the name of Prosperity Farms. Their main drainage canal began at the
railroad bridge and ran due east through the ridge and emptied into Lake
Worth. They named it Earman River, for an old settler who lived nearby.
When Kelsey was buying land in Florida, he bought all the unsold land in
Prosperity Farms and bought out some of the farmers. He then put in a big,
up-to-date dairy.
I had a Model T Ford, from which the body had been removed and
replaced with a light, home-made truck body, that I used to haul my men
and surveying instruments out over the Flat Woods. When we got stuck in
the mud, which was quite frequently, the men would get out and cut some
palm leaves. Two of them would take hold of a hind wheel and lift it up and
hold it up while a third put some palm leaves under it, and we went on out.
Shortly after Kelsey named me as his Superintendent, I took a blueprint of
the country with his holdings marked on it and set out in my stripped down
Ford to familiarize myself with what I was to superintend. Driving over
one of the roads built by the Prosperity Farms Co., I came to a bridge more
than one hundred feet long over a kind of estuary where a drainage canal
emptied into the East Coast Canal. It was plainly marked "Condemned" at
both ends. I got out; walked over it and had a good look at it. It looked


pretty rotten. I could plainly see that other cars had been over it recently so
I drove over, but decided I would not do it again. It was too risky. A few
days later I was riding with Kelsey in his Buick when we came to this same
bridge. I said, "What? You are not going to drive over that bridge are
"I drive over it every time I come this way."
"Well, there will be a last time some of these times. I won't cross it
even with my stripped down Ford."
"You can get out and walk if you want to."
I did.
The above-mentioned rains became very intense. One morning on my
way to work I found that the Earman River bridge had gone out during the
night. That really complicated matters. I was milking fifty or sixty cows
and bottling my own milk. Now this bridge was out and there was no other
road; and, apparently, no possible way of getting my milk to market.
Fortunately, my milk delivery man lived in West Palm Beach and had the
milk truck at his home, and my little Ford was on my side of the river. I
parked it beside the road; crossed the river on the railroad bridge and
walked into Kelsey City I hunted till I found a rowboat I could rent and a
man to operate it. Then I flagged my milkman as he went through; told
him what had happened and we loaded the boat into the truck and headed
for the river.
I got permission from a farmer to launch the boat in his pasture, far
upstream from the washout. We loaded the empty crates into the boat. I
warned the boatman to be sure to cross the current far upstream from the
washout. I told the milkman to take my Ford and haul his empty crates to
the dairy and haul the milk back. If he couldn't haul it all at one trip, he
could make it in two or three. I walked back to Kelsey City to look after
Kelsey's work. The flood made us a lot of extra work all the way around,
but, nevertheless, things moved along fairly smoothly for a few days. I
always took a load of milk to the boat as I went to work, and the boatman
could haul it across by the time the milkman arrived.
One morning when I reached the landing I found a plumber named
Rocker, who had been working for Kelsey under my supervision, and a
neighbor woman, Mrs. Whiddon, with her five or six year old son, waiting
for me. They wanted to cross in the boat and ride to West Palm Beach on
the milk truck. Naturally, I told them they might. While the boatman and I
were loading the milk, Rocker seated himself in the boatman's seat. When
we were loaded, I asked him to let the boatman have the seat. He said,
"No, he was an experienced boatman and he would row it across to pay for

Life in Palm Beach County 73

his ride." He knew how to a row a boat all right, but he didn't have good
judgment. I told him to go far upstream in the still water before starting
across. As he rowed, I noticed that he was getting close to the current and
asked him to pull farther from it. He was one of the smart kind who knows
it all. He knew more than I, so instead of obeying me, he headed straight
across the current for the other side. The current caught the boat broadside,
and we went through the gap almost as if we had been shot out of a cannon.
The water was too high for us to go under the railroad bridge sitting up. I
grabbed the boy. Told them all to be ready to grab the bridge and get onto
it. Not to bother about the boat. We could hope to catch it downstream;
but, if anyone missed the bridge, he hadn't a chance in that current. By the
Grace of God, we all got onto the bridge! The boat was not so lucky. It was
traveling broadside to the bridge. It hit a pile bent, about two feet from the
stem, with such violence that it started to capsize, then broke in two. I
eventually found all my crates but some were more than two miles from
the bridge. I lost 120 quarts of milk, including the bottles, both of which
were high priced those days and had to buy the wrecked boat. Rocker, who
caused the catastrophe, didn't pay one cent. After that we had to carry all
our milk, one crate at a time, across the railroad bridge until traffic was
A part of my work for Kelsey was building a golf course on the north
side of Earman River, on the ridge near Lake Worth. In order to get to the
golf course from Kelsey City, I built a pile bridge. I built it of light
construction because I didn't think it would every have any heavy traffic
and it costs less that way.
As I mentioned before, the highway bridge went out right at the peak
of the Florida Boom when many thousands were trying to get into South
Florida. Many turned back. Many more just camped by the roadside and
slept in their cars, waiting for something to break. The cars backed up on
the highway for many miles. Normal men of ambition, when they meet a
road block, don't just sit down by the roadside and wait for something to
happen. They begin trying to do something about it. That is just what some
of these men did. They crossed the river on the railroad bridge and went
downstream on the south bank till they found my bridge to the golf course.
They crossed that back to the north, then began scouting for a road that
would lead them back to the highway. They found that by crossing Kelsey's
unfinished golf course and cutting a road through a few hundred feet of
rather light brush, they could connect with the farm road that crossed the
aforementioned condemned bridge. They then followed a dirt road west to
my pasture and out diagonally across that to the highway.


Then began one of the strangest processions it has ever been my
privilege to witness. There were many mud holes along this route where
cars could not go through on their own power. The men organized in groups
of eight or ten cars to the group. Then, with women at the steering wheels,
the men waited beside the mud holes. When a car came by, they dropped
in behind it and waded right through the mud to push it to solid ground on
the other side. They then waded back to do the same for the next car. When
all the cars of their group were through, they went on to the next mud hole.
They came through our pasture; followed the Prosperity Farms road; went
over the condemned bridge; crossed Kelsey's unfinished golf course and
my lightly constructed bridge and re-entered the highway at Riviera,
between Kelsey City (now Lake Park) and West Palm Beach. This proces-
sion continued all the daylight hours until the highway was reopened to
traffic. We estimated that something like 2,000 cars, some of them very
heavy ones, passed over that route-including the condemned bridge. My
heart was in my throat every time I saw a heavy car pass over, but they all
passed safely over without incident.
A few months later, Kelsey was driving over the condemned bridge
in his Buick. A whole span let loose at both ends and dropped him -car
and all into five feet of salt water. As soon as I heard about it, I called
him by phone and asked him if he was hurt.
"Nothing more than a severe wetting, but it sure was a queer feeling
-both me and my car dropping down through space," he replied.
His car stayed in the water several days before he could find a wrecker
big enough to pull it out. He took it to a garage and had it worked over. The
upholstering was all soaked up and salt water was in all the bearings. They
got it so it would run but it was never much good afterward. He used it a
little while and traded it in on a new car.
The Highway Department went into action as soon as they could
assemble a pile driver and bridge material. The water was so deep and so
swift they couldn't hold the piles in place to drive them until the rains
stopped and the water went down. Seeing the Highway Department was
helpless, the West Palm Beach Chamber of Commerce went into action.
They went to the railroad company and got permission to build temporary
bridges across the side ditches and up onto the railroad track. They then
laid plank on the bridge for the cars to run on. They put a traffic cop at both
ends of the bridge twenty-four hours a day to direct traffic and look
out for trains. They ordered all trains to slow down when approaching the
bridge. This arrangement continued until the water went down and the
highway got its bridge built.

Life in Palm Beach County 75

The dairy was making me just about as much money as my salary.
Between the two I was really getting ahead. The Boom was on in earnest
and real estate was moving fast! Some eight or nine months after I got my
dairy going good, Kelsey said to me, "Williams, you had better let me sell
your farm for you. By paying a ten per cent commission, I can get you
eight hundred dollars an acre for it."
"But I don't want to sell it. My dairy is really making me money"
"Yeah. But you can milk money out of that land a whole lot faster
than you can milk it out of your cows. But if you really want to milk cows,
I can sell you all the land you want, farther back in the Flat Woods, for a
whole lot less money. It is just as good for pasture and you will have the
rest of the money to do something else with." He handed me a blueprint of
a lot of the country west of there on which he checked off his land and said,
"Go look at this land and then tell me what you want and I will put a price
on it. I assure you it will be much less than you are offered."
I took the map and went to look the land over. A lot of the land was
all right; but there wasn't a road running to any of it till you struck the
Indian Town road, running west from Jupiter. A dairy must have a road to
get feed in and to get milk out. Four miles west of Jupiter, Kelsey owned a
half section of land three hundred and twenty acres with the Indian
Town road running right through the middle of it. He priced that to me at
one hundred and fifty an acre and told me I could take all my buildings
with me. The buyer wanted my dairy land for a subdivision, and the
buildings would just be in his way. I sold my land. As I couldn't depend on
pasturing someone else's land, I bought two hundred and forty acres and,
at once, set about to make it a dairy farm. I fenced the 160 acres north of
the road and then moved one of the tenant houses. It was small but we
squeezed into that while we moved the big house. Things move remarkably
fast in boom times. We got the big house moved; and we had just moved in
and were preparing to build the barn, when a man came along and offered
me four hundred dollars an acre for the eighty acres lying south of the
road. I figured that that priced land was just too valuable for pasture land
so sold it to him. I, then, advertised my cows for sale. The man who bought
my land paid $2,000 cash and would pay the rest when I got him an
abstract. There were so many real estate transfers that the Abstract Office
was months behind with its work. My ad brought a buyer for my cows. He
made a small down payment and was to pay the rest in monthly payments.
I bought a new house in Kelsey City and moved back there where I would
be close to my work.

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document


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Butler, Richard H. (F)
Butt, Dr. Prudence (Sp)
Byrd, Sallie (I)
Calcagno, Janet L. (Stu)
Caldwell, Mr. & Mrs. Allen
G. (F)
Calhoun, Donald W. (F)
Camejo, Mr. & Mrs.
Armando (F)
Cameon, Doris (I)
Camp, Dr. Robert J. (I)
Campbell, Mr. & Mrs. Dean
Campbell, Mr. & Mrs. John
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Camps, Roland (1)
Cangro, Charles V. (F)
Cantwell, Dr. & Mrs. Wm.
Capen, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Capps, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
E. (F)
Carbone, Grace (F)
Card, Mr. & Mrs. James (F)
Carden, Marguerite G. (1)
Carlebach, Diane G. (D)
Carlton, Mrs. Lowis (Sc)
Carnevale, Emma (F)
Carr, Mr. & Mrs. Marvin A.
Carr, Robert S. (1)
Carney, Mrs. Sarah B. (Sc)
Carroll, Mrs. Edith A. (Sc)
Carroll, Elizabeth J. (I)
Carroll, L. T. (F)
Carroll, Mark M. (I)
Carroth, Mr. & Mrs. John(F)
Carrothers, Mr. & Mrs.
John II (F)


Cartee, Mrs. Horace L. (1)
Carter, Mr. & Mrs, Beverly
R., llI (F)
Carter, Martha W. (1)
Carver, Mr. & Mrs. Frank(F)
Caso, Carlos R. (I)
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Cassell, Dr. John (I)
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Cassidy, Opal D. (I)
Caster, Mrs. George B. (I)
Castro, Dianne (D)
Catlow, Mr. & Mrs. Wm. R.,
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Cauce, Elena M. (1)
Cesarano, Gregory M. (F)
Cesarano, Mr. & Mrs. P. J.
Chaille, Joseph H. (1)
Chaille, Mrs. Josiah (Sc)
Chandler, Mrs. Winifred (I)
Chapman, Mr. & Mrs. Alvah
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Chapman, Arthur E. (I)
Charbonnet, Mr. & Mrs.
Loys Ill (D)
Chardon, Roland E. (D)
Chasen, Laura E. (Sp)
Chastain, Mr. & Mrs. R. B.
Cheezem, Ms. Jan Carson (1)
Chiaravallo, Mrs. Frank (I)
Chowning, Mr. & Mrs. John
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Christie, Francis J. (F)
Christie, Mrs. Robt. E. (I)
Christensen, Bruce A. (I)
Christensen, Charlotte Curry
Churchman, Mr. & Mrs.
Joseph H. (I)
Cintron, Elizabeth, (F)
City National Bank (C)
Clapton, Robyn Marie (F)
Clark, Lt.Col. Bernal E. (Sc)
Clark, Betty Carman (I)
Clark, Bruce J. (F)
Clark, Mrs. Ida M. (Sc)
Clark, Mrs. Janet K. (F)
Clark, Mrs, Kathryn (Sp)
Clark, Mrs. Mae Knight (D)
Clearwater Public Library
Clopton, Peggy (Sc)
Coconut Grove Bank (C)
Codina, Mr. Armando (F)
Coffey, Mr. & Mrs. L. F. (D)
Cohen, Dr. Gilbert H. (1)
Cohen, Howard (I)
Cold, Garth (F)

Cole, Carlton W. (I)
Cole, Mr. & Mrs. R. B. (F)
Cole, Richard P. (I)
Cole, Mrs. Wallace H. (F)
Coleman, Hannah P. (Sc)
Collier County Museum (IS)
Collier County Public
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Collier, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Collins, Barbara H. (I)
Colsky, Dr. & Mrs, Jacob (F)
Colson, Mr. & Mrs. Dean (F)
Colson, Mr. & Mrs, William
Commings, Arlene (F)
Conduitte, Catherine J. (I)
Cone, Mrs. Dee M. (I)
Cone, Lawrence B. (I)
Conese, Lillian S. (I)
Conklin, Miss Dallas M. (L)
Conley, Dr. & Mrs. James(F)
Conlon, Lyndon C. (Sc)
Conroy, Mr. & Mrs. John(F)
Cook, Donna C. (I)
Cook, Gary L. (I)
Cookston, Dana C. (F)
Cool, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen E.
Coon, Lt.Col. Firman A. (I)
Coolidge, Mr. & Mrs. R. S.
Cooney, Mrs. Robert E. (Sc)
Cooney, Thomas (F)
Cooper, Mr. W. Worth (Sc)
Coral Gables Federal Savings
and Loan (IS)
Coral Gables Historic
Preservation Board
Archives (IS)
Coral Gables Jr. Women's
Club (F)
Corlett, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
S., III (Fw)
Cormack, Elroy Calvin (I)
Corson, Allen (Sp)
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Cosentino, Teresa S. (I)
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Costello, Mrs. Gertrude (1)
Costello, Mr. James (I)
Costomiris, Joyce (1)
Cothron, Pat (I)
Cotner, Mr. & Mrs. Paul (F)
Couper, James M. (F)
Covert, Lynn & Clyde (F)
Cox, Mr. & Mrs. Plato (Fw)
Craig, Dorothy A. (I)

Cramer, Lowell (Stu)
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Crawshaw, George (F)
Craythorne, Sonia & Brian
Creel, Joe (I)
Crockford, Mrs. Linda &
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Cross, Mr. & Mrs. Alan J.
Crow, Lon Worth, Jr. (F)
Crow, Mrs. Mary Graham
Crowder, Mr. & Mrs. James
F., Jr. (F)
Crump, Mr. & Mrs. C. C. (D)
Culbertson, Mr. & Mrs.
Stephen (F)
Culpepper, Mrs. K. M. (I)
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Cummings, Mr. & Mrs. Jack
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Cummings, Sandra K. (F)
Cunningham, Les (I)
Cureton, W. J. (I)
Curl, Donald W. (I)
Curry, Ms. Lamar Louise
Curry, Mrs. Tommy (I)
Cushman, Dr. Laura (Sc)
Custer, Mr. & Mrs. Roy F.,
Jr. (Sp)
Dade County Council of Arts
& Science
Dade Foundation
Dade Heritage Trust (F)
D'Alemberte, Mr. & Mrs.
Sandy (D)
Dager, H. J., Jr. (F)
Daly, Mrs. Doris W. (F)
Dane, Mr. & Mrs. George (F)
Danese, Mr. Tracy (Sp)
Daniel, Mr. & Mrs. W. A., Jr.
Danielson, J. Deering (Sp)
Daum, Mr. & Mrs. Phillip(F)
Davenport, Mrs. Carolyn (F)
Davidson, Mrs. Robert M. (1)
Davies, Joan M. (I)
Davis, A. B. (1)
Davis, Mrs. Carl H. (Sc)
Davis, Mr. & Mrs. Darrey(F)
Davis, Mr. & Mrs. Frank C.
Davis, George E., Sr. (Sc)
Davis, Mrs. Graciela (F)
Davis, Mr. & Mrs. Hal D. (F)
Davis, Mr. & Mrs. James L.
Davis, Jim F. (F)

Davis, Marion Peters (I)
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Davis, Ron (F)
Davison, Mrs. Walter (F)
Dean, Jane (I)
Dearborn, Mr. & Mrs.
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De Carion, George H. (Sp)
Deen, James (F)
De Garmo, Mr. & Mrs.
Kenneth (F)
Delmouzos, Melba (1)
Del Vecchio, Chuck (Stu)
Del Vecchio, Mr. & Mrs.
Patrick (F)
De Maris, Mr. & Mrs.
Ronald (F)
Denham, David B. (1)
De Nies, Charles F. (F)
Detroit Public Library (IS)
De Vane, Jeene (I)
De Wald, Bill (I)
Dewitt, Neisa (I)
Diamond, Leonard J. (I)
Dickey, Dr. Robert F. (F)
Dietrick, Ms. Yvonne M. (I)
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*Dismukes, Dr. William Paul
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Doheny, David (F)
Domenico, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph
Donaldson, Eugene (I)
Donn, Mr. & Mrs. Douglas
Donovan, James M., Jr. (I)
Dorn, Jacob L. (1)
Dorn, Michael C. (Sc)
Dorsey, Mrs. Mary C. (F)
Dotson, Martha Jo (D)
Dougherty, Mr. & Mrs. Jas.
C. (F)
**Douglas, Marjory
Stoneman (Sc)
Dowdell, Mr. & Mrs. S. H.
Dowlen, Dr. & Mrs. L. W.,
Jr, (Fw)
Dowlen, Dr. & Mrs. L. W.
Drulard, Marnie Loehr (I)
DuBitsky, Judge & Mrs. Ira
DuBois, Mrs. Bessie Wilson

Duffy, Mr. & Mrs. E. Hugh
Dugas, Mrs. Faye (F)
Duke University Library
Dumas, Ernest M. (I)
Dunan, Mrs. G. V. R. (I)
Duncan, Mr. & Mrs. Marvin
L. (F)
Dunn, Frances G. (I)
Dunn, Hampton (Sc)
Dunnigan, Ms. Deirdre (Stu)
Dunty, R. P., Jr. (D)
Dunwody, Atwood (D)
Dupuch, Sir, Etienne, O.B.E.
Duvall, Mrs. John E. (I)
Duvall, Mr. & Mrs. Walker
Earl, Bill (D)
Eaton, Mr. Joe (F)
Eaton, Mr. & Mrs. Joel (D)
Ebsary, Richard W. (1)
Eckhart, James M. (I)
Edelen, Ellen (Sc)
Edward, Jim (I)
Eggen, John A. (I)
Eggleston, Jeannette (D)
Ehlert, Dr. & Mrs. E. L. (F)
Ehrhard, Mrs. Harriet (D)
Eiben, Mrs. Carl F. (I)
Eickmeyer, Ann (1)
Eidenire, Mr. & Mrs. Todd
Eig, Mrs. Lois (F)
Eldredge, Mr. & Mrs. Chas.
L. (F)
Ellenburg, Mr. & Mrs. James
C. (Sp)
Elliott, Annette (Sc)
Elliot, Donald L. (F)
Ellis, Mr. & Mrs. James (F)
Ellison, Dr. Waldo M. (I)
Elsasser, Ruth B. (I)
Ely, Mr. & Mrs. Winston T.
Emmerson, Mr. & Mrs.
Steven (F)
Engelke, Ms. Syble (I)
Eppes, William D. (I)
Erickson, Mr. & Mrs.
Douglas (Fw)
Eroy, Mr. & Mrs. William(F)
Ernst, Martha (I)
Ernst, Patricia G. (I)
Errera, Mrs. Dorothy (I)
Ersoff, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley
Escapa, Cesar L. (I)
Eskenasi, Ms. Elaine (Sp)

List of Members 81

Esslinger, Ms. W. F. (Sc)
Etling, Walter (1)
Evans, James D. (F)
Evans, Mrs. Joan (I)
Everard, W. H. (F)
Ewell, Mrs. A. Travers (I)
Ewing, Miss Geneva (Sc)
Eyster, 1. R. (1)
Ezell, Mr. & Mrs. Boyce F.
Fales, Mrs, Donna F. (F)
Falick, Mr. & Mrs. George
Farina, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph P.
Farrell, John R. P. A. (I)
Farrey's Wholesale Hardware
Company, Inc. (C)
Fascell, Dante B. (D)
Fee, Mrs. George (I)
Feingold, Dr. & Mrs. Alfred
Feingold, Mrs. Natalie (Sc)
Feldhausen, Ms. Annabel (I)
Feldman, Barbara (F)
Feltman, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
Felton, Mrs. W. C., III (F)
Ferber, Melanie (F)
Ferendino, Andrew J, (F)
Ferguson, Mrs. James C. (I)
Ferguson, Mrs. Milton (I)
Fernandez, Gus (F)
Fernandez, Vivian M. (I)
Field, Capt. & Mrs. Benjamin
P. (F)
Field, Dr. Henry (I)
Field, Mrs. Lamar (I)
Fields, Mrs. Eddie L. (F)
Figuera, Mary N. (F)
Fincher, Richard W. (D)
Finlay, James N. (F)
Fischer, Anne Marie (I)
Fischer, Mr. & Mrs. Frank
M. (F)
Fisher, Elaine Rheney (1)
Fisher, George R. (1)
Fisher, Mrs. Ray (1)
Fishman, Dr. & Mrs.
Lawrence M. (F)
Fitzgerald, Dr. & Mrs.
Joseph H. (Fw)
Fitzgerald, Mrs. W. L. (F)
Fitzgerald, Mr. & Mrs.
Willard L., Jr. (D)
Fitzgerald-Bush, Frank S. (1)
Fitzgibbon, Dr. J. M. (F)
Flagship National Bank of
Miami (C)
Flattery, Michael J., Jr. (F)


Fleites, Mr. & Mrs. Raymond
A. (Fw)
Fleming, Joseph Esq. (D)
Fleming, Dr. & Mrs. Richard
Flick, Charles P. (I)
Flinn, Mr. & Mrs. Gene (F)
Florence, Mrs. Robert S. (I)
Florida Atlantic University
Florida International
University (IS)
Florida Southern College(IS)
Florida University Library
of Florida History (IS)
Floyd, Robt. L. (Sc)
Floyd, Shirley P. (Sc)
Flynn, John C. (F)
Focht, Hannah (I)
Fogler, Col. Edw. N. (I)
Fonte, Joan Conner (I)
Foote, Ms. Elizabeth (I)
Fornes, Judith (F)
Ft. Lauderdale Historical
Society (1)
Ft. Myers Historical Museum
Fortner, Edward (I)
Foss, George B., Jr. Esq. (I)
Foster, P. (F)
Fournier, Maureen (I)
Fournier, Paul R. (F)
Fox, Chief & Mrs. Kenneth
Fox, Mr. & Mrs. Emilio (F)
Fox, Hon. Robert A. F. (I)
Frachiseur, John, Jr. (1)
Frank, Capt. Wm. P. (I)
Franklin, Mitchell (L)
Frankowitz, Mrs. Stanley (D)
Frates, Mr. & Mrs. William
Frazer Col. & Mrs. Fred J.
Frazier, Mr. & Mrs. Dwight
Freedline, Mr. & Mrs. Yale
Freeman, Ms. Gill S. (1)
Friberg, Richard (F)
Friedman, Albert (Sc)
Friedman, Dr. & Mrs. Evan
Frisbie, Mr. Loyal (Sc)
Frost, Mr. & Mrs. Raymond
M. (F)
Fuchs, Richard W. (Sc)
Fullerton, Mr. & Mrs. John
P. (F)

Gaby, Donald C. (D)
Gabler, George E. (F)
Gadinsky, Brian (1)
Gaftney, Mr. & Mrs. Tim (F)
Gaillard, Regina (I)
Galbraith, Christine S. (1)
Gallagher, Mr. & Mrs. Robt.
Galleti, Susana (I)
Gallogly, Ms. Vera (1)
Galwey, William J,, 111 (1)
Gardner, Mrs. Dick B. (D)
Gardner, Donald F. (F)
Gardner, Donald, Jr. (F)
Gardner, Mr.& Mrs. Robt. J.
Garcia, Francisco (I)
Gannon. Mrs. Martha B. (F)
Gannett, J. King, IV (1)
Garland, James E. (F)
Garrett, Deborah B. (1)
Garrison, Susan K. (1)
Gaub, Dr. Margaret L. (1)
Gautier, Redmond Bunn (F)
Geiger Foundation
Gelberg, Bob, Inc. (1)
George, Cherie M. (1)
George, Paul S. (I)
George, Dr. & Mrs. Phillip T.
Gerace, Mr. & Mrs. Terence
Gerber, Dr. & Mrs. Paul U.
Gerstein, Judge & Mrs.
Norman (F)
Gersten, Joseph (1)
Geyer, Mr. & Mrs. Russell I.
Jr. (F)
Ghammashi, Mr. & Mrs.
Youssef (F)
Gibson, John James (F)
Giegel, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph(F)
*Gifford, Mrs. John C. (Sc)
Gilday, B. J., Jr. (1)
Gillespie, Norman (I)
Ginn, Mr. & Mrs. P. J. (F)
Glass, Reeder & Joy (F)
Glazer, Mr. & Mrs. Harold
Gochorer, Deborah (Stu)
Godoy, Louis (I)
Goeser, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Goddard, Mrs. Hilda (F)
Goldberg, Cindy & Michael
Goldberg, Mr. & Mrs. Harold

Golden, Mr. & Mrs. Wm. T.
Goldman, Sue S. (F)
Goldsmith, Mrs. Cornelia S.
Goldstein, Judge Harvey L.
Goldstein, Richard M. (F)
Goldweber, Mr. & Mrs.
Seymour (F)
Goldwyn, Robt. H. MD(1)
Gomez, Ana I. (1)
Gonzalez, Noemi (1)
Gonzalez, Louis (1)
Gonzalez, Pedro B. (F)
Gonzalez, William (1)
Good, Joella C. (1)
Goodin, Jacka, Jr. (I)
Goode, Ray (Sp)
Gooding, Naomi Cornell (1)
Goodlove, Mrs. William (1)
Goodman, Mr. & Mrs. Edwin
Goodman, Mr. & Mrs.
Jerrold F. (D)
Gordon, Mr. & Mrs. David
Gordon, Hon. Jack (1)
Gordon, Dr. & Mrs. Mark W.
Gordon, Mr. & Mrs. Reed(F)
Gordon, Seth (D)
Gotbaum, Dr. Irwin (F)
Gottfried, Mrs. Ted (I)
Gould, Patricia Lummus (F)
Gowin, Dr. & Mrs. Thomas
Skaggs (I)
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Grabiel, Mr. & Mrs. Julio (F)
Gracer, Gene B. (I)
Grafton, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
G. (F)
Graham, Carol (I)
Graham Foundation
Graham, Governor & Mrs.
Robert (F)
Graham, Mr. & Mrs. William
E. (F)
Graham, Mr. & Mrs. William
A. (Fw)
Grant, Hazel Reeves (Sp)
Grant, Leslie & Polly (F)
Grassell, Diane R. (I)
Grassie, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Grayson, Mr. & Mrs. Steve
Green, Dan (1)
Green, Dr. Edw. N. (1)

Green, Mrs. Lonsdale B. (I)
Green, Marcia R. (F)
Greenberg, Traurig, Hoffman
Greene, Juanita (I)
Greenfield, Burton D. (F)
Greenfield, Mr. & Mrs, Leo
Greer, Mr. & Mrs. Alan (D)
Grethen, Mrs. J. (Sc)
Griffis, Mr. & Mrs. David N.
Grinffis, D, J. (F)
Gross, Judge & Mrs. Howard
Gross, Lillian (I)
Gross, Dr. Zade Bernard (I)
Grossman, Mark (I)
Grossman, Michael (F)
Grout, Mrs. Elizabeth (Sc)
Grout, Nancy L. (I)
Groves, Jean G. (I)
Grunwell, George (F)
Guarino, Charles S. (I)
Gubbins, John M. (1)
Gudis, Patricia A. (1)
Gusman, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Guyton, Mrs. Stewart E. (I)
Guyton, Dr. & Mrs. T. D. (D)
Haas, Joan G. (D)
Haefele, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph
Haggard, Cora Nell (I)
Hagner, Casper C. (Sc)
Haley, Mr. & Mrs. John C.
Hall, Mrs. Jane C. (I)
Hall, Mrs. M. Lewis, Jr. (F)
Halpern, Dr. & Mrs. Barry
Halprin, Dr. & Mrs. Kenneth
Hamill, Bernardis (I)
Hamilton, Mr. & Mrs.
Clinton (F)
Hamilton, McHenry (I)
Hamilton, John C. (I)
Hammer Smith, Gwen (I)
Hamlin, Linda (I)
Hammett, Virginia R. (I)
Hammond, Dr. Jefrey (I)
Hanafourde, Mrs. Lucy (F)
Hancock, Ms. Cis (D)
Hancock, Mrs. James T. (I)
Hand, Jeffrey C. (F)
Hanni, H. S. (F)
Hansen, William M. (Sp)
Hardie, George, Jr. (F)

Harden, Fitzgerald, Dowlen
& Mekras, Drs. (F)
Hardin, Henry C., Jr. MD
Hardy, Mr. & Mrs. Jack (D)
Harlan, Lloyd J. (Sc)
Harless, Gwen (F)
Harllee, John W., Jr. (F)
1larllee, J. William (Sc)
Harlow, Mr. & Mrs. John (F)
Harper, Florence F. (1)
Harrington, Frederick H. (I)
Harris, Colonel Emrys (I)
Harris, Mr. & Mrs. Elliott(F)
Harris, Gene (F)
Harris, Gloria W. (I)
Harris, Mr. & Mrs. Marshall
S. (Sp)
Harris, Robert (1)
Harris, Mr. & Mrs. Robt. E.
Harrison Construction Corp.
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs. John
C., Sr. (Fw)(L)
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs. John
C., Jr. (Fw)
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs. John
H. (F)
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
R., Jr. (F)
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs. M. R.,
Jr. (D)
Hart, Dr. Robert (F)
Hartman, Robin W. (F)
Hartnett, Mr. & Mrs. James
D. (F)
Hartog, Mr. & Mrs. G. (F)
Harvard College Library (IS)
Harwood, Manton E. (I)
Hatfield, Mrs. M. H. (F)
Hathorn, Donald B. (F)
Hauser, Leo A. (Sc)
Hawa, Mr. & Mrs. Maurice
B. (F)
Hayes, W. Hamilton (F)
Head, Patricia (1)
Heald, Thomas E. (I)
Heard, Dr. & Mrs. Joseph C.
Hector, Louis J. (F)
Hector, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
C. (D)
Heck, Caroline (1)
Heldt, Agneta C. (Sc)
Helene, Carol J. (1)
Helfand, Leonard (F)
Heller, Mrs. Daniel N. (I)
Helsabeck, Rosemary E. (D)

List of Members 83

Hendry, Judge Norman (I)
Henry, Mr. & Mrs. Edmund
T., Ill (F)
Hennessy, Mr. & Mrs. John
E. (F)
Hennington, Annie Ruth (I)
Henriquez, Mr. & Mrs. David
R. (F)
Henson, Andre Jane (1)
Hepler, Mr. & Mrs. David (I)
Heraux, Esther (1)
*Herin, Thomas D. (Sc)
*Herin, Judge & Mrs.
William A. (Sp)
Herreshoff, Mrs. Rebecca
Hertzberg, David J. (I)
Hesser, Charles (I)
Hess, Dorothy D. (I)
Hett, Marilyn P. (1)
Hialeah Library (IS)
Hibbard, R. W. (I)
Hicks, William H. (Sp)
Highleyman, Daly (D)
Hill, Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence
L. (F)
Hillbauer, Mrs. Win. C., Sr.
Hills, Mr. & Mrs. Lee (Fw)
Hinckley, Gregg (F)
Hines, Phyllis (I)
Hingston, Rev. Allen R. (1)
Hipps, Mrs. T. F. (F)
Historic Preservation
Division (IS)
Historical Honor Society of
Miami Southridge Sr. High
School (IS)
Historical Society of Palm
Beach (IS)
Hodsden, Mrs. Harry E. (I)
Hoeffel, Mrs. Kenneth (I)
Hoets, Mary R. (F)
Hoffman, Wayne H. (I)
Hofstetter, Mrs. Ronald (I)
Hogan, G. B., Jr. (F)
Hogan, Mrs. Thomas D., III
Holcomb, Jack (Sc)
Holcomb, Mr. & Mrs. Lyle
D., Jr. (1)
Holcomb, Mack E. (F)
Holland & Knight (C)
Holland, Mrs. Stanley (1)
Hollands, Dick T. (F)
Hollinger, Mrs. Barbara (I)
Holsenbeck, Mrs. J. M. (Sc)
Holt, Mary L. (Sc)
Holly, Dr. & Mrs. John (F)


Hoover, Mrs. John (I)
Horacek, Mr. & Mrs.
Frederick W. (F)
Hornik, Mr. & Mrs. Martin
F. (Fw)
Horta, Teresa (F)
Hoskins, Mrs. Eddie (I)
Houser, Roosevelt C. (Sc)
Houghtaling, Mr. Francis S.
Howe, Helen Delano (Sp)
Howell, Mrs. Roland M. (F)
Howland, Paula (F)
Hudnell, Helen (I)
Hudson, Mr. & Mrs. James
A. (I)
Hume, David (F)
Humkey, Joe Erskine (I)
Hunt, Mr. & Mrs. Charles L.
Hunter, Dr. Caroline B. (Sp)
Henry E. Huntington Library
& Art Gallery (IS)
Huntsberry, Margaret N. (1)
Huston, Mrs. Tom (Fw)
Hutchinson, Mr. & Mrs.
Robert (F)
Hutson, James A. (Sc)
Hyams, Mr. & Mrs. Mark(F)
Irvin, Mr. & Mrs. E. Milner,
Izen, Elaine (I)
Jackman, Mr. Stephen (Fw)
Jacks, Ms. Rachael (I)
Jackson, Mr. & Mrs.
Frederick C. (F)
Jackson, Mr. & Mrs. Walker
Jacobson, Mrs. Jeannette
Jacobstein, Dr. Helen L. (I)
James, Mary Crofts (Sc)
Jeffreys, David E., Jr. (I)
Jemeson, Dimitri (I)
Jensen, Mr. & Mrs. Bob (F)
Jenkins, Elsie A. (Sc)
Jinks, Claire & Larry (F)
Johnson, David W. (F)
Johnson, Hal R., Jr. (I)
Johnson, Frederick (I)
Johnson, Mr. & Mrs. Kari (F)
Johnson, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Johnson, Mr. Wm. G. (I)
Johnston, John C. (Sc)
Jollivette, Mr. & Mrs.
Cyrus M. (F)
Jones, Dr. & Mrs. Albert (F)
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur W

Jones, Bardy & Janice (F)
Jones, Donald W. (I)
Jones, Mrs. Francis (1)
Jones, A. Tillman (Sc)
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel C.
Jones, Donna Jean (I)
Jones, Harry, Jr. (I)
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Jesse (F)
Jones, Marie M. (I)
Jones, Thompson V. (I)
Jones, William F. (I)
Jorge, Silvia (I)
Jorgenson, Hon. James (F)
Joyner, E. H., Jr. (F)
Jude, Mrs. James R. (F)
Julian, Mrs. Lawrence C. (I)
Juncosa, Ralph A. (F)
Junkin, Mr. & Mrs. John E.,
Jureit, Mrs. L. E. (1)
Kahn, Donald (D)
Kahn, Leslie (1)
Kann, Dr. & Mrs. Solomon
Kanner, Mrs. Aaron (Sc)
Kanner, Mr. & Mrs. Lewis M.
Kantor, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley
Kaplan, Betsy (F)
Kaplan, James S. (F)
Karadbil, Mr. & Mrs. Neil(F)
Karl, Mr. & Mrs. Mel (F)
Karlin, Mrs. Sydelle (Sc)
Kassewitz, Mr. & Mrs. Jack
Kattel, G. Edward (I)
Katz, Mr. & Mrs. Horace (F)
Katz, Mr. & Mrs. Michael(F)
Kaufman, Judy (I)
Kaufman, Mr. & Mrs, Otto
Keep, Oscar J. (I)
Keiter, Dr. Roberta M. (1)
Keith, Judith (I)
Keith, William V. (I)
Kelley, John B. (F)
Kelley, Kristine (1)
Kelley, Marilyn C. (F)
Kellner, Mr. & Mrs. Stewart
Kelly, Mr. & Mrs. Robt. G.,
Sr. (F)
Kemper, Marlyn (I)
Kendall, Peter H. F. (1)
Kennedy, L. D. (F)
Kenny, Mr. & Mrs. James J.
Kenner, Mrs. Maynard (I)

Kent, Mrs. Frederick A. (F)
Kent, Marguerite (1)
Kent, W. (F)
Kenyon, Sue C. (F)
Kerestes, Mr. & Mrs. Bruce
Kesselman, Dr. Michael N. (I)
Keusch, Dr. & Mrs. Kenneth
Keye, Mr. & Mrs. Charles (F)
Key West Art & Historical
Society (I)
Khoury, Betty (F)
Kiem, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley(F)
Kilpatrick, Charles W. (D)
Kilpatrick, Ronald Paul (F)
Kimball, Albert (Sc)
Kimen, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Jr. (F)
Kincaid, Gretchen Hand (Sc)
King, Arthur, Sr. (Sp)
King, Charles E. (I)
King, Dennis G. (I)
King, Erika (I)
King, George E. (Sc)
Kinzer, Mayor& Mrs. M. (F)
Kipnis, Mr. & Mrs. Dan (F)
Kipnis, Mr. Jerome (D)
Kislak, Mr. Jay 1. (Sp)
Kister, Suzan 0. (I)
Kistler, Robert S. (D)
Klein, Mr. & Mrs. Norman S.
Kleinberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Howard (D)
Kline, Mrs. Cynthia (F)
Kline, Mr. & Mrs. Douglas
Klotz, Mr. & Mrs. Michael D.
Knight Foundation
Knight, Mr. & Mrs. C.
Frasuer (Sp)
Kniskern, Mr. & Mrs.
Kenneth (Sp)
Knott, Judge James R. (Sc)
Knotts, Tom (Sc)
Knowles, Mrs. C. F. (Sc)
Kockritz, Ewald (I)
Kofink, Rev. Wayne A. (1)
Kokenzie, Captain H. (1)
Koler, Mr. & Mrs. Victor (F)
Kolski, Mr. & Mrs.
Alexander (F)
Kononoff, Hazel N. (I)
Korth, Valerie W. (Sp)
Kovacs, Steven (Stu)
Kramer, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley
H. (F)
Kraslow, David (1)

Krichton, Carl V. (1)
Krome, William H. (1)
Kronstadt, Harold (Sc)
Krugman, Dr. & Mrs. Stanley
Kubli, Eloise (F)
Kuci, Ellyn R. (F)
La Belle, Dexter (I)
Lacy, Dr. George E. (I)
LaCroix, Mrs. Aerial C. (Sc)
Lake Worth Public Library
Lamberton, H. Christopher
Lamme, Robert (Sc)
Lancaster, Donna (F)
Lane, Elizabeth A. (I)
Lane, Mr. & Mrs. Robert C.
Langen, Mr. & Mrs. Roland
Langhorne, Richard M. (I)
Langley, Wright (I)
Langner, Mrs. Mildred C.
Lanier, Mrs. Patricia P. (F)
Laremore, Kay (I)
LaRoue, Samuel D., Jr. (I)
Larrabee, Charles, Jr. (1)
Larry, Louis & Fay Hochen
Lasseter, Harley 0., Sr. (I)
Latour, Mr. & Mrs. Tony (F)
Lauer, Mr.& Mrs. John F.(F)
Lawrence, Norman (D)
Lawson, Dr. H. L. (I)
Lawson, Dan (I)
Lazarus, Mr. & Mrs, Murray
L. (F)
Leake, Martin C. (Sp)
**Leary, Lewis (1)
Leathe, Mr. & Mrs. Paul (F)
Lee, Mr. & Mrs. Marty (F)
Leesfield & Blackburn, P.A.
Lehman, Richard H. (F)
Leigh, Mr. & Mrs, Chas. N.
Leith, Edw. & Joy (F)
Lesnick, Alan (F)
Levin. Mrs. Kitty Darling (I)
Levine, Dr. Harold (F)
Levine, Richard B. (D)
Levitz, E. (Sc)
Lewin, Robert (D)
Liles, Mr. & Mrs. E. Clark(F)
Lindgren, Mrs. E. Clark (F)
Lindsley, Mrs. A. R. (Sc)
Linehan, Mrs. John (1)
Link, Mrs. E. A. (1)

Lipman, Robert (F)
Lippert, Mrs. W. K. (1)
Lipsky, Terry & Bernie (F)
Little, Mr. & Mrs, Robert (F)
Livingston, Mr. & Mrs. John
H. (F)
Livingston, Mr. & Mrs.
Robert (I)
Lloyd, J. Harlan (Sc)
Logue, Mr. & Mrs. Tom (F)
Lohnes, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel,
Jr. (F)
Lomonsoff, Boris (Sc)
Longshore, Mr. & Mrs.
Frank (Sp)
Looney, Evelyn 0. (I)
Lord, William P. (Sp)
Lores, Mrs. Edward (I'
Lotz, Aileen (I)
Loumiet, Juan P. (F)
Love, Mildred A. (Sc)
Lowell, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Lowry, Patricia (1)
Loxahatchee Historical
Society (IS)
Luginbill, Mr. & Mrs. Mark
Lukens, Mr. & Mrs. Jaywood
Lummus, J. N., Jr. (1)
Lunnon, Mrs. James (I)
Lunsford, Mrs. E. C. (Sc)
Luskin, Mr. & Mrs. Paul (I)
Lutton, Mrs. Stephen C. (Sc)
Lux, Thomas J. (I)
Lynch, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen
A., Ill (Fw)
Lynfield, Geoffrey H. (1)
Lyon, Dr. & Mrs. Eugene (F)
Lyons, Dr. & Mrs. James F.
MacDonald, John E. (D)
MacDonald, Mr. & Mrs.
Robert (F)
Maclntyre, Mr. & Mrs. A. C.
MacVicar, Mrs. I. D. (Sc)
McAliley, Janet R. (F)
McAuliffe, Mr. & Mrs.
Thomas F., III (F)
McCabe, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
H. (F)
McCall, C. Lawton (I)
McClure, Mrs. John C. (Sc)
McCollum, John 1., Jr. (F)
McCorquodale, Mrs. Donald
Jr. (I)
McCormick, Mr. & Mrs. C.
Deering (D)

List of Members 85

McCreary, Ms. Jane (I)
McCrimmon, Mr. & Mrs.
C. T. (Fw)
McDonald, Mr. & Mrs. John
K. (F)
McDonough, Martha Morrill
McDowell, Charles (I)
McGarry, Mr. & Mrs.
Richard M. (F)
McGraw, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
McGuire, Jeanie L. (I)
McHale, William J. (F)
Mclver, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart
McJilton, Mrs. Jeanee (F)
McKellar, Mrs. James D. (Sc)
McKenna, Daniel C. (I)
McKenna, Mrs. R. A. (I)
McKenzie, Dr. & Mrs. Jack
A. (F)
McKinstry, Mr. & Mrs. John
W. (F)
McKittrick, Sarah L. (I)
McLean, Lenore (Sc)
McLeod, Mrs. Wm. J. (Sc)
McLellan, James B. (F)
McMinn, John H. (D)
McNaughton, M. D. (I)
McNaughton, Dr. & Mrs.
Robert A. (F)
McNeil, Kate (I)
McNeil, R. C. (D)
McPhee, Harriett (I)
McSwiggan, Gerald W. (D)
McVicker, Dan A. (I)
McWilliams, Phyllis (I)
Mackle, Milbrey W. (1)
Madan, Mr. & Mrs. Norman
L. (F)
Madiera, E. Duane (I)
Maer, G. Miriam (F)
Maingot, Dr. & Mrs.
Anthony P. (F)
Malafronte, Anthony F. (1)
Malavenda, Gary (Stu)
Maldonado, Dr. & Mrs.
Adolfo (Fw)
Malinsky, Debbie (I)
Malone, Mrs. Katharine (F)
Malone, Mrs. Randolph A.
Maltby, Mr. & Mrs. L. A. (F)
Mangels, Dr. Celia C. (I)
Mangum, Mr. & Mrs. A. C.,
Jr. (F)
Mank, Mrs. Nancy (1)
Mank, Philip J., Sr. (Sc)
Mank, Philip J., Jr. (I)


Mank, Mr. & Mrs. Layton
Manly, Grace (F)
Manley, Marion I. (Sc)
Mann, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Manning, Mr. & Mrs. J. (F)
Mannion, Jan (F)
Manship, Mr. & Mrs. E. K.
Marchant, Michael J. (I)
Marcus, Mr. & Mrs. Jerry(F)
Marks, Bella (I)
Marks, Larry S. (I)
Markus, Daniel 0. (I)
Markus, Victor (F)
Marlowe, Hellen L. (D)
Marmesh, Dr. & Mrs.
Michael (F)
Marmo, Joseph (I)
Marotti, Mr. Frank, Jr. (I)
Marshall, Muriel S. (1)
Marsh, Ulad A. (F)
Martin County Public
Library (IS)
Martin, Emmett E., Jr. (I)
Martin, J. William CPA (F)
Martin, Mr. & Mrs. James 0.
Martin, Sylva G. (Sc)
Martin, Roger (F)
Martin, Val (I)
Martinez-Ramos, Alberto (I)
Maslanova, Elena (I)
Mason, Mrs. Joe J. (Sc)
Mason, William C., Ill (I)
Massington, Mr. & Mrs.
Richard (Sp)
Matheson, Mr. & Mrs. Finlay
B. (F)
Matheson, Mr. & Mrs. Finlay
L. (Fw)
Matheson, R. Hardy (D)
Matheson, Mr. & Mrs. J.
Henry (F)
Matheson, James F. (I)
Mathews, Dennis D. (I)
Matthews, Mr. & Mrs. A.
Lamar, Jr. (I)
Matteson, Arnold (Fw)
Mattson, Robt. Lee (D)
Matkov, Mrs. Thomas (F)
Matlack, Mr. & Mrs. Win. C.
Mattucci, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Maxted, Mr. & Mrs. F. J., Jr.
Maxwell, Marjorie (I)
May, Dr. & Mrs. John A. (F)

Mayers, LeAnn (I)
Maynard, Mr. & Mrs. Carl
Mayo, John A. (F)
Mead, Mr. & Mrs. D. Richard
Mears, Rachel (t)
Medina, Martin (I)
Megee, Mrs. B. L. (F)
Metz, Martha J. (Sc)
Meier, Mrs. Herbert (F)
Mell, W. B., Jr. (1)
Meloan, Carole C. (F)
Mende, Mrs. L. G. (I)
Mensch, Dr. & Mrs. Joseph
Mercer, John, Jr. (D)
Mercer, Mattie J. (I)
Mercy College Library (IS)
Merrick, Mrs. Eunice P. (I)
Merrill, Mr. & Mrs. James C.,
III (Fw)
Merten, Ulrich & Carole (F)
Mesnekoff, Mr. & Mrs.
David (Fw)
Metcalf, Dr. Elizabeth (F)
Metka, Joseph, Jr. (I)
Miami Beach Public Library
Miami Dade Community
College Architecture Dept.
South (IS)
Miami Dade Community
College South Campus
Periodicals Dept. (IS)
Miami Herald Library (IS)
Miami Public Library (IS)
Coconut Grove Library
Coral Gables Public
Library (IS)
North Dade Regional
Library (IS)
Northeast Branch Library
South Dade Regional
Library (IS)
West Dade Regional
Library (IS)
Miami Times (IS)
Mickins, Rev. & Mrs. I. C.
Mickler, Thomas (I)
Middlethon, Wm. R., Jr. (I)
Mikus, Pat & Jo (F)
Miles, Mr. & Mrs. R. S. (F)
Millar, Mrs. Gavin S. (Sc)
Milledge, Evalyn M. (I)
Milledge, Sarah F. (I)
Miller, Bessie (Sc)

Miller, Bud (F)
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Dale (F)
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Dean R.
Miller, Gertrude R. (Sc)
Miller, Philip Orme (I)
Miller, Mr. Thomas L. (I)
Miller, William J. (F)
Milner, Henry (I)
Milward, William (I)
Minear, Mrs. L. V. (Sc)
Mizell, Earl S. (Sp)
Mizrach, Larry (I)
Moeller, Mr. & Mrs. Lloyd
Mohr, Alfred B. (F)
Molinari, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
L. (Fw)
Molinari, Dr. R. E. (I)
Molt, Fawdrey A. S. (F)
Mondun, Judith (I)
Monk, J. Floyd (Sc)
Monroe County Public
Library (IS)
Monroe, Mr. & Mrs. Win. F.,
Jr. (F)
Monsanto, Judge & Mrs. J.
Monsegur, Anita P. (1)
Montague, Mrs. Charles H.
Montano, Mr. & Mrs. Fausto
Monteagudo, Mr. & Mrs.
Mario E. (F)
Monticino, Mrs. Alma (I)
Moore, Donald R. (F)
Moore, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
L. (F)
Moore, Mrs. Jack (I)
Moore, Mrs. Jasper (F)
Moore, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
T. (D)
Mordatint, Mr.& Mrs. Hal(I)
Morgan, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Morgan Guaranty Inter-
national Bank (C)
Moretti, Joseph G. (I)
Morgan, Capt. Robert G. (F)
Morris, B. W. (I)
Morris, Mr. C. C. (Sc)
Morris, Mrs. Dorothy M. (Sc)
Morris, Mr. & Mrs. Edwin S.
Morris, Mr. James (F)
Morris, Lucy (I)
Morris, Thomasine (I)
Morrison, Glen (F)
Moselle, Joan (F)

List ofMembers 87

Moss, Mr. Ed. (Sp)
Moss, Mr. Lyman R. (F)
Moure, Mrs. Edwin P. (I)
Moylan, Mrs. E. B., Jr. (I)
Mrozek, Ronald W. (I)
Muir, Bill (1)
Muir, William T. (1)
Muir, Mrs. William W. (I)
Muller, Dr. Leonard (Sc)
Muniz, Manuel 1. (F)
Munroe, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
P. (F)
Munroe, Elizabeth P. (F)
Munroe, Mrs. Wirth M. (Sp)
Munson, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Murphy, Mr. & Mrs. Tim(F)
Murphy, Mr. & Mrs. Thos.
W. (F)
Murray, John (F)
Murray, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Murray, Mary Ruth (D)
Murray, Mr. & Mrs. P. J. (F)
Mustard, Alice Isabel (Sc)
Mustard, Margaret Jean (I)
Myers, Mrs. Ida P. (Sc)
Myers, Lillian G. (I)
Myers, Ruth Dowell (D)
Myers. Mrs. Walter K. (I)
Nagy, Shirley L. (I)
Nagel, Mr. & Mrs. Brent (F)
Nagel, Dr. Daryl T. (1)
Nance, G. Tracy, Jr. (F)
Napier, Mr. & Mrs. Harvey
Narup, Mrs. Mavis (I)
Nash, Doris (F)
Nehaniu, Chrystna (1)
Nehrbass, Arthur F. (F)
Neil, Luise R. (1)
Neiman, Marcus (C)
Nelson, Mrs. Bowen (F)
Nelson, Jonathan (1)
Nelson, Theodore R. (I)
Netherland-Brown, Capt.
& Mrs. Carl (F)
New, Mr.& Mrs. Edwin E.(F)
Newberry Library (IS)
Newbold, Edmund W. (F)
New York Public Library
Ser. (IS)
Nicholson, Allene (1)
Nichols, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Niles, Mr. & Mrs. Jim (F)
Nimnicht, Mrs. Helen (1)
Nimnicht, Mary Jo (I)
Nitzche, Mr. & Mrs. Ernest

Nordt, Mr. & Mrs. John C.
Noriega, Mr. & Mrs. Wm. 1..
Norman, Mr. & Mrs. Walter
H. (Sc)
Nort, Mr. & Mrs. David (F)
Norton. Dr. Edward W. D.
Nuckols, B. P. (F)
Oberlink, Wm. B. (D)
Odell, Arthur (F)
Oldltam, Dorothy C. (F)
Olesker, Kathy ()
Olin, Mr. & Mrs. Michael (D)
Oliver, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
M., Jr. (F)
Olund, Erica 1. (1)
O'Marah, Mrs. J. F. (Sc)
O'Neil, Mr. & Mrs. Vernon P.
Orlando Public Library (IS)
Orseck, Robert (F)
Ostrenko, Witold, Jr. (1)
Ostrenko, Witold, Sr. (F)
Oswald, Mr. & Mrs. Jackson
Otero, Mr. & Mrs. Jorge (F)
Otto, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas, 111
Otto, Mrs. Thomas Osgood,
Sr. (I)
Overhultz, Clara (Stu)
Overstreet, Estelle C. (I)
Owens, Mrs. Bradley (F)
Pace, Sherie (1)
Padgett, Inman (Sc)
Pakula, Arnold (F)
Palmer, Alfred R. (I)
Palmer, Carolyn A. (I)
Palmer, Doug. (I)
Palmer, Miriam (I)
Palmer, Virginia (1)
Pancoast, Alice A. (I)
Pancoast, John Arthur (I)
Pancoast, Katherine French(
Pancoast, Mr. & Mrs, Lester
C. (F)
Pancoast, Peter Russell (1)
Pappas, Mr. & Mrs. Ted (Fw)
Papper, Patricia M. (I)
Pardue, Leonard G. (Sc)
Park, Mr. Dabney G., Jr. (F)
Parker, Mr. & Mrs. Austin
Parker, Crawford H. (I)
Parker, Mr. & Mrs. Garth R.
Parker, Dr. & Mrs. R.
Latanae (F)

Parkhurst, Mr. & Mrs. Wm.
D. (F)
Parks, Mr. Merle (I)
Parks, Mr. & Mrs. Robert L.
Parnes, Dr. & Mrs. Edmund
1. (F)
Parsons, Mr. & Mrs. Edw. G.
Pasawicz, Mrs. Teresa (I)
Paterson, Mr. & Mrs. Jay (F)
Patton, Mrs. Dan 0. (Sc)
Paul, Mrs. Kenneth (F)
Paulsen, William, Sr. (I)
Pawley, Anita (F)
Pawley, Mrs. William D. (Sp)
Payne, Ruth D. (F)
Payne, Mrs. R. W., Jr. (Sp)
Peacock, Mrs. Albert, Jr. (1)
Peacock, Mr. & Mrs. Henry
B. (Sp)
Peacock, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
Pearce, Billee P. (1)
Pearlsom, Richard A. (F)
Pearson, Christopher (Stu)
Pearson, Wilbur (F)
Pedinelli, Mr. & Mrs. Etienne
Pedreira, Luis (I)
Peeler, Ms. Elizabeth (I)
Peeples, Vernon (I)
Peer, Robert (I)
Pell, Charlotte H. (1)
Pennekamp, Mr.& Mrs. Tom
Pepper, Hon. Claude (I)
Perez, Carmen (Stu)
Perner, Mrs. Henry (1)
Pero, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph H.,
Jr. (Fw)
Perrin, Mrs. John (Sc)
Perry, Roy A. (Sc)
Perwin, Jean (F)
Peters, Gordon H. (F)
D) Peters, John S. (I)
*Peters, Dr. Thelma (F)
Peterson, Mrs. E. E. (F)
Petrey, Roderick N. (D)
Philbin, Helen K. (I)
Philbrick, W. L. (1)
Phillips, Wellborn C. (D)
Piano, Lawrence J. (I)
Pichel, Mrs. Clem A. (1)
Piehl, Wesley C. (F)
Pierce, Mrs. J. B., Jr. (I)
Pierce, J. E. (D)
Pierce, Staples L. (F)
Pimm, Mr. & Mrs. Gordon


Pinnas, Ruth Meltzer, PHD
Pinto-Torres, Francisco J. (I)
Pitcher, Mr. & Mrs. Griffith
F. (F)
Plumer, Richard B. (Sp)
Plummer, Lawrence H. (I)
Plunkett, Lawrence L. (F)
Poliakoff, Dr. & Mrs. Steven
Polizzi, Mary Ann (F)
Polk County Historical
Library (I)
Pollack, Richard (F)
Poorman, Mr. & Mrs. Joel
Portillo-SanDoul, Edwardo
Post, Amelia M. (D)
Post, Howard M. (F)
Potash, Dr. & Mrs. Irwin (F)
Potter, Robert E. (1)
Potts, N. Joseph (I)
Potts, Roy V. (F)
Powell, Barbara R. (I)
Powers, Jack J. (I)
Prevatt, Mr. & Mrs. Preston
Princeton University Library
Prio, Maria Antonieta (F)
Pritchard, Barbara (1)
Proenza, Christina D. (Stu)
Provenzo, Dr. Eugene (I)
Pruitt, Peter T. (F)
Prunty, Mr. & Mrs. John W.
Pryor, Dr. & Mrs. T. Hunter,
Jr. (F)
Purvis, Mrs. Hugh F. (I)
Pushkin, Dr. & Mrs. Emanuel
Quackenbush, Ida (F)
Quesenberry. William F. (F)
Quillian, Dr. Warren, II (1)
Quinton, Mr. & Mrs. A. E.,
Jr. (F)
Raatama, Linda (F)
Radell, Mr. & Mrs. George
Radosta, Dr. Melanie R. (Sc)
Raim, Mr, & Mrs, Jerome(F)
Ramos, Pauline E. (1)
Rappaport, Dr. Edward (I)
Rapperport, Dr. Alan (1)
Ratner, Nat (1)
Rausch, Mr. & Mrs. Dave(F)
Ray, Peter C. (F)
Read, Mrs. Bess B. (Sp)
Reagan, A. James, Jr. (F)

Rebozo, C. G. (Sp)
Redman, Virginia R. (Sc)
Reducka, Mr. T. D. (Sc)
Reed, Elizabeth Ann (I)
Reed, Richard E. (1)
Reeder, Mr. & Mrs. Wm. F.
Reeves, Garth C. (F)
Rehwoldt, Eileen (1)
Reid, Dr. & Mrs. Edward L.,
II (Fw)
Reiger, John F., University of
Miami History Dept. (IS)
Reiling, Dr. Susan W. (1)
Reilly, Phil (I)
Rein, Martin (I)
Reinhardt, Blanche E. (I)
Reininger & L. Dunnheissel
Reinertson, Mr. & Mrs.
Bruce (F)
Reisman, Mrs. Gail (F)
Relish, Mrs. John (F)
Rempe, Lois D. (Sc)
Renick, Ralph (I)
Renninger, Julie (1)
Reno, Janet (F)
Reordan, William C. (I)
Resnick, Larry (1)
Retz, Diane L. (1)
Reubert, Mrs. Jay F. (F)
Rey, Homero L. (1)
Reyes, Mr. & Mrs. Armando
Reyna, Dr. L, J. (F)
Reynolds, Diane (F)
Rice, Sister Eileen, 0. P. (I)
Rice, Mr.& Mrs. Ralph E. (F)
Rice, R. H., Jr. (I)
Rich, Harry (I)
Rich, Ms. Louise (Sc)
Richards, Charles A. (Sc)
Richard, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph
Richards, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Richmond Heights Jr. High
School (IS)
Ricketts, Mrs. Ronald R. (F)
Ridolph, Edward (F)
Rieder, Mrs. Wm. Dustin (F)
Rigsby, Richard (1)
Riley, Mrs. Bernard (1)
Riley, Sandra (I)
Rivera, Jean (I)
Riviera Beach Public Library
Roach, Mrs. Raymond W.
Robbins, Mrs. LawrenceJ.(I)

Robbins, Mr. & Mrs. Wm.
R., Jr. (F)
Robert E. Lee. Jr. High
School Library (IS)
Roberts, Mr. & Mrs. Joe L.
Roberts, Richard E. (1)
Robertson, Alan F. (I)
Robertson, Michael (1)
Robertson, Mrs. Piedad (D)
Robey, Mr. & Mrs. Dan (F)
Robinson, Rosalee (1)
Robison, Comm. & Mrs. Don
Roca, Pedro L. (1)
Rodgers, Mr. & Mrs. Frank
Rodriguez, Ivan (I)
Rodriguez, Dr. Jose A. (F)
Rodriguez, Raul (D)
Rogers, Joe (I)
Rogers, Mrs. Walter S. C, (1)
Roller, Mrs. G. Philip (Fw)
Rollins College (IS)
Root, Mr. & Mrs. Keith (F)
Roper, Mrs. George P. (Sc)
Rosemond, Garth A. (I)
Rose, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Rosenblatt, Dr. A. W. (I)
Rosendorf, Mr. & Mrs.
Howard S. (F)
Rosendorf, Howard S., Jr. (I)
Rosengarten, June M. (I)
Rosinek, Mr. & Mrs. Jeff (F)
Ross, Mrs. Leroy W. (I)
Roth. Dr. & Mrs. Wmi. (F)
Roth, Mrs. Ellen (F)
Rothblatt, Emma A. (F)
Rothenberg, Arthur L. (F)
Rowell, Donald (D)
Robin, Evelyn (Sc)
Rubini, Dr. Joseph R. (D)
Rubinson, Dr. & Mrs.
Richard (F)
Rubinstein, Leonard (I)
Rudick, Mrs. June (1)
Rudolph, Alfred (1)
Ruffner, Charles L. (I)
Ruggles, Read S., Jr. (F)
Ruiz, Joseph A., Jr. (I)
Russell, Darlene (I)
Russell, George (I)
Ryan, Dr. & Mrs. Bryce (F)
Ryder, Ralph (L)
Ryder Systems, Inc. (C)
Ryder, Mr. & Mrs. William
Ryskamp, Mr. & Mrs.
Kenneth L. (F)

List ofMembers

Sacher, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
P. (F)
Sachs, Jeanne (I)
Sadler, J. D. (D)
Sadowski, Mr.& Mrs. Bill(F)
Sadowski, Robert (I)
Saffir, Mr. & Mrs. Herbert
Sakhnovsky, Nicholas (F)
Salerno, Evelyn (I)
Salley, Virginia S. (I)
Salvatore, Mr. & Mrs. Louis
L. (D)
Salzman, Phyllis S. (Sp)
Samet, Alvin M. (F)
Samet, Barbara J. (1)
Samuels, Mr. & Mrs. Harris
Sandler, John (I)
Sands, Harry B. (I)
Santa-Maria, Yvonne (1)
Sanz, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph (F)
Santiago, Pury L. (1)
Sapp, Mr. & Mrs. Neil C. (F)
Santos, Arnold (1)
Sarasohn, Dr. Sylvan (F)
Sargent, Priscilla M. (I)
Sauvigne, Cecile D. (I)
Savage, Mr. & Mrs. John A.
Sawyer, Viola (Sc)
Sax, Connie A. (I)
Scarborough, Mrs. Chaffee
Schacter, Norah P. (I)
Schaefer, Paul T. (F)
Schaeffer, Mrs. George (F)
Schaeffer, Mrs. Oden A. (F)
Schanck, Margie (I)
Schelberg, Mrs. Richard (I)
Schenck, Gyneth (1)
Scheuer, Simon C. (Sc)
Schmidt, Mrs. Eric (D)
Schmitt, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
R. (F)
Schmitz, Paul L. (I)
Schmucker, Bob (I)
Schober, Warren (1)
Schoen, Mr.& Mrs. Marc(F)
Schoefield, Shirley (F)
Schoonmaker, Mr. & Mrs.
T. P. (F)
Schreer, Mr. & Mrs. Andy(F)
Schuh, Niles (I)
Schulz, Linda A. (I)
Schultz, Mr. & Mrs. Tom (F)
Schalbe, Mrs. Elinor T. (Sc)
Schwartz, Mr. & Mrs.
Frederick. III (F)

Schwartz, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald
Schwartz, Mr. & Mrs.
Stanley (Sp)
Schwarz, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Schwedel, Rene (F)
Scott, Clarissa S., PhD (F)
Searle, Philip F. (F)
Segal, Natalie S. (I)
Seipp, Mr. & Mrs. John C.,
Jr. (F)
Seitlin, Mr. & Mrs. Sam(Fw)
Selawry, Dr. & Mrs. Oleg(F)
Selby Public Library (IS)
Selvaggi, Albert (I)
Sellatti, Kenneth (I)
Serkin, Manuel (I)
Serrins, Dr. & Mrs. Alan (F)
Seixas, Margarita E. (I)
Shafer, Kathryn E. (I)
Shane, David (F)
Shapiro, Anita R. (1)
Sharer, Cyrus J. (1)
Sharp, Harry Carter (D)
Shaw, Henry Overstreet (Sc)
*Shaw, Luelle (I)
Shaw, Mr. & Mrs. Martin L.,
Shaw, Mrs. W. F. (Sc)
Shay, Mr. & Mrs. Rodger D.
Shea, Charles, Jr. (I)
Shea, Paul & Dorothy (D)
Shenstone, Mrs. Allen G. (Sc)
Sheppard, H. E. (F)
Sherman, Ethel Weatherly
Sherman, John S., Jr. (1)
Sherman, Dr. & Mrs. Roger
Sherman, Rose & Jim (F)
Sherman, Mrs. Virginia (D)
Shields, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
E. (F)
Shipley, Mr. & Mrs. Vergil A.
Shippee, Robert W. (F)
Shiver, Otis W. (Sc)
Shoffner, Mr. & Mrs. George
A. (F)
Shouse, Abbie H. (F)
Shughart, John (1)
Shula, Mr. & Mrs. Don (Sp)
Sibert, J. D. (I)
Silver, Mrs. Doris S. (F)
Simmonite, Col. Henry G.
Simmons, Mr. & Mrs. Glen

Simon, Edwin 0. (F)
Simon, Philip (I)
Simonet, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
H. (Sp)
Simonhoff, Rachel (I)
Simons, Mr. & Mrs. J. P. (F)
Sims, Vi (1)
Sinnes, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Sinreich, Joey (I)
Sisselman, Murray (F)
Sizemore, Christina (I)
Skigen, Dr. & Mrs. Jack (F)
Skipp, Marjorie (I)
Slack, Mr. & Mrs. Ted (F)
Slesnick, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Smalley, Diane E. (F)
Smathers, Ralph (F)
Smiley, Dr. & Mrs. Karl (F)
Smith, Mrs. Avery C. (I)
Smith, Dr. & Mrs. A. G. (F)
Smith, Mr. & Mrs.
Chesterfield (F)
Smith, Chesterfield. Jr. (I)
Smith, Clarks (F)
Smith, Dorothy W. (F)
Smith, Mrs. Edward F. (1)
Smith. Mr. & Mrs. R. C. (F)
Smith, Harrison H. (Sc)
Smith, Irene C. (1)
Smith, James Merrick (1)
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. John E.
Smith, Josephine (F)
Smith, Leslie (I)
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Linton(F)
Smith, Louise Tennent (1)
Smith, McGregor, Jr. (F)
Smith, Ralph K. (1)
Smith, Ralph S. (F)
Smith, Rebecca A. (I)
Smith, Mrs. Robert L. (Sc)
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Samuel S.
Smith, Stephen (I)
Snare, Rose Tower (I)
Snodgrass, Dena (I)
Snyder. Jason (F)
Solomon, Mr. & Mrs.
Douglas (F)
Solomon, Steven (I)
Sommers, Mr. & Mrs. L. B.
Sonderegger, Martha (I)
Songer, Mrs. Gerald R. (1)
Southern Bell Telephone and
Telegraph Co. (C)
Sorg, Stuart (I)
Sottile, Mr. & Mrs. James(F)


South Florida Growers
Assoc. (IS)
Southern Illinois University
South Florida Water
Management District (IS)
Southeast Banking Corp.
Southeast First National
Bank of Miami (C)
Southern Bell (C)
Spach, Helen Keeler (Sc)
Spector, Mrs. Alyee (F)
Spector, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
J. (Sp)
*Spinks, Mrs. Elizabeth J.
Staats, Mrs. Riley J. (1)
Stadler, John B. (F)
Stadler, John W. (L)
Stadnik, John (1) (F)
Stafford, J. Morgan (I)
Stafford, Robert C. (1)
Staley, Mr. & Mrs. B. R. (F)
Stamey, Ernest N. (I)
Stanley, Ruth L. (I)
Stark, Louis (F)
Stearns, Gene Esq. (Sp)
Stearns, Reid F. (F)
Steel, William C. (F)
Steiden, Roger (I)
Stein, Louis L. (Sc)
Steinberg, Alan W. (Sp)
Steinberg, Marty L. (D)
Stetson University (IS)
Stepner, Mrs. Sara (I)
Stevens, Mrs. Elizabeth (I)
Stewart, Carl R. (Sc)
Stewart, Mrs. Chester B. (1)
Stewart, Dr. & Mrs. Earl
Spencer (Fw)
Stewart, Dr. & Mrs. Franz,
Jr. (Fw)
Stewart, Dr. & Mrs. Franz,
Sr. (Fw)
Stewart, Ruth A. (F)
Stiles, Wade (1)
Stillman, Mr. & Mrs. R. Y.
Stobs, Martha M. (I)
Stofik, Marty (I)
Stoker, Patricia E. (I)
Stokes, Deborah (I)
Stokes, Mr. & Mrs. Lynn (F)
Stone, Mr. & Mrs. A. J. (F)
Storer, Mrs. Peter (Sp)
Storm, Larue (I)
Stovall, Lucy P. (I)
Straight, Dr. & Mrs. Jacob

Straight, Dr. & Mrs. Win. M.
Stripling, John R. (F)
Stuart, Dr. Frank C. (1)
Stuart, Marie llene (I)
Stuart, Victoria (I)
Stubbins, Mr. & Mrs.
Morton (F)
Stubblefield, Mr. & Mrs.
William (F)
Stuntz, Martha M. (I)
Stutz, Mr. & Mrs. Andre (F)
Suiter, Patricia A. (1)
Sullivan, Catherine B. (Sc)
Sullivan, Jacquelin E. (I)
Sullivan, R. Irene (I)
Supple, Mr.& Mrs. Frank(F)
Sussex, Dr. & Mrs. James (F)
Sutherland, Dr. Claudia S. (I)
Sutton, Mr. & Mrs. William
Svaldi, Michael (D)
Swanko, J. John (I)
Swartz, Donna C. (1)
Sweeney, Mrs. Edward C.
Sweeney, Mrs. Ethel (1)
Sweet, George H. (D)
Symons, Lester M. (I)
Sysskind, Mr. & Mrs. Eric(F)
Szymanski, Edward (1)
Taddeo, Hilda L. (I)
Tagliero, Paul (1)
Tampa Public Library (IS)
Tangorra, Achilles (F)
Tartak, Mr. & Mrs. N. (F)
Tardif, Robert G. (I)
Tashiro, Joe (I)
Taylor, Ann (I)
Taylor, Henry H., Jr. (F)
Taylor, Mrs. F. A. S. (F)
Taylor, Howard L. (F)
Taylor, Richard F. (Sc)
Teasley, T. H. (Sc)
*Tebeau, Dr. Charlton W.
Tennessee State Library (IS)
Tharp, Mrs. Charles D. (F)
Thatcher, John (I)
Thayer, M. W. (I)
Theobold, Elizabeth D. (I)
Thilmont, Diane (I)
Thomas, D. (1)
Thomas, Philip A. (I)
Thomas, Wayne (I)
Thompson, Mr. & Mrs.
Edward (F)
Thompson, Mr. & Mrs.
Parker (F)
Thompson, Tammy J. (I)

Thorn, Dale A. (1)
Thorner, Mr. & Mrs. Robt,
Thorp, Frank Hutchings (I)
Thrift, Dr. Charles T., Jr. (I)
Thurlow, Tom, Jr. (I)
Timanus, Martha D. (Sc)
Toebbe, Mr. & Mrs. Nelson
Toffer, Jay (F)
Toms, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald (F)
Toledo, Alfredo R., Jr. (F)
Torres, Caroline (1)
Tottenhoff, Mrs. J. R. (F)
Traer, Mrs. Zilla P. (Sc)
Trainer, Monty P. (Fw)
Traurig, Mr. & Mts. Leonard
Traurig, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Trenery, Frank (I)
Tresh, Jeannette C. (I)
Tribble, Mr. & Mrs. James L.
Troner, Dr. & Mrs. M. (F)
Tucker, Bruce E. (1)
Tuggle, Auby L. (F)
Turken, Robert (F)
Turner, Mrs. Lawrence 0.,
Jr. (I)
Uhalt, Jerry Lee (F)
University of Central Florida
University of Florida, Library
of History (IS)
University of Iowa (IS)
University of Miami, Campus
Sports & Recreation (IS)
University of Miami, 0.
Richter Library (IS)
University of Michigan (IS)
University of Pennsylvania
University of South Florida
University of West Florida
Upshaw, Mrs, Florence A. (1)
Valerius, Lynn (F)
Van Bezooyen, Mae A. (Sc)
Van Denend, Mrs. Herbert
Vanderwyden, William P. (1)
Van Landingham, Kyle S. (I)
Varley, Mr. & Mrs. Reed B.
Varner, Edwina G. (I)
Vazquez, Lulio S. (I)
Van Orsdel, C. D. (F)
Veenstra, Tom H. (1)

Van Velsor. Joan (I)
Vergara, Dr. & Mrs. George
Vernam, Mr. & Mrs. John N.
Veronski, D. J. (I)
Villa, Dr. & Mrs. Louis, Jr.
Visser, Maaike (I)
Vital, Mr. & Mrs. Frank (Sp)
Vogel, Ron Douglas (F)
Volker, Mary Frances (I)
Von Ousley, Mrs. (Sc)
Wacks, Howard (I)
Wakeman, Mr. & Mrs. Chas.
Jr. (F)
Walaitis, Jane (I)
Waldron, Mr. & Mrs. Edw. J.
Waldron, Mrs. Neal E. (1)
Walker, Mr. Harold E. (Sp)
Walker, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
B. (F)
Wall, Richard D. (I)
Waller, David F. (F)
Walsh, Bryan 0. (1)
War, Ronald (F)
Ward, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Warner, Mr. & Mrs.
Jonathan (F)
Warren, Mr. & Mrs. Lewis
G., Jr. (Fw)
Wassell, Mrs. John R., Jr. (I)
Wasser, Beatrice C. (I)
*Waters, Fred M., Jr. (HL)
Watson, Anthony V. (F)
Watson, Hattie (Sc)
Watt, Rep. Jim (I)
Weaver, Mr. & Mrs. David
Webber, Conrad J. (I)
Weber, John 0. (1)
Weber, Mrs. Patricia (I)
Weinberg, Rosalyn (I)
Weinfeld, Dr. & Mrs. Albert
Weinkle, Julian I. (F)
Weiss, Meryle (I)
Weissler, Mr. & Mrs. Robt. I.
Weissenborn, Mr. & Mrs. Lee
Weit, Richard (1)
Welles, Mr. & Mrs. Peter D.
Wells, Helen D. (I)
Wells, Richard E. (Sc)
Welsh, Eric L. (I)

Wenck, Mr. & Mrs. James H.
Wepman, Warren S. (1)
Werbstein, Timothy P. (1)
Wersen, William (Sc)
West, Mr. & Mrs. Everett G.
West, Karen C. (I)
West Palm Beach Public
Library (IS)
West, Pat (I)
Westbrook, Mrs. A. J. (I)
Wheeler, Jackie (F)
Wheeling, Craig (D)
White, Ivah (I)
White, Richard M. (I)
Whitenack, Mrs. Helen E. (l)
Whitlock, Mr. Luke (1)
Whittelsey, K. ([)
Whitmer, Dr. Kenneth S. (Sc)
Wicks, Mrs. Phyllis (F)
Wiener, Donald M. (I)
Whitten, George E. (F)
Wilbanks, Wm. (I)
Wilcox, D. (F)
Wilkins, Woodrow Wilson
Wilkinson, Judy (1)
Williams, Billie Joe (I)
Williams, Mr. & Mrs. Dennis
Williams, Dorothy E. (I)
Williams, Mr. & Mrs. Elmo
H. (F)
Williams, Freeman J. (F)
Williams, Dr. & Mrs. George
Jr. (F)
Williams, Harvey L., [II (D)
Williams, Mrs. Jean F. (I)
Williams, Kathryn (F)
Williams, Linda K. (D)
Williams, Mr. & Mrs. Wayne
Williamson Cadillac Co. (C)
Williamson, Michael (I)
Willing, David L. (I)
Willis, Mrs. Hillard (Sc)
Wills, James (D)
Wilsey, Jane (I)
Wilson, Daniel F. (I)
"Wilson, Mrs. G. R.
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. George
M. (F)
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs, Hugh H.
*Wilson, Nell G. (Sp)
Wilson, Peyton L. (F)
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. Walter B.
Jr. (F)

List of Members 91

Wimbish, Paul (F)
Winebrenner, L. M. (F)
Winick, Pauline (F)
Winters, Calvin (1)
Wipprecht, Mrs. Marion (I)
Wirkus, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
V. (F)
Wisconsin State Historical
Society (IS)
Wiseheart, Mr. & Mrs.
Malcolm B., Jr. (Fw)
Withers, James G. (HL)
Withers, Wayne E. (HL)
Withers Van Lines of Miami
Witlock, Mary (Sc)
Wolfe, C. F., Jr. (1)
Wolff, Robin M. (I)
Wolfe, Rosalie (Sc)
Wolfe, Dr. & Mrs. S.
Anthony (Fw)
Wolfe, Thomas L. (D)
Wolff, Mr. & Mrs. Wm. F.,
Jr. (F)
Wolfson, Mrs. L. (F)
Wolfson, Mrs. Louis, II (D)
Wolfson, Mitchell, Jr. (Fw)
Wolfson, Sherry (I)
Wolpert, Mr. & Mrs. George
Wonsik, Jo Ann (I)
Wood, Marybeth (I)
Wood, Mrs. Warren (F)
Wood, Mr. Warren, Jr. (F)
Woods, John P. (I)
Woods, Dr. & Mrs. Frank M.
Woods, Mrs. Thomas C. (F)
*Woore, Mrs. Meredith A. (I)
Wooten, Mr. & Mrs. James S.
Workman, Mr. & Mrs. David
Worley, Mr. & Mrs. Eugene
C. (F)
Wragg, Otis 0., Ill (I)
Wright, Mrs. Edward (1)
Wright, Hamilton (Sc)
Wright, Dr. lone S. (Sc)
Wright, Dr. Jack L. (1)
Wright, Robt. C. (1)
Wright, Dr. Sheffel H. (I)
Wulf, Karlinne (I)
Wunderlich, Paul B. (F)
Wylie, Bernadine H. (I)
Wynne, Deene (I)
Wynne, Mr. & Mrs. James R.
Wytrwal, Veronica (1)


Yarborough, Joan (I)
Yates, Elizabeth J. (1)
Yelen, Bruce (F)
Yonover, Mr. & Mrs. David
Young, Mary E. (Sc)
Young, Montgomery L. (I)
Younts, Mr. & Mrs. David

Zack, Mr. & Mrs. Steve (F)
Zapata, Mr. & Mrs. Albert
Zarzecki, Stephen (1)
Zaydon, Dr. & Mrs. Thomas
Zdon, Joseph Paul J. (1)
Zeder, Mr. & Mrs. Jon W. (F)
Zeller, Mrs. Leila (I)

Zimmerman, Mr. & Mrs.
Louis (F)
Zwerner, Mrs. Carl (Sc)
Zwibel, Dr. & Mrs. Howard
Zyscovich, Bernard, AIA (F)

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