Historical Association of Southern...
 Railway location in the Florida...
 The Kissimmee valley: An appre...
 A letter by Dr. Henry Perrine
 Bootleggers, prohibitionists, and...
 The Dania Indian School, 1927-...
 The West Palm Beach that I...
 Biscayne sketches at the far...
 List of members

Title: Tequesta
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101446/00039
 Material Information
Title: Tequesta
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Historical Association of Southern Florida
Publisher: (multiple)
Publication Date: 1979
Copyright Date: 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101446
Volume ID: VID00039
Source Institution: Historical Museum of Southern Florida
Holding Location: Florida International University: Florida History and Heritage
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 2096319
lccn - 42015131
issn - 0363-3705


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Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Historical Association of Southern Florida
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Railway location in the Florida Everglades
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    The Kissimmee valley: An appreciation
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    A letter by Dr. Henry Perrine
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Bootleggers, prohibitionists, and police: The temperance movement in Miami, 1896-1920
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    The Dania Indian School, 1927-1936
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    The West Palm Beach that I remember
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Biscayne sketches at the far south
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    List of members
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
Full Text

Charlton W. Tebeau
Associate Editors
Arva Moore Parks Dr. Thelma P Peters



Railway Location in the Florida Everglades 5
By William J. Krome
Introduction by Jean C. Taylor

The Kissimmee Valley: An Appreciation 17
By Ruby Jane Hancock

A Letter by Dr. Henry Perrine 29

Bootleggers, Prohibitionists and Police:
The Temperance Movement in Miami, 1896-1920 34
By Paul S. George

The Dania Indian School, 1927-1936 42
By Harry A. Kersey, Jr. and Mark S. Goldman

The West Palm Beach that I Remember 54
By Gordon L. Williams

Biscayne Sketches at the Far South 70
By James Buck
Introduction by Arva Moore Parks

List of Members 86


is published annually by the Historical Association of Southern
T ,lcj stl'a Florida. Communications should be addressed to the Corresponding
Secretary of the Society, 3290 South Miami Avenue. Miami, Florida
33129. The Association does not assume responsibility for statements of fact or opinions
made by contributors.

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document

Historical Association of Southern Florida, Inc.


Stephen A. Lynch, III

Joseph H. Fitzgerald, M.D.
First Vice President

Charles P. Monroe
Second Vice President

Pat Molinari
Recording Secretary

John C. Harrison, Jr.


James Apthorp

Samuel J. Boldrick

Luis J. Botifoll

William 0. Cullom

Mrs. Douglas Erickson

Ray Goode

Hazel Reeves Grant

Marcia J. Kanner

Sherrill Kellner

R. Layton Mank

Jesse McCrary, Jr.

Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.
Editor Tequesta

Ms. Arva Moore Parks
Associate Editor Tequesta

Thelma Peters, Ph.D.
Associate Editor Tequesta

Marie Anderson
Editor Update

Randy F Nimnicht
Museum Director


C.T. McCrimmon

David Mesnekoff

Joseph H. Pero, Jr.

Roderick N. Petrey

Eugene F Provenzo, Jr., Ph.D.

Yvonne Santa-Maria

Robert D. Scharbert

Mrs. Robert Simms

Barbara E. Skigen

Frank Solar

William M. Stokes, Ph.D.

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document

Railway Location

in the Florida Everglades

By William J. Krome

With an introduction by Jean C. Taylor*


When William Julius Krome was six or seven years old his father took him
to St. Louis to hear and later to meet the great African explorer Stanley.
Young Krome was so impressed that for years he cherished the idea of
becoming an explorer and collected books on African exploration. Krome
never explored Africa but in 1902-03 he made a rather remarkable explo-
ration of the wilds of South Florida.
Krome's grandfather, Charles William Krome, was born in Hanover,
Germany, and was a law student at the time he was inducted into the
German army for the required year of service. Before the year was up
Bismarck extended the required service to two years and Krome stowed
away to America rather than serve a second year. He then joined a wagon
train going over the mountains and down the Ohio River to Louisville.The
pioneer community had no need for a young lawyer but did need a
cobbler, a trade which Krome had learned during his army service. He
solicited orders for shoes, bought the supplies, and engaged less enterpris-
ing German cobblers to make them for him. He was soon a prosperous
businessman. His son, William Henry Krome, moved to Edwardsville,
Illinois, where he became a judge, and where his son, William Julius, was
born February 14, 1876, the only boy in a family of seven children.
William Julius had a classical education at Northwestern and DePauw,
then studied engineering at Cornell but left in his senior year to do a survey
for a railroad in Missouri. He never returned to school because he was not
one to worry about degrees or signs of achievement. He went on to other

"Jean C. Taylor is a frequent contributor to Update.


railroad jobs in South Carolina and Georgia and in 1899 came to Florida to
work for the Altantic, Valdosta and Western Railway Company.
In 1901 Krome found himself between jobs. He spent the winter in
Jacksonville, and enjoyed exploring the St. Johns River in a small boat,
fascinated with a country so sparsely populated. When he learned that the
Florida East Coast Railway Company was planning to extend its railroad
to Key West and needed someone to survey possible routes he applied for
the job and was hired. Early in 1902 he made a trip down the east coast as
far as Cutler recording all points of interest with his camera. He loved
photography and recorded the progress of his work projects as well as the
activities of his family and friends.
When Krome arrived in South Florida the Florida East Coast was in
the process of building a railroad between Miami and Homestead and
Krome first worked on that project. There were two possible routes for the
Key West Extension. The first was to the east and along the keys the other
overland to Cape Sable and across shallow Florida Bay. Krome headed a
crew to survey the latter route to see if it were feasible. In preparation for
this survey he studied the notes of a United States surveyor named Jackson
who had surveyed South Florida in 1848, Jackson has summarized his



Reproduced from the Krome ftiiil\ collection.
Krome, left, and Anderson after a hunt. Wild game provided meat for the

Railway Location in the Everglades 7

notes by saying, "The country south of Miami is rocky pine land intersect-
ed with marshy areas they call glades. It has no agricultural use. The
Indians use it for hunting deer and it is sometimes referred to as the Indian
Hunting Grounds. No one lives there. The rocky nature of the soil makes it
unsuitable for agriculture but even if it could be farmed the great storms
that sweep over the southern end of the peninsula in the fall would make
farming impossible."
From December 1902 until June 1903 Krome surveyed from his
permanent camp south of Homestead (in the Royal Palm Park area) to
Cape Sable and around by boat to Card Sound. He found Jackson's stakes
and blazes so accurate that he gained great respect for his predecessor and
named his permanent camp Camp Jackson. As a result of his six-month
survey it was determined that the route along the keys was the better one.
The next winter with many of the same crew Krome surveyed that route as
far as Jewfish Creek.
Krome wrote a report of his Cape Sable survey entitled "Railway
Location in the Florida Everglades" which was printed in two issues of the
Engineering Record, April 2 and 9, 1904, and reveals his careful planning
and meticulous attention to details. Later he was to become chief engineer
of the Key West Extension and successfully completed it. South Florida
had won his heart; he settled here permanently, married Isabel Burns and
remained in Homestead until his death in 1929. In his honor an important
artery is named Krome Avenue.



That portion of the State of Florida lying south of latitude 25 degrees, 30
minutes has, up to very recent times, remained as completely unexplored
as the interior of Thibet. It embraces the southern end of the Biscayne pine
reef, the lower part of the Everglades, Whitewater Bay and the Great
Mangrove Swamp.
A few squatters have for some years raised vegetables for the Key
West market on the prairies in the vicinity of Cape Sable, but their
knowledge of the country to the north of them has been very limited. The
few existing maps were entirely unreliable and the reports as to the
character of the country by the occasional trapper or inquisitive naturalist
who had penetrated for some distance into the region, were far from


Therefore when the officials of the Florida East Coast Railway
decided upon an exploratory survey through this territory, with the object
of determining its possibilities from a commercial view point, various
problems rather out of the ordinary were presented to the engineering
department. To obtain the information desired it was necessary to cover a
belt of too great width to confine the work to a single center line so a series
of closed meanders, linked together into a continuous chain, was adopted
as the trunk of the survey. From this, laterals and tie lines could be run as
required. The fact that one end of the work was at a known elevation of
about 12 feet above mean low tide in Biscayne Bay, the other at Cape Sable
on the Gulf of Mexico, with a great probability that at no place between
would the elevation of the country vary more than a few feet from a
regular grade line connecting these two points, made a line of levels
The question of obtaining supplies being one of the most difficult to
solve, as small a field party as possible was organized, and the stadia
adopted as the method of measurement.
There is never any trouble in finding plenty of applicants for every
position open on a piece of exploratory work of this character, but the
selection of men who will go the whole route and who can be brought to
understand, before-hand, that it is hard work, under trying circumstances,
and not a pleasure trip that they are going into, is one of the serious
problems for the chief of party. For this expedition, men of previous
experience on similar work and of known staying ability were of course
given the preference and green material cut out to as great an extent as
possible. The choice of good men for the places of axemen and packers
was particularly difficult, for upon them depended much of the work and
colored labor had been decided upon for these positions. The writer has
found the Central Georgia negro about the most reliable of his race for
rough work and seven of the eight colored men selected were from that
section. The following half year, in which these men worked on the
average 28 days a month, without a single desertion or complaint, justified
this belief.
The party when complete numbered sixteen men. Of these, eight
were in the field crew, including chief of party, transitman, recorder, two
roadmen, two axemen and a colored cook. To keep them supplied with
food and necessaries required a pack party of six men in the charge of a
white chief packer. A steward looked after the permanent supply-camp
and was required to keep track of the stock on hand, closely reporting
weekly to the chief of party. Owing to the irregularity of communication

Ril,\ay Location in the Everglades 9

Reproduced from the Krome family collection.
Georgia-born packers and axemen of the expedition enjoying Christmas
dinner, 1902. Head axeman John Henry, second from right.

with the nearest source of supplies at Miami, it was necessary to get in
orders a considerable time before the goods were actually needed.
Each member of the field party was furnished with a stout canvas
knapsack and the limit on personal outfit was the weight the individual felt
able to carry. This amount was reduced in most cases very shortly after the
first long pack, but probably averaged forty pounds per man during most
of the trip.
Various materials were tried for field clothing with more or less
success. Pantasote sheeting was found too warm for the climate and gave
poor service. Canvas wore well and dried quickly after being wet, but is
too stiff and uncomfortable to make a desirable working garment. A good
grade of khaki, well made, was found to give the best satisfaction of any
fabric tried and has been used with success on subsequent work. It wears
well, dries quickly and is soft and easy fitting. Foot-gear caused much
trouble. Rubber is a poor material for the purpose under any conditions
and in a warm climate, for regular wear, will not do at all. The best of
leather when soaked in water for hours and then pounded over coral reef,
indescribably rough and sharp, soon shows signs of grief. Ordinary shoes


Reproduced from the Krome family collection.
Krome's photo of the fifteen members of the surveying party with instru-

do well to last a single week. A half-boot, lacing to the top through large
eyelets (hooks are a nuisance), Bluchor cut with bellows tongue, a heavy
sole and stiff counter came nearer meeting the requirements than any other
type. The soles were kept thickly studded with hob-nails and the uppers
were pierced, well down, to let the water out. To keep it out when wading
waist deep was an impossibility.
The mosquito plague being one of the most serious obstacles that
was encountered, each man was provided with a bar and the proper
stretching of these became quite an art. About the best bar for this purpose
is made of cheesecloth with a canvas roof. The canvas top should be seven
feet long by three feet wide, with loops or grommets at the comers. The
cheesecloth should have a depth of about five feet and be sewed to the
under side of the roof, leaving two inches of the canvas projecting all
around. If this projection is stiffened with buckram or by doubling, and the
roof of the bar stretched flat when pitched, it will shed a light rain quite
well and the water will not run down the sides. These nets may be
stretched from a stake at each comer, or by putting in a spreader across the
ends, two stakes will answer.
Head nets are uncomfortable affairs at best, but their use on this work
was at times imperative. Cheesecloth and bobbinet are too hot and are
very hard to see through. The net that was most satisfactory was that worn
by the Cape Sable squatters. It is built for use over a stiff rimmed hat and
consists of a band of 10-ounce canvas, fitting closely around the crown of
the hat and extending out to the edge of the rim. To this is firmly sewed a
strip of close mesh copper wire netting extending down about 3 inchesin
the back and curving over the shoulders to the level of the wearer's chin.

Raih/i v Location in the Everglades 11

Cheesecloth is taped on around the bottom of the copper gauze of
sufficient width to tuck well inside the coat which is buttoned over it. The
wire netting is kept out from the face by the stiff brim of the hat, allows the
air to pass through freely and can be seen through with ease, it being
possible to run an instrument quite well from inside one of these gilded
cages. When not in use it can be completely removed from the hat and
there are no strings to become knotted or broken loose. It is, however,
somewhat troublesome to carry.
A wagon trail was broken out from the claim of the last homesteader,
through the rock reef forming the Biscayne pine land, to a point near its
southern extremity and there a base of supplies was located. To this pont
goods could be hauled in light loads by wagon, but beyond it everything
was advanced to the field party by the packers, until the Whitewater Bay
region was entered when connection was made with a relief schooner.
To as great an extent as possible, all provisions were put up in duck
bags waterproofed with parafine. These bags were of two sizes, holding
about five and ten pounds apiece of such provisions as rice, beans or meal.
They, in turn, were placed in specially waterproofed canvas pack-sacks
and their contents seldom showed signs of dampness even after long
exposure to the weather. Regular leather pack harness was used in
handling the loads. The weight that could be carried by a packer varied of
course with the length of the journey and with the character of the country
to be traversed. Under favorable circumstances packs as heavy as ninety
pounds were brought in over a trail five miles long; at other times, through
pot-holes and deep muck, twenty-five pounds was a wearying load. A
14 x 16 foot wall tent, without fly, makes about as heavy a pack as should
be put on a man under the best of circumstances.
Boats were a necessity in transporting supplies, although the water in
the southern portion of the Everglades is usually very shallow during the
dry season of the year, during which the work was carried on. The dug-out
of the Seminole Indian is too heavy for carrying, and canvas or Canadian
canoes are too frail to stand dragging when loaded. So 14-foot steel duck
boats were used and served the purpose admirably. They were light
enough to be readily carried by two men across portages, and three men
could drag one loaded, where only a few inches of water covered the
muck. By using a couple of these boats as sleds, with two men harnessed
in front and one pushing with a pole from behind, the six packers could
bring in twelve full-size packs through muck and water where 40 pounds
would have been a killing back load.
The food was confined mainly to such articles as could be sacked.
Under this head come rice, grits, several varieties of beans, oatmeal,


coffee, sugar, salt, flour, meal, tapioca and evaporated fruits. Tinned
meats, evaporated cream, baking powder and other canned-goods were
used to some extent but they make an awkward pack and were dispensed
with as far as possible. Pilot bread saved the use of an oven and was our
staff of life. Fresh meat in the form of venison was easily obtained during
the major portion of the trip but fresh vegetables were unknown on the
An emergency supply of condensed foods was carried and on several
occasions was drawn on heavily. This class of goods is largely imported
from Germany and can be obtained in considerable variety. Soups of a
dozen kinds, all tasting alike, are put up in vest pocket packages, vegeta-
bles, of as many sorts, evaporated and compressed until they resemble a
good grade of plug tobacco, sliced potatoes as hard as bone, porridge,
sausages and evaporated eggs were all given a trial. The potatoes, after
being well soaked, are an excellent substitute for the fresh article and the
soups properly prepared, are nourishing and palatable, but it requires a
hungry man to relish the vegetables or eggs.
The field party traveled as light as possible. Tents were abandoned
after leaving the pineland and a couple of flies used to protect the goods
and as a shelter in heavy rains. All cooking utensils were of aluminum and
a complete outfit for eight men nested in one pot, and weighed barely 15
pounds, entire. A tin box, such as is used for fishing tackle, and containing
a supply of needles, thread, copper wire, awls, beeswax, scissors, screw
driver, pliers, copper rivets and various odds and ends was in great
demand and took the place, to a considerable extent, of the usual camp
chest. A similar box held drafting materials, and a steel straight edge, an
18-inch rolling parallel rule, and a small drafting board completed the
necessarily meagre office outfit.
Medicines were carried in what is known as a country doctor's
buggy-case. Made of heavy sole leather, with a compartment for surgical
instruments and bandages, and fitted with a good number of bottles of
various sizes, it answered the purpose well. Such a case is of much the
same size and shape as the ordinary 4 x 5-inch camera and slung over the
shoulder does not add greatly to a pack load. The stock of medicines was
selected to meet the needs of the climate and could be replenished from a
supply at the permanent camp. A surgical kit containing several lancets,
scissors, forceps and flesh needles and a twist or two of silk was ample for
our needs and came into use several times. Small pocket cases, each
holding an hypodermic syringe and two small phials, one filled with a 10
per cent solution of permanganate of potash and the other with 1/50th

Railway Location in the Everglades 13

"1 fah" r.tff" f.F .' U *Y^ WFRqif^r'ifta^f
Reproduced from the Krome family collection.
Camp Jackson.

grain tablets of strychnine, as an antidote for snake bites, were distributed
amongst the party so that one would always be at hand if needed.
The climate was healthful, for the water in the Everglades is pure and
fresh, and malaria is an unknown quantity. So by keeping watch of the
men pretty carefully and meeting ailments before they had made much
progress, the party was kept in splendid trim during the entire six months
and no time was lost through having a big sick roll.
Sleeping bags of light felt with a waterproof canvas cover were used
by most of the men and were very satisfactory. As no cots were carried,
and boughs fit for bedding were seldom obtainable, the usual mattress was
a pile of sawgrass. Dry camping places were the exception and as the
mosquito bars were often pitched in the open, the canvas covers of the
sleeping bags were a double protection from rainfall and from the wet
ground. Rolled up with the mosquito bar inside, they were carried on the
owner's pack when on the move.
The machete was used for clearing line, opening up camp sites in the
jungle, cutting sawgrass and for every purpose for which the axe and
brush hook are usually needed, except the felling of large timber and the
driving of stakes. It is strange that this useful implement has not come into
more general use on preliminary and location surveys. It is far superior to
a brush hook, as it can be handled much more easily, has no helve to break,
and as far as my experience goes is of a great deal better metal. Axe men
are prone to lose brush hooks by misplacing them while using the regular
axe, but the machete may be carried in a sheath hung to the belt without
hindering the movements and need never be laid down while in the field.
The stadia was particularly adapted for this piece of work. It allowed


a small party to do the work thoroughly and took the place of the chain or
tape where the use of the latter in some cases would have been impossible:
There are stretches miles in length through the Everglades where
stakewood of any kind cannot be obtained and where even the hubs
necessary for the stadia work had to be carried long distances. This would
have seriously handicapped regular stationing and ordinary marking pins
would have been useless on account of the depth of water and soft muck.
When the Whitewater Bay region was reached, numerous streams, islands
and stretches of coast were meandered where the dense mangrove swamp
extended out into the water for fifty feet or more beyond the shore line. As
a mangrove swamp is about as hard to cut through as a solid wall, a chain
survey would have had tough work making half a mile a day. By zig-
zagging the streams and cutting from one projecting point to another along
the coast, the stadia party, operating from the boats, made 3/ to 4 miles
per day, regularly. Special 12-foot rods, built as light as possible, were
designed and canvas covers furnished to protect them when not in use. A
steep tape was kept in camp and when the chance offered a few of the
longer sights were tested by careful measurement as a check on the
adjustment of the wires.
One radical departure from usual methods, which will probably
shock stadia theorists, was made early in the survey. The country was so
level that after the first few miles the reading of the vertical angle was
abandoned entirely. This simplified instrument work somewhat and re-
duced to a minimum the labor of computing the length of sights. It
certainly did not seriously impair the accuracy of the results for a carefully
chained location which has since been run through a considerable portion
of the territory, checked out with the exploratory line remarkably well.
Good instrument points were, as a rule, hard to get, and it was no
uncommon occurrence for the tripod head to be at the water level with a
footing of soft muck that increased the probable error in angular mea-
surements alarmingly.
A computed bearing was carried throughout and any sudden devia-
tion from the needle would quickly point out any mistake or large error in
taking the angle. Sights of from 600 to 800 feet were about the usual
length. When meandering streams the average would be shorter, while in
work along the coast, where the failure to secure some projecting point
might mean a half day's heavy chopping around the shore of a cove, sights
of over 2,000 feet were occasionally made and the readings taken in
The closed traverses, after being balanced, were platted from the
same system of co-ordinates, and the tie lines and laterals were built up on

Railway Location in the Everglades 15

this trunk. The field map drawn on heavy canvas-backed paper, was
platted to a scale of I inch to 5,000 feet. As the outline of the whole
southern end of the State had been previously put on from the government
coast survey charts, the position of the party could be learned at any time
and the work ahead blocked out.
Continual scouting ahead was necessary and in these trips seldom
more than two men took part, enabling the field party to continue their
work without interruption. As such expeditions often lasted several days,
each man carried a light pack containing sleeping bag and mosquito bar,
one or two small aluminum cooking utensils and a limited supply of
provisions. A leather haversack held flag cloth, a ball of strong cord, note
book and a pocket compass with folding sights. A pair of Triedor binocu-
lars, machete, rifle and belt of cartridges completed a load that by nightfall
seemed to its bearers only fit for a two-horse team. A start was always
made from some point on the stadia meander and a careful record of
courses and approximate distances kept. When the new territory had been
penetrated for some distance trees were climbed at intervals of about a
mile and observations made in every direction from them. The lack of a
pair of light steel climbing irons, such as are used by ornithologists, was
keenly felt, but this need had not been foreseen when the outfit was gotten
together. As the trees used were often lone pines on some isolated rock
reef it was no mean task to "shin up" them. The observer carried the ball of
cord with him and could then haul up the pocket compass, field glasses
and note book. Bearings would be taken on as many known points behind
as could be observed and then the character of the country ahead in several

Reproduced from the .. ..... .
Steel duck boats being used as sleds in shallow water, two men were
harnessed in front, one pushed from behind.


directions noted. Before descending, a flag fastened to a sapling was
hoisted and securely lashed in the top of the tree. The tree was then marked
with the blaze of the survey, a long chop with a hack above and below. If
the territory developed by this system of scouting proved to be important,
it was more fully investigated by a stadia line; if not, it could be platted up
with sufficient accuracy for the purpose in view from the notes already
The party was in the field from the first of December, 1902, until the
early part of June, 1903. Trail building and the establishment of a base of
supplies held back the work for a month and in the remaining five about
300 miles of stadia line was run besides accomplishing considerable work
in channel sounding. The exploration was under the general direction of
Mr. E. Ben Carter, chief engineer of the Florida East Coast Railway.
The most serious obstacles encountered were the heavy muck and
dense saw grass of the Everglades, and the jungles and mosquitos of the
Whitewater Bay region. The muck with proper drainage will eventually
become fine farming land and the mosquitos will disappear to a great
extent as the country opens up. The malaria breeding species of this insect
is evidently not present, for that disease was conspicuous in the party by its
As a result of the expedition the lower extremity of the Biscayne pine
land was defined, Long Key, a pine island of some 18,000 acres, lying in
the Everglades, the very existence of which was previously doubted, was
thoroughly mapped. Whitewater Bay was reduced to one-half the size
shown on former maps and two-thirds of the area known as the Great
Mangrove Swamp was discovered to be open prairie.

The Kissimmee Valley:

An Appreciation

By Ruby Jane Hancock*

Even at the turn of the century there was still a geographical frontier in the
United States, uncharted and for the most part unchallenged. An unwill-
ing and inhospitable wilderness, pristine and primeval. To most outside of
it, it was practically impenetrable The KISSIMMEE RIVER VALLEY
the lower valley just north of the big Lake Okeechobee (Okee, water;
chobee, big, in Seminole language).
It was not a valley in the usual sense, for in south-central Florida
there are no mountains, but to the west of the valley there were pure white
sand hills thrown up eons ago from the bottom of the sea. When one left
them behind, out before him was a broad depression, flat, green, and
watery. This trough was shallow, treacherous, and unpredictable, the
natural watershed for the southern half of the Florida peninsula. It was
dominated by a crazy winding and wandering river, often multichanneled
with swift currents as it flowed toward the big lake, its water the color of
strong tea from the many roots and wild growth it had struggled through,
natural filters that kept the water fresh and pure in spite of its color.
The river began in central Florida at the Blue Cypress Swamp and
ended in the Gulf of Mexico where the Caloosahatchee River took it from
the southwest rim of the lake. Here at Blue Cypress there is a "hump" in
the peninsula's topography; the Kissimmee River a "drain" river -
flowed southward, draining this part of it, the northern part of the penin-
sula being drained by way of the St. Johns River which, flows north-
ward as does the Nile, and empties into the Atlantic Ocean just off of
North of this"divide," civilization and development had flourished at

*Mrs. Hancock who now resides at Jacksonville Beach grew up and spent her
young adult life in the Valley. She contributed an article to the 1974 Tequesta on some of
the early modern settlers.


the turn of the century in comparison to that of the southern half of the
state. In fact, at that point in time if one perchanced to wander into the
Kissimmee River Valley, he would have found a"frontier" in the ultimate
sense of the word the last in the whole United States (before Alaska) -
well after the "West was won."
This river valley fed by the way of the big lake the mystical mysteri-
ous fastness of the Florida Everglades, a unique geographical phenome-
non unlike anything anywhere else in the world. Here was a strange land
that, once penetrated and conquered, would lose its proud hostility and
would become abasely docile, succumbing to the impact of the twentieth
century. (It did happen, and so rapidly that there were no lusty bards and
few others to note the transition.)
In the time of its sparse human habitation, none gave much thought
that there should be any social organization of any consequence; it was
pretty much each for himself, at least, any group for itself. They were
content that they had escaped from the outside world to a land where
nature still dominated: no dikes, no fences, no roads, no land titles, and no
imminent danger of real estate developers. Here they were, the
Seminoles, the military deserters, a few others who had dared to invade
the hostile region because of dire personal reasons, and they lived together
at the dictates of the valley instead of trying to impose their will on it. Here
they found nature's bounties to take care of their needs: climate, food
easily obtained from the river and the land; plenty of saplings to provide
forked props for their crude shelters covered with palm fans from the
ubiquitous sabal palms- called by them "cabbage palms?" And there was
nobody who challenged their right to live as they pleased as long as they
did not violate the simple code of not interfering with anybody else's
freedom of will.
In spite of its domination by the sun, the wind, and the water, the
valley did offer a variety in its topography. There was the flat sandy
"pra'ry country," much of it covered with yellow-tinged palmettoes
revealing its lack of nutrients; dotted here and there were small pines
growing close together, descriptively called "pine islands"; and where the
soil was alluvial there were cypress heads and baygalls; then, where the
palmettoes grew tall and were rich green in color, were stands of the
towering majestic Caribbean pines, the finest source of virgin lumber.
Interspersed were the circumscribed areas of high rich ground, the ham-
mocks where oak trees were draped with beards of Spanish moss as they
stood deep in luxuriant leaf mold; everywhere were the cabbage palms
saball) which grew abundantly and took over old Indian burns in the

The Kissimmee Valley 19

clearings of switch grass like tree tribes. These were called "cabbage
woods." The heart of the young palms was cut and peeled down to the
tender white succulent part, sliced and boiled with sidemeat, not taking
too long to be tender morsels, better than boiled cabbage. Years later these
would be in demand by the finest hotels and restaurants in the north that
catered to sophisticated palates and served as "hearts of palm salad" and
as garnishes.
And there were the great marshes: some were sinkholes of acres of a
sedge known as sawgrass that could cut one to pieces if he tried to go
through them; others were islands of lush grasses that fattened the herders'
long-legged, reddish native steers (descendants of the Spanish cattle left to
roam over the region four hundred years ago) that they drove in the spring
to a rude port far down on the west coast of Florida just below Whiskey
Creek, Punta Rassa, where dirty boats loaded them to sell in Cuban and
other Latin ports.
The herders were paid in Spanish gold pieces. Having little to spend
them on, when they returned home they threw these coarse sacks of coins
up under the high wooden bedsteads where they slept with their wives. It
is well to mention that locks to the valley houses were unheard of, but this
gold was useless as tender in their primitive economy. Years later it was
not uncommon to find holes dug around the early settlers' domains where
people searched in hopes of finding buried gold, and the metal did become
in many instances the capital for banks and other enterprises for the
descendants of these early herders.
But these marshes and the margins of the river with their luxuriant
growth of maiden cane, cattails, willows, elders, and myriad weeds that
liked damp ground attracted innumerable birds, ducks, frogs, and the
omnipresent little brown rabbits and other rodents where snarling bobcats
came frequently on the prowl to dine sumptuously on them.
As the serpentine river wound its way through the valley, its margins,
flat for the most part, were determined by the rainfall, and along its way
this phenomenon created lakes, dead rivers, creeks, lagoons, and ponds; in
droughts they either dried up or became low in water level, but during the
rains they swelled until sometimes the entire region seemed to be more
water than land.
Much of the marshland was covered with the sedge, sawgrass-aptly
named, being swordlike and at night in the moonlight the moonvines
draped like huge blankets over the growth, especially the apple custard
trees, made eerie contours and a ghostly sight. The vines' blooms were
large white trumpets that opened only at night, thus the name of the vines.


This wild river flowed on to cut concavely for a few miles now and then
making a single strong current channel that formed "bluffs;'" nothing to
compare with the Mississippi's, but high enough that the first settlers
chose them to settle on and built their palmetto shacks there, then later
sturdier houses beneath the giant moss-draped oaks, the majestic pines,
and the ever present cabbage trees. But the unpredictable river flowed on
to its unrestrained delta and emptied into the giant lake. If one followed
the primitive river to its delta, there he would have found no iota of human
habitation where one would feel that he was the only human being in the
whole wide world.
Along this unruly stream it might seem to be a flat monotonous silent
part of the world, but actually there were many noises: the calls and
screams of the birds, both waterfowl and birds of the air; the ominous
bellowings of the alligators, especially at mating time; the barking of the
raccoons and the otters; the angry growls of the bobcats; the grunts of the
roly-poly black bears; the high-pitched cry of the lithe tawny green-eyed
panthers; and, of course, the chorale of the frogs and the chirps and
buzzings of the insects.
It was a paradise for the waterfowl, "pond birds" the earliest settlers
called them. Nowhere outside of Egypt did the ibis live in such great
numbers: the solid white graceful birds, the glossies (solid black), and the
white ones with blacktipped wings. These often perched in the tip-tops of
young trees, balancing with the wind, then they would soar at eventide
with their flocks rising suddenly in a muted rustle and fly off in a V
formation toward a blazing setting sun to spend the night wherever ibises
do the sight of them was unforgettable!
And there were the egrets perched lightly on the myrtles and the
willows like tree ornaments the snowies and the larger and plainer ones
with their curling tails. There is nothing uglier than a baby egret, but
nothing lovelier than a mature one with its snow-white fluffy feathers (a
prize for the stylish hats at the turn of the century until the Audubon
Society et at decried the poachers trafficking in these feathers). Then
everywhere, it seemed, in this watery green world was a multitude of
cranes, herons and waterfowl of all colors and sizes. Here they stood on
one of their long wading legs, watchful and silent; however, at the slightest
movement of a small frog or crustacean in the ooze, on two legs they
pounced and their sharp beaks plunged accurately, then they gulped their
prey. The shiny purple gallinule with its yellow legs shared their marshy
domain as did the dun-colored speckled funny limpkin, a bittern, with its
eyes high in its head and long legs set back beneath its swaggering body, a
scold of a bird, a busybody that wailed at the slightest movement. And

The Kissimmee Valley 21

above them was the handsome Everglades kite (now extinct), flying in its
swallow-tailed dark feathers and diving down with panache and a shriek
for its particular food, the Everglades snail, (when it disappeared, so did
the kite). Across the way in an oozy marsh would be a flock that looked
like a pink cloud had fallen from the sky, the exquisitely pink spoonbills,
only their scooping broad bills detracting from their perfection as the most
beautiful bird on earth. Near a slough where a stand of cypresses stood
would be a semicircle of large dingy birds with rusty topknots which gave
them the name among the natives of "ironheads." There they stood
silently like praying deacons, but their eyes were riveted on the small fish,
frogs and crustaceans in the dark mud. These ungainly birds belonged to
the stork family, the only true stork in the western hemisphere. But the
strangest of these "pond birds" was the anhinga, or "snake bird." Some-
how the Creator forgot it in the process of evolution it has no oil in its
feather glands, no fluid in its eyes, and it resembles a snake with its long
slender black crooked neck above the water when it swims. Onland it
spreads out its wide dark wings on elder bushes like a Seminole's wash to
dry in the sun. Also these waterways abounded with ducks: teals, wood
ducks, mallards (called "greenheads"), and the plainer Florida duck,
which are quite good if properly cooked, and, of course, the flocks of
comical coots, diving and squawking. And out on the prairie it was not
uncommon to come upon a family of tall bluish-gunmetal sandhill cranes,
always in pairs, but if there was a young one, it was along, too. Startled,
they would fly off together sounding as if a chain were rattling.
Birds! Birds! Too numerous to name them all mockingbirds,
bluejays, cardinals, kingfishers, catbirds, "rice birds" (redwinged
blackbirds), crows and grackles, warblers of every description including
the exquisite painted buntings, and the bullbats nighthawkss) that cried
incessantly "chuck-wills's-widow" when night fell. And the woodpec-
kers! The common flickers, speckled and redheaded, the stately crested
pileated woodpeckers, and at the turn of the century before human beings
took over the valley, the now all-but-extinct ivory bills were still around.
Then there were the owls: great hoot owls, big cross-eyed birds the settlers
said presaged a death in the family when one perched near a household;
and the smaller and more sociable screech owl that, too, augured bad luck
unless one turned his shoe upside down at their cries. The small burrowing
owls that lived in deep holes in the prairies into which horses often
stumbled and sometimes broke a leg, but this little owl was affectionately
called "the 'howdy' owl" because it liked to sit on high stumps or broken
trees and bowed at passersby. Hawks, too! Plain chicken hawks, red-
shouldered and red-tailed ones, and the peregrine falcons known in the


valley not by that fancy name but as "duck hawks." Certainly, one must
mention the vultures: the much maligned black buzzard, a big ungainly
bird that flaps its wings and does not soar or sail gracefully as does its
cousin, the turkey buzzard; however, both are valuable to the valley as
scavengers; with their keen eyesight they can see the carrion while flying
high above the ground- the black vulture like the fish crow is an enemy of
the herons and ibises raiding their nests. Then there is Audubon's caracara
commonly known as the Mexican eagle, a large handsome bird with buff
and lightcolored feathers and a regal white head, actually a large hawk, but
because it, too, is a scavenger, it is generally classed by those who do not
know as a vulture; the Kissimmee River Valley is the only region east of
the Mississippi River where it is found in great numbers.
Nobody had to starve in this unique wilderness. Game birds were
abundant: quail that sent echoes all through the valley with their "bob-
white" calls; the doves, many preferred them for their dark meat, it being a
New Year's tradition to serve huge dove pies; wild turkeys strutted in the
hammocks; small wild chickens abounded on the pra'ry country; and the
Indians often threw in a limpkin in their sofkee pots. The river and its
tributaries teemed with fish: the basses, the big black-mouthed ones all
fishermen prized; the perches, bream and croppies. All through the valley
the graceful white-tailed deer roamed and grazed, so plentiful for venison,
and not then an endangered species.
And there were the bears, the most prized animal to the Seminoles,
who used every part of them for food and raiment, grease for cooking and
to groom their bodies and hair, and bear skins for dress; wild boars,
raccoons, opossums, squirrels, all sorts of turtles (the big soft-shelled ones
were a mainstay of the Seminole's sofkee); alligators, their tails a delicacy,
and some dared to eat the meat of the great serpents, the diamondback
rattlesnakes. Of course, there was beef dried into jerky from the herders'
hardy stocks that had been rounded up from the stray reddish long-legged
and long-horned cattle that had been left by the Spaniards centuries ago.
With so much natural pasturage, these animals had multiplied in such
great numbers that they later became the generative animals for the
region's thriving cattle industry.
Water, water everywhere! A paradise for the many species of frogs:
tiny green damp ones that invaded the households, then going to sleep and
their tiny dried carcasses to be thrown out the next morning. From the
ponds and lagoons came a chorale of these creatures as if a maestro had
given the downbeat; small speckled ones that chirped soprano and tenor,
others that barked and grunted contralto with the jumbo bullfrogs croaking

The Kissimmee Vallev 23

a loud bass, and as if an obbligato to this pond chorus, the bullbats nestled
on the ground or in young cabbage palms monotonously cried "chuck-
Insects, too: moths, butterflies, flying roaches, many varieties of
ants, mosquitoes, it seemed that anything that crawled or flew was there.
The mosquitoes buzzed and bit but were not disease bearing. This was not
an unhealthful malarial region but one where the water was pure and
free-flowing and naturally filtered.
Snakes and snakes! The largest serpent in the United States, the
diamondback rattler; an aggressive reptile, it could swim.and climb trees;
preferred high ground where the palmettoes were thickest, crawled in the
spring and copulated en masse, and its bite deadly, destroying the nervous
system of a human being-in a short time. And there was the small ground
rattler or pygmy rattler, a hog-nosed viper that often crawled into houses;
its bite would kill a dog or a young child and make a grown-up suffer much
pain, a nuisance snake. More deadly than the rattlers were the cotton-
mouth moccasins whose bite rotted the flesh. They liked to lie in slimy
piles on the receding margins of water where dead fish were plentiful and,
with their great white-lined mouths agape, snatched the dying fish. But the
deadliest of them all was the pretty little coral snake whose bite was equal
to that of the cobra. It had another pretty harmless imitator, a colorful little
ringed grass snake that oftentimes lured children not knowing the differ-
ence. However, there were many snakes friendly to man: the ubiquitous
black snake, which ate other snakes and rattlers and took to gopher holes
(the homes of the big crusty land tortoises) when they crawled in their,
territory; the bright blue indigo snakes and the bull snakes (king snake), to
mention two others friendly to man. One of the strangest snakes in the
world was the water snake that clung upside down to the growth that stood
in water, and had eyes in its head where it could see up.There were slender
light-colored serpents that, like the rattlers, moccasins, and coral snakes,
were not killed by the Indians but were avoided, and it was their advice
that it was best just to leave all snakes alone when one encountered them.
Here was an Eden where diverse souls lived in harmony and peace
with each other as well with its flora and fauna. Even the lithe tawny
panthers emerged now and then from the recesses of the cypress heads to
kill a deer within sight of a human being.
No doctor had penetrated the valley carrying his little black bag; the
whites depended on a "healing woman" who was called as a midwife if a
difficult birth occurred, which was seldom; the Indians had their medicine
man; the nomadic whites never learned to need any healer. There was no


preacher to tell them they were in perdition of their souls; and no teacher to
make them aware of educational and social adjustments. They lived and
let live.
There were the Seminoles General Zachary Taylor thought he had
chased into oblivion; and the soldier deserters he had left behind, some too
trifling for good soldiering but others who saw the opportunity to possess
land and felt that the Mexican War was none of the United States'
business. And others dared to penetrate the fastness of the valley where
they could lose their identities at the present time there are those
accepting names with no records of them beyond the valley. Many of these
obliterated their past and became prosperous herders, citrus growers, and
officials of the new county carved when the legislature in Tallahassee
realized the state's sources of revenue could be enhanced by such moves.
As all isolated societies, these unrelated settlers had lived and shared
their insulated world in common: there were those who had gathered their
herds of cattle, built sturdy square pioneer houses and welcomed the little
side-wheeler on its unpredictable journey from Kissimmee down the
meandering river -one became an entrepreneur and built a log structure
for his store, trading deer skins, raccoon and alligator hides for barrels of
flour, sugar, coffee, and other commodities the little riverboat could bring.
These herders became the nucleus of a firmer social organization in
the region. Although not converted themselves, they did not resist the
Methodist and Baptist missionaries who came after Flagler's railroad spur
penetrated their world church missions and small schools for their
children were welcomed. But there were other whites with pure Anglo-
Saxon names, probably descendants of military deserters either from
Taylor or who might have been from General Oglethorpe's motley band.
These "river rats," as they were called by the more respectable settlers,
were impervious to any civilizing efforts, even the missionaries left them
up to the Lord. But the third group, the Seminoles, lived in peace with
their neighbors although they, like the more prosperous herders, looked
down on the roving band of whites. But they, too, interrelated to their clans
the religious practices, beliefs, and folkways of their people. Totemistic,
this showed in their work, worship, and amusements. In this world where
they had been cruelly driven, they found existence convenient, minding
their own culture and not in the least perturbed that a new century for the
world had begun.
Whiskey was essential to these valley people. It was their medicine
and anodyne when they needed something beyond their folk remedies.
There were those who had fled Georgia who knew how to distill it. They
went to the outside world on the little riverboat and bought copper

The Kissimmee Valley 25

cookers, distilling equipment, and stoneware jugs, set themselves up in
business in the palmettoes, and had no fears where there were no re-
venuers to descend on their operations. There were plenty of lighter knots
to keep the kettles boiling furiously as whiskey mash is supposed to cook.
Oak chips had to be substituted for hickory chips used back in Georgia,
and by the time the liquid was poured into the jugs it was a two-hundred-
proof concoction snake bites and labor pains yielded to its potency.
Somebody among the whiskey makers evidently was from Louisiana, for
it was called "Packin' ham." These were moonshiners but not bootleg-
gers, a term they were not to hear until sometime after J. Andrew Volstead
went to Congress and passed his act in 1919.
Outside of a shooting now and then, usually for good reasons, there
was no crime of consequence in this isolated valley, and no formal legal
justice was necessary. If one transgressed the unwritten code of mores and
manners, he was quickly dispatched to the bottom of the river and
forgotten. Verbal agreements were honored but not over handshakes, a
custom not yet practiced by these independent folk, a "yep" or a"no" was
sufficient, and if reneged, the fellow was treated as a pariah. Men were
much like desert chieftans who had a peculiar comradeship at their
cowcamps and on the long drovin's to Punta Rassa; they spent much time
away from their homes and families. They were men of hearty appetites,
good digestions, and sexual prowess but in general were faithful to their
wives. They sat straight in their saddles, cracking their long hide whips,
shooting their guns accurately, and could hold the strong whiskey they
drank. But there were times when they left the woods and gathered their
clans for barbeques, fish fries, and frolics, at the latter not missing a figure
when the caller announced it.
Other riverboats began to ply the river and each trip brought more
outsiders, but they still were those who appreciated the lack of inquisitive-
ness of those already in the valley, and they did not offer any information
about themselves. The tenor of the valley folk was to accept them as long
as they did not transgress the simple rules of the region. At the time, there
was room for everybody.
And there was communal concern for everyone when the hurricanes
blew in, and for the river rats, too, whose flimsy palmetto shacks were
flattened when they returned to them. Although wet and looking much
like their nickname, they were safe, having taken refuge on the high
ground in the dense hammocks. They soon dried themselves by an open
fire, not even surveying their flattened shacks. They set about cooking
food on the same fire and with bare hands scooped fish from the river's
fresh ponds from beneath the pickerel weeds and duck weeds, cut young


cabbage trees to strip for their "swamp cabbage" and munched on the ripe
guavas littered on the ground (a fruit richer in vitamin C than even the wild
sour oranges and lemons and the pawpaws the oranges and lemons
growing from seeds the Spanish had brought). Boisterously they ate and
talked loudly, mostly in monosyllables, and had a jolly time selecting
cast-off clothing brought to them from the prosperous herders' house-
The Indians, too, had survived, huddling on the high platforms of
their sturdy chickees, they had managed to save their precious fire, and
gathered fresh wood for it that they placed under the big sofkee pot in the
shape of a swastika, a good luck symbol old as time. Soon the braves were
off on a great hunt leaving their women, children, and shamans behind to
the endless chores of their village life.
The herders, too, had come through pretty well unscathed. Their
houses were crude pioneer dwellings but were built of heart pine and
handpegged with wooden nails. A few drowned chickens and a flooded
garden was about all of the damage, and soon hens would be setting again
and gardens replanted to grow without much attention in the rich soil and
plenty of sunshine. Besides, it was guava jelly time with all of the smelly
fruit on the ground that would become deliciously fragrant as jelly.
In most of the households a new baby was on its way, but the men had
to leave their wives to manage as best they could (most of them did very
well), going to their camps in the woods, for there would be many of their
cattle marooned on the islands in the river although the beasts could
swim, most would stay on them dumbly to starve until they could be
driven off. New calves would have to be rounded up and branded. The
echoluccos (Seminole, echo for deer, lucco for big), small but quick
delicate-looking cow ponies, descendants, too, of the Spanish horses,
would also have to be rounded up and the wranglers' job among the cow
pokes was to break them into fast cutting animals for the big spring
When the river's waters began to recede and the myriad birds sang or
made their usual sounds again, when the animals again came out of their
lairs to prowl and hunt, and when the deer, cattle, and horses grazed
peacefully on the lush grassy meadows, the big howling 'cane with its
deluge of rain was forgotten. The men returned from their cow camps and
the big communal cowpens now were empty. They greeted their wives
with little ceremony but smiled at the wail of a new born and were glad to
hang up their guns for awhile and store their branding irons in the lean-tos
of their houses. There came an expectant glow on all of the faces, even on
the immobile expressions of the Seminole, for any day now there would

The Kissimmee Valley 27

come the most welcomed noise in the valley the toot of the riverboat
coming around the bend.

At the present time there are no riverboats coming down the once
wild and wandering river, but raw sewage is flowing down a huge ditch
that drains it from all the development in Central Florida. The river has
been "straightened" by engineers who knew how to do it. The "braids" are
no longer there, nor are the undisciplined margins and the natural water-
sheds which have been blocked by more of man's engineering. Most of the
lush marshes where the myriad birds, turtles, alligators, and frogs reigned
are gone, lost forever. The pioneer cowman has been replaced by the
graduate of an agricultural school rancher who fences his land and keeps
careful records on his herd and pays a veterinarian a monthly stipend to
keep the animals free of disease, to be sold at auction pens brought in by
truck and hauled away in great trucks of the packing houses.
Big landholding companies bought up the land cheaply and sold it
dearly. The developer has made subdivisions, well ditched and dyked,
with ultra-modern homes built on them.
The water level of the huge but shallow Lake Okeechobee, its drain
which once fed the River of Grass the lifeblood of the unique Everglades
- is now artificially controlled, and not as well by man as it had been by
Nature. Great fires bum the rich peat created by centuries of matted
vegetation and droughts are far more to dread than floods. And the water
of the big lake that once was so pure it could be drunk without treatment is
now polluted, and the southern tip of Florida that depends on it for its
water supply worries about it and the fact that the water table could
become so low that salt water will seep in in some places it has already -
and deprive them of fresh water.
The flora and fauna, formerly so rich and interesting, have been
affected. The bears are decimated; the panther is gone; and many of the
birds are extinct such as the handsome Everglades kite, the ivory-billed
woodpecker, and only a few of the stunningly beautiful roseate spoonbills
are left, as well as the majestic bald eagle in spite of the efforts of the
Audubon Society and their supporters.
When the first commercial fishermen descended on the region of the
big lake (Booth Fisheries of Chicago was one who came in with a
million-dollar-a-year business, besides other fisheries), they were wel-
comed because there were too many fish in the lake. Silurids were shipped
to northern cities by the hundreds of barrels and the industry brought the
first ice plant into the region. The bad blood that later developed with the
commercial fishermen and the sports fishermen had no reason for this


argument then. But now the sports fishermen, who in the main won it, say
that they have to go farther and farther and to deeper water to catch the
famous big-mouth bass and the perches.
But Florida just north of the once strange and beautiful valley and the
big lake is the entertainment capital of the land (the once golden lower
East coast has been tarnished by this fact)! And there are sprawling
expensive energy-consuming houses in the carefully laid-out develop-
ments, but these do not stand to the fury of the hurricanes as well as the
rude, square heart pine houses of the pioneers. These are no more, and few

A Letter by Dr. Henry Perrine

Under headlines, "Written in 1840" and "An Interesting Letter from
Indian Key by Dr. Perrine," the following appeared in the Miami Met-
ropolis, May 4,1900:

By the courtesy of Mr. Henry E. Perrine the Metropolis is enabled
to publish the following letter written by his father, Henry Perrine,
only three weeks before the massacre at Indian Key. This letter is
exceedingly interesting from a local and from a historical point of
view. The elder Perrine was an enthusiast in regard to the pos-
sibilities of South Florida, and, no doubt if he had lived, its de-
velopment and growth would not have been delayed for over half a
century. Mr. Perrine says that: "Boy as I was, I well remember the
silk worms and their cocoons which were produced under my
mother's care. Many of the cocoons attached to specimens of the
sea feather were sent, after destroying their vitality by heat, to the
Patent office in Washington, where they were placed, with many
specimens of valuable woods and other productions of South
Florida, in a glass case, all of which were destroyed by a fire which
occurred in that office some years later. You will notice by this letter
that he had in view locating a little east of Cape Florida. [Editor's
note: apparently an error and Cape Sable was intended.] He did not
realize the overflow from the Everglades upon the prairies, and
after his death a new location for us was made at the hunting
grounds by our then agent." Here is the letter, which is numbered 2:

Indian Key, S. E,
17th July, 1840

Dr. Ralph Glover,
No. 2, Ann Street, New York.

Dear Sir: Without an answer to my No. I of the 18th, ulto., I
again address you. Mr. Somarindyck will be the bearer of this
letter, and he will communicate to you many circumstances of great


importance for the speedy settlement of the Florida Keys, and the
subsequent expulsion of the Murderous Savages. First and
foremost I wish to encourage the private school first established by
the native Bahamans at Key Vacas. The editor of the Cultivator at
Albany advertises a deduction of thirty-three and a third percent on
the subscription price of ten copies taken for schools. The agent for
the Cultivator in your city I believe is an officer of the American
Institute. At all events you can easily execute the commission of
paying $6.66 2/3 for ten copies of the Cultivator during the year
1840. The back numbers can all be enclosed in one package and
transmitted to Mr. Howe by vessels via Charleston or Key West.
The subsequent numbers should be sent as usual by mail, but
directly to Chas. Howe, P.M., at Indian Key, for the Bahaman
school at Key Vacas. The people of Key Vacas have petitioned for a
post office at that village and H. L. Ellsworth, the Commissioner of
the Patent Office, writes me that he shall endeavor to have [it]
established as soon as possible. When the mail packet shall stop at
Key vacas, then the Cultivator should be directed to the postmaster
of Key Vacas for the Bahaman school.

As I sent you an order on Wm. Bard for ten dollars, with
requests to expend two dollars for carboned paper and the Female
Advocate, the balance of eight dollars will afford the $6.66 2/3 for
the copies of the Cultivator.

I see in the papers of the operations of the Daguerrotype and
also of a process by which the pictures can be immediately repro-
duced as from a lithographic stone. For God's sake collect and
transmit all the information you can get on these subjects both to my
brother in Princeton and to me at Indian Key. Durant, the balloon
man, or Chilton, the young chemist, will likely know everything
already known on these subjects. Somarindyck's samples of silks,
cocoons and silky cotton should excite much notice in the news-
papers of the agricultural value of the Florida Keys. Drop a line to
Durant and request him in my name to visit the samples and advise
the best disposal of them for public purposes. Durant has always
preached and published the only true doctrine concerning silk
culture in the United States, and he will be greatly gratified by these
ocular demonstrations of the superlative superiority of South
Florida for the perpetual production of raw silk and of Silky Cotton!

I have six bushels of select seed of the best Sea Island Cotton
for gratuitous distribution to all persons who will plant them the
present year in South Florida. Three of the notables at Key Vacas
have each commenced with a dozen plants of Manilla Mulberry,
furnished by Mr. Howe, and with a pint of Sea Island cotton seeds

A Letter by Dr. Henry Perrine 31

furnished by myself. I am also to advance money to all who will
import for themselves the best plants from the Bahamas the present
summer. By the by, you have seen that I have not even drawn
one-sixth of the interest of my N.O. bonds due the 2nd May, 1839. I1
presume Bard has also received the interest due the 2nd May last.
Now, although I fear I shall not be able to expend the interest this
summer, yet hope for opportunities every month. I desire to ascer-
tain at what price one bond could be now sold by Mr. Bard, the
capital to remain in deposit with the previous interest. You under-
stand what I want done better than I can express myself. I want say
from a thousand to twelve hundred dollars constantly ready to be
drawn in small sums at any moment when it will be most servicable
to my operations here, the modus operandi I am not business man
enough to explain.

18th. By the newspapers of New York I perceive that 30,000
Multicaulus, at auction in your city, could not be sold at twenty-five
dollars for the whole, or at less that $1 per 1,000 trees! Indeed, I am
told they cannot even be given away in the northern cities for
planting in the northern states; hence, now is the very time when
they should be planted to the largest extent on the Florida Keys for
bonafide silk culture in South Florida. The yankees, Goodyears,
imported two great boxes of Manilla Mulberries, half of which are
planted on their own improvements on West Metacumbie and the
other half on Lignurd Vetoz.

On the advertising cover of the Cultivator you will see the
means adopted by Mr. Howe and myself to excite the planting of as
many acres as possible during the present year. The next island
westward of West Metacombie is here called Long Key, on the
charts Cayo Viboras or Vipers Key, and is in full sight of Indian
Key. But you were not aware of the fact that there is a prairie of
several hundred acres on the north side of Long Key. Housman
intends to plant it this summer for his own benefit, but of course will
not occupy it, if he undertakes the actual settlement on the main-
land, either under his proffer to Congress or his contract with me.
Now, I suggest for your consideration, the enterprise of planting the
prairie with Morus Multicaulus and sweet potatoes this autumn by
contract. Get any one of ten men to plant by the job one to ten acres
each, even if you have to pay double the price of the actual labor. I
am willing and anxious to get grown, even on public lands, any
valuable plants at double the cost of the same labor in the northern
states. Indeed, I am willing to give two acres of my grant for every
acre on the public lands which shall be planted by any person for his
own benefit during the present year on any island of the Florida
Reef. The more information I acquire concerning my selected site


east of Cape Sable the better I am pleased with the 'location. The
nearest hammock to the opening into the prairie is a beautiful grove
of live oaks. The nearest woods to the eastward along the sea shore
are celebrated among the Bahamans for the quality and quantity of
wild cinnamon trees. You know they have long made money by
shipping and selling the barks. Mr. Howe is also more and more
gratified with our increasing knowledge of the additional advan-
tages of the fortunate location, and before next mail I trust that we
shall have growing in Everbloom Prairie a few plants of every kind
known in the preparatory nursery on West Metacumbie. If Con-
gress should adjourn without subserving the objects of the memo-
rials of the actual residents of Dade county, I trust that such men as
you will get up thousands of similar memorials in your city to be
presented on the first day of next session. Nevertheless emigration
to the Florida Keys should commence in October next, because the
first settlers will have the best selections, and because their previ-
ous settlement will strengthen their claims to the most liberal
compensation by Congress in the grant of lands. I hope that Profes-
sor Raffinesque and the Shaker Society have each adopted my
advice to pray Congress to grant them each one Cape Sable, out of
the three capes at the southwest extreme of the peninsula. Mr.
Howe, myself and our children visited these three prairie capes the
last week in April; we planted M.M. on the northwest cape and the
Middle Cape or Cape of Royal Palms and obtained abundant fresh
water by digging four feet within one hundred and fifty yards of the
sea. The easternmost cape (where the fort was) is called by the
Bahamans the Point of Main, and its projection affords the shelter
against the westwards, which is the only wind that could raise a sea
in the channel along the seashore of Everbloom Prairie. Six to
seven feet of water extends through 12 to 15 miles of this eastern
channel according to the Bahaman turtlers, and one branch runs
close along the prairie seashore. The Bahamans are hence highly
delighted, because, say they, every man can have his own vessel
come up to his own dwelling. But I find that my pen is running
astray; suffice it to say that I shall be among the very first settlers on
the south coast this very summer, and at the very latest period, next

Whether Housman makes his settlement under a congres-
sional act or under my session of 5,000 acres, the month after his
settlement is established I can establish another settlement of native
Bahamans alone.

Give us arms and ammunition, withdraw all U.S. troops from

A Letter by Dr. Henry Perrine 33

South Florida and the actual residents of Key Vacas and Indian Key,
will suffice to protect settlements of small cultivation.

Very respectfully yours,


Bootleggers, Prohibitionists and Police:

The Temperance Movement in Miami,


By Paul S. George*

The literature on Miami during national prohibition (1920-1933) is plenti-
ful, since the "Noble Experiment" failed so spectacularly in the area.
Miami's proximity to the liquor-supplying Bahama Islands, a lengthy
coastline whose numerous coves and inlets delighted liquor smugglers, a
large tourist population which demanded .- and received alcoholic
beverages, and public opposition to prohibition made the city a haven for
bootleg liquor and produced a rich folkore that included ingenious
methods of liquor smuggling, battles on the high seas between "rum
runners" and United States Coast Guard patrols, and saloons operating
with impunity near police headquarters.1
But Miami had experienced difficulty in enforcing its temperance
laws long before this era. Prior to Miami's incorporation in 1896, Julia
Tuttle and the Brickell family, the fledgling city's most prominent
pioneers, envisioned a community free of "malt, vinous, or intoxicating
liquors."2 Therefore, in appropriating to Henry M. Flagler, the communi-
ty's developer, land that comprised its original boundaries, Mrs. Tuttle and
the Brickells stipulated that anti-liquor clauses must appear in the deeds to
each lot sold. These clauses prohibited landowners from "buying, selling,
or manufacturing" alcoholic drink at the risk of having their land revert to
the original owners.
The anti-liquor clauses prompted several entrepreneurs to erect
saloons less than twenty feet north of the city limits in North Miami. Other
attempts were made in 1896 to open saloons within the city limits, but each
was unsuccessful due to the efforts of City Marshal Young E Gray and
Sheriff R. J. Chillingworth, who also arrested many persons for drunken-
ness as well as for selling liquor within the city limits.4
*Dr. George is a director of the Florida Historical Society.

Bootleggers, Prohibitionists and Police 35

Following the death of Julia Tuttle, Miami became "wet,"' because
her son, Harry, the executor of her estate, sold a lot to a prospective saloon
keeper in 1900 without the anti-liquor clause in its deed. Within months of
the transaction a saloon opened on the property; after this action went
uncontested, Harry Tuttle sold other lots without liquor clauses, some of
which became the site of additional saloons:9 By the end of 1910, Miami
contained eight saloons which, according to one pioneer, engaged in "a
thriving business."'
Although the saloon business was brisk, a strong temperance ele-
ment began to surface. At its vanguard were local chapters of the Women's
Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), the Anti-Saloon League, numer-
ous clergymen, and the Miami Metropolis, the city's leading newspaper.
As the prohibitionist forces grew, they prevailed upon the city council for
more stringent liquor laws. Accordingly, the council, enacted a series of
laws prohibiting saloons in residential sections, placed a $500.00 fee on
liquor licenses, limited the hours a bar could operate, and urged vigorous
enforcement of a state law banning the sale of alcohol to Indians.7
Many saloons ignored these strictures due to the inability of the area's
understaffed police to enforce them. Meanwhile, incidents of bootlegging
and drunkenness rose sharply, resulting, according to the Miami Met-
ropolis, in "many men reeling about Miami streets."8 On other occasions
this journal complained of the rowdiness of Miami's saloons and the
practice by many politicians of distributing free alcohol to voters on
election day in return for their support? Joining the Metropolis was the
Anti-Saloon League which, in a resolution to the state legislature in 1907,
complained of the ineffectiveness of the police in upholding the city's
liquor laws and requested assistance in battling the evil.10
Shortly thereafter, the Anti-Saloon League and the WCTU decided
to place the issue of a wet or dry county before voters in a special
local-option election. Held in October, 1907, the contest resulted in a
narrow defeat for the drys"1 The strong showing of the temperance forces,
however, only stiffened their resolve for a dry county.
Accordingly, a second referendum followed two years of intense
campaigning by the prohibitionists. The heart of their strategy centered on
the recruitment of new members. To achieve this goal, temperance ele-
ments, led by the WCTU, launched a series of recruiting drives highlight-
ed by impassioned orators who spoke before large audiences. The high-
point of the campaign occurred in 1908 with the appearance of Carrie
Nation, one of the country's most influential temperance advocates. In
talks before large and enthusiastic audiences, the doughty prohibitionist


charged the police and other officials with accepting bribes from liquor
dealers in exchange for their tacit approval of illegal Sunday liquor sales.12
Carrie Nation reserved her heaviest artillery for County Solicitor H.
Pierre Branning. During one meeting, Branning demanded that the tem-
perance zealot prove her assertion that local authorities were cooperating
with liquor interests. She responded by promptly pulling two bottles of
whiskey from "the mysterious folds of her non-descript dress'" waving
them above her head and crying, "Here is the proof... these bottles were
purchased from North Miami on Sunday.""1 Despite the efforts of Carrie
Nation and others, prohibition forces lost another local-option election in
1909.14 But pressure from temperance supporters on the council and the
police led to new legislation and more effective enforcement of the
drinking laws.
The council passed ordinances which further reduced the operating
hours of saloons, placed additional restrictions on the size of the saloon
district, banned women and children from bar premises, forbade the sale
of alcohol to a drunkard or a person already intoxicated, and called for the
removal of "any screen, or frosted glass or obstruction of any kind which
will prevent persons passing along the street (from) seeing into the
(saloon).15 Furthermore, the council and other municipal officials brought
renewed pressure upon the police for more effective enforcement of these
laws. Later, the lawmakers instructed Police Chief Frank Hardee to
inspect periodically each of Miami's saloons to insure their compliance
with ordinances governing their operation. Chief Hardee and his small
force handled this chore diligently by conducting numerous raids on
establishments selling liquor illegally or on Sundays, after operating
hours, or without a valid license. The Miami Police Department (MPD)
also continued to make numerous arrests for drunkenness.'6
The sheriffs department compiled an even more impressive record
during this period. Upon assuming office in 1908, Sheriff Dan Hardie
vowed to "run down every blind tiger in the county," and in his eight years
as sheriff, Hardie closed numerous blind tigers, while arresting bootleg-
gers, Indians with alcohol and saloon owners operating in violation of the
liquor laws." On several occasions the sheriff closed saloons for repeated
violations of these ordinances. In 1912, the MPD and sheriffs department
engaged in joint campaigns to halt the sale of bootleg liquor. Numerous
arrests followed.18
Meanwhile, temperance continued to attract new supporters. Finally,
in the fall of 1913, prohibitionists narrowly triumphed in a local-option

Bootleggers, Prohibitionists and Police 37

election. Beginning in November, 1913, the sale of intoxicating beverages
was prohibited by law in Dade County."1
Instead of producing an era of sobriety and virtue, as its proponents
had hoped, prohibition produced a flourishing clandestine liquor traffic,
unleashed new forces, notably smuggling and organized crime, and
exacerbated the older evils of bootlegging and moonshining. Con-
sequently, prohibition enforcement became increasingly difficult for the
With all avenues for the legal sale of alcohol closed in the county,
bootleggers received vast supplies of liquor from moonshine stills
throughout south Dade and the Everglades, and from other"wet" areas of
Florida. By 1919, liquor also began flowing into Miami from the
A few bootleggers dominated the local traffic in alcohol. Some
established elaborate organizations that included "runners," agents who
solicited and delivered orders for liquor from restaurants, soda fountains,
bordelloes, fraternal lodges, and hotels.20 By 1918, the police became
convinced that a one-man monopoly controlled bootleg operations in
Miami. Efforts to penetrate such an organization were largely unsuccess-
ful .2
Regardless of who controlled the traffic in bootleg liquor, its quantity
and price rose inexorably. In 1919, a quart of liquor sold for as high as
$10.00, one hundred percent above its price in 191422 Records of police
raids provide some idea of the amount of liquor in Miami at the time. In
one raid in 1919, Sheriff D. W. Moran and two deputies seized 380 quarts
of liquor valued at $4,800.23 In addition, the number of liquor-related
arrests rose tremendously over the pre-prohibition period. Hijackings of
liquor shipments and killings among rival bootleggers were not uncom-
The Miami Police Department, the sheriffs office, a district consta-
ble, several prohibition groups, and, by 1918, federal agents, worked
diligently to counter the flagrant disregard of prohibition in South Florida.
There was some cooperation among the various agencies in the effort,
especially between the MPD and the sheriffs department. Both depart-
ments assigned several men exclusively to a liquor detail. Some served in
an undercover capacity at the Florida East Coast railroad depot, package
express office, post office, and the city docks searching for persons or
vehicles carrying liquor. Patrolmen in Colored Town, downtown, and
other parts of Miami were assigned to liquor surveillance as part of their


general duties. Some policemen, particularly in the black community,
employed "spotters," persons who bought liquor from bootleggers and
subsequently identified them to the legal authorities. Raids on moonshine
stills and speakeasies or clandestine saloons provided a conspicuous
display of police activity.2?
Aside from several incidents involving drunken policemen, the
MPD and sheriffs department performed competently. Numerous raids,
arrests, and the confiscation of prodigious quantities of liquor drew praise
from the press and grand juries? However, the extent of the assignment,
limited resources, and a reluctant population handicapped police efforts.
Accordingly, the traffic in liquor increased significantly. The Miami
Herald noted, in 1917, that despite hundreds of arrests, the police "have
barely scratched the surface" of the traffic in bootleg liquor.!7 The paper
observed that "the clandestine traffic in illicit liquor has grown to such
proportions in the city and county in the last two years that it reveals a
revolting state of affairs."'2
Legal technicalities complicated the task of prohibition enforce-
ment. Several enterprising saloon keepers noted the failure of the prohibi-
tion statute to define the quantity of alcohol necessary to constitute an
"intoxicating beverage," and opened "emporiums" offering "near beer," a
light malt liquor which tasted similar to beer but contained less than two
percent alcohol. Miami Police Chief William Whitman, Sheriff Hardie
and their successors tried at length to close the city's near beer saloons?"
These officials believed that by serving alcoholic beverages, near beer
saloons represented a direct violation of prohibition, and that they af-
forded a logical outlet for bootleg liquor. Under strong pressure from
Whitman and others, the council, between 1915 and 1917, attempted to
legislate near beer saloons out of existence by charging an exorbitant price
for an operating license.?3 But the city's Municipal Court declared the
ordinance unconstitutional, maintaining that it imposed a "prohibitive"
cost on a business whose major product had not been proven to the court's
satisfaction to be intoxicating and thus in violation of the dry law."
Finally, in 1917, with strong pressure from Dade and other dry counties, the
state legislature outlawed the sale of all beverages containing over one-
half of one percent of alcohol, thereby eliminating the problem of near
To a lesser degree the widespread use of Jamaica Ginger, a nostrum
for colds with a high alcoholic content, also presented the police with
serious problems during the early years of prohibition. Since Jamaica
Ginger could be obtained easily and cheaply at drug stores, its

Bootleggers, Prohibitionists and Police 39

popularity grew. In 1916, Police Chief Whitman and the city attorney
discovered an old ordinance outlawing the sale of Jamaica Ginger without
a physician's prescription. Stringent police enforcement of the ordinance
thereafter eliminated the medicine's availability as an intoxicant?.33
The presence of thousands of servicemen in the area in 1917 and 1918
further complicated prohibition enforcement. Bootleggers brazenly sold
liquor near the entrance to the naval air station and other military facilities.
Drunkenness among servicemen became so prevalent that one naval
officer warned city officials that all base leaves would be curtailed if the
police did not halt the sale of liquor to his men. Evacuation of the military
camps at the close of the war ended the problem.34
New problems arose, however, as the Bahamian trade soon began in
earnest, pouring millions of gallons of liquor into Miami and South
Florida in the 1920s, and turning the area into one of the chief purveyors of
drink for a thirsty nation. If Miami can be said to have disregarded
prohibition in its local phase, then it can only be characterized as having
flouted it during the era of the "Noble Experiment." But the precedent had
been established in the earlier period. Moreover, many of the methods
employed by bootleggers during local prohibition carried over into the
Prohibition contributed to Miami's emergence as a center for or-
ganized crime. The gangster element which was drawn to the city by the
prospect of great fortunes through the illicit traffic in liquor remained after
the repeal of prohibition, shifting to gambling and prostitution and to
legitimate enterprises such as real estate and the hotel industry. Not
surprisingly, Miami acquired a reputation as a "wide open" city, an image
far removed from the visions of its founders.



1. Patricia Buchanan, "Miami's Bootleg Boom," Tequesta, Volume 30 (1970);
James Carter, "Florida and Rumrunning during National Prohibition," unpublished
Master's thesis, Florida State University, 1965, pp. 4-8; 14-15; 29; 52; Walton Green,
"Loose Islands and Lax Courts," Saturday Evening Post, October 2, 1926, p. 110; Henry
Reno and Stephen Trumbull," Rum Made Many a Miami Fortune," Miami Herald, April
26, 1960; Frederic Van de Water, "Pirates: Bootlegging in the Bahamas;' Saturday
Evening Post, March 8, 1924, pp. 8-9; 159-162.
2. Ruby Carson, "Miami: 1896-1900," Tequesta 16 (1956): 16; Isador Cohen,
Historical Sketches and Sidelights of Miami (Miami, 1925), p. 57; John Kofoed, The
Florida Storv (New York, 1960), p. 30; John Kofoed, Mooon Over Miami (New York,
1955), p. 200; Miami Metropolis, May 15, 1896, p. 1; June 12,1896, p. 4; July 10, 1896, p.
1; Helen Muir, Miami U.S.A. (New York, 1953), pp. 68,177.
3. Muir, Miami, p. 68. The lone exception to this stricture was Henry Flagler, who
received permission from Tuttle and the Brickells to operate a saloon in the Royal Palm
Hotel during the tourist season.
4. Muir, Miami, pp. 80-81; John Sewell, Memoirs and History of Miami, Florida
(Miami, 1933), p. 141; Miami Metropolis, July 10, 1896, p. 4; September 4, 1896, p. 5,
One person even opened a saloon on a houseboat on the Miami River at the foot of
Avenue D, the original thoroughfare.
5. Muir, Miami, pp. 80-81, 83; Sewell, Memoirs, pp. 141-142. On another occa-
sion,Tuttle leased his deceased mother's home to a gambler. Shortly thereafter, it became
a thriving gambling club!
6. Cohen, Historical Sketches, p. 27; Daily Miami Metropolis, July 24, 1908, p. 2.
7. Minutes of the City Council. (Hereafter cited as MCC), Volume One, August 6,
1903, p. 321; Volume Two, November 16, 1905, p. 209; November 1, 1906, p. 368;
Volume Three, September 19, 1907, pp. 41-42; Miami Metropolis, August 7, 1903, p. 5.
During the Progressive Era, which occurred in the early years of the twentieth century,
many areas of the country elected to ban the sale and consumption of alcohol. The
prohibition crusade was one of the most prominent reform movements during this
8. Miami Metropolis, May 30, 1902, p. 9
9. Ibid., January 3 1908, p. 2; May 14, 1908, p. 2.
10. Ibid, April 12, 1907, p. 1,
11. Cohen, Historical Sketches, p. 57; Miami Herald, August 20, 1916, p. 2; Daily
Miami Metropolis, September 8, 1908, p. 2; Minutes of the County Commission, October
19, 1907, p. 321.
12. Cohen, Historical Sketches, p. 59; Miami Herald, August 20, 1916, p. 2; Daily
Miami Metropolis, March 7, 1908, p. 1; March 8, 1908, p. 1; March 10, 1908, p. 1. A state
law prohibited the sale of any alcoholic beverages on Sunday.
13. Cohen, Historical Sketches, pp. 59-60; Hanna, Golden Sands, p. 280; Daily
Miami Metropolis, March 10, 1908, p. 1.
14. Cohen, Historical Sketches, p. 57; Daily Miami Metropolis, November 6,
1909, p. 1; November 8, 1909, p. 5.
15. Daily Miami Metropolis, April 3, 1908, p. 1; April 17, 1908, p. 1; June 20, 1908,
p. 1; MCC, Volume Three, April 2, 1908, pp. 208,215-216.
16, DaiS Miami Metropolis, July 24,1908, p. 2.
17. Daily Miami Metropolis, July 12, 1909, p. 1; November 2, 1909, p. 1; July 18,
1910, p. 1; July 26,1911, p. 4; Miami Herald, June 9, 1911, December 21, 1914, p. 6; May
27, 1916, p. 5.

Bootleggers, Prohibitionists and Police 41

"Blind Tiger" was a term used for a place which sold liquor illegally. Sometimes
the term was also used to describe bootleggers.
18. Daily Miami Metropolis, December 20, 1911, p. 1; Miami Herald, January 16,
1912, p. 9.
19. Miami Herald, November 5, 1913, p. 1; Miami Daily Metropolis, October 30,
1913, p. 1; October 31, 1913, p. 1.
20. Miami Herald, April 26,1914, p. 4; December 17, 1918, p. 4; January 1, 1919, p.
1; September 27, 1919, p. 2.
21. Ibid.,January 1, 1919, p. 1.
22. Ibid., March 13, 1919, p. 4.
23. Miami Herald, September 27, 1919, p. 2; Miami Daily Metropolis, September
26, 1919, p. 1.
24. Miami Herald, December 31, 1914, p. 4; January 1, 1919, p. 1; Miami News,
May 14, 1971, p. 30.
25. Miami Herald, January 4, 1914, p. I; June 10, 1914, p. 8; November 12, 1914, p.
8; December 6,1915, p. 8; December 29,1915, p. 5; June 18,1916, p. 8; October 29, 1916,
p. 2; December 21, 1916, p. 4; March 20,1917, p. 8; November 23, 1918, p. I; December
16, 1918, p. 1; July 19, 1919, p. 1.
26. Ibid., January 21, 1916, pp. 4 & 8; June 18, 1916, p. 8; December 21, 1916, p. 4;
December 17, 1918, p. 4.
27. Ibid., April 21, 1917, p. I.
28. Ibid.
29. Ibid., December 21, 1914, p. 6; October 1, 1915, p. 3; January 25, 1916, p. 5.
30. Miami Herald, October 2, 1914, p. 6; January 21, 1916, p. I; January 29, 1916, p.
31. Ibid., January 28, 1916, p. 8.
32. Miami Herald, April 28, 1917, p. 8; Miami Daily Metropolis, July 17, 1917, p. 3.
33. Miami Herald, April 12, 1916, p. 7; April 13, 1916, p. 8; November 10, 1916, p.
34. Ibid., June 9,1918, p. 9; November 27, 1918, p. 1; November 28, 1918, p. 1.

The Dania Indian School,


By Harry A. Kersey, Jr.*
and Mark S. Goldman*

The establishment of the Dania Indian Reservation in 1926 represented the
culmination of governmental and private efforts, traceable over four
decades, to settle the Seminole Indians on land of their own. As early as
1883 the ethnographer Clay MacCauley had noted "The moving lines of
white population are closing in upon land of the Seminole. There is no
further retreat to which they can go."1 Within a year the federal govern-
ment appointed the first in a long succession of Special Agents empow-
ered to acquire land for the Indians in Florida. Unfortunately, no positive
steps were taken immediately due to a paucity of suitable acreage, as well
as Indian refusal to accept government land if proffered. Their semi-
nomadic life style based upon subsistence agriculture at isolated ham-
mock camps, supplemented by hunting, fishing, and trapping throughout
the Everglades region, effectively precluded settling them in one location.
Nevertheless, Dr. Jacob E. Brecht, who served as resident Agent from
1892-99, began to secure parcels of land in what is now Collier and
Hendry counties against the day when the Indians would be forced to a
more sedentary existence.2 Although his efforts to promote schooling and
industrial training for the Seminoles were a failure, the land acquisitions
would figure prominently in the future of the tribe.
In 1911, President William Howard Taft, following the recommenda-
tions of the Indian Service and Seminole advocates in Florida, issued an
Executive Order setting aside over 3,000 acres in Hendry, Martin, and
Brow-rd counties for the Indians? Added to tracts previously purchased,
this made a total of over 26,000 acres of federal trust lands in South
*Dr. Kersey is a professor of education at Florida Atlantic University, co-author,
Mark S. Goldman is a graduate student at Florida State University.

The Dania Indian School 43

Florida. The appointment in 1913 of Agent Lucien A. Spencer, signalled a
renewed effort to get the Seminoles on to reservations.4 The large holding
in Hendry County was fenced, some livestock acquired, and a resident
caretaker hired but the Seminoles refused to move there. They remained
recalcitrant despite the fact that economic conditions were steadily wors-
ening due to the decline of the pelt and hide trade which was the mainstay
of their cash income. Even so, Agent Spencer believed that a few families
would have moved there if funds were available to help them resettle; but
most of the annual appropriations were earmarked for upkeep on the
fences and other facilities, with nothing left over for destitute Seminoles.
Finally, in January of 1926, a number of influential tribal members
proposed that the government close the Hendry County Reservation until
funds could be provided to stock it properly. In the meanwhile, the money
they saved should be diverted to the care of sick and indigent Indians, thus
freeing the younger people to seek employment with farmers and cattle-
men. Moreover, it was argued that some of the older people would never
accept reservation life, and the younger ones would make better progress
living and working away from an all-Indian community. This argument
seemed sound, and Agent Spencer reported that "at a conference in
Washington late in January it was decided to adopt this suggestion of the
Indians. The Hendry County Reservation was ordered closed on June 30,
1926.... the 22,400 acres of grazing lands in Hendry County have been
leased for grazing purposes until needed by the Florida Indians."5 The
land was thus retained, and would provide a valuable nucleus when the
reservation was reactivated and expanded in the 1930s.
With the closing of the Hendry County Reservation attention was
focused on a 360 acre tract in Broward County, lying some four miles west
of the town of Dania, which had been acquired through the Executive
Order of 1911. By this time Florida was in the height of the "Land Boom,"
and Indians along the lower East Coast were being forced from their
traditional camp sites and hunting grounds by land speculators dealing in
even submarginal lands with hopes of turning a quick profit. It was
fortunate for those Seminole families living in the vicinity of Fort Lauder-
dale that this tract was available. The land was dry as the water table had
been lowered by drainage canals, and although it was not as fertile as the
muck lands on either side, the sandy soil was good for citrus. There were
also many large oak trees which enhanced the natural beauty of the
location. The site was accessible by two roads, and with the encourage-
ment of Agent Spencer, Mrs. Frank Stranahan, who was their most trusted
white friend, drove a group of the Seminoles there to see for themselves
that it would be an acceptable place to settle. It was primarily through her


efforts that many of the homeless Indians living on the eastern side of the
Everglades would migrate to the Dania Reservation which opened in
June, 1926.
The new reservation was designated "a camp for sick and indigent
Indians" as certain members of the tribe had suggested. Accordingly, ten
one-room cottages and a small administration building were erected, only
to be demolished by the hurricane of that year. Within nine months the
Dania facilities had been rebuilt and expanded to include ten two-room
Indian cottages; a large administration building with offices and quarters
for two government families; an electric plant; a school building; infir-
mary with bath, laundry, and toilets; and a four-vehicle garage. The
cottages were immediately occupied by the Tommie, Jumper, and Osceola
families, while other Indians occupied squatter's shacks on the property.
Thus from the start it was apparent that the intended use of Dania as a
refuge for sick and indigent Indians from throughout the state was not to
be realized, but in fact had become the home for displaced East Coast
From the outset there had been economic opportunities available to
the Seminoles at the Dania Reservation, as they were guaranteed three
days employment per week at $2.50 for an eight hour day.7 The reserva-
tion was also divided into five-acre plots which the Indians were permitted
to farm with occupancy permits. A resident farmer, John Marshall, who
happened to be Agent Spencer's son-in-law, was available to direct the
agricultural efforts and provide instruction to the Indians, but little land


,. . y

Dania Reservation, ca. 1928. From left: Ten Indian homes; school with
flag pole in front; wash house with double doors.

The Dania Indian School 45

was available for cultivation. With the coming of the Great Depression,
there was a steady influx of Seminole families to the Dania Reservation to
participate in federal employment programs. By 1933 a Civil Works
Administration project had been initiated to upgrade the housing units and
day school facilities. The following year saw the beginning of an Indian
Emergency Conservation Work program to clear the reservation of dead
timber and thick undergrowth so that more land could be used produc-
tively for crops and pasturage. In addition to these efforts, a considerable
amount of clothing and commodities were distributed to destitute Indians
through the Federal Emergency Relief AdministrationP It was soon
apparent that the Dania Reservation had the potential to become a primary
contact point for acculturation and assimilation of the Seminoles employ-
ing the dual devices of wage labor and schooling. The Indians needed
income and readily adapted to the work routine; however, an educational
program was more difficult to sustain.
Schooling for Seminole children was a long-standing goal of Mrs.
Stranahan, who had come to the New River settlement of Fort Lauderdale
in 1899 as the first school teacher. After her marriage to the trader Frank
Stranahan, she would often teach "ABC's" to Seminole youngsters ac-
companying their parents to her husband's store. Later she acquired a
Model-T Ford, and drove to nearby Indian camps to continue the work.
Although her teaching was resented by some of the Indian elders, she was
accepted by most of the Seminoles and became their leading advocate and
staunch friend. With the opening of the reservation, Mrs. Stranahan saw
an opportunity for the Indian children to receive regular exposure to the
classroom, rather than the hit-or-miss efforts of the preceding quarter
century. Agent Spencer, a former Episcopal clergyman, shared her con-
cern that schooling should be strongly emphasized.
In 1927 the first formal school session for Seminole youngsters was
held in the one-room wooden structure near Stirling Road. The first
teacher was an Indian woman, Mrs. Lena King, the wife of a Creek
minister from Oklahoma who was doing missionary work among the
Seminoles. Opening day was not without its complications. "On the
Sunday preceding.. the Agent reported, "a self styled chief of all the
Seminoles, and certain white friends professing great friendship for and
interest in these Indians visited the camp in my absence and impressed
upon the Indians that the children would all have to submit to vaccination
as the first step when school opened. Thereupon all the Indians fled from
the camp except one family and the school opened with but three
pupils."1o Enrollment had risen to eighteen by the end of the year;
however, there were twenty-five desks available, and Agent Spencer was


determined that more Indian children should be receiving schooling. He
had already attempted to persuade additional families in outlying areas to
move to Dania to take advantage of the school and medical facilities.
When he was rebuffed in this effort by some elders, Spencer proved tough
and resourceful; in 1927 he reported: "The Indian Town camp which I was
preparing to move here refused to come on account of the above interfer-
ence, and I promptly cut off their ration supply. At the end of three weeks
of starvation they moved here and placed their children in school.""
In 1928 the Day School opened for a second year with Mrs. John
Marshall, the daughter of Agent Spencer, as teacher. The school under her
care was described in the 1930 Nash Report on the Seminoles made to the
U.S. Senate: "Two sessions were held daily, one in the morning for half a
dozen children and two women; another in the evening for two men who
are eager to learn to read but too old to make much progress. The school
term is six months "12 Nash also gave a frank appraisal of the low
educational status of the tribe at that time: "The net result of all this
education, formal and informal, is perhaps four Seminoles who can carry
on a conversation in fairly fluent English, three who can write an under-
standable though ungrammatical letter and keep simple accounts."13
A new Agent, James L. Glenn, was appointed in 1931 to take the
place of Spencer who had died the previous year while working in the Big
Cypress. Like his predecessor, Glenn was vitally concerned with the
education of Seminole children, and in fact had run an "open door" school
for a few Indian children while he was the Presbyterian minister at the
town of Everglades.14 During his tenure from 1931-35, Agent Glenn
worked diligently to move the Day School from the realm of an "experi-
ment" to an accepted institution at the Dania Reservation. The school term
was increased from six to nine months, the position of the teacher was
raised to civil service status, and the school facilities were greatly ex-
panded with the addition of a kitchen and bathrooms. Nevertheless, there
was a constant struggle to persuade the parents that their children should
attend school. In 1932 he noted that of the 185 school age youngsters in the
tribe only 15, or 8% were receiving any instruction.'5 The enrollment
figures for the decade during which the school operated are deceiving, for
they often included adult Indians; even so, it seems to never have been
greater than twenty in any one year.
Attendance was another matter altogether, and discipline was practi-
cally nonexistent. Glenn noted: "Even those who did attend were so far
removed from this strange system of education that they observed neither
adequate order nor regular schedule... It is not surprising that pupils at
Dania were satisfied if they remained in the classroom for one, two or

The Dania Indian School 47

three hours each day, and were present for two or three days each week.
Nor is it surprising that the student should walk out of the room at any and
every impulse, or should torment the teacher by jumping out of windows
or throwing dirt through the screens. The Seminole genuinely loves to
play pranks on his associates, and this form of play was legitimate fun to
him."16 Moreover, the teacher could not hope to resort to traditional
disciplinary measures as "the local Indian temperament presented a new
problem in school discipline. Punishment in its various forms may be
justified as a last resort among white pupils, but it is the first occasion for
revolt among Seminoles. Kindness and patience are major equipment for
maintaining order within the class room."17
Seminole indifference to schooling and the lack of parental concern
is verified by a Seminole informant who attended the Day School.
Ironically, she would later become the first high school graduate of the
tribe after attending federal boarding school. She reports: "Some of them
[parents] sent their children to school. We weren't forced to go. We could
go if we want to, but we didn't have to go. But once in a while the curiosity
got us so that we would get there. I think we were pretty loud or mean or
something that they didn't know what school life was and we just won't
cooperate, that's all... I remember that they tried to get us to sit down and
teach the books and all that. Of course, our Grandmother told us that we
were not supposed to go to school,... we come and spend a few hours, and
we would just walk out when we feel like it. I went to school all right, but
it is just that I didn't stay long enough to know what it was all about. That's
why I didn't know nothing until I went to [boarding] school on my own.""
Despite these drawbacks the teachers apparently did a good deal
more than instruct just the "Three Rs" at the day school. The Agent wrote
of one teacher, Helena Higgins, "She is engaged in teaching the Indian
children not merely reading and writing, but how to LIVE. She requires
them to bathe from twice to three times per week, to brush their teeth,
comb their hair, wash their hands and faces, clean their finger nails, wear
clean clothes, and show proper regard for others through the social
conventions, to eat a suitable diet, and she binds up their hurts, and
administers proper medicine when ill. She does for them the things a
mother in a white home does for her children."19 For performing this
surrogate role Ms. Higgins received a salary of $1,356 per year.
A problem of a different sort was presented by the heterogeneous
nature of the student body at the school. As Glenn reported, "the ages of
the pupils ranged from five to sixty years. All of these were grouped
together in a single room, and were endeavoring to learn the same simple
things. It is not surprising that neither this institution nor its work has


greatly impressed the white public." Still, he believed that some progress
had been made despite these conditions. "During the past year," he noted,
"there has been approximately fifty pupils who have had some part in the
general program of the school. Many of these were from the rolls of the
Emergency Conservation crew and received only five hours per week in
class room work. But at least these boys have learned to write a card or
send a telegram to the Officer in Charge of the Seminole Agency to ask for
additional employment. Some of the more regular students of the school
can write as legible a hand as the usual college president, and carry on
correspondence with both white and Indian friends, and can read with ease
the usual material of school books."20 If this was an accurate appraisal,
then there indeed had been great progress since Roy Nash's visit in 1930.
One may glean some idea of the Day School curriculum by examin-
ing student report cards from the period which are still extant in the
Seminole community. In addition to the usual elementary subjects such as
reading, arithmetic, English and spelling, the students also received marks
in agriculture, drawing, physiology and hygiene, as well as home
economics in which cooking and general home training were emphasized.
As Glenn described this aspect of the program "To adapt my school to the
immediate, primary, and basic needs of children... I required the teacher
to set up a class in cooking. The Indian Service provides the noon lunches
for all Indian school children. I therefore asked them to cook that food,
and in cooking it to learn not only cooking but sanitation."21 There were
also evaluations of their effort and deportment. The remarks which the
teachers wrote on the cards were generally an appeal for more regular
attendance. It was evidently an accepted idea to "fail" children even in the
lower grades, as "not promoted" also appears on the cards."2 Thus every
aspect of the school was tailored to enforcing conformity to non-Indian
norms of behavior and achievement.
If this was an overly paternalistic system by contemporary standards,
it was certainly acceptable in the social context of half a century ago.
Agents Spencer -and Glenn sincerely believed that the schooling they
fostered would, in the long run, benefit the Seminole people. Moreover,
they were not oblivious to the fact that these Indians had effectively
managed the informal education of children, transmitting a cultural heri-
tage from generation to generation. To them it was simply a matter that
young Indians would be confronted with a rapidly changing world de-
manding skills and knowledge which the traditional tribal enculturational
process could not provide. Still, Glenn hoped that there was some way
that the old and new could co-exist in Seminole life- an unrealizable ideal
espoused by generations of reformers.

The Dania Indian School 49

In his 1934 report the agent perceptively summarized the difficulties
in transitioning from traditional patterns of education to formal schooling:
".. the Seminole Indians of Florida are not opposed to education. In
common with other races they have developed a given system through
which they train their youths for the role of adult life. For study about the
camp fire of the home they are more proficient and industrious than the
members of the white race... Every Indian household has its program of
teaching its children certain fundamental things. Since the vocation of the
race is different to that of more advanced social groups the aims and the
methods of Indian education do not conform to those of the more mature
races. But the Indian believes in training his children. He objects rather to
the strange and complicated system together with the unfamiliar objec-
tives of the public school system. For example he questions the wisdom of
employing a system of marks through which sounds, words, and thoughts
are represented on paper. The white man, through inducing him to sign
legal documents, has utilized the system to rob him. He fears that it is an
instrument of evil. These are his problems of education, and he will think
them through with time. If possible he should have the initiative and
freedom to develop a better system and better objectives than are now
employed in the public schools."23
Despite his general support of Indian education, Glenn had misgiv-
ings about the idea of opening another school in Dade County to serve the
Seminole children there. He believed that it would be a poor substitute for
the Dania school where the reservation children benefitted from constant
association with federal employees an influence which would be lacking
in the Miami region. He also felt this idea was fostered by certain white
elements in Miami opposed to his administration. Nevertheless, an
agreement was worked out between federal officials and the Dade County
School Board to send a teacher into the camps to prepare the children for
schooling, but nothing came of the plan24 Glenn was more enthusiastic
about sending teachers to the Everglades settlements and camps near Lake
Okeechobee, having written "In so far as possible the school should be
taken to Indian camps, and a much wider knowledge of the care of the
home, cooking, and vocational training should be taught. It can best be
taken to the camps by setting up Indian rural schools. Wherever the
children of three or four Indian camps can be grouped into a small school a
teacher should be provided ... The future of the Seminoles, whatever it
may be, is lodged in the plastic nature of these Indian children."23 It was at
best a high-minded but hopelessly impractical and expensive plan given
the economic contingencies of that time.
Agent Glenn would not have to preside over the demise of his


educational aspirations for the Seminole people. In 1935 he was relieved
of his duties as Special Commissioner to the Seminoles. This was due in
part to staffing changes initiated by the new Commissioner of Indian
Affairs, John Collier. Glenn was philosophically at odds with Collier, and
had been a thorn in the side of many Indian Service bureaucrats because of
his position on land acquisitions for the Seminoles in Florida?" Further-
more, he had a number of vocal critics in Florida, and had been portrayed
in a poor manner by the press of Miami.27 One of the first acts of his
successor was to discontinue operation of the Seminole Day School.
Ostensibly, this move was taken as part of a general retrenchment effort by
the Indian Service in light of national economic conditions of the day. In
addition, it was argued that those Seminole youngsters who wanted to
continue their education could do so in the public schools of Dania.
Moreover, their attendance in public schools would accelerate the accultu-
rational process. Such claims must be assessed in light of the transforma-
tion which federal Indian policy was undergoing during that time.
As the Dania Indian School opened in 1927, a major study known as
the Meriam Report was being conducted to review federal Indian policy.28
This report denounced the existing boarding schools for their ineffective
teaching methods, dilapidated facilities, staff cruelties, widespread mal-
nutrition, and harsh disciplinary measures. Government reaction to the
report called for a de-emphasis of the boarding schools, and a push to
replace them with Indian Service day schools, as well as absorbing some
of the Indian students into public education systems2'" These would
remain salient features of federal Indian education policy over the next
three decades
In 1933 the Roosevelt Administration took office as the nation was in
the midst of the worst economic depression in its history. Among the
package of New Deal legislation designed to set the nation on the road to
recovery was the Wheeler-Howard Act of 1934, known as the Indian
Reorganization Act. This was the Keystone of the "Indian New Deal"
which, in the words of Commissioner Collier, gave "tribal organizations
and corporations limited but real power, and authority over their own
affairs, which broadened the educational opportunities for Indians, and
which gave Indians a better chance to enter the Indian service."30 A second
act affecting Indians was the Johnson-O'Malley Act (1934) which allowed
the Indian Service to contract with states for Indian education and welfare
services, rather than having to negotiate with hundreds of individual
districts. While these new laws did not abandon the principle of assimila-
tion as national policy, they did allow for a more gradual process:1
In theory, it appears that the Dania Indian School experience was

The Dania Indian School 51

consistent with federal Indian educational policy during this period. From
the issuance of the Meriam Report in 1928 until the passage of the Indian
Reorganization Act, the school at Dania remained open. During these
years federal authorities apparently took a laissez-faire attitude concern-
ing Indian policy while legislation was pending in the Congress, and the
Florida situation may have profited from benign neglect. After the acts
were passed the school continued to operate for two additional years until
1936, when, still consistent with federal goals, the Dania Indian School
was closed. Unfortunately, in the case of the Seminoles this federal policy
conveniently discounted the lack of parental concern for schooling even
on the reservation, the low state of readiness which the children had for
entering public school, as well as the refusal of the public schools to accept
them. Even Mrs. Stranahan, in a 1930 appearance before a U.S. Senate
committee, admitted that Seminole children were not ready to enter public
schools due to their poor hygiene and lack of academic preparation?2
Despite these obvious barriers to further instruction for the children, the
school remained closed.
In assessing the overall impact of the Dania Indian School it must be
admitted that, when measured in terms of increased academic achieve-
ment for Seminole youngsters, it had minimal results. During the years
that it was in existence the great majority of the Seminole families still had
not accepted the value of schooling for their children, although a few
individuals including some adults, apparently did achieve basic reading
and writing competency. What the school did accomplish was to provide
the catalyst for a few Seminole youngsters who would seriously pursue an
education even after the federal facility was closed. By 1934, Mrs.
Stranaban had organized the nucleus of the "Friends of the Seminoles"
society which would actively support the educational and social develop-
ment of the tribe.33 A number of promising youngsters had been singled
out for assistance, and when they were not accepted by the public school at
Dania, the "Friends" joined with the Indian Service in underwriting their
expenses to attend school at Cherokee, North Carolina. In the fall of 1937
the first group of Seminole youngsters took the long bus trip into the
unknown and forbidding environment of the residential boarding school;
over eight years passed before two of them would become the first high
school graduates of the Seminole Tribe.
Some years later former agent James L. Glenn, having returned to
the clergy, candidly pointed out both the success and personal costs
involved in this policy decision: "The Florida school was an expensive
affair, and in some ways these children learned faster after they were
separated from their people. But it made more difficult the gap between


these educated Seminoles and their own people, and there were a smaller
number of children who would go to school under these conditions."34
Certainly those youngsters who went to Cherokee School were atypical in
their motivation to get an education. Many of them would go on to
become leaders of the Seminole tribe after it became an independent
entity. Even though the federal authorities relented and opened new day
schools on the isolated Big Cypress and Brighton Reservations in 1938-
40, they, too, had great difficulty in gaining parental support and achieving
substantive academic results among the students. The Brighton people
opted to close their day school in 1954, for by that time Seminole
youngsters were accepted in public schools. Only the Big Cypress Reser-
vation still operates an elementary day school under federal auspices.5
The original school building at the Dania Reservation, now renamed
the Hollywood Reservation, has long since been torn down, and its
location is a fading memory for many of the older Indians. No marker
designates the site of the first Indian school in Florida.36 Nevertheless, it
represented a milestone in tribal history as the first time that schooling was
accepted albeit tentatively, suspiciously and somewhat tinged with
coercion by the Seminole people.


1. Clay MacCauley, "The Seminole Indians of Florida," Fifth Annual Report of the
Bureau ofAmerican Ethnology, 1883-84 (Washington, 1887), p. 530.
2. U.S., Congress, House, Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Exec.
Doc. 5, 55th Cong., 2nd Sess., 1897, p. 126.
3. U.S., President, Executive Order No..1379, June 28, 1911.
4. Roy Nash,"Survey of the Seminole Indians of Florida," February 28, 1931,71st
Cong, 3rd Sess., Senate Document No. 314, p. 65.
5. Ibid., 69.
6. U.S., Congress, Senate, Survey of Conditions of the Indians in the United States:
Hearings Before a Sub-Committee of the Committee on Indian Affairs. Part 16, 71st
Cong., 1st Sess., 1930, pp. 7603-7614.
7. Nash, "Survey of the Seminole Indians of Florida," 71.
8. U.S., Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, Annual Report,
Narrative Section 1934. Seminole Agency, Dania, Fla., Prepared by James L. Glenn,
Special Commissioner, p. 11. Mimeographed copy in files of the Fort Lauderdale
Historical Society.
9. August Burghard, Watchie-Estal/Hutrie (The Little White Mother) (Fort Lauder-
dale: The Fort Lauderdale Historical Society, 1968), passim.
10. Nash,"Survey of the Seminole Indians of Florida," 34.
11. Ibid., 72,
12. Ibid., 71.
13. Ibid., 35.

The Dania Indian School 53

14. James L. Glenn,"My Work Among the Florida Seminoles," Typed Manuscript
(Fort Lauderdale; The Fort Lauderdale Historical Society, undated), p. 26.
15, U.S., Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, Annual Report,
Narrative Section 1932. Seminole Agency, Dania, Fla., Prepared by James L. Glenn,
Special Commissioner, p. 6. Mimeographed copy in files of the Fort Lauderdale
Historical Society.
16. U.S., Department of the Interior, Annual Report, Narrative Section 1934, pp.
17. Ibid., 11.
18. Harry A. Kersey, Jr., "Educating the Seminole Indians of Florida, 1879-1970;'
Florida Historical Quarterly, XL (July, 1970), 27.
19. James L. Glenn, "The Saga of the Florida Indians;' Typed Manuscript (Fort
Lauderdale: The Fort Lauderdale Historical Society, Undated), p. 370.
20. U.S., Department of the Interior, Annual Report, Narrative Section 1934, p. 11.
21. James L. Glenn, "My Work Among the Florida Seminoles," p. 26.
22. U.S. Indian Service, Seminole Day School, Dania, Florida Report Card, 1935.
In possession of the authors.
23. U.S., Department of the Interior, Annual Report, Narrative Section 1934, pp.
24. U.S., Department of the Interior, Annual Report, Narrative Section 1932, p. 6.
25. U.S., Department of the Interior, Annual Report, Narrative Section 1932, p. 6.
26. James L. Glenn, "My Work Among the Florida Seminoles," pp. 50-52 and
27. Cecil R. Warren, Florida's Seminoles (Miami: Miami Daily News, 1934). This
pamphlet was a compilation of a series of articles which had appeared in the Miami Daily
News during 1934. Much oftheircontent was highly uncomplimentary to Agent Glenn.
28. Kenenth R. Phillip, John Collier's Crusade fobr Indian Reform, 1920-1954
(Tucson: Univerity of Arizona Press, 1977), pp. 90-91.
29. Institute for Government Research, The Problems of Indian Administration
(Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1928), pp. 32-37. The report was named for its chief
researcher, Lewis Meriam.
30. U.S., Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, Annual Report to the
Commissioner ofl. i .-i, .. :. *. the Secretary of the Department ofthe Interior, for the
Fiscal Year Ended 30 June 1934 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1935), p. 91.
31. U.S., Congress, Report on Indian Education, p. 49,
32. U.S., Congress, Senate, Survey of Conditions of the Indians in the United
States, pp. 7613-7614.
33. Harry A. Kersey, Jr. and Rochelle Kushin, "Ivy Stranahan and the'Friends of
the Seminoles; 1899-1971," (Broward Legacy, I October, 1976), pp. 8-10.
34. James L. Glenn, "My Work Among the Florida Seminoles,' p. 27.
35. Harry A. Kersey, Jr.,"The Ahfachkee Day School" Teachers College Record,
LXXII (September, 1970). pp. 93-103.
36. Some may dispute the point that this was the first Indian school in the state,
citing the instructional program initiated by Lt. Richard H. Pratt at Fort Marion, St.
Augustine in the 1870s. However, that was primarily a program for adult Indians brought
there from the West as prisoners. Richard H. Pratt Baithfield and Classroom. Robert
Utley (Ed.) (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1964). Also: OmegaG. East,"Apache Idians
in Fort Marion, 1886-1887," El Escribano (St. Augustine Historical Society), January
1969, 11-27; April 1969, 3-23; July 1969, 4-23; October 1969,20-38.

The West Palm Beach

that I Remember

By Gordon L. Williams*

We arrived in West Palm Beach on the evening train from Key West on
September 23, 1918, sixty-one years ago. We were met by Mr. Steen, a
realtor, who took us in his big Studebaker to the Dixie Inn, a remodeled
residence on the west side of the Dixie Highway, facing the Palm Beach
County Courthouse and only two or three blocks from the railroad station.
During the previous several days we had ridden the Cuba Central Railroad
the length of that island, spent a couple of nights in a Havana hotel,
crossed the Florida Straits on the deck of the railroad-car ferry, spent a
night in Key West, and ridden Flagler's famous Oversea Railroad to West
Palm Beach.
We were a family of seven. Our parents, Mr. and Mrs. N.K.
Williams, had met in Nebraska shortly after the Spanish American War,
were married in Cuba and continued to live there. Five of us children were
born there: Elizabeth, Gordon, Vera, Kenneth and Robert, and in 1918 we
ranged in age from ten years to one year. By the time I finished high school
nine years later there were four more children: John, Mary, Richard and
Esther. In returning to the States to live, my father chose Florida, to have a
climate as much like Cuba's as possible, and West Palm Beach because it
had been recommended by Mr. and Mrs. Hose, whom we knew in
LaGloria, Cuba. West Palm Beach was truly a nice place to live and rear a
family. The Hoses, who later returned to West Palm Beach, had put my
father in contact with Mr. Steen. Later Mr. Steen's son, Probert, was a
schoolmate of mine at both West Palm Beach and Gainesville. The
daughter, Mittie Steen, was a few years older.

*Mr. Williams is a retired engineer now living in Miami.

The West Palm Beach that I Remember 55

Mr. Steen had a furnished house awaiting us at 424 Fern Street,
midway between Poinsettia (Dixie Highway) and the FEC tracks. That
part of West Palm Beach had been settled in the 1890s when the railroad
came. The house was not new but it had lights, running water and inside
facilities and seemed very modern to us. Few landlords today would rent a
furnished house to so large a family for a month-at-a-time.
Our first day there we contacted Dr. Freeman, an osteopath, for my
mother whose back trouble was the principal reason for leaving Cuba. He
was on Olive Street, near Evernia Street, a short walk from our home. We
also bought a few groceries at Dwight A. Allen's store, on the corner of
Fern and Poinsettia.
Our third day, September 26, and Kenneth's fourth birthday, little
Robert died of diphtheria. Everything had gone wrong. The first doctor
incorrectly diagnosed the case; Dr. Freeman said it was out of his field and
by the time we got to the doctor he recommended, Dr. Ernest Van
Landingham, it was too late. The serum had to be ordered from
Jacksvonille and it took a whole day for it to arrive by train. We were
promptly quarantined for ten days and could not accompany little Robert
to the cemetery where he has lain for three scores of years. Sometimes I
visit the grave where the stone reads "Our Darling Baby." Dr. Van
Landingham innoculated all of us with a newly-developed toxin-antitoxin
and the house had to be fumigated.
We knew nobody in town and did not even have a phone. However,
our neighbors were helpful and Mr. Allen sent over groceries as we
needed them. We children played in the sand, which looked white but was
far from clean, and braided palm leaves for those ten days. By the time we
were out of quarantine the influenza epidemic of World War I had hit West
Palm Beach and schools and theaters were closed and public gatherings
discouraged. Fortunately the epidemic did not hit West Palm Beach very
One day our father took us for a walk around town. We went down by
the new city dock on the shore of Lake Worth near the end of Datura
Street, where farm produce and fish were being unloaded. At that time the
lake and its connecting East Coast Canal constituted a major artery of
commerce. While we were walking around galking, I volunteered to guide
us home, but soon became lost. Elizabeth, who would be in the 6th grade
when school reopened, was interested in reading the well-marked street
signs a new phenomenon to us. When we crossed Fern Street she knew
the way home, embarrassing this unobservant volunteer guide.
In time, we discovered what a well-named system of streets West
Palm Beach had sub-tropical plants in alphabetical order, as follows:


East and West (working South)

Diagonals by the park

A- Althea L- Lemon
B -Banyan M-Myrtle
C Clematis North and South (working west)
D -Datura N-Narcissus
E Evernia 0 Olive
F Fern P Poinsettia (Dixie Highway)
G Gardenia Q Railroad No Name
H Hibiscus R Rosemary
I Iris S-Sapodilla
J-Jessamine T-Tamarin
K Okeechobee Road
North of Althea came the Avenues, 1st. Ave., 2nd. Ave., 3rd. Ave., etc.

As the years have gone by, politicians have shown great progress by
changing some of these names. Politicians throughout the world do this-
witness Istanbul, Stalingrad, Dominican Republic, Mt. McKinley,
Hoover Dam, Cape Kennedy, etc. In this case, one of the early changes
was to clean up Banyan Street, which had become quite a red-light
district, by merely eliminating it from the map -great progress. Banyan
now became 1st. Street, Althea became 2nd. Street, and all of the num-
bered streets to the north had their identifying numbers increased by two.
Other street names have had similar alterations. So, while West Palm
Beach had an orderly street-name system at the turn of the century, by
1979 its growth and changes give it a hodgepodge system that's beyond
Another change in name was West Palm Beach, itself. It was origi-
nally called Lake Worth, which would be a logical name for the settlement
that sprang up where the railroad reached Lake Worth. The railroad then
terminated across the lake at Palm Beach, which got its name from the
many coconut palms that the early settlers had planted there. After a lively
advertising boost by Flagler, the name Palm Beach spread everywhere -
Palm Beach County, West Palm Beach, South Palm Beach (at Southern
Boulevard), North Palm Beach (before reaching Riviera, in those days),
Palm Beach High School, Palm Beach Bank, Palm Beach Mercantile
(The Big Store), Palm Beach Clothing Co., Palm Beach suits, Palm Beach
Dry Goods (later called Hatch's) Palm Beach Post, Palm Beach Times,
Palm Beach Independent, etc. Most all of these names referred to places
or businesses on the West Palm Beach side of Lake Worth. There were
likely others on both sides of the Lake.
Probably our earliest purchase, aside from groceries, was a bicycle.
Our father bought a Columbia woman's bicycle for $20, from Cummings'

The West Palm Beach that I Remember 57

Bicycle Shop on Clematis. That was the going price for a good used
bicycle. A new one was a bit more than twice that. He chose a woman's
bicycle because any of us could ride it, and the females of our family
certainly could not ride a man's bicycle. The next step was to learn to ride
it. Elizabeth and 1, aged 10 and 8, knew a lot about riding horses, but
nothing about bicycles, even though we were older than neighborhood
children who rode everywhere. When we did learn, we spent all day every
day taking turns on that bicycle. We even asked to be called early in the
mornings so we had more time to ride.
At that time, West Palm Beach claimed the distinction of being the
"bicyclingest town in the U.S.A.," and well it might have been. It had
paved streets, flat terrain, and perfect year 'round climate for such riding.
There was one hill, up at Sapodilla Street. We delighted in coasting down
that hill, either on Fern or Gardenia, right across Rosemary. The danger of
hitting a car at those crossings didn't occur to anybody. I presume the cars
were so few, so noisy, and so slow that the danger was minimal. Our
father's first job was at the town of Lake Worth. He thought nothing of
riding a bicycle to work six miles twice a day.
Almost everybody had a bicycle. Sunday afternoon family outings
frequently meant a bicycle ride. If there were insufficient bicycles to go
around, one could easily be borrowed. Groceries, papers, telegrams, mail,
etc. were delivered by bicycle. There were bicycle racks everywhere. For
example, Clematis Avenue had one-lane traffic in each direction, with
space between the lanes to park cars and bicycles. There were about three
or four racks per block, and each rack would hold thirty or forty bicycles -
or wheels, as they were commonly called. Residences often had racks for
three or four wheels in the front yard or up on the front porch, where they
were sheltered overnight. Business houses also had such racks, and school
grounds abounded with them. Bicycles were almost never locked; neither
were houses or cars. Thievery was no problem.
A common form of transportation was walking. Distances were
generally less than a mile, and concrete sidewalks were almost always
available. Even during the Florida Boom, new subdivisions started by
building curbs and sidewalks (many got no further than that). Bicycles
were not allowed on sidewalks, but perambulators and wheeled toys were.
These were similar to our present models except that they had less durable
rubber tires, or none at all.
Some of the older people, especially women, rode tricycles which
were much like the tricycles of today. Two or three older men had
wheelchairs propelled by working two levers forward and backward.
Some chairs not only had these two hand levers but two foot pedals


allowing all four of the occupant's limbs to propel the chair. I once got into
trouble by playing with two of these vehicles that were on the porch of an
older couple who did not answer their doorbell. I was there on an errand
for my mother and when no one answered the bell 1 assumed they were not
at home. They were! Anyway, I learned how the vehicles worked.
There were no riding horses or buggies in West Palm Beach. There
were some wagons, especially for ice delivery. There were horses and
mules outside of town that were used for farming and road work.
There were some automobiles and a few motorcycles, of the types
now seen in museums. There were far, far less than one such vehicle per
family. Perhaps there was one to a block. I presume one-third of them
were Fords (Model T), the rest being of many makes. We had a Brisco that
my parents bought one rainy Saturday night for $300.00 at a used car lot in
Miami. They rode the bus to Miami after work, Saturday noon, and
managed to get back home a few hours before Sunday School. They took
the job mechanic and Dad Felton, who was an experienced motorist, along
to help select the car and to teach my forty-year-old father to drive on the
way home. I think the only other Brisco I ever saw was in a museum near
Rapid City, South Dakota some thirty-five years later. That made two too
Cars were licensed, as a form of taxation, but drivers were not. There
was no compulsory insurance, gasoline tax, parking meters, inspection or
sales tax. About the only rule of the road was to be on the right side of it
when meeting another car. Sometimes, this meant running the right
wheels off of the pavement. There was no stripe down the middle. Many
drivers became "road hogs," by crowding bicycle riders off the road. The
speed limits were twenty-five mph in the country, eighteen in town, and
twelve in the business district. Motorists had to guess at their speed or take
the word of a policeman, as most cars, especially Fords, had no
speedometers. The speedometers that did exist, rarely worked. Forty
miles per hour was the top speed of most cars.
In 1918, there were two or three electric Broughams in West Palm
Beach. These cars were quite plush, glassed-in, and silent, complete with
window shades and flower vases. They were steered by a tiller bar, and
propelled by batteries. They were usually driven by dowager club women.
A time or two, I saw a couple bring their children to school, the
children riding on a home-made frame that was mounted transversely
between their two bicycles. I suspect that contraption became antiquated
in short order!
During Christmas of 1919, our fourth grade teacher, Miss Tillie
Hooker, delegated four boys to get a tree for the class Christmas. We cut

The West Palm Beach that I Remember 59

one down from an undeveloped tract a couple of blocks north of the Court
House, that was a bit too tall for our ten-foot ceiling. We carried it about a
mile through the heart of town along Poinsettia Street, which had only one
lane in each direction, mounted across two bicycles, that we had to walk
and push. As I recall, it gave no traffic problem. We even passed the city
hall at the corner of Datura Street without arousing any policemen.
There were only a few trucks in town. All but the very lightest had
solid rubber tires. I recall one Autocar that had two cylinders, with the
motor under the seat. Another, was the Nash Quad, that was both pulled
and steered with all four wheels. Of course, they had to be cranked, and
the driver was not sheltered from the weather any more than he would be
in a wagon.
About 1926, Palm Beach Creamery bought a fleet of electric trucks
to deliver milk. A silent milk truck surely had appeal, but they were so
heavy that they would frequently get stuck in the sand, and were expen
sive to operate. The electric milk trucks soon disappeared from the streets.
There was also a vehicle known as the Red Bug, a two-passenger,
five-wheeled little vehicle painted red. Its wheels were smaller than
bicycle wheels, four of which carried the vehicle while the fifth, mounted
in the center rear, contained the motor which propelled the vehicle. Two
bucket seats were mounted on a wooden platform only about a foot above
the ground. The controls consisted of a steering wheel linked to the front
wheels, a brake pedal connected to the rear wheels, and a lever in the
middle that would raise the drive wheel, allowing it to spin in the air, thus
serving as a clutch. It surely burned lots of rubber when this motor wheel
was lowered to start the forward motion. Mr. Halsey, the co-founder of
Halsey and Griffith, used to drive one of these Red Bugs to church with
Mrs. Halsey and their two school-aged children, Dorothy and Earl.
Another was used by a bee-keeper, west of Lake Worth, to deliver honey
around West Palm Beach. A third one was bought second-hand for
twenty-five dollars by a couple of about twelve-year-old boys, Carlton
Weir and Fox Bird. These motor wheels were also used to push bicycles
and to carry the rear end of a little scooter. I surely wanted one of these
Tourists liked to ride in bicycle-driven wheel chairs, especially near
the park and other tourist centers. They provided a quiet and comfortable
ride on a sunny winter day. These vehicles had a wicker double seat
between the two front wheels and were propelled by a bicycle-type rear
wheel. They were sometimes called Afro-mobiles because they had
colored operators who were often very jolly and conversant guides.
During the peak of the season, in Palm Beach, there was one


horse-drawn rail car that operated between the Poinciana and Breakers
Hotels. We heard that the Breakers had no formal dining room, however,
except for adult workers and boy caddies, we year-around residents of
West Palm Beach had no way of knowing for sure about conditions in that
lavish vicinity.
In 1918, there was no toll-free transportation link between Palm
Beach and West Palm Beach. The North Bridge, owned and operated by
the FEC Railway, serviced the northern portion of Palm Beach and the
Flagler hotels. The toll for this bridge was five cents for a car and driver
and two cents for passengers, pedestrians, or cyclists. The South Bridge
charged about half that toll, but it was away from the preferred traffic
pattern, and had a grade to climb, because it, was high enough at the
channel for some boats to clear. There was also a ferry, from the City Park
to the Palm Beach Shopping Center, that did quite a business, especially
during rush hours (a term I never heard in those easy-going times). It
operated every twenty minutes, ten minutes each way, and carried people
for five cents, with no charge for a wheel. My mother thought it well
worth the extra three cents to not have to pedal her bicycle across the
bridge. Thus, Palm Beach was both exclusive and somewhat isolated.
During the one month that we lived at 424 Fern Street we survived
the quarantine with no ill effect; our father got an engineering job with the
Lake Worth Drainage District in the town of Lake Worth; we received our
goods from Cuba, enrolled the three older children in school, bought a
house at 609 Fern Street for $2,500 and moved in. Our mother was
receiving regular treatments from Dr. Freeman and was feeling better.
Things were looking up!
Our new house, like the one we had rented, was made of wood.
Nearly all Florida structures at that time were of wood, including the great
Poinciana and Breakers Hotels. Our house had one-and-a-half stories and
one-and-a-half baths. We soon hung out a printed sign that said "ROOMS
FOR LIGHT HOUSEKEEPING" which was a very common practice
during the winter season. It was a long time, however, before I could see
the connection between offering rooms for rent and keeping a lighthouse.
Frame houses, made of Florida pine, were quite satisfactory. They
were much better for cooling off at night than present-day masonry
houses. They also stood up fairly well in hurricanes compared to the
non-reinforced concrete-block buildings that were beginning to appear in
the mid-twenties. They were also easily moved. It was not uncommon to
see a house being pulled along some street by a horse and windlass with
men carrying the round pole rollers from behind the house to place them in
front. They usually traveled five or six blocks per day.

The West Palm Beach that I Remember 61

The big hazard to houses was fire. Our house at 609 Fern Street
burned a few years after we sold it. About 1920, a large portion of Colored
Town, about Banyan and Rosemary Streets, burned down.
One day, about that time, I was in the Ross Grocery store, on the 600
block of Okeechobee Road, being waited on by one of their teenage twin
daughters, Stella or Delia, when somebody rushed in shouting that the
Fulce house, that was located next door, was on fire. It surely went up fast,
being completely gone by the time the hand-cranked fire truck arrived
from Datura and Poinsettia Streets. At that time, we lived in a big house
just a block away, at 623 Jessamine Street, and our father invited the
Fulces to stay with us for a while. Their children were in our classes in
both school and Sunday School, Neighbors were neighborly in those
days, and insurance was not common. The Carpenters Union, of which
Mr. Fulce was a member, rebuilt their house in one day.
One night at about that time, the Dade Lumber Co., located between
Althea, Banyan, Olive, and Poinsettia Streets went up in flames. It was a
very hot fire that scorched several near-by buildings which the firemen
managed to save. The fire whistle sounded many times that night.
The big fire, though, was the burning of the Breakers Hotel in Palm
Beach, early in 1925. At that time we lived on a dairy at Monet, about ten
miles north of town and one quarter mile east of the FEC tracks. The first
we knew of the fire was at supper that night when our milkman casually
mentioned it. Even then, the glow was plainly visible in the evening sky.
Incidentally, I doubt if the Breakers was made of Florida lumber.
Few mills in Florida could turn out lumber of that luxurious quality.
Lumber for the Poinciana Hotel, only a few years earlier, was brought in


The Williams' Jassamine Street House, 1920. Note bicycle rack.


from Jupiter to Juno over the Celestial Railway and then barged to Palm
Beach. This was before the FEC Railway reached Palm Beach. I presume
it came into Jupiter by schooner and that lumber for the Breakers came
from a similar source, but via the East Coast Canal or the FEC Railway.
Besides fires, there were other accidents, some of which were tragic.
About 1922, two airplanes crashed in West Palm Beach. One was a
seaplane from the hangar just north of the west end of the North Bridge.
The pilot had announced his intention of disproving the belief that a
seaplane could not loop-the-loop. He hit a sidewalk a couple of blocks
south of where the Good Samaritan Hospital now stands, and was killed
The other plane belonged to a young couple on their honeymoon.
They came down just a couple of blocks from our house, just west of the
west end of Jessamine Street. The pilot saw some of the early survey flags
for the location of the Seaboard Railway and thought they indicated a
landing field, so he came down in what turned out to be freshly cleared
soft muck. The plane nosed over, only breaking its propeller. In a couple
of days he had a new propeller installed and offered to take one of us boys
up on his test flight for five dollars. Somehow, none of us showed a bit of
interest in that offer. Soon, he and his bride were winging their way on
toward Miami.
Other accidents involved children and automobiles. Kathleen
Thompson, of my grade in school, lost several weeks of school due to such
an accident. About February, 1923, my sister, Vera, was helping me
deliver my Palm Beach Times route, out on Okeechobee Road near the
Military Trail, which was way out of town in those days, and was hit by a
car as she ran across the road. She was one of the early patients in the
Good Samaritan Hospital which was less than a year old at that time. As I
recall, Dr. Peek kept her there about six weeks for a broken leg. My father
paid most of that bill without benefit of any insurance. Mr. Lang, the
driver of the Dodge touring car that hit her, and the Girl Scouts paid for
one week each.
One Sunday that year, Jim McLaren, a boy of thirteen from near old
Juno, stalled his father's old National car on the FEC tracks at Gardenia
Street. He was taking his sisters, Clara and Velma, about 15 and 11, to the
Baptist Church, that was located a block away. As a train came backing
toward them, the girls jumped and ran, but Jim tried to save the car.
Fortunately, he was not hurt, but the car was demolished. They walked on
to church as if such experiences were common.
About that time, Mrs. Carr, the mother of Nelda and Donald Carr,
who were about my age and had been our neighbors on Jessamine Street,

The West Palm Beach that I Remember 63

was killed by a car on Broadway Street, in the new subdivision of
Northwood. My father happened along immediately after the accident,
and helped take her to the hospital. I never learned the fate of her children.
A few years later, Carlos Wilson, a teenager from near Juno, got his
leg crushed when his motorcycle was struck by a gasoline truck. The leg
was permanently damaged, but he received enough compensation to start
an auto-repair garage in Riviera. That venture has been successful over the
I presume a lot of the above car accidents, and many more, can be
laid at the door of poor brakes. Prior to about 1927, no cars had more than
2-wheel brakes& and many were in bad repair. I shudder to think of the
brakes on the home-made school bus that I drove in 1926-27. The public
buses were no better. I recall drivers having to use both hand and
foot-brakes for every routine passenger stop! Quicker stops were impossi-
Probably the worst tragedy of that time occurred early in 1923 when
three Boy Scouts were killed and several others were injured by a
dynamite explosion. About eight Scouts from the Military Trail Troop
were on an over-night hike into the woods west of the Military Trail. In
hiking toward their campsite, they had found a sack with several sticks of
dynamite left by a settler who had been blasting stumps. The boys were all
familiar with this process, and having no fear of the dynamite, took it
along with them. To be sure nobody would stumble over the dynamite
during the night, they hung it in a tree, overhead. The next morning, to
awaken his sleeping companions, one of the boys fired his .22 cal.
revolver into the air! Only one boy was able to go for help, and he had to
crawl. The 3 boys were buried near the southwest corner of the city's
Woodlawn Cemetery, over whose gate was the inscription, "That which is
so universal as death must be a blessing." School was dismissed early that
afternoon so we could all attend the funeral. The only boy of the three that
I knew was Robert Lincoln. We had been particularly close to his step-
mother and her children, Bertha and Earl Humphrey, for some years prior
to her marriage to Mr. Lincoln.
The principal public school of West Palm Beach was the County
School at the west end of Hibiscus Street, on the hill just west of Sapodilla.
It had three main buildings, each having two floors with a full basement
that was just a few steps below ground level. The center building, and
original one, had a tower that extended about three floors above its roof.
Children were not allowed to climb this tower but it was a frequently
broken rule, because the view from there was spectacular, extending clear
to the Atlantic Ocean. After the hurricane of 1928, the tower was taken


down. Both this building and the one to the south were made of concrete
blocks. While these stood the test of that hurricane, many did not. It was
not the custom, at that time, to place reinforcing steel in such walls. Both
this center building and the one to the south of it were in use in 1918. The
north building was first put into use the 1923-24 school year, for only three
high-school grades that year. My sister, Elizabeth, was in its first graduat-
ing class. It was built of hollow tile walls on, probably, a steel frame. That
was common construction during the boom. It had a covered roof-garden
above its second floor. All buildings had lots of natural ventilation and no
heat- as was the South Florida custom at that time. In extreme cool spells,
the school would be closed for 2 or 3 days perhaps a time or two per year.
The corner-stone of the north building laid about 1922 contains the
signatures of all the students present on that particular day.
The center building had an auditorium, but by the mid-20's the school
had outgrown that, so we were marched down to the newly-built Church
of Christ at the northwest comer of Hibiscus and Rosemary, even when
only the basement of that church was usable. By 1927, my graduating
class was permitted to use the new Methodist Church diagonally across
from the Church of Christ for our graduation programs.
In the 1920's, when West Palm Beach was a bare generation old, few
of us and still fewer of our teachers, claimed West Palm Beach to be home.
For example, my 1927 class yearbook, The Royal Palm, lists 101 Seniors
(born about 1909). Of that group, ten claimed West Palm Beach as home,
and nine more were from elsewhere in Florida. One can hardly vouch for
this as an actual record, since some claimed no home at all and John
Nettleton claimed Colorado Springs, while his twin sister, Charlotte,
claimed West Palm Beach! Of that 101, fifty-seven started high school
elsewhere. This included the Class President, William A. McRae, Jr., who
claimed Marianna as his home. He went on to study law at the University
of Florida, and became, in time, a prominent federal judge in Florida.
West Palm Beach was growing rapidly!
Of the teachers, a very few had come there with their parents -
perhaps during the railroad construction days. This would include Miss
Tilly Hooker, Miss Cook and Miss Gates. Miss Hooker had a sister who
substituted for her when school reopened after the 1918 influenza
epidemic. Miss Cook was very proud of being a Florida native and a
graduate of Florida State College for Women. Since she finished before
1920, she was an early student there. The school is now Florida State
University. She was thoroughly exasperated at how little Florida history I
was learning -or have ever learned and here I am now writing a wee bit
of Florida history including a bit about her! Miss Gates had the courage

The West Palm Beach that I Remember 65

to break away from a steady job, about 1920, and start a private school in
Palm Beach. I suspect it is still in operation. Then, there was Mrs. Lyman.
She was among the very early settlers in Palm Beach. She taught me the
fundamentals of arithmetic'equations that led to my becoming an en-
gineer. Her husband ran a bicycle shop on Olive Street, just north of
Clematis, and her son was the architect of several golf courses, including
the one just north of Lake Park, built in 1923. I1 was the water boy during
its construction. Another teacher to whom I'll ever be especially indebted
was Mrs. McWilliams, who taught me Algebra and English. The former
was basic to becoming an engineer and the latter helped for promotions in
that profession. She hailed from the West, and was the mother of Denver
and Mary Elizabeth McWilliams.
A disturbing factor in the school operation in those days was the
inclusion of children who arrived several weeks after school started and
returned back north before it closed. Their fathers would try to find work
in the area during the winter months and send the children to the public
schools. These families would travel down and back by automobile,
frequently carrying tents, bedding, dishes, pots, etc., camping along the
way. That was before the days of motels, or even the dollar-a-night tourist
These "tin-can tourists" would winter in a tent camp provided by the
City of West Palm Beach, that was located about where the Seaboard
tracks are now, a block or two south of Okeechobee Road. The camp had
tent-sites, running water, and out-houses furnished by the City. The winter
of 1922-23, insurance agent Harold Bartlett (then iged eight) delivered the
Miami Herald to these tents. Since these people paid no property tax, and
it was before the days of sales tax, a gasoline tax was levied so they would
help support the schools. Of course, many motorists objected to this tax
for the schools, when such a tax might well go toward road-building,
which would benefit all gasoline consumers.
Of course, many tourists would rent rooms, apartments, or even
houses for the winter. A common practice was to rent an apartment
located over a two-stall garage, or, better yet, rent the house while the
owner moved to the apartment for the winter season.
The more affluent tourists would live in Palm Beach, and send their
children to a private school (such as Miss Gates') or hire a private tutor.
My aunt, Mrs. Harvey White, who was herself a tourist and teacher from
Indiana, was such a tutor one year. She also taught one year in the public
school, and one with Miss Gates. Many other Yankee teachers found jobs
in Florida while it was cold at their homes. In those days, the history and
the speech taught by the Yankees and by the Southerners were a bit


different: for example, I learned very fast, that I was not to say "What?" to
Miss Cook! Ours was a cosmopolitan environment.
West Palm Beach had several annual community functions. Some
activities centered around the school while others centered around the City
Park. The school had athletic meets with other schools. May Day was
quite an affair with food, games, a Maypole that frequently involved
entangled streamers -and the crowning of a queen. Both Mittie Steen and
Maudie Pierce were May queens. Maudie's younger brother, Harvey, was
a classmate of mine throughout our school days and later became a
well-known engineer.
The Fourth of July, Armistice Day, and Christmas festivities were
always popular. These celebrations involved contests, fireworks, military
drills (by the newly returned veterans) and Santa Claus. At Christmas, Joe
Earman, editor of the Palm Beach Post, provided gifts for all the children
-jackknives for the boys and dolls for the girls. At the 1917 Christmas
party, ice formed in the City Park. Old timers talked about that cold spell
for many years. There were also circuses, with parades; carnivals, with
free passes for newsboys; and auto polo, played on a specially-prepared
wooden floor.
The largest celebration of all was the Seminole Sun Dance. This
event to observe the return of Spring lasted for three days in mid-March. (I
rather suspect it was a gimmick to keep tourists present a few more days.)
It was a carnival atmosphere with horns, bells, false faces, paper poppers,
kazookas, whistles, and people running about making noises. The school
had Seminole Indian costumes for all its students. These costumes got
progressively dirtier year after year. We wore them in the big parade that
was led by a high-school boy with a bass drum. On another day, there
would be a float parade with prizes given by the City fathers. This parade
had decorated bicycles, tricycles, wagons, pets, children, etc. In those
days, the neighborhood mothers had time to dream-up and put on such
displays for their collective children. Our neighborhood once won fifty
cents for each child involved in an act whether we pulled a vehicle or
rode in it.
Saturday was washday at our house. We were fortunate to have an
electric washing machine. It was a wooden-tub Maytag before they
made one with an aluminum tub. It was quite satisfactory, but the power-
driven roller wringer was a definite hazard. Besides popping off buttons, it
would wind up long hair, long sleeves, and once badly damaged a girl's
fingers. There were also other types of washing machines. The ones with
electric motors were the most satisfactory, but many were operated by
hand, and a few by little gasoline engines. The first chore on washday was

The West Palm Beach that I Remember 67

to cut up some wood, fill a laundry tub with water, set it on some bricks,
and build a fire under it. Some houses had methods of heating running
water for Saturday night baths, but not for laundry water. It was a
continuing process to heat the water, carry it to the machine by bucket,
wash the clothes, wring them from the machine into successive tubs for
rinsing and hand-scrubbing the missed spots, hanging them on the line,
and then bringing them in as they got dry, to make room for others. It took
several hours for a large family, such as ours. My sister, Elizabeth, bless
her heart, called the tune and set the pace. If we were lucky, we'd have the
tubs emptied and the clothes brought in an hour or two before dark. Most
people did their own washing many on washboards. Some people hired
a laundress to do the wash, either at the employer's home, or at the home of
the laundress.
Most people cooked on a two or three burner kerosene stove. They
also had a little portable kerosene heater for one room on cool days. Some
people used wood stoves in cool weather, while a very few had water coils
in that firebox to heat an un-insulated water tank that was connected to the
house's hot water system. A few heated this system with wood-burning
jacket stoves. Some houses had fireplaces that would take the chill off of
the front room. School rooms had no heat other than, possibly, a kerosene
heater. Manufactured city gas was piped to some houses in the heart of
town. The mother of Allison Ballard, who lived in the 500 block of Iris
Street, had a gas meter that metered out a quarter's worth of gas at a time. It
had a slot for these coins, and she had to keep) such coins handy if she
didn't want the gas to expire at very inopportune times. I don't know what
safety device it had to keep it from filling the kitchen with that very
poisonous and explosive gas when she inserted a new quarter, forgetting
that a burner was left on. Incidentally, that gas had enough hydrogen to
buoy up toy balloons. It's a wonder we kids didn't get either poisoned or
blown up, playing with it. Florida's open air ventilation was a wonderful
There was no such thing as air conditioning, or even electric refriger-
ation. Some stores, offices and churches had electric fans, but most houses
did not. In hot weather, we would order ice for the kitchen icebox. A card
in the front window told the iceman how much to leave. As he carried it to
the door, he'd yell to the mules to "Get-up." They knew where to "Whoa."
Children ran behind the wagon for hand-outs of ice chips. There's nothing
new about children running behind a Good Humor truck.
There's also nothing new about solar heating in Florida. During the
boom, many new houses had a system for the solar heating of water. The
water was warm enough for a bath, but not hot enough for washing dishes.


About 1920, my mother bought her first vacuum cleaner. The Hoover
cleaner advertised that it "Beats as it Sweeps as it Cleans." Ours only
sucked. Our house had screw-in type outlets for such connections. One
time I blew a fuse and damaged a spatula blade when I poked it into the
socket. We used to run similar tests with our fingers to see if the electricity
was turned on. We led charmed lives! Anyway, most people did not have
vacuum cleaners, and little need for them. Such rugs as they had could be
hung across the clothes line and beat with a broom stick. The floors were
plain pine and got an occasional soap-and-water treatment. Varnish
would not last on such soft wood and tracked-in sand. Incidentally, they
were high enough above ground for ventilation to prevent ground rot.
Electric toasters were not common. About 1921, one of my milk
customers (we sold some milk from our family cow) proudly showed me
the last word in toasters. He'd just bought one that automatically turned
over the bread slices when the side doors were opened and closed. It was
really amazing!
Electric irons were very common. They had no thermostat, so often
scorched clothes, and sometimes, when forgotten, started fires. One
manufacturer discovered that more heat was needed at the point of the
iron, so he put an extra heating element there. He called it the "Hotpoint"
iron. My, how that name has spread!
Then there were plagues. Pharoh's Egypt had nothing on us. There
were sand crabs and millions of little frogs all over the sidewalks. There
were swarms of mosquitoes kept in check by window and door screens,
but the little sand flies went right through the screen. These insects were
especially bad on hot still nights. They could not fly in a breeze, so people
fortunate enough to have an electric fan could keep them off one person,
but not a whole family. The burning of "Bee Brand Insect Powder" helped
some, but it was expensive and lasted for only a short time. We mostly just
endured them. In houses horse flies the size of honey bees could be
controlled by screens, but outdoors they gave our cow fits. We made her
dresses of empty feed sacks to help some, but we found that clothing a cow
is really not practical. In the evenings, before dark, we'd sometimes put
the cow in the chicken yard. The chickens made short work of the flies, but
that was no help in the day time, when she had to graze. Yes, the modern
ecologists just don't know what all the Florida ecology includes.
Our amusement was simple. Prior to about 1928, the movies were
silent and radios did not exist. The World Series was received telegraphi-
cally and followed on a charted ball diamond at the City Park. Newspaper
extras told about special events such as prize fights. I once sold the Miami
Daily Metropolis on the streets. It came up from Miami by bus. We also

The West Palm Beach that I Remember 69

amused ourselves by making and coasting in soap-box autos, making and
flying kites, or whittling and racing rubber-band-powered toy boats. Our
toys were inexpensive, and we became pretty adept at spinning tops,
shooting marbles, or cracking whips. Girls enjoyed paper dolls, real dolls,
and jack stones. Every child had plenty of playmates in every neighbor-
hood and there was no concern about perverted criminals of any kind.
Several of the churches had youth activities that were well attended.
We enjoyed frequent evening beach parties and holiday picnics, and made
some visitations to such places as the County Poor Farm that was located
out of town toward Riviera about a quarter mile west of the FEC tracks.
Probably the Baptists' B.Y.PU. was the most active group. My sister
Elizabeth was a leader there. I was a Methodist, but occasionally went
along with them to drive. We would attend meetings with other Baptist
churches as far up and down the coast as Lemon City (now part of Miami)
and Stetson College in Deland. Going such distances in cars of that
vintage and returning long after dark was not without mishaps. I had a few
close calls that I shouldn't have had. Elizabeth was once in McLaren's big
old National (before its encounter with a train) when a rear wheel came off
the axle on a lonely stretch of the Dixie Highway. The boys found the
necessary parts strewn along the highway and brought their load yes, a
very precious load -safely home. Our generation was resourceful.
In 1928, I1 went away to college, and in 1932, I went to Boulder City,
Nevada, to start a career of dam-building that took me to all parts of the
world. From all of this travel, I can truly tell you that it was good to be a
boy in the West Palm Beach that I remember.

Biscayne Sketches

at the Far South

By James Buck

With an introduction by Arva Moore Parks*


In 1877, a young bachelor named James Buck decided to leave his home in
Cambridge, Massachusetts and settle in South Florida. Buck's co-workers
at the Riverside Press in Cambridge had encouraged him in this move so
they could find out if the glowing reports they had been reading about
South Floria were really true. If things worked out well for Buck, several
of the other pressmen and their families planned to join him there.
James Buck arrived in the Miami area in late 1877 and settled near the
Jack Peacock family in "Jack's Bight," which was located in what is now
south Coconut Grove. Buck built a thatched roof "shanty" and began
planting a wide variety of tropical fruits and vegetables. Life in the
wilderness proved to be too much for Buck and he only lasted six months.
Broke and discouraged, he returned to Cambridge where he remained
until his death in 1927.
When Buck returned to Massachusetts, he wrote the following article
in response to what he described as "Florida Fever." He hoped to have it
published in a Boston newspaper, but it is not known if he succeeded. He
did succeed, however, in discouraging his fellow workers from moving to
South Florida.
In 1955, Paul A. Clifford, Buck's grandson, found Buck's handwrit-
ten manuscript and 1878 diary in an old trunk in Massachusetts. His
one-hundred-year-old grandmother, Abbie Buck, supplied some addi-
tional information about Buck's brief stay in the Miami area. She, it turned
out, was one of the reasons James Buck returned to Massachusetts.

*Historian, Associate Editor of Tequesta and Author of The Forgotten Fronier.

Biscavne Sketches at the Far South 71

Ironically, Clifford had moved to Miami in 1951. He was the first
member of his family to come here since 1878. Fortunately, Clifford
realized the importance of these documents and donated them to the
Historical Association of Southern Florida. James Buck's "Biscayne
Sketches" are a valuable addition to our knowledge of South Florida
during the frontier era.
Arva Moore Parks

Being Discursive and General

Oh land where the feathery palm trees rise,
And the stars beam undimmed from azure skies.
Where feathers and flowers show hues so bright-
And mosquitoes and fleas nip day and night.

How the foregoing fragment might have ended will probably never
be known. Perhaps a suffering world would have been afflicted by as
many stanzas as compose the immortal "Rime" of Coleridge, had not the
author been suddenly obliged to stop and scratch, wreaking revenge for
loss of poetic "inspiration" by a somewhat abrupt though just conclusion.
But we are in "Sunny Florida," the "Land of Flowers,"' etc., a State
which has suffered by over-praising and though such a thing may be
impossible in the case of the Miniature's patrons too much advertising.
Perhaps it would be better to say, however, that Florida in injured by
injudicious advertising, rather than by an inordinate amount of publicity;
for undoubtedly she has attractions and advantages, but the interested and
enthusiastic parties who have generally conducted the business of intro-
ducing her to the outer world have, metaphorically speaking, written with
pens of gold dipped in ink of the brightest coleur de rose, causing them to
entirely overlook and ignore the existence of some minor circumstances
which other less imaginative people might call defects, or drawbacks to a
state of otherwise perfect bliss; thus causing too many persons needless
vexation and disappointment, which, by a fair presentation of facts, might
have been avoided. For, alas! regard to truth compels the reluctant
statement that experience (hard master!) shows that perfection does not
exist on this earth; and neither Paradise nor poor old Ponce de Leon's
Fountain of Youth will be aught but fleeting, tantalizing visions "till the
coming of that period, yet hidden in the womb of time," when all things
shall be restored to more pristine beauty.


Let him who dreams of"sitting under his own vine and fig tree," and
luxuriating in the shade while plucking golden fruit from bending boughs,
without previous anxious outlay or exertion, awake from his delusion, and
either go to work where he is or be prepared for plenty of it if he expects to
succeed after coming here. Health there is here, to be sure, and healthy
locations where it is nearly impossible to be sick at all, but there are also
localities which are no doubt decidedly unhealthy.
Fine lakes and bays abound with immense quantities of fish and
turtle; but the waters are mostly shallow and full of bars, and navigators
must be constantly on the alert or be "stuck." Grateful breezes swell
expanding sails, and stir the balmy air to a delicious temperature, wafted
from the bosom of the Gulf Stream; but sometimes there is an excess of
that same wind, by rather more than "a jug full," when roofs fly off and
things generally show a decided "shaky" tendency. Good soil also exists
in many parts of the State, and doubtless to some extent in every section;
but it would be impossible to find, short of absolute desert, any poorer or
more forbidding looking surface and natural products than large tracts of
this State exhibit to the agriculturist. Coral rocks and saw palmetto! Did
you ever labor among them? Then, if not emigrant of small means, pray,
and strive diligently, to avoid such a fate! Tis true that people do manage to
exist it can scarcely be called living and without much apparent
exertion, even in the most sterile sections; but no ambitious Northern man
or woman would covet such a vacillating, aimless life, gorged one day and
starved six!
To sit at ease and read the glowing descriptions of a Lanier, a Hicks,
or a Gleason1 is one thing, to encounter the often quite unromantic reality
is frequently a decidedly different affair, and apt to be rather distasteful to
him who comes without a good backing of brains, pluck, or capital.
Justice, however, compels the acknowledgement that the latter named
gentleman has given to the intending immigrant in his most recently
published essays on South Florida, a more correct and disinterested view
than those formerly disseminated, affording in the main a trustworthy
guide to the topography and natural advantages of this section.
Then again much has been said of winter as the "dry" season in this
semi-tropical climate, and the advantages of that period have been des-
canted upon. Picnic parties (!) could lay their plans a long time ahead
without fear of having them frustrated by the quirk of the weather and the
thrifty husbandman or other outdoor worker scarce need lose a day for
months together on account of stormy skies. But for the past year or two
weather affairs appear to have become somewhat unsettled at least in

Biscavne W.-lvi Ik at the Far South 73

Southeastern Florida, the past winter has proved the wettest dry season
within the recollection of the most venerable cracker and cloudy days
have been the rule rather than the exception.
Mild and equable as the temperature undoubtly is, especially in the
region bordering on the Gulf Stream, nevertheless let no one expect to get
along comfortably at all times without warm clothing and good houses.
"Northers" have been frequent the past season (though, singularly, the
coldest winds during so-called northerss" are from the westward), and a
temperature.of 50 F is felt as keenly here as a much lower degree would
be at the North. On the other hand, there are times, especially in summer,
when the nearly vertical sun shines oppressively hot though the average
temperature is decidedly agreeable to a person not infatuated with cold
Gorgeous and entrancing pictures have been drawn of the luscious
fruits and wealth of other tropical and semi-tropical productions, whose
name is legion and whose value is immense, springing almost, if not quite
spontaneously from the soil, and the immigrant or traveler whose mouth
has watered at the mere description is apt to be slightly taken aback on
arriving here and finding that what was put on paper for accomplished fact
was merely an outgrowth of the author's fertile imagination, something
which perhaps might be, but has no present palpable existence. Indeed,
though where the soil is suitable nearly everything can be raised, a large
portion of the surface is not capable of making a paying return of any kind
of crop; and at the best but little comparatively has been accomplished.
The new comer looks for orange groves, and sees instead large, flat, rocky
tracts or sandy soil thinly covered with nearly worthless pitch pine; instead
of luscious sugar apples he views and feels the trenchant sandspur; he
"asks for bread, and they give him a (coral lime) stone" lots of 'em
among other things. Certain interested parties have written of the celeb-
rated maumee apple in a way to convey the impressions that they are
nearly as plenty hereabouts as briars and things undoubtly are; while in
reality there is but one pair (male and female) of bearing maumee trees in
all Dade County!2 Of insects it is scarcely necessary to speak- they must
be expected in warm countries; and during certain seasons in certain
localities notably on the keys, they are unbearable by any one not en-
dowed with a rhinoceros hide, The incriminating mosquito, the nimble
and microscopic sand fly, the familiar flea, the industrious warlike ant,
with many others, each have their day and it is frequently a long one!
Yet, in spite of drawbacks which after all, are inseparable from
human existence, life here has its agreeable phases, and, to certain classes


a sojourn in this swampy land may be made both pleasant and profitable;
as may be gathered, perhaps, if not from the foregoing, at least from
succeeding chapters.

Being Descriptive and Reflective

The unsophisticated and expectant voyager who, en route to the
promised land of Miami and the Seminole, sets foot for the first time in
that quaint and foreign looking collection of boards and shingles called
Key West, will be likely to receive a shock 'ere long. That blow to his
nervous organization will be felt on first beholding one of the two
remarkable craft which convey Uncle Sam's mail bags to the Biscayne
Shores, and which compose the only public means of transporting persons
and property to the same destination. But, unless the travellerhas means to
charter a more commodious vessel, he or she might as well submit to fate
and take the inevitable discomfort of such close and leaky quarters
philosophically; being assumed that sooner or later (probably the later) the
sable-visaged but good natured Andrew" will pilot through, after numer-
ous hard fought conflicts with the prevailing sand banks. And the latter
circumstances should prove additional encouragements, since they show
that on the inside passage the bottom is never far off, thereby materially
lessening the danger of drowning.
Key West! With a population primarily and alliteratively composed
of Conchs, Crackers and Cubans. What a curious sight is presented to the
untravelled Northern eye as the steamship swings to her place at the dock!
A heterogenous and mottly throng, of all shades, jostle and bowl about the
gangway, while the inevitable ebony-faced young darkies grin and
grimace as they perch upon the tops of posts and every available roosting
place. The queer little pony-like horses, attached to equally ridiculous
looking and Lilliputian drays or go-carts, bristle and push through the
swaying crowd, drawing fabulous and toppling loads of merchandise or
baggage, drawn by shouting Africans with cracking whips. Then, again,
the characteristic street auctions, where, by dint of much maneuvering and
liberal use of "gab" (not always unmixed with oaths and maledictions in
both indifferent English and Spanish) articles of differing values are
hammered away to miscellaneous and gaping crowds, who run hither and
thither about the principal streets and wharves, as fresh proclamations by
bell and voice seem to promise matters of greater interest or novelty. Fruits
and other importations are sometimes sold at astonishingly low prices by
these street sales, being generally in such case bought in by other vendors

Biscayne Sketches at the Far South 75

to retail at an advanced price, in smaller quantities. "Gentlemen, how
much am I offered for this delicious guava jelly, by the box or in the lot.
Such an intelligent and highly respectable looking assembly surely won't
let such an opportunity slip to procure a nice luxury for next to nothing!
Five cents a box! You are crazy! The duty on it is more than that! You
couldn't buy it at wholesale in Havana for twice the money! Diablo! John
put the things away. We'll try something else. Such a miserable, degraded,
lowlived crowd of loafers as this can't appreciate anything decent!"
The northeast trades blow cool and refreshing, but the noonday sun
beats down hotly upon the nearly deserted streets and the narrow lanes
where green pools of filthy liquid fester and contaminate the air. Nor are
such sights confined to the localities where rickety and nondescript cabins
most do congregate, but in more aristocratic quarters small regard to
cleanliness and health is exhibited, in some instances. A notable example
is or was visible near the public square, in the higher portion of the town,
where a handsome house, surrounded by fruit trees and ornamental
shrubbery, had within two pools and partly within its own yard, a large
pool of the filthiest description a very plague spot! And yet complaint is
made of the unhealthiness of Key West in the hot season!
Notwithstanding, it is a pretty place, with some nice residences, and
considerable business is done, especially in the export of sponges and
turtles, while some of the shops contain large stocks of miscellaneous
goods. Two weekly newspapers are printed here one of them being
edited and published by a colored gentleman. To one who has left the
dreary and chill November skies of the North the general aspect of the
place is pleasing and the graceful cocoa-palms, sweet scented flowering
shrub, and tropical bananas give a grateful sense of security from the icy
hand of winter.
Yet, we may not linger, for, although the winds are ahead, the
mail-boat must away, and we go with it on its slow and tedious passage,
buffeting up among the Keys. The "captains" and crews of most of these
boats are "Conchs," and sponging is largely in their hands. They are of
Bahamian origin, and are simple-minded, generally honest well-meaning
people, with a strong tendency to substitute w for v and v for w. They are
tenacious of titles, and each little fishing smack or sponger has personages
aboard whom etiquette demands should invariably be addressed and
spoken of as "captain," "firstmate," or "secondmate." On reaching the
wharf you see numbers of singular looking, agile insects scampering
about, and ask the "captain" by what name they are designated. "Ve calls
'em crawlers, din!" Before you have been long aboard the boat you are
convinced that, although you may have previously supposed you had seen


a fair representation of the cockroach race, that belief was a delusion, for
here they are in such numbers and of such elephantine proportions that all
past experience is dwarfed, and former supposed giants of that race are
now remembered but as pigmies! But these as well as other unpleasant
circumstances are but little heeded by those "to the manner born."
Passing along amid the everchanging hues of sea and sky, watching
cormorants, cranes, and various other birds in the air and on the land and
water, and sponges, shells and fishes of many hues and shapes in the
shallow and translucent seas, we have upon our right the deep-blue,
blood-warm waters of the Gulf Stream, while upon our left lies the long
line of keys, reaching from a point south of Key West to Norris's Cut,
above Cape Florida, a distance of 160 miles or more, some just rising
above high-water mark, others attaining considerable elevation, while
nearly all are covered with a growth of mangroves, live-oak, crab-wood,
and various shrubs and coarse grasses, although they are excessively
rocky, so much so that upon large areas it would be difficult to find a spot
where a shovel could be inserted and taken up full of earth. Notwithstand-
ing this, pine-apples of excellent quality are successfully and largely
cultivated on many of the Keys, notably upon Key Largo, and some
vegetables and melons are raised for market to a considerable extent. But
the prevalence of the coral limestone, (which is the underlying "pan" of all
this region) upon the surface, and the exposure of the islands to the full
violence of winds and hurricanes, render negatory any attempts at general
agriculture or fruit-raising. At Key Largo is the lower end of Biscayne
Bay proper, the expansion of water below, between the main and the Keys,
which opens directly into the Bay of Florida being called Barnes's Sound.
The islets abound with traditions of buried treasures, mostly deposited by
piratical hands. Rachel's Key is .a fertile little spot, but is at present
habitated only by numerous flocks of marine birds. The Keys generally,
especially those where mangroves are thickest at certain seasons are noted
for blood-thirsty swarms of mosquito; but Bamboo Key is a remarkable
exception. Numerous witnesses testify that when tormented beyond en-
durance on neighboring Keys- and even upon the water in the immediate
vicinity upon reaching Bamboo Key they were entirely free from their
attacks, and that without any apparent reason or any visible difference
between this and neighboring Keys to account for the exemption. We have
been informed by a gentleman residing on the mainland, whom no one
would accuse of "drawing the long bow" (in fact, the Sheriff of Dade
County) that in weighing anchor "put" for Bamboo Key as a harbor of
refuge from persecutive mosquitoes, which were so thick as to actually
blacken the sails, and so continued until just upon the point of landing,

Biscayne Sketches at the Far South 77

when all would disappear as if by magic, and none could be found upon
the shore of this favored Key." But a small number of the Keys can be said
to be inhabited, and with the exception of Key West, the population of
those is but scanty.
If the wind is fair we may make the run, among the Keys and along
the shore, from Key West to the Miami River, in 48 hours a steamer
would do it in 12 or 14; but on this occasion we are beset by head winds
and rough weather, and so consume five days in the passage; but at last on
the fourth day we sight Cape Florida light and drop anchor for the night at
Soldier Key, where a busy and unwonted population give life and anima-
tion to the little islet for a season, while engaged in erecting the new
lighthouse which rises from the sea upon the outer reef.4 And the next day
Miami and Biscayne are reached.


There are times in our lives when an interval of a few hours or
moments only will cause an entire revulsion of feeling, so that it may be
literally said then that "the things which we once hated we now love, and
the things which we once loved we now hate." Thus people are continu-
ally carrying away disagreeable impressions of places and persons, hastily
received under unfavorable circumstances, and retain them all their lives,
when by a slight change of absolute environment at the moment, or by
more extended and intimate acquaintance, those impressions might have
been entirely reversed. The state of the weather, a few degrees difference
in temperature, the condition of the digestive organ, or a slight disturbance
of the delicate equipoise of that subtle mental machine called the brain;
one or all may materially affect the character of a picture photographed
(and it may be in indelible colors) as it were by instantaneous process upon
the hidden nerve-control.
On some such manner we mused, after a rather gloomy and depres-
sing voyage, in a leaky craft resembling a small fishing boat under
lowering and oft times dripping skies, beset by head winds and rough
seas, with the single occupation for hours of gazing with sinking heart
upon the low, dark and almost repellent aspect of the line of shore; when
suddenly within a few miles of our destination, the wind changed as by
enchantment, the sun came out in all the soft-eyed splendor of a Southern
winter morning, and with a slight variation of course, we bowled along
before a gladsome breeze, over a smooth and limpid sea, with rising spirits
and brightening countenances. Then, we say, we missed on the changes
wrought in human feelings by variations of circumstances which in


themselves are but the ordinary course of nature and without special
And while we thought, we were rapidly crossing the bay, and beheld
before us a scene worthy of the tropics. The mouth of the Miami River,
which we were about entering, was before us, flanked by high banks,
well-built houses (the best on the bay) were on either shore, in fact the
river's brim was fringed with really handsome and stately rows of fruitful
cocoa-palms, while back of them could be seen the dense and vivid foliage
of sweet-orange trees, royal bananas, lemons, limes, guavas, and the
graceful, unsurpassed crowns of delightful maumees.
The Miami River, like all others on this coast, has a course of but a
few miles, but is a full-grown stream at its source, bursting, as though
propelled from a hydrant, out of the vast and accumulation reservoir of the
Everglades, and forcing its widening way to the Bay. Indeed, at times, in
the rainy season, so much fresh water is driven into this salt bay of thirty
miles in length, from the various streams, that the entire body becomes
freshened, and salt-water fish are obliged to leave for the time or die.
At the right, as we enter the mouth of the river, is the site of old Fort
Dallas, two of the buildings of which still remain standing. What was once
the officers quarters has been transformed into a dwelling-house, and has
quite a solid and comfortable appearance, with its thick white walls, wide
verandah, and extensive surroundings of shrubbery. The entire estate is
now owned by the "Biscayne Bay Company" under the resident man-
agemnt of J. W. Ewan,5 who is also post-master, trader and representative
of the county in the legislature.
A few rods up the river we come to the shore and make fast at a sort of
natural wharf of stone. Here we step for the first time on the main land of
the Floridian peninsula, and are soon cordially welcomed by kind-hearted
Mrs. P" and her stalwart husband, Mr. E's chief assistants. The lady is a
blooming and buxom specimen of the English type, and the worthy
couple, with their three sturdy boys, are fitting representatives of the
fast-anchored isle, Having thus found a safe harbor, after due rest and
refreshment prospecting is the order of the day. Travel here must be chiefly
done by water. Roads there are none, to speak of, except wood roads, and
mere paths through the pine forests. But owing to the natural mingling of
land and water surface bays, lakes, creeks, tide-water, streams and
fresh-water rivers this mode of travel is generally a pleasure, if your craft
is of light draft or flat-bottomed; for you have smooth water and com-
monly blessed with what the Conchs call a" wery good vind."
Near the head of the bay Arch Creek contributes its waters. It is a
deep, narrow, and winding stream, abounding in fish, and derives its name
from a natural bridge across its channel at a distance of two miles or more

Biscayne Sketches at the Far South 79

from the Bay. The banks in the vicinity of the bridge are quite high, and
precipitous, for the region. Some fertile hammock land is found on either
side of the stream. At the Arch are two deserted habitations, one of which
was once occupied by a gentleman from Maine, more recently quite noted
in the vicinity of Boston, and who was traced here and arrested on a charge
of forgery. Weeds and vines grow apace in this climate, and help to soon
obliterate the vestiges of man's abandoned improvements. Further down
the bay the eye is attracted by the new and nicely built cottage of Mr. and
Mrs. S.,7 an elderly couple from Ohio, who came here some years ago,
and by dint of hard labor and the use of some money have succeeded in
producing a veritable little paradise from a most un-promising location on
a pine ridge.
Luscious fruits, in almost endless variety, comprising nearly the
whole range of tropical and semi-tropical production, reward their patient
faith and industry. A short distance south, we find the hospitable mansion
of W. H. Hunt, Esq. ,8 to be also undergoing improvements, to correspond
with the growth of the handsome rows of palms which stretch from the
water's edge up the slight incline towards the house. Dr. Potter's9 new
cottage stands a conspicious neighbour. The Doctor came here with his
brother, on account of the latter's ill health at the North, and they are
laboring hard and successfully to build for themselves a comfortable
home in this semitropical region.
There are some queer characters on and near the bay, whom, if we
could wield the pencil of an artist or if we had the humorous descriptive
powers of a Mark Twain, it would be a delightful task to sketch. But as we
pass by "Old Dan's" collection of huts, we must not forget "Old Aunt
Lizzie""1 an occupant of one of the aforesaid huts, and "maid of all work"
to the establishment. She is undoubtedly very old, and, like many other
ancient darkies, claims an antiquity which she can hardly prove, it is true,
but which is equally certain nobody else can disprove. She was once a
slave in a wealthy Virginia family, and by various mutations of fortune at
last found herself stranded, a weather beaten old hulk, on this unknown
shore. As near as we could understand, she dated back to the Revolution
or beyond, yet she is as spry as many a younger woman, and boasts of her
former prowess. "Why, bless yer soul, honey," said she, as two of the men
tugged at a heavy barrel of starch, "I seen de time dat I cudjes 'a slung dat
bail on dis ole shoulder and toted it 'long most as easy's nuffin." We could
not help pitying the poor old woman, and yet she was a comical sight, as
we pushed away, standing on the end of the shaky old pier, with short pipe
in mouth and with a very dilapidated and ill-fitting "suit" of men's clothes
hanging on her shrivelled frame.
Some six miles below the Miami River, as we continue our rambles


by land and water, visiting by the way local celebrities, we are hailed, even
before we reach the shore, by the cheery greeting of our friend Jack P." the
county Sheriff, who stands on the end of his wharf ready to assist us to
land and to give us a cordial welcome to his roof as long as we like to stay.
"Jack is as good hearted a fellow as ever lived," is a common remark, and
we have proved the saying true. But two or three families12 are at present
domiciled between Jack's location and the southern end of the bay.
Altogether there are some thirty families and single squatters on or near
this sheet of water, some living quite neighborly while others are more
remote. They are a mixture of various nationalities, but few are to be
considered otherwise than fairly honest and well-meaning people, hospit-
able, and with no special antipathy to any new-comer who respects their
rights, from whatever section he may hail.
And now, reviewing somewhat (with a risk of repetition and tire-
someness), after considerable travel and observation on this southeast
coast of Florida, we find that on or near Biscayne Bay, and in the
undoubtedly healthy locations, there is but a small quantity of land that
can fairly be called fit for cultivation, or that offers sufficient inducement
for apoor man to make his home upon. Much of the bay frontage consists
of a kind of prairie, covered with coarse grasses and wild flowers, and in
some spots (as in the neighbourhood of creeks and springs) rather marshy
in its nature. But in some places the banks are high to the water's edge, and
present a bold front. Then come the pine ridges too rocky for cultivation
- between which are the pine hollows or flats, extending back from one to
three miles to the borders of the glade. Interspersed, irregular bodies,
varying from half an acre to hundreds of acres, are the hammocks. The
pine plots, and the hammocks constitute the tillable land; but only portions
of the former are really worth tilling, with the present scattered population
and uncertain market. All pine land must be enriched to obtain favorable
results. This may be attained readily if one is able to procure and raise
livestock, and nature furnishes a good supply in the shape of sea-grass,
marine mud, etc. The former is washed upon the shore in winter at
favorable points, and is a great nourisher of the sweet potato, as has been
demonstrated even on poor pineland.
The pine-trees stand widely apart over the great tracts which they
have appropriated to themselves. Among them the underbrush is gener-
ally of low growth, as one can see for quite a distance, and a tolerable
cart-road can be made for the labor of a little leveling and casting aside of
stone. The pine plots have sometimes quite a depth of sandy soil, and
considerable areas are often quite free from rockiness. But it is in the
hammock that one sees the natural capabilities of vegetable life in this
climate most freely displayed. These are often rocky, but there are spots

Biscayne Sketches at the Far South 81

where the surface is free from stone and the rich tillable deposits are quite
deep. Native vegetation, however, takes hold and flourishes wonderfully
in places where but little actual soil apparently exists and the great trees
seem to throw their roots into and through the soft coral Jlimestone, for
sustenance comes from somewhere abundantly to supply these gigantic
live oaks, tall mastics, palmettos, and the great variety of other trees,
vines, creepers, parasites, and weeds, astonish the new comer and form
almost impenetrable jungles in many places, These hammocks are of
course harder to clear than the pine-plots, in which the principal obstacle is
the root of the saw-palmetto, but they yield a rich and quick return for the
expenditure. Here, especially, the banana and sugar-cane grow rank and
The Everglades, which term has been a sort of bugbear to many
persons, are simply a succession of large opening flats in the wet season
covered with water, in the dry season only partially flowed interspersed
with numerous islands or keys, like those along the coast, some of them
very rich in productions and more or less cultivated by the Indians who
make their homes upon them. In fact, that whole region is very much of
the nature of a vast lake, full of islands, with generally a hard bottom, not
much swampy, at least in such portions as we have explored while the
water is clear, and abounds in fish and some varieties of edible tortoises or
Springs of good water are common and wells are to be had by a
comparatively small amount of digging. This latter may often be done
with axes, through the soft rock, so that the well is already stoned, when
the water is reached after a few feet of cutting. Many springs burst up
through the bottom of the bay, and we see fresh water boiling up through
the salt.
Yet such capabilities as the soil possesses are but little cultivated,
most of those native here being too much of the hand-to-mouth character
in their habits of living to care to expend time and labor in making a
permanent home; while doubtless former troubles, of a local character,
and connected with local quarrels, have deterred individuals from acquir-
ing land in their own right. Therefore some depend almost entirely upon
the sea for their subsistence, wrecks being first in importance and a
"good" wreck is of course a God-send to them and failing that, the lack is
partially made up by turtling, sponging and fishing.
Another class, and they are not naturally altogether indolent either,
depend principally upon the making of starch to exchange for the neces-
saries of life and to bring in the small amount of cash necessary for the
minimum of a luxurious existence. This starch is obtained from the root of
a species of dwarf sago palm called "comty" or "contie" which grows


wild throughout the pine-woods, profusely in some places. The root is
passed through a process of grinding, separating, and washing. The
product affords a considerable market in Key West, and the West Indies,
both as an edible and a laundry starch. Many grind by hand, but some are
so forehandedd" as to use horse power both for "toting" in the roots and
grinding, of course largely increase their production thereby.
Thus from Nature herself furnishing a partial subsistence, as well as
other causes hinted at, the average Cracker or Conch seeks to lay no
foundation for further worldly prosperity, though it is true he is not always
entirely contented with his present lot. Not many of these classes can read,
fewer can write, yet their ignorance is not so much to be wondered at,
considering the lack of advantages to acquire the simplest branches of
learning in this region; and as such learning would be of little practical use
to them with their present surroundings, there appears to be not much
incentive to self-culture. The "better classes;'," however, as we may call
most of those of Northern extraction, or who pay more attention to
cultivation and the beautifying of their homes, do not disdain to engage in
the manufacture of the county as an aid to subsistence while awaiting the
slower operations of growing or to obtain capital for more extended
As a sample of what can be done in the way of both ornamental and
useful cultivation, where man and nature combine their powers, we may
mention the elegant little estate of Mrs. G.,13 a New York lady. She has
lately built a new house on the bank of the Miami, nearly opposite the Fort
Dallas buildings. The soil is a river hammock, not very deep, either, but
the development of growth is magnificent. Such orange trees, with
boughs bending beneath the burden of such oranges, can hardly be
excelled; and the buildings are so embowered and surrounded by a
tropical profusion of almost every imaginable variety of fruit and orna-
mental trees, shrubbery, and plants that nothing but actual sight can
present the same to the mind of one who has never looked upon the like.
"Well, well," says some patient reader who has taken the trouble to
follow thus far our rambling sentences, "you are laying it on pretty thick
for the bright side, now; but what about those treacherous Indians and
savage alligators which swarm thereabouts?" The Indians in the vicinity
are quite numerous in fact no doubt far outnumber the whites. They are a
remnant of the Seminoles, with perhaps a sprinkling of other tribes. As
before remarked, some of them cultivate the fertile islands in the
Everglades, and they are scattered all the way up through Big Cypress
Swamp to the Northwest coast, and northerly to the Kissimmee River and
Lake Okeechobee. They travel, by ways best known to themselves, on
foot and in canoes, according to the season, through the mazes of the

Biscayne Sketches at the Far South 83

glades, hunting, and on trading expeditions, from coast to coast. Now they
are at Miami or New River, on the east, then they appear at Tampa, or
Manatee, on the west. Sometimes only a few individuals will appear, at
other times considerable bands with squaws and pickannies. Some of
these Seminoles keep considerable live stock, sell chickenstmake and sell
a good deal of "comty" starch, and do quite a business in the surplus
productions of their plantations, besides their trade in plumes, gophers,
venison, terrapin, etc. The old generation of fighters is passing away, and
those who remain declare that they have buried the hatchet forever.
"White man plenty too much. Soldier too much." Of course the younger
men desire to live only at peace and amity with those whom they well
know to be much more powerful than themselves.
These Indians in the aggregate generally will compare favorably
with the average whites, and certainly can not outdo them in the vices of a
so-called civilization; although perhaps they may come near rivalling the
dominant race in the noble art of whiskey drinking. This vice, bad as it is
anywhere, is an especial curse here, and is really the only serious menace
to the peace and safety of the region. Here, as elsewhere, white men, for
the love of gain and perhaps for other motives, are found dealing out the
maddening draughts, in the shape of whiskey as malignant and poisonous,
probably as can be found anywhere. The Indians, squaws and all, with a"
few honorable exceptions, have learned to love the vile stuff, and at times
imbibe as freely as the whites, to say the least. On such occasions
Brickell's Point14 and vicinity is turned into a pandemonium and all night
long the air resounds with yells, curses, and the report of fire-arms. This
practice constitutes about the only real danger of any serious rupture
between the whites and the Indian remnants in South Florida; for of course
there remains the possibility of bloody quarrels, brought on by wild
natures being heated up by the crazing liquor, followed perhaps by savage
vengeance. It is a pity, for this reason if for no other, that this traffic cannot
be stopped; for when sober, the Seminole is dignified, polite, a man of few
words, and quite ashamed of the senseless gabble and riotous conduct he
has displayed while drunk which is more than can be said of some of the
Alligators are rather scarce on the bay, and usually but a few are seen.
In fact, the sportsman finds it difficult to get a shot a one, they have
become shy, and we have never heard of any injury resulting from them
here. Alligator steak is recommended as one of the sovereign tonics and
strengtheners for the invalid who comes here; but, so far as we can learn,
very few are able to come at that dainty, so they must generally owe their
recuperation to other influences. It is said the reptiles are more plenty near
the heads of the rivers, where they empty from the glades. Bears and


panthers occur to some extent, but they are rarely seen in the day time. An
occasional panther is shot in the hammocks, and the bears appear most
numerously on the sea-beach at the periods when the turtles are laying
their eggs on the sandy shore, during the moonlight nights. On these
occasions there is a rivalry between men and bears as to which shall first
secure the treasures deposited by the unsuspecting and patient creature of
the sea. Sometimes the human robber is able to add bear steak as a
welcome addition to the coveted eggs.
So far we have learned, no more than two varieties of poisonous
serpents are usually met with here, and those two species are by no means
so plenty as the frightened imaginations of some people lead them to
believe. These are rattlesnake and moccasin. A well-informed resident on
the bay tells us that in ten years he has seen no more than an average of one
rattlesnake per year; and the Indian men, squaws, and children habitu-
ally go everywhere with legs and feet bare. We were able to learn of but
one fatal bite from a serpent which had occurred in the vicinity of Miami
for a long period. Yet it is always well to be cautious of course. We
sometimes see scorpions, both white and black, especially about rot-
tingwood, but their sting is not so serious as in some countries. It is said to
resemble a rather bad bee sting. Centipedes are more rarely met with, and
we have not had the pleasure of acquaintance with an individual of that
family as yet. Of other poisonous creatures we hear and know but little,
except that we have had an occasional unpleasant sensation from stepping
with bare foot on some Portuguese man-of-war.
There are many other things which might be spoken of and made
interesting by a keener observer or an abler writer; but, having to some
extent at least accomplished the purpose with which we set out to write,
we forbear further at this time to trespass upon the space of the editor and
the patience of such chance readers as may have thus far followed these
Of the Australo-Californian,"' who divides his time between selling
whiskey, etc. telling wonderful tales, which out-Arab the Arabian Nights,
but which he actually insists on having believed, quarrelling and being
quarrelled with by everybody on the bay, and of the astonishing law-suits
resulting there-from; of a "hoofing" trip, by a small party, to Lake Worth
and back, of the kind reception to two forlorn and miserable tramps, by
Mr. B. and his amiable family, of attentions from "Steph," at Life
Station 3,16 and of adventures both serious and ludicrous which befell on
the way; of these and other matters we must not now speak, but reserve
them (and perhaps observations on the southwest coast) for future possible
To sum up, then we cannot recommend a removal to this southeast

Biscavne Sketches at the Far South 85

coast by the man of small resources, who wishes to commence to get
ahead in a short time. Better means of communication with the outer
world, and consequent increased accessibility of market, will make this
region more desirable for such men; but when that era will arrive, no one
can now truly prophesy. So far, there has been much talk, but no ac-
complishment. Lack of capital is the great obstacle. But to the invalid,
suffering from comsumptive tendencies, bronchial complaints, or
rheumatic affections, we think we can truly say that this bay is unsurpas-
sed in the United States. Rheumatic troubles disappear in a surprising
manner. It is like a veritable fountain of Youth. To these classes, and to
persons of some means, who wish to avoid the rigors of a Northern winter,
this section is much superior to even the more Northern parts of Florida.
Being in immediate contact with the waters of the Gulf Stream, and
surrounded by warm salt water, the climate is more equable, the air softer,
there is little danger from frost, even while ice is forming at Jackson-
ville, and extreme heats are also avoided. Here may be found a fair
supply of the larger game, plenty of small game, vast quantities of
seafowl, and one can live and luxuriate at a comparatively small expense
on fish, turtle, oysters, etc., of delicious varieties, besides enjoying free
that luxury unobtainable at the North, a warm bath in the open salt-water
almost any day in the year. So some time the peculiar advantages of this
most southern portion of our American Italy will be as well known as any
portions of the world, and the tide of winter travel, rolling along the
still-dreamed of but then realized Jacksonville and Key West railway, will
not turn until it has reached the southernmost limit of the Land of the


1. Sydney Lanier wrote Florida, its Scenery, Climate and and History in 1875. In it
he described Rev. W. W. Hicks and Hon. William Gleason as "the stirring men of Dade
County." pp. 55-56.
2. The maumee trees were located on the south bank of the Miami River on the
property of Mrs. Etta Gilbert.
3. Andrew Price was the captain of the -Governor Gleason," owned by William H.
Gleason of Biscayne (Miami Shores).
4, J.W. Ewan, known as the Duke of Dade," came to Miami from South Carolina
in 1874. He was the nephew of one of the principal owners of the Biscayne Bay Company
that purchased the "Ft. Dallas" tract on the north bank of the Miami River.
6. Mrs. Isabella Peacock and her husband Charles came to South Florida from
England in 1875. In 1883, they moved to Coconut Grove and operated the first hotel in
the area.
7. Mr. and Mrs. E.T, Sturtevant, parents of Julia Tuttle, came to South Florida in
1870 and later homesteaded in Biscayne (N.E. 103 Street).
8. William H. Hunt came to South Florida in 1868 with William H. Gleason. These
two men dominated South Florida life until [876.


9. Dr. Richard B. Potter and his brother George came to the area from Ohio in 1874
and homesteaded near N.E. 85 Street and 10 Avenue.
10, Dan Clark had lived in the Miami area since the 1850's. Lizzie Holland lived on
his property and kept house for him. She was one of four Blacks living in Miami at the
11. Jack Peacock, brother of Charles, was living on J.W. Ewan's homestead in what
is now south Coconut Grove.
12. The Luke Infinger, Samuel Jenkins and John Addison families are all men-
tioned in James Buck 1878 diary as residents of South Dade.
13. Mrs. Etta Gilbert had a ten-acre track on the south bank of the Miami River.
14. William B. Brickell opened a trading post on the south bank of the Miami River
in 1870.
15. This refers to William B, Brickell.
16. Stephen Andrews was the keeper of the House of Refuge Station No. 3 that was
located at Delray Beach.


Members of the Historical Association of Southern Florida enjoy the
ongoing program of the Association, the special events, meetings, pro-
gram series and publications: the quarterly Update, calendar of events,
and director's letter; and the annual Tequesta. They have the use of the
research library and the archives located in the Historical Museum.
Membership revenues benefit the public service and educational
programs and projects of the Association.
The roster below is made up of the names of those persons and
institutions that have paid dues since September 30, 1978. Those joining
after September 30, 1979 will have their names on the 1980 roster.
The following code designates categories of membership: "Patron,"
single, (P), pay fifteen dollars per year (this category was changed to
Individual Membership on October 1, 1979); "Donor," (D), twenty-five
(this category was changed to Family Membership on October 1, 1979);
"Contributor," (C), fifty; "Sponsor," (Sp), one hundred; "Benefactor,"
(B), two hundred and fifty or more; "Life," (L), one thousand. Honorary
Life Membership (HL), is voted by the Board of Directors to recognize
special service to the Association. The symbol ** indicates Founding
Member; the symbol indicates Charter Member.

Abbe, Robert B., Hialeah (P) Admire, Mrs Jack G., Coral Alexander, Dr. & Mrs. Julius,
Aberman, Mr. & Mrs. James, Gables (D) Miami (D)
Miami (D) Albury, Mrs, Calvin, Key Allen, Mrs. Eugenia, Miami
Adams, Betty R., Homestead Largo (P) (P)
(D) Albury, Dr. Paul, Nassau, Allen, Raymond, Miami (P)
Adams, Eugene C., Miami (P) Bahamas (D) Allslon, Mrs. William F,
Adams, Mr. & Mrs, Nate L. Alderman, Jewell W Coral Miami (P)
II, Coral Gables (D) Gables, (P) Alpert, Maurice D., Mianmi
Adderly, Mrs. Elaine, Miami Aldrich, Mr. & Mrs. Roy L (L)
(P) Jr., Miami (P) Altmayer, M. S., Blowing
Admire, Jack G., Coral Alexander, David T., Sidney, Rock, NC (P)
Gables (D) OH (P)

American Bibliographical
Center, Santa Barbara, CA.
Amerkan, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph,
Coral Gables (D)
Ames, Mrs. Theron W., Coral
Gables (P)
Anderson, Marie, Miamii (Sp)
Anderson, Phillip R., Miami
Anderson, Mrs. W, R., Miami
Angus, Mrs. Evalene K.,
Miami (P)
Ansin, Mr. & Mrs. Edmund,
Coral Gables (D)
Apthorp, Mr. & Mrs. James,
Miami (Sp)
Archer, Ben, Homestead (P)
Architecture Department
South, Miami (Sb)
Arnsparger, Mr. & Mrs.
William, Miami Lakes (D)
Aschman, David C., Coral
Gables (P)
Atherton, Laurine E., Coral
Gables (P)
Atkinson, Judge Edith M.,
Miami (P)
Alwood. Mrs. Charles F.
Miami (P)
August, Mr, & Mrs. Arthut J.,
Miami (C)
Aurell, Mrs. John K,, Coral
Gables (D))
Ayars, Erling E, ,Coral Gables
Ayer, John H, Miami (P)

Basse, Donna, Miami (P)
Backus, Mr. & Mrs. F. W.,
Coral Gables (D)
Bacon, Mrs. Jones, Coral
Gables (P)
Baggs, Mrs. John L., Jr.,
Coral Gables (P)
Bailey, Brenda, Miami L.akes
Baker, Charles H., Jr., Naples
Baker, Flora M., Miami (P)
Baldwin, C. Jackson, Miami
Balfe, Mrs. E. Hutchins,
Miami (P)
Ball, Mr. & Mrs, Ivan E.,
Miami Shores (D)
Banks, Col & Mrs Richard,
Miami (P)
Barkdull, Thomas H. Jr,
Miami (P)
Barnes, Col. Francis H,
Miami (P)

Barron, Ida W., Key West (P)
Bates, Franklin W., Miami (P)
Battle, Mr. & Mrs. Benjamin,
Miami (D)
Baucorn, Mrs. Ruth Kaune,
Ft. Myers (P)
Baya, George J., Esq., Miami
Beal, Mrs. K. Malcolm,
Miami (P)
Beare, Nikki, Miami (,D)
Beasley, Sandra G,, Miami
Lakes (FP)
Beaudry, Ralph, Miami (D)
Beckham, Mr. & Mrs. James
K., Coral Gables (P)
Beckham, W. H., Jr., Coral
Gables (P)
Beem, Mr. & Mrs, William,
Miami (D)
Beeman, Mrs, Charles, Coral
Gables (P)
Beilinson, Les D., Miami
Beach (P)
Benjamin, Kenneth Lee,
Miami Beach (P)
Bcriault, John G., Naples (D)
Biedron, Mrs. Stanley, Coral
Gables (P)
Biewala, R. A., Miami (P)
Biggane, Mrs, Charles F, Jr.,
Miami (P)
Biggs, Mrs. Roy, Miami (P)
Biglin, Mrs W. A., Ft.
Lauderdale (D)
Bills, Mrs. John T, Coral
Gables IP)
B isc a y n e .C - M.1 . .. .. 1
Bitter, Mrs. Barbara, Miami
Black, George R., Miami (D)
Black, Mrs. Marlha, Miami
Blackburn, Elmer E., Miami
Blakey, Mr. & Mrs. B. H..
Miami (D)
Blanc, I odovico, Miami (P)
Blecke, Berta, Miami (P)
Bloomberg, Roberi L Miami
Blue, Mrs R L., Miami
Shores (D)
Blue Lakes Elementary
P.T.A., Miami (Sb)
Blumberg, Mr & Mrs. David,
Coral Gables (D)
Boldrick, Samniuei J., Miami
Bolge, Elizabeth S., Ft.
Lauderdale (P)
Bonowit, 0. J., Miami (P)

List of Members 87

Booker, Mrs. Robert, Jr.,
Miami (P)
Bookoul, Elizabeth, Miami
Botta, Vincent J., South
Miami (P)
Bowen, Forest, El Portal (P)
Bower, Robert S., North
Miami Beach (P)
Bowker, Mr. & Mrs. Gordon,
Miami (D)
Braddock, Mrs. G. Holmes,
Miami (P)
Bradley, Mr. & Mrs. William
B., Miami (D)
Brannen. H. S., Miami
Springs (P)
Breeze, Mrs. K. W., Miami
Shores (P)
Brim.son, Mr. & Mrs. W.G.,
Sr., Coral Gables (D)
Brinker, Richard, Miami (D)
Brock, Wallace D.,
Chrislianburg, VA (P)
Brody, The Rev. Robert B.,
Coral Gables (P)
*Brookficld, Charles, Miami
B rooks, J. R ,, Tavernier (D)
Broward County
Archeological Society,
Hollywood (Sb)
Brown, Mrs. Andrew 0.,
Mianni (P)
Brown, Mr. & Mrs. Bowman,
Coral Gables, (P)
Brown, Darlene, 'alvernier (P)
Brown, Maida F, Miami (D)
Brown, Mrs. Sylvia G,
Miami (P)
Brown University Library,
Providence, RI (Sh)
Brown, Mrs, William, Miami
Bruce, Betty M., Key West (P)
Brunstetter, Mrs. Roscoe,
Coral Gables (P)
Buhler, Mrs. Jean E,. Vero
Beach (P)
Buker, Charles E., Sr., Miami
Burglass, Milton, E., M.D.,
Homestead (D)
Burkett, Mrs. Charles W., Jr.,
Miami Beach (D)
Burnett, Mrs. Robert L., Jr.,
Miami Lakes (P)
Burr, Mr. & Mrs. Raymond
0., Miami (D)
Burrus, E. Carter, Jr., Miami
Burt, Al, Hawthorne (P)


"Burton, Col.. & Mrs. Robert
A., Jr.. Miami (D)
Bush, Mr. & Mrs. Robert,
Miami (P)

Cadwallader, Florence H.
Miami (P)
Cameron, D. Pierre G.,
Coconut Grove (P)
Carbone,Grace, Miami Beach
Card, Eugenia, Miami (D)
Carlesbach, Diane G., Miami
Carlton, Mrs. Patricia P., Ft.
Lauderdale (P)
Carr, Mrs. A, Marvin, Miami
Camr, Robert S., Miami (P)
Carrol, Mrs. J. Lawrence,
Miami (P)
Cartec, Mrs. Horace L., Coral
Gables (P)
Casada, Ed, Coral Gables (P)
Cashbaugh, William E., Coral
Gables (Ss)
Caster, Mrs. George B.. Coral
Gables (P)
Castleberry, Hibbard, Jr.,
OSI, Ft Lauderdale (P)
*Catlow, Mr. & Mrs William
R, Jr., (Sp)
Cayton, Leona Peacock,
Miami (P)
Chaille, Joseph H., North
Miami (P)
Chaille, Mrs. Josiah, Miami
Shores (P)
Chalfant, Helen C., Miami (P)
Chandler, Mrs. Winifred,
Miami (P)
Chaplin, Mrs Katherine D.,
Coral Gables (P)
Chapman, Arthur A., Miami
Chardon, Roland E., Baton
Rouge, LA (D)
Chastain, Mr & Mrs. R. B.,
Miami (D)
Chillis, Mrs. J. Aranha,
Miami (P)
Chowning, John S., Coral
Gables (D)
Christensen, Mrs. Charlotte
C,, Opa Locka (P)
Clark, Bernal E.. Miami (P)
Clark. Betty Carman, Goulds
Clark, Mrs. H. .., Jr., Key
Biscayne (Sp)
Clark, Mrs. Mae Knight,
Coral Gables (C)

Clearwater Public Library,
Coates, Miss Beatrice & Miss
Nelle, Coral Gables (D)
Cobb, Lillian, Miami (P)
Coconut Grove Library, (Sb)
Cogswell, Mr. & Mrs. T. J.,
Coral Gables (D)
Cole, Carlton W., Miami (P)
Cole, Mr. & Mrs. R. B.
Miami (D)
Cole, Mrs. Wallace H., Jr.,
Miami (D)
Coleman, Hannah P., Miami
Collier County Museum &
Archives, Naples (Sb)
Collier Free Public Library,
Naples (Sb)
Colsky, Dr. & Mrs, Jacob &
Family, Miami (D)
Colson, Bill, Miami (P)
'Combs, Walter. Miami (P)
Conklin, Miss Dallas M.,
Long Beach, CA (L)
Conlon, Lyndon C.,
Hollywood (P)
Cookston, Dana Clay, Coral
Gables (P)
Cool, Stephen E., Cooper City
Coon, Firman A., Lt. Col.,
USAF, (ret.), Miami (D)
Cooney, Mrs. Robert E.,
Miami Shores (P)
Cooper, Mr. & Mrs, W. Worth,
Miami (P)
Coplan, Dr. Milton M., Coral
Gables (P)
Coral Gables Juniot Woman's
Club (D)
*Coral Gables Public Library,
Cormack, Elroy Calvin. El
Portal (P)
Corwin, Dr. William, Coral
Gables (P)
Costello, Mrs. Gertrude,
Miami (P)
Costello, Mr. James, Miami
Cothron, Pat, Goulds (P)
Covington, Dr James W.,
Tampa (P)
Crainshaw, Mr. & Mrs.
George, Islamorada (P)
Crane, Raymond E. & Ellen F
Foundation, Miami (B)
Creel, Earl M Eau Gallie (P)
Creel, Joe, Coral Gables (P)
Criswell, Col. Grover C., Ft.
McCoy (P)

Crow, L-on Worth, Jr., Coral
Gables (D)
Crow, Mrs. Mary Graham,
Palos Verdes Estates, CA
Crowder, Mrs. James F. Jr.,
Coral Gables (P)
Culburtson, Mr. & Mrs. W.
W., Miami (P)
Cullom, Mrs. Caryl J., Miami
Culmer, Mrs. John E., Miami
Culpepper, K. M., Miami (P)
Cunningham, Les, South
Miami (P)
Curry, Miss Lamar Louise,
Coral Gables (P)
Curwood, Mr. & Mrs. W. J.,
Miami (P)
*Cushman, Dr. Laura, Miami

Dade Heritage Trust, Miami
Dager, H J., Jr, (C)
D'Alemberte, Mrs. Sandy,
Miami (D)
Daniel.Mr & Mrs.W. A ,Jr.,
Coral Gables (D)
Daniclson, J. Deering, Coral
Gables (D)
Davenport, Dr. & Mrs. O. W.,
Miami (P)
Davidson, Mrs. Robert M.,
Miami (P)
Davis, Mrs. Carl H., Miami
Davis, Mr. & Mrs. Frank C.,
Miami (D)
Davis, Hal D., Coral Gables
Davis, Jean McArthur
(McArthur Foundation),
Miami (B)
Davis, Pauline Pate, Miami
Davis, Ruble Thigpen, Miami
Shores (P)
Davison, Mrs. Walter R.,
Miami (P)
Dean, Kate Stirrup, Miami (P)
DeBuchanne, J. D.,
Homestead (P)
DeCarion, George H., Miami
DeGarno, Mr. & Mrs.
Kenneth, Miami (D)
DeNies, Charles E, Eustis, MI
Detroit Public Library,
Detroit, MI (Sb)

Dickey, Dr. Robert, Miami
Dilley, Arden W., Miami (P)
Dine, Mr. & Mrs. Sidney,
Biscayne Park (D)
*Dismukes, William Paul,
Coral Gables (P)
Doheny, David, Miami (D)
Donovan, James Maitland,
Jr., Miami (P)
Dorn, Mrs. Robert, Miami (P)
Dorsey, Mrs. Mary C., Coral
Gables (P)
Dotson, Martha Jo, Miami (P)
Dougherty, Mr. & Mrs. Jas.
C., Miami (D)
"*Douglas, Marjory
Stoneman, Miami (P)
Dowdell, Mr & Mrs, S. H.,
Miami (D)
Dowlen, Dr, L W, Jr Coral
Gables (D)
Downs, Dr. & Mrs Maurice.
Miami (D)
Dreisbach, James B., Miami
DuBois, Bessie Wilson.
Jupiter (P)
Duffy, Mr. & Mrs. E. Hugh,
Coral Gables (P)
Dugas, Mrs. Faye, Coral
Gables (D)
Dunan, Mrs. G. V. R., Miami
Dunan, Mrs. Otis F., Coral
Gables (D)
Duncan, Marvin L., Miami
Duncan, Norman, Florida City
Dunn, Hampton, Tampa (P)
Dunty, R P, Jr Lake Placid
Dunwody, Alwood, Miami
Dupuch, Sir Etienne, OBE,
Nassau. Bahamas (D)
DuPois, John G.. Jr.. Miami
Duvall, Mrs. John E., Miami

Echarte, Iluis & Glor ida,
Miami (D)
Fdelen. lllen, Miami (P)
Edward, Jim, Boynton Beach
Eggcrl. Jim C., Miami (P)
Eichmeyer, Ann, Miami (P)
El Poiltal Womens Club,
Miami (P)
Flheii,Di &Mis E.L, Coral
Gables (D)

Ellenburg, Mr. & Mrs. James,
Miami (D)
Elliot, Donald L., Miami (D)
Elmore, Dorothy A North
Bergan, NJ (P)
Eppes, William D., Coral
Gables/New York City (P)
Erickson, Douglas, Miami (P)
Erickson, Mrs. Melville A.,
Coral Gables (P)
Erickson, Pauline 0., Miami
Everglades Natural History
Assn., Homestead (P)
Ewell, Mrs. A. Travers, South
Miami (P)
Eyster, 1. R., Islamorada (P)
Ezell, Mr. & Mrs. Boyce F
III, Miami (Sp)

Farina, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph E,
Miami Shores (D)
Farrell, John B., Miami (P)
Fascell, Danme B..
Washington, DC (D)
Feltman, Mrs Robert. Coral
Gables (P)
Ferendino, Andrew J., Coral
Gables (D)
Ferguson, Mrs. James C,
Miami (P)
Ferguson, Mrs. Milton,
Boynton Reach (P)
Feriy, Rosemary, Miami (P)
Field, Captain & Mrs.
Benjamin P, Lantana (P)
Field, Mrs Lamar. Miami (P)
Fields, Mrs. Eddic L., Miami
Finlay, James N Miami (D)
Fischer, Jeanne U. Page, Coral
Gables (P)
Fisher, Mrs. Ray, Miami (P)
Fit/.gerald, Dr Joseph H ,
Miami (B)
Fitgerald-Bush, Frank S..
Opa Locka (P)
Fitzgibbon, J.M., Coral
Gables (D)
Flattery. Michael J. Jr., Miami
Fleeger, Mr. & Mrs Darrell,
Miami (D)
Fleming, Mrs Gene, Miami
Fleming, Dr & Mrs, Richard,
Miami (D)
Flinn, Rep & Mrs. Gene,
Miami (D)
Florence, Robert S., Miami
Florida Atlantic Univei sity,
Boca Ratlon (Sb)

List of Members 89

Florida International
University, Miami (Sb)
Florida Power & Light (B)
Florida Southern College,
Lakeland (Sb)
Florida Technical University.
Orlando (Sb)
Florida Trend Magazine,
Tampa (D)
Floyd, Shirley P., Jupiter (P)
Forsyth.The Rev. Ronald W.
Coral Gables (D)
Ft. Lauderdale Historical
Society, Ft Lauderdale
Fortner, Ed, Ocala (P)
Foss, George B., Jr., Esq.,
Miami (D)
Foster, Mr, Kenneth, Miami
Fowler, Mrs. Walter H, North
Miami (P)
Fo., Chief & Mrs. Kenneth,
Miami (D)
Franklin, Ms. Deborah H..
Miami (P)
Rates, Mr. & Mrs. William,
Coral Gables (D)
Frazer, Col. & Mrs. Fred J.,
USMC (ret), Miami (D)
Frederick Mr. John M.,
Homestead (P)
Freed, Mr. & Mrs. Owen,
Coral Gables (D)
Freiden, Ms. Ellen, Miami (P)
Freifelder, Maryon, Miami
Beach (P)
Frisbie, Mr. & Mrs. Loyal,
Barlow (P)
Frohock, Mrs. Jack, North
Miami (P)
Frohring, Mr. & Mrs. Paul,
Key Biscayne ID)
Fuchs. Richard W.. Naranja
Fullerton. Mr & Mrs. John P,
Coral Gables ID)
Fussell, Mr. & Mrs. J. E.,
Miami (P)

Gabler, Mrs. George F;,
Miami (D)
Gaby, Donald, Miami (D)
Gallogly, Ms. Vera, Coral
Gables (P)
Gardner, Mrs. Dick B.. Miami
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
J., Coral Gables (D)
Gautier, Redmond Bunn.
Miami (D)
Gelberg, Bob, Miami (D)


Gerace, Mrs. Terence, Coral
Gables (D)
German, Mr. & Mrs. Trent.
Miami (D)
Gersten, Joseph, Miami (P)
Geyer, Elizabeth D., Miami
'Gifford, Mrs. John C.,
Miami (P)
Gillespie, Norman, Coral
Gables (P)
Goldenberg, Marian Graham,
Miami (D)
Goldenberg, Robert, Miami
Goldman, Sue S., Miami (D)
Goldstein, Judge Harvey L.,
Miami (P)
Goldweber, Mr. & Mrs. S.,
Perrine (D)
Gonzales, Aldalberto, Miami
Goode, Ray, Coral Gables
Gooding, Naomi Cornell,
Miami (P)
Goodlc, Mrs. James H.,
Hialeah (P)
Goodlove, Mrs. William,
Coral Gables (P)
Gordon, Mr. & Mrs. Howard,
Coral Gables (P)
Gormley, Madlyn, Miami (P)
Gould, Patricia Lamminus,
Miami (D)
Gowin, Dr. & Mrs. Thomas
Skaggs, Miami (D)
Goza,William M.,Clearwater
Grafton, Mr. & Mrs. Edward,
Coral Gables (C)
Graham, Carol, Miami Lakes
Graham Foundation (B)
Graham, Joan, Miami Lakes
Graham, Mr. & Mrs. William
C., Miami Lakes (C)
Grant, Mrs. Hazel Reeves.
Miami (Sp)
Gray, Gloria H., Miami (P)
Green. Mrs Lonrsdale B.,
Miami Beach (P)
Green, Lynda, Key Biscayne
Green, Margie, Miami (P)
Greert. Mr. & Mrs. Alan, Coral
Gables (D)
Griffin, Bernice, Miami (P)
Grilcy, Victor P, Jr., Miami
Grose, Esther N., Miami (P)

Gross. Dr. Zade Bernard.
Largo (P)
Grove, Janis Drybread. Miami
Gubbins, John M,, Miami
Shores (P)
Gultstreatm Park, Hallandale
Gunn,T Helen, Miami (P)

Haas, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald,
Coral Gables (P)
Hackett, Melvin & Family,
North Miami (D)
Hamilton, Mr. & Mrs.
Clinton, Miami (D)
Hampton, Mrs. John,
Baltimore, MD (P)
Hance, Nancy V., Miami (P)
Hancock, Mrs. James T.,
Jacksonville Beach (P)
Hansen, Mr & Mrs. Harold,
Miami Lakes (D)
Hardin, Henry C., Jr., M.D,
Coral Gables (D)
Harding, Mrs. Henry K.,
Ocean Ridge (P)
Hardlee, J. William, Miami
Hardy, Laymond M., Miami
Harnett, Mr. & Mrs. James
D,. Coral Gables (D)
Harper, Florence E, Miami (P)
Harring, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel
E.. Coral Gables (D)
Harrington, Frederick H.,
Hialeah (P)
Harris, Robert, Miami (P)
Harrison, Mrs. Crutcher
Field, Miami (P)
Harrison, John C., Miami (L)
Harrison, John C Jr., Miami
Harrison. Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
R., Jr., Miami (D)
Harrison. Mr. & Mrs. M. R ,
Jr., Miami (D)
Harrison. Mr, & Mrs. Peter,
Coral Gables (D)
Hamrvard College Library,
Cambridge, MA (Sb)
Harvey, Mr. & Mrs. Richard,
Miami (D)
Harwood, Mrs. Manton L.,
Coral Gables (P)
Hatfield. M. &Mrs, M, HL,
North Miami (D)
Hauser, Mr. Leo A,
Carrollton, GA (P)
Head. M. Patricia, Miami ]P)

Hebrew Academy Elementary
Media Center. Miami
Beach (Sb)
Hebrew Academy PTA,
Miami Beach (P)
Hector. Louis J., Miami (P)
Hector, Louis J., Miami (P)
Hector, Mr, & Mrs. Robert C.,
Coral Gables (D)
Hectoi, Mr. & Mrs. Robert C.,
Jr., Coral Gables (D)
Heinl, Mrs. J. L., II], Miami
Hencenski, Marcia H., Coral
Gables (P)
Hendry, Judge Norman.
Miami (P)
Hennington, Annie Ruth,
Goulds (P)
*Herin,Thomas D., Miami
'Herin, Judge William A.,
Miami (D)
Herreshoff, Mrs. Rebecca,
Bristol, RI (P)
Heym, Katherine L.,
Hollywood (D)
Hialeah, Library (Sb)
Hibbard, R. W., Miami (P)
Hicks,William M., Miami (D)
Hiers, J B., Jr Miami (P)
Highieyman. Daly, Miami (D)
Hildreth, Robert R., Coral
Gables (P)
Hill, Herbert, Miami (P)
Hill, Mr. & Mrs. William W.,
Coral Gables (D)
Hillbauer, Mrs. William C,,
Sr Miami (D)
Hillbauer, Dr & Mrs. Win, C
Jr., Miami (D)
Hiller, Herbert L., Coral
Gables (P)
Hills, Lee, Miami (C)
Hingston,The Rev. Allen R.,
Miami (P)
Historical Society of Pahnlm
Beach County (Sb)
Hodsden, Mrs Harry E..
Miami (P)
Hoeffel, Mrs. Kenneth, Chevy
Chase, MD(P)
Hoehl, Mr. & Mrs. John R.,
Miami (D)
Hoffman, Mary Ann, Hialeah
Hoffman, Nancy, Miami (P)
Hofstctter, Mrs. Ronald,
Miami (P)
Hogan, Mrs Thomas D., III,
Miami (P)
Holcomb, Lyle D, Jr., Coral
Gables (P)

Holland, Stanley & Thelna,
Princeton (D)
FHI.... i Ms. June, Miami
Holsenbeck, Mrs. J. M.,
Miami (P)
Hoskins, Mrs. Eddie, Miami
Hotelerama Associates Ltd..
Miami Beach (D)
Houser, Roosevelt C., Coral
Gables (P)
Howard, Emily P., Miami (P)
Howe, Mrs. Elden L., Coral
Gables (D)
Howell, Mrs. Roland M.,
Miami (P)
Hudson, Mr. James A.,
Ashville, NC (P)
Hufsey, Mrs. B., Miami (P)
Hughes, Kenneth, Miami (P)
Hume, Mrs. Charles Lea,
Coral Gables (P)
Hume, David, Miami (D)
Henry E. Huntington Library
& Art Gallery, San Marino,
CA (Sb)
Huston, Mrs. Tom, Coral
Gabies (D)
Hutchinson, Mrs. Robert,
Coral Gables (P)

Jackson, Mr. & Mrs. E C.,
Miami (D)
Jacobstein, Dr. Helen L.,
Coral Gables (P)
James, Carolyne, Miami (P)
James, Mary Crofts, Miami
Jenkins, Elsie A., Miami (P)
Johnson, S. H., M.D., Miami
Johnson, Mrs. Westerdahl,
Miami (D)
Johnston, Mr & Mrs. Thomas
McE,, Coral Gables (D)
Jones, A. Tillman, Naranja (P)
Jones, Mrs, Edgar Jr., Coral
Gables (D)
Jones, Marie M,, Miami IP)
Jones, Suzanne, Miami (D)
Jones,Thompson V., Miami
Jordan, Mrs. June, Miami (P)
Joyce. Hortense H., Coral
Gables (P)
Jude, Mrs. James R., Coral
Gables (P)
Junkin, Mr. & Mrs. John E,,
I II. Coral G ables (P)
Junkin, Mrs. Stella B.,
Micanopy (P)

Jureit, Mrs. L. E., Coral
Gables (P)

Kammer, Mrs. Barbara,
Miami (P)
Kanner, Mr. & Mrs. Lewis
M., Coral Gables (C)
Kattel, G. Edward, Key
Biscayne (P)
Kaufman, Barbara J., Miami
Keck, Mr. J. W., Dunwoody,
GA (D)
Keep, Oscar J., Key Largo(P)
Keith. Mrs, Jean, Miami (P)
Keith, Mr. William V.. Ft.
Lauderdale (P)
Kelley, John B., Miami (D)
Kellner, Mr. & Mrs. Stewart,
Cora I Gables (C)
Kelly, Mr. & Mrs. J. Terrance,
Coral Gables (D)
Kelly, Mr. & Mrs. Loyd G.,
Miami (D)
Kelly, Minnie Pierce, Miami
Kemper, Marlyn, Ft.
Lauderdale (P)
Kendall, Harold E., Jr., Miami
Kendall, Peter H. F., Miami
Kenner, Mrs. Maynard, Coral
Gables (P)
Kent, Mrs. Frederick A.,
Coral Gables (D)
Kent, Olga, Coral Gables (P)
Kern, Joe E., Palm Beach (P)
Key West Art & Historical
Society (P)
Kimen, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas,
Jr., Key Biscayne (D)
Kincaid, Gietchen Hand,
Miami (P)
Kinsman, George, Miami
Beach (D)
Kislak,Jay 1., Miami (D)
Kistler, Robert S., Miami (D)
Knight, Mrs. Annie, Miami
Knight, John S., Miami (Sp)
Kniskern, Kenneth F, Miami
Knoll, Judge James R, (ret.),
Wcsl Palm Beach (D)
Knotts. Tom, Yankctoswn (P)
Knowles. Phylis B., Boca
Ralon (P)
Kobelin.Joci. Miami (P)
Kollish, Mrs. Joseph M,
Miami (P)
Kononoff, Hazel N., Miami

List of Members 91

Korray, Mary E., North Miami
Kramer, Ms. Judi, Miami (P)
Krome, William B.,
Homestead (P)
Kunz, Mrs. Lyle B., Miami
Kurte, Mr. & Mrs. Wesley, Ft.
Lauderdale (D)

LaBarbera, Vincent F., Miami
La Croix, Mrs. Aerial C.,
Miami (P)
Lake Worth Public library
Lamme, Robert, Hialeah (D)
Langley, Wright, Key West (P)
LaRouc, Samuel D. Jr.,
Miami (P)
Larrabee, Charles, Jr., Miami
LaSalle, Mr. & Mrs. A. L.,
Jr., Pembroke Pines (D)
Lasseter, Harley 0., Sr.,
Miami (P)
Lassman, Mrs, Harold, Miami
Law, Eleanor, Kaneohe, HI (P)
Laxson, Dan D., Hialeah (P)
S"Leary, Lewis, Chapel Hill,
NC (P)
Lehman, Mrs. Joan, Dania (P)
Lehman, Richard L., Dania
Leigh, Mrs. Charles N.,
Maggie, NC (D)
Lenssen, Mrs. I. M Miami
'Leonardy, Dr. Herberta,
Miami (P)
I-evin, Jerry, Miami (P)
Lewin, Robert. North Miami
Library of Florida History,
Gainesville (Sb)
L.indgren, Mrs. M F Miami
Shores (D)
Lindsey, James B., Miami (P)
Lindsley, Mrs. A. R., Miami
Beach (P)
Linehan, Mrs. John, Lantana
Link, E. A., FI Pierce (D)
Lipp, Morris N, Miami Beach
Lippert, W. K.. Miami (P)
I. psks. Bernic & Terry. Miami
Livingston, Mr, & Mis.
Robcrt, Miami (D)
Lloyd, J. Harlan, Miami (P)


LoCicero, Doreen Clara,
Miami (P)
Lomax. Alice, Coral Gables
Longshore, Frank, Miami (DM
Lores, Dr. & Mrs. Edward,
Miami (D)
Lowcll, Mr. & Mrs. John, Jr,
Miami (D)
Loxahatchee Historical
Society, Jupiter (Sb)
Lummu.s,J. N., Jr., Miami (D)
Lunnon, Mrs. Jane, Coral
Gables (P)
Lunsford, Mrs. E. C., Coral
Gables (P)
Lynch, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen
A., Ill, Coral Gables (D)
Lyon. Eugene, Vero Beach (P)

Mac Intyre, Mr. & Mrs. A C.,
Miami (D)
McAdam, Joanne F, Miami
McAliley, Mr. & Mrs Thomas
W., Miami (D)
McCabc, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
H., Coral Gables (D)
McCall, Mrs. Howard, Boca
Raton (P)
McCorquodale, Mrs. Donald.
Jr., Miami (P)
McCreary, Ms. Jane, Coral
Gables (D)
McCrimmon, C. T., South
Miami (D)
McDougal, Mr. & Mrs.
Robert D., Ill, Miami (D)
Mclntyre, Patricia C., Miami
Mclver, Stuart, Lighthouse
Point (P)
McKay, John G., Jr., Key
Biscayne (P)
McKeller, Mrs. James D.,
Miami (P)
McKenna, Mrs. R A., Coral
Gables (D)
McKey, Mrs. R. M., Coral
Gables (P)
McLaren, Donald, Miami (D)
McLean. Lenorc. Miami (P)
McNaughion, M. D., Miami
McNaughton, Dr & Mrs.
Robert A., Miami (D)
McNeill, Robert E., Jr.,
Windemere (P)
McPhee, Harriet, Coral
Gables (P)

Mahoney, L. T Jr., Miami (D)
Maimesh, Dr. & Mrs.
Michael, Miami (D)
Malafrontc, Anthony F..
Miami (P)
Malcomb, MrN & Mrs. John,
Miami (P)
Malone, Randolph A,. Coral
Gables (D)
Maltby, Mr. & Mrs. L. A..
Miami (D)
Mangels, Dr. Celia C Miami
Shores (P)
Mangum, Mr & Mrs A. C.,
Jr., Coral Gables (D)
Mank, Mr. & Mrs. Philip J.,
Sr., Little Switzerland, NC
Mank, Mr. Philip J., Jr., Vero
Beach (P)
Mank, Mr. & Mrs. R. Layton,
Coral Gables (Sp)
Manley, Miss Marion 1, Miami
Manley, Mr. & Mrs. Robert,
Miami (D)
Manly, Grace, Miami (P)
Manning, Mr & Mrs. J.,
Roseville, MI (P)
Manson. Mrs. Joe J L, Coral
Gables (P)
Marco, Ed, Miami (P)
Marks, Henry S., Huntsville,
AL (P)
Markus. Daniel 0.. Miami (P)
Marshall, Muriel S., Miami
Marshall, Roger V., Miami
Beach (P)
Martin County Public Library,
Stuart (Sb)
Martin, Mr. & Mrs. James 0.,
Coral Gables (D)
Martin, Mrs Kirby A., New
York, NY (Sp)
Martin, Mrs. Sylva G.. South
Miami (P)
Martinez-Ramos, Alberto,
Miami (P)
Matheson, Mr. & Mrs Finlay
B., Miami (D)
Matheson, Mr. & Mrs. Finlay
L., South Miami (D)
Matheson, James, West Palm
Beach (P)
Matheson, Mrs. Michael,
Miami (D)
Matheson. R. Hardy. Corai
Gables (D)
Mathewson, Dr. & Mrs.
Grover, Miami (D)

Matkov, Mrs. Thomas J.,
Miami (D)
Matthews, Janet. Sarasota (P)
Mattucci, Mr. Donald,
Hialeah (P)
Matusek, Mrs. Virginia G.,
Miami (Ss)
Maxled, F. J., Jr., Coral
Gables (D)
Mead, D. Richard, Miami (D)
Megee. Mrs. B L., Miami (P)
Mern, Suzanne, Miami Lakes
Mercer, Mattie J., Miami (P)
Mercy College Library. Miami
Mcerrick, Mrs. Eunice P.,
Coral Gables (P)
Merrill, Mr. & Mrs. Henry T.,
Miami (D)
Merritt, Mrs. Ward, Miami (P)
Mesnekoff, Mr. & Mrs.
David, Miami (Sp)
Metz, Martha J., North Miami
Miami Dade Community
College, South, (Sb)
'Miami Public Library, Miami
Miccosukee Community
Library, Miami (Sh)
Millar, Mrs, Gavin S Key
Biscayne (D)
Millard, Dr & Mrs. M, South
Miami (D)
Milledge, Sarah F.,Miami (D)
Miller, Miss Bessie, South
Miami (P)
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Dale,
Hialeah (D)
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Dean R.,
Miami (D)
Miller, Mr. William Jay, Key
Biscayne (PI
Mincar, Mrs. L. V., Jupiter (P)
Mincy, Mrs. Evlyne, Miami
Mizrach. Mr. Larry, Miami
Molinari, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
L., Key Biscayne (D)
Monk, J. Floyd, Miami (P)
Monnin, Mrs. Joanne, Miami
Lakes (P)
Monroe County Public
Library, Key West (Sb)
Montague. Mrs. Charles H..
North Miami (D)
Monticno, Mrs Alma, Miami
Moore, Mrs. Jack, North
Miami (P)

Moore, Mrs. Jasper, Miami
Moran, Mrs. Ramon, Jr.,
Miami Lakes (D)
Mordant, Mr. & Mrs. Hal,
Coral Gables (D)
Morris, Mr. & Mrs. C. C.,
Miami (P)
Morris, Mr. James, Coral
Gables (P)
Morris, Mrs. M. M., Coral
Gables (P)
Morris, Ms Thomasine,
Miami (P)
Morris, Mr. & Mrs. W. J.,
Coral Gables (D)
Morrissey, Fran, Miami (P)
Moure, Mrs. Edwin P., Coral
Gables (P)
Moylan, E. B., Jr., Miami (P)
Mudd, Dr. Richard D.,
Saginaw, MI (P)
Meuller, Edward A.,
Jacksonville (P)
Muir, William T., Miami (P)
Muir, Mr. & Mrs. William
Whalley, Miami (D)
Muller, David E, Miami (P)
Mullins, Joan, Miami (D)
Munroe, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
P., South Miami (D)
Munroe, Mrs. Wirth M.,
Miami (D)
Mustard, Alice Isabel, Coral
Gables (P)
Mustard, Margaret Jean, Coral
Gables (P)

Napier, Mr. & Mrs. Harvey,
Coral Gables (P)
Narup, Mavis, Miami (P)
Nelson, Mr. & Mrs. David,
Coral Gables (D)
Nelson, Jonathan, Mianmi
Beach (P)
Nelson,Theodore R., Miami
Beach (D)
Nettleton, Danforth H.,
Miami (D)
Newberry Library, Chicago,
IL (Sb)
Newell, Ms. Barbara T.,
Miami (P)
Nicholson, Mr. Don G.,
Miami (D)
Nimnicht, Mary Jo, Miami (P)
Nims, Mrs. Rufus, Miami (P)
Nolan, Mr. & Mrs. Vincent
B., Miami (D)
Nordt, Mr. & Mrs. John C.,
Miami (D)

Norman, Dr. & Mrs. Harold
G., Jr, Coral Gables (D)
Norman, Walter & Berta L.,
Key Largo (D)
Norton, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
W. D., Miami (D)
Nuckols, B. P. & Jean D.,
Miami (D)

O'Hara, Mrs. James, Miami
Lakes (D)
Oliver, Dr. & Mrs. Robert M.,
Jr., Key Biscayne (D)
Omni International of Miami
Oren, Dr. & Mrs. Benjamin
G., Miami Beach (D)
Orlando Public Library (Sb)
Orr, Allyne S., Miami (P)
O'Steen, Mrs. Edna, Miami
Ostrenko, Witold, Jr., Miami
Oswald, Mrs. M. J., Miami
Otto, Mrs. Thomas Osgood,
Coral Gables (P)
Otto, Mr. & Mrs.Thomas III,
Miami Beach (C)
Overstreet, Estelle C., Miami
Owens, Mrs. Bradley, Miami
Shores (P)

Padgett, Inman, Coral Gables
Palmer, Miriam, Coral Gables
Pancoast, Alice A., Miami (P)
Pancoast, John Arthur,
Pompano Beach (P)
Pancoast, Katherine French,
Miami (P)
Pancoast, Mr. & Mrs. Lester
C., Miami (D)
Pancoast, Peter Russell,
Miami (P)
Pappas, Ted & Cal, Miami
Pardue, Leonard G., Miami
Park, Dabney, Jr,, Miami (D)
Parker, Alfred B., Miami (P)
Parker, Robin E., Miami (P)
Parks, Merle, Miami (P)
Parks, Mr. & Mrs. Robert L.,
Coral Gables (B)
Parres, Dr. & Mrs. Edmund
1., Miami (D)
Parsons, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
G., Miami (D)

List of Members 93

Passela, Mrs. George, Miami
Pastroff, M. J., Miami (D)
Patton, Mrs. Dan 0., Miami
Pawley, Anita, Coral Gables
Paxton, Mrs, G. B., Jr.,
Miami (D)
Payne, Mrs. R. W., Jr,, Coral
Gables (D)
Peacock, Mrs. Albert, Jr.,
Miami (P)
Peacock Foundation, Miami
Peacock, Mr. & Mrs.
Lawrence, Miami (P)
Peacock, Mr. R. C., Miami
Pearce, Mrs. A. Dixon,Miami
Pearson, Mr. Wilbur, Miami
Peckham, Mr. & Mrs.
George, Miami (D)
Pederson, Phillip E, Perrine
Peeler, Miss Elizabeth, Coral
Gables (P)
Peeples, Vernon, Punta Gorda
Pennell, Dr. & Mrs. J. Phillip,
Miami (D)
Pepper, Senator Claude,
Miami Beach (D)
Perner, Mrs. Henry, Hialeah
Pero, Joseph H., Jr., Miami
Perry, Roy A., Miami (P)
Peters, Gordon H., Columbia,
SC (D)
Peters, John S., Orlando (P)
*Peters, Dr. Thelma, Coral
Gables (D)
Peters, Mrs. Wirt, Coral
Gables (P)
Peterson, Mr. & Mrs, Albert,
Coral Gables (D)
Petrey, Mr. & Mrs. Roderick,
Coral Gables (D)
Philbrick, W. L. Coral Gables
Pichel, Mrs. Clem A., Key
West (P)
Pierce, Mrs. J. B., Jr., Miami
Pierce, J. E., Miami (D)
Pimm, Mr. & Mrs. Gordon,
Coral Gables (D)
Pinelias County Historical
Museum, Largo (Sb)


Pirie, Mrs. L. M., Miami (P)
Plimpton, Colonel John A.,
Juno Beach (P)
Plumer, Richard B., Miami
Plummer, Lawrence H.,
Miami (P)
Post, Howard M.. Miami
Springs (D)
Potler, Robert E., Clearwater
Ports, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph,
Miami (D)
Potts, Roy V., Miami (D)
Prahl, William, Miami (D)
Proenza, Mrs. Morris G.,
Miami (P)
Provenzo, Dr. Eugene, Miami
Pruitt, Mr. PeterT., Coral
Gables (D)
Prunly, Mr, & Mrs. John W.,
Miami (D)
Purvis, Mrs. Hugh F., Coral
Gables (P)

Quarles, Julian, South Miami
Quarles, Miss Mary Nell,
Miami (P)
Quesenberry, William F,
Coral Gabes (D)
Quinton, Mr & Mrs. A. E.,
Jr., Miami (D)

Rappaport, Edward, Miami
Rasmussen, Geraldine, Ft.
Lauderdale (P)
*Rast, Mrs. J. Lawton, Miami
Ratner, Mr. Nat, Miami Beach
Rawls, Mrs. R. L., Miami
Lakes (P)
Read, Mrs. Albert Cushing,
Miami (Sp)
Reed, Miss Elizabeth Ann,
Ocean Ridge (P)
Reed, Richard, Miami (P)
Reid, Dr. & Mrs. Edward,
Coral Gables (D)
Reinhardt, Miss Blanche,
Miami (P)
Renick, Ralph, Miami (P)
Reno, Mrs. Jane, Miami (P)
Reno, Janet, Miami (D)
Rentscher, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
C., Miami (D)
Resnick, Larry, Miami (P)
Rey, Amparo Barbara, Miami

Rice, Sister Eileen, O.P.,
Miami (P)
Rice, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph E.,
Key Biscayne (D)
Rice, R. H., Jr., South Miami
Rich, Louise, Miami (P)
Richmond Heights Junior
High School, Miami (Sb)
Rieder, Mrs, William Dustin,
Miami (D)
Rieder, W. Thomas, Miami
Riley, Sandra, South Miami
Rivera, Leslie, Miami (P)
Riviera Beach Public Library
Robbins, Mrs. Lawrence J.,
Miami (P)
Robbins, Mr. & Mrs, William
R., Jr., Miami (D)
Roberts, Richard E., -lobe
Sound (P)
Robinson, James, South
Miami (P)
Robson, Mr. & Mrs. Herman
C., West Palm Beach (P)
Roca, Pedro L., Miami
Springs (P)
Rodgers, Domino J., Miami
Rodgers, John Ill, Miami (D)
Rodriguez, Ivan, Miami (C)
Rogers, Mrs. Walter S. C.,
Coral Gables (D)
Roller, Mrs. G. Phillip, Coral
Gables (P)
Rollins College, Winter Park
Rosborough, Dr. Melanie R.,
Coral Gables (P)
Rosendorf, Mr. & Mrs.
Howard S., Coral Gables
Rosinek, Jeff, Miami (D)
Ross, Mrs. Richard E, Delray
Beach (P)
Ross, Rosita, Miami (P)
Ross, Mrs. Stanley E., Coral
Gables (P)
Rowell, Donald, Miami (P)
Rowland, Blake, Miami (P)
Russell, Ms. Darlene, Miami
Russell, George, Coral Gables
Russell, Sabrina, Miami (P)
Russell, T Trip, Miami (P)
Ryan, Mrs. J. H., Scottsdale,
AR (P)

Ryder System Inc., Miami (L)
Ryscamp, Mr. & Mrs.
Kenneth L., Miami (D)
Sacher, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
P, Miami (D)
Sadler, Margaret A., Miami
St. Lucie County Museum, Ft.
Pierce (Sb)
Samel, Alvin M., Miami (D)
Samet, Barbara J Miami (P)
Sanderhoff, Jean, Miami
Shores (P)
Sander, John, Surfside (P)
Sands, Harry B., Nassau,
Bahamas (P)
Santa-Maria, Ms. Yvonne,
Miami (P)
Sauvigne, Cecile D., Miami
Sawyer, Viola, Miami (P)
Scarborough, Mrs. Chaffee,
Miami (P)
Schafer, Mr. & Mrs. George,
Coral Gables (D)
Schelberg, Mrs. Richard,
Miami (P)
Schley, The Rev. Fr. Joseph.
Jr., Miami (P)
Schober, Warren, Miami (P)
Schofield, The Rev. & Mrs.
Calvin 0., Miami (D)
Schuh, Niles, Panama City (P)
Schultz, Mrs. Lenore, Coral
Gables (P)
Schwabe, Sharon, Miami (P)
Schwomeyer, Mrs. Ann,
Miami (P)
Selby Public Library, Sarasota
Seley, Ray B. Jr., Miami (P)
Serkin, Manuel, Coral Gables
Sharer, Cyrus J., St. David's,
PA (P)
Sharp, Harry Carter, Miami
Shaw, Henry Overstreet, Coral
Gables (P)
*Shaw, Dr. Luelle, Coral
Gables (P)
Shaw, Mrs. W. F, South
Miami (P)
Shearston, Evelyn R., Miami
Shearston, Misses Helen &
Alice, Tavernier (P)
Shenston, Tiffin Highleyman,
Princeton, NJ (D)
Sherman, Mrs. Ethel
Weatherly, Miami (P)

Sherman, John S., Jr., Vero
Beach (P)
Sherman, Virginia C., Coral
Gables (D)
Sherrick, Dora, Miami Lakes
Shipley, Mr. & Mrs. Vergil,
Coral Gables (D)
Shiver, Otis W., Miami (P)
Shoffner, Mr. & Mrs. George
A., Miami (D)
Sibert, Mr. J. D., Miami (P)
Simmonite, Col. Henry G.,
Coral Gables (P)
Simmons, Mr. & Mrs. Glen,
Homestead (D).
Simms, Mrs. Robert, Miami
Lakes (D)
Simon, Mr. & Mrs. Edwin O,
Miami (D)
Sisca-Cook, Marietta, South
Miami (P)
Sisselman, Mr. Murray, North
Miami Beach (P)
Skigen, Dr. & Mrs. Jack,
Miami (D)
Slack, Mrs. Ted C., Miami (D)
Slesnick, Mr. & Mrs. Donald,
Coral Gables (D)
Smiley, Dr. & Mrs. Karl,
Miami (D)
Smiley, Nixon, Miami (P)
Smith, Mrs. Avery C., Jr.,
Miami (P)
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Linton,
Miami (D)
Smith, McGregor, Miami (D)
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Robert L.,
Miami (P)
Smith, Walter P., Miami (D)
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. William
Burford, Miami (D)
Snare, Rose Tower, Miami (P)
Snodgrass, Miss Dena,
Jacksonville (P)
Snyder, Mrs. Frederick R.,
Miami (P)
Southeast First National Bank
ol Miami (B)
Southern Bell Tel. & Tel. Co.,
Miami (C)
Southern Illinois University,
Carbondale, IL (Sb)
South Florida Growers
Association, Goulds (D)
Souviron, Dr. R. R., Miami
Spach, Helen Keeler, Miami
*Spinks, Mrs, Elizabeth,
Miami (P)

Stafford, Robert C., Miami
Stanford, Dr. Henry King,
Coral Gables (D)
Stanford University Library,
CA (Sb)
Statewide Appraisal Services,
Coral Gables (P)
Stearns, Frank R, Miami (D)
Steams, Mr. & Mrs. Reid F.,
Miami (D)
Steel, William C., Miami (D)
Stein, Mr. & Mrs. Leo S.,
Miami Beach (D)
Steinbring, Mr. & Mrs.
Steven, Miami (D)
Stephens, RADM I. J., (ret)
Miami (B)
Stetson University, Deland
Stevens, Mrs. Elizabeth,
Miami (P)
Stevens, Mr. & Mrs. Jack,
Miami (P)
Stevens, Mark W., Marathon
Stewart, Mr. & Mrs. Chester
B., Miami (D)
Stewart, Dr. Harris B., Jr.,
Coral Gables (P)
"Stiles, Wade, Palm City (P)
Stimson, Mrs. Miriam M.,
Miami (P)
Stokes, Thomas J., Coral
Gables (D)
Stokes, William D., Ph.D.,
Miami (D)
Stone, Mrs. A. J., Miami (P)
Stowe, Kenneth 1., Miami (P)
Straight, Dr. & Mrs. Jacob,
Miami (D)
Straight, Dr. William M.,
Miami (P)
Stripling, John R Miami
Springs (D)
Sullivan, Catherine B Bal
Harbour (P)
Sutcliffe, William H Coral
Gables (P)
Sutton, Mr. & Mrs. William,
Miami Lakes (D)
Sweeney, Mrs. Edward C.,
Miami (Sp)
Syskind, Mr. & Mrs. Eric,
Hallandale (P)

Tampa Public Library (Sb)
lTangorra, Achilles, Miami (P)
Tardif, Robert G., Coral
Gables (P)
Tartak, Mr. & Mrs. N., Coral
Gables (D)

List of Members 95

Tashiro, Joe, North Miami
Beach (P)
Taylor, Mrs. F A. S., Miami
Taylor, Henry H., Jr., Miami
Teasley, T. H., Coral Gables
*Tebeau, Dr. Charlton W.,
Springfield, GA (HL)
Tebeau, Mrs. Violet H.,
Springfield, GA (C)
Tennessee State Library &
Archives, Nashville, TN
Tennis, Mrs. Ann, Miami (P)
*Tharp, Dr. Charles Doren,
South Miami (D)
Thatcher, John, Miami (P)
Theobold, Elizabeth Dillion,
Miami (P)
Thomas, Ms. Kay, Coral
Gables (P)
Thomas, Lowell, Miami (P)
Thomas, Wayne, Tampa (P)
Thomas, W. Donald, Coral
Gables (P)
Thompson, Edward H.,
Miami (D)
Thompson, Mr. & Mrs. Jon,
New York, NY (D)
Thompson, Mrs. Roberta,
Miami (P)
Thomson Mckinnon
Securities, Miami (Sp)
Thomson, Mrs. Parker, Coral
Gables (D)
Thorn, Dale A., Miami (P)
Thorpe, Fran Hutchings,
Miami (P)
Thrift, Dr. Charles T., Jr.,
Lakeland (P)
Tingley, Nancy L., Miami (D)
Toms, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald,
Miami Lakes (D)
Tongay, Mrs. Betty, Miami (P)
Tottenhoff, Mrs. J. R., Coral
Gables (D)
Town, Miss Eleanor E, Coral
Gables (P)
Tracr, Mrs. Zilla P, Miami (P)
Trammell, Mr, & Mrs.
Wilson, Miami (D)
Tranchida, Michael A., North
Miami (P)
Tribble, Byrd B., Miami (D)
Truby, Ms. Ann, Miami (P)
Turner, Mrs, Lawrence O., Jr.,
Miami (P)
Twing, G. S., Coral Gables


Ulrich, Yolanda W., Miami (P)
University of Iowa, Iowa City,
IA (Sb)
University of Miami, Coral
Gables (Sb)
University of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, PA (Sb)
University of South Florida,
Tampa (Sb)
University of West Florida,
Pensacola (Sb)
Upshaw, Mrs. Florence Akin,
Miami (P)

Van Buren, Michael,
Marathon (D)
*Vance, Mrs. Herbert 0.,
Coral Gables (Sp)
Van Denend, Mrs. Herbert,
Hawthorne, NJ (D)
Van Landingham, Kyle S.,
Okeechobee (P)
Van Orsdel, C. D., Coral
Gables (D)
Vegara, Dr. & Mrs. George,
Miami (D)
The Villagers, Coral Gables

Wacks, Howard, North Miami
Wakeman, Mrs. Charles H.,
Jr., Miami (P)
Waldorf, Ms. Robin, Coral
Gables (P)
Waldron, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
J., Coral Gables (P)
Walker, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
H., North Miami (D)
Walker, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
B., Coral Gables (D)
Ward, Alexandria, Coral
Gables (P)
Ward, Carme' Coral Gables
Warren, Mr. & Mrs, Lewis G.
Jr., Coral Gables (D)
Washington Federal Savings
& Loan Association.
Miami Beach (C)
Waters, Fred M., Jr. Coral
Gables (HL)
Waters, Reginald V., Stuart
Watson, Ms. Amber, Fort
Myers Beach (P)

Watson, Miss Hattie, Miami
Weiland, Arthur H., Miami
Weinkle, Julian T., Coral
Gables (P)
Weintraub, Lee I,, Miami (P)
Weintraub, Mrs. Sidney,
Miami (D)
Weissenbom, Mr. & Mrs.
Lee, North Miami Beach
Wenck, James H., Miami (C)
Wepman, Warren S., Miami
Werson, William, Miami (P)
West, Ms. Patsy, Ft.
Lauderdale (D)
West Palm Beach Public
Library (Sb)
Whigham, Mrs. Florence R.,
Franklin, NC (P)
White, Carolyn C., Miami (P)
White, Richard M., Miami
White, Mrs. Robert, Miami
Whitlock, Mary, Coral Gables
Whitmer, Dr. & Mrs, Kenneth
S., Miami (D)
Whitenack, Mrs, Irwen A.,
Coral Gables (P)
Whittelsey, Katharine, Miami
Whitten, George E., Miami
Beach (D)
Wilkins, Woodrow Wilson,
Miami (P)
Wilkinson, Lawrence S.,
Miami Beach (P)
Willey, The Rev. Seaver \.,
Miami (P)
Williams, Elmo H., Miami
Williams, Freeman J., Miami
Williams, Gordon L., Miami
Wilson, Nell G., B:ack
Mountain, NC (Sp)
*Wil on, Peyton -., Mianmi
Wilson, Robert L., Miami (P)

Wimbish, Paul, Miami Beach
Windish, Gage, Miami (P)
Winkelman, Mr. Nikola J.,
Miami (P)
Wipprecht, Mrs. Marion,
Coral Gables (D)
Wirkus, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
R., Miami (D)
Wisconsin State Historical
Society, Madison, WI (Sb)
Withers, James G., Coral
Gables (HL)
Withers Van Line of Miami,
Withers, Wayne L., Coral
Gables (HL)
Wolfe, Miss Rosalie, Miami
Wolfe, Thomas L., Coral
Gables (D)
Wolfson, Col & Mrs.
Mitchell, Miami (C)
Wolfson, Mitchell Jr., Miami
Woodruff, Mrs. W. J., Miami
Woods, Dr. & Mrs. Frank M.,
Miami (D)
*Woore, Mrs. A. Meredith,
Miami (P)
Wooten, Mr. & Mrs. James S.,
Miami (D)
Wright, Mrs. Edward, Miami
Wright, Dr. lone S., Miami
Shores (D)
Wright, Sheffel H M D,
Miami (P)
Wulf, Karlinne, Miami (D)
Wynne, Mr. & Mrs. James R
Miami Beach (D)

Yelen, Bruce, Miami (P)
Young. Mary E., Jupiter (P)
Young, Montgomery L.,
Miami (P)

Zeller, Mrs. Leila, Miami (P)
Zimmerman, Mr, & Mrs.
Louis, Miami Shores (P)
Zwerner, Mrs, Carl. Miami

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