Front Cover
 Lieutenant Hartsuff and the banana...
 The wreck of the Victor
 Cycles of conquest in Florida
 North to south through the Glades...
 The association’s historical marker...
 The treasurer’s annual report
 List of members
 Back Cover

Title: Tequesta
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101446/00023
 Material Information
Title: Tequesta
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Historical Association of Southern Florida
Publisher: (multiple)
Publication Date: 1963
Copyright Date: 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101446
Volume ID: VID00023
Source Institution: Historical Museum of Southern Florida
Holding Location: Florida International University: Florida History and Heritage
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 2096319
lccn - 42015131
issn - 0363-3705


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Lieutenant Hartsuff and the banana plants
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    The wreck of the Victor
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 20a
        Page 20b
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Cycles of conquest in Florida
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    North to south through the Glades in 1883
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    The association’s historical marker program
        Page 61
    The treasurer’s annual report
        Page 62
        Page 63
    List of members
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Back Cover
        Page 72
Full Text


Editor: Charlton W. Tebeau


Lieutenant Hartsuff and the Banana Plants 3
By Ray B. Seley, Jr.

The Wreck of the Victor 15
By Mrs. Bessie Wilson DuBois

Cycles of Conquest in Florida 23
By Charles W. Arnade

North to South Through the Glades in 1883 33
Edited by Mary K. Wintringham

Contributors 60

The Association's Historical Marker Program 61

The Treasurer's Annual Report 62

List of Members 64


e t ) is published annually by the Historical Association of Southern Florida
and the University of Miami. Communications should be addressed to
the Corresponding Secretary of the Society, 2010 North Bayshore Drive, Miami 37,
Florida. Neither the Association nor the University assumes responsibility for statements
of fact or opinion made by contributors.

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document

Ire u tstA:

Lieutenant Hartsuff and the Banana Plants

Most readers of Florida history have come across the story of how the
third phase of the Seminole Wars was started in December of 1855, when
the soldiers "chopped down the banana plants, just to see Old Billy cut up,"
and how Billy Bowlegs retaliated by attacking the party next morning.
The incident changed the pattern of the efforts of the United States Govern-
ment to send the Seminoles to the Indian Territory and should not be
dismissed so lightly. For several years before the attack a system of pressure
tactics had been used in the attempt to persuade the Seminoles to emigrate
to the Indian Territory.' Increasing numbers of troops were placed on the
frontier, military roads and outposts were built and more citizens were
allowed to occupy the areas vacated by the Indians. At the same time, the
Indians were urged to migrate by some of their brethren who were brought
from Indian Territory for that purpose, and rewards were offered for the
capture of Indians. Following the attack, open hostilities broke out, ending
in 1858 when all but a few of the remaining Seminoles had been captured
and sent to Oklahoma.

The Military records indicate that the story of the destruction of the
banana plants has no foundation in fact. While there is mention of some
soldiers taking bananas from a deserted village, it appears likely that the
Indians making the attack did not know it. When advised that the first small
military patrol of the new dry season was proceeding along the road to the
outposts established during the previous winter, Bowlegs probably ordered

1 James W. Covington, "The Indian Scare of 1849," Tequesta, Number XXI, 1961 con-
tains a discussion of government policies and status of the Indians during this period.


a party of warriors to watch their movements. The route of the Indians from
their home near Royal Palm Hammock to the site of the attack would not
likely have taken them through the deserted village.

The story of the destruction of the banana plants stems from the pen
of Andrew P. Canova, private in the Volunteers, who wrote a series of
interesting letters to his home town newspaper at Palatka, describing his
adventures and explaining to the folks back home why he had come to
south Florida to fight the Indians. Later, with the help and urging of
friends, he added an introduction and some other stories which were pub-
lished as a pamphlet in 1855. His introductory remarks tell the story of the
banana plant episode. He was not present at the attack but joined the
Volunteers in 1856.2

By 1854, posts had been established for some time at Fort Meade, Fort
Dallas, Fort Brooke at Tampa Bay, and an outpost at Fort Myers, among
others, and preparations were made to advance the frontier of white settle-
ment to the south, on the west side of Lake Okeechobee. In December, 1853,
George Lucas Hartsuff, 2nd Lieutenant, 2nd Artillery, was transferred from
the Eighth Department of the Army, at Fort Brown, Texas, to arrive in
Florida some months later.

Hartsuff was born at Tyre, New York, on the 28th of May, 1830, and
moved to Michigan with his family in 1842. In 1848, he secured an appoint-
ment to the Military Academy, and graduated in 1852, in nineteenth place
in a class of forty-three members.3 After a month at Governor's Island, he
went with a detachment of recruits to join his Company at Fort Brown,
Texas. Here he was engaged most of the time in scouting and escort duty.
Under confidential orders from Department Headquarters, he made an
examination of the Rio Grande Valley from Rio Grande City to the Gulf to
find suitable locations for posts at a time when there was threatened diffi-
culty with Mexico concerning the Messila Valley.4

2 Andrew P. Canova, Life and Adventures in South Florida, Tribune Printing Company,
Tampa, Florida, reprinted 1906.
3 George W. Cullum, Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U.S.
Military Academy, Vol. II, page 484-490.
4 National Archives, Records of the War Department, "Office of the Adjutant General,
Appointment, Commission and Personal Branch," 2557 ACP 1871.


In the fall of 1853, Yellow Fever ravaged the whole Gulf coast.
Hartsuff was extremely ill during the month of December, and was granted
two months leave which was extended three months longer for him to
recuperate. Returning to duty in June, he was ordered to join his company
and arrived at Fort Meade on July 1, 1854.5

In April and May of 1854, Lt. Henry Benson had examined the country
between Fort Meade and Fort Thompson, and between Fort Meade and a
point opposite Fort Myers on the Caloosahatchee with a view to making
roads.6 In October, Lieutenant Hartsuff examined the country between Lieu-
tenant Benson's blazed route and Peas Creek." Lieutenant Benson, meanwhile,
explored the route for a road from Fort Thompson to the ford on
Thlathlopopka-hatchee, or Fisheating Creek, and the rest of the route from
Fort Meade around the headwaters of Fisheating Creek to Fort Thompson.s

On the second of November, Major Lewis Golding Arnold was ordered
to move his command from Fort Meade to Fort Thompson, making a road
as he went. The re-activation of Fort Thompson was the beginning of five
months of extensive study and exploration of the area south of the Caloosa-
hatchee, and attempts to find routes across the Everglades to connect Fort
Dallas and Fort Capron with the west coast.

Lieutenant Hartsuff left Fort Thompson December fifth to explore the
country between the Thathlopopka south down the shore of Lake Okeechobee
and back along the Caloosahatchee. He found that he could get no nearel
the lake than five miles with his wagon, but learned the extent of the marsh
bordering the lake. Returning on December eighth, he was ordered to examine
the south bank of the Caloosahatchee and continue along the shore of the
lake. Two days sufficed to convince him that it was of the same character
and that it was "totally unfitted for human habitation."9

In the early part of January, 1855, parties were sent to make further
explorations. Lt. Thomas McCurdy Vincent left Fort Thompson to explore

5 National Archives, Memo Book, Headquarters Troops in Florida, Series II, Vol. 16,
page 11, RG98.
6 National Archives, Records of the Department of Florida, "Letters Received, Florida,"
RG98, B 6 1854.
7 Ibid. H 19 1854
8 Ibid. B 11 1854.
9 Ibid. Enclosure with 64 M 1855.


Fisheating Creek. Taking a boat, he launched it at the first place where
he could approach the banks, descended to the site of old Fort Center,
continued to its mouth, and explored the lake shore for a few miles on
each side. He found only marsh and the only solid ground at the site of
Fort Center and at the place where he launched his boat.10

Lieut. Stephen H. Weed explored the Caloosahatchee River from Fort
Myers and found it navigable for large size boats as far as Fort Deynaud.-'
Lieutenant Hartsuff explored some thirty or more miles to the southeast
from Fort Thompson and found he could not approach closer than a mile
to Lake Okeechobee because of the marsh, and found only one site where
a blockhouse might be built. He followed an Indian trail northward to
where it crossed the Caloosahatchee and recognized the crossing as the place
he had been the month before when exploring the north side of that river.12

Colonel Harvey Brown arrived at Fort Myers on January 12th with six
companies of recruits for the 2nd Artillery, and assumed command of the
troops south of the Caloosahatchee. On January 20th, instructions were issued
to him to build a blockhouse at Fort Deynaud, one on the opposite bank
of the river, one at the site of old Fort Center, and one on the east side of
Lake Okeechobee. A blockhouse was to be erected at the site of old Depot
No. 1, at the head of the Big Cypress, one at Punta Rassa, and additional
storehouses at Fort Myers. Roads were to be built to connect these posts,
and to be extended southeast to the Everglades. These works were to occupy
the rest of the dry winter season. 13

To Major William Hays was given the work at Fort Deynaud and Fort
Center.14 Captain Henry Clay Pratt was ordered to build the road from
Fort Myers to the head of the Big Cypress about forty miles southeast, find
a suitable site and erect a blockhouse.15

Lieutenant Hartsuff was appointed Topographical Engineer on January
22nd, and ordered to accompany Captain Pratt. His instructions from
Colonel Brown were, in part:

To Ibid. 1/64 M 1855.
11 Ibid. 2/64 M 1855.
12 Ibid. 3/64 M 1855.
13 Ibid. 3/54 M 1855.
14 Ibid. 4/54 M 1855.
15 Ibid. 5/54 M 1855.


"I have selected you to perform the duties of Topographical
Engineer, to survey the country in the vicinity of the Big Cypress
Swamp & Everglades, in connection with the parties to be sent to
cut roads from this post & to build forts at such places as may be
selected . The chief objects to which you will direct your attention
besides the general geography of the country and the marking out
of roads, will be the finding and conspicuously marking pine
islands, hammocks, & other high grounds where troops can be
encamped in the summer, or in the wet season, water courses,
streams, ponds and wells where water can be provided in winter ...
You will also note the quantity of arable land and its quality that
you may discover, where and how located and as you will have seen
& reconnoitered nearly all the practicable country south of Fish
Eating Creek, you will please give the results of your observations,
as to its value & capability of supporting a civilized population

Lieutenant Hartsuff went with Captain Pratt, helped with the selection
of a site for the blockhouse, which was named Fort Simon Drum. He
explored to the southeast for a few days and then blazed a trail northward
to Fort Deynaud. On February 16th, the blockhouse was finished and
Captain Pratt's command was relieved by Captain Arnold Elzey and his
company. Accompanied by Hartsuff, Elzey proceeded eastward towards the
Everglades, and selected Waxy Hadjo's landing as the site for his block-
house. It was named Fort Shackelford.17 From there, Hartsuff explored south
along the Everglades three miles, which was as far as conditions would permit.
To the northward, he reached the area he had explored in early January.

Finding the country south of Fort Shackelford too difficult, it was
decided to continue explorations from Fort Drum. A supply depot was
established 18 miles southeast of that base. From there, Hartsuff explored
the country to the east and south. He found several Indian villages, including
those of Assunwa and Billy Bowlegs, who were both friendly and visited
the encampment of the troops. The explorations from there reached the area
explored from Fort Shackelford.

16 Ibid. Enclosure with 116 M 1856, Report of reconnaissance, Hartsuff, June 18, 1855,
and 7 B 1855.
17 Ibid. Enclosure with 7 B 1855, Elzey to Brown, February 26, 1855.


In April, Hartsuff explored to the southwest from Fort Drum, finding
old Fort Keais, but was unable to find the site of Fort Foster. A base camp
was established eighteen miles southwest from Fort Drum, and explorations
extended towards the Gulf of Mexico. Parties on foot were able to penetrate
to Malco River (now Marco River or possibly Henderson Creek), but it was
not possible to find a route suitable for a wagon road.

The arrival of the spring rains terminated the operations in early June.
The supply depots and Forts Shackelford and Drum were abandoned for
the season, and the troops went back to Fort Myers and Fort Deynaud. On
June 18th, Hartsuff submitted his report and maps. Following are excerpts
from his nineteen page report.

"On my arrival at Fort Deynaud after an absence in the swamp
of more than three months, my field duties as Topographical Engi-
neer ended. The map accompanying this I have made full and com-
plete as possible with the limited means in my power, and to it I must
refer you, for any information of the country, not contained in
this report. There is not a trail or road represented that I have not
passed over ."

"For agricultural purposes, I can conceive of no country not
entirely a barren waste, more utterly & wholly worthless than this.
The only portion, that can be made at all productive are the ham-
mocks which are small few & scattered, for all other purposes it is
in my opinion equally valueless to a civilized population. It can
never be occupied except in the same manner as the Indians who
occupy it. For them in consequence of their peculiar habit & wants
it is habitable & considering its resources to them both for subsis-
tence & concealment, and the smallness of their number, as a strong-
hold in case of hostilities, it is impregnable.

"There are dense tangled hammocks, thickets, lily ponds, etc.,
innumerable in which every part of their nation might baffle the
search of our whole army. They have a large number of hogs, some
cattle, their storehouses contain more or less corn & they seem to
have plenty of powder and ball. There are cabbage trees alone in
the swamp provided they had no other means of subsistence, suffi-
cient to last them a century & to prevent them from obtaining food


from the coast in fish oysters etc., would require a force in boats
throughout its whole extent from Punta Rassa to Cape Sable. Their
perfect system of espionage and signal fires, will effectually prevent
their ever being taken by chance or accident. Considering all this &
keeping in view the result of a former expedition in the same
country by a large force, led by experienced guides in which after
a long and severe campaign, two soldiers were killed & not an Indian
seen, I think I may be justified in asserting that if the Indians are
properly led, I would engage to take Sebastopol in the same time
and with the same number of men that I would require to forcibly
expel them.""'

Further explorations would have to wait for the end of the rainy
season. From June to November, in an average year, water covers much of
the area. The land is essentially flat. Except for occasional pine islands a
few inches higher than the surrounding area, the ground will not support
the hooves of horses or wagon wheels. The heavy rainfall usually ceases in
October, and a few more weeks must elapse before the ground dried suffi-
ciently to permit exploring parties to take the field. Early in December,
Colonel Brown issued orders to Hartsuff; ". . you will proceed to Fort
Simon Drum, and from thence to Fort Shackelford, and those parts of the
Big Cypress Swamp explored last year, and will examine their present con-
dition; whether the forts are in good order and have not been disturbed; and
the country as to water, cultivation and provisions of the Indians and more
particularly, whether inhabited now or at any time during the winter by
them; in what numbers, and whether and to what extent they have planted."'-

Hartsuff left Fort Myers on December 7th, 1855, with six mounted
men, two foot soldiers, and two teamsters driving two wagons drawn by
mules. They encamped the second night about thirty miles southeast of Fort
Myers, and on the third day, while exploring, saw an Indian man and a boy

is Ibid. Copy of report of reconnaissance, George L. Hartsuff, enclosure with 116 M 1855.
The map, opposite page 26, Memoirs of Major Frances N. Page, Series II, Vol. 8,
Records of the Department of Florida, RG98, appears to be tie original by Hartsuff.
L89-7, RG77, bears the signature of "H. C. Pratt, Capt. 2nd Arty., 1856," and appears
to be a working copy. L89-3, March 1857 and L89-6, were drawn by Captain J. W.
Abert, probably in the course of preparation for L89-1, April 1857, which is a large
map of Florida on tracing paper, encompassing the information from Hartsuff's map
and report.
19 Ibid. 49 B 1855.


herding hogs. The Indians tried to avoid the soldiers and showed no dispo-
sition to give any information. The next day the scouting party found Fort
Simon Drum had been burned. They proceeded to Fort Shackelford and
found it burned also. Two days examination of the country and deserted
Indian villages, and the trails overgrown with weeds convinced them there
had been no Indians in the vicinity in recent months. Returning to Fort
Drum, they went southeast and encamped on the night of December 17th
on a pine island, in the vicinity of the supply depot used the previous
spring. On the 18th, they went to Billy Bowlegs' camp of the previous year
and found it deserted, with untended vegetables growing where previous
gardens had been. Private William Baker, in his statement says, "they saw
no one there; some of the party took a bunch of bananas." On the 19th, they
visited some other Indian villages but these also were deserted and they
found no signs of the presence of Indians.20

Having been told the evening before that they were to return to Fort
Myers, the teamsters rose early on the morning of Thursday, the 20th, to
harness the twelve mules, and the rest of the men were called shortly there-
after. Private Otto Hersch cooked breakfast and fed the men, and while
he was packing the equipment the others started to saddle their horses.
Baker was preparing breakfast for Lieut. Hartsuff who was dressed and had
washed and was combing his hair. Sergeant Holland and Corporal Williams
were on the far side of the pines with their horses. Hanna and Murtagh were
saddling their horses near the wagons. The teamsters and two other men were
lounging near the fire. Suddenly, shots rang out, accompanied by war whoops.
A party of Indians had approached to within a few yards undetected. The men
near the fire fell instantly.

Upon seeing the Indians, Hanna and Murtagh fired their own guns
and finding three others nearby, fired these also. Hanna was wounded and
Murtagh sought protection under the wagon. After firing once more, Hanna
followed to the wagon.

20 Ibid. 59 B 1855. The sequence of the scout and skirmish are reconstructed from the
reports of the survivors. The cover endorsement states that 59 B 1855 contained
thirteen enclosures. Some of the enclosures were forwarded to the Adjutant General's
Office, with 15 M 1856, Letters Received, AGO, RG94. No statement of Private Ernest
Bordsedh, of Company "K," was found. He was not listed as among those killed, nor
among those who escaped uninjured. The extent of his injuries is not known.


When Baker saw the Indians, he dropped the officer's breakfast, seized
his musket, fired once and then ran to the wagon to join Hanna and Murtagh.
Hersch, by himself, packing the mess equipment, fired at an Indian and fell
to the ground. After reloading, and seeing no more of the soldiers, he
endeavored to escape in the high grass. Holland and Williams had left their
muskets behind. They retreated to cover around the edge of a nearby

Meanwhile, Hartsuff from the door of his tent, fired his revolver with
effect at close range at Indians whose attention was directed towards the
wagons, and after receiving a wound in the arm, ran to the wagon. After
five minutes of fighting Hartsuff found his command reduced to three privates,
one wounded, and himself with a broken arm.

After firing a few rounds, Murtagh fell with a wound in the abdomen,
and Baker was disabled by a ball striking his knife, bending it, and severely
injuring his thigh. Hanna, whose wound had been less serious, continued
to fight. Hartsuff fired with his right arm, while Baker loaded the guns for
him. A ball struck the lieutenant's revolver in its holster and the pain
and shock disabled him for a few minutes. After receiving a third wound,
a ball in his chest, Hartsuff decided to give up the fight. He ordered Baker
and Hanna to retreat and tried to reach a hammock twenty yards away.

Baker loaded two rifles for Hanna, and then retreated. Hanna fired the
loaded guns, passed Hartsuff and overtook Baker, and they made good their
escape. Approximately sixty-five miles from the nearest help, both wounded,
and low on ammunition, the two men started making their way to Fort Myers.

Expecting pursuit on horseback, they avoided the road to escape
detection, until within three miles of Fort Drum. When they reached the
Fort Drum to Fort Myers road, they still had forty-five miles to go. Late in
the afternoon of Friday, they came to a camping area fifteen miles from
Fort Myers used previously by troops. Baker, completely exhausted, stayed
there. Hanna reached Fort Myers about seven o'clock that evening. In addition
to the shallow wound from the left side to the right side of his abdomen,
he found he had a bullet hole through his hat, two through his coat, and three
through his pantaloons.


After dispatching an ambulance for Baker, Colonel Brown instructed
Captain Elzey to start at daybreak for Fort Drum, with his command and
a six pounder. An express rider was sent to Fort Deynaud with orders for
Major Arnold to withdraw the small garrison from Fort Center, to warn
Lieut. Lamed who was repairing the road from Fort Meade, and for Arnold
to lead two companies to Fort Drum, join with Elzey, and search for sur-
vivors. Three men were sent to Fort McKenzie to warn the small command

About three o'clock Saturday morning, Sergeant Holland and Corporal
Williams arrived at Fort Myers reporting an uneventful escape. Private Otto
Hersch, who had lost his way, returned Saturday afternoon by way of the
Fort Deynaud road.

On Saturday morning, Captain Elzey departed for Fort Drum. Colonel
Brown sent another dispatch to Major Arnold, advising him to hasten his
departure from Fort Deynaud, and to send back some horses, as there were
no more available for express riders.

Major Arnold left Fort Deynaud at one-thirty P.M. that day and
arrived at Fort Drum on Sunday, December 23rd, and Captain Elzey arrived
shortly after. At eight o'clock that evening, Lieutenant Hartsuff made his
way to their camp.

While trying to reach the protection of a hammock, Hartsuff had fallen
into a lily pond. Too exhausted to rise, he remained there with only his head
out of the water. While there he heard an Indian repeatedly cry, "Come out,
come out." After about two hours, he managed to walk about two hundred
yards towards the road, where he fell among the dwarf palmettos. He stayed
there until night, and then moved about half a mile. There he stayed con-
cealed two days, until the evening of Saturday, the 22nd. Suffering from
exhaustion, wounds, thirst, and hunger, he alternately walked and rested until
sunrise. Finding water, he rested until Sunday afternoon when he resumed
his march. The glow of campfires and beating of "tattoo" led him to Arnold's

The Surgeon with Major Arnold's company probed two and one-half
inches for the ball in Hartsuff's chest, but was unable to find it. The Surgeon
at Fort Myers did not deem it advisable to make further search.


Major Arnold marched on the 25th to the scene of the skirmish and
buried the dead. The mules and two horses had been killed and five other
horses apparently taken by the Indians. The wagons had been burned. Four
men had been killed, four others wounded, and three escaped uninjured.

Hartsuff had realized that the burning of the forts meant that he should
exercise caution, but in view of the abandoned villages and the absence of
any sign of recent occupation by Indians, he thought it safe to continue his
scout as ordered. The expeditions of Rogers and Parkhill during the two
succeeding years found that the Indians had moved to the vicinity of the
present Collier Seminole State Park, in southwestern Collier County, some
fifty miles away from the scene of the skirmish.

The Indian man and boy herding hogs, seen on the third day of the
scout, had probably communicated the progress of the scouting party to
the other Indians. Bowlegs was an old man and would not likely have led
the war party himself. Sergeant Holland reported that he saw a tall Indian
that seemed to be a chief. Canova describes a tall Indian named Safajahojee,
as being second in command to Bowlegs. When advised that the scouting party
was heading southeast into the Big Cypress, Bowlegs no doubt sent Safaja-
hojee with a group of warriors to observe the soldiers. Traveling northeast-
ward from their home to the nearest point on the military trail, Safajahofee
and his men found Lieut. Hartsuff's camp. Bowlegs' old banana plants were
several miles away to the east and not on the route the Indians would have
followed. The attack was most likely prompted by the exuberance of Safaja-
hojee and the desire of the Indians to do something that would impress their
own people.

By February 27th, Hartsuff had recovered, and was given the command
of a special detachment of thirty mounted men, organized for patrol and
escort duty. They were given special equipment, including Colt revolvers
and lariats, and were known as the "Mounted Volunteers." They saw action in
several skirmishes in the succeeding year's efforts to remove the Seminoles.21

Hartsuff's last scout in south Florida was from Fort Myers north to
Charlotte Harbor, and back along Peas Creek, in June, 1856. Expecting some

21 Ibid. 28 B 1856, and Order No. 6 and No. 8, Headquarters Troops on the Caloosa-
hatchee, Fort Myers, February 27, 1856.


leave, he started northward, on July 11th, in command of a detachment of
invalids, who were being transferred to Fort Columbus, New York. He was
diverted without leave, to be assigned as Assistant Instructor of Artillery
at the Military Academy at West Point. After two years at the Academy and
various other assignments, he accompanied the secret mission to defend Fort
Pickens, just prior to the outbreak of the Civil War.

After serving in several major battles during the Civil War, and being
wounded again at Antietam, he was assigned to less active duties, serving
on advisory boards and in the office of the Adjutant General. He was retired
as a Major General in 1871. In May 1874, he was stricken with pneumonia,
and died on the 17th at Sturtevant House, New York City, at the age of
forty-four. He was buried at West Point. An autopsy revealed the pneumonia
infection which caused his death was centered around the wound in his
chest received 19 years earlier at the skirmish in the Big Cypress.22

22 2557 ACP 1871, see note 4.

The Wreck of the Victor

Unravelling the mystery of two barnacle encrusted, sea-grown boilers
of a sunken steamer south of Jupiter inlet, about 300 yards in the Atlantic
off the Jupiter Civic Center, proved to be one of the most fascinating quests
in researching we have ever attempted.

The old ship had rested there so many decades that her identity had long
been forgotten. The place was known to fishermen as simply "the boilers".
Grouper and snapper abounded in the shady depths. The twenty or so feet
of water covering the wreck was usually crystal clear and of that lovely blue
green so characteristic of south Florida sea water. A huge jewfish made the
old fire box of the ship his private retreat until one day he was hauled forth
to become the prize trophy of his generation.

Searching in the Florida material in the Memorial Library in West
Palm Beach we came across a small item from the memoirs of Charles
Pierce which gave us our first clue to the identity of the vessel. It told of
the Steamer Victor which sank off Jupiter in 1872.

Our first inquiries to the Coast Guard and National Archives were not
fruitful. There was no record of the Victor. Finally however a letter was
received from National Archives with the following information about the

"A Steamboat Inspection Service casualty report states that on October
20, 1872, the S. S. Victor (Official No. 25686), while enroute from New
York to New Orleans, "broke her shaft" near the Jupiter, Florida, lighthouse,
filled with water and sank quickly without the loss of life. The vessel, which
was valued at $140,000, was described as having three decks, a round stern,
and a carved head; and as measuring 205.5 feet in length, 36 feet in width,
19 feet in depth, and 1326 gross tons. The cargo, which was valued at
$150,000, was also a complete loss. Charles Mallory of Mystic Connecticut,
was listed as the Victor's owner. No crew or passenger lists for this voyage
have been located in the National Archives."


A much more graphic account of the shipwreck came however from
Mrs. Lillie Pierce Voss of Boynton, Florida. Her father was assistant keeper
of Jupiter lighthouse for one year, 1872. The shipwreck occurred before she
was born but she had heard her father relate the story of that stormy
October day many times and her brother Charles had recorded many of the

Her father, H. D. Pierce, was on duty in the tower of the Jupiter light-
house. A northeaster was blowing. Shortly after midnight he saw a glare of
Coston lights south of the inlet and knew a ship was in distress. He ran
down the spiral stairway to the dwelling occupied by the three keepers
and awakened Captain Armour and the other assistant Charles Carlin. The
three men climbed the tower and presently more lights indicated the location
of the distressed vessel.

The three men were all resourceful and used to the sea so they im-
mediately set about loading Captain Armour's sailboat, the Almeada, with
ropes and other paraphernalia necessary to rescue operations. Before day-
light they sailed down to the inlet and landed on the south side. Captain
Armour carried a lantern shielded by his coat. They dragged the ropes and
other tools down the beach.

At daybreak they could see the steamer lying broadside with waves
breaking over and around her. People were huddled amidship. The three
men on the shore were the only white men along this desolate shore for a
hundred miles. The gleam of the Captain's lantern must have been like an
answer to a prayer.

When daylight came signs from the ship indicated that a buoy was
being sent ashore. Even with a shore breeze blowing it came in with
tantalizing slowness after it was lowered from the stern of the Victor.

For nearly two hours the men attempted to capture it, wading into the
surf almost up to their armpits. They had planted a big timber from the
beach in the sand. It took the combined strength of the three men to haul
the heavy cable attached to the buoy up the beach and make it fast to the
buried timber. Then the men on the steamer took up the slack and they were
ready to launch the first boat. This was in charge of the first officer and
carried the passengers and the stewardess. This boat was pulled to land


without any mishap. The second one also came in safely but the last one
was capsized by an extra big sea. Those on shore managed to pull the
half drowned men up on the beach.

Mrs. Libby, her 7 year old daughter and a Jewish merchant from
New York were the only passengers. Mrs. Libby was on her way to New
Orleans to join her husband who was captain of a barque loading in New
Orleans preparing to sail for Bordeaux, France. She hoped to accompany
him on the voyage.

They were told that when the shaft first broke they anchored the
steamer but the torrents of water rushed in so fast, they feared the steamer
would sink, so slipped the cable to let the ship drift toward the beach.
Mrs. Libby said no one could imagine what a relief it was to them to
see the lantern moving along the shore.

There were sheep and pigs on board but they all drowned, washing
about in the surf. There were three fine dogs who swam to shore safely
and were adopted by the lighthouse families. The two small boys on light-
house hill were Henry Carlin 4 and Charlie Pierce 8. The Pierce dog was
named "Wreck", the Armour's dog, "Vic" and Carlin's was "Surf". Poor
Wreck never forgot that storm and sought refuge under the bed whenever
the northeasters blew.

The captain and crew made tents of the sails and camped on the
beach. The Libbys and the stewardess were taken aboard the Almeada to be
cared for at the lighthouse.

This proved to be an exciting day of days for the lighthouse families
for Charlie Pierce came running up from the dock to announce the arrival
of seven canoe loads of Seminoles. These Indians always stopped i-nt visit
Captain Armour on their rare visits from far south. Mrs. Armour managed
to somehow convey to them, the story of the shipwreck.

One by one as if they did not trust the tower with their combined weight,
they climbed up and looked down past the inlet where the steamer lay. Then
to the great relief of the three ladies the Indians embarked in their canoes
and paddled down to the inlet.


At 10 P. M. that night the Victor began to break up. The valuable
cargo was given to the sea. The beaches were strewn with merchandise of all
sorts. Packing cases and boxes surged into the inlet with the incoming tide
and floated around in the river. H. D. Pierce was standing beside an Indian
on the lighthouse dock when a particularly interesting case appeared. The
Indian moved toward it but Pierce had read the markings and knew what
was inside. "That's mine", he cried. That is how Mrs. Pierce came by the
Wheeler and Wilson sewing machine that did a lifetime of stitching for her
family. Indeed salvage from the Victor provided many much needed items
for this family had lost all their possessions in a fire on Indian river a
short time before they came to Jupiter. Three fifty yard bolts of black
silk came ashore twisted and full of sand to be sure, but usable, and a case
of fifty men's suits and bolts of bleached and of unbleached muslin which
must have been useful for sheets, shirts and any number of garments.

On October 24th the steamer General Meade upon signals from the
lighthouse stopped and took the passengers and crew of the Victor from the
beach and the next day transhipped the crew to the steamer City of Austin
bound for New York. The General Meade proceeded with the passengers to
New Orleans.'

Down on the beach near the shipwreck were encamped the seven canoe
loads of Indians. Among the debris coming ashore was a case of Plantation
Bitters. Other eatables were plentiful and a feast was in progress with joyous
whoops heard all the way to the lighthouse.

According to Mrs. Voss the Seminoles stayed on the beach for several
days salvaging food and merchandise that came ashore, which must have
been as great a bonanza to them as to the lighthouse families.

When we learned the Victor was a Mallory ship one of our friends
suggested we write to the Marine Museum at Mystic Connecticut. This led
to an extremely interesting correspondence with Mr. James Kleinschmidt
assistant to the Curator of the Mystic Seaport Museum of the Marine
Historical Association Inc. He gave us information about the Victor from
the personal diary of Mr. Charles Mallory. Most exciting of all, he was able

1 This information comes from the personal diary of Mr. Charles Mallory-Marine
Historical Assn., Inc. The City of Austin was lost in 1881 at the Fernandina Bar.


to provide us with a picture of the Victor. By now our interest in the old
steamer was becoming intense and each new development fascinated us

Mr. Kleinschmidt told us the Victor was built at the Mallory shipyard,
Mystic Conn. in 1863 and her sole owner was Mr. Charles Mallory. Her
first master was Capt. Elihu Spicer, Jr. of Mystic. In 1865 Capt. Gurdon
Gates became her master and was with her when she came ashore at
Jupiter. Her description tallies with that given us by National Archives
except for a few more details such as, Iron screw steamer, two masts,
brig-rigged. He says "the stern tube was damaged by the thrashing shaft
and great volumes of water entered the vessel."

"The Victor was a total loss and although insured for $50,000 her
actual value amounted to about twice that sum. Mr. Mallory stated that his
personal loss amounted to at least $12,000, the balance being carried by
the company. Ship owning could be a discouraging business in those days."

There seems to be no record of the part played by the Jupiter lighthouse
men in the rescue of the passengers and crew of the Victor. Mr. Mallory
says "Capt. Gates and eight men landed at 11 A. M. The passengers were
landed soon after. During the afternoon wind and sea increased and by
10 P. M. the Victor began to break up."

Mr. Kleinschmidt was much interested in the Florida report of the
shipwreck of this Mallory vessel, many of which had been sunk in the
early coastwise service.

Captain Armour continued at the Jupiter lighthouse for forty years.
Mr. Pierce moved in 1873 to Hypoluxo. Charles Carlin was in charge of
the Jupiter Life Saving Station from 1886 to 1896 located only a short
distance from the resting place of the Victor.

The story might well have ended here but strangely at this point in
May of 1957 we were approached by two young men, Harry Akers and
Herb Michaud. They had been scouting the coastline in a small plane and
saw through the clear green water the bones of the Victor swept clear of a
deep blanket of sand by an unusual current. They wanted to salvage the metal
from the engines of the steamer and asked permission to keep their barge
and equipment at our dock. This was something we could not resist. The


day soon came when the Victor like a great shaggy dog we have petted
only to have it follow us home-was piled piecemeal beside our dock. By
that time not only ourselves but our children and grandchildren were ob-
sessed by the Victor and we eagerly awaited the first diving expedition to
the wreck of the old steamer.

The two young divers set forth before day on a May morning. The out-
going tide helped the twin outboards on the aluminum skiff to move the
barge out of the inlet to the gentle sea. Presently they were anchored over
the Victor. All day they dove and hoisted. When Zeke, our oldest grandson,
ran in at sundown shouting that they were coming in the inlet with their
first load, the whole family assembled on the dock to gaze at the great
pile of fascinating debris piled on the scow. Each sea grown relic was eagerly
inspected. With a feeling of sadness, we looked at the piece of unworn brass
Harry held up as he said, "She was a young ship."

The divers found part of the wooden stern still in place and also the
great shaft that, breaking, had brought the Victor to her grave on this
shore. The iron blades of the propellor were also embedded in the sand and
the dynamite used to break away the rust and coral formation, stirred
up intriguing odds and ends.

Our none too gentle hint for souvenirs was not forgotten. We were pre-
sented with a heavy white china plate with a serving of six nice oysters
growing right on it. The plate was made in England with the stamped
address of J. M. Shaw, Chatham and Duane St. N. Y. Then we were handed
what appeared to be a lump of rust and shells, but proved to be a clock.
The face fell off in my hands and wheels and works could be seen in the
growth. Next was a copper plate from the steam pump, green with verdigris
and frail as lace with the name "A. S. Cameron" and a patent date of 1866
still discernable.

Photo by Shirley Floyd
Salvaged from the Wreck of the Victor
Top shelf: hand bell, silverware and baggage tag
Middle shelf: china plates, clock, door knobs, plate from steam pump
Bottom shelf: brass vacuum gauge, clock face, and hames

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document


One day, the men came in with great lumps of coal on the barge. Pieces of
metal stuck out at every angle from the coal and proved to be some of the
ship's table silver so well buried that it had hardly become corroded by the
salt water. There was a box of steel knives and another of three dozen axe
heads all rusted solidly together. The contents of a box of several dozen
curved wooden things fitted with iron rings had us all puzzled until someone
identified them as hames for horses harness. Several little handbells when
soaked free of shell growth and the clappers repaired, still rang merrily
for waiters who were long gone.

On another trip down, the divers found a shotgun. As they lifted it the
rusted barrels fell away leaving only the worn and wormeaten stock. The
large brass face of another clock, doorknobs, hinges and even buttons were
added to our array of relics.

We continued to hope something would be found with the name of the
vessel on it. One day Harry came up with an impish grin and handed us
a small brass tag in the form of a shield with the words Steamer Victor and
the number 26 below engraved in the metal. Of the several picked up, one
still had a bit of leather in the slot. They were evidently baggage tags with
the numbers of the staterooms still resting in the debris of the luggage.

One of these baggage tags was sent to the Marine Museum in Mystic,
Connecticut where the Victor was built.

The scrap metal from the Victor had long since been hauled away and
sand drifted again over the remains of the old shipwreck. We thought the
story ended, believing that no tribal records existed among the Seminoles.
We were wrong for these stories of the past are graven upon the memories
of the elders of the tribe. Billy Bowlegs III recalled hearing of the 1872 ship-
wreck although he was not one of those who paddled up to the lighthouse
dock that October day. This is his version of the shipwreck as told to his
friend, Mr. Albert DeVane.

The seven canoe loads of Seminoles were a band living in that territory
from there to Ft. Lauderdale. Billy said four clans or families were at the
wreckage and got quite some articles strewn along the beach.

Old Tom Jumper's family, he was Otter clan, his wife Wildcat. He had
quite a family, one daughter, Annie, who married Dr. Tommy, and who died


at Big Cypress a few years ago, had eight children. One of them is Rev.
Sam Tommy of the Brighton Reservation. Another family there was Indian
Henry Clay and his family, his wife Bird clan. Their descendants at Dania
and Big Cypress were the Osceola boys.

Another was the Wind clan who were from the sister of Billy Corn-
patch, Billy Fewell (Billy Bowlegs III's father). There were probably some
from Bear clan now represented by Josie Billy's present wife and Bobby Jim,
her brother, at Brighton Reservation.

I asked Billy what all they got from the wreck, "Cloth and clothing,
barrels of flour, kegs of rum, brown sugar in barrels, different articles in
trunks and suitcases and boxes, also cured and salt bacon that floated and
washed ashore."

He had heard the story many times-Mr. DeVane estimated the seven
canoes held twenty-five or thirty Indians including the children.

With this last piece in place the story of the wreck of the Victor
closes. Neither the old bones of the ship, nor the snapper and grouper seeking
its shady recesses are assured of much peace. It is close enough to attract
young skin divers who almost daily visit this most accessible shipwreck. One,
getting a glimpse of part of the great shaft which still lies on the bottom,
excitedly imagined he had discovered a cannon.

Old ships seem to assume a personality of their own and judging from
the way their history comes to light when researched, we feel they like to
be remembered.

Cycles of Conquest in Florida

The celebrated anthropologist from the University of Arizona, Edward
Spicer, has recently published a most valuable study entitled Cycles of Con-
quest. It deals mainly with the impact of the three successive sovereignties
that ruled the American Southwest: Spain, Mexico and the United States.
The Spicer book discusses the Indian policies, Indian behavior and Indian
acculturation problems of the three civilizations. A similar study of the
Southeast, Florida for example, would be most appropriate. Since the
Indians are not as numerous any more in the Southeast, the Indian emphasis
could be less and the study of the various cultural contacts and their com-
parisons could be most exciting. This little essay will explore this topic in a
most superficial fashion, using the state of Florida as an example.

First of all, Florida is the classical example of the Southeast. Here
the Spanish occupation was far the longest, going from 1513 to 1821 with
only twenty years of English rule, that is from 1763 to 1783. Furthermore,
Spanish rule was more intense, not equaled by any other state in the South-
east (with the possible exception of Louisiana whose Spanish occupation
was far shorter). Also the Spanish control of Florida had some basic
similarities with those of the Southwest, say Texas, Arizona and New Mexico.
Spanish occupation was not for exploitation of resources and for active
colonization such as in Peru or Mexico but was rather peripheral and was
more of a protective military frontier or buffer zone. It had military forts
and these were reinforced by missions. These missions served a double func-
tion-religious and military. They were there to convert the Indians and
change their way of life and also to serve as forts on the frontier.

At the same time there were some basic dissimilarities from the ex-
ample of the Southwest. Indians, climate and topography were different.
Florida is sub-tropical and had far less clearings than today. Indeed there
is the need of a good historio-geographic study which should sketch the
topography and ecology of Florida at the time of the conquest. The Indians
were somewhat less civilized; they were forest Indians and many quite
adapted to the ocean. Not doubting that Indians of the Southwest were often


ferocious-and more colorful to the eye of the modern movie and T. V.
industry-but I think that the Florida Indian of the time of the conquest,
especially those of central and southern Florida, was a much more difficult
individual to acculturate. And Spanish success with these Indians and again
especially with those of the central and southern region, Tequestas, Caloosas,
Ais, etc., was nearly nil. Not even the mission system had the slightest success.
In north central and north Florida and in the Florida panhandle the more
sedentary Indians made the mission system far more satisfactory.

Another difference was the relative unimportance of cattle and horses
as key elements in the cultural developments and acculturation processes.
The arrival and utilization of the horse by the early Florida Indians is still
a matter of speculation and another interesting subject of research. In my
own Spanish Florida investigations I have found little mention of the
horse, either by the Spanish or Indian side. There were horses in the St.
Augustine garrison and there are indications that the horse was used by
soldiers and officers and that often the Spaniards traveled by horse. But
we also know that a common way of moving was by foot and by boat. The
Franciscan priests, who covered huge territories visiting their widespread
flocks, have left us little news as to their means of transportation. But
apparently their favorite means of transportation were the waterways since
most Indian settlements were located along the water. The same applies to
the Indians who mostly moved on the water in their famous dugout canoes.
But again here is a valid subject of research as what has been said is based
on flimsy documentation. Because of the tropics and the waterways the
horse was not as important as in the Southwest.

As to cattle the same conclusion can be reached, although my recent
research and as explained in the journal Agricultural History show that there
was much cattle in Florida especially during the period 1650 to 1750 and
that this cattle industry had some sociological impact. But cattle in large
proportions did not arrive in Florida until the Seminole period and later
with the coming of the Americans. Indeed the whole story of cattle during
the three sovereignties remains a needed topic for research. As commendable
as the book of George Dacy, Four Centuries of Florida Ranching is, it is
inadequate and based on insufficient research in the primary documents.
The arrival of cattle as an industry always has an influence on acculturation
and on the social structure of a given area. For example, I discovered that the
establishment of cattle ranches during the Spanish period was really to give


more independence and freedom from military rule to the St. Augustine
garrison. Most leading citizens in St. Augustine were employees of the
Crown and subject to the rule of the Governor who was always an outsider.
Grabbing land and making cattle ranches out of it gave them not so much
more economic well being but rather a sense of independence and also a
feeling of pride for Florida. For the first time there was no great desire by
everyone to leave Florida for more civilized places such as Havana or
Mexico City. At the same time a strong trend of conservatism developed with
the establishment of cattle ranches and the social structure became much
more rigid with the development of a landed gentry. It must also be stated
that since little other agricultural enterprise was developed such institutions
as Indian peonage or Negro slavery, as practiced in the English colonies of
Carolina and Georgia, did not come into existence under the Spanish rule.
But again we do not know who were the cowhands on these ranches-probably
soldiers of the garrison on excused or illegal absences.

We know very little about cattle, land tenure and the Seminole Indian
relationship during the twenty year English interlude. Apparently whatever
changes the English tried to make had little permanency because of the
short period of their Florida occupation. For example, the much advertised
Minorcan project-colorful and good for a good story-had little overall
influence on the whole structure of civilization of Florida. The true plan-
tation system that tied Florida to the antebellum American South did not
come into existence until the nineteenth century. Only a few roots go to
the English period. It was rather a continuation of the thin geographical
distribution of Spanish Florida with southern Florida and the interior
removed from European impacts. St. Augustine turned from a Spanish
garrison town into a small English colonial town and this transformation
is an interesting chapter but of little significance for the whole of Florida.
More or less the same occurred with Pensacola. Pensacola was since its
existence more tied in with the Mobile New Orleans complex than with
the Florida peninsula. The history of Pensacola is more an independent
history or part of the history of the Mississippi Delta than that of Florida.
England did make Pensacola the capital of West Florida and therefore
gave it more status than under Spain. There were a few more successful
attempts by the English to expand-especially along the coast-the area of
European civilization.


The real change occurred in the interior where the original aborigines
had died out during the last days of the first Spanish rule. The disappearance
of the original native remains a valid topic for a good scholarly book.
The mission system had failed to save the Indian although in the mission
area along the St. Augustine Gainesville Tallahassee trail, the decimation
of the natives was less severe than in the wilds of south Florida, mostly un-
touched by strong European contacts. But at the same time it must be ad-
mitted that outside forces (which includes the arrival of new diseases) were
primarily responsible for the death of the pre-Columbian Indians of Florida.
The repopulation of Florida, begun during the first Spanish period, now in
the English occupation received great impetus. Most of these were Indians
of the Southeast-run aways from English oppression or caught in the
international rivalries of the great white powers. Among them were a few
Negroes who too escaped from the harsh Anglo-Saxon concept of total slavery
of men of their race. All these runaways-who started to come to Florida
around 1715-became around 1763 (the year of the cession to England)
under the leadership of Secoffee and Cowkeeper two identifiable units that
soon became to be known as the Seminoles. The Indians of the Tallahassee
areas who had responded to Secoffee were pro-Spanish and became the
Mikasukis and the Indians of Cowkeeper of the Gainesville neighborhood
tended to be pro-British and became the Seminoles. Both bands actively took
possession of interior Florida that had either been Spanish mission territory
or totally in the hands of the aborigines of Florida. The Indians were
attempting to build an Indian nation in Florida, the area so neglected by
Spain and by England. The Indians failed.

This failure was for two basic reasons. There was never Indian unity
and petty rivalries within and between the Apalache group (Mikasuki) and
the Alachua ones (Seminoles) was always intense. This made it possible for
the repopulated Indians to become a tool of the International rivalries-
Spanish, English and later Americans. The European powers played the
Indians against each other in all parts of North America but this game was
intensively done with the new Indians of Florida. The second reason was
the expansionist nature of the young United States. The Indians could have
forced the Spaniards and the English to turn all of Florida or at least the
non-coastal areas over to them. Once the Americans came into the picture
with their lust for expansion, their belief in Manifest Destiny and their
Indian hatred there was no hope for a Seminole nation. With the arrival
of the Americans also arrived their economic and agricultural system of the


American South which rapidly integrated northern and part of north
central Florida into the ante-bellum way of life. The Negro slave arrived
and the Seminole was pushed into the depths of the peninsula. When the
American frontier advanced farther south it was obvious that the Indian
must be eliminated since the American system of land proprietorship coupled
with the dominance of Protestant ethics clashed or did not agree with the
Seminole philosophy of free hunting grounds and liberty from imposed
religious dogmatism.

With the defeat of the Seminoles the peninsula was made free of
Indians. Just then occurred the Civil War which overthrew the rule of the
southern plantation owners who had previously failed to acquire Cuba-the
natural geographical extension of Florida-as new slave territory. Should
Cuba have become a part of the South then the plantation complex would
have swept into southern Florida. It did not and the area was now open for
new ventures not related to slavery and the Southern complex. These came
with such men as Flagler and Plant. These came as the railroad came; as
the cattle industry, as citrus, as tourism and as advertisement of year-round
sunshine. Therefore two Floridas had been created. The one rooted in the
St. Augustine Gainesville Tallahassee Pensacola axis of the mission time
and later the plantation complex which has tradition, a long history, a deep
conservatism. The other Florida was that of the wild Caloosas, Tequestas
and others who died out and whose land was never settled either by Spain
or England. It has no good recorded history and no long traditions. Its
emptiness served as a refuge for the new Indians and as a new place for the
dynamic America of the post Civil War period, as a base for the War of
1898 and for the renewed dynamism of post World War I. Today's fight
for reapportionment is one clash of these two Floridas.

Today's state political struggle can be among other things explained by
history and by anthropology. What was in the history of Florida; in short,
the difference and impact of the three sovereignties-Spain, England and
America? Spain was in Florida longer than any other nation. The United
States will have caught up with Spain in 2009. Yet when one looks at Florida
today there is hardly anything left from the Spanish period-only St.
Augustine stands as a reminder. But even here the Spanish flavor and the
Spanish remains are slowly dying a sure death and the fight for preservation
and true honest restoration is difficult and nearly impossible. Only the Fort
stands as an authentic monument. Some materialistic business enterprises


have capitalized on the Spanish heritage and created false claims and
monuments. The heritage is there in history and in nothing else-Florida
does not even have one restored mission such as California can claim.
Florida's Spanish heritage does not even have a veneer imprint such as
Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and other states. The Spanish impact has
vanished completely.

It has vanished because it was never really there. Spain never occupied
Florida except a few tiny spots. Spain never brought its institutions,
political, social, economic and cultural, to Florida. Not even St. Augustine
was a typical Spanish colonial town. It had no municipal government. It
was strictly a military garrison and over ninety percent, if not nearly a
hundred percent of the economy came from the military payroll. In the
countryside we cannot find such institutions as the Encomienda or the
Repartimiento which were the core of the Spanish American colonial land
tenure system. There was the mission system which was indeed identical to
those of the other Spanish areas. But the missions were not successful and
were wiped out by the English and the pro-English Indians. They-the
missions-had no permanent effect. The Spanish-Indian relationship was
based on a strict paternalism and in sharp contrast with the English system.
This relationship was indeed influential in enticing runaway Indians from
the English colonies and was, I believe, greatly responsible for the emergence
of the Seminole nation. This then is all-not even the trails used by Spain
have become later routes of communication. When Spain left in 1763 the
total-and by total is meant every one-Spanish popuIation left St.
Augustine. Florida was Spanishless. Florida had lost its aborigines, too. The
replacements were the English and the Seminoles.

As said, the English left little impact and no permanent institutions
such as was the case in other English colonies in North America where the
English heritage was quite strong. They failed to settle the Indian problems
and their presence only aggravated the whole issue. The English did do
something that had some effect for the future. It was in the field of letters
rather than administration or institutions. There developed a vast literature
about Florida written by Englishmen or those employed by the English
Crown. During those days such Florida classics as the reports of William
De Brahms, Bernard Romans and John Bartram for the first time advertised
Florida as an exciting land full of beauty and riches and a nature's paradise.
Many lesser meritous books also saw print in England. Florida, thanks to the


British, became known in America and Europe. If Florida had remained
English there is no doubt that its effect would have been profound for the
two colonies called East and West Florida. But twenty years were not enough.

There is one interesting matter which should encourage more investi-
gation. Florida was English during the War for the American Independence.
Its northern neighbors such as Georgia and the Carolinas rebelled. The
Bahamas and Bermuda remained loyal. Florida followed the Bahamas -
Bermuda example and there was not even a revolutionary ripple. This stead-
fast loyalty or the revolutionary apathy is an interesting development that
requires much research to determine the why. We all know that English
Florida became the haven for the loyalists but there is some doubt if this
was the main reason for the revolutionary apathy or the staunch loyalty of
the English Floridas. In Florida there was no institutional heritage as
there was in Virginia, for example. The American colonists rebelled when
the Crown introduced innovations and changes which challenged their
customs and doings of the past. But in Florida there was no such past and
there were no colonists with a long colonial genealogy and with deep local
roots. But by the end of the English period there had arrived in Florida a
large number of restless adventurers and of undesirable elements. These
roamed around the Florida provinces and when the English settlers left in
1783-just as the Spaniards had done 20 years earlier-this riffraff stayed.
Dr. Helen Tanner, who is a leading authority on the second Spanish periods,
strongly believes that the legacy of the short English period was these
undesirables who plunged Florida during her second Spanish period into
anarchy. Indeed these Spanish years from 1783 to 1821 are those of immense
confusion and the many figures such as William Augustus Bowles, Daniel
McGirth, Alexander McGillivray, Gregor MacGregor, Ruggles Hubbard, Luis
Aury, Jesse Fish, the men of the Panton, Leslie and Company and many
others were, using the most gentle word, "adventurers". They had no loyalty
toward anyone and they used Florida as their hunting grounds for fast
riches, saluting this and that flag and playing the Spaniards, English,
Americans and the many Indian groups against each other.

This second Spanish period is difficult to assess. What was its impact?
Spanish authorities in St. Augustine and Pensacola were trying to establish
a system of order in accordance with the Spanish rule and the Spanish heri-
tage of Florida. It wished to reestablish its benevolent paternalism; this
time trying to diversify its rule by breaking the military monopoly. Spain


failed and its authority was challenged or ignored or cheated everywhere
by the Indians and the adventurers. What Spain needed was a stern policy and
total reform and new ideas. This it did not have, but the new United States
had it and it was pressing on the Florida border. Spain had in St. Augustine
benevolent rulers such as Governor Don Vizente Manuel de Zespedes y
Velasco. America had such a man as Andrew Jackson who hated Spain,
who hated the Indians and who was ruthless enough to fight them and
liquidate them. Jackson was not paternal and he was as ruthless as the riffraff
whom he bought, used, or killed. And it was this Jacksonian policy com-
bined with other pressures and the tough bargaining of Washington from a
position of strength which brought Florida into the American domain.

In evaluating the American period it should never be forgotten that a
whole new system was erected. That the Spanish heritage-even people
(with a few exceptions) -was eliminated at once and that there never was
much of the English. Neither St. Augustine, the old capital from 1565, or
booming Pensacola was accepted as the capital and a whole new town,
Tallahassee, was built. A plantation system identical to other Southern states
was created and Florida became one of the ante-bellum states with one of
the heaviest percentages of a Negro slave population. Indian hatred became
more intense than in other states at that time. Pro-Southern sentiments were
even stronger than in other slave states and President Lincoln did not
receive one single vote in Florida. Florida was the third state to secede from
the Union. At the same time Florida, better than any other slave state,
showed the traditional democratic tolerance so prevalent in the South, but
so much in contrast with their fanaticism for slavery, when it elected a Jew
as the first Florida senator in Washington, David Levy. The American period
in Florida until the end of the Civil War is one of the most interesting
chapters in American history because we have the successful creation in a
few years of a democratic slave system in the lush wilds of Florida which
were not tamed for many centuries by the Spaniards and the English. Then
we have the total collapse of the system with the War although Florida was
hardly a military battleground. In that same period the Indians had finally
been defeated at tremendous cost and effort. Florida was again wide open
for new ventures. But this time the collapse of the slave system did leave
a long heritage-different from the disappearance of the Spanish and
English rules-that still can be felt today. It is usually called North Florida,
small counties, rural region, cracker country, wool hat, etc. It is allied


today with the forces that oppose reapportionment, gradual integration and
other policies usually classified under the heading of liberalism.

With the end of Reconstruction-indeed an era that still requires much
more study-the empty Florida made up of the peninsula now became a
new frontier for the aggressive northern forces. There were the Disstons,
Flaglers and Plants followed by the Carl Fishers, D. P. Davises and others.
There was the Spanish American War which brought Florida national fame.
There were the new Spaniards and the men from Cuba like Vincente Ybor
who brought a new industry to Florida and then there were the Greeks who
went to look for sponges, and many more such enterprises. This then was the
last period of Florida-when it became the tropical garden of the North.

In the end we have in Florida history the following periods: The pre-
Columbian period, and Professor Hale Smith of Florida State University
believes that what we call Indians first arrived in Florida fifteen thousand
years ago. This lasted until 1513 when the Spaniards arrived. Then we have
the first Spanish period, the age of St. Augustine which terminated in 1763.
It was followed by the twenty years of English interlude and continued by
the second Spanish period. Both eras can also be called the age of the
Seminoles. By 1821 or even a few years earlier started the American plan-
tation period which came to an end with the Civil War. And by that time the
Seminole empire had also gone down in defeat. Reconstruction was a
twilight that led to the new era of Florida when the state, became a booming
frontier region of American industrial enterprise which is now culminating
into the Rocket Age of Florida.

We started out by mentioning a book called Cycles of Conquest. This
essay should have made it clear-maybe in a very shallow way-that such
a title is most appropriate for Florida history where there were many cycles
of conquest. Each has an interesting story that engulfs all aspects of life
and civilization: politics, economics, social matters etc. Florida history is
not local history; Florida history is not alone history for the amateur,
the dedicated ladies of the local societies. It is also for the trained specialist
and it is wide open for research adventures.

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document

North to South Through the Glades in 1883

The Account of the Second Expedition into the Florida Everglades
by the New Orleans Times-Democrat


By 1883 the first South Florida land boom was well underway. Several
factors contributed to this boom. In 1881 the state had sold a large tract
of public land to Hamilton Disston for development. Disston and other
developers had started large drainage projects and sold the reclaimed land
in small plots to private individuals for cultivation. A New Orleans news-
paper, the Times-Democrat, claimed a share in promoting the boom. The
editors had an expressed policy of promoting interest in the development of
the South following the Reconstruction period, and in 1882, the Times-
Democrat had sponsored an expedition into the hither-to unknown and almost
unexplored Everglades. This first expedition was designed to explore the
Kissimmee River to Lake Okeechobee and to the Gulf via the Caloosahatchee
River. The first expedition had been a great success, and the story had
captured the attention of many newspapers in the North and West which
reprinted the story of the expedition and "attracted much attention toward
Southern Florida-its picturesqueness, its climate and the possibilities of
its soil. The articles in the Times-Democrat interested the whole country in
Florida, and a general desire was felt to know more about the country and
particularly about the Everglades."'

Because of the awakening interest in the area, the lack of exact knowledge
of conditions, and the absence of any recent explorations, the Times-Democrat
in 1883 decided to extend its investigations and send an expedition into the
north part of the Everglades. No white man it was thought, had ever crossed
the Everglades from north to south. "It was discovered that in this country,

1 New Orleans Times-Democrat, January 6, 1884. For the full account of the first
exploration by the Times-Democrat see Morgan Dewey Peoples and Edwin Adams
Davis (editors), "Across South Central Florida in 1882; The Account of the First
New Orleans Times-Democrat Exploring Expedition," Tequesta (Miami, 1950), X,
49-88 and (1951), XI, 63-92.


in a State which can boast of being the first colonized of any portion of the
Union, there existed a region, of which less was actually known than of the
interior of Africa."

Major Archie P. Williams, who had successfully led the first expedition,
was to lead the second one. He was the correspondent for the Times-Democrat
and was to report conditions as he found them. Wolf Hollander was the
artist of the expedition. J. R. Phillips was the mechanic and commissary;
and Colonel C. F. Hopkins, the civil engineer. Captain F. A. Hendry was to
join the expedition at Fort Myers, and a Dr. Kellum, who lived on the
Caloosahatchee River, was to join the group on Lake Okeechobee. There
were six colored crew men; one, Caesar Weeks, had been the cook on the first
expedition. However, Allen Robertson was to be the cook on this trip.

Two large canoes, the Susie B. and the Daisy W., had been built for the
expedition. The Susie B. was the flagship, carrying the flag of the Times-
Democrat. Three smaller canoes and two provision batteaux completed

The plan of the trip was to take a steamer from Cedar Key to Punta
Rassa. Captain Jackson ran a regular schedule along this route. From Punta
Rassa the men would paddle the canoes up the river to Fort Myers. This
trip in the canoes would give the men experience in learning to handle a
canoe. Two separate ducking and "numerous other smaller accidents occur,
which teach the men better than words that a canoe, like the mule, 'is a
very uncertain animal', and bears watching." Provisions had been stored at
Fort Myers. A careful listing of all the things necessary for the trip had
been made. Machetes and knives for hacking the passage through the dense
jungle and saw-grass, buckets for storing provisions that could be ruined
by getting wet, food for twelve men for ninety days, and a "keg of nails"
for drinking to give the inner man strength after a hard day's work-all was
on hand. As they started packing the food into the canoes and batteaux, they
found that they had room only for thirty days' supply and planned to
live off the game and fish on the way to fill out their rations. From Fort
Myers the expedition would use The Spitfire, a small propeller captained
by Captain Bill Nelson who made a regular run up the Caloosahatchee River
for about thirty miles from Fort Myers, in order to save on supplies. Then
by canoe they were to continue up the Caloosahatchee to Lake Okeechobee
and enter the Everglades from the south shore of the lake. The plan was to


head straight south through the Everglades and to emerge at the source of
the Shark River. A Mr. Christain had brought a boat to this point which
would take the expedition down the river to White Water Bay. Mr. Christain
had been instructed to set up a camp, wait for the expedition, and to send
smoke signals by day and flares by night to guide the expedition to his camp.

An account of the expedition, which hereinafter follows, was written
by Williams and published in the Times-Democrat in six installments from
November 30, 1883, to January 6, 1884.2 According to the editorial in the
Times-Democrat of January 6, 1884, the expedition accomplished all it had
set out to discover. "It has set at rest all questions about the Everglades,
which have been found much different from what was imagined. . In
1848, when the United States Senate investigated this question, the pos-
sibility of draining the Everglades a committee reported that the swamp
could be drained. Major Williams reports adversely. He can see no hope
or possibility of redeeming the greater portion of this region, which must
remain a swamp forever. The Country is very low, in most cases below the
level of the land fronting on the Atlantic and Gulf, and a canal will not
drain it, but will probably increase the depth. of water in the glades. In the
Southern glades many of the islands can be utilized and cultivated, but with
this exception, the Florida Everglades are of no value agriculturally. We
regret to learn this, but it is better that it should have been brought out
now, instead of the world being encouraged into the mistaken belief that
the Everglades could be redeemed."

The articles which appeared in the Times-Democrat follow without a
break for the sake of continuity. Rivers, lakes, islands, and other geographic
features have not been located because they, for the most part, are familiar
to the readers of Tequesta. No corrections have been made in the text of the
newspaper reports or editorials.

Article appearing in the New Orleans The Times-Democrat, Friday, No-
vember 30, 1883 (page 4, column 5 and 6)

2 See the issues of November 30, 1883; December 10, 1883; December 12, 1883;
December 21, 1883 (editorial); December 23, 1883; December 30, 1883; January
6, 1884 (editorial); January 6, 1884.



Start of the Times-Democrat's Exploring expedition.

The trip from Cedar Key to Punta Rassa Up the Coloosahatchie to Fort
Myers-Incidents by the Way-The Parting at Cedar Key and the
Welcome at Fort Myers.

Special Correspondence of the Times-Democrat.

Fort Myers, Fla., Oct. 25, 1883

All aboard! There is a jingling of bells, a sound of churning water, as
the wheels of the steamer Lizzie Henderson begin to turn, and The Times-
Democrat expedition, bound for the unknown wilds of the Florida Ever-
glades, has begun its journey south. There is a waving of handkerchiefs, and
perhaps a faint cheer or two from some of the colored population, in token
of good-bye and God speed to the six stalwart, fine-looking and handsomely
uniformed colored members of the expedition who stand upon the deck of
the vessel and give an answering cheer and chant their last words of instruc-
tion to wives or sweethearts, standing grouped upon the wharf of Cedar
Key, as they slowly move away in the darkness toward the light burning
brightly upon Sea Horse Key in the distance. Another group gaze more
silently upon the fast receding shore, sitting upon the upper deck of the
steamer, of which your correspondent forms one. There has been no waving
of handkerchiefs or cheers for the white members of the expedition. We are
all comparatively strangers in that little seaport town, and the hands that
would have waved a last adieu, and the voices that would have spoken words
of cheer, are many miles away, still we are not affected by the gloom which
first affected us on leaving for very long, and the cherry voice of Capt.
Jackson, of the steamer, soon dispelled the last cloud, as we sat enjoying
the bright moonlight, the pleasant roll of the Gulf and a good cigar, scudding
before the wind as fast as steam and canvass could take us.

Since the first formation of the expedition two gentlemen have been
added to the list, viz: Wolf Hollander, an artist, and J. R. Phillips, who will
act as mechanic and commissary for the party. The colored men consist of
Caesar Weeks, Richard Little, Wash Bruce, Madison Williams, Mose Gordon


and Allen Robertson. They are all stalwart, strong, and, with the exception
of Caesar, black as crows. Caesar did not exactly come up to our standard
of what we required in our men, but as he had been our chief cook in the
former expedition from Kissimmee City to the Gulf of Mexico, we could
not refuse to take him. One other of our crew needs particular mention, and
that one is Richard Little, whom we nick-named "Tiger Tail," after the
warlike Seminole chief now gone to the Happy Hunting Ground. He applied
to us in Jacksonville for a place in the expedition, and at first I was inclined
to refuse Him; not that in frame and appearance he did not fill the bill,
but his gloomy looks were in such contrast to the balance of the crew, who,
like the majority of their race, were a merry, light-hearted crowd, but when
he told me that his wife was just dead, and that the house was so lonely
now at night, that it almost run him crazy, and that he wanted to go any-
where, or do anything to make him forget his trouble, my heart warmed
toward him, and he was put in charge of our flag canoe, the Susie B., in
command of Col. C. F. Hopkins, civil engineer, and has so far proved
himself the best boatman and most daring man we have.

We go below before returning to our stateroom, to look after our
canoes and men.

The first we find well stored away where they can't be injured, and the
second gathered in a group, listening to Caesar, who is relating his hair-
breath escapes from both Indians and alligators on the banks of Lake
Okeechobee, on his former expedition with The Times-Democrat party down
the Kissimmee River, and across Lake Okeechobee. He has an attentive
audience, and among that dusky group there will be many who will sleep
uneasily in their beds, as their dreams tend toward the sportive alligator
and bloodthirsty savages of Caesar's imagination. We are well pleased with
our crew, all of whom are first-class boatmen and accustomed to camp life.

Morning finds us still sailing before a stiff and favorable wind. To the
steward's disappointment we all occupy our seat at breakfast, and from the
way the provisions are stored away, he soon finds out that every man has his
sea legs on, and that sea sickness in our crowd will be a stranger during
our short voyage. We are hugging the shore closely, and with our field-glass
are enabled to recognize many familiar places visited in our pleasant voyage
of last December in our sailboat around that portion of the coast. Soon
we reach Boca Grande Pass, see Captiva Island with its little village of


palmetto huts, occupied by as warmhearted and hospitably inclined a set of
fishermen as we ever met. We recollect with pleasure the willing hands that
hauled our boat upon the beach, as we landed to camp for the night, the
barrel of fresh mullet sent as a present, and the many small acts of kindness
of which we were the recipients on that occasion. May their nets always
come up filled, and success attend them in their avocation. In the dim distance
in Charlotte's Harbor we catch a glimpse of Mundungo Island, with its tall
cocoanut trees, and lying a mile farther the Island of Euzeppa. Both of
these islands are uninhabited, containing forty or fifty acres each, and are
the most beautifully situated on the coast of Florida.

As night approaches, our captain begins to look anxiously for the buoy
which will guide us into the pass at Punta Rassa, the place of our dis-
embarkation. When we engaged passage on the steamer, she reserved the
right to carry us on to Key West and put us out on her return, in case the
captain saw fit, which would necessitate our remaining three days longer
on the boat, and as the time drew near for us to enter the harbor, we began
inquiring anxiously of the captain as to our prospects of being landed that
night. "Gentlemen," says the captain, "I always work in the interest of my
boat, and as much as I shall miss your pleasant faces and genial company,
still the idea of boarding twelve such men for three days free, which I
will be compelled to do if I take you to Key West and return, is not to be
thought of for a minute. You shall be landed to-night if the ship's compass
don't blow up or the vessel sink." Sure enough, at 8:30 p. m. we find our-
selves wandering through the tortuous channel which leads through the
harbor to Punta Rassa.

After tying to the wharf, each one of our men picks up his canoe and
lays it gently down upon the shore. The paint looks too nice and fresh to
treat them roughly, and they get gentler handling than they ever will again.
In half an hour after landing we find ourselves standing in darkness upon
the wharf, realizing for the first time that we are to a certain extent thrown
upon our own resources, and The Times-Democrat expedition is standing
upon its own bottom. All our supplies are at Fort Myers, eighteen miles above
on the river, so we march up to the hotel, and to the surprise of mine host,
ask for rooms for six and meals for twelve men in the morning. Mr. Samuel
Summerlin and his charming lady, both of whom are old acquaintances,
receive us in a most hospitable and courteous manner. Clean and soft beds
soon make us forget the rolling and tossing of the vessel we have just left,


and we wake up in the morning feeling refreshed and ready for work. After
a good breakfast, in which juicy venison steak and fresh mullet form an
important part, we settle our bill, which is a very moderate one, and repair
to the wharf, where our canoes are ready for launching. As we have hired
a sloop to transport all our baggage to Fort Meyers, there can be no better
time for the men to learn how to manage their canoes and in no danger
of injuring anything, or suffering any greater hardship than a good
ducking. The wind is blowing quite fresh and waves rolling high in the
harbor, yet each man is willing to make the attempt to reach Fort Meyers,
ducking or no ducking.

As soon as the word is given the Susie B., with the Times-Democrat
flag flying, glides into the water, and is followed by the Daisy W., with the
stars and stripes at her mast-head. Each of the smaller canoes follow in
quick succession, and we are soon riding the waves of Charlotte's Harbor,
heading for the mouth of the Caloosahatchie River, which is two miles wide
at that point, and over a mile wide for twenty miles above. The Susie B. and
Daisy W. being large canoes, and perfectly sea-worthy, hover around the
small canoes in case of accident, to render assistance. The first to suffer is
the Page M. Baker, in command of W. Hollander, artist. We hear a yell,
and on looking around see nothing but a black face on one side and a white
one on the other of the boat, which is bottom up. Not being far from shore
the water is shallow, and the canoe is carried to shore, emptied and launched,
with two wiser men than started in it in the morning.

But a short time passes before we hear a cry of "Look out for the

And in a second he is among us, creating considerable consternation as
regards the occupants of the small canoes. His lordship heads directly for the
E. A. Burke, in command of J. R. Phillips, commissary and mechanic of the
expedition, and for awhile we think he intends cutting the boat in two, but
he swerves as he gets within a few feet of it, and his fins cut the water in
such close proximity that the occupants instinctively lean to one side, and
consequently two more dripping objects and a swamped canoe is the result.
There is, as usual, a general laugh, especially from the artist and his
boatman, who are glad to find companions in misfortune. Numerous other
smaller accidents occur, which teach the men better than words that a canoe,
like the mule, "is a very uncertain animal," and bears watching.


We notice that the land lying upon the bank of the Caloosahatchie,
between Punta Rassa and Fort myers, which last year had but few settlers,
is now being built up, and it will be but a few years before the two places
will be connected by groves of cocoanut trees and pineapple orchards.

It is dark when we arrive at Fort Myers, and after dragging our canoes
upon the shore, find a vacant building near, or at least a carpenter-shop,
which the owner has neglected to lock, and as the men are too tired to wait
to look for better quarters, we take possession for the night. Being in rather
a bad plight from our wettings received during our short and stormy voyage,
we decline numerous invitations from the warm-hearted and more than
hospitable citizens of the town, and content ourselves with beds at the hotel
for the gentlemen of the party. Our men wring the water out of their wet
blankets, roll themselves up upon the floor of the carpenter-shop and are
soon oblivious of all surroundings. Salt water is not very beneficial to shot-
guns and rifles, so we sat up quite late that night wiping off and greasing
our arms and drying books and papers, which have suffered. A warm supper,
and we, too, follow the example of our men, and forget in sleep the hardships
of the day.

(second letter, December 10, 1883, page 1)


Second letter from the Times-Democrat's expedition.

The Voyage Up the Caloosahatchie-Fort Myers and its Surroundings-A
Beautiful Country-The First Night in Camp.

Special Correspondence of The Times-Democrat.

LAKE OKEECHOBEE, Fla., November, 1883.

We wake up in the morning (Sunday, 21st October) after reaching
Fort Myers with the rain pattering upon the roof and the wind whistling
around the house. We console ourselves with the thought that our dose of
bad weather had better be taken comfortably housed than in the Everglades
without covering, for in that condition we will have to take it, being unable,


from the smallness of our canoes and lack of room, to carry anything in the
way of tents except two tent flys, which will be used for provisions in case
of rain.

After breakfast we have our tents and boats moved to more comfortable
quarters, in a house kindly placed at our disposal by Major James Evans,
one of Fort Myers' most prominent citizens, famed throughout the land for
his hospitality, genial and amiable qualities, but more especially for a
peculiar habit he has of never saying no, and carrying his generosity and
charity so far, that we believe he would give away the very shirt off of
back if he thought the stranger within his gates needed it more than he did.

Col. Hopkins and myself accepted an invitation, extended by Capt. F. A.
Hendry, one of our future companions, to all the gentlemen of our party
to make his house our headquarters during the stay in his town, the
remainder preferring to remain at the hotel. Our surroundings in the
captain's palatial home were too pleasant for us to refuse, so our baggage
was removed from the hotel to his house. We would all prefer camping out,
but our provisions are yet in the hold of the schooner, which has just
arrived from New Orleans, and is at the wharf unloading. We have bought
provisions and borrowed cooking utensils for the men, and they are enjoying
themselves in their comfortable camp.

Fort Myers is the most beautifully situated town in the State of Florida.
Standing as it does upon the banks of the Caloosahatchie River, which, at
this point, eighteen miles from the Gulf, is over a mile wide, its handsome
residences, beautiful orange groves, the tall symmetrically shaped cocoanut
trees lining the bank, every house surrounded by the rarest variety of
tropical plants and trees, the guava growing wild upon every vacant lot in
the town, handsome public buildings and churches strike the stranger with
wonder that such a perfect little jewel of a place should exist in Southern
Florida, a land yet unsung, and, to a large extent, untrodden by the Northern
tourists that cover the other portions of the State during the winter months.
Refinement and cultivation exists nowhere in the State to a greater extent
than in this little town of 300 inhabitants. Pass down its streets on a
pleasant evening, and from almost every house can be heard the sound of
some musical instrument, or the rich tones of voices, which prove better
than words that naught has been left undone to bring them to perfection
that means or opportunity could offer. They seem to be a music-loving


community and the excellence of their public schools, of which there are
two, a male and female, and the great attention paid to the education of
their children speaks well for its people, and is the great solution of the
problem of who Fort Myers is unsurpassed in the refinement of its society,
its great prosperity, true Southern hospitality, and why, after one visit,
either on pleasure or business, you yearn to return. The great personal beauty
and loveliness of its women, the high commercial standing of its men, and
its peculiar freedom from all the little vices of small towns, make it a
little Eden in this wilderness of tropical beauties. A new large and com-
modious hotel has just been finished, built upon the bank of the river,
on the edge of the town, handsomely and luxuriously furnished. The tourist
is, or will be attracted here, and in a few years we will see this little village,
yet unvisited by the hordes of visitors which overrun this State from the
outside world, a busy, populous and, from its situation, naturally a thriving
city, with all its present loveliness and attractive beauties swallowed up in
the votex of city life. We will always think of this little town as we first
knew it, and although it may be best for its commercial interest that money
and men should crowd to the wall and rob it of its present village simplicity,
purity and sweetness; yet it seems to us like trampling to earth the roses
which bloom before each door and putting an ax in the beautiful palm and
stately cocoanut trees which grow and thrive on every side.

We spend Monday, the 22d, in receiving our supplies, comprising out-
fits, etc., from the schooner and transferring them to the Spitfire, a little
propeller, which occasionally as necessity demands, runs up the Caloosa-
hatchie for about thirty miles, as we intend using all the means of trans-
portation the country affords for transporting our supplies as far as
possible, wishing to enter the Everglades with every pound that our canoes
can carry, at the very point of entrance, as on that depends the success of
the present expedition. Our stores are ample for the subsistence of twelve men
for ninety days, but from experience of one day in the canoes, we will only
be able to leave Lake O'Keechobee with thirty days' rations, depending upon
our guns and fishing lines to make thirty days' do us for sixty days' supplies.
Our men are all busy making mosquito bars, grinding knives, axes and
hatchets, and bothering me generally all day to buy certain little articles
that they neglected to provide themselves, until this their last opportunity of
doing so on the trip. Our artist takes a sketch of the place, and remainder
of the gentlemen spend the day loading cartridges, fixing fishing lines and
packing each a small hand satchel, the only baggage allowed, in which he is


expected to carry a single change of clothes. Our trunks are stored at Fort
Myers, together with our extra baggage. We all pay a visit to Major Evans'
beautiful home, and sitting in front of his vine-covered bachelor's (what
a treasure some woman has so far missed) ranch, we regale ourselves eating
cocoanuts, oranges and guavas, and drinking fresh milk from the cocoanuts,
not flavored with water, and still there was a foreign element put in-say
two fingers of element to one of milk.

Night finds us seated at the luxurious tea-table of H. A. Parker, Esq., one
of Fort Myers' most prominent merchants, which table is presided over by
his charming, accomplished and intelligent lady. Hours fly like minutes
in that charming household, and it is with reluctance and a happy memory
of true southern hospitality from Southern hearts and hands, that we bid
good-bye to our host and hostess, and receive their god-speed and hearty wishes
for our success in our present undertaking. We return to Capt. Hendry's, our
pleasant temporary home, where we spend the remainder of our last evening
in one of the happiest households in the State, made happy and attractive
by all that education, wealth and refinement can do toward accomplishing
that object. The halo of true religion prevades throughout this household,
and all has been done by our host and his charming lady to make their
children' home the sweetest and dearest spot on earth to them. How great
their success has been it need but a visit in their midst to see and know.

We are all up early on the morning of Oct. 23 (Tuesday), and soon
canoes are launched, each man in his place, and everything ready to start.
I put Col. Hopkins in charge of the little fleet, to which a large batteau for
carrying provisions has been added, put the Daisy in tow behind the steamer
on which I intend taking the provisions and stores as far as possible up the
river, get on board, leaving Caesar sitting in the stern of the canoe to pre-
vent accidents, and in a few minutes we are all off, followed by the good
wishes and hearty cheers from the citizens of Fort Myers.

Our steamer is not remarkably fast, or the canoes are, for it is a
neck-and-neck race until we reach that part of the river in which the current
is strong, and then we steam ahead, and at the first bend of the river lose
sight of the boats. Dr. Kellum, the surgeon of our expedition, is on board,
going as far as his place, at which point we intend establishing our first
camp for the purpose of unpacking provisions and storing them in the
boats. Capt. Bill Nelson, of the little steamer Spitfire, is a host within him-


self. He acts as captain, pilot and roustabout, and when his engineer is absent
fill that office also. There are two or three ladies on board, and when the
boat is well under way our captain finds time to leave the wheel, play the
agreeable, keeping an eye on the wheel, and in fact be in more places, and
doing more things about his little boat in a short time than any man I ever
saw. It is a rule on the Spitfire that every man must bring his own provisions
along, already cooked. We have not done so, nor has the doctor, so we are
very polite and attentive to Capt. Billy, and when the time comes that we
think any captain of good hard sense ought to dine, we redouble our atten-
tions, the doctor even going so far as to open his medical case and bring out
about four ounces of something which tasted quite pleasantly, and brought
a smile and invitation from our captain to join him in the rear of the boat,
where we take a seat upon deck, with our plate on our lap, and enjoy our
dinner as we have not done for many a day.

At 5 O'clock we land at Dr. Kellum's, our stores are put on shore, the
little steamer goes on her way to her destination, which is a few miles farther
up the river, and Caesar and myself are left busily piling up everything,
and putting things in shape ere the arrival of the other boats, which in
half an hour land, and for the first time The Times-Democrat expedition
begins to feel that they have cut loose from the balance of creation, and are
independent of the outside world. Sufficient of our stores are unpacked to
give the men their supper, while some of us begin trolling in the river for
bass, and others, gun on shoulder, are soon lost in the dense woods which
surround us in search of game of some kind. As night approaches our hunters
return with about a dozen squirrels and a few birds (quail and doves) and
our fishermen a fine lot of bass, which, when placed before us an hour
afterward by Allen, our cook, make every man feel that if life in camp is
always so pleasant, the luxuries of civilization will cease to have any
attraction. Our camp fires burn brightly until late at night; our last cigars
are smoked (pipes will take their place on the morrow); stories of adventure
by field and flood are related, laughed over, or listened to with such gravity
as to even make the narrator believe that what he relates is not part of his
imagination, but of actual occurrence, and as blankets are spread upon the
ground, each man lays himself down upon Mother Earth to drop off into
slumber, or lie awake listening to the mournful notes of the whip-poor-
wills, and hooting of the owls, which resound through the woods long after
the whole camp is wrapped in sleep.


We spend the 24th October opening the provisions and unpacking our
camp outfit. Such provisions as are liable to be spoiled by getting wet we have
transferred to tin buckets, which can be easily divided among the boats. As
soon as everything is unpacked and stored in as small space as possible
the work of loading the boats begin. We load and unload, pack and repack,
and still after each boat is loaded to its utmost capacity, and the men
gaze with mournful countenance upon their different canoes, and wonder
how they can possibly get in without capsizing, there remains a large pile
upon the bank. The batteau we procured at Fort Myers is loaded to its
gunwale, and can't carry a pound more. Nothing can be done without another
boat, and a large one at that, so, after looking around the neighborhood, we
find one, which, though smaller than we require, still we will make it do
until we can do better.

Our artist, while wandering in the woods near camp, comes in contact
with a snake which, from his account when he arrives white and breathless
from a long run, must have been of an enormous size and quite ferocious,
as it ran after him. He had his rifle with him, but in his excitement forgot
to use it. In fact, to use his own expression, "De rifle maybe snap, and de
snake bite me, but de legs 1 know he don't snap." There is a good laugh in
camp at his expense, and it is many days ere we cease to chaff him about it;
but he is too good-natured a fellow for it to continue long, especially as
we find out that no one is ever before him when coolness, endurance or daring
is needed in the days that follow.

On the 25th of October, the sun shining brightly upon the surface of this
beautiful river, the tall palmetto trees lining its banks, the dense, dark and
sombre forest which the eyes from our canoes are unable to penetrate-all
combine to lend an enchantment to the scene which no pen can describe,
no pencil illustrate. We have started before sunrise from our picturesque and
pleasant camp on Dr. Kellum's place, leaving the doctor behind, who promises
to join us on Lake Okeechobee. The gentlemen of our party busy themselves
with killing squirrels, as they leap from bough to bough; shooting wild
turkeys, which fearlessly stand on the bank of the river looking at an
approaching canoe until a rifle ball either lays him fluttering upon the
bank or sends him flying back into the dense woods from which he has
emerged to get his noonday drink. We often land and walk for miles,
getting ahead for the purpose of hunting, and when our game-bag is suf-
ficiently full, or we have walked ourselves down, we sit upon the bank and


wait for our canoes, which move slowly against the swift current of the
river, which is confined to a channel of not more than thirty or forty yards,
and consequently flows with great rapidity. We camped that night near old
Fort Deneau, of which nothing remains to mark its former occupancy as
such during the Indian war, except a small clearing of a few acres. We feel
tired and weary from this our first hard day's pull, and the voices of our
colored crew are not heard in song as on the previous nights, but as soon
as their night's work is done, a fresh log is thrown upon our camp fires,
each man rolls himself up in his blanket, and perfect silence reigns in camp.


(Article on December 12, 1883, page 1)


A preliminary report from The Times-Democrat expedition.

The Difficulties Overcome, the Rivers Explored and the Island Discovered-
General Character of the Country.

Special to The Times-Democrat.

Punta Rassa, Dec. 11.-The Times-Democrat expedition for the ex-
ploration of the Everglades reached Lake Okeechobee on the first day of
November, and coasted around the southern shore of the lake for nine days,
thoroughly exploring every river and creek running in the direction of the
Everglades. The expedition discovered and explored to their source eight
rivers, which headed in the dense swamps bordering the glades.

On the 10th of November we selected the T. D. River as the best point
of exit from the lake, and began cutting our way through the swamp. On
the 11th of November we reached the borders of the marsh, composed of
grass, scrub willow and custard apple. Our passage through this was most
difficult, we being unable to make more than a few hundred yards a day.

On the 14th of November we reached the borders of the saw-grass, set
fire to the same in our front and burned it ahead of us. We found about


four inches of water, which depth lasted for fifteen days, and during that
time the expedition worked entirely in the saw-grass.

On the 28th we reached the grassy waters of the glades and sighted our
first island, and after reaching the same we camped for two nights and one
day, repairing damages to the boats.

Our progress was uninterrupted in our passage among the hundreds
of islands composing the glades, until Dec. 3, when we encountered the rocks
which border the southern glades. The boats were carried for miles by hand
until the evening of the 5th of December, when we sighted the rockets from
the camp of parties we had sent to camp, until our arrival at the head of
Sharks River, with instruction to send up rockets by night and make smoke
by day.

On Dec. 6, we reached the head of Sharks River and descended the
same to the Gulf. We became separated during the night from our provision
boat, in charge of two men, and being unable to find them, the next day
we left for their use the boats sent from Fort Myers to our relief. We then
chartered a schooner and ran for Punta Rassa. We have failed in no particular
in carrying out the programme to the letter.

(Editorial comment on December 21, 1883.)


Members of The Times-Democrat's Everglades exploring expedition
reached this city Wednesday night, having made a very quick trip from
Florida. They return the picture of health, burned a deep brown, but grown
stout over their sojourn in this Florida wilderness. Judged by them, the
Everglades must be the very fountain of eternal youth, for which Ponce
de Leon searched in vain. Although the party spent more than a month in
this region, exposed to the rigors of the weather, and the severest hardships,
pushing their heavy boats through the swamps for four weeks without rest,
there was not, during the entire trip, a single case of sickness among them,
and all of the party added from fifteen to twenty pounds to their weight.
The climate they describe as tropical and nearly perfect, and at no time
did they experience any inconveniences from their long march through the


The trip was without serious accident, although very severe and fatigu-
ing, the journey through the saw-grass, where there was neither land nor
water, being about as arduous an undertaking as ever attempted by an
exploring party. This region is described as gloomily monotonous, a broad
stretch of grass extending as far as the horizon, without a single elevation
to relieve it, and destitute of all animal life. Once in the Everglades proper
the scene was different. Innumerable romantic islands were discovered,
lakes and game in super-abundance, and plenty of Indians, suspicious but
not unfriendly to the whites. Of the character of this region, however, and
of the many important discoveries made, we must leave to Major Williams,
the gentleman who had charge of the expedition, to speak. His account of
the trip will be published very shortly, and the initial letter will probably
be given Sunday and the rest of the trip told soon after. The attention of
the world has latterly been turned to the Everglades as a terra incognita,
whose mysteries it desired to penetrate. We promise that the whole story of
that region shall be told so that every one will know its present and its
possible future value, and whether it can be redeemed, improved and thrown
open to settlement.
(December 23, 1883)

Up the Caloosahatchie River to Lake Okechobee.

The Times-Democrat's Expedition on its Way to the Glades-A Toilsome
Journey Through a Delightful Country-On the Waters of the Great
Lake of Southern Florida.


Special Correspondence of The Times-Democrat.

It is a clear, bright and beautiful morning, as we rise from our blankets
on the ground and prepare for our second days' journey up the Caloosahatchie
River. The first duty of our cook is to rouse each man before it is good
daylight, and his second, to always have a coffee-pot of strong hot coffee
ready to be partaken of as each rises from his luxurious bed. Woe to him
if he neglects his duty in that respect. After coffee there is a general washing
of faces at the river bank, and by the time that is accomplished breakfast
is ready, which this morning consists of quail on cracker, broiled bass or


trout, the remains of a cold roasted wild turkey, bacon, crackers, corn bread
and coffee. To be sure, we use tin cups and plates, and our table cloth is the
grass, yet there is naught to disturb the digestion of the party, and the
appetite with which each man charges upon the viands set before him is
enough to make him smile himself in after days, when reviewing the incidents
of his camp life. The gentlemen of the party are all keen sportsmen, the
majority of them good shoots and fisherman, consequently we are seldom
without game or fish in this country, that is teeming with deer, bear, wild
turkeys, ducks, snipe, quail, and numerous water fowl of species quite new
to us, which we will describe more fully hereafter. We generally camp at 4
o'clock in the evening, that the men may prepare camp for the night before
it is dark, and at the same time get a little rest, which is not given them
during the middle of the day.

Today the current in the river is strong, and our provision boats make
but little headway. The canoes move with ease, and it needs but a paddle
to make them skim over the water, but we have to keep together, and as
there is plenty of leisure time for the occupants of the canoes they get ahead
for a short distance, and spend the time scouring the woods in search of
game, or lay on their paddles and fish, during the time we are waiting for
the larger boats. The scenery of the river remains unchanged. It is all
beautiful, and there is not a bend of the river, nor a curve, that does not
present to the eye some new beauty or freak of nature, which from sunrise
until sunset keeps us in a state of expectancy and excitement, regardless of
fatigue or flight of time.

At dark we arrive at Fort Thompson, which, like all the other places
with the cognomen of "Fort" attached in this portion of the State, have
naught about the place to remind them of the former occupancy of the place
as such, except the memory of the oldest inhabitant, or its mark upon the
map. We camp for the night upon the eastern bank of the river, and when
after seeing each boat landed and unloaded, we visit the last house we shall
see until we are through the Everglades, for to-morrow we continue our
course up the Caloosahatchie to Lake Okeechobee, which will be through
an entirely uninhabited country.

We are joined at this point by Capt. Hendry, and by him are introduced
to Mr. Frazier, the last inhabitant of the Caloosahatchie. At his place we
find everything in the way of vegetation grew, and either in fruit or bloom.


Tomatoes and okra are in abundance. He is attempting to set out his whole
land in grasses. The Johnson and Para grass are both planted, and fast
taking possession of the soil, and when once they gain the ascendency over
the other grasses, he will have a stock farm not equaled in the Blue Grass
region of Kentucky. All the inhabitants of this portion of the State are
interested more in the raising of stock than in using the magnificent and
rich soil which nature has provided them, a climate unsurpassed for tropical
fruits in the United States for the cultivation of either fruit, vegetables or

At sunrise the next morning we get ready to leave, but previous to doing
so we are warned by Capt. Hendry that our provision boats are too heavily
loaded to cross Lake Okeechobee, which necessitates the hiring of an extra
hatteau and one man. Leaving Fort Thompson, we pass over that portion
of the river in which were once the falls of the Caloosahatchie, but since
we passed over them last December, the Okeechobee Drainage Company have
blasted and dug them out, and the only thing to remind the stranger of
where they stood are the piles of lime rock lying on the bank. From this
point we enter Lake Flirt, which is but a widening of the river, very shallow
and covered with rank marsh grass over almost the entire surface of the
lake. Our artist takes a good sketch of the lake and its surroundings, including
the dredge-boat, which is busily at work cutting a straight canal through the

We stop on board the dredge and spend a pleasant hour with our fellow
Louisianian, Capt. Thenge, who has charge of this work for the Drainage
Company. A good dinner is one of the pleasant features of our short visit.
At 2 o'clock, with Caesar bending to his oars, our little canoe is sent spinning
through the water, and at dark we overtake the balance of the fleet, and
camp for the night on Coffee Mill Hummock. We take a peculiar interest
in this place, first on account of having camped among its tall palmetto
trees for two days last December and spent a pleasant time, and second
because as far as the eye can see, and much further, the lands are owned
by Louisianians. They entered it several months ago without ever seeing it,
and, if they only knew it, have struck a bonanza.

We find our hunters have secured several wild turkeys, ducks, and the
fishermen are equally successful with their fishing lines. It is all pleasant,
smooth and delightful, this camping out; weather all that a man could


desire, plenty of game, and with nothing to do but eat, drink, and be merry,
and we say nothing to mar the pleasure of our trip by referring to the dark
days ahead.

Today (Oct. 28), being Sunday, I decide to remain in camp at this
point. After breakfast, having secured a guide, with gun on shoulder we
start on a tramp to visit the celebrated Indian Mound, lying about three
miles from camp. One point of interest in connection with this mound is the
fortification erected near it and two old canals diverging from it, both
emptying into the Caloosahatchie at different points, about three miles apart.
As we leave camp we enter a thick hummock of palmetto trees, which lasts
for about half a mile, the soil as rich as any we have seen in the State,
and susceptible of growing all and any fruit grown in a tropical clime.
Leaving the palmetto trees, we enter a thick pine woods, which lasts until
we reach the Indian Mound. The sun is blazing hot, and when we have
climbed to the top of the mound our gun weighs about a thousand pounds
in our imagination, and we are only too glad to sit down and rest beneath
the shade of the bushes, which cover this pile of white sand from base to
top. After a few minutes rest, with a good field-glass we get a view of the
whole Caloosahatchie Valley to the eastward as far as Lake Hickpochee, a
distance of about eight or ten miles as the crow flies. The two canals are
plainly to be seen from near the base of the mound, one running about south
and the other southwest. We leave the mound and follow the canal running
south for a short distance. Why they were dug, or for what purpose, I shall
leave to some one in the far future, better versed in Indian or ancient lore than
I am. Two things are plain: first, that they were never dug for drainage,
for they rise or begin in the high land and go toward the river, and the
lands through which they pass really need no drainage; and, secondly, they,
except at a time when the river is flooded, could not be used as a means of
transportation, as they are perfectly dry, except at the time of some extra-
ordinary flood, only one of which has occurred within the memory of the
oldest white inhabitant or Indian living. We soon enter the land owned by
Louisianians, as above stated. Most of it is the very best pine land in the
State, dark and rich soil, easily cleared, and what gives it a present high
value and a much higher one in the future is that it is the last timber for
almost 100 miles going in the direction of the Kissimmee, and the last place
that steamers will take on fuel going to Kissimmee City. Its soil has not its
superior anywhere in the State, and we hope the next time we pass through
this country to see a thorough and prosperous Louisiana colony established.


At present it is a rich tropical wilderness in the most beautiful portion of
the State, where injurious frosts never occur, and needing but the hand
of man to change its present wildness into blooming orchards of orange,
lemon, lime, but more especially pineapple, that being the fruit which is at
present attracting more attention than any other, in the portions of the State
adapted by its tropical clime to the cultivation of the same. We do not know
what the intentions of our Louisiana friends are as regards their investment,
but it is certainly a good one as regards the pecuniary portion of the

After returning to camp at 3 o'clock p. m., I receive a call from a
gentleman who has selected a portion of the land in question, built a small
house and made a clearing, thinking it was United States lands. To his sorrow
when he attempted to enter it he found he was too late. He now wishes to
buy, but I am afraid he will find quite a difference in price from United
States lands.

We are awakened at 3 o'clock on the morning of the 29th by finding
out to our sorrow that mosquito bars are no protection against the rain,
which is coming down in torrents. Bed clothing and every other article is
but a secondary consideration in comparison with provisions and ammu-
nition; so there is quite a commotion in camp erecting temporary shelters
for their storage. We succeed in saving everything, and when daylight breaks
it finds us as wet and bedraggled a set of men as ever met together in Florida.
Down comes the rain in an almost solid sheet of water, and the tents utilized
out of our canoe sails are but a poor protection. All day we sit in our India
rubber coats, boots and caps, and have a jolly time under difficulties. As
dark approaches the rains cease, and we take advantage of half an hour's
sunshine to dry our clothing, bail out boats and get everything ready for
an early start next morning. Our night's rest is not a pleasant one, sleeping,
as we do, upon the ground soaked with water, and rivulets of water running
down our backs, but still if we don't succeed in sleeping, nobody is out of
humor, and everyone does what he can to make time pass pleasantly.

At daylight in the morning we are off, a leaden sky overhead and the
swift running Caloosahatchie beneath us. It is a hard pull against the current,
but our men bend to their oars with a will, for we shall see no more land
until we reach Lake Okeechobee, and, therefore, no place to camp. Our
whole day's journey is between marshy banks, although once in awhile we


get a glimpse of a line of timber lying to the north or south. At 12 o'clock
we enter the canal running between Lake Hickpochee and the river, and
we find a current almost impossible to stem. At 3 o'clock we reach the lake,
and attempt to find dry land with an intention of camping on the bank of
the canal where it enters the lake. We find land, but we find a moccasin
coiled up to every square yard ready to spring. We don't stay long on shore,
and after reporting that any man who sleeps on shore will have to take a
snake for a bed-fellow, they unanimously decide to cross Lake Hickpochee,
and go to Lake Okeechobee, even though we travel until late at night. Several
of the party go to shooting alligators, that are swimming around us in
numbers. Some fine shots are made, and over a dozen alligators are killed
in that many minutes. The lake is quite rough, so the small boats, together
with the provision batteaus, hug the shore, and the larger boats strike across
under full sail. Night overtakes us in the middle of the lake, and we are
compelled to make signal lights from the different boats every few minutes
to keep from being separated.

Ten o'clock finds us at the mouth of the canal running from Lake
Hickpochee to Okeechobee, with three miles yet to make against a stiff
current and strong northeast wind. Lanterns are lighted on the boats, and
before recommencing our journey we pass around the "keg of nails," and
after inspecting its condition, turn our attention to something more sub-
stantial, consisting of crackers, bacon, etc. We feel considerably refreshed
after our lunch, and all hands bend to their oars with renewed strength as
we push from shore, and begin our battle against both wind and current in
the almost Egyptian darkness which surrounds us. The splash, splash of
the alligators from their resting place upon the bank of the canal, as they
are disturbed by the passing boats, keeps the occupants of the small canoes
wide awake, for if by accident the 'gators tail should come in contact with
their frail bark, somebody would certainly get a bath in too close proximity
to the animal to make it healthy.

About 12 o'clock we arrive at the mouth of the canal emptying in Lake

The moon has just risen as we reach the lake. The roar of the water and
the sight of the white-capped waves breaking against the scrubby trees which
mark the shores do not have a very enlivening effect upon the tired and
sleepy crowd just arrived. One thing certain, and that is, no one intends


attempting to sleep among the moccasins on the bank of the canal, and to
sleep in our boats in the canal is equivalent to a night's battle with the
mosquitoes. After discussing the question, we decide to pull out to an old
cypress standing in the lake, tie our boats to the limbs, and wait until day-
light. We reach the tree in safety, tie our boats, roll up in our blankets,
and sleep soundly until daylight, notwithstanding the tossing of the waves
or the bumping of the boats against each other. No mosquitoes-and that
was happiness enough for one night!

(December 30, 1883)


The Times-Democrat's expedition on Lake Okeechobee.

Unpleasant Companions in an Unpleasant Camp-A Gale on the Lake-
Narrow Escape of the Canoes-A Forutnate Sail and a Happy Rescue-
Incident of the day.

We were waked up at daylight on the morning of Nov. 1, by the
increased rocking of our canoes, and whistling of the wind through the
branches of the trees to which we are tied. A perfect gale is beginning to
blow, and those of our party who are not already awake are roused up,
canoes are loosened, the wind and current sweeps us back through the mouth
of the canal, and ere many seconds we are all landed upon the banks of the
canal, busy with axes, hatchets and machettes cutting brush, and clearing
away the vines which lay two or three feet deep upon the ground. The hissing
of snakes, and the splash, splash of alligators, as they retreat from their
beds and plunge into the waters of the canal, keeps the men working in
rather a quick, nervous and excited manner for several minutes. We, who
are sitting in the stern of our boats directing the work, encouraging some,
and laughing at others who seem to have the misfortune of finding every
snake, have rather an easy time, and have not the least anxiety to put our
feet on terra firm until breakfast is cooked and snakes have vanished.

After breakfast, finding from a personal observation that the waters of
the lake are too rough for our little fleet, orders are given to unload boats


and thoroughly dry everything which has become damp from exposure to
the rain during our camp on the Caloosahatchee River. There is plenty to
occupy the time of every man in the party until dinner, after which time
begins to hang heavily upon our hands as we watch with anxiety the white-
capped waves of the lake, and in our hearts pray most fervently for calm
waters and gentle breezes. Night finds us still occupying the banks of the
canal with a northeast gale blowing. The men make preparation to sleep
on shore, but a few of us prefer our canoes. We are not afraid of snakes;
we deny with scorn such charge. On the contrary it is really a pleasant
sensation to feel on a hot night a cool, smooth, slick body gliding noiselessly
over our bare feet, or hear a musical and gentle hiss as we put our hand out
from under our mosquito bar to feel around for our pipe, and touch something
that is not our pipe. Such little incidents enliven us, as well as everybody
else, and considerably assist us in making life bearable. Still we prefer
sleeping in our canoes, and do so on this occasion and many others in the
future. We are disturbed a little during the night by the bellowing of
alligators, and occasionally by one swimming back and forth under our
boat, scratching his back, we presume, against the boat's keel. We have no
objection to his scratching his back against anything else except our canoe;
alligators are careless, is one reason; another is that, like many of the
human species, the more liberty you allow them the more they want. Caesar,
who is occupying the bow of the boat, sits up all night, a rifle by his side,
and a boat hook in his hand, merely because we carelessly remarked, as we
rolled over in our blanket, that "alligators never touched a white man
when he could get hold of a nigger." Consequently I was well guarded all
night, and had not asked for a guard either. Before we raised our heads above
the gunwale of our canoe on the morning of the 2nd of November, we knew
by the roar of the waves, that an angry sea was still before us to impede
our further progress. The prospect of passing another day in our present
camp was not pleasant, consequently a gloomy crowd gather around our
campfire and watch the preparation of breakfast. We indulge in that repast
in silence, after which we gather in knots and discuss our future prospects of
getting away. One thing certain, if we could only get around a point of
timber which lies about a mile to the southward, our smaller canoes and
heavily ladened batteaus could hug the shore, keep in the grassy waters
which border the margin of the lake, and we could look out for a better
camp, or slowly make our way around the southern shore until a place could
be found for a harbor for boats, and a suitable spot from which to cut through
to the Everglades. With that object in view, we unloose our canoe, row out


into the lake to see if the waves are really as high as they look, and at the
same time if it is not possible for our boats to weather the point already
mentioned. We return from our tour of observation, our canoe half-filled
with water, wet to the skin with the spray, perfectly satisfied that none
except the larger boats could live for ten minutes in such a sea. The wind
blows a steady gale all day, and the prospect of getting away next day is
gloomy indeed. Still we give orders to the men to load the boats before
daylight, that we may be ready to take advantage of even half an hour's
lull in the wind and get away.

We are all awake before daylight on the morning of Nov. 3, and our
hearts are made glad by the knowledge that the waters of the lake are
smoother and the wind considerably less than on the previous day. Breakfast
is hurried up, the men work with a will to get the boat loaded, and sun-
rise we shove off from shore and make for the lake. The small canoes, and
smallest batteaus keep in the grassy waters which lie between the open waters
and dense swamp of scrub trees which constitute the borders of the lake,
while the large canoes and largest batteaus hoist sail, stand out a short
distance in the lake, and by making short tacks keep in the vicinity, and
at the same time a close watch upon the smaller craft. We soon succeed in
getting our boats safely around the point, but alas! wind shifts, and we are
exposed to a stiff gale from the east, without any harbor in sight, and
unable to return to that which we left. We who occupy the larger boats are
in no danger-at least the danger is not very great; but the smaller canoes
and batteaus will certainly not be able to weather the gale. For while we are
in considerable trouble, as the only assistance we can offer is to take the
occupants of the small in our large canoes, and tow the small ones until a
landing can be made somewhere on the shores of the lake. It is rather a
ticklish business, crawling from one canoe to another, with the waves
tossing us about life feather on its surface, but the change is effected, and
those of the larger boats soon begin to realize the difference 150 pounds
make in their management. Our canoes have a tendency to take a short cut
through the waves, instead of riding them gracefully as they did in the
minutes previous to taking on our additional load, and sea after sea is
shipped, which necessitates considerable bailing to keep afloat. Should we
attempt to take cover in the brush and scrub trees which mark the margin
of all that portion of the lake our small canoes would soon be dashed to
pieces on the roots and snags, which are as thick as the hairs on our head.
When things have about reached their worst, and we feel that even though


complete shipwreck awaits us, still we will have to run for the shore. We
suddenly see emerging from behind the point of timber we have just left
a large sail-boat, which heads directly for our little fleet in distress.

We wave our hats, shout, fire off guns, and generally behave like a parcel
of school boys just released from school. For the last three days we have been
looking for Dr. Kellum to form our party, and we are satisfied in our minds
that our deliverer is our friend, the doctor. Our little fleet crowd together
waiting anxiously for the boat which is speeding toward us. Suddenly
Caesar jerks off his cap, begins waiving it like a crazy man, and shouting
like a wild Indian, almost over-turning our canoe in his efforts to express
some great joy. "What the devil is the matter with you?" we yell, and at
the same time launch an empty bottle at him. It's the "Daisy, the Whitehall
boat of de Major's!" Caesar still continues to shout. We take a closer look
and soon recognize, to our surprise, the large Whitehall boat used on our
voyage last December down the Kissimee and across Lake Okeechobee, with
Caesar as one of the crew. This boat we had left at Manatee but a few days
previous to our departure from Cedar Keys, and placed her at the disposal
of Judge Marshall and Col. Bushnell, of Louisiana, who, in company with
Mr. Marshall, a photographer from Jacksonville, Fla., intended cruising
around the gulf coast.

The boat is soon among us, her anchor dropped, sails furled and each
canoe busy transferring their extra load on to her decks. She is large enough
to hold us all, but we who are in the large canoes consider ourselves safe in
our boats is if we were in an hundred-ton schooner, provided we are not
overloaded; so we stick to them after putting the small canoes in tow and
their occupants in the large boat. Neither Judge Marshall nor Col. Bushnell
is on board. Mr. Marshall, the photographer, is in charge of the Whitehall
boat, accompanied by a Mr. Murray, and have followed us for the purpose
of taking photographs of the expedition until we disappeared in the Ever-
glades. We have no time for explanations, with the wind howling around
us and the waves tossing us about in anything but a pleasant style upon the
surface of the water, so sails are once more hoisted, and we are soon speeding
along the western shore, hoping every minute to see high land sufficient to
land our boats and camp. Night is fast approaching, and we realize the fact
that we must make for the shore and find some shelter from the gale.


The Whitehall boat being the strongest, is put in front and ordered to
make for the line of the woods on the shore, the canoes following some
distance in her wake. She directs her course toward a slight opening in the
dense swamp, soon diappears from view in the woods, but soon returns to
the edge and signals to the canoes that are slowly feeling their way to come
on. Away we speed, the waves, which are much higher near the shore,
breaking over the small canoes at every step, and how they kept afloat is
a mystery to us to this day. We are soon among the trees in comparatively
smooth water, each boat tied to the branch of a tree, and their occupants
busy driving their poles and oars down beside them to prevent being rubbed
or crushed against the neighboring trees, or thrown upon the roots which
stick up above the surface of the water in all directions. Rough as our
surroundings are still we are in safety, and nothing seriously injured. Canned
meats are distributed around, coffee is made on a small coal oil stove,
lanterns are lighted and hung up among the branches of the trees, which
illuminates this strange encampment on the water in this dense, dark, tropical
woods. All are in good spirits, so when supper is finished and pipes lighted,
we sit in our boats and laugh over the different incidents of the day.
Something amusing has happened to each and every member during the
day. Very amusing, as told lying in perfect safety, smoking our pipes after
a good supper, but we are satisfied nobody laughed at the time. I can't help
relating one little incident of the day which came under my own observation.
The largest one of our colored crew is a man by the name of Alien, about
thirty years of age, black as a crow, standing about six feet three inches in
his stocking fee, a devout Christian to all appearances, and a deacon in the
colored Baptist church. When during the day it became necessary for the
large canoes to relieve the smaller ones, it fell to our share to take charge
of the canoe "Judson," rowed by Allen. After he had in fear and trembling
(for he was badly frightened) crawled from his boat into our's, for awhile
he felt safe, but when the gale increased, and our overloaded boat began
forging through the waves, instead of riding them, the water dashing over
us and into the boat, things began to look squally and Alien began praying
in a most devout manner, notwithstanding our man Caesar's protestation to
the contrary. "Throw dat nigger overboard, majur," says Caesar, his own
courage beginning to ooze out. "He's gwine to bring us bad luck, an' den
he's so heaby dat he bound to sink de boat!" "Oh, Lord, save us!" prays
Alien, and then follows a confession of his sins, each sin followed by a
prayer for deliverance and promises of a better life. Each time the wind
lulls Caesar gets brave, and is inclined to make fun of poor Alien, who,


wet to the skin, is crouched in the bottom of the boat, eyes shut to keep
from looking at the waves, and his fervent prayer going on. "Allen," says
Caesar, "it's too late to go to prayin' now; you has sartinly ben a mity bad
man, from your own statement to de Lord to-day, and what I knows of you
myself. You fooled dat gal in Savannah; you went to R married
dat widder wid nine children; went from dar to Tampa, and fooled two
oder lady members of de church. I heard you tell dat gal in Fort Myers de
oder night you wasn't married, and I cocht you stealin' de majurs whisky
last night." The last accusation is too much for Alien. He rouses up and
for awhile the Lord, the boat, the storm and his danger are all forgotten.
A war of words ensues between them, which is only stopped by an extra
large wave which dashes over us, which puts Allen at his prayers again
and Caesar to thinking.

Caesar is the narrator of this incident tonight and it is greeted with
uproarious laughter by both white and black. When the laughter subsides,
Caesar turns to Alien, who is so glad he is living that smiles are wreathing
his face, and says:

"Allen you mus'nt put off yer prayin' till de debbil got yer in his
fingers. Too late den. Be good like me and de Majur, all de time. Didn't
yer see de Majur cussed, just like he always does, and de only difference
he made during' de whole time, was he never took no sugar in it. but took it
straight out of de keg of nails. Dat shows a clear conscience."

The rocking of our boats upon the swell of the water make it anything
but pleasant or conducive to sleep; still one by one becomes silent, and soon
nothing is heard but the roar of the angry waters as they break against the
trees, or the pious ejaculation of some fellow, whose canoe will break loose
from its fastening and bump against his neighbor's.
A. P. Williams

Editor's Note: The account of the actual expedition from Lake Okeechobee to Shark
River will appear in the succeeding issue of Tequesta, Number XXIV, 1964.



CHARLES W. ARNADE, Ph.D. is a professor of Social Science at the Uni-
versity of South Florida. He is the author of St. Augustine on Trial and The
Siege of St. Augustine and is a frequent contributor of articles to The Florida
Anthropologist, the Florida Historical Quarterly and other professional

MRS. BESSIE WILSON DuBois (Mrs. John R.) of Jupiter, Florida belongs
to a pioneer family in that area, all of whom have been interested in pre-
serving the historical record. In Tequesta XX 1960, she contributed the
article "Jupiter Lighthouse."

RAY B. SELEY, JR., a resident of Miami, has made a hobby of historical
studies. He used a vacation to visit the National Archives to search for
documentary materials.

MRS. MARY K. WINTRINGHAM, now residing in California, was a graduate
student at Louisiana State University when she prepared this item for
publication. The work was directed by Dr. E. A. Davis, Chairman of the
History Department at L. S. U., who also directed the editing of the account
of the first Times-Democrat expedition published in Tequesta X (1950) and
XI (1951).


The Association's Historical Marker Program

On February 9, 1962, the Officers and members of the Association
joined with civic leaders and citizens of Key West to dedicate a marker at
the John James Audubon House. The ceremony was part of Key West's "Old
Island Days" program. February 9 was declared "Mitchell Wolfson Day" by
the Mayor of Key West, the Hon. C. B. Harvey, in recognition of Mr. Wolfson's
great generosity in restoring the Audubon House and presenting it as a
Museum to the public. The marker was unveiled by Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell
Wolfson. Mr. Carl W. Buchheister, President of the National Audubon
Society, delivered the dedication address.


Built in 1830 for Captain John H. Geiger, skilled pilot and
master wrecker who selected the original furniture from the cargoes
from many lands wrecked on the Florida Reef. Here in 1832 he was
host to John James Audubon when the famed naturalist and artist
was studying and sketching the birds of the Florida Keys. On March
18, 1960, Mitchell Wolfson, native son of Key West, and Mrs. Wolf-
son also a native Floridian, restored and dedicated the house as a
public museum to be named Audubon House. Refurnished with
antiques of the period, the museum proudly exhibits one of the
few remaining complete four volume Audubon Double Elephant
Folio BIRDS OF AMERICA in which 18 of the 435 plates are
identified with the Key West Trip.




CASH September 1, 1962 ----------------------------------------$15,481.56

Dues ----------..--- -- ----------------$ 6,854.58
Contributions to Museum Fund ---- ----------5,578.50
Interest on Savings Account ------------------- 368.76
Dividends on Securities ------------------------ 103.20
Sale of Prior Tequestas--- ------------------ 66.00
Sale of "Bonton" Reprints ------------------------- 169.50
Sale of Other Publications -------.----------- 592.35
Marker Fund Income ----------------------------- 550.00
Museum Admissions ------------------------------ 66.50
Other Income ------------------------------- 138.76

TOTAL RECEIPTS --------------- ------------------- 14,488.15

TOTAL CASH AVAILABLE ------------ --- ------- 29,969.71

Salaries --------------------------------------$ 4,879.38
Office Supplies and Printing -------------- 256.74
Tequestas Publication Costs ----- ------------ 989.16
Newletter Publication Costs -------- -------- 430.35
Other Publication Costs ------------------- -- 150.00
Meetings Expense ------------------------- 486.67
Library ------------------------------------- 85.58
Marker Fund Expense -------------------------- 596.94
Purchase of Books for Resale ------------------ 299.41
Executive Secretary's Expense ---------------------- 69.85
Other Expenses ---------------------------------- 278.59
Building and Grounds Maintenance and Repairs ---- 3,418.34
Interest on Mortgage ------------------------- 1,337.09
Insurance ------------------------------ 322.94
F.I.C.A. Taxes ----------------------------------- 133.52
Fund Raising Campaign Expenses ---------------- 2,520.88
Building Improvements -------------------------- 275.55
Furnishings and Equipment ---------------- 303.19
Mortgage Principal -------------- ------ 1,362.91

TOTAL DISBURSEMENTS -------------------------------- 18,197.09

CASH AUGUST 31, 1963 ------- ------ ------ ---- -------- -$11,772.62


AS OF AUGUST 31, 1963 AND 1962

Balance Balance
August 31, August 31,
1963 1962
First National Bank of Miami:
Checking Account --------------------------- $ 2,899.71 $ 1,002.41
Savings Account ------ --------------- 8,797.91 14,429.15
Petty Cash ------------------------------------ 75.00 50.00

TOTAL CASH (EXHIBIT "B") ----------- $11,772.62 $15,481.56

Standard Oil of New Jersey-18 Shares ---------- 3$ 1,287.00 $ 936.00
Continental Casualty Co.-12 Shares ------------ 942.00 906.00
Hooker Chemical Co.-33 Shares -------- ------- 1,287.00 957.00
Eastman Kodak Co.-3 Shares -------- ------------ 330.00 304.87
Eastman Kodak Co.-Contribution-3 Shares --------_ 330.00 -

TOTAL SECURITIES _------------------- $ 4,176.00 $ 3,103.87

Tequestas On Hand --------------------------- 1,155.00 $ 1,019.00
Non-Association Publications ---- --------------- 446.93 490.46
Utility Deposit ----------------------------------- 50.00 50.00

TOTAL OTHER ASSETS --------------- $ 1,651.93 $ 1,559.46

Land -----------_ ----------------------$15,000.00 $15,000.00
Building ------------------------------------- 25,749.44 25,749.44
Building Improvements ----------- -------- 8,679.10 8,403.55
Furnishings and Equipment------------------ 1,478.18 1,174.99

Total ----------------------- -------$50,906.72 $50,327.98
Less Balance Due on Mortgage ------------------- 21,539.71 22,902.62

Net Equity in Museum ------------------- 29,367.01 $27,425.36
Audio Visual Equipment ---------------- ---1,240.61 1,240.61

TOTAL FIXED ASSETS --------------.---- $30,607.62 $28,665.97

TOTAL ASSETS ------------------------ --$48,208.17 $48,810.86
Employee Withholding Taxes ------------------------ 81.92 62.12

ASSOCIATION EQUITY --$4----------8---------$,126.25 $48,748.74



EXPLANATORY NOTE: The Association provides several classes of membership.
"Sustaining" members who pay five dollars a year make up the basic member-
ship. For those who wish to contribute more for the promotion of the Associa-
tion's work the other classes of membership provide the opportunity, and the
publication of their names in the proper category of membership is a means of
recognition. "Patrons" pay ten dollars a year, "Donors" pay twenty-five dollars
a year, "Contributors" pay fifty dollars a year, "Sponsors" pay one hundred
dollars a year, and "Benefactors" pay two hundred and fifty or more dollars
a year.
This printed roster is made up of the names of those persons and institutions
that have paid dues in 1962, or in 1963 before September 30 when this material
must go to the press. Those joining after this date in 1963 will have their names
included in the 1964 roster. The symbol ** indicates founding member and
the symbol indicates charter member.


Adams, Adam G., Coral Gables
Albertson Public Library, Orlando
Aldridge, Miss Daisy, Miami
Allen, Joe, Key West
Allen, Stewart D., Miami
Allison, Mrs. John D., Miami
American Museum of Natural History
Anderson, Mrs. Nils E., Miami
Anderson, Robert H., Miami
Anthony, Roscoe T., Palm Beach
Arbogast, Keith, Miami
Archer, Ben, Homestead
Archer, Marjorie L., Homestead
Arnold, Mrs. Roger Williams, Miami
Ashbaucher, Lorin F., No. Miami
Atkins, C. Clyde, Miami
Auerbach, Alien S., Hollywood
Avery, George N., Big Pine Key
Axelson, Ivar, Miami
Barker, Mrs. Edwin J., Miami
Bartow Public Library
Bassett, Rex, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
Baxter, John M., Miami*
Bathe, Greville, St. Augustine
Beal, K. Malcolm, Miami*
Bergstrom, William I., Miami
Berry, Mrs. Richard S., Miami
Beyer, Dr. R. C., Miami
Bills, Mrs. John T., Miami
Bingham, Mrs. Millicent T.,
Washington, D. C.
Bishop, Edwin G., Miami*
Blanton, Judge W. F., Miami
Blassingame, Wyatt, Anna Maria
Blauvelt, Mrs. Arthur M., Coral Gables
Bose, John II, Miami

Bow, Mary M., Miami
Bowman, Rt. Rev. Marion, St. Leo
Boyd, Dr. Mark F., Tallahassee*
Bozeman, R. E., Washington, D. C.
Brady, Mrs. H. R., Key Biscayne
Branen, H. S., Miami Springs
Brantner, Mrs. Wilma, Marathon
Brigham, Miss Florence S., Miami
Bromsen, Dr. Maury A., Boston, Mass.
Brookfield, Charles M., Miami*
Brooks, J. F., Key West
Brooks, J. R., Homestead
Brooks, Marvin J., Miami
Brown, Clark, Jr., Arcadia
Brown, Daniel M., Jr., Miami
Brown, T. O., Frostproof
Brown University Library
Buchheister, Carl W., New York, N. Y.
Bullen, Ripley P., Gainesville
Burgess, Harry W., Miami
Burghard, August, Ft. Lauderdale
Burkett, Mrs. Charles W., Jr., Miami Beach
Burns, Edward B., Orlando
Burton, Mrs. Robert A., Miami*
Bush, Mrs. Franklin C., Coral Gables*
Bush, James D., Jr., Miami
Bush, Lewis M., South Miami
Bush, R. S., Miami
Busse, Raymond J., Miami
Butts, Mrs. Halleck A., Miami
Byrd, Mrs. J. Wade, Miami
Cahill, J. F., Wonder Lake, Ill.
Caldwell, Thomas P., Coral Gables**
Caldwell, Mrs. Thomas P., Coral Gables*
Campbell, Park H., South Miami*
Capron, Louis, West Palm Beach


Carnine, Miss Helen M., Coral Gables
Carson, Mrs. Ruby Leach, Miami**
Cartee, Mrs. Horace L., Coral Gables
Carter, Mrs. George deLain,
Coral Gables
Carter, Kenneth W.,
Grosse Point Woods, Mich.
Catlow, Mrs. William R., Jr.,
Plainfield, N. J.*
Central Florida Museum, Orlando
Chance, Michael, Naples
Chariton, Mrs. Elva B., Coral Gables
Cheetham, Joseph M., Miami
Clarke, Mary Helm, Coral Gables
Close, Kenneth, Coral Gables
Coconut Grove Library
Comerford, Miss Nora A., Coral Gables
Connolly, William D., Jr., Miami
Cook, John B., Miami
Cooper, Mrs. Myers Y., Coral Gables
Coral Gables High School
Coral Gables Public Library*
Corley, Miss Pauline, Miami**
Coslow, George R., Miami
Covington, Dr. James W., Tampa
Cowden. George E., Naples
Crain Engineering Company, Miami
Criswell, Col. Grover C.,
Pass-A-Grille Beach
Culpepper, Mrs. Kay M., Miami
Cummings, Rev. George W., Venice
Cushman, The School, Miami*
Darrow, Miss Dorothy, Coral Gables
Davis, Bernard, Miami
Davis, Sidney, Ft. Myers
De Boe, Mrs. Mizpah Otto, Coral Gables
Deedmeyer, George J., Miami*
Deedmeyer, Mrs. George J., Miami
de Lamorton, Fred, Tampa
De Nies, Charles F., Hudson, Mich.
Dewhurst, John F., Hialeah
Dismukes, Dr. Win. Paul, Coral Gables*
Dilullo, Mrs. Leudith, Downey, Calif.
Dodd, Miss Dorothy, Tallahassee*
Dorothy, Mrs. Caroline, Coral Gables*
DuBois, Mrs. J. R., Jupiter
Dunaway, Mrs. Carl E., Miami*
Duncan, Marvin L., Miami
Elder, Dr. S. F., Miami*
Emerson, Dr. William C., Rome, N.Y.
Englehardt, Leo, Ft. Myers
Everglades Natural History Association.
Fenn, Abbott T., Williamstown, Mass.
Fite, Robert H., Miami
Fitzgerald, Dr. Joseph H., Miami

Fitzpatrick, Monsignor John J., Hollywood
Fix, John, Miami
Fix, Mrs. Virginia H., Miami
Flemming, Bryan, Miami
Florida Southern College, Lakeland
Florida State Library, Tallahassee
Flynn, Stephen J., Coral Gables
Forcier, M. J., Pompano Beach
Fortner, Ed., Ocala
Foss, George B., Jr., St. Petersburg
Freeland, Mrs. William L., Miami**
Freeling, J. S., Miami
Feeling, Mrs. J. S., Miami
Freeman, Mrs. Ethel Cutler,
Morristown, N. J.
Freeman, Harley L., Ormond Beach
Fuchs, Richard W., Florida City
Fullerton, R. C., Coral Gables
Fuzzard, Miss Jessie M., Miami*
Gannaway, Mrs. K. C., Miami
Gautier, Thomas N., Miami
Gibson, Mrs. Walter C., Miami*
Glorie. Rev. John W.. Miami
Godfrey, Clyde. Miami
Goza, William M., Clearwater
Greenleaf, John W., Jr., Miami
Griffen, F. S., Miami
Griggs, Mrs. Nelson W., Miami Shores
Griswold, Oliver, Miami
Halgrim, Robert C., Ft. Myers
Hall, Willis E.. Coral Gables
Halstead. W. L.. Miami
Hampton. Mrs. John, Sparks, Md.*
Hancock, Mrs. J. T., Okeechobee
Handler. Frances Clark, Miami
Handler, Cmdr. Frank Stevenson, Miami
HanselI, Paul, Miami
Harding, Col. Read B., Ret., Arcadia
Harllee, J. William, Miami
Harlow, Mrs. Frank E., Coral Gables
Harlow, Rev. Frank E., Coral Gables
Harrington, Frederick H., Hialeah
Hart, Mrs. Reginald, Coral Gables
Hartnett, Fred B., Coral Gables*
Havee. Justin P., Miami*
Havee. Mrs. Kathryn. Miami
Hendry. Judge Norman, Miami
Herin, Thomas D., Miami
Herin, Judge William A., Miami*
Hess, Mrs. E. L., Miami
Higgins, Mrs. Donald E., Cotuit, Mass.
Hill, Mrs. A. Judson, Miami
Hills. Lee, Miami
Hillsborough County Historical Commission,
Hodsden, Mrs. Harry, Miami


Holcomb, Lyle D., Miami
Holcomb, Lyle D., Jr., Miami
Holland, Martin J., No. Miami Beach
Holloway, Mrs. June, Miami
Holmdale, Mrs. A. G., Miami
Houck, Mrs. John Walter, Key West
Hubbell, Willard, Miami
Humphreys, Mrs. D. M., Ft. Lauderdale
Huntington, Henry E., San Marino, Calif.
Irwin, Mrs. John P., Coral Gables
Jacksonville Free Public Library
Jacobstein, Mrs. Helen L., Coral Gables
Jenkins, Wesley E., Miami
Johns, Dr. Robert, Coral Gables
Johnson, S/Sgt. George W., Orlando
Jones, Mrs. L. A., Miami*
Jones, Mrs. Mary A., Miami
Jones, William M., Miami
Kasper, Dr. A. F., Miami
Kelley, Mrs. Floy W., West Palm Beach
Kelly, Peter Culmer, Nassau, Bahamas
Kent, Selden G., Miami
Kenyon, Alfred, Ft. Lauderdale
Kettle, C. Edward, Miami
Key West Art & Historical Society
Kiem, Edgar C., Miami
King, Dr. C. Harold, Miami
Kirk, C., Ft. Lauderdale
Kley, Marian Trimble, Miami
Klingler, Mrs. Harry S., Coral Gables
Knight, Telfair, Coral Gables
Knott, Judge James R.,
West Palm Beach
Knowles, Mrs. J. H., Miami
Kohl, Mrs. Lavenia B., Palm Beach
Lafferty, R. S., Jr., Miami
Lake Worth Public Library
Lemon City Library & Improvement
Association, Miami
Lewis, Miss Carlotta, Coral Gables
Leyden, Mrs. Charles S., Coral Gables
Limmiatis, Ernest, Miami
Lindsley, A. R., Miami Beach
Littlefield, Miss Helena, South Miami
Longshore, Frank, Miami
Lyell, Dr. Robert O., Miami
Lyell, Mrs. Robert O., Miami
Lynch, Sylvester J., Sarasota*
MacDonald, Miss Barbara, Miami
MacDonald, Miss Betty, Miami
MacDonald, Duncan, Miami*
Mangels, Dr. Celia C., Miami Shores
Mangels, Henry E., Jr., Miami
Manley, Miss Marion I., Miami
Manly, Albert B., Homestead
Manning, Mrs. William S., Jacksonville
Marchman, Watt P., Fremont, Ohio*

Marks, Henry S., University, Ala.
Martin, Mrs. Paul C., Miami
Martin County Historical Society, Stuart
Martin, Mrs. Kirby A., New York, N.Y.
Martin, Melbourne L., Coral Gables
Mason, Mrs. Joe J., Miami
Mason, Dr. Walter Scott, Jr., South Miami*
May, Philip S., Jacksonville
McAdams, B. A., Miami
McClelland, Richard, Miami
McDonald, Mrs. John Martyn, Miami Beach
McLin, C. H., Coral Gables
McNeill, Robert E., Jr., New York, N. Y.
Merritt, Robert M., Miami
Merritt, Dr. Webster, Jacksonville
Miami Dade Junior College, Miami
Miami Edison Senior Library
Miami Public Library*
Miami Senior High School Library
Miami Springs Memorial Public Library
Mickler, Mrs. Thomas, Orlando
Mileo Photo Supply Inc., Coral Gables
Miller, Raymond M., Miami*
Mills, Charles A., Jr., Miami
Minshew, Rev. A. P., Ft. Myers
Mission of Nombre de Dios, St. Augustine
Mitchell, Leeds, Jr., Coral Gables
Molt, Fawdrey, Key Biscayne
Monk, J. Floyd, Miami
Monroe County Public Library, Key West
Morris, Allen C., Tallahassee
Moulds, Andrew J., Coral Gables
Moulds. Mrs. Andrew J., Coral Gables
Muir, William Whalley, Miami
Muller, Dr. Leonard R., Miami*
Mullin, Thomas J., Miami
Munroe, Wirth M., Miami*
Nelson, Mrs. Erle B., Miami
Newberry Library, Chicago, Ill.
Newman, Mrs. Anna Pearl, Vero Beach
Nordt, Mrs. John C., Miami
Norris, Hardgrove, Miami
North Miami High School Library
O'Brien, Mrs. Flora E., Miami
Old Island Restoration Foundation, Inc.,
Key West
Otto, Mrs. Thomas Osgood, Miami Beach
Pace, Rev. Johnson Hagood, Jr., Jacksonville
Padgett, Inman, Coral Gables
Page-Krofinger, M. Christy, Miami
Paget, Richard L., Miami
Palm Beach County Historical Society
Pancoast, Lester C., Miami
Pardo, Mrs. Ramiro V., Miami
Parker, Alfred B., Miami
Parker, Theodore R., Grand Bahama Island
Parmelee, Dean, Miami


Pearce, Mrs. Dixon, Miami
Pedersen, George C., Perrine
Peirce, Gertrude C., Miami
Pendleton, Robert S., Ft. Lauderdale
Perrine, William, Hialeah
Peters, Mrs. Thelma, Miami*
Platt, T. Beach, Miami
Porter, Jack E., Miami
Powell, Mrs. Robert A., Miami
Prahl, William, Miami
Price, Gaylord Leland, Miami
Prevatt, Preston G., Miami
Prior, Leon 0., Miami
Quigley, Ellen N., Miami Beach
Rasmussen, Dr. Edwin L., Ft. Myers**
Reed, Miss Elizabeth Ann, Delray Beach
Reeder, James G., Miami Shores
Reynolds, Mrs. Caroline P., Coral Gables
Reynolds, Stan J., Miami
Rhodes, Mrs. W. H., Miami
Richmond, Charles M., Miami
Rigby, Ernest E., Miami
Rivett, Lois Culmer, Miami
Riviera Beach Library, Riviera Beach
Robertson, Mrs. L. B., Miami
Rollins College Library, Winter Park
Rosenblatt, Lee S., South Miami
Ross, Mrs. Richard F., Boca Raton
Santanello, M. C., Kendall
Sapp, Alfred E., Miami
Saunders, Dr. Lewis M., Miami
Sawyer, Clifton A., Warwick, R. I.
Schilling, Louis C., Miami
Schooley, Harry, Ft. Myers
Schubert, Wenzel J., Miami
Schug, John W., Miami
Seley, Ray B., Jr., Miami
Sessa, Dr. Frank B., Miami
Sevelius, E. A., Miami
Shappee, Dr. Nathan D., Miami
Shaw, G. N., Miami
Shaw, Miss Luelle*
Simmons, Glen, Homestead
Simonsen, J. B., Miami
Sisters of St. Joseph, St. Augustine
Skill, Pearl T., Homestead
Slaughter, Dr. Frank G., Jacksonville
Smiley, Mrs. Nora K., Key West
Smith, Gilbert B., Coral Gables
Smith, McGregor, Jr., Miami
Snodgrass, Miss Dena, Jacksonville
Southern Illinois University Libraries
Southwest Miami High Library
Sparks, Mrs. Charles, Fortville, Ind.
Speer, H. L., Starke
Spelman, Henry M. III, Boston, Mass.
Spinks, Mrs. Elizabeth J., Miami*

State Historical Society of Wisconsin
State University of Iowa Libraries
Stecke, Jack, Miami
Steel, William C., Miami
Stetson, John B. University Library
Stranahan, Mrs. Frank, Ft. Lauderdale*
Stripling Insurance Agency, Hialeah
Stuart, Mrs. Jack F., Miami
Talley, Howard J., Miami
Tampa Public Library
Teachers' Professional Library, Miami
Tebeau, Dr. Charlton W., Coral Gables*
Tebeau, Mrs. Violet H., Coral Gables
Ten Eick, Mrs. M. Nunez, Tampa*
Tennessee State Library and Archives
Tharp, Dr. Charles Doren, South Miami*
Thomas, D. Vaughan, Miami
Thompson, Fran, Miami
Thompson, T. Roger, Miami
Thrift, Dr. Charles T., Jr., Lakeland
Tietze, Robert A., Coral Gables
Tietze, Mrs. Robert A., Coral Gables
Tottenhoff, John P., Miami
Turner, Vernon W., Homestead
Tussey, Mrs. Ethel Wayt, Miami
Tuttle, Harry E., Miami
Ullman, John, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
University of Florida, Gainesville
University of Miami, Coral Gables
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.
University of South Florida, Tampa
University of Tampa Library
University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Van Buren, Mrs. Sarah T., Memphis, Tenn.
Vance, Mrs. Herbert O., Coral Gables*
Wallace, Lew, Jr., Miami
Walsh, Mrs. Charles H., Winter Haven
Waranch, Joseph, Baltimore, Md.
Warner, Miss Elmina, Miami
Warner, William C., Miami
Warner, Mrs. William C., Miami
Washington, James G., Miami
Wellman, Wayne E., Miami
Waters, Fred M., Jr., Coral Gables
Wenner, Henry S., Jr., Miami
Wentworth, T. T., Jr., Pensacola
West India Reference Library,
Kingston, Jamaica
Wetterer, Miss Mary Thiel, Bal Harbour
Wheeler, B. B., Lake Placid
White, Richard M., Miami
Whitmer, Dr. Kenneth S., Miami
Whyte, A. N., Coral Gables
Wight, William S., Coral Gables
Williams, Dr. H. Franklin, Coral Gables*
Wilson, Albert B., Miami
Wilson, Gaines R., Miami**


Wilson, Mrs. Gaines R., Miami
Wilson, Peyton L., Miami*
Wilson, Miss Virginia, Miami
Wipprecht, Mrs. Marion H., Coral Gables
Withers, James G., Coral Gables
Withers, Wayne E., Coral Gables
Witmer, Penn C., Miami

Wolf, Fred, Sr., Hallandale
Woodman, Jim, Key Biscayne
Woore, A. Meredith, Miami*
Wright, Mrs. Victor A., Miami Shores
Wylie, W. Gill, Jr., Palm Beach
Zim, Mrs. Sonia Bleeker, Tavernier


Adams, Wilton L., Coral Gables
Ansley, J. A., Ft. Myers
Ayars, Erling E., Miami
Baber, Adin, Kansas, Ill.*
Bailey, Mrs. Ernest H., Coral Gables
Baker, Charles H., Jr., Miami*
Barge, Dr. Hubert A., Miami
Barton, Alfred I., Surfside
Baskin, M. A., Coral Gables
Beardsley, Jim E., Clewiston
Beare, Mrs. Richard, Miami
Beckham, W. H., Jr., Coral Gables
Bellous, C. M., Sr., Opa-Locka
Bischoff, William Dixon, Miami
Blackburn, Elmer E., Miami
Bradfield, E. S., Miami Beach**
Brody, Mrs. Margaret E., Key Biscayne
Brunstetter, Roscoe, Coral Gables
Buhler, Mrs. J. E., Miami
Cameron, D. Pierre G., Miami
Chase, Randall II, Sanford
Clark, George T., Miami
Cole, R. B., Miami
Combs, Mrs. Walter H., Sr., Miami*
Combs, Walter H., Jr., Miami*
Corliss, C. J., Miami Shores
Cotton, E. L., Miami
Cowell, Dr. Edward H., Coral Gables
Craighead, Dr. F. C., Homestead
Crane, Mrs. Francis V., Marathon
Crow, Mrs. Lon Worth, Miami*
Davis, Hal D., Coral Gables
Dee, William V., Miami*
Dorn, H. Lewis, South Miami
DuPuis, John G., Jr., Miami
Dykes, Robert J., Miami
Embry, Tally H., Miami
Fascell, Dante B., Coral Gables
Feibelman, Herbert U., Miami
Ferendino, Andrew J., Miami
Field, Dr. Henry, Miami
Florence, Robert S., Miami
Freeman, Edison S., Miami
Frohock, Mrs. Jack, North Miami
Fuller, Walter P., Clearwater
Gardner, Jack R., Miami

Gardner, Mrs. R. C., Miami*
Gibson, Henry C., Jenkintown, Pa.
Gifford, Mrs. John C., Miami*
Goldweber, S., Perrine
Graham, Ernest R., Hialeah
Graham, William A., Miami Springs
Guilmartin, James L., Miami
Hancock, E. M., Miami Beach
Hanks, Bryan, Ft. Worth, Texas*
Harris, Miss Julia Fillmore, Stuart*
Harvard College Library
Harvey, C. B., Key West
Hawkins, Roy H., Miami
Haycock, Ira C., Miami
Head-Beckham Insurance Agency,
Inc., Miami
Hellier, Walter R., Ft. Pierce
Herren, Norman A., Everglades
Hogan, Francis L., Miami
Holland, Hon. Spessard L.,
Washington, D. C.*
Hopkins, Dr. Oliver B., Miami
Houser, Roosevelt C., Miami
Hudson, Senator F. M., Miami**
Hughes, Mrs. Fleda V., Miami
Irwin, Frank, Jr., South Miami
Jamaica Inn, Key Biscayne
Johnston, Thomas McE., Miami
Jones, Archie L., Miami
Johnson, Robert V., Miami
Kendall, Harold E., Goulds
Kent, Mrs. Frederick A., Miami
Kerr, James Benj., Ft. Lauderdale*
King, Mrs. Otis S., Miami
Kislak, Jay I., Miami
Kistler, The C. W. Company, Miami
Kofoed, Jack, Miami
Krome, Mrs. Wm. J., Homestead*
Leon County Public Library, Tallahassee
Lindgren, Mrs. M. E., Miami
Lipp, Morris N., Miami Beach
MacNeill, Malcolm G., Miami
Mayes, Mrs. C. R., Jr., Pompano Beach
McCarthy, Don L., Nassau, Bahamas
McKey, Robert M., Miami
McKibben, Dr. William W., Coral Gables


McSwain, Dr. Gordon H., Arcadia
Mead, D. Richard, Miami
Meisel, Max, Miami Beach
Melrose, Mary Jane, Miami
Merrick, Mrs. Eunice P., Coral Gables*
Mershon, M. L., Miami
Miami Beach Public Library
Modisette, Col. Welton M., Coral Gables
Morison, Horace, Boston, Mass.
Moseley, Albert B., Daytona Beach
Mudd, Dr. Richard D., Saginaw, Mich.
Nassau Daily Tribune, Nassau, Bahamas
Newman, M. B., Miami
Oglesby, R. M., Bartow
Pace, Mrs. Johnson H., Miami*
Pack, C. C., Coral Gables
Pancoast, Russell T., Miami
Pendergast, Mrs. Eleanor L, Miami*
Pepper, Senator Claude, Miami Beach
Philbrick, W. L., Miami
Philpitt, Marshall S., Jr., Coral Gables
Pierce, C. L., Ft. Lauderdale
Pitt, Gerard, Miami*
Plowden, Gene, Miami
Polk County Historical Library, Bartow
Preston, J. E. Ted, Miami
Raap, Dr. Gerald, Miami
Rader, Earle M., Miami
Roberts, R. B., Jr., Miami
Rosner, George W., Coral Gables*

Scott, Paul R., Miami
Shank, H. W., Coral Gables
Shaw, Henry Overstreet, Miami
Smith, Charles H., Miami
Smith, McGregor, Miami
Snyder, Dr. Clifford C., Coral Gables
Sokola, Anton, Miami
Spaulding, Mrs. E. E., Miami
Spence, Sam, Miami
Stanford, Dr. Henry King, Coral Gables
St. Augustine Historical Society
Stiles, Wade, South Miami**
Straight, Dr. William M., Miami
Sumwalt, G. Robert, Miami
Sutton, Myron D., Alexandria, Va.
Taylor, Henry H., Jr., Coral Gables
Taylor, Paul C., Bal Harbour
Thomas, Arden H., South Miami
Town, Miss Eleanor F., Coral Gables
Towne, Robert R., Delray Beach
Tritton, Mrs. James, Opa-Locka
Vanderpool, Fred W., Miami*
Van Orsdel, C. D., Coral Gables
Walker, Mrs. Catherine C., Miami
West Palm Beach Public Library
White, Dorothy, Miami Beach
White, Mrs. Louise V., Key West
Whitten, George E., Miami Beach
Wolfe, Miss Rosalie L., Miami
Zimmerman, Percy, Miami


Ashe, Mrs. Bowman F., Coral Gables
Baggs, William C., Miami
Bickel, Karl A., Sarasota*
Brown, William J., Miami
Buker, Charles E., Sr., Coral Gables
Burdine, William M., Miami
Burke, Michael, Miami Beach
Clinch, Duncan L., Miami
Coachman, Mrs. Minette K., Miami
Coachman, Richard A., Miami
Cooper, George H., Princeton
Coral Gables Federal Savings and
Loan Association
Dickey, Dr. Robert F., Miami
Dohrman, Howard I, Miami
Emerson, Hugh P., Miami
Evans, Dr. Raymond L., Coral Gables
Fee, David M., Fort Pierce
Gardner, Dick B., Miami
Gearhart, Ernest G., Jr., Miami
Gegenschatz, E. R., Miami
Giffin, John S., Miami
Goldstein, Charles, Miami

Helliwell, Paul L. E., Miami
Highleyman, Daly, Miami
Holland, Judge John W., Coral Gables*
Holmer, Carl, Jr., Miami
Howard, Lee, Miami Beach
Jaudon, Mrs. James F., Miami*
Knight, John S., Miami
Leffler, Miss Cornelia, Miami**
Light, George H., Miami
Lloyd, J. Harlan, Miami
Lummus, J. N., Jr., Miami
Mallory, Philip R., New York, N. Y.
Martyn, Charles P., Jupiter
Mosley, Zack, Stuart
Palm Beach Art League
Parker Art Printing Association,
Coral Gables
Poyer, Charles E., Miami Beach
Read, Emerson B., Coral Gables
Ross, Donald, Benton Harbor, Mich.
Saye, Roland A., Jr., Miami Beach
Schilling, I. E., Miami
Shipe, Paul E., Miami


Thomas, Wayne, Plant City
Thord-Gray, General I., Coral Gables
Underwood, Edwin H., Jr., Miami
Wallace, George R., Miami Beach

West, William M., Miami
Will, Lawrence E., Belle Glade
Wilson, D. Earl, Miami**
Wolfson, Col. Mitchell, Miami


Chase, K. M., Pebble Beach, Calif.
Keyes, Kenneth S., Miami*

Geiger, Mrs. August, Miami Beach*
Gondas Corporation, Miami
Link, Edwin A., Binghamton, N. Y.
Loening, Grover, Key Biscayne
Mook, Mrs. Roger G., Rye, N. Y.

Crane, Mrs. Raymond E., Miami Beach
Florida Power & Light Co., Miami

John E. Withers Transfer &
Storage Co., Miami
Withers Van Lines of Miami, Inc., Miami


Pan American World Airways, Miami
Peninsular Armature Works, Miami
Southern Bell Telephone and
Telegraph Co., Miami


The Baron deHirsch Meyer Foundation,
Miami Beach
University of Miami, Coral Gables



Roland A. Saye, Jr.
Charlton W. Tebeau
First Vice-President
Editor of Tequesta
E. R. Gegenschatz
Second Vice-President

Justin P. Havee
Executive Secretary
Miss Virginia Wilson
Recording and
Corresponding Secretary
J. Floyd Monk

David T. Alexander
Museum Director

Karl A. Bickel
Dr. James W. Covington
David M. Fee
Fort Pierce
Mrs. James T. Hancock

Norman A. Herren
Judge James R. Knott
West Palm Beach
Dr. Charles T. Thrift, Jr.
Mrs. Louise V. White
Key West

Ben Archer
August Burghard
Mrs. Ruby Leach Carson
Carlton J. Corliss
Robert J. Dykes
Mrs. William L. Freeland
Lee Howard
Mrs. Mary Jane Melrose
Mrs. Andrew J. Moulds
Wirth M. Mnnroe

John B. Orr, Jr.
Gene Plowden
Charles Edison Poyer
Gaylord L. Price
George W. Rosner
Dr. Henry King Stanford
Mrs. Frank Stranahan
Mrs. Herbert O. Vance
Gaines R. Wilson
Wayne E. Withers


George H. Cooper
George J. Deedmeyer

Hugh P. Emerson
Kenneth S. Keyes

Dr. Jay F. W. Pearson

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