Front Cover
 Jupiter lighthouse
 Key West and the Spanish American...
 Captain Brannan’s Dilemma: Key...
 Two opinions of Key West in...
 A forgotten Spanish land grant...
 "Notes on the passage across the...
 The association’s historical marker...
 The treasurer’s report
 List of members
 List of officers
 Back Cover

Title: Tequesta
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101446/00020
 Material Information
Title: Tequesta
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Historical Association of Southern Florida
Publisher: (multiple)
Publication Date: 1960
Copyright Date: 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101446
Volume ID: VID00020
Source Institution: Florida International University: Florida History and Heritage
Holding Location: Historical Museum of Southern Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 2096319
lccn - 42015131
issn - 0363-3705


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Jupiter lighthouse
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Key West and the Spanish American War
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Captain Brannan’s Dilemma: Key West 1861
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Two opinions of Key West in 1834
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    A forgotten Spanish land grant in South Florida
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    "Notes on the passage across the Everglades"
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    The association’s historical marker program
        Page 66
        Page 67
    The treasurer’s report
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    List of members
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    List of officers
        Page 77
    Back Cover
        Page 78
Full Text


Editor: Charlton W. Tebeau

NUMBER XX 1 9 6 0

Jupiter Lighthouse 5
By Bessie Wilson DuBois
Key West and the Spanish American War 19
By William I. Schellings
Captain Brannan's Dilemma: Key West 1861 31
By Vaughan Camp, Jr.
Two Opinions of Key West in 1834 45
Edited by Charlton W. Tebeau
A Forgotten Spanish Land Grant in South Florida 51
By Henry S. Marks
"Notes on the Passage Across the Everglades" 57
From The News, St. Augustine, January 8, 1841

The Association's Historical Marker Program 66
Contributors 67
The Treasurer's Report 68
List of Members 71
List of Officers 77


T esta is published annually by the Historical Association of Southern Florida
and the University of Miami. Communications should he addressed to
the Corresponding Secretary of the Society, 1340- duPont Building, Miami 32, Florida.
Neither the Association nor the University assumes responsibility for statements of fact
or opinion made by contributors.

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document


JUPITE LIGHTHOUSE IN THE EARLY 1880'S (About 1883). Picture taken by
Assistant Keeper Spencer. Reproduced by Mr. Sam Quincy, courtesy PALM

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document

u es t^a:

Jupiter Lighthouse

At sundown, July 10, 1960 the keeper of the Jupiter Inlet lighthouse on
the southeast coast of Florida, climbed the spiral iron staircase, 105 feet
up and turned on the light. As the great prismed mantle began to move, the
historic old light rounded out one hundred years of service.

The past century has seen many changes on the east coast of Florida but
the red brick tower stands as serene and staunch as when the first keeper
beamed its rays across the Gulf Stream. From the days when the broad
Atlantic was the main super-highway of the world to the present jet age, it
is still keeping vigil.

If the first two keepers, Thomas Twiner and J. F. Papy, could have
accompanied Raymond C. Phillips the present keeper, up the steps that July
night they would have found few changes inside the tower. They might have
noticed the two places where the iron steps are replaced with wooden ones.
That mishap took place about 1920 when an assistant keeper wound the
great weights controlling the mechanism which turns the mantle so vigorously
that they jumped the pulleys and plunged down through the steps to the
bottom of the tower.

Their keen eyes might have seen the place under the iron cage holding
the lamp where the mortar was squeezed out from between the bricks during
the hurricane of 1928 when the tower swayed an unbelievable seventeen
inches. A bar over one of the bullseyes is also a reminder of that dreadful
September night in 1928.


They would have marvelled to see Mr. Phillips turn on three 250-watt
electric bulbs and set the mechanism going with the flick of a switch. In
their day they lit the mineral lamps and wound the weights at regular inter-
vals. The illuminating apparatus still moves on ball bearings with a soft
humming sound instead of the mercury floats used in many of the other
lighthouses along the coast. The bullseyes surrounded with the prisms which
catch the light and reflect it to focus the flash seen 18 miles at sea, are the
same costly ones ground in France that were placed there a hundred years ago.

Out on the balcony, however, the first keepers would gaze about them in
amazed bewilderment. In 1860 there were no white people for miles in any
direction, just a great wilderness abounding in game, birds, fish and wildlife
of all descriptions including a few very recently hostile Indians. The first
keeper's dwelling was built with thick coquina walls and an inside well so
the occupants could withstand siege if necessary.

Now in 1960 they would see a fairyland of lights extending from the
exclusive Hobe Sound colony, eight miles north to the neons of the city of
West Palm Beach, seventeen miles south. The Loxahatchee is bridged in
three places; railroad trains and busy highway traffic pass across it. They
would be surprised to see the wide well marked inland waterway which used
to be Jupiter Narrows and a meandering stream called Lake Worth Creek.
They will be glad to see the inlet is open. It used to close periodically.
When the fall rains came, pressure built up in the river until a small ditch dug
by hand in an hour would become a half mile wide pouring a torrent of
brown water far out into the Atlantic.

Sounds would certainly confuse the first keepers. They were accustomed
to the cries of the night birds and the booming of the ground swells during
their watches on the balcony. Now a muted roar similar to the ocean seems
to come from the backwoods. This Mr. Phillips would tell them is the sound
of the rocket engines being tested at the huge Pratt Whitney plant west of
Jupiter. The lights that twinkle in the one-time wilderness are in the homes
of hundreds of the employees of this plant. A jet plane or two flying over-
head would further bewilder the poor men but if the base at Cape Canaveral
chose this moment to send a missile blazing into space, they would be ready
to turn back to the peace of a century ago.

Thomas Twiner kept the lighthouse from June 12th, 1860 until J. F.
Papy took over January 1, 1861. His term of service lasted only until August


of the same year. Soon after the beginning of the Civil War all the light-
houses along the southeastern seaboard had been darkened but the light-
houses at Jupiter Inlet and Cape Florida still kept their nightly vigil.
Blockade runners were slipping through the inlet with cargoes of contraband
from Nassau and making their way up the Indian river. The ray from the
Jupiter light often revealed them to the Federal patrol boats. Southern sym-
pathizers tried to prevail upon Keeper Papy to darken the light. He professed
to sympathize with the South but he could not bring himself to turn off the
proud new light that had been put in his charge. Finally he was confronted
by a determined group of men, one of whom was one of his assistant keepers.
Mr. Papy was turned away and enough of the mechanism of the light was
removed to make it unserviceable. The costly lenses were not damaged. The
men marched to Cape Florida and also put the lighthouse there out of com-
mission. They then wrote a letter to Governor M. S. Perry of Florida appris-
ing him of their action and it is signed by three of the men. Dr. Dorothy
Dodd, Florida historian and state librarian, discovered this letter among the
records in Tallahassee and told the story in an article published in the 1954
issue of Tequesta, Journal of the Historical Association of Southern Florida.

The records in National Archives in Washington of 1861 report "that
lawless persons visited the Jupiter Inlet lighthouse and removed the illuminat-
ing apparatus". Dire and exaggerated reports prompted by war hysteria
must have reached Washington the following year for in 1862 the report
reads "Jupiter Inlet, tower and lantern destroyed".

Lt. George G. Meade the designer of the lighthouse and the builders
must have read this last rumor with startled incredulity, for the tremendous
effort and almost heartbreaking difficulties that went into the building of
this tower must have been vividly remembered.

The building of the lighthouse is a saga in itself. It began when Con-
gress in March of 1853 appropriated the sum of $35,000 to erect a lighthouse
to mark the reef lying off Jupiter Inlet and to guide the vessels as a land-
fall. It was to be a light of the FIRST ORDER, which meant that it would
be one of the tallest and most powerful in the country, to indicate the
approach of a coastline with a visibility of 18 to 27 miles. The lenses were
to be of the newest and most costly make, designed by Augustin Jean Fresnel
and ground in the glassworks in France.


Being an inland light, it was to have a masonry tower 90 feet high
(later changed to 105 feet). The site selected, at the junction of Loxahatchee
and Indian Rivers close to the inlet was on an elevation of forty-six feet and
was a part of the 9088.60 acre Fort Jupiter reservation of Seminole War days.
President Franklin Pierce signed the order setting aside 611/2 acres for this
purpose, October 22, 1854.

Five hundred tons of material were assembled and transported to Indian
River inlet in deep sea sailing vessels. There it had to be loaded on shallow
draft scows and lightered to the site, a distance of over 35 miles, ten of which
were through Jupiter Narrows, which at that time was a shallow winding
creek in some places only 20 inches deep, bearing no resemblance to the wide
well marked waterway traversed by yachts, tugs and barges today.

The men struggling to move these heavily laden scows were plagued by
swarms of mosquitoes and sandflies that with the extreme heat made life
miserable almost beyond endurance. At this point some surveyors in the
Everglades incensed the Indians by destroying the garden and prized banana
plants of Billy Bowlegs and hostilities broke out anew. The men working on
the lighthouse began to be harassed by angry Seminoles from the abundant
cover. The work came to a halt. For many years a darker layer of brick
marked where the work ceased at this time. Because of the difficulties en-
countered, Congress was obliged to increase the appropriation. The light-
house was finally completed in 1859 at a cost of $60,859.98, nearly twice
the original appropriation. The walls, tapering from 311/2 inches thick at
the 20 foot foundation to 18 inches thick at the base of the cage holding the
lamp are of solid masonry except for air flues. The tower was left a natural
brick for fifty years when because of dampness inside the tower it was painted
with red art cement. This color against the blue sky and white clouds gives the
tower a distinctive beauty which makes it a joy to artists and photographers.

All during the Civil War the light was darkened. It was said that signals
were sometimes shown from the tower to help the blockade runners. When
Confederate Secretary of War, John C. Breckenridge, fled down the Indian
river, enroute to Cuba after Lee's surrender, he mentioned passing the dark-
ened Jupiter light.

Soon after the war ended, an agent was sent to Jupiter, and with the help
of Captain James A. Armour, the missing parts of the illuminating apparatus
were found down Lake Worth creek and on June 28, 1866, the light again


flashed out over the Atlantic. Captain Armour was an assistant keeper under
a Captain Win, B. Davis of Key West for two years when he became the head
keeper, a position he held very capably for over forty years. A bride came to
share the lonely post in 1867 and Mary Armour who died in infancy was the
first white child born in Jupiter. The Armours had seven other children.

Once a year the U. S. Buoy tender anchored off the inlet and delivered
the year's supplies of oil, paint and other necessities to keep the lighthouse
serviced. The Geranium, the Fern and the Cypress in turn performed this
service. These ships, equipped to lift and clean the large ocean buoys, an-
chored off the inlet. If the inlet were open the supplies were sent in skiffs
up to the lighthouse dock. If the inlet were closed as was the case periodically,
the supplies were placed on the beach above the high tide mark and trans-
ported from there across the beach and ferried to the lighthouse. In later
years one of the villagers was hired to perform this task. At the foot of the
steep steps leading up to the oil room, the wooden cases were broken open and
a five gallon metal can was hooked on each end of a yoke fitted across the
man's shoulders. At the door of the oil room, the keeper waited with a cloth
saturated with linseed oil in his hand. Each can was carefully wiped to
remove any trace of salt water before it was placed on the shelves.

October 20, 1872 must have been a memorable day to the lonely light-
house families. During a roaring northeaster, a Mallory steamer, the Victor,
broke a shaft off Jupiter, and filling fast was driven ashore south of the
inlet. One of the assistant keepers, H. D. Pierce, was on duty in the tower
about midnight and saw the Coston lights. He with Captain Armour and
Charles Carlin, the other assistant, sailed down to the inlet and reached the
scene of the shipwreck in time to help bring the passengers and crew safely
to shore. The crew camped on the beach and the passengers including two
ladies and a child were made comfortable at the lighthouse. The next day
another passing Mallory ship, upon signals from the lighthouse, picked them
up from the beach.

Almost immediately after the shipwreck seven canoe loads of Seminoles
appeared on one of their rare hunting trips from Fisheating Creek. The
Victor began to break up and as the cargo of merchandise worth $150,000
began to be strewn up and down the beach, the Indians joyfully joined in
the salvage. Mr. Pierce was standing on the lighthouse dock when a packing
case surged by on the incoming tide. An Indian stood beside him and moved


toward the case but Pierce read the markings on it and cried, "That's mine".
That is how Mrs. Pierce became the owner of a handsome Wheeler and Wilson
sewing machine that did a lifetime of stitching for her family.

The Indians camped out on the dunes behind the wreck and had a
glorious time. One of the braves found a case of Plantation bitters and joy-
ous whoops were heard all the way up to the lighthouse. Billy Bowlegs now
ninety-eight years of age, still recalls the rich canoe loads of salvage brought
home by the Indians from this shipwreck although he himself was not present.
The lighthouse families found several prize dogs which managed to swim
ashore from the vessel. They were appropriately named, Vie, Storm and
Early travelers coming down the Indian river by sailboat often camped
out near the lighthouse and found the keeper's coquina house a haven of
hospitality. It was a joy to climb the tower after the long trip through the
maze of mangroves to gaze at the wide panorama of ocean, rivers, creeks and
woods. Among these early travelers was a Dr. James A. Henshall who made
two trips to this part of Florida. He related in his writings that Jupiter light-
house had been shaken from top to bottom by two earth tremors on Jan. 12,
1879. Earthquakes in San Francisco, Chile or Japan can be accepted with
credence but it seemed unbelievable that two keepers exchanging watches at
midnight in our own Jupiter lighthouse came down the spiral stairway like
a couple of marbles in a child's toy. An inquiry to Dr. Dorothy Dodd at the
Florida State Library revealed that the Earthquake History of the United
States published by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1947, records
two shocks lasting thirty seconds each between 11:45 and 11:55 P. M. Jan.
12, 1879. Since there were no newspapers in south Florida at that time it was
not reported as far south as the Jupiter light but it was felt in the northern
part of the state. Cape Canaveral lighthouse was shaken so severely that oil
was thrown on the reflectors according to Dr. Henshall. This was not related
to the Charleston quake which took place in 1886.
Dr. Henshall's party enjoyed fabulous fishing while at the lighthouse
and also hunting with Captain Armour and his dogs. One of the Assistant
keepers, Mr. Spencer took some remarkably fine photographs about 1881-1884.
One shows an enormous jewfish or black grouper which was caught by Dr.
Henshall's crew off the lighthouse docks. Capt. Armour brought a steelyard
down on the dock and weighed in the huge fish at 360 pounds. Mr. Spencer
also made a rare and historic photograph of the lighthouse at that time and the


new keepers dwelling that was constructed in 1883. An enormous manatee
and a 12 foot panther shot by Captain Armour are also recorded by Mr.
Spencer's camera.
Captain Armour had two narrow escapes while Dr. Henshall was at the
lighthouse. Once when an inexperienced hunter accidently discharged his
rifle, the bullet just missing him and the second time while descending from
the dome of the lantern, on an iron ladder which rested on the railing of the
balcony surrounding the lantern, the rail broke as he set his foot on it. He
does not relate how Capt. Armour saved himself but he says that the captain
was noted for his intrepidity and level headedness or he would have been
dashed to the ground a hundred feet below.
The one dwelling, even with the addition of a new kitchen in 1875, had
long been too small for three lighthouse families. The government complained
a little querulously in the 1879 report of the isolation of the site and the
difficulty experienced in servicing it. Finally in 1883 a new two story keep-
ers' dwelling was built and the old one completely repaired and renovated.
The light and oil house were also put in good as new condition.
Although the head keeper did his best to keep the men busy applying
that extra coat of paint to every exposed surface and the grounds in perfect
order, boredom did set in. Fishing, hunting and courting young ladies in the
neighborhood were favorite pastimes. One of the early assistant keepers,
Dwight Allen, who had spent his youth at sea climbing the rigging of sailing
ships, gave the community a thrill by walking nonchalantly around the roof
of the tower and ended the performance by standing on his head at the peak.
Then there was the tale of pirate treasure said to have been buried on
the reservation. The loot was supposed to consist of gold and vessels taken
from a church in Mexico by a pirate crew who careened their vessel up in
Pecks lake. One of the surviving pirates was said to have come back at inter-
vals, until he died, to dig up enough treasure to supply his needs.

Stories of two abortive attempts to discover this treasure are told. A
former chief at the Navy station related that one group secured a road grader
about 1910 and began to dig away part of the hill. The work was proceeding
nicely when to their dismay two limousines from the Dept. of the Interior
unexpectedly rolled into the yard of the Navy station. The work was hurriedly
changed into smoothing out the road.
An assistant keeper of the lighthouse next tried to dig up the treasure.


His activities soon became common knowledge on the reservation and every
day a few onlookers gathered to watch and heckle him as he pitched sand
from his ever deepening excavation. One night some practical jokers bor-
rowed the big iron washpot from the Captain's back yard and buried it at the
bottom of the hole. The poor fellow's excitement when his shovel rang on
the iron was pitiful to see. He did not recover from his disappointment
enough to continue the search.
In 1890 the light was transferred from the Seventh to the Sixth Light-
house district so that it could more conveniently be serviced from the inside
route by way of the Indian river instead of outside. A few years before a
substantial boat landing had been built with a long runway connected to the
land by palmetto piling. In 1887 the signal service was given permission to
erect a small telegraph building on the lighthouse reservation and this led to
two interesting incidents.
The government in 1886 established a Life Saving Station on the beach
south of the inlet. Capt. Charles Carlin, former assistant keeper of Jupiter
lighthouse, was put in charge of the station and its six crew members. When
the first Western Union cable was brought over from Nassau, it could not
be brought ashore until the crewmen had telegraphed to Washington from
the lighthouse for permission.
During the Spanish American war many local residents feared that our
proximity to Cuba and the presence of a government installation in Jupiter
might lead to an attack by the Spaniards. These fears seemed justified one
evening when the Carlin ladies rocking on their front porch, saw a fiery
rocket curving toward the lighthouse. Their screams brought the men on the
run. Arms were hastily assembled and joined by the lighthouse keepers and
the rest of the Life Saving crew they set sail for the inlet determined to repel
the invaders at any cost. All the men, that is except one timorous soul who
gathered all his valuables and hid out with them in the woods.

At the inlet a huge battleship could be seen hove to some distance from
shore. Boats were approaching from the ship and as they neared the beach
the men on shore cheered when they recognized the uniforms of the U. S.
Navy. The battleship Oregon on a good will voyage around the Horn had
been out of touch with land for some time. They had no news of the situation
in Cuba and wanted to telegraph Washington from the lighthouse before
proceeding. It was a gala night at the lighthouse for all except the fellow
who hid out in the woods. He was ragged unmercifully.


Across from the lighthouse, a steamer, found to draw too much water
to navigate the narrows, was moored to serve as a floating hotel to accom-
modate guests who enjoyed the superlative fishing in these waters. Among
these distinguished guests was President and Mrs. Grover Cleveland. The
former first lady to her great joy, landed a huge and gleaming tarpon.
At the foot of Jupiter lighthouse the barefoot mailman shouldered his
mailbags and started his trek south. Steve Donhano's beautiful murals in the
West Palm Beach postoffice portray him vividly with the red brick lighthouse
in the background.
The Indian River steamers in 1890 began to bring settlers and visitors
down from Titusville. At first they were met by horse-drawn hacks, then the
roadbed was laid for a narrow-gauge railway seven and one half miles long
which became known as the Celestial railway because of its stations of Jupiter,
Neptune, Venus, Mars and Juno, the last, the terminus of the railroad, was at
the head of Lake Worth. In 1890, Juno became the county seat of Dade
County and the Jupiter-Juno area, the transportation center of south Florida.

In 1895 great changes took place in sight of the lighthouse. Mr. Flagler's
railroad came through. The Fort Jupiter reservation was opened to home-
steaders and the dredging of the inland waterway began. The Indian river
steamers were towed up the Loxahatchee to sadly rust away and the Celestial
railroad was dismantled and sold.
In 1905 a naval wireless station was established on the Jupiter lighthouse
reservation. The first towers were wooden ship's masts that arrived by flatcar.
They were pushed off the cars into the river and floated to their destination.
In order to enlist enough manpower to raise the masts, Mr. Will Poland who
contracted to set them up, gave a great jollification with plenty of beer and
the job was completed in record time. In 1911 these were replaced with a 125
foot galvanized metal tower.
A weather bureau station was also established at the lighthouse and
during the hurricane season residents up and down the river watched for the
ominous red flags with black centers.
In the year of 1908 Captain Armour retired after over forty years of
faithful service. His son-in-law, Captain Joe Wells, succeeded him. He was
dignified, competent and well liked. He held the position for six years and
was followed by Captain Thomas Knight, who stayed only a few months.
He exchanged posts with Captain Charles Seabrook who had come down to


Hillsboro light from the Tybee Island light on the Georgia coast. Captain
Seabrook, a native of Charleston, S. C., remained in charge of the Jupiter
lighthouse from 1919 until he was forced by ill health to retire in 1947. He,
like Captain Armour, loved to hunt and fish and charmed his many friends
with his ready wit. He and Mrs. Seabrook raised a fine family of six children.
In 1925 a survey showed that the lighthouse reservation had not been
properly located and the new area of the reservation was fixed as 113.22 acres
instead of the original 61.50. In 1930 the site consisted of 121.95 acres having
been increased by an executive order of June 12, 1925. The appraised value
of the land was $113,580 and of improvements, $125,000.

Pictures of the lighthouse about 1910 show a screen around the light.
In those days the ducks were so numerous they often covered the river from
bank to bank. Edwin Seabrook related that migrations of ducks and other
birds would become blinded and strike the light at night. Early records of
the lighthouse show many replacements of panes of glass. Edwin said that
the keepers' families often could pick up a tub full of ducks at the foot of
the tower in the morning. They were saddened occasionally to find a big
crane or heron entangled in the screen. Insects, he said, were sometimes so
bad that the men could not stand on the little balcony surrounding the light,
when on duty and the screen in the morning would be so encrusted with bugs,
they could be scraped off by the bucket full. Whether all these specimens
had anything to do with Ed becoming an entomologist we do not know but
during World War II he did notable work for the Army in this capacity and
is now in charge of mosquito control in Palm Beach County.

The great migrations of birds seem a thing of the past. The screen was
removed from the light some years ago and the present keeper says birds
rarely fly against the light now. Neither do the keepers while away the night
hours potting wildcats from the top of the tower.

During World War I ships passing the Jupiter Inlet Naval Wireless
Station were required to maintain radio silence but a platform was built on
the weather bureau house and a signalman stationed there with flags. Each
ship was required to stop and give her name and destination. This was neces-
sarily slow business and often several ships could be seen circling the buoy
then in the ocean off the inlet, awaiting their turn.

In 1928 Jupiter light was converted from the old mineral oil lamps and
system of weights, to electricity. The weights were shipped up to Charleston,


S. C. A diesel motor was installed as an auxilliary in case of power failure.
On September 16, 1928 the navy station began to get warnings of a tremen-
dous hurricane approaching the south east Florida coast. The reports became
increasingly more terrifying and so did the hurricane. It rode the incoming
tide with a blood chilling whistle wreaking death and devastation in its
path. The power went off at the lighthouse reservation just before dark. To
the dismay of all, the diesel refused to start and it was discovered to be
useless until a new part was secured from Charleston, S. C. To Captain
Seabrook, a veteran lighthouse keeper, it was unthinkable that the Jupiter
lighthouse should remain dark at such a time. In spite of a badly infected
right hand he found and installed the old mineral lamps. The problem of
how to turn the mantle remained. By now the storm had increased to an
unbelievable fury and the assistant keepers felt that their place was with their
families. Captain Seabrook prepared to go up the tower himself and turn
the mantle by hand.

His sixteen year-old son Franklin was horrified to see red streaks
running up his father's arm from the infected hand. He begged to go instead.
The boy was blown back four times before he managed to creep up the steep
steps leading to the tower. Inside, it must have taken sheer courage to climb
those spiral stairs. The tower swayed, it was later estimated, seventeen inches.
The apparatus clanged and groaned with an alarming uproar. For four
hours Franklin doggedly pushed the mantle around by hand, timing it as
nearly as he could. One of the priceless bullseyes blew out and he could
hear a cracking sound as the mortar was ground out from between the bricks
by the working of the iron bolts holding the cage, but the light did not fail.
The people at the lighthouse took turns, even Mrs. Seabrook, moving that
mantle around by hand for two more nights until a neighbor, Robert Wilson,
heard of their plight and lent them his Kohler light plant. Congresswoman
Ruth Bryan Owen especially commended Franklin Seabrook for his heroism.
The bullseye that was blown out, was carefully salvaged by Captain Seabrook
and sent to Charleston where it was reassembled and held together with an
iron bar, is back in place in the mantle. The lighthouse has weathered many
severe storms but the 1928 hurricane was doubtless the worst of the century.

Because of tight security restrictions, very little was known of the activ-
ities of the lighthouse keepers and Navy personnel on the lighthouse reserva-
tion during World War II. The lighthouses became the responsibility of the
Coast Guard in 1939, and the keepers a part of this branch of the service.


On the night of February 21, 1942, a German submarine, U-504, fired
two torpedoes into the empty tanker Republic, off Hobe Sound. The Hobe
Sound and Jupiter residents felt the jar of the exploding torpedoes. Several
men in the engine room were killed and the rest of the crew made their way
to shore. In rapid succession several other ships met a similar fate in sight
of the lighthouse. The DeLisle was damaged but was salvaged and towed
away. A loaded tanker, the W. D. Anderson, went up like a torch and sank in
deep water with only one survivor.
To Captain Seabrook fell the sad duty of recovering the bodies of the
men killed on the Republic and the DeLisle for the Martin County coronor.
Strangely, he had learned and practiced the embalming profession as a young
man, which must have been helpful to him at this time.
The lighthouse and adjoining Navy station became the scene of great
activity. Coast guardsmen a-top the tower watched the ocean constantly for
submarines. Marines arrived to stand guard at the gate. It was rumored
that something very new and secret called radar, was being installed.
Civilians were not allowed on the beaches at night. The inlet closed in
the winter of 1942 and stayed closed all during the war making it very
convenient for the Coast Guardsmen on horseback, patrolling the beach.
They crossed the inlet on a bank of sand where the deep green water used
to flow. Jupiter became used to blackouts and heavily armed combat troops
whizzing in and out of the lighthouse reservation.
Then finally it was over and the tracking of missiles from Cape Canaveral
became the next activity at the station.
The Jupiter lighthouse, recently painted and completely renovated for
the hundredth anniversary is still an important light station. Two new mod-
ern one story dwellings are being constructed as living quarters for the
keepers. A twenty-four hour watch is still being maintained as it has for the
past hundred years. No longer however does a keeper stay at Jupiter light-
house for a lifetime. The present keeper, Raymon C. Phillips D.C.C., U. S.
Coast Guard has been at the station three years. Keepers serve a tour of duty
and are replaced.
The original keeper's dwelling, 26x30 feet which housed three families,
burned down in 1927. The two story dwelling built in 1883 was ordered
demolished in 1959.
The light flashes for 1.2 seconds, eclipses for 6.6 seconds, flashes 1.2,
eclipses 21 seconds, then repeats the cycle. A radio beacon transmits one dot


and three dashes (the letter J) on 306 kilocycles. The light is 1,000,000
In 1959 the people of the entire area held a Centennial celebration to
commemorate the completion of the lighthouse. Beards and old-fashioned
costumes transformed the townsfolks into old timers of a century ago. Men
who refused to grow beards were arrested and tried in kangaroo court. The
only modern touch was that the ladies, flounced and sunbonneted, formed
the jury. Singer Perry Como, now a Jupiter Inlet Colony resident, was appre-
hended beardless, playing on the Tequesta golf course. Even though he
appeared before the jury with luxuriant false whiskers he was penalized to
the delight of the crowd.
A group of Seminole Indians set up camp in the middle of the celebra-
tion area and on a platform; at the edge of the Loxahatchee river directly
across from the lighthouse, a pageant of the colorful history of the Jupiter
area was performed by local talent in authentic costumes ably directed by
Mrs. Julia Yates. General Thomas S. Jessup of Seminole War fame, President
and Mrs. Grover Cleveland, Jonathan Dickinson and his party who had been
shipwrecked on Hobe Sound beach and held captive at Jupiter Inlet in 1696,
and the lighthouse keepers of long ago, were all present.
The climax came when the entire cast assembled on the platform and
the Coast Guardsmen in dress uniform marched on and stood at attention
with flags softly waving in the night breeze while the national anthem was
The red brick lighthouse, floodlighted for the occasion, stood beautiful
and dignified in the background. It was a moving and impressive scene,
fitting tribute to a beloved landmark, the men who built it and the keepers
who had served the light faithfully for a century.
Dodd, Dr. Dorothy, "Volunteers Report Destruction of Lighthouse, Tequesta, XIV, 1954.
Eldridge, U. S. Coast Guard Historical Section, March 1951.
Hanna, A. J. Flight into Oblivion, Richmond, 1938.
Hanna, Alfred J. and Kathryn Abbey, Lake Okeechobee, 1948.
Henshall, James A., M. D., Camping and Cruising in Florida 1884.
Hine, C. V., On the Indian River, Chicago, 1891.
National Archives: Records of Jupiter Inlet Light Station.
Mrs. Frederick Voss, whose father, Charles Pierce, was an assistant keeper at Jupiter
lighthouse in 1872, supplied information on the shipwreck of the Victor. Mr. Albert
DeVane of Lake Placid, Florida interviewed Billy Bowlegs for us. The Seahrook
family, especially Franklin and Edwin, gave us much data on the twenty-eight years
their father was keeper of Jupiter lighthouse. Mr. Raymond C. Phillips, D.D.S.,
U.S.C.G., also was helpful and Mrs. Susan Carlin Albertson told me of the visit of
the Oregon to Jupiter Inlet.

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Key West and the Spanish American War

Key West, because of its location and harbor, was destined to be of far
greater importance than any other city of its size. Ninety-two miles from
Havana, its spacious harbor and its naval base meant that the United States
Navy would inevitably utilize it as an important supply depot and coaling
station. Its strategic value was so great and at the same time so apparent that
the failure of the Navy to prepare the base for action in time remains a cause
for surprise.
In addition to the strictly military and naval activities for which it was
destined, Key West for many years had been deeply concerned with the course
of events in Cuba. Prior to the outbreak of that revolution which led to the
war between Spain and the United States, the city was a center of Cuban
revolutionary agitation. The revolutionary Cuban junta, under the leadership
of Jose Marti and Tomas Estrada Palma, had organized a total of sixty-one
Cuban political clubs in Key West. These groups participated in raising
funds for the rebels, in smuggling arms and men into Cuba, and in dis-
seminating stories heralding the heroic deeds of the rebels.1
Both men and news traveled quickly between Cuba and Key West, and as
a result the residents of the city were more accurately informed of events
on the island than any others in the nation. It may have been because of
this, and because of the appearance in the harbor of the ships of the Atlantic
Squadron, that Key West was able to foresee not only the coming of the war,
but to predict when it would begin. The Atlantic Squadron arrived just as
the U.S.S. "Maine" departed on its last voyage, on January 24, 1898. On
February 3, the Miami Metropolis, a weekly newspaper, commented editor-
ially on the fact that Key West was not only talking about the war, but
declaring that it would begin within "sixty days or so". Actually seventy
days were to elapse before President McKinley sent his message to Congress
asking for authority to use the Army and Navy in Cuba.

Key West was the first city to hear about the sinking of the "Maine", and
was also the first to have an opportunity to welcome the survivors back home.


The city mourned the loss, but watched succeeding events with mixed emo-
tions. It became aware of increased activity on the part of the warships in
the harbor, and received literally scores of correspondents from the major
newspapers and periodicals of the nation. As one writer put it, Key West
became the seat, not of war, but of war correspondents.9 It might be added
that the stories filed by those same correspondents, although datelined
Havana, frequently originated in one or another Cuban club, and that little
if any effort was made to verify them.

Shortly after the "Maine" disaster, the Navy began to take some steps to
prepare the Key West base for use. Large stocks of supplies, of coal and
ammunition in particular, were sent to Key West, and the Army was requested
to strengthen the fortifications that protected the city from attack. The steps
taken, however, go far to belie the statement that the Navy was better prepared
for war than the Army. The story of the accumulation of supplies without
having any place to put them resembles the description of the Army base at
Tampa a bit later. The haphazard manner of operation resulted in untold
waste of both time and money, and in an inability to fully utilize the facilities
of a strategically located base.

Storage space for both coal and ammunition was nearly non-existent.
The coal bunkers of the base could not even begin to hold the vast tonnage
that was being sent. High explosives and ammunition arrived only to have
to be stored temporarily in unsafe wooden buildings. The difficulty was
simply that the Navy Department had not separated the command of the
base from that of the fleet. The ranking admiral of the fleet automatically
was in command of the shore establishment, and, naturally enough, his
attention was focused primarily on the fleet. Not until May 1, a full week
and more after the departure of the fleet, was an officer of flag rank appointed
to command the base. On May 7 Commodore George C. Remey arrived to
take command.-

In the meantime the base had struggled along making whatever arrange-
ments could be made. Warehouses, wharves, and docks of all sizes had been
leased from private owners in the city. A contract had been let for the con-
struction of coal bunkers large enough to hold 15,000 tons of coal, and the
Army had cooperated by lending the Navy the use of an ammunition maga-
zine at nearby Fort Taylor. Coal was temporarily stored on the barges in
the harbor while waiting for the bunkers. The Army mined the entrance to
the harbor and hastily began work on the fortifications.4


The arrival of Commodore Remey brought a degree of organization to
the work, and real progress was made. Even then, however, it was to prove
impossible to complete any of the major construction until late in 1899,
long after the war was over. The Commodore was first delayed by an inabil-
ity to find satisfactory quarters in the city for either office space or living
room. On May 20, in desperation, he commandeered the newly arrived U.S.S.
"Lancaster" and made it his flagship. After that he was able to proceed with
the work at hand.
Probably the most pressing problem was the matter of the coal. The
steam-driven ships required large amounts, and transferring it from the
barges to the ships was a time consuming operation. Furthermore, it was
belatedly discovered that the new bunkers under construction were being so
placed that large warships could get no closer than six miles! Shallow water
thus made the continued use of the barges necessary, unsatisfactory as they
were. Remey solved this difficulty by reclaiming and using some old navy
facilities located in the Dry Tortugas, near Fort Jefferson. Coal sheds were
renovated, and new ones built, large enough to hold 20,000 tons. This,
together with the 15,000 tons in the city, was deemed ample for the needs
of the Navy at the time. To make the city bunkers accessible to the largest
ships, arrangements were made to have a deep channel dredged through
the shallow water. The channel, as well as the new bunkers, was completed
the following year.5
By this means the coal problem was taken care of, and through the only
too rare cooperation between the Army and the Navy the ammunition was
properly stored, but many other matters demanded attention. Remey and his
staff were to be kept busy. One task was to find a means whereby the base
could fulfill one of its more important duties, the repair of vessels. Key West
Naval Base did possess machine shops, but they were antiquated and totally
inadequate. It was necessary to enlarge and modernize them at least so they
could make minor repairs to ships and machinery. This was perhaps the
simplest of the problems facing Remey. New machinery and tools, and
skilled mechanics and workmen were imported from the Navy Yard at Phila-
delphia, and temporary wooden buildings were quickly thrown together.
Plans were made, and work begun, on permanent shops, but in the meantime
Key West was able to successfully repair sixty-four naval vessels that would
otherwise have been forced to go to a larger base farther away.6
Apart from the naval activity, which alone would have been enough
to strain the port facilities, the harbor was busier than it had ever been.


Innumerable freighters and transports were constantly arriving and depart.
ing, and there was a constant flow of tugs and yachts acting as dispatch boats
for the newspapers. But probably the most interesting group of ships in the
harbor was the collection of captured Spanish vessels. These ranged from
small fishing boats to freighters of considerable size. Thirty-four were
brought into port, and the courts condemned and sold as prizes of war a
total of twenty-nine. Some 444 crew members and twenty-two passengers
were being held as prisoners.'

At first the captured Spaniards were held on board the ships under
guard in the harbor, but an incident that took place early in May brought
an order to transfer them to Fort Taylor. A boatload of young Cubans
demonstrated their hatred of the Spanish by rowing out to one of the prizes
and circling it while shouting curses and insults up at the hapless prisoners.
The incident was roundly condemned in the Florida newspapers, and the
guards aboard each ship were ordered to open fire on any boat making an
unauthorized approach. Residents of Key West atoned for the action after
Clara Barton, aboard the National Red Cross ship "The State of Texas,"
discovered that the prisoners were running out of funds, food and tobacco.
She appealed to the city for money, and the people of Key West responded

The increased business of the port, and the expansion work underway
at the naval base had brought a boom in the business of the city. Hotels
were full, and rooming houses turned away prospective customers; every
available warehouse was in use, and unemployment was a matter of choice
rather than necessity. The Navy had been compelled to import labor from
other areas, and add them to the personnel of the base. Construction work
was the principal reason for the surplus of jobs over applicants, but even
the telegraph office had added to its staff. Navy payrolls had expanded, and
whenever a ship entered port, its crew added to the potential business. The
merchants were reaping a full harvest, and anticipated a long period of pros-
perity since it was obvious that the work would not be completed for some
time to come.

Making things even rosier for the city was the fact that the Army had
also moved into Key West. The Engineers had inspected the defenses of the
city in March, and had begun work shortly after. At one time, Key West had
been considered as one of the few places in the country possessing adequate
fortifications. The defenses consisted of Fort Taylor in the city itself, and


Fort Jefferson, seventy miles to the west on Garden Key. Both forts were
old, and were considered inadequate in 1898. Jefferson had been turned over
to the Public Health Service for use as a quarantine station, and in any event
was too far away. Taylor's guns had been modern when installed during the
Civil War, but were outranged by the guns of new battleships. The Engineers
decided that Taylor could be of some use, but that Jefferson was too dilapi-
dated for repair.

New batteries were planned, and large caliber coast defense guns were
rushed to Key West from the north. Fort Jefferson was reclaimed, and a
garrison of two companies of infantry sent out. Work was started on batteries
placed at the entrance to the harbor, and new guns were ordered for Fort
Taylor. The Twenty-fifth Infantry, plus some coast artillery troops, arrived
to garrison the city. Key West Barracks, the only active post in the city, was
enlarged, and the post hospital was prepared for service on a larger scale.

Work on the batteries proceeded rapidly, but the task was of such
magnitude that it was impossible to complete it until 1899. Vast amounts of
material had to be brought to the city in addition to the thousands of cubic
yards of sand purchased locally. Labor was recruited in Jacksonville, Mobile,
and other Gulf cities. Temporary batteries were hastily emplaced to offer
at least the semblance of protection, but the most that could be said for the
work of the Army was that it added considerably to the prosperity of the
merchants and contractors of the city.0

Work on the defenses began in March, a month before the start of the
war. With the opening of hostilities, the services faced the prospect of large
numbers of casualties, with the Army in particular anticipating numbers of
sick and wounded from its projected Cuban campaign. It planned to bring
the most seriously injured or sick to Key West, but the hospital facilities at
Key West Barracks were not considered sufficient. The solution to this prob-
lem was without doubt the easiest and most satisfactory answer that was found
to any of the many questions that arose. Just before the war began, the
Mother Superior of the Convent of Mary Immaculate in Key West had written
to the Navy. She offered the buildings of the convent itself, and of the school
operated by the Sisters to the Navy for use as a hospital. The only conditions
laid down were that the buildings should be returned in good condition after
the war, and that the Sisters remain in the capacity of nurses. This last was
a task they were well fitted for, having served in that capacity in many yellow
fever epidemics in the past.'0


The Navy had gratefully accepted the offer, but soon afterwards turned
the hospital over to the Army. The convent and school were converted into
a 500 bed hospital, with small sheds erected on the grounds for isolation
wards. The staff consisted of seven medical officers, nine civilian doctors,
twenty-three nuns, and thirty-four hospital corpsmen. Between April and
August, a total of 547 patients were treated, six of whom died. The hospital
thus proved to be of great value. It was probably one of the few service
installations that was ready to serve at full capacity when needed. By their
action, the Sisters added one more page to an already full history of past
service to the community
While Key West was thus able to supply hospital facilities, it was
completely unable to satisfy all the demands made upon it. The most serious
deficiency was the lack of an adequate water supply. Normally the rainfall
was sufficient for all needs. It was gathered in large cisterns and stored
until needed. However, the swollen population created a demand far in
excess of normal, and the situation was complicated by the fact that the
previous winter had been an exceptionally dry one. By April the situation
was serious, and one naval officer estimated that by July the island would
be completely dry.

Once again it was necessary to find a temporary solution while awaiting
more permanent relief. The Army was once more asked to cooperate by
arranging for the shipment of water from St. Petersburg via barge. This
was done, and barges with a capacity of 100,000 gallons began making the
trip to Key West, although the water thus secured was rather costly. Between
the cost of the water itself and the transportation, the price came to two cents
per gallon. Part of this supply had to be sent out to Fort Jefferson, as that
islet was even drier than Key West.12
Both the Army and the Navy then rushed plans to supplement the normal
water supply in other ways. During the Civil War the Navy had constructed
a distilling plant capable of producing 7,000 gallons of water per day. This
was now brought back into service, and new and larger plants were built.
The Army completed the first one on May 25, with a capacity of 50,000 gal-
lons per day. With the others that were put into service in a short time, the
water problem was ended. About the beginning of July heavy rains fell and
all worries were ended.
During the time when the water shortage was at its worst, Key West
escaped what might very well have been disaster. General William Shafter,


in command of the troops in camp at Tampa, was ordered by Adjutant Gen-
eral Corbin to take a total of 10,000 soldiers and take them to Key West.
They were then to be sent to Fort Jefferson, and await transportation to Cuba.
Since Jefferson was being supplied with water from Key West, and Tampa
was then making daily shipments of water to Key West, it is not difficult to
picture the consternation had the troops actually been sent. As it was Shafter
frantically wired Corbin, reminding him of the water shortage, and the order
for the troop movement was cancelled. The incident is difficult to under-
stand, since Corbin, on May 7, had authorized the use of Army funds to
purchase water to be sent to Key West, and then in the face of that, went
ahead with the troop order on May 10. On top of that, Fort Jefferson was
scarcely capable of housing 10,000 troops with all their equipment2

One other service in the city was stretched to the limit by the situation
while the Army and Navy were so much in evidence. Ordinarily Key West
possessed a three man police force for its nearly 18,000 people. With the
services coming to town in force, an additional man was added to the police
department, but that was to prove to be little help. The police found them-
selves completely unable to maintain order, especially in the area of the
numerous bars and taverns. The population of Key West, heterogeneous
enough in any case, had been made more so by the addition not only of the
sailors, but by the arrival of the Twenty-fifth Infantry, a Negro regiment,
and the many civilian workers at the base and on the fortifications. The
situation was just too much for the four men on the police.

Trouble first became evident in brawls taking place in some of the
taverns, with servicemen clashing with the civilians. These were numerous
enough in themselves, but might have been handled had there not appeared
an ugly racial tinge in some of the fights. Key West had protested against
the sending of a Negro regiment, but its warnings had been ignored, and
undoubtedly some resentment remained. Trouble soon boiled over when
some Negro troopers marched to the city jail in order to free one of their
fellows on April 17. The policemen were brushed aside, and the jail door
broken down. From then on the situation grew worse.14

Several fights in the streets degenerated into riots in which several lives
were lost and many people injured. The police were helpless. Newspapers
throughout the state took note of the situation, and most of them condemned
the city rather than the troopers. It was reported that the people of Key West
were living under a virtual reign of terror, and the Tampa Times declared


that Key West and its people were at fault for abusing the colored soldiers.
It pointed out that Negro soldiers in Tampa did not cause any trouble, a
statement that was not quite true. Finally, Key West made an appeal to the
military authorities, and Army and Navy both took steps to restore order.
Large patrols were sent out every night to keep the peace. Civilian workmen
were threatened with discharge if involved in further trouble, and tempor-
arily the soldiers were confined to quarters.15

With order restored, the city was once again able to relax and enjoy the
unprecedented prosperity. All the signs pointed to a long period of boom
business. Even though it was clear by July that the war would soon be over,
both the Army and the Navy had declared that the construction then under
way would be completed. That meant that jobs would be available for any
who wanted them, and that the merchants and contractors would continue to
have as much business as they could handle. The work, particularly that on
the docks and the dredging of the channel, also promised greatly improved
harbor facilities for future use.16

Key West, however, received a stunning blow on August 16, just four
days after the end of the war. The ships in the harbor began taking aboard
all shore personnel of the Navy, together with many of the civilian workers,
and left port, headed toward Hampton Roads. One company of Marines
was left behind as a guard, and even that was removed shortly after. Six
days later the Army followed suit, and by August 22 the only uniforms to be
seen in Key West were those of the Marines and of a small guard detachment
of the soldiers. Work on the construction projects was at a standstill, and
most of the non-native labor had also left. The only reason given for the
move was the announcement by a young naval surgeon that three cases of
yellow fever had been discovered in the Marine detachment.7

Key West knew yellow fever only too well, having had epidemics sweep
the city in 1892 and again in 1897. The disease was probably the most dreaded
scourge of the tropics, and Florida, following a severe epidemic in Jackson-
ville, had created a State Board of Health to combat the contagion. Dr. Joseph
Y. Porter was the State Health Officer, and was one of the few doctors in the
state who was confident that the disease could be at least controlled. Since
the cause of yellow fever was still unknown in 1898, all measures were aimed
at preventing the entry of the infection from other areas. The means of doing
this was the imposition of a quarantine each year against ships arriving from
tropical ports. Dr. Porter was also constantly alert, watching for any indi-


cation that the fever had appeared, and hoping that he could isolate the
original victims and prevent the spread.
In 1898 there were several rumors of the appearance of yellow fever
in Florida. Aware that with many thousands of soldiers camped in Florida
the danger was greater than ever, Dr. Porter was more than ever on the alert.
In July his attention was called to the discovery in Key West of a number
of cases of a fever whose symptoms somewhat resembled those of yellow
fever. He personally examined each patient and assured himself that they had
nothing more severe than dengue, a non-fatal fever with a duration of about
ten days. With that he paid no more attention to it.

It was this dengue fever that had stricken the Marines. The naval
surgeon, described as being fresh out of school, promptly diagnosed it as
yellow fever. The Secretary of the Navy was so notified, and the order to
evacuate Key West followed. Dr. Porter protested in vain. He was joined by
Dr. William Murray of the Marine Hospital Service, and by Dr. A. H.
Glennan of the Public Health Service. All agreed that the fever was dengue
and not yellow fever, and all protested against the action of the Navy. Their
fear was simply that panic might ensue, and that Key West would be need-
lessly subjected to a quarantine on the part of all cities and states of the
Gulf area.
As far as Key West was concerned, there was no panic, but the city was
promptly quarantined by states and cities from Louisiana to Tampa. For a
period of several weeks Key West was isolated, and as a result business came
to a halt. The merchants who had stocked up in anticipation of continued
boom business were most severely hurt, especially when the goods in question
were perishable.
The Navy continued to reject the protests of Dr. Porter and his asso-
ciates, and persisted in its diagnosis of yellow fever. Within a few weeks,
however, Dr. Porter was vindicated. The three Marines gave the dengue fever
to a number of others, but all recovered within the ten day period without
ill effects. In Key West itself some 6,000 people became victims of the fever,
but again all recovered. There was no fatality connected with the illness,
and this alone was enough to wring a reluctant admission from the Navy that
perhaps they had been wrong. On September 12 the ships and men began
returning to Key West. Again the Army followed suit, and the city once more
resumed a more normal life, even though some time was to pass before
Mississippi and several other places consented to lift the quarantines. With


the possible exception of the merchants who had suffered the greatest losses,
Key West was glad to forgive and forget as soon as the work on the base
and the fortifications was once again in progress.

All in all, the period of the war had been filled with excitement for the
city. Perhaps the most important effect of the war was the vast amount of
construction of a permanent nature, much of which was of value to the port
in peacetime. The amount of money spent in the city by the Army and Navy
ran into many millions, to which should be added the sums spent by the
individual soldiers, sailors, and workmen. One very hasty scanning of the
records resulted in verifying the expenditure of over $2,244,850 between
March 1898 and July 1899.18 How much more was expended is at present
unknown, but it is certain that the sum far exceeds that which has so far been
verified. It can be said without fear of contradiction that Key West gained
far more than it may have lost, even with the false alarm concerning the
yellow fever.

Immediately after the war the city was able to benefit by means of the
increased trade with Cuba, and with its new channel, its improved facilities,
and the continued presence of the services, was able to enjoy a vista of
uninterrupted prosperity for some time to come.

a Richard Vernon Rickenbach, "A History of Filibustering from Florida to Cuba, 1895-
1898" (Unpublished Master's thesis, University of Florida, 1948), p. 13. See also
Carlisle Calderon, Report to the Spanish Legation (Washington, 1896), and Horatio
Rubens, Cuba, the Story of Liberty (New York, 1932), for a full story of the activities
of the Cubans in Key West and elsewhere.
2 Chicago Times Herald, February 19, 1898, as cited in Marcus M. Wilkerson, Public
Opinion and the Spanish American War (Baton Rouge, 1932), pp. 128-132..
a Reginald Belknap, "The Naval Base at Key West, 1898," in Proceedings, U. S. Naval
Institute, XLI (September, 1915), pp. 1443-1473. Belknap is very bitter about the
failure of the Navy to take any steps to prepare the base ahead of time. He was
Commodore Remey's aide at the time.
4 National Archives, War Records Division (Old Army Section) Record Group 98, Tampa,
p. 200. (Archives sources hereafter cited as NA-WR, for army records, and NA-NR,
for naval records.)
s Albert Manucy, "The Gibraltar of the Gulf of Mexico," Florida Historical Quarterly, XXI
(April, 1943), p. 328-329. Report of the Navy Department, 1898, 2 vols. (Washington,
Government Printing Office, 1898), I, 210-242.
o NA-NR, Record Group 181, Key West File No. 1.
* NA-WR, Record Group 98, File No. 2681, 2770.
a Times Union and Citizen (Jacksonville), May 2, 1898. George Kennan, Campaigning
in Cuba (New York, 1899), pp. 15-17.
SNA.WR, Record Group 92, File No. 108663. Report of the War Department, 1899, II,
Part 1, 28-29.


-o Ibid., 1898, I, Part 1, 398, 716-719. Albert Diddle, "Medical Events in the History of
Key West," Bulletin of the History of Medicine, XV (1944), 460.
i1 Report of the War Department, 1898, I, Part 1, 716-719.
-" Ibid., p. 83.
2A NA-WR, Record Group 98, File No. 1634. Register of Contracts, QMGO, 1896-97-98,
p. 243. Item No. 91724. Times Union and Citizen (Jacksonville) May 25, 1898.
a1 Report of the War Department, 1898, I, Part 1, p. 84
14 Times Union and Citizen (Jacksonville), April 26, May 2, 26, 1898. Tampa Times,
April 18, 26, May 25, 1898.
Is NA-WR, Record Group 98, File No. 1897.
ie See Albert Diddle, op. eit. NA-WR, Record Group 181, Key West, Letter Sent Book
August 16, 1898; Lancaster Box No. 2, Report of the Navy Department, 1898, I, 787-
788. NA-WR,Record Group 98, File No. 4692, 4760, 4765, 4820, 4864, Dr. Porter's
story is best told in the Tenth Annual Report of the State Board of Health of Florida
(Tallahassee, 1899). The details of the story are scattered, and unfortunately the
writer was unable to locate any Key West newspapers, but the following newspapers
carried rather full accounts: Times Union and Citizen (Jacksonville), especially
issues of August 19, September 3, 7, 8, 14. New York Times, especially on August
17, 18. Tampa Times during the entire period.
is This figure is at best a partial account of the monies spent. Time has not yet per-
mitted a thorough search of the records of the War and Navy Departments in the
National Archives, but the figure cited includes sums the expenditure of which has
been verified.

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Source Document

Captain Brannan's Dilemma: Key West 1861

Captain James Milton Brannan, First Artillery, United States Army,
and senior ranking officer on the island of Key West, found himself con-
fronted with a military dilemma. The date was January 13, 1861, and the
threat of civil war hung like Banquo's ghost over the land. Brannan's little
company represented the total might of the Federal government in South
Florida,' but it was placed, or, so the Captain believed, in an untenable
tactical position. His troops were concentrated in the Army Barracks, which
lay on the northeastern shore of the island, while the only defensible position,
Fort Taylor, lay on the Western shore of this last of the Florida Keys.- The
direct route between the post and the fort was covered with the typical scrub
growth of the island, while the only passable road ran at a right angle through
the ever increasingly hostile town of Key West.
The second largest town in Florida, Key West was essentially a Southern
town. In 1860 it had a population of 2,862 inhabitants, including 451 slaves
and 160 free negroes.3 Although a few of the inhabitants were immigrants
from the New England area, and there was an added sprinkling of Bahamians,
the majority of the citizens were either native to the Island City or were
migrants from the nearby Southern states. Certainly, the major leaders of
the community, with few exceptions, were wholly Southern in sympathy.
As early as 1832, in the heat of the discussion over the National Tariff
Act of that year, a local newspaper editorially outlined the position of these
leaders. It read:
We have always thought that the value of our union consisted
in affording equal rights and equal protection to every citizen; when,
therefore, its objects are so perverted as to become a means of im-
poverishment to one section, whilst it aggrandizes another, when it
becomes necessary to sacrifice one portion of the States for the good
of the rest, the Union has lost its value to us; and we are bound, by
a recurrence to first principles, to maintain our rights and defend
our lives and property.4
Although this overt secessionist feeling died down with the compromise
resolution of the tariff issue it burst into flame again with the presidential


election of 1860. Florida delegates, supported by the citizenry of Key West,
supported the candidacy of John C. Breckenridge at the abortive Democratic
Convention in Charleston. In the divided Baltimore Convention, the Florida
delegation helped the break-up of the Democratic party by walking out of the
meeting and joining with other Southern delegates in the nomination of
Buchanan's vice-president.
The selection of Breckenridge as the standard bearer of the Southern
wing of the party was hailed enthusiastically in Key West. The influential
Key of the Gulf extended its editorial endorsement on January 7th, and it
seems to have expressed the will of the majority of the citizens.5 There was
some slight opposition from the followers of John Bell of the Constitutional-
Union Party, but there was no feeling for the candidacy of Steven A. Douglas,
who lacked any kind of organization in the Democratic State of Florida. Any
supporters of Lincoln and the radical Republican were careful to keep their
affiliation quiet."
Local sentiment was in full agreement that the possible election of
Lincoln portended the dissolution of the Union. Looking backwards upon it
in 1912, Jefferson Browne reported that, "the election of Abraham Lincoln,
the first president to be elected upon the sectional issue of antagonism to the
South and its institutions, stirred up the people of Key West, in common with
the rest of the Southland." 7
On November 30th, shortly after the results of the election became final,
Florida Governor, M. S. Perry, in conjunction with the legislature, issued a
call for a statewide convention to meet in Tallahassee, on January 3, 1861,
to take into consideration the future relationship between the people of the
State and the Federal government. Upon the receipt of the Governor's mes-
sage, in Key West, a mass meeting of all citizens was called.-
The assemblage, which was held on the night of December 12th, "was
the largest meeting ever held in Key West up to that time." Only one of
the evening's speakers, Colonel W. C. Maloney, spoke out against secession
and in favor of remaining within the Union. The real contest lay between
those who favored immediate secession and those who believed that Florida
should wait and follow the lead of the border states. After an evening of
recriminatory speeches the meeting was adjourned until the following night.
On the evening of December 13th, the meeting reconvened and proceeded
to the task of selecting three men to represent Monroe County in the Tallahas-
see convention. A count of hands showed the election of two outright seces-


sionists, William Pinckney and Winer Bethel, and one moderate, William
Marvin. "The strong sentiment for secession was manifested by this vote -
Judge Winer Bethel and Mr. Pinckney, pronounced secessionists, were selected
by an almost unanimous vote, and Judge Marvin, who did not favor imme-
diate secession, received a bare majority."10 The pro-secessionists eventually
controlled the entire delegation. They questioned the propriety of Marvin,
a Federal Judge, attending a meeting aimed at the breaking up of the Union.
Marvin was replaced by Asa Tift who favored immediate rupture with the
Federal government. The tension of the local situation was heightened by
the departure of these delegates for the state capitol."-
This, then, was the attitude of the City of Key West which lay between
the tiny command of Captain Brannan and the defensible shelter of Fort
Taylor. The Captain's position was not unique. Throughout the seceeding
Southern states other commanders of army and navy units found themselves
faced with the same problem. A few, like Robert Anderson, at Charleston,
and A. J. Slemmer, at Pensacola, resolved to hold Federal property and their
military positions at all costs. The majority, however, turned over Union
forts, arsenals, and supplies to the States, upon demand. Excoriated in the
press, these officers could point out the small size of their commands, in
comparison to the State forces available, and, also, that the question of the
ownership of such property had never been resolved.

Brannan was of the same mind as Anderson and Slemmer. The entire
career of the forty-one year old Captain had been one of preparation for
command decision. Born on July 1, 1819, at Washington, D. C., he had
received an appointment to the United States Military Academy in 1837. His
graduation with the class of 1841, had not been spectacular, as he stood
twenty-third out of a class of fifty-two. In the same class Braxton Bragg
stood fifth, Jubal A. Early eighteenth and J. C. Pemberton twenty-seventh.12
Commissioned a Brevet Second Lieutenant, Brannan was first stationed at
Plattsburg, N. Y., where he acquired active field experience during the dis-
turbances of 1841 and 1842. By the time of the outbreak of the Mexican
War Brannan had become a regular First Lieutenant and was adjutant of the
1st Artillery. Other members of that regiment, destined for fame, were
Joseph Hooker, Irvin McDowell, John B. Magruder, Ambrose P. Hill and
Thomas Jonathan Jackson. With this regiment Brannan took part in Scott's
campaign from Vera Cruz to Mexico City, earning a brevet to Captain and
a severe wound in the doing. He remained with the occupation forces and
was one of the founding members of the Aztec Society, together with U. S.


Grant and R. E. Lee. In view of the Seminole disturbances in Florida,
Brannan, with one company of the 1st Artillery, was transferred to Key West
in 1856.13
Even before the Key West secession meeting was held Brannan was con-
sidering his alternatives. On December llth, he wrote the Adjutant General,
Colonel Samuel Cooper, that he believed that secession in Florida was
inevitable. He went on to say that he had "reliable information that as soon
as that act is committed an attempt will be made to seize upon Fort Taylor.4
He then requested specific instructions. Should he "endeavor at all hazards
to prevent Fort Taylor being taken or allow the State authorities to have
possession without any resistance."l
Brannan was greatly hampered in his relationships with Washington by
the lack of adequate communications. There was no telegraph service link-
ing the island and the mainland, and the Captain had to rely on the Mordecai
and Company steamer Isabel, or passing ships out of New Orleans or St.
Marks. The Isabel made the round trip between Key West and Charleston,
S. C. once every two weeks. Counting rail service between Charleston and
Washington, Brannan could count himself lucky if his letters reached the
War Department in a week and a half.1'
Communication difficulties were not so great for State officials. On
January 5, 1861, Florida Senator David Yulee, in Washington, telegraphed
Joseph Finegan, in charge of the military affairs of the State of Florida, in
Tallahassee, saying that "the immediately important thing to be done is the
occupation of the forts and arsenals in Florida." Hampered by the Seces-
sion Convention Finegan made no move to secure the Key West posts.
Yulee was also calling upon the War Department for a list of officers
in the Regular Army from his state and for a statement of "the numerical
force of troops now in garrison at the various posts in the State and
the amount of arms, heavy and small, and ammunition, fixed and loose." l
The Department returned a polite answer that the "interests of the service
forbid that the information which you ask should at this moment be made
public." 1
In view of his communications difficulty Brannan operated in a vacuum.
He knew the date of the Secession Convention in Tallahassee, and could, with
some degree of accuracy, determine the possible date of Florida's repudiation
of the Union. The idea that the State might remain within the Union did
not enter the Captain's considerations.


There was on the island at least one other man as determined as Brannan
that Fort Taylor should remain in Union hands. This was Captain E. B. Hunt,
United States Engineers, in charge of the construction of the Fort. Hunt
had been the chief engineer on the works for the better part of three years.
Fearful that the product of his skill would fall into the hands of the enemies
of the Union, Hunt urged upon Brannan "to assume the military command of
Fort Taylor." 20 The engineer added that "I shall heartily cooperate in my
appropriate capacity . and shall in a few days complete all the defensive
preparations now required." S1
At least two other members of the Key West Community felt much the
same way as did Captain Hunt. Maloney reports that Brannan's future action
was taken "by the advice of Judge Marvin and Charles Howe, Collector of
Customs." 22 Marvin, who had counselled that Florida wait and note the
actions of the border states in the Key West secession movement had appar-
ently had a change of heart.
The decision once made that Fort Taylor must be garrisoned, Brannan
moved with celerity. To confuse any persons who might desire to forestall
his movement "Captain Brannan . attended the religious services on
Sunday as usual." 23 This was a simple blind, for at midnight the Captain
assembled his troops and all equipment in the barracks area. Dividing his
men into small groups, the Captain quietly marched each squad through the
peacefully sleeping city. The movement, begun at twelve o'clock, was com-
pleted before sunrise.24
Key West awoke to a fait' accompli. There was some grumbling among
the citizens, but no concerted action was taken against the Army command.
Routine business between the citizens and the troops was carried on as if
there had been no change of position.5
The indomitable Captain had no sooner occupied his new quarters than
he fired off a message to the Adjutant General, announcing his unauthorized
I have the honor to report that in consequence of the recent
seizure by unauthorized persons of several forts and arsenals in
the Southern States, I have placed my entire command in Fort
Taylor for the purpose of protecting it. I shall, until orders from
the General Government to the contrary, defend it . s
Brannan's position was still not an enviable one. Fort Taylor was one
of the most modern in the United States, but it was still incomplete. Con-
struction on the Fort had begun in 1845, but most of the works had been


swept away by the vicious hurricane of the following year. After some little
delay construction had been resumed, with a projected completion date of
1861. Together with another unfinished work, Fort Jefferson, in the Dry
Tortugas, Fort Taylor was designed to deny an enemy entrance to the Gulf
of Mexico through the Florida Straits.
The work was a "double casemented brick fort of the Bauban [sic]
plan." 7 It mounted extremely heavy coastal defense armament, consisting of
Forty 10-inch Rodmans, and ten 24-pounder howitzers on the first
tier; thirty 8-inch Columbiads, six 30-pounder Parrott rifles; two
10-inch Rodmans, eighteen 24-pounder howitzers on the second tier,
and twenty 10-inch Rodmans, two 15-inch Rodmans, three 300-
pounder Parrott rifles, three 100-pounder Parrott rifles, three 30-
pounder Parrott rifles, one 10-inch siege mortar, and four 8-inch
siege mortars on the parapet.28
The fort had been constructed on a wide sand spit projecting out about
a quarter mile from the western shore of Key West. Built with four bastions
and four curtains, it adequately covered the harbor against possible naval
attack. Unfortunately the designers had not foreseen the possibility of civil
war and had neglected the fortification of the land approach from the city.

If this did not constitute enough of a problem, Brannan was plagued
with the smallness of his command. The fort had been designed for a mini-
mum garrison of one thousand men.29 The Captain had forty-four. His
artillery company combined with the mechanics and laborers under the direc-
tion of Captain Hunt, gave the fort a garrison of about a hundred men.80 In
the early days of 1861 a determined assault, properly carried out across the
spit might have sustained heavy casualties, but probably would have carried
the fort.

Brannan immediately set about placing his command on a war footing.
Rations and water were collected, and he was able to announce to the War
Department on January 15th, that he had four months provisions and seventy
thousand gallons of water on hand. But, he added, "we cannot stand a siege
against any organized army." Reinforcements were imperative and two heav-
ily armed naval vessels should be dispatched to Key West immediately to
prevent the landing of any military forces beyond the range of the fort's
Captain Hunt was ordered to throw up two sand revetments covering the
sand spit approach. The engineer and his laborers threw themselves furiously


into the work and the embankments were completed in record time. Ten
8-inch guns were mounted so as to enfilade any attacking force.
Although Brannan had given up the barracks he had no intention of
abandoning them. Once the emergency measures necessary for the protection
of the fort had been completed, he put the entire command at work, building
a road between Taylor and the barracks. This road traveled in a straight
line between the two points, thereby bypassing Key West to the North, giving
the Captain freedom of movement. A few of the troops and four guns were
stationed in the encampment area.32
Meanwhile, Florida had plunged headlong into secession. The Talla-
hassee convention had assembled, amid great State and National excitement,
on January 3, 1861. On January 10th, the major business of the Convention,
the Ordinance of Secession, was brought to the floor and there passed by the
overwhelming majority of sixty-two to seven. Governor Perry signed the act
into law on the same day.3a
Some of Brannan's anxiety over his position would have been eased had
he received news of the convention's action on the day following the passage
of the secession ordinance. The convention instructed Governor Perry that
It is the sense of this convention that the governor should not
direct any assault to be made on any fort or military post now occu-
pied by Federal troops, unless the persons in occupation of such
forts and posts shall commit overt acts of hostility against this state
. unless directed by a vote of this convention.84
But neither Brannan or the people of the North knew about the intentions
of the State officials. Even before Florida had passed its Ordinance of Seces-
sion the New York Times reported that "the forts and other Federal property
have been taken possession of by the governor." as Communications remained
open between the North and Fort Pickens, at Pensacola, but no immediate
news came from Key West, due, in most part, to its geographic isolation.
Public fears that Forts Taylor and Jefferson had fallen into State hands was
alleviated on January 28th, with the publication, in the New York Times, of
a letter from Key West. The author, who signed himself "Engineer", stated:
I write a line to say that we are now quiet and at peace, because
we have put ourself on a war footing. . There are now an
artillery company of 44 men, and an enrolled force of mechanics
and laborers who are ready to defend their workmanship. A total
of over a hundred can probably be relied on, and the work itself is
very strong against assault3 "


The letter ended with a fervent plea for naval assistance and adequate water
communications. Two days later the Times confidently announced that "the
government property at Tortugas and Key West is . perfectly secure." 3"
The War Department was not as confident. Brannan's original letter of
December 11, 1860, had not reached Washington until January 3rd. In the
absence of Samuel Cooper, who was considering the possibility of handing in
his resignation, Brannan's orders came through Lieutenant Colonel G. W.
Law, Aide-de-Camp on the staff of General Scott. On January 4th, Law
directed Brannan to move his entire command into the confines of Fort
Taylor, and there to do everything in his "power to prevent the seizure of
your fort." 38 The aide went on to state, that while Fort Jefferson was to be
garrisoned, Brannan was to look for help only from cruising naval vessels
and the mechanics and laborers of Captain Hunt's construction force. He
then closed with the ominous warning that "there is some apprehension that
an expedition is fitting out in Charleston to take one or both of the forts,
Taylor or Jefferson." -"
On January 26th, Brannan, who had received no communication from the
Department for a month and a half, wrote Washington to announce that there
had been no demonstration against the fort. The work was growing stronger
with the passage of every day, and the doughty Captain had no doubt that
while "a force will soon appear . from the main land," he could beat it
off.40 He urged that his company be raised to a hundred men and that he be
supported on the flank by a naval sloop-of-war.41
Brannan's contact with the outside world, but not with the Department,
came with the arrival in Key West of Captain M. C. Meigs, on January 22nd.
Meigs was an Engineer of the command of Major L. G. Arnold, who had
been dispatched to relieve Fort Jefferson. His visit could not have been
a happy one for he had been ordered to ask for guns and ammunition
from the small supplies available at Fort Taylor. In compliance with the
command, Brannan reluctantly gave up six 8-inch columbiads, four field
pieces, and an ample supply of ammunition.42

Late in January, or early in February, contact between Key West and
the War Department was restored, thanks to the Navy. By the end of the
first week of February, Brannan could report that he believed that there
would be no attempt on the part of the newly formed Confederate forces to
take Fort Taylor. So secure did he feel that he transferred seven more of his
8-inch columbiads to Major Arnold. One danger remained, however, his


powder was going bad, as were his friction tubes, used to fire his long range
rifles.43 He was later to report that the flag of the Confederacy was being
flown over many homes and stores, but that he did not "apprehend any attack
on this fort." "

The optimism of Captain Brannan had a heartening effect in Washington.
If, by a display of soldierly valor, Fort Taylor could be held securely, why
not the great bastions at Charleston and Pensacola? The newly inaugurated
President was reluctant to take action for the relief of Fort Sumter, situated
in the birthing place of the secession movement, however, he had no such
qualms about Pensacola. On April 1st, he ordered Colonel Harvey Brown,
U.S.A., to take command of an expedition to reinforce and hold Fort Per-
kins. Brown was authorized to defend himself if attacked, and "if needful
for such defense, inflict upon the assailants all the damage in your power
. ..4 General Scott, aged, but still the most able American military com-
mander, warned Brown that he was not to "reduce too much the means of the
fortresses in the Florida Reef, as they are deemed of greater importance than
even Fort Pickens." *s

The last hopes of the Southern sympathizers in Key West that Fort
Taylor could be seized and the island turned over to the Confederacy were
dashed in late March and early April. The expedition of Colonel Brown,
although using Fort Jefferson as its base of supply, was strong enough to
reinforce Brannan in the face of any threat. Reorganized naval forces began
to use the island harbor for coaling. Troops, too, began to arrive in strength
from Texas.

On February 18, 1861, soon after the passage of an ordinance of seces-
sion by the State of Texas, General David E. Twiggs, U.S.A., commanding
the Department of Texas, had issued a General Order. The Army was to
deliver up all military posts and supplies to the State immediately. Loyal
troops were then to evacuate the State by marching to the coast, where trans-
portation would be provided."

Five companies of the 1st Artillery were among those effected by Twigg's
order. Three of these were stationed at Fort Duncan, under the command of
Brevet Major William B. French, while two more were garrisoned at Fort
Brown, under the leadership of Captain Henry J. Hunt. War Department
orders had been dispatched to French, as senior officer, on February 7th,
anticipating the surrender of the Southern partisan, Twiggs.


If Twiggs gave up, French was to march both his and Hunt's commands
to Brazos Santiago, where he would find a steamer in readiness to embark
his men. So important did the Department consider this transfer that it sent
an assistant adjutant-general with the ship, to expedite the movement. The
Major was further commanded to leave two companies at Fort Jefferson, two
more at Key West, and send the remaining one to Fort Hamilton, N. Y.4*

In compliance with his orders, French moved out upon receipt of
Twiggs' General Order. Although deprived of most of his artillery horses,
the Major's command managed to drag their 12-pounder canons-obusier
down the valley of the Rio Grande to Point Isabel. Finding it impossible to
reach Brazos Santiago, French contacted the awaiting steamer and the comple-
ment was laded at the more southerly harbor.4'

Late in March, Captain Hunt, with two companies were disembarked at
Fort Jefferson. Major French, with Companies F and K, 1st Artillery landed
soon after at Key West.5o As senior ranking officer, French immediately
assumed command from Captain Brannan. The period of the Captain's
dilemma was at an end.

But there was no abatement in the alarums and excursions. The shock-
ing news of Anderson's fight and surrender at Fort Sumter was received soon
after April 13th. Confederate flags continued to fly over many of the homes
and business houses of the city. Captain E. B. Hunt, the engineer, plaintively
wrote the Chief Engineer, in Washington, that he still feared that a determined
assault would result in the loss of his handiwork. He reported that he had
information of a letter from Sephen Mallory, Confederate Secretary of the
Navy and one time inhabitant of the island city, to a prominent citizen "that
when the C. S. Army were ready, an attempt to take these works would be
made." 51
Captain Meigs was also complaining to Washington. To his mind, Fort
Taylor could not resist a landing on Key West, nor was it "better fitted to
withstand bombardment than Fort Sumter. The burning woodwork of its
barracks would soon drive out its garrison." 5 In the face of a possible
landing, a volunteer company of a hundred and nine men was raised among
the loyal Union men of the island.-3

Despite all of this pessimism, any threat to Key West was long since
past. The Confederate government was never able to mount any kind of
attack against Fort Taylor, indeed, it never seems to have even contemplated


such an action. At first glance, and in view of Mallory's first hand knowledge
of the value the position, this Confederate neglect seems inexcusable, but
the answer was to be found in the lack of a Southern navy. The key, with
its important harbor and defensive work, was to remain in Union hands
throughout the war.

Because of the island's peripheral geographic location the importance
of Brannan's action in Key West had been overlooked. Standard histories
play up the actions of Anderson and Slemmer, but ignore completely those
of Brannan. If they mention Key West at all, it is merely to say that it was
the only naval base in the South which was never held or attacked by Confed-
erate of State forces.

The strategic value of Key West to the Union in the war is inestimable.
Had it fallen into Confederate hands, it would, without doubt have been
recaptured by the North, due to Federal naval superiority, but the reconquest
would have involved the expenditure of many lives. More important, such a
recapture would have taken time, a commodity which the Union could ill
afford to give up, in view of the European diplomatic reaction to the war.

Without secure control of the island, Lincoln's declaration of an effective
blockade of the Southern coast would have been a farce, for the Navy had
no other Southern coaling station so necessary for its short cruising range
blockading fleets. Early in the War, Southern blockade runners operated
quite successfully from Havana and the British controlled Bahamas, how-
ever, fast Federal cruisers operating from Key West were to wreak havoc
among these vessels during the last three years of the conflict.

Key West was the key to the Gulf of Mexico. Slemmer's little force at
Pensacola would have been overwhelmed had not reinforcements continued
to flow to him around the Southern tip of Florida. Union captures of Ship
Island, New Orleans, Galveston and Mobile would have been all but impos-
sible with the island in Confederate control.

In-so-far as historic immortality is concerned, Captain Brannan was
unfortunate. In carrying out what he conceived to be his duty no bullets
sung past his ears, no bombs burst over his head, the reputation-making press
was missing, and the Captain had little ability for self aggrandizement.
Nevertheless, the resolution of Captain Brannan's dilemma remains one of
the most important command decisions of the Civil War.54


IThere is no muster roll available for Brannan's company. In a letter to the War
Department, on January 14, 1861, he speaks of forty-four men: The War of the
Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate
Armies, (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1902), Series I, Vol. I, p. 342.
All future notes are from Series I, and the title will hereinafter be cited as O.R.
A letter to the New York Times, signed Engineer, also gives Brannan's strength as
forty-four men: New York Times, January 28, 1861, 1. If this figure is correct Bran-
nan's company was far below strength, for the Army Table of Organization called
for artillery company strength to range between sixty-four to a hundred men and
officers: William Addleman Ganoe, The History of the United States Army, (New
York: D. Appleton-Century Co., 1943), 116.
a See map: Writer's Program, Works Progress Administration, A Guide to Key West,
(American Guide Series, New York: Hastings House, 1941), inside cover. Also see
map. Walter C. Maloney, A Sketch of the History of Key West, Florida, (Newark,
N. J.: Advertiser Printing House, 1876), insert. Hereinafter cited as Maloney.
a United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Fifteenth Census of the
United States, (Washington; Government Printing Office, 1931), 196. Jefferson Beale
Browne, Key West: The Old and the New, (St. Augustine, Fla.: The Record Com-
pany, 1912), 171. Hereinafter cited as Browne.
Ibid., 90. Browne gives no source for this quote.
5 Key of the Gulf, (Key West), January 7, 1860, 1.
e Donald Gordan Lester, Key West During the Civil War, (Master's Thesis, University
of Miami, 1949), passim.
Browne, op. cit., 90.
Ibid., 91. Maloney, op. cit., 63.
SBrowne, op. cit., 91.
lo Ibid., 91.
11Maloney, op. cit., passim.
L2 Ellsworth Eliot, Jr., West Point in the Confederacy, (New York: G. A. Baker and Co.,
Inc., 1941), xxi.
- Dictionary of American Biography, (New York. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1937), II,
600-601. Hereinafter cited as D.A.B.
14 O.R., I, 342.
s Ibid., I, 343.
'o Browne, op. cit., 80-81.
i7 Confederate Military History, (Atlanta, Ga.: Confederate Publishing Company, 1899),
XI, 21. Hereinafter cited as C.M.H.
is O.R., I, 348-349.
i, Ibid., I, 351.
z2 Ibid., I, 343.
z2 Ibid., 1, 343.
az Maloney, op. cit., 64.
23 Ibid., 64.
a4 bid., 64-65. O.R., I, 343.
25 Maloney, op. cit., 65.
2s O.R., I, 343.
27 Browne, op. cit., 78.
as Ibid., 78. The best description of Fort Taylor is to be found in Ames W. Williams,
"Stronghold of the Straits: Fort Zachary Taylor," Tequesta, XIV, 1954, 3-24.
s2 New York Times, January 12, 1861, 1.


ao Ibid., January 28, 1861, 1.
a O.R., I, 343.
as Browne, op. cit., 78. For a few years, during the war, this road was known as Brannan's
Road, but the name gradually dropped out of use to be replaced by "Rocky Road".
The street was later officially designated Division Street. The name has since been
changed to Truman Avenue.
as C.M.H., XI, 10-12.
a4 Ibid., XI, 13.
as New York Times, January 9, 1861, 1.
so Ibid., January 28, 1861, 1. It is probable that "Engineer" was Captain E. B. Hunt, as
he was the only engineering officer present, on that date, at Fort Taylor.
a7 Ibid., January 30, 1861, 1.
s O.R., I, 345.
so Ibid., I, 345.
4o Ibid., I, 344.
41 Ibid., I, 344.
42 Ibid., I, 344-347.
43 Ibid., I, 345.
44 Ibid., 1, 360.
45 Ibid., I, 366.
4a Ibid., I, 366.
4 Ibid., I, 515-516.
4s Ibid., I, 587-588.
s Ibid., I, 369-371.
so The date of Major French's arrival is not clear. Browne states that he took command
at Key West on April 6, 1861: Browne, op. cit., 92. This is obviously in error, for
on March 27, 1861, Major French was signing letters as Commanding, Fort Taylor:
O.R., I, 364.
st Ibid., I, 383-384.
s2 Ibid., I, 398.
53 Maloney, op. cit., 66-67.
s4 After being relieved of his command at Key West, Brannan took part in Union opera-
tions around Jacksonville, Florida. His rise in the Army was rapid, and after being
attached to the Army of the Cumberland he commanded a Division of that Army at
the battles of Hoover's Gap, Elks River, and Chickamagua. Brannan, now a Brevet
Brigadier General, accompanied Sherman on his Georgia campaign and directed the
artillery in the siege of Atlanta. Early in 1865 he was breveted Major General. With
the close of the war he remained in the regular Army at his permanent rank. He
commanded the Federal troops used to break the Philadelphia railroad strike in 1871.
Brannan retired from the service, as a full Colonel, in 1882, and died ten years later.
D.A.B., II, 600-601.

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Two Opinions of Key West in 1834

This might very well be sub-titled "A Lesson in Historical Writing".
The first account is written by one who obviously disliked the city, very
likely by a service man who was unhappy at being assigned to duty there.
Historians may wonder if this was Key West or an expression of his disgust
with his own situation. In like manner, the reply signed by two officers of
the United States army may be looked upon as a defense of their administra-
tion of the post. They make no mention of the non-military aspects of the
critical remarks signed simply T. P. The historical problem: What was the
Key West military installation really like in 1834?
Both of the articles appeared in the Military and Naval Magazine of the
United States, Volume III, 1834. The first was in March, pp. 19-20; and the
second in June, p. 308.

The Military and Naval Magazine of the United States.
Volume III. March, 1834. PP. 19-20.

To the Editor of the Military and Naval Magazine.
SIR:-Key West having been lately re-garrisoned by a company of
Infantry, it may not be uninteresting to your military readers to be presented
with a short account relating to its history. Key West is one of a number
of Islands known by the appellation of "Florida Keys." It is situated in
latitude 240 8' N, and in longitude 820 6' W. Its length (from E. to W.) is
about 42 miles, and varying from one half to a mile in breadth. Its popu-
lation, comprising all classes of inhabitants, is about 250. There are but
few houses in the town, and these are principally situated on the beach. The
inhabitants are frequently placed in unpleasant circumstances arising from
an occasional failure in the supply of water; they depend entirely upon the
quantity of rain-water which they can collect, and it is obvious that in a
season of drought, where little rain falls, their distress arising from a scarcity


of this necessary element must be great. In these seasons of privation, the
nearest supply is obtained from Havana, but this city being situated at a
considerable distance from Key West, the price demanded for water brought
thence, is of course considerably augmented. It is true, that in the centre of
this Island there are several springs of water, but these are of such a brackish
quality as to be rendered totally unfit for culinary purposes.

The only importance of this island consists in its harbor; it has no
commerce, neither as yet has the labor of the husbandman brought its soil
into cultivation: its general aspect is the same as when it was first brought
into existence, excepting where the habitations of man have supplanted the
vigorous growth of the forest, or have redeemed the sandy shore from its
pristine nakedness. Here are a United States Court, a Custom House, and
two Lighthouses, though I should not imagine that the duties received at the
Custom House are more than sufficient to defray the expenses of its officers,
together with those on attendance at the Light-houses. Its dues are derived
from wrecked cargoes of foreign vessels, which are brought into the harbor
and there disposed of, either by public sale, or by private composition with
the owners, and the consequence is that every person resident on the island
is engaged in one out of only two occupations; he is either a Government
officer, or he is a wrecker. The ownership of this Island is claimed conjointly
by four individuals: about three years since, after a time in which the ship-
ping suffered heavy damages and loss, and when the coffers of the Custom
House were unusually laden, it was represented to the Government that unless
a company of United States troops were sent to the island as a protection,
it was to be feared that the funds of the said Custom House would fall a
prey to the lawless hands of piratical intruders. At great expense, and at
some inconvenience, a command was in consequence established at Key West,
though their utility in such a spot is more than doubtful. The island itself
is engirt with a protection of far more avail than can be derived from com-
panies or regiments of soldiers; and, while the dangerous reefs by which it
is surrounded continue in existence, it is but at a very small point where
danger may be apprehended from any invasion. And at this point, viz: the
channel of the harbor, surely much more effective precautions might be
provided by shipping, than are furnished by one company of soldiers, sta-
tioned more than a mile from the only pass likely to be disputed. The
Government have expended about $40,000 upon this post, though its present
conveniences would not betoken an expenditure of one twentieth part of that
sum. There is a large frame building erected, covered in only by a roof,


and intended as quarters for the officers, but no workman has for a length
of time back, plied his busy tool upon the edifice, and now it is fast going
to rottenness and decay. Should it ever reach a period of completion, it is
extremely probable that the first storm which may range among these desolate
isles, will lay it prostrate with the ground, and reduce it to total ruin. As
it exists at present, it would be difficult to assign its appropriate place among
the orders of Architecture; in the Eastern States they would "guess" it was
intended for a meeting house, by reason of a sanctified looking steeple erected
on its roof. Besides this unfinished edifice, there are three or four miserable
buildings, in which the officers and men are quartered; therein to be devoured
by cockroaches, sand-flies, mosquitoes, and chigoes. These latter insects are
by no means of a nature or quality to be trifled with, as the feet of many
persons, citizens alike with soldiers, can testify. The climate is so hot, even
at this period of the year, (January 14th,) that summer clothing is not one
whit too cool. The troops are obliged to retire to rest with the going down
of the sun, and ensconce themselves with all haste under the protection of
mosquito bars; or, failing in this, they have to wage unceasing war with those
insect tribes, whose aggressions are so troublesome, and whose arms are so
potent potent in that they possess the power to destroy comfort and to
chase away sleep from the eyes of their victims. These are annoyances,
together with one of a different species, but not one iota more agreeable in
its effects, and which consists in the immoderate and exorbitant price de-
manded alike for articles of necessity and luxury. Talk of protection, indeed!
An uninterested person would suppose that, instead of being the protectors of
others, the troops themselves have a right to demand protection from them,
suffering as they do from a combination of so many hardships.
Yours, T. P.

The Military and Naval Magazine of the United States.
Volume III. June, 1834. PP. 308.
SIR:-In the March number of your Magazine, you have admitted a
communication over the signature of "T. P." purporting to be an "account
relating" to the history of Key West, which is calculated to mislead your


"military readers." The writer has not well gathered his materials, for a
travelling journalist, as his statements show; and if he be a military resident,
he is most certainly an indifferent observer, and has not taken a very judicious
step towards relieving himself from all the "potent hardships," which have
combined "to destroy his comfort."

The Government has not expended "forty thousand dollars" upon the
post at Key West; and it is possible, that if twenty times that sum had been
expended, the "conveniences would not betoken," in the estimation of T. P.,
a better proportion, than what he has already assigned.

The "large frame building erected" (and he, might have added, upon a
brick and stone basement, of 7 feet height) was built according to instruc-
tions from the proper Department, and "should it ever reach a period of
completion," will be as comfortable as any barracks in the United States;
and "it is extremely probable, that the first storm which may range among"
those "desolate isles," will leave it upright, notwithstanding it is so "fast
going to rottenness and decay," although its style of "architecture," may not
be understood or appreciated by every body from "down east." The observa-
tory which T. P.'s fruitful imagination likens unto "a sanctified looking
steeple," should lead him to pleasant reflections, from association, if he could
not perceive its utility in a military point of view, for purposes of recon-
noisance: "Besides this unfinished edifice, there are" seven (instead of
"three or four'") other "buildings," in which "officers and men," have been
quartered for twelve months, without being "devoured by cock-roaches, sand-
flies, mosquitos and chigoes," having the all sufficient "protection of mosquito
bars" and a good police.

During a residence of two years and three months at Key West, we have
not experienced the necessity of retiring "to rest with the going down of the
sun;" on the contrary, the troops did not "ensconce themselves under the
protection of mosquito bars," until 9 o'clock P.M., for the reason, that the
men required more time for recreation, than the regulations permitted, to
obtain which, tattoo was deferred for thirty minutes, during that part of the
year which requires that it should be beaten at half past 8 o'clock; nor
were we subjected to "annoyance" from "sand-flies and chigoes," to the extent
implied by your correspondent, at Key West, but at other places at the south,
we have found them, as well as a variety of other insects, somewhat trouble-
some: and lastly, it has been within the knowledge of the undersigned, that


the troops on one occasion, at least, were useful in extending "protection" to
the inhabitants of the island: and we did not "suppose" that any "uninterested
person," could think "the troops themselves" had "a right to demand protec-
tion from them;" we thought them better soldiers, than to so seem.

Respectfully yours,

J. M. GLASSELL, Major U. S. A.
F. D. NEWCOMB, Lt. A. Q. M. U. S. A.

P. S. Please request such papers as have noticed T. P's production, to give
this a passing glance, and oblige the writer.

J. M. G.
F. D. N.

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A Forgotten Spanish Land Grant

in South Florida

In 1821 the United States finally ratified the treaty of St. Ildefonso,
transferring Florida from Spain to the United States.' After the acquisition
various acts were passed by Congress for the adjustment and validation of
private land claims within the ceded territory. This was necessary, for the
treaty provided for the full acceptance by this country of the land grants made
by the Spanish government under authority of the king provided that the
grant was issued not later than January 24, 1818.2 One such act, passed by
Congress on May 8, 1822, provided for the establishment of two adjudication
boards of three commissioners each for the settlement of all Spanish claims
in East and West Florida.3 But these tribunals were not given permission
to settle any claim which exceeded one league square in area. They were
only to report to Congress the proceedings in these larger claims. Thus, to
obtain a valid title to each grant lying within the confines of Florida the
grantee or his or her heirs or assigns had to present before one of the boards
any and all proof of the validity of the grant. Six years later Congress
provided for the settlement of the larger claims. All petitions concerning
lands containing a greater quantity of land than the commissioners were
authorized to decide were to be received and adjudicated by the judges of
the superior court of the district in which the land lay, by not later than the
first Monday of December, 1829.*
Many of these Spanish grants were extremely complicated and required
years of legal maneuvering to settle. Some, even today, are still in litigation.
One of the more interesting of these disputed claims was the large grant of
Arrambide that is mentioned in the texts of nineteenth century Florida writ-
ers. This grant was presumably located at the mouth of the New River, the
present location of Ft. Lauderdale.
The inception of the Arrambide grant was on December 4, 1813. At
this time a provincial deputation was held at Havana, Cuba, with the gover-
nor of Cuba present and attending as presiding officer.g One Don Juan


Xavier de Arrambide and Gorecoechea, a native of Puerto Real, who was
then residing in the capital, made a solicitation that there should be granted
to him "a certain extent of land in East Florida, with the object of estab-
lishing on it mills for sawing timber and of exporting resins." B
In accordance with Arrambide's wishes, the provincial deputation or
council granted him "two leagues square to each cardinal point of the com-
pass of the land he may choose, from the mouth of the Rio Nueva [the New
River] which discharges itself on the coast of East Florida, and the Punta
Larga, [Key Largo] on the south part, following the same course to the
seashore, permitting him to cut timber without the square set forth, and when
the bounding lands are not granted to other inhabitants, prohibiting him
from burning them and offending the Indians, returning the proceedings
to the commission, that they may propose the best mode of distributing the
remaining lands, conforming as nearly as possible to the said decree. Ha-
vanna, December 4, 1813."
This provincial committee (whose main purpose was to consider,
consult, advise and determine the distribution and disposition of the public
lands in both Cuba and the two Floridas) granted the above land to
Arrambide in complete and absolute ownership under the jurisdiction of
the laws of the Indies, which gave the committee the right to dispose of lands
not already peopled. All that was necessary for the grant to be validated
was the following formality: "The city council of St. Augustine in obedience
S. . [to the governor] . determined to grant the favor solicited by
Arrambide, which was 'to dispatch to him the title of property of the said
two leagues to the north of the river Miamis, which are on the northwest side
of the Cayo Biscayno' ".8
Immediately after the awarding of the grant Arrambide settled upon it
with a number of others, all from the island of Cuba, evidently with every
intention to carry out the terms of the grant. As the actual point of settle-
ment was left to Arrambide,9 he chose a position "two miles north of the river
of Miamies, which is at the northwest side of Cayo Biscayno." 'o The grant
was thereafter usually associated with the settlement of Miami. John Lee
Williams, in 1837, stated that "on the north side of the Miami, is located
the large grant of Aronbede Arrambide of ninety thousand acres of land.
It . embraces the head of the gulf, and the River Rattones, with the
included plane that descends from the glades to the sea." But unfortun-
ately the settlement was abandoned after several years due to the hostility
"of the Indians and fugitive negroes who infested that part of the country."12


On July 15, 1817, Arrambide made James Bixby his attorney, with full
power to sell all, or any portion of the grant.13 Bixby proceeded to negotiate
a sale between Arrambide and an Archibald Clark (or Clarke). The sale
was presumably consummated on December 1, 1817, for the sum of $20,000.1*
However, only 80,000 of the 90,000 acres were assigned to Clark, no mention
ever being made of the remaining 10,000 acres."' Nothing further was done
by Clark regarding the improvement of the grant until the acquisition of
Florida by the United States. Clark then presented his claim to the adjudica-
tion commission. Here lies the difficulty, for one Joseph Delespine also
claims title to the same property.

Joseph Delespine, in presenting his rival claim to the commission, states
that the grant was given to Arrambide, but was sold, through power of attor-
ney, to "one George J. F. Clarke, a Spanish subject, according to the formali-
ties required by the Spanish law, [on] April 29, 1820." is Delespine states
further that Clark obtained permission from the then Governor of East
Florida to have a survey of the land ordered but that Indian hostility to
whites prevented the carrying out of the survey at the time. Clark then, on
January 4, 1822, sold the property to a John B. Strong. Here there is a con-
tradiction, for among other papers in the Delespine claim Strong is given
as power of attorney for Arrambide, and not as actual purchaser of the
property.18 In any event Strong, whether he be an actual purchaser or attorney
for Arrambide, sold or conveyed the grant to Joseph Delespine on February
25, 1822.19 The grant contained, at this time, "92,162 acres, be the same,
more or less", and the sale price was $20,000.'o Delespine now presented
his claim before the adjudication commission at St. Augustine, seemingly
in direct contradiction of the claim by Archibald Clark. But the commission
referred both claims to Congress for its confirmation, as evidenced by the
following decrees:

Pertaining to Archibald Clark's claim:
.. the decree of the board . having ascertained the above
claim to be a valid Spanish grant for the 80,000 acres made previous
to January 24, 1818, do therefore recommend it to Congress for
confirmation. December 15.21

Pertaining to Delespine's claim.
. the board having ascertained the above to be valid Spanish
grant for the 92,160 acres, made previous to January 24, 1818, do
therefore recommend it to Congress for confirmation. December


Thus the adjudication board actually approved both claims! Five years after
the board recommended the validation of the two grants Congress provided
for the settlement of the larger claims. Archibald Clark never petitioned the
superior court of this district, the Superior Court of East Florida, asking for
the confirmation of his grant. Since all petitions to this court had to be
presented not later than the first Monday in December, 1829, Clark's claim
became null and void after this date. Joseph Delespine did present his
claim to the court, in November, 1830.

This court validated his claim, but the United States appealed to the
United States Supreme Court. After much deliberation the Supreme Court
reversed the verdict of the lower court. It declared the grant null and void
for three reasons.23 The conditions of the grant had not been met for there
was no survey and no settlement as required. Delespine had not applied for
validation previous to the December 1829 deadline. Finally the provincial
council in Havana had no authority to make such large land grants. The
land now reverted to the federal domain, later to be developed by many
people into one of the three most important regions of Florida.

18 U.S. Statutes 256 (1819). From Article 8 of the Treaty of Amity Settlement and
Limits, Between the United States of America and his Catholic Majesty (Ratified
on February 19, 1821).
2 Ibid.
a3 U.S. Statutes 709 (1822).
4 4 U.S. Statutes 284 (1828).
s The Spanish governor, as the deputy of the King of Spain, was the sole judge of the
merits of a grant and he had the undoubted power to reward the merits of the
grantee. He also had the power to place conditions or restrictions upon the grant.
42 United States Supreme Court Reports 24.
a U. S., American State Papers, v. 4, Documents of the Congress of the U. S. in Relation
to the Public Lands from the I sess, 18 Cong., to the 2d sees. 19th Cong., December
1, 1823 March 3, 1827, Washington, 1859, p. 708.
7 Ibid.
s 40 United States Supreme Court Reports 319.
9 Although, in the governor's decree, there may be no description of any place where
the land granted should be located, still it is binding as far as it went provided
the land was vacant and without injury to third persons. 40 United States Supreme
Court Reports 319.
lo American State Papers, op. cit., p. 710.
n John Lee Williams, The Territory of Florida: or Sketches of the topography, civil and
natural history, of the country, the climate, and the Indian tribes, from the first dis-
covery to the present time, with a map, views, &c., New York, A. T. Goodrich, 1837.
iS American State Papers, op. cit.


is Ibid., p. 709.
14 Ibid.
1v Ibid.
ie Ibid., p. 710.
IT Ibid.
Is ibid., p. 712.
1I Ibid., p. 713.
2o Ibid.
1 Ibid., p. 709.
22 Ibid., p. 713.
23 40 United States Supreme Court Reports 319.

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"Notes on the Passage Across the Everglades"

THE NEWS St. Augustine: January 8, 1841

This anonymous author tells the story of the raid led by Colonel William
S. Harney from Fort Dallas to the Mouth of the Miami River across the Ever-
glades to Chakaika's Island. The raid and the killing of Chief Chakaika who
had participated in a raid on Harney's post on the Caloosahatchee River on
July 23, 1839, are well known. (See: Tequesta, Number Nine, 1949, Oliver
Griswold, "William S. Harney: Indian Fighter.", and Tequesta, Number XIII,
William C. Sturtevant, "Chakaika and the Spanish Indians".) This day by day
report of the expedition's activities adds only a few details to the known story
of the encounter with Chakaika's band. But it is possibly the earliest account
of a journey across the watery wilderness by a modern white man. The Indians
had long been able to navigate the shallow winding channels with the shallow
draft dugout canoes. Harney used canoes and Indian guides to follow the red
man to his last hiding place. The island is located just south of the Tamiami
Trail on the western edge of the Everglades near the Dade-Monroe County line.

Colonel Harney, 2nd Dragoons, with Capt. Davidson, Lieuts. Rankin
and Ord, 3rd Artillery, Dr. Russell, and myself, started from Fort Dallas with
90 men, and sixteen canoes. We left on the 4th of December, at night, and
proceeded up the left prong of the Miami River. The night was very dark
and rainy, and we met with considerable difficulty in ascending on account
of the rapidity of the current and the shoal and rocky bed of the river. About
a mile above the forks we came to a body of high saw grass, this continued
for about a mile and a half, when we came in open view of the Everglades,
and the grass became more scattered. The pine barren was kept close on our
left, until we came to a small island on our left, when our course became
more westerly; thus we continued until distant about eight miles from the
mouth of the river, when Capt. Davidson becoming separated from us we
halted to the leeward of an island which was entirely overflowed, and waited
until he came up, where the night was passed in our open boats. It continued
to rain nearly all night, and our situation was anything but comfortable.

Dec. 5 -By daylight this morning we were up and at it with our
paddles; our course was generally West-South-West, but this we varied
according to the direction of the channels, and our depth of water, till about
1 o'clock; the men being very much fatigued, having had to pull their
boats through the mud and grass a greater part of the way, we insisted on


John, our guide, carrying us to some high land, where we might encamp and
give the men a little rest. The officers had almost lost confidence in his
knowledge of the country, as at one time he could not tell us in which direc-
tion the sun rose; and as we concluded not to follow him in the direction
he was going any longer, he insisted that he was right, and that his object
was to carry us where he could find the greatest depth of water, and that he
could carry us a nearer way, but it was very shoal; which proved in the end
to be correct, as he had not gone more than a few miles when it was with
the greatest difficulty, we could move the boats. The Colonel called to him
to stop, as he would go no further in that direction; but he insisted that the
island was not more than a mile distant, and the Colonel suffered him to
proceed. Sure enough, contrary to the expectations of us all, he in a short
time halted at a low tuft of bushes, about half a mile in circumference, which
seemed to us all to be entirely flooded with water, but after penetrating about
300 yards, we came to a magnificent little spot in its centre, about 150 yards
in circumference, here we found an old Indian camp which evidently had
been deserted for some months. It was encircled by a number of shrubs of
the wild Pappaw; and two large and curious wild fig trees, about ten feet
apart, decorated its centre. This is a remarkable tree; it first makes its
appearance as the creeper, and seizes on the largest tree it can find, continuing
to encircle it in its meshes until it deprives it of life, when it feeds upon the
decayed matter and becomes a beautiful tree. These had each attacked a
palmetto and one of them was dead, but the top of the other was still bloom-
ing in the centre, although completely surrounded. We hailed, with a great
deal of pleasure, the touch of dry land, as we were wet to the skin; it having
rained all day, and the wind blowing from the North. As soon as it became
dark, we kindled a large fire-dried ourselves-got a good supper, eat it with
a great deal of gussto-talked over what we had undergone, and what we
intended to do-stretched ourselves on our blankets and slept soundly and
sweetly, till daylight warned us to be up and a doing.

Dec. 6 After getting some hot coffee, again started on our course. The
day has cleared off beautifully, and we are moving slowly and silently along,
in momentary expectation of falling in with some Indian canoes. John can
see from the top of a tree the field from which he escaped, and we expect to
have a devil of a fight when we get there. Nothing now presents itself to view
except one boundless expanse of saw-grass and water, occasionally inter-
spersed with little islands, all of which are overflowed, but the trees are in a
green and flourisheing state. No country that I have ever heard of bears any


resemblance to it; it seems like a vast sea, filled with grass and green trees,
and expressly intended as a retreat for the rascally Indians, from which
the white man would never seek to drive them. We have plenty of water at
present, and go along with a great deal of ease. We reached the island, as
expected at about 12 o'clock. When we came in sight, the Colonel took four
canoes, with Lieut. Rankin, and went ahead, having first painted and dressed
himself and men so much like Indians, that they could scarcely themselves
detect the imposition. He directed Lieut. Ord to follow with the rest of the
canoes, and Capt. Davidson, as he was unwell, to remain behind with the
large boats. I was in the next canoe to Lieut. Ord, who, as he was turning to
give some order to his men, lost his balance, and such a pretty summerset
"I never did see;" he carried boat, provisions, ammunition, and guns all with
him. When his head appeared on the surface of the water, he said to me,
"go ahead with the boats;" I inserted my handkerchief in my mouth and
evaporated. The order was to keep just in sight of the Colonel, and, in case
he should not be able to manage the force on the island, to come to his assis-
tance; but the delay threw me behind, and I soon lost sight of, and with the
greatest difficulty found, the island. We had to wade through mud and water
three or four hundred yards, up to our waists, before we gained dry land;
here we found a corn field of about an acre, and the richest land I have ever
seen, being one black heap of soil of endless depth. This island is called
from the Indian name of the wild fig, "Ho-co-mo-thlocco." It being early we
did not remain here long, but pushed on to another island, about seven miles
distant, the usual stopping place of the Indian, when they visit Sam Jones,
or go from his camp to the Spanish Indians; we arrived early in the evening;
and had to wade 200 yeard before we gained a footing; we found here signs
of a few days old, where they had been cutting bushes. I ascended the top
of a fig tree with John, and he pointed out to me our course, and the direction
of the different islands. We could see, far to the South, the pine barren
skirting the Everglades, and the tops of the grass and bushes burnt to make
out the trail. The island, Ho-co-mo-thlocco, bears about East-South-East
from this, and the island where we go to-morrow, about South-West and by
South. This island is called "Efa-noc-co-chee," from a dog having died which
was left here; it contains about half an acre of cleared land, but has never
been cultivated, and is used alone as a camp ground.

7 Dec.- Off again; our course for a short distance was about north,
then changed it to north west, and continued in this direction until we reached
another Island, which is called Cochokeynchajo, from the name of an Indian


who cleared and cultivated it. It is distant from Efanoccochee about six miles,
and its course is about north west. We found on this Island, the figure of an
Indian drawn on a tree, and the figures S and 9. Which is the first indication
of a white man's being among them. Being early when we arrived here, the
Colonel, contrary to the opinion of the guide, determined not to remain here
until night, but took Lieut. Ord ahead with him, and two canoes, to surprise
the next Island. Following on with the rest of the boats, we had not gone
more than a mile, when we lost the trail of their boats, and continued to
wander to every point of the compass until late in the evening, when we made
out to reach the Island from which we started about sun-set, and found John,
who had returned for us. Considered ourselves very fortunate to reach this
Island again, as we could not follow with any certainty our trails for one
hundred yards. To the westward of this Island, the main body of water seems
to change its course, and flow with some current to the Northwest, which
induces us to think we were in the centre of the Everglades. It was late at
night when we reached the Island, where Lieut. Ord had gone. But not with-
standing the thousand channels which flowed and wound in every direction,
and although it was so dark that we could not distinguish land from water,
John never once missed the track. Found on this Island, which is called by its
owner Intaska, a large hut built of cypress bark, and under it a bed made
of boards, coming in play very timely and was quickly appropriated. It is
the largest and richest Island we have yet seen, and the various vegetables
growing on it, such as pumpkins, beans, corn, &tc.; and deer tracks were
very numerous. Its course from Cochokeynchajo, N.N.West.
8 Dec. We shall remain on Intaska until 4 o'clock this evening, when
we will proceed to another Island which bears north 10 West from this,
where we expect to surprise some Indians, as we can now see a large smoke in
that direction. When we visit this, our course will then change to the south-
ward, and we will make for their strong holds on the sea board.

9th Dec.--Yesterday about 12 o'clock when some were asleep and all
silent, awaiting the time of starting, the Colonel called out from the top of
a tree, that two canoes were approaching the Island on the south side. In a
moment, all were up with their guns in hand; the boats were silently ap-
proaching, and we being on the other side, Lieut. Rankin was immediately
ordered to man four canoes, and move slowly along to meet them. The grass
was so high that the Indians did not discover him until within a few hundred
yards, when they immediately wheeled their canoes and made off with all
their strength. But there was no eluding our snake-like boats, and our tried


soldiers. They made the boats fairly jump out of the water. When within
short distance, and seeing the Indians approaching a deep body of saw grass,
our soldiers commenced a running fire, and soon disabled one of the men and
overhauled him. The boats halted at the saw grass and the Indians leaped out;
but our men were as quick as they were, and pursued them through it for
some distance to a pond, where they disabled another, and accidently
wounded a squaw, who was endeavoring to escape with her child on
her back. In another direction, they overhauled a squaw with a girl about
12 years old, and two small children; making in all, eight persons. None
of them were killed; and as soon as we could get them through the mud to
the boats, we returned. Col. Harney was looking on at the race from the top
of a tree, and made the Island ring with his cheering. As soon as Lieut.
Rankin started, I got a canoe and followed on and joined in the pursuit, but
did get up before they had got into the grass. When we returned to the
Island, the Colonel ordered rope to be made ready, and swung the two war-
riors to the top of a tall tree, where they now hang, "darkly painted on the
crimson sky." The Indians report that Chakika is on an Island five miles
from this with a strong force, and we will start about dark to attack him.
Captain Davidson has been sick ever since we started, and he is now so ill
that it is feared we will have to return on his account.

10th Dec. The squaw is dead: she died about 12 o'clock, and we buried
her on the Island. Shortly after, the other squaw reported that another party
was coming on the same tract that they came. The Colonel sent out Lieuts.
Rankin and Ord, (I accompanying,) to intercept them, but after waiting until
nearly sun-set, we had to return without meeting any of them. As soon as
the sun went down, the camp was broken up, and we were again on the water.
The night was very dark and rainy, and the guide could, with the greatest
difficulty, keep in the trail. When we were within a few miles of the Island,
the Colonel sent Lieuts. Rankin and Ord ahead to surprise the Island. They
did not reach it until some time after sun-rise; but such was the confidence of
the Indians in their own security, that our party were not discovered until
they had crept up into their camp, and commenced firing. One warrior was
shot dead, and two warriors, one boy, and five squaws and children taken
prisoners. Chakika, who was chopping wood, threw down his axe and ran
off howling; but his hour had come; not withstanding his herculean strength,
he could not escape. Hall, one of the Dragoons, pursued him alone when
all the men were exhausted, fired and killed him, took his scalp, and returned.
Two warriors excaped, and Lieut. Ord discovering their trail, pursued them


to another Island, about four miles distant, where there were a number of
squaws and three or four warriors. On his approach, the Indians hoisted a
white flag, and called to John to come up and talk; but while he was ap-
proaching with Lieut. Ord, he was shot through the thigh, and at the same
time one of the Dragoons, (Allen) was dangerously wounded in the thigh,
and Turner in the leg. A great number of balls were fired at Lieut. Ord, but
none struck him, In approaching, the men had to wade about two miles in
water and mud up to their hips; and when they came up, were so much
exhausted and the guns nearly all wet, that they had to retire under the cover
of a small scrub, about four hundred yards distant. When Col. Harney heard
the firing, he sent Lieut. Rankin and myself with two canoes, to his assis-
tance, and when we had got in about a mile of Lieut. Ord, we met John all
bloody, who reported that one man was killed, and that they were firing
rapidly, and that we could not approach with our canoes. We immediately
jumped out and hastened forward as rapid as we could through the deep
mud and water. When we got up. Lieut. Rankin attempted to charge with
his men, but three of them were wounded at the first fire, and he was forced
to retire and await the arrival of Col. Harney. The balls flew thick around
our heads, and the Indians behaved with a great deal of coolness. Their
object of firing was to give the squaws time to escape. When Colonel Harney
came up, we charged the Island, but they had all escaped from the back part,
and taken off most of their plunder. The circumstance was very unfortunate
to the expedition, as the Indians who escaped communicated the intelligence
to the other Islands, and put them on their guard. Shortly after our return
to Chakika's Island, a canoe was seen approaching with two Indians in it.
The Colonel immediatley despatched Lieut. Rankin with two canoes, to
pursue them; but, before he got up they had got up. They had approached
and taken an Indian or Spaniard, who was concealed in the high grass and
hastened off. Lieut. Rankin pursued them closely for about three miles,
and gained on them so closely that a rifle was fired by the Indians, and the
ball passed very near Lieut. R. Unfortunately the boat disappeared, and the
guns all got wet, and the pursuit was discontinued. We are now laying here
to give the men some rest, as they have almost all given out, having been in
hot pursuit for several days. Col. Harney went out about half and hour ago
after Chakika's body, and discovering a sail approaching, he hid his canoes
in the grass until they came up, and captured one warrior and six squaws
and children which makes our whole number of killed and captured,
twenty-five. We have now crossed the long fabled and unknown Everglades, at
least as far as we can go in boats in this direction. A large cypress swamp


extends for many miles along the border, running north-east and south-west
the great resort for the Indians, where they build their canoes. This evening,
the Colonel had our two prisoners exalted to the top of one of the lookout
trees, with the body of Chakika by their side. We found in Chakika's camp
a large quantity of plunder, consisting of cloths, linnens, calicoes, ready made
clothing, all kinds of tools, powder, &c. &c.; and had an auction of them which
amounted to upwards of $200. The articles were stolen from Indian Key at
the time of the massacre. We also got a fine barge, and a great quantity of
11th Dec.- Our tent or shed was pitched last night within a short dis-
tance of the tree on which Chakika was suspended. The night was beautiful,
and the bright rising moon displayed to my view as I lay on my bed, the
gigantic proportions of this once great and much dreaded warrior. He is
said to have been the largest Indian in Florida, and the sound of his very
name to have been a terror to his Tribe. We have among the captives, his
mother, sister, and wife. Left Chakika's Island about 10 o'clock this morning
and are now returning as far as Intaska, in a south-easterly direction, when
we will change our course to the south-west and make for the sea.
12th Dec.- we continued our course to the South-East until we passed
Intaska, when we changed direction one point to the West of South, and
encamped, at sunset, on an island of about three acres in extent. Met with
nothing here except an innumerable host of mosquitoes. The sister of Chakika
informed us that there were three Spaniards in the Everglades, Who supplied
the Indians with salt and ammunition; one of them, Domingo, advised them
to attack Indian Key, and insured their success. Started about 11 o'clock
this morning in a South-West direction, and had not gone more than five miles
when we approached a small island, on which we had no idea that there were
Indians, but on coming up we found a large yawl boat, killed two Indian men,
and took one squaw and seven children prisoner. Lieutenants Rankin and
Ord hurried on to an island about two miles distant, where they found a
great number of palmetto huts, very well thatched, and a number of planting
and banana trees, but the Indians had gone some time before. The squaw
could talk English very well, and informed us that 4 women had gone to an
island, a short distance off, to dig potatoes, and the Colonel sent a Serjeant
with a few men after them, but could not find them. We remained until 4
o'clock in the evening, when we saw a boy approaching, who had been fish-
ing; the boats laid in the grass until he came near, when they came out took
him without any resistance. Left a Sergeant, with two boats, at this island,


to wait until the women came up, and we are now on our way to the next
island, which is four or five miles distant. The island has turned out to be
the town Lieut. Rankin visited this morning, and not more than two miles

13th Dec. The morning has come, and the Sergeant returned without
finding the squaw. The Colonel sent Lts. Rankin and Ord ahead, this morn-
ing, to an island which is almost in our course, and we are now following
in a Southerly direction. The day is rainy and disagreeable. We arrived in
the evening at another, where we encamped; and also passed one on our way.

14th Dec. We have started again on our journey, and expect to reach
the head of Shark River to-day; and to-morrow get a sight of the big water,
Thank God, we won't have to wade to another island, although there are
several in our way. The Indians may assault and give us a crack before we
get out, which would annoy us very much in our present incumbered state.
This is the prettiest day we have had since starting. I forgot to notice the
death of poor Allen, who was wounded, he died on the evening of the 11th,
and, on the morning of the 12th, was buried on Chakika's island, with the
honors of war. He is the only one of our party we have left in the glades
as yet.

15th Dec.- We reached the head of the river which the Indians call
Poncha about 4 o'clock yesterday evening, and hailed it with three cheers.
We have now accomplished what has never been done by white man. The
head of the river was at first choked up with cane and weeds, but we had not
gone more than a mile when it opened out most beautifully into a broad and
navigable river. Continued down it till late at night, but the guide losing
his way, we encamped in our boats and waited till morning, when we went
ashore on a high bluff, and got out breakfast. We shall reach the sea by 12.
We have been twelve days and twelve nights crossing, Reached the mouth of
the river about half after twelve. Its course was about West, and empties
into the sea by two or three mouths. The bars are very shallow, and not
navigable for steamboats. This is the only outlet of the water of the Ever-
glades on this side of the Peninsula. We did not remain long at the mouth,
but rigged our sails and went on about sixteen miles and encamped on a
point of the beach; here we caught a number of opposums, which seemed
to be the only inhabitant. The sun set on the sea most beautifully, and threw
its variegated rays over the dense forest of mangrove, which bounds the
whole coast.


16th Dec. -We remained here until about 12 o'clock today and I
amused myself collecting the beautiful shells which cover the beach. We
reached Cape Sable, the most Southern point of the Territory about 5
o'clock, and the men are busied in building fires and forming the camp.
17th Dec.- Here at Cape Sable, is the site of Old Fort Poinsett, estab-
lished by Surgeon Genl. Lawson. The breast works are made of sand. The
prospect is very pretty, as you can see a number of Keys to the Southward.
Chakika's wife informs me that this used to be the great resort of the Indians
when on their fishing and turtle excusions, as well as among the neighboring
Keys. We have been laying here all day in the sand; the day has been very
18th Dec. Lieuts. Ord and Rankin went to an island yesterday, about
seven miles distant, and they have not yet returned. The officers have
returned, and we left the Cape this evening (18th) and travelled on until
late, when we anchored under the lee of some nameless Key, and fastened
onto an old turtle crawl. We spent here the most disagreeable night we
have had since starting; having to sleep in the open boats, piled up with
squaws and children, and the wind blowing very cold from the north-west.
However we weathered it out, and started very early on the 19th, and at night
encamped on Matacumbra in sight of Indian Key, where we are now en-
camped. On starting from the camp, Lieuts, Rankin and Ord were sent
ahead with the small canoes on a nearer tract. We hear they have reached
Indian Key, as the Colonel sent a boat there last night. He has now gone up
himself to charter a vessel, or make some other arrangement for our con-
veyance to Key Biscayne. The labors of our expedition, I think, are over,
and we will soon have accomplished the most arduous, dangerous, and
successful expedition that has ever been undertaken in Florida. Every thing
seemed to operated favorably towards us. We invariably had a dark night
to aid us. whenever we intended to surprise an Indian camp.
20th Dec.- We are now on board the sloop Reform, on our way to
Key Biscayne. Well, we are once more safe at our post.


The Association's Historical Marker Program

In ceremonies on Sunday afternoon, April 3, 1960, a historical marker
was dedicated at Grace Methodist Church, 6500 North Miami Avenue, Miami,
Florida. Mr. Gaylord L. Price, chairman of the Association's historical
marker committee, presided. The marker was unveiled by Mr. Charles E.
Bragg, Jr., chairman of the official board of the church and Mr. Loy
Morrow, lay leader of the church. Dr. Charles T. Thrift, Jr., President of
Florida Southern College and a regional vice-president of the Historical
Association, made the dedicatory address. Judge Ray H. Pearson, chairman
of the Board of Trustees of the Church, accepted the marker from Mr. Wayne
E. Withers, president of the Association, who made the presentation.


Oldest church in continuous service in Dade County. This sanctuary,
built in 1959 is the third. The second was built in 1905 at 6311
N. E. 2nd Ave., after a hurricane destroyed the first. The original
church was built in 1893 where an Indian trail (N. E. 61st St.)
crossed Military Trail (N. E. 5th Ave.) in Lemon City. The church
was named Lemon City Methodist by its founders who had met for
several years in Pierce's sponge warehouse on Biscayne Bay. This
pioneer church was renamed Grace in 1934, nine years after Lemon
City became a part of Miami.




VAUGHAN CAMP, JR., is a member of the Social Science faculty at the
University of Miami. He was a graduate student at the University of North
Carolina and the University of Florida, doing research in Florida history at
both institutions.

MRs. BESSIE WILSON DuBois, of Jupiter, Florida, has made a hobby (she
calls it an obsession) of collecting the materials for the history of the Jupiter-
Juno area. Her family has been associated with the area since the 19th
century. Her husband and his father often took the job of ferrying the year's
supply of oil from the beach to the lighthouse.

HENRY S. MARKS studied history at the University of Miami and the
University of Florida and is currently a doctoral candidate in history at the
University of Alabama. He contributed an article on land grants to the 1958

WILLIAM J. SCHELLINGS, PH. D., University of Florida, is a member of
the history faculty at the Norfolk branch of William and Mary University.
He had articles in the 1955 and 1957 Tequesta.





On Hand September 1, 1959

Current Assets:
Museum Building Fund (In interest bearing bank deposits):
(1) Savings Account ----------------------$26,555.45
(2) Savings Certificates -------------------- 3,000.00
General Fund (In non-interest bearing bank
deposit) -----.--------------------------- 902.58
Securities at current market ------------------- 2,326.00
Contribution to Museum Building Fund Receivable 1,000.00
Non-Association Publications on Hand for Sale---- 674.70
Tequestas on Hand ---------------------------- 743.00 $35,201.73

Fixed Assets:
Furniture & Fixtures ------------------------ 222.67
Audio-Visual Equipment -......-- ...-----..-- .. 518.45
Illustrated Lecture ---------------------------- 437.17

Contributions to Museum Building Fund Received-.. 90.00
Contributions of Securities ---------$649.14
Less Depreciation of Securities
since 8-31-59 --------------------- 61452 34.62 34.62

Total Contributions --.--------------

Dues Collected---------------------------------- 5,516.93
Income from Books (Non-Association) -------------- 672.91
Sale of Prior Tequestas ---------------------------- 84.00
Interest on Bank Deposits -------------------------- 881.71
Dividends on Securities ---------------------------- 79.55
Miscellaneous Income ------------------------------ 62.21

Total other income -------------

1,178,29 $36,380.02







Less Disbursements:
Marker Program ---------------------------$
Tequestas on Hand, Sept. 1, 1959 $743.00
Publication cost of Tequesta---- 859.36 $1,602.36

Less-Tequestas on hand---. 742.00

Program Meetings -----------_
Secretarial Expense ------------------------
President's Newsletter -------------- ------
Library ------------------------------------
Non-Association Publications on
hand for sale, Sept. 1, 1959 __. $674.70
Purchase of Books (for sale) --370.32 $1,045.02

Less-Publications on hand --


Sales Tax --- ---
Miscellaneous Expense _----------__-----
Office Supplies, Printing -- -_-_-_--
Incidental Expense-Executive Secretary--------

Net Income for Fiscal Year ----- ----------


86.05 3,983.28



On Hand August 31, 1960
Current Assets:
Museum Building Fund (In interest bearing bank deposits):
(1) Savings Account ----------------------$29,277.16
(2) Savings Certificates ----- ------ ------ 3,000.00
General Fund (In non-interest bearing
bank deposit) ------------------------------ 863.94
Securities at current market ------ ...-- ..--- ....2,360.62
Contribution to Museum Building Fund Receivable 1,000.00
Non-Association Publications on hand for sale---- 596.66
Tequestas on hand -------------------------- 742.00 $37,840.38

Fixed Assets:
Furniture & Fixtures ------------------------$ 222.67
Audio-Visual Equipment ------- ----------.... 568.45
Illustrated Lecture ---------------------------- 437.17
Architect's Plans ----------------------------- 750.00


Total Net Worth ----- -------------------_- $39,818.67

We greatly appreciate the generosity of Withers Transfer & Storage Company, 357
Almeria Ave., Coral Gables, in providing fireproof protection for our archives, and of
Jack Callahan, C.P.A., duPont Bldg., Miami, in auditing our accounts.
ROBERT M. McKEY, Treasurer.
Total Members for 1960 (as of Aug. 31, 1960) 528
Total 1960 Dues Collected (as of Aug. 31, 1960) $5,241.93




This Page Blank in Original
Source Document


EXPLANATORY NOTE: The Association provides several classes of membership.
"Sustaining" members who pay five dollars a year make up the basic member-
ship. For those who wish to contribute more for the promotion of the Associa-
tion's work the other classes of membership provide the opportunity, and the
publication of their names in the proper category of membership is a means of
recognition. "Patrons" pay ten dollars a year, "Donors" pay twenty-five dollars
a year, "Contributors" pay fifty dollars a year, "Sponsors" pay one hundred
dollars a year, and "Benefactors" pay two hundred and fifty or more dollars
a year.
This printed roster is made up of the names of those persons and institutions
that have paid dues in 1959, or in 1960 before September 30 when this material
must go to the press. Those joining after this date in 1960 will have their names
included in the 1961 roster. The symbol ** indicates founding member and
symbol indicates charter member.


Adams, Adam G., Coral Gables
Albertson Public Library, Orlando
Aldrich, Miss Pearl, Philadelphia, Pa.
Aldridge, Miss Daisy, Miami
Alien, Joe, Key West
Allison, Mrs. John D., Miami
American Museum of Natural History
Anderson, Robert H., Miami
Anthony, Roscoe T., Palm Beach
Archer, Ben, Homestead
Arnold, Glenn H., Atlanta, Ga.
Arnold, Mrs. Roger Williams, Miami
Atkins, C. Clyde, Miami
Avery, George N., Big Pine Key
Ayars, Erling E., Miami
Baker, Mrs. Therese, Stuart
Barker, Mrs. Edwin J., Miami
Bartow Public Library
Baskin, M. A., Coral Gables
Bassett, Rex, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
Bathe, Greville, St. Augustine
Baum, Dr. Earl L., Naples
Baxter, John M., Miami*
Beal, K. Malcolm, Miami*
Beardsley, Jim E., Clewiston
Beck, Mrs. Alfred J., Ft. Lauderdale*
Beckham, W. H., Jr., Coral Gables
Bellous, C. M., Jr., Opa Locka
Beyer, R. C., Miami
Bills, Mrs. John T., Miami
Bingham, Mrs. Millicent T., Washington,
D. C.
Bishop, Edwin G., Miami*
Blackburn, Elmer E., Miami
Blaine, Rev. B. Michael, Melbourne
Blanton, Judge W. F.,, Miami
Blassingame, Wyatt, Anna Maria
Blouvelt, Mrs. Arthur M., Coral Gables
Board of County Commissioners, Bartow
Bowman, Rt. Rev. Marion, St. Leo

Boyd, Dr. Mark F., Tallahassee*
Bozeman, Major R. E., St. Petersburg
Bradfield, E. S., Miami Beach**
Brady, Mrs. H. R., Key Biscayne
Brantner, Mrs. Wilma, Marathon
Brickell, Miss Maude E., Miami
Brigham, Miss Florence S., Miami
Brody, Maurice S., Miami
Brook, John, Jr., Coral Gables
Brookfield, Charles M., Miami*
Brooks, J. R., Homestead
Brooks, Marvin J., Miami
Brown University Library
Bruninga, W. Henry, Miami
Buhler, Mrs. J. E., Miami
Bullen, Ripley P., Gainesville
Burghard, August, Ft. Lauderdale
Burrell, William, Jr., Miami
Burton, Mrs. Robert A., Miami*
Bush, Mrs. Franklin C., Coral Gables*
Bush, R. S., Miami
Busse, Raymond J., Miami
Byrd, Mrs. J. Wade, Miami
Caldwell, Thomas P., Coral Gables**
Caldwell, Mrs. Thomas P., Coral Gables*
Campbell, Park H., South Miami*
Campbell, Mrs. Park H., South Miami*
Capel, Fred B., Coral Gables
Capron, Louis, West Palm Beach
Carnine, Miss Helen M., Coral Gables
Carson, Mrs. Ruby Leach, Miami**
Cartee, Mrs. Horace L., Coral Gables
Carter, Kenneth W., Grosse Point Woods,
Catlow, Mrs. William R., Jr., Westfield,
N. J.*
Central Florida Museum, Orlando
Chance, Michael, Naples
Cheetham, Joseph W., Miami
Clark, Jerry C., Miami


Close, Kenneth, Coral Gables
Coconut Grove Library
Cole, R. B., Miami
Combs, Mrs. Walter H., Sr., Miami*
Comerford, Miss Nora A., Coral Gables
Connell, Maurice H. & Associates, Miami
Connor, Mrs. A. W., Tampa
Cook, John B., Miami
Coral Gables Public Library*
Corley, Miss Pauline, Miami**
Coslow, George R., Miami
Covington, Dr. James W., Tampa
Craighead, F. C., Homestead
Criswell, Col. Grover C., Pass-A-GriIle
Cummings, Rev. Geo. W., Venice
Cushman, The School, Miami*
Dalenberg, George R., Miami
Darrow, Miss Dorothy, Coral Gables
Davis, Hal D., Coral Gables
De Boe, Mrs. Mizpah Otto, Coral Gables
Deedmeyer, George J., Miami*
Deedmeyer, Mrs. George J., Miami
de Lamorton, Fred, Tampa
De Nies, Charles F., Hudson, Mich.
Dismukes, Dr. Wm. Paul, Coral Gables*
Dodd, Miss Dorothy, Tallahassee*
Dorn, H. Lewis, South Miami
Dorn, Harold W., South Miami
Dorn, Mrs. Mabel W., South Miami
Dorothy, Mrs. Caroline, Coral Gables*
DuBois, Mrs. Bessie W., Jupiter
Dunaway, Mrs. Carl E., Miami*
Dykes, Robert J., Miami
Eaton, Judge Joe, Miami
Eckel, Mrs. Frederick L., Ft. Lauderdale
Elder, Dr. S. F., Miami*
Emerson, William C., Rome, N. Y.
Everglades Natural History Association,
Fairchild, Mrs. David, Miami*
Fenn, Abbott T., Salisbury, Vt.
Fite, Robert H., Miami
Fitzgerald, Dr. Joseph H., New York City
Fitzpatrick, Monsignor John F., Ft.
Florida Southern College, Lakeland
Florida State Library, Tallahassee
Fortner, Ed., Miami
Freeland, Mrs. William L., Miami**
Freeling, J. S., Miami
Freeling, Mrs. J. S., Miami
Freeman, Mrs. Ethel C., Morristown, N. J.
Freeman, Harley L., Ormond Beach
Frey, Mrs. Edith J., Miami*
Frutkoff, Theodore, Coral Gables
Fullerton, R. C., Coral Gables
Fuzzard, Miss Jessie M.. Miami*
Gannaway, Mrs. K. C., Miami

Gautier, Thomas N., Miami
Gelber, Seymour, Miami Beach
Gibson, Mrs. Walter C., Miami*
Gifford, Mrs. John C., Miami*
Glenn, Roscoe E., Miami
Godfrey, Clyde, Miami
Goodwill, William F., Coral Gables
Greenfield, Arnold M., Miami
Griffen, F. S., Miami
Griggs, Mrs. Nelson W., Miami Shores
Griswold. Oliver, Miami
Hall, A. Y., Punta Gorda
Hall, Willis E., Coral Gables
Hallstead, P. Frederick, Marathon
Halstead, W. L., Miami
Hampton, Mrs. John, Sparks, Md.*
Hancock, Mrs. J. T., Okeechobee
Handler, Frances Clark, Miami
Harding, Col. Read B., Arcadia
Harllee, J. William, Miami
Harlow, Rev. Frank E., Coral Gables
Harlow, Mrs. Frank E., Coral Gables
Harrington, Frederick H., Hialeah
Hart, Mrs. Reginald, Coral Gables
Hartnett, Fred B., Coral Gables*
Harvard College Library
Havee, Justin P., Miami*
Havee, Mrs. Kathryn, Miami
Heinlein, Mrs. Mary C., Homestead
Hellier, Walter R., Ft. Pierce
Hendry, Judge Norman, Miami
Herin, Thomas D., Miami
Herin, Judge Wm. A., Miami*
Hess, Mrs. E. L., Miami
Hill, Mrs. A. Judson, Miami
Hills, Lee, Miami
Hillsborough County Historical Commission,
Hodson, Mrs. Harry, Miami
Holcomb, Lyle D., Miami
Holeomb, Lyle D., Jr., Miami
Holland, Cecil P., Miami
Holland, Hon. Spessard L., Washington,
D. C.*
Holmdale, Mrs. A. G., Miami
Hooker, Roland M., Miami Beach
Houghton, Mrs. A. S., Miami
Hubbell, Willard, Miami
Hughes, Mrs. Fleda V., Miami
Humphreys, Mrs. D. M., Ft. Lauderdale
Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.
Isom, Rudolph, Miami
Jacksonville Free Public Library
James, Ernest W., Miami
Jones, Mrs. L. A., Miami*
Jones, Mrs. Mary A., Miami
Kelley, Mrs. Floy W., West Palm Beach
Kendall, Harold E., Goulds
Kent, Mrs. Frederick A., Miami


Kent, Selden G., Miami
Kenyon, Alfred, Ft. Lauderdale
Key West Art and Historical Society
King, Dr. C. Harold, Miami
King, Mrs. Otis S., Miami
Kislak, Jay I., Miami
Kitchens, Dr. F. E., Coral Gables
Knight, Telfair, Coral Gables
Knowles, Mrs. J. H., Miami
Kofoed, Jack, Miami
Kohl, Mrs. Lavenia, Palm Beach
Lake Worth Public Library
Lane, Geraldine B., Miami
Laxon, Dan D., Hialeah
Leffler, Admiral C. D., Miami
Lemon City Public Library & Improvement
Association, Miami
Leon County Public Library, Tallahassee
Lewis, Miss Carlotta, Coral Gables
Leyden, Mrs. Louise, Coral Gables
Lindsey Hopkins Vocational School
Lindsley, A. R., Miami Beach
Littlefield, Miss Helena, Miami
Lochrie, Robert B., Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
Longshore, Frank, Miami
Lucinian, Dr. Joseph H., Miami Beach
Lummus, J. N., Jr., Miami
Lummus, Tom J., Miami
Lyell,Dr. Robert O., Miami
Lyell, Mrs. Robert O., Miami
Lynch, S. John, Sarasota*
MacDonald, Miss Barbara, Miami
MacDonald, Miss Betty, Miami
Manley, Miss Marion I., Miami
Manly, Albert B., Homestead
Manly, Charles W., Miami
Manning, Mrs. Wi. S., Jacksonville
Mansfield, William N., Miami Beach
Marchman, Watt P., Fremont, Ohio*
Marks, Henry S., Hollywood
Martin, Mrs. Kirby A., New York, N. Y.
Martin, Melbourne L., Coral Gables
Mason, Mrs. Joe J., Miami
Mason, Dr. Walter Scott, Jr., Miami*
May, Philip S., Jacksonville
McCune, Adrian, Miami Beach
McDonald, Mrs. John Martyn, Miami Beach
McGregor, Angus H., Miami
McKay, Col. D. B., Tampa
McKee, Arthur, Jr., Tavernier
McKim, Mrs. L. H., Montreal, Canada
McNicoll, Dr. Robert E., Gainesville*
McNeill, Robert E., Jr., New York, N. Y.
Merrick, Mrs. Eunice P., Coral Gables*
Merritt, Dr. Webster, Jacksonville
Miami Edison Senior Library
Miami Public Library*
Miami Senior High School Library
Miami Springs Memorial Public Library

Mikesell, Ernest E., Miami
Miller, Raymond M., Miami*
Mission of Nombre Dios, St. Augustine
Mitchell, C. J., Stonington, Conn.
Mitchell, Harry James, Key West
Monk, J. Floyd, Miami
Moore, Dr. Castles W., Ft. Lauderdale
Moulds, Andrew J., Coral Gables
Moulds, Mrs. Andrew J., Coral Gables
Muir, William W., Miami
Muller, Dr. L. R., Miami*
Munroe, Wirth M., Miami*
Murray, Mrs. Julian E., Miami
Murtha, Miss Mary, Miami
Nelson, Mrs. Winifred H., Miami
Newberry Library, Chicago, Ill.
Newman, Mrs. Anna Pearl, Vero Beach
Norris, Hardgrove, Miami
Northington, Dr. Page, Miami
North Miami High School Library
Pace, Mrs. Johnson H., Miami*
Pace, Rev. Johnson H., Jr., Jacksonville
Padgett, Inman, Coral Gables
Palm Beach County Historical Society
Pancoast, Lester C., Miami
Pardo, Mrs. Ramiro V., Miami
Parker, Alfred B., Miami
Parsons, Mrs. Frances G., Miami*
Patrick, Dr. Rembert W., Gainesville
Patterson, George L., Jr., Miami
Pearce, Mrs. Dixon, Miami
Peirce, Gertrude C., Miami
Pemberton, Mrs. P. G., Miami
Pendergast, Mrs. Eleanor L., Miami*
Pendleton, Robert S., Miami
Peters, Mrs. Thelma, Miami*
Philbrick, W. L., Miami
Pierce, Miss Ruby Edna, Palm Beach
Platt, T. Beach, Miami
Plowden, Gene, Miami
Poling, Frances W., Miami
Prahl, William, Miami
Prevatt, Preston G., Miami
Price, Gaylord L., Miami
Prince, J. W., Naples
Prunty, John W., Miami
Quigley, Ellen N., Miami Beach
Railey, F. G., Miami*
Railey, Mrs. F. G., Miami*
Rasmussen, Dr. Edwin L., Dock Hill, Miss.**
Reed, Miss Elizabeth Ann, Delray Beach
Reese, Mrs. J. H., North Miami
Reynolds, Mrs. H. Jarvis, Coral Gables
Rivett, Lois C., Miami
Riviera Beach Library
Robertson, Mrs. L. B., Miami
Rollins College Library
Rose, Harvey K.. Miami
Rosner, George W., Coral Gables*


Ross, Mrs. Richard F., Boca Raton
Santanello, M. C., Kendall
Sapp, Alfred E., Miami
Saunders, Dr. Lewis M., Miami
Sawyer, Clifton A., Warwick, R. I.
Saye, Roland A., Jr., Miami Beach
Schuberth, Andrew F., Jr., Miami
Schultz, Mrs. Joseph L., Miami
Sells, Arthur M., Miami
Sessa, Dr. Frank B., Miami
Sevelius, E. A., Miami
Shappee, Dr. N. D., Miami
Shaw, G. N., Miami
Shaw, Henry O., Miami
Shaw, Miss Luelle, Miami*
Shepard, L. C., Coral Gables
Simon, Stuart L., Miami
Sisters of St. Joseph, St. Augustine
Slaughter, Dr. Frank G., Jacksonville
Smith, Gilbert B., Coral Gables
Snodgrass, Miss Dena, Jacksonville
Southern Illinois University, Carbondale
Southgate, Howard, Winter Park
Sparks, Mrs. Charles, Fortville, Ind.
Speer, H. L., Starke
Spinks, Mrs. Elizabeth J., Miami*
State Historical Society of Wisconsin
State University of Iowa Library
Steel, Wm. C., Miami
Sterling, Ray T., Miami
Stern, David S., Miami
Stetson University Library, DeLand
Stevens, Mrs. T. T., Miami
Straight, Dr. William M., Miami
Stranahan, Mrs. Frank, Ft. Lauderdale*
Stripling Insurance Agency, Hialeah
Strong, Clarence E., Miami*
Talley, Howard J., Miami
Tampa Public Library
Taylor, Henry H., Jr., Miami
Teachers' Professional Library, Miami
Tebeau, Charlton W., Coral Gables*
Tebeau, Mrs. Violet H., Coral Gables
Ten Eick, Mrs. M. Nunez, Tampa*
Tennessee State Library and Archives
Tharp, Charles Doren, Miami*
Thomas, Arden H., Miami
Thrift, Dr. Charles T., Jr., Lakeland
Tietze, Robert A., Coral Gables
Tietze, Mrs. Robert A., Coral Gables
Tonkin, Mrs. Mary E., Coral Gables
Toombs, Mrs. Betty L., Miami

Adams, Wilton L., Coral Gables
Ansley, J. A., Ft. Myers
Ashe, Mrs. Bowman F., Coral Gables
Baber, Adin, Kansas, Ill.*

Turner, Vernon W., Homestead
Tussey, Mrs. Ethel W., Miami
Ullman, John, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
University of Florida, Gainesville
University of Miami Library, Coral Gables
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
University of South Florida, Tampa
University of Tampa Library
University of Tennessee Library, Knoxville
Valentine,, Mrs. J. Manson, Miami
Vance, Mrs. Herbert O., Coral Gables*
Wacher, Jack, Miami
Walsh, Mrs. Charles H., Winter Haven
Walters, Walter M., Coral Gables
Warner, Miss Elmina, Miami
Warner, William C., Miami
Warner, Mrs. William C., Miami
Washington, James G., Miami
Waters, Fred M., Jr., Coral Gables
Watson, P. L., Miami Beach
Wenner, Henry S., Jr., Miami
Wentworth, T. T., Jr., Pensacola
West India Reference Library, Kingston,
Wheeler, B. B., Lake Placid
White, Mrs. Louise V., Key West
White, Richard M., Miami
Wight, William S., Coral Gables
Wilgus, Dr. A. Curtis, Gainesville
Will, Lawrence E., Belle Glade
Williams, Dr. H. Franklin, Coral Gables*
Willing, R. B., Miami
Wilson, Albert B., Miami
Wilson, F. Page, Miami
Wilson, Gaines R., Miami**
Wilson, Mrs. Gaines RI, Miami
Wilson, Peyton L., Miami*
Wilson, Miss Virginia, Miami
Wirth, Miss Josephine, Miami*
Withers, Charles E., Coral Gables
Withers, James G., Coral Gables
Withers, Wayne E., Coral Gables
Wittichen, Mrs. Murray F., Coral Gables
Wolf, Fred, Sr., Hallandale
Wolfe, Miss Rosalie L., Miami
Wolfe, Thomas L., Miami
Wolfe, Mrs. William A., Ft. Lauderdale
Woore, A. Meridith, Miami*
Wright, Mrs. Victor A., Miami Shores
Wylie, W. Gill, Jr., Palm Beach
Yonge, Julien C., Gainesville

Bailey, Mrs. Ernest H., Coral Gables
Baker, Charles H., Jr., Miami*
Barge, Dr. Hubert A., Miami
Barton, Alfred I., Surfside


Beverley, John R., Coral Gables
Bickel, Karl A., Sarasota*
Black, Dr. Linnie K., Miami
Blakey, B. H., Miami
Brickell, Mrs. Charles, Oxford, Md.**
Brody, Mrs. Margaret E., Key Biscayne
Brown, William J., Miami
Brown, Mrs. William J., Miami
Brunstetter, Roscoe, Coral Gables
Cameron, D. Pierre G., Miami
Chase, Randall, 2nd, Sanford
Clark, Mrs. Flournoy B., Coral Gables*
Clarke, Judge George T., Miami
Coachman, Richard A., Miami
Coachman, Mrs. Minette K., Miami
Combs, Walter H., Jr., Miami*
Cooper, George H., Princeton
Corliss, C. J., Washington, D. C.
Cowell, Edward H., Coral Gables
Crane, Francis V., Marathon
Crane, Mrs. Francis V., Marathon
Crow, Mrs. Lon Worth, Miami*
Dee, William V., Miami*
Dixon, James A., Miami
Fascell, Dante B., Coral Gables
Fee, David M., Fort Pierce
Feibelman, Herbert U., Miami
Ferendino, Andrew J., Miami
Field, Dr. Henry, Miami
FitzGerald-Bush, Capt. F. S., Opa-Locka
Florence, Robert S., Miami
Flynn, Stephen J., Coral Gables
Freeman, Edison S., Miami
Frohock, Mrs. Jack, North Miami
Fuller, Walter P., Clearwater
Gardner, Jack R., Miami
Gardner, Mrs. R. C., Miami*
Gibson, Henry C., Jenkintown, Pa.
Goldweber, S., Perrine
Graham, Ernest R., Hialeah
Graham, William A., Miami Springs
Griffin, L. J., Miami
Hancock, E. M., Miami Beach
Hanks, Bryan, Ft. Worth, Texas*
Harris, Miss Julia Fillmore, Stuart*
Haycock, Ira C., Coral Gables
Hefferman, Judge D. J., Coral Gables
Herren, Norman A., Everglades
Holland, Juldge John W., Coral Gables*
Hopkins, Dr. Oliver H., Miami
House, Roosevelt C., Miami
Howard, Lee, Miami Beach
Hudson, F. M., Miami**
Hughes, Mrs. Helene, Miami
Jamaica Inn, Key Biscayne
Jaudon, Mrs. J. F., Miami*
Johnston, Thos. McE., Miami
Kanner, Samuel J., Miami
Kerr, James B., Ft. Lauderdale*

Kistler, The C. W. Co., Miami
Knight, John S., Miami
Krome, Mrs. William J., Homestead*
Ledbetter, Charles B., Miami
Lindgren, Mrs. M. E., Miami
Lipp, Morris N., Miami Beach
Litchfield, Henry E., Hialeah
Malone, E. B., Hialeah
Martyn, Charles P., Jupiter
Mayes, Mrs. C. R., Jr., Pompano Beach
McCarthy, Don L, Nassau, Bahamas
McGoff, Daniel J., Miami Beach
McKibben, Dr. William W., Coral Gables
McNair, Angus K., Coral Gables
McSwain, Dr. Gordon H., Arcadia
Mead, D. Richard, Miami
Meisel, Max, Miami Beach
Merritt, Robert M., Miami
Mershon, M. L., Miami
Modisette, Col. Welton M., Coral Gables
Memorial Library of the Palm Beaches
Miami Beach Public Library
Moseley, Albert B., Daytona Beach
Moylan, E. B., Jr., Miami
Mudd, Dr. Richard D., Saginaw, Mich.
Oglesby, R. M., Bartow
Orr, John B., Jr., Miami Beach
Palm Beach Art League
Pancoast, Russell T., Miami
Pedersen, George C., Perrine
Pitt, Gerard, Miami*
Preston, J. E., Miami
Raap, Dr. Gerard, Miami
Rader, Earle M., Miami
Roberts, R. B., Jr., Miami
St. Augustine Historical Society
Salley, George H., Miami
Scott, Paul R., Miami
Shank, H. W., Coral Gables
Smith, Charles H., Miami
Smith, McGregor, Miami
Snyder, Dr. Clifford C., Coral Gables
Sokola, Anton, Miami
Spaulding, Mrs. E. E., Miami
Stiles, Wade, South Miami**
Taylor, Paul C., Bal Harbour
Thomas, Wayne, Plant City
Thompson, John G., Coral Gables
Town, Miss Eleanor F., Coral Gables
Underwood, Edwin H., Jr., Key Biscayne
Vanderpool, Fred W., Miami*
Van Orsdel, C. D., Coral Gables
Wakefield, Thomas H., Key Biscayne
Wallace, George R., Miami Beach
Watson, W. Cecil, Coral Gables
Weaver, Mrs. Frances B., Ft. Lauderdale
West, William M., Geneseo, Illinois
Whitten, George E., Miami


Baggs, William C., Miami
Buker, Charles E., Sr.. Coral Gables
Burdine, William M., Miami
Christiansen, Edward S., Coral Gables
Clinch, Duncan L., Miami
Coral Gables Federal Savings and Loan
Dickey, Robert F., Miami
Dohrman, Howard I., Miami
Florida Juice, Inc., Miami
Fuchs Baking Company, South Miami
Gardiner, Percy R., Toronto, Canada
Gardner, Dick B., Miami
Gearhart, Ernest G., Jr., Miami
Giffin, John S., Miami

Grosvenor, Gilbert, Miami
Highleyman, Daly, Miami
Holmer, Carl, Jr., Miami
Leffler, Miss Cornelia, Miami**
Lloyd, J. Harlan, Miami
Mallory, Philip R., Miami Beach
MacDonald, Duncan, Miami*
McKey, Robert M., Miami
Mills, Charles A., Miami Beach
Ross, Donald, Benton Harbor, Mich.
Shipe, Paul E., Miami
Thord-Gray, General I., Coral Gables
Tom DuPree & Sons, Inc., Miami Beach
Wilson, D. Earl, Miami**


Baron de Hirschmeyer Foundation,
Miami Beach
Emerson, Hugh P., Miami
Gonzales, Mrs. Ricardo C., Palm Beach

Keyes, Kenneth S., Miami*
Lunsford, Dr. E. C., Miami
Pearse, Mrs. Langdon, Winnetka, ll.


Florida Power and Light Company, Miami
Geiger, Mrs. August, Miami Beach*
Gondas Corporation, Miami

Link, Edwin A., Binghamton, N. Y.
Pan American World Airways, Miami
Peninsular Armature Works, Miami


Crane, Mrs. Raymond E., Miami Beach

University of Miami, Coral Gables



Wayne E. Withers Justin P. Havee
President Executive Secretary
Charlton W. Tebeau Miss Virginia Wilson
First Vice-President Recording and
Editor of Tequesta Corresponding Secretary
August Burghard Robert M. McKey
Second Vice-President Treasurer
Mrs. Andrew J. Moulds


Karl A. Bickel
Louis Capron
West Palm Beach
Dr. James W. Covington
David M. Fee
Fort Pierce

Mrs. Ruby Leach Carson
Edward S. Christiansen
George H. Cooper
George J. Deedmeyer
H. Lewis Dorn
Robert J. Dykes
Hugh P. Emerson
Stephen J. Flynn
Mrs. William L. Freeland
Ernest G. Gearhart, Jr.
Kenneth S. Keyes

Mrs. James T. Hancock
Norman A. Herren
Dr. Charles T. Thrift, Jr.
Mrs. Louise V. White
Key West

Wirth M. Munroe
John B. Orr, Jr.
Dr. Jay F. W. Pearson
Gene Plowden
Gaylord L. Price
R. B. Roberts
Roland A. Saye, Jr.
Mrs. Frank Stranahan
Mrs. Herbert O. Vance
Gaines R. Wilson

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