Insect enemies of truck and garden crops /

Material Information

Insect enemies of truck and garden crops /
Series Title:
Bulletin / University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Quaintance, A. L ( Altus Lacy ), 1870-1958
Place of Publication:
Lake City, Fla
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
Physical Description:
p. 237-327 : ill. ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Truck farming ( lcsh )
Garden pests ( lcsh )
Lake City ( local )
Insects ( jstor )
Worms ( jstor )
Cabbages ( jstor )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


General Note:
Cover title.
Statement of Responsibility:
A.L. Quaintance.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
18154612 ( OCLC )


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Insect Enemies of Truck and Garden Crops


The Bulletins of this Station will be sent free to any address in
Florida upon application to the Director of the Experiment
Station, Lake City, Florida.



Bulletin No. 34.

March, 1896.


HON. WALTER GWYNN, President . . .. .Sanford
HON. W. D. CHIPLEY, Vice-President . .. .Pensacola
HoN. F. E. HARRIS, Ch'n Executive Committee . Ocala
HON. A. B. HAGEN, Secretary ...... Lake City
HON. S. STRINGER . . . . .. Brooksville
HON. C. F. A. BIELBY . .. . . DeLand
HON. J. F. BAYA .... .... .Lake City


0. CLUTE, M.SLL. S., LL . . . . . Director
P. H. ROLFS, M. S. ... Horticulturist and Biologist
A. A. PERSONS, M. S . . . . .. .Chemist
C. A. FINLEY ......... Director's Secretary
A. L. QUAINTANCE, M. S. .... Assistant in Biology
JOHN.F. MITCHELL . . Foreman of Lake City Farm
J. T. STUBns . . Supt. Sub-Station, DeFuniak Springs
W. A. MARSH . . . Supt. Sub-Station, Fort Myers


Table of Contents.

GENERAL REMARKS............................ 241
Insects Defined........................................ 241

The Egg................................... 242
The Nymph............................... 241
The Larva.................................. 243
The Pupa................................. 243
The Adult.................................. 243
Sucking Insects, and Insecticides for............ 244
Biting Insects, and Insecticides for................. 245
Spraying Machines................................... 245

Cut-Worms ................................ 253
Wire-Worms............................... 257
The Bean Weevil......................... 259
The Red-Legged Locust ................. 261
Other Insects Affecting the, Bean...... 263

The Blister-Beetle........................ 264
Cut-Worms.............................. .. 265
W ire-W orms............................... 265

Flea-Beetle ................................ 266
Harlequin Cabbage Bug, Calico Back.. 268
Cabbage Plant Louse.................. 270
The Imported Cabbage Worm.......... 273
The Southern Cabbage Butteifly...... 275
Pieris monuste............................. 277
The Cabbage Plusia ................... 278
The Cabbage Plutella .................. 280
Cut-Worms............................... 281
Other Insects Affecting the Cabbage... 281

The Cauliflower Botis.................... 282
The Cabbage-Root Fly.................. 283
Other Insects Affecting Cauliflower... 286

The Tarnished Plant Bug.............. 286
The Celery Caterpillar.................... 288
Other Insects Affecting Celery.......... 290

The Squash Bug.......................... 290
The Squash Borer........................ 292
The Squash Vine Borer................ 293
The Striped Squash Beetle.............. 294

The Cotton, or Melon Plant Louse..... 296
The Melon Borer.......................... 298
The Leaf-Footed Plant Bug.............. 300

The Cotton Stainer...................... 302
Harlequin Cabbage Bug................... 303
Pentatomids............................... 303
The Leaf-Footed Plant Bug.............. 304
The Egg Plant Aphis .................. 305


The Onion Fly........................... 305
Wire-Worms .............................. 308

The Boll-Worm: Corn-Worm.......... 309
TheTomato Worm....................... 314
The Tomato Aphis.......... ........... 317
Flea-Beetles.............................. 318
Some Animals Which Destroy Insects........... 319
Acknowledgments. ................................. 319
Tabulation of the Insects, and Their Treatment. 323
Insecticides and prices of same................... 327


The class Insecta, or insects as generally understood
to-day, includes all those animals having the body seg-
mented, bearing two pairs of legs, usually two pairs of
wings, with the body divided into three distinct regions,
the head, the thorax, and abdomen. The head bears the
eyes, antennae, and mouth parts; the thorax, the legs, and
wings; the abdomen is destitute of appendages.
We may consider the class of insects as divided into
two great groups. The first comprises those insects that
pass through no metamorphosis; or in other words those
insects which in their growth from the egg do not pass
through distinct larval and pupal stages, their growth
being so gradual that we can not indicate where the lar-
val conditions end, nor where the pupal state begins.
Grasshoppers and plant-bugs belong to this group. The
young of insects with an incomplete metamorphosis may
usually be recognized from their resemblance to the adult
insects, from which they differ mainly in the absence of
fully developed wings. The immature stage of these
insects is known as the Nymph.
The second group, which comprises by far the
greater number of insects, passes through a metamorpho-
sis, having distinct larval and pupal stages; which usually
differ widely the one from the other. Butterflies, beetles,
bees, and wasps are members of this group.
We recognize four stages in the life history of
insects with a complete metamorphosis, viz: the egg, the
larva, the pupa, and the imago, or adult.

Since the greater number of our enemies are mem-
bers of this group we may now consider these different
stages a little more in detail, with special reference to the
particular stage at which we can best combat them.
As previously stated, the egg is the first stage in the
life history of the insect. There is much variation in the
size, shape and color of eggs of insects as well as the man-
ner and places in which they are laid. Many insects de-
posit their eggs in holes in wood, which the female has
excavated for that purpose; these eventually develop into
the insects known as borers. Others deposit their eggs
in and on the bodies and eggs of other insects, the larvae
hatching and living at the expense of theirhosts, usually
ending in their destruction. This class of insects are
known as parasites, and do untold good by thus preying
upon the injurious ones, keeping them greatly reduced.
The eggs of the insects with which we are most con-
cerned, however, are usually laid on the various plants
which are to furnish food for the insect in its next or
larval stage. The eggs of many of these insects are large
enough to be detected and destroyed, many species laying
them in large patches on the under or upper sides of
leaves. The eggs of most insects destructive to garden
crops can be destroyed by spraying them with kerosene
emulsion, and we should strive to kill as many as possi-
ble of our pests in this early stage of their existence.
Many insects winter in the egg state, hatching with the
advent of warm weather. These eggs are usually laid in
sheltered and protected places, in fence corners and
among the weeds and grass. From this it 'is seen that
we can do much to prevent the abundance of these
insects by keeping the fields andl:gardens thoroughly
cleaned, thereby removing suitable places in which the
insects may deposit their eggs.

The second stage of the insect is known as the larval
stage. Larvae of the orders of Beetles, Flies, and
Butterflies are known respectively as Grubs, Maggots, and
Caterpillars. The Cabbage Worm is the larva of a but-
terfly; the larva of the house fly is a maggot, while the
Grubs that are so frequently overturned in digging and
plowing are larvae of beetles. It is in this state that
insects perhaps do the most harm, as this is the period in
which they feed and grow, laying up nourishment for
their final transformation. It is also in this second stage
that we can do most to control these insects, and all pains
should be taken that they are destroyed before they have
passed through the pupa and into the adult condition,
when they become endowed with much better powers of
locomotion, and deposit their eggs here and there on our
The third stage, known as the pupa, is usually a rest-
ing state, a state of inactivity, in which the larva trans-
forms into the perfect insect. Larvae lay up sufficient
nourishment while in that condition to enable them to
continue their growth while they are in the usually
quiescent, and seemingly lifeless pupa. Not many insects
are injurious in this stage. Many pass the winter in this
condition, in sheltered and out-of-the-way places, where
the instincts of the larvae have led them to crawl. We
can do much to destroy the insects in this stage by burn-
ing all rubbish heaps, leaves, and other trash in the field
in the fall, thus removing places of protection and de-
stroying the pupa which would pass the winter in
The imago, or adult stage, terminates the develop-
ment of the insect. This stage is represented by our
beetles, moths, flies, and butterflies. The time required
for different insects to arrive at this condition varies
greatly. Some may go through their entire life history

in three or four weeks, others may require several years
to complete their growth. Upon arriving at maturity,
however, the eggs are deposited from which new broods
are to develop. As a usual thing the eggs are laid on
the plant that is to furnish the larvae with food. Know-
ing this, we can frequently destroy them as previously
suggested. Beetles, plant-bugs and 'grasshoppers are, as
adults, besides laying eggs, quite destructive to our gar-
den crops, eating the foliage or sucking the sap from the
plants. The moths, butterflies and flies are not in them-
selves injurious, save in the harm that they bring about
in the laying of their eggs; but in view of this, we must
take means to destroy them and prevent the depositing of
eggs. We can do much to destroy the adult injurious
insects by the use of the various insecticides, and also
prevent the less injurious ones from depositing their
eggs, by the use of repellants.
It now becomes important that we should know
something of the remedies which are to be applied, and
certain 'fundamental differences in the structure and
manner of procuring food of the insects to be treated.
So far as our present purposes require we may con-
aider only those vegetable-eating insects which can be di-
vided into two groups, namely, (1) those which obtain
their food by piercing the stems and leaves of plants with
their stout beaks, and sucking up their juices; and (2)
those whose mouth parts are adapted for biting and which
obtain their food by eating and gnawing the various parts
of plants. These two different groups of insects evidently
require different methods of treatment.
To the first group, or sucking insects, belong the
plant lice, leaf-hoppers, true bugs, and others. These
cannot be killed by the use of the various arsenical insec-
ticides, since they do not eat of the poisoned foliage, but
obtain their food from the unpoisoned interior.of the plant.

These insects we must kill by applying some external
poison, either in the way of an irritant or something that
will stop up the breathing pores, or tracheae. Our kero-
sene emulsions, whale oil soaps, and resin washes, are
remedies of this kind, and are to be used in combatting
this class of insects.
Our second class, or biting insects, are represented by
the locusts, or grasshoppers, cabbage worms, and beetles.
These are killed by eating the foliage which has been
poisoned by the use of arsenites or other poisons.
Another way in which we may kill both of these
classes of insects is in the use of substances which will
poison the air that they breathe. This is best done by
the use of carbon bi-sulphide, sulphur spray, hydrocyanic
acid gas, and pyrethrum.*
The use of some form of spraying apparatus is
almost indispensable in combatting the various insects
that attack the crops of the farm and garden. It has
been will said that a spraying machine is as much a
necessity on the farm as a plow. It is sometimes a great


Fig. 1.

advantage to have two machines, one for applying liquids,
and the other for applying powder. But where it is not
p ,ssible to have these two forms of machines, it would be
best to secure some form of force pump, with spray noz-

*For information concerning the preparation and use of the
various insecticides and fungicides, see Bulletin Number 23, of
this station, by Prof. P. H. Rolfs, on "Insecticides and Fungicides"


zles. The powder can thus be applied thoroughly mixed
with water.
In order to facilitate the selection and purchase of a
spraying machine, some of the more important forms are
here illustrated, with the address of the manufacturer,
or dealer, and the prices at which they may be obtained.
Figure 1, illustrates an excellent form of hand bel-
lows to distribute insecticides in the form of powder. For
use in hot houses, and small gardens they will be very

Fig. 2.

For Orchard, Vineyard
Garden or Potato Field.
Distributes any dry powder.
Fig. 3.

These bellows may be purchased of the manufac-
turer, Mr. Thos. Woodason, 2900 D Street, Philadelphia,
Pa. Price, $3.

In figure 2 is shown another of Woodason's Hand
Bellows. This bellows is for the distribution of liquid
insecticides. Price, $2.

Paris Green or
Powder Gun

powder on a large scale. In figures 3 and 4 the gun is
Distributes any dry

The machine is made of iron, tin, steel, and brass,
in use.

Fig. 4.

Leggett Bros.,301 Pearl street, New York, are manu-
facturers of a valuable powder gun for the application of
powder on a large scale. In figures 3 and 4 the gun is
illustrated as in use.
The machine is made of iron, tin,steel, and brass,
and weighs about five pounds. As shown in the figures,
it is attached to the body by two straps, the powder being
distributed by turning the a cank. Tubes, and different
forms of funnels are made to use with the gun to best
suit it to the plant treated. The gun may be purchased
of the manufacturer for $7.50. They may also be ob-
tained of Messrs. Howard & Kennedy, Terra Ceia, Fla.,
and of Painter & Co., Deland,, Florida.
Figure 5 illustrates the Excelsior Spraying Outfit,
No. 19, as manufactured by William Stahl, Quincy, Ill.
The outfit consists of a brass valved pump, hose and noz-
zle. These are quite servicable bucket pumps and will
be quite sufficient for small gardens.

Mr. Stahl is also manufacturer of an Excelsior Clock
Pump, which can be mounted on a barrel, and is quite
desirable where it is necessary to use large quantities of
insecticides. It consists of force pump, hose and nozzle,

Fig. 5.
with a second hose extending down into the barrel,
which serves to keep the contents well stirred, thus secu-
ring an even distribution of the insecticide.
The Empire King Spraying Pump, shown in figure 6,
is for sale by the Field Force Pump Co., Lockport, N. Y.
The pump is well suited, to spraying on a large scale,
being provided with two hose and[spraying nozzles, by
which spraying from each side of thelwagon'may be car-
ried on at the same time. When desired one hose may
be shut off. Either the Eureka or Vermorel nozzle may
be used. Price complete, without barrel, $12.50.

Fig. 6.

The Field Force Pump Company are also manufac-
turers of a Truck and Barrel Sprayer, shown in figure 7,
intended for use in gardens and orchards, where it is not
practicable to drive a horse. It can be purchased com-
plete, as shown in the cut, for $19.00.
Knapsack Sprayers have quite deservedly come into
general use in the treatment of fungous and insect ene-
mies of the vineyard and garden. They may be strapped
on the back, the pumping being done with one hand,

Fig. 7.
while the hose is held with the other. With this form
of sprayer the liquid may be applied very thoroughly.
W. B. Douglass, Middleton, Conn., is manufacturer
of a Knapsack Sprayer with Kerosene Attachment,
shown in the figure. Experiments have been made in
which kerosene, thoroughly mixed with water, was effect-
ually used against insects, instead of the emulsion, and
producing no harmful results to the plants.
With this Sprayer this mixing of the kerosene and
water is accomplished while in the act of spraying. The
advantages of using kerosene in this form over its use in
the form of an emulsion are at once apparent; however,
in the use of this form of sprayer, certain precautions
should be observed. See that the kerosene and water in

7 NJ I


Fig. 8.

their respective tanks are always kept at about the same
level with each other. An inequality of level of either of
the liquids may cause a disproportionate mixing, which,
in case the kerosene is in excess, might prove to be in-
jurious to the foliage upon which it was sprayed; or in
the other extreme, would not be strong enough to destroy
the insects.
The Kerosene Attachment may be readily removed
when it is desired to use the sprayer for other insecti-
cides or fungicides.
Price complete, as shown in figure 7, with copper
tanks, $20.00. Liberal discounts may be obtained by
writing the manufacturers. The Sprayers may also be
purchased of the company in New Orleans, 431 Gravier
street, and in New York city, 85 and 87 John street.

The McGowen Injector, shown as in use in figure 9,
is an invention of Mr McGowen, of Ithaca, N. Y. This
is an instrument for the application of insecticides against

Fig. 9.

insects living in the ground and attacking the under
ground portions of plants. With this injector, charges
of carbon bi-sulphide may be left in the ground near the
roots of the infested plants, the disseminating vapors of
which will, in most cases, quite effectually destroy the

~~8;5~ r.:

All parts of the injector are of brass or tin, except
the leather in the valves, which can be easily removed
and replaced with new ones when necessary. The in-
jector may be made with reservoirs of varying sizes, and
of tin or brass. A reservoir holding about two quarts
would be large enough to treat about five hundred
plants, allowing one teaspoonful to the plant. Mr. Mc-
Gowen will make them of any size desired. An injector
weighing about eight pounds, when filled with the liquid,
will be a very good size. Such an instrument will cost
from three to five dollars, depending upon the material
used. In using the injector the following directions
should be followed:
Fill the reservoir, with the handle pressed down, by
pouring in the liquid at the top. In inserting the injec-
tor, the hole should begin about three or four inches
from the plant. Push the injector obliquely downwards
until the point is under, and h little below the roots. The
load is here discharged by pulling up the piston rod,
which act also reloads the chamber. Pull out the injec-
tor and close the hole by pressing the earth with the foot.
Tn every case, before inserting the injector, see that the
piston rod is pushed down. This will prevent dirt from
getting into the lower end, which will be quite hard to


(Larve of the Noctuid family of moths.)
Just as the beans are sprouting through the surface
of the ground they are frequently greatly injured by the
depredations of the so-called "cut-worms". These insects
pass the day in the ground, or under old boards, brush,


or other places of refuge, and at night come out and feed
on the tender seedlings of the bean, or other garden
plants. They may attack the bean in different ways.
Just as the young plant is pushing its way through the
soil, it may be eaten off close down to the ground. Later,
when the plant has grown more, and the seed leaves have
been pushed up into the air, the soft herbaceous stem
may be attacked and badly eaten into, so that it will wilt,
or droop over. Or, the worms may climb up the stem,
and eat or cut off the seed leaves and plumule. Cut-
worms are the larval forms of certain night flying moths,
belonging principally to the genera Agrotis, Mamestra,
and Hadena. They are quite generally distributed
throughout the United States.
The Eggs.-The eggs are quite small, about the size
of fine dust shot, varying somewhat in color and mark-

Fig. 10.-Agrotis sauoia: Eggs, a, single egg greatly enlarged; b, egg mass on twig,
natural size.
wings in the different species. See figure 10--a, much
enlarged; b, natural size.
The Larva.-The cut-worms may be recognized by
their cylindrical, naked, somewhat tapering fleshy body.

The segment next to the head is provided with a distinct
horny scale; the body is usually marked with longitudi-

a C
Fig. 11.-Agrotis sauia: a, larva; d, adult.

nal stripes which, however, are not always present; their
presence or absence usually serving to harmonize their
color with that of the ground, or the plants upon which

a b

Fig. 12.-Mamestra chenopodii: a, b, larva; c, pupa; d, moth; e, wing of moth,

they feed, thus protecting them somewhat from detection.
When disturbed, these worms have the habit of curling
themselves up, and remaining motionless for a time. See
figure 11, a and b, and figure 12, a.
The Adult.-The moths (see figure 11, d, and figure
12, d) of the various species of cut-worms are rather
small, having a wing expanse of about one and one-half
inches, and are usually of a uniform ashy or brownish
color. On each fore wing is usually to be found a kidney-
shaped spot of lighter color than that of the surrounding
parts. When at rest the wings are laid back roof-shaped
over the body, causing it to appear much smaller when
still, than when flying.
The eggs are laid by the female moth during the
late spring, or early summer, on the leaves and stems of
low bushes or grass. As soon as these hatch, the larve
descend to the earth and feed upon .the tender portions
of herbaceous plants. At this time the larvae are quite
small and are easily overlooked. At the approach of
winter they crawl under old boards and rubbish, or else
burrow into the ground and there pass the winter in the
larval condition. At the coming of spring they leave
these places of retreat and begin their search for food.
They are hearty, voracious feeders, and attack many
kinds of vegetables, eating them as they appear above the
surface of the ground. Soon they have attained their full
size, and burrow into the earth just below the surface,
and there transform into pupae, and a few weeks later
emerge as moths which soon deposit eggs again.
According to Dr. Riley, one of the best ways to de-
stroy cut-worm is to place poisoned cabb ige, or other
leaves, around over the field a week or ten days before

planting. The leaves are poisoned by dipping them in a
water solution of Paris green or London purple. They
should be renewed every three or four days. These poi-
soned leaves serve as a bait to the larvae, and many are
thus killed. The use of these baits may be continued
after the crop has been planted, by placing them between
the rows. In the use of these baits care should be taken
that they are not eaten by stock.
Another good form of bait is made by mixing bran
and Paris green, in the proportion of one quart of bran
to one teaspoonful of Paris green. This can be distri-
buted promiscuously throughout the field.
Another effective way of reducing their number is
to make a vertical hole in the ground near the plants
about a foot deep, by the use of a sharpened broom stick.
The worms upon the approach of light, crawling away
to hide will enter these pits and be unable to crawl out
again. Boards might be placed around in the field be-
tween the rows of vegetables, and frequently examined.
The worms hiding beneath these should be killed. Birds
and barnyard fowls destroy great numbers of these cut-
worms in their early morning search for food, and
should be encouraged.
Cut-worms are quite general feeders, scarcely any
variety of garden vegetables being free from their rav-
ages. Some species of cut-worms are known to even
climb trees, and do much harm by eating the tender buds.

"Wire-worms" (larvae of Elaterid beetles), are at
times reported as damaging the bean crop by eating the
seed immediately after planting, or before it has grown
into a plant with rootlets capable of obtaining food from
the soil.

The young plants show signs of attack by slow
and improper growth, wilting, and perhaps eventually
dying. The attack on the seeds can not, of course, be
The family of Elaterid beetles is a large one, more
than five hundred species being found in North America.
The Larva.-Wire-worms are long, narrow, hard, cyl-
indrical worms, of a brownish white color, the body taper-
ing gradually to each end. The body is quite distinctly
segmented, its general appearance and hardness suggest-
ing the name by which they are known. Figure 11, a.

a b
Fig. 13.-Melanotus communis: a larva; b, adult.

The Adult.-The mature or adult stage of the wire-
worm is our common snapping or "click" beetle, with
which all are probably quite familiar. Our most com-
mon click beetles are rather small, ranging from one-
fourth to one inch in length, are usually of an even
brownish color, or, as in some, variously marked and
spotted. All may be easily recognized by the loose artic-
ulation of the fore to the hind-body, allowing the insect
to snap, springing several inches in the air. See figure 13,b.

The eggs are probably laid in the spring, in undis-
turbed places in the field, as in the fence corners, in and
around old log heaps and brush piles. The eggs soon
hatch into wire-worms, in which state they may remain
in some species, as long as three years before maturing,
living in the soil and depredating the seeds and roots of
plants. The larvae finally change to pupae, however, usu-
ally in the early fall, and soon change to beetles; these
remain in the ground until the following spring when
they appear and deposit their eggs.
Owing to the underground habits of the wire-worms
they are quite difficult to combat successfully. Preventive
measures will do much to lessen the injuries done by
these insects. Late fall plowing of badly infested land
will destroy a great many, by breaking open their resting
cases. The fields and gardens should be kept free from
decayed wood, logs and brush heaps, thus lessening the
favorable places for deposition of eggs.
Other plants affected by wire-worms are corn, peas,
melons, squashes, and other garden crops.

(Bruchus obtectus, Say,)
This familiar insect is perhaps one of the most seri-
ous pests affecting the bean. The damage done is much
more apparent in the seed beans, which are some times
nearly destroyed by its ravages, but the yield and mark-
etable value of the bean are greatly lessened by the work
of the larvae within the young and growing bean.
Bean pods infested with this insect show warty pro-
tuberances, terminating in black specks, marking the
entranceof the larvae. By many, such pods are thought

to have been stung, and are called "specked" beans.
Beans so affected do not find a ready sale on the market.
The effects of these insects should not be confounded
with that of a fungous disease, also affecting the bean pod.
They are easily distinguished, however, as the fungus pro-
duces depressed reddish spots on the pod, about one-third
of an inch in diameter, which gradually grow into
enlarged circular spots. Beans affected with this fungus
(Colletrotrichum) are said to be "spotted".
The bean weevil was probably introduced into this
country, and is now quite generally distributed, being
found over a large portion of the United States. It is
particularly abundant in the Southern States. As early
as 1860 it was noticed that this beetle was attacking the
bean, and in later years as the growing of this plant
increased, it has shown decided partiality to this crop,
which now furnishes the greater part, if not all of its
The Larva.-The larva is a small, soft-bodied, grub-
like insect, passing its entire life in the bean.
The Adult.-The beetle is about one-tenth of an inch
in length, ashy black, with a slight brownish tinge. The
body is quite hard, and is somewhat flattened.
The adult beetle lays her eggs in the young and
tender pod, by gna wing a hole and then depositing the
eggs within. The eggs hatch within eight or ten days,
and the larvae, penetrating the bean, begin to feed. Sev-
eral hlrvse may inhabit the same bean, in which case,
each has its separate cavity. The larvae reach maturity
in the latter part of the summer and transform into pupa
in the fall. It is not known with certainty how long
they remain in the pupa state, but sooner or later the

been weevil appears, and again deposits eggs on the
young beans; or, in the case of stored beans for seed or
other purposes, on the dry beans. Many successive gen-
erations may be raised in stored beans.
Beans saved for seed or other purposes should, upon
being brought in, be thoroughly subjected to the fumes
of carbon bi-sulphide. This is very easily done in the
following way: Secure a tight barrel, cover the bottom
with a layer of the shelled beans about six inches deep,
pour over this layer an ounce of carbon bi-sulphide.
Place over this another layer of beans of the same depth,
and treat with the liquid as above, and so on until the
barrel is full. It should then be covered over as tightly
as possible and left for two or three days for the fumes
to do their deadly work. It should never be forgotten
that carbon bi-sulpuide is highly inflammable. In its
use no fire of any kind, a lighted cigar, pipe, or lantern
should be brought near it. A thorough application of
this kind will in all cases prove an efficient and practi-
cable remedy, not only against the bean weevil, but
against the corn and other weevils. The cheapness of
the remedy and the readiness of application, strongly
recommend it to general use.*

(Caloptenus femur-rubrum, Burm.)
Various species of grasshoppers or locusts (See figures
14, and 15) are at times destructive to beans and other
garden and truck crops, eating the tender shoots and pods.
The Red-legged Locust (Caloptenus femur-rubrum) is
usually the most serious offender, and will be the species
*See Bulletin 23, page 27, of this Station for a more complete
discussion of carbon bi-sulphide, and where it may be obtained.

here referred to. The suggestions for treatment, how-
ever, will apply quite as well to the other species of the
locust family as to this one, their manner of feeding be-
ing quite alike.

Fig. 14.-Caloptens bimittatus: adult.

The Red-legged Locust is quite generally distributed
over the United States, being by far the most abundant
species, except in certain high and dry sections of our
country, where it is replaced by a nearly allied species.
Ihe Nymph.--The young locust is a mottled, brown-
ish olive insect, without perfectly developed wings. It
bears a close resemblance to the adult, and may be more
easily recognized by reading the description for the ma-
ture form.
The Adult.-The full grown Red-legged Locust meas-
ures from three-fourths to one inch in length, with a

Fig. 15.-Caloptenu8femur-rubrum: adult.

wing expanse of one and one-fourth inches. The gen-
eral color of the insect is a dirty olive and brown. A
black streak extends from the eyes along the sides of the
thorax. Along the middle of the wing-covers is a row of

dusky brown spots. The wings are transparent, netted
with brown veins. The hindmost shanks are blood red,
with black spines. On the hindmost thighs are two large
spots on the upper side, with the extremity black. On
the inside they are yellow. See figure 15.
The eggs are laid in the ground in cocoon-shaped
masses. The female bores a hole in the earth with her
ovipositor, and there deposits her eggs, covering them
over with a tough cementing substance. These hatch
into wingless little locusts, which, eating the tender por-
tions of various plants, do considerable damage, even at
this early stage. After the first moult the wings begin to
develop, which, after two more moultings, have become
fully grown, and ready for use of the now fully matured
insect. Unlike the cut-worms, the locusts pass through
no resting stage, but continue their depredations unin-
terruptedly throughout their whole life.
The best remedy against locusts and like insects is
probably to be found in the use of poisoned bran, sweet-
ened with syrup or molasses. Prof. Davis, of the Michi-
gan Agricultural Experiment Station, has found that
locusts eating of sweetened bran to which has been added
sufficient Paris green to give it a greenish tinge, died
within twenty-four hours. The poisoned bran may be
placed around promiscuously in the field, care being
taken that it is not accessible to fowls or stock.

Among other insects affecting the bean are to be
mentioned the Flea-Beetles, small, black, jumping in-
sects, eating holes in the leaves. These will be consid-
sered later, under the head of cabbage, to which plant

they seem to show a greater partiality. The Boll-Worm
of the cotton (Heloithis armigera) is sometimes found eat-
ing the pod of the bean. This insect will be considered
as affecting the tomato, to which refer for further informa-
tion regarding it.


The beet plant affords food for many species of in-
sects. We will consider here only the more common
and important ones.
(Epicauta vittata, Fabr.)
The Striped Blister-Beetle, or "Old Fashioned Po-
tato Bug," is frequently a serious pest, eating the
leaves of the beet plant, as well as those of many other
garden vegetables. These beetles are rather gregarious,
feeding in large groups. They eat the soft parenchyma
of the leaves, leaving the plants quite destitue of healthy
The Larva.-The larva is an active little creature,
running around on the ground, feeding on the eggs of
other insects, principally those of the locust.
The Adult.-The beetle may be recognized by its
rather soft body of a yellowish color above,with two black
stripes extending longitudinally down its wing-covers.
The body and legs beneath are black. This insect is
about one-half inch in length. (See fig. 16.)
The eggs are laid during late summer or early fall,
in masses in holes in the ground which the female has ex-

cavated. As the larvee depend somewhat upon the eggs of
the locust for their food, the female usually selects a place
for depositing her eggs that abounds with the egg cap-
sules of those insects. The eggs hatch in the course of

Fig. 16.-Epicauta vittata: adult.

eight or ten days; the larvae, feeding on the locust eggs,
attain their growth, and construct for themselves a cell
in the ground and finally assume the pupa state. From
this state they appear, under normal conditions, in the
course of a week or two, as adult blister-beetles, and be-
gin their depredations on the vegetable crops.

Fortunately but one brood is raised each year.
Hand-picking and destroying is a very effective way of
getting rid of them. Paris green or London purple may
be used, either as a spray or in the form of powder.

The various species of cut-worms referred to as af-
fectingithe bean, also damage the beet. The same treat-
ment is to be employed.

IWIRE-WORMS. '>'w "'
Not unfrequently beets are attacked by the wire-
worms referred to as affecting the bean. They injure the
beet by eating the fine fibrous rootlets, and boring and
eating into the root. This is particularly the case when

the beets have been planted in land that is new, or that
has been left uncultivated for several years, and has
grown up to grass. Their ravages may be greatly miti-
gated by observing the precautions previously referred to.

Other insects affecting the beet are the leaf hoppers,
bugs, and plant-lice, all injuring the plants by piercing
the stems and leaves and sucking the juice. When these
become very troublesome they can be kept in check by
spraying with kerosene emulsion.


The list of insects affecting the cabbage in this State
is quite large, and their ravages are proportionately se-
(Phyllotreta vittata, Fabr.)
Much injury is done to the cabbage while yet in the
seed bed by these small insects. Eating innumerable
small pits in the surface of the leaf, rarely eating a hole
through the leaf, except in the more tender and thinner
portions, they greatly interfere with the proper growth of
the plant. Their minute size is well 'made up for by
their abundance and surprising agility.
The attack of these insects should not be confused
with the attack of a fungus known as "damping off".
This fungus causes the stems to shrivel up near the soil,
causing the plant to fall over.
The Eggs.-The eggs are laid in groups of two or
three near the ground on the stems or roots of cruciferous

plants, the females gnawing an irregular cavity in which
they are deposited.
The Larva.-The larva is about one-third of an inch
in length, small, yellowish, almost cylindrical, with the
head of a darker color, living underground, feeding upon
the roots of plants, and frequently doing much damage
in this way. See figure 17, a, much enlarged.


Fig. 17.-Phyllotreta vittata: a, larva; b, adult; much enlarged; hair line represents
natural length.

The Adult.-The Flea-Beetle is about one-tenth of
an inch in length, oval in shape and glossy black, ex-
cept on the wing covers, which are each marked with a
wavy streak of pale yellow. Its posterior legs are strong
and well fitted for jumping, as the name suggests. Fig-
ure 17, b.

The larvae, after attaining their proper growth, trans-
form into pupae in earthen cocoons. About seventeen
days later the beetles appear, and begin feeding upon the
tender leaves of the young cabbage. The summer broods
are sometimes very injurious in their larval state to the
roots of the cabbage, causing the plants to wither and


Dusting the plants with lime, ashes, or refuse to-
bacco will generally keep the beetles from attacking
them. A decoction of tobacco water made by boiling or
soaking tobacco leaves in water is a good preventive.
Kerosene emulsion should be sprayed around the roots
and stems to destroy the eggs and young larvae.

(Murgantia histrionica, Hohn.)
This insect is one of our worst enemies to the cab-
bage in the South. The bugs injure ,the cabbage by
puncturing the plant and sucking its juices. Their
effects are quite disastrous, causing the plant to wither,
and not mature. The combined attack of a half-dozen
insects may kill a plant in one day.
The "Calico Back" was first noticed in Texas in
1866, and hence is thought to be a native of that State,
or of Mexico. It is now quite a common pest throughout
our country.
The Eggs.-The eggs of the Calico Back are quite
pretty, much resembling miniature barrels. At first they
are green in color but soon become white with black
markings, much resembling the hoop to a barrel; a small
black spot on the side indicates the bung-hole. The eggs
are deposited on the underside of the leaves, usually in
two rows. Figure 18, c, natural size; d, enlarged.
The Nymph.-The young bug is at first of a yellow-
ish color; it is of an oval form and somewhat flattened.
The antenna, now, are only four-jointed, but in the adult
are composed of five joints. As the insect develops,
wings begin to grow out, and the body becomes marked
with reddish yellow. Figure J 8, a and b.

The Adult.-The adult Harlequin Cabbage Bug may
be recognized by the gay harlequin arrangement of the
black and orange colors on its body. It measures about

f 9
Fig. 18.-Murgantia hisrionica: a and b, nymph; e and d, eggs, natural size and
enlarged; fand g, adult.

two-fifths of an inch in length, and somewhat less in
breadth. It is of an oval form, and is very much flat-
tened. Figure 18, f and g.

The eggs are said to hatch within three or four days
after being laid, and the young to grow and be able to
reproduce themselves in two weeks. The first laying of
eggs is usually deposited on the mustard, turnip, or rad-
ish plant; the nymphs from these muturing about the
time the cabbage is heading, attack it and rear their
broods upon it.
In the northern and colder portion of our State
many of the adults at the approach of winter seek pro-
tection by hiding under rubbish, logs, and brush, or
almost anything that will afford them protection.
Over a considerable area of Florida, however, the
weather does not become sufficiently cold to drive the
insects to shelter, and they may be found at almost any
time during the winter months feeding upon cabbage and
rutabaga plants.

These insects are particularly difficult to combat; the
ordinary arsenic poisons have no effect upon them, as they
take their food by sucking and not by biting. The best
treatment of this pest is probably to be found in destoy-
ing them in the winter and early spring. During the
winter they are greatly reduced in numbers, and can be
almost exterminated by a vigorous and persistent attack.
The insects wintering on the cabbage and other plants
should be destroyed by the use of kerosene emulsion, or
by picking them off by hand. In the northern part of
our State where the insects hibernate, the fields should be
thoroughly cleaned of all rubbish in the fall, that would
furnish them places of retreat. The first insects appear-
ing in the spring should be destroyed thus lessening the
parents for the future offspring. This is best done by
planting mustard, radish, or rutabaga plants early in the
spring, to serve as catch plants; the bugs congregating
here can be destroyed by hand-picking or spraying with
strong kerosene emulsion. The cabbage plants should
be carefully watched, and upon the first appearance
of the pest they should be destroyed by hand-picking.
The time of warfare should be in early spring: much
can be done at this time with little trouble compared to
that which must be given later if neglected.

(Aphis brassicse, Linn.)
The Cabbage Aphis was imported to this country
from Europe something over a hundred years ago. It
has now become quite widely disseminated throughout
the United States.
As a general thing they are not sufficiently abund-
ant to attract attention, but sometimes under favorable

conditions they may become so numerous as to do con-
siderable damage. They injure the cabbage and other
plants by piercing the epidermis with their beaks and
sucking up the juices, greatly reducing the vitality of the
plant. When exceedingly numerous they may cause the
plant to wither and die.
The Nymph.-The young Cabbage Plant-Louse, is
quite small, considerably less than one-tenth of an inch
in length; it is oval in shape, of a pale green color which
is more or less obscured by a dusting of grayish powder.
The legs and antennae are black.
The Adult Wingless Female.-The wingless vivi-
parous female, differs from the young in being
larger, more plump, and unwieldy. Protruding from the

Fig. 19.-Aphis brassicae: a, winged viviparous female; b, wingless viviparous
female; much enlarged; natural size indicated by small figures.

caudal portion of the back of the abdomen is a pair of
short black "honey-tubes" which secrete a fluid, the
"honey-dew". Figure 19, b, much enlarged.
Winged Viviparous Female.-The winged viviparous
plant-louse differs most noticeably from the wingless form
in the possession of wings. When at rest these are held
back roof-like over the body, extending far beyond the
abdomen. The general color is yellowish green with the

eyes and head black. The legs are brown, and hairy.
The honey-tubes are dark brown. See figure 19 a.
Besides these forms, there are the wingless oviparous
female, and the winged male.

During the warmer portions of the year, the winged
and wingless viviparous females only, are usually to be
found, bringing forth their young alive. The fecundity
of these insects is quite remarkable; a single plant-louse
may become the mother of millions of children and
Sgrand-children during a season. Upon the approach of
cold weather, or the decrease of food supply, true males
and females are produced and winter eggs are laid which
hatch the next spring into the winged and wing-
less viviparous females. In our State it often happens
that the food supply and mildness of the weather allow
the louse to pass the winter without the production of
males and females, and winter eggs. Plant-lice have
been kept in confinement under favorable conditions
for several seasons without the intervention of the
winter eggs. It thus seems that these are necessary,
only when conditions are adverse to the life of the vivi-
parous forms.
Plant-lice have many parasitic enemies which serve
greatly to keep them in check.
The Cabbage Plant-Louse may be quite successfully
treated. Pyrethrum powder mixed in its proper propor-
tions with water, applied as a spray, with a Knapsack
Sprayer will be found to be quite effective. Kerosene
emulsion, if properly diluted to about one-half strength
and applied as above, will probably give satisfactory
results. In the use of this emulsion on cabbage, care

must be exercised to have it sufficiently diluted so that
it will not blister the plant. Experience must here be
the guide; begin with a weak solution, and note its effect
The lice will usually all be killed with a solution that
is sufficiently weak to have no injurious effect on the
foliage. Whale-oil soap and tobacco decoction are also

(Pieris rape, Linn.)
The Rape Butterfly was imported from Europe about
1856. It probably made its arrival in this country with
a shipment of vegetables from England to Quebec. Since
its arrival, it has spread rapidly southward and westward,
until now in most localities it has quite supplanted our
native species Pieris protodice. According to Dr. J. C.
Neal, this butterfly first made its appearance in Florida
in 1890. It is now becoming quite common. The worms
or larvae, feed upon the cabbage leaves quite riddling them
with holes.
The Eggs.-The eggs are quite small and when first
laid are white, but soon become of a yellowish color.
They are usually laid singly, on the under sides of the
The Larva.-The cabbage worm, full grown, is about
one and one-fourth inches in length, greenish in color,
with a yellowish line extending down the back, and with
small yellow spots along each side. (Figure 20, a.)
The Pupa.-The pupa is an inactive irregularly
shaped body of a pale greenish color, marked with small
black spots. (See figure 20, b.)
The Adult.-The butterfly is creamy white in color,
with a wing expanse of about two inches. The fore-

wings are tipped with black, and marked also in the male
with two, and in the female with one black dot. Figure
20, male and female.


The insects, which winter in the chrysalides, come
forth in the spring, and soon begin to deposit their eggs
on the cabbage plant. These soon hatch and the worms
begin to eat of the foliage. They are voracious eaters,


Fig. 20.-Pieris rap: a, larva; b, pupa; c, adult male; d, female.

and in the course of two or three weeks have attained
their growth, and leaving the plant in most cases, shelter
under some near protection, and transform into the pupa.
In this State, they remain in this condition eight or ten
days, when the chrysalis splits open along the back and
the butterfly ePcapes. In a few days the newly hatched
females deposit eggs for a second brood.

Fortunately the larvae, when young and most suscept-
ible to insecticides, are found mostly on the outer leaves
of the cabbage. It is at this time that the best results
from treatment are obtained. A very cheap and effica-
cious remedy is to be found in the use of Paris green. It
should be used preferably in the liquid form in the pro-
portion of one-fourth pound of Paris green to one barrel
of water, or a teaspoonful to a pail of water. It should
be applied with a spray nozzle that will insure a uniform
and even distribution of the poison. It may also be used
with good results by first mixing with flour in the pro-
portion of one to twenty, and dusted on with a Powder
Gun, or through a cloth bag. While it is hardly proba-
ble that poisoning would result from eating matured
heads thus treated, it is advisable not to use the arsenites,
after the heads have begun to form. Pyrethrum or
"Buhach" may be substituted for the arsenites, as it is
quite harmless to man. It may be dusted over the
plants, or applied as a spray, one ounce of pyrethrum to
three gallons of water. Diluted kerosene emulsion is to
be recommended for use, until the plants begin to head;
it should then be discontinued as it may taint the leaves.
Lime and ashes when dusted over the leaves are also of
great value. Much good can be done by hand-picking,
.and catching the butterflies with a net.


(Pieris protodice, Bd.)

The larvae of this butterfly are also quite destructive
to cabbage, being among our most common "cabbage
worms." Their manner of feeding is essentially the same
.as that of the preceding species. This insect is a native

of the United States, being much more common in the
South than elsewhere.
The Eggs.-The eggs are elongated, pointed, of a
greenish color, about three-hundredths of an inch in
length. They are deposited singly, on the under sides of
the leaves.
The Larva.-The worm is soft-bodied, greenish-blue,
with four yellow, longitudinal bars extending down it,
and sprinkled with minute black dots. See fig. 21, a.

Fig. 21.-Pierisprotodice: a, larva; b, pupa; c, adult female; d, male.

The Pupa.-The chrysalis (see fig. 21, b) is some-
what more than one-half inch in length, usually of a
bluish-gray color, thickly peppered with black dots.
The Adult.-This butterfly .much resembles Pieris
rapae, being of about the same size, and of the same gen-

eral color. The markings of the wings differ, however,
in that they are much larger, and have a more angular
outline. Figure 21, male and female.
The life history of this insect is practically the same
as that of the preceding species. This species is said to
feed entirely on the cabbage plant.
The treatment is the same as for Pieris rape.
(Pieris monuste, L.)
This is another insect of the genus Pieris, the larvae
of which are quite destructive to cabbage in the South.
The Eggs.-The eggs are of a light yellow color,
rather oval, about four-hundredths of an inch in length.
They are usually attached to the leaf by their bases.

Fig. 22.-Pieris monuste: a, larva; b, pupa; c, adult.
The Larva.-The worm (fig. 22, a), when full grown,
is about one.and one-half inches in length; the body is

of a yellow color, marked with four longitudinal stripes
of a purplish tint. On each segment are black spots,
and thinly distributed delicate bristles.
The Adult.-The butterfly (see fig. 22, c) is our
largest species of the genus, with a wing expanse of from
two to three inches. In the male, the front wings are
white on their upper surface, and bordered with black.
On the under surface of the fore-wings the color is white,
with the border a pale brown or ochre color. The hind-
wings on their under surface are of a yellow ochre color,
the border pale brown, with a safron spot on the base.
The body is white, with the thorax of a dusky tinge. The
antennae are black, ringed with white, ending in a grpen-
colored, club-like knob.
The life history of this species is quite similar to the
other species of the genus Pieris, previously discussed.
The treatment is the same.

(Plusia brassicae, Riley.)
This is a night-flying moth, the larva of which is
perhaps the greatest enemy to cabbage and other cru-
ciferous plants with which the Southern truck grower
has to deal. The larvae devour the foliage, and when
quite numerous, strip the head of its outer leaves, even
penetrating within.
The Eggs.-The eggs are quite small, being about
two-hundredths of an inch in diameter, pale greenish-
yellow in color,,and somewhat convex in shape.
2he Larva.-The worm, when full grown, is about
two inches in lengh, soft-bodied, greenish in color, usually
marked with lighter longitudinal stripes. It may be

recognized from its "looping up" when crawling, after
the manner of the "measuring worms." See fig. 23, a.
The Pupa.-The pupa, shown in the figure (b), is a
brownish, capsule-like body, about one-half inch in
length, enclosed in a web of silken threads.
The Adult.-The perfect insect is a Noctuid moth,
with a wing expanse of about one and one-half inches,

Fig. 23.-Plusia brassice: a, larva; b, pupa; c, adult.

somewhat resembling the adult of the cut-worm. The
front-wings are of dark brown color, marked with a white
silvery spot, and a v-shaped mark. The hind-wings and
body are of a lighter shade of brown, the abdomen end-
ing in a brush-like tuft of hair. See fig. 23, c.
The female lays her eggs on the leaves of the cab-
bage plant, either singly or in groups. These soon hatch,
and the small larvae begin feeding, eating small holes
through the leaves; as they become older they eat out
large, irregular patches. They may penetrate the head,
completely riddling it, or even eating into the stalk. In

about three weeks the worms have obtained their full
growth, when they spin a loose, silken cocoon, and pass
into the pupa state, in which condition they remain
about two weeks. Upon coming from the cocoon the
adult female deposits her eggs for the next brood. Ac-
cording to Mr. Ashmead, six broods are probably raised
each season in this State.
See remedies for Pieris rapae.

(Plutella cruciferarum, Zeller.)
Larvae of the Cabbage Plutella are destructive to
the cabbage plant, eating only the outer leaves, which
they seriously damage.
The Larva.-The larva (fig. 24, a), is a small, green
worm, a little more than one-fourth of an inch in length,


Fig. 24.-Plutella cruciferarum: a, larva; d, pupa; f, moth ; h, moth at rest;
all enlarged.

very active, dropping from the plant when disturbed, and
suspending itself by a silken thread.
The Adult.-The moth (fig.24, f and h),is quite small,
with a wing expanse of five-eighths of an inch, of an ash-

gray color, usually with the inner margin of the fore-
wings bordered with an undulating streak of lighter
color, which, when the wings are folded together, gives
a row of diamond-shaped marks down the central line.
Apply the remedies previously suggested for cab-
bage worms to this insect.

Belonging principally to the genera, Agrotis, Hadena,
and Mamestra. There are a number of species of cut-
worms responsible for much injury done to cabbage
plants while they are yet young. Under the considera-
tion of insects injurious to beans, reference was made to
these worms, and remedies suggested. No further men-
tion need be made of them here.

Besides the species of insects previously mentioned
as injurious to the cabbage, the following may be men-
tioned as being more or less destructive:
The Cabbage-root Maggot (Phorbia brassicae), which
will be discussed as affecting cauliflowers; crickets (mostly
Tridactylus minutes, Scudder); the Cauliflower Botis (Botis
repetitalis, Grote); Locusts (Caloptenus femur-rubrum, and
bivittatus) and the large locust (Schistocerca americana).
A species of Nematode worm (Heterodera radicicola) some-
times seriously affects the roots of the cabbage and other
garden plants, giving them a deformed and knotty ap-
pearance. This disease is usually known as "Root Knot."


The Cauliflower, being a variety of the cabbage, is
attacked by many of the insect enemies of that plant.
Owing to the peculiar requirements for the successful
raising of the cauliflower, it has not been extensively
grown. Its insect enemies are hence fewer, though not
necessarily less severe.
(Botis repetitalis, Grote.)
Dr. A. Oemler has reported this insect to Prof.
Riley as destructive to cauliflowers in Georgia, the larva
eating the leaves and head and doing serious damage.
The insect occurs in our own State, ravaging the cauli-
flower, cabbage and like plants.
The Larva.-The worm when full grown measures
about three-fourths of an inch in length; is of a pale yel-
lowish color, with a darker shade along the back; the
head is of a deeper brown than the rest of the body.
The Pupa.-The pupa is about two-fifths of an inch
long, slender, of a light brown color, the posterior end
terminating in a prolonged curved spine.
The Adult.-The adult moth is rather small and
delicate, with a wing expanse somewhat less than one
inch; it is brownish yellow in color, the wings marked
across with two irregular brownish lines, and on each
fore-wing two brownish dots.
The use of an arsenite will be effective, and can' be
used safely before the plants begin to head. Pyrethrum
should be used after this, either in powdered or liquid

(Phorbia brassicae, Bouche.)

This insect, affecting Cauliflower and cabbage plants,.
as well as other garden crops, does great damage in its
larval state by eating the tender rootlets, and cutting and
boring into the main root. This of itself is a great drain
upon the vitality of the plant, but a not unusual result
is that this eating of the roots, aided by the slimy secre-
tion of the maggots, opens the way for rot and decay,
which soon terminates the life of the plant. Usually
within two or three weeks after the plants have been set
out the attack of the maggots is indicated by a checking
of the growth, wilting during the hottest part of the day,
and by the plant showing a sickly bluish cast. These
symptoms should call for a careful examination of the
roots, and treatment should at once be applied. As the
maggots grow and increase their ravages, the plant be-
comes yellowish and wilts, and will fail to form the
proper head. Treatment at this stage may not always
recover the plant, but will destroy the maggots, which
should be an important point. A not unusual result of
the attack of these maggots is a swelling of the roots,
producing what is sometimes known as "club root",
much resembling a similar disease caused by a fungus.
The Cabbage-root Maggot has been known in this
country since 1856. It is probably another one of our
imported European pests.


The Larva.-The maggot is a small, white, footless
insect, about three-fourths of an inch in length. The
body is pointed towards the head, gradually becoming
larger towards the posterior end, where it abruptly
ends. Figure 25, a, enlarged.

The Pupa.-The pupa is an oval brown capsule
about two-tenths of an inch in length. Figure 25, b.
The Adult.-The adult is a two-winged fly, much
resembling the common house-fly, but somewhat smaller;

Fig. 25.-Phorbia brassiew: a, larva; b, pupa; c, female fly-all much enlarged.

it is of on ash-gray color, with three black stripes on the
thorax, and a black stripe along the back of the abdo-
men. See figure 25, c, enlarged.
The insects pass the winter in the larval state in the
roots of the infested plant, or as a puparium in the
ground, or even in the adult condition. Early in the
season the female deposits her eggs around the stem, at or
near the surface of the soil. These soon hatch, the mag-
gots at once working their way into the ground, feeding
upon the outer surface of the roots and rootlets. The
maggots grow rapidly and soon pupate. In the course of
.a fortnight the perfect insects appear. Several broods
are raised in a season, infesting the plants from early
.in the spring to late in the fall.

The use of carbon bi-sulphide applied with the
McGowen Injector as illustrated and described under the
head of "Spraying Apparatus", is no doubt the best and
most practicable way of combating this and other insects
of similar habits. Usually one treatment is sufficient,
using about one teaspoonful to each plant. This will
make the cost of the liquid about one cent for ten plants
where carbon bi-sulphide is purchased in ten pound cans
or more. In using the injector the insertion of the tube
should be atleast three or four inches from the plant, and
pushed obliquely downwards until the point of the in-
jector is just below the roots, when the load of carbon
bi-sulphide should be discharged. These fumes will
thoroughly penetrate the surrounding soil, effectually
destroying the insects. Where it is impossible to use the
injector the liquid may be applied in a different way, as
suggested by Prof. Cook. With an ordinary walking
stick make a hole in the ground three or four inches
from the main root of the plant, and pour in about one
teaspoonful of the carbon bi-sulphide, quickly closing the
hole by pressing down the earth with the foot. Kero-
sene emulsion will also prove of much value. It should
be applied as soon as the attack is noticed. The earth
should be scraped away from the stalk and surface roots,
and the emulsion applied to the stalk and surrounding
soil with thoroughness. The use of the Knapsack Pump
will prove most satisfactory. Immediately after spray-
ing, the earth should be drawn up around th6 roots
again. Watering the plants with lime-water has been
recommended. Tobacco, applied either as a decoction or
in the form of dust, will be of service.
Plants that cannot recover from the attack should at
once be dug up and burned. The holes left should be
treated with a teaspoonful of carbon bi-sulphide, and

.earth raked over to hold in the fumes. Where a field
has become badly infested with these insects it should not
be planted to cauliflowers or cabbages for two years. This
will deprive the insects of their food plants, and they will
be starved out.
Flea-Beetles are at times a serious pest to cauli-
flowers. These are small, black, jumping insects, eating
pits and holes in the leaves. For treatment see discussion
under cabbage.
Cabbage Worms, larvae of Pieris rapae and P proto-
dice, eat the cauliflower in much the same way as they do
the cabbage. They may be recognized and treated as
recommended in the discussion given in connection with
insects affecting that plant.


(Lygus lineolaris, Beauv.)
The Tarnished Plant Bug is at times quite destruc-
tive to celery, feeding directly upon the tender white
stalks of the plant. Piercing these with its beak, it sucks
up the sap, leaving a large, brown wilted spot, which,
while stunting the growth of the plant, also greatly mars
its appearance, and hence affects its market value. This
pest is to be found in nearly every State in the Union,
extending even down to Mexico. It is quite an om-
nivorous feeder, attacking nearly all kinds of garden
The Nymph.-The young passes through three or
four stages in reaching maturity. In the first two stages

it is of a greenish color, with no trace of wings. In the
later stages the wings begin to grow out, and a few dark
markings appear. The shape and structure of the body
are similar to that of the adult, the description of which
should here be referred to.
The AU.'lt.-The adult bug is a rather small in-
sect, measuring about two-fifths of an inch in length;
body elliptical in shape, and somewhat flattened. The

Fig. 26.-Lygus lineolaris: Adult; enlarged.

sexes differ in color, the female being light brownish in
color, with light yellow markings. In the male the gen-
eral color is dark reddish brown, and the markings are
usually absent. Figure 26, enlarged.
These insects hibernate during the winter under old
rubbish, boards, and other protected places, and early in
the spring come out and attack the early vegetables. The
eggs are soon deposited and hatched, and the young,
sucking the juices of their food plant, rapidly grow into
adult insects. During the day they are usually shy,
hiding in the heavy foliage, darting from side to side of
the stem, or perhaps taking flight. Early in the morn-
ing they seem rather adverse to flight, and may be more
easily captured and destroyed at this time.

Many kinds of remidies have been tried against this
bug, and not with a great deal of success. None of the
arsenites can of course be used on the sucking insects.
Kerosene emulsion and pyrethrum may be used with kill-
ing effect on the insects, but owing to their great activity
many escape its application, and live to continue their
work of destruction. Preventive measures will keep
them greatly reduced. The fields should be cleaned of
dead grass, rubbish, and other debris, serving as a winter
retreat. Hand-picking should be resorted to at their first
appearance in the spring. This will prove to be the
most satisfactory way of destroying them.

(Papilio asterias, Fabr.)
The adult of this caterpillar is doubtless quite familiar
to all, being one of the most common of butterflies fre--
quenting the garden flowers throughout the summer.
The caterpillar is destructive to celery, feeding upon its
leaves, thus interfering with the assimilative powers of
the plant. Papilio asterias is quite a common and abun-
dant insect throughout this country, feeding also upon
parsnips, carrots, parsley, and other Umbelliferous
The Larva.-The larva is quite large when full
grown, and is readily recognized from its striking
color of green, with yellow and black in transverse
bands. When disturbed it throws out a pair of yellow,
horn-like processes from the head. These are the scent
organs, and emit a very disagreeable ordor, serving to-
protect it against its enemies.

The Pupa.-The pupa is an irregularly-shaped body
of a yellowish or ash-gray color. Projecting from the
head region are two short horn-like protuberances.
The Adult.-The butterfly is quite conspicuous, hav-
ing a wing expanse of over three inches. The wings are
deep blackish-brown, ornamented near their outer edges
with two rows of pale yellow spots. The second pair
of wings differ from the first pair in having a blue-black
lustre, the under surface of each being marked with
seven circular spots of an orange color. The antennae
are long, with a club-shaped knob on the end.
It is probable that this insect passes the winter in
the pupa state, coming out early in the spring. The
eggs are deposited on the celery or other plants of the
same family, and the larvae soon are hatched and at once
attack the foliage. They are greedy worms, and before
long have completed their larval growth, and pass into
the chrysalis. In preparing for this state the worm at-
taches itself securely to some support by the tip of its
abdomen and passes a silken thread around its back,
fastening it on each side, leaving it in the form of a loop,
which will serve to support the body. In a few hours it
has become an almost quiescent chrysalis. It remains in
this condition from twelve to fifteen days, and then ap-
pears as the perfect insect. Several broods are raised
each season.
Ordinarily the caterpillars will not be sufficiently
abundant to demand much attention. Owing to their
large size and conspicuous appearance, hand-picking
would be a very expedient and satisfactory way of destroy-
ing them. Pyrethrum powder may be used as previously
recommended. Paris green or other arsenites should not

be used on celery, as the settling of the poison in and
around the edible portion might become sufficient to pro-
duce harmful results when eaten.

Besides the insects above discussed as injurious to
celery the following may be mentioned: Flea-Beetles, the
small, jumping beetles which were mentioned as inju-
rious to beans, beets, and cabbage, are also destructive to
celery in the plant bed. They gnaw off the epidermis of
the young plant, giving it a rough and chafed appear-
ance. They should be kept in check by the use of pyre-
thrum powder. The Zebra Caterlillar (Mamestra picta),
and other species of cut-worms also attack celery. Refer
to the discussion of these insects under the head of beans
for information concerning them.


The squash has several insect enemies; the more im-
portant are here considered.
(Anasa tristis, DeGeer.)
The Squash Bugs when in considerable number do
much injury to the squash vines by sucking the sap with
their stout beaks, causing a wilting and stunting of the
plant. This insect is a much too common pest through-
out the United States.
The Eggs.-The eggs are oval in shape, with three
sides flattened, giving them a triangular appearance.
They are laid on the under or upper sides of the leaves,
in large brownish patches which are quite conspicuous.

The Nymiph.--Soon after hatching the young is
broadly oval in shape, the head and middle body black,
the abdomen an ochre yellow, with the antennae pink.
In the course of two or three days the body color is

Fig. 27.-4Anasa 5.istis: Young nymphs and adult.

changed to ash-gray. The rest of the body is black. See
figure 27, showing the nymph very young, and older.
The Adult.-The matured insect is a little more than
one-half an inch in length; of a blackish brown color
above, and a dirty yellow beneath. It may be easily
recognized from the figure.
The eggs which are deposited in the early spring
soon develop into the young nymphs. These at once
begin feeding, sucking up the sap of the plant. They
have the habit of remaining grouped together until they
have nearly attained their growth, when they become
more scattered. Several successive broods are raised
during the season, the mature bug passing the winter in
hibernation. They spend most of the day in conceal-
ment, and at the approach of night come out from their
various places of retirement and begin to feed.
With this insect, preventive measures are of more
value than direct treatment. Op their first appearance
in the spring they should be destroyed by hand-picking,
before they have had time to deposit their first laying of

eggs. Much can be done to keep them reduced by keep-
ing the field well cleaned of rubbish and all that would
furnish them winter protection. Kerosene emulsion and
pyrethrum have not been of much value. Burning up
the vines as soon as the crop has been gathered, or plow-
ing them under early in the fall will be of much value
in keeping this insect in check.
(Margaronia nitidalis.)
The Squash Borer, or "Pickle Worm" as it is
called in the North, does considerable damage in this
State by boring into the fleshy portions of the squash and
cucumber, and also in eating the leaves of these plants.
It also attacks watermelons and muskmelons. This
insect is an indigenous species of wide distribution, occur-
ing in the West Indies, United States and Canada.
The Larva.-Body when full grown about one inch
in length, and of a yellowish or greenish white color.
Each segment is marked with a few elevated shiny spots
with a hair-like bristle projecting from the center.
T7he Adult.-The adult moth is quite a beautiful
insect, the general color being yellowish brown. The
front-wings are each marked with irregular yellow spots
not reaching the front margin, and constricted behind.
The inner two-thirds of the hind-wings are marked with
this same color. Their under surfaces are pearly white.
The abdomen extends beyond the wings, ending in a
brush-like tuft.
The young larvae, hatching from the eggs, bore into
the fruit and feed greedily upon the soft, fleshy parts. In
the course of three or four weeks they have grown to full

size, and when ready to transform, leave the fruit, and
find some leaf near the ground, which they fold and fas-
ten with silky threads; here they spin their loose cocoons,
and finally change to slender brown pupae. If early in
the summer, the moth issues from the pupa state in the
course of eight or ten days, and is soon ready to deposit
eggs. Later in the season the insects probably remain in
the pupa for some months, passing the winter in that
condition. In this State it is probable that some of them
pass the winter in the adult condition.

The worms should be picked off by hand before they
have had time to penetrate the squash. Fruit known to
be affected should at once be gathered and fed to hogs
or cows, or disposed of in such a way that the worms
will be killed.
Spraying the vines with Paris green when attacked
by the worms will be of much value.
Land infested with this insect should not be planted
to eucurbitous crops.

(Melittia ceto, West.)
The caterpillar of this moth does much injury to
squash vines by boring iito, and feeding upon the soft
interior tissues of the plant, often causing its death.
This insect is widely distributed throughout the
United States.
The Larvt..-A full grown borer measures from one
to one and one-fourth inches in length. The body is
somewhat flattened, soft, and tapering to each end. There
are ten well marked segments. Skin is rather trans-

parent, showing the interior dorsal tube from the fourth
to the tenth segments.
The Adult.-The moth is quite a showy insect with
a wing expanse of one and one-fourth inches. The hind-
wings are transparent, fringed and margined with
brown. The thorax is of an olive color, while the abdo-
men is of a deep orange. The fore-wings are lustrous
olive brown.

The eggs are deposited on the vines, near the roots,
by the moth. In about seven days the eggs have hatched
into larva, which bore into the vine, and eat the suc-
culent tissues within. They grow rapidly, and their
presence soon becomes evident by a wilting of the vine.
When the attack is very severe it may result in the death
of the plant. Attaining their full growth the larve usu-
ally leave the vine, and burrow into the soil a little below
the surface, and transform into the pupa state, and later
emerge as the adult insects.
An efficient method is to cut out the larve from
the vines. A little experience will make their detection
and removal quite easy and rapid.
Fields badly infested with this insect should not be
planted to cucurbitous plants. A systematic rotation of
crops will prove of great value.
Much can be done by fall plowing, thus destroying
the larvae and pupae.


(Diabrotica vittata, Fabr.)
Eating the foliage of the squash, cucumber, and
melon vines this insect does considerable damage, injur-

ing these crops to the extent of many thousands of dol-
lars annually.
This ubiquitous pest enjoys a general distribution
throughout the United States.
The Lar a.-This is a small, slender, whitish worm,
with the head brownish, about one-third of an inch in
length, living among the roots of the plants infested by
the adults. See figure 28, No. 1, dorsal view; No. 2,
side view. The lines to the left represent the natural

Fig. 28.-Diabrotica vittata: 1, 2, larva, back and side views, line to the left shows
natural length; 3, adult.

The Adult.-A small yellowish beetle, about one-
fifth of an inch in length, with two black stripes on each
wing cover. See figure 28.
The eggs are laid by the female near the roots of the
vines infested. These soon hatch, the larvae feeding on
the tender rootlets causing the plant to wilt and perhaps
finally die outright. When the larvae have become fully
grown, which usually requires about one month, they

leave the immediate vicinity of the roots, and each
making for itself a little cavity, throws off the larval
skin and passes into the pupa. From this state the ma-
tured insect emerges in about twelve days. Several
broods are raised each season.
Where only a few hills or a small patch is to be
protected, a sure protection is to be found in covering the
young plants with cotton cloth, or board covers, thus
keeping the larvm from getting started among the roots,
and subsequently multiplying. On a large scale, the use
of Paris green, or London purple mixed with five times
its bulk of flour, and sprinkled on the plants while they
are wet with the early morning dew will prove of value.
Instead of mixing the arsenites with flour they may be
mixed with plaster, or dry slaked lime, if desirable. The
arsenites may also be used in the form of a spray.


The insect enemies of the melon crop in Florida are
at times quite numerous and severe, occasioning consid-
erable loss by their ravages. Some of the more serious
pests are here considered with suggestions for treatment.
(Aphis gossypii, Glover.)
These small insects are at times a serious interfer-
ence to the raising of water-melons, and other plants of
the gourd family. They attack the leaves and tender
growing stems, sucking the sap and causing the leaves to
curl and wither, and arresting the growth of young vines.
According to Mr. Pergande, assistant in the Division
of Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture,

this insect embraces species that have usually been con-
sidered as distinct. He has examined thousands of
specimens of these supposed different species and has
come to the conclusion that the Cotton Aphis, Melon
Aphis, and Orange Aphis are one and the same species,
and should be known as Aphis gossypii. Associated with
this interesting discovery has been the determination of
the food-plants of this insect, which are remarkably
varied. Appended is a list of the more common plants
upon which this aphis feeds:
Purslane, (Portulacca oleracea); Pepper-grass, (Lepid-
ium Virginicum); Dock, (Rume.c crispss; Dandelion,
(Taraxacum dens-leonis); Morning-glory, (Convolvulus, sp.);
Button-weed, (Diodea teres); Red Clover, (Trifolium pra-
tense); Dwarf Bean, (Phaseolts vanus); Cotton, (Gossypihum
herbaceum); Pear, (Pyrus comvmun is); Orange, (Citrus
aurantium and varieties).
Such a large number of food-plants for insects of
this class is quite unusual. Its explanation is to be
found in the fact that the winged viviparous females will
migrate from plant to plant, thus starting colonies here
and there on their various food-plants. At the approach
of fall, and when many of their food-plants become
scarce, the winged viviparous females probably migrate
to the orange tree, passing the winter upon its green
foliage. From here, they migrate again in the spring,
and become distributed upon the different plants which
they attack.
This insect may be recognized by its general resem-
blance to the cabbage plant-louse, described on a previ-
ous page.
The Nymph.-The newly born lice are very small,
about two-hundredths of an inch in length; the color is

greenish yellow. The eyes and tips of the honey-tubes
are brown.
The Wingless Viviparous Female.-Body of a yellow-
ish color, about four-hundredths of an inch in length; the
eyes deep brown, honey-tubes black.
The Winged Viviparous Female.-The body is ovate,
and about five-hundredths of an inch in length; head
and thorax black. Wings are held, roof-like, over the
body; are transparent, with yellowish veins.

The biology of this plant-louse is much like that of
the cabbage-louse. Besides the manner just mentioned,
which is employed by these insects in the continuation
of their species during the winter, and a scarcity of cer-
tain food-plants, winter eggs are laid by the oviparous
females in the fall, which, upon the approach of spring,
hatch into the winged and wingless viviparous forms
which devastate our vines and other plants.
Spraying thoroughly with kerosene emulsion will
rove to be an efficient remedy. Pyrethrum powder,
applied as a spray, will also be quite satisfactory.


(Mlargaronia lJyalinata.)

In early summer this borer does much damage to
the melon crop in Florida by boring into the melons and
causing them to rot. The leaves and tender vines are
also as times attacked by these caterpillars. This is a
common and widely distributed insect, occurring in North
and South America and the West Indies.

The Larva.-The worm is about eight-tenths of an
inch in length, of a pale yellowish-green color, trans-
lucent, and sparsely haired. See figure.
The Pupa.-Body slender, yellowish-brown, about
two-thirds of an inch in length, tapering towards the
posterior end.
The Adult.-This moth is quite a pretty insect. The
wings are white, translucent, bordered with a band of
glossy brownish-black; expanse about one and one-fourth
inches. The abdomen is pearly white, ending in a tuft
of buff-colored hair-like scales. Legs white, excepting
the fore-thighs and tibiae.
The eggs are probably deposited on the vines or
leaves early in the season. The worms, hatched from
this first brood, necessarily feed upon the leaves and vines.
The second and succeeding broods are most destructive,
eating irregular furrows in the outer rind of the melon,
or just beneath it. They also attack the soft, fleshy por-
tions, eating long galleries, partly filling them with their
excrement. It is in this way that they do most damage,
bringing about the souring and decay of the melon. By
early summer the melon crop is frequently almost de-
stroyed by the ravages of these worms, four to six being
frequently found in the same melon.
The first brood of the worms that appears in the
spring, eating the leaves and tender vines, should be de-
stroyed by spraying with Paris green or London purple.
All melons that have been infested should be gathered
and fed to the hogs, or otherwise treated in such a man-
ner that the larve will be destroyed. Badly infested

fields should not be planted to melons the succeed-
ing year.

(Leptoglossus phyllopus, Linn.)

This common and well known insect frequently is
the cause of serious trouble, by puncturing the stems of
plants and sucking their sap, causing them to wilt, and,
not unfrequently, bringing about their death. It attacks
not only the cucurbitous plant, but quite a variety of
The Eggs.-The eggs are of a golden-brown color,
cylindrical, flattened below and at the ends. They are
deposited in a stiff, cylindrical, rod-like row along the
stems, or the midribs of the leaves.
The Nymph.-The young have much the same form
as the adult, but are of a brighter red color, and do not
acquire the leaf-like expansions of the tibiae until nearly
matured. See figure 29, nymph in two stages of growth.
The Adult.-The adult insect is about three-fourths
of an inch in length, of a chocolate-brown color, marked
with a whitish band across the folded wings, and a spot
of the same color on each of the flattened, leaf-like
shanks. Figure 29.
Hibernating as a perfect insect, it comes forth in the
early spring, and may be found on the blooms of the
strawberry, peach, and other plants, usually paired. La-
ter, eggs are laid, the young appear, and attack the tender
shoots of various plants. The adults are quite active,
readily passing from plant to plant. This bug seems to
have a preference for the thistle (Cirsum), and may usu-

ally be found, both old and young, clustered in the heads,
and sucking its juices. Several broods are probably raised
each year.

Fig. 29.-Leptoglossts phyllopus: two nymphs on the left; adult on the right.

The destruction of this insect may be most easily
done by hand-picking. On cool, cloudy days these in-
sects are sluggish, and advantages may be taken of a
knowledge of this fact, and their destruction thus more
easily accomplished.
Thistles, sun-flowers, and like plants should not be
allowed to grow near fields of truck or garden crops, as
in these the insects find their favorite breeding ground.


The egg-plant is comparatively free from insect ene-
mies; it is, however, attacked at times by different
species of insects, of rather omnivorous habits. Follow-
ing are given the more important species, with brief notes
concerning them:


(Dysdercus suturellus, H. Schf.)
The Cotton Stainer is another Hemipterous insect
that attacks the egg-plant. Its habits of feeding are quite
like those of the Leaf-footed Plant Bug, puncturing the
stems with its beak, and feeding on the nutrient sap
within. A wilting and tardy growth are evidences of
attack. This insect has long been known in the State
and the West Indies as a serious pest to the cotton plant.
The Nymyh.-The young of this insect bears a gen-
eral resemblance in form to the adult. It is of a bright
red color, the legs and antenna being black. See fig-
ure 30.
The Adult,-The matured bug is rather variable in
size, but will average about one-half inch in length. It
is of an oblong, oval shape, with a preponderating color
of red. The wings are margined with a band of pale

Fig. 30.-Dysdercus autwrellus: egg, nymph, and adult; dorsal and ventral view.

yellow on their outer margins, and also on their inner
margins, in such a way that when closed an X-like cross
is made. Figure 30, dorsal and ventral view.
It is probable that the adult Cotton Stainer hiber-
nates during the winter, and early in the spring deposits

eggs for the first brood. The young grow rapidly, and
soon are matured. They are very prolific, rearing sev-
eral successive broods in a season.
The most satisfactory method of destroying this in-
sect is in picking them off by hand. When they become
very numerous, spraying with kerosene emulsion will
keep them reduced. They may be successfully trapped
with a bait of cotton seed. Small quantities of cotton
seed should be placed promiscuously in the affected field.
The insects which have collected in these should be de-
stroyed by spraying thoroughly with kerosene emulsion.

(Mnrgantia h istrionica.)
This bug which is so disastrous to cabbage, is also a
serious enemy of the egg-plant. Its injuries are quite
like those of the other Hemipterous insects which have
been mentioned, sucking up the sap of the plant with its
stout beak.
For description and treatment of this insect, refer to
its discussion on a previous page.

(Family, Pentatomide.)
Different species of this family of bugs are to be
found at almost all times on the egg-plant. Two insects
of this family, the Gray Pentatomid and the Green Pen-
tatomid, are by far the more common bugs, and are pro-
bably quite well known to all as "stink bugs", for, like
most of the true bugs, they emit a very disagreeable
odor, which serves to protect them from their enemies.

The Green Pentatomid (see figure 31), as the name
suggests, is a green, broad bodied, flattened bug, the
head and the prothorax together forming a triangle. It
is about one-half inch in length. The Gray Pentatomid

Fig. 31.-Raphigaster hilris: adult.

(see figure 32, young and adult), bears a close resem-
blance to the preceding insect, except that it is of a gray
color, and smaller.
The treatment for these insects should be the same
as that recommended for the Leaf-footed Bug, and Cotton

(Leptoglossus phyllopus.)
This insect, previously described under the head of
insects injuring the melon, frequently occasions serious

Fig. 32.-Pentatoma punctipes: nymph and adult.

injury to the egg-plant. The young are usually the more
numerous and harmful, puncturing the tender shoots

and pumping out the sap, thus stunting the growth of
the plant. Hand picking of the adults should be care-
fully attended to, as previously recommended in the
treatment of this insect.

(Siphonophora cucurbits, Middleton.)
This small plant-louse, when abundant, does serious
injury to the vines of the egg-plant. Like the other in-
sects of the Aphis family, it sucks the juices from the
leaves and tender portions of the plant, thus retarding
its development and production of fruit. We may recog-
nize this pest from the descriptions and figures given of
other members of this family, as the Cabbage Plant-
louse, and the Cotton Aphis. For the treatment of this
insect, refer to the treatment suggested for the Cabbage


The insect enemies of the onion in this State are
fortunately not very numerous. The Onion Maggot, or
Fly, is perhaps our most serious pest, which at times occa-
sions severe loss to the onion grower.

(Phorbia ceparum, Meiger.)
The maggot of this fly lives in the underground por-
tion of the onion, feeding upon its substance. The onions
show signs of attack by the leaves becoming soft and
weak, often becoming yellowish in color, and eventually
wilting down. Such symptoms should call for careful
examination, and treatment, if the pest be found. The

Onion-fly enjoys a wide distribution both in this country
and Europe. It is probably indigenous to that country,
and was introduced into the United States in some ship-
ment of its food.
The Eggs.-The eggs are elongated, oval in shape,
white and smooth. They are sufficiently large to be
seen by the naked eye.
The Larva.-The larva, when it has attained full
size is about one-third of an inch long, glossy, naked,
and of a dull white color. The body is elongated, coni-
cal in shape, the anterior end being capable of consider-
able extension while feeding.
The Adult.-The adult insect, or fly, is somewhat
like the ordinary house-fly, of an ash gray color, the head
silvery, with a rusty black stripe between the eyes. A
rather characteristic mark is to be found in a row of
black dots along the middle of the hind body, sometimes
so united as to form a continuous black stripe. These
markings on the abdomen are much more noticeable in
the male than in the female. The fly measures about one-
fourth of an inch in length. ,
These insects begin their depredations early in the
season on the young and tender onion plants. The eggs
are loosely deposited above the surface of the ground on
the stem and basal leaves. Usually five or six eggs are
deposited on the plant. In about a week these eggs hatch
and the young maggots burrow downwards within the
leaf sheath, leaving discolored streaks to mark their pas-
sage; penetrating the soft cylindrical root they greedily
devour the interior, leaving the outer skin; consuming
one plant, it is abandoned and another is attacked. About
two weeks are required for the maggot to complete its

growth, when it usually leaves the onion and retiring in
the neighboring soil, forms the pupa, from which it
emerges as an adult fly in about a fortnight. The win-
ter is probably passed in the pupa state in the ground.

Many different remedies have been tried in the treat-
ment of this pest, and with varying success. This insect
being of the same genus (Phorbia) with the Cabbage Mag-
got, and with practically the same life history and habits,
many of the remedies that are effective against that in-
sect will be effective also against this one.
In this case, as in the case of the Cabbage Maggot,
the best remedy is probably to be found in the use of
carbon bi-sulphide, but to use it would require a consid-
erable amount, thus making it too expensive. Other less
expensive remedies will therefore be needed. The use of
carbolic acid emulsion against this pest has been attended
with considerable success; the emulsion seems to be quite
a strong killing agent, and may also serve as a repelling
agent, preventing the flies from depositing their eggs,
although this latter point is in question. The emulsion
should be sprinkled freely around the plants as soon as
they are up, and every ten days thereafter.
For the preparation of the emulsion we give the pro-
portions as used by Prof. Slingerland, of the Cornell Sta-
tion, against the Cabbage Maggot:
Dissolve one pound of soap in one-half gallon of
water and thoroughly emulsify with one pint of crude
carbolic acid.
For use take one part of the emulsion to fifty parts
water. This makes a strong solution and may be diluted
if found necessary. Raking the surface soil temporarily
from the onions and thoroughly spraying the stems and
bulbs with this emulsion by means of a Knapsack or

other sprayer, will also be an expeditious and satisfactory
way of applying the emulsion.
A mixture of lime and liquid manure, according to
Mr. Dunning, has proven of much value in fighting the
Cabbage Maggot. Five parts of fresh burned lime were
slaked in one hundred gallons of liquid manure; this
was stirred ten minutes and afterwards applied to the
plants by means of a sprinkler. This same treatment for
the Onion Maggot will doubtless be of much value.
Scattering dry unleached ashes over the beds as soon
as the onions are up and when wet with the early morn-
ing dew prevents, to a considerable extent, the flies from
laying their eggs. A field infested with this insect should
not be planted to onions the next year.
Wire-worms, to which reference has frequently been
made, are at times serious enemies to onions, which they
damage by eating the fine rootlets, and eating holes in
the bulb.
Onions planted in new soil are usually much more
severely attacked than those planted on older land. The
precautions already alluded to in the consideration of
these insects should be observed.


The growing of the tomato in this State for Northern
markets has become an industry of considerable impor-
tance. The returns realized, while frequently quite satis-
factory, could be greatly augmented by the recognition
and proper treatment of the insects which injuriously affect
them. Following are to be found the more important
of these pests.

(Heliothis armigera, Hubn.)

This insect is by far the most serious pest with which
the tomato grower has to deal. It bores into the green
or ripe fruit, greedily feeding upon the interior; or in
rare cases it will attack the stem, boring into and eating
downwards in the central pith. This usually results in
the death of the part affected, and, in case the attack was
made on.the main stem, in the death of the entire vine.
The amount of damage done by these worms varies con-
siderably in different localities, and also in different fields
in the same locality. Tomato fields that are somewhat
isolated, and planted on new soil, seem to enjoy much
greater freedom from the pests than those planted in older
fields, and in proximity to fields planted to corn.
The amount of damage done by a single worm
throughout its life is not very definitely known. One worm
will not unfrequently eat into and destroy as many as
three tomatoes in a single day, while two might be con-
sidered an average number. Many tomatoes are slightly
eaten into and then left, and another attacked, the worm
going from one fruit to another, thus causing many to
rot. It is in this way that they do much damage, not
unfrequently destroying one-fourth or one-third of the
crop. In extreme cases the damage may be even more
than this.
This insect is quite a serious pest to other crops than
the tomato. It is the insect that is so injurious to the
cotton crop throughout the South, eating into and destroy-
ing the boll. It also attacks the corn, particularly
garden corn, eating the leaves, and eating into the ear.
Peas, beans, squashes, and potatoes are also food for this
insect. Corn, however, seems to be its favorite food.
The Cotton Boll-Worm is quite widely distributed

over many of the countries of the world. It is found in
Mexico, the West Indies, South America, Europe, Africa,
Asia, and Australia. It is quite an abundant insect in
the United States, particularly in the South.
The Eggs.-The eggs are whitish, somewhat oval in
shape, and sculptured with polar ribs, and cross furrows.
It is about one-twentieth of an inch in diameter


Fig. 883.-Heliothis armigera: a and b. egg enlarged; c, larva; d, earthen pupa
case; e andif, moth; all natural size.

They are deposited here and there on the food plant,
being stuck on by a white, viscid substance secreted by
the moth. Figure 33, a and b, much enlarged.
The Larva.-The worm varies much in color, from
pink to quite blackish, the blackish colored ones being
much more abundant in the latter part of the season.
The markings are also quite noticeable; rather narrow,
pale, longitudinal stripes are usually to be found on the
body. When full grown, the worm measures from one

and one-fourth to two inches in length. See figure 33, c.
The Pupa.-The pupa of the Boll-Worm is oval in
form and about three-fourths of an inch in length. In
pupating, the worm enters the earth, burrowing down
three or four inches, making an oval resting case which
it lines with loose silk. Two or three days after the cell
has been completed the worm has become the pupa. The
pupa is at first of a beautiful green color, soon turning
to a polished light brown or mahogany. See figure 33, d.
The Adult.-The moth (figure 33, e and f) is quite
a variable insect, both in color and in markings. In
color, it varies from a light yellowish gray to a dusky
yellow. The hind-wings are bordered with a broad dark
band on their outer margins; inside of this band is
usually to be found a white spot varying much in size
and shape, see the figure. The fore-wings are frequently
bordered somewhat like the hind-wings, and marked with
a spot near the centre. All of these characters however
are quite variable, being almost absent in some, and quite
well defined in others. When at rest, the wings are not
held roof-shaped over the body, as is the case with most
moths of the Noctuid family, but loosely, and slightly
elevated so that the inner margin of the hind-wings, and
a portion of the abdomen are visible. The wing expanse
varies from one and one-half to two inches.

The insects in most cases pass the winter in the pupa
state; a few are said to hibernate. Early in the spring,
the moths from these pupae deposit their eggs on a variety
of plants, as early beans and peas. This brood becomes
at times quite destructive to these crops, the larvse feed-
ing on the pods. The succeeding broods soon become
quite confused as to the time of appearance. Adults,
eggs, pupa, and larvae may all be found in the


field at the same time. The food for these broods is
quite varied.
Of all plants, the larvae seem to prefer the corn, and
if near corn-fields, the moths deposit their eggs on that
plant. In the absence of this food-plant, tomatoes,
squashes, tobacco, and other plants may be attacked.
Feeding upon the corn the larvae eat the leaves, quite
riddling them with holes; later, as the ear begins to
form, it is attacked, the worms boring into it, usually
near the free end, and feeding upon the soft, milky grain
within. Several worms may be found in the same ear,
though usually of different sizes. Becoming tired of one
ear, another is attacked, and still another, thus opening
the way for the souring and decay of corn that prob-
ably was not seriously damaged by the attack of the
worms. Later in the summer, when the corn has "set,"
or become hard, it is not so much relished by the worms.
About this time the cotton is beginning to form bolls,
and these, young and tender, are now attacked and eaten
into, and the interior partly devoured. The worms in
this way do untold injury to the cotton fields, and in cer-
tain localities almost destroy the crop. As in the case of
the corn plant, the worms do not confine themselves to
one boll, nor to one plant, but pass from one to another
quite readily.
Perhaps next in, importance, to the damage done to
cotton and corn, comes that done to tomatoes. As
soon as the young fruit has begun to form they are
attacked by the worms. This fruit, from its being the
earliest, is quite valuable, and is quite a loss to the
The eggs are deposited by the moths during the
evening and night on the leaves of the tomato vine. The
larve are soon hatched and begin to feed near the place
of their birth. Soon becoming restless, however, they

migrate here and there over the plant until a tomato is
found, which is at once attacked. The smaller worms
seem to confine their attack to the smaller fruit, the
larger, to the older and more mature.
Concerning tha number of broods each season,
nothing can be very definitely said. Appearing early in
the spring, they continue until the cold weather ap-
proaches. The number of broods is hence greatly af-
fected by the length of the season. About thirty days
are required for the insect to complete its life cycle; that
is, pass through all its stages; so it is seen that in this
State there may be probably six or seven broods.
The pups of the last brood remain in the earth un-
til the next spring. In our State it is not improbable
that many of the insects pass the milder winters in the
adult condition.
Much time and money have been spent to find satis-
factory remedies against this insect; but from the fact
that the worm spends most of its time in the interior of
the fruit, it is not easily gotten at, and treated with arsen-
ites or emulsions, as are many of our other pests. Hence,
we must resort to other means than the ones commonly
in use.
Perhaps one of the best ways to combat this insect
is to be found in the use of corn, as a catch plant. Hills
of early corn should be planted in every fifth hill of every
fifth row throughout the tomato field. The moths will
deposit the greater part of their eggs on this corn, which
should be used as fodder, before the larve have grown
large enough to pupate. This will keep them greatly re-
duced. Something in the way of preventive measures
may be done.

All wormy tomatoes which are found during the
picking over of the patch should be taken to the packing-
house and there sorted out and fed to hogs, or otherwise
disposed of in such a way that the worms within will be
destroyed. Picking the wormy tomatoes and throwing
them down in the patch does not destroy the worms; they
soon leave the fallen fruit, and either burrow into the
ground to pupate and later emerge as a moth to deposit
eggs, or else the worm will again attack the fruit and
finish its growth.
Fields that have become badly infested with this in-
sect should not be planted to tomatoes, or other plants
that will furnish food for the worms. The first brood in
the spring should be destroyed, as far as possible, by
hand-picking. This will greatly reduce the insects which
would otherwise appear later, as the descendants of the
first brood.


(Phlegethontius carolina.)

The tomato worm, or tobacco worm, as it is quite fre-
quently known, is often found feeding upon the foliage of
the tomato, egg-plant, and tobacco, quite stripping them
of leaves, and doing harm in this way. This is an insect
of quite general distribution, being found in the United
States and South America.
The Eggs.-The eggs are spherical in shape, smooth,
of a yellowish-green color, and are about one-twentieth
of an inch in diameter.
The Larva.-The full grown Tomato Worm measures
about three or four inches in length. The head and
body are dark-green, marked with lateral oblique white

bands edged above with bluish. On one of the caudal
segments of the back of the worm there is a slightly
curved, horn-like process with which the animal is er-
roneously thought to produce a sting. See fig. 34.
The Pupa.-Ddrk reddish brown, about two and
one-half inches in length, oval in form; about four times

Fig. 34.-Phlegethontius carolina: larva.

as long as thick. The tongue case projects out from the
head, not quite reaching the abdomen. Fig. 35.
The Adult.-The moth is a very large insect, heavy
bodied, with a wing expanse of about five inches. The
general color is brownish-gray. The hind-wings are
marked with two rather indistinct angulated bands.

Fig. 35.-Phlegethontius carolina- pupa.

Each fore-wing is usually marked at its base with a white
spot. On each side of the abdomen are five orange-
colored spots, bordered with black. See fig. 36.


The eggs are usually laid on the under sides of the
leaves, upon which the larvee are to feed. The worms
are voracious feeders, and eat large quantities of the foli-
age, sometimes quite stripping the plant. They have
little inclination to move during the day, and on account
of their resemblance to the foliage upon which they feed,

Fig. 36.-Phlegethontius carolina: adult.

are not usually detected until the ragged leaves attract
our attention. When the worm has attained its growth
it leaves the plant upon which it has been feeding, and
makes for itself a hole in the ground several inches deep.
In this, it transforms to a quiescent chrysalis, casting
off its larval skin and becoming reduced about one-third
in size. It probably remains in this condition during
the winter, or it may be that two or more broods are
raised each season in this State.
The moth, coming from this chrysalis, is not of itself
harmful, as it feeds upon the honey of flowers, sucking
up the sweets with its long tongue; but as it deposits its
eggs here and there on our plants, which will hatch into

worms, we must still consider it our enemy. During the
daytime the moths remain at rest, coming out early in
the twilight to feed and lay their eggs. The moth much
resembles a humming-bird in its motions as it hovers over
the flower, making a humming noise with its wings.
From this resemblance, it is sometimes known as the
"humming-bird moth."


This worm will hardly ever be so abundant as to
require other means than hand-picking for its destruc-
tion, as regards the tomato. It at times, however, be-
comes quite injurious to the tobacco plant. For such
cases besides hand-picking, there is another quite efficient
remedy which we may direct against the adult, andthere-
by prevent her from laying her eggs. The adults are
partial to the nectar of the common Jamestown-weed
(Datura stramonium), and we may take advantage of this
habit and use it to bring about their destruction. James-
town-weed should be planted among the tomato or tobacco
plants, and into the blossoms, just before twilight,
should be poured sweetened water poisoned with Paris.
green. The moths, sucking this in their search for nec-
tar, will be killed, thereby removing the source of much


(Megoura solani, Thomas.)

This Aphis has been reported as doing considerable
damage to tomato vines in Florida, particularly in early
spring, when they may exist in such numbers as seriously
to interfere with the development of the plants, and in
extreme cases cause their death. This plant-louse injures

the vines by piercing the epidermis with its beak and
pumping up the sap, after the manner of the other plant-
lice and bugs considered. This insect is quite widely dis-
tributed over the United States.

The Nymph.-Body oblong in form, pale, with a
dark green stripe along the middle of the back; head
whitish, with the eyes brown. Honey-tubes long, slen-
der, and dusky at the tips.
Winged Female.-General color of the body greenish;
antennae dusky; honey-tubes extending beyond the abdo-
men, greatly enlarged and expanded at the tip. The tail
of moderate length, of about one-third the length of the
honey-tubes. Wings with a large elongated stigma.

These insects probably pass the winter in the winter
eggs laid by the oviparous females in the fall. These
hatch in the spring into the viviparous females, which
bring forth their young alive, all through the warm sea-
son. At the approach of cold weather these viviparous
forms probably give birth to true males and females,
which produce the winter eggs.

The treatment recommended for the Cabbage Aphis
should be applied in this case.


While the young tomato plants are yet in the seed-
bed they are attacked by these small jumping Flea-
Beetles. The beetles eat the tender leaves and shoots,
thereby causing serious trouble.

For description and remedies see the discussion of
this insect under the head of insects destructive to


Various species of animals prey upon insects and
should be encouraged generally. The Sparrow-Hawk
(Falco sparverius), Butcher Bird (Lanius ludovocianus),
and King Bird (Tyrannus carolinensis), are among the
valuable bird friends. They should be allowed to live
and breed around the farm in safety.
Our Common Toad (Bufo lentiginosus), and Chamae-
leon (Anolis principalis), feed almost entirely upon insects,
and do much to destroy our insect enemies.


In the preparation of this bulletin the various ento-
mological writings and Experiment Station bulletins
have been consulted, and drawn upon for suggestions
and methods of treatment. For these, due acknowledge-
ments have been given in the proper places.
To Prof. P. H. Rolfs, I desire to express my thanks
for assistance, and many valuable suggestions given.
All of the figures of insects, except those hereafter men-
tioned, were obtained from the United States Department
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., through the kindness
of Mr. L. O. Howard, U. S. Entomologist.


Figures 20 and 28 have been secured through the
kindness of Mrs. C. V. Riley, from the drawings of the
late Professor Riley.
For the use of figure 13 we are indebted to Prof.
Lawrence Bruner, Lincoln, Neb.
Figure 9, illustrating the McGowen Injector, was
kindly loaned us by Prof. M. V. Slingerland, of the
Cornell Station.


Tabulation of the Insects


Plants Attacked.




Insect Enemy. Treatment. How Applied.

Cut-Worms (Larve Poisoned bait. Poison -cabbage
ofthe genera Afrotis, leaves by dipping in
Hadena and MfameA-' water poisoned with
bra.) Paris green.

Poisoned bran
placed promiscuous-
ly in the field.
Board traps. Place around in
field. Examine fre-
quently, and kill
:worms hiding be-
Bean Weevil (Bru-1Carbon bi-sulphide.1 In tight barrel or
chus obtectts.) !bin.
Red-Legged Locust Poisoned bran as Mix with bran
(Ciloptenrs femur- bait. enough Paris green
rubrum. Ito give it a greenish
tint. IPlace around
promiscuously i n
field. (Keep away
from fowls or stock.)
Flea-Beetles. Paris green, Py-1 As a spray, or in
(Phylloreta ittata, rethrum po w de r, the form of powder.
and others.) Lime, Ashes. Dust on in early
Wire-worms. Preventive ineas- Keep fields cleared
(Elateride.) lures. of logs, brush, etc.,
thus lessening places
for laying eggs.
Boll-worm. Pick off by hand.
.(Heliothis armigera.)l

Blister-Beetle ParisgreenorLon- In the form of
(Epicauta vittata.) don purple. Hand spray or powder.
Cut-Worms. l Same as for bean. i Same as for bean.
:(Larvae of Agrotis,
Hadena and Mames-I
Lea f-h oppers, iKerosene emul- Spray.
Bugs, and Plant-lice. on.
Wire-Worms. Same as for bean. Same as for bean

Cabbage-Worms. Paris green rl In the form of
(Larve ofPieria London purple be-lspray or powder.
Pieris prood fore plants begin to,
ris monuste, lusi ea d. Pyrethrumi
brassiew, Plutella afterheadingbegins.

Dilute Kerosene, Spray.
emulsion before!
plants begin to head. I
Dust on in early
SLime; ashes. 'morning.

I q


Plants Attacked. Insect Enemy. Treatment. HowApplied.

Cbbag (Co.) Harlequin Cabbae Preventive me- Cleaning fields of
Bug; Calico Back. res. trash in fall.
(Murgantia histrion-
Hand picking first
Planting catch! Plantearly radish,
plants. rutabaga, or turnip
plants. Spray the
insects which collect
on these with kero-
sene emulsion.
Cat-Worms. Same as for bean. Same as for bean.
(Agrotis Hadena and
Flea-Beetles. Lime; tobacco dust Dust on in early
(Phyllotreta vittattn I morning.
ad others.l
Dilute kerosene Spray.
Tobacco decoction, Spray.
Cabbage-root Mag-. Same as for Cauli-1 Same as for cauli-
got. (Phorbia brassi-flower. 'flower.
Cabba,.e Plant-1 Kerosene emulsion, Spray.
iLouse. (Aphis brassi- diluted.

Cauliflower Botis.j Same as for cauli- Same as for cauli-
(Botis repetitalis.) flower. flower.
Locusts, grass-hop-' Same as for bean. Same as for hean.
pers. (Caloptenus
femur-rubrwm, Ca-
loptenus bviittatus,
Schistocerc a me ri

Cauliflower. Cabbage-Worms. Same as for cab- Same as for cab-
!(Pieris rape; Pieriasbage. bage.
Cabbage-root Mag., Carbon bi-sulphidei Applied with the
got. (Phorbia brassi- 'McOowen Injector
e-.) as explained under
description of insect.
Kerosene emul-
sion. | Apply around the
Carbolic acid stem and roots.

elery. iTarnished Plan t- Preventive meas- Kee fields well
bug (Lygus lineolaris) ures. cleared of rubbish,
thus removing win-
ter retreats.
Hand picking at!
first appearance in!


Plants Attacked. Insect Enemy. Treatment. How Applied.

Celery (Con.) Flea-Beetles. Pyrethrum. As a spray, or in
(Phyllotretn vittala the form of powder.
'and others.)
Zebra Caterpillar.I Same as for bean. Same as for bean.
(Mamestra picta.)
Celery Caterpillar. Hand picking.
(Papilio asterias.)

Pyrethrum when As a spray or pow-
very abundant. der.


Squash Borer. Paris green when Spray.
(Margaronia niti-|the worms attack the
dalis.) vines.

Hand picking .be-
'fore the larva enter
the squash.
Rotation of crvps. In fes

ted fields

should not be plant-
ed to cucurbitous
Squash Vine Borer. Cutting out the lar
ia3slitfia ceo.) vae from vines.
Bi-eulphide ofear- Same as for Cab-
boo when the roots bage Maggot.
are attacked.
Preventive meas- Infested fields
lures. should not be plant-
ed to cucurbitous
Striped Squashi ParisgreenlorLon- As powder mixed
Beetle. (Diabroticaldon purple. with 5 parts of flour,
vittata.) or spray.
; Cloth or board cov-
ers where only a
small area is to be
Squash Bug. Preventive meas- Keep all trash
(Anasa tristis. ores. cleared from field.

Burn vines as soon
:as crop is gathered.

Melon. Melon Borer. (3far- Parisgreen for first, Spray thoroughly.
garonia hyalinata.) brood which may at-
tack foliage.
Destroy infested
melons by feeding to
hogs or otherwise.
Cotton, or Melon Kerosene emul-j Spray.
Aphis. sion.
SAphis.gossypii.) Pyrethrum.
Leaf Footed Plant' Destroy by hand
Bug. (Leptoglossusipicking.


Plants Attacked. Insect Enemy. Treatment. How Applied.

Egg-Plant. Harlequin Cabbage Same as for cab- Same as for cab-
bug. (Murgantia hi- bage. bage.

Cotton Stainer. Keroseneemulsioni Spray.
i(Dysdercs auturel-

Cotton seed for Place small quan-
bait. titles of cotton seed
around in field.
Insects congregat-
ing on these baits
should be killed by
spraying with kero-
sene emulsion.

Leaf-Footed Plant Destroy by hand Spray.
Bug. (Leptoglossus picking. Kerosenei
Phyllopus.) Iemulsion when very

Pentatomids. Hand picking. Spray thoroughly.
(Pentatomide.) Kerosene emulsion
when numerous.

Egg-Plant Aphis. Same as for cab- Same as for cab-
(Siphonophora uur- bage louse. bage louse.

Onion-root Mag- Carbolic acid emul- Spray thoroughly
got, Onion Fly. sion. the stems and soil as
(phorbia ceparum.) soon as plants are

Lime and liquid

Wire-Worms. Same as for bean.
Boll-Worm. (He- Early corn as a
liothis armigera.I catch plant.

Preventive means

Flea-Beetles.(Phyl- Same as for bean.
lotreta vitntaa and
other species.)
Tomato Aphis. Same as for Cab
(Megoura solani.) bage Aphis.
Tomato Worm. Hand picking. Poi.
(Phlegetho'ntls earo soned sweetened wa
lina.) ter for adults.


up, ana continue
every ten days.
Apply with sprink-
Dust on in early
Same as for bean.

Plant hills of corn
in every fifth hill of
every fifth row. Feed
to stock before the
worms pupate.
Do not plant toma-
toes near corn fields.
Destroy all wormy
tomatoes. Badly in-
fested fields should
not be planted to
Same as for bean.

Same as for cab-
bage aphis.
Poison and sweeten
-water. Pour into
flowers ofJam'stown
weed (Datura stra-
monium) just before




Below is given a table showing the cost of chemicals
recommended in this bulletin, when bought in the'quan-
tity given in this table. If a large quantity is to be used
it can be had cheaper. These chemicals may be obtained
from J. C. L'Engle, No. 1 East Bay street. Jacksonville,
Florida :
Ammonia water (260 B), in 7-pound bottles, 12 cents
per pound, and 20 cents for the bottle.
Arsenic, white, 10 cents per pound.
Carbonate of Ammonia, 15 cents per pound.
Carbonate of soda (sal soda), in 5-pound packages, 4
cents per pound.
Carbon bi-sulphide (bi-sulphide of carbon), 25 cents
per pound, in 1-pound cans.
Caustic soda (70 per cent.), in 50-pound cans, 7j
cents per pound.
Copper carbonate. 46 cents per pound.
Copper sulphate (blue stone), 7 cents per pound, in
10-pound packages.
Lime, quick, 90 cents per barrel.
London purple, 27 cents per pound.
Napthaline, 8 cents per pound, in 10-pound cans.
Paris green, 35 cents per pound.
Potassium sulphide, 39 cents per pound, in 5-pound
Pyrethrum, insect powder, 21 cents per pound.
Resin, Rosin, $2 per barrel of 180 pounds.
Sulphur (flowers), 3 cents per pound, in 50-pound
Tobacco dust, barrels. 3 cents; smaller quantities,
4 cents.
Tobacco stems, 1j cents per pound, in 50-pound