Cassava as a Money Crop.
By H. E. STOCKBRIDGE, Ph. D.
VANCE PRImrTNQ CD,
ART PRIMTES AND PUBLISHED,
FP 3 64
BOARD OF TRUSTEES.
HON. S. STRINGER, President ...................... Brooksville
HON. F. E. HARRIS, Chairman Executive Committee .... Ocala
HON. A B. HAGEN, Secretary ....................Lake City
HON. WM. FISHER .............. .................. Pensacola
HoN. F .L. REES .................................Live Oak
HON. F. R. OSBORNE. .............................. DeLand
HON. E. J. VANN.... ...................... ...... Madison
W. F. YocuM, A. M., D. D...................... Director
P. H. ROLFS, M. S.............. Biologist and Horticulturist
H. E. STOCKBRIDGE, Ph. D .................... Agriculturist
H. K. MILLER, M. S.......... .................. Chemist
H. A. GOSSARD, M. S........................ Entomologist
W. P. JERNIGAN ...................Auditor and Book-Keeper
JOHN F. MITCHELL ................. Foreman of Station Farm
JOHN H. JEFFRIES ...... Foreman of Horticultural Department
A. SNOWDEN MILLER ...... .................... .. Librarian
The Bulletins of this Station will be sent Free to any Address
in Florida upon Application to the Experiment
Station, Lake City, Florida.
Introduction.................................. .. .......... 5 & 6
THE. CROP.......................... ............ ......................7
Origin and Habitat .................................... ... ....7
Characteristics ................................................. .. ...7
Soil and Climatic Conditions ....... ....................8
Preparing the Soil..... ...................... ...................9
Fertilizing................ ........ ....... ...... ...... .. .9
Method of Application.................................. 15
'Planting and Cultivating.................. ....... ...15
H arvesting................... ......... .... .... ... ... ... 16
USES OF THE CROP...... ..............................20
Analyses of Station Cassava... ..................................21
Experiment with Pigs...........................................23
SCassava Compared With Other Foods ............. ......25
Experiment in Fattening Beef.............................28
Results of Fattening Beef on Cassava......;.................30
Cassava for Manufacturing Purposes..........................31
Feeding Cassava.............................. .............. 35
Rations for Different Animals.............................37
Food Constituents of Csasava and Other Feed Stuffs......39
Domestic Use of Cassava......................................... 40
Rules for Cooking Cassava......... ........................41
'Analyses of By-Products From CassavaStarch Factory...42
Important Facts ........................................ ..........44
WHAT AND WHY.
This bulletin is not published for the purpose of
recording new scientific facts. It will not serve as a
burial place for data procured as a result of experiments
from which definite conclusions cannot be drawn. Its
purpose is to furnish the public with information which
it is the endeavor of the writer to make practically useful.
I have now completed two seasons' experiments with
this crop, and results, beli-ved to be of valne, ale her.
presented with such detail as is necessary for their under-
standing and interpretation. In my presentation of facts
I have not confined myself solely to the results of my
own work, but have secured such other data from all
available sources as seem to possess public utility. The
literature devoted to this crop is, however, extremely
meagre, the plant having been but sparingly grown in
isolated localities, and there have been but two attempts
made by public institutions and scientific men to increase
popular knowledge of its adaptations.*
In arranging my experimental work with cassava,
as well as in the preparation of this bulletin, I have en-
deavored to keep constantly in mind its adaptations to
the ever increasing demand for a money crop, and it is to
its claims for consideration as meeting this demand, and
toward solving the problem of its use toward meeting
this requirement that I have chiefly directed my efforts.
*Bul. 44 U. S. Dept. of Ag., 1894.
Bul. 35 Fla. Exp. Station, 1893.
With the market value of cotton below the actual
price of production, with high transportation rates too
frequently consuming all the profit of the grower of truck
or perishable products, with temporarily unproductive
orange groves and the menace of free importation of
tropical products hanging over us and demoralizing our
markets, the farmer of Florida is today able to, sympa-
thize with the widespread claim of unprofitable farming
rising from many other states and for sole comfort seek
all the satisfaction possible from his advantages of cli-
mate which minimize the cost of living and render ex-
istence possible even with the proceeds of all farm pro-
ducts at lowest ebb and the returns of farm labor disas-
With an intimate personal knowledge and experience
with the present depressed condition of farm business,
the writer has not only thoroughly considered all money
crop possibilities as sources of relief, but has made very
many careful field experiments with all the crops offering
any reasonable hope of supplying an additional profitable
crop. With all the facts procurable and with the expe-
rience of not only myself, but many practical farmers to
support the opinion, I have reached the conclusion that,
all things considered, cassava comes nearer furnishing
the Florida farmer with a universally profitable crop than
any other which he can grow on equally large areas. It
can be utilized in more ways, can be sold in more differ-
ent forms, can be more cheaply converted into staple and
finished products and can be produced for a smaller part
of its selling price than any other crop.
This bulletin is devoted to'the presentation of the
more important facts upon which these conclusions are
GROWING CASSAVA PLANT.
ORIGIN AND HABITAT.-Cassava is a.native of
tropical America, and has, ever since the white man first be-
came familiar with American conditions, served as the
chief article of diet for the aboriginal peoples of the
West Indian islands, Central America and equatorial
South America. Botanically it is known as "Manihot
utilissima," and Manihot, or Manioc, are the names
by which it is commonly designated by the natives of
South America, by whom the original word for cassava
was applied simply to the manufactured product obtained
from the plant. Two varieties of cassava are recognized,
one of which is poisonous from the considerable quantity
of hydrocyanic acid stored in its roots, and is recognizable
by' the fact of possessing seven divisions to its leaves,
while the non-poisonous variety shows but five, or less,
points to -its palmately divided leaves. Occasionally
"sports" with seven-pointed leaves are met with in
Florida, even upon plants, most of the foliage of which
consists of leaves with fewer divisions, but growth in
sub-tropical latitudes seems to eliminate the poisonous
property entirely, or to reduce it below the danger point,
as cases of poisoning from consumption of the root by
either man of beast are wholly unknown in the state.
CHARACTERISTICS.-The plant is a luxuriant,
many-branched shrub, covered with dark green, reddish
veined or stemmed, palmately divided leaves almost en-
tirely concealing the branches to which they are attached.
These branches contain a soft, white pith, and possePss
nodes from which the next generation of plants is ob-
trained, as is the case with sugar-cane, the plant flowering,*
but rarely maturing seed in Florida.
The main stems are often over two inches in diameter
at the ground, and thrifty plants usually attain a height
of from five to six feet with a spread of about the same
dimensions, so that planted in hills four feet apart each
way the intervening spaces are entirely filled, and passage
between the rows late in the season is difficult. The
roots, or more properly, the under-ground stems, are
attached to the main stock and are usually from one to
three inches in diameter and from one to three feet in
length as the result of a single year's growth. It is these
roots which give the plant its value and furnish its usable
part. The y consist of a pure white solid tissue, harder
and drier than potatoes, or other so-called root crops,
and have a very high content of starch. They are covered
with a thin, reddish-brown fibrous bark, easily removed
by washing or .light scraping, and it is this bark ,vhich,
in the tropical variety, contains much of the poisonous
ingredient. This constituent is volatile, and, therefore,
is wholly removed by cooking.
SOIL AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.-Cassava
grows in all parts of Florida with all the ease and apti-
tude of a nature. It thrives best, however, on moder-
ately fertile, sandy koils, and is I perfectly adapted to the
vast areas of pine lands constituting so 'large a portion
of the state. It possesses great drought-withstanding
power, very much surpassing corn in this respect.
So far as latitude is concerned, no positive limits
may be assigned to the area of its successful growth.
It will, to the writer's personal knowledge, thrive as far
north as Macon, Ga., and might be grown to advantage
over a large part of both of the Carolinas, Georgia, Ala-
bama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas, with the proba-
bility of successful cultivation in parts of Arkansas, Okla-
homa and Indian Territory. It requires a long season for
its full development, and is very sensitive to frost, as much
so as is the tomato. The limits of its possible habitat
may, perhaps, be best described by the statement that
cassava will thrive wherever the soil is adapted to its
-development and a period of seven months of immunity
from killing frost is assured, or where danger from the
spring frosts ceases with the middle of March and lia-
bility to the autumn frosts does not occur until after
the middle of October.
PREPARING THE SOIL.-Land on which cassava
is to grow requires thorough plowing. If the sand or
loam has become compacted below the usual. depth of
plowing, or if the stratum of clay approaches the sur-
face, the sub-soil plow should be resorted to, or if unavail-
able, the long "bull-tongue" should follow the turn-plow
-or scooter. Thorough pulverization should be secured
by the use of the harrow following the plow. This is
particularly important, as the young plants start slowly,
and cannot be so roughly treated as is the case with
corn, where the harrow may be used several times be-
tween planting and the time for the first plowing or
The crop should be worked both ways, and should,
therefore, be planted in squares, four feet each way. This
is most simply effected by running furrows at right angles
with turn-plow or scooter, and dropping the seed at the
places where these furrows cross each other.
FERTILIZING.-A common belief among growers
of cassava is that the demands of this crop upon the
soil for fertility are comparatively small. As a cnse-
quence of this general opinion, the practice of most
growers has been to apply very moderate quantities of
fertilizers, the usual application being from 250 to 300
pounds of common high-grade commercial fertilizer per
acre. At DeLand, where some 500 acres were grown
during the'past season the opinion is frequently expressed
that the minimum quantity of fertilizer mentioned above-
is more economical in its results than any heavier ferti-
lizing has been.
To put the correctness of this prevailing supposition to
a test and at the same time shed as much light as possible
on the plant-food requirements of cassava, a series of
plot fertilizer experiments were conducted by us during
the past season. The location of the plots gave condi-
tions as nearly equal as any to be found on the station
farm. These plots consisted of one-fifth of an acre each.
Eight different experiments were included in the list, and
one trial was made in duplicate on two different plots-
as a test of the equality of the conditions on the different
plots. The fertilizer adopted as a standard of comparison
was the same as that on our regular field crop, which
experience had demonstrated as being economical and
satisfactory in results. This application I designated as
the "normal," and all the other applications on the differ-
ent plots were simply modifications of one or more of the-
constituents of this "normal" fertilizer, which consisted
of 125 pounds of acid phosphate, 150 pounds of cotton seed
meal and 75,Founds of muriate of potash per acre.
This mixture, therefore, contained 18 pounds of
phosphoric acid, 10 pounds of nitrogen and 36 pounds-
of potash. These quantities converted into the expres-
sion more familiar to most consumers of fertilizers, show
the following percentage composition of the mixture:
Phosphoric Acid....... 5.14 per cent.
Nitrogen ............... 3. per cent.
Potash................. 10. per cent.
The plots were numbered cosecutively from 1 to 9"
inclusive, the character of the application to each plot
having been as follows:
No. 1, check plot with no fertilizer.
No. 2, double the "normal" application.
No. 3, one and one-half times the "normal" applica-
No. 4, the "normal" application adopted as a standard
of comparison, consisting of acid phosphate 125 pounds;
cotton seed meal, 150 pounds; muriate of potash, 75
pounds, an aggregate of 350 pounds per acre.
No. 5, "normal" phosphoric acid and nitrogen, but
only one-half the "normal" amount of potash.
No. 6, "normal" nitrogen and potash, but only one-
half "normal" phosphoric acid.
No. 7, "normal" phosphoric acid and potash, but only
one-half "normal" nitrogen.
No. 8, a duplicate of No. 2, to test the equality of
soil conditions on the different plots.
No. 9, a duplicate of No. 8, except that the total
quantity applied was divided into three equal parts, ap-
plied at three different times.
It is believed that this series of fertilizer tests fur-
nishes a basis for determining the actual food require-
ments of the cassava crop, as well as the economical appli-
cation, since it provides for two total applications of one
and one-half and double the "normal" application respect-
ively, and for applications in which each of the single
constituents is diminished by 'one-half, a.s a result of
which the question as to whether one or more of the
constituents in the "normal" fertilizer could have been
present in smaller quantities with equal benefits to the
crop, and necessarily reducing of the price of the total
application should be answered.
For convenience of comparison the results of the
experiment are presented in Table I:
FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS WITH CASSAVA.
IV i oM fd -^ I
So Rate of Yield of Yield of
P' 6 a F ti z n p Roots Roots
S2 i 3 5Fertilizing. per plot. per acre.
0 W i SI._____
Lbs. Lbs. Lbs.bs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs.
1 ...... ...... ... ...... ...... .. Check Plot. 1.484 7,420
2 50 250 ,60 300 30 150 2 Normal. 2,086 10,430
3 374 187, 45 225 221 1124 l1 Normal. 2,296 11,480
4 25 125 30 150 15 75 Normal. 2,702 13,510
5 25 125 30 150 7. 37J 4 Pptash. 3,010 15,050
6 25 125 15 75 15 75 i Phos. acid. 2,856 15,080
7 124 C24 30 150 15 75 4 Nitrogen. 2,450 12,250
8 50 250' 60 300 30 150 Dupli. No. 2. 2,695 13,475
9 50 250 60 300 30 150 Dupli. No 8. 2,548 12,740
*Check Plot-No Fertilizer.
Several important facts seem to be demonstrated as
results of this series of experiments. It must, however, be
borne in mind that a single year's trial is not sufficient
for a positive demonstration of facts or laws, but several
of the indications are so noticeable that deductions there-
from seem to be reasonable, and may form the basis of
practice until further investigation shall have increased
or diminished their strength.
FIRST.-The average yield of cassava on the eight
fertilizer plots was 12,979 pounds, equivalent to almost
exactly six and one-half tons per acre. The smallest
yield was 10,430 pounds, while the heaviest was 15,080
pounds, or slightly over seven and one-half tons. Here-
tofore a fair average crop has been considered to be from
four to five tons, yet our average of six and one-half tons
during a very exceptionally, indeed, phenomenally, bad
season, demonstrates that even the poorest soils of the
state-few are poorer than the soil of the station farm-
will produce much heavier crops of cassava than has been
usually supposed, and that with more thorough study of
the fertilizing requirements of the crop, the yield upon
plots 5 and 6 seem to demonstrate that very considerably
larger returns may be reasonably expected.
SECOND.-Comparison of plots 2 and 8, which re-
ceived identical treatment but produced respectively 10,-
430 and 13,475 pounds of roots, shows that there is a possi-
ble variation between the different plots of 3,045 pounds
per acre, and that as a consequence, differences between
the various plots aggregating less than one and one-half
tons per acre may have resulted from natural causes and
must, therefore, not be considered in drawing conclusions
from the actual yields upon the different plots.
THIRD.-The next important fact apparently demon-
strated by the experiment is that increasing the "normal"
application of the fertilizer does not increase the yield
of the crop. In other words, that the "normal" fertilizer
is the heaviest application which can be economically
made to the cassava crop on such soils as ours. This
is demonstrated by plots 2 and 8, each of which received
double the amount of fertilizer applied to No. 4, but
which gave an average return of 11,952 pounds as against
13,510 pounds upon plot No. 4, with the "normal" ferti-
lizer, or only one-half the amount of plant-food supplied
to the other two plots.
FOURTH.-Plots 5 and 6 each show important facts,
viz, that reducing the "normal" amount of potash by one-
half, as in No. 5, and phosphoric acid, as in No. 6, does
not diminish the amount of cassava. Indeed, so far as
actual yields go these are the two best plots in the series.
The actual increase in yield, however, on each of these
two plots is considerably less than the possible variation
from natural differences, and should, therefore, not be
considered as probably the result of the use of less phos-
phoric acid and potash in the applications made to these
two plots. The result, however, is sufficiently marked
to justify the conclusion that the "normal" application
contains an excess of each of these mineral plant-foods
and that the proportion of these two ingredients might,
with advantage and economy, be decreased one-half from
the '"normal" standard.
FIFTH.-The results upon plot No. 7, seem to dem-
onstrate that the amount of nitrogen in the "normal"
application cannot be advantageously reduced, since the
yield upon plot No. 4 was 13,510 pounds, while that on
plot No. 7, where one-half of the nitrogen was omitted,
was but 12,250 pounds.
SIXTH.-These different results lead to the natural
conclusion that the most economical fertilizer for soils
like ours at the station should furnish the crop with the
equivalent of 62 pounds of acid phosphate, 150 pounds
of cotton seed meal and 37J pounds of muriate of potash,
making a total application of 250 pounds, having a per-
centage composition of approximately 2.6 per cent. phos-
phoric acid, 3 per cent. nitrogen and 5 per cent, potash.
These results are really a striking corroboration of
the prevailing practice among the largest and most suc-
cessful growers in the state.
SEVENTH.-One other fact demonstrated by these
fertilizer experiments is the apparent uselessness of divid-
ing the total fertilizer application into several parts to be
applied at different times as protection against the pos-
sible loss of nitrogen, but the same could all be used by
the crop. Plots 8 and 9 apparently prove that there is
no such loss, and that the total amount of nitrogen ap-
plied is actually assimilated by the crop. In this con-
nection, however, it should be remembered that though
the small fertilizer application of 250 pounds appears
most satisfactory and economical, it offers no protection
A. Canes. B. Covered Bed. C. Straw used as first covering.
against soil deterioration, as it supplies only the apparent
demands of the crop for a single season, and that, there-
fore, where rotation, green manuring, or other method
of soil recuperation is not practiced, a heavier amount
of fertilizer would probably in the end be profitable.
METHOD OF APPLICATION.-The entire amoant-
of fertilizer to be used should be applied at one time, and,
probably, broadcast and cultivated in before planting.
Where local conditions or lack of suitable tools necessi-
tate a different method, however, the fertilizer may be
distributed in the furrow and mixed with the soil by the
scooter before the seed-cane is planted.
PLANTING AND CULTIVATION.-The seed, pre-
served through the winter as described on page 17, be-
gins to sprout and grow with the advent of warm
weather, and must be planted before it loses its vitality
in this way. This will usually occur in March. The seed-
canes are cut into sections about four inches in length,
which is best effected by means of sharp knives, hatchets.
or, best of all, pruning shears, by which the most rapid
and best work is effected. The pieces must be dropped
in the furrow by hand; where the check system is fol-
lowed, the intersection of the furrows mark the places for
dropping. The most satisfactory results are secured by
dropping two pieces in a place, and the workman, by
stepping on the dropped pieces, facilitates their subse-
quent covering. The covering is easily accomplished by
the turn-plow, or best by the cultivator with all the teeth
removed except the rear teeth on each side, which should
be shovels, and set as closely together as possible. An
implement producing similar results is easily improvised
with a pair of "bull tongues" and a common Dixie plow
stock. These teeth should be made to straddle the row
and throw the soil toward each other, thus perfectly fill-
ing the furrow and covering the seed-canes lying therein.
The season's cultivation and working of the cassava crop
is simple. The first cultivation may be deep, and with a
plow, if preferred. After-cultivation must be shallow,
and with a cultivator or wide sweep. In either case, the
implement should be run as near the surface as possible,
both because of the effect on soil moisture and because
many of the roots grow horizontally and very close to the
surface. The cultivation practised with corn is equally
adapted to cassava, and three or four workings will be
sufficient, notwithstanding its long growing season.
When the plants reach well out into the space between
the rows and shade the ground well, all cultivation may
cease and the crop be considered as laid by. At the
time of the last cultivation, which will usually occur
about the first of August, a single row of cow-peas may
advantageously be sown in the middle of the rows.
HARVESTING.-The nature of the plant necessi-
tates hand-harvesting, but it possesses two saving graces,
which render the task comparatively easy. First, it
thrives best on light, sandy, dry soils, in which its roots
do not have a very tenacious hold, and second, so nany
of these roots grow near the surface that no great diffi-
culty is experienced in removing them in a body from the
soil. The work is best performed by two men on opposite
sides of the row. The stems should have previously been
cut off with hoes about four to six inches above the
ground after the appearance of frost, or the general yel-
lowing of the leaves shows that growth is at aa end. The
remaining stubs of stems furnish a hold by'means of
which the entire root system is raised from the ground.
If any plant possesses a specially tenacious hold on the
ground, a little loosening by shovel or spade thrust under
one side of the plant, will accomplish its release. Roots
occasionally become broken off in the ground, but these
are secured without difficulty by means of shovel or
TWO CASSAVA ROOTS, WEIGHT THIRTY-ONE POUNDS.
The roots must be kept in a dry and reasonably cool
place or they are apt to deteriorate after a few days'
removal from the ground. As the ground on which
cassava grows seldom freezes, the crop is best stored
where it grew, and only harvested a few days previous
to actual use.
The common belief, however, oft repeated and
reiterated in print, that cassava cannot be preserved out
of the ground, but that immediate use is necessary, I
have proved to be founded on entire error. Last season
I kept roots in the station office from February until
July, and then submitted them to an examination by
glucose experts from Chicago and Buffalo, who pro-
nounced them to be in perfect condition for glucose
or starch manufacture. Broken or mutilated places on
the roots soon become covered with dark mold, but the
growth is extremely superficial and in no way interferes
with the character of the root or its constituents.
In South Florida the plant is perennial though it
loses its leaves and some of its stems during winter, but
with the advent of spring it sends out new shoots, and
last year's roots begin to make new growth, so that the
entire crop is not necessarily harvested. With even these
conditions, however, it is probable that annual planting
is more profitable 1han to attempt to secure more than a
single season's growth on the roots.
In this connection it is well to call attention to the
fact that the actual yields with our crop were consider-
ably above the usual average yield, yet they fall very
much below frequently reported yields. These latter are
as a rule mere estimates. The illustration given of two
roots was supposed to have been made from average
samples, and at this rate of 15 pounds per hill, the yield
per acre would have been 30,830 pounds, or something
over 16 tons. The real yield, however, was 6j tons, a
difference which should be remembered when claims of
preposterous crops of cassava are made public.
PRESERVING SEED.-The entire above-ground
growth of the plant, except its leaves and tip stems,
may be preserved for seed. The stems are trimmed by
hand, the leaves and tips being broken off and then laid
upon a dry piece of ground, preferably freshly plowed.
The butt-ends of the stalks should be thrust into the
ground and then a second layer be placed over them, butts
also in thp ground, and so the pile, or bed, should be con-
tinued, layer on layer, like the shingles of a roof, till, for
convenience sake, the bed is large enough. The cane
should then be covered with straw, hay, or moss, and
this with a light layer of soil. In extremely dry weather
the addition of a little water to the beds is advisable, but
our winter rains are usually ample for the needs of the
seed-cahe, and our experience at the station is that a
superabundance of moisture is more dangerous than dry
weather, as rotting of the bed is more common than its
drying out. Neither extreme, however, is frequent, and
the seed may be expected to pa&s the winter in good
condition with reasonable certainty.
The complaint frequently met with of difficulty in
obtaining a full stand of cassava, I am confident, results
from ftilure to follow these simple rules for the proper
preservation of seed canes.
USES OF THE CROP.
The uses to which any crop may be put must
depend chiefly on the composition of the material in ques-
tion. With cassava not only are the uses to which it
has already been devoted the result of its composition, but
new uses suggested for the crop depend almost exclu-
sively upon this composition. Cassava is distinctively a
starch-forming crop, and belongs essentially to the carbo-
hydrate division of foods. It is, therefore, a characteris-
tic fat-former, and when properly used, becomes one of
the most economical beat and fat-forming articles of food
for all classes of animals, human beings included.
The chief value which the crop possesses lies in the
fact of the cheapness with which fat-forming material
may be produced in this shape, and its economical posi-
tion depends upon the recognized desirability of produc-
ing at home the greatest possible supply and variety of
foods for home consumption. Before entering into de-
tails of the .utilization of the crop, therefore, it becomes
necessary to minutely examine its composition as deter-
mined by chemical analysis. This feature of our work
is essentially new, there having been heretofore, so far as
I am able to ascertain, but one analysis of cassava pub-
* Bulletin No. 44 published by Chem. Div. U. S. D. A., 1894.
ANALYSES OF STATION CASSAVA.
Resins, Alkaloids, etc.t ........
Amids and Sugarst............
*Caloalated from total nitrogen.
FROM PLOTS 6 & 7
Pr ct. Pr ct
FROM PLOT 8. AVERAGE
o o 0
Pr ct Pr ctlPr ct Per cent
2.53 0.86 2.67 2.59
0.50 0.17 0.52 0.55
0.30 0.10 0.31 0.34
.5.83! 5.4416.68 16.96
4.791 1.64 5.05 506
i8.56 23.62 72 32 72.33
2 33 0.8( 2.45 2.21
0.96: 0 33 1.01 0.90
0.23 0.79 0.24 0.24
The first important fact shown from the above analy-
sis, is that cassava contains a larger amount of non-nitro-
genous extract matter than is found in any other crop.
This matter is composed largely of starch, of which it
contains much more than either the Irish or sweet potato.
A very considerable quantity of sugar, however-about
3 per cent.-is also included in this material. Cassava,
therefore, presents marked characteristics of both pota-
toes and sugar beets, but contains very much more total
food, because of its greater solidity and smaller content
That cassava is not a perfectly balanced food, that is,
does not contain flesh-forming and fat-forming materials
in the relative proportions necessary to secure the best
possible results from its use, or the greatest economy from
its feeding is apparent. On the other hand, no food, with
the possible exception of fresh milk, exists in these per-
feet proportions; in each one or the other class of con-
stituents predominates "Man cannot live by bread alone,"
is a fact as scientifically correct as it is a recognized
expression of Divine wisdom. Man must have beef or
eggs with his bread; beans or peas with his pork, and
chickens with his potatoes, if either is to be fully utilized
and the greatest possible amount of nutriment be
So with hay the animal requires bran, corn-fodder with
cotton seed meal, and with cotton seed hulls, pea vines or
velvet beans are required if the full value of either is to
be secured to the animal.
It is unquestionably true, however, that cassava, all
things considered, comes nearer supplying a perfect
ration for farm stock than any other concentrated food
produced upon Florida farms.
That the composition of other foods may be readily
compared with that of cassava and that, therefore, the
data needed for the most economical utilization of Flor-
ida feed-stuffs may be available, Table II. has been pre-
pared, giving the nutritive constituents of all distinct-
ively southern feed-stuffs, based mostly on our own analy-
ses, and in each case upon the form of material in which
we Floridians are accustomed to use the food.
The importance of this latter condition is illustrated
by the case of pindars, which, though frequently analy-
zed, are with us always fed in the field, being harvested
by the hogs; all analyses made under any other condi-
tions. So far as the writer is able to learn no other
analysis of this crop is so stated as to be of assistance
to any Florida farmer desirous of knowing its composi-
tion of this crop that he may intelligently supplement it
with other food in the hope of securing better and more
Before actual consideration of some of the details
of this table an attempt to apply them to the problem of
the rational feeding of Florida stock, a good demonstra-
HOGS FED ON CASSAVA. DRESSED WEIGHT OF THE HEAVIEST 538 POUNDS.
tion of the possibilities of the use of cassava as a feed-
stuff is furnished by two simple feeding experiments
conducted at the station-one with pigs and one with
A.-EXPERIMENT WITH PIGS.
This was a comparison of cassava, corn, chufas,
ground-peas and pindars in the fattening of pigs. The
experiment covered a feeding period of seventy-five days,
terminating January 14th, 1896. The details of the ex.
periment were carefully carried out by Mr. John F. Mitch-
ell, the station foreman, to whose fidelity and care I am
indebted for the data now made use of. The basis of the
experiment was the quantity of each of the materials fed
which the different lots of pigs would consume. The pigs
were all of the same breed-grade, Duroc-Jersey-and as
nearly as possible of the same weight and age. It was
believed better to have the pigs of each lot of about the
same size, rather than to even up the weights of the'
different lots by having in any single lot individuals with
considerable differences which might have resulted in
quarrelling and the depriving of the smaller member of
the feeding lot of his full ration. All pigs of each lot
were clearly marked, so that there was no possibility of
mixing or mistake at any stage of the experiment.
The station was not equipped for digestion experi-
ments and it will b s, en that one very important factor
was omitted in the scheme of experiment, viz: the actual
value of the food consumed by each lot of pigs, which
would have necessitated the weighing of the food con-
sumed. This data would have furnished the mnly pos-
sible clue to the cost of the gain made by the different
pigs, and hence would have determined the economy of
This precaution is necessary since it is quite pos-
sible that the pigs showing the greatest gain, and
thus the largest gross return from the food consumed,
may have been fed on comparatively expensive food, so
that the increased weight might not pay. for the in-
creased cost of the food; in which case pigs showing a
smaller increase in weight, might have really eaten so
much less value in food as to make their actual gain cost
less per pound, so that the food given them might have
well been the most economical in net returns. This is an
exemplification of the well known fact that the heaviest
hog, or the largest steer is seldom the most profitable ani-
The important factor of the amount of food con-
sumed, I have supplied as well as possible 'from my own
record of the amount of cassava or corn consumed by
several pigs of the same breed, age and condition during
the same time of year, so that though not the identical in-
dividuals in the original test the averages furnish reason-
ably correct data for determining the relative values of
the quantities of food consumed by the corn and cassava-
fed pigs in the earlier experiment. Thus, so far as prac-
tical farm purposes go, we have a basis for estimating
the actual cost of the meat produced by each kind of
food and can thus determine the relative economy of
corn and cassava as hog foods.
The results of this experiment reduced to the aver-
ages and totals of each group or lot, numbered numer-
ically, are presented below in
CASSAVA COMPARED WITH OTHER FOODS IN
o e g asj
Kind of Feed. S |
0 o > i a .2
Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Cts. Cts. $
Cassava ........... 167 326 159 53 95.2 21 0.75 1.04 1.07
Corn............ .247 424 177 59 70.0 2- 2.41 3.06 -.35
Chufas............ 223 254 21 21 7.0
Pindars ........... 202 251 49 16 24.2
Goobers........... 173 231 58 19 32.2
The important facts presented in Table III, as the
results of the series of feeding experiments, seem to be as
follows: First, the percentage of gain in weight as the
result of feeding five different lots of pigs, on as many
different materials, for a period of 75 days, places the
foods tried in the following order of merit: Cassava, corn,
goobers, pindars and chufas. the latter standing at the
bottom of the list, with the percentage of gain to the
pigs fed upon it only 7 as against 95.2 for cassava, indi-
cates that this crop should be excluded from the list of
economical hog foods. Second, Corn, which is the
standard fattening food of the Western Hemisphere and
the material on which probably 95 per cent of the fat
hogs of American markets are finished off preparatory to
slaughtering, makes but a poor showing as compared
with cassava, though it ranks second in the list of foods
tried, its percentage gain being 70 as against 95.2 with
cassava. The difference between the two rates of gain
70 and 95.2, is 25.2 per cent. in favor of the cassava pigs.
The actual comparative gain, however, is considerably
greater since 25.2 is 36 per cent. of 70, and therefore,
the real difference in value between these two foods is 36
per cent in favor of the cassava. In other words the ex-
periment shows that pigs fed on cassava will make 36 per
cent more meat during a given interval than if fed upon
corn. A different statement of the same fact is, that
there is more than 1-3 more profit from the feeding of
cassava than corn, in fattening pigs, where the cost of
producing the two foods is the same. When it is borne
in miqd, however, that the actual cost of producing cas-
sava, food value for food value, is very much less than
with corn, the advantage of the former appears still
greater, and there can be no question of the place of cas-
sava as "a money crop." Third, The daily cost of these
two foods as nearly as it can be estimated was 0.75 of one
cent per day each, for the cassava fed pigs, and 2.40 cents
each for the corn fed lot. The total cost therefore, of the
amount of food consumed during the 75 day period was
$5.52 for the cassava pigs and $18.07 for the corn fed
lot. This amount divided by the gain in weight for each
lot shows that the actual cost per pound of the meat
made from the food consumed was 1.04 cents for the
cassava and 3.06 cents for the corn fed pigs.
The actual market value of the live pork and of corn
at the time the trial was in progress being known, have
been used as a basis for the calculation. As to the basis
with cassava however, no actual market value then exist-
ed. Where starch factories have, however, been estab-
lished in the state $6 per ton is paid for the roots, and
this has, therefore, been adopted as the standard of
value, although as a matter of fact, our own experience
shows that the crop can be grown and harvested at $14.00
per acre, which with our average yield makes the actual
cost of the cassava only about $2.00 per ton, on which
basis the relative profit of feeding the same to pigs, would
have been three times greater than appears in the esti-
mates of the table.
With these actual facts accepted, can there any longer
be doubt that cassava converted into meat, bacon, lard
and hams as finished products, for which the supply never
equals the demand, is indeed a "money crop."
As further evidence that the experiments were con-
ducted under normal conditions, and also that the ad-
vantage shown for cassava as a fattening material is not
possessed by the hog feeders of any other section of the
country, I venture to present for comparison the results
of pig-feeding trials made at representative experiment
stations, North and South, at the very time that these
trials were under way in Florida. Bulletin 82 of the
Alabama station shows that with their experiments in
the feeding of four different lots of pigs upon as many
different rations, the average cost of the gain in
live weight by the pigs being fed was 3.51 cents per
pound. The annual report of the Mass. Hatch Experi-
ment Station for 1896, shows that the average cost (f the
gain in live weight made by pigs under experiment was
2.88 cents per pound. This, too, where a chief constit-
uent of the ration was skimmed milk, valued at 0.15
cents per pound and supposed to be the cheapest of all
hog foods. The annual report of the Vermont Experi-
ment Station for 1896 shows that the average cost per
pound of increased live weight with four different lots of
experimental pigs was 3.72 cents per pound.
The average cost of the gain made at these three
different stations was 3.37 cents per day, or 3.24
times the cost per pound of the gain produced by us
through the feeding of cassava. The Vermont report
further specifies that the average profit per pig
fed during the period of trial was $0.50. This, too,
during a period of 106 days as against our profit of
$1.07, made in the period of 75 days with -assava. A
further important consideration is the fact that in each
of the cases specified the profit was figured on a basis of
$0.05 per pound, live weight, for pork, while our estimates s
are based upon the low market valuation of $0.03 per
These certainly are important facts and worthy of
careful consideration. They form a simple demonstra-
tion that cassava properly used and fed must certainly be
a very much more profitable crop than any other crop
which can be converted into hogs or hog-products.
B.-EXPERIMENT IN FATTENING BEEF ON
Several animals were fed as a test of the effects of
cassava, in keeping animals in condition and of restor-
ing poor animals to proper condition. Several animals
have satisfactorily been fattened with cassava as the sole
fattening food used. Only one animal, however, was
actually experimented with for a definite fattening
period, and the result finally tested by slaughtering of
The Station has not been properly equipped for
feeding experiments, and no claim is made to scieutific
method; it is believed, however, that the case offers
results of practical value to Florida farmers. At the
time the feeding was begun, no tests whatever had been
made of the digestibility of cassava, though now a be-
ginning has been made along this line. The particular
bearing of this deficiency is the fact that during this
feeding trial we possessed no data for determining the
real nutritive ratio of cassava, and were, therefore, pre-
vented from arranging a scientifically correct ration or
combination of foods. The tests, therefore, were really
simply tests of the question as to whether cassava could
be used in the same way that corn is so' nearly univer-
sally used in the corn belt of the Central West, in prepar-
ing steers for the Chicago and Kansas City markets.
DRESSED BEEF PRODUCED BY CASSAVA.
There hay and cornstalks form the coarse fodders and
corn fed in cribs is the sole fattening reliance. In the
test made by us dry hammock pasture grass furnished
the coarse feed, but cassava was substituted for corn
as the fattening material, supplemented by a little cotton-
seed meal to improve the nutrative ratio and supply the
protein actually present in corn. Twoanimals were
included in the experiment, but as one of them was
needed for future breeding purposes, the record and
slaughtering test is confined to one animal. This was a
common Florida cow of the larger class, though at the
time of the beginning of the test, she had received no
food except such as she picked up for herself on the
woods range for some months. She was ten years old,
and thin to the point of emaciation. To meet Florida
conditions hammock pasture, supplemented vith an
occasional feeding of pea vine, velvet bean, or crab-grass
hay, furnished the coarse fodder, and no shelter was
supplied or needed during the feeding period, which
included 75 days, ending February 19, 1899. Although
the experiment is adapted to local conditions, and is be-
lieved to Dossess practical usefulness for range cattle
owners, the actual ration consumed cannot be accurately
determined. The animal in question was fed all the
cassava she would consume, and the amount thus fed to
her averaged 12 pounds per day.
This was supplemented by two pounds of cotton seed
meal, added as a source of protein, and the actual mar-
ket value of the materials thus consumed is incorporated
in the table in which the results are presented.
FATTENING BEEF UPON CASSAVA.
Live weight at beginning of period........ 450 pounds
Live weight at end of period............ 726 pounds
Gross gain.... .......... ...... ........ 272 pounds
Dressed weight at end of period.......... 502 pounds
Amount of cotton seed meal consumed per
day...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 2 pounds
Amount of cotton seed meal consumed for
period.... ...... ............ ...... 150 pounds
Amount of cassava consumed per day...... 1. pounds
Amount of cassava consumed for period.... 1,125 pounds
Value of increased weight.................. .. $11.04
Cost of feed consumed......................... 2.62
Profit............. .. ........ .. ........... $8.42
The result of the feeding therefrom was an actual
profit of 59.10 per cent. on an investment for seventy-
five days. It is true, that no allowance was
made for the labor involved in the care and feeding
of the animal. This, however, was very slight and de-
volved upon a man having charge of 20 other animals
who still found" time for much additional labor. There
can hardly be any question, therefore, that here again,
cassava converted into the form of a human food be-
comes most decidedly "a money crop."
The results of this feeding test simply add other evi-
dence to that already possessed by every cassava grower
in Florida, as to its value as a stock food. The illustra-
tions of the carcass of the cow, on which the test was
made and of the porter-house cut of the same, together
with a full page illustration of the Station dairy herd,
taken at the time when cassava was the chief constituent
of our daily ration, furnished ample demonstration of this
A CUT OF ROAST BEEF.
When it is recalled in this connection that there
are over 200,000 head of range cattle in Florida,* and that
hundreds of thousands of acres of superior pasture lands
still remain unoccupied; further, that these cattle are
nearer the Chicago markets than are the great ranges of
Montana and Wyoming and possess an easy control of
home markets and the new markets of Cuba, beside the
advantages of direct water communication with the
markets of Europe, the bearing of these facts becomes
Every beef animal in Florida can be put in the condi-
tion of western stall-fed cattle by the simple use of cas-
sava at a mere -fraction of the cost to the corn feeders
of the West.
C-CASSAVA AS A RAW MATERIAL FOR MANU-
It now becomes necessary to refer again to the com-
position of cassava, since its utilization in manufactures
rests solely on the extraction of certain of its constitu-
There are two products for which this crop offers su-
perior material, namely: Starch and glucose. The
former, however, is the only product thus far actually
commercially produced from cassava in this country.
The starch supply of the world has heretofore depended
upon potatoes and corn as raw materials. By compar-
ing the actual yields of starch from these three raw mate-
rials in the factory we find that the average amount of
starch produced is as follows:
Corn, 53 per cent.
Potatoes, 17 per cent.
Cassava, 20 per cent.
*rhe cnmas of 1835 gives the total number of cattle in the State as 469.425. Of
these probably more than one-half are actually on ranges.
An acre yielding 40 bushels of corn would at this rate
produce 1,187 pounds of starch, while an acre of cassava
producing six tons would yield 2,400 pounds of starch.
Two other conditions, however, must be considered as
bearing upon the economy of manufacture, namely: The
ing upon the economy of manufacture, namely: The
relative cost of the raw material supplied in these differ-
ent forms, and the cost of manufacturing of the finished
On the former point the market value of the three
different sources of starch, and the amount of starch
produced by each furnish a correct basis for estimating
the relative value of each crop for this purpose. At the
present price of corn and potatoes in Chicago, which is
a starch and glucose producing center, and of cassava, at
De Land, Fla., where the only cassava starch factory in
the world is located, we find that unmanufactured starch
in the form of corn, at 45 cents per bushel, costs 4 cents
per pound, and the same material in the form of pota-
toes at 50 cents per bushel, costs the manufacturer 6
cents per ppund, while cassava yields raw starch at 1 cent
It thus appears that cassava is to-day the cheapest
known source of starch, costing at present market values
of raw material only about one-fourth as much as its
The matter of the relative cost is one for which no'.
actual data exist, other than the experience of the sin-
gle company, which has had two years experience in the
manufacturing of cassava starch. The process, however,
with the latter crop, is essentially the same as that in use
by potato starch manufacturers, and, therefore, the higher
starch yield and greater freedom from impurity should
render the process less expensive and, therefore, more
CASSAVA STARCH NOT POLARIZED. SWEET POTATO STARCH POLARIZED.
COONTIE STARCH POLARIZED. COONTIE STARCH NOT POLARIZED.
IRISH POTATO STARCH POLARIZED. CASSAVA STARCH POLARIZED.
FLORIDA ARROW ROOT SlARCH POLARIZED.
CORN STARCH POLARIZED.
In this connection it should be stated that cassava
starch possesses certain properties not found in other
starches, which seem to make it a favorite in the markets
into which it has been introduced; so that there appears
to be a steadily growing demand for the product at prices
considerably higher than are quoted for other starches.
I may, with propriety add, that Mr. B. Remmers,
managing director of the De Land factory, has extended
to me many courtesies in connection with this phase of
the industry, and placed information at my disposal
which would not be expedient to make public, which, how-
ever, tends to strengthen my conviction that a very great
future lies before this industry, wherever cassava can be
successfully grown, and such experienced and competent
technical control of the details of manufacture as are
evidenced at De Land can be made available.
As the character of starches from different sources
and the uses to which they may be put depend chiefly
on the structure of the starch grain, and as -hese proper-
ties are the clue to substitutions and adulterations of
different starch-containing materials, I have thought it
desirable to introduce plates showing the formation of
cassava starch as it appears under the microscope, in
comparison with similar illustrations prepared from the
other chief southern starch yielding crops.
The other product for which cassava offers induce-
ments to manufacturers is glucose. The value of any
raw material for this purpose depends on its content of
starch, since the manufacture is chiefly a mere conversion
into glucose by means of chemical action.
Not only, therefore, does the high yield of starch in
cassava place it prominently before manufacturers as a
probably new raw material for the great glucose indup
try, at present practically dependent upon corn, but,
moreover, cassava contains two other constituents wor-
thy of consideration in this connection, namely: its 3 per
cent. of sugar against the 0.4 per cent. in corn and 1.68
per cent. of fiber, as compared with 2.20 per cent. of
Both of these materials are convertible into glucose,
and therefore, increase the possible output of the latter
Manufacturers are now considering the importance
of these facts, and there is good reason for expecting
the erection of at least two glucose factories in the near
future, which will depend on cassava for their raw
With either starch or glucose manufactured from
cassava. there must necessarily result very large quan-
tities of -waste products, which would be found valuable
as either stock foods or for fertilizing purposes. In
either case the chief of these would be the pulp which
contains most of the cassava, except that its starch has
The analyses of several of these products from the
starch factory have been-made expressly for this bulletin,
and are now presented.
There is another product of cassava of considerable
commercial importance, which, however, is at present
produced only in tropical America, from the poisonous
variety of the root. This is tapioca, the name for which
is derived from the Indian name of the plant, mandioc,
from which the term mandioca is applied to the product,
which by transmission has received the-commercial name
of tapioca. Though this material has become so im-
portant an article of food, the cost of its production by
the semi-civilized labor of South America i so much less
than is possible under the labor conditions .of Florida,
that it is not probable that tapioca in the near future
will become an important product of our State, except
for family consumption.
The process of tapioca making is simple. The root
is pealed arid grated, and then macerated in water with
constant agitation, or stirred until the starch granules
are separated from the fiber, which latter floats on the
surface of the water, and is thus removed; or, better
yet, is straiiied from the water, by means of a sieve,
through' whichh the starch-milk, so called, passes, leaving
the fiber behind. This starch-milk, Which is simply an
emulsion of starch, allows the latter to gradually settle,
when the water may be poured off, leaving the si mi-
solid, moist starch behind. This' latter is quickly dried
by intense heat, the South American Indians dipping
large" iron shovels into the moist starch and then revolv-
ing them before open fires, the heat of which compels the
starch to assume the granular 'semi-lucid appearance
known as tapioca, in which form'it becomes so desirable
-an article of food,, an essential ingredient of so many
wholesome desserts, and is so frequently eaten with little
thought or knowledge as to origin or source of supply.
As shown by the analysis in Table II, and as already
several times stated on previous pages, cassava predomi-
nates in carbo-hydrate, or fattening constituents, aid .
nates in 'carbo-hydrate, or fattening constituents, and is
lacking in protein, or flesh-forming constituents. That
the crop; therefore, may be utilized to the best advantage,
it becomes necessary to'tevert to the 'fact that'animals
are able to extract the greatest amount of nutriment
from their foods only when these two'constituehts exist'
in certain relations' to each other as to amount or proper:
tion, and that this proportion, or relation, between pro-
tein constituents and carbo-hydrate' constituents is
termed the nutritive ratio of the food, and foods are said to
possess a wide ratio or a narrow ratio, according as the
proportion of carbo-hydrates is large or small. Cassava
possesses what is known as a wide ratio and, therefore,
to obtain the very best results from its feeding, this
ratio must be made narrower, that is, the proportion of
protein constituents must be increased by the addition of
a little cotton seed meal, velvet beans, or cow peas.
Where feeding is conducted on strictly scientific
principles, and the nutritive ratio is arranged ac-
cordingly, only the digestible portions of the foods in
question are taken into consideration, and the nutritive
ratio of any food is determined by adding to the amount
of digestible carbo-hydrates 2.25 times the amount
of digestible fat, and dividing the product by the
amount of digestible protien. The ratio which has
thus been secured as determined by experiment to
belong to the.food of each class of animals to enable it
to secure the greatest benefit from the consumption of
that food. differs with each class of animals, and with the
condition in which the animal exists, as for instance,
whether at work or idle, whether growing or being fat-
tened. The nutritive ratios thus determined as produc-
ii g the best results with different animals are as follows:
Horse, with average work, 1.7. Horse, with hard
work, 1:5.5. Steers, at work, 1.7. Steers, fattening, 1.6
Milch cows, 1:5.4. Sheep, fattening, 1.5. Pigs, under 100
pounds weight, 1.5. Pigs, from 100 to 175 pounds
In Table V., the food constituents of Florida feed-
stuffs, which may be advantageously used in connection
with cassava, are presented, together with the nutritive
ratios so far as possible, belonging to each of these
foodL. The actual ratio, however, for many of these
Southern crops has never been fully determined. They
are, therefore, given with reservation, as suggestions,
rather than as definitely determined facts. Because of
the lack of data, moreover, as to the real digestibility of
many of these products, I have thought best to give the
actual composition rather than to attempt to include in
-- -L- '"' ''- **-^ -
ra -- -.
STATION DAIRY HERD FED ON CASSAVA.
~tAI 4/ -~
the table simply the digestible portions of the foods
which, in most cases, remains an undetermined fact. It
is believed, however, that by reference to the nutritive
ratios given for each class of our farm animals, and the
composition of the different available feed-stuffs, together
with the nutritive ratio for the same in the table, that
foods may be practically combined so as to be approxi-
mately correct in composition and thus yield satisfactory
and economical results in feeding.
In connection with the Table, I suggest the following
feed stuffs as offering the best selection for combination
with cassava for the different kinds of stock in question:
HORSE-Cassava. corn, peas, fodder, crab-grass
hay, oat hay, green rye, cotton seed meal.
STEERS-Cassava, corn, cotton seed meal, cotton
seed hulls, velvet beans, green pasture, dry pasture, rye
COWS-Cassava, green corn-fodder, dry pasture, pea
hay, crab-grass hay, rye pasture, Bermuda pasture, dry
pasture. cotton seed meal, cotton seed hulls.
PIGS-Cassava, velvet bean meal, velvet beans, cow-
By combining some one of the protein, or flesh form-
ing foods, mentioned with each class of stock, with the
cassava. it is believed that the best possible results may
be secured, while the other foods enumerated in each
class will furnish the coarse fodders which must, of
course, in each case, furnish the main bulk of the food to
Attention should be called, however, to the fact that,
although different kinds of hay are frequently mentioned
in the table and lists, actually cured and harvested hay
need be resorted to in our climate only as an occasional
feed where animals are so situated that a pasture or
range is available. The composition of dry winter range,.
or fall pasture grass, however, would not very materially
vary from that of cured hay, so that in the arrangement of
rations one,may, be substituted forthe.other,as is most
convenient, or ,best suits the condition or surroundings.
of the feeder .
FOOD CONSTITUENTS OF CASSAVA AND OTHER
Beggar-weed Hay 9.16 4.72
Cassava.............. 66.69 0.74
Corn................. 10.60 1.50
Corn Fodder....... 7.10 12.34
Corn Stover....... 18.55 5.14
Cotton Seed........ 9.92 4.74
Cotton Seed Hulls. 10.40 2.60
Cotton Seed Meal. 8.20 7 20
Cow-Peas......... 1480 3.20
Crab Grass Hay... 10.65 9.37
Crowfoot Hay..... 11.73 7.40
Ground-Peas ...... 14.94 1.97
Moss, Spanish..... 14.85 4.10
Oats........... 11.00 3.00
Oat Hay............ 10.25 4.44
Pea-vine Hay-..... 14.05 8.41
Pindars ............. 1447 2.64
Potatoes, Irish..... 78.90 1.00
Potatoes, Sweet... 71.10 1.00
Rice Hulls ......... 1040 13.20
Rutabagas ........ 88.60 1.20
Rye Fodder, green 75.28 1.88
Sandspur Hay..... 15.30 4.00
Velvet Beans...... 11.93 2.02
Wire Grass Hay... 10 15 2.95
2.92 29.29 42.06 11.85
0.18 1.68 29.84 0.85
5.00 2.20 70.40 10.30
2.66 26.64 37.25 14.03
165 25.04 .43.51 6.11
19.45 22.57 23.94 19.38
2.00 44.40 36.60 4.00
13.10 5.60 23.60 42.30
1.40 4.10 65.50 20.80
2.25 27.62 41.80 8.32
1.58 20.75 50.21 8.32
28.08 33.16 16.18 20.41
243 25.35 48.20 5.07
5.00 9.50 59.70 11.80
247 26.14 47.49 9.21
2.87 19.80 42.17 15.68
29.69 14.01 16.36 23.24
0.10 0.60 17.30. 2.10
0.40 130 24.70 1.50
0.70 35.70 38.60 3,60
0.20 1.30 7.50 1.20
0.56 12.73 6.94 2.61
1.90 27.88 4566 5.26
6.29 7.45 53.50 17.93
1.72 28.71 53 19 3.28
DOMESTIC USE OF CASSAVA.
The composition as given in Table II, taken together
with the results of the animal feeding tests recorded are
sufficient to establish the wholsomeness and nutritive
quality of the root.
Articles for human consumption, however, must pos-
sess one other property in order to recommend them-
selves to public favor, namely: flavor, or agreeable taste.
This quality is, however, possessed by cassava in a high
Raw, it is pleasant and wholesome, though not espe-
cially desirable. It is far more palatable than raw
Irish potatoes, though possibly not so much as carrots or
flat turnips. Boiled or fried, it is a most nutritious sub-
stitute for either sweet or Irish potatoes. If boiled and
then fried or baked, it is a decidedly desirable addition
tothe variety upon any table. As an article of human
food, however, it meets with chief favor when converted
in to some form in which its characteristics are somewhat
disguised. It must borne in mind that this is equally
true of potatoes, pumpkins, flour and many com-
mom foods. It may be briefly dried by means of the
sun, oven, or evaporator, when sliced, cut with a root
cutter, or even a spade, into thin slices, and then be
reduced to flour by grinding. This flour is extremely
nutritious, and a palatable substitute for all cereal flours
and meal-, and miay be :se I either by it-elf or as an ad-
mixture with the products of ground grains. Bread,
biscuit, batter cakes and all similar articles may be made
from this cassava flour in the same way that other
flour would be used.
The grated root assumes an appearance somewhat
resembling cocoanut, and forms an excellent basis for
pies and puddings. That its use may be facilitated, I
have thought it advisable to incorporate several success-
ful and favorite recipes for cassava dishes as patt rns
and suggestions of its proper preparation.
RULES FOR COOKING.
CASSAVA PUDDING.-Grate about one pound of
cassava root, moisten with a little water, allow to stand
15' minutes; drain off one-half cupful of the starch
solution settling at the bottom of the mass, add one
pint of milk and three or four beaten eggs, one ounce of
butter, with sugar and nutmeg to taste; bake like ordi-
CASSAVA PULP PUDDING.-Take one cupful of
grated cassava, three cups of milk, and boil five minutes;
add three beaten eggs, one-half cup of sugar, and flavor
to taste; bake one-half hour. This makes a pudding suf-
ficient for six persons.
CASSAVA FRITTERS.-Grate one pound of cas-
sava root, add salt to taste, and one teaspoonful of baking
soda; soften with milk or water, and fry like any other.
CASSAVA BATTER CAKES.-Mix one-half grated
cassava with one-half corn meal or flour, add milk or
water to desired degree of thinness, two beaten eggs, and
fry like ordinary batter cake. Use baking powder or
sour milk and s)da, ss with flour.
IN CONCLUSION the writer desires to acknowledge
the cooperation and assistance rendered by the Biological
and Chemical Departments of the Station and to return
thanks to Profs. Rolfs and Miller for the same. I desire
also to express my obligation to Mr. M. G. Donk for
assistance in analytical work, and to Miss Lucia McCul-
loch for micro-photographic work.
H. E. STOCKBRIDGE.
BY-PRODUCTS FROM THE CASSAVA STARCH
The residues, or bi-products, resulting from the man-
ufacture of starch and glucose from potatoes and corn,
possess very material value for feeding or fertilizer pur-
poses, indeed the bi-products from the glucose industry,
where corn is the raw material used, are recognized as
standard articles of cattle food. It is reasonable" to sup-
pose that the residue .resulting from the manufacture of
starch from cassava would possess value for this purpose
and analyses have, therefore, been made of the bi-products
from the DeLand factory which are here presented:
ANALYSIS OF WASH WATERS FROM CASSAVA
Water ................... 99.64 per cent.
Volatile Matter............ .30
Potash ................... .05
Phosphoric Acid .......... .03 "
ANALYSIS OF FINE CASSAVA PULP.
W ater .................... 93.23 per cent.
Volatile Matter............ 6.66
Potash ...... .............. .16
Phosphoric Acid........... .38
Nitrogen............. ..... .32
ANALYSIS OF COARSE CASSAVA PULP.
W ater .................... 89.14 per cent.
Volatile Matter............ 10.73
Potash .................... .06
Phosphoric Acid............ .0 "
Nitrogen ................. .45
ANALYSIS OF CASSAVA BARK RESIDUE.
W ater .................... 79 60 per cent.
Volatile Matter........... 18.19
Potash ................... 1.43
Phosphoric Acid........... .12 "
Nitrogen. .............. .. .75
The essential facts to which attention should be called"
in connection with the above analyses seem to be as follows -
That although these materials have already been utilized
to some extent by farmers living in- close proximity to the-
factory, if they are to become of general use and value,
their physical condition must be materially changed as-
they contain altogether too much water to render their-
transportation and use economical.
The amount of organic matter and of nitrogen founds
in the two different cassava pulps would indicate that, if-
properly freed from most of the water present, as could be
easily done by draining or pressure, they would possess-
very considerable value as stock foods. This could not be
otherwise, in view of the fact that the process of starch
manufacture removes almost nothing but starch from the
cassava and that even some two per cent. of the starch re-
mains in the residue, the water content of which, however,
has been very largely increased by addition of the water
necessary for removing the starch from the root.
The materials in their present form can hardly be con-
sidered as commercial products, and definite values either
for fertilizing or-for feeding purposes can hardly be given
them. The analyses, however, are important as showing
the feeding and fertilizing constituents present which
would become very valuable if made more available by
removal of the excess of water introduced during the pro-
cess of manufacture.
1. No cassava grown in Florida possesses any poison-
2. The crop is perfectly adapted to all parts of Flor-
ida, and, in general, to the hard pine lands of the Gulf
3. It thrives best on moderately fertile, light sandy-
loam soils, on which it withstands drought better than any
other staple crop.
4. It produces most abundantly with only moderate
applications of fertilizer, the application per acre producing
the best results on the Station farm containing 62Y lbs. of
acid phosphate, 150 lbs. of cotton seed meal and 37Y lbs.
of muriate of potash, having approximately a percentage
composition of 2.6 per cent. of phosphoric acid, 3 per cent.
of nitrogen and 5 per cent. of potash.
5. There seems to be no advantage in divided applica-
tions of this fertilizer, the crop being able to utilize it all
without waste from one application.
6. The planting two pieces of seed cane in each hill is
recommended as assuring a good stand, most complaints of
failure at securing fatisfactory stands being the result of
too little seed or of the use of poor seed.
7. The crop is easily harvested from the soils to which
it is best adapted. It may be preserved without injury for
some months after harvesting, but is usually more conven-
iently used directly from the field in which it grew.
8. There is no difficulty in preserving seed-cane when
placed in beds, the ground being freshly plowed for the
purpose, if the butt ends of the canes all touch the ground
and a good covering of hay, moss or straw is placed next
the canes and further covered with a light layer of soil.
9. Cassava contains a larger amount of carbo-hydrat
food constituents, or fat forming material, than is found in
any other staple crop.
10. To secure the best results from its feeding, addi-
tions of small quantities of cotton seed meal, cow-peas or
velvet beans, whereby the proportion of protein is in-
creased, are recommended.
11. In feeding pigs, meat may be produced from cas-
sava at a cost of about 1 cent per pound. The average
cost, under identical conditions with other feed-stuffs, is
more than 3 cents per pound.
12. Cassava proves itself a most superior beef fatten-
ing food. The cost of live weight beef produced by feed-
ing cassava is 1.1 cents per pound, and in seventy-five days
a profit of 59.10 per cent. was made by fattening beef upon
13. As a raw material for the manufacture of starch,
six tons of cassava produces 2,400 pounds of commercial
starch, as against 1,200 pounds obtainable from forty bush-
els of corn.
14. Cassava is a palatable and nutritious human food,
capable of being utilized in many ways, and furnishing a
most desirable domestic substitute for many imported ar-