Right HONOURABLE the L 0 R D S
His M A JE S T Y's
Moft Honourable Privy Council.
The Humble Petition of Denys Rolle, Efq; fetting forth the Hardfhips, Inconveniencies, and Grievances, which have attended him in his Attempts to make a Settlement in Ea0 Florida, humbly praying fitch Relief, as in their Lordfhips XVifdom hall feem
A FACSIMILE REPRODUCTION OF THE 1765 EDITION, WITH AN
INTRODUCTION AND INDEX
BY Claude C. Sturgill.
A University of Florida Book.
The University Presses of Florida.
BICENTENNIAL FLORIDIANA FACSIMILE SERIES, published under the sponsorship of the
BICENTENNIAL COMMISSION OF FLORIDA,
SAMUEL PROCTOR, General Editor.
A FACSIMILE REPRODUCTION OF THE 1765 EDITION WITH PREFATORY MATERIAL, INTRODUCTION, AND INDEx ADDED.
NEW MATERIAL COPYRIGHT ( 1977
BY THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA.
PRINTED IN FLORIDA.
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
To the Right Honourable the Lords of His Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, the humble petition of Denys Rolle, esq, setting forth the hardships, inconveniences, and grievances, which have attended him in his attempts to make a settlement in east Florida ..
(Bicentennial Floridiana facsimile series) "A University of Florida book." Photoreprint ed.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Florida-History-English colony, 1763-1784-Sources.
2. Florida-Description and travel-To 1865. 3. Rolle, Denys. I. Title: Petition of Denys Rolle. II. Series. F314.R72 1977 975.9102 77-5133 ISBN 0-8130-0417-9
BICENTENNIAL COMMISSION OF FLORIDA.
Governor Reubin O'D. Askew, Honorary Chairman Lieutenant Governor J. H. Williams, Chairman Harold W. Stayman, Jr., Vice Chairman William R. Adams, Executive Director
Dick J. Batchelor, Orlando Johnnie Ruth Clarke, St. Petersburg A. H. "Gus" Craig, St. Augustine James J. Gardener, Fort Lauderdale Jim Glisson, Tavares Mattox Hair, Jacksonville Thomas L. Hazouri, Jacksonville Ney C. Landrum, Tallahassee Mrs. Raymond Mason, Jacksonville Carl C. Mertins, Jr., Pensacola Charles E. Perry, Miami W. E. Potter, Orlando F. Blair Reeves, Gainesville Richard R. Renick, Coral Gables Jane W. Robinson, Cocoa Mrs. Robert L. Shevin, Tallahassee Don Shoemaker, Miami Mary L. Singleton, Jacksonville Bruce A. Smathers, Tallahassee Alan Trask, Fort Meade
iv Bicentennial Commission.
Edward J. Trombetta, Tallahassee Ralph D. Turlington, Tallahassee William S. Turnbull, Orlando Robert Williams, Tallahassee Lori Wilson, Merritt Island
GENERAL EDITOR'S PREFACE.
PEOPLING the "pine barrens or sandy desarts" became a critical need of Britain after its acquisition of the two Florida provinces at the end of the French and Indian War. Article 20 of the Peace of Paris, signed on February 10, 1763, ceded "Florida, with Fort St. Augustin, and the Bay of Pensacola, as well as all that Spain possesses on the continent of North America, to the East or to the South East of the River Mississippi." Not much was known of this empty wilderness, and the few contemporary accounts described it as "poor and mean." But whether it was another "Bagshot Heath," as one critic called it, or whether England had lost too much by exchanging Florida for the rich port of Havana was no longer the real issue. Florida was now part of the British Empire, and because of its proximity to the Caribbean and to the Mississippi Valley, it had to be protected. Although Spain and France had lost the war, they still had powerful fleets which might, if the circumstances were right, attack Pensacola and St. Augustine. Bringing settlers in, establishing towns and cities, developing an economy, and manning
Vi Preface. fortifications achieved the needed protection and strengthened the colonies.
A variety of publicists were enjoined to put Florida's best foot forward. The government launched a major publicity campaign to "sell" Florida to would-be settlers and colonists and to make it attractive for land development. Articles appeared in Gentleman's Magazine and other English and Scottish periodicals, and a number of books and pamphlets were published. They described East and West Florida as a veritable New Eden whose temperate climate, rich soil, and abundant waterways could sustain a large population and a flourishing economy.
The Floridas were caught up in the irrepressible American land boom after 1763, and fortunately there were enough vacant acres available for anyone willing to settle. The government instituted a generous landgrant policy, and persons with connections at Court and in the ministries petitioned for and received sizable land grants, ranging from 5,000 to 20,000 acres. Between 1764 and 1770, the Privy Council issued 227 Orders in Council for 2,856,000 acres of land in East Florida. During that period only 2,108,000 acres were allotted in Nova Scotia, New York, Quebec, and West Florida combined. Members of the nobility, army and navy officers, government officials, members of Parliament, physicians, and merchants were among those seeking Florida acreage.
The Earl of Dartmouth and his four sons received 20,000 acres each, the Earl of Tyrone and his two sons, 20,000 acres each, and Dr. Andrew Turnbull obtained grants of 5,000 acres each for his four children, in addition to 20,000 acres for himself. Among the great baronets who received Orders in Council for land in East Florida were the Duke of Buccleuch, the Earl of Cassi, and the Earl of Thanet. Patrick Tonyn, later governor of East Florida; John Stuart of Charleston
who was superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Southern Department; Sir William Duncan; Captain Robert Bisset; Sir Edward (later Lord) Hawke; Richard Oswald, the peace commissioner in Paris in 1782 and a prosperous merchant and planter; and Lord Adam Gordon, the fourth son of the second Dukepf Gordon, all petitioned for large tracts of Florida land. Lord Adam was a Scotsman and a friend of Governor James Grant who became, the leader of the East Florida lobby in London. He helped organize the East Florida Society, which consisted of a group of influential Britons who met monthly at the Shakespeare Hotel, a tavern in Covent Garden. Their main order of business at these sessions was to discuss their development plans for Florida.
An Order in Council was not a grant. The land had to be selected, surveyed, and then the survey had to be recorded with the governor who would issue the formal grant. Each grantee had to settle "the lands with protestant White Inhabitants within ten Years from the Date of the Grant in the proportion of one person for every hundred Acres." Various settlement schemes for East Florida were advanced, but very few reached the stage of formal grants. Dr. William Stork, a physician, botanist, and member of the Royal Society, offered to bring over a party of industrious Germans if the government would provide one of the King's sloops to transport the settlers. M. Vivegnis proposed sending over 1,000 munition workers from Liege whom the war had left unemployed. He thought theV could establish an armaments plant in Florida. John Daniel Roux, a citizen of Lausanne, wanted to settle a colony of Swiss, and John Augustus Earnst, a German then living in England, proposed a community of Swiss and German Protestants.
Of the many proposals, only Dr. Andrew Turnbull's at New Smyrna and Denys Rolle's at Rolle
viii Preface. Town on the St. Johns River near present-day Palatka became realities. Rolle's plantation was at Mount Pleasant on the east bank of the St. Johns River between Picolata and Spalding's middle trading house, and not far from a ferry-crossing. After much hesitation and indecision, which greatly irritated Governor Grant, Rolle established his plantation on this site in the fall of 1764. He suffered many setbacks, and blamed his difficulties on the governor's obstructive conduct and the lack of proper law and order. His plan to develop a Florida colony and his frustration over his failures were described in his Petition, which he wrote in 1765 and had privately printed. Denys Rolle set forth his case in a bombastic and heated fashion. His document is filled with half-truths and exaggerations. Yet, Rolle's Petition, which has been edited by Professor Claude Sturgill of the University of Florida for publication in .the Bicentennial Floridiana Facsimile Series, presents information about life and conditions on the East Florida frontier which is nowhere else available. It broadens our knowledge and understanding of those important years in East Florida prior to the American Revolution.
Rolle Town survived fitfully for a few years, and was an abandoned property at the close of the British Period. At the time of th Revolution its buildings were moldering, and only the overseer lived in the mansion house. In 1783, Rolle petitioned for and received a very, generous settlement of several thousand pounds compensating him for the money and time that he claimed he had invested in his Florida properties. Charles Loch Mowat, in his seminal study, East Florida as a British Province, 1763-1784, states that by 1823 all vestiges of Rolle Town were gone, except for a few excavations and a long avenue, the beginning of a grand highway to St. Augustine.
The Petition is one of the twenty-five out-of-print volumes of Florida history being published under the sponsorship of the American Revolution Bicentennial Commission of Florida. The titles in the series represent the full spectrum of Florida's rich and exciting history, which stretches back nearly half a millenium. Each volume has been edited by a recognized scholar who has written an introduction and compiled an index. In publishing the Bicentennial Floridiana Facsimile Series, the Florida Bicentennial Commission has made a lasting contribution to the scholarship of Florida and American history.
The editor of Denys Rolle's Petition is Professor Claude C. Sturgill, who has been a member of the history faculty at the University of Florida since 1969. A graduate of the University of Kentucky, he earlier taught at Western Kentucky University, Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh, and East Carolina University. He is the author of several books, and his many articles have appeared in scholarly and professional journals in the United States and throughout the world. He is an authority on European military history and the history of the French military system during the early eighteenth century.
The cooperation of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University was essential to the production of this facsimile, and we are grateful for it.
General Editor of the
University of Florida.
ONE of the most fascinating aspects of the historical profession is the quality which we call perspective. In a society in which the sheer volume of information, distributive and investigative services has grown in size and procedures to the point where it is possible to know very nearly all things about a person living in the twentieth century, it is rather difficult to convince the general public, and from time to time to convince even historians whose training and interests are limited to the contemporary, rather narrow frame of their own lifetimes, that this enormous bulk of material has not survived for past cultures. This is especially true. of Americans who, for one reason or another, have come to believe that certain archives and systems have come down through the generations intact. And by intact they seem to think that this means all the information available on contemporary people, places, and things was available also in a bygone era and that these data have been retained. This error in the general perspective of many historians, and even more so in the American public at large, is nowhere better illustrated than in the treatment of Denys Rolle, Esquire, by the
Public Record Office of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
All of the records for an era even as recent as the colonial history of eighteenth-century America have not survived in the Public Office. The general decay of paper, water damage, and occasional losses from war and other untoward events have reduced the supply. Furthermore, records reduction, the system by which the less important items in files are thrown away, oftentimes without even being extracted or registered, was practiced by every public body in the eighteenthcentury English government. Members of boards and commissions such as the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations often took their correspondence with them on completing their terms of office, as did the ministers of state when stepping down as a result of the various changes in government. Also, this was not an era of tape recorders, and government officials preferred to carry many important decisions and conversations in their heads. For example, the English secret service was managed and paid by post office officials throughout the eighteenth century. This arrangement was rather an open secret in the contemporary era, but the account ledgers and files of correspondence between intelligence agents and their superiors are almost nonexistent. Then there is the fact that all persons, of high or low estate, usually record only what they consider to be necessary or convenient. Governments really are not run with the judgments of future historians in mind. A sense of political survival is the high gear of politicians in any era.
Yet, it is the necessary hunt for information to fill in the gaps, the trying-to-bridge the multitude of tidbits of information, that makes the historian engaged in the study of a time earlier than the present, or perhaps what is coming to be called the pre-typewriterage, appear like a Sherlock Holmes pawing through
dusty documents and rather often using his intuition and subjective judgment when the facts are lacking.
All things from birth to death are not known about Denys Rolle. Persons unknown threw a lot of material concerning this upcountry esquire away or just did not bother to record much information. But then not that much is known about Benjamin Franklin in his pre-"bread under each arm" stroll through Philadelphia, or for that matter about Lieutenant Governor James Grant of East Florida prior to his promotion to the grade of captain in the British Army during the War of the Austrian Succession. Denys Rolle has been researched again and again by historians in America and abroad. But there has been no significantly new information uncovered on him since the summer of 1918 when A. J. Mayes of 63 Lancaster Road, Stroud Green in London, sent pencil-transcribed copies of letters from the Public Record Office to Miss Carita Doggett of Jacksonville, Florida.' All of the subsequent writings concerning Denys Rolle, including the works of the late Charles Loch Mowat and the present introduction to Rolle's Petition, stem from this research.2
Denys Rolle remains as much a man of mystery now, insofar as the usual historical facts are concerned, as he was in 1918. The amount of known information on Rolle and his Florida ventures has not been expanded to any great extent since that date .3 Even Sherlock Holmes could not invent facts where none were recorded, but he could and did interpret what was available.
Rolle has been rather harshly dealt with by previous historians, especially by Professor Mowat.4 Perhaps it was true that the settlers in Rolle Town on the St. Johns River in East Florida did spend most of their time in drinking and frivolity, but there does not appear to be sufficient extant source materials to document a total existence of idleness and non-productivity.
Xiv Introduction. Sir Lewis Bernstein and his associates used the same Sources that were available to Mowat in compiling the official biography of Rolle for The House, of Commons, 1754-1790, admittedly a lackluster text.5 There is little new on the life of Denys Rolle to present to the reader except his Petition, his great outpouring of bitter frustration springing from his dismal failure in East Florida in 1764 and 1765, which has never before been reprinted.
Professor Mowat knew of Rolle's Petition, although he made little reference to it. It does increase measurably our understanding of its author. It is not. a pleasant story which Rolle recounts, there is no grim undertone of humor piesent anywhere *in it. Denys 'Rolle is revealed as typical of his gen .eration of upcountry, backbench, English gentlemen, a good example of that generation of the English squirearchy which destroyed the First British Empire.
Denys Rolle sent his Petition to the House of Commons because his first efforts to become a wealthy southern planter had failed. This short printed diatribe, directed mainly against the colonial administration and James Grant, governor of British East Florida, was written in 1765, and was privately printed with only enough copies for presentation to a few English ministers and the opposition members of the House. The text is filled with bombastic, vitriolic phraseology and half-truths which the colonial administration in St. Augustine had no difficulty in countering so long as Denys Rolle's political persuasion remained that of the Parliamentary opposition. After Yorktown in 1781, when this opposition became the government, Rolle's position became that of a wronged man comforted by the politicians in power, and he sought to recover most if not all of his investments.
Denys Rolle was born in 1725, the fourth son of John Rolle, member of Parliament from Stevenstone,
Devonshire. John Rolle was of the gentry, a graduate of New College at Oxford, and the father of six children. The family lands were inherited by Denys' eldest brother, another brother entered the army, and a third died. Denvs, the fourth son, elected to run for his father's vacated seat in Parliament, and in 1761 he became the representative from Barnstaple in Devonshire. True to his family and political heritage, he voted against the peace preliminaries at the end of the Seven Years' War, thus identifying himself with the faction opposing the king's position
There is nothing in the record to show definitely why or how Rolle became interested in settling in Florida. He was the youngest son and without a fortune of his own. He did not stand to inherit, and the members of Commons served without pay. Rolle undoubtedly cast about for a way to get rich quick, and after 1763 the new colonies, those which seemed to offer the greatest apparent opportunities, were East and West Florida. There were many others in Britain at the same time who were casting covetous eyes towards the vacant lands available in the Florida provinces.
Those provinces had become English possessions in 1763 almost by accident. It was an unmapped and unchartered territory about which little was known. The Spanish had moved out wholesale, leaving little in the way of settlement behind. The climate was tropical and considered unhealthy. But at a time when the oceans had become important battlefields, Florida's proximity both to the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico had to be taken into consideration. The harbors at Pensacola and St. Augustine were to be denied to the Spanish, and any attempt to strengthen the new Spanish territories in Louisiana had to be thwarted. The British government and the merchant companies mounted a major campaign to sell Florida as an ideal place for settlement. The military who occupied St.
Xvi Introduction. Augustine on July 20, 1763, saw that the vast area between the Atlantic, the St. Johns River, and Mosquito Inlet was empty save for abundant wildlife and an occasional Indian. The rest of East Florida, from the St. Johns to Tampa Bay and St. Marks on the Gulf was virtually unknown, although it was believed to be a region of great, if undefined, wealth.
Land promotion was typically extravagant, and then, as now, the printed word and even the mails were used to attract clients. One such effort, in January 1767, stated, "there is no class of men so much interested in, getting grants of land in East Florida, as the middling gentry of England, and the younger sons of good familiesz'7 This was an apt description of the social and economic position of Denys Rolle.
Rolle had originally intended to settle Cumberland Island off the coast of Georgia, but that property had already passed into private hands, so instead he accepted a grant of 20,000 acres in East Florida.8 The conditions by which he would be judged by the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations were detailed on the back of his grant: "Lay out a Parish of 100 acres in the form. as usual, and reserve the [said] Township of 20,000 acres. Grant one of these to [Denys Rolle] Esq.-if settled in two years according to the Conditions, entitle him to another, and so from two years to two years till he obtains the whole. Forfiture of the first Township if not settled, and so of second and forfiture invalidate all future right." Thus Rolle had two years, or until the spring of 1766, to settle the first parish with white settlers, survey a township, and to cultivate a crop of foodstuffs.
It is possible to believe that Rolle was either a dupe or stupid, but neither was actually the case. The Petition of 1765 was written by a man who fully intended to get rich one way or the other. Rolle knew what was expected when the Privy Council approved the action
of the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations and when it placed an additional stipulation on the grant: "That the Governor or Commander in Chief of His Majesty's Province of East Florida for the time being do cause Twenty Thousand Acres of Land to be Surveyed in one Contiguous Tract in such part of the Said Province as the said Denys Rolle or his Agent shall choose, not already Granted or Surveyed to others, and upon a Return of such Survey, Conformable to His Majesty's Directions in his general Instructions to pass a Grant for the same to Said Denys Rolle under the Seal of the said Province, upon the following Terms, Conditions and Reservations-viz." The terms directed that one Protestant white per 100 acres had to be living on the land within ten years, a minimum of 200 persons, and that if fewer than 134 whites were settled in the ten years, the entire grant would revert to the Crown. It further stipulated that each year at the celebration of the Feast of St. Michael on September 29, an annual rent of forty-two pounds sterling would be paid commencing with the fifth anniversary of the next Feast of St. Michael (at current exchange rates this is about 100 dollars). It was also. agreed that all places thought proper for the erection of fortifications or port facilities and mines of profitable natural resources would be reserved to the Crown.10
Rolle sailed from England on June 10, 1764, with fourteen white colonists. The party reached Charleston, South Carolina, after an arduous voyage of fourteen weeks, on about August 10.11 The passage had been through rough seas and on short water rations much of the way. After arriving in Charleston, six of the colonists decided to stav there, having obtained better offers from local residents. Rolle gained one settler when a member of his party married a Charleston lady. There were nine Protestants in the group which arrived at St. Augustine on September 13, 1764. 12
xviii Introduction. Governor Grant welcomed Rolle, and immediately encouraged him to select the land provided under the terms of the grant.'13Rolle wanted to establish his settlement at St. Marks, the site of the old Spanish fort, but was distressed to find out how little was known of that region. There was still no formal understanding with the Indians, especially with the Creeks living in that area, and Rolle wondered if he might find himself too far from the protective guns of the St. Augustine garrison.
Rolle next decided that he would settle somewhere along the St. Johns River, close enough to St. Augustine to secure both supplies and protection. Governor Grant objected to Rolle's peremptory decision, and threatened to "make strong representations to the Board of Trade against him for altering his intention"~ to locate at St. Marks. Grant was forced to admit, however, that Rolle's grant allowed him the flexibility "to set down in any part of the province." The governor then agreed to a colony at Fort Picolata on the St. Johns River, a few miles west of St. Augustine. Rolle then decided Picolata was not satisfactory, and started to look elsewhere. This unwillingness to act decisively became Rolle's great weakness. After more delay, he and his party.
on land settlement, and agreed to limit his own plantation activities until that meeting took place. He also declared that if the Indians would "permit the Great King's People to settle, they would find him always friendly, and endeavouring- to be of'Service to them; but, if it was not consented to at that Conference.. he would burn up his Hutts, and go away with all his People."
Rolle invited "Warriors or Head-men" to dine with him, and for the others he provided provisions. At his request, the Indians often hunted for him and "sometimes brought him Presents of Venison, Honey, Bearsmeat, Buffaloes Tongues, Bear-skins, Sieves." Rolle wrote that he was anxious to encourage trade by barter, and that he spent much time teaching English, the methods of weights and measures, and "instilling the highest Notions of the English Power from the Conquests of the late war, of their Justice and Generosity from the late Peace." Always he found the Indians to be "his. Friends -when intoxicated with Liquor, as well as when sober; he found a Respect in both Situations, which must proceed from the Heart." They called him "the Squire," and admired him so much that "my own Person would have a safe Conduct throughout their Country unattended, unarmed. My Conversation by Signs alone, under that Name, would convey me everywhere."'4
The settlers found it difficult to adjust to the loneliness and isolation of the Florida wilderness. Many of them, Rolle claimed, "were enticed away or abducted," and he received no support from Governor. Grant. in this matter. Perhaps these people found life more attractive in St. Augustine than at Rolle Town. His relations with the governor became increasingly acrimonious.. Grant, Rolle charged, obstructed "his attempts to fix the Boundaries of his Property, did nothing to arrange the necessary Conference with the Indians, whom
xx Introduction. he stirred up by Gifts of Rum, and refused to encourage Settlements. ... at a Place where Indians were likely to come over the River on account of its Narrowness."
As early as November 22, 1764, Governor Grant informed the Board of Trade and Plantations: "Mr. Rolle arrived here on the 13th September. He was then anxious to proceed by Land to Appalachi; I gave him Letters to Mr. Stuart the Superintendent and to the Commanding Officer at St. Marks, provided Guides and Hunters for him upon easy Terms, but, after every Thing was prepared as far as was in my Power for his Journey, he altered his Opinion without giving any Reason for it, and went to the River St. Johns, where he has been fior several weeks-During that time the few People he brought out with him, have left him, and he is now, as I am informed, at a Place called Mount Pleasant, almost alone.15a
.Later, in his Petition, Rolle blamed Grant, some East Florida colonists, soldiers of the garrison, rascal servants, highwaymen, dishonest officials, and others for his problems in getting settled.16 There is no reason why misfortune should have plagued Rolle, but the fact is that he was a failure in his first attempts to establish his Florida colony. On November 24, 1764, Grant wrote of his bewilderment at Rolle's attitude and his concern at the gentleman's lack of direction. The governor wished to help. He wrote to Rolle: "If, after receiving this Letter, which I flatter myself is sufficiently explicit, though not more so than .my Words have been, you should still have any Doubt left with Regard to your Affairs in this Country, if you will take the Trouble to state them in Writing, I shall endeavour, if it is in my Power, to solve them; but I beg to be excused from talking any more upon the Subject." 17
Perhaps Rolle was struck by fear of the frontier. Distances were great and travel difficult. His back-
ground and training had not prepared him to accept the realization that even on the east bank of the St. Johns River, just a few miles from St. Augustine, he was beyond the reach of customary English protection. Indians, he claimed, stole his horses.'8 A hired hunter violated his contract and was rude to him.'9 The magistrates in St. Augustine would not enforce the laws to suit him.20 The official surveyor, William Gerard De Brahm, was slow in coming to Rolle Town, and then he was not a man of his liking.2' All of these relatively minor problems on a raw frontier distressed Denys Rolle. He could not seem to cope with this great wilderness, although his settlement was only some thirty miles from the sally port of the fortress at St. Augustine.22 Rolle wished to change the terms of his land grant, something which Grant opposed.3 De Brahm, surveyor general for the Southern Department and surveyor general for East Florida, arrived in St. Augustine the last week of January 1765 to begin the general survey of the colony, including Rolle Town. Rolle was notified that he only needed to select his property and be prepared to point out the proposed boundaries when De Brahm or one of his deputies arrived.24 He delayed even taking this action.
Rolle, though, continued with his misfortunes. His cattle were run off.25 He could not get along with the deputy surveyor, asked for one of his own, and then argued with this second man.26 Governor Grant, whose bewilderment had begun turning to anger, wrote the Lords Commissioners on March 1, 1765: "Mr. Rolle first intended, as your Lordships know, to go to Apalache, his Plan was changed a few Days after he arrived here. He went to look at the Province, and formed a sort of Settlement at Mount Pleasant upon the River St. John's, where he has been for six Months; In the course of that Time, going further up the River, he found a Spot which pleased him better, he called it
xxii Introduction. Mount Royal27-built a Logg-house by way of taking Possession, and told me that he would run out his Tract there. Upon Mr. De Brahm's arrival, in the end of January, I immediately Issued a Warrant of Survey for Twenty Thousand Acres for Mr. Rolle in Terms of the King's Order in Council, And as Mr. de Brahm was to proceed upon the General Survey, I sent a Deputy Surveyor to attend Mr. Rolle, Who then declined running out his Land, and said that he must take Time to consider it. The Deputy Surveyor returned. Mr. Rolle followed in a few Days, and told me that if the Land was not good, the Quit Rent of Forty Pounds per Year would be a Load upon his Family, that he had Children and must think of it before he fixed, and that he was going to England. I observed to him that he had delivered the King's Order to me, in consequence of which a Warrant of Survey was issued, empowering him to take up his Twenty Thousand Acres wherever he or his Agent pleased, And that after being so long in the Country, if he went Home without runing out his Estate, or giving a Power to his Agent to do so, It would appear very extraordinary. The few People he brought from England have left him, and he has gathered together Eight or Ten wandering Woodsmen with their Wives and Children, who make about Twenty in Number."28
This letter is a fair appraisal of the tale of Denys Rolle in East Florida to this point in time. Tempers flared between Rolle and Governor Grant.29 Rolle glossed over this period in his Petition by writing of his assumption of the eighteenth-century gentleman's burden, that is the care and education of the pagan red man. He added many paragraphs describing his fear of settlement on "his lands by other colonists moving down from Georgia and South Carolina with their Negroes!"'30 These blandishments in his Petition must have been an attempt to cover his true position, for
Rolle wrote to Grant on April 25, 1765: I have "acted the more prudent Part in engaging fewer in the Inconveniences" and am "justified, perhaps, from the unsettled Opinion of the Indians, the unprovided State of the Country on the one Hand, and the Vicinity of St. Augustine, and two already settled Colonies at the other."3' This then was Rolle's position when he began composing his Petition. He decided that he would go himself to Parliament for redress of his grievances.
Grant's reply to this April 1765 letter of Rolle was direct.32 The governor once again reviewed his actions, and agreed that it was unfortunate that Rolle was having trouble with other colonists wanting the same land that he did. Grant then threw down the gauntlet, or so it must have seemed to Rolle: "When you Came into this Province above seven Months ago, a single Acre of Land had not been granted .. you therefore have had a long Time to look at the Country, and have had it in your Power to make Choice of any Tract you pleased in the Province, without Exception, so that no future Grantee can ever come into -it with the same Advantage with Regard to Locality; and, upon the Whole, you must excuse .me for not complying with your Request [to reserve tracts of land until Rolle could return from England], as I should be very blameable if I presumed to postpone granting away Land when Letters offer upon a Supposition that the, Conditions of His Majesty's Order in Council, granted to you in May 1764, upon a Representation from the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, may be altered upon your Return to England." What Grant implied was that Denys Rolle had dissipated his advantage and should not look to the colonial administration for redress.
Rolle must have been far more threatening than the extant source materials illustrate or Grant more cautious than his correspondence demonstrates because,
xxiv Introduction. in a letter to the Lords Commissioners on May 8, 1765, the governor enclosed Rolle's statement of April 25. Grant was indignant over Rolle's demand to keep "different Spotts ungranted 'till he [goes] to England." He explained, "I trouble your Lordships with these Circumstances because Mr. Rolle must give some Reason for his Conduct, and therefore I think it right to prevent his imputing any Part of it to me."133 And so it went for the remainder of Rolle's first stay in East Florida. He would complain about any number of things, and the governor would almost beg Rolle to take some decisive action.
Rolle did return to England after a little less than one year's residence in East Florida. His Petition was rejected by Parliament. He did not bare his soul or unleash his smoldering resentment in his Petition; he reserved that for an appearance before the Privy Council on October 30, 1766. According to his complaint, "The whole Expense of Civil and Military Government as maintained in the present Form [in East Florida] is very great and without having any material or visible beneficial Effect .. t'is to be feared that the apparent Shew of Opulence in St. Augustine cannot be maintained by the Salaries alone paid by the Mother Country. .. That this expensive Fort affords no Security to a distant Planter. Your Petitioner therefore from the just Motives he has had in View would be extremely concerned should any Part of his Memorial be interpreted to place an improper Liberty in the Subject to the Diminution of the Prerogatives of the Crown."34 The Privy Council, without dissent, ordered the complaint dismissed on December 3, 1766.
However, Rolle still sought success, and the home government probably preferred that he reside in East Florida, far away from London. Accordingly, Governor Grant received a note on December 11, 1766, which read: "I must recommend to you so bold
and useful a Colonist as Denys Rolle, Esq. 1135There is no record of Grant's reaction to this communication. Rolle did return to Florida.
Although his Petition was refused by the majority party in Parliament and he was seriously rebuffed bv the Privy Council, Rolle's cause must have been at least casually taken up by the opposition party, otherwise his Petition, would never have reached a vote on the floor of the House of Commons nor would he have been granted a personal hearing before the Privy Council. And his cause must have been taken up, rather seriously by the opposition because by June 27, 1767, James Grant was defending his actions to the home government. The governor's explanations were specific. He noted: "Denys Rolle, Esq., who is here for the second Time, is as much undetermined a's when he arrived in September, 1764. At that Time there was not an Acre disposed of in the Province, and yet he could not fix. The Governor has done everything in his Power to accommodate this Gentleman, but to no Purpose; he will not run but his Tract according to the King's Order, and he has often been told that the Governor cannot deviate from his Instructions. If Mr. Rolle goes on as he has done, he says that he will undoubtedly ruin himself without being of the least Use to the Province, where he has more Disputes, Differences, Quarrels and Grievances than all the other Inhabitants.' 136
In his Petition Rolle suggests that he is a man of great substance who had invested large sums of money in his East Florida venture. Yet, there are only a very few instances when Rolle's business affairs are mentioned anywhere in the papers of the South Carolina merchant-factor Henry Laurens. Rolle's agent in East Florida was one William Penn. Four letters written by Laurens between November 21, 1767, and October 1, 1768, deal mainly with Penn's shipment of rum and the sale of a few other goods, all amounting to less
xxvi Introduction. than 100 pounds sterling. Laurens shared Governor Grant's opinion of Rolle. In a letter to Penn he wrote, "but between you and I it is my Opinion that he [Rolle] gains most by those of his Servants who do run away." Again, in the same vein, Laurens noted, "This new Consignment [26 people] was certainly very unwelcome to me because I foresaw that it would produce no Benefit to our enthusiastic Friend & and occasion me a great Deal of Trouble, but for once more me thought I would humour him. But no sooner was the Ship to Wharf & the Master gone .. than the whole Body March'd on Shoar & scatter'd themselves in twenty different Parts of the Town. With great Difficulty [the ship captain] has collected 12 out of 26." Correspondence such as this must have been very common in the story of Denys Rolle's attempts to settle a plantation in East Florida.38
Rolle returned to England a second time, and was re-elected to Parliament during this period. Sometime after January 1768, his plantation in East Florida must have been surveyed since he returned to it in 1778 and remained in East Florida for two years. In the meantime he had been defeated for re-election to Parliament by a candidate, who according to his son, had been sent down by the Court to oppose him.
When Rolle arrived in Florida in 1778, he brought 150 black field hands with him, and placed them under the control of competent, experienced overseers.39 As it turned out, his Florida plantations, for there were several of them, now became profitable ventures. After the surrender of the British forces at Yorktown and the fall of the government of Lord North, the personal political power of George III was eclipsed. The news that East Florida would be returned to Spain, brought Denys Rolle forward to reap his reward with a claim for reimbursement.
Introduction. xxvii Now, in 1783, he had become a true and loyal friend of the political party in power. He described himself as a man who had suffered under the hands of the late, unlamented tyranny. His petition to the Privy Council of September 10, 1783, was granted. "That your Majesty was graciously pleased in the year 1764 to grant to your Memoralist 20,000 Acres of Land in East Florida which with Purchases made since of other Tracts in that Province, makes your Memoralist's property therein 80,140 Acres .... The value of said Lands together with Negroes, Buildings, Plantations, Stores, etc. is 28,488 pounds sterling."40 By way of compensation Rolle asked that he be given either Mogane or Marguana island in the Bahamas, and this was accorded. From the wording of the Privy Council decision Rolle could select the island of his choice, and his movables would then be transported there.
Rolle's property, including his slaves, were taken aboard the Peace and Plenty in October 1783, and it sailed for the Island of Exuma in the Bahamas.4' By November 1, 1785, Rolle owned ninety-eight slaves.42 On his application for reimbursement for his "heavy losses," both in East Florida and in the Bahama Islands, the Privy Council granted Rolle 19,886 pounds, 17 shillings sterling.43
Denys Rolle died in June 1797, in Stevenstone, Devonshire. His eldest son John (1756-1842) had been elected to Parliament in 1780, and counted himself among the opposition to the government until that opposition became the government. While it cannot be proven, John Rolle was undoubtedly of assistance to his father's claims for compensation for his losses in Florida and the Bahamas. John Rolle remained in the Commons until 1796, when he received the title of Baron Rolle of Stevenstone. Unfortunately he did not leave issue by either of his two wives. Perhaps that is
the reason why the Rolle family papers have been lost. Or perhaps, the collection agencies of the nineteenth century would not have considered them worthy of preservation or even have thought of them as ancient history. Thus the full story of Denys Rolle, the author of the Petition, is still lost to history.
CLAUDE C. STURGILL.
University of Florida.
1. These pencil copies are deposited in the library of the Florida Historical Society, University of South Florida Library, Tampa. Typescripts are in the P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History, University of Florida, Gainesville. Carita Doggett Corse was the director of the WPA Federal Writers' Project for the state of Florida and is a noted Florida historian.
2. Especially Charles Loch Mowat, East Florida as a British Province, 1763-1784 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1943; facsimile edition, Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1964), which mentions Rolle's Petition in the bibliography, although there is little actual textual usage, and his article, "The Tribulations of Denys Rolle," Florida Historical Quarterly 33 (July 1944): 1-14. Both Mowat and Carita Doggett Corse, "Denys Rolle and Rolletown," Florida Historical Quarterly, 7 (October 1928): 115-34, tend to view Rolle as a mixture of romantic merchant adventurer and an idealist.
3. Some additional information was located in the Henry Laurens letterbooks, South Carolina Historical Society, for which the author is grateful to Dr. David R. Chesnutt, assistant editor of the Papers of Henry Laurens which are being published as a series by the University of South Carolina Press.
4. Mowat, "Tribulations of Denys Rolle," pp. 1-14.
5. Sir Lewis Bernstein, ed., The House of Conmons, 17541790 (London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1964), 3:371-73.
7. Gentleman's Magazine (January 1767), pp. 21-22. See also Charles Loch Mowat, "The First Campaign of Publicity for Florida," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 3 (December 1943): 359-76.
8. Great Britain, Public Record Office, Colonial Office 391/ 71, folio 26.
9. Ibid., 51540, folio 119.
10. Ibid.; Privy Council Register, 110:459-60.
11. See this facsimile edition, pp. 2-3.
12. Ibid., pp. 5-6.
13. Ibid., Appendix, James Grant to Denys Rolle, St. Augustine, September 14, 1764, pp. 1-3.
14. See this facsimile edition, pp. 7-13.
15. Great Britain, Public Record Office, Colonial Office, 51 540, folio 234. Mount Pleasant was for all practical purposes on the site of present day Palatka.
16. See this facsimile edition, pp. 7-8.
17. Ibid., Appendix, James Grant to Denys Rolle, St. Augustine, September 24, 1764, pp. 4-7.
18. See this facsimile edition, p. 14.
19. Ibid.9 po 17* 20. Ibid., p. 18.
2 1. Ibid., P. 19.
22. Ibid., Appendix, John Gordon to Denys Rolle, St. Augustine, November 5, 1764, pp. 7-8; Denys Rolle to John Gordon, The Narrows, St. John's River, November 21, 1764, p. 8; Denys Rolle to Governor Grant, January 15, 1765, pp. 9-10.
23. See this facsimile edition, p. 22.
24. Ibid., Appendix, James Grant to Denys Rolle, St. Augustine, February 3, 1765, pp. 13-14.
25. See this facsimile edition, p. 23.
26. Ibid., pp. 24-25.
27. The present-day Mount Royal. There is no reason to believe that Denys Rolle established the first ferry across the St. Johns at this point.
28. Great Britain, Public Record Office, Colonial Office, 51 540, folios 357-58.
29. See this facsimile edition, Appendix, Denys Rolle to James Grant, The Narrows of the St. John's River, March 18, 1765, pp. 15-20; James Grant to Denys Rolle, St. Augustine, March 21, 1765, pp. 20-22; James Grant to Denys Rolle, St. Augustine, April 23, 1765, pp. 22-24.
30. See this facsimile edition, pp. 35-60.
31. Ibid., Appendix, Denys Rolle to James Grant, The Narrows, St. John's River, April 25, 1765, pp. 24-25. See the original of this letter in Great Britain, Public Record Office, Colonial Office, 5/540, folios 397-400, addressed to James Grant.
32. See this facsimile edition, Appendix, James Grant to Denys Rolle, Augustine, April 26, 1765, pp. 26-29.
33. Great Britain, Public Record Office, Colonial Office, 51 500, folio 393.
34. Ibid., Privy Council, 1/52, October 30, 1766.
35. Bernstein, The House of Commons, 3:372.
36. Great Britain, Public Record Office, Manuscripts of the Marquis of Lansdowne, vol. 52, folio 307.
37. The Henry Laurens letterbooks, South Carolina Historical Society. See also journal of the Commissioners for Trade and Plantations (London, 1920-1938) 13:135, "Board of Trade Journal for 1768" for the identification of William Penn as Rolle's agent.
38. See also Great Britain, Public Record Office, Colonial Office, 5/550, folios 23-24, James Grant to the Earl of Hillsborough, December 24, 1768.
39. Ibid., Manuscripts of the Marquis of Lansdowne, vol. 66, folios 685-86 and Register No. 28, February 2, 1783.
40. Ibid., Privy Council, 1/57, folio 85.
41. Ibid., Lansdowne, vol. 77, folio 15.
44. Dictionary of National Biography, 17: 163-64.
Right HONOURABLE the LORDS
His M AJESTY's
Moft Honourable Privy Council.
The Humble Petition of Denys Relle, Efq; getting
forth the Hardfhips, Inconveniencies, and Grievances, which have attended him in his Attempts to make a Settlement in Ea]? Florida, humbly praying fitch Relief, as in their Lordfhips ,Vifdom fall feem
rour Petitloner humbly rtprefents,
SH A T in the Year, 1764., he formed a Plan for
the fettling two Plantations in the Southern Part of North America, one on fome River that might be found running into the Bay of Mexico, convenient for the Wiefl Indian Trade; another on the Alatamaha in Georgia, emptying itfelf into the dtlantic Ocean for the European Commerce, as far up the faid Rivers as Navigation would permit, in order to poffefs the ihorteft Communication of Land Portage, for Commodities, of fuch light Weight, as could bear the Expence of it, rendered fare by preferring the Indian Friendship in the Eftablifhment of a Trading StoreHoufe, on the middle Spot of that Communication, with clear, exprefs, and honourable Terms of Trade.
That being informed by the Lords Commiffioners of Trade, a late Indian Treaty with Georgia precluded A his
his fettling fo high up the River dlatamaha, he then fixed his Intention of finding out, if poffible, a shorter, tnote probable, Communication in Eqfl Florida; he mentioned St. Mark's, and fome other proper Place, to be fearched for on the Eaftcrn Shore. He alfo propofed that thefe Settlements might have fome proper Judicature eftablifhed within themselves, that might tend to preferve Peace and good Order, and prevent the Jealoufy of Neighbours from injuring the Infant Settle. ments; but this was reduced to an Order for a single contiguous Lot of twenty thoufand Acres, with Directions to fettle two hundred white Perfons in ten Years, one Third of which within three Years, Power of Re-entry on Non-performance of Conditions, Exception of all Mines whatfoever. A Firflt Experiment, for the Infurance of future Adventurers, he found the Methods of Settlements unalterable, therefore obje&ed no further to the Terms prefcribed, but faid he would accept it under thofe Refiri&ions, and would go and make the Attempt in Perfon.
That he embarqued with fourteen People the ioth of 7une 1764, with fome Imputation of kidnapping People for his Settlement, which induced him to wait on the firit Lord of Trade, to reprefent'the Neceflity, he thought, of preventing Misfortanes that might arife to Families thereby, in the Privation of their Children, by fome Enquiries and Bonds given to the CUftomHoufe Officers, at the different Pofts by Maters of Ships carrying Paffengers. Though many Cafes have appeared, and many more probably not known of fuch Loffes, yet it, did not either appear of fuch Importance to his Lordfhip, or the Provifion, mentioned by him against it, feemed improper. It can be esteemed no Digreflion, from the State of his Cafe, to mention Circumflances attending his Voyage, a Reflexion on parallel or extraordinary Cafes, within his Knowledge, Humanity he diftrufis not Will excufe. His Care, in the Provifion for his Voyage, extended to the putting a Board two Puncheons and one Hogfhead of Water, for his Fowls, &c. but a Deficiency in the Captain's Provifion for the thirty-eight Perfons a Board occafioned that
that Stock of his to be taken for them. The Mate mentioning there were twelve hundred Gallons on Board by Computation, he found it was two Quarts a Day for each Head, which is the ufual Allowance for thirtyeight Perfons for nine Weeks, which Time they happened to be in the Paffage from the Buoy and Nore to Cbarles.fown, South Carolina; but by this bare Provifion, after a profperous Voyage, in the former Part of it, s far as the Latitude of our Port, or rather of the Canary Ijiands, we were put to the fort Allowance of three Pints a DayT, for the latter Part of it, a Dedu&ion not fo much to be dreaded in the Winter, as in thofe hot Months of Summer in a warm Latitude; but this feemed to be more inexcufable in the Mate, under whofe Infpe6lion probably the Stores were laid in, as he related that the very Voyage before, that he made to Charles-Town from the Canary Ijiands only, where they touched at, they were no lefs than fourteert Weeks, occafioned by Calms. Under what Diftrefs then muff your Petitioner's Settlers have been, in fo long a Voyage, when they had but enough for three Pints a Day for twelve Weeks! the which Time he thinks no Ship can go to Sea properly for fuch a Voyage without laying in for the full Proportion of two Quarts a Day each Perfon, and Allowance for Leakage and bad Water, or rather at a Gallon a Day each. The above Want of Provifion being in a Ship commanded by an elderly experienced Perfon, and of good Reputation, it is reasonable to conclude that thefe Misfortunes happen oftener than the Public hears of, Sufferings, not only the natural born Subjeds of his Majefly, but thofe, that under the Hopes of partaking of the benign Influence of the Sunfhine of Liberty, place themselves under his Prote~iion more frequently are fubje& to. The Palatines, of whom the King's Baker, Mr. Meek, at St. Augufline, was one in a Ship bound to America, when he thinks that above half the Paffengers died by the reafon of the Non-provifion, more especially of Water; which Circumffances are only to be equalled in the Diftrefs of the New rork Ship Company lately publifhed.
were as full and as fatisfalory as it was in my Power to make them, in the prefent State of the Colony.
That Day, in Converfation at Dinner, I advifed you to go to .Jdppala,' by Sea, you feemed defirous to go by Land ; I made it my Bufinefs to inquire how tar that was praccable and fafe at this Seafon of the Year; and I was lucky enough to find a Guide for you who had been there, who has lived in the Indian Towns in that Neignbourhood, and who fpeaks their Language. Captain Williams, who was formerly employed by General Oglethorp, and who is well acquainted with the Woods, likewise agreed to attend you with any Number of Hunters you ibould chufe to carry with you, upon your giving a reafonable Allowance to the Whole for their Trouble; and I was happy to think that every Obaacle, attending a very fatiguing Journey, was removed as far as the Nature of the Thing would admit of. A few Days after you told me that it would be troublefome and expenfive to carry all your People with you to Appalachi, and that you had an Inclination to fettle them upon St. 7obn's River, near the Fort of Picolati, I told you that you might place them wherever you pleafed, that they should enjoy the Fruits of their Labour for this Year, and that, upon their Application to me in Council, they fhould have an Order of Survey, and afterwards a Grant of as much Land as was confiflent with the Terms of my Inflrutions ; but that I muft confider them as Grantees of Crown Land, and by no Means as People brought in by you to the Province,
The 22d Infiant, the Anniverfary of His Majefly's Coronation, you told me, a few Minutes before I went to Dinner with a pretty numerous Company, that you was afraid you should not be able to go to Appalachi, and that you had fome Thoughts of taking up your Grant of twenty thoufand Acres upon St. John's River. In An. fwer to this Opinion of Denys Rolle, the Governor threatens, firft of all, to make a firong Reprefentatiort to the Board of Trade againft him for fuch Alteration of his Opinion; then, after a Silence which he perceived in Denys Rolle, recollecling himfelf, proceeded, I then told you chat, ir, Confequence of His Majefly's Order in Council, you certainly was intidted to that Grant of Land,
modern Inflances of, and himfelf experienced, may he prefume to lay before your Lordfhips.
That Augufl the i oth, he arrived at Charles.Tozwn, South Garolina, when a Gentleman of Diftin&ion Mr. Wfragg, and his Lady, advifed a Family of five Perfons, the Father whom he relieved from a Prifon here, to leave him and fettle at Charles-Town, which they accordingly did, but however paid him for their Paffage; another Servant he had hired by the Year was alfo reduced, the Juflice of Peace explaining away a Provincial Law,which, though calculated for filling the Province with Settlers, yet took Care that Juftice in repaying the Importer for the Paffage Money might be obferved; though advifed, your Petitioner did not trouble the Lieutenant Governor on thefe Injuries, though he did him not only great Honour, but chewed him Marks of Civility and even Kindnefs. He married one of his People, and thereby gailted two to recompenfe his Loffes by Seducion, and embarqued for St. .duguJfive in E0/ llorida, when the Governor received him very politely, and was entertained daily by a particular In. vitation every Morning. His intended Paffage by Land to St. Mark's, was prepared for, but, the rainy Seafon at the Equinox commencing, all Enquiries concerning St. Mark's furnifhing no Knowledge, the Paffage which no Perfon had hitherto undertaken for 240 Miles through a Country inhabited by the Indians, with whom no Conference had been held, exhibited at length to him Difficulties and Dangers which though he might run himfelf into, yet could not anfwer to his own Con.. fcience the engaging his poor Settlers in; after thefe Reflexions, a Leading 2uofion by the Governor, one Day before Dinner, diew the Intimation from him of the above Opinion, with Requeft to fet down with his Settlers on the River of St. John's, where the Governor bad confented to permit two young Gentlemen who came over with him, t take up their Rights of a hundred Acres each, according to the Rules of Settlement, and which he intended, as a Commencement of his Settlement on the .dtlanti Ocean, to correfpond with the Qther at or near St. Mark's. This drew on an imA 3 mediate
( 6 )
mediate severe Reprimand from the Governor, with P Declaration of his Intention to make a strong Reprefentation to the Board of Trade agaiifi him, for altering his Intention. Your Petitioner fat filent The Governor, recolledling himfelf, faid it was true that the King's Order gave your Petitioner Liberty to fet down in any Part of the Province. He might go to Picolata Fort on St, fohn's River, about twenty-five Miles Weft of St. Augu/iine, where a Serjeant and eight Men were atoned, and fet down under the Prote6lion of the Fort. That Mr. Greenan of Augqfline, Regifler and Naval Officer of the Province, who at this Time acted as Secretary to the Governor, made your Petitioner an Offer of a Boat to fend his Utenfils, Vi6tualling, and other Neceffaries, to St. :fcbn's River ; which was accepted of, but the next Day, on your Petitioners mentioning the Offer at the Governor's Table, a certain Dif-countenance appeared in Mr. Greenan, and no Boat was torth-coming; on September the 27th, he commenced his Journey, and fet down the at a fmall Diflance off tht Fort, but he found that the Indufirious would foon loofah their good Difpofition for Cultivation in that Neighborhood, and making any lnclofures under the Cannon was faid to be Shelter for the Indians; that he Guard mutt have a clear Sight all round the Fort: He therefore confidered, that, being out of Gun-thot, they were as liable to the Injuries frqm the Indians as if' further off in the Woods. Though your Petitioner pow received the News of the Lois of his Boat which he had bought, in which your Petitioners Servants were fringing Provifions, Tools, and other Neceffaries, on the Bar of Augufline, and finding his Endeavours at this Place would be rendered ineffe6tual, he borrowed a Boat, and proceeded with all his People up the River on tihe Sth of Ofober, and landed on a Spot about twenty-five Miles above, where the Bank is considerably elevated above the Level of the River, or as termed there a high Bluff, where formerly, perhaps eighty or a hundred Years fince, a Spanifh Settlement had been. This is the Place where his Settlers f1ill continue. In a few Days two Qf his People attempted to find out dugujline., where
where they arrived after five Days laborious Search; which became abfolutely neceffary, from the fall Provifion (through the lofs of his Veffel) he had with him and the Unccrtainty of the Dependance on his Hunter for Game ; by this means a Path was firuck out from St. AugzufIine to the moft valuable Lands on St. John's River.
That, about eight Miles above the Place he refided at, there was a Store or Trading Houfe fettled for the Indians, kept by one Mr. Spa/ding, whom he requefled to inform him when any of the principal Indians were there, to defire a Conference with them. On his Infor. mation the Second of November, he immediately went up thither, and met fome of the principal Men of the nearect Tribe, at Latcbaway, which is about fifty Miles Weft-Northerly from him. They obje6led at firif to the White People's fettling any Lands, difcovered a Jealoufy that he was going to ere& a Cafil, and that they heard that there were feveral Cafies to be built throughout the River. He told them he was certain there would be none built, or any Thing elfe, till a Conference had been held by the Governor with the beloved People of the Creek Nation. As for himfelf, he should not, that the Great King had permitted him to come into that Country to feek for Land to raife Rice on, which the Land on the other fide of the Great Lake would not bear; that, if they would permit him to flay where he was till the Conference (Talk) was held, he might at prefent only raife a little Garden, and hunt for Provifion ; that, if agreed to permit the GreaE King's People to fettle, they would find him always friendly, and endeavouring to be of Service to them ; but, if it was not confented to at that Conference, (Talk) he would burn up his Hutts, and go away with all his People. They then faid they believed what he faid was true; as to the Caffles, it was a falfe Report, and that they would confent to his flaying there ; he then returned to his little Colony in Confidence of Safety.
That your Petitioner received a Letter from Mr. Gordon, of Charle&. Town, Soutb-Carolina, then in St.
A 4 .Iugu/iine,
Agujline, dated Nov. the 5th, 1764. informing him that he had heard, fince he arrived at that Place of his Settlement, that he had, in the Year 1763, pur. chafed all the Lands on the Eaft-fide of St. "Jobn's River (except a Tra& three Leagues in Front next below Picolsta) from the Mouth thereof to about the Latitude of 29, and alfo on the other Side from the faid Latitude as far North as the Rio Blanco, about four Leagues below De Popo; prefumed he had unknowingly fet down on fome of thofe Lands, and defied an Anfwer of hi5 Refolution. His Anfwer of the 21f1 of November dignified that the Board of Trade had told him the prior Sales would not ftand good, and that the Governor had allf-told him his Orders we-e to difregard them, and alfo referred him to the Governor, by fending this Anfwer open to Mr. Bullemore, his Agent at .,ugufline, to fhew it to the Governor, who, being highly affronted, would not fee the Letter nor receive any Meffages, but told your Petitioner afterwards that Bullemore was an exceptionable Perfon.
That, fome time in this Month, fome Soldiers from Picolata came up to his Settlement, and, on their Return in the Night, carried off a Smith and his Wifc, whom he was at the Expence of marrying and bringing with him from Charles-Town; they afterwards went to Augufline, where they were provided for by bcing placed on the Ifland of Anaj1afia, to tend Perfons in the Small-Pox, perhaps in order to render his Enoeavours to procure their Return ineffectual. Major Ogilvie, the Commanding Officer, to whom he had complained by Letter of this Behaviour of the Garrifon of Picolata, answered it in the politefi Manner, and intimated an Intention to infli6l a fevere Punifhment on the Delinquents; but which he requested to reduce to a fevere Reprimand only, which when he was at Augioine foon after, and that Officer made him an obliging Vifit, he again repeated.
'I hat two young Gentlemen, one who had been in the Army and the other in the Navy, who came over with him, with Intention of fettling, enticed with the Diffipation
Diffipation at Afugufline, and difliking the Inconveniencies attendant on the firft Settlement of a Colony, unhappily averfe to the Confinement within the Bounds of fober Regulations, had retired to Augufline, where too much Encouragement was given them by thofe who wifhed ill to his Settlement, to procure it's Difparagement; which turned to the Ruin in the Sequel of the two Youths, when every Provifion neceffary for a comfortable Life would have attended them, had they flaid, The one found his Way back to a Prifon in this Metropolis, the other fupplied through his Hands, by the Generofity of Mr. Onjhw, with neceffary Provifion, &c. at a Place ninety Miles lower down the River, by the Converfion of which into Rum, he imagines from Experience at laft has died a Martyr. His Recommendation to the Governor, to prevent it, had not it's defired Effed, though the leaft Word fuggefted by him at his Table, where the whole Corps of Officers were entertained in the Courfe of every Week, would have had it's due Influence. In this Month of November, the laft Week, Lieutenant Sweetenbam, of the Garrifon of Augujine, came to his Settlement, when he entertained him agreeable to his Rank, and his own Abilities, and obferved a very particular Enquiry he made of your Petitioner, after his Surveyor, a Perfon he had taken to infpe6t and meafure Land, and was then in his Service, he anfwered he was gone from Home ; about an Hour afterwards the fame Enquiry being made again, he gave the fame Anfwer, and added, he thinks, to a Queflion where? that he was gone on his Bufinefs; an Hour or two afterwards the fame Qtieflion was repeated, and the fare general Anfwer given. Mr. Sweetenbam then went up to the above-mentioned Shore, and next day No.. member 8 ; ),our Petitioner fet out for duguf1ine, where he arrived on the 29th, and waited on the Governore to relate his Situation, and the good Agreement with the Indians; he likewifie fhewed a Draught of the River St. 7ohn's, as furveyed by his Surveyor ; difcovered his Inclination to a Spot of Land on the other Side of the River) oppofite to where he lived; but he did not know
( 10 )
knowi whether that might be within the Power of his Excellency till after the Indian Treaty, left the River might be the fixed Boundary, or if the Grant of the Governor of Carolina had difpofed of it. If fo, whether he might chufe a Spot twenty-five Miles above on the fame Eaff-fide of the River he refided on. He had keen it, described the Scite ; that the Length of his Tra6l, according to the prefcribed Rule of running Land, would be nearly about nine Miles three-quarters in length, by three Miles one-ninth in Breadth; the Length he imagined would reach beyond a confiderable navigable Creek, which he met with in his Traverfe, and, as he had heard, not permitted by the Rules in Georgia and SouA Carolina to be paalhd, and that in that Cafe, where he might be fupplied with his Quantity, whether fwell in his Breadth, or take in any Corner or Slip of Land adjoining to make up his full Quantity of 20ooo Acres. "The Governor did not feem to refolve any thing -then faid that was improper ; afked him what fort of Land it was beyond the Creek; he told him it did not look like good Land, but he had not been over to examine it ; he feemed then to reafon that he muft pafs the Creek, to obtain any fulr Length, if he made Choice of that Land.
That a Perfon who had fourteen Head of Cattle, made your Petitioner a voluntary Offer to fell them to him, and a Bargain was made by his Servant for nineteen Pounds, every thing fettled as to the Delivery, Payment, and the Seller's Affiftance to drive them to your Petitioner's Plantation ; which Bargain was not concluded at any improper Time, of the Party in Liquor, or fuch-like Situation ; it was confirmed on a fecond and third Day. He fet out for his Plantation, and left Money to pay for them, and his Servant to bring the Cattle; but the Seller firft declined Affiffance to drive them out, on Account of fome Bufinefs, and at length refufed to deliver them.
That he returned to his Settlement the following Noon, December the 2d ; on the Road met feveral Indian Warriors going to wait on the Governor; he found they
they had been at his Settlement, and were accommodated by his People in his Abfence. On their Return from 4ugufline, they came again to his Settlement, and were fet down to repofe themselves for the Night, at the Place where his Boats ufually land, and where he has fince built a Hut or Houfe for their Reception, which was but a few Yards from his Tent, wherein he at that Time lived ; he went to them, and fat and converfed with them, and afterwards fent them Provifions for their Supper. He perceived they had been regaling themfelves on the Road with rome Rum the Governor had prefented them with, and which they drank deeply of during the whole Night, when the Family by their Singing, Dancing, and Hallowing, were, kept chiefly awake. This is what he is obliged to be careful over his own People, in Ufing every Caution to prevent Intemperance thereih ; yet, to Indians, he is obliged to prohibit it, as it might endanger his whole Settlement; however the Indians did not come to him till the Time of Rifing, when one of the Warriors (Philoki) came to his Ten't, when he was fill in Bed ; and fpoke to him, though in a freer Manner than-at any Time firtce, being much heated by Liquor, but all in good Temper, defiring his Boat to convey them over; on which he got up, and gave Orders for it. The .1bdians, (carce able to fland, firaggled through his Tent, where all his Utenfils, Goods, &c. lay open, of which he afked them, whether they wanted any Thing ; but, in the greatefi good Humour and Sincerity, faid no, acknowledging they had had too much of the Rum, it was too good and affeded their Heads ; he got all of them over the River, except one, the long Warrior, (a Warrior at the Time that General Oglethorpi was in Gcorgia) who was too much intoxicated to go, and whom, after Sleeping, he entertained in his Tent, and gave him fome Coffee to relieve him of his Head-ach; and he itaid the whole Day, and he put him over the River the Day after. At different Times he faw fome of thefe fame Indians, and several otheto who came to his Plantation as he might call it then, having fome Thoughts one Day or other it might arrive to fuch in Reality;
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Reality; and had made a little Garden, and was proceeding for a Crop, on fuch good Agreement with the Natives. The Warriors or Head-men dined at your Petitioner's Table, the others he fent Provifions to. They often hunted for him at his Requeft, fometimes brought him Prefents of Venifon, Honey, Bears-meat, Buffeloes Tongues, Bear-fkins, Sieves. His Refufal of Rum to them was founded on a Treaty he had read of, wherein the Creeks had defired the Prohibition of this Commodity, to prevent Quarrels amongft their young Men and the Whites, that might end in War; and, though feveral faw twoCafks of Rum, of above one-hundred Gallons each, landed at his Settlement, for his own Ufe, at one Time, yet if the Queftion was for Barter with Skins, &c. for it, yet his Reafrn that, while fober, they were Men, and the Creeks and white Men were friendly, and knew one another, let when Rum came we knew not each other ; but it made us Women, and we quarrelled and fought with one another, and therefore, though your Petitioner had it for the Ufe of his People in their hard Labour, to drink with Water, yet they muftf not have any.
This did not difoblige them: Thofe that dined at his Table, after Dinner, he ufed to open a Bottle of Port Wine, perhaps for them, when two or three Glaffes were the moft he helped them to, and it fuffited. One or two of thofe who brought their Women or Squaws with them, permitted them to fet at his Table, a Favour their natural Jealoufy did not ufually encourage as he has heard, and two of the Women belonging to one of the Warriors who is come to fettle rear him, fince he fettled there, have come down by themfelves in a Canoe, bringing fome Prefents, and have fraid the whole Day, with your Petitioner without raising any Jealoufy in the Men.
That he acquainted the Indians that Rum was an unneceffarv and dangerous Merchandize, yet a Trade of fuch Things, as they should want- in Barter, for fuch Commodities, as they had; he would encourage on the moff honourable Terms. This was alfo founded on an old Treaty at the fame Time with them,
them, when sealed Weights and Meafures were to be fent upto their Towns. Every Dealing of his fhaould be as open as poffible, with the Underflanding clear, and and Heads free from Liquor. That their young Men Should be inftruaed in our Language to prevent Frauds. For this Purpofe he fpent much Time, with them, to convince them of the Utility of his Propofals, and, as far as poffible and permiffible, to put the fame in Practice, having taught them the Method of weighing with the Stilliards, and meafuring by the Yard, not without inflilling the higher Notions of the Engfih Power from the Conquefis of the late War, of their Juflice and Generofity from the late Peace which he could convey the Idea of, from the Exhibition of the Views and Se6.ions of Men of War and Maps. He fell not far thort of his Hopes and Ends in this Undertaking. le found them his Friends when intoxiccated with Liquor, as well as when fober; he found a Refpe6 in both Situations, which muff proceed from the Heart; an attempt however vain it might be thought, yet fall Obflacles appeared to prevent it's Progrefs towards the Civilizing them, which an Inflance, or two, of what fell out, fome Months after this, may help to elucidate. Several Indians of the meaneft Rank, form of which had been perhaps, or had heard others re" late, having been, on a &turday Night, at your Petitioners Plantation, and have been going away on a Sunday Morning on their hunt where he has fignified to them, that it was the Day the Whites addreffed the Being above, who thundered, to fend us what was neceffary for us, whereby they faw we never wanted; they have anfwered, muff we flay ? to which he faid, yes, he would have therp, when they have flaid the whole Serviee, with the utmoft Decency and Gravity. This probably had the following Effe& on fome of thefe Indians who had been to .,ugufline, and though he had but juff before heard of the Governor's Praife of your Petitioners Order, in refpea of Rum, towards them, yet thefecame full freighted with the Governors unhappy prefent of that Liquor to this Settlement on their Return. Of which they regaled, as alfo the others before.
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mentioned, the whole Night; beiiig in a very ga)r Mood, they went to the other End of his Town, and affaulted the Houfe of one his Settlers, where two yung Lads were that were his Interpreters ; on finding the Door fhut, broke it open ; but it was only to get the two Lads to come and drink with them, which they did for a fmall Time. That Night about Ten o'Clock, as he ufed to fay Prayers to his private Family, before he went to Bed, in the Middle of the Prayers, as his Face was towards the Door of the Houfe which was open, he faw the Indians, and knew how much intoxicated they were with Liquor ; but they did not offer to come tip the Steps into the Room, feeing, as he ftippofed, the Family on their Knees, ahd knowing, from what he mentioned above, the Meaning of it, till he had done, and rofe up, which might be five or fix Minutes after he firf Ltaw them; when they came in with their Bowl of Punch, but all in a merry chearful Temper, and offering him to drink, which he did in two Rounds of their Bowl ; he expreffed his Friendihip for them, and gave them to understand by Signs, having no Interpreter, that they muff ftay in the Morning for him to fee them, before they fet out on their Hunt, till the Sun came to the South-Eaft, and wished them a good Night; and they went away, and did not come to him any more tle whole Night, which they fpent entirely in drinking. The next Day they feemed ra-t ther ashamed of their having behaved fo in their Cups; Some of them are Horfe flealers, pafs his Settlement, and go to ./ugujine aid fleal Horfes, bring them to his Settlement, and go over the River, in his Boatq ; but, though your Petitioner has loft his Horfes for two Months together, yet they never touched his, but have relied on his finding theirs when loft, as happened to four of them; and, if there was any thing intended ill agai-nft the white Men, he had theit flridt Promife they would inform him of it, which rendered him quite eafy, at a Time when the Governor was in rome Fear, on the Suppofition that one of the Indans was loft or murdered at AuguJline.
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That nea bryh/zas, your Petiioner Hunter, whon he had hired and kept at the Expence of three Pounds per Month, himfelf having the Profit of the Skins, and alfo his Provifion and Drink, when at Home retired to Augufiine for a Week, and he found out very accidentally by his own Confeffion, that he firpplied chat Place with Venifon at your Petitioner's Expence, and, which the Governor himfelf could not but allow, he had furnished his Table with fome. The Hunter keeping a Man who could not hoot about two Miles off from his Settlement, with two Horfes to carry off from Time to Time the Venifon he killed to .Augviine, after this, your Petitioner determined to fupply his Colony without fuch Affiffance, only requeiaing the Indians, when with him, to hunt for him, or have the Chance of any Venifon procured the neareft at hand by any of his Settlers, whom he did not chufe to encourage in a hunting Life, as he esteemed it a very idle one. But he fupported them by much Labour and Expence, ometimes by his Horfes bringing Neceffaries from Augaline, and at others by his Canoe, at one hundred and fifty Miles Diftance, and at length from Georgia by Schooners, hired on Purpofe at the Value of twenty-five Pounds a Trip.
That on the Chryjtmas Eve, his Hunter returned, and brotight the Produce of his Venifon, fold at the Metropolis in Rum, the effeas of which difcovered itfeif the next Day in the Settlers very apparently. He employed him now no longer, but however the Hunter kept his Horfes fill at your Petitioner's Settlement, killing and driving off the Deer in its Neighbourhood, and Carrying the Skins and fome of the Venifon (for it muft be understood of hefe kind of Hunters, that they deflroy, for the Sake of the Skins, ten Times as much Deer as they make ufe of the Venifon of) to St. .dlugufine, turning it into Rum, with which he fupplied a Family at your Petitioner's Settlement every now and then, fo as to enable them to keep a Public Houfe, to the Ruin of the Indufirious, particularly that Family, though confifting of a Man, his Wife, and Ax Children, either of which did not do the leaft Work towards raifinf
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raiftng Corn, Garden Stuff, or any Thing for their Subfif ance. This he related afterwards to the Governor, as he thought it required fome Authority to relhrain, as it was fo injurious to his Settlement; his Anfwer was, if any Thing was done contrary to the Law of England, that was open, there was his Remedy. That was not adapted he thought, your Petitioner anfwered him, to the prefent Cafe; a Remedy could only be found in himfelf, his own Power ; he afked your Petitioner what he would have him do? He replied, he could not prefume to dire6l his Excellency in that Matter. The Confequence appeared fome Months afterwards. The Horfes were fill kept there, fometimes breaking into his Corn Inclofures, and doing Damage to him likewife in that Way; fome of the Settlers he thinks ufed thefe Horfes, but paid the Hunter for the Ufe; during his Abfence in May, his Agent had likewife ufed one to fetch Provifion from Adugufiine, and propofed paying for the fame, as the others had, and did not refufe ; hut what was the particular Reafon he cannot affign, except the Irritation of Rum; one Evening the Hunter, being much in Liquor, was going up in a Boat to hunt on the Lak-es above his Settlemeit) but, juft before he fet out, faid to his Companion, he would go out in the Pine Barren, and kill a Deer firft, he went out there, when two Negroes were fawing for your Petitioner ; he arked them whether they were all alone? They faid yes. Soon after they heard a Gun go ofti; and they faw your Petitioners Cow's runfiing in a confufed Manner, and the Hunter came to them, and told them, in thefe Words : I have fhot one of Mr. Roll's Cows, and you may go and tell him fo, and I will fhoot all his Cows, and Horfes, and Hogs, and himfeif; you are no Witneffes. The Negroes went in immediately, and came and informed him of it, and, when he fent to the other End of his Town, where the Hunter frequented, found he was fet off in a Boat up the River, but, as he could not tell where, his Com-. panion who ufed to carry the Venifon to Agujline was examined, and it appeared he was to take the Horfes up to a Lake about fix Miles from his Settlement the next
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next Week, but a Perfon, that went with the Hunter in the Boat, intending to return the next Night, on which your Petitioner waited his Return, and, though he cculd not depend on him, yet his-Agent, being appointed a Juftice of Peace, fwore bim, and three firong Perfons more, and fent them up in Search of the Hunter, with a Warrant to apprehend him ; they luckily hit ou the Place, in the Middle of the Night, and feized him in his Sleep, and brought him down and feat him to dugufline, where there was no Jailer to be found, and the Sheriff or Provoft Marfbal, who was one of the Governors menial Servants, feemed at a Lofs how to a&. None feemed expeditious in fecuring him, more feemed desirous of having him freed ; however he was at laft admitted into Jail, but the Attorney General wrote a Letter to your Petitioner's Agent ; though he could be the only Prolfecutor of the Caufe, yet appeared more in the Defence of the Delinquent, alledging the Warrant and Commitment was irregular, &c. as by the faid Letter would more particularly appear. That your Petitioner having been at a confaderable .Expence, and having faved several Things out of his Boait, which was loft as befQre-metioned, on his Agent on the 2d of January 1765, hired another Boat to bring the fame round over the Bars to his Settlement, another Boat coming round at the fame Time, with Goods belonging to a Store, whofe Mafrer being better acquainted with the Bar of Auguline, than the Perfon who had the Diredion of your Petitioner's, fet out firif, in order to direly the other; the firfi Boat pafi the Fort without Obftruaion, when the other, freighted entirely with his Goods, was flopped by the Officer then on Duty; who was Lieutenaut Sweetenham abovementioned, as he afterwards heard ; and delayed fo long, that the Tide was fo far gone out, that, when theyarrived at the Bar, the Boat flruck on it and overfet ; whereby he loft every Thing, except a Barrel of Tar, the only Thing which came a Shore; the Mafler was drowned. and a free Mulatto faved himfelf by fwimming a prodigious Length of Time. This Mulatto Loou. after
Vi de Letter, page.
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went away to another Province,which prevented his Rear. ing of the Particulars from him; and his Agent, mentixioed before as an exceptionable Perin by the Governor, declined interfering in the Examination into the Reafon of the Stopping of the Boat, but heard, that both of the Boats were alike open Boats ; the firft, not a Con. cern of your Petitioner's was not flopped, as the other, freighted with his Goods was; that the Mafier went 4 Shore at the Fort, and afterwards went to the principal Officer, Major Ogilvis, to relate the Circumflance; who difapproved of the Officer on Duty at the Fort's flopping the Boat, as both were equally to be efleemed open Boats going provincial Voyages, and never were to be stopped to be examined at the Fort. This Officer, Mr. Sweetenham, is the Per'on that was concerned in a Riot in Qeorgia; by which Mr. Grmer, then Chief Juftice. was fuperfeded, but fince reflored to Honour. This Officer your Petitioner has heard the Governor mention more than once, as a Perfon he had a great Regard for, and knew not another whofe In-. tereft he Zhould be more inclined to promote. Mr. LlVyd, your Petitioner's intended Overffeer fbr his Plan. nation, arrived from England, and brought him Account, that probably a Ship with Settlers, &c. might be on their Voyage -to Axerica, on his Account; and, left they fthould go round to St. Mark's, where it was fuppofedthat he was fettled, he bad difpatched Letters to Pridence and 7amaica, and other lflands, to flop her if poffible, and order her to St. ?obn's River, but which afterwarcs proved without EfFe&. When Mr. Lloyd, his Overfeer, had waited on the Governor at .dugu/?ine, the Governor had intimated that feveral Petitions had been prefented from his Plantation, with fame Irregularity. There were dated the 15th of December, and had been fent at that Tinw, under Cover, dire&ed b) your Petitioner to Mr. Dunnet, the Secretary of the Province. As for the Irregularity in the fending of them, and the Non-ap-. plication in Perfon, it was occafioned by your Petitioner's fending his Surveyor to the Secretarys Office, to know the particular Method or Form of Petitioning, and how it might be with the leaft Trouble and Expence to the Petitioner ;
Yqigionr, where he had a written prefcribed Formn delivered him, and was acquainted, that therewotldbe a Day appointed to take them under Confideration by the Governer in Council ; at which Time only, there would be a Neccfity of the perfonal Attendance of the etitioner ; aW the Governor had mentioned to him before, that the Dates of the Pekit ons wculd be a Rule to him in grauinig when two happened to be present for the fame Spot, zcocding to ;hejr Priority of Prefenimcnt. As this was the Information fromthe Office, and formed to be reasonable, it was followed in the five Petitions ent in.
That the Secretary had promifed your Petitioner's Surveyor, who was one of the Petitioner4 that he should have Notice of the Day of confidering Petitions. This was represented in a Letter of the 15th of .fanuery, and answered by the Governor on the i6th, wherein the perffnal Application with the Petitions in the firfi Place was infifled on; alfo an Intimataon that no Addition whatfoever could be made to your Petitioner's Land, as having the Kings' Order for a Grant of twenty thoufand Acres, and that his Proclamation extended niy to induce other refponfible Perfons, who might be ined to Settle; and that he should be very careful of thePeffons, whom he should grant any Land to fettle on. Your Petitioner heard afterwards -that thefe Petitions were thrown under the Table, and with Declaration, that no Perfons from your Petitioner's Settlements or concerned with him, Thould haveany Grants of Land.
That, about the latter End of 7anvary, Mr. Grtwsn, Regihr and Naval Officer, made your Petitioner a Vi& from Augflaing, at his Plantation ; he was much eflhemed by the Governor, and often did Bufinefs for him, of the Secretarythip, when the Secretary Mr. Dwrnet was ill; as he entertained him as well his Situation per. mitted, and fhewed him his Intentions in his Settlement, and diverted him with a View of the neighbouring Parts of the Province ; 'he is forry to mention now a Circumiance which might refle& Difhonour on any body, but especially on fuch Gentlemen, who might be fuppofed to well difcern the Laws of Hofpitality. An old Man, his Wife, and Son, who came up to him B 2 eary
early in his Settlement, the latter unhealthy and the two former rather aged; however the Father and Son were sometimes ufeful in fipplying his Table with Venifon; the Wife affifed in his Kitchen Bufinefs, where several Attendants were neceffary, having a great Number to fupply. They had unhappily a Daughter in 4ugujino, whicfi had long before been a Prvtoitute, he may fately fay, fo, as a Child of:fomeAge, was the Frujt of it-by a Sea Captain; but now was too far advanced in Proflitution, to afford an Augmentation to a Colony, by the Unfortunate Situation in a Town, where the fmall Number of Females occafioned much Divifions and Irregularity. The Child of this Proftittite inherited an ill State of Health from it's Unhappy Parents, and was therefore efteemed a Burden to the Town in which it lived with it's Mother. Mr. Greenan endeavoured to enter into a Treaty with it's Grandmother abovementioned,; who was an Affiftant in providing daily fuch Entertainment as your Petitioner could give that Gentleman at his Table, and whom, with her Hufband and Son, he might be faid to maintain already, as their Labour could not recompenfe him for their Living; treated with her, to take the Child to your Petiti. oner's Settlement, that he might have that additional Burden, as the Town thought it fuch, and, might relieve the Mother alfo from the Trouble of it, 'who might then be more at Leifure to follow her Occupation. Mr. Greenan alfo was defirous that a Boatbuilder, who had retired from the Extravagance and Drinking at luguline; and came to his Settlement for a more quiet and induftrious Life, should go back to refide at that Place, which it was his own free Will, not your Petitioner's Decoying, that ted him to quit; he alfo acquainted him, that he had fome Timber belonging to him in his Poffeffion, but the Boat-builder replied, that he should not return, and he did not regard the Timber at all. He alfo left a Wife there. which he could not much regard, having chofe other People's Company, and who your Petitioner heard was in Mr. Greenan's Service. There feemed to be a Defire alfo for a young Woman, whQ had come up from the.
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lower Past of the River, to refide at hi Settlement, to quit it again, and go to dugufline; but fie was then indifferent in choice, and your Petitioner, foon after advifed her to a Match, which fhe immediately complied with; under which Security, Ihe ftill refides at his Settlement. However as it was fuppofed by Mr, Lloyd his Agent, and himfeif, that Mr. Greenan's Vifit was not idle Curiofity and Compliment, your Petitioner did not !aew him only what, he bad done, but defcribed to him his Plan of Settlement, and informed him, if he could have the major Part of his Land run out on the other Side of the River, and Part on this Side, he didnot care if the River was reckoned and meafured as Part of his twenty thoufand Acres, or if the whole was granted on the other Side ; that he might have the Liberty of purchafing a few hundred Acres of Land, on that Side of the River he then refided on, to preferve the Plan of his Town, which, asa healthy Situation, was eligible but could not be fo to any Perfon, to take up according to the Form of three Perch Back for one in Front ; and alfo -about two hundred Acres below, and two above the Town; fome for the Appropriation for a Minifter, and fome for the Endowment of a School. All within the Offer as he thought, made* by the Pro. clamation of the Liberty of purchafing to the Quantity of one thoufand Acres, above the Rights or Grants, according to his Majefty's Order. Or he propofed, that, if the Mode of Settlement did not permit that, et if the Perfons refiding with him, took up their Family Rights of one hundred Acres per Head for themfelves, and fifty for each of their Family, on the Eaft Side of the River, which they would not do on the Spot where his Town hands, unlefs any other pecu. liar Advantage to them was in View ; this might ferve the Purpofe of preferring the Plan of his Town, by their keeping Part of their Land in Poffeflion in Lots, in and adjoining to the Town; and the Refidue might be fupplied to them by Exchange of better Land, from his Grant of twenty thoufand Acre;, when laid out, on the other Side of the River.
Vide Governor Grant's Proclanation,
B 3 That,
That, in a Letter dated the 3d of February, the Governor takes Notice of the Receipt of your Petitioner's to him, of the 29th of 7anuary, lent by Mr. Grenan, on his Return, and of a Plait of your Petitioner's Settlement or Town, and other proje&ed Dependencies thereon: This Letter intimated that there was no Power in him of making Additions to his Tra& of Land, which was to be furveyed out to him -in Terms of his Majefty's Order. An Extra Settlemett was impraaicable, becaufe therein it was termed a contiguous Tra&; that no Grants were to be given to other People, who -would transfer their Rights to .or Petitioner. That there were Orders from the
Lrds of Trade to guard again Perfons Engrofing of Land. That he could not fee any Utility a Settlement could be of at the Narrows of the River, where his Town was proje&ed, if his twenty thoufand Acres were to be run out elfewhere. That no Advantage could accrue to the Province from a Town, where there would be no Inhabitants, as no-body would fta] with him any longer than he fed them. That he would mt encourage Settlements of any of thofe People, at a Place where the Indians were likely to come over the River on Acceutt of it's Narrownefs. That he was nrot. at Liberty to judge of the plausible Reafons your ,etitioner (aid he had to al.edge for the Meafure. That no Application of others &iaall preclude him fromt having the Grant of the Indian StOre he had proe ed at thib Place. That the Surveyor General was arrived, had iffued the Warrant of Survey, for his'twenty thou(and Acres, and lent a Deputy he brought from Georgia ; and alfo one Fairdid, who had been hired before by your Petitioner, as a Surveyor, and- had now a Dtputation, as one for the Province ; which the Governor thought would be agreeable to him. That Surveyor, late hik (for-it proved, in the Sequel, he was not to be hit any longer) only came, the other being, ill. Another Letter, dated the next Day (the 4th of Ftbruary) inclofed a Power to him, to administer the Oaths to his Agent Mr. Lloyd, to qualify him to ad as a 7l/ice of the Peace.
That, about the latter End of .7azuary, there was an Agreement made for your Petitioner, with one 7obnfon, for fixteen Head of Cattle, and which were brought to his Settlement the 9th of February; with thefe sixteen theic were a Bull and a Steer, that were itray Cattle, that did not belong to thofe he bought, but which having been with them, and, as a common Thing, would not be separated from them, all the Drivers could do did not prevent them from continuing with them, 'as they were drove near Augujline his Servant went into Town, and fpoke to the feveral Owners* of Cattle, and acquainting them of thefe two firay Cattle, and that his Mafler muf pay for the two Cattle, or, if they would come out and fee them, they might have them. no Perfon came, and they were drove to his Settlement with the others, under Neceflity only, not Choice. As his Settlers had not had any frelh Meat lately, and 'the Steer was the better Meat, rather than the others, and it would not have been worth any Owners While to have drove the two only back to Augu.tine, the Marks, fhe Colour, and the Value, were afcertained While
*live. His Agent thought it would be no Injury, but a Benefit to whatever Owner appeared, to kill it, and allow for it. It was therefore killed, and the Weight of it then taken, and, when he went to Augu/ine afterwards, he carried the Certificate of the fame, and lodged it with the Money in a Merchant's Hands, (Mr. WiyiWs) for the Value, after the Auguftine Price per Pound. That, if any Perfon alledged the Marks of their loft Cattle, and they proved the fame as the Certificate mentioned, which he was to keep private, that, in that Cafe, he was to deliver the Money for the fame, and would pay for the Ball, or they might have it at his Plantation. There was immediately raised an Uproar about this Theft; one Mr. Piles, who had the largeft Stock of Cattle, fent a threatening Letter to his Servant, that they were bis Cattle. Captain Skinner, an Officer at dugufline, tent to know what were the Marks of thofe two Cattle: Your Petitioner therefore informed the Juffices' of Peace of what he had done, at to lodging the Certificates and Money in Mr. (fin's Hands. Mr. i4$yr fent for B 4 Mr.
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Mr. Piles, and mentioned the fame ; he defired him to nWane the Marks of his Cattle, when it proved quite different from the Marks in the Ceitificate. The latter your Petitioner waited on, and acquainted him of the fame. The Certificates and Money were in Mr. T'Pz/fbn's hands, and the Bull flill in being at his Plantation, when he came awy in September, x765.
That, on Febtuary the i9th, arrived at his Settlement, one Arunion and others, Who had before called there in their Way up to find out a Pa,-age through to the Gulph of 2Mx;,co, from the River St. 'fonh's, as it had been reported there was, but which they did not find; the Journal they gave him a Copy of contained to one hundred and twenty-fix Miles, abcve his Settlement, and they faid there was between twenty and thirty Miles more they had not entered.
That, on February the :z6th, he fet out for St. ugultne, .and intended to have camped without-fide the Town, and went in by Day to tranfaca his Bufinefs, and Wait on the Governor, but, over-perfuaded by his Agent, went to Mr. Greenans to return his Vifit, agreeable to Invitation. At this Gentlemans Houfe Ihe lay, and, as ufual when in Town before, was invited to diae at the Governor's, except the three laft Days, when the Governor imagined your Petitioner had been fet out for his Plantation, and was then entertained by the Attorney General, Major Ogilvie, Commander of the Troops, and another Officer. The Surveyor Fairchild, whom your Petitioner esteemed a hired Servant, one of his own Houfhold, and had accepted one of the Deputy Suxveyorfhips of the Province, by Confent of your Petitioner, waited on him at Mr. Greens-an's, to know his Pleafire about returning to his Plantation as a Surveyor for the Province, but feemed too high for his Service, and inquired what Wages he would give. This Alteration induced him to mention it to the Go.. vernor, that fore Methods had been taken he believed to induce him to leave his Service, contrary to his Contract. The Governor told him to fpeak to Mr. Greenan, to fpeak to FairhtJd (the Surveyor) that he might attend his Service, as well as the Province Bufinefs.
But afterwards, an Opportunity ferving, the Govemor fpoke to him himfelf, and told him, that the two Offices were not incompatible, and he might ferve bini lill on his Plantation. The next Day at Mr. Grrenan's Fairchild came and offered to adjutl the Accounts of Wages due, and-Monies received; arid, fuppofing the Balance against him, offered to fetch the Money to pay it, as loon as it was fettled. He dhew it out, and proved twelve Pounds received in Cafbl, about twenty Shillings due for Store Goods, in all thirteen Pounds, of which about eight Pounds ten Shillings was the Proportion of twenty Pounds a Year for twenty-two Weeks he: had f"erved him, and this Balance of four Pound ten ShillJings appeared due to your Petitioner. The' Propofal of Payment, dropped on the Queftion, how much was he to give ? For Mr. Greenan pleaded for him, that your Petitioner could not give lefs to him than a Crown a Day; your Petitioner anfwered not till he wascompelled by Force. He continued to fay his Bargain was juft, and therefore should be obkrved ; thus, with fo good an Advocate, he had neither Service nor Balance of Account paid him. The Confequence of this plain Seduaion was the utter Ruin of the young Man. At your Petitioner's homely Plantation he faved Money, was freeing himfelf from Debt even out of twenty Pounds a Year, and preferred his Health by Temperance and an industrious Life. For, without Vanity, there might be faid to be Regulations tending to this End, amidft a moderate Plenty, not found in a garrifoned Town, where Luxury and Do-. bauchery reigned amidft Scarcity. And Surveying valued by it's Hundreds per Annum, your Petitioner fuppofes, did not fuffice, the Youth was ruined, a fifty Pound Debt appeared in one Shop Book againlE him, and he took up the Money for his Surveys, and carried of the Plans with him, or destroyed them, and fLed to W~2-Florida. Two other Perfons who were tired of this fatal Place, one having been caught in a Law-fuit about Driving of Cattle, who had propo.. fed to come to your Petitioner's Town to fettle, but by no Sedu~tion of his i only their own Choice, and, as
is ote had Cattle, Wld have been beneficial to his Ctlony yet were at firft powerfully retained by thie Service of at length obliged to part with the Cattle, being nineteen Head, which fold fot only twenty Guineas, he thinks a full Proof your Petitioners 'Bargain was no Impofition, of fourteen W ad, for nirseteen Pounds. But this Purchafe feemed omly contrived to prevelit his having them ; and though purchafed by Mr. Juftice Greenan, who was jufA then beginning a Plantation, and they would foon have been a pretty initial Stock ; but they paIIed quietly into the Juflice' Servants Hands, or through them into the above Shop, where the Deputy-Surveyor funk his fifty Pounds. At this Time came on the final Conclvfion of the Affair of the Cattle your Petitioner bought as before- Mtntioned ; Mr. Grtnan when at his Settlement, pifted his Judgment in Appearance, that the Seller Drtld make good his Barail, which was fourteen IRtad of Cattle for hfineteenPounds, and hewouldadvife bhm and fettle that Matter at his Return. At firfi when ymr Petitioner came to Town, he was informed that t- Seller would deliver the Cattle ; he came to Mr. 6reas, who now your Petitioner faw became Pleader of this Caufe alfo ; which was by propofing he should give the fame Money for eleven or twelve 1-ead, as two or three of them hid been killed fince; not that he Iuppofed thre Sellet would have let him have had them then, this was only to raife Matter of Dlfpute ; your Ptititmer faid the Bargain was fair and open, aid he thObt ht every one should fland to fuch, and It would
be M~vter of Lenity in him, after he had the fulfilling of it, 15 fat as the Circurnftances allowed, by the De v~try of the Renilinder, with ome Dedulion for thofr that were killed. There wts then produced an Affidavit, fined by a Perfon jdft before he removed from A that your PeftioneO's Surveyor gave up the Eargaln; your Petitioner left him, it was trte to bring out the Caute, and Money to pay for them, bar he did not makce the Bargain, and it was
*ot likelv (if rhe Jutce had onlitiered) that whea he was left in Town', with Cal to pay for them, atid to
to drive them out, that he flmld have left Powers to annul it; he had been ready, and your Petitionr fent him to make an Affidavit to contradi& the other; but the Juitice would not pmit it. Thus the Emg 91 Law was open, as the Governor had told him it was. But he found it open only on one Side of a Queftion. He now happily concluded an Account with his Agent, a Perfon (Mr. Ballarore) who accidentally under.took it, he fays happily, as this unfortunate Gentleman, in trufting to a Promife of the Place of the Colleaorfhip of this Port, was ruined, and made a dreadful Exit, not long after. This Account amounted to the Value of one hundred and fourteen Pounds, which by Exchange of eight and a quarter, for his Bills on Cbarler-Town, made above one hundred and twenty-three Pounds, which, with three hundred and forty-two Pounds and the Exchange twenty-eights making in all four hundred and ninety-three Pounds, nearly all expended in St. Angafline, proves a coni. derable Sum ; your Petitioner begs Leave to mention, after the Public Money is noticed for that Metrbpolis, and he does it to diffinguilh himself, as laying out Money in efugufime, a Circumftance that merits Fa.vour, as his Neighbour Mr. Spddihg, who keeps th# Store for Macbey and Co, in Georgia, had Threats that his Licence should be taken from him, not only as he had not conformed to it, which was only. joft intimated, as to the Power over him, but in -moet exprefi Terms, becaufe he did not lay out his Money for. Goods at Akgi ; for his Partnets fent it all by Water from Geaia; whereas he muft hav kep iorfes, and had expenfive Land Carriage from gwj So impolitic Demand by the Secretary, Mr. Dxxmet in a Letter, occafioed Mr. Spaft to go to Aoftirw to know whether it was only Mr. Domes Istimarion in Favour of Mr. 'f4's Store,which was hinted a' the Place to buy at, who was in Partnerlp with of Bdi, whom the Governor had Oven the Commnm of the Province Schoonmr to ; Mr. f= replied it w the Qmwoes Id, that he should have the Intimtiow beftv-menxioned. The Governer himff, when Mr. Spa/dug waited on him, was filent on this Topic.
This Letter having been tranfmitted to Georgia, he need not recite it, as it was foreflalled in the Relation by an uninterefted Perfon, .mentioning his Knowledgo of the Fa&f. ForWantof this kind of Recommendation of expending his Money at Mr. 4/fn's Store, ir' A,gf/ine, he could not be blameable, he muft proceed further to find the Caufe of Blame.
That he had, in the Courfe of fome Converfation, during this Week, an Intimation that, in the moreregular Manner, the Governor should hayv directed the Attorney General io have profecuted him for fettling on tke..King's Land, without Leave. He now endeavoured to find out in what Manner he might be permitted to run his Land, for he could without much Forefight perceivee, that whatever feemed more particularly his Defire, would fall further without the Line of his Majefty's Dire6fions and Orders.
That having an Inclination to fome Iflands, fome Way above where he is now fettled; but which Iflands, if he had fpecified, would fome how or other be confirued improper for him to have ; but which he intended to have taken, with fome Land adjoining, or not far off, could he have affured a Will to grant them, He afked therefore a.Queftion about the Ifland of .dmeia, which lies on the Confines of Georgia, which the Lords of Trade had once confented to recommend to his Majefly to grant to your Petitioner, whether if he altered his Mind again for that Ifland, which he fuppofed about fifteen thoufand Acres of Land, whether he might have the remaining five thoufand Acres on the Continent, neareft to the Ifland, The Governor anfwered, your Petitioner's Grant was to be of a contiguous Lot of twenty thousand Acres. This how. ever he had obviated before in his Plan, fhewn to Mr. Greenan, by which the Water intervening, amounting to thieeor four thoufand Acres, was to have been meafured, and fome Land on each Side, which would certainly ha-ve been contiguous, though Part of it might be covered with Water. He was furprized now however, with a particular Care in his Excellency for the poor Settler himfelf at laft, though, in the Cafe of his Hunter,
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Hunter, the Governor would not interfere, as is before mentioned. The Satisfa6tion made by Major Ogilvie, for the.Injury done him by the Soldiers at Picolata, in carrying off his Smith and his Wife, was reduced to a Reprimand at his Requeft, and pardoned, as is related before.
That in fome of his Letters, among many of the Grievances that ha had full Reafon to Complain of having barely recited, this of the Soldiers, the Governor took up this single Fa6 alone, and exerted his Authority as Governor in affifting and protecing him as a Settler, by removing of this Garrifen at Picolata, who had injured him in the Manner before related, but it happened to be thus untimely, after the Satisfaffi9n and Pardon given through Major Ogilvie.
That, one Day this Week, the Governor mentioned to him this Order of Removal; he told him it happened to be extremely unfortunate, as he had addreffed his Complaints to the Major, being the Commanding Officer, and he had anfwered him in the politeft Man. ner, and rendered him all the Satisfaction of Punifhment poffible, which he had declined, and intreated for a Relaxation and had pardoned the Delinquents. The Governor faid, he- was not to afk the Major any Queftion about it, that your Petitioner ought to have addrefled 'himfelf to him; he replied, he thought in applying to the Commanding Officer of the Regiment, refpeffing fuch Matters, he had a6ted properly; the Governor faid no, in refpe6t of the Care of thr Settlements, he hlmfelf was the only Direcdor. But, as various Circumifances, which fall out at different Times, are not eafily connected and ambiguous, meanings difinvelop, your Petitioner is obliged to make his Relation with the utmoft Plainnefs pf Style, for Perfpieuity's Sake, and reafon from Fads to Caufes, in the Courfe as they happened. In three Governments in Admerica, i2uebeck, Wei and Eal Florida, a Difpute arofe between the refpedive Governors and the Commanding Officers of the Forces at each Place, as to the Power of giving the Word of Command. In Eq-rFlorida, the Governor claimed it; Major Ogilvie, the Commanding Officer at Augif/ine,
Avf sVe, Jroid the Right, aad (aid that tefe Pohlt mut not be given up, but that, the Governor and him.. felf, had been in Friendfhip in the Expedition to the Ba'axaa, he did not defire to quarrel with him. If he liked the Feather, he might have it, till a Determination of the Queftion might be had from the General Commanding Officer (General Gaw) to whom he would fend. The Anfwer from General Gqe gave it in Favour of Major Ogilvis. He cannot afllign any other Reafon, but a kind of Reverfal of this Order, unlefs, as Protector of Settlers, it might be that of throwing the Blame on your Petitioner, for Pardoning and reverfing his Pardon. and to raife an Odium and Hatred in the common Soldiery againit him, which appeared i" a Refufal, for fome Time, to let him in at the Gate of the Fortification, called Mar/a, one Evening juft after the Gate was fhut, but wbich is ufual to all People at aay Time of th Night; for without Leave the Pdsne Fortification on that Side of the Town admits in many Places a Horfe to pats through it, at a Diftance from this G utrd at the Gate.
That, on Marh the ifth, P&ikWi, one of the InFmw, made your Petitioner a Vifit of Compliment, with his Squaw, or Wife, and, two Sons well dndkd ; on fome Converfatiom he expcdied ffnme Anger at a Trading Hoist beiag efiablii ng at a Place a great Way above by one Mr. )V#6,an4 (aid the /&aas would not fffer it, which your Petitioner knew was rather out of Jealoufy, for the oiha Store, which waskept by Mr. Spa~iia, whofe Friend this Indian was, howewr your Petitiomer thought fit, to quaintt the Governor of it by Letter, but this Idigig brought Mr. Hg/al away by Force, and obliged him to deport, after letting him fell the few Things he had theai with him. Is this Letter he alto informed the Governor of his explaining the Plan of Trade, he purpofed with the Imdiaxs, to this India# Phioki, wh;ch proved fo agreeable as mentioned before. But he alfo was obliged to mention em Circtmftance, that tis Vifit drew Jealoufy of the Trading Houfe of Mr. pauding, who was himfelf then abfant in Georgia, but his Interpreter came down to his Settlement, in Purfuit of
of Philoh;, as a Debtor to his Stocw, and had As It in'order to apply to him. That your P~tifiouw fupoled, by an Application for a Licence to keep a Rtw, he Nould obtain A Quantity of Land, in Proofim to the Perfons fettled therein, agreeable to ahe Pveiasution; and that one of the Petitions before meatioad had Reference to the Settlement of fuch Swwe!,, on the oppofite Side of the River. That the Perfwi interted to be fettled thereon would give a perfonal Aatendaace, when his Excellency was known to have AppQimed a Day for Examinatfien. But that he then took the Liberty of mentioning, that the Rep=t of two Perfins juft returned from Afvigii, who had waited on his "v, xcellency to petition for Land. Meffs. Daei,, and ohnfon, that no PcrCort residing with your Petiter should ever have any Grants of Lands in this Provine, and that the Petitions fent in, under his Direction to the Secretary were thrown under the Table; that he related this as a Report only without any real Foundation, or more than a Non-correfpondence with the Covernor's Sentiments and Will to eftablifh a thorotgh Settlemant of the Province in fome Perfons whafe Station of Lie should direct to a different IeportmMt, ad which, however it would anfwer their End$ he knows not, but might render his Settlement more difficult; fingular, and trifling as it is; if continued to 4 fecon4 or third Adventurer, might discourage a greater Number of more important Undertakings; after which followed a Recapitulation of the Seduaion of his Surveyor Fairrhld, recited more at large before, but more particularly mentioning Mr. Justice Grtenan's Affertion at laft, that Fairchild- the Surveyor's serving of him was incompatible with the Office of Surveying for the Province, though his Excelleucy had faid otherwifo. That he thought the Advice, Weight, and Authority, of ome already eftablifhed in Office, might make Equity flow eafily to private Individuals, and that Contrams would be preferred in Fa&t, though wanting fome ncceffary Forms; refle6cing on the Charaaker of a Juftice of Peace, as holding a Balance between Equity and the Rigour of the Law. That Colonies have heen much disturbed
Jiffurbed by the finifter Arts of Neighbours, or private Conneffions within it's own. That your Petitioner expeaed it ; that he found it at Cbardes-own, as to the Former.; as to the Latter "in the Point of the Cattle. His Boat loft perhaps through Difappointment in Affidavits feared to be made, and fome others, already troubling his Excellency too much abont, yet muff ferve for Reexion and future Advice to himfelf. The above Omiffion of the Name of the Perfon, through whom the Lofs of the Boat was occaftoned, afforded ample Reafon to the Governor to take the Matter up. The moft minute Affairs in Aufltne, or the Province, were known to him, and this more worthy of his Regard, than the affair of the Soldiers of Picolata already mentioned. But it is not to be doubted he knew that this Blank would be properly filled with the Name of Mr. Sweettnham, the young Man he wifhed well well to, and knew not any one he fhould be more ready to promote. The Go. vernor wrote him an Anfwer dated the sift of Marck, in Anfwer to what he wrote about the Indian Philaki, and the Traders Mr. WiYon and Mr. Spading's Interpreter, wherein he obferved as to the Latter, that he had not followed his Inifrudfions, which forbids Traders giving Credit to any Indian, and his following Philoki to your Petitioner's Settlement was an Irregularity he Should inquire irtto. The Letter mentioned above from the Secretary to Mr. Spalding the Store-keeper Mr. Dunnet now feemed to be grounded on this Advice of your Petitioner as a Reafon for withdrawing the Licence; but the Terms for keeping the Storefti', by purchafing his Goods at Mr. H//fin's, of Auguj/ine, had no Reference to your Petitioner's Sefttement. The Governor mentions, in this Letter, a Will and Defire to grant a Licence for an Indian Store to your Petitioner; hut defires him not to talk to Indians about Trade, left he should coun. tera& what the Superintendant had agreed to, on which muft beg Leave to obferve, what your Petitioner had propofed to the Indians would be, he believes in every Perfon's Opinion juf, and could not counteract any Regulations produdive of beneficial Trade, unlers the Interest of the Rum Colonies should be con fidered, in Preference
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Preference to the Security of EaJ)-Floridt, which the Sale of that Commodity to the Indians might effe&, whatever Injuitice there might be in the Introdu6iion of it, to the Deffruffion of their Race. The Governor mentions alfo, that a Licence to a Trader does not preclude him from being a Settler, but does not intitle him to a Tra6t of Land near the Store; the Licence is annual; permanent Property upon that Account would be inconfiflent. This refers to his asking fox Land, with the Store; but which he mentioned as the Proportion afligned in the Proclamation of fifty Acres per Head, to thofe Perfons fettled at the Store. This feemed to be only as a kind of Denial of the Necerfaries of Life to fuch Perfons as your Petitioner should fettle there, and which, as Corn and Rice, are Articles of Sale, or Gift to the Indians at all Stores it feems as if Land was a neceffary Appendage. In Anfwer to the Report mentioned, in his lafi Letter, of the Petitions from Perfons at his Settlement having been thrown undcr the Table, and none would be regarded, the Governor anfwer,, I do not confult a Mr. 7obnon, or a Mr. Davis, about the Plan of Settlement of this Province; pray do not give Attention to fuch idle Reports ; in which his Ekcellency does not deny the Fa&. The People at Mount Pleafant, he continues, as I have told you, I can only confider as Settlers upon your Ef*ate, when you fix upon it ; otherwise you may believe I should not permit them to fettle upon Crown Lands, without making Application to me; for you know well, if that was not the Cafe, that I should be obliged to dire& the Attorney General to profecute them for a Trefpafs againff the Crown, as they have taken Poffefion of Crown Lands, without afling my Confent; that, in Refpe& of, your Petitioner's Surveyor Fdirchi/d, he wifhed him to fettle with me; it was not decent for him to go greater Lengths. If your Petitioner ha4 been ill ufed in any Bargain, the Law of Engla'd was Opefl. That he muf& leave it to the Juftices of Peace to ufe their Power to affift young Colonifts ; for peculiar CircumfIhnces, where Points of Law are concerned, it was not in his Power to fubftitute, to excufe C him
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him from entering further into thofe Particulars, unlef your Petitioner entered a regular Complaint againft any particular Perfon,'for not executing his Office, then the Affair would come properly before him. Hereon your Petitioner muff beg leave to remark, that his mentioning the Report of his Petitions being throwft under the Table came from the two Perfons named, who were returned at that Inflant, from the Secretary's Office, if not the Council-Board ; but your Petitioner mentioned it as a Report that could come from Underlings in Office only, who wiffied ill to his Colony; but fuch Givings-out might be prejudicial. If there were People came to his Settlement for Security, and, in [opes of Conveniencies for Education of their Children, and other Benefits, might be induced to refide at his Town, Village, or whatever Name it may be called by ; yet, as for Land for Cultivation, fuch as he might be inclined to grant, they might not chufe, or could meet with fome as convenient and ,nearer on the other Side of the River, and without the Limits of his Grant. Your Petitioner could not think that their Poffeffion of a Plot of Land, three Perch in Breadth, and twelve in Depth, the Size of the Town Lots, as at prefent taken up, or if they fhould alfo cultivate the five Acres Lots laid out without the Town with any Manner of Reafon, could preclude them rom his Majeffy's Offer of one hundred Acres for themselves, and fifty for each of their Family. If they had accepted of the King's Grant of the fame, firfi of all, your Petitioner is pretty well perfuaded there could be nothing contained in his Majeffy's In, ftructions to prevent their poffeffing other Lands of private Perfons, either by Purclrafe or otherwife ; he is certain that fuch Confiruction muff militate with the Plan of fettling the Colony with Whites, the express Condition of the Royal Orders for Grants; for, as the Governor faid, no Perfon would ftay at your Petitioner's Towns any longer than he fed him ; and the Offers to Settlers, in his Proclamation, muff contend with
* Tho Petitioner's reason for not making fuch Complaint, See above,
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with his tettllrig ih that Part of the Province. His fEirming a Town without any Inhabitants was ufelefs, for he could not grant Land with greater Conv eniencies and Privilegesthan his Proclamation offered. Thus far, or in fuch Lights, it is true ; for twenty thoufand Acres are granted to a Perfon bringing four hundred Negroes, and, perhaps at feveral different Times, he poffeffes him felf of as many feveral TraCts of Land; by their being run out in smaller Portions, contain, altogether good Land, with little or no Addition of bad Land, and, in three Year's Time, may fell the Stock of Negroes, pofieffed irrevocably of the Land, and may, or may not, cultivate the leaft Part of it, and leave what he did clear worfe than he found it, as the Weeds and Quick-wood immediately fucceeding would foon render it more difficult to clear, than old frefh Land ; the other receiving a Grant in one contiguous Plot of twenty thoufand Acres, perhaps, a twelfth, or a tenth Part good, the Refidue, what is called Pine-Barren, or the moff indifferent Land, he muff equally, with the Negro Settler, pay forty-one Pounds thirteen Shillings and four Pence, a Year, Quit Rent, or one Half-penny an Acre; he mui convey his two-hundred white Settlers, and fet them down to Cultivation, at a far greater Expence than the other ; and muff lofe his intire Property in thefe Settlers at the End of the Term agreed for, which is ufually four Years. If they ftay, he lets them his Land, at what Quit Rent the Governor tells him, not at fo low a Rent as he will, agreeable to his Prodamifion, an Half-penny an Acre; therefore, no Perfons will fettle with him. This appears to be almoff unanfwerable ; but the Contrary did appear, in a fall Degree, at your Petitioner's Settlement, maugre all Oppofition and Obftrudlions; in a greater it would have appeared, had not peculiar Contrivances, which his Excellency feems to think him too prefuming to expe6*, might be formed for the Protea ion and Encouragement of the Settler, feern to be fet in Battle Array againif your Pertfoner.
That his Excellency, not contradicting tre, Report mentioned, but defiring him not to mind fuch idle ReC 2 ports,
ports, your Petitioner was extremely obliged to him for the Intimation. He did observe this Refolution, he fet out. with it from England, not to let the Spirit fink, by permitting the Contradi6lion of others to grate on the Mind ; it will, if given Way to, in a hot Climate, your Petitioner knows, enervate the Man in a fhort fpace of Time, and fhake the Frame to Pieces; Labour of the Body will prevent this Labour of the Mind, and preferve both for the Ufe of the State. Your Petitioner can plead Excufe for this feeming Digreflion, only by alledging it, as an Offer for Information to thofe who may undertake Expeditions of this Kind in warm Climates, how much depends on the preferring in all, under their Care, the Chearfulnefs of Temper, and Equality of Mind. He does not doubt, if he the Adventurer, on his Majefty's Permiffion to fettle, had chofe to have difputed the feveral Points of Obftruaions to his Settlement, he might eafily have embroiled himfelf with. half the People eflablifhed by his Majefly, for the Protection and Defence of the Colony ; but, as the Gentlemen of fome Part of r'rr/hire, who were greatly dillurbed in the peaceable Poffeffion of their Lands and Game by a certain Major, who provided Dainties at his Table for two Ladies of Luxury in different Parts of England, wherein he pleaded to place them, were infligated by rne another to challenge this Gentleman of the Sword, at whofe Point they were to be kept from even viewing their Demefnes, like Prifoners in their own Houfes, when one Gentleman, more pru., dent and of juft Reafoning, at fome General Public Meeting faid, that, as that Gentleman was -intended by his Majefly to defend and fight, not with his Subjects, but for them, it was no Difhonour in any Perfon to omit the Challenge, and to join in the Propofal he then made of an humble Reprefentation to the Secretary of State, ro interest himfelf in obtaining an Order of Removal for that Gentleman from thofe Quarters, as a Public Nufance; which they all readily joined in, and he was ordered, he believes, to join his Regiment in Ireland. Your Petitioner has the fame kind of Reafoning with himfelf, as to the Point of Honour;
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Honour; and doubts not of his Majefly's Protection of thofe he pleafes to grant Lands to, and who fupport a Settlement at a great Expence, on the Plan he direils in his Order of Grants to be followed. As to what the Governor refers him to, the Law and the Justices, and a regular Complaint againif the Executors of it; he faw fo little good Effect from the humble Remonifrances, fo little Obedience to his Excellency's Opinion, as communicated to him, and having the fame Complaints from other Parts, and for the Reafons before mentioned, he thought it more prudent to make ill poffible Provifion againfi thefe Misfortunes within his own Settlement, as far as the Nature of his own Power permitted ; and to defer his Reprefentations of thofe Matters till his Return to England, which he meditated on daily ; but was tiill defirous of flaying to locate the Grant of Land. The Governor on one Side preffing him to a hafty Determination, though he did not to others already fet down on Lands, equally with your Petitioner, on Sufferance only ; and as yet no Agreement had been made with the Indians, or likely to be oon for the Prmiffion of fettling any Land ; he imagined, if he could have any Affurance, not extraordinary 0 Indulgence of the Time, to procure Opinion of Government at Home ou his Reprelentations, he might fet out and return again, before the Treaty with the Insas. But he could neither venture to go, and his Stay proved not long enough at laft to locate the Land with Propriety, being continually obftru&ed on every Propofal.
That, on April the 20th, he ent a Letter to the Governor, which he mentions in his Anfwer of the 23d, wherein he inclofed a Lift of the Grants of Land, made by Mr. Boone, Governor of South-Carolna, of eighty-three thoufand one hundred and fifty Acres, Part of which was on the Alatamaha, the former South Boundary of Georgia ; Part on St. Mary's River; the i:efient Boundary of Georgia; Part on what was agreed between General Ogletborpe and the Governor of C 3 St.
* See the Indulgence to Col. Middleto *, ( ) of three
St. AugrOine to be efleemed Neutral on the Iflands of Amelia and Talbot. But alfo ltbree tboufand Acres, one hundred Miles up from the Mouth of St. fohn's River. Suppofe twenty Miles more South than St. Augufline, in the verr Heart of the Province of Eaji-Florida, ceded by the Spaniards, on a Prefumption that King Charles the Ild's Charter of South Carolina could extend to the Deprivation of all Inhabitants, as far as the Latitude of 29 Degrees, which included St. Augufline, Penfacola, Mfiobile, New Orleans, &c.
That your Petitioner had this Plot furveyed by his Surveyor, and which Draught he had fhlewed to the Governor, and related that as an eligible Spot for him, if the Indians would permit a Settlement on that Side of the River; that, if not, he muff chufe another Spot, as mentioned before. In the Governor's Anfwer concerning this Grant to Colonel Middleton, he faid he had not underftood that any of the Grants in Eafi-Florida Province had been completed, in Confequence of Governor Boone's Grants, till lately Mr. Middleton's, to whom thofe three thoufand Acres oppofite to your Petitioner's Settlement had been granted by Governor Boone, fent to their Corre-. fpondents, to requeft the Governor to have the Grants recorded in the Regifter-Office, in Eafl-Florida; they are very refponfible People, and would make good Settlers ; his Anfwer to this Requeft was pretty nearly as follows, that this Province had been formed out of a Part of the Country ceded to his Majefly by the late Definitive Treaty; that he was the firfi Governor his MIajefly had appointed, and that he could admit of no Grants, but fuch as had paffed under the General Seal of this Province ; that the Validity of a Deed under the General Seal of 8outh-Carolina muff be confidered before it could be recorded in the Offices here; but that, upon perfonal Application to him in Council, if thofe Gentlemen complied with the Terms of his Proclamation, as the Lands had not already been granted by him, all Difficulties might be removed, as they should get a Grant of the Land they claimed ; and, that they might have Time to confider of it, he would not give
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give away thofe Lands to any body for three Months. If Mr. Elliot applied to him before the Lands of Amelia IMland are granted away, he hall give him the fame Anfwer ; but it is the Bufinefs of Gentlemen who have obtained fuch Grants to inform him of it, for he is fuppofed to know nothing of them till Application is made to him ; he then mentioned an Infirudion of a Survey of St. 7ohn's River foon, but has not happened unlefs very lately; preffes your Petitioner again to locate his Land, for fear he should grant away Land he might like. Your Petitioner's Letter of the 25th of lpril, takes Notice that this Letter of the Governor's, as well as the former Reafonings on the Locating of his Grant all together in a connected View, rendered a greater Difficulty in his declaring his Sen. timents, alledging there feemed to be full Time, before there was a Likelihood of an Indian Congrefs, for him to have the Opinion of Government at Home. The Land on the oppofite Side of the River had not now at this Time the Obje6tion of the Indians; indeed your Petitioner believed he could have had it ofthem, if no Land had been granted by any Congrefs; his Friendfhip with them made him quite eafy, though the two Indians Traders were at that very Time drove from their Stores, the fatal EffeCis of felling Rum! and which obliges his Neighbour Mr. Spalding, to lie aboard his Boat in the River every Night, while the Rum lafis, for fear of being murdered ; and alfo now the Indian, whofe Name was Chuckle, mentioned before, was fuppofed to be murdered at Augujline, which made the Governor fear Mifchief would enfue, who fent to the Indians at Latchaway, to exprefs his Inclination to ufe his beft Endeavours to find out the Murderer, though the Indian appeared again afterwards; it being a Con-. trivance he had to occafion a Sufpicion of a Quarrel and Murder it was fuppofed. But your Petitioner thought himfelf nevertheless quite fecure in their Good.. will, and Promife of Information on any the leafi Danger or Intention of Harm. He herein expreffed his utmouf Defire to make a Settlement, agreeable to the C 4. Interefis
* See above
Interefts of the Mother Kingdom; recapitulated, in a ihort Mannpr, the different Sentiments expreffed thereon, and the Oppofition he received from unexpected Hands, though Difficulties and Oppofitions in Intereffs he in fome Meafure had expe6led.
That on the Eaft Side of the River he refided on, would be eligible only on Account of Health, the other Side for better Land ; and the Ind'an Friendfhip would now permit it, requested the Governor's explicit Opinion as to Right of Pre-ele6tion, in himfelf, of fuch Spot on the Weft Side, should the Grant of Governor Boons be invalid; or, if valid, of Admiflion to the fole Property of a Ferriage, the Indians paffing free with Convenience and a Store for the Indians on that Side, cCteemed before by the Governor improper on this inhabited Side; and whether two other eligible Spots be had in View might remain ungranted, till he might, by Reprefentation at Home to the Lords of Trade, obtain a different Arrangement the Governor had intimated it not to be within the Limits of the Cornmifion, may be yet thought proper by their Lordfhips to recommend to his Majefty, to facilitate the ex-* penfive Attempts though he hoped not illaudable, of your Petitioner.
That the two eligible Spots, two Iflands, and ome main Land, are not efteemed by the Governor a contiguous Plot. That, on April 26th, the Governor's Let. ter expreffes a Difbelief of any Perfon's wishing your Petitioner ill, and should have a bad Opinion of fuch, if any. It was his Duty to facilitate his Settlement, but he faid your Petitioner had given him no Reafon, why he did not go and fettle at St. Marl's, according to his firft Intention, hinting rather a Diffatisfaaion at his not running out his Land, as he had a Surveyor ent over in February, and was in no Apprehenfion of giving Offence to the Indians in running out his Land, though above the Fort Picolata, as he was already fettled there. If he had propofed fixing on that Spot of Land which had been granted by Governor Boone to Mr. Middleton, your Petitioner, should have told him fo, he faid it was mentioned as an extra Settlement, which he could not
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not grant. If he had proposed a Survey of that Landv before the Carolina Grant had been laid before him, his Answer to Mr. Middlden's Agent would have been different, but that he could not recall what he had ftid. As to the Grant of the Governor of Soudtb. Cardina, difpofing of the Trads of Land mentioned above, it was upon a firange Suppofition, that the Right of the Governor feems to be founded. That King Charles the IId's Charter of Carolina extended to the Latitude of 29 Degrees, by which St. ,ugujfint, St. Mark's, Penfacola, and New Orleans were included: Any grant cf Land, at this Place, mufl be of Land ceded by the Spa. niards, if any Thing was in their Poffeffion, whatever might be faid of the Lands, eighty-three thoufand one hundred and fifty Acres, the Governor of Carolin4, had granted on or near St, Mary's River, and the River Alatamaha, which your Petitioner thinks were agreed to be neutral, between General Oglitbwp, and the Goversqor of St. 4uguflint, at that Time. The Governor continues to fay, that a Place would be referred for a Fort, at the Narrows, that is, at his Settlement; a Leafe of the Ferry he might have the Refufal of; a Licence for an Indian Store he might have at any Time, but, the Mo. ment Inhabitants were fixed upon it, the Store would of Courfe be removed to another Place, none being permitted in an inhabited Country As to the two Plots of Land defired to be referred, he knew the Terms in the King's Order for a Grant, before he left London ; then was the Time to obje6t, he had had a long Time to fearch for Land, and no fuch Spots could be referred on a Suppofition of an Alteration ; he added, no Perfon could come with a greater Advantage of locating his Grant, than your Petitioner did ; as to Obf'ruaions to his Settlement a Perfon of his Excellency's good Intelligence, could not want Information from your Petitioner. Every minute trifling Circumfiance he found on feveral Occafions the Governor knew. When he had a Surveyor he had a Plan, and fhewed it to the Governor in DeoemM', of that Plot of Land oppofite to the Place of his Refidence, and mentioned the Carolina Grant, which he had heard of, and fhewed an Inclination to that Plot of Land all along; but the Misfortune wasp that every Propofal
Propofal for any Plot, no Matter what or where, was certain to receive fome Obje&ion. This certainly dallied Time away, not through his Fault, till others might come to take any good Land away from him, as it happened afterward. At this Time a different Anfwer would have been given to Colonel Middleton, had it been known before-hand *. Surely, the little Knowledge of the Country near St. Mark's, the Conference not yet held with the Indians, through which Country, for two hundred and forty Miles, he was to pafs, and no Perfon had pafled it as yet, were fufficient Motives to a humane Governor to have prevented his attempting to go, with ten People, to be fcalped, had it not entered into your Petitioner's unexperienced Head. The Fort is held out as a Bugbear, to prevent his Continuance even at the Narrows, where little good Land adjoins. As to the two Plots, it had been plainer propofed by him as an Ifland, and a Part of the Main; which was anfwered could not be a Contiguous Plot, according to the King's Inftruffions ; and your Petitioner has lately been told by a Lawyer, this is one of the more nice Species of Refinement. He could not conceive of Weight, but, with a previoufly ftiff determined Mind. Your Petitioner did not prefume to make Comments on ]his Majefty's Order, he accepted it without Interpretation, and would try the Experiment in Perfon If Confrueions are foreign to the Meaning of his Majefty's Order, or any Thing, by Experiment, is found injurious to the more beneficial Settler with Whites, he doubted not of Relief, could he have had Time to zeprefent it, and no Injury done to his Settlement in the mean Time. The Leafe of the Ferry he defired, to oblige the Indians, which he feared others might not, was the fole Motive of his Requeft; but for a valuable Confideration he might purchafe other Things more valuable in Income he fuppofed. The Store was to be granted and foon revoked. He fees no Objelion, if proper Dire6ions are given, and obferved, the more intimate the Indians and Whites are, the better.
* This was known before, as appears, juti above, by the Petitioner's flewing to the Governor a Survey of this Land made by his own Surveyor.
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That your Petitioner wrote a Letter to the Governor previoufly to his going to England, as intended in the firfi Week in May; wherein he recites again the prior Petition of Colonel Middleton, by an Agent or Proxy, not permitted to your Petitioner, or any Perfon in any wife belonging to him; but, his Application had been perfonal, he had fhewn a Map run out by his own Surveyor, before he was deprived of him, by being reduced away, of this fame Tra& of Land. That his Excellency had declared his Intention of not receiving of Petitions, for any Land above Picolata, till after the Indian Treaty; therefore, his Delay frufirated no Attempts of others to fettle: The Petition for Part of that Land, by a Perfon he had intended Settling at an Indian Store, was prior alfo to Colonel Middleton; and, if it wanted the Form of a perfonal Attendance, it was owing to the wrong Information at the Secretary's Office, where his Surveyor inquired for the Form and Method, and was intended only to fave Expence ia Attendance; for he could not think, that his Excellency created an Obligation on the Settlers, by enhanceing their Expence of Attendance, to fupport the Taverns at .,ugufine. He, on this Account, intended going im.mediately for England, but, left that fome Land fhould be granted to Colonel Middleton, in Preference to him-. felf, or any other Perfon, hearing your Petitioner had viewed fuch or fuch a Spot of Land, may make Application for a fmall Slip of Land in the Middle, to the Depriving him of Land agreeable in Contiguity, as required by his Majefty's Permit. If he can have noother Election but a fecond after Colonel Middkton, then that he muft fix on a Piece of Land, difpofed in a Neck on this Side of the River, as Colonel .Middleton's is fo termed on the other, (which is altogether Swamp) by a prudent Line of Direction ; though, if your Petitioner included it in his, he should have mixed much Pine-Bar.en, and, according to one Plan, Ihould have paid for near two thoufand Acres of Water in his Quit Rent; he thought it not quite a difhonourable Propofal to make to his Excellency, not an Injury to other Settlers, or the Intereft of the Province. He obje6led to the fending the
the Perfon, who had been Surveyor in his own Service, as a Surveyor for the Province, for Reafons too obvious to mention to a Perfon of Honour ; but, if another was fent, Mr. Lloyd, his Agent, would fhew him his rough Draughts, done by himfelf, through Neceflity, fince he was deprived of his own Surveyor, for eafier Compre,. henfion how to run the Land.
That your Petitioner was (orry, that he had related to the Cowkeeper, one of the Indian Chiefs, as he mentioned before, that he believed no Caftles would be built on the River, as he found now it was different from the Intention of his Excellency's Meaning, the Refervation of a Spot to build a Cafile on his Settlement; which, whenever executed, he should certainly fow no Corn, &c. within the baleful Influence of fuch a Fort, left he might hide the Enemy from the Sight of the Garrifon; but, as for Colonel Middleton's Rice Plantation, on the other Side, though within Gun-Shot, it would not be of fuch Prejudice, as Rice would fcarce hide an Enemy. As for the Place where his Village was, being the narroweft and beft adapted Place for the Fort, it was equally as well a Mile below, where it was one Chain narrower; and, above nine Miles above, there is a Place, that feemed to him not above a Stone's Throw over.
That, on May the 9th, two Gentlemen of Carolina, Mr. Kinlaugh and Mr. A1oultrie, both confiderable Planters in that Province, arrived at his Settlement, and brought him a Letter from the Governor, dated May the 7th, to inform him, that thefe Gentlemen came to petition for Land, and fix upon the Locality of the fame ; that he could not grant them any, till after the Limits might be fettled by an Indian Treaty; but that fuch Land as they fbould chufe should not be granted away to any other Perfon, till they, or their Friends, came into the Province to eftablifh their Settlement in the Autumn after the Congrefs is over* ; preffes him to fix on his Lot, as their Choice would become prior to his otherwife, and irreverfibly fo, and that thefe Gen.. tlemen would fix on feveral Spots before they returned ; which
* It appears the Governor gives Indulgence to all others.
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which they accordingly did, on two Spots onlys very near your Petitioner's Houfe and Village, one of which was within the Survey Ihewed to the Governor. He always, he fays, expreffed a Defire to accommodate your Petitioner to his Satisfadion, as far as lay in his Power; and thought it expedient to put him on his Guard. The Pofi"fcript informs him, that he had received an Exprefs from St. Mark's, and fent him an Extra& of a Letter from the Commander there ; Mr. Pompillione wherein was an Account of a Veffel, a Brigantine, with Settlers for his Plantation, which had attempted to come into St. Mark's, but had failed, and had put into Penfa. cola, from whence an Exprefs had been fent to Mr. Pom. piilione, at St. Mark's, with the Letter from the Captain to him.
That your Petitioner was now to be hurried into the Fixing of his Plot of Land; he entertained thefe Gen. tlemen with all Refpecdt, as well as his Situation per. mitted; and acquainted them, that he had not really determined about the Running out of his Land, as he had had many Propofals rejeded by the Governor, and Difficulties fill occured ; but fhewing them the Plans, as drawn by that indifferent Surveyor, himfelf, be. ing obliged to do fo as he was deprived of him he had hired into his Service, by the Sedudion of others ; and intimated he fhould fill flick to the Spot they faw him on; which he fuppofed would not interfere with theit Choice, as they were going far up the River; and mentioned, that the Proportion of his Lot, would be nearly three Miles and a Quiarter in Breadth, and nine Miles and three Quarters in Length, which he would get run as foon as he could procure a Surveyor to come to him. This he then thought fatisfad-ory to them, and, for him.. felf, confulted with his Agent, and made out Diredlions to him, for Information to the Surveyor in his Abfence, as he now was obliged to put off his going to England, and determine to haffen to the Affiftance ot his Settlers from England at Penfacola, left his Letters of Advice where he was had not reached them. This was a Journey of Neceflity, though dangerous, being the firfi undertaken by the prefent White Inhabitants of EajlFlorida,
Florida, not of late Years ventured on by the late Poffeffors of St. Auguftine, the Spaniard. It was not a Cafe of Neceffity, when the Governor would have had him undertaken it on his firft Arrival, and before he became acquainted with the Indians or the Governor himfelf had had a Congrefs with them, but which latter Security he frill had not.
That he prepared however immediately to go to St. Mark's acrofs Land ; one of his Servants would go with him, though your Petitioner had determined to run the Rifk alone, without engaging any other of his People. He fet out juft as it was dark in the Evening of May,; the xoth, and went up in his Canoe to the Indian Trading-Houfe about eight Miles up the River, where he repofed himfelf on the Bank of the River till the Morning, when he found the two Carolina Gentlemen juft getting out for a further Search higher up the River, and propofed to go over the Great Lake which is about thirty Miles further up from your Petitioner's Settlement, and is twenty Miles in Length, and ten in Breadth ; nothing tranfpired from them of any Choice near him at that Time, neither did they mention it to his Agent, on their Return to his Settlement, when they were entertained by him in his Abfence, but on his proceeding as herein aftermentioned down the River for Georgia and England, he met one Mr. Grey, who was a Perfon in Company with thofe two Gentlemen when they went up the River; and he acquainted him that they proceeded no further than the Great Lake, did not go over it, but returned back, and had made Choice (Mr. Aoultrie) of three thoufand Acres on the South.. Weft fide of Dunn's Creek, the Mouth of which dif.. charges a Lake, formed about fix Miles above, to the South-Eaft into St. 7ohn's River, nearly about four Miles higher up the fame from your Petitioner's Town or Village ; and that Mr. Kinlaugb had chofe the fame Quantity of Land on the North-Eaft Side of the fame Creek, and that the Governor had promifed them Grants of the fame. As a Plot of three thoufand Acres muft be, according to the Rules of running out Land, three Miles and three Quarters in Length, and one MiC's
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Mile and a Quarter in Breadth, the Breadth muft reach within three Miles of the Middle of your Petitioner's Town, which, as the Breadth of his Land was known to be three Miles and a Quarter in Breadth, and nine Miles and three Quarters in Length, might, in either Method of running the fame, interfere. It feemed to be a Breach of Hofpitality he thought in thofe Gen. tlemen in the Silence upon fuch a Choice fo near him, if it did not approach to what the Gentlemen Racers call '.ockeylbip. It was then too late to make a perfonal Appeal to the Governor ; he could only fend a written Remonftrance, which he did by the Return of his Boat from Georgia, and ordered his Agent to do A61s of Ownerfhip on that Land, to diffinguifh his Choice. He muft in this Place remark, that both of the Gentlemens' Lots will have Side Lines run on a Creek as called fo, but is really a deep River navigable for large Schooners, as well as their End Lines on the River, and perhaps the other End on the Lake above ; that the faid Plot of Mr. Kinlaugh's will contain about fix hundred and fiftAcres of good fwamp and marfh Land out of three thoufand, when even your Petitioner's twenty thoufand run in the moll beneficial Manner, though not admitted by the Governor, will contain but one thoufand eight hundred and thirty Acres of good Land, of which the fix hundred and fifty Acres in Mr. Kinlaugh's Lot is a Part and the Refidue eighteen thoufand one hundred and feventy is Pine-Barren, or indifferent Land. Mr. Grey alfo informed him that his Family had pitched on a Piece of Land below him, on the other Side of the River. This was a Place he once had Hopes that he might have had Liberty of placing a Mill at, there being a Stream of Water with fome Fall, to grind the Corn for his Villagers, and it appeared fince not an inadmiflible Petition, as to one Mr. Davis, who had fettled on a Spot of good Land about feventy Miles below him, whereon much fine Bay-wood, &c. grew, which he had prefented the Governor with a confiderable Specimen of, where the Governor had permitted him to run both his Side-line and the Front-line cn the great River, and he thinks about one thoufand Acres as for himfelf,
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himself, and perhaps eighteen Negroes; and about eight Miles diftant as he thinks, he told him, prornifed him a Lot for perhaps the Refidue of his Family and Negroes, whereon he intended a Mill. This Lot alfo, made Choice of by the Grey Family, has the chief Part of it's Side-line on the River, as well as the End-line.
That your Petitioner now took the Interpreter at the Store of Mr. Spalding, to proceed to the firfi Town of the Indians, about fifty Miles Diflance, which lay in his Way thither; and by the Affiflance of two Horfes, walking the chief Part of the Way himfelf, they arrived there, the fecond Day at Noon, at a Store-Houfe kept by a Dutchman one Mr. Barnet. Your Petitioner, being well known himfelf to many of the Indians here, and the Chiefs being out on the Hunt, had no Obflru6lion to his Paffage ; he here engaged the Dutchman, Barnet, to condua him to St. Mark's, and the other Interpreter returned to his Store; he here faw, at this Town, the unhappy Effefs of the Rum Trade, which he foreboded, and ufed all Precautions against; one of the Indians, called Neatohowki, who alfo kept a Shop here, had procured from Mr. Spalding's Store feveral Cafks, which had intoxicated the Indians; and this Man who is a Nephew of the Indian Chief of the Village, the Cow-keeper had, on an Apprehenfion of being bewitch.. ed, ift the Hfat of Liquor devifed the Death of an old Woman and two Men, one of whom being prefent he knocked out his Brains with a Glafs Bottle, and afterwards dragged him by the Tail of a Horfe, a Stone's Throw off from the Huts, Into the Woods, where your Petitioner faw him in his Walks out, and would have buried him, could he have procured a proper Tool ; which he might have effe6led with Safety, as the Indans avoid the Sight of fuch Spefacles, and are much afraid of the Spirits of thefe Viclims facrificed to their Paffions; and had immediately removed thek Huts a Quarter of a Mile off, and lighted feveral Fires every Night for fome Time. This is the unhappy Effet of our Trade with them. Though, in their Licences, Traders are refrained frcm felling Rum, agreeable to the Treaty General Oglethorpe he believes made
C 49 )
made with them, when the old Men of the Cr&. Nation requefting the Prohibition of this Commodity, affigned a very fubifantial Reafon, left their young Men intoxicate themfilves and breed Quarrels with the Great King's People, and occafion War and Bloodflied. There was another Article in that Treaty, That of their having fealed Weights and Meafures ent up to each of their Towns ; which, lie believes, are not made Ufe of in any Store ; and almoft all the Condi-w tions the Traders are bound to in their Licences which he has feen, are not obferved by them. By this Commomodity of Rum alone, we may be aid to conquer large Provinces, but, as Lord Bacon ays, not fettle them ; we difpeople them at the fame Time we are, in Appearance, flocking the Land with Inhabitants.
That the Natives, by their Methods of Life, have, efpecially in Florida, kept the wild Beafts from encreafsing; and, by burning the Woods every Year, have occafioned even a Scarcity of venomous Creatures. This is a Reafon delivered of old by the :fwih Lawgiver for the Non-deftruaion of the Canaanites; and your Petitiouer wishes it may be urged for the Prefervation of the Creeks, and other Indan Nations bordering on our own Settlements ; and, as he has alfo had full Proof if the beneficial Trade now carried on, and which may i inreafed by the civilifmg of them it is to be hoped that Set,-Intereft may conduce to the fame End. Their Senfe of the Urility of the Propofals arifing fr=m fuch Sentiments appeared in this fame Murderer Niateowki, who was with him jult after the Commitment of the Murder, and fat very friendly- with him at this ..ndian TowRt and came twice to his Settlement With. his Skins for Trade ; and, at the latter Time, pte Qd him much. to take them, and keep them till he ha4. Goods agreeable to his Wants..
That having engaged .Andrew Barnet, who keeps a Store at this Plae1 to go with your Petitioner to St. Ma~k's, *ho afo took an Indian, as an Afliflant, to tii C ome Gam, and as a Mark of being friendly with tb Crafs, 9.4ouJA he meet, with any on the Road he pmalced an bI' Jiirty being five in Company, his own
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own Servant, and a Carpenter, bound to Penfacola, whco defired Liberty to join him for fafe Condu&, being the other two; the fecond Day he arrived on the Banks of a River, which runs from the North Southward into the Bay of Mtxce, called there Little Savannah, but, in fome Maps, he believes, the Carolinian River. Your Petitioner paffedI i in a Canoe kept by the Indians, whofe Town he came to it a Quarter of a Mile off by Land on the Banks of the fame River, but about a Mile further up by Water. He alighted at one of the firfi Huts; but was foon after fent for by the head Man of that Tribe, who bears the Name of the White King: he went immediately to his Hut, and found him, with fix or feven other flout Indians, fitting on their Couches of Repofe. The Chief enquired of the Reafon of our Journey, and at flrft feemed to obje& to our proceeding farther ; but, after fome Time, on alledging the Intention was only to go to St. Mark's and Penfacola, to order a Ship, lately arrived there, to fail round to Savannah, in Georgia, he feemed to fay nothing further. Soon after there was ferved up fome Venifon dreffed with Bear's Oil, and a Bowl of China-Briar-Root Soop; with which your Petitioner and his Attendants having refreshed themselves, he retired, to find out a Place for encamping that Night ; which he did at a fall Space off from the Indians' Hutts, when your Petitioner difengaged his Horfes ,f the few Neceffaries, and placed them on the Ground near the Fire. Barnet, the Indian Trader, who, being jealous of your Petitioner's Interefi with the Indians in general, would not inform them, though requefted by him, of his Name, and Place of Refidence, and fome other Reprefentation he thought neceffary, retired from him, to drive fome Bargains with the Indians for his own Benefit, having brought fome little Trifles for that Purpofe; but that your Petitioner had propofe4 ing for them, and to prefent them as a Compliment, ut was disappointed therein by the Jealoufy of the ra dian Trader, who was his only Interpreter. In the mean Time, while the Trader was absent, the young Isxam of the Village came dews to his Camp, whr only himfelf and one Servant .. thb to be rather rudely inclined, and wanted -a litt e Parcels of Cloaths,
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Cloaths, and ome few Neceffaries that he had there lying on the Ground, on which your Petitioner was obliged to exert himfelf in the following Manner : He defired them, by fignificant Motions, to fit down, and, with a Stick, defcribed on the Sand the River St. 7Jom's, pointed out the Road to St. .lugujiine, and the Spot of your Petitioner's Settlement, where the Creel Ifdians he hinted paffed in their Way to that Place, and, were entertained, which he did by pointing to the Mouth, by the Squire a Name affixed to General Ogeiborpe formerly, and which was now given to your Petitioner-- That fome Way above your Petitioner's Settlement there lived one Sekili, an Indian. with two Squaws, who came to fee him, And were his Friends ; as alfo one Philoki, and his Squaw, and two Sons, the Long Warrior, the Cowkeeper, &c. all the Names of the Indians he knew, and had been entertained by him at his Settlement, were all in firi& Friendfhip with him, which he defcribed by joining his two Hands together, pointing to his Lips, and their to his Heart ; by which. your Petitioner foon found they understood him, for they afterwards fat down very quietly, only expreffing rather Pleafure, and, on the Return of his Interpreter, found they invited him up to a Dance, which they ufe on the Arrival of Strangers, and the whole Village joined in it till about Eleven o'Clock: the Chiefs came down likewifq, and they feemed to be aifo in a very agreeable Rumour, and fet and difcourfed with the Interpreter, but who fill perfitled in not communicating any Thing your Petitioner should fay to them ; however, he converfed by Signs, in the fame Manner as abovementioned, with one of the old Indians, whom your Petitioner could find underfood him pretty well, and did not doubt informed the Chiefs thereof. Your Petitioner, the next Day, fet out on his Journey to St. Marl's, where he arrived in four Days, and was received very politely, by the Commandant, Mr. Lieutenant Pomp /iox, who he found had been fo obliging as to forward a Letter to -a Merchant at Parfacola, at his Requelt, which your Potitioner had, Tome Time before, fent to him ; which was for t mt of the Settlers expeaed from Engkar should they put in there and ordering them D 2 to
to come round the Cape to the Settlement on St. 7obn's River, by the Way of 8trannab. On almoft a Certainty of his Letters fafe Arrival at Penfacola, alledged by Mr. Ponipilliorne, it was not incumbent on your Petibriner to proceed thither, but to haffen his Return, to prepare Houfes for the new Inhabitants ; he therefore, after refting a-few Days, and having been kindly entertained by the Commandant and Mr. Enfign Haw.. kins, proceeded to a Return. He muft here remark, that* all what he had feared to rifk hisSettlers in would have happened, Indians to whom he, at that Time, would have been unknown, would certainly have obftrua ed his Palfage-- St. Mark's, the Place of Settlement -a fmall three-cornered Spot of Ground, confined between two Rivers -a Fort unfinished, of 4.o Strength, though fixty Men in Garrifon one Baffion only of, he fuppofes, three intended, being ,partly built the Indians jealous of the leaft Garden outside this purpofed triangular Fortrefs and the Garrif'on itfelf, at that Time, in Diftrefh for Provifion, having five Days' Allowance for feven the little Pra'rpe& there was in this Situation, after feven Months" Refidence, will, is prefumed, alleviate the heavy Chatge that was to have been tranfmitted againft him to the honourable Board of Trade, for an Alteration of Mind on h prefumptive Prudence now evinced to have been really well fbunded. On your Petitioner's Return to the feco rd Indian Town mentioned above, on the Banks of the Little Savannah, he found the Town nearly dererted by the Men, only one or two old Men, with the oVomen, being left therein ; they were gone to meet the Indians of the firft Town, called Letcbawy, to play at tome Diverfion of the Ball ; bat learnt alfo on the Road another Reafon had detained them lohger abroad, Which was the unfortunate Commerce of Rum. Durlig the twelve Days' Abfence from that Place, in his Way forwards, the two Parties had etnptied eighteen Cafks of that Liquor at Latcbaway. He met frveral of
See Page ( ) the Petitioner's Objeions tm roceeding to St. Mark's, mentioned to the Governor on tis Artival, before he could have, or the Governor himfelf had, i Opportunity of Council with the hidians.
the Savannah Indians on their Return at different Times, when he always firfi accofled them, though in that overheated Condition, and met with the kindeff Return ; the TVhite King efpecially feemed much pleafed.
- At Latchaway he found the Chiefs, which he did not fee when he went forward, but were now returned from their grand Hunt at the Cape-- they came up to Barnet's Hut, where your Petitioner was fet to repofe, to fee him, and were very fond of difcourfing with him.; but Barnet's Jealoufy would not permit a free Converfation. Your Petitioner treated them on Coffee, which they are fond of, and then feigned a Wearifomenefs, and Defire of fleeping ; but they preffed him much to fit up and coriverfe, but, finding it to no Purpofe, at length lay down to fleep.-- They afked him to come and drink Black Drink with them the next Day, which is a Liquor they make of the Plant Caffeua it is faid, when they have a Mind to have a Talk, as they call it, on any Affairs; but being acquainted the next Day, whether true or not it is doubtful, by Barnet, that the Place where they met was a Mile or moreback on the Road your Petitioner came from St. Mark's, he then chofe to haften back to his Settlement, where he arrived the next Day, quite unexpected, after an Abfence of about nineteen Days, wherein he had traverfed about four hundred Miles ;- but much to the Satiffaaion of your Petitioner, in the Confirmation of his own Prudence and Forefight, objeled to by the Governor-- a thorough Convition of the Indian Friendfhip
-- and in the Enjoyment of the Sight of a moft fertile and agreeable Country, Part of it the mofi perfe6l natural Garden in his Majefty's Territories, and which will hereafter, probably, produce the moft beneficial Return to the Mother Country.
On his Return he found a Deputy Surveyor, whofe Name was Funk, who had been fent over by the Governor and Surveyor General, and had, the whole Time of his Abfence, been infpeaing the Plot of Land he was upon, and it's Neighbourhood, and, after the Continuance of a few Days more, fet out with a Plan of the fame to St. ,duguftine, to wait on the Governor and Surveyor General with it.
D 3 The
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The Governor's Letter of the i5th of June notices the Receipt of two Letters from your Petitioner of the 6th and I 3th. Date : The former relating his Expedition to St. Mark's,-- a Queftion about a River called Calafahtche, and Bay of 7amnpa, and alfo another about the Indian Trading-houfes already fettled, and Privilege for one your Petitioner might encourage, concerning the pernicious Effe~is of Rum your Petitioner had feen;
-and the latter Letter, fent by Mr. Funk, relating to the locating his Grant. The Governor, in this his Anfwer to the foregoing Points, fent him a Note in Mr. De Brahem's, the Surveyor General' own HandWriting, but did not clear up the Point your Petitioner wified to have had, which might have been ufeful to the Government in fome future Time ; but which Suppofition, he mufi fay, was not difclofed in his Queftion : But the indeterminate Anfwer, as to the Indian Stores already licenfed, and of that particularly requefted by your Petitioner, Ihewed a Caution in the Governor, and there was feared a Claufe de Referve again1 any pofitive Requeji on your Petitioner's Part ; for the very Thing fought after in your Petitioner's Queflion is rather avoided. As to the Point of Rum, the Governor reafons in thefe Words: 1 1 am much of your Opinion, that Rum is hurtful. It
is to be hoped Means will be fallen upon to put a Stop to that very detrimental, I may fay, iniquitous Branch of the Indian Trade. Thefe have been always
my Sentiments; and, when Mr. Stewart arrives, new Regulations hall be made about it; but, till he romes, I do not chufe to make any Innovations, for fear of countera6fing what he may have fettled ; but be affured I have what you point out, with Regard to Rum, very firongly at Heart." That the Plan fene of Part of St. 7ohn's River, where he refided, had been examined, and your Petitioner's Propofal of running out his Grant effeemed not agreeable to the King's Intructions. This Opinion of the Governor's was forgot in a fmall Time afterwards, when feveral of the lower Clals of Indians (if they might be called fo) had the fatal ?refent of Rum, and brought it to his Settlement, as mentioncd before, and were as likely as any to break it up under
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under fuch Circumrfances of Liquor, The Governo did not mention in his Letters concerning this Delivery of Rum, though your Petitioner mentioned it in his t@ the Governor ; but he heard the Indian Interpreter, called Efenor, fay, that the Governor had at that Time afked him whether any Run had been given to the Indians at that Time ; hie told him that there was, and by his, the Governor's Order.
The Governor alfo mentions, that the Line of Dire&ion in Mr. Middleton's Tra&, granted by Mr. Boone, Governor of South-Carolina, was (hewn by Mr. Furk, and that it appeared to, Governor Grant, mogt exceedingly irregular. -- Mr. Funk, the Surveyor, returned with the above Letter the I6th or 17th, made further Obfervations on the Quality of the Land, and endeavour.ed to point out the Method how to run it out with Pro.priety to the Governor's Opinion, and a competent Share of good Land for the Grantee, June 22d, your Petitioner went down the River with Mr. Spa/ding *, to look for his Boat coming from Savannah, freighted with Provifion and Store Neceffaries, entirely for your Peti.. tioner. They met it about feventy Miles below, when, Mr. Spalding finding no Rum freighted for himfelf, only two Cafks of one hundred and ten Gallons each, being entirely for your Petitioner, knowing your Petitioner would not part with any to him, for Trade with the in.dians he took the Boat they came in, and went down to purchafe a Cafk of Rum of a Perfon who kept a Store ome Miles below. Your Petitioner,, in proceeding back in a fmall Canoe after the large Boat freighted for his Settlement, which was failed fome Way before, having two fmall Lads with him, he was (hot at by two different Perfons, he believes. He called, on the firfl Shot, to the Perfon that fired, thinking it might be a Signal for Want of fomething ; but on Recolle~tion, legt it might be rome Perfon fled from Augu/line for fore Mifdemeanour, and wanted a Boat to pafs the River, and go off to 1VJtf-Florida, he thought it pru. dent to keep on, as he had only two fmall Lads with him to defend the Boat if there should be an D 4 Affault Keeper of the Indian Store.
Aflault on their going aflfore ; but on the second Shot one of the Lad heard the Ball in the Air, aid faw the Pullet fall in the Water about ten Yards beyond the Boat, but which had paffed but five Yards fhort of it's Stern.---The Remark worthy on this Point is the Danger of rifled-barrel Guns falling into the Hands of the Indians, thi' being about a Furlong Diftarice, as was fuppofed ; and a white Hunter, who-was at his Settlement, told your Petitioner he could make ure of a large Obje& at Refi at that Diftance with fuch a Gun.Indians are fo very expert with the common BirmIngham Guns ; and Whites may kill their Game with the better common Sort. That your Petitioner, as beforementioned, left it as a Qyeftion to the Governor, whether a Prohibition of thofe rifled-barrel Guns in Whites' Hands might not be a prudent Caution, to prevent their getting into Indian Poffefilibn..- Thefe Shot came, as beforementioned, from fome of a Party whereof your Petitioner's former Hunter was one ; but were intended only as Signals to a Boat they expe&ed with Rum for their Ufe in the Hunt, and not defined at your Petitioner, as he was not known to have been in thatPart of the River.
On the Arrival of this Boat at your Petitioner's Set-m element, and alfo Mr. Spalding, who overtook, and arrived with your Petitioner, many Indans appeared in waiting, expe6ing his Return for Rum, and alfo your Petitioner's Ship from England, which they fuppofed would produce Rarities for their Trade. On this was hewn a great Inftance of their good Inclination towards your Petitioner. They faw the two Cafks of one hundred and ten Gallons of Rum landed, and'knew it to be ruch, of which they were to have none they alfo knew by the Rules he had prefcribed. -The Trader had but a mall Cafk with him, too little for the Wants of Co many. The Indians, though disappointed in your Petitioner's Veffel not being arrived from England, yet received his fall Entertainment, and a little Recruit of Corn, with Sltisfa6dion.--.The Trader, angry at a View of the Temper of the Indians towards your Petitioner, (aid, he muff remove his Store from this NeighbourhoQ4
hood, and imprudently, if not by De~ig6 n1, l Indians with having ftciten one of their1for6fre m Asgufline, which they might then here taken for on ;ntt mation ftom your Iletitiober and after he wernt to with them to his Store, to distribute his Ram, there vame a Report of their Intertion to attack soar Pettioner' Settlement for his Rum. Let the Power of the Scote.. keeper's Rum, 9nd a little tnfigation fon the Jetlour of the Storekeeper of a Prefhrence to your Petititmer, might engage the poor Indiam under -fitch 1nluenfte ift Co unhappy an Expedition, ytur Petitioner, confttl*Iy watchful over his Settlers agginft MI-ahinations on -all Sides, on this Account he buried his Rurn-Caiks, &c. after his Settlers were retired to Sleep, kept two or three Fires lighted the Refidue of the Night, and aend-. ed them himfelf, to convince the htdiims, -if aniycme with bad Intentions, that the Settlement was oa its Guard, which continued for a Week, till the Fire of the Storekeeper's Rum was fpent, he feared no ?origer, and, indeed, ufed it only as a neceffary Cau not as in Fear of an Attack. The other CirUuitAc mentioned befbre, fhewed It leaf' to be feared from the poor Indians, if the Whites were not the Indigators.
On the 5th of Jzu4 your Petitioner's SMp4oad df Settlers arrived from England, after a tong Palae-tound to St. Marl's, imagining he had fettled on that Ooaft, were obliged, on not being- able to get in mere, to put into Penfacola, where Letters directed them to &wmab, from which Place they came in a hired Schooner'to the Settlement on St. 7obn's River, &JI -Fbrida, where they arrived in good Health. The Mafer of the 6ehoonet having Bu finefs at St. Augufline, your Petitioner fent a Letter by him to the Governor, -requefing Permifficm for his being admitted to make Oath of his receiving thefe Settlers from the Hands of the Mater of the Veilfel, who had brought them from England. His Information that they were on your Petitioner's Actoint, and that, purfuant to his Letter, he had eondu&d them to your Petitioner's Settlement, and had delivered them to him in Perfon, --- that fuch Certificate might be regillered at 4kugujli'&, agreeable to the Spirit of the FroclaMation, lel any might die afterthe Charge of Importation,
pt bad been borne by your Petitioner, and the Ep "of fullling the Terms of the Grant enhanced to 'him for Want of the proper Regifiry in Time.
The Claufe referred to in the Proclamation is this: That when any Perfon, who ball hereafter take up, and patent any Land, Tlall have feated, planted, and cultivated, or improved the laid Land, or any Part ," of it, according to the Dire ions and Conditions abovementioned, fuch Patentee may make Proof of
fuch fearing, planting. and Cultivation, or Improve"ment, in any Court of Record in the Laid Province, or in the Court of the County, Diflri&, or Precin& where fuch Land hall be, and have fuch Proof certified
to theRegifler and Secretary's Office, and there enter" ed, with the Record of the Laid Patent; a Copy of which fhall be admitted, on any Trial to prove the fearing and planting of fuch Land." 7f4 8, 1765. The Governor's Letter of the &th ,( t0 anfwers this Requefi, thus: "No Court of Ju" dicature has any Thingto do with the Arrival of your Stlers: The Mafter of the Schooner, at any Rate, is not the proper Perfon to give an Affidavit about '4 them. If you wifh to be provided with proper Ma-. terials to ascertain the Arrival of your Settlers in this Province, in Cafe your Compliance with the Terms of the Grant to be made out in Obedience to his ti Majefty's Order in Council should hereafter be dif't puted, the Attorney General ays, that either you, o or your Agent, should make Oath before a Juflice of the Peace, that fuch a Number of People arrived at fuch a Time in the Province of EaJI-Floridq, and were brought into the Province at your Expence, ia 4 order to fettle upon your Eftate, and that you, or
*' your Agents fHould get a Certificate to that Purpofe t' from the Jufiice of Peace ; but thofe are Points of '4 Law, with whick I have really nothing to do."Your Petitioner begs Leave to fubmit his Senti.. merts of the Captain of the Schooner's being more independent, confequently, more probably, true Affer. tot of this Circumfiance than either your Petitioner or his Agent who were interested in the Colony.--. The Delay of a Day, after the Expence of Importation, might
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might occafion a double Expence of fupplying t1e Place of any dead, or any reduced away. The former happened oon after this Refufal, as your Petitioner acquainted the Governor ; the latter was alfo foretold, and your Petitioner had Reafon, when a Juftice of the Peace, naval Officer, and Regifler, who was fufpc&ed to have made a Vifit, not entirely of Compliment to him, but as Infpe6tor of his Tranfadfions in the Province, when fuch had made Attempts to injure his Settlement, as beforementioned *, the entertained at it in the beft Manner your Petitioner could. -To this the Governor anfwers in this fame Letter, that nothing but Indentures on the Settlers could prevent Sedution, the Governor himfelf paying Dollars a Day, and to a Carpenter a Dollar and an Half. Such Things, when known, would incline Settlers to leave his Settlement. This, doubtlefs, appeared a good Argument your Petitioner could not controvert, though, in forne Inflances, Perfons were defirous, and fome did learn thefe high Wages at St. Augufline, and came and worked for mode-w rate Hire at this parfimonious Settlement on St. Jelm's River, and the former, who wished to come, were detained by the moft powerful and fpecious Invitations. Your Petitioner did not attempt to reduce, but requefted only the Countenance of a powerful Proteakion to his Settlement, which would have prevented any Breach of Hofpitality by Juftices of Peace, and Perfons of higher Rank, in reducing thofe People that were to be termed a6lual Settlers of your Petitioner's. The Governor's Intimation at his own Table, when he faw, perhaps, the whole Corps of Officers, and the Gentry of the Town, once a Week, would, your Petitioner is well fatisfied, have had it's due Influence to prevent fuch Injuflice ; but it feemed too impertinent in him to propofe fuch a Remedy, but could not but think it muff occur to Perfons of fuperior Penetration. The Governor alfo adds, in the above Letter,-- if the Surveyor had finished his Survey according to his Inftructions, either your Petitioner, or his Agent, with proper Powers, should come to Town to take out his Grant; and
See Page( )
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aa ttfo layo, yQUr Pitioner, fi4oiud not mind the Rew pots of the Indisns in his Neighbourhood, they were not of Weight in their Nation, and that your Petitiloer ho4d not talk to them about Settlements. The Report was, that the w~ite Perfoi who went from St. .XWa#'s to Pe4zla, had boen muTdered by the I'iiqns; whict pw4e Come Uneafwafs to -the Zndia &ebiki, who lives juA above your Petitioner's Settlemen, and was nearly qattiing his little Setdemeat on this Rewoat, for Fwa of the Retaliation of the Whites on him ; an that f"4PAJotm atiwns of JDifpleafure had been fhval again yaw Ptiiover's new Settlement, but which he imagies pro.cded from the je.aowy' of the Storekeepers. Your Petia'jser would have peafuaded .$hiki to come t him, with his Family, and he would defend them fIrm !*juwy, but he loon after was better fatisfied. JHWewtr your Petitioner thought it a&vifecab!e, in ,is $ioam to fecure his Settlement from Harm, which be know prior Aca of Kindnefs will nearly at all TiOmes tfe6t, even on the moft favage Difpofition; ]be jifpatched two of his People to Latcbaway with a f11 ?efent, about eleven or twelve Shillings worth pedl!ps, to the Chief calkd the aowkeeper, and his Sqoaw, having nwver feen them at his Setdement, to entevsoin them; &ad ois People retained the f%rth Dar, *ad he found had been kindly received. As for talking o them about Settlemouts, thrae wasGnly yotir Petitioner's above Pi,Iata Fort ; this they hgd. permitted im to make, and he was to preiferve their AfecIons by %ll Methods of Endearmen, which he did by very incoeu-letble trifling Prefents; a Guirea's Worth might be the ounoft on the Whote. It was the Mgthod tht wrotight on them, a perfonal Inclination to fitrve and Flifi them, andta chearful Appearance at the Time of doivtg them little Services were Indications to the 4imlible Jndianj, rt the savage Barbarian, fancient, to. civiiac them; and wrought a Ben icence uth Hearts above the Power of Rum, denied them by yrar Ntitioxer, but given by the Governor ; for they have ooplined to your Petitioner at the fam Tine, though they had Rum given to them, that their
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their Entertainment4 as to PreviLwns w* vary i& ferent at St. Aulgint ; by etia& which Y9W Pttitigne would prefume to infer, that the celicri 40 e Zp fities of Nature w*tdl more iafini* obJir 1* .4. dian, than all, the Prdemts of Laxury*, 144 aae is more lafting Tmprdlims. This was evidat *n hiap[Ad who gave no Rum, their great& Dligh ia Dbaiach and, perhaps, a Couplk of Qpat of 1dia* Cowp,, Value feven Farthings; the fanme of Rice, VAue thrce Pence Halfpenny ; haft a Pound of Mwdavcado S javi Value two Pence; is a Prefent futcivot for a Kiag mw4 his Train to proceed on their Hut; iu all femn Fartning, or, perhaps at a common Valhue, It not exceed the Value of fix-Peac. Hereby &e Mean of CiviliUzaion is procuTtcd at an eafy Ex4psnoe, their Strength not impaired, but tenewed, to the Pfervatioa of the BiI# Inhabitant, by dimiaihing the Nwn,. ber of wild Beafts and venomous Jnfeat thepocuring the beneficial Skin-Trade, without the white Setter'e entering into tha idle Way of Life. This d-iLbIChe that overthrows, Settlements.
That Mr. Fsai, the Surveyor, went -n ia bi; Obfervztions on the Land; he drew ot pn mf Pial of the Land, between two large Creeiks mwh.cope from the Ea and (It iuto t~ Riwer St. be't the am four Miks abee y cr etitiopnes Pnwtioa, tt other eight or ban Mies below it ; aW aLiue drawa from'fixMdae vp the latin, where yor Petitioner paffe it to g to St. AAgqY/in4, about eight Miles froM J. Settlement to the Lower End of a great Lake, to whic the former Creek is an Outlet ; about fix Miles from it's aforefaid Mouth, and a2buthe fame Di me from his. Settlement, containing forty4even thouflnd one -hutdtd arnd forty Acres, 1p-efYng parrit'allry Tim .verl Sorts of Ground, as per Schedule annexed ; amtonthi to two thoufand even hundred and ten Acres of good Swamp, two hundred and forty of clear Marfh, five hundred and twenty good dry Land, in all three thoufand four hundred and feventy ; the Refidue, of the forty feven thoufand one hundred and forty, is called PineBarren, or Pine Land, and bitter Bay Gauls, bearing the Lohioly
Iubloty Bayv By the Plan laid before the Right Honourable Band it will appear that- your Petitioner canmormake ot his twenty thoufand Acres in-any Manner whatevwvr in one contiguous Lot, fo as to include moe good Land than in the faid Plans which Plan, though, if the Whole Number of Acres of good Land in the foty.,feven thoufand one hundred and forty were ircluded in the twenty thoufand, it would be fill difpro.. portionable in the bad Acres to the Planter ; but which Plan is, neverthelefs, efteemed inadmaiffiable. The De. puty Surveyor fkemed to think his Orders were much firi&er than in Georgia; he was not to permit the Side,lines of the Grants to pafs near navigable Streams,- or fo aS to include any of the good Land bordering on fuch Streams, nor to pafs the further Ends of fuch Traa* over any navigable Creeks, whereon their might be good Swamps alfob The Orders for plotting the Grants hav. ing a good Reafon fbr fitch Policy, but thePra&icethereof precifely wotld militate againfi the Settlement of the Colony; the Rivers having many different Turnings, the taking the Front-lines on the Rivert and running the Side-lines back into the Land, would f~ll interfere with Los run on another Turn of the, River, and Canno b avoided. The only Method that could be purfued t Jiave all the Lands taken up and none omitted, would be to plot the WhoWe in differentQuantities, according as the good and bad Land might be intermixed, and the Whole granted in fuch certain Lots, ..A-,er they may amount to, as by the Plan folhwltg :
0 See Page ( ) the Governor fays, and alfo Page
Ae Surveyor General fays, your Petitioner may pafs cer. lain Creeks, where it was previoufly known there was no good Land.
40 4940 Ir
Or, as the River St. 7ohn'si in it's general Courfe, lows from the South to the North, the Grants of the Lands ball have their Front-lines on the (aid River, and directed back into the Land dire6lly Eaft or Weft; and each Plot the Surveyor hall form either larger or fmaller, fo as to include a proportionable Mixture of the good and bad Land. Your Petitioner remarks this, as the only Mdethod he knows, for an intire Grant of the Banks of navigable Streams or Rivers ; it cannot be intire according t.o the prefent Terms, if precifely followed, and the Grantees fill chufing their Land, by' which large Spots on the Banks of the navigable River will be left urnpoffeffed in the King's Hands, for which no Quit-Ren"t will be paid as on St. 7ohn's River, within the Plan propofed by your Petitioner to run tns Grant, there is a Pine-Barren, continued for fome Miles on the Bank of the River, which no Sttler whatever will take any Giant on. In the faid Plan, fent by the Deputy Surveyor to the Governor and Strrveyor General, the Front-line is upon the River, where it lies Eaft and Weft; if any mailerr Plots, fuch as five hundred to two or three thoufand Acres, hav g t~ Front-lines oe one Part or other of that fme Frami" e they would hwe been permitted to be run in the fame Direfion ; and whatever Plot was fo taken up, next d where the Point is foi'med by the River, muff bear it's SI*-Line on the River: For m a iaint of the River, and many there are where the River nakes a right Angle in it's Courfe, no Trad can be taken up without it's having balth it's Side-line, as well as Back-line, on the River. There are two Cafes mentioned on the Plan laid now before your Lordihips, wherein Mr. Moultrie and Mr. Kinlaugh, two Gentlemen of Carolina, were promised by the Governor two Tra6ts of Land; the Sides of which would have been on that navigable Creek, or father large River 1 it may be called big enough for confiderable Schooners to fail on, and perhaps both their Bafe and End-lines on the great River or Lake, when a more precife Meafure might be taken ; and alfo at another Place below, at a Turn of the River, where it forms a deep Bay, the Side-
Side-line of fifteen hundred Acres, promifdto a Family called Grey, was intended to be run about seventy Miles below your Petitioner's Settlement. Mr. Davis, who had a confiderable Number of Negroes, had the Grant, as beforementioned, paffed, for, I think, one thoufand Acres of Land ; which muft be for himfelf and eighteen Negroes, and about eight Miles diflant, as I think he told me, the Governor had promifed him a Lot, perhaps for the Refidue of his Family and Negroes, whereon he intended to ere& a Mill. Mr. Davis's Home Settlement is run thus:
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By this it appears, that your Petitioner, who engages to be at the Expence of ftrengthening the Colony, with the Importation of two hundred Whites, of whofe Labor he can have the Profit himfelf only for a very few Years, has not the fame Privilege that thefe Perfons mentioned have, in bringing Negroes into the Country, at a Small Expence, whofe Labour is for Life,, or faleable after the 'erm of three Years is expired ; in which Time the Land is fetdled Secure from Forfeit, and by bringing them at different Times, takes up altogether good Land, in feparate Parcels, without an Intermixture of the poorer and more barren Soils ; and to thefe are fhewn a different Inclination to accommodate the Settlers, from what has been exhibited throughout to your Peitioner, who, chiefly from the Oppofition met with, wA nearly at two thoufand Pounds Expence, in eflablifhing his Settlement in Peace and Plenty, but which he did effe& neverthelefs maugre all the Obftacles to it. Thefe may have feparate Plots of Land, Though your Petitioner had fhewn the greateft Defire of fettling, with the moft beneficial Views to the Province, the eftablifhing a Town of Artificers in the Heart of the Province, Provifion 'for the Education of Children, and the Cultivation of Chriftianity, free from Enthufiafm; the Civilization of" Indians, the Fidelity of Slaves, preferred on Principle ; a Library of Agriculture, Botany, Gardening, Mechanics, and of fuch Learning as appears more peculiarly adapted to the American Planter; and, above all, the ftrengthening this Frontier Province of Eaft-Florida againft any Enemy at a future Time, by well flocking it with white Inhabitants. To fuch a Settler who vainly imagines thefe Things, form fuch Proje&s, but who was certainly at the Expence of this Undertaking, not diragreeable, perhaps, to the Views of Government at Home, the Face of the executive Part of Government on the Colony was fet againif. He could not obtain Leave to purchafe a few hundred Acres of indifferent Land, to the Prejudice of no other Settlers, as a healthy high Spot, to place his Town on, the Endowment of a School, and the Appropriation for a Church-Minifter.