Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Summaries of family characters
 Key to genera
 Taxonomic treatment
 Plate section
 Back Cover

Mosses of Florida
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Title: Mosses of Florida
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Breen, Ruth Schornherst
Publisher: University of Florida Press
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Copyright Date: 1963
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
    Summaries of family characters
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
    Key to genera
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
        Page xxix
        Page xxx
        Page xxxi
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    Taxonomic treatment
        Page 1
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    Plate section
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text


I)'] -,_ I TON Or' / -19%',1' 0HAMILTON '

L, -W-nI -_- I / !















an illustrated manual

university of florida press

gainesville, 1963



an illustrated manual

By Ruth Schornherst Breen

A University of Florida Press Book

Library of Congress Catalogue Card No.: 62-19677

Dedicated to the two persons
who most influenced the production of this book

My father,
who in my childhood instilled in me
delight in the small plants
we saw on many happy walks in the woods


master teacher and friend,
who translated these fascinating things
into meaning and order


ENCOURAGEMENT TO BEGIN and to continue the research necessary to
produce this book came from many sources, both within and outside The
Florida State University. Various members of the staff of the Division of
Botany, Department of Biological Sciences, have offered critical sugges-
tions which have been helpful and much appreciated. R. K. Godfrey, of
this staff, has given freely of his time and advice ilihenercr called upon,
and aided in many ways in the mechanics of putting this book together.
Dr. Hugo L. Blomquist, Professor Emeritus of Botany, Duke Univer-
sity, graciously consented to contribute the section on the Sphagna of
Florida, making it possible to have all the mosses known from the state
treated in a single volume. This meant a sacrifice of time from his own
work on the Sphagnaceae of eastern North America, a task he was most
anxious to complete despite failing health. I am deeply grateful for this
expression of a friendship which stretches back many years.
Mrs. Olivia Embrey Lay deserves special mention and thanks for her
valuable contribution to the art work necessary in the preparation of the
plates. Mrs. Adele Gratzner also aided in this phase of the work. Ronald
A. Pursell, while a graduate student at The Florida State University,
served for two years as research assistant on this project and performed
invaluable service in mapping known distribution of all the species known
to occur in the state, and in preparing many slides for my use in drawing.
Harold Yaffa, another graduate student, has aided in many ways.
E. B. Bartram, Howard A. Crum, Lewis E. Anderson, and A. LeRoy
Andrews were most helpful in identifying troublesome specimens and in

offering advice and suggestions during the progress of this work. Leonard
J. Brass, of the Archbold Biology Station, American Museum of Natural
History, at Lake Placid, Florida, made his excellently labeled specimens
collected in the Everglades and throughout south Florida available for my
study, directed me to a number of out-of-the-way collecting areas, and
encouraged this work throughout its progress.
Without free access to various collections deposited in several herbaria
I could not have been able to verify many determinations or secure
authentic Florida specimens for some of the illustrations. I especially
thank the bryophyte curators of the New York Botanical Garden, the Na-
tional Herbarium of the Smithsonian Institution, the National Museum
of Canada, the Herbarium of Duke University, and the Herbarium of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida, for making
their collections available to me. The Florida Park Service was most
cooperative in permitting me to collect within park areas, many of which
are especially rich in bryophytes. I also enjoyed considerable freedom to
collect in Everglades National Park. In addition I had access to several
privately owned preserves, and was materially aided by their owners or
supervisors in locating little-known collecting areas.

This work has been made possible through financial support from the
National Science Foundation (grants G-1844, G-3806, G-8700, and
G-19,358), a Grant-in-Aid of Research from the Society of the Sigma Xi,
a Florida State University Research Council grant, and a summer Re-
search Professorship from the Florida State University Research Council.


Foreword / xi
Introduction / xiii
Summaries of Family Characters / xix
Key to Genera / xxvii
Taxonomic Treatment / 1
Plate Section FOLLOWS 134
Index 269


Foreword /

thought carried on over a period of more than thirty years by a distin-
guished Florida botanist. Her work in the field, in the herbarium, in the
laboratory, and in the classroom, as well as her activity in training gradu-
ate students in bryology, all continued over so long a time, have combined
to make her magnum opus authoritative, mature, and original. Her un-
surpassed experience with and understanding of the Florida mosses in
the field, and of the influences upon them of the habitat, of the sub-
stratum, and of the environment, bring to this work a depth and a
breadth that could not have been achieved otherwise. Dr. Breen thus
demonstrates here her unparalleled knowledge of the mosses of Florida-
their morphology, their systematics, their ecology, and their distribution.
It is unfortunate that limitations of space have prevented more extensive
accounts of the fascinating natural history of so many of the species,
something that the author could have included easily because of her long
experience in the field.
The first manual intended for the identification of North American
mosses, by William Starling Sullivant, appeared well over a century ago.
Since then many books and manuals have been published to cover the
moss floras of local, state, or larger areas of the United States. However,
with surprisingly few exceptions-an outstanding exception is 0. E.
Jennings' A Manual of the Mosses of Western Pennsylvauia and Ad-
jacent Regions-these handbooks and manuals suffer rather uniformly
from a lack of original illustrations. Consequently, most of the manuals


available today to students and to advanced amateurs have illustrations
adapted or reproduced directly from earlier works, and, worse, too many
of them from European and other foreign publications. Well aware of
the subtle-to-drastic differences between American and foreign popula-
tions of what are perhaps too often and too optimistically interpreted as
the same species, the author undertook the enormous task of making
original illustrations of all the mosses of Florida. Without these accurate
and illuminating drawings, the book could have been published years
ago-but it would have been correspondingly less valuable. The descrip-
tions of the many species of mosses in the text, likewise, are new and
original, based on specimens and drawings, and not just adapted from
other manuals. The essential quality of this book, then, arises from the
freshness and the originality of its approach.
This volume is the tangible result of a labor of love; it reflects the
spare moments, the early mornings, the evenings, the week-ends, and the
holidays of an accomplished and skillful teacher who for too many years
had assigned to her too many students in too many classes. Only the
strongest of research drives could have survived discouragement for so
long, but this author's survived at so high a level that she has been able
to undertake and to complete an outstanding book. To teachers through-
out the United States who are overworked and tired this book should
serve as an inspired example of the fact that, even though good teaching
must receive first priority, productive research does not need to lag too
far behind.
In brief, this manual brings within the covers of one book many
admirable features, especially original illustrations, new descriptions, and
effective keys. For the first time, Florida mosses may be identified with
a minimum of effort, because of the author's ability to communicate well
her great fund of knowledge and of experience. In its turn, the University
of Florida Press deserves congratulation for its perspicacity in publishing
a timely and original contribution of long-term importance in the field
of the natural sciences.

The New York Botanical Garden


THERE HAS LONG BEEN A NEED FOR a book of reasonable size which
describes and illustrates those mosses known to occur in Florida. Grout's
three-volume Mosses of North America North of Mexico (1928-1940)
is expensive, and is now out of print and not readily available. It is also
difficult to use, and does not include a rather large number of tropical
taxa now known to occur in Florida. Much of the collecting in tropical
America has been done by Europeans, further complicating the avail-
ability of reference materials, for the results of their activity have been
published abroad. In all too many instances illustrations are poor, incom-
plete, or lacking altogether. The Mosses of Porto Rico and the Virgin
Islands' and A Survey of the Moss Flora of Jamaica,t published in
1957 and 1958 respectively, contain descriptions of most of these tropical
mosses, and illustrations of some of them, and have been helpful to the
author in the identification of specimens and the preparation of this book.
However, they are properly part of a research library, and only serve to
emphasize the need for a single source of reference.
Any state flora has limitations, but I hope that this one may be useful
as a ready reference for the southeastern states as well as for Florida. The
author has attempted to simplify terminology in keys and descriptions.

*Crum, H. A., and W. C. Steere. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin
Islands. Volume VII-Part 4. The Mosses of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
New York Academy of Sciences. 1957. 204 pages.
tCrum, H. A., and Edwin B. Bartram. A Survey of the Moss Flora of Jamaica,
Science Series, No. 8. 1958. 90 pages.

Emphasis has been placed on vegetative characters since many mosses
fruit infrequently or not at all in this state. With only two or three
exceptions all species described are illustrated. All plates except those for
the Sphagna were drawn by the author from Florida specimens.
During the last twenty-five years I have done extensive collecting and
field studies throughout the state, and now have an herbarium number-
ing about 6000 specimens. During most of these years I have been the
only bryologist living year-round in Florida, thereby having the oppor-
tunity to observe the seasonal variations which are sometimes so striking
and so important in understanding the flora. Through the generosity of
a number of persons this herbarium has been considerably expanded.

The Bryophyta are, in spite of their smallness, among the most beau-
tiful of plants. It is not likely that they will be confused with members
of any other group of the plant kingdom. They show a remarkable uni-
formity in certain aspects of development, yet no two species can be
studied even with a 10x magnifier without interesting differences in form
and structure being observed. The three classes of Bryophyta are (1)
Hepaticae (liverworts), (2) Anthocerotae (hornworts), and (3) Musci
(mosses). The first two classes are often grouped together as Hepaticae.
Since the present work is confined solely to the mosses, no detailed analy-
sis of the Hepaticae is included. For the sake of clarification, the follow-
ing distinctions may aid the user of this book, at least in the preliminary
stages of examination of collections.

Plant body dorsiventrally oriented, consisting of a thallus or a simple
leafy stem; leaves, when present, usually deeply lobed or segmented, ecos-
tate, 3-ranked, with 2 rows of lateral leaves and 1 row of ventral leaves,
or with ventral leaves absent; leaf cells isodiametric, with walls variously
thickened; seta, when present, lengthening rapidly when capsule is ma-
ture; capsule frequently containing sterile cells elaterss) in addition to
the spores, lacking an operculum or peristome, and dehiscing by splitting.

Plant body either dorsiventrally oriented or erect, differentiated into
stem and leaves; leaves occasionally 2-ranked, but usually 3-several rows,
not deeply lobed; leaves costate or ecostate, cells ranging from isodiametric
to several times as long as broad; capsules usually dehiscing regularly,
with a detachable operculum, and with or without a peristome.


Some people have taken exception to the use of the terms "stem" and
"leaf" as applied to gametophytic structures, since traditionally these are
considered sporophytic. New terminology has appeared in the literature
from time to time, but long usage has favored continuance of "stem" and
"leaf" since these structures serve functions attributable to those organs
and since they so resemble them in appearance.
The Musci are the largest group of bryophytes, including several thou-
sand species. They range in size from plants barely visible to the unaided
eye to those reaching several centimeters in height or length. Almost any
textbook of botany or biology will provide the reader with a detailed
account of the structures composing these plants and of the clear-cut
alternation of the independent vegetative sexual phase gametophytee)
and the more or less dependent spore-producing phase sporophytee).

ORDER I. Sphagnales
Branches in fascicles; leaves ecostate, one cell thick, with large hyaline
cells and smaller chlorophyllose cells forming a mesh or network, the
predominance of the hyaline cells explaining the paleness of the plants;
capsules small, globular, with an operculum but no peristome. Often
called the peat or bog mosses. Includes the single family Sphagnaceae
and the single genus Sphagnum, represented by 17 species in Florida.

ORDER II. Andreaeales
Somewhat intermediate between the Sphagnales and the Bryales.
Leaves dark brown to blackish, brittle; capsule dehiscing by four or more
longitudinal valves. Sometimes called the granite mosses, they never
grow on calcareous rocks. Not found in Florida.

ORDER III. Bryales
Stems simple or branching, arising from filamentous protonemata;
leaves costate or ecostate; capsules sessile or on a long seta, mostly with
an operculum and peristome. Plants of a wide range of habitats, from
submerged aquatics to mesic or even xeric environments.

Names for the various taxa appearing herein are those in current usage.
Whenever they differ from those in Grout's Moss Flora, the binomial
as it appears in that work is also given here; in some cases the
authority for Grout's name was incorrect, hence the discrepancy. No
attempt has been made to give synonymy. The moss flora of Florida as
presented on the following pages consists of 38 families, 108 genera,
and 245 species and varieties. Distribution data for the various taxa
follow two patterns. For those of wide range, not unusual in Florida,


frequently only Florida county records are listed. However, a number
of taxa included are relatively unknown tropical forms, or are character-
istically northern, and occur in the state more or less at the limits of
their known range. These latter groups also include records other than
the Florida stations.
Figures whose magnifications are indicated on the plates were made
with a Bausch & Lomb Tri-simplex Micro-projector. All other figures
were made by means of a camera lucida, and are approximately x283.
Magnifications of figures on plates 125-133 (Sphagna), prepared by
Dr. Blomquist, are estimated at x235 for those drawn with a camera

In spite of the tremendous interest on the part of both professional
and amateur botanists in the vegetation of Florida, with its large number
of tropical taxa in all plant groups, it is surprising to note that compara-
tively little serious work has been done with the bryophytes until recent
years. Brief lists of species collected on vacation trips, or diagnostic treat-
ments of some relatively unknown and exotic tropical species comprise
most of the bryological literature until about 1940. Since that time tre-
mendous impetus has been given to field studies, with the result that
the list of species now known to occur here compares favorably with that
of other well-worked states.
One of the earliest bryological excursions in Florida was that of Coe
Finch Austin and John Donnell Smith in 1878. Starting from Cedar
Key, they journeyed by boat to Charlotte Harbor, where they apparently
did an extensive study of the bryophytes occurring on the shell mounds
in that vicinity. They then went some 90 miles up the Caloosahatchee
River to Lake Flirt. In the succeeding years new or little-known mosses
were described from these collections in several issues of the Bulletin of
the Torrey Botanical Club. Smith also collected in the vicinity of
St. Augustine and Jacksonville in 1877-78.
In 1891 Lucien M. Underwood was commissioned by the United
States Department of Agriculture to study the extent and distribution of
a citrus disease in central and south Florida. He was in the state only
three or four months, but collected a few significant bryological specimens
while studying tropical ferns. Underwood's work served as a stimulus to
a number of people to explore further for new and sometimes exciting
records of tropical bryophytes.
Elizabeth Gertrude Britton, honorary curator of mosses at the New
York Botanical Garden for many years, visited the Miami area on several
occasions during the first quarter of this century and made two or three

brief excursions to the rich hammocks nearby. With her background of
experience with tropical mosses, it is natural that her collecting was
highly selective, including first records of several species for the United
States. The Bryologist during this period contains several short papers
prepared by her and relating to interesting tropical mosses occurring in
Severin Rapp was the first year-round resident bryologist in Florida.
A German immigrant shoemaker, much beloved by young and old alike
in Sanford, untrained and unskilled in botany, he made the first intensive
survey of the bryophytes of any part of the state, collecting in Seminole
County over a period of several years. He was aided in determinations
and encouraged to pursue his hobby by both Mrs. Britton and Dr. Grout.
As Dr. Grout said of him, "he was endowed with a keen eye and a
critical mind." He was most active about 1915-20, but continued collect-
ing until the time of his death in 1942. Rapp also made extensive hepatic
and lichen collections, many of which were given to the Herbarium of
the Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida, by court
action, since he left no will.
For a number of years Dr. and Mrs. A. J. Grout spent the winters at
Manatee (now incorporated with the city of Bradenton). Dr. Grout
thoroughly enjoyed exploring and collecting along the streams and bays
of that part of the state, and made an important contribution to the
knowledge of the state's winter moss flora from that area. He was always
ready for new excursions, and I spent two or three delightful days about
1939-40 in his company collecting in some of my favorite haunts in
north Florida.
During the 1930's Professor Herman Kurz, then Head of the Depart-
ment of Botany, Florida State College for Women (now Florida State
University), encouraged several students in an extracurricular activity
to make a rather large collection of mosses within a radius of some 60
miles of the campus. During this same period and in the succeeding years
a number of other persons also collected in various parts of the state.
Among these were J. B. McFarlin (mainly in Polk County and vicinity),
W. A. Murrill (Alachua County), and J. H. Davis, who made collections
of Sphagna in connection with his studies on Florida peat deposits. In
more recent years C. S. Nielsen (1948-56) collected mosses for me while
doing his work on the Cyanophyta. Several of my students have contrib-
uted valuable distribution data. Among these are Martha Nez, Robert K.
Gilpin, Robert Kral, Gilbert C. Hughes, and Luis Almodovar.
Perhaps the most extensive and important field work of recent years,
in addition to my own state-wide work, is that of Ronald A. Pursell, Paul
L. Redfearn, Jr., and W. D. Reese, while attending Florida State Univer-

sity. Their collections have added materially to the list of species now
known to occur in Florida, and have added many range extensions.
Reference has been made elsewhere to the contribution of Leonard Brass.
Howard A. Crum and Lewis E. Anderson have collected throughout the
state, more recently in connection with their work on the mosses of
eastern North America.
By way of explanation rather than apology for brevity in some places,
or for inconsistencies, I quote from the preface to the first edition (1896)
of H. N. Dixon's The Student's Handbook of British Mosses,
Of the short-comings of the book no one can be more conscious than
its authors. It would be inevitable, in dealing with a subject of this
kind, even with the greatest facilities for attaining accuracy, that
errors should creep in and facts be overlooked; and when the whole
of the work has to be done in the scanty leisure snatched from exacting
professional duties, the obstacles in the way of accuracy are greatly
increased. I can only ask that the student bear this in mind in passing
his judgement on the present work, and to be assured that any sug-
gestions, corrections or additions will be exceedingly welcome.


of Family Characters




Plants minute to 7-8 cm high; leaves 2-
ranked and split to the costa on the inner
side at the base; costa strong, ending below
apex to shortly excurrent; leaf cells small,
smooth or papillose, marginal cells some-
times differentiated; capsules terminal or lat-
eral, erect or inclined.

Plants small, erect; leaves lanceolate-acumi-
nate, the upper larger and longer than the
lower; costa ending near or in the tip; cap-
sules globular, sessile, terminal or on short
lateral branches, cleistocarpous; spores larg-
est of the mosses.

Plants small, erect; leaves slender, with a
long, slender tip; costa percurrent to excur-
rent; cells at basal angles not inflated or
colored; capsules cleistocarpous or with an
operculum and peristome; peristome teeth
16, split almost to the base.
Bruchia, Ditrichum, Pleuridium, Tremato-






Plants small to robust, erect; leaves lanceo-
late, straight and erect or curved and turned
in one direction; costa strong, percurrent to
excurrent; cells at basal angles sometimes in-
flated and colored; capsules terminal; peri-
stome teeth 16, split half their length.
Campylopus, Dicranella, Dicranum

Plants small to moderately robust, erect, per-
ennial; leaves crowded, brittle, pale green
to whitish, consisting mainly of a broad costa
of 3 or more layers of cells, the outer large,
hyaline, and porose, and enclosing 1 or more
rows of small, 3-4-sided chlorophyllose cells;
capsules small, straight to inclined.
Leucobryum, Octoblepharum

Plants small to robust, erect; leaves crowded,
dull green to brownish, lanceolate to spatu-
late, the sheathing bases with a conspicuous
area of large, inflated, hyaline cells next to
the costa; margin differentiated; costa strong,
ending near apex or shortly excurrent, and
often bearing numerous filamentous propag-
ula on the upper surface; capsules erect,
Calymperes, Syrrhopodon

Plants small, erect, mostly dull green, of-
ten growing on limestone; leaves variously
shaped, usually contorted when dry; costa
strong, ending below apex to long-excurrent;
capsules erect, sessile or stalked, cleistocar-
pous or with peristome of 16 long, divided,
often spirally twisted teeth.
Acaulon, Astomum, Barbula, Desmatodon,
Didymodon, Eucladium, Gymnostomiella,
Gymnostomum, Hyophila, Luisierella, Mo-
lendoa, Splachnobryum, Tortella, Tricho-
stomum, Weissia
Plants in loose to dense tufts, dark green to
blackish, sometimes hoary at tips, growing on
trees or non-calcareous rock; costa absent,
ending in tip, or excurrent; capsules on
short setae; peristome single or absent.
Grimmia, Hedwigia, Ptychomitrium








Plants minute, stemless or nearly so from
a conspicuous, persistent protonema; leaves
few, narrow; costa present or absent; cap-
sules sessile or nearly so, globose, abruptly
short-tipped, cleistocarpous or with poorly
defined dehiscence.
Ephemerum, Nanomitrium

Plants light green, leaves often crowded into
a cluster around base of seta; leaves soft,
ovate-lanceolate; costa strong, ending near
apex; leaf cells large, lax, border weakly de-
fined; capsules immersed or on long setae,
globose to pear-shaped, erect and symmetric
to inclined and asymmetric; peristome ab-
sent, single, or double.
Aphanorrhegma, Entosthodon, Funaria, Phys-

Plants erect, very dark green, glossy, growing
on dung, bones, or rich organic soils; leaves
lanceolate, long-acuminate, entire or with a
few large teeth on the upper margin; costa
strong, percurrent; leaf cells large, lax; cap-
sule bright orange, with a dark green to
purplish hypophysis longer than the urn.

Plants very small, delicate, resembling a
leafy liverwort; leaves crowded, flattened,
the lateral leaves ovate, asymmetric, the
ventral leaves much smaller, both forms ecos-
tate; cells small, papillose; capsules on short
lateral branches; peristome absent.

Plants in extensive brownish-green mats, pri-
mary stems creeping, secondary stems erect;
leaves crowded, in rosettes, crisped when
dry, often wrinkled near tips; costa strong,
percurrent; leaf cells small, thick-walled;
capsules on short setae, erect.
Groutiella, Macromitrium, Schlotheimia

Plants pale green to yellowish; leaves large,
ovate to lanceolate, irregularly and coarsely









toothed in upper part; costa strong, ending
below apex; cells small, thick-walled.

Plants densely tufted, pale green, often
branching near the tip; leaves triangular,
sometimes long-tipped; costa strong, ending
below apex, percurrent, or excurrent; cells
papillose by projecting cell angles; capsules
large in relation to the plants, globose, some-
what curved, on long setae.

Plants tufted, erect; leaves lanceolate to ob-
ovate, often bordered; costa strong, percur-
rent to excurrent; cells longer than broad,
rectangular to linear; capsules erect to pend-
ent, symmetric, often with prominent neck.
Brachymenium, Bryum, Leptobryum

Stems prostrate, the fertile tips somewhat
erect; leaves ovate, sharply tipped, crisped
when dry; costa strong, ending near or in
the apex; cells short, round to hexagonal,
marginal cells elongate, hyaline, with teeth
in a single or double row; capsules inclined,
with a short neck.

Plants robust, in extensive mats, deep yel-
lowish- or brownish-green, with a feathery
appearance, growing in wet places; leaves
large, linear-lanceolate, the margins thick-
ened and with paired teeth from base to
tip; costa strong, ending in the pointed tip;
capsules curved to horizontal.

Plants dark green, stems creeping; lateral
leaves in 2 rows, somewhat asymmetric, in-
distinctly bordered, the dorsal leaves much
smaller; costa strong, excurrent.

Plants slender to robust, glossy; leaves ovate
to ovate-lanceolate; costa ending in mid-leaf
or in apex; leaf cells longer than broad, cells







in basal angles sometimes differentiated; cap-
sules curved, somewhat asymmetric, often
constricted under the mouth when dry.
Amblystegiella, Amblystegium, Campylium,
Hygroamblystegium, Leptodictyum, Platylo-

Plants slender to robust, glossy; leaves ovate-
lanceolate, often wrinkled vertically, apex ob-
tuse to slender; costa ending about mid-leaf;
cells in alar region frequently conspicuously
differentiated; capsules oblong or ovoid, erect
and symmetric to inclined or horizontal and
Brachythecium, Cirriphyllum, Homalotheci-
ella, Oxyrrhynchium, Rhynchostegium

Plants large, dark green, more or less den-
droid; leaves large, crowded, broadly ovate-
lanceolate, auriculate, margins coarsely
toothed at apex; costa strong, ending below
the apex.

Plants julaceous or flattened, glossy; leaves
ovate to ovate-lanceolate, sharply tipped, con-
cave; costa absent or short and double; large
area of small quadrate cells in basal angles,
extending some distance up the margin; cap-
sules cylindric, erect, symmetric; seta yellow
to red.

Plants slender, sometimes glossy, frequently
flattened; leaves symmetric or asymmetric,
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, sometimes curv-
ed in one direction; costa short and double
or absent; cells in alar region differentiated;
capsules erect to horizontal.
Ectropothecium, Hypnum, Isopterygium,
Mittenothamnium, Platygyrium, Pylaisia,
Taxiphyllum, Vesicularia

Plants slender, flattened, glossy; leaves asym-
metric, ovate-lanceolate to oblong, apex
obtuse to pointed; costa single, ending in
mid-leaf or beyond, short and double, or








Plants slender, glossy, ends of stems and
branches frequently curved upward; leaves
ovate, acuminate, often turned in one direc-
tion, margins recurved toward base; costa
short and double or absent; cells differenti-
ated in basal angles; capsules small, cylin-
dric, erect or inclined.
Acroporium, Sematophyllum, Taxithelium

Plants slender to robust, in dull, dark green
to brownish mats; paraphyllia present or ab-
sent; leaves broadly ovate to ovate-lanceolate;
costa variable; cells small, short, usually
papillose; capsules erect and symmetric to
inclined and curved.
Anomodon, Haplocladium, Haplohymenium,
Herpetineurum, Leskea, Thelia, Thuidium

Primary stems slender, creeping, bearing
erect secondary stems that are pinnately or
bipinnately branched, flattened; lateral leaves
ovate, asymmetric, costa ending below apex,
the ventral leaves much smaller, bordered,
costa percurrent to excurrent.

Plants delicate, small to robust; leaves
broadly ovate and sharply tipped to ovate-
lanceolate, flattened, sometimes bordered;
costa strong and conspicuous, double, extend-
ing to mid-leaf or beyond; leaf cells smooth
or papillose; capsules small, inclined to
Callicostella, Cyclodictyon, Lepidopilum

Plants rather robust, secondary stems erect
to pendent; leaves large, crowded, lingulate,
flattened, the apex truncate or with a small,
sharp tip; costa slender, ending above mid-
leaf, nearer the lower margin; capsules
lateral, immersed or shortly exserted.

absent; cells in alar region scarcely differ-
Plagiothecium, Stereophyllum








Plants slender to robust, branches pendent;
leaves crowded, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate;
costa to mid-leaf or beyond; basal cells often
yellow or orange and porose.
Barbella, Meteoriopsis, Papillaria

Plants robust, primary stems slender, creep-
ing, the secondary stems simple or branched,
erect to pendent; leaves crowded, ovate-
lanceolate, acuminate, spoon-shaped; costa
slender, single, short and double, or absent.
Jaegerina, Pireella

Plants yellowish to brownish-green, mostly
glossy, branches erect, ascending, or pend-
ent; leaves crowded, ovate-lanceolate, tipped,
slightly decurrent; costa single, short and
double, or absent; large area of subquadrate
cells in basal angles; capsules ovoid to cylin-
dric, erect, symmetric; setae of varying
Forsstroemia, Leucodon, Leucodontopsis,

Plants slender, resembling poorly developed
Forsstroemia; branches erect or curved up-
ward; leaves crowded, ovate-lanceolate, con-
cave; costa single, to mid-leaf or beyond;
a large area of differentiated cells in basal
angles; capsules immersed.

Plants very small, delicate, glossy; leaves
ovate to ovate-lanceolate, crowded, with nu-
merous quadrate cells along basal margin;
costa to mid-leaf or absent; cells smooth or
papillose; capsules erect, symmetric.
Anacamptodon, Clasmatodon, Fabronia,

Plants aquatic, attached to bases of trees and
rocks, dark green, brown, or blackish; stems
limp or rigid, branched, up to 15 cm long;
leaves usually 3-ranked, sometimes with dis-
tinct auricles; costa present or absent.
Brachelyma, Dichelyma, Fontinalis





Plants usually robust, perennial, green to
brownish-red, mostly in dense tufts; leaves
rigid, sheathing at base, with lamellae in
longitudinal rows on upper surface of the
costa; costa single, percurrent to excurrent,
occupying most of the upper part of the leaf
blade in some cases; capsule erect to in-
clined, sometimes angled; peristome of 32-64
short, rounded teeth, their tips attached to
a thin membrane.
Atrichum, Pogonatum, Polytrichum

Plants of wet, acid habitats, mostly large;
most easily recognized by the ecostate leaves
composed of 2 kinds of cells in net-like ar-
rangement; large, hyaline cells having spiral
fibrils and pores, and smaller, narrower,
chlorophyllose cells; capsules small, globular,
brownish, with a small operculum but no


Key to Genera

This key is based largely on vegetative characters since many genera and
species of Florida mosses produce sporophytes only occasionally or not at
all. Some genera appear only once in the key, but urhere combinations of
characters or differences between species within genera warrant, they are
included in more than one place.

1. Leaves composed of two kinds of cells, large hyaline cells with
fibril bands and/or pores, and small green cells --...-----....---..............---- A
1. Leaves not composed of these two kinds of cells .-...--..-............----------..... 2
2. Leaves 2-ranked and split to the costa on the inner side,
or branches and leaves flattened ........-------..--...-----------.....--................- B
2. Leaves neither 2-ranked and split to the costa on the inner
side nor flattened --......................---------............------..............--------...-...-.....------... 3
3. Costa single----.......-..----.....---.............---------------.......--..---------................---.....---. 4
4. Lamellae, or plates of cells, on upper surface of
costa ----.-----...............-----------------------------------............--- C
4. Lamellae absent ----------- ...................................---------------------.------- 5
5. Leaves bordered with elongated hyaline cells or
with a thickened border --.----............------------..................- D
5. Leaves not so bordered ---.--.....--......-----------...........-...... 6
6. Costa ending in a hyaline or hoary hair-
point or forming most of the long tip ------ E
6. Costa not excurrent into a hyaline tip or
forming most of the tip .........---.--..-.........-..... 7


7. Costa percurrent or nearly so, ending
in or only a few cells below the tip ---- F
7. Costa ending near mid-leaf, or, if
longer, not extending into the tip ---- G
3. Costa double or absent
4. Costa double, strong, extending beyond mid-leaf ---- H
4. Costa inconspicuous, short and double or absent ---- I

1. Leaf cells in one layer; large hyaline rhomboidal cells with spiral
bands and pores forming a network with small linear green
cells ..............................................................Sphagnum (p. 120)
1. Leaves fleshy, composed almost entirely of the costa except at the
base, with 2-3 layers of hyaline cells with pores but no spiral bands
enclosing small 3-4-angled green cells
2. Leaves crowded, grooved on upper side; green cells 4-sided in
cross section; capsules inclined, curved ....Leucobryum (p. 24)
2. Leaves widely spreading, flattened, especially at ends of stems;
green cells 3-sided in cross section; capsules erect, sym-
metric ................---------------------.........................-----Octoblepharum (p. 24)

1. Leaves 2-ranked and split to the costa on the inner side, the blade
split to the costa on the inner side ..........................Fissidens (p. 1)
1. Leaves not 2-ranked and split to the costa on the inner side; branches
and leaves flattened
2. Leaves without a costa, or costa short and double
3. Leaf cells papillose
4. Papillae formed by projecting cell angles; cells elon-
gate; plants small, creeping ---------------
Mittenothamnium (p. 82)
4. Papillae over the cell cavity (lumen)
5. Leaves differentiated, with 2 rows of asymmetric,
ovate dorsal leaves and 2 rows of much smaller
ventral leaves; cells round to hexagonal; plants re-
sembling a leafy liverwort ......Solmsiella (p. 52)
5. Leaves uniform, ovate-acuminate; leaf cells linear,
with 5-7 papillae in a row on the dorsal sur-
face ....................................T-------------------axithelium (p. 88)
3. Leaf cells smooth (occasionally papillose by projecting cell
angles on dorsal side of apex)



4. Plants robust, in dense mats
5. Paraphyllia in leaf axils
6. Plants with an oily sheen; leaves ovate-
lanceolate, short- or long-acuminate, the tip
sometimes twisted; cells in apex 2-3:1 ------
Taxiphyllum (p. 84)
6. Plants glossy but without oily sheen; leaves
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, somewhat asym-
metric and decurrent; cells in apex 3-5: 1 ..---
Plagiothecium (p. 87)
5. Paraphyllia absent; plants yellow-green, glossy;
leaves broadly ovate, abruptly short-acuminate,
concave; numerous quadrate cells in basal angles
Entodon (p. 77)
4. Plants small, in pale green or yellowish mats
5. Leaves differentiated into lateral, dorsal and ven-
tral; cells short, lax, rhomboidal to hexagonal;
leaf apex toothed ................Vesicularia (p. 80)
5. Leaves not differentiated, sometimes asymmetric
and curved; cells long, narrow, not lax, shorter
in tip, with a row of large rectangular cells across
the base; apex entire to toothed ...----------....-.....
Isopterygium (p. 82)
2. Leaves costate
3. Costa double, strong and conspicuous, extending to mid-
leaf or beyond
4. Leaves broadly ovate, apiculate or acuminate
5. Cells isodiametric, with a single papilla; leaves
unbordered, or border weak _.Callicostella (p. 99)
5. Cells hexagonal, lax, smooth and pellucid; leaves
bordered with a row of narrow cells ..
Cyclodictyon (p. 100)
4. Leaves ovate, gradually tapering to a long, narrow,
conspicuously toothed tip; cells smooth; border indis-
tinct; lateral leaves asymmetric ---------... ........-....--
Lepidopilum (p. 100)
3. Costa single
4. Lateral leaves asymmetric, somewhat smaller than the
symmetric dorsal leaves; leaves ovate-lanceolate to ob-
long; costa ending in mid-leaf ..Stereophyllum (p. 86)
4. Leaves uniform, not differentiated into lateral and dor-
5. Leaves large, lingulate, asymmetric, apex truncate
or notched; leaf cells small; costa ending above
mid-leaf, nearer the lower margin ----------- ...------
Neckeropsis (p. 101)



5. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, weakly complanate (flat-
6. Plants aquatic or on very wet substrata; leaf
cells hexagonal to linear; costa to mid-leaf or
beyond ...............Leptodictyum (p. 69)
6. Plants terrestrial
7. Leaf apex short, conspicuously toothed;
costa ending above mid-leaf in a short
spine on the dorsal side; seta papillose
or rough ........Oxyrrhynchium (p. 74)
7. Leaf apex long, slender, toothed,
twisted; spine at end of costa indistinct
or lacking; seta smooth ..--------...--------
Rhynchostegium (p. 75)

1. Lamellae few (1-15); leaves bordered by hyaline cells, crisped when
dry; capsules cylindric; calyptra hood-shaped, not covering entire
capsule, smooth or with a few bristles near tip; peristome of 32 short,
round teeth ......................................................----------------Atrichum (p. 116)
1. Lamellae numerous (up to 60-70); leaves bordered in lower part or
unbordered; calyptra cap-shaped, covering the capsule, conspicu-
ously hairy
2. Plants scattered; protonemata persistent and conspicuous; leaves
not bordered or crisped when dry; peristome of 32 teeth .....-----
Pogonatum (p. 118)
2. Plants crowded; protonemata not persistent or conspicuous;
leaves bordered, at least at the top of the sheathing base, crisped
when dry; capsules 4-6-angled; peristome of 64 teeth ......----.
Polytrichum (p. 119)

1. Border thickened but not hyaline; large area of rectangular hyaline
cells in sheathing base
2. Border double and wing-like ....................-----------Syrrhopodon (p. 29)
2. Border more than one cell thick, but not wing-like -------.----------
Calymperes (p. 26)
1. Border of elongated or hyaline cells; basal hyaline cells present or
2. Border intramarginal, at least in the sheathing base; leaves
lanceolate to spatulate ...............................----------------Calymperes (p. 26)
2. Border marginal
3. Leaves differentiated, two rows of large lateral leaves and



one row of small ventral leaves; costa extending beyond
mid-leaf ......................................Hypopterygium (p. 98)
3. Leaves not differentiated
4. Border distinct, composed of elongated hyaline cells
5. Border narrow, entire or toothed; leaves lanceolate
to ligulate, upper cells small, isodiametric, papil-
lose or bulging; basal hyaline cells conspicuous
Syrrhopodon (p. 29)
5. Border several cells wide, prominently toothed at
least in upper margin; leaves broadly ovate to
ovate-lanceolate, costa ending below apex or form-
ing a short, abrupt tip; cells smooth, round to
short-elliptic ..............................M nium (p. 63)
4. Border often indistinct, frequently only one row of
cells, not always hyaline
5. Capsules erect, symmetric
6. Plants minute (1-4 mm), leaves ovate-
lanceolate, costa ending below apex; capsules
enclosed within the leaves at the end of a
short stem, dehiscing along equatorial line
Aphanorrhegma (p. 50)
6. Plants larger (up to 8 mm), leaves ovate-
lanceolate, costa precurrent to short-
excurrent; capsules on a long seta, with an
7. Peristome absent --------...............-......
Physcomitrium (p. 49)
7. Peristome present
8. Capsules short, pear-shaped; peri-
stome single, the teeth dark red;
leaves ovate-lanceolate, apex obtuse,
costa percurrent or nearly so; cells
large, clear, rhomboidal, 1-2: 1 ....
Entosthodon (p. 49)
8. Capsules cylindric; peristome dou-
ble, the inner often rudimentary,
teeth orange to brown; leaves obo-
vate, costa long- or short-excurrent;
cells short-rhomboidal ----............
Brachymenium (p. 62)
5. Capsules inclined to pendent
6. Capsules symmetric, usually with a clearly
defined neck; leaves ovate-lanceolate, costa
almost percurrent to long-excurrent; upper
leaf cells 2-5: 1 ....................Bryum (p. 58)
6. Capsules asymmetric, mouth to one side,



neck usually well defined; leaves obovate,
acuminate, costa ending below apex or shortly
excurrent; upper leaf cells large, rhomboidal,
2: 1 ..................................Funaria (p. 47)

1. Costa not reaching the apex; leaves ovate-acuminate; apex papillose-
spiny, hyaline, or hoary ....................................... Grimmia (p. 44)
1. Costa excurrent, forming a hair-point or hyaline tip
2. Costa one-third or more the width of the leaf base
3. Leaves lanceolate, curved in one direction, the tips chan-
neled and toothed; conspicuous area of hyaline, or colored,
usually inflated cells in basal angles; plants not fruiting in
Florida .............. ..............................Campylopus (p. 20)
3. Leaves slender, not curved, abruptly narrowing to a long
slender tip; costa rough on back above; small, spherical,
cleistocarpous capsules enclosed by terminal leaves ------------
Pleuridium (p. 16)
2. Costa slender, less than a third the width of the leaf base
3. Leaf cells papillose
4. Leaves of two forms, the lateral ovate-lanceolate, the
dorsal much smaller and triangular; coarsely toothed
toward apex; costa excurrent; papillae sometimes in-
conspicuous ............--------........---.........Rhacopilum (p. 65)
4. Leaves uniform in size and shape; papillae conspicuous
5. Leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate
6. Leaf margins reflexed above; costa excurrent
into a long, slender, smooth hair-point; up-
per leaf cells papillose on both surfaces, basal
cells larger, hyaline; lower margins entire --
Desmatodon (p. 37)
6. Leaf margins plane to inrolled above
7. Upper leaf margins plane; costa filling
all or most of the apex, 1-4 cells wide
in the tip, usually hyaline; margin con-
spicuously toothed just above base
where hyaline and green cells meet ..-----
Eucladium (p. 38)
7. Leaf margins mostly involute, entire;
costa excurrent into a short hyaline tip;
capsules small, on short setae, enclosed
by terminal leaves ... Astomum (p. 40)
5. Leaves broadly ovate to ovate-lanceolate
6. Leaves almost round, apiculate, margins



fringed; costa thin, short; cells with one
large hooked or star-shaped papilla; para-
phyllia present ....................Thelia (p. 93)
6. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, margins entire; costa
extending to base of acumination; papillae
small, several per cell; paraphyllia absent ----
Anomodon (p. 92)
3. Leaf cells smooth
4. Leaves ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate
5. Leaves bordered by narrow, elongate cells, the
border sometimes indistinct
6. Upper leaf cells rhomboidal-hexagonal, 2-
5:1; capsules pendent, with a prominent
neck ....-................................Bryum (p. 58)
6. Upper cells rhomboidal, 1-2:1; capsules
erect or nearly so, without a neck -----------
Brachymenium (p. 62)
5. Leaves unbordered
6. Plants aquatic, slender, rather delicate, at-
tached only at base of stem; leaves long-
pointed, often curved at tips at the ends of
branches, folded along the costa; costa long-
excurrent; margin toothed or entire at tip -.--
Dichelyma (p. 115)
6. Plants terrestrial
7. Plants small, not exceeding .5 cm tall;
leaves straight or curved, costa forming
most of tip, rough on back; capsules
with conspicuous neck, orange or red ..--
Bruchia (p. 14)
7. Plants up to 4 cm tall; leaves curved in
one direction, gradually narrowed to a
channeled, toothed apex; large area of
inflated hyaline cells at basal angles ----
Dicranum (p. 23)
4. Leaves linear-lanceolate to linear, unbordered
5. Leaves linear-lanceolate, entire to coarsely
toothed, upper leaf cells large, clear, rectangular,
2-4: 1; costa percurrent, tip flexuous; capsules
with basal swelling hypophysiss) longer and
larger than the urn ............Tetraplodon (p. 51)
5. Leaves narrow, linear or nearly so
6. Upper leaf cells 6-10: 1; costa broad, filling
most of the upper half of the leaf; capsules
pendent, with prominent neck -------..--......
Leptobryum (p. 61)



6. Upper leaf cells oblong-hexagonal; costa
forming a long, spinulose tip; capsules ses-
sile, globular; protonemata persistent; plants
small ..........................Ephemerum (p. 45)

1. Leaf cells smooth
2. Leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate
3. Leaf cells short, round to hexagonal, not more than 2: 1
4. Leaf margin with paired teeth from base to apex; cap-
sules inclined to horizontal; plants up to 8 cm high
Rhizogonium (p. 64)
4. Leaf margin without paired teeth; plants not exceed-
ing 1 cm high
5. Plants blackish-green; leaf apex obtuse to acumi-
nate, entire or toothed, capsules small, erect,
yellow to orange ............Ptychomitrium (p. 43)
5. Plants yellowish-green; leaf apex slender, entire
or nearly so; capsules with long neck, often
curved ................................Trematodon (p. 16)
3. Leaf cells rectangular to rhomboidal, 4-6: 1 or more
4. Plants aquatic, attached by stem bases, robust; stems
3-angled; leaves 3-ranked, folded along the costa ..-----
Brachelyma (p. 115)
4. Plants terrestrial, not robust
5. Capsules sessile or nearly so, spores very large ----
Archidium (p. 11)
5. Capsules exserted beyond leaves
6. Costa less than one-third the width of the
base, often rough on back above ..------------
Dicranella (p. 18)
6. Costa broad, about one-third the width of
the base, and occupying most of the tip;
plants glossy ..................Ditrichum (p. 16)
2. Leaves broader, ovate-lanceolate, lingulate, or spatulate
3. Leaves lingulate to spatulate, apex blunt or short-tipped
4. Leaves spatulate, not more than twice as long as
broad; apex obtuse to rounded; cells thin-walled, lax,
2-3: 1; costa ending several cells below apex; plants
erect ....................................Splachnobryum (p. 39)
4. Leaves lingulate, more than twice as long as broad;
apex gradually or abruptly tipped; plants creeping,
bearing rosettes of reddish-brown leaves on the sec-
ondary stems



5. Leaf apex rounded, abruptly sharp-tipped; leaves
wrinkled lengthwise ..............Groutiella (p. 53)
5. Leaf apex gradually tapering; leaves wrinkled
horizontally .....................-----------Schlotheimia (p. 54)
3. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acuminate
4. Leaf apex coarsely toothed
5. Plants erect, 1-2 mm tall; leaves broadly ovate,
almost as broad as long, very concave, forming a
bulbous cluster enclosing a small cleistocarpous
capsule .---------------...................................Acaulon (p. 34)
5. Primary stems creeping, secondary stems 1-several
cm tall
6. Leaves twice as long as broad, auriculate;
costa straight; plants robust, the secondary
stems more or less dendroid ..-----------------------
Climacium (p. 76)
6. Leaves three times as long as broad, not au-
riculate; costa conspicuously wavy above;
plants not dendroid --------.-----------------------
Herpetineurum (p. 91)
4. Leaf apex entire or finely and evenly toothed
5. Plants robust, creeping
6. Secondary stems branched, leaves crowded,
concave; upper leaf cells up to 6: 1, basal
cells short, thick-walled, porose, often col-
ored ................................-----------------Pireella (p. 105)
6. Secondary stems almost dendroid, julaceous,
frequently bearing slender thread-like
branches; median leaf cells 6: 1; costa nearly
percurrent ............Pseudocryphaea (p. 107)
5. Plants small, slender, stems simple or branched
6. Leaves widest above the middle, tapering to
an acute apex; sporophytes terminal; plants
usually growing on limestone -----------------
Barbula (p. 41)
6. Leaves gradually tapering from a broad base
7. Plants aquatic or in very wet places
8. Leaves bordered by 3-4 rows of yel-
lowish, elongated, thick-walled
cells; median leaf cells 1-2:1 -----.
Platylomella (p. 68)
8. Leaves not bordered; costa stout,
percurrent; median leaf cells 2-4: 1;
plants delicate ------- ----.............
Hygroamblystegium (p. 70)
7. Plants terrestrial



8. Leaf cells ellipsoidal to rhomboidal,
1-2: 1; leaves crowded, concave;
many small quadrate cells in basal
angles ..............Cryphaea (p. 109)
8. Leaf cells hexagonal-rhomboidal, 2-
9. Plants delicate, in thin mats,
easily overlooked; leaf apex
long, slender, toothed; many
small quadrate cells at basal
angles and extending several
rows along margin ...------------
Fabronia (p. 112)
9. Plants in thin mats; leaves
erect-spreading, slightly decur-
rent, apex entire or nearly so;
a group of enlarged cells at
basal angles .--------------
Amblystegium (p. 67)
1. Leaf cells papillose
2. Costa ending in a short abrupt tip (mucro), the tip usually
composed of a single cell
3. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, obtuse; costa obscured by small
densely papillose cells except for the single terminal cell;
margins plane to recurved below; brown club-shaped pro-
pagula in leaf axils ...................................Barbula (p. 41)
3. Leaves linear-lanceolate, contorted when dry
4. Plants small, not more than .5 cm high; margins of
leaves rolled inward, almost covering the costa ----------
Weissia (p. 39)
4. Plants reaching 1-2 cm high
5. Plants about 1 cm high; leaves concave, margins
plane above, median and lower margins inrolled;
hyaline cells extending farther up the basal mar-
gin than along the costa, forming a V
Tortella (p. 35)
5. Plants 1-2 cm high; margins of leaves rolled in-
ward, forming a hood-shaped apex; hyaline cells
not forming a V along basal margin ..
Trichostomum (p. 39)
2. Costa not forming a short abrupt tip (mucro)
3. Paraphyllia on stems and branches; leaves ovate-lanceolate
4. Paraphyllia usually abundant and conspicuous, fil-
amentous to multiform; stem and branch leaves usually
differentiated; terminal cell of branch leaves ending in
a single sharp papilla ..............Haplocladium (p. 98)



4. Paraphyllia few, small and inconspicuous; stems spar-
ingly and irregularly branched; stem and branch leaves
not noticeably differentiated; costa ending near apex
Leskea (p. 94)
3. Paraphyllia absent
4. Leaves ovate, spatulate, or lingulate
5. Leaves slenderly linguate, apex rounded, margins
plane or inrolled; upper leaf cells round, conspic-
uously bulging ......................Luisierella (p. 35)
5. Leaves spatulate, ovate- or oblong-lanceolate
6. Leaves spatulate
7. Leaf apex broad, rounded; cells hexag-
onal, pellucid; costa yellowish, ending
below apex; plants minute, 1-3 mm
high ..............Gymnostomiella (p. 33)
7. Leaf apex obtuse, apiculate, irregularly
toothed near the tip; cells small, not pel-
lucid; club-shaped propagula in leaf
axils ........................Hyophila (p. 34)
6. Leaves ovate- to oblong-lanceolate
7. Plants yellowish or reddish-brown
8. Plants yellowish, leaves broadly
ovate, acuminate, margin coarsely
toothed in upper half; leaf cells
round, thick-walled, with a single
papilla on each surface ...........----
Aulacomnium (p. 55)
8. Plants reddish-brown; leaves ob-
long-lanceolate, crowded on short
secondary stems, apex acute; upper
leaf cells round, thick-walled,
longer at base, a row of narrow rec-
tangular cells forming a basal mar-
gin ------------ Macromitrium (p. 54)
7. Plants green
8. Costa strong, pellucid; leaves with
a broad clasping base, gradually ta-
pering to a round or acute apex .. -
Anomodon (p. 92)
8. Costa not pellucid; leaves ovate-
9. Leaves concave, entire, re-
curved below; cells in rows
parallel to the costa; spherical
propagula in leaf axils ----
Didymodon (p. 41)



9. Leaves plane above, incurved
below, a few teeth at the apex;
cells round to hexagonal, bulg-
ing on upper surface ..------
Desmatodon (p. 37)
4. Leaves linear to lanceolate
5. Cells rectangular, papillose at one or both ends by
projecting cell angles; plants pale yellowish-green
Philonotis (p. 56)
5. Papillae over the cell cavities
6. Costa ending several cells below apex
7. Plants yellowish-green to yellow; apex
coarsely and irregularly toothed; upper
leaf cells round, thick-walled, with a
single papilla on each surface ...---.----
Aulacomnium (p. 55)
7. Plants dull bluish-green
8. Apex tapering, costa obscured by
small, densely papillose cells ..--.--------
Molendoa (p. 38)
8. Apex rounded-obtuse or subacute,
costa not obscured ..----- .-------------------
Gymnostomum (p. 37)
6. Costa percurrent; plants small, 1-3 mm high;
capsules spherical, enclosed by terminal
leaves .............----------------................Astomum (p. 40)

1. Leaf cells papillose
2. Leaf cells several times as long as broad
3. Leaf apex short; leaves ovate-lanceolate, crowded, wrinkled
lengthwise; median cells 8: 1, with 1-2 low papillae; large
group of quadrate cells at basal angles ......---......------
Leucodontopsis (p. 107)
3. Leaf apex long, slender; median leaf cells linear-flexuous,
with a single row of small papillae
4. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, auriculate, decurrent; median
leaf cells in rows oblique to the costa --------
Papillaria (p. 102)
4. Leaves lanceolate, not auriculate or decurrent; median
leaf cells parallel to the costa ...-....Barbella (p. 103)
2. Leaf cells quadrate-hexagonal or short-rhombo'dal
3. Paraphyllia present on stems and branches
4. Stem and branch leaves differentiated; leaves ovate,



acute to acuminate; terminal cell of branch leaves end-
ing in 2 or more papillae ..............Thuidium (p. 95)
4. Stem and branch leaves not differentiated
5. Leaves broadly ovate, apiculate; margins ciliate;
cells with a single large hooked or forked papilla
Thelia (p. 93)
5. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, apex blunt or pointed;
paraphyllia few, inconspicuous ....Leskea (p. 94)
3. Paraphyllia lacking
4. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, apex obtuse to acute, brittle
and often broken; cells small, isodiametric, densely
papillose, the papillae of the bulging marginal cells
forming fine teeth; costa papillose on back below .-----
Haplohymenium (p. 91)
4. Leaves lingulate from a broad clasping base; apex
broad and rounded to acute; marginal cells not bulg-
ing, entire or toothed near apex; costa strong, pellucid
Anomodon (p. 92)
1. Leaf cells smooth
2. Leaf cells rhomboidal, not exceeding 6:1, usually shorter
3. Plants robust; secondary stems somewhat dendroid; leaves
auriculate, broadly ovate-lanceolate, tip coarsely toothed;
costa ending several cells below apex ....Climacium (p. 76)
3. Plants small, often delicate; leaves ovate-lanceolate, short-
to long-acuminate
4. Cells short, usually not exceeding 2:1
5. Tips of branches curved upward; leaves crowded,
concave; quadrate basal cells numerous; capsules
lateral, on short setae, erect, symmetric ..
Cryphaea (p. 109)
5. Branches very short, hooked at tips
6. Upper leaf cells longer than median; costa
often extending beyond mid-leaf; basal cells
rectangular; outer teeth of the peristome
longer than the inner, united in pairs, re-
flexed when dry ....Anacamptodon (p. 111)
6. Upper leaf cells not longer than median;
costa extending beyond mid-leaf; numerous
quadrate cells in basal angles; outer teeth of
the peristome shorter than the inner, not
united in pairs or reflexed .--------....-----
Clasmatodon (p. 112)
4. Cells 2-10:1
5. Leaves widely spreading, recurved, sometimes
turned in one direction; tip long, slender, chan-
neled ..................................Campylium (p. 66)


5. Leaves not widely spreading or recurved
6. Plants small, delicate; leaves long-acuminate,
margin toothed in upper half; entire base of
quadrate cells, extending up margin 12-20
rows ..............................Fabronia (p. 112)
6. Leaves short-acuminate, margin entire or
nearly so; a few enlarged cells at basal angles,
vertically or horizontally elongate at margin
Amblystegium (p. 67)
2. Leaf cells hexagonal, linear-rhomboidal, or linear-flexuous,
3. Leaf cells linear-flexuous, about 10: 1; leaves widely spread-
ing, ovate-lanceolate, abruptly long-acuminate from round-
ed, clasping base; margins wavy ...Meteoriopsis (p. 103)
3. Cells not linear-flexuous
4. Leaf apex twisted a half turn
5. Plants golden green, robust, conspicuously julace-
ous; leaves concave, spoon-shaped, wrinkled ..----
Cirriphyllum (p. 74)
5. Plants yellowish-green, somewhat flattened; leaves
ovate-lanceolate, not concave or spoon-shaped,
slenderly long-acuminate; costa ending in spine
on dorsal side (not always conspicuous) .-------. .
Rhynchostegium (p. 75)
4. Leaf apex not twisted
5. Stem and branch leaves usually differentiated;
leaves erect-spreading, vertically wrinkled, short-
decurrent; margins toothed above --...........
Brachythecium (p. 71)
5. Stem and branch leaves not differentiated
6. Plants coarse, more or less robust
7. Secondary stems julaceous, freely
branched; leaves ovate-lanceolate, short-
acuminate; median cells elliptic to rhom-
boidal, 8-10: 1; plants growing on trees
Forsstroemia (p. 108)
7. Secondary stems not julaceous; leaves
ovate-lanceolate, acumination variable;
median cells hexagonal to linear,
5-10: 1; plants aquatic or in wet places
Leptodictyum (p. 69)
6. Plants not coarse or robust
7. Plants aquatic or in wet places; leaves
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate; median
cells hexagonal to linear -----------
Leptodictyum (p. 69)

7. Plants not aquatic or in wet places
8. Plants growing on soil, decaying
wood, limestone; leaves ovate, acute
to short-acuminate, conspicuously
toothed at tip; median leaf cells
linear-rhomboidal, alar region not
well differentiated; costa ending in
a conspicuous spine on dorsal side
Oxyrrli)inchliini (p. 74)
8. Plants growing on bark of living
trees, delicate; leaves ovate-
lanceolate, acuminate; median leaf
cells linear-fusiform; numerous
quadrate cells at basal angles -------
Homalotheciella (p. 75)

1. Cells small, angular, isodiametric, with a single papilla on each sur-
face; leaves oblong, with a short abrupt tip; each branch of the costa
ending in a conspicuous spine on the dorsal surface; seta rough -----
Callicostella (p. 99)
1. Cells large, lax, oblong-hexagonal, smooth
2. Leaves oblong-ovate, slenderly tipped, bordered with narrow
cells; seta smooth ................................ Cyclodictyon (p. 100)
2. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, gradually tapering to a long, slender,
toothed tip; cells smooth; border indistinct; lateral leaves asym-
m etric ................... ........................ Lepidopilum (p. 100)

1. Leaf cells papillose
2. Leaves oval, rounded at apex, flattened, with 2 rows of dorsal
leaves and 2 rows of much smaller ventral leaves ------------------ ..
Solmsiella (p. 52)
2. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, not differentiated or flattened
3. Leaf apex slender, rough, hoary ............ Hedwigia (p. 43)
3. Leaf apex short, not rough or hoary
4. Cells with one or two papillae on the dorsal surface
5. Median leaf cells 1-2: 1; leaf margin finely and
evenly toothed almost to base, the teeth curving
outward; entire base of quadrate cells; plants
small ........................Schwetschkeopsis (p. 111)
5. Median leaf cells 8: 1; large group of quadrate
cells at basal angles; leaves wrinkled lengthwise __
Leucodontopsis (p. 107)

4. Cells with a row of several small papillae on the dorsal
surface; plants delicate ..............Taxithelium (p. 88)
1. Leaf cells smooth
2. Aquatic, floating; leaves narrowly lanceolate, flat or folded, 3-
ranked ...............................--------------------------.................---Fontinalis (p. 113)
2. Not aquatic
3. Plants minute, 1-2 mm tall, stemless or nearly so; pro-
tonemata persistent; leaves slender; capsules small, spheri-
cal, sessile ......................................Nanomitrium (p. 46)
3. Plants larger, protonemata not persistent
4. Secondary stems erect from a slender creeping stem,
only 3 or 4 growing together; leaves crowded, widely
spreading, contorted when dry; apical and basal leaf
cells porose ................................J-----------------aegerina (p. 104)
4. Secondary stems prostrate, pinnately branching
5. Cells at basal angles enlarged, hyaline, and in-
6. Large area of inflated cells forming decurrent
auricles in basal angles; ends of stems
hooked, curved in one direction; leaf tips
curved downward; median leaf cells linear-
fusiform ..........................Hypnum (p. 80)
6. Small area of inflated cells (2-5), not form-
ing auricles
7. Tips of branches usually curved in one
direction; 2-3 conspicuous, inflated, hy-
aline or colored cells at basal angles;
peristome teeth with a zigzag furrow ..---
Sematophyllum (p. 88)
7. Tips of branches curved upward; 4-5
cells at basal angles inflated and hyaline;
peristome teeth with a straight furrow
Acroporium (p. 90)
5. Cells at basal angles small, quadrate, but not
hyaline or inflated
6. Leaves differentiated into dorsal, lateral, and
ventral ..........................Vesicularia (p. 80)
6. Leaves not differentiated
7. Paraphyllia present in leaf axils
8. Leaves symmetric, flattened, widely
spreading; apex short- to long-
acuminate ....Taxiphyllum (p. 84)
8. Leaves slightly asymmetric, not flat-
tened, curved in one direction, 2-3
marginal cells at base decurrent- -....-
Ectropothecium (p. 85)


7. Paraphyllia absent
8. Quadrate cells at basal angles nu-
merous, extending several rows
along margin
9. Cells linear, 8-15:1; leaves
broadly ovate, apiculate, no-
ticeably concave; stems jula-
ceous or flattened; plants glossy
Entodon (p. 77)
9. Cells rhomboidal to hexagonal,
6-10: 1; leaves ovate-lanceolate,
short- to long-acuminate
10. Secondary stems jula-
ceous; plants robust;
leaves short-acuminate
11. Secondary stems
unbranched or
sparsely branched;
leaves sometimes
rough on dorsal
surface of apex ----
Leucodon (p. 107)
11. Secondary stems
freely branching,
often curved up-
ward and outward
(p. 108)
10. Secondary stems not ju-
laceous; plants in thin
mats; branches short,
tips recurved; leaves
long-acuminate; small
bud-like propagula in
axils of upper leaves....-----
Platygyrium (p. 83)
8. Quadrate cells at basal angles few
or absent
9. Leaves decurrent, slightly au-
riculate, widely spreading; apex
slender, channeled, recurved;
median leaf cells rectangular
to rhomboidal, 4-12: 1 .....--
Campylium (p. 66)
9. Leaves not decurrent or auric-


10. Leaves ovate-lanceolate,
short- to long-acuminate,
sometimes asymmetric;
median leaf cells fusi-
form, 9-12: 1, apical
cells 1-2: 1; single row
of enlarged rectangular
cells across base of leaf
Isopterygium (p. 82)
10. Leaves ovate-lanceolate,
concave, turned to one
side; stem tips recurved;
median leaf cells linear-
rhomboidal, apical cells
shorter and broader ..
Pylaisia (p. 83)






Plants gregarious to tufted, minute to large; stems erect or lax and
procumbent, simple or branched, central strand present. Leaves flattened
in one plane, 2-ranked and split to the costa on the inner side, the split
portion sheathing the stem at the base, and often enclosing bases of leaves
next above, dorsal laminae ending at insertion or some distance above,
sometimes slightly decurrent; costa strong, ending below apex, percurrent
or shortly excurrent; leaf cells small, irregularly hexagonal, smooth,
bulging, or papillose, isodiametric except near base. Monoicous or dioicous.
Capsules terminal or lateral, erect or inclined, symmetric or nearly so;
calyptra hood-shaped, split on one side; operculum conic, beaked; peri-
stome of 16 reddish or yellowish teeth split about half their length, ridged-
papillose. Spores smooth, 10-20 /.

1. Aquatic, plants floating, slender, elongated, flaccid, older parts blackish; leaves
distant, linear-lanceolate, 8:1 or longer
2. Peristome teeth truncate, cleft and perforate above, papillose; seta shorter
than capsule................-------------.-----------.............................................-----------.--------............-..F. debilis
2. Peristome teeth long, slender, deeply cleft, diagonally ridged above; seta a
little longer than capsule----..................-------.......-----------....-----....................F. manateensis
1. Not aquatic; plants much shorter and smaller; leaves shorter, not more than
3-5: 1
2. Leaves bordered by elongated, hyaline cells, at least on vaginant laminae
3. Border extending to costa at apex or nearly so


4. Cells of vaginant laminae larger, especially along costa. ......F. kegelianus
4. Cells of vaginant laminae not larger
5. Vaginant laminae half the length of leaf, dorsal laminae reaching
stem, occasionally decurrent
6. Leaves ovate-lanceloate, apex obtuse, border ending 6-12 cells
below apex, margin entire.................-----------------...................------------F. pusillus
6. Leaves lanceolate, apex acute, border confluent with costa at
leaf apex .------------..........-----..--------..................-....-.......----------...-..-F. minutulus
5. Vaginant lamina two-thirds or more length of leaf; leaves oblong-
6. Border confluent with costa at apex; apex short-acuminate----------
F. bryoides
6. Border ending below apex
7. Leaves gradually tapering to an acute apex; dorsal laminae
reaching stem, often decurrent-..-----------....----........F. repandus
7. Leaves with shorter, obtuse apex, dorsal laminae reaching
stem or ending above------.........-------------................--------.--............ F. viridulus
3. Border confined to vaginant lamina (sometimes only on perichaetial leaves)
4. Cells smooth; margins entire or nearly so
5. Costa ending several cells below apex; apex obtuse---....--..F. obtusifolius
5. Costa percurrent or nearly so
6. Border largely intramarginal.....------...---.--..........-...------.......F. andersonii
6. Border marginal, on perichaetial leaves only.......-.....---....F. exiguus
4. Cells papillose; margins finely toothed
5. Cells unipapillose; margin evenly and finely toothed all around--------
F. reesei
5. Cells with 2-several papillae
6. Costa ending several cells below apex; only perichaetial leaves
bordered-..............-------------.... ........ ..... .. ...........................F. garberi
6. Costa percurrent; perichaetial and upper leaves bordered
F. ravenelii
2. Leaves not bordered by elongate hyaline cells
3. Apical margins coarsely and irregularly toothed
4. Costa ending 3-4 cells below apex, covered by bulging cells above-..-..
F. subbasilaris
4. Costa percurrent
5. Leaves with distinct border of paler cells 3-4 cells wide; upper leaf
cells 7-9 A --------..............................------------.--.....-------------..............---........- F. cristatus
5. Leaf border of paler cells absent or indistinct; upper leaf cells
13-16 ---------------.........................-.............................-----------....------...------..F. adianthoides
3. Apical margins entire or finely and evenly toothed by projecting cell angles
4. Margins entire or nearly so
5. Plants large, 2-5 cm; sporophyte lateral----.......--.....---...F. polypodioides
5. Plants small, 1.5-5 mm; sporophyte terminal; cells pellucid-...-----
F. pellucidus
4. Margins finely toothed
5. Cells papillose or bulging
6. Cells with one large, blunt papilla; apex gradually tapering--.....
F. donnellii
6. Cells prominently bulging; apex abruptly constricted ...F. radicans
5. Cells smooth
6. Costa wavy, excurrent in a short tip; sporophyte lateral.--......
F. taxifolius
6. Costa slightly curved, percurrent; sporophyte terminal....F. hallii

Fissidens debilis Schwaegr. PLATE 1
Fissidens julianus (Mont.) Schimp.
Plants aquatic, attached at base to rocks or debris, floating above,
slender, up to about 15 cm long, occasionally or regularly branching,
flaccid. Leaves distant, spreading, very long and narrow, tapering to a
blunt apex; margins entire; costa ending some distance below apex; vag-
inant lamina about one-third length of leaf, the 2 sides approximately
equal; dorsal lamina usually ending above insertion; leaf cells hexagonal,
larger near costa, smaller at margin; perichaetial leaves about the same
length as the seta and capsule. Monoicous. Capsules lateral, erect and
symmetric; setae shorter than capsules; operculum conic, beaked, as long
as urn; peristome teeth yellowish, short, divided above, truncate. Spores
yellow, 16-18 /,.
HABITAT: Attached to limestone or debris in streams.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Alachua, Calhoun, Dixie, Gadsden, Hills-
borough, Jackson, Jefferson, Lee, Leon, Liberty, Manatee, Pasco, Seminole,
Taylor, Volusia Counties.

Fissidens manateensis Grout ex Holz. PLATE 1
Closely resembles F. debilis, and difficult to distinguish from it when
sterile. Leaves smaller and narrower, the dorsal lamina more apt to reach
the insertion; perichaetial leaves longer than seta and capsule; capsule
terminal at end of main branch, the seta longer than the capsule; peristome
teeth (most significant difference) long, slender, perforate, diagonally
ridged above, papillose below. Spores 16-20 pt.
HABITAT: Attached to limestone or debris in streams.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Alachua, Collier, Columbia, Franklin, Jef-
ferson, Lee, Leon, Manatee, Polk, Seminole, Suwannee, Wakulla Counties.

Fissidens kegelianus C. M. PLATE 2
Plants small, 2-5 mm high, in loose tufts. Leaves 3-6, sometimes 8
pairs, lanceolate-acuminate; hyaline border reaching almost to or con-
fluent with the costa at the apex; apex toothed to entire; costa subpercur-
rent to short-excurrent; vaginant lamina about half the length of the leaf;
cells of vaginant lamina near costa lax, pellucid, 2-3 times as large as the
other cells, elongated, conspicuous; dorsal lamina ending at or above
insertion. Dioicous. Antheridial plants small, bud-like. Capsules terminal,
erect and symmetric or nearly so, with a distinct neck; setae yellowish,
erect or bent abruptly; operculum conic, with a long beak; peristome teeth
dark red, linear, deeply cleft, with more or less spiral bands above, papil-
lose below. Spores smooth, 10-15 [/.
HABITAT: On limestone and calcareous soil.

DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Mexico, Central America to South
America; Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia.
Florida: Citrus, Dade, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Monroe, Polk, Sumter
Fissidens pusillus Wils. in Milde PLATE 3
Plants small, 3-8 mm high; stems reddish, older stems becoming pro-
cumbent and branching. Leaves ovate-lanceolate to ligulate, apex obtuse,
margin entire; hyaline border ending 6-12 or more cells from apex; costa
flexuous, strong, ending a few cells below apex or percurrent; vaginant
lamina about half the length of leaf, the sides unequal; dorsal lamina
narrowed to insertion, occasionally decurrent; cells irregularly polygonal,
uniform throughout except for a row of larger cells along the costa.
HABITAT: On limestone.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Columbia, Gadsden, Jefferson Counties.

Fissidens minutulus Sull. PLATE 3
Plants very small, 2-4 mm high; stems dark red. Leaves 3-8 pairs, small
and indistinctly bordered below, the upper leaves lanceolate, sharp-pointed,
often curved, finely toothed at apex; hyaline border usually ending a few
cells below apex; costa percurrent or nearly so; vaginant lamina about half
the length of the leaf, the sides unequal, cells not conspicuously enlarged;
dorsal lamina ending above or tapering to insertion. Dioicous. Capsules
erect or slightly inclined, terminal.
HABITAT: Limestone or soil.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Alachua, Citrus, Columbia, Gadsden, Jack-
son, Leon, Levy, Sumter, Washington Counties.

Fissidens bryoides Hedw. PLATE 3
Plants tufted, often densely so, dark glaucous green, 5-10 mm tall.
Leaves crowded, up to 20 or more pairs, oblong-lanceolate to ligulate;
border of elongate hyaline cells merging with the shortly excurrent costa;
apex short-acuminate; margin entire or finely toothed at apex; vaginant
lamina about two-thirds the length of the leaf, the sides usually equal;
dorsal lamina reaching insertion or slightly decurrent; leaf cells irregularly
hexagonal, smooth or slightly bulging. Leaves on sterile and immature
stems sometimes slightly curved.
HABITAT: On limestone and calcareous soils. (At Boulware Spring,
in Alachua County, it grows submerged, mixed with Cyclodictyon varians
and Callicostella pallida.)
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Alachua, Citrus, Columbia, Gadsden, Jack-
son, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Seminole Counties.

Fissidens repandus Wils. PLATE 4
Fissidens tortilis Hampe & C. M.
Plants small, yellowish-green, crisped when dry. Leaves up to 15 pairs,
crowded above, oblong-lanceolate, margin finely toothed at acute apex;
costa percurrent or occasionally shortly excurrent; hyaline border ending
4-6 cells below apex or merging with the costa; vaginant lamina two-thirds
or more the length of the leaf; dorsal lamina narrow in lower half of leaf,
reaching the stem, and often decurrent; upper leaf cells irregularly hexag-
onal, bulging. Dioicous. Antheridial plants small, bud-like.
HABITAT: On limestone.
DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Mexico, Central America to South
America; coastal plain of the United States.
Florida: Citrus, Jackson Counties.
The specimen from Marianna Caverns State Park, Jackson County, was
growing in total darkness inside the main cave, mixed with depauperate
Thuidium minutulum.

Fissidens viridulus (Web. & Mohr) Wahlenb. PLATE 3
Closely resembling F. bryoides, but somewhat small (3-6 mm high).
Leaves 5-12 pairs, oblong-lanceolate, apex broader, obtuse to acute; hya-
line border ending below apex, sometimes not extending much above the
vaginant lamina; margin finely toothed at apex and some distance down
the leaf; costa percurrent or nearly so; vaginant lamina two-thirds the
length of the leaf, the sides equal except on the perichaetial leaves; dorsal
lamina narrowing to insertion or ending above.
HABITAT: On moist soil.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Columbia, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty,
Madison, Seminole, Washington Counties.

Fissidens viridulus var. texanus (Lesq.) Grout PLATE 3
Leaves narrower, more gradually and slenderly tapering; border ending
considerably below apex and often absent on dorsal lamina; sides of vagi-
nant lamina unequal.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Gadsden, Leon, Liberty, Madison, Manatee,
Polk, Washington Counties.

Fissidens obtusifolius Wils. PLATE 5
Plants small, 1-3 mm high, stems simple or occasionally branched.
Leaves 4-8 pairs, occasionally more, the lower smaller and distant, upper
larger and crowded, oblong-lingulate, apex rounded or obtuse, margins
entire; costa ending several cells below apex; vaginant lamina one-half to

two-thirds the length of the leaf, the sides unequal; dorsal lamina nar-
rowing to base; perichaetial leaves with inconspicuous border confined to
vaginant lamina, often only along basal part; upper leaf cells irregularly
hexagonal, somewhat larger along the costa, smooth. Dioicous. Sporophyte
terminal, erect, symmetric.
HABITAT: On limestone.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Columbia, Jefferson, Leon, Taylor Counties.

Fissidens andersonii Grout PLATE 6
Plants small, 4-6 mm high; up to 8 pairs of leaves. Leaves widely
spaced, the lower pairs small, upper much larger, crisped and contorted
when dry, oblong-lanceolate, apex acute, margins entire or nearly so; costa
ending 2-3 cells below apex or percurrent; vaginant lamina half the length
of the leaf, bordered in fertile plants by 1-3 rows of elongated hyaline
cells, becoming intramarginal toward base, with 1-3 rows of small, green,
quadrate or short-rectangular cells between the hyaline cells and the mar-
gin; dorsal lamina reaching base in most leaves; leaf cells hexagonal,
smooth to bulging, somewhat elongated at the base. Perichaetia terminal.
Mature sporophytes not seen.
HABITAT: On calcareous soil.
DISTRIBUTION: South Carolina.
Florida: Liberty County (Alum Bluff, in ravine, growing with Syrrho-
podon prolifer).
Fissidens exiguus Sull.
Plants minute, 1-2 mm high. Leaves 3-6 pairs, the lower much reduced.
Leaves ovate-lanceolate, apex acute, margin entire or irregularly finely
toothed near apex; costa flexuous, percurrent or nearly so; vaginant lamina
one-half to two-thirds the length of the leaf, sides unequal; dorsal lamina
narrowing at base, reaching the stem or ending short distance above in-
sertion; border of elongated hyaline cells usually confined to vaginant
lamina of perichaetial leaves; upper leaf cells irregularly hexagonal,
HABITAT: On roots or decaying wood.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Leon, Seminole Counties.

Fissidens exiguus var. falcatulus (R. & C.) Grout PLATE 6
Leaves curved in one direction when dry, curved outward when moist;
vaginant lamina of all leaves bordered in upper part, border extending
several cells beyond the vaginant lamina; dorsal lamina ending some dis-
tance above base.


Resembles F. viridulus var. texanus; often hard to distinguish between
the two.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Jackson, Seminole Counties.

Fissidens reesei Crum & Anderson PLATE 7
Plants small, 5-7 mm high, usually unbranched. Leaves 10-18 pairs,
basal leaves small, upper leaves larger; leaves obovate, apex broadly acute
or obtuse, margin finely and evenly toothed; costa ending 2-4 cells below
apex; vaginant lamina about half the length of the leaf, bordered half (or
more) its length by 3-5 rows of hyaline cells, the border becoming
1-cell wide above; dorsal lamina tapering to stem, often abruptly con-
stricted just above base; leaf cells unipapillose on both surfaces. Autoicous.
Perigonia bud-like, in axils of most leaves, conspicuous. Sporophyte
terminal; calyptra hood-shaped, small; capsule erect or slightly inclined,
symmetric; operculum long conic-beaked; stomata in base of capsule wall
prominent. Spores smooth, greenish, about 16 /x.
HABITAT: Bases of trees (Taxodium).
DISTRIBUTION: Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama.
Florida: Glades, Polk Counties.

Fissidens garberi Lesq. & James PLATE 5
Plants small, 2-4 mm high, unbranched; 4-8 pairs of leaves. Leaves
oblong-lanceolate, apex obtuse to acute, margins finely toothed; costa pellu-
cid, curved at upper end of vaginant lamina, ending several cells below
apex; vaginant lamina one-half to two-thirds the length of the leaf; border
of elongated hyaline cells several cells wide, restricted to lower part of
vaginant lamina of the uppermost pair of leaves (perichaetial); dorsal
lamina broad, truncate at base; leaf cells small, with 2-4 papillae. Autoi-
cous. Sporophyte terminal, erect, symmetric; cells of upper capsule wall
regular, almost square, thickened in the corners. Hyaline border on vagi-
nant lamina of perichaetial leaves often obscure.
HABITAT: On roots, rotten wood, limestone.
DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Bermuda, Mexico, Central America,
South America, Cocos Island; Louisiana, Wisconsin.
Florida: Alachua, Brevard, Charlotte, Citrus, Columbia, Dade, Gads-
den, Jefferson, Lake, Lee, Leon, Liberty, Marion, Martin, Palm Beach,
Polk, St. Lucie, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Volusia Counties.

Fissidens ravenelii Sull. PLATE 5
Plants small, 2-4 mm high, unbranched; 2-10 pairs leaves. Leaves nar-
rowly oblong-lanceolate, apex acute, margin finely toothed; costa percur-

rent; vaginant lamina about half the length of the leaf; elongated hyaline
cells forming a border on vaginant lamina of perichaetial and upper leaves,
and becoming intramarginal at base; perichaetial leaves sometimes reduced,
the costa forming all of the upper lamina; dorsal lamina gradually tapering
to base; upper leaf cells small, irregularly hexagonal, with 2-4 papillae.
Monoicous or dioicous. Sporophyte terminal, erect, symmetric; cells of
upper capsule wall irregularly rectangular, cells somewhat thickened in
the corners.
HABITAT: On soil or roots.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Flagler, Gadsden, Hardee, Holmes, Jack-
son, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Madison, Manatee, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk,
Santa Rosa, Seminole, Washington Counties.

Fissidens subbasilaris Hedw. PLATE 8
Plants 5-10 mm high, stems simple or branching; 10-16 pairs leaves.
Leaves oblong-apiculate; apical margin irregularly toothed; vaginant lamina
about half the length of the leaf; dorsal lamina usually ending abruptly
above insertion; costa strong, ending several cells below apex, covered by
bulging cells above; leaf cells irregularly hexagonal, thick-walled, bulging
on both surfaces, obscure.
HABITAT: On bases of trees or limestone.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Alachua, Citrus, Collier, Dade, Gadsden,
Holmes, Jefferson, Lake, Lee, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Nassau, Pasco,
Seminole, Sumter, Taylor, Volusia, Wakulla Counties.

Fissidens cristatus Wils. ex Mitt. & Wils. PLATE 1
Plants averaging 1-3 cm high, sometimes larger. Leaves numerous,
crowded, oblong-lingulate to oblong-lanceolate, apex acute; margin with
a border of paler, thicker walled cells 3-4 cells wide, coarsely and irregu-
larly toothed above; costa percurrent or nearly so; vaginant lamina about
half the length of the leaf, dorsal lamina usually reaching base, sometimes
shortly decurrent; leaf cells irregularly hexagonal, thick-walled, irregularly
two cells thick, averaging 7-9 [, with occasional large, swollen cells on
dorsal and upper laminae. Dioicous. Perichaetial leaves slender, elongated.
Sporophyte lateral from lower part of stem, inclined.
HABITAT: On bases of trees or decaying wood, limestone, or calcare-
ous soils.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Alachua, Citrus, Dade, Gadsden, High-
lands, Hillsborough, Jackson, Lake, Lee, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Manatee,
Marion, Nassau, Pasco, Polk, St. Johns, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Sumter,
Taylor, Wakulla, Walton Counties.


Fissidens adianthoides Hedw. PLATE 1
Closely resembling F. cristatus. Plants usually more robust, reaching 8
cm. Leaves less crowded, border of paler cells absent or indistinct; leaf cells
larger (averaging 13-16 [), clear, never two cells thick, the large ele-
vated swollen cells characteristic of F. cristatus absent or poorly developed.
HABITAT: Bases of trees, rotten wood, moist soil.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Citrus, Dade, Dixie, Escambia, Gadsden,
Gulf, Lee, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Manatee, Sumter, Wakulla Counties.
Anderson and Bryan call attention to separation of these two species
by the difference in method of drying of their leaves. Leaves of F. cristatus
roll inward with their tips remaining relatively unchanged, while those of
F. adianthoides curve inward, with the upper fourth of the leaves be-
coming conspicuously wrinkled and contorted, the lower part remaining

Fissidens polypodioides Hedw. PLATE 8
Plants large, up to 2-5 cm or more in height, rich green; stems erect
to curved, simple or branched from the base; many pairs of leaves. Leaves
curved at tips when dry, oblong-lingulate, apex rounded and bluntly
apiculate; margin entire; costa strong, percurrent; vaginant lamina about
two-thirds the length of the leaf; dorsal lamina of uniform width to just
above insertion, where it becomes narrow and constricted; leaf cells large,
smooth, pellucid, thick-walled, irregularly hexagonal, larger along costa.
Dioicous. Sporophytes lateral from axils of upper leaves, inclined.
HABITAT: On calcareous soils or limestone.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Gadsden, Leon, Liberty, Washington
Probably much more common than these records indicate.

Fissidens pellucidus Hornsch. PLATE 9
Fissidens subcrenatus Schimp.
Plants small, 1.5-5 mm high, reddish-brown; 3-8 pairs of leaves, in-
creasing in size upward from a small basal pair. Leaves oblong-lanceolate,
gradually narrowing to an obtuse or acute apex; margin entire except finely
toothed at apex; costa brownish, ending 2-3 cells below apex or per-
current; vaginant lamina about half the length of the leaf, sides unequal;
dorsal lamina narrowing abruptly at base and not reaching stem; upper
leaf cells irregularly hexagonal, isodiametric, pellucid, walls brownish,
smaller at margin, basal cells on vaginant lamina along costa larger and
elongated. Autoicous. Sporophyte terminal, erect, symmetric.
HABITAT: On soil or wet sandstone.

DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Mexico, Central America, South Amer-
ica; Georgia (Lowndes County).
Florida: Leon, Liberty, Walton Counties.

Fissidens donnellii Aust. PLATE 9
Plants small, 2-3 mm high; stems simple, often decumbent; 3-6 pairs
leaves. Leaves oblong, apex gradually tapering; costa strong, ending 3-5
cells below apex; vaginant lamina about two-thirds the length of the leaf;
dorsal lamina usually reaching base; margin finely toothed by protruding
papillae all around; leaf cells hexagonal, with a single large blunt papilla
on each surface. Synoicous; antheridial plants small, at bases of arche-
gonial plants. Sporophyte terminal, erect, symmetric.
HABITAT: On soil, rotten wood, or limestone.
DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Mexico, Central America.
Florida: Dade, Highlands, Jefferson, Lee, Leon, Marion, Sarasota,
Seminole, Volusia Counties.

Fissidens radicans Mont. PLATE 9
Plants 2-5 mm high, stems simple or sparingly branching, 8-12 pairs
of leaves. Leaves oblong to lingulate, scarcely tapering below apex, apex
of most leaves abruptly constricted to an obtuse point; costa ending several
cells below apex, pellucid; vaginant lamina half or more the length of leaf;
dorsal lamina usually not reaching base; leaf cells almost round, promi-
nently bulging, marginal cells smaller; margin finely toothed all around.
Sporophyte terminal, erect, symmetric.
The distinctive leaf apex and the rounded, bulging cells serve to dis-
tinguish this species from F. donnellii.
HABITAT: On limestone or rotten wood.
DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Mexico, Central America, South America.
Florida: Citrus, Collier, Dade, Levy, Manatee, Marion, Monroe, Polk,
Sumter Counties.

Fissidens taxifolius Hedw. PLATE 8
Plants 5-10 mm high; stems sparingly branched from base. Leaves in
many pairs, ovate-lanceolate, apiculate, margin finely and evenly toothed
by projecting cell angles; costa strong, sinuous, shortly excurrent or per-
current; vaginant lamina one-half to two-thirds the length of the leaf;
dorsal lamina reaching stem; leaf cells small, dense, smooth or bulging,
larger along costa, a row or two of marginal cells sometimes paler. Autoi-
cous. Antheridial buds on short branches. Sporophyte lateral from near
base of main stem, inclined to horizontal, curved and slightly asymmetric.

HABITAT: On damp soil.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Alachua, Citrus, Columbia, Duval, Gads-
den, Gulf, Hillsborough, Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Madi-
son, Manatee, Marion, Sumter, Taylor, Wakulla, Walton, Washington
Fissidens hallii Aust. PLATE 4
Plants small, 2-4 mm high, 4-8 pairs of leaves. Leaves oblong, apex
acute, upper margin finely and evenly toothed; costa pale, strong, slightly
curved, percurrent or nearly so; vaginant lamina about half the length of
the leaf, indistinctly bordered by a few narrower and longer cells along
basal edge; dorsal lamina ending abruptly above base or gradually tapering
to it; leaf cells irregularly hexagonal, smooth. Dioicous. Antheridial plants
smaller than the female plants. Sporophyte terminal, erect, symmetric.
HABITAT: On rotten wood.
DISTRIBUTION: Trinidad; Texas, New Mexico (as F. little [Wms.]
Grout), Louisiana (as F. orcutti Grout).
Florida: Gadsden, Seminole (issued as F. falcatulus R. & C., Holz-
inger, Musci Acrocarpi Boreali Americani), Volusia Counties.


Plants small, perennial, growing on sandy soil in old fields or black-
berry thickets. Stems erect, lower leaves smaller than the upper. Leaves
lanceolate-acuminate, entire or finely toothed; costa ending near or in
apex; leaf cells smooth, rectangular to rhomboidal, a group of short quad-
rate cells differentiated at basal angles. Perichaetial leaves often much
larger and with a broader base. Autoicous or paroicous. Calyptra incon-
spicuous. Capsules globular, sessile or nearly so, terminal or appearing
axillary on short branches as a result of successive branching; vaginule
conspicuous; cleistocarpous, dehiscing by irregular splitting; stomata ab-
sent. Spores largest of the mosses, averaging only 16-24 per capsule, 180-
225 [/, round or angular, smooth or finely granular, yellow-orange to
brown, and containing conspicuous oil bodies.

1. Plants conspicuously enlarged at the tip....................-----------------.........................---A. hallii
1. Plants not conspicuously enlarged at the tip
2. Upper stem leaves 4-5:1
3. Perichaetial leaves about twice as long as upper stem leaves.A. ohioense
3. Perichaetial leaves more than twice as long as median stem leaves----------
A. alternifolium
2. Upper stem leaves 7:1 or longer
3. Perichaetial leaves at least twice as long as stem leaves....A. longifolium
3. Perichaetial and stem leaves about the same length..........A. floridanum



Archidium hallii Aust. PLATE 10
Plants in small, pale yellow-green tufts, conspicuously enlarged at the
tip. Upper stem leaves lanceolate, costa ending near apex; upper margin
bordered by short rhomboidal cells, entire or nearly so; median cells 4-5: 1,
becoming rectangular toward base, 2-3 rows of short quadrate cells extend-
ing from basal margin to costa; lower leaves smaller. Capsules terminal or
appearing lateral as a result of growth distortion. Spores yellow, about
210 JL, maturing in spring.
HABITAT: On sandy soil.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Lee, Seminole Counties.

Archidium ohioense Schimp. ex C. M. PLATE 11
Plants short, enlarged at tip, branching just below stem apex, pale
yellowish-green. Upper stem leaves lanceolate, about 4:1, costa percur-
rent or nearly so, margins entire to finely toothed; upper and median cells
rhomboidal, 4-6: 1, becoming shorter and rectangular below, with 3-4
rows of short quadrate cells extending about 6-7 cells along the margin at
basal angles. Perichaetial leaves about twice as long as upper stem leaves,
broader in lower half, with a shorter tip. Autoicous; antheridia axillary in
small clusters, surrounded by 3-4 short, apiculate, ecostate perigonial
bracts; archegonia surrounded by several small, long-pointed perichaetial
leaves. Capsules 2 or more per plant, axillary. Spores round or angular,
deep orange at maturity, 150-180 /, mature November to early spring.
HABITAT: On sandy soil.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Franklin, Lee, Leon, Levy, Manatee, Mar-
ion, Seminole Counties.

Archidium alternifolium (Hedw.) Mitt. PLATE 11
Plants in small yellow-green tufts, the older stems branching. Lower
leaves small, bract-like, widely spaced; upper leaves nearly twice as long as
lower, more closely arranged, lanceolate, entire or finely toothed; costa per-
current; upper leaf cells about 4:1, gradually becoming shorter toward
the base, with a few quadrate cells at basal margin. Paroicous, anther-
idia below archegonia in same cluster. Perichaetial leaves more than twice
as long as median stem leaves. Capsules 1-3 per plant, sometimes more.
Spores yellow, darkening with age, 175-225 1, maturing in the fall.
HABITAT: On sandy soil.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Dade, Lee, Manatee, Seminole Counties.

Archidium longifolium Lesq. & James PLATE 12
Resembles A. alternifolium except that leaves are much longer and
narrower. Upper leaf margin inrolled, finely toothed; upper and median

leaf cells 6: 1, rhomboidal, becoming shorter and rectangular toward base,
with a row or two of quadrate cells along the basal margin. Perichaetial
leaves tapering to a long point, frequently curved in upper half. Capsules
2-4 per plant, terminal. Spores yellow, becoming dark with age, 180-225
[t, maturing from November to February.
HABITAT: On sandy soil.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Dade, Lee, Manatee, Seminole Counties.

Archidium floridanum Aust. ex Cain in Grout PLATE 11
Upper stem leaves lanceolate, costa percurrent or nearly so; upper leaf
cells about 6: 1, gradually becoming shorter below, with 2-3 rows of short
quadrate cells extending about 8-10 cells along basal margin. Perichaetial
leaves about same length as upper stem leaves, narrower toward apex,
somewhat tubular and curved. Perigonial bracts large for the genus. Spores
yellow, 150-200 [, maturing in February-March.
HABITAT: On sandy soil.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Franklin, Gadsden, Lee Counties.
Archidiuzm is probably more common in Florida than present distribu-
tion records indicate. Its small size, rather restricted habitats, and short
fruiting season make it easy to overlook. As is true with other "pygmies,"
once the knack of looking in the right place at the right time is acquired,
it will undoubtedly be found to be reasonably common.

Plants in dense mats or cushions, stems erect, mostly less than 2 cm
high, sometimes branching, matted with brown radicles at base. Leaves
erect-spreading, gradually narrowing from a broad base to a slender tip;
costa strong, percurrent to excurrent, forming a large part of the awn,
rough or smooth on back in upper part; leaf cells mostly rectangular, larger
toward base, cells at basal angles not enlarged or inflated. Calyptra cap-
shaped or hood-shaped. Seta not exceeding perichaetial leaves, or long-
exserted. Operculum conic. Capsules cylindric, ovate, or pear-shaped,
erect and symmetric or inclined and asymmetric, neck absent, or (Tre-
matodon) with neck as long or longer than the urn, cleistocarpous and
dehiscing by irregular splitting, or operculate, with peristome of 16 linear
teeth which are usually split almost to the base. Annulus large, golden
yellow to light brown.
1. Capsules cleistocarpous
2. Capsules pear-shaped, with conspicuous neck, immersed or shortly exserted;
calyptra cap-shaped------ -- -- ----------- --............... Bruchia
2. Capsules ovate, without neck, immersed; calyptra hood-shaped ... Pleuridium

1. Capsules with operculum and peristome; calyptra hood-shaped
2. Capsule with neck as long as the urn or longer........................Trematodon
2. Capsule without neck.-------..-..-------------------------........................................Ditrichum

Plants gregarious, very small but conspicuous because of numerous
orange or red capsules; protonemata sometimes persistent. Leaves ovate-
lanceolate, erect or curved; costa strong, ending below apex or excurrent;
leaf cells rectangular to rhomboidal above, rectangular at base, smooth
except near apex in some species. Autoicous. Seta usually shorter than
the perichaetial leaves. Capsules cleistocarpous, splitting irregularly, ovate
to pear-shaped, with a small, abrupt tip, the spore sac often yellow,
orange, or red; neck not more than half the length of the spore sac, with
numerous stomata. Calyptra cap-shaped, lobed at base, smooth or papil-
lose, covering one-third or more of the capsule. Spores yellow or orange,
walls veined, netted, or pitted. Maturing February to March.

1. Calyptra papillose
2. Spore walls veined or netted....-.--...-........---------....-------------........................B. ravenelii
2. Spore walls pitted..--..-.....---------------------------...........----.........-.............B. carolinae
1. Calyptra smooth
2. Capsules immersed .................------..--..-........................-------....---..-..-......... B. drummondii
2. Capsules extending beyond perichaetial leaves
3. Perichaetial leaves longer than the setae, reaching base of spore sac
or beyond...-------------......................................---------............------............------.......--B. sullivantii
3. Perichaetial leaves equal to or just exceeding the setae........B. donnellii

Bruchia ravenelii Wils. ex Sull. in Gray PLATE 13
Plants gregarious, yellow-green, about 2 mm tall. Leaves lanceolate,
the upper and perichaetial leaves larger than the lower, toothed at apex,
papillose on back of costa; perichaetial leaves as long or longer than the
capsule, incurved. Seta short; capsule immersed, short, pear-shaped,
sharply pointed above, spore sac orange or occasionally red and longer
than the neck; calyptra apiculate, papillose, lobed and flaring at base.
Spore walls coarsely netted, 30 p. Mature January-March.
HABITAT: On sandy or clay soils.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Alachua, Gadsden, Leon, Madison, Marion,
Polk, Seminole, Walton, Washington Counties.

Bruchia carolinae Aust. PLATE 14
Plants in scattered brownish patches, about 1 mm tall; stems short,
with only a few leaves at the summit. Leaves straight or curved, ovate-
lanceolate; costa filling entire tip, apex entire or finely toothed, faintly

papillose on back above; perichaetial leaves reaching tip of capsule. Seta
shorter than the capsule; capsule immersed, pear-shaped, sharply pointed
at top, yellow-orange or reddish, shiny, neck conspicuous; calyptra papil-
lose, lobed, flaring. Spore walls finely and closely pitted, 26 u. Mature
February, March.
HABITAT: On sandy or clay soils.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Lee, Leon, Marion, Polk Counties.

Bruchia drummondii Hampe ex E. G. Britt. PLATE 14
Plants very small, yellowish, glossy, leafy only in upper part. Leaves
ovate-lanceolate, with long, slender, toothed tip, rough on back; upper
leaf cells rhomboidal, 2: 1; cells at shoulders rhomboidal to rectangular,
the marginal row forming an indistinct border; basal cells longer, more
lax; perichaetial leaves longer than capsule and completely enclosing it.
Capsule on short seta, pear-shaped, sharply pointed at top, bright orange
or occasionally red above, neck short; calyptra smooth, covering more than
half the capsule. Spore walls closely netted, somewhat spiny, 42-46 [.
HABITAT: On sandy soil; scattered in small patches among weeds, old
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Known only from Leon County.

Bruchia sullivantii Aust. PLATE 13
Plants small, yellowish, scattered, stems short, upper leaves larger than
lower. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, costae filling the tips; margins entire or
finely toothed, often incurved; upper leaf cells more or less papillose; peri-
chaetial leaves as long or longer than the seta, some reaching tip of cap-
sule. Capsule yellow to orange, slenderly pear-shaped, sharply pointed,
neck almost as long as the spore sac; calyptra smooth, lobed, not flaring.
Spore walls spiny, 30 L. Mature February to April or May.
HABITAT: On clay soils, often scattered among weeds.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Jefferson, Leon, Madison, Polk Counties.

Bruchia donnellii Aust. PLATE 13
Stems 3-4 mm high, leafy to base. Leaves long-lanceolate, curved
toward stem, margins incurved, finely toothed above; costa excurrent,
rough on back above; upper leaf cells obscurely papillose. Perichaetial
leaves as long as the setae but not extending beyond base of capsule. Seta
erect or slightly curved; capsule ovoid-cylindrical, long-tipped, neck in-
conspicuous and gradually tapered to the seta; calyptra smooth, fitting
capsule closely. Spore walls closely veined, spiny, 26-33 p.
HABITAT: On sandy or clay soils.

DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Alachua, Duval, Jefferson, Leon, Madison,
Polk, Seminole, Volusia Counties.

Pleuridium subulatum (Hedw.) Lindb. PLATE 10
Plants in small, compact, yellowish-green tufts 2-5 mm high. Lower
leaves small, distant; upper leaves larger, crowded, abruptly narrowing to
a long slender tip about the same length as the ovate base; costa about
one-third the width of the base, occupying most of the tip, rough on the
back above; median leaf cells rectangular, 2: 1, becoming larger and longer
toward the base. Autoicous; antheridia axillary in the perichaetial leaves,
usually surrounded by 2-3 perigonial bracts. Setae short; capsules ovoid,
cleistocarpous; calyptra small, hood-shaped. Spores finely and densely
papillose, 28-32 / .
HABITAT: On sandy soils, in old fields or along roadsides.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Alachua, Columbia, Gadsden, Jackson,
Leon, Madison Counties.

Trematodon longicollis Mx. PLATE 15
Plants in tufts, yellowish-green, glossy. Leaves with broad, concave,
clasping base, abruptly narrowing into a long, slender, entire or finely
toothed tip; margins inrolled; costa ending 2-3 cells below apex; upper
and median leaf cells small, quadrate to irregularly hexagonal, thick-
walled, becoming much larger, longer, and lighter in color below. Autoi-
cous. Seta long, yellow, erect or slightly curved; neck of capsule twice as
long as urn, often noticeably curved; calyptra hood-shaped, covering the
urn; operculum long-beaked; annulus of 2-3 rows of large, inflated, yellow
cells; peristome of 16 long, slender, bright reddish-orange teeth, perforate
in lower portions. Spores thick-walled, rough, 26 p.
HABITAT: Common on moist ditch banks.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Alachua, Clay, Dade, Dixie, Duval, Escam-
bia, Gadsden, Highlands, Holmes, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Manatee, Mar-
tin, Orange, Pasco, Polk, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Suwannee, Wakulla
Plants in dense cushions, bright glossy yellow-green. Leaves slenderly
lanceolate, entire or toothed in upper part; costa broad and strong, form-
ing most of the long tip, percurrent or nearly so; upper leaf cells rectangu-
lar to linear-rhomboidal, becoming longer and sometimes larger below;
basal cells not inflated. Monoicous. Setae long, slender, yellow or reddish;

capsules cylindric, erect and symmetric or slightly inclined and somewhat
asymmetric, without a neck, sometimes with a swelling at one side of
the base; calyptra hood-shaped; operculum conic, beaked; annulus con-
spicuous; peristome from a short basal membrane, of 16 slender teeth
divided into 2 equal, slender divisions, densely papillose.

Seta yellow, up to 4 cm long; capsule without swelling at the base; spores 13-18 /A
D. pallidum
Seta reddish, about 1 cm long; capsule with a conspicuous swelling at the base;
spores 20-24 ...............................................................................------------------D. currituckii

Ditrichum pallidum (Hedw.) Hampe PLATE 17
Plants in extensive, loose mats, often appearing like young grass blades;
stems short, usually not exceeding 2 cm. Leaves linear-lanceolate, erect-
spreading or turned somewhat in the same direction, channeled above,
margins toothed in upper part; costa strong, percurrent or nearly so; upper
and median leaf cells rectangular to fusiform, 1-2: 1, becoming longer
and much larger below, but not inflated. Paroicous. Seta yellow, 1-4 cm
long; capsule yellow to orange, cylindric, somewhat inclined and asym-
metric; calyptra split on one side, covering most of the capsule; operculum
conic, beaked; annulus of 2-3 rows of inflated, hyaline or yellowish cells,
conspicuous; peristome of 16 yellow-orange teeth, divided almost to the
base into 2 densely papillose, slender segments. Spores coarsely papillose,
13-18 [.
HABITAT: On sandy or clay soils.
DISTRIBUTION: Common throughout Florida.

Ditrichum currituckii Grout PLATE 16
Plants smaller than those of D. pallidum but otherwise much like it
in the field. Leaves long, slender, channeled above, finely toothed at tip;
costa about three-fourths of the width of the base and occupying almost all
of the upper part; upper leaf cells fusiform, 4-6: 1, becoming regularly
rectangular and shorter below, several rows of narrower cells forming an
indistinct border. Seta red or reddish-yellow, about 1 cm long; capsule
cylindric, slightly inclined, asymmetric, with a conspicuous swelling at
the base; calyptra not seen; operculum conic, beaked; annulus a single
row of large, yellowish, inflated cells; peristome as in D. pallidum except
that the teeth are shorter. Spores coarsely papillose, 20-24 p.
HABITAT: On moist sandy soil.
DISTRIBUTION: Known from a few locations in the southeastern
United States. Probably much commoner than records show.
Florida: Columbia, Jefferson, Liberty, Taylor, Volusia Counties.


Plants growing in mats or tufts, bright green to dull yellow-green; stems
branching dichotomously, densely leafy, tomentose. Leaves lanceolate,
straight and erect to curved and turned in one direction; costa stout, per-
current to excurrent, sometimes ribbed on back; upper cells short, rec-
tangular to rhomboidal, usually narrower at margin; basal cells larger,
longer, often pitted; cells in alar region large, inflated and colored, or
merely elongated. Monoicous or dioicous. Seta straight or curved; capsule
erect and symmetric to curved and asymmetric, sometimes with a swelling
at the base; calyptra split on one side, often rough at apex; operculum
beaked; annulus large, poorly developed or absent; peristome single, of
16 teeth usually divided one-half or more of their length, banded below,
papillose above.
1. Cells in alar region not conspicuously enlarged or inflated; peristome teeth en-
tire or divided almost to the base.............................----------------------------..................--......Dicranella
1. Cells in alar region inflated, hyaline or colored; peristome teeth divided about
half their length
2. Costa one-third or more width of leaf base, flattened in cross section-...--
2. Costa less than one-third width of leaf base, thick, semicircular in cross

Plants small, yellowish, growing in loose tufts or mats on sandy or clay
soils; stems erect, branching. Leaves lanceolate-acuminate, the lower ones
small and distant, becoming larger and crowded near apex, erect-spread-
ing to curved; costa strong, percurrent to excurrent, sometimes rough on
back near apex; upper leaf cells quadrate to linear, smooth, thick-walled,
basal cells larger and longer. Dioicous. Seta erect, straight, yellow to
reddish brown; capsules exserted, spherical to cylindric, erect and sym-
metric to curved and somewhat asymmetric; operculum long-beaked;
annulus present or absent; peristome teeth yellow or red, undivided or
divided well below the middle, vertically barred below, papillose above, or
papillose over entire length; stomata absent. Spores smooth or papillose,
13-24 L.

1. Leaf apex blunt, costa vanishing below it; capsules erect and symmetric; annulus
well developed; seta yellow
2. Leaf apex entire.....---------................-----..----.....-----------..-..----..--......-......---D. herminieri
2. Leaf apex toothed
3. Peristome teeth red, divided three-quarters of their length, vertically
barred below, papillose above-.......----....--....------.............-----------.......................--D. hilariana
3. Peristome teeth yellow, mostly entire, not barred, but densely papillose
D. sphaerocarpa

1. Leaf apex acute, costa percurrent to excurrent; capsules inclined and somewhat
asymmetric; annulus absent or poorly developed; seta reddish
2. Costa shortly excurrent; mouth of capsule oblique when dry; annulus pres-
ent but poorly defined---.--..........---.............................--------------.----------.---...........D. heteromalla
2. Costa percurrent; mouth of capsule straight; annulus absent............D. varia

Dicranella herminieri Besch. PLATE 18
Plants in loose, yellowish mats, stems occasionally branching. Terminal
leaves curved, lanceolate, gradually narrowed to an obtuse, entire apex;
costa ending 1-2 cells below apex; median leaf cells rectangular, 4-6:1;
basal cells larger, 2-3: 1. Seta 5-8 mm long, yellow; capsule ovoid, erect,
symmetric; operculum long-beaked, beak curved; annulus of 1-2 rows of
large, inflated cells; peristome teeth split about two-thirds their length.
Spores papillose, 16-24 /.
HABITAT: On sandy or clay soil.
DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Mexico, Central America; southeastern
coastal plain of the United States.
Florida: Gadsden, Leon, Manatee, Marion, Polk, Santa Rosa, Semi-
nole Counties.

Dicranella hilariana (Mont.) Mitt. PLATE 18
Plants in loose, pale yellowish-green mats, stems simple or branched.
Leaves erect-spreading, sometimes curved at tips, slenderly lanceolate, with
a blunt, toothed apex, margins often recurved; costa stout, ending 2-3 cells
below apex, rough on back near tip; upper leaf cells quadrate to short-
rectangular, gradually becoming longer, at mid-leaf 2-3: 1, basal cells
much longer, almost colorless. Seta flexuous, 5-10 mm long, yellow, be-
coming brownish when old; capsule erect or nearly so, short-cylindric;
calyptra hood-shaped, covering about half the capsule; operculum conic,
beaked; annulus well developed; peristome teeth red, divided about three-
fourths their length, barred below, papillose above. Spores papillose,
13-18 p.
HABITAT: On sandy soil.
DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Mexico, Central America to South
Florida: Escambia, Gadsden, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Man-
atee, Polk, Seminole Counties.

Dicranella sphaerocarpa Card. PLATE 19
Plants smallest of the genus, pale yellowish-green; stems simple or
branched. Lower stem leaves small, triangular; upper leaves 2-3 times as
long, slenderly lanceolate, acuminate, apex obtuse, finely toothed. Capsule
erect, spherical; operculum conic, beaked, the beak oblique; annulus con-


spicuous; peristome teeth short, usually undivided, yellow, densely papil-
lose. Spores papillose, 13-17 It.
HABITAT: Clay soil.
DISTRIBUTION: Puerto Rico, Mexico.
Florida: Known only from Leon County.

Dicranella heteromalla (Hedw.) Schimp. PLATE 19
Plants in loose yellowish mats; stems branching. Leaves curved, slen-
derly lanceolate, narrowed to a slender tip consisting almost entirely of
the costa, rough on back in upper half; upper and median leaf cells 2: 1,
becoming longer toward base. Perichaetial and perigonial leaves with con-
spicuously broader base and long, slender awn. Seta reddish, erect; capsule
slightly inclined and asymmetric, cylindric, mouth oblique on old dry
capsules; operculum long-beaked, nearly as long as urn; annulus poorly
developed and often overlooked; peristome teeth divided half their length,
barred in lower half, papillose above. Spores smooth, 13-18 (.
HABITAT: On sandy or clay soils.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Alachua, Bay, Hardee, Highlands, Leon,
Manatee, Polk, Seminole, Volusia Counties.

Dicranella varia (Hedw.) Schimp. PLATE 19
Plants yellowish-green, loosely tufted, stems branched. Leaves curved,
lanceolate, finely toothed at apex; costa percurrent; median leaf cells nar-
rowly rectangular, 4-8: 1, shorter and broader toward base. Seta reddish,
erect; capsule cylindric, slightly inclined and asymmetric, contracted be-
low mouth when dry; operculum conic, beaked; annulus absent; peristome
as in D. heteromalla. Spores papillose, 16-20 It.
HABITAT: On sandy or clay soils.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Alachua, Citrus, Escambia, Gadsden, Jack-
son, Washington Counties.

Plants coarse, in compact tufts, stems matted below with brown rad-
icles, branching. Leaves straight or curved, spreading, narrowed from
an ovate base to a slender, channeled, coarsely toothed point. Costa broad,
occupying one-third to one-half the width of the base, and filling most
of the upper leaf, percurrent to excurrent, sometimes ribbed on the back,
and in cross section showing small thick-walled cells on the lower or on
both sides of a row or two of large thin-walled cells; upper leaf cells
short-rectangular to linear-rhomboidal, usually narrower along the margin,
gradually becoming larger below; inner basal cells rectangular, sometimes


thick-walled and pitted; cells in alar region very large, inflated, hyaline
or colored, extending to costa, usually sharply set off from the cells above.
Dioicous. Mature capsules not found in Florida specimens examined.
1. Bands of small thick-walled cells (in cross section) on both sides of costa;
cells next to costa above the inflated basal cells thick-walled and pitted; apex
short, stout--.----...-...-....----.......--.................................------------------------..................-----------....C. arctocarpus
1. Bands of small thick-walled cells (in cross section) on under side of costa
only; cells above inflated basal cells not pitted; apex slender
2. Terminal cell of costa hyaline, sometimes forming a hair-point; costa with
conspicuous lamellae or ribs on back; cells in alar region weakly differen-
tiated....----------------.... .......-------.... .-------- -- ....----..........--------.--------C. introflexus
2. Terminal cell of leaves not hyaline
3. Median leaf cells linear-flexuous, 5-6:1 or longer, narrower toward
margin ......------------------------..............................................-......--.--.---------..........---C. angustiretis
3. Median leaf cells rectangular or rhomboidal, 2-4:1
4. Median cells up to 4:1, rectangular, in regular rows; apex toothed
all around--....-..--- ... ....... .......-------- ---...............--------------------- C. donnellii
4. Median cells not over 2:1
5. 2-3 rows of rectangular cells along margin, becoming rhomboidal
toward costa; margin toothed one-half to one-third the way down
C. gracilicaulis
5. Cells regularly rectangular for entire width of lamina; margin
toothed at apex only.....---------...-...-........---------.....-.........-----....C. flexuosus

Campylopus arctocarpus (Hornsch.) Mitt. PLATE 20
Plants in bright glossy green tufts; stems branching, with brown rad-
icles almost to the tip. Leaves crowded, erect-spreading or curved in one
direction, gradually narrowed from a broad base to a short, stout, toothed
apex; costa excurrent, rough on back, in cross section showing a row of
small thick-walled cells on both sides of the larger thin-walled cells; upper
part of leaf blade narrow, cells quadrate-rhomboidal, 2-3: 1, median cells
adjacent to costa irregularly quadrate, becoming longer, and regularly
rectangular, and narrower along margin; basal cells in regular rows, thick-
walled, pitted near costa; cells in alar region larger but not inflated, orange,
quadrate to rectangular, becoming narrower along margin.
HABITAT: On old stumps and humus, and at bases of living cypress
trees, cypress swamps.
DISTRIBUTION: Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Central Amer-
ica, South America.
Florida: Franklin, Liberty Counties.

Campylopus introflexus (Hedw.) Brid. PLATE 21
Plants stiff and almost bristly, greenish yellow, darker below. Leaves
pressed close to stem or erect-spreading, narrowly tapering from base to
apex, incurved and tubular above; costa at least half the width of the leaf
base, excurrent in a toothed, hyaline tip which sometimes forms a hair-
point, with conspicuous lamellae on back in upper half of leaf, in cross


section showing bands of small thick-walled cells only on lower side of
costa; median cells short-rhomboidal to oval; cells in alar region variable,
inconspicuous and hyaline to inflated and colored, often forming auricles.
HABITAT: On sandy soils.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Dade, Seminole, Washington Counties.

Campylopus angustiretis (Aust.) Lesq. & James PLATE 21
Plants small, in loose tufts, leaves crowded above. Leaves pressed close
to the stem, straight, lanceolate, larger at tip of stem; costa one-third to
one-half the width of the base, short-excurrent, toothed at apex, some-
times slightly ribbed on back; upper leaf cells linear-flexuous, 5-6: 1 or
more, narrower at margin; basal cells large, rectangular, becoming nar-
rower toward margin, and forming a border of 2-3 rows; cells in alar
region thin-walled, inflated, hyaline or reddish, forming distinct auricles.
HABITAT: Sandy soils.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Duval, Lee, Manatee, St. Lucie, Seminole

Campylopus donnellii (Aust.) Lesq. & James PLATE 22
Campylopus gracilicaulis var. donnellii (Aust.) Grout
Plants bright yellow-green; leaves in compact tufts at tips of stems, the
upper longer than the lower. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, costa excurrent,
tip slender, toothed all around; leaf blade at mid-point narrow, of regu-
larly rectangular cells 2-4: 1, margin finely toothed to entire; cells in alar
region thin-walled, inflated, often reddish.
HABITAT: On sandy soils.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Alachua, Duval, Highlands, Leon, Pinel-
las, Putnam Counties.

Campylopus gracilicaulis Mitt. PLATE 22
Plants in glossy yellowish-green tufts, with upper leaves crowded. Leaves
narrowly lanceolate, toothed about one-third the distance from apex; costa
one-third or more width of base, excurrent, rough on back; median leaf
blade 6-10 cells wide, cells regularly rectangular, not over 2: 1, becoming
rhomboidal next to the costa; cells just above alar region rectangular,
thick-walled, unpitted, narrower along margin; alar region small, distinct,
composed of thin-walled, inflated, hyaline to reddish cells.
HABITAT: Sandy soils.
DISTRIBUTION: Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, South America.
Florida: Collier, Escambia, Gadsden, Highlands, Lee, Leon, Manatee,
Marion, Seminole Counties.



Campylopus flexuosus (Hedw.) Brid. PLATE 20
Plants in compact tufts, upper leaves not crowded. Leaves erect to
curved in one direction, lanceolate, margin often inrolled, entire except
at the slender apex; costa about half the width of base, percurrent; median
leaf cells short-rectangular, about 2: 1, narrower toward margin; lower
cells above alar region large, rectangular, unpitted; cells in alar region
thin-walled, inflated, reddish, forming auricles.
HABITAT: Sandy soil.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Gadsden, Gulf, Liberty, St. Lucie, Volusia,
Walton Counties.

Dicranum condensatum Hedw. PLATE 23
Plants bright yellow-green, darker below, in compact sods matted with
brown radicles, 2-4 cm tall. Leaves curved in one direction or straight,
crisped when dry, oblong-lanceolate, gradually narrowed to a channeled,
acute, toothed apex; costa narrow, less than one-fourth the width of the
leaf base, percurrent to slightly excurrent, prominently toothed at back,
cross section showing bands of small thick-walled cells on both lower and
upper sides; upper leaf cells thick-walled; median cells smaller, isodia-
metric or nearly so; small area of thick-walled, pitted cells near costa above
the alar region; large area of thin-walled, inflated, yellowish-brown or
hyaline cells at basal angles, not auriculate. Antheridial plants small, at
or near base of archegonial plants. Setae solitary, yellow, 2-3 cm long.
Calyptra hood-shaped. Capsule cylindric, inclined, with a swelling on one
side of base; operculum conic, beaked, the beak as long as the urn; annulus
large, golden; peristome teeth long, triangular, red, split about half their
length into 2 or 3 prongs, longitudinally barred in lower part, tips densely
papillose; stomata present in capsule wall. Spores papillose, 22-26 p.
HABITAT: Sandy soils, dunes.
DISTRIBUTION: Occurs commonly throughout the state.

Plants tufted, perennial. Leaves crowded, brittle when dry, pale green
to whitish, fleshy, consisting mainly of a costa of 3 or more layers of 2
kinds of cells, the outer large, hyaline, and porous on their inner walls,
enclosing one or more rows of small 3-4-sided chlorophyllose cells. Au-
toicous or dioicous. Capsules exserted on straight setae, erect or inclined,
often with a swelling on one side of the base; calyptra hood-shaped, some-
times almost completely covering the capsule; operculum with a distinct


beak; annulus absent; peristome inserted below mouth of capsule, single,
of 8 or 16 teeth, the teeth short and entire or long and divided for half
their length. Spores smooth to slightly papillose.

Leaves flattened and widely spreading to form a rosette; chlorophyllose cells tri-
angular in cross section; capsules erect or nearly so, symmetric; peristome teeth 8,
short, pale yellow, not barred................................... ..... ... .............-- ctoblepharum
Leaves crowded, somewhat tubular above, not widely spreading; chlorophyllose cells
4-sided in cross section; capsules inclined, asymmetric, often with a swelling on
one side of the base; peristome teeth 16, long, forked, reddish, barred in lower half


Octoblepharum albidum Hedw. PLATE 24
Plants in loose tufts or mats, whitish, sometimes tinged with red; stems
short; leaves widely spreading, flattened, recurved, rounded and slightly
apiculate at tip; margin finely toothed at apex; apex long-ligulate from
a broad, thin base, median cross section of leaf showing 3-4 layers of hya-
line cells on either side of a double row of triangular chlorophyllose cells.
Autoicous, the dwarf male buds scattered along the stem. Capsules ex-
serted on straight setae, erect, ovoid, symmetric; calyptra hood-shaped;
operculum short, obliquely beaked, covering about half the length of the
capsule; peristome single, of 8 short, triangular, smooth teeth with a prom-
inent median line; stomata obscure, in 1-2 rows at base of urn. Spores
smooth, 16-18 t.
HABITAT: On tree trunks, especially palms.
DISTRIBUTION: Cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical regions.
Florida: Common south and east of the Suwannee River, infrequent
and usually poorly developed north and west of that boundary; only one
fruiting specimen collected in Leon County.

Plants in more or less dense cushions, pale green or whitish. Leaves
brittle when dry, easily shed, oblong-lanceolate, crowded, ovate bases over-
lapping, upper portion somewhat tubular and composed almost entirely
of a thick costa, the blade consisting of only a few cells on either side;
costa in cross section composed of a single row of quadrate chlorophyllose
cells with 1-4 rows of large porose hyaline cells on either side. Dioicous;
male plants very small. Capsule exserted on long seta, inclined and asym-
metric, usually with a swelling on one side of the base, wrinkled when
dry; operculum obliquely long-beaked; peristome single, reddish, inserted


below mouth of capsule, of 16 long divided teeth, conspicuously barred
below and papillose above; stomata absent. Spores smooth or nearly so,
15-20 /[.

Hyaline cells in 1-2 layers above and below chlorophyllose cells in thickest part of
base; plants small, usually not exceeding 1 cm in height; leaves short......L. albidum
Hyaline cells in 2-3 layers above and below chlorophyllose cells; plants robust,
reaching 3-4 cm; leaves longer-.............................---------------...........................----------L. glaucum

Leucobryum albidum (Brid.) Lindb. PLATE 25
Plants usually less than 1 cm tall, growing in extensive cushions, small
loose tufts, or scattered (especially when growing in xeric [dry] condi-
tions such as on the trunks of trees). Leaves short, crowded, bases over-
lapping, the upper portion somewhat tubular from a broad ovate base,
cross section near base showing 1-2 rows of hyaline cells on either side
of the chlorophyllose cells, blade in lower part of leaf 2-5 cells wide on
the margins. Male plants small, rarely found. Capsules exserted, almost
horizontal, asymmetric, slightly bulging on one side of the base; calyptra
about same length as urn of capsule; operculum with beak nearly as long
as the rest of the capsule; peristome teeth reddish, split about half their
length, vertically barred below, papillose above. Spores smooth or nearly
so, 15-20 [.
HABITAT: On soil, decaying wood, around the base of trees, or on
tree trunks.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Common throughout the state.

Leucobryum glaucum (Hedw.) Schimp. PLATE 24
Plants larger and coarser than those of L. albidum, often reaching 3-4
cm or more in height; stems dichotomously branched. Leaves crowded,
bases overlapping, upper somewhat tubular portion gradually narrowed
from a broad oblong or ovate base, apex with a short tip; cross section of
costa near base showing 2-3 layers of hyaline cells on either side of the
chlorophyllose cells, lamina 2-3 cells wide on the margins. Dioicous.
Calyptra hood-shaped. Seta 1-2 cm long; capsule inclined, symmetric,
bulging on one side of the base; operculum with long oblique beak; peri-
stome and spores as in L. albidum.
Cushions of this moss do not form successive annual layers so charac-
teristic farther north; probably often confused with, and mistaken for,
L. albidum.
HABITAT: On soil, decaying wood, around bases of trees.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Throughout the state but not as common
as L. albidum.



Leucobryum antillarum Schimp., a species common in the American
tropics, has been reported from various parts of the Gulf coastal region.
I have several specimens from Florida which I have tentatively identified
as this species. Like L. glaucum, it is highly variable, at least as far as
North American specimens I have examined indicate. Until a more
thorough study is made it seems futile to attempt to separate these two
entities. The leaves of L. antillarum are thinner, more delicate, and more
widely spreading than those of L. glaucum, in cross section near the base
showing only one layer of hyaline cells on either side of the chlorophyllose
cells, the hyaline lamina consisting of 6-8 cells extending beyond the costa.

Plants small to robust, dull green to brown, usually contorted when dry,
growing in tufts on trees, logs, or occasionally on soil or rocks. Leaves
crowded, lanceolate to spatulate from pale sheathing bases, with marginal
or intramarginal border of hyaline cells, or unbordered, or with thickened
wing-like margins; costa strong, ending near apex or short-excurrent, in
cross section showing 1 or more rows of large, thin-walled cells and 1-2
bands of small thick-walled cells, often bearing filamentous or club-shaped
propagula on upper surface at or near apex; cells of upper leaf blade small,
isodiametric, smooth or papillose, densely chlorophyllose; inner basal cells
next to costa large, white, rectangular, inflated, and set off sharply from
the surrounding chlorophyllose cells. Dioicous or autoicous; antheridial
buds gemmiform, often lateral; archegonia terminal, perichaetial leaves
undifferentiated. Capsule erect, cylindrical, exserted on a short seta;
calyptra hood-shaped or cap-shaped, reaching the base of the capsule,
smooth or rough above; operculum slenderly pointed, as long or nearly as
long as the capsule; annulus lacking; peristome of 16 slender, golden
brown, undivided, papillose teeth inserted below mouth of the capsule,
or absent.
Leaves with intramarginal border of yellowish or hyaline elongated cells, or border
thickened but not double and wing-like----..................-----------------.....----.....---.........------.......Calymperes
Leaves without intramarginal hyaline elongated cells; border of marginal hyaline
cells, or border thickened, double and wing-like, the cells chlorophyllose...---------------
Some species of Syrrhopodon fruit more or less frequently in Florida, others
apparently not. I have seen no capsules on any Florida specimen of Calymperes.
The calyptra of Syrrhopodon is hood-shaped and the peristome well developed,
while the calyptra of Calymperes is bell-shaped and the peristome is lacking.

Plants usually small, erect, sometimes dichotomously branched, grow-



ing in small loose tufts or occasionally isolated, frequently mixed with
other mosses. Leaves rolled inward, contorted or crisped, lanceolate to
ligulate, from a broader sheathing base having prominent area of large,
white, rectangular, inflated cells; upper leaf cells small, densely chlo-
rophyllose, usually papillose, a narrow intramarginal band of elongate yel-
lowish cells extending from the base sometimes almost to the apex, or
(C. nashii) border thickened but elongate cells lacking or rudimentary;
costa strong, subpercurrent to short-excurrent, sometimes thickened and
bearing clusters of filamentous propagula at or near the tip.

1. Elongate intramarginal cells absent or vestigial in leaf shoulders; leaf margin
2 cells thick in upper blade---....-...-.........-.......---.....................................--------------------------------C. nashii
1. Elongate intramarginal cells present, extending to or above mid-leaf
2. Upper leaf blade often broader than lower; leaf cells smooth or slightly
bulging on ventral surfaces----.--.....................------..----................----....-......--------C. richardii
2. Upper leaf blade frequently narrower than lower
3. Apical cells of basal hyaline area smooth on both surfaces; elongate cells
5-16 cells inside margin at shoulders--.---..-...-....-...--.--..-..-...........----...C. donnellii
3. Apical cells of basal hyaline area bulging on ventral surfaces; elongated
cells 2-6 cells inside margin at shoulders...-..-------.............---...........----...C. erosum

Calymperes nashii Wms. PLATE 26
Plants inconspicuous, in tufts of only a few plants, often growing among
other mosses, glossy green. Lower leaves broadly ovate, upper leaves
longer, ovate-lanceolate, contorted when dry; costa shortly excurrent,
papillose on ventral surface, and bearing numerous propagula on all sides
of the roughened tip; margins entire, border thickened, elongate intra-
marginal cells absent or weakly developed in region of the shoulders; large
hyaline cells occupying about half the base of leaf, cells square next to
the costa, upper limits not very sharply delimited.
HABITAT: On bark or dead wood.
Florida: Dade, Indian River, Lee, Monroe Counties.
This species seems to be rare throughout its range. It may be over-
looked because of its small size and habit of growth, or confused with
small forms of C. richardii. The numerous clustered propagula on all sides
of the tip of the costa serve as a simple and ready means of determina-
tion, even in the field.

Calymperes richardii C. M. PLATE 26
Plants in cushions or mats, dark green, glossy. Leaves oblong to ligulate,
crisped and incurved when dry, turned more or less in one direction,
broadest about middle, obtuse at apex, often abruptly narrowed and rolled
under at tip of propaguliferous leaves; costa strong, subpercurrent, smooth,



propagula on ventral surface; upper leaf cells smooth or bulging, rather
pellucid; margin entire above, finely toothed at shoulders, elongated in
basal part; elongated cells 1-3 cells in from margin at shoulders, narrow
(2-3 cells wide), extending to or above mid-leaf; upper leaf border thick-
ened; basal hyaline cells broad, rectangular, extending one-fourth to one-
third the length of the leaf, squared or rounded above.
HABITAT: On trees, dead wood, and occasionally on rocks.
DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Mexico, Central and South America.
Florida: Collier, Dade, Highlands, Lee, Manatee, Monroe, Palm
Beach, Sarasota Counties.

Calymperes donnellii Aust. PLATE 27
Plants loosely tufted or clustered, inconspicuous, yellow to dark green.
Upper leaves oblong-linear, widely spreading, curved, contorted when
dry, margin inrolled; apex frequently sharply constricted; costa subper-
current to excurrent, frequently bearing clustered propagula at the tip;
elongated intramarginal cells distinct to leaf base, 2-3 cells wide at the
shoulders and 5-16 cells inside the margin, extending one-third to one-
half the length of the upper leaf blade; upper margins thickened, in-
curved, toothed; lower margins finely toothed; base nearly filled with the
large hyaline cells, which extend about one-fourth the leaf length and
form acute angles at their upper ends; upper cells of basal hyaline area
smooth on both surfaces.
HABITAT: On bark, decaying wood, occasionally on soil or rock.
DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Mexico, Central and South America,
Cocos Islands.
Florida: Citrus, Collier, Dade, Hernando, Highlands, Indian River,
Lee, Monroe, Pasco, Polk, Seminole, Sumter Counties.

Calymperes erosum C. M. PLATE 27
Calymperes emersum C. M.
Plants in small tufts or clusters, inconspicuous, light green or brown-
ish. Leaves oblong-linear, curved when dry; margins inrolled; leaf apex
acuminate or abruptly constricted; costa percurrent to excurrent; con-
spicuously bulging on ventral side, and frequently bearing clusters of pro-
pagula at the rough apex; margins finely toothed almost to base; upper
leaf cells bulging to papillose; elongated cells 2-6 cells within the margin
at shoulders, sometimes extending almost to apex, or forming a thickened
border on the margin near the apex; large hyaline cells occupying one-
third or more of the leaf length, the upper cells conspicuously bulging
on ventral surfaces.
HABITAT: On trees, decaying wood, occasionally soil or rocks.



DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Mexico, Central America, and probably
northern South America.
Florida: Collier, Dade, Lee, Manatee Counties.
C. erosum and C. donnellii are very similar. The most clear-cut dis-
tinction is that the upper cells of the hyaline basal area in C. erosum are
conspicuously bulging, while those of C. donnellii are smooth.

Plants tufted, sometimes covering substratum in extensive mats, dark
green to brown. Stems erect. Leaves crowded, lanceolate to ligulate from
a sharply defined white base; border hyaline or of thickened, chlorophyl-
lose cells, entire or toothed; costa strong, subpercurrent to short-excur-
rent, sometimes toothed or spiny above; upper leaf cells small, isodiamet-
ric, bulging or papillose, densely chlorophyllose; sheathing base composed
mostly of an area next the costa of large white rectangular cells ending
abruptly at junction with the chlorophyllose cells; linear or club-shaped
propagula on upper side of costa or in clusters at tip. Calyptra hood-
shaped, split nearly its entire length, and extending to capsule base;
operculum long-beaked; peristome of 16 long, undivided, yellowish brown
teeth, finely papillose. Spores rough, 16-18 1.
1. Leaf border doubly toothed and wing-like, cells of border undifferentiated.-------
S. incompletus
1. Leaf bordered by linear, hyaline or yellowish cells
2. Border extending to apex; propagula absent or at leaf tips
3. Leaves entire except at apex
4. Leaves crisped when dry; large hyaline cells occupying about half
the length-.............................................................. ---------------------------------S. gaudichaudii
4. Leaves straight or slightly twisted when dry; sheathing base of large
hyaline cells occupying one-fourth to one-third the leaf length;
plants pale whitish-green--................................................ -----------------------S. prolifer
3. Leaves sharply toothed from shoulders to apex; clusters of terminal pro-
pagula common--......................................................----------------------------------............S. texanus
2. Border absent or not reaching apex, propagula on upper surfaces of leaves
3. Upper leaves long, narrow; apex rounded........-----------..-..-...-....-....S. ligulatus
3. Upper leaves broad, deltoid; apex acute or obtuse-..........S. parasiticus

Syrrhopodon incompletus Schwaegr. PLATE 28
Plants compactly tufted, sometimes in extensive mats, dull green to
brown; stems repeatedly dichotomously branched, 1-3 cm high. Leaves
crowded, lanceolate; costa strong, percurrent or nearly so, conspicuously
papillose on dorsal side, sometimes bearing clustered propagula near tip;
margin above sheathing base thick, double toothed, wing-like; upper leaf
cells bulging or papillose on upper surface, only slightly so on lower;
broadened leaf base almost filled with a well-defined area of large clear



cells. Dioicous. Capsule exserted on a short seta, erect, cylindric; calyptra
hood-shaped, split almost its entire length, and reaching base of capsule;
operculum beaked, the beak nearly as long as the capsule; peristome teeth
undivided, pale yellowish-brown, papillose. Spores 16-18 /t.
HABITAT: On bark of trees, especially Sabal palms, sometimes almost
completely covering the trunk.
DISTRIBUTION: Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, New York (Long Is-
Florida: Common throughout the state; probably in every county.
The distinction made between S. floridanus Sull. and S. incompletus,
that in the former the dorsal surface of the costa in the region of the
basal hyaline cells is more papillose than the upper part, while the reverse
is true in S. incompletus (rougher near tip), does not seem to be valid.
All gradations can be found on careful observation. Therefore I have used
the older name to incorporate both entities.

Syrrhopodon gaudichaudii Mont. PLATE 29
Plants in small tufts or mats, green or brownish. Leaves crowded,
crisped when dry, abruptly narrowed to a slender limb from a broader
base, the limb about twice as long as the base, bordered by elongated
hyaline or yellowish cells, entire except conspicuously spinose apex; costa
percurrent to shortly excurrent, very rough on back; large hyaline cells
about half the length of the leaf and filling most of the base, triangular
above; upper leaf cells densely papillose on both surfaces.
HABITAT: On bark of trees.
DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Mexico, Central and South America,
Galapagos Islands.
Florida: Known only from Polk County (Highlands Hammock).

Syrrhopodon prolifer Schwaegr. PLATE 30
Plants delicate, in loose cushions, whitish green. Leaves linear, erect,
straight or slightly twisted when dry, sheathing base scarcely wider than
limb; margins bordered by elongated hyaline cells, entire except at the
slightly rounded apex; costa subpercurrent, rough near tip; large hyaline
cells one-fourth to one-third leaf length and occupying almost all of the
narrow sheathing base; upper leaf cells papillose on both surfaces. Not
fruiting in Florida.
HABITAT: On soil about the bases of trees, very humid and shady
DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Mexico, Central America and South
Florida: Gadsden, Liberty, Santa Rosa Counties.



Syrrhopodon texanus Sull. PLATE 29
Plants in dark green or brown cushions, 1-4 cm high. Leaves crisped
when dry, linear or ligulate, variously modified above, often consisting
almost entirely of the costa, especially in propaguliferous leaves; clusters
of filamentous propagula terminal; costa rough on both surfaces; upper
leaf cells papillose; margin of elongated, hyaline cells, coarsely toothed
almost the entire length of the leaf; area of basal hyaline cells forming
acute angles above. Seta 1-2 cm long; capsule erect, cylindric, with
operculum nearly as long as urn. Spores papillose, 18 p.
HABITAT: On soil around base of trees, or on stumps and rotting
wood, swampy places.
DISTRIBUTION: New York (Long Island), Kentucky, Tennessee,
Georgia, Alabama.
Florida: Common throughout the state.

Syrrhopodon ligulatus Mont. PLATE 30
Plants in inconspicuous, small, loose tufts, brownish green. Leaves
crisped when dry, ovate-lanceolate, apex blunt and rounded; upper leaves
long, narrow; costa short, often bearing thread-like or club-shaped pro-
pagula on its upper side below the apex; large hyaline cells filling most
of the base, rounded above, conspicuous; upper leaf cells densely papil-
lose, obscure; marginal cells uniform except near the base, where a few
elongated cells form a hyaline border.
HABITAT: On bark of trees.
DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Mexico, Central and South America.
Florida: Broward, Citrus, Dade, Escambia, Glades, Hendry, Hills-
borough, Lake, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Seminole, Sumter, Suwan-
nee, Wakulla, Washington Counties.

Syrrhopodon parasiticus (Sw.) Besch. PLATE 31
Plants in small tufts or occasionally scattered, usually only a few on
any given tree, dull green or brownish. Leaves crisped when dry, lower
leaves ovate-lanceolate, upper propaguliferous leaves deltoid, often in
rosettes; apex acute or obtuse, but not rounded; large hyaline cells occupy-
ing a small area of the sheathing base, terminating above in narrowly
acute angles next to the costa; upper leaf cells papillose; elongated hyaline
cells often forming a border extending from base to about two-thirds the
leaf length. Propagula filamentous, with 5-20 cross-walls, numerous and
conspicuous, sometimes covering ventral side of costa from apex to basal
hyaline area.
HABITAT: On trees, especially Carpinus.



DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Mexico, Central and South America,
GalApagos Islands.
Florida: Alachua, Citrus, Collier, Columbia, Dade, Gadsden, Hardee,
Hendry, Highlands, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Manatee,
Marion, Nassau, Okaloosa, Polk, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Sumter, Taylor,
Wakulla, Walton Counties.

Plants small, in tufts or scattered, growing on soil or, more commonly,
on limestone; stems erect, branched or unbranched. Leaves few to num-
erous and crowded, frequently contorted when dry, broadly ovate to
linear-lanceolate; costa strong, ending below apex, percurrent or excur-
rent into an awn; upper leaf cells usually small, thick-walled, papillose,
obscure; basal cells larger, subquadrate to rectangular, thin-walled, more
or less hyaline; margins plane, rolled inward or downward, entire to finely
toothed. Capsules ovoid to cylindric, immersed or on a long seta, erect,
symmetric, cleistocarpous or with an operculum, gymnostomous or with
a peristome; calyptra hood-shaped; operculum beaked; peristome single,
of 16 straight or twisted teeth from a basal membrane, entire or divided
into 32 slender, papillose forks.
1. Leaves ovate, spatulate, or lingulate
2. Leaf apex broadly rounded; cells lax, pellucid
3. Cells papillose-.........----......----------..--..--------....---------................Gymnostomiella
3. Cells smooth.-------------...--........--------......---------..............................................---Splachnobryum
2. Leaf apex acute or obtuse; cells thick-walled, not pellucid
3. Leaves broadly ovate, apex coarsely and irregularly toothed; capsule
small, cleistocarpous, and enclosed within the compactly clustered
3. Leaves lingulate, apex entire or minutely toothed
4. Leaves broad, apex obtuse, slightly apiculate; margins plane or re-
curved above, irregularly and finely toothed; upper leaf cells small,
papillose, basal cells hyaline the full width of the base-.....Hyophila
4. Leaves slender, apex gradually tapering to a rounded tip; margins
plane, sometimes minutely toothed above, upper leaf cells round,
conspicuously bulging; hyaline basal cells extending well up the
m argin; plants very small..................................................Luisierella
1. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate, or linear-lanceolate
2. Margins plane in upper half of leaf, rolled inward or under from mid-leaf
to base
3. Leaves slender, mostly linear-lanceolate
4. Apex obtuse to subacute
5. Costa percurrent or excurrent in a 1-cell mucro; median and
lower margins rolled inward; hyaline cells extending farther up
the margin than at the costa, forming a V.....................----------Tortella
5. Costa ending below apex; margins sometimes recurved toward
base; basal cells less papillose than the upper, but not forming
a V.......................................-------------------------------...........................------Gymnostomum
4. Apex acute

5. Costa excurrent into a long, slender, hyaline hair-point....------.
5. Costa ending below apex or excurrent, but not forming a long
6. Tip frequently hyaline; costa percurrent to excurrent; mar-
gins plane, conspicuously toothed just above hyaline base--...
6. Tip green; costa ending well below apex, obscured by the
small papillose cells; margins plane, entire in lower part ..-
2. Margins inrolled or recurved
3. Leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate
4. Peristome present
5. Plants small, usually not over .5 cm tall; leaves 2-3 mm long;
margins inrolled; costa 40-45 It wide at base; peristome poorly
developed, teeth divided or entire, and inserted well below
mouth of the capsule................---------..........-----.---.----.--.---....-.....-......Weissia
5. Plants larger, 1-2 cm tall; leaves up to 4-5 mm long; margins
inrolled; leaf bases shiny; costa about 70 It wide at base; peri-
stome of 16 teeth divided into 32 filiform divisions, inserted
at mouth of capsule---------.....................----------.....------.....-----...........--Trichostomum
4. Peristome absent; operculum small, poorly defined, usually not de-
hiscent; leaf margins plane or involute-------...--..-----........-..........Astomum
3. Leaves ovate-lanceolate
4. Costa ending below apex in the slender tip, obscured by chlorophyl-
lose cells; median leaf margins often recurved--............-----..Didymodon
4. Costa percurrent to excurrent
5. Upper leaf margins plane, recurved at base, entire or finely
toothed; cells densely papillose or only obscurely so; peristome
teeth long, slender, twisted......-----....--....--.----.....-----------------.................Barbula
5. Upper leaf margins plane, incurved at base, entire to irregularly
toothed at apex; peristome teeth straight.....-------...........Desmatodon
*No fruiting specimens from Florida have been seen, but the peristome structure
is so characteristic that I included it, knowing that there is always the possibility
that further collecting will result in finding mature capsules.


Gymnostomiella orcuttii Bartr. PLATE 32
Plants minute, growing in loose colonies, delicate, pale green; stems
1-3 mm high, usually unbranched, reddish. Lower leaves almost round,
distant, upper leaves larger, longer, and more crowded, sometimes forming
rosettes, shriveled when dry, erect-spreading from a narrow, subclasping
base when moist, obovate to spatulate, broadly rounded at apex, margin
plane, with cell papillae forming minute teeth along margin to mid-leaf
or below; costa weak, yellowish, ending well below apex; upper leaf cells
lax, hexagonal, pellucid, with 1 to several large papillae; lower cells larg-
er, longer, less papillose, smooth at insertion. Not fruiting in Florida.
The brownish, ovoid, axillary propagula described by Bartram and
Crum were absent in the Florida specimens examined.
HABITAT: On limestone.




DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Mexico.
Florida: Dade, Jackson, Marion Counties.

Splachnobryum obtusum (Brid.) C. M. PLATE 33
Plants loosely tufted, 2-5 mm high, occasionally larger, dark green;
stems simple to occasionally branched, red to orange, with conspicuous
basal rhizoids. Lower leaves widely spaced and spreading, the upper larg-
er, crowded, erect, ovate, spatulate, or ligulate, upper margin entire to
finely toothed; costa slender, ending below the apex; upper and median
leaf cells lax, thin-walled, smooth, oblong-hexagonal, 2-3: 1, becoming
smaller and nearly quadrate at the margins; basal cells larger and longer.
Colorless filamentous axillary propagula occasionally present. Not fruiting
in Florida.
HABITAT: On limestone or calcareous soils.
DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Mexico, Central America; Georgia
(Stone Mountain), Louisiana, Arizona.
Florida: Leon, Liberty Counties.

Acaulon rufescens Jaeg. & Sauerb. PLATE 32
Plants growing in loose colonies, minute, subglobose or bulb-like, red-
dish-brown; stems very short; protonemata persistent. Leaves subclasping,
the upper larger than the lower, concave, broadly ovate, upper margins
plane, coarsely and irregularly toothed; costa excurrent into a short point
or ending below apex; upper leaf cells short, smooth, becoming wider and
longer toward base. Dioicous. Antheridia in small lateral buds at base of
stems, surrounded by 3-4 perigonial leaves. Seta very short. Capsule small,
immersed, subglobose, slightly apiculate, cleistocarpous. Spores brown,
finely papillose, 39-42 /,, mature December-January.
HABITAT: On sandy soil.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Leon County.

Hyophila tortula (Schwaegr.) Hampe PLATE 34
Plants in small tufts, dark green to brownish; stems erect, branching.
Leaves crowded, inrolled and crisped when dry, erect-spreading when
moist, lingulate to spatulate, concave, slightly decurrent, apices obtuse
and apiculate, margins entire below, entire to irregularly toothed in tip;
costa ending a few cells below the apex to percurrent, sometimes slightly



papillose on back; cells in upper part of leaf small, round to quadrate,
bulging on the upper surface, gradually becoming larger, rectangular, and
hyaline below. Large multicellular, club-shaped propagula in axils of
leaves. Not fruiting in Florida.
HABITAT: On limestone.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Citrus, Dade, Marion, Sumter, Volusia

Luisierella barbula (Schwaegr.) Steere PLATE 34
Desmatodon barbula (Schwaegr.) Grout
Plants very small and inconspicuous, gregarious, dark green to reddish;
stems short, not exceeding about 2 mm. Leaves crisped when dry, spread-
ing when moist, slenderly lingulate, often keeled, apex rounded to ob-
tusely acute, margins plane or slightly inrolled, entire; costa ending a
few cells below the apex, obscured by bulging cells; upper leaf cells round,
pellucid, prominently bulging on the upper surface, less so on the lower;
basal cells rectangular, hyaline, sharply differentiated, extending up the
margins; perichaetial leaves slightly smaller but otherwise undifferenti-
ated. Dioicous. Seta reddish-brown, erect, up to 10 mm long. Capsule
cylindric, slender, erect and symmetric, dark reddish-brown; calyptra
hood-shaped; operculum beaked, about half the length of the urn; annu-
lus present; peristome teeth short, linear, entire or irregularly divided,
papillose. Spores brown, smooth, 7.5-8.5 j.
HABITAT: On limestone.
DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Bermuda, British Honduras, Brazil;
Florida: Alachua, Citrus, Columbia, Dade, Gadsden, Jackson, Leon,
Madison, Sumter, Wakulla Counties.
Easily overlooked even when fruiting because the plants are so small
and blend in with the dull, dirty surface of long-exposed limestone. My
experience in the field has led me to examine any limestone having a
reddish-brown color rather than gray, for frequently the reddish color
denotes a few scattered plants of this species.

Plants in loose mats, yellowish-green to brownish; stems erect, short,
simple or branched, with matted brown radicles at bases. Leaves crowded,
crisped and contorted when dry, exposing the whitish bases, spreading to
recurved when moist, oblong-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, tapering to
an acute apex or short mucro, upper margins plane or rolled inward,

wavy; costa strong, percurrent to excurrent, often shiny when dry; upper
leaf cells rounded, thick-walled, papillose; lower cells larger, rectangular,
hyaline, and extending obliquely up the margins in a V-shaped line.
Monoicous or dioicous. Seta long, reddish; capsule cylindric, erect and
symmetric; calyptra hood-shaped, covering most of the capsule; operculum
long-beaked, about one-half the length of the urn; annulus absent; peri-
stome inserted below the mouth of the urn, of 32 long, red, slender,
spirally twisted, papillose teeth.

Leaves oblong-lanceolate; apex obtuse, abruptly mucronate; monoicous .T. humilis
Leaves more slender, shorter; apex gradually narrowing to a point but not mucro-
nate; dioicous................ ... ..------------------------------- ..---.... ..-------........... .......T. flavovirens

Tortella humilis (Hedw.) Jennings PLATE 35
Tortella caespitosa (Schwaegr.) Limpr.
Plants tufted; stems short, simple or branched. Leaves crisped and
contorted when dry, the whitish bases and the costa shiny and conspicu-
ous, widely spreading when moist, oblong-lanceolate, apex somewhat
hood-shaped, abruptly obtuse, mucronate by the excurrent costa, margins
plane above, inrolled in median and lower part; upper and median leaf
cells rounded, thick-walled, densely papillose; basal cells larger, rectangu-
lar, hyaline, and extending farther up the margins than at the costa,
forming a distinct V-shaped area. Monoicous. Seta reddish to yellowish-
brown, long; capsule cylindric, erect or nearly so; calyptra hood-shaped;
operculum long-beaked; annulus absent; peristome as for the genus.
Spores brown, smooth, 6.5-9 [.
HABITAT: On limestone, calcareous soils, occasionally around the
roots of trees.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Alachua, Citrus, Clay, Columbia, Duval,
Gadsden, Hernando, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Madison, Marion,
St. Johns, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Sumter, Suwannee, Wakulla, Walton,
Washington Counties.

Tortella flavovirens (Bruch) Broth.
Characters indicated in the key are supposedly adequate to distinguish
this species from T. humilis. However, leaf variations are such that sterile
material is difficult if not impossible to name with any assurance. The
sex organs of both species occur reasonably often, especially during the
winter months, in which case identification can be made.
HABITAT: On coquina rock, limestone, and calcareous soils.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Gadsden, Hernando, Pasco, St. Johns

Gymnostomum calcareum Nees, Hornsch. & Sturm PLATE 36
Plants in dense tufts, pale bluish-green above, brownish below; stems
erect, up to 8-10 mm high, branching, with brown radicles at the base.
Leaves lanceolate, larger above, crowded at apex of stem, contorted when
dry, spreading and recurved when moist, margins plane, sometimes in-
rolled at base, apices rounded-obtuse or subacute; costa strong, ending
several cells below the apex; upper leaf cells small, round to quadrate,
thick-walled, densely papillose on both surfaces, obscure; basal cells near
costa rectangular, 2-3: 1, pellucid. Not fruiting in Florida.
HABITAT: On moist limestone.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Citrus, Columbia, Gadsden, Jackson, Sum-
ter, Wakulla Counties.

Plants small, tufted, green to brownish; stems usually unbranched.
Leaves crowded, incurved and contorted when dry, erect-spreading when
moist, ovate- to oblong-lanceolate, acute to acuminate, entire to finely
toothed near apex, margins plane to inrolled; costa strong, percurrent or
excurrent in a hyaline hair-point; upper leaf cells small, quadrate to
hexagonal, thick-walled, bulging or papillose; lower leaf cells larger, rec-
tangular, becoming hyaline at base. Dioicous. Seta long, slender, twisted;
capsule erect or nearly so, cylindric; calyptra hood-shaped, almost cover-
ing the capsule; operculum long-beaked; annulus present; peristome teeth
irregularly pointed and divided, papillose. Spores smooth or slightly papil-
lose, 6-8 [, mature December to March.
Upper leaves ovate-lanceolate, costa ending in or below apex.----...--..............D. garberi
Upper leaves oblong-lanceolate, costa excurrent and forming a hyaline hair-point
D. plinthobius

Desmatodon garberi Lesq. & James PLATE 37
Desmatodon sprengelii (Schwaegr.) Wins.
Plants tufted; stems simple or occasionally branching. Leaves small
below, larger and crowded above, incurved and somewhat tubular when
dry, erect-spreading when moist, ovate-lanceolate, apiculate, entire or
slightly toothed in apical region; costa strong, ending just below or in
the apex; upper leaf cells round to hexagonal, bulging on the upper side,
gradually becoming larger, rectangular, and hyaline toward the base. Di-
oicous. Antheridia in terminal clusters, paraphyses numerous. Capsule
exserted on a long seta, cylindric; calyptra hood-shaped, covering most
of the capsule; operculum conic, long-beaked; annulus a single row of


inflated, hyaline cells; peristome teeth yellow-orange, jointed near base,
irregularly divided, papillose. Spores smooth or slightly papillose, 6-8 p.
HABITAT: On limestone.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Alachua, Citrus, Collier, Dade, Marion,
Monroe, Sumter Counties.

Desmatodon plinthobius Sull. & Lesq. ex PLATE 37
Sull. in Gray
Plants in small, pale green to brownish, dense tufts; stems short.
Leaves crowded, oblong-lanceolate, incurved and contorted when dry,
erect-spreading when moist, the upper longer than the lower; margins
recurved from apex to mid-leaf or below; costa strong, excurrent into a
hyaline hair-point; upper leaf cells quadrate, densely chlorophyllose, papil-
lose on both surfaces; median cells larger, quadrate to rectangular, with
fewer papillae, the marginal row narrower, smooth, and finely toothed by
projecting cell angles; basal cells large, rectangular, hyaline. Dioicous. An-
theridia in terminal clusters. Capsule as in D. garberi except somewhat
constricted below the mouth. Spores smooth, about 8 /.
HABITAT: On limestone, old brick walls, calcareous soils.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Columbia, Jackson, Leon Counties.

Eucladium verticillatum (With.) BSG PLATE 36
Plants in dense, sometimes extensive tufts, pale glaucous-green, frag-
ile; stems branching. Leaves closely pressed to the stem and somewhat
contorted when dry, erect-spreading when moist, linear-lanceolate, tip
frequently hyaline, acute or apiculate; margin plane, conspicuously
toothed with out-curving teeth just above the base where hyaline and
chlorophyllose cells meet; costa strong, percurrent to excurrent, forming
most or all of the upper part of the leaf; upper and median leaf cells
short-rectangular, densely papillose; basal cells larger, longer, hyaline.
Not fruiting in Florida.
HABITAT: On moist limestone, especially where water occasionally
drips, accumulating deposits of calcareous tufa.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Alachua, Citrus, Columbia, Gadsden,
Jackson, Leon, Sumter, Wakulla Counties.

Molendoa sendtneriana (BSG) Limpr. PLATE 35
Plants densely tufted, bluish green at tips, brownish toward base.

Leaves loosely arranged and with incurved apices when dry, erect-spread-
ing when moist, brittle, linear-lanceolate, apices acuminate; margins
plane, entire; costa prominent, ending several cells below the apex, the
upper part obscured by the small papillose cells, in cross section showing
2 bands of small thick-walled cells and 2 rows of large cells below the
upper surface layer; upper leaf blade 2 cells thick, becoming 1 cell thick
about mid-leaf; upper and median leaf cells small, thick-walled, more
or less round, with 1-2 papillae per cell; basal cells short-rectangular,
smooth, not conspicuous.
HABITAT: On moist limestone.
DISTRIBUTION: Tennessee, North Carolina.
Florida: Marianna Caverns State Park, Jackson County (several sta-
tions within the park area).
Weissia controversy Hedw. PLATE 38
Weissia viridula Hedw.
Plants small (not over .5 cm high), densely tufted, yellowish- or
bluish-green; stems short, erect, simple or branching. Leaves crisped and
contorted when dry, erect-spreading when moist, linear-lanceolate, keeled,
sharply acuminate; margins inrolled and almost covering the costa; costa
strong, excurrent in a short mucro; upper leaf cells small, rounded, thick-
walled, densely papillose on both surfaces, obscure; basal cells large,
rectangular, hyaline. Monoicous. Seta yellow to golden brown, straight,
up to about 10 mm in length; capsule cylindric, erect and symmetric
or nearly so, smaller at the mouth; calyptra hood-shaped, nearly as long
as the urn; operculum obliquely long-beaked; annulus present; peristome
of 16 yellowish-brown, short, papillose teeth, forked or perforate, and
inserted well below the mouth of the urn. Spores golden brown, rough,
16-18 ju.
HABITAT: On exposed soils.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Common throughout the state.

Trichostomum jamaicense (Mitt.) Jaeg. PLATE 38
Weissia jamaicensis (Mitt.) Grout
Plants in loose mats, dark green to brownish, stems 1-2 cm high,
branching. Leaves crisped and contorted when dry, spreading when moist,
concave, linear-lanceolate from a broader base; apex hood-shaped and
sharply tipped by the shortly excurrent costa; margins conspicuously in-
rolled; upper leaf cells small, rounded, densely papillose on both sur-


faces, obscure; basal cells larger, short-rectangular, hyaline or yellowish.
Fruiting plants from Florida not seen. When sterile, plants closely re-
semble Tortella humilis.
HABITAT: On limestone and calcareous soils.
DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Mexico, Central America; Oklahoma,
Missouri, Texas, Georgia, Arizona.
Florida: Gadsden, Leon, Levy, Suwannee, Wakulla Counties.

Plants small, in loose colonies, dull green; stems very short, erect, with
brown radicles at base. Upper leaves longer and more crowded than the
lower, crisped when dry, erect or slightly spreading when moist, lanceo-
late, keeled; margins entire, plane or inrolled; costa percurrent to excur-
rent; upper leaf cells small, round or quadrate, papillose on both surfaces;
lower cells larger, rectangular, hyaline. Autoicous. Capsule small, im-
mersed, spherical to elliptic, apiculate; calyptra small, hood-shaped, soon
detached; operculum small, poorly defined, or absent; peristome absent.
Leaves lanceolate, margins inrolled; seta much shorter than the capsule-------.--------
A. muhlenbergianum
Leaves linear, margins usually plane; seta as long or longer than the capsule....----
A. ludovicianum

Astomum muhlenbergianum (Sw.) Grout PLATE 39
Plants in loose tufts; stems short, usually unbranched. Upper and
perichaetial leaves larger than the lower, lanceolate, strongly inrolled
above, margins entire; costa strong, excurrent into a short mucro; upper
leaf cells rounded-quadrate, densely papillose; lower cells larger, quad-
rate to rectangular, narrower along the margin, smooth. Seta shorter
than the capsule, about the same length as the vaginule; capsule spherical,
apiculate; operculum poorly differentiated, the line of separation visible
only on fully mature capsules; peristome absent. Spores rough, brown,
30-32 /A. Mature in March.
HABITAT: On sandy soil.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Leon County.

Astomum ludovicianum (Sull. in Gray) Sull. PLATE 39
Upper leaves longer and narrower than those of the preceding, usually
the tip narrower and more pronounced; margins usually plane. Seta as
long or longer than the capsule. Capsule elliptic; operculum very small,
clearly differentiated. Spores warty, brown, 30 t.
HABITAT: Sandy soil or limestone.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Jackson, Madison, Washington Counties.


Didymodon fuscoviridis Card. PLATE 40
Plants in small dense mats, dark green, up to 8-9 mm tall. Leaves
crowded, closely pressed to the stem and somewhat contorted when dry,
spreading when moist, ovate-lanceolate, concave, margins entire to finely
toothed, rolled under in mid-leaf; costa strong, ending below apex in the
slender tip, in cross section showing a median row of 4-6 large thin-
walled cells with distinct dorsal and ventral bands of small thick-walled
cells; leaf cells throughout arranged in rows parallel to the costa, the
upper and median cells rounded, papillose, median marginal cells regu-
larly hexagonal, lower cells quadrate, becoming rectangular and smooth
at the base; perigonial leaves broader at base and tapering more abruptly
to the blunt tip, enclosing a cluster of antheridia and paraphyses. No
perichaetia observed. Brown spherical propagula abundant in axils of
upper leaves.
HABITAT: On damp brick walls.
DISTRIBUTION: Jamaica, Mexico, Central America.
Florida: Leon County (Killairn Gardens State Park).

Plants erect, small, not exceeding 10 mm, loosely to compactly tufted,
yellowish-green to reddish-brown. Leaves contorted when dry, erect-
spreading when moist, ovate-lanceolate, margin entire or finely toothed,
plane above, often recurved in lower part; costa percurrent or excurrent
in a short mucro; upper leaf cells isodiametric, papillose or smooth; basal
cells larger, quadrate to rectangular, smooth. Dioicous. Seta long, red,
twisted when dry. Capsules terminal, exserted, erect, cylindric, red or
brownish; operculum long-beaked, about the same length as the urn;
annulus present or absent; peristome inserted below the mouth, divided
almost to the base into 32 slender, red, densely papillose divisions twisted
spirally in several turns. Spores smooth, very small.
Leaves widest at base; upper cells small, round-quadrate, densely papillose; axil-
lary propagula conspicuous------------------- -------------.................--....-----....... B. cruegeri
Leaves widest above middle; upper cells larger, irregularly quadrate to hexagonal
smooth; propagula absent-----.. .. --- ------------------...................... ----.......... ....B. agraria

Barbula cruegeri Sond. ex C. M. PLATE 41
Plants in dense tufts or cushions, yellowish-green to brown; stems
reddish, 2-8 mm, simple or branching. Leaves contorted and inrolled
when dry, erect-spreading when moist; oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, a short,
hyaline or yellowish mucro formed by the terminal cell of the costa,
margins plane above, recurved at base; upper leaf cells small, round to


quadrate, densely papillose, obscuring the costa in upper part of leaf;
basal cells larger, slightly or not papillose, hyaline. Stalked, multicellular,
club-shaped reddish-brown propagula in leaf axils abundant and con-
spicuous. Dioicous. Seta long, straight, reddish. Capsule erect, cylindric;
calyptra hood-shaped; operculum long-beaked, about the length of the
urn; annulus absent; peristome teeth dark red, long and slender, closely
twisted, fragile. Spores smooth, 8-12 .
HABITAT: On limestone, damp brick walls, calcareous soils.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Common throughout the state.

Barbula agraria Hedw. PLATE 41
Plants in loose tufts, reddish-brown, small and inconspicuous; stems
very short. Leaves forming a rosette, slightly contorted when dry, spread-
ing when moist, concave, ovate-lanceolate, widest above middle, gradu-
ally tapering to the acute apex; costa ending in the mucronate tip; upper
leaf cells irregularly quadrate to hexagonal, smooth or slightly bulging
on upper surface, larger than those of B. cruegeri; basal cells larger,
rectangular, hyaline. Dioicous. Seta elongate, straight, red. Capsule erect
or nearly so, slender, cylindric; calyptra hood-shaped; operculum long-
beaked, as long as urn; annulus large, revoluble; peristome teeth red,
linear, densely papillose, twisted. Spores smooth, 6-8 x.
HABITAT: On limestone and calcareous soils.
DISTRIBUTION: Widespread throughout tropical America; Louisiana,
South Carolina, Texas.
Florida: Alachua, Citrus, Collier, Columbia, Dade, Franklin, Her-
nando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Indian River, Jackson, Jefferson, Lee,
Leon, Levy, Manatee, Marion, Monroe, Orange, Osceola, Pasco, Semi-
nole, Sumter, Suwannee, Taylor, Wakulla Counties. Found more com-
monly in south Florida; abundant on limestone on the Keys.

Plants small to robust, tufted, dark green or blackish, sometimes hoary
at tips; stems simple or branching. Leaves crowded, in many rows, closely
pressed to the stem when dry, spreading when moist, ovate to lanceolate,
sometimes with a hyaline tip; margins entire or toothed; costa absent,
ending near the tip, or excurrent; upper leaf blade 2 or more cells thick,
upper and median cells small, thick-walled, isodiametric, smooth or papil-
lose; lower cells larger, quadrate, rectangular or linear, smooth or nodu-
lose. Capsule exserted on short seta, usually erect, ovoid to cylindric;
calyptra cap-shaped, covering about half the capsule; operculum beaked;
peristome single or absent.


1. Leaves without costae.....- ...-----.-----------------------.. .............----------- - ..Hedwigia
1. Leaves costate
2. Leaves crisped when dry; apices not hyaline or hoary-.........Ptychomitrium
2. Leaves not crisped when dry; apices with long rough hyaline hair-point---....

Hedwigia ciliata (Hedw.) P. Beauv. PLATE 42
Plants in small loose patches, glaucous green, hoary at tips, irregularly
branched. Leaves crowded, overlapping, apices recurved when dry, ovate-
acuminate, the tip of variable length, hyaline and coarsely papillose-spiny;
margins entire, revolute above; costa absent; cells small, quadrate to
round, in regular rows, thick-walled, papillose; median basal cells elon-
gate, yellow, porose, cells toward basal margins quadrate, brownish,
HABITAT: On sandstone.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Known only from Washington County
(Rock Hill, about 2 miles south of Chipley).

Plants small, tufted, blackish-green, erect, usually unbranched. Leaves
crowded, crisped when dry, lanceolate to linear, margins entire or toothed;
apex entire or toothed, obtuse to acuminate; costa strong, ending below
apex; upper and median cells small, isodiametric, thick-walled, smooth;
lower cells gradually becoming longer and rectangular toward base, pale.
Autoicous. Antheridial buds axillary, perigonial leaves ovoid. Perichaetial
leaves undifferentiated. Capsule exserted on short seta, erect, symmetric,
short-cylindric, bright yellow or orange; calyptra cap-shaped, pleated, split
or lobed at base, covering upper half of capsule; operculum conic, beaked,
the long, straight beak nearly as long as the capsule; peristome single, of
16 linear teeth inserted below mouth of capsule, divided nearly to the
base, papillose.
Leaf apex blunt, entire....-----........-------------............-------.... -----..................P. incurvum
Leaf apex acuminate, coarsely toothed...--.........................------------------.................P. drummondii

Ptychomitrium incurvum (Muehlenb. PLATE 43
ex Schwaegr.) Sull. in Gray
Plants in small compact tufts. Leaves linear-lanceolate, incurved,
crisped when dry, erect-spreading when moist; apex obtuse, entire, the
upper margins sometimes infolded. Leaf form as for genus. Capsules
small, yellowish, exserted on short setae, erect, cylindric; annulus well
developed, revoluble.




HABITAT: On sandstone.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Known only from Washington County
(Rock Hill).

Ptychomitrium drummondii (Hook. & Wils.) PLATE 43
Sull. in Gray
Leaves more slender than those of P. incurvum, with coarsely toothed,
acuminate apex. Capsule bright orange; annulus absent; peristome single,
of 16 teeth usually divided nearly to base, faintly papillose. Spores papil-
lose, 20 /, sometimes germinating while still within the capsules.
HABITAT: In crevices, bark of hardwoods; especially near streams.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Citrus, Gadsden, Holmes, Jefferson, Madi-
son, Suwanee Counties.

Grimmia laevigata (Brid.) Brid. PLATE 42
Plants in small loose tufts, dull, blackish-green or gray; stems short,
erect, unbranched. Leaves crowded, overlapping when dry, concave,
ovate, rough, spiny hyaline leaf-point formed mainly by extension of the
leaf blade and nearly as long as the chlorophyllose part, leaf flattened at
its base, decurrent; costa weak, flat in the lower blade, more pronounced
above, and ending in the base of the hair-point; upper cells small, round,
thick-walled; basal cells larger, quadrate, in regular rows, somewhat
elongated and clear toward the costa.
HABITAT: On sandstone.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Known only from Washington County
(Rock Hill).

Plant very small (1-2 mm high), solitary or in colonies, stemless or
nearly so, developing from conspicuous persistent protonemata. Leaves
few, erect or spreading, in a rosette or cluster, narrow, costate or ecostate;
cells lax, rhomboidal-hexagonal above, rectangular and longer below,
smooth or papillose. Polyoicous. Capsules sessile or nearly so, immersed,
ovoid or globose, shortly apiculate, cleistocarpous or with a poorly devel-
oped line of dehiscence; calyptra cap- or bell-shaped, split on one side,
smooth to conspicuously papillose; vaginule conspicuous. Spores papillose
to warty. Mature in Florida from November to March, occasionally in
late August; most frequently found in January.
1. Calyptra covering half the capsule; capsule globular, cleistocarpous; antheridia
on separate plants but from same protonema as archegonia; leaves costate, not
contorted or shriveled when dry.....................------------------............................-------Ephemerum


1. Calyptra minute, covering only apex of capsule; capsule globose, dehiscing near
middle; synoicous; leaves ecostate, shriveled and contorted when dry-........
For those interested in cytotaxonomy, the recent work (1957) of Bryan and
Anderson at Duke University has shown that the genus Ephemerum has a haploid
chromosome number of 27, while in Nanomitrium the haploid chromosome num-
ber is 11 or 22 (11 in N. austinii, 22 in N. megalosporum).

Protonemata conspicuous, persistent. Leaves slender, linear to lance-
olate; costa excurrent into a long spiny tip or percurrent or nearly so (all
Florida taxa are costate); cells oblong-hexagonal above, longer and rec-
tangular below; margins toothed to spiny. Capsules sessile or nearly so,
globular, short-tipped, cleistocarpous, with stomata in capsule wall; calyp-
tra cap- to bell-shaped, split on one side, covering about half the capsule.
Spores papillose.
1. Upper leaf cells papillose
2. Teeth on upper leaves sharply recurved; leaves narrowly linear; median
leaf cells 4-8: 1--....----.............-------............---.........----.....-----------------..----------........... spinulosum
2. Teeth on upper leaves pointing upward at an acute angle; leaves linear-
lanceolate; median leaf cells less than 4:1-........-----.----...............--. crassinervium
1. Leaf cells smooth except at back of costa; leaves tapering abruptly from a
broader base; margin at shoulders coarsely toothed; cells in shoulders in diag-
onal rows from margin to costa-----....................----------------------.......................--E. cohaerans

Ephemerum spinulosum Bruch & PLATE 44
Schimp. ex Schimp.
Protonemata green, conspicuous, often felt-like. Leaves linear to linear-
lanceolate, margins with long pointed or rounded spines, recurved 450
or more; cells 2-4: 1, sometimes longer, as for the genus; costa strong,
ending in a long spiny awn. Capsules ovoid, slightly apiculate, with
stomata in lower half of capsule wall, dehiscence by irregular splitting;
cells of calyptra bulging or papillose. Spores reddish-brown, kidney-
shaped, papillose to warty, 60-70 [t, sometimes larger.
HABITAT: On moist soil, edges of ponds, occasionally in old fields.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Dixie, Duval, Gadsden, Hendry, Her-
nando, Jackson, Lee, Leon, Madison, Manatee, Seminole, Wakulla Coun-

Ephemerum crassinervium (Schwaegr.) Hampe PLATE 45
Protonemata not as abundant or as well developed as in E. spinulosum.
Leaves lanceolate, tip slender and coarsely toothed, the largest leaves
costate, papillose; upper leaf cells 1-2:1, basal cells 3-5:1; upper margins
with prominent teeth pointing upward at an acute angle, basal margins
entire. Capsules ovoid, short-tipped, sessile or nearly so; stomata few,




scattered throughout the capsule wall; cells of calyptra bulging to papil-
lose, the calyptra covering as much as half of the capsule. Spores deep
orange, kidney-shaped, warty, 50-70 p.
HABITAT: On moist soil.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Alachua, Gadsden, Leon, Manatee, Semi-
nole Counties.

Ephemerum cohaerans (Hedw.) Hampe PLATE 45
Protonemata olive-green, persistent. Upper leaves broad in basal third,
abruptly narrowed to a slender, pointed, toothed tip; shoulders distinct,
coarsely and irregularly toothed to spiny, often broader on one side of
costa than on the other; cells smooth, quadrate to hexagonal, arranged
in distinct rows diagonally from margins to costa; basal cells large, elon-
gate, hexagonal; costa percurrent to excurrent, toothed on back near tip,
sometimes not quite reaching the base. Capsule ovoid, apiculate; stomata
scattered throughout capsule wall; calyptra bell-shaped, smooth. Spores
yellow to orange, kidney-shaped, papillose to warty, about 80 p.
HABITAT: On moist soil.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Gadsden County.

Plants stemless or nearly so, developing from persistent protonemata.
Leaves few, clustered around the capsule, shriveled and contorted when
dry, erect-spreading when moist, ovate-lanceolate, finely toothed at apex,
ecostate; upper leaf cells large, smooth, rhombic-rectangular, 2-4: 1,
longer and rectangular at base. Synoicous. Capsules small, sessile, globu-
lar, scarcely apiculate, sometimes with a poorly defined line of dehiscence
near equator, forming a rudimentary operculum; calyptra very small, soon
Capsule wall of 1 layer of cells, stomata absent; leaves ligulate-lanceolate; upper
leaf cells short, 1-2:1 ......---.....-------....-...--------------.....--.......................-------........................--N. austinii
Capsule wall of 2 layers of cells, stomata present; leaves ovate-lanceolate; upper
leaf cells up to 4: 1.....................------------------...---..-...------.--..--.......------. N. megalosporum

Nanomitrium austinii (Sull. ex Aust.) Lindb. PLATE 46
Leaves few, ligulate-lanceolate, finely toothed at apex; upper leaf cells
short, 1-2: 1. Capsules spherical, slightly apiculate, brownish or black
when mature, capsule wall of 1 layer of cells, stomata absent. Spores
densely papillose, 30-35 t.
HABITAT: On moist soil.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Leon, Polk, Seminole Counties.


Nanomitrium megalosporum (Aust.) Lindb. PLATE 46
Plants vellow-brown when mature. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, sometimes
broadest above middle, finely toothed at apex; upper leaf cells large, up
to 4:1. Capsules spherical, slightly apiculate, orange to brown at matur-
ity; capsule wall of 2 layers of cells, stomata present in upper half. Spores
large, papillose-warty, up to 80 t.
HABITAT: On moist soil.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Leon, Manatee, Polk, Seminole Counties.

Plants annual, in loose colonies, growing on exposed soil; stems short,
unbranched or sparingly branched. Leaves soft, light green, usually
crowded and forming tufts at stem tips or around bases of setae; upper
leaves broad, ovate-lanceolate, apex pointed; costa strong, ending below
the apex, percurrent, or short-excurrent; lower leaves smaller; marginal
cells sometimes elongate, forming a poorly defined border, usually toothed
in upper half; cells lax, smooth, large, rhomboidal above, longer and
rectangular at base. Calyptra hood-shaped or cap-shaped, covering only
apex of capsule; operculum almost flat, or conic, sometimes apiculate.
Capsules immersed to exserted on long setae, globose to pear-shaped, erect
and symmetric to horizontal and inclined and asymmetric; stomata con-
spicuous in basal region. Annulus present or absent. Peristome lacking,
single, or double, when present consisting of 16 slender conspicuously
jointed teeth, often bright orange or red; segments, when present, opposite
the teeth; no cilia.
1. Capsule with peristome
2. Peristome double; capsules asymmetric, inclined or curved -........ .Funaria
2. Peristome single; capsules erect, symmetric ......-..-.........--..----. .Entosthodon
1. Capsule without peristome
2. Capsule exserted; operculum present....................................--------Physcomitrium
2. Capsule immersed, capsule dehiscing near the equator or splitting irregu-
Differences in vegetative characters are not always clear-cut, so that sometimes
even the genera are not readily separable when plants are sterile. Fortunately, all
four genera fruit abundantly in Florida.

Plants gregarious, light green, glossy, growing on exposed soil or rotten
wood, frequently following fire; stems short, infrequently branching;
lower leaves small, upper larger, often forming tufts around bases of
setae. Leaves obovate, apex pointed, entire to toothed; costa strong, ending
below apex, percurrent, or shortly excurrent; upper cells large, rhom-
boidal; basal cells long, rectangular; marginal cells narrower, weakly dif-




ferentiated into a border. Autoicous. Calyptra hood-shaped, often inflated.
Operculum convex, almost flat. Capsule exserted on a long seta, inclined
to horizontal, elongated, pear-shaped, asymmetric, the mouth to one side,
neck usually well defined; annulus very conspicuous, composed of large
yellow or orange inflated cells; peristome of 16 orange or reddish teeth
with prominent bars, thread-like at the tips, spiraled to the right; seg-
ments pale yellow, delicate, opposite the teeth, smooth or finely papillose.
Spores smooth or finely papillose, 12-30 p.
1. Annulus large, revoluble
2. Leaves short-acuminate, costa usually percurrent; segments more than half
the length of teeth; spores 12-15 -------------------........................................F. hygrometrica
2. Leaves long-acuminate, costa frequently excurrent; segments less than half
the length of teeth; spores 14-20 ------------------------........................................... F. flavicans
1. Annulus lacking; leaves broadly tapering, toothed, costa ending below apex;
segments nearly as long as teeth; spores 24-30 -------................................F. serrata

Funaria hygrometrica Hedw. PLATE 47
Leaves oblong-ovate, apex pointed, forming a bulbous tuft around base
of the long seta, entire or finely toothed toward apex; cells rectangular
to hexagonal above, narrower toward margin and forming an indistinct
border; basal cells large, rectangular, sometimes inflated and yellow near
margin. Capsule exserted on a long, bright yellow seta, very green when
young, turning yellow or reddish with age, horizontal to inclined with
pronounced wrinkling when dry, asymmetric, mouth oblique; calyptra
hood-shaped, long-beaked, covering only tip of capsule; operculum low,
convex, sometimes slightly apiculate; annulus conspicuous, bright orange,
readily revoluble; peristome teeth brownish-red, heavily barred, sometimes
united at the. tips; segments about three-fourths as long as the teeth, deli-
cate, pale yellow, slightly papillose. Spores smooth or slightly papillose,
12-15 L.
Funaria hygrometrica var. calvescens Schwaegr. and F. hygrometrica
var. patula BSG show so much intergradation with the species that I find
it difficult to separate them. Therefore, I have not included them as
distinct entities.
HABITAT: On exposed soil, frequently appearing shortly after fire;
on stumps, rotten wood, limestone.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: A weedy species, it is found throughout the

Funaria flavicans Mx. PLATE 48
Similar to F. hygrometrica; leaves narrower and more strap-shaped;
costa excurrent; upper marginal cells entire, median marginal cells dis-
tinctly toothed. Capsules horizontal, mouth less oblique, smaller; oper-


culum apiculate; segments one-half or less the length of the teeth. Spores
smooth or finely papillose, 14-20 /.
HABITAT: Same as F. hygrometrica.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Throughout the state. This is considered a
southern species.
Funaria serrata Brid. PLATE 48
Leaves obovate, acute to shortly acuminate; costa ending below apex;
upper and median marginal cells rather clearly differentiated, toothed.
Seta long, reddish-brown. Capsules small, slightly inclined to horizontal,
not curved; wrinkled when dry, especially near base; mouth of capsule
bordered by horizontally elongated cells; annulus absent; peristome teeth
reddish-brown, segments almost as long as the teeth. Spores smooth or
slightly papillose, 24-30 L.
HABITAT: On soil.
DISTRIBUTION: Common in the coastal plain.
Florida: Escambia, Gadsden, Holmes, Jefferson, Leon, Seminole,
Washington Counties.

Entosthodon drummondii Sull. in Gray PLATE 49
Leaves ovate-lanceolate, apex obtuse, upper cells short, rhomboidal;
margin weakly defined, finely toothed or entire; costa strong, subpercur-
rent. Seta orange to brown, 10-15 mm long; capsule short, pear-shaped,
erect, symmetric; calyptra smooth, hood-shaped, long-beaked, split 2-3
times at base; operculum convex, apiculate; annulus absent; peristome
single, teeth dark red, longitudinally ridged, tips sometimes hyaline.
Spores coarsely papillose, 22-26 p.
HABITAT: On sandy soil in open fields.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Bay, Leon, Washington Counties.
This species is probably more common than data indicate. Its vegeta-
tive characters are much like those of Funaria, and its erect capsule like
that of Physcomitrium except for the presence of a peristome, which is
fragile and often broken, so that the teeth are inconspicuous.

Stems short, upper leaves erect-spreading or in a loose rosette. Leaves
ovate-lanceolate to spatulate, cell arrangement lax; upper and median
marginal cells somewhat elongated, weakly differentiated, more or less
toothed; basal cells long-rectangular, thin-walled, finely toothed or entire;
costa percurrent to shortly excurrent. Capsule (in Florida species) ex-
serted, erect, symmetric, globose to pear-shaped, sometimes with a con-




spicuous neck, mouth wide; calyptra smooth, cap-shaped, long-beaked,
splitting irregularly at base; operculum low, convex, apiculate; annulus
inconspicuous, poorly defined; peristome absent.
Leaf apex acuminate, costa percurrent to excurrent; capsule constricted under
mouth when dry, mouth bordered by 4-8 rows horizontally elongated cells, remain-
der of cells uniformly thick-walled.......--------.-----....------------.....................--.....-..-.......---P. pyriforme
Leaf apex mucronate-acuminate, costa ending in apex; mouth of capsule bordered
by 4-5 rows transversely elongated cells, remainder of wall with cells thickened
in the corners...........--------.---.-...---.------....-------------------........--...............--.................P. collenchymatum

Physcomitrium pyriforme (Hedw.) De Not. PLATE 50
Physcomitrium turbinatum (Mx.) BSG
Leaf apex acuminate, costa percurrent to excurrent, median and upper
margin toothed. Seta 15-20 mm long or longer. Capsule conspicuously
constricted under the wide mouth when dry; annulus poorly differentiated,
consisting of a single row of small, thick-walled cells, usually persistent;
below annulus, several rows of horizontally elongated, thick-walled cells;
other cells of capsule wall thick-walled but not conspicuously so in the
corners; stomata numerous at base of capsule. Spores densely papillose,
33-36 [t, maturing January to March.
HABITAT: On bare moist earth such as ditch banks and roadsides,
or in small tufts in lawns.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Common throughout the state.

Physcomitrium collenchymatum Gier PLATE 51
Much like the preceding except smaller; plants only 2-3 mm high.
Leaves ovate-lanceolate, apex with short, abrupt tip, upper margin finely
toothed, median margin toothed, basal margin entire; costa percurrent.
Seta about 2 mm. long; capsule globose, very small, not constricted under
the mouth when dry; annulus lacking or rudimentary; 4-5 rows of mar-
ginal cells somewhat horizontally elongated, cells below very irregular
and conspicuously thickened in the corners. Spores papillose, 23-26 [t.
HABITAT: Sandy soil, roadside ditch.
Florida: Known only from Seminole County.
This species may be mistaken for a small form of P. pyriforme without
microscopic examination.


Aphanorrhegma serratum PLATE 52
(Hook. & Wils. ex Drumm.) Sull.
Plants minute, much like a very small Physcomitrium. Leaves ovate-


lanceolate, apiculate, border indistinct, entire or finely toothed in upper
half, costa ending several cells below apex. Calyptra cap-shaped, with a
long, curved tip, 4-lobed, covering only the tip of the capsule. Capsules
immersed, globose, apiculate, dehiscing along 2 rows of smaller yellowish
cells in the equatorial region; cells of capsule walls rounded, thickened
in corners; stomata in basal part. Spores golden, papillose, 24-30 x.
Maturing in March and April.
HABITAT: Moist soil, especially near ponds or streams.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Leon, Liberty Counties.
Rarity of collection is probably attributable to the small size of the
plants and their short growing season. I have found them mixed with
species of Bruchia in early spring, but failed to locate any plants after
only two or three weeks. The plants are small enough to include with
so-called "pygmies."

Plants in tufts, very dark green, glossy. Leaves lanceolate, with long
acumination, flaccid, with lax cell arrangement resembling that of Fu-
naria; costa percurrent, often forming most of the long acumination.
Capsules erect, exserted, cylindric, with a prominent elongated hypoph-
ysis; calyptra hood-shaped; operculum short, conic, beaked; peristome
single, of 16 teeth, paired or in fours.

Tetraplodon pennsylvanicus (Brid.) PLATE 53
Sayre in Grout
Leaves distant, long-lanceolate, entire or coarsely toothed with a few
prominent teeth; costa stout, percurrent, tip flexuous. Leaf cells large,
lax, 2-4: 1. Autoicous or dioicous; antheridia in conspicuous yellow cup-
like rosettes with numerous sterile filaments, terminal or at the ends of
short lateral branches; perichaetial leaves sometimes entire and narrow,
otherwise undifferentiated. Seta about 1-3 cm, soft, hyaline. Hypophysis
as long or longer than the capsule, scarcely greater in diameter but con-
spicuous, dark green to purplish; capsule cylindric, sharply constricted
at junction with hypophysis, bright orange to red when mature; calyptra
hood-shaped, very short; operculum conic, beaked; peristome of 16 teeth,
occasionally reflexed in fours or pairs, densely papillose. Spores 7-12 pt,
HABITAT: On soils rich in organic matter, cow dung, bones.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida: Alachua, Clay, Franklin, Highlands, Hills-
borough, Jackson, Lee, Leon, Polk, Putnam, Seminole, Wakulla Counties.




Plants delicate, soft, irregularly branched; outer cells of stems large,
loose, hyaline. Leaves dimorphic, in 4 rows, 2 rows of larger dorsal leaves,
2 rows of smaller ventral leaves (amphigastria); leaves crowded, lying
in one plane, overlapping when dry, ecostate; upper cells isodiametric,
papillose, slightly longer toward base. Autoicous. Seta short; capsule erect,
exserted, symmetric, persistent; stomata at base of capsule; peristome

Solmsiella kurzii Steere PLATE 54
Plants very small and delicate, dark green, closely adhering to sub-
stratum; stems sparingly and irregularly branched. Leaves dimorphic,
lying in one plane, the ventral leaves (amphigastria) less than half the
size of the dorsal ones. Brown rhizoids conspicuous, growing from the
stems at the bases of the ventral leaves. Dorsal leaves oval, in 2 rows,
asymmetric, the lower margin inflexed, ecostate; upper cells round to
hexagonal, basal cells longer; margin undifferentiated; cells papillose;
ventral leaves in 2 rows, small, symmetric, widely spreading, plane. Au-
toicous; female branches short, lateral, 2-4 archegonia enclosed by a few
small and inconspicuous perichaetial leaves; perigonia small, bud-like.
Capsule erect, cylindrical, exserted on a short reddish seta; vaginule
swollen, about the same length as the capsule; operculum asymmetric,
conic-apiculate; peristome and annulus lacking. Spores not seen (type
description: 25 / in diameter, very green, and minutely granulose).
Calyptra unknown.
HABITAT: On trunk of Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnolia foetida
Sarg.), Lake Miccosukee, Jefferson County.
DISTRIBUTION: Until recently it was known only from the type
habitat. In 1958 R. A. Pursell and W. D. Reese collected it in Iberia
Parrish, southwestern Louisiana, thus extending its known range some
500 miles westward.

The original collection of this species was made in 1934 by Dr. Her-
man Kurz and sent to Dr. A. W. Evans for determination, along with a
number of liverworts. The sporophyte typical of mosses was discovered
and its true identity made by Dr. W. C. Steere. It had not been re-
collected for 23 years, in spite of occasional thorough searches for it, until
P. L. Redfearn, Jr., happened upon it in 1957. The plants are very dark
green, widely scattered among leafy liverworts, and if sterile could easily
be overlooked or mistaken for young plants of Mastigolejeunea auriculata
(Wils. & Hook.) Schiffn.


Primary stems long, creeping, with numerous short, densely foliate
secondary stems. Leaves crowded in rosettes, usually crisped or contorted
when dry, spreading when wet, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, or lingulate,
concave or keeled; upper leaf cells small, isodiametric, thick-walled,
smooth or papillose, gradually becoming longer below; basal cells some-
times highly differentiated; costa strong, percurrent. Capsules exserted on
short setae, erect; calyptra cap-shaped or bell-shaped, smooth, spiny, or
hairy, usually completely covering capsule; operculum conic; peristome
double, single, or lacking.
The representatives of this family occurring in Florida all belong to
the Macromitrieae. Therefore, characteristics of certain genera are not cov-
ered by this family description.
1. Leaves bordered at base by linear cells, other basal cells short; cells smooth;
apex abruptly tipped; calyptra spiny at tip..........................................------------------Groutiella
1. All basal cells elongate
2. Leaves horizontally wrinkled above; upper cells smooth, basal cells not dif-
ferentiated; calyptra bell-shaped, not pleated.......-----------.....................Schlotheimia
2. Leaves not wrinkled above; upper cells conspicuously papillose; border of
enlarged rectangular cells at base; calyptra cap-shaped, pleated-...------...
Key to the three species of the Orthotrichaceae found in Florida, based exclu-
sively on vegetative characters:
1. Leaves ovate-lanceolate; cells smooth
2. Leaf apex broad, abruptly mucronate; leaves wrinkled lengthwise....------.
Groutiella mucronifolia
2. Leaf apex narrower, mucro less pronounced; leaves wrinkled horizontally
above.....---.....----------......-...-...----..........-..----.---..-...-.........-.........-----..........Schlotheimia rugifolia
1. Leaves lanceolate; cells strongly papillose......----------................Macromitrium richardii

Groutiella mucronifolia (Hook. & Grev.) PLATE 55
Crum & Steere
Macromitrium mucronifolium (Hook. & Grev.) Grout
Plants dark greenish-black except for green growing tips; secondary
branches numerous, short. Leaves crowded, spirally twisted around stem
when dry, spreading when moist, concave, lingulate, apex rounded, with
an abrupt short mucro, sometimes wrinkled lengthwise; costa strong, end-
ing just below apex or in the acumination; upper leaf cells small, round,
smooth or bulging, marginal cells smaller; cells gradually increasing in
size toward base, with 2-3 rows of marginal cells elongated; basal angles
sometimes orange to brown. Autoicous. Capsule exserted on short seta,
broadly ovate to cylindric, erect or slightly inclined, not contracted below

the wide mouth, stomata conspicuous in basal part; calyptra cap-shaped,
smooth, wrinkled lengthwise, covering capsule; operculum beaked; peri-
stome reduced or absent. Spores smooth or faintly papillose, 56 j.
HABITAT: On trees.
DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Mexico, Central and South America,
Galapagos Islands.
Florida: Broward, Collier, Dade, Jackson, Manatee, Monroe, St.
Johns, Seminole, Volusia Counties.

Schlotheimia rugifolia (Hook.) Schwaegr. PLATE 56
Schlotheimia sullivantii C. M.
Plants in spreading mats, dark green to reddish brown, growing tips
light green; secondary branches numerous, short, densely foliate. Leaves
pressed close to stems and slightly spiraled when dry, spreading when
moist; lingulate, abruptly short-mucronate, prominently horizontally
wrinkled above; costa strong, extending into a short, abrupt tip; cells
smooth, upper small and rounded, basal elongated. Perichaetial leaves
undifferentiated. Calyptra nearly twice as long as capsule and covering it
completely, lobed and incurved at base, rough and spiny at apex.
HABITAT: On trees and logs.
DISTRIBUTION: West Indies, Mexico, Central and South America;
Gulf states north to Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia.
Florida: Citrus, Collier, Dade, Duval, Escambia, Gadsden, Hardee,
Hernando, Highlands, Jackson, Jefferson, Lee, Leon, Levy, Liberty,
Manatee, Marion, Okaloosa, Orange, Polk, Putnam, St. Johns, Santa
Rosa, Seminole, Suwannee, Taylor, Volusia, Wakulla, Walton, Washing-
ton Counties.
Macromitrium richardii Schwaegr. PLATE 55
Macromitrium rhabdocarpum Mitt.
Plants in dense spreading mats, reddish brown except at growing tips.
Leaves crowded, crisped, tips inrolled when dry, spreading when moist,
oblong-lanceolate, acute, apiculate, frequently keeled; margins finely
toothed above, entire below; upper leaf cells rounded, thick-walled, strong-
ly papillose on both sides, gradually becoming smooth and elongate toward
base, basal cells oblong to linear, walls thicker than cell cavity, the basal
margin bordered by a row of larger rectangular cells; costa strong, ending
just below apex. Autoicous. Perichaetial leaves larger, more slenderly
acute, not papillose. Seta short, straight; capsule oblong-cylindric, erect,
symmetric, gradually narrowed at both ends; calyptra cap-shaped, wrin-

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